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ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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Bedaquiline fumarate, ベダキリンフマル酸塩


Bedaquiline fumarate.png

Bedaquiline fumarate; Bedaquiline (fumarate); Cas 845533-86-0; UNII-P04QX2C1A5; P04QX2C1A5;

Bedaquiline fumarate

(1R,2S)-1-(6-bromo-2-methoxyquinolin-3-yl)-4-(dimethylamino)-2-naphthalen-1-yl-1-phenylbutan-2-ol;(E)-but-2-enedioic acid

  • R 207910
  • TMC 207
Molecular Formula: C36H35BrN2O6
Molecular Weight: 671.588 g/mol
Product
Formula
C32H31BrN2O2. C4H4O4
CAS

845533-86-0 FUMARATE
FREE FORM 843663-66-1
Mol weight
671.5769
2018/1/19  PMDA

JAPAN

APPROVED

Bedaquiline fumarate Sirturo Janssen Pharmaceutical

ベダキリンフマル酸塩
Bedaquiline Fumarate

C32H31BrN2O2▪C4H4O4 : 671.58
[845533-86-0]

FREE FORM

  1.  Saga, Yutaka; Journal of the American Chemical Society 2010, Vol132(23), Pg 7905-7907 , -168.0 ° Conc: 0.8 g/100mL; Solv:DMF; Wavlenght: 589.3 nm; Temp: 25 °C
  2.  Chandrasekhar, Srivari; European Journal of Organic Chemistry 2011, (11), PG 2057-2061, S2057/1-S2057/18  -165.2 °       Conc: 0.8 g/100mL; Solv: DMF ; Wavlenght: 589.3 nm; Temp: 25 °, MP 104 °C

EMA

http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/EPAR_-_Public_assessment_report/human/002614/WC500163215.pdf

The applicant Janssen-Cilag International N.V. submitted on 28 August 2012 an application for Marketing Authorisation to the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for SIRTURO, through the centralised procedure falling within the Article 3(1) and point 4 of Annex of Regulation (EC) No 726/2004. The eligibility to the centralised procedure was agreed upon by the EMA/CHMP on 21 July 2011. SIRTURO was designated as an orphan medicinal product EU/3/05/314 on 26 August 2005. SIRTURO was designated as an orphan medicinal product in the following indication: treatment of tuberculosis. The applicant applied for the following indication: SIRTURO is indicated in adults (≥ 18 years) as part of combination therapy of pulmonary tuberculosis due to multi-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Disease to be treated About a third of the global population, more than 2 billion people, is infected with M. tuberculosis, of which the majority is latent. The life time risk to fall ill in overt TB is around 10% in general, but many times higher (around 10% annual risk) in untreated HIV-positive individuals. Tuberculosis is the leading cause of death in the latter population. It was estimated that a total of 8.8 million new TB cases occurred in 2010, including 1.1 million people co infected with HIV, and that about 1.45 million people died due to TB. During more recent years the burden of TB resistant to first line therapy has increased rapidly. Such multidrug resistant tuberculosis (defined later in this assessment report) has been reported in all regions of the world. Presently around 500.000 of new MDR cases are estimated to emerge every year, which is close to 5% of all new TB cases. China and India carried nearly 50% of the total burden of incident MDR-TB cases in 2008, followed by the Russian Federation (9%). The incidence of MDR-TB in US and EU was reported to be 1.1% and 2.4%, respectively. Within the EU, the incidence is much higher in certain Eastern European countries, with the largest burden in Romania, Latvia and Lithuania. MDR TB is an orphan disease in the EU, US and in Japan.

Current TB therapy and definitions Treatment of pulmonary drug susceptible TB typically takes 6 months resulting in cure rates in well over 90% of cases with good treatment adherence. The two most important drugs in this treatment are isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF). TB with resistance to at least both INH and RIF is called multidrug resistant (MDR) TB. The two most important “classes” of second-line TB drugs to be used in such cases are injectable drugs (the aminoglycosides amikacin and kanamycin, and the related agent capreomycin) and fluoroquinolones. Apart from these agents a number of miscellaneous drugs are used in addition, as part of combination therapy. The effectiveness of these latter miscellaneous drugs is generally lower, the tolerability is problematic and established breakpoints for resistance determination are lacking.

The term pre-XDR (pre-extensively drug resistant) TB is used when resistance is present also to one of the two main second-line class agents (injectables or any of the fluoroquinolones), and XDR-TB when resistance is present to INH+RIF + injectables + fluoroquinolones. The WHO standard treatment for MDR-TB is commonly divided into 2 phases: • a 4 to 6-month intensive treatment phase in which an injectable drug plus 3-4 other drugs, including a fluoroquinolone, • a continuation phase without the injectable drug and often without pyrazinamide (PZA) for a total duration of 18-24 months. Using this approach, cure rates in MDR-TB are much lower than those seen in DS-TB (ranging from less than 50% to around 75%), despite the higher number of agents and longer treatment duration. Hence, MDR TB is associated with a high mortality and is considered an important major threat to public health. More recent approaches to evaluate various MDR TB regimens have yielded somewhat more optimistic outcomes, despite shorter treatment durations. In these non-randomised studies (with low number of patients) cure rates in the range of 90% were achieved by including a fourth generation fluoroquinolone and by increasing the number of agents even further, to include up to 7 agents in the intensive phase, and still 4-5 agents in a second phase.

About the product SIRTURO (bedaquiline, formerly known as TMC 207) is a new agent of a unique class, specific for mycobacteria, and seemingly without cross-resistance to available TB agents. A large number of pre-clinical studies showed promising results for bedaquiline. For example, in animal models bedaquiline + pyrazinamide cured TB at a higher rate than the traditional first line combination, even when therapy was shortened for the former combination. The clinical program for bedaquiline has been aimed at treating MDR-TB, and data is now available from phase 2b studies of moderate size, both placebo-controlled and non-controlled studies. The treatments given in these studies were similar to those recommended by the WHO, although the number of agents used was slightly higher (five agents in the preferred background regimens). Bedaquiline (versus placebo in the controlled study) was added during the first (intensive) treatment phase, while the background regimens were generally unchanged throughout the complete course of therapy (18-24 months). On the basis of these studies, the applicant submitted an application for a conditional approval for bedaquiline, with the proposed indication: treatment of adult patients infected with pulmonary tuberculosis due to MDR M. tuberculosis, as part of combination therapy. In line with the approach in the phase 2 studies, Sirturo is only to be used during the first 6 months of therapy. However the planned pivotal study (as a specific obligation) will test for 40 weeks of bedaquiline treatment.

In 2009, the drug candidate was licensed to Global Alliance TB Drug Development by Tibotec worldwide for the treatment of tuberculosis.

Bedaquiline (INN) is chemically designated as (1R,2S)-1-(6-bromo-2-methoxy-3-quinolinyl)-4- (dimethylamino)-2-(1-naphthalenyl)-1-phenyl-2-butanol with fumaric acid (1:1), and has the following structure:

str4

Bedaquiline fumarate is a white to almost white powder. It contains two asymmetric carbon atoms, C-1 (R), C-2 (S) and exhibits ability to rotate the orientation of linearly polarized light (optical rotation). The substance is non-hygroscopic. It is practically insoluble in aqueous media over a wide pH range and very slightly soluble in 0.01 N HCl. The substance is soluble in a variety of organic solvents. Due to the low solubility Log KD (log P) could not be determined experimentally. In Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) bedaquiline is classified as a Class 2 compound (expressing low solubility and high permeability). Bedaquiline exists in only one non-solvated crystalline form: Form A. In addition 2 pseudopoly-morphs were found: Form B and Form C. The substance can also be made amorphous. Sufficient evidence was provided to demonstrate that Form A is obtained by the employed manufacturing process of the active substance. Particle size was considered a critical quality attribute of the active substance as bedaquiline is not dissolved in the dosage form. Therefore an appropriate test on particle size determination was included in the active substance specification. The acceptance criteria are based upon the capabilities of the milling process, batch and stability data, and the known impact of the particle size on manufacturability, in-vitro release, and in-vivo performance

Bedaquiline is a bactericidal antimycobacterial drug. Chemically it is a diarylquinoline. FDA approved on December 28, 2012.

Image result for Bedaquiline fumarate

Bedaquiline is indicated as part of combination therapy in adults (≥ 18 years) with pulmonary multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB).

Bedaquiline, sold under the brand name Sirturo, is a medication used to treat active tuberculosis.[1] It is specifically used to treat multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis(MDR-TB) when other treatment cannot be used.[1][5] It should be used along with at least three other medications for tuberculosis.[1][5] It is used by mouth.[5]

Common side effects include nausea, joint pains, headaches, and chest pain.[1] Serious side effects include QT prolongation, liver dysfunction, and an increased risk of death.[1] While harm during pregnancy has not been found, it has not been well studied in this population.[6] It is in the diarylquinoline antimycobacterialclass of medications.[1] It works by blocking the ability of M. tuberculosis to make adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP).[1]

Bedaquiline was approved for medical use in the United States in 2012.[1] It is on the World Health Organization’s List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.[7] The cost for six months is approximately $900 USD in low income countries, $3,000 USD in middle income countries, and $30,000 USD in high income countries.[5]

SIRTURO (bedaquiline) for oral administration is available as 100 mg strength tablets. Each tablet contains 120.89 mg of bedaquiline fumarate drug substance, which is equivalent to 100 mg of bedaquiline. Bedaquiline is a diarylquinoline antimycobacterial drug.

Bedaquiline fumarate is a white to almost white powder and is practically insoluble in aqueous media. The chemical name of bedaquiline fumarate is (1R, 2S)-1-(6-bromo-2-methoxy-3-quinolinyl)-4- (dimethylamino)-2-(1-naphthalenyl)-1-phenyl-2-butanol compound with fumaric acid (1:1). It has a molecular formula of C32H31BrN2O2 · C4H4O4 and a molecular weight of 671.58 (555.50 + 116.07). The molecular structure of bedaquiline fumarate is the following:

SIRTURO (bedaquiline) Structural Formula Illustration

SIRTURO (bedaquiline) contains the following inactive ingredients: colloidal silicon dioxide, corn starch, croscarmellose sodium, hypromellose 2910 15 mPa.s, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polysorbate 20, purified water (removed during processing).

Medical uses

Its use was formally approved (Dec 2012) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in tuberculosis (TB) treatment, as part of a Fast-Trackaccelerated approval, for use only in cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, and the more resistant extensively drug resistant tuberculosis.[8]

As of 2013 Both the World Health Organization (WHO) and US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) have recommended (provisionally) that bedaquiline be reserved for patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis when an otherwise recommended regimen cannot be designed.[9][10]

Clinical trials

Bedaquiline has been studied in phase IIb studies for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis while phase III studies are currently underway.[11] It has been shown to improve cure rates of smear-positive multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, though with some concern for increased rates of death (further detailed in the Adverse effects section).[12]

Small studies have also examined its use as salvage therapy for non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections.[11]

It is a component of the experimental BPaMZ combination treatment (bedaquiline + pretomanid + moxifloxacin + pyrazinamide).[13][14]

Side effects

The most common side effects of bedaquiline in studies were nausea, joint and chest pain, and headache. The drug also has a black-box warning for increased risk of death and arrhythmias, as it may prolong the QT interval by blocking the hERG channel.[15] All patients on bedaquiline should have monitoring with a baseline and repeated ECGs.[16] If a patient has a QTcF of > 500ms or a significant ventricular arrythmia, bedaquiline and other QT prolonging drugs should be stopped.

There is considerable controversy over the approval for the drug, as one of the largest studies to date had more deaths in the group receiving bedaquiline that those receiving placebo.[17] 10 deaths occurred in the bedaquiline group out of 79, while 2 occurred in the placebo group, out of 81.[12] Of the 10 deaths on bedaquiline, 1 was due to a motor vehicle accident, 5 were judged as due to progression of the underlying tuberculosis and 3 were well after the patient had stopped receiving bedaquiline.[17] However, there is still significant concern for the higher mortality in patients treated with bedaquiline, leading to the recommendation to limit its use to situations where a 4 drug regimen cannot otherwise be constructed, limit use with other medications that prolong the QT interval and the placement of a prominent black box warning.[17][11]

Drug interactions

Bedaquiline should not be co-administered with other drugs that are strong inducers or inhibitors of CYP3A4, the hepatic enzyme responsible for oxidative metabolism of the drug.[16] Co-administration with rifampin, a strong CYP3A4 inducer, results in a 52% decrease in the AUC of the drug. This reduces the exposure of the body to the drug and decreases the antibacterial effect. Co-administration with ketoconazole, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, results in a 22% increase in the AUC, and potentially an increase in the rate of adverse effects experienced[16]

Since bedaquiline can also prolong the QT interval, use of other QT prolonging drugs should be avoided.[9] Other medications for tuberculosis that can prolong the QT interval include fluoroquinolones and clofazimine.

Mode of action

Bedaquiline blocks the proton pump for ATP synthase of mycobacteria. ATP production is required for cellular energy production and its loss leads to cell death, even in dormant or nonreplicating mycobacteria.[18] It is the first member of a new class of drugs called the diarylquinolines.[18] Bedaquiline is bactericidal.[18]

Resistance

The specific part of ATP synthase affected by bedaquiline is subunit c which is encoded by the gene atpE. Mutations in atpE can lead to resistance. Mutations in drug efflux pumps have also been linked to resistance.[19]

History

Bedaquiline was described for the first time in 2004 at the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC) meeting, after the drug had been in development for over seven years.[20] It was discovered by a team led by Koen Andries at Janssen Pharmaceutica.[21]

Bedaquiline was approved for medical use in the United States in 2012.[1]

It is manufactured by Johnson & Johnson (J&J), who sought accelerated approval of the drug, a type of temporary approval for diseases lacking other viable treatment options.[22] By gaining approval for a drug that treats a neglected disease, J&J is now able to request expedited FDA review of a future drug.[23]

When it was approved by the FDA on the 28th December 2012, it was the first new medicine for TB in more than forty years.[24][25]

Bedaquiline, formally called (1R, 2S)-1-(6-Bromo-2-methoxy-3-quinolinyl)-4-(dimethylamino)-2-(1-naphthyl)-1-phenyl-2-butanol in chemistry and known as Sirturo in commercial, is a new anti-mycobacterial medicine of diarylquinolines. It impinges on the
ATP synthesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by inhibiting the activity of proton pump on the cell’s ATP synthetase, and thereby eliminates M. tuberculosis (TB). It’s used for adult multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-PTB).

Image result for Bedaquiline fumarate

PATENT

US 20050148581

WO 2005117875

WO 2006125769

CA 2529265

WO 2006131519

JP 2011168519

CN 105017147

CN 105085395

CN 105198808

CN 105085396

WO 2016116076

WO 2016058564

WO 2016116075

WO 2016116073

WO 2016198031

CN 106866525

CN 106279017

CN 107602464

PATENT

WO 2017015793

The chemical name of beidaquinoline is (1R,2S)-1-(6-bromo-2-methoxy-3-quinolinyl)-4-dimethylamino-2-(1-naphthyl)-1 -Phenyl-2-butanol, the first drug developed by Johnson & Johnson in the United States to inhibit mycobacterium adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthetase, was first introduced in the United States in December 2012 for the treatment of adult multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. The trade name is Sirturo. Beidaquinoline shows strong selectivity for Mycobacterium tuberculosis ATP synthase. Its novel mechanism of action makes it not cross-resistance with other anti-tuberculosis drugs, which will greatly reduce the drug resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It shows good activity against MDR-TB in macrophages, suggesting that it has the effect of shortening treatment time.

The synthesis of beidaquinoline has been reported in the literature. The specific synthesis route is as follows:

The patent WO2004011436 mentions the use of column chromatography to separate and purify the crude product, but this method is not conducive to industrialization; in addition, a method for isolating and purifying beraquinoline diastereomer A is disclosed in Step C of the Example of WO2006125769. . However, although the purity of the diastereomer A obtained by the separation and purification method disclosed in this patent is 82%, it is actually only possible to achieve the reaction conversion rate of more than 80%. The actual study found that due to the difficult control of the reaction conditions for the preparation of bedaquino, the control conditions for water, temperature, and drip rate are harsh and the reaction is unstable, and it cannot be ensured that the conversion rate reaches more than 80% per batch, and the conversion is usually When the rate is between 60-80%, the ratio of diastereomer B to diastereomer A obtained by this method is between 1:1 and 1:3, and the next step is chiral separation. It has an impact; even the conversion rate is sometimes as low as about 50%. When the conversion rate is as low as 50%, since the amount of the product in the reaction liquid is small, as in the method using patent WO 2006125769, the isolated product can hardly be purified even if the product is separated and purified by the purification method disclosed in this patent. The resulting diastereomer A is also of low purity.

Example 1
Reaction material 3-benzyl-6-bromo-2-methoxyquinoline (10 g) and 3-dimethylamino-1-(naphthalene-5-yl)propanone (10 g) in tetrahydrofuran (80 ml) with LDA (20g) reaction, one-step reaction to obtain a racemic bedaquiline reaction solution. The conversion of this reaction by HPLC analysis was 56%. After quenching the reaction, n-heptane (40 ml) was added to the reaction solution. Undesired diastereomer B was precipitated in an ice-water bath at 0° C. and filtered to remove diastereoisomer B. The resulting filtrate was washed with 50% acetic acid aqueous solution to remove 3-dimethylamino-1-(naphthalene-5-yl)acetone as a raw material, and 15% hydrochloric acid aqueous solution was added to the organic layer for stirring to make the product salified in the aqueous layer. In the middle. After filtration, the filtrate was separated and the product was transferred to the aqueous layer. The raw material 3-benzyl-6-bromo-2-methoxyquinoline was left in the organic layer and the organic layer was discarded. The filtered product salt solid is combined with the aqueous layer obtained by layering the filtrate, adjusted to alkaline with aqueous ammonia, extracted with toluene and free, and then the organic layer is washed with water to neutrality, and the organic layer is concentrated under reduced pressure to obtain a product that is not correct. Enantiomer A (4.9 g), purity 89%.
With reference to the method of patent WO2006125769, the obtained diastereoisomer A is resolved to obtain the desired bedaquiline, the specific method is as follows:
Acetylene (40 ml), DMSO (4.9 ml), and R-binaphthol phosphate (2.62 g) were added to diastereomer A (4.9 g) of the obtained bedaquinoline, and the mixture was heated under reflux for 2 hours. After cooling, precipitates are separated out; at room temperature, the filter cake is washed with acetone and dried under vacuum at 50-60° C. to give a resolution salt (2.07 g);
Split salt (2.07g), toluene (37ml), potassium carbonate (1.51g) and water (13ml) were mixed, heated to 90°C and stirred until completely dissolved. While hot stratified, organic layer was treated with 10% potassium carbonate aqueous solution ( (5ml) was washed once, at this time organic layer TLC monitoring; washed with purified water to neutral pH (20ml × 3 times); organic layer was concentrated under reduced pressure to give a colorless oil (1.5g); add toluene (1ml) to heat the whole Dissolve, add ethanol (12ml) and stir at room temperature for 0.5h. Precipitate the solid, and stir in ice water bath for 1h. Filter and wash the filter cake with ethanol. Dry it in vacuo at 50-60°C to give bedaquinoline (1.07g). The HPLC purity is >99%. .
Example 2
Starting material 3-benzyl-6-bromo-2-methoxyquinoline (10 g) and 3-dimethylamino-1-(naphthalene-5-yl)propanone (10 g) in tetrahydrofuran (80 ml) with LDA ( 20g) Reaction, one-step reaction to obtain a racemic bedaquiline reaction solution. The conversion of this reaction by HPLC analysis was 65%. After quenching the reaction, diisopropyl ether (160 ml) was added to the reaction solution. Undesired diastereomer B was precipitated in an ice-water bath at 5° C. and filtered to remove diastereoisomer B. The resulting filtrate was washed with 10% aqueous formic acid to remove 3-dimethylamino-1-(naphthalene-5-yl)acetone as a raw material, and 5% aqueous sulfuric acid solution was added to the organic layer for stirring to make the product salified in the aqueous layer. In the middle. Filtration, filtration of the filtrate, the product was transferred to the aqueous layer, the raw material 3-benzyl-6-bromo-2-methoxyquinoline was left in the organic layer, and the organic layer was discarded. The filtered product salt solid is combined with the aqueous layer obtained by the layering of the filtrate, adjusted to be weakly alkaline with sodium hydroxide, extracted with dichloromethane, and washed, then the organic layer is washed with water to neutrality, and the organic layer is concentrated under reduced pressure. The product was diastereoisomer A (5.7 g), purity 92%.
With reference to the method of patent WO2006125769, the obtained diastereoisomer A is resolved to obtain the desired bedaquiline, the specific method is as follows:
Acetate (45 ml), DMSO (5.7 ml), and R-binaphthol phosphate (3.04 g) were added to diastereomer A (5.7 g) of the obtained bedaquinoline, and the mixture was heated under reflux for 2 hours. Cooling, precipitated salt precipitation; filtered at room temperature, washed with acetone cake, 50-60 ° C vacuum drying salt (2.6g);
The resolved salt (2.41 g), toluene (39 ml), potassium carbonate (1.58 g) and water (14 ml) were mixed, heated to 90°C and stirred until completely dissolved. While hot stratified, the organic layer was treated with 10% aqueous potassium carbonate solution ( (5ml) was washed once, washed with purified water until the pH was neutral (20ml × 3 times); the organic layer was concentrated under reduced pressure to give a colorless oil (1.6g); toluene was added (1ml) to heat the solution and ethanol was added (12ml) The precipitated solid was stirred at room temperature for 0.5 h, stirred in an ice-water bath for 1 h, filtered, washed with ethanol, and dried in vacuo at 50-60° C. to give bedalquinoline (1.19 g) with an HPLC purity of >99%.
Example 3
Starting material 3-benzyl-6-bromo-2-methoxyquinoline (10 g) and 3-dimethylamino-1-(naphthalene-5-yl)propanone (10 g) in tetrahydrofuran (80 ml) with LDA ( 20g) Reaction, one-step reaction to obtain a racemic bedaquiline reaction solution. The conversion of this reaction by HPLC analysis was 75%. After quenching the reaction, diisopropyl ether (400 ml) was added to the reaction solution. Undesired diastereomer B was precipitated in an ice-water bath at 2° C. and filtered to remove diastereoisomer B. The resulting filtrate was washed with 60% aqueous solution of propionic acid to remove 3-dimethylamino-1-(naphthalen-5-yl)acetone as a raw material, and 40% methanesulfonic acid aqueous solution was added to the organic layer for stirring to make the product salified. Precipitated in the water layer. After filtration, the filtrate was separated and the product was transferred to the aqueous layer. The raw material 3-benzyl-6-bromo-2-methoxyquinoline was left in the organic layer and the organic layer was discarded. The filtered product salt solid is combined with the aqueous layer obtained by the layering of the filtrate, adjusted to be weakly alkaline with sodium hydroxide, extracted with dichloromethane, and washed, then the organic layer is washed with water to neutrality, and the organic layer is concentrated under reduced pressure. Obtained product diastereomer A (6.0 g), purity 94%.
With reference to the method of patent WO2006125769, the obtained diastereoisomer A is resolved to obtain the desired bedaquiline, the specific method is as follows:
Acetate (48 ml), DMSO (6.0 ml), and R-binaphthol phosphate (3.09 g) were added to diastereomeric A (6.0 g) of the obtained bedaquinoline, and the mixture was heated under reflux for 2 hours. After cooling, precipitated salt precipitated; it was filtered at room temperature, and the filter cake was washed with acetone and dried under vacuum at 50-60° C. to give the resolved salt (2.59 g).
The resolved salt (2.59g), toluene (40ml), potassium carbonate (1.60g) and water (14ml) were mixed, heated to 90°C and stirred until completely dissolved; while hot stratified, the organic layer was treated with 10% potassium carbonate aqueous solution ( (5 ml) was washed once, washed with purified water until the pH was neutral (20 ml × 3 times); the organic layer was concentrated under reduced pressure to give a colorless oil (1.7 g); toluene (1 ml) was added and heated to complete dissolution, and ethanol (12 ml) was added. The precipitated solid was stirred at room temperature for 0.5 h, stirred in an ice-water bath for 1 h, filtered, washed with ethanol, and dried in vacuo at 50-60° C. to give bedaquinoline (1.20 g) with an HPLC purity of >99%.
Example 4
Starting material 3-benzyl-6-bromo-2-methoxyquinoline (10 g) and 3-dimethylamino-1-(naphthalene-5-yl)propanone (10 g) in tetrahydrofuran (80 ml) with LDA ( 20g) Reaction, one step reaction to obtain the racemic bedaquiline reaction solution. The conversion of this reaction by HPLC analysis was 70%. After quenching the reaction, petroleum ether (16 ml) was added to the reaction solution. Undesired diastereomer B was precipitated in an ice-water bath at 3° C. and filtered to remove diastereoisomer B. The obtained filtrate was washed with 30% acetic acid aqueous solution to remove 3-methylamino-1-(naphthalen-5-yl)acetone as a raw material, and 25% phosphoric acid aqueous solution was added to the organic layer for stirring to make the product salified in the aqueous layer. In the middle. After filtration, the filtrate was separated and the product was transferred to the aqueous layer. The raw material 3-benzyl-6-bromo-2-methoxyquinoline was left in the organic layer and the organic layer was discarded. The filtered product salt solid is combined with the aqueous layer obtained by the layering of the filtrate, adjusted to be slightly alkaline with sodium hydroxide, extracted with dichloromethane, and washed, and then the organic layer is washed with water to neutrality, and the organic layer is concentrated under reduced pressure. Obtained product diastereomer A (5.72 g), purity 88%.
With reference to the method of patent WO2006125769, the obtained diastereoisomer A is resolved to obtain the desired bedaquiline, the specific method is as follows:
Acetylene (45 ml), DMSO (5.7 ml), and R-binaphthol phosphate (3.04 g) were added to diastereomer A (5.72 g) of the obtained bedaquinoline, and the mixture was heated under reflux for 2 hours. After cooling, precipitated salt precipitated out; it was filtered at room temperature, and the filter cake was washed with acetone and dried under vacuum at 50-60° C. to give a resolution salt (2.43 g);
Split salt (2.43g), toluene (40ml), potassium carbonate (1.60g) and water (14ml) were mixed, heated to 90°C and stirred until completely dissolved. While hot stratified, the organic layer was treated with 10% potassium carbonate aqueous solution ( (5 ml) was washed once, washed with purified water until the pH was neutral (20 ml x 3 times); the organic layer was concentrated under reduced pressure to give a colorless oil (1.5 g); toluene (1 ml) was added for heating and ethanol was added (12 ml) The precipitated solid was stirred at room temperature for 0.5 h, stirred in an ice-water bath for 1 h, filtered, and the filter cake was washed with ethanol. Drying in vacuo at 50-60° C. gave bedaquinoline (1.16 g) with an HPLC purity of >99%.
Example 5
Starting material 3-benzyl-6-bromo-2-methoxyquinoline (10 g) and 3-dimethylamino-1-(naphthalene-5-yl)propanone (10 g) in tetrahydrofuran (80 ml) with LDA ( 20g) Reaction, one step reaction to obtain the racemic bedaquiline reaction solution. The conversion of this reaction was 80% by HPLC analysis. After quenching the reaction, n-hexane (80 ml) was added to the reaction solution. Undesired diastereomer B was precipitated in an ice-water bath at 1° C. and filtered to remove diastereoisomer B. The resulting filtrate was washed with 40% aqueous acetic acid to remove 3-dimethylamino-1-(naphthalen-5-yl)acetone as starting material, and 20% aqueous hydrochloric acid solution was added to the organic layer for stirring to make the product salified in the aqueous layer. In the middle. After filtration, the filtrate was separated and the product was transferred to the aqueous layer. The raw material 3-benzyl-6-bromo-2-methoxyquinoline was left in the organic layer and the organic layer was discarded. The filtered product salt solid is combined with the aqueous layer obtained by the layering of the filtrate, adjusted to be weakly alkaline with sodium hydroxide, extracted with dichloromethane, and washed, then the organic layer is washed with water to neutrality, and the organic layer is concentrated under reduced pressure. Obtained product diastereomer A (6.1 g), purity 96%.
With reference to the method of patent WO2006125769, the obtained diastereoisomer A is resolved to obtain the desired bedaquiline, the specific method is as follows:
Acetate (48 ml), DMSO (6.1 ml), and R-binaphthol phosphate (3.09 g) were added to diastereomer A (6.1 g) of the obtained bedaquinoline, and the mixture was heated under reflux for 2 hours. After cooling, precipitated salt precipitated out; it was filtered at room temperature, and the filter cake was washed with acetone and dried under vacuum at 50-60° C. to give the resolution salt (2.69 g).
The resolved salt (2.69g), toluene (40ml), potassium carbonate (1.60g) and water (14ml) were mixed, heated to 90°C and stirred until completely dissolved; while hot stratified, the organic layer was treated with 10% potassium carbonate aqueous solution ( (5ml) was washed once, washed with purified water until the pH was neutral (20ml×3 times); the organic layer was concentrated under reduced pressure to give a colorless oil (1.8g); toluene (1ml) was added to heat to dissolve and ethanol (12ml) was added. The precipitated solid was stirred for 0.5 h at room temperature, stirred in an ice-water bath for 1 h, filtered, washed with ethanol, and dried in vacuo at 50-60° C. to give bedalquinoline (1.28 g) with an HPLC purity of >99%.

PAPER

ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters (2017), 8(10), 1019-1024

6-Cyano Analogues of Bedaquiline as Less Lipophilic and Potentially Safer Diarylquinolines for Tuberculosis

 Auckland Cancer Society Research Centre, School of Medical Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
 Medicinal Chemistry Department (Infectious Diseases), Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Campus de Maigremont, BP315, 27106 Val de Reuil Cedex, France
§ Global Alliance for TB Drug Development, 40 Wall Street, New York, New York 10005, United States
 Infectious Diseases BVBA, Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Beerse, Belgium
 Institute for Tuberculosis Research, College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago, 833 South Wood Street, Chicago, Illinois 60612, United States
ACS Med. Chem. Lett.20178 (10), pp 1019–1024
DOI: 10.1021/acsmedchemlett.7b00196
Publication Date (Web): September 22, 2017
Copyright © 2017 American Chemical Society

Abstract

Abstract Image

Bedaquiline (1) is a new drug for tuberculosis and the first of the diarylquinoline class. It demonstrates excellent efficacy against TB but induces phospholipidosis at high doses, has a long terminal elimination half-life (due to its high lipophilicity), and exhibits potent hERG channel inhibition, resulting in clinical QTc interval prolongation. A number of structural ring A analogues of bedaquiline have been prepared and evaluated for their anti-M.tb activity (MIC90), with a view to their possible application as less lipophilic second generation compounds. It was previously observed that a range of 6-substituted analogues of 1 demonstrated a positive correlation between potency (MIC90) toward M.tb and drug lipophilicity. Contrary to this trend, we discovered, by virtue of a clogP/M.tb score, that a 6-cyano (CN) substituent provides a substantial reduction in lipophilicity with only modest effects on MIC values, suggesting this substituent as a useful tool in the search for effective and safer analogues of 1.

PAPER

Chinese Chemical Letters (2015), 26(6), 790-792

PAPER

Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry (2016), 14(40), 9622-9628.

http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2016/ob/c6ob01893a/unauth#!divAbstract

New synthetic approaches towards analogues of bedaquiline

Abstract

Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is of growing global concern and threatens to undermine increasing efforts to control the worldwide spread of tuberculosis (TB). Bedaquiline has recently emerged as a new drug developed to specifically treat MDR-TB. Despite being highly effective as a result of its unique mode of action, bedaquiline has been associated with significant toxicities and as such, safety concerns are limiting its clinical use. In order to access pharmaceutical agents that exhibit an improved safety profile for the treatment of MDR-TB, new synthetic pathways to facilitate the preparation of bedaquiline and analogues thereof have been discovered.

Graphical abstract: New synthetic approaches towards analogues of bedaquiline
http://www.rsc.org/suppdata/c6/ob/c6ob01893a/c6ob01893a1.pdf

PAPER

 Topics in Organometallic Chemistry (2011), 37(Bifunctional Molecular Catalysis), 1-30

PAPER

Saga, Yutaka; Journal of the American Chemical Society 2010, Vol132(23), Pg 7905-7907

Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of R207910

Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
J. Am. Chem. Soc.2010132 (23), pp 7905–7907
DOI: 10.1021/ja103183r
Publication Date (Web): May 20, 2010
Copyright © 2010 American Chemical Society

Abstract

Abstract Image

The first asymmetric synthesis of a very promising antituberculosis drug candidate, R207910, was achieved by developing two novel catalytic transformations; a catalytic enantioselective proton migration and a catalytic diastereoselective allylation of an intermediate α-chiral ketone. Using 2.5 mol % of a Y-catalyst derived from Y(HMDS)3 and the new chiral ligand 9, 1.25 mol % of p-methoxypyridine N-oxide (MEPO), and 0.5 mol % of Bu4NCl, α-chiral ketone 3 was produced from enone 4 with 88% ee. This reaction proceeded through a catalytic chiral Y-dienolate generation via deprotonation at the γ-position of 4, followed by regio- and enantioselective protonation at the α-position of the resulting dienolate. Preliminary mechanistic studies suggested that a Y: 9: MEPO = 2: 3: 1 ternary complex was the active catalyst. Bu4NCl markedly accelerated the reaction without affecting enantioselectivity. Enantiomerically pure 3 was obtained through a single recrystallization. The second key catalytic allylation of ketone 3 was promoted by CuF•3PPh3•2EtOH (10 mol %) in the presence of KOtBu (15 mol %), ZnCl2 (1 equiv), and Bu4PBF4 (1 equiv), giving the desired diastereomer 2 in quantitative yield with a 14: 1 ratio without any epimerization at the α-stereocenter. It is noteworthy that conventional organometallic addition reactions did not produce the desired products due to the high steric demand and a fairly acidic α-proton in substrate ketone 3. This first catalytic asymmetric synthesis of R207910 includes 12 longest linear steps from commercially available compounds with an overall yield of 5%.

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/suppl/10.1021/ja103183r/suppl_file/ja103183r_si_001.pdf

1 in 62 % yield (6.5 mg, 0.012 mmol ). 1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) : 1.91-1.95 (m, 1H), 1.98 (s, 6H), 1.99-2.10 (m, 2H), 2.52 (d, J = 14.1 Hz, 1H), 4.21 (s, 3H), 5.89 (s, 1H), 6.87-6.89 (m, 3H), 7.10-7.15 (m, 2H), 7.31 (t, J = 7.6 Hz, 2H), 7.48 (t, J = 8.5 Hz, 1H), 7.61 (t, J = 8.5 Hz, 1H), 7.63-7.67 (m, 2H), 7.72 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 1H), 7.87 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 1H), 7.91 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 1H), 7.97 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 8.60 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 1H), 8.89 (s, 1H); 13C NMR (126 MHz, CDCl3) : 29.7, 33.5, 44.7, 49.5, 54.2, 56.4, 82.6, 117.0, 124.5, 125.0, 125.1, 125.3, 125.8, 126.9, 127.1, 127.4, 127.9, 128.0, 128.1, 128.5, 129.8, 129.9, 131.9, 132.7, 133.3, 134.7, 138.8, 140.6, 141.8, 143.8, 161.4; IR (KBr, cm-1 ):  3443; MS (ESI) m/z 555 (M+H) + ; HRMS (FAB) calcd for C32H32N2O2Br (M+H) + 555.1647. Found 555.1644; [] 26 D – (c = 0.3, DMF).

PAPER

Gaurrand, Sandrine; Chemical Biology & Drug Design 2006, VOL 68(2), PG 77-84 

http://web.a.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=1&sid=fac0fcc3-2a10-4f5f-8e20-d057adf71ce9%40sessionmgr4006

str1 str2

PAPER

Chandrasekhar, Srivari; European Journal of Organic Chemistry 2011, (11), PG 2057-2061, S2057/1-S2057/18

Srivari Chandrasekhar

Dr.Chandrasekhar S
Director 
CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology                              
(Council of Scientific and Industrial Research)
Ministry of Science & Technology, Government of India
Tarnaka, Hyderabad-500007, Telangana, INDIA

Landline 27193030
Mobile 9440802787
Fax
Email ID director@iict.res.in
Alternate Email ID srivaric@iict.res.in
Alternate URL http://www.iictindia.org/staffprofiles/staffProfile.aspx?emp_id=iict1372

READ

http://www.iictindia.org/staffprofiles/staffprofile.aspx?qry=1372

(1R,2S)-1-(6-Bromo-2-methoxyquinolin-3-yl)-4-(dimethylamino)- 2-(naphthalen-1-yl)-1-phenylbut-an-2-ol (3a): A solution of 16a and 16b (6.0 g, 10.2 mmol) in Me2NH (200 mL, 8.0 m in THF) was stirred at 45 °C for 24 h. The solution was filtered and the filtrate concentrated under reduced pressure to afford the crude product which on purification by silica gel column chromatography (eluent: ethyl acetate/hexane = 1:6) furnished 3a and 3b as white solids (4.8 g, 90%) (1:1 w/w).

3a: M.p. 104 °C. [α]D 25 = –165.2 (c = 0.8, DMF). (2S)- R207910 (3a)

1 H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3): δ = 8.89 (s, 1 H, H4), 8.61 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 1 H, H20), 7.96 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1 H, H5), 7.92 (d, J = 7.4 Hz, 1 H, H14), 7.87 (d, J = 8.1 Hz, 1 H, H17), 7.72 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1 H, H8), 7.68–7.56 (m, 3 H, H7, H16, H19), 7.48 (t, J = 7.6 Hz, 1 H, H18), 7.30 (t, J = 7.7 Hz, 1 H, H15), 7.17–7.10 (m, 2 H, H24), 6.93–6.83 (m, 3 H, H25, H26), 5.89 (s, 1 H, H11), 4.21 (s, 3 H, H30), 2.60–2.51 (m, 1 H, H27), 2.18–2.02 (m, 2 H, H27, H28), 1.99 (s, 6 H, H29), 1.95–1.85 (m, 1 H, H28) ppm.

13C NMR (75 MHz, CDCl3): δ = 161.3, 143.7, 141.6, 140.5, 138.7, 134.6, 131.9, 129.9, 129.8, 129.7, 128.4, 128.1, 127.8, 127.3, 127.1, 126.8, 125.7, 125.2, 125.1, 125.0, 124.4, 116.9, 82.4, 56.2, 54.1, 49.5, 44.6, 33.4, 29.6 ppm.

IR (KBr): ν˜ = 3441 cm–1.

HRMS (ESI) calcd. for C32H32BrN2O2 [M + H]+ 555.1642; found 555.1671.

(2R)-R207910

References[

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  4. Jump up^ “Sirturo: Clinical Pharmacology”Archived from the original on 28 February 2015. Retrieved 28 April 2014.
  5. Jump up to:a b c d The selection and use of essential medicines: Twentieth report of the WHO Expert Committee 2015 (including 19th WHO Model List of Essential Medicines and 5th WHO Model List of Essential Medicines for Children) (PDF). World Health Organization. 2015. p. vii, 29. ISBN 9789241209946Archived(PDF) from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 10 December 2016.
  6. Jump up^ “Bedaquiline (Sirturo) Use During Pregnancy”http://www.drugs.comArchived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 10 December 2016.
  7. Jump up^ “WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (19th List)” (PDF). World Health Organization. April 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 December 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
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  9. Jump up to:a b Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2013-10-25). “Provisional CDC guidelines for the use and safety monitoring of bedaquiline fumarate (Sirturo) for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis”. MMWR62 (RR-09): 1–12. ISSN 1545-8601PMID 24157696.
  10. Jump up^ WHO (2013). The use of bedaquiline in the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis : interim policy guidanceArchived from the original on 2017-09-10.
  11. Jump up to:a b c Field, Stephen K. (2015-07-01). “Bedaquiline for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: great promise or disappointment?”Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease6(4): 170–184. doi:10.1177/2040622315582325ISSN 2040-6223PMC 4480545Freely accessiblePMID 26137207Archived from the original on 2015-10-28.
  12. Jump up to:a b Diacon, Andreas H.; Pym, Alexander; Grobusch, Martin P.; de los Rios, Jorge M.; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Vasilyeva, Irina; Leimane, Vaira; Andries, Koen; Bakare, Nyasha (2014-08-21). “Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis and Culture Conversion with Bedaquiline”New England Journal of Medicine371 (8): 723–732. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1313865ISSN 0028-4793PMID 25140958.
  13. Jump up^ BPaMZ @ TB Alliance Archived 2017-02-19 at the Wayback Machine.
  14. Jump up^ Two new drug therapies might cure every form of tuberculosis. Feb 2017 Archived 2017-02-20 at the Wayback Machine.
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Bedaquiline
Bedaquiline.svg
Clinical data
Trade names Sirturo
Synonyms Bedaquiline fumarate,[1]TMC207,[2] R207910, AIDS222089
AHFS/Drugs.com Monograph
License data
Pregnancy
category
  • US: B (No risk in non-human studies)
Routes of
administration
by mouth
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
  • In general: ℞ (Prescription only)
Pharmacokinetic data
Protein binding >99.9% [4]
Metabolism Liver, by CYP3A4[3]
Biological half-life 5.5 months [3]
Excretion fecal[3]
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
ChEMBL
Chemical and physical data
Formula C32H31BrN2O2
Molar mass 555.5 g/mol
3D model (JSmol)

FDA Orange Book Patents

FDA Orange Book Patents: 1 of 2 (FDA Orange Book Patent ID)
Patent 8546428
Expiration Mar 19, 2029
Applicant JANSSEN THERAP
Drug Application N204384 (Prescription Drug: SIRTURO. Ingredients: BEDAQUILINE FUMARATE)
FDA Orange Book Patents: 2 of 2 (FDA Orange Book Patent ID)
Patent 7498343
Expiration Oct 2, 2024
Applicant JANSSEN THERAP
Drug Application N204384 (Prescription Drug: SIRTURO. Ingredients: BEDAQUILINE FUMARATE)
Patent ID

Patent Title

Submitted Date

Granted Date

US7498343 Mycobacterial inhibitors
2005-07-07
2009-03-03
US8546428 FUMARATE SALT OF (ALPHA S, BETA R)-6-BROMO-ALPHA-[2-(DIMETHYLAMINO)ETHYL]-2-METHOXY-ALPHA-1-NAPHTHALENYL-BETA-PHENYL-3-QUINOLINEETHANOL
2010-02-04

//////////////Bedaquiline, JAPAN 2018, R 207910, Sirturo, TMC 207, FDA 2012, EMA 2014, ベダキリンフマル酸塩

CN(C)CCC(C1=CC=CC2=CC=CC=C21)(C(C3=CC=CC=C3)C4=C(N=C5C=CC(=CC5=C4)Br)OC)O.C(=CC(=O)O)C(=O)O

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Naloxegol


Image result for Naloxegol

Naloxegol

Movantik; NKTR-118; NKTR118; UNII-44T7335BKE; NKTR 118

854601-70-0  cas

1354744-91-4 (Naloxegol Oxalate)

(4R,4aS,7S,7aR,12bS)-7-[2-[2-[2-[2-[2-[2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy]ethoxy]ethoxy]ethoxy]ethoxy]ethoxy]-3-prop-2-enyl-1,2,4,5,6,7,7a,13-octahydro-4,12-methanobenzofuro[3,2-e]isoquinoline-4a,9-diol

MF C34H53NO11
MW 651.78472 g/mol
Morphinan-3,14-diol, 4,5-epoxy-6-(3,6,9,12,15,18,21-heptaoxadocos-1-yloxy)-17-(2-propen-1-yl)-, (5α,6α)-, ethanedioate (1:1) (salt)
Naloxegol oxalate [USAN]
UNII-65I14TNM33
AZ-13337019 oxalate
Naloxegol (oxalate)
NKTR-118 oxalate;AZ-13337019 oxalate
UNII:65I14TNM33

Naloxegol oxalate (MovantikTM, Moventig)

Image result for Naloxegol

Naloxegol (INN; PEGylated naloxol;[1] trade names Movantik and Moventig) is a peripherallyselective opioid antagonistdeveloped by AstraZeneca, licensed from Nektar Therapeutics, for the treatment of opioid-induced constipation.[2] It was approved in 2014 in adult patients with chronic, non-cancer pain.[3] Doses of 25 mg were found safe and well tolerated for 52 weeks.[4] When given concomitantly with opioid analgesics, naloxegol reduced constipation-related side effects, while maintaining comparable levels of analgesia.[5]

Image result for naloxegol

Naloxegol Oxalate was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on Sept 16, 2014, then approved by European Medicine Agency (EMA) on Dec 8, 2014. It was developed and marketed as Movantik®(in the US)/Moventig®(in EU) by AstraZeneca.

Naloxegol oxalate is an antagonist of opioid binding at the mu-opioid receptor. It is indicated for the treatment of opioid-induced constipation (OIC) in adult patients with chronic non-cancer pain.

Movantik® is available as tablets for oral use, containing 12.5 mg or 25 mg of free Naloxegol. The recommended dose is 25 mg once daily (reduce to 12.5 mg if not tolerated).

Chemically, naloxegol is a pegylated (polyethylene glycol-modified) derivative of α-naloxol. Specifically, the 5-α-hydroxyl group of α-naloxol is connected via an ether linkage to the free hydroxyl group of a monomethoxy-terminated n=7 oligomer of PEG, shown extending at the lower left of the molecule image at right. The “n=7” defines the number of two-carbon ethylenes, and so the chain length, of the attached PEG chain, and the “monomethoxy” indicates that the terminal hydroxyl group of the PEG is “capped” with amethyl group.[6] The pegylation of the 5-α-hydroxyl side chain of naloxol prevents the drug from crossing the blood-brain barrier(BBB).[5] As such, it can be considered the antithesis of the peripherally-acting opiate loperamide which is utilized as an opiate-targeting anti-diarrheal agent that does not cause traditional opiate side-effects due to its inability to accumulate in the central nervous system in normal subjects.

Naloxegol was previously a Schedule II drug in the United States because of its chemical similarity to opium alkaloids, but was recently reclassified as a prescription drug after the FDA concluded that the impermeability of the blood-brain barrier to this compound made it non-habit-forming, and so without the potential for abuse — specifically, naloxegol was officially decontrolled on 23. January 2015. [7]

Image result for Naloxegol

As an opiate antagonist, it is not expected to be capable of inducing the euphoria and anxiolytic effects which are generally cited as the desirable effects of commonly abused opiates (all of which are opiate agonists) if it were to cross the BBB; it would in fact reverse the effects of opiate drugs of abuse if it entered the central nervous system.

Naloxegol is an oral polyethylene glycol (PEG) derivative of naloxone, a peripherally acting µ-opioid receptor antagonist (PAMORA) with limited potential for interfering with centrally mediated opioid analgesia. The incorporation of a polyethylene glycol moiety aims at inhibiting naloxone’s capacity to cross the blood-brain barrier, while preserving the affinity for the µ-opioid receptor [1].

Image result for Naloxegol

Opioid-induced bowel dysfunction (OIBD) represents a broad spectrum of symptoms that result from the actions of opioids on the CNS as well as the gastrointestinal tract. The majority of gastrointestinal effects seem to be mediated by the high number of µ-receptors that are expressed in the enteric nervous system. Naloxegol was more effective than placebo in increasing the number of spontaneous bowel movements in patients with opioid-induced constipation, including those with an inadequate response to laxatives.

Recognition of Naloxegol as a useful option in the treatment of opioid-induced constipation resulted in its approval by US-FDA for adult patients with chronic, non-cancer pain in 2014.
Naloxegol oxalate (XXI) is a peripherally acting l-opioid receptor antagonist that was approved in the USA and EU for the treatment of opioid-induced constipation in adults with chronic non-cancer pain. The drug, a pegylated version of naloxone, has significantly reduced central nervous system (CNS) penetration and works by inhibiting the binding of opioids in the gastrointestinal tract.152–154 Naloxegol oxalate was developed by Nektar and licensed to AstraZeneca. Although we were unable to find a single report in the primary or patent literature that describes the exact experimental procedures to prepare naloxegol oxalate, there havebeen reports on the preparation of closely related analogs155 with specific reports on improving the selectivity of the reduction step156 and the salt formation of the final drug substance.157 Taken together, the likely synthesis of naloxegol oxalate (XXI) is
described in Scheme 28. Naloxone (180) was treated with methoxyethyl chloride in the presence of Hunig’s base to give the protected ketone 181. Reduction of the ketone with potassium trisec-butylborohydride exclusively provided the a-alcohol 182 in 85% yield. Alternatively, sodium trialkylborohydrides could also be used to provide similar a-selective reduction in high yield.
Deprotonation of the alcohol with sodium hydride followed by alkylation with CH3(OCH2CH2)7Br (183) provided the pegylated intermediate 184 in 88% yield. Acidic removal of the methoxyethyl ether protecting group followed by treatment with oxalic acid and crystallization provided naloxegol oxalate (XXI) in good yield.

152. Corsetti, M.; Tack, J. Expert Opin. Pharmacol. 2015, 16, 399.
153. Garnock-Jones, K. P. Drugs 2015, 75, 419.
154. Leonard, J.; Baker, D. E. Ann. Pharmacother. 2015, 49, 360.
155. Bentley, M. D.; Viegas, T. X.; Goodin, R. R.; Cheng, L.; Zhao, X. US Patent
2005136031A1, 2005.
156. Cheng, L.; Bentley, M. D. WO Patent 2007124114A2, 2007.
157. Aaslund, B. L.; Aurell, C.-J.; Bohlin, M. H.; Sebhatu, T.; Ymen, B. I.; Healy, E. T.;
Jensen, D. R.; Jonaitis, D. T.; Parent, S. WO Patent 2012044243A1, 2012.
158. http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm4183

Image result for Naloxegol

Naloxegol Synthesis

CREDIT

https://ayurajan.blogspot.in/2016/08/naloxegol.html

US20050136031A1: The patent reports detailed synthetic procedures to manufacture gram quantities of Naloxegol. The synthesis starts with Naloxone which was treated with methoxyethyl chloride in the presence of Hunig’s base to give the protected ketone. Reduction of the ketone with potassium tri-sec-butylborohydride exclusively provided the α-alcohol in 85% yield. Deprotonation of the alcohol with sodium hydride followed by alkylation with CH3(OCH2CH2)7Br  provided the pegylated Naloxone in 88% yield.

Identifications:

1H NMR (Estimated) for Naloxegol

Image result for Naloxegol

Image result for Naloxegol

Image result for Naloxegol

Image result for Naloxegol

PATENT

US20060182692

Figure US20060182692A1-20060817-C00004

PATENT

http://www.google.co.in/patents/WO2005058367A2?cl=en

EXAMPLE 4 SYNTHESIS OF PEG 3-NALθxoL [0211] The structure of the naloxol, an exemplary small molecule drug, is shown below.

Figure imgf000059_0001

Naloxol [0212] This molecule was prepared (having a protected hydroxyl group) as part of a larger synthetic scheme as described in Example 5.

EXAMPLE 5

Figure imgf000059_0002

[0213] α,β-PEGι-naloxol was prepared. The overview of the synthesis is provided below.

Figure imgf000060_0001

(3)

Figure imgf000060_0002

(4)

5.A. Synthesis of 3-MEM-naloxone

[0214] Diisopropylethylamine (390 mg, 3.0 mmole) was added to a solution of naloxone HCl 2H2O (200 mg, 0.50 mmole) in CH2C12 (10 mL) with stining. Methoxyethyl chloride (“MEMCl,” 250 mg, 2.0 mmole) was then added dropwise to the above solution. The solution was stined at room temperature under N2 overnight.

[0215] The crude product was analyzed by HPLC, which indicated that 3-

MEM-O-naloxone (1) was formed in 97% yield. Solvents were removed by rotary evaporation to yield a sticky oil.

5.B. Synthesis of α and β epimer mixture of 3-MEM-naloxoI (2)

[0216] 3 mL of 0.2 N NaOH was added to a solution of 3-MEM-naloxone

(1) (obtained from 5.A. above, and used without further purification) in 5mL of ethanol. To this was added a solution of NaBHLt (76 mg, 2.0 mmole) in water (1 mL) dropwise. The resulting solution was stined at room temperature for 5 hours. The ethanol was removed by rotary evaporation followed by addition of a solution of 0.1 N HCl solution to destroy excess NaBKj and adjust the pH to a value of 1. The solution was washed with CHC13 to remove excess methoxyethyl chloride and its derivatives (3 x 50 mL), followed by addition of K2OO3 to raise the pH of the solution to 8.0. The product was then extracted with CHC13 (3 x 50 mL) and dried over Na2SO4. The solvent was removed by evaporation to yield a colorless sticky solid (192 mg, 0.46 mmole, 92% isolated yield based on naloxone HCl 2H2O).

[0217] HPLC indicated that the product was an α and β epimer mixture of

3-MEM-naloxol (2).

5.C. Synthesis of α and β epimer mixture of 6-CH3-OCH2CH2-O-3-MEM- naloxol (3a).

[0218] NaH (60% in mineral oil, 55 mg, 1.38 mmole) was added into a solution of 6-hydroxyl-3-MEM-naloxol (2) (192 mg, 0.46 mmole) in dimethylformamide (“DMF,” 6 mL). The mixture was stined at room temperature under N2 for 15 minutes, followed by addition of 2-bromoethyl methyl ether (320 mg, 2.30 mmole) in DMF (1 mL). The solution was then stirred at room temperature under N2 for 3 hours.

[0219] HPLC analysis revealed formation of a mixture of α- and β-6-CH3-OCH2CH2-0-3-MEM-naloxol (3) in about 88% yield. DMF was removed by a rotary evaporation to yield a sticky white solid. The product was used for subsequent transformation without further purification.

5.D. Synthesis of α and β epimer mixture of 6-CH3-OCH2CH2-naloxoI (4)

[0220] Crude α- and β-6-CH3-OCH2CH2-O-3-MEM-naloxol (3) was dissolved in 5 mL of CH2C12 to form a cloudy solution, to which was added 5 mL of trifluoroacetic acid (“TFA”). The resultant solution was stined at room temperature for 4 hours. The reaction was determined to be complete based upon HPLC assay. CH2C12 was removed by a rotary evaporator, followed by addition of 10 mL of water. To this solution was added sufficient K2OO3 to destroy excess TFA and to adjust the pH to 8. The solution was then extracted with CHC13 (3 x 50 mL), and the extracts were combined and further extracted with 0.1 N HCl solution (3 x 50 mL). The pH of the recovered water phase was adjusted to a pH of 8 by addition of K2CO3>followed by further extraction with CHC13 (3 x 50 mL). The combined organic layer was then dried with Na2SO4. The solvents were removed to yield a colorless sticky solid.

[0221] The solid was purified by passage two times through a silica gel column (2 cm x 30 cm) using CHCl3/CH3OH (30:1) as the eluent to yield a sticky solid. The purified product was determined by 1H NMR to be a mixture of α- and β epimers of 6-CH3-OCH2CH2-naloxol (4) containing ca. 30% α epimer and ca. 70% β epimer [100 mg, 0.26 mmole, 56% isolated yield based on 6-hydroxyl-3-MEM- naloxol (2)].

[0222] 1H NMR (δ, ppm, CDC13): 6.50-6.73 (2 H, multiplet, aromatic proton of naloxol), 5.78 (1 H, multiplet, olefinic proton of naloxone), 5.17 (2 H, multiplet, olefinic protons of naloxol), 4.73 (1 H, doublet, C5 proton of α naloxol), 4.57 (1 H, doublet, C5 proton of β naloxol), 3.91 (1H, multiplet, C6 proton of naloxol), 3.51-3.75 (4 H, multiplet, PEG), 3.39 (3 H, singlet, methoxy protons of PEG, α epimer), 3.36 (3 H, singlet, methoxy protons of PEG, β epimer), 3.23 (1 H, multiplet, C6 proton of β naloxol), 1.46-3.22 (14 H, multiplet, protons of naloxol).

SYN 1

PATENT

https://www.google.com/patents/WO2012044243A1?cl=en

Naloxol-polyethylene glycol conjugates are provided herein in solid phosphate and oxalate salt forms. Methods of preparing the salt forms, and pharmaceutical compositions comprising the salt forms are also provided herein. ACKGROUND

Effective pain management therapy often calls for an opioid analgesic. In addition to the desired analgesic effect, however, certain undesirable side effects, such as bowel dysfunction, nausea, constipation, among others, can accompany the use of an opioid analgesic. Such side effects may be due to opioid receptors being present outside of the central nervous system, principally in the gastrointestinal tract. Clinical and preclinical studies support the use of mPEG7-0-naloxol, a conjugate of the opioid antagonist naloxol and polyethylene glycol, to counteract undesirable side effects associated with use of opioid analgesics. When administered orally to a patient mPEG7-0-naloxol largely does not cross the blood brain barrier into the central nervous system, and has minimal impact on opioid- induced analgesia. See, e.g., WO 2005/058367; WO 2008/057579; Webster et al., “NKTR-118 Significantly Reverses Opioid-Induced Constipation,” Poster 39, 20th AAPM Annual Clinical Meeting (Phoenix, AZ), October 10, 2009.

To move a drug candidate such as mPEG7-O-naloxol to a viable pharmaceutical product, it is important to understand whether the drug candidate has polymorphic forms, as well as the relative stability and interconversions of these forms under conditions likely to be encountered upon large-scale production, transportation, storage and pre-usage preparation. Solid forms of a drug substance are often desired for their convenience in formulating a drug product. No solid form of mPEG7-O-naloxol drug substance has been made available to date, which is currently manufactured and isolated as an oil in a free base form. Exactly how to accomplish this is often not obvious. For example the number of pharmaceutical products that are oxalate salts is limited. The free base form of mPEG7-0-naloxol has not been observed to form a crystalline phase even when cooled to -60 °C and has been observed to exist as a glass with a transition temperature of

approximately -45 °C. Furthermore, mPEG7-0-naloxol in its free base form can undergo oxidative degradation upon exposure to air. Care can be taken in handling the free base, for example, storing it under inert gas, to avoid its degradation. However, a solid form of mPEG7-0-naloxol, preferably one that is stable when kept exposed to air, is desired

a naloxol-polyethlyene glycol conjugate oxalate salt, the salt comprising ionic species of mPEG7-0-naloxol and oxalic acid. The formulas of mPEG7-0-naloxol and oxalic acid are as follows:

Figure imgf000004_0001

In certain embodiments, the methods provided comprise dissolving mPEG7-0- naloxol free base in ethanol; adding methyl t-butyl ether to the dissolved mPEG?

O-naloxol solution; adding oxalic acid in methyl t-butyl ether to the dissolved mPEG7-0-naloxol over a period of at least 2 hours to produce a slurry; and filtering the slurry to yield the naloxol-polyethlyene glycol conjugate oxalate salt in solid form.

In certain embodiments, the methods provided comprise dissolving mPEG7-0- naloxol free base in acetonitrile; adding water to the dissolved mPEG7-0-naloxol solution; adding oxalic acid in ethyl acetate to the dissolved mPEG7-0-naloxol over a period of at least 2 hours to produce a slurry; and filtering the slurry to yield the naloxol-polyethlyene glycol conjugate oxalate salt in solid form.

In some embodiments, the solid salt form of mPEG7-0-naloxol is a crystalline form.

In certain embodiments a solid crystalline salt provided herein is substantially pure, having a purity of at least about 80%, at least about 85%, at least about 90%, at least about 92%, at least about 95%, at least about 96%, at least about 97%, at least about 98%, or at least about 99%.

In certain embodiments, the solid salt form of mPEG7-0-naloxol is a phosphate salt.

In other embodiments, the solid mPEG7-0-naloxol salt form is an oxalate salt. For instance, in some embodiments of solid oxalate salt forms provided herein, the solid mPEG7-0-naloxol oxalate salt form is in Form A, as described herein. As another example, in some embodiments of solid oxalate salt forms provided herein, the solid mPEG7-0-naloxol oxalate salt form is in Form B, as described herein. In yet other embodiments, an oxalate salt of mPEG7-0-naloxol in solid form prepared according to the methods described herein is provided.

In yet other embodiments, an dihydrogenphosphate salt of mPEG7-0-naloxol in solid form prepared according to the methods described herein is provided.

In certain embodiments of a solid mPEG7-0-naloxol oxalate salt Form B provided herein, the salt form exhibits a single endothermic peak on differential scanning calorimetry between room temperature and about 150 °C. The single endothermic peak can occur, for instance, between about 91 °C to about 94 °C. For example, in some embodiments the endothermic peak is at about 92 °C, about 92.5 °C, or about93 °C.

PATENT

http://www.google.co.in/patents/WO2005058367A2?cl=en

PATENT

CN101033228A

PATENT

https://www.google.com/patents/CN102174049A?cl=en

References and notes

  1.  Roland Seifert; Thomas Wieland; Raimund Mannhold; Hugo Kubinyi; Gerd Folkers (17 July 2006). G Protein-Coupled Receptors as Drug Targets: Analysis of Activation and Constitutive Activity. John Wiley & Sons. p. 227. ISBN 978-3-527-60695-5. Retrieved 14 May 2012.
  2.  “Nektar | R&D Pipeline | Products in Development | CNS/Pain | Oral Naloxegol (NKTR-118) and Oral NKTR-119”. Retrieved2012-05-14.
  3. “FDA approves MOVANTIK™ (naloxegol) Tablets C-II for the treatment of opioid-induced constipation in adult patients with chronic non-cancer pain”. 16 September 2014.
  4.  “Randomised clinical trial: the long-term safety and tolerability of naloxegol in patients with pain and opioid-induced constipation.”. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 40: 771–9. Oct 2014.doi:10.1111/apt.12899. PMID 25112584.
  5. ^ Jump up to:a b Garnock-Jones KP (2015). “Naloxegol: a review of its use in patients with opioid-induced constipation”. Drugs. 75 (4): 419–425. doi:10.1007/s40265-015-0357-2.
  6.  Technically, the molecule that is attached via the ether link is O-methyl-heptaethylene glycol [that is, methoxyheptaethylene glycol, CH3OCH2CH2O(CH2CH2O)5CH2CH2OH], molecular weight 340.4, CAS number 4437-01-8. See Pubchem Staff (2016). “Compound Summary for CID 526555, Pubchem Compound 4437-01”. PubChem Compound Database. Bethesda, MD, USA: NCBI, U.S. NLM. Retrieved 28 January2016.
  7. ^http://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/fed_regs/rules/2015/fr0123_3.htm

1. WO2012044243A / US12015038524A1.

2. WO2005058367A2 / US7786133B2.

3. US20060182692A1 / US8067431B2.

4. CN101033228A.

5. Fudan Univ. J. Med. Sci. 2007, 34, 888-890.

WO2008057579A2 * Nov 7, 2007 May 15, 2008 Nektar Therapeutics Al, Corporation Dosage forms and co-administration of an opioid agonist and an opioid antagonist
WO2009137086A1 * May 7, 2009 Nov 12, 2009 Nektar Therapeutics Oral administration of peripherally-acting opioid antagonists
US20050136031 * Dec 16, 2004 Jun 23, 2005 Bentley Michael D. Chemically modified small molecules

Patents

7056500 United States
7662365 United States
 
8067431 United States
 
8617530 United States
 
9012469 United States

FDA Orange Book Patents

FDA Orange Book Patents: 1 of 6
Patent 7056500
Expiration Jun 29, 2024
Applicant ASTRAZENECA PHARMS
Drug Application N204760 (Prescription Drug: MOVANTIK. Ingredients: NALOXEGOL OXALATE)
FDA Orange Book Patents: 2 of 6
Patent 7662365
Expiration Oct 18, 2022
Applicant ASTRAZENECA PHARMS
Drug Application N204760 (Prescription Drug: MOVANTIK. Ingredients: NALOXEGOL OXALATE)
 
FDA Orange Book Patents: 3 of 6
Patent 8617530
Expiration Oct 18, 2022
Applicant ASTRAZENECA PHARMS
Drug Application N204760 (Prescription Drug: MOVANTIK. Ingredients: NALOXEGOL OXALATE)
 
FDA Orange Book Patents: 4 of 6
Patent 9012469
Expiration Apr 2, 2032
Applicant ASTRAZENECA PHARMS
Drug Application N204760 (Prescription Drug: MOVANTIK. Ingredients: NALOXEGOL OXALATE)
 
FDA Orange Book Patents: 5 of 6
Patent 7786133
Expiration Dec 19, 2027
Applicant ASTRAZENECA PHARMS
Drug Application N204760 (Prescription Drug: MOVANTIK. Ingredients: NALOXEGOL OXALATE)
 
FDA Orange Book Patents: 6 of 6
Patent 8067431
Expiration Dec 16, 2024
Applicant ASTRAZENECA PHARMS
Drug Application N204760 (Prescription Drug: MOVANTIK. Ingredients: NALOXEGOL OXALATE)
Naloxegol
Naloxegol.svg
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(5α,6α)-4,5-epoxy-6-(3,6,9,12,15,18,21-heptaoxadocos-1-yloxy)-17-(2-propen-1-yl)morphinan-3,14-diol
Clinical data
Trade names Movantik, Moventig
AHFS/Drugs.com movantik
License data
Pregnancy
category
  • US: C (Risk not ruled out)
Routes of
administration
Oral
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Protein binding ~4.2%
Metabolism Hepatic (CYP3A)
Biological half-life 6–11 h
Excretion Feces (68%), urine (16%)
Identifiers
CAS Number 854601-70-0
ATC code A06AH03 (WHO)
PubChem CID 56959087
ChemSpider 28651656
ChEBI CHEBI:82975
Synonyms NKTR-118
Chemical data
Formula C34H53NO11
Molar mass 651.785 g/mol

//////////////Naloxegol, Movantik,  NKTR-118,  NKTR118,  UNII-44T7335BKE, NKTR 118, 854601-70-0, EU 2014, FDA 2014

COCCOCCOCCOCCOCCOCCOCCO[C@H]1CC[C@]2([C@H]3Cc4ccc(c5c4[C@]2([C@H]1O5)CCN3CC=C)O)O

EU approves Lilly diabetes drug Trulicity, dulaglutide


EU approves Lilly diabetes drug Trulicity

Regulators in Europe have given the green light to Eli Lilly’s Trulicity, its once-weekly glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist for type 2 diabetes.

Read more at: http://www.pharmatimes.com/Article/14-11-25/EU_approves_Lilly_diabetes_drug_Trulicity.aspx

Dulaglutide is a glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 agonist) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes that can be used once weekly.[1][2]GLP-1 is a hormone that is involved in the normalization of level of glucose in blood (glycemia). The FDA approved dulaglutide for use in the United States in September 2014.[3] The drug is manufactured by Eli Lilly under the brand name Trulicity.[3]

Mechanism of action

Dulaglutide binding to glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor, slows gastric emptying and increases insulin secretion by beta cells in the pancreas. Simultaneously the compound reduces the elevated glucagon secretion by alpha cells of the pancreas, which is known to be inappropriate in the diabetic patient. GLP-1 is normally secreted by L cells of the gastrointestinal mucosa in response to a meal.[4]

Medical uses[

The compound is indicated for adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control. Dulaglutide is not indicated in the treatment of subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus or patients with diabetic ketoacidosis. Dulaglutide can be used either stand-alone or in combination with other medicines for type 2 diabetes, in particular metformin, sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, and insulin taken concomitantly with meals.[5]

Side effects

The most common side effects include gastrointestinal disorders, such as dyspepsia, decreased appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea.[6] Some patients may experience serious adverse reactions: acute pancreatitis (symptoms include persistent severe abdominal pain, sometimes radiating to the back and accompanied by vomiting),hypoglycemia, renal impairment (which may sometimes require hemodialysis). The risk of hypoglycemia is increased if the drug is used in combination with sulfonylureas orinsulin.[7][8]

Contraindications

The compound is contraindicated in subjects with hypersensitivity to active principle or any of the product’s components. As a precautionary measure patients with a personal or family history of medullary thyroid carcinoma or affected by multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 2 should not take dulaglutide, because for now it is unclear whether the compound can increase the risk of these cancers.[9]

References

  1. JCourtney Aavang Tibble, Tricia Santos Cavaiola, Robert R Henry (2013). “Longer Acting GLP-1 Receptor Agonists and the Potential for Improved Cardiovascular Outcomes: A Review of Current Literature”. Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab 8 (3): 247–259.doi:10.1586/eem.13.20.
  2.  “Lilly’s Once-Weekly Dulaglutide Shows Non-Inferiority to Liraglutide in Head-to-Head Phase III Trial for Type 2 Diabetes”. Eli Lilly. Feb 25, 2014.
  3.  “FDA approves Trulicity to treat type 2 diabetes” (Press release). FDA. Sep 18, 2014.
  4.  Nadkarni P, Chepurny OG, Holz GG (2014). “Regulation of glucose homeostasis by GLP-1”. Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci 121: 23–65. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-800101-1.00002-8.PMC 4159612. PMID 24373234. Retrieved 2014-09-29.
  5.  Terauchi Y, Satoi Y, Takeuchi M, Imaoka T (July 2014). “Monotherapy with the once weekly GLP-1 receptor agonist dulaglutide for 12 weeks in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes: dose-dependent effects on glycaemic control in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study”. Endocr. J. PMID 25029955. Retrieved 2014-09-29.
  6.  Nauck M, Weinstock RS, Umpierrez GE, Guerci B, Skrivanek Z, Milicevic Z (August 2014). “Efficacy and safety of dulaglutide versus sitagliptin after 52 weeks in type 2 diabetes in a randomized controlled trial (AWARD-5)”. Diabetes Care 37 (8): 2149–58.doi:10.2337/dc13-2761. PMID 24742660.
  7.  Amblee A (April 2014). “Dulaglutide for the treatment of type 2 diabetes”. Drugs Today50 (4): 277–89. doi:10.1358/dot.2014.50.4.2132740. PMID 24918645.
  8.  Monami M, Dicembrini I, Nardini C, Fiordelli I, Mannucci E (February 2014). “Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and pancreatitis: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials”. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 103 (2): 269–75. doi:10.1016/j.diabres.2014.01.010.PMID 24485345.
  9. Samson SL, Garber A (April 2013). “GLP-1R agonist therapy for diabetes: benefits and potential risks”. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 20 (2): 87–97.doi:10.1097/MED.0b013e32835edb32. PMID 23403741. Retrieved 2014-09-30.
Identifiers
CAS number 923950-08-7
ATC code None
Chemical data
Formula C2646H4044N704O836S18 
Mol. mass 59669.81 g/mol

EU OK’s Gilead’s rare blood cancers drug


EU OK's Gilead's rare blood cancers drug

SEPT 21 , 2014

Patients with the incurable blood cancers chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) and follicular lymphoma (FL) have gained access to a new treatment option in Europe with the approval of Gilead’s Zydelig (idelalisib).

For CLL, the drug can now be used alongside Rituxan (rituximab) in patients who have received at least one prior therapy, and it has also been green lighted for first-line use in those carrying a 17p deletion or TP53 mutation who are unsuitable for chemo-immunotherapy.

SEE

SYNTHESIS AT

https://newdrugapprovals.org/2014/01/14/idelalisib-us-fda-accepts-nda-for-gileads-idelalisib-for-the-treatment-of-refractory-indolent-non-hodgkins-lymphoma/

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