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DONEPEZIL SYNTHESIS

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Donepezil, marketed under the trade name Aricept by its developer Eisai and partnerPfizer, is a centrally acting reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. Its main therapeutic use is in the palliative treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.Common side effects include gastrointestinal upset. It has an oral bioavailability of 100% and easily crosses the blood–brain barrier. Because it has a biological half-life of about 70 hours, it can be taken once a day.

Currently, no definitive proof shows the use of donepezil or other similar agents alters the course or progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, 6 to 12-month controlled studies have shown modest benefits in cognition and/or behavior.Pilot studies have reported donepezil therapy may potentially have effects on markers of disease progression, such as hippocampal volume. Therefore, many neurologists, psychiatrists, and primary-care physicians use donepezil in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. In 2005, the UK National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) withdrew its recommendation for use of the drug for mild-to-moderate AD, on the basis of no significant improvement in functional outcome, quality of life, or behavioral symptoms. However, NICE revised its guidelines to suggest donepezil be used in moderate-stage patients for whom the evidence is strongest.

While the drug is currently indicated for mild to moderate Alzheimer’s, evidence from two clinical trials also indicates it may be effective for moderate to severe disease. An example of this is a Karolinska Institute paper published in The Lancet in early 2006, which states donepezil improves cognitive function even in patients with severe AD symptoms. In Oct. 2006 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration also approved Aricept for treatment of severe dementia.

【通用名】 Donepezil hydrochloride, BNAG, E-2020, Eranz, Memorit, Memac, Aricept
【化学名】 (?-1-Benzyl-4-(5,6-dimethoxy-1-oxoindan-2-ylmethyl)piperidine hydrochloride; (?-2-(1-Benzylpiperidin-4-ylmethyl)-5,6-dimethoxyindan-1-one hydrochloride
【CAS登记号】 120011-70-3, 123958-79-2 ([2-14C]-labeled), 142057-77-0 (deleted CAS), 120014-06-4 (free base)
【分子式】 C24-H29-N-O3.Cl-H
【分子量】 415.958
【化学活性】 Alzheimer’s Dementia, Treatment of , Analgesic and Anesthetic Drugs, Antimigraine Drugs, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Treatment of, Autism, Treatment of, Cognition Disorders, Treatment of, Immunologic Neuromuscular Disorders, Treatment of, Migraine, Prophylactic Treatment of, Multiple Sclerosis, Agents for, Neurologic Drugs, Psychopharmacologic Drugs, Vascular Dementia, Treatment of, Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors
【开发阶段】 Launched-1997
【研究机构】 Eisai (Originator), National Institute of Mental Health (Not Determined), Bracco (Licensee), Pfizer (Licensee)

File:AChE inhibited by donepezil 1EVE.png

Donepezil inhibiting Torpedo californicaacetylcholinesterase. See Proteopedia1eve.

Research leading to the development of donepezil began in 1983 at Eisai, and the first Phase I clinical trial took place in 1989. In 1996, Eisai received approval from the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) for donepezil under the brand Aricept, which it co-marketed with Pfizer. As of 2011, Aricept was the world’s best-selling Alzheimer’s disease treatment. The first generic donepezil became available in November 2010 with the USFDA approval of a formulation prepared by Ranbaxy Labs. In April 2011 a second generic formulation, from Wockhardt, received tentative USFDA marketing approval

 
标题: Cyclic amine cpd., its use and pharmaceutical compsns. comprising it
作者: Sugimoto, H.; Tsuchiya, Y.; Higurashi, K.; Karibe, N.; Iimura, Y.; Sasaki, A.; Yamanashi, Y.; Ogura, H.; Araki, S.; Kosasa, T.; Kusota, A.; Kozasa, M.; Yamatsu, K. (Eisai Co., Ltd.)
来源: AU 8818216; EP 0296560; EP 0673927; EP 0742207; JP 1989079151; JP 1998067739; US 4895841; US 5100901
合成路线图解说明:The condensation of 5,6-dimethoxy-1-indanone (I) with 1-benzylpiperidine-4-carboxaldehyde (II) by means of butyllithium and diisopropylamine in THF gives 1-benzyl-4-(5,6-dimethoxy-1-oxoindan-2-ylidenemethyl)piperidine (III), which is reduced with H2 over Pd/C in THF and treated with HCl in dichloromethane – ethyl acetate.
 
标题: Synthesis of 1-benzyl-4-[(5,6-dimethoxy[2-14C]-1-indanon)-2-yl]methylpiperidine hydrochloride (E-2020-14C)
作者: Sugimoto, H.; Mishima, M.; Iimura, Y.
来源: J Label Compd Radiopharm 1989,27(7),835-9
合成路线图解说明:The condensation of 5,6-dimethoxy-1-indanone (I) with 1-benzylpiperidine-4-carboxaldehyde (II) by means of butyllithium and diisopropylamine in THF gives 1-benzyl-4-(5,6-dimethoxy-1-oxoindan-2-ylidenemethyl)piperidine (III), which is reduced with H2 over Pd/C in THF and treated with HCl in dichloromethane – ethyl acetate.
 
作者: Casta馿r, J.; Prous, J.
来源: Drugs Fut 1991,16(1),16
合成路线图解说明:The condensation of 5,6-dimethoxy-1-indanone (I) with 1-benzylpiperidine-4-carboxaldehyde (II) by means of butyllithium and diisopropylamine in THF gives 1-benzyl-4-(5,6-dimethoxy-1-oxoindan-2-ylidenemethyl)piperidine (III), which is reduced with H2 over Pd/C in THF and treated with HCl in dichloromethane – ethyl acetate.
 
标题: Synthesis of 1-benzyl-4-[(5,[C-11]6-dimethoxy-1-oxoindan-2-yl)methyl]piperidine: A promising ligand for visualisation of acetylcholine esterase by PET
作者: Santens, P.; DeReuck, J.; Dierckx, R.A.; Siegers, G.; Vermeirsch, H.; De Vos, F.
来源: J Label Compd Radiopharm 2000,43(6),595
合成路线图解说明:11C-Labeled donepezil was prepared by methylation of 2-(1-benzylpiperidin-4-ylmethyl)-6-hydroxy-5-methoxyindan-1-one (I) with 11CH3I by means of tetrabutylammonium hydroxide in DMF.

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Donepezil hydrochloride is a useful memory enhancer introduced by the Japanese pharmaceutical company Eisai. Its preparation was described in patent no. EP 296560. In this patent Donepezil was produced by reaction of 5,6-dimethoxy-1- indanone with 1 -benzyl-4-formylpiperidine in the presence of a strong base, such as lithium diisopropylamide followed by reduction of the double bond. According to this method, Donepezil was obtained (Scheme 1).Figure 00010001Patent application WO 99/36405 describes another process for the synthesis of Donepezil. According to this patent, 2-alkoxycarbonyl-1-indanones are reacted with (4-pyridinyl) methyl halide moiety followed by hydrolysis and decarboxylation to give the 2-(4-pyridinyl)methyl-1-indanone derivative. This is followed by reaction with benzyl halides to obtain the corresponding quaternary ammonium salt, and followed by hydrogenation of the pyridine ring to obtain Donepezil (Scheme 2).Figure 00020001Patent application WO 97/22584 describes the preparation of Donepezil by reaction of pyridine-4-carboxyaldehyde with malonic acid to give 3-(pyridin-4-yl)-2- propenoic acid, followed by hydrogenation of the double bond to give 3-(piperidin-4-yl)-2-propionic acid. Reaction of this intermediate with methyl chloroformate afforded 3-[N-(methyloxycarbonyl) piperidin-4-yl]propionic acid. This was followed by reaction with oxalyl chloride to give methyl 4-(2-chlorocarbonylethyl)piperidin-1-carboxylate. Reaction with 1,2-dimethoxybenzene in the presence of aluminum chloride afforded methyl 4-[3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-oxopropyl]piperidin-1 -carboxylate. Reaction with tetramethyldiaminomethane afforded 4-[2-(3,4-dimethoxybenzoyl)allyl] piperidin-1-carboxylate. Reaction with sulfuric acid afforded methyl 4-(5,6-dimethoxy-1-oxoindan-2-yl)methylpiperidin-1- carboxylate. This was followed by treatment with base to give 5,6-dimethoxy-2-(piperidin-4-ylmethyl) indan-1-one, then reaction with benzyl bromide afforded Donepezil (Scheme 3).

Figure 00030001Patent application EP 711756 describes the preparation of Donepezil by reaction of 5,6-dimethoxy-1- indanone with pyridin-4-aldehyde to give 5,6-dimethoxy-2-(pyridin-4-yl)methylene indan-1-one. Reaction with benzyl bromide afforded 1-benzyl-4-(5,6-dimethoxyindan-1-on-2-ylidene)methylpyridinium bromide. Hydrogenation in the presence of platinum oxide afforded Donepezil (Scheme 4).Figure 00040001

United States Patent 6844440

EP 1386607 A1

 

 

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3 Comments

  1. Mandar Surpur says:

    Thats truly a great synthesis to share .   Many thanks

    Dr.Mandar Surpur Launch Management TechOps Sandoz Private Limited, Kalwe Production Plant MIDC, Plot No. 8-A/2, 8-B T.T.C. Industrial Area, Kalwe Block Village-Digha, Opp. Thane-Belapur Road Navi Mumbai 400 708 INDIA Email: mandar.surpur@sandoz.com  

  2. Dr. Mandar Surpur says:

    Great synthesis routes to share

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DR ANTHONY CRASTO

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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