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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 29 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 29 year tenure till date Aug 2016, Around 30 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 25 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 13 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 212 countries...... , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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(R)-(–)-Baclofen, Arbaclofen, STX 209, AGI 006

(R)-Baclofen.pngChemSpider 2D Image | Arbaclofen | C10H12ClNO2

(R)-(–)-Baclofen, Arbaclofen, STX 209, AGI 006

Chemical Names: (R)-Baclofen; Arbaclofen; 69308-37-8; (R)-4-Amino-3-(4-chlorophenyl)butanoic acid; (-)-Baclofen; D-Baclofen
Molecular Formula: C10H12ClNO2
Molecular Weight: 213.661 g/mol

 A GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID derivative that is a specific agonist of GABA-B RECEPTORS. It is used in the treatment of MUSCLE SPASTICITY, especially that due to SPINAL CORD INJURIES. Its therapeutic effects result from actions at spinal and supraspinal sites, generally the reduction of excitatory transmission.

(R)-4-Amino-3-(4-chlorophenyl)butanoic acid

Benzeneporopanoic acid, (beta-(aminomethyl)-4-chloro-, (betaR)-


  • Benzenepropanoic acid, β-(aminomethyl)-4-chloro-, (R)-
  • (βR)-β-(Aminomethyl)-4-chlorobenzenepropanoic acid
  • (-)-Baclofen
  • (R)-(-)-Baclofen
  • (R)-4-Amino-3-(4-chlorophenyl)butanoic acid
  • (R)-4-Amino-3-(4-chlorophenyl)butyric acid
  • (R)-Baclofen
  • AGI 006
  • Arbaclofen
  • D-Baclofen
  • R-(-)-Baclofen
  • STX 209
  • l-Baclofen

Optical Rotatory Power, -1.76 °, Conc: 0.5 g/100mL; Solv: water (7732-18-5); Wavlen: 589.3 nm; Temp: 25 °C, REF …..Paraskar, Abhimanyu S.; Tetrahedron 2006, VOL62(20), PG4907-4916

Melting Point 196-197 °C Solv: isopropanol (67-63-0)

REF…..Paraskar, Abhimanyu S.; Tetrahedron 2006, VOL62(20), PG4907-4916


Image result for (R)-(–)-Baclofen

Arbaclofen, or STX209, is the R-enantiomer of baclofen. It is believed to be a selective gamma-amino butyric acid type B receptor agonist, and has been investigated as a treatment for autism spectrum disorder and fragile X syndrome in randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trials. It has also been investigated as a treatment for spasticity due to multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury. Arbaclofen was investigated as a treatment for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD); however, with disappointing results.

AGI-006, a GABA(B) agonist, is currently in phase III clinical trials at Seaside Therapeutics for the treatment of social withdrawal in adolescents and adults with Fragile X Syndrome and for the treatment of autism spectrum disorders. AGI Therapeutics had been conducting clinical trials for the treatment of dyspepsia and for the treatment of delayed gastric emptying in diabetic patients; however, no recent development has been reported for this research. In 2015, Osmotica Pharmaceutical filed a NDA seeking approval of an extended-release formulation for the alleviation of spasticity due to multiple sclerosis.

AGI-006 is an oral formulation of arbaclofen, the R-isomer of baclofen. In 2012, a license option agreement was signed between Seaside and Roche by which the latter may commercialize the product upon completion of certain clinical development phases in fragile X syndrome and in autism spectrum disorders.

2D chemical structure of 1134-47-02D chemical structure of 1134-47-0Baclofen [USAN:USP:INN:BAN:JAN]

2D chemical structure of 28311-31-1Baclofen hydrochloride

2D chemical structure of 63701-55-3Arbaclofen hydrochloride

2D chemical structure of 63701-56-4(S)-Baclofen hydrochloride

2D chemical structure of 66514-99-6(S)-Baclofen

2D chemical structure of 1395997-58-6Acamprosate mixture with baclofen


Strategy for asymmetric synthesis of (R)-(-)-Baclofen is as represented in the Scheme 14. Herein, we made use of asymmetric Michael addition of nitromethane to 4- Chlorochalcone in the presence of Cu(acac)2 and (-)-Sparteine as a catalyst in DCM for 8 h to provide γ-nitro ketone as colorless solid, mp 105-109°C, in 87% yield with 82% ee. The Michael adduct 3d on Baeyer-Villiger reaction using m-CPBA to produce corresponding nitro ester 6a. The reduction of 6a containing nitro group can be reduced with sodium borohydride in presence of NiCl2. It resulted to generate 7 cyclic pyrrolidine moiety in 65% yield. Which upon hydrolysis with HCl will lead to (R)-(-)- Baclofen 8 as a neurotransmitter inhibitor drug molecule

(R)-4-amino-3-(4-chlorophenyl)butanoic acid hydrochloride (8) The solution of 7 (100 mg, 0.51 mmol) in 6N HCl (2.7 mL) was refluxed at 100 °C. After 24 h, the reaction mixture was concentrated in vacuo to afford (R)-(–)- Baclofen 8 as colorless solid 93 mg, in 73% yield. Yield : 73% State : Solid. M.P. : 188-189 °C [a]D 25 : –3.4o (c = 0.65, H2O), lit.7 –3.79o (c = 0.65, H2O, 99 % ee) 1 H-NMR (300MHz, D2O) : δ. 7.36-7.49 (m, 4H) 3.50-3.37 (m, 2H), 2.30-3.22 (m, 1H), 2.71-2.92 (dd, 2H,) J = 9.5, 16.5 Hz).ppm 13C-NMR (75MHz, D2O) : δ. 175.46, 138.28, 136.95, 133.32, 129.32, 128.25, 127.81, 43.75, 39.91, 38.18.

7. Corey, E. J; Zhang, F. Y. Org. Lett. 2000, 2, 4257-4259

16. a) Thakur, V. V.; Nikalje, M. D.; Sudalai, A. Tetrahedron Asymmetry 2003, 14, 581. b) Chenevert R.; Desjardins, M.; Tetrahedron Lett. 1991, 32, 4249. c) Herdeis, C.; Hubmann, H. P. Tetrahedron Asymmetry 1992, 3, 1213. d) Meyers, A. I.; Snyder, L. J. Org. Chem. 1993, 58, 36.

clip 2

Yoshiji Takemoto (2005)6 Yoshiji Takemoto et al. have developed chiral thiourea catalyst 15 which was found to be highly efficient for the asymmetric Michael addition of 1,3-dicarbonyl compound to nitroolefins. Furthermore, a new synthetic route for (R)-(-)-Baclofen 14 and the generation of a chiral quaternary carbon center with high enantioselectivity by Michael reaction were developed (Scheme 6)

6. Okino, T.; Hoashi, Y.; Xuenong Xu,; Takemoto, Y.. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 119.


Enantio- and Diastereoselective Michael Reaction of 1,3-Dicarbonyl Compounds to Nitroolefins Catalyzed by a Bifunctional Thiourea

Contribution from the Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Yoshida, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan
J. Am. Chem. Soc.2005127 (1), pp 119–125
DOI: 10.1021/ja044370p
Publication Date (Web): December 3, 2004
Copyright © 2005 American Chemical Society


Abstract Image

We synthesized a new class of bifunctional catalysts bearing a thiourea moiety and an amino group on a chiral scaffold. Among them, thiourea 1e bearing 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)benzene and dimethylamino groups was revealed to be highly efficient for the asymmetric Michael reaction of 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds to nitroolefins. Furthermore, we have developed a new synthetic route for (R)-(−)-baclofen and a chiral quaternary carbon center with high enantioselectivity by Michael reaction. In these reactions, we assumed that a thiourea moiety and an amino group of the catalyst activates a nitroolefin and a 1,3-dicarbonyl compound, respectively, to afford the Michael adduct with high enantio- and diastereoselectivity.

Synthesis of (R)()-Baclofen. γ-Amino butylic acid (GABA) plays an important role as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS) of mammalians,20,21 and the deficiency of GABA is associated with diseases that exhibit neuromuscular dysfunctions such as epilespy, Huntington’s and Parkinson’s diseases, etc.22 Baclofen is a lipophilic analogue of GABA, and it is widely used as an antispastic agent. Although baclofen is commercialized in its racemic form, it has been reported that its biological activity resides exlusively in the (R)-enantiomer.23 We next applied our enantioselective Michael reaction for the synthesis of (R)-(−)-baclofen (Scheme 1). The reaction of 4-chlorobenzaldehyde with nitromethane and subsequent dehydration of the resultant alcohol provided nitroolefin 9, which was reacted with diethyl malonate 3a in the presence of 10 mol % of 1e to afford the adduct 10 in 80% yield with 94% ee. Furthermore, enantiomerically pure 10 (>99% ee) was obtained after single recrystallization from Hexane/EtOAc. Reduction of the nitro group with nickel borite and in situ lactonization gave lactone 11 in 94%. The ester group of 11 was hydrolyzed and decarboxylated to afford 12. The specific rotation of 12 was compared with that of literature data24 ([α]30D −39.7° (c 1.00, EtOH), lit. [α]25D −39.0° (c 1, EtOH)), and, as expected, the absolute configuration of 12 was determined to be R. Lactam 12 was finally hydrolyzed with 6N HCl, affording enantiomerically pure (R)-(−)-baclofen as its hydrochloric salt with 38% overall yield in six steps from 4-chlorobenzaldehyde. Consequently, we succeeded in the synthesis of (R)-(−)-baclofen by the simple procedure with high enantioselctivity.


Scheme 1.  Total Synthesis of (R)-(−)-Baclofena

a Conditions:  (a) MeNO2, NaOMe, MeOH, room temperature, 15 h; (b) MsCl, TEA, THF, room temperature, 1 h; (c) diethyl malonate, 1e, toluene, room temperature, 24 h; (d) NiCl2·6H2O, NaBH4, MeOH, room temperature, 7.5 h; (e) NaOH, EtOH, room temperature, 45 h; (f) toluene, reflux, 6.5 h; (g) 6N HCl, reflux, 24 h.

Total synthesis of (R)-(–)-baclofen. 9: The mixture of 4-chlorobenzaldehyde (1.41 g, 10 mmol), nitromethane (10 equiv, 5.4 ml) and NaOMe (0.10 equiv, 54.0 mg) in MeOH (10 ml) was stirred overnight. Saturated ammonium chloride was added to the mixture and aqueous phase was extracted with AcOEt. The extract was washed with brine, dried over MgSO4, filtrated and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified by by column chromatography on silica gel (Hexane/AcOEt = 3/1 as eluent) to afford desired nitroalcohol 8 (1.82 g, 90%). To the stirred solution of the obtained nitroalcohol 8 and MsCl (1.2 equiv, 0.84 ml) in THF (9.0 ml) was added TEA (2.1 equiv, 2.7 ml) dropwise at 0 °C. After 1 h, saturated ammonium chloride was added to the reaction mixture and aqueous phase was extracted with AcOEt. The extract was washed with 1N HCl (two times), saturated NaHCO3 and brine, dried over MgSO4, filtrated and concentrated in vacuo. The residual solid was purified by recrystallization from AcOEt/Hexane to afford the desired nitroolefin 9 (1.20 g, 72%). yellow needle; m.p. 112 °C (AcOEt/Hexane); 1 H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.97 (d, J = 13.7 Hz, 1H), 7.57 (d, J = 13.7 Hz, 1H), 7.50 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 2H), 7.44 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 2H) ppm; 13 C NMR (126 MHz, CDCl3) δ 138.4, 137.7, 137.5, 130.3, 129.8, 128.6 ppm; IR (CHCl3) ν 3113, 3029, 1637, 1594, 1525, 1494 cm-1 ; MS (EI + ) 183 (M+ , 51), 101 (100); Anal. Calcd. for C8H6ClNO2: C 52.34; H, 3.29; N, 7.63; Cl, 19.31. Found: C, 52.35; H, 3.40; N, 7.67; Cl, 19.24. 10: Under argon atmosphere, to the stirred solution of p-chloro-β-nitrostylene 9 (36.7 mg, 0.20 mmol) and thiourea (0.10 equiv, 8.3 mg) in toluene (0.40 ml) was added diethylmalonate (2 equiv, 0.060 ml) at rt. After 24 h, the reaction mixture was concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified by column chromatography on silica gel (AcOEt/hexane = 1/5 as eluent) to afford desired product 10 (55.3 mg, 80%) as colorless solid. Enantiomerically pure 10 (>99% ee) was obtained after single recrystallization from Hexane/AcOEt. m.p. 56-57 °C (Hexane/AcOEt); [α]D 25 –8.56 (c 1.02, CHCl3, >99% ee); 1 H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.30 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 2H), 7.19 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 2H), 4.91 (dd, J = 4.6, 13.1 Hz, 1H), 4.83 (dd, J = 9.5, 13.1 Hz, 1H), 4.23 (m, 3H), 4.04 (q, J = 7.22 Hz, 2H), 3.78 (d, J = 9.5 Hz, 1H), 1.27 (t, J = 7.2 Hz, 3H), 1.09 (t, J = 7.0 Hz, 3H); 13 C NMR (126 MHz, CDCl3) δ 167.4, 166.8, 134.9, 134.5, 129.6, 129.3, 77.5, 62.3, 62.1, 54.8, 42.4, 14.0, 13.8 ppm; IR (CHCl3) ν 3031, 2994, 1733, 1558, 1494, 1374 cm-1 ; MS (FAB+ ) 344 (MH+ , 100); Anal. Calcd for C15H18ClNO6: C, 52.42, H, 5.28, N, 4.07, Cl, 10.31; Found: C, 52.52, H, 5.21, N, 4.07, Cl, 10.25; HPLC [Chiralcel OD-H, hexane/2-propannol = 90/10, 0.5 mL/min, λ = 210 nm, retention times: (major) 28.3 min, (minor) 25.1 min]. 11: Under argon atmosphere, to the suspension of 10 (550 mg, 1.60 mmol, >99% ee) and NiCl2· 6H2O (1.0 equiv, 380 mg) in MeOH (8.0 ml) was added NaBH4 (12 equiv, 726 mg) at 0 °C. After the reaction mixture was stirred 7.5 h at rt, the reaction mixture was quenched with NH4Cl and diluted with CHCl3. The organic layer was separated and dried over MgSO4, filtrated and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified by column chromatography on silica gel (MeOH/CHCl3 = 1/20 as eluent) to afford desired product (402 mg, 94%) as colorless powder. m.p. 126-128 °C (Hexane/AcOEt); [α]D 26 –123.4 (c 0.96, CHCl3); 1 H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.31 (m, 2H), 7.20 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 2H), 7.12 (s, 1H), 4.24 (q, J = 7.0 Hz, 1H), 4.09 (m, 1H), 3.81 (m, 2H), 3.54 (m, 1H), 3.41 (m, 1H), 1.28 (t, J = 6.9 Hz, 3H); 13 C NMR (126 MHz, CDCl3) δ 172.5, 169.0, 138.3, 133.5, 129.2, 128.4, 61.9, 55.2, 47.5, 43.7, 14.1 ppm; IR (CHCl3) ν 3435, 3229, 3017, 2360, 1710, 1493 cm-1 ; MS (FAB+ ) 268 (MH+ , 100); Anal. Calcd for C13H14ClNO3: C, 58.32, H, 5.27, N, 5.23, Cl, 13.24; Found: C, 58.10, H, 5.15, N, 5.43, Cl, 13.13. 12 : To the solution of 11 (240mg, 0.90 mmol) in EtOH (3.6 ml) was added 1N NaOH (1.1 ml) at rt. After 30 min, the reaction mixture was concerned in vacuo. To the residue was added H2O and 5N HCl, and the aqueous phase was extracted with CHCl3. The extract was dried over MgSO4, filtrated andconcentrated in vacuo to afford corresponding carboxylic acid (194 mg, 90%). The solution of carboxylic acid (194 mg, 0.81 mmol) in toluene (11 ml) was refluxed at 140 °C. After 6 h, the mixture was concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified by column chromatography on silica gel (MeOH/ CHCl3 = 1/7) to afford desired product 12 (148 mg, 93%) as colorless needle. m.p. 109-111 °C (Hexane/AcOEt); [α]D 30 –39.7 (c 1.00, CHCl3); 1 H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.32 (d, J = 7.9 Hz, 2H), 7.19 (t, J = 8.2 Hz, 2H), 6.15 (s, 1H), 3.79 (t, J = 8.9 Hz, 1H), 3.68 (m, 1H), 3.38 (t, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 2.74 (dd, J = 9.0, 16.9 Hz, 1H), 2.45 (dd, J = 8.6, 16.8 Hz, 1H); 13 C NMR (126 MHz, CDCl3) δ 177.5, 140.7, 132.9, 129.0, 128.1, 49.3, 39.6, 37.8 ppm; IR (CHCl3) ν 3439, 3006, 2361, 1699, 1494 cm-1 ; MS (FAB+ ) 196 (MH+ , 100); Anal. Calcd for C10H10ClNO: C, 61.39, H, 5.15, N, 7.16, Cl, 18.12; Found: C, 61.50, H, 5.21, N, 7.25, Cl, 17.98. (R)-(–)-baclofen : The solution of 12 (107 mg, 0.55 mmol) in 6N HCl (2.7 ml) was refluxed at 100 °C. After 24 h, the reaction mixture was concentrated in vacuo to afford (R)-(–)-baclofen (129 mg, 94%) as colorless solid. m.p. 188-189 °C (exane/i-PrOH); [α]D 25 –3.79 (c 0.65, H2O); 1 H NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 12.26 (s, 1H), 8.13 (s, 3H), 7.35 (m, 4H), 3.09 (m, 1H), 2.94 (m, 1H), 2.85 (dd, J = 5.5, 16.2 Hz, 1H), 2.56 (dd, J = 9.5, 16.5 Hz, 1H); 13 C NMR (126 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 172.5, 139.5, 131.9, 130.0, 128.7, 128.6, 128.0, 43.1, 39.1, 37.8 ppm; MS (FAB+ ) 214 (MH+ , 100); HRMS (FAB+ ) Calcd for [C10H13ClNO2] + : 214.0635; Found: 214.0637.

Image result for baclofen synthesis

Image result for baclofen synthesis

Image result for baclofen synthesisThe thiourea catalyst L7 bearing 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl) benzene and dimethylamino groups has been revealed to be efficient for the asymmetric Michael reaction of 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds to nitroolefins (Scheme 8). This methodology has been applied for the total synthesis of (R)-(−)-baclofen. Reaction of 4-chloronitrostyrene and 1,3-dicarbonyl compound generates quaternary carbon center with 94% ee. Reduction of the nitro gruop to amine and subsequent cyclization, esterification and ring opening provides ( R )-(−)-baclofen in 38% yield.

Image result for baclofen synthesis!divAbstract

Image result for baclofen synthesis!divAbstract

Image result for baclofen synthesis

Image result for baclofen synthesis


Highly enantioselective biotransformations of 2-aryl-4-pentenenitriles, a novel chemoenzymatic approach to (R)-(-)-baclofen
Tetrahedron Lett 2002, 43(37): 6617

Enantioselective Michael addition of nitromethane to alpha,beta-enones catalyzed by chiral quaternary ammoniun salts. A simple synthesis of (R)-baclofen
Org Lett 2000, 2(26): 4257

Stereospecific synthesis of (R)- and (S)-baclofen and (R)- and (S)-PCPGABA [4-amino-2-(4chlorophenyl)butyric Acid] via (R)- and (S)-3-(4-Chlorophenyl)pyrrolidines
Chem Pharm Bull 1995, 43(8): 1302

Enantioselective syntheses of (-)-(R)-rolipram, (-)-(R)-baclofen and other GABA analogues via rhodium-catalyzed conjugate addition of arylboronic acids
Synthesis (Stuttgart) 2003, (18): 2805

Palladium-catalyzed, asymmetric Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of prochiral cyclobutanones with PHOX ligands
Tetrahedron 2011, 67(24): 4352

An efficient synthesis of (R)- and (S)-baclofen via desymmetrization
Tetrahedron Lett 2009, 50(45): 6166

Recoverable resin-supported pyridylamide ligand for microwave-accelerated molybdenum-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylations: Enantioselective synthesis of baclofen
Org Lett 2003, 5(13): 2275

Asymmetric synthesis of ß-substituted ?-lactams via rhodium/diene-catalyzed 1,4-additions: Application to the synthesis of (R)-baclofen and (R)-rolipram
Org Lett 2011, 13(4): 788

Multisite organic-inorganic hybrid catalysts for the direct sustainable synthesis of GABAergic drugs
Angew Chem Int Ed 2014, 53(33): 8687


Image result for baclofen synthesis

Image result for baclofen synthesis

Image result for baclofen synthesis

Image result for baclofen synthesis

Image result for baclofen synthesis

(±)-Baclofen, hydrochloride (2)

A mixture of 4-(4-Chlorophenyl) pyrrolidin-2-one 15 (0.070 g, 0.35 mmol) in HCl aqueous solution (6 mol L-1, 1.5 cm3) was heated at 100 °C for 6 h. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure and the residue was triturated in isopropanol yielding a crystalline (±)-baclofen hydrochloride 2 (0.071 g, 82%).; IR nmax/cm -1: 3415, 3006, 1713, 1562, 1492, 1407, 1251, 1186, 815 cm-1 (KBr, neat); 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3d 2.55 (dd, J 16.5 and 8.7 Hz, 1 H); 2.82 (dd, J 16.5 and 5.7 Hz, 1 H); 2.93-3.50 (m, 3 H); 7.34 (d, J 8.7 Hz, 2 H), 7.40 (d, J 8.7 Hz, 2 H), 7.94 (bs, 3H, NH3+), 12.23 (bs, 1 H, COOH), 13C NMR (CDCl3, 75 MHz) d 37.94, 39.70, 43.28, 128.89, 130.27, 132.20, 139.56, 172.71.

Title: Baclofen
CAS Registry Number: 1134-47-0
CAS Name: b-(Aminomethyl)-4-chlorobenzenepropanoic acid
Additional Names: b-(aminomethyl)-p-chlorohydrocinnamic acid; g-amino-b-(p-chlorophenyl)butyric acid; b-(4-chlorophenyl)GABA
Manufacturers’ Codes: Ba-34647
Trademarks: Baclon (Leiras); Clofen (Alphapharm); Lioresal (Novartis)
Molecular Formula: C10H12ClNO2
Molecular Weight: 213.66
Percent Composition: C 56.21%, H 5.66%, Cl 16.59%, N 6.56%, O 14.98%
Literature References: Specific GABA-B receptor agonist. Prepn: NL 6407755; H. Keberle et al., US 3471548 (1965, 1969 both to Ciba). Toxicity study: T. Tadokoro et al., Osaka Daigaku Igaku Zasshi 28, 265 (1976), C.A. 88, 183016u (1978). Comprehensive description: S. Ahuja, Anal. Profiles Drug Subs. 14, 527-548 (1985). Review of pharmacology and therapeutic efficacy in spasticity: R. N. Brogden et al., Drugs 8, 1-14 (1974); of intrathecal use in spinal cord injury: K. S. Lewis, W. M. Mueller, Ann. Pharmacother.27, 767-774 (1993). Clinical evaluation in reflex sympathetic dystrophy: B. J. van Hilten et al., N. Engl. J. Med. 343, 625 (2000).
Properties: Crystals from water, mp 206-208° (Keberle); 189-191°, (Uchimaru). LD50 in male mice, rats (mg/kg): 45, 78 i.v.; 103, 115 s.c.; 200, 145 orally (Tadokoro).
Melting point: mp 206-208° (Keberle); 189-191°, (Uchimaru)
Toxicity data: LD50 in male mice, rats (mg/kg): 45, 78 i.v.; 103, 115 s.c.; 200, 145 orally (Tadokoro)
Derivative Type: Hydrochloride
Molecular Formula: C10H13Cl2NO2
Molecular Weight: 250.12
Percent Composition: C 48.02%, H 5.24%, Cl 28.35%, N 5.60%, O 12.79%
Properties: mp 179-181°.
Melting point: mp 179-181°
Therap-Cat: Muscle relaxant (skeletal).
Keywords: Muscle Relaxant (Skeletal).

/////////////////(R)-(–)-Baclofen, Arbaclofen, STX 209, AGI 006, Spasticity,  PREREGISTERD, OSMOTICA PHARMA



FDA approves CAR-T cell therapy Yescarta (axicabtagene ciloleucel) to treat adults with certain types of large B-cell lymphoma

FDA approves CAR-T cell therapy to treat adults with certain types of large B-cell lymphoma

Yescarta is the second gene therapy product approval in the U.S.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Yescarta (axicabtagene ciloleucel), a cell-based gene therapy, to treat adult patients with certain types of large B-cell lymphoma who have not responded to or who have relapsed after at least two other kinds of treatment. Yescarta, a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy, is the second gene therapy approved by the FDA and the first for certain types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Continue reading.

/////////FDA, CAR-T cell therapy,  large B-cell lymphoma, fda 2017, Yescarta, axicabtagene ciloleucel,

Hyderabad. India to Host Industrial Organic Chemistry Workshops in February 2018


Dr Will Watson, an expert in Chemical Development and related fields, from Scientific Update will be visiting India in February to deliver two important workshops for Industrial Process Chemists:

Chemical Development and Scale Up in the Fine Chemical and Pharmaceutical Industries, February 5th – 7th 2018, Hyderabad, India

Practical Crystallisation & Polymorphism, February 8th & 9th 2018, Hyderabad, India

Discounts are available for groups – please contact for more information.

(+)-(S,S)-Reboxetine succinate, Esreboxetine succinate

Image result for (S,S)-Reboxetine succinateimg

Esreboxetine succinate


(2S)-2-[(S)-(2-ethoxyphenoxy)(phenyl)methyl]morpholine butanedioate (1:1)
(2S)-2-[(S)-(2-Ethoxyphenoxy)(phenyl)methyl]morpholine succinate (1:1)
(S,S)-reboxetine succinate
635724-55-9 [RN]
Esreboxetine succinate [USAN]
Morpholine, 2-[(S)-(2-ethoxyphenoxy)phenylmethyl]-, (2S)-, butanedioate (1:1)
Succinic acid – (2S)-2-[(S)-(2-ethoxyphenoxy)(phenyl)methyl]morpholine (1:1)

Esreboxetine is a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor which was under development by Pfizer for the treatment of neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia but failed to show significant benefit over currently available medications and was discontinued.[1][2][3][4] It is the (S,S)-(+)-enantiomer of reboxetine and is even more selective in comparison.[1][5]

However, recently it has been shown that esreboxetine could be effective in fibromyalgia patients.[6]


Reboxetine mesylate (1) and succinate (2).

Image result for (S,S)-Reboxetine succinate

Image result for (S,S)-Reboxetine succinate


The synthesis of (±)-reboxetine mesylate,4 the Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) for Edronax™.

Scheme 1 The synthesis of (±)-reboxetine mesylate,4 the Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) for Edronax™.


The conversion of (±)-reboxetine mesylate to (S,S)-reboxetine succinate.
Scheme 2 The conversion of (±)-reboxetine mesylate to (S,S)-reboxetine succinate.


The Pfizer early resolution route to (S,S)-reboxetine succinate.
Scheme 3 The Pfizer early resolution route to (S,S)-reboxetine succinate.

The Pfizer asymmetric synthesis for (S,S)-reboxetine intended for commercialisation.

Scheme 4 The Pfizer asymmetric synthesis for (S,S)-reboxetine intended for commercialisation.


(S,S)-Reboxetine succinate (3) (Figure 1) has been under late-stage development at Pfizer for the medication of neuropathic and fibromyalgia pain.(16)

16.(a) HughesB.McKenzieI.StokerM. J. WO2006/000903, May 1, 2006.

(b) AllenA. J.Hemrick-LueckeS.SumnerC. R.WallaceO. B. WO2005/060949, July 7, 2005.

(c) KelseyD. K. WO2005/021095, Oct 3, 2005.

(d) AllenA. J.KelseyD. K. WO 2005/020976, Oct 3, 2005.

(e) SumnerC. R. WO2005/020975, Oct 3, 2005.

(f) HassanF. WO2004/016272, Feb 26, 2004.

(g) WongE. H. F. WO2004/002463, Jan 8, 2004.


Process Development for (S,S)-Reboxetine Succinate via a Sharpless Asymmetric Epoxidation

Pfizer Global Research and Development, 2800 Plymouth Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105, U.S.A.
Org. Process Res. Dev.200711 (3), pp 354–358
DOI: 10.1021/op700007g
Publication Date (Web): March 23, 2007
Copyright © 2007 American Chemical Society


Abstract Image

Reboxetine mesylate is a selective norepinephrine uptake inhibitor (NRI) currently marketed as the racemate. The (S,S)-enantiomer of reboxetine is being evaluated for the treatment of neuropathic pain and a variety of other indications. (S,S)-Reboxetine has usually been prepared by resolution of the racemate as the (−)-mandelate salt, an inherently inefficient process. A chiral synthesis starting with a Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation of cinnamyl alcohol to yield (R,R)-phenylglycidol was developed. (R,R)-Phenylglycidol was reacted without isolation with 2-ethoxyphenol to give 4, which was isolated by direct crystallization. Key process variables for the asymmetric epoxidation were investigated. Conversion of (R,S)-4 to reboxetine parallels the racemic synthesis with streamlined and optimized processing conditions. (S,S)-Reboxetine free base was converted directly to the succinate salt without isolation as the mesylate salt.

(2S,3S)-Reboxetine Succinate (9).

mp 145.2−147.1 °C (lit. mp 148 °C).8 1H NMR (400.13 MHz, CDCl3) δ 1.41 (t, J = 7.0 Hz, 3H), 2.4 (s, 4H), 2.9−3.06 (m, 2H), 3.15−3.22 (m, 2H), 3.81−3.86 (m, 1H), 4.02−4.09 (m, 3H), 4.17−4.24 (m, 1H), 5.13 (d, J = 4.3 Hz), 6.66−6.90 (m, 4H), 7.26−7.39 (m, 5H). 13C NMR (100.62 MHz, CDCl3) δ 15.08, 31.89, 43.24, 44.84, 64.72, 76.91, 82.91, 113.94, 118.27, 121.1, 127.38, 128.66, 136.94, 149.8, 178.73. LRMS-APCI m/z calcd for C19H23NO3 (M + H)+:  314. Found:  m/z = 314 [M + 1]+. Anal. Calcd for C19H23NO3−C4H6O4:  C, 64.02; H, 6.77; N, 3.25. Found:  C, 63.99; H, 6.77; N, 3.16. [α]32.4D +17.24° (c 0.5, EtOH).

8)Zampieri, M.; Airoldi, A.; Martini, A. WO2003/106441, 12/24/03.


Commercial Synthesis of (S,S)-Reboxetine Succinate: A Journey To Find the Cheapest Commercial Chemistry for Manufacture

Chemical Research and Development, Pfizer Inc., Sandwich Laboratories, Sandwich, Kent, CT13 9NJ, United Kingdom
Org. Process Res. Dev.201115 (6), pp 1305–1314
DOI: 10.1021/op200181f
Publication Date (Web): August 18, 2011
Copyright © 2011 American Chemical Society


Abstract Image

The development of a synthetic process for (S,S)-reboxetine succinate, a candidate for the treatment of fibromylagia, is disclosed from initial scale-up to deliver material for registrational stability testing through to commercial route evaluation and subsequent nomination. This entailed evaluation of several alternative routes to result in what would have been a commercially attractive process for launch of the compound.

(2S,3S)-2-[α-(2-Ethoxyphenoxy)benzyl]morpholine Succinate Salt (S,S)-Reboxetine Succinate

 (S,S)-reboxetine succinate (897 g, 82%) as a white solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, d6-DMSO) δ 7.22–7.54 (m, 5H), 6.66–6.96 (m, 4H), 5.27 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 1H), 4.01 (q, J = 7.1 Hz, 2H), 3.83 (m, 2H), 3.50 (m, 2H), 2.61–2.82 (m, 3H), 2.34 (br s, 4H), 1.33 (t, J = 7.1 Hz, 3H). 13C NMR (100 MHz, d6-DMSO) δ 174.4, 149.0, 147.3, 137.8, 128.2, 127.3, 120.7, 116.7, 114.4, 80.8, 77.5, 65.9, 64.1, 45.8, 44.1, 39.7, 39.


  1. Jump up to:a b Matilda Bingham; Napier, Susan Jolliffe (2009). Transporters as Targets for Drugs (Topics in Medicinal Chemistry). Berlin: Springer. ISBN 3-540-87911-0.
  2. Jump up^ Rao SG (October 2009). “Current progress in the pharmacological therapy of fibromyalgia”Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs18 (10): 1479–93. PMID 19732029doi:10.1517/13543780903203771.
  3. Jump up^ “Search of: esreboxetine – List Results –”.
  4. Jump up^ “Musculoskeletal Report: Pfizer Stops Work on Esreboxetine for FM”.
  5. Jump up^ Fish, P. V.; MacKenny, M.; Bish, G.; Buxton, T.; Cave, R.; Drouard, D.; Hoople, D.; Jessiman, A.; Miller, D.; Pasquinet, C.; Patel, B.; Reeves, K.; Ryckmans, T.; Skerten, M.; Wakenhut, F. (2009). “Enantioselective synthesis of (R)- and (S)-N-Boc-morpholine-2-carboxylic acids by enzyme-catalyzed kinetic resolution: application to the synthesis of reboxetine analogs”. Tetrahedron Letters50 (4): 389. doi:10.1016/j.tetlet.2008.11.025.
  6. Jump up^ Arnold, L. M., Hirsch, I., Sanders, P., Ellis, A. and Hughes, B. (2012), Safety and efficacy of esreboxetine in patients with fibromyalgia: A fourteen-week, randomized, 


1: Fujimori I, Yukawa T, Kamei T, Nakada Y, Sakauchi N, Yamada M, Ohba Y, Takiguchi M, Kuno M, Kamo I, Nakagawa H, Hamada T, Igari T, Okuda T, Yamamoto S, Tsukamoto T, Ishichi Y, Ueno H. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of a novel series of peripheral-selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor. Bioorg Med Chem. 2015 Aug 1;23(15):5000-14. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2015.05.017. Epub 2015 May 15. PubMed PMID: 26051602.

2: Shen F, Tsuruda PR, Smith JA, Obedencio GP, Martin WJ. Relative contributions of norepinephrine and serotonin transporters to antinociceptive synergy between monoamine reuptake inhibitors and morphine in the rat formalin model. PLoS One. 2013 Sep 30;8(9):e74891. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0074891. eCollection 2013. PubMed PMID: 24098676; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3787017.

3: Arnold LM, Hirsch I, Sanders P, Ellis A, Hughes B. Safety and efficacy of esreboxetine in patients with fibromyalgia: a fourteen-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial. Arthritis Rheum. 2012 Jul;64(7):2387-97. doi: 10.1002/art.34390. PubMed PMID: 22275142.

4: Arnold LM, Chatamra K, Hirsch I, Stoker M. Safety and efficacy of esreboxetine in patients with fibromyalgia: An 8-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Clin Ther. 2010 Aug;32(9):1618-32. doi: 10.1016/j.clinthera.2010.08.003. PubMed PMID: 20974319.

5: Klarskov N, Scholfield D, Soma K, Darekar A, Mills I, Lose G. Measurement of urethral closure function in women with stress urinary incontinence. J Urol. 2009 Jun;181(6):2628-33; discussion 2633. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2009.01.114. Epub 2009 Apr 16. PubMed PMID: 19375093.

Clinical data
Routes of
ATC code
  • None
Legal status
Legal status
  • In general: uncontrolled
CAS Number
PubChem CID
Chemical and physical data
Formula C19H23NO3
Molar mass 313.391 g/mol
3D model (JSmol)

////////////(+)-(S,S)-Reboxetine, (S,S)-Reboxetine, Reboxetine, Esreboxetine succinate


ESCITALOPRAM, S-(+)-Citalopram, эсциталопрам , إيسكيتالوبرام , 艾司西酞普兰 ,

ChemSpider 2D Image | Escitalopram | C20H21FN2OImage result for ESCITALOPRAM
(1S)-1-[3-(Dimethylamino)propyl]-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-carbonitrile [ACD/IUPAC Name]
128196-01-0 [RN]
5-Isobenzofurancarbonitrile, 1-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-, (1S)- [ACD/Index Name]
  • Molecular FormulaC20H21FN2O
  • Average mass324.392 Da
  • S-(+)-Citalopram
    эсциталопрам [Russian] [INN]
    إيسكيتالوبرام [Arabic] [INN]
    艾司西酞普兰 [Chinese] [INN]

Image result for ESCITALOPRAM

Lexapro® (escitalopram oxalate) is an orally administered selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). Escitalopram is the pure Senantiomer (single isomer) of the racemic bicyclic phthalane derivative citalopram. Escitalopram oxalate is designated S-(+)-1-[3(dimethyl-amino)propyl]-1-(p-fluorophenyl)-5-phthalancarbonitrile oxalate with the following structural formula:


Lexapro® (escitalopram oxalate) Structural Formual Illustration

The molecular formula is C20H21FN2O • C2H2O4 and the molecular weight is 414.40.

Escitalopram oxalate occurs as a fine, white to slightly-yellow powder and is freely soluble in methanol and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), soluble in isotonic saline solution, sparingly soluble in water and ethanol, slightly soluble in ethyl acetate, and insoluble in heptane.

Lexapro (escitalopram oxalate) is available as tablets or as an oral solution.

Lexapro tablets are film-coated, round tablets containing escitalopram oxalate in strengths equivalent to 5 mg, 10 mg, and 20 mg escitalopram base. The 10 and 20 mg tablets are scored. The tablets also contain the following inactive ingredients: talc, croscarmellose sodium, microcrystalline cellulose/colloidal silicon dioxide, and magnesium stearate. The film coating contains hypromellose, titanium dioxide, and polyethylene glycol.

Lexapro oral solution contains escitalopram oxalate equivalent to 1 mg/mL escitalopram base. It also contains the following inactive ingredients: sorbitol, purified water, citric acid, sodium citrate, malic acid, glycerin, propylene glycol, methylparaben, propylparaben, and natural peppermint flavor.

Escitalopram, also known by the brand names Lexapro and Cipralex among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class. It is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of adults and children over 12 years of age with major depressive disorder (MDD) or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Escitalopram is the (S)-stereoisomer(Left-enantiomer) of the earlier Lundbeck drug citalopram, hence the name escitalopram. Whether escitalopram exhibits superior therapeutic properties to citalopram or merely represents an example of “evergreening” is controversial.[2]

Medical uses

Escitalopram has FDA approval for the treatment of major depressive disorder in adolescents and adults, and generalized anxiety disorder in adults.[3] In European countries and Australia, it is approved for depression (MDD) and certain anxiety disorders: general anxiety disorder (GAD), social anxiety disorder (SAD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and panic disorder with or without agoraphobia.


Escitalopram was approved by regulatory authorities for the treatment of major depressive disorder on the basis of four placebo controlled, double-blind trials, three of which demonstrated a statistical superiority over placebo.[4]

Controversy exists regarding the effectiveness of escitalopram compared to its predecessor citalopram. The importance of this issue follows from the greater cost of escitalopram relative to the generic mixture of isomers citalopram prior to the expiration of the escitalopram patent in 2012, which led to charges of evergreening. Accordingly, this issue has been examined in at least 10 different systematic reviews and meta analyses. The most recent of these have concluded (with caveats in some cases) that escitalopram is modestly superior to citalopram in efficacy and tolerability.[5][6][7][8]

In contrast to these findings, a 2011 review concluded that all second-generation antidepressants are equally effective,[9] and treatment guidelines issued by the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence and by the American Psychiatric Association generally reflect this viewpoint.[10][11]

Anxiety disorder

Escitalopram appears to be effective in treating general anxiety disorder, with relapse on escitalopram (20%) less than placebo (50%).[12]


Escitalopram as well as other SSRIs are effective in reducing the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome, whether taken in the luteal phase only or continuously.[13] There is no good data available for escitalopram for seasonal affective disorder as of 2011.[14] SSRIs do not appear to be useful for preventing tension headaches or migraines.[15][16]

Adverse effects

Escitalopram, like other SSRIs, has been shown to affect sexual functions causing side effects such as decreased libidodelayed ejaculation, genital anesthesia,[17] and anorgasmia.[18][19]

An analysis conducted by the FDA found a statistically insignificant 1.5 to 2.4-fold (depending on the statistical technique used) increase of suicidality among the adults treated with escitalopram for psychiatric indications.[20][21][22] The authors of a related study note the general problem with statistical approaches: due to the rarity of suicidal events in clinical trials, it is hard to draw firm conclusions with a sample smaller than two million patients.[23]

Escitalopram is not associated with significant weight gain. For example, 0.6 kg mean weight change after 6 months of treatment with escitalopram for depression was insignificant and similar to that with placebo (0.2 kg).[24] 1.4–1.8 kg mean weight gain was reported in 8-month trials of escitalopram for depression,[25] and generalized anxiety disorder.[26] A 52-week trial of escitalopram for the long-term treatment of depression in elderly also found insignificant 0.6 kg mean weight gain.[27] Escitalopram may help reduce weight in those treated for binge eating associated obesity.[28]

Citalopram and escitalopram are associated with dose-dependent QT interval prolongation[29] and should not be used in those with congenital long QT syndrome or known pre-existing QT interval prolongation, or in combination with other medicines that prolong the QT interval. ECG measurements should be considered for patients with cardiac disease, and electrolyte disturbances should be corrected before starting treatment. In December 2011, the UK implemented new restrictions on the maximum daily doses.[30][31] The U.S. Food and Drug Administration and Health Canada did not similarly order restrictions on escitalopram dosage, only on its predecessor citalopram.[32]

Escitalopram should be taken with caution when using Saint John’s wort.[33] Exposure to escitalopram is increased moderately, by about 50%, when it is taken with omeprazole. The authors of this study suggested that this increase is unlikely to be of clinical concern.[34] Caution should be used when taking cough medicine containing dextromethorphan (DXM) as serotonin syndrome, liver damage, and other negative side effects have been reported.

Discontinuation symptoms

Escitalopram discontinuation, particularly abruptly, may cause certain withdrawal symptoms such as “electric shock” sensations[35] (also known as “brain shivers” or “brain zaps”), dizziness, acute depressions and irritability, as well as heightened senses of akathisia.[36]


There is a tentative association of SSRI use during pregnancy with heart problems in the baby.[37] Their use during pregnancy should thus be balanced against that of depression.[37]


Excessive doses of escitalopram usually cause relatively minor untoward effects such as agitation and tachycardia. However, dyskinesiahypertonia, and clonus may occur in some cases. Plasma escitalopram concentrations are usually in a range of 20–80 μg/L in therapeutic situations and may reach 80–200 μg/L in the elderly, patients with hepatic dysfunction, those who are poor CYP2C19 metabolizers or following acute overdose. Monitoring of the drug in plasma or serum is generally accomplished using chromatographic methods. Chiral techniques are available to distinguish escitalopram from its racemate, citalopram.[38][39][40] Escitalopram seems to be less dangerous than citalopram in overdose and comparable to other SSRIs.[41]


Mechanism of action

Binding profile[42]
Receptor Ki (nM)
SERT 2.5
NET 6,514
5-HT2C 2,531
α1 3,870
M1 1,242
H1 1,973

Escitalopram increases intrasynaptic levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin by blocking the reuptake of the neurotransmitter into the presynaptic neuron. Of the SSRIs currently on the market, escitalopram has the highest selectivity for the serotonin transporter (SERT) compared to the norepinephrine transporter (NET), making the side-effect profile relatively mild in comparison to less-selective SSRIs.[43] The opposite enantiomer, (R)-citalopram, counteracts to a certain degree the serotonin-enhancing action of escitalopram.[citation needed] As a result, escitalopram has been claimed to be a more potent antidepressant than the racemic mixture, citalopram, of the two enantiomers. In order to explain this phenomenon, researchers from Lundbeck proposed that escitalopram enhances its own binding via an additional interaction with another allosteric site on the transporter.[44] Further research by the same group showed that (R)-citalopram also enhances binding of escitalopram,[45] and therefore the allosteric interaction cannot explain the observed counteracting effect. In the most recent paper, however, the same authors again reversed their findings and reported that (R)-citalopram decreases binding of escitalopram to the transporter.[46] Although allosteric binding of escitalopram to the serotonin transporter is of unquestionable research interest, its clinical relevance is unclear since the binding of escitalopram to the allosteric site is at least 1000 times weaker than to the primary binding site.

Escitalopram is a substrate of P-glycoprotein and hence P-glycoprotein inhibitors such as verapamil and quinidine may improve its blood-brain penetrability.[47] In a preclinical study in rats combining escitalopram with a P-glycoprotein inhibitor enhanced its antidepressant-like effects.[47]


Escitalopram, similarly to other SSRIs (with the exception of fluvoxamine), inhibits CYP2D6 and hence may increase plasma levels of a number of CYP2D6 substrates such as aripiprazolerisperidonetramadolcodeine, etc. As much of the effect of codeine is attributable to its conversion (10%) to morphine its effectiveness will be reduced by this inhibition, not enhanced.[48] As escitalopram is only a weak inhibitor of CYP2D6, analgesia from tramadol may not be affected.[49] Escitalopram can also prolong the QT interval and hence it is not recommended in patients that are concurrently on other medications that have the ability to prolong the QT interval. Being a SSRI, escitalopram should not be given concurrently with MAOIs or other serotonergic medications.[43]


Cipralex brand escitalopram 10mg package and tablet sheet

Escitalopram was developed in close cooperation between Lundbeck and Forest Laboratories. Its development was initiated in the summer of 1997, and the resulting new drug application was submitted to the U.S. FDA in March 2001. The short time (3.5 years) it took to develop escitalopram can be attributed to the previous extensive experience of Lundbeck and Forest with citalopram, which has similar pharmacology.[50] The FDA issued the approval of escitalopram for major depression in August 2002 and for generalized anxiety disorder in December 2003. On May 23, 2006, the FDA approved a generic version of escitalopram by Teva.[51] On July 14 of that year, however, the U.S. District Court of Delaware decided in favor of Lundbeck regarding the patent infringement dispute and ruled the patent on escitalopram valid.[52]

In 2006 Forest Laboratories was granted an 828-day (2 years and 3 months) extension on its US patent for escitalopram.[53] This pushed the patent expiration date from December 7, 2009 to September 14, 2011. Together with the 6-month pediatric exclusivity, the final expiration date was March 14, 2012.

Society and culture

Allegations of illegal marketing

In 2004, two separate civil suits alleging illegal marketing of citalopram and escitalopram for use by children and teenagers by Forest were initiated by two whistleblowers, one by a practicing physician named Joseph Piacentile, and the other by a Forest salesman named Christopher Gobble.[54] In February 2009, these two suits received support from the US Attorney for Massachusetts and were combined into one. Eleven states and the District of Columbia have also filed notices of intention to intervene as plaintiffs in the action. The suits allege that Forest illegally engaged in off-label promoting of Lexapro for use in children, that the company hid the results of a study showing lack of effectiveness in children, and that the company paid kickbacks to doctors to induce them to prescribe Lexapro to children. It was also alleged that the company conducted so-called “seeding studies” that were, in reality, marketing efforts to promote the drug’s use by doctors.[55][56] Forest responded to these allegations that it “is committed to adhering to the highest ethical and legal standards, and off-label promotion and improper payments to medical providers have consistently been against Forest policy.”[57] In 2010 Forest Pharmaceuticals Inc., agreed to pay more than $313 million to settle the charges over Lexapro and two other drugs, Levothroid and Celexa.[58]

Brand names

Escitalopram is sold under many brand names worldwide such as Cipralex.[1]


The Grignard condensation of 5-cyanophthalide (I) with 4-fluorophenylmagnesium bromide (II) in THF gives 1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-hydroxy-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran-5-carbonitrile bromomagnesium salt (III), which slowly rearranges to the benzophenone (IV). A new Grignard condensation of (IV) with 3-(dimethylamino)propylmagnesium chloride (V) in THF affords the expected bis(magnesium) salt (VI), which is hydrolyzed with acetic acid to provide the diol (VII) as a racemic mixture. Selective esterification of the primary alcohol of (VII) with (+)-3,3,3-trifluoro-2-methoxy-2-phenylacetyl chloride (VIII) gives the monoester (IX) as a mixture of diastereomers. This mixture is separated by HPLC and the desired diastereomer (X) is treated with potassium tert-butoxide in toluene.

A new method for the preparation of citalopram has been developed: The chlorination of 1-oxo-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran-5-carboxylic acid (I) with refluxing SOCl2 gives the acyl chloride (II), which is condensed with 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (III) in THF yielding the corresponding amide (IV). The cyclization of (IV) by means of SOCl2 affords the oxazoline (V), which is treated with 4-fluorophenylmagnesium bromide (VI) in THF giving the benzophenone (VII). This compound (VII), without isolation, is treated with 3-(dimethylamino)propylmagnesium chloride (VIII) in the same solvent, providing the cabinol (IX), which is cyclized by means of methanesulfonyl chloride and Et3N in CH2Cl2 yielding the isobenzofuran (X). Finally, this compound is treated with POCl3 in refluxing pyridine to generate the 5-cyano substituent of citalopram.

The chlorination of 1-oxo-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran-5-carboxylic acid (XII) with refluxing SOCl2 gives the acyl chloride (XIII), which is condensed with 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (XIV) in THF to yield the corresponding amide (XV). The cyclization of (XV) by means of SOCl2 affords the oxazoline (XVI), which is treated with 4-fluorophenylmagnesium bromide (XVII) in THF to give the benzophenone (XVIII). This compound (XVIII), without isolation, is treated with 3-(dimethylamino)propylmagnesium chloride (XIX) in the same solvent to provide the carbinol (XX), which is submitted to optical resolution with (+)- or (-)-tartaric acid, or (+)- or (-)-camphor-10-sulfonic acid (CSA) to give the desired (S)-enantiomer (XXI). Cyclization of (XXI) by means of methanesulfonyl chloride and TEA in dichloromethane yields the chiral isobenzofuran (XXII), which is finally treated with POCl3 in refluxing pyridine.

The Grignard condensation of 5-cyanophthalide (I) with 4-fluorophenylmagnesium bromide (II) in THF gives 1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-hydroxy-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran-5-carbonitrile bromomagnesium salt (III), which slowly rearranges to the benzophenone (IV). A new Grignard condensation of (IV) with 3-(dimethylamino)propylmagnesium chloride (V) in THF affords the expected bis(magnesium) salt (VI), which is hydrolyzed with acetic acid to provide the diol (VII) as a racemic mixture. Selective esterification of the primary alcohol of (VII) with (+)-3,3,3-trifluoro-2-methoxy-2-phenylacetyl chloride (VIII) gives the monoester (IX) as a mixture of diastereomers. This mixture is separated by HPLC and the desired diastereomer (X) is treated with potassium tert-butoxide in toluene

The Grignard condensation of 5-cyanophthalide (I) with 4-fluorophenylmagnesium bromide (II) in THF gives 1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-hydroxy-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran-5-carbonitrile bromomagnesium salt (III), which slowly rearranges to the benzophenone (IV). A new Grignard condensation of (IV) with 3-(dimethylamino)propylmagnesium chloride (V) in THF affords the expected bis(magnesium) salt (VI), which is hydrolyzed with acetic acid to provide the diol (VII) as a racemic mixture. Selective esterification of the primary alcohol of (VII) with (+)-3,3,3-trifluoro-2-methoxy-2-phenylacetyl chloride (VIII) gives the monoester (IX) as a mixture of diastereomers. This mixture is separated by HPLC and the desired diastereomer (X) is treated with potassium tert-butoxide in toluene.

Racemic 5-bromo-1-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran (I) is submitted to optical resolution by chiral chromatography to give the corresponding (S)-isomer (II), which is treated with Zn(CN)2 and Pd(PPh3)4 to afford the target Escitalopram.

The esterification of racemic 1-[4-bromo-2-(hydroxymethyl)phenyl]-4-(dimethylamino)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-butanol (I) with (S)-2-(6-methoxynaphth-2-yl)propionyl chloride (II) by means of TEA and DMAP in THF gives the corresponding ester (III) as a diastereomeric mixture that is separated by chiral chromatography over Daicel AD, the desired diastereomer (IV) is easily isolated. Finally, this ester is hydrolyzed and simultaneously cyclized by means of NaH in DMF to provide the target intermediate (V). Other acyl chlorides such as (S)-2-(4-isobutylphenyl)propionyl chloride, (S)-O-acetylmandeloyl chloride, (S)-benzyloxycarbonylprolyl chloride, (S)-2-phenylbutyryl chloride, (S)-2-methoxy-2-phenylacetyl chloride or (S)-N-acetylalanine can also be used in the preceding sequence.

Title: Citalopram
CAS Registry Number: 59729-33-8
CAS Name: 1-[3-(Dimethylamino)propyl]-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-5-isobenzofurancarbonitrile
Additional Names: 1-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-phthalancarbonitrile; nitalapram
Manufacturers’ Codes: Lu-10-171
Molecular Formula: C20H21FN2O
Molecular Weight: 324.39
Percent Composition: C 74.05%, H 6.53%, F 5.86%, N 8.64%, O 4.93%
Literature References: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). Prepn: K. P. Boegesoe, A. S. Toft, DE 2657013eidem, US4136193 (1977, 1979 both to Kefalas); A. J. Bigler et al., Eur. J. Med. Chem. – Chim. Ther. 12, 289 (1977). Prepn of enantiomers: K. P. Boegesoe, J. Perregaard, EP 347066eidemUS 4943590, reissued as US RE 34712 (1989, 1990, 1994 all to Lundbeck). Pharmacology: A. V. Christensen et al., Eur. J. Pharmacol. 41, 153 (1977). HPLC determn in plasma and urine: E. Oyehaug et al.,J. Chromatogr. 308, 199 (1984). Comparative biotransformation of enantiomers: L. L. Von Moltke et al., Drug Metab. Dispos. 29, 1102 (2001). Review of clinical pharmacokinetics: K. Brosen, C. A. Naranjo, Eur. Neuropsychopharmacol. 11, 275-283 (2001). Review of clinical experience in depression: M. B. Keller, J. Clin. Psychiatry 61, 896-908 (2000). Clinical trial of S-form in depression: W. J. Burke et al, ibid63, 331 (2002).
Properties: bp0.03 175-181°.
Boiling point: bp0.03 175-181°
Derivative Type: Hydrobromide
CAS Registry Number: 59729-32-7
Trademarks: Celexa (Forest); Cipramil (Lundbeck); Elopram (Recordati); Seropram (Lundbeck)
Molecular Formula: C20H21FN2O.HBr
Molecular Weight: 405.30
Percent Composition: C 59.27%, H 5.47%, F 4.69%, N 6.91%, O 3.95%, Br 19.71%
Properties: Crystals from isopropanol, mp 182-183°.
Melting point: mp 182-183°
Derivative Type: S-(+)-Form
CAS Registry Number: 128196-01-0
Additional Names: Escitalopram
Properties: [a]D +12.33° (c = 1 in methanol).
Optical Rotation: [a]D +12.33° (c = 1 in methanol)
Derivative Type: Escitalopram oxalate
CAS Registry Number: 219861-08-2
Manufacturers’ Codes: Lu-26-054-0
Trademarks: Cipralex (Lundbeck); Gaudium (Recordati); Lexapro (Forest)
Molecular Formula: C20H21FN2O.C2H2O4
Molecular Weight: 414.43
Percent Composition: C 63.76%, H 5.59%, F 4.58%, N 6.76%, O 19.30%
Properties: Fine white to slightly yellow powder. Crystals from acetone, mp 147-148°. [a]D +12.31° (c = 1 in methanol). Freely sol in methanol, DMSO; sol in isotonic saline; sparingly sol in water, ethanol; slightly sol in ethyl acetate. Insol in heptane.
Melting point: mp 147-148°
Optical Rotation: [a]D +12.31° (c = 1 in methanol)
Therap-Cat: Antidepressant.
Keywords: Antidepressant; Bicyclics; Serotonin Uptake Inhibitor.


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Cited texts

Further reading

External links

Clinical data
Pronunciation About this sound pronunciation 
Trade names Cipralex, Lexapro and many others[1]
AHFS/ Monograph
MedlinePlus a603005
License data
  • AU: C
  • US: C (Risk not ruled out)
Routes of
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
  • AU: S4 (Prescription only)
  • CA℞-only
  • UK: POM (Prescription only)
  • US: ℞-only
  • In general: ℞ (Prescription only)
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 80%
Protein binding ~56%
Metabolism Liver, specifically the enzymes CYP3A4 and CYP2C19
Biological half-life 27–32 hours
CAS Number
PubChem CID
Chemical and physical data
Formula C20H21FN2O
Molar mass 324.392 g/mol
(414.43 as oxalate)
3D model (JSmol)

///////////////////S-(+)-Citalopram, эсциталопрам إيسكيتالوبرام 艾司西酞普兰 , CITALOPRAM

Amantadine Hydrochloride, アダマンタン-1-アミン , تادين ,Амантадин , 金刚烷胺 , アマンタジン


ChemSpider 2D Image | Amantadine | C10H17N


  • Molecular Formula C10H17N
  • Average mass 151.249 Da
1-adamantanamine; 1-adamantylamine; 1-aminoadamantane; Amantidine; Aminoadamantane
1-Aminotricyclo( 3,7))decane
2204333 [Beilstein]
31377-23-8 [RN]
40933-03-7 [RN]
4-pyridinecarboxylic acid, compd. with tricyclo[,7]decan-1-amine (1:1)
Journal of the American Chemical Society, 91, p. 6457, 1969 DOI: 10.1021/ja01051a047
Synthesis, p. 457, 1976
Amantadine Hydrochloride - API


  • Molecular FormulaC10H18ClN
  • Average mass187.710 Da
CAS 665-66-7
13 C NMR
Image result for Amantadine NMR

Amantadine (trade name Symmetrel, by Endo Pharmaceuticals) is a drug that has U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval for use both as an antiviral and an antiparkinsonian drug. It is the organic compound 1-adamantylamine or 1-aminoadamantane, meaning it consists of an adamantane backbone that has an amino group substituted at one of the four methyne positions. Rimantadineis a closely related derivative of adamantane with similar biological properties.

Apart from medical uses, this compound is useful as a building block in organic synthesis, allowing the insertion of an adamantyl group.

According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 100% of seasonal H3N2 and 2009 pandemic flu samples tested showed resistance to adamantanes, and amantadine is no longer recommended for treatment of influenza in the United States. Additionally, its effectiveness as an antiparkinsonian drug is undetermined, with a 2003 Cochrane Review concluding that there was insufficient evidence in support of or against its efficacy and safety.[2]

Medical uses

Parkinson’s disease

Amantadine is used to treat Parkinsons disease, as well as parkinsonism syndromes.[3] A 2003 Cochrane review concluded evidence was inadequate to support the use of amantadine for Parkinson’s disease.[2]

An extended release formulation is used to treat dyskinesia, a side effect of levodopa which is taken by people who have Parkinsons.[4]


Amantadine is no longer recommended for treatment of influenza A infection. For the 2008/2009 flu season, the CDC found that 100% of seasonal H3N2 and 2009 pandemic flu samples tested have shown resistance to adamantanes.[5] The CDC issued an alert to doctors to prescribe the neuraminidase inhibitors oseltamivir and zanamivir instead of amantadine and rimantadine for treatment of flu.[6][7] A 2014 Cochrane review did not find benefit for the prevention or treatment of influenza A.[8]

Fatigue in multiple sclerosis

Amantadine also seems to have moderate effects on multiple sclerosis (MS) related fatigue.[9]

Adverse effects

Amantadine has been associated with several central nervous system (CNS) side effects, likely due to amantadine’s dopaminergic and adrenergic activity, and to a lesser extent, its activity as an anticholinergic. CNS side effects include nervousness, anxiety, agitation, insomnia, difficulty in concentrating, and exacerbations of pre-existing seizure disorders and psychiatric symptoms in patients with schizophrenia or Parkinson’s disease. The usefulness of amantadine as an anti-parkinsonian drug is somewhat limited by the need to screen patients for a history of seizures and psychiatric symptoms.

Rare cases of severe skin rashes, such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome,[10] and of suicidal ideation have also been reported in patients treated with amantadine.[11][12]

Livedo reticularis is a possible side effect of amantadine use for Parkinson’s disease.[13]


The mechanisms for amantadine’s antiviral and antiparkinsonian effects are unrelated. The mechanism of amantadine’s antiviral activity involves interference with the viral protein, M2, a proton channel.[14][15] After entry of the virus into cells via endocytosis, it is localized in acidic vacuoles; the M2 channel functions in transporting protons with the gradient from the vacuolar space into the interior of the virion. Acidification of the interior results in disassociation of ribonucleoproteins, and the initiation of viral replication. Amantadine and rimantadine function in a mechanistically identical fashion in entering the barrel of the tetrameric M2 channel, and blocking pore function (i.e., proton translocation). Resistance to the drug class is a consequence of mutations to the pore-lining residues of the channel, leading to the inability of the sterically bulky adamantane ring that both amantadine and rimantadine share, in entering in their usual way, into the channel.[citation needed]

Influenza B strains possess a structurally distinct M2 channels with channel-facing side chains that fully obstruct the channel vis-a-vis binding of adamantine-class channel inhibitors, while still allowing proton flow and channel function to occur; this constriction in the channels is responsible for the ineffectiveness of this drug and rimantadine towards all circulating Influenza B strains.

Parkinson’s disease

Amantadine is a weak antagonist of the NMDA-type glutamate receptorincreases dopamine release, and blocks dopamine reuptake.[16] Amantadine probably does not inhibit MAO enzyme.[17] Moreover, the mechanism of its antiparkinsonian effect is poorly understood.[citation needed] The drug has many effects in the brain, including release of dopamine and norepinephrine from nerve endings. It appears to be a weak NMDA receptor antagonist[18][19] as well as an anticholinergic, specifically a nicotinic alpha-7 antagonist like the similar pharmaceutical memantine.

In 2004, it was discovered that amantadine and memantine bind to and act as agonists of the σ1 receptor (Ki = 7.44 µM and 2.60 µM, respectively), and that activation of the σ1receptor is involved in the dopaminergic effects of amantadine at therapeutically relevant concentrations.[20] These findings may also extend to the other adamantanes such as adapromine, rimantadine, and bromantane, and could explain the psychostimulant-like effects of this family of compounds.[20]


Amantadine was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in October 1966 as a prophylactic agent against Asian influenza, and eventually received approval for the treatment of influenzavirus A[21][22][23][24] in adults. In 1969, the drug was also discovered by accident upon trying to help reduce symptoms of Parkinson’s disease, drug-induced extrapyramidal syndromes, and akathisia.

In 2017, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved the use of amantadine in an extended release formulation developed by Adamas Pharma for the treatment of dyskinesia, an adverse effect of levodopa, that people with Parkinson’s experience.[25]

Veterinary misuse

In 2005, Chinese poultry farmers were reported to have used amantadine to protect birds against avian influenza.[26] In Western countries and according to international livestock regulations, amantadine is approved only for use in humans. Chickens in China have received an estimated 2.6 billion doses of amantadine.[26] Avian flu (H5N1) strains in China and southeast Asia are now resistant to amantadine, although strains circulating elsewhere still seem to be sensitive. If amantadine-resistant strains of the virus spread, the drugs of choice in an avian flu outbreak will probably be restricted to the scarcer and costlier oseltamivir and zanamivir, which work by a different mechanism and are less likely to trigger resistance.

On September 23, 2015, the US Food and Drug Administration announced the recall of Dingo Chip Twists “Chicken in the Middle” dog treats because the product has the potential to be contaminated with amantadine.[27]

Image result for Amantadine SYNTHESIS

Image result for Amantadine SYNTHESIS

Image result for Amantadine SYNTHESIS


An Improved Synthesis of Amantadine Hydrochloride

 Vietnam Military Medical University, No. 160, Phung Hung str., Phuc La ward, Ha Dong district, Hanoi, Vietnam
 School of Chemical Engineering, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, No.1, Dai Co Viet str., Bach Khoa ward, Hai Ba Trung district, Hanoi, Vietnam
Org. Process Res. Dev., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acs.oprd.7b00242
Abstract Image

Amantadine hydrochloride 1 is an antiviral drug used in the prevention and treatment of influenza A infections. It has also been used for alleviating early symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Several methods for the preparation of 1 have been reported. These procedures started with adamantane 2 using as many as four reaction steps to produce amantadine hydrochloride with overall yields ranging from 45% to 58%. In this article, we describe a two-step procedure for the synthesis of 1from 2 via N-(1-adamantyl)acetamide 4 with an improved overall yield of 67%. The procedure was also optimized to reduce the use of toxic solvents and reagents, rendering it more environment-friendly. The procedure can be considered as suitable for large-scale production of amantadine hydrochloride. The structure of amantadine hydrochloride was confirmed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR, and MS.

Amantadine Hydrochloride (1)

 1. Yield: 232 g (82%). Rf = 0.5 (CHCl3/MeOH/25% aqueous NH3 = 6:1:1).
Purity (GC): 99.22%, tR 10.10 min; mp 360 °C.
1H NMR (CDCl3, 500 MHz): δ 8.28 (br, s, 3H), 2.15 (s, 3H), 2.04 (s, 6H); 1.69 (s, 6H).
13C NMR (CDCl3, 125 MHz): δ 52.95, 40.56, 35.38, 28.97.
IR (KBr): cm–1 3331.73–3185.17 (N–H); 3054.60–2917.82 (C–H); 1363.50 (C–N).
MS: m/z = 151.9 [M + 1]+, 135.0 [M–NH2 – 1]+.
IR spectrum of amantadine hydrochloride (1)
MS spectrum of amantadine hydrochloride
1H-NMR spectrum of amantadine hydrochloride (1) in CDCl3
13C-NMR spectrum of amantadine hydrochloride (1) in CDCl3
Title: Amantadine
CAS Registry Number: 768-94-5
CAS Name: Tricyclo[,7]decan-1-amine
Additional Names: 1-adamantanamine; 1-aminoadamantane; 1-aminodiamantane (obsolete); 1-aminotricyclo[,7]decane
Molecular Formula: C10H17N
Molecular Weight: 151.25
Percent Composition: C 79.41%, H 11.33%, N 9.26%
Literature References: NMDA-receptor antagonist; also active vs influenza A virus. Prepn: H. Stetter et al., Ber. 93, 226 (1960); W. Haaf, ibid. 97, 3234 (1964); P. Kovacic, P. D. Roskos, Tetrahedron Lett. 1968, 5833. Antiviral activity: W. L. Davies et al.,Science 144, 862 (1964). GC determn in biological samples and pharmacodynamics: W. E. Bleidner et al., J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 150, 484 (1965). Pharmacology and toxicology: V. G. Vernier et al., Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 15, 642 (1969). Comprehensive description: J. Kirschbaum, Anal. Profiles Drug Subs. 12, 1-36 (1983). Review of use vs influenza A: R. L. Tominack, F. G. Hayden, Infect. Dis. Clin. North Am. 1, 459-478 (1987); of pharmacokinetics: F. Y. Aoki, D. S. Sitar, Clin. Pharmacokinet. 14, 35-51 (1988). Review of NMDA receptor binding and neuroprotective properties: J. Kornhuber et al., J. Neural Transm. 43, Suppl., 91-104 (1994). Series of articles on clinical experience in Parkinson’s disease: ibid. 46, Suppl., 399-421 (1995).
Properties: Crystals by sublimation, mp 160-190° (closed tube) (Stetter). Also reported as mp 180-192° (Haaf). pKa: 10.1. Sparingly sol in water.
Melting point: mp 160-190° (closed tube) (Stetter); mp 180-192° (Haaf)
pKa: pKa: 10.1

Derivative Type: Hydrochloride

CAS Registry Number: 665-66-7
Manufacturers’ Codes: EXP-105-1; NSC-83653
Trademarks: Adekin (Desitin); Lysovir (Alliance); Mantadan (Boehringer, Ing.); Mantadine (Endo); Mantadix (BMS); Symmetrel (Endo); Virofral (Novo)
Molecular Formula: C10H17N.HCl
Molecular Weight: 187.71
Percent Composition: C 63.99%, H 9.67%, N 7.46%, Cl 18.89%
Properties: Crystals from abs ethanol + anhydr ether, mp >360° (dec). Freely sol in water (at least 1:20); sol in alcohol, chloroform. Practically insol in ether. LD50 orally in mice, rats: 700, 1275 mg/kg (Vernier).
Melting point: mp >360° (dec)
Toxicity data: LD50 orally in mice, rats: 700, 1275 mg/kg (Vernier)
Derivative Type: Sulfate
CAS Registry Number: 31377-23-8
Trademarks: PK-Merz (Merz)
Molecular Formula: C10H17N.½H2SO4
Molecular Weight: 200.29
Percent Composition: C 59.97%, H 9.06%, N 6.99%, S 8.00%, O 15.98%
Therap-Cat: Antiviral; antiparkinsonian.
Keywords: Antidyskinetic; Antiparkinsonian; Antiviral.
Amantadine ball-and-stick model.png
Clinical data
Trade names Symmetrel
Synonyms 1-Adamantylamine
AHFS/ Monograph
MedlinePlus a682064
  • AU: B3
  • US: C (Risk not ruled out)
Routes of
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 86–90%[1]
Protein binding 67%[1]
Metabolism Minimal (mostly to acetyl metabolites)[1]
Biological half-life 10–31 hours[1]
Excretion Urine[1]
CAS Number
PubChem CID
ECHA InfoCard 100.011.092
Chemical and physical data
Formula C10H17N
Molar mass 151.249 g/mol
3D model (JSmol)


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  17. Jump up^ Strömberg, U.; Svensson, T. H. (November 1971). “Further Studies on the Mode of Action of Amantadine”wiley.comActa Pharmacologica et Toxicologica, Nordic Pharmacological Society. 30 (3–4): 161–171. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0773.1971.tb00646.x.
  18. Jump up^ Kornhuber, J; Bormann, J; Hübers, M; Rusche, K; Riederer, P (1991). “Effects of the 1-amino-adamantanes at the MK-801-binding site of the NMDA-receptor-gated ion channel: a human postmortem brain study”. Eur. J. Pharmacol. Mol. Pharmacol. Sect206: 297–300. doi:10.1016/0922-4106(91)90113-v.
  19. Jump up^ Blanpied, TA; Clarke, RJ; Johnson, JW (2005). “Amantadine inhibits NMDA receptors by accelerating channel closure during channel block”. Journal of Neuroscience25 (13): 3312–22. PMID 15800186doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4262-04.2005.
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  21. Jump up^ Hounshell, David A.; Kenly Smith, John (1988). Science and Corporate Strategy: Du Pont R&D, 1902–1980. Cambridge University Press. p. 469.
  22. Jump up^ “Sales of flu drug by du Pont unit a ‘disappointment'”The New York Times. Wilmington, Delaware. October 5, 1982. Retrieved May 19, 2008.
  23. Jump up^ Maugh, T. (1979). “Panel urges wide use of antiviral drug”. Science206 (4422): 1058–60. PMID 386515doi:10.1126/science.386515.
  24. Jump up^ Maugh, T. H. (1976). “Amantadine: an Alternative for Prevention of Influenza”. Science192 (4235): 130–1. PMID 17792438doi:10.1126/science.192.4235.130.
  25. Jump up^ Bastings, Eric. “NDA 208944 Approval Letter” (PDF).
  26. Jump up to:a b Sipress, Alan (2005-06-18). “Bird Flu Drug Rendered Useless”Washington Post. pp. A01. Retrieved 2007-08-02.
  27. Jump up^ “Enforcement Report – Week of September 23, 2015” US Food and Drug Administration, US Department of Health & Human Services.


Synthesis of isosorbide: an overview of challenging reactions

Green Chem., 2017, Advance Article
DOI: 10.1039/C7GC01912B, Tutorial Review
C. Dussenne, T. Delaunay, V. Wiatz, H. Wyart, I. Suisse, M. Sauthier
This review gives an overview of the catalysts and technologies developed for the synthesis of isosorbide, a platform molecule derived from biomass (sorbitol and cellulose).

Synthesis of isosorbide: an overview of challenging reactions

 Author affiliations


Isosorbide is a diol derived from sorbitol and obtained through dehydration reactions that has raised much interest in the literature over the past few decades. Thus, this platform chemical is a biobased alternative to a number of petrosourced molecules that can find applications in a large number of technical specialty fields, such as plasticizers, monomers, solvents or pharmaceuticals. The synthesis of isosorbide is still a technical challenge, as several competitive reactions must be simultaneously handled to promote a high molar yield and avoid side reactions, like degradation and polymerization. In this purpose, many studies have proposed innovative and varied methods with promising results. This review gives an overview of the synthesis strategies and catalysts developed to access this very attractive molecule, pointing out both the results obtained and the remaining issues connected to isosorbide synthesis.


Up to now, isosorbide has been used to access a large panel of molecules with relevant applicative properties and industrial reality (Scheme 2).12 Isosorbide dinitrate is used since several decades as vasodilator.13, 14 The dimethyl isosorbide is for example used as solvent in cosmetics15-17 and isosorbide diesters18-22 are actually industrially produced and commercialized as surfactants23-27 and PVC plasticizer28, 29 . The rigid scaffold associated to the bifunctionality of the molecule has attracted a strong interest in the field of polymers chemistry. Isosorbide and derivatives have thus been shown as suitable monomers for the industrial production of polycarbonates30, 31, polyesters32-41 or polyamides42-44, with attractive applicative properties. For example, isosorbide allows the increase of Tg, improves the scratch resistance and gives excellent optical properties to polymers. Polyesters and polycarbonates containing isosorbide have now commercial developments in food packaging, spray container, automotive, material for electronic devices … .


Isosorbide is a versatile platform molecule that shows key features to make it a credible alternative to petro-based products. The molecule is already available on large industrial scale (tens of thousands tons per years), which allows its development in commercial products such as active pharma ingredient, additive for cosmetic, speciality chemicals and polymers (ex: polycarbonates – polyesters). The development of more selective and higher yields syntheses of isosorbide are greatly needed to consolidate isosorbide production in view of a large expansion of its uses. Sorbitol conversion to isosorbide, relying on a starch route, is already a tough challenge. In a farther future, development of a credible path to isosorbide relying on cellulose source could even be thought of, provided that very versatile innovative catalysts will be developed in the next years. In all cases, a key issue is to develop catalysts that will avoid the massive production of “oligomeric/polymeric” by-products in order to access more sustainable processes by limiting the amounts of wastes produced during the synthesis. For this purpose, more selective homogeneous catalysts than the conventional Brønsted acids or alternative reaction conditions would be of strong interest. Selective and recyclable heterogeneous catalysts would be even more profitable as they would allow the continuous production of catalyst free isosorbide. This latter approach faces strong limitations due to the need of high reaction temperatures that often result in high amounts of side-products and the need of frequent and often tedious catalyst regeneration. Innovation concerning isosorbide synthesis is still an open field on which the design of efficient and robust catalysts, either homogeneous or heterogeneous, is a key issue. Such developments would pave the way to high scale effective processes considering altogether synthesis and purification of isosorbide.




Isosorbide is a heterocyclic compound that is derived from glucose. Isosorbide and its two isomers, namely isoidide and isomannide, are 1,4:3,6-dianhydrohexitols. It is a white solid that is prepared from the double dehydration of sorbitol. Isosorbide is a non-toxic diolproduced from biobased feedstocks, that is biodegradable and thermally stable. It is used in medicine and has been touted as a potential biofeedstock.


Hydrogenation of glucose gives sorbitol. Isosorbide is obtained by double dehydration of sorbitol:

(CHOH)4(CH2OH)2 → C6H10O2(OH)2 + 2 H2O

An intermediate in the dehydration is the monocycle sorbitan.[1]


Isosorbide is used as a diuretic, mainly to treat hydrocephalus, and is also used to treat glaucoma.[2] Other medications are derived from isosorbide, including isosorbide dinitrate and isosorbide mononitrate, are used to treat angina pectoris. Other isosorbide-based medicines are used as osmotic diuretics and for treatment of esophageal varices. Like other nitric oxide donors (see biological functions of nitric oxide), these drugs lower portal pressure by vasodilation and decreasing cardiac output. Isosorbide dinitrate and hydralazineare the two components of the anti-hypertensive drug isosorbide dinitrate/hydralazine (Bidil).

Isosorbide is also used as a building block for bio based polymers such as polyesters.[3]


  1. Jump up^ M. Rose, R. Palkovits (2012). “Isosorbide as a Renewable Platform chemical for Versatile Applications—Quo Vadis?”. ChemSusChem5 (1): 167–176. PMID 22213713doi:10.1002/cssc.201100580.
  2. Jump up^ CID 12597 from PubChem
  3. Jump up^ Bersot J.C. (2011). “Efficiency Increase of Poly (ethylene terephthalate‐co‐isosorbide terephthalate) Synthesis using Bimetallic Catalytic Systems”. Macromol. Chem. Phys212 (19): 2114–2120. doi:10.1002/macp.201100146.
Other names

D-Isosorbide; 1,4:3,6-Dianhydro-D-sorbitol; 1,4-Dianhydrosorbitol
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.010.449
PubChem CID
Molar mass 146.14 g·mol−1
Appearance Highly hygroscopic white flakes
Density 1.30 at 25 °C
Melting point 62.5 to 63 °C (144.5 to 145.4 °F; 335.6 to 336.1 K)
Boiling point 160 °C (320 °F; 433 K) at 10 mmHg
in water (>850 g/L), alcoholsand ketones
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).

From the net





1H Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of PTMG, isosorbide, HDI, and polyurethane.HDI: hexamethylene diisocyanate; PTMG: poly(tetramethylene glycol).

1H Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of PTMG, isosorbide, HDI, and polyurethane.HDI: hexamethylene diisocyanate; PTMG: poly(tetramethylene glycol).




Synthesis of five- and six-membered heterocycles by dimethyl carbonate with catalytic amount of nitrogen bicyclic bases!divAbstract

F. Aricò, a,*S. Evaristoa and P. Tundoa,*

Catalytic amount of a nitrogen bicyclic base, i.e., DABCO, DBU and TBD is effective for the one-pot synthesis of heterocycles from 1,4-, 1,5-diols and 1,4-bifunctional compounds via dimethyl carbonate chemistry under neat conditions. Nitrogen bicyclic bases, that previously showed to enhance the reactivity of DMC in methoxycarbonylation reaction by BAc2 mechanism, are herein used for the first time as efficient catalysts for cyclization reaction encompassing both BAc2 and BAl2 pathways. This synthetic procedure was also applied to a large scale synthesis of cyclic sugars isosorbide and isomannide starting from D-sorbitol and D-mannitol, respectively. The resulting anhydro sugar alcohols were obtained as pure crystalline compounds that did not require any further purification or crystallization.


Larger scale synthesis of isosorbide: In a round bottom flask equipped with a reflux condenser, D-sorbitol (0.05 mol, 1.00 mol. eq.), DMC (0.44 mol, 8.00 mol. eq.), DBU (2.70 mmol, 0.05 mol. eq.) and MeOH (20.00 mL) were heated at reflux while stirring. The progress of the reaction was monitored by NMR. After 48 hours the reaction was stopped, cooled at room temperature and the mixture was filtered over Gooch n°4. Finally, DMC was evaporated under vacuum and the product was obtained as pure in 98% yield (7.90 g, 0.05 mol). Characterization data were consistent with those obtained for the commercially available compound.




File:Isosorbide dinitrate synthesis.png





FDA clears first 7T magnetic resonance imaging device

FDA clears first 7T magnetic resonance imaging device

Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration cleared the first seven tesla (7T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) device, more than doubling the static magnetic field strength available for use in the United States. The Magentom Terra is the first 7T MRI system cleared for clinical use in the United States. Continue reading.

 JTV 519, K 201, 



  • Molecular FormulaC25H32N2O2S
  • Average mass424.599 Da
  • 145903-06-6 CAS

ChemSpider 2D Image | JTV-519 hydrochloride salt | C25H33ClN2O2S

JTV-519 hydrochloride salt

  • Molecular FormulaC25H33ClN2O2S
  • Average mass461.060 Da
3-(4-Benzyl-1-piperidinyl)-1-(7-methoxy-2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzothiazepin-4(5H)-yl)-1-propanonhydrochlorid (1:1)
4-[3-(4-benzylpiperidin-1-yl)propanoyl]-7-methoxy-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1,4-benzothiazepine hydrochloride
JTV-519 hydrochloride salt
1038410-88-6 [RN]
  1. UNII-0I621Y6R4Q
  2. K201
  3. 1038410-88-6
  4. K 201
  5. SCHEMBL194018
  6. CHEMBL2440857
  7. DTXSID90146108
  8. 0I621Y6R4Q
  9. LS-193564

Image result for Andrew Marks, JAPAN TOBACCO


Acute Myocardial Infarction, Treatment of Cardiovascular Diseases (Not Specified)
Antiarrhythmic Drugs

JTV-519 (K201) is a 1,4-benzothiazepine derivative that interacts with many cellular targets.[1] It has many structural similarities to diltiazem, a Ca2+ channel blocker used for treatment of hypertensionangina pectoris and some types of arrhythmias.[2] JTV-519 acts in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of cardiac myocytes by binding to and stabilizing the ryanodine receptor (RyR2) in its closed state.[3][4]It can be used in the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias, heart failurecatecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) and store overload-induced Ca2+ release (SOICR).[2][3][4] Currently, this drug has only been tested on animals and its side effects are still unknown.[5] As research continues, some studies have also found a dose-dependent response; where there is no improvement seen in failing hearts at 0.3 μM and a decline in response at 1 μM.[4]

K-201 (JTV-519; 1,4-benzothiazepine derivative) is an antiarrhythmic drug, had been in phase II clinical development at Japan Tobacco and Sequel Pharmaceuticals for the intravenous treatment of atrial fibrillation; however no recent developments have been reported and Sequel Pharmaceuticals has ceased operations.

In 2006, NovaCardia acquired rights from Aetas to develop the product in Europe and US for cardiovascular disorders. Sequel acquired the compound, which has a unique multi-ion channel profile, from NovaCardia following its acquisition by Merck & Co.

Treatment with JTV-519 involves stabilization of RyR2 in its closed state, decreasing its open probability during diastole and inhibiting a Ca2+ leak into the cell’s cytosol.[3][4] By decreasing the intracellular Ca2+ leak, it is able to prevent Ca2+ sparks or increases in the resting membrane potential, which can lead to spontaneous depolarization (cardiac arrhythmias), and eventually heart failure, due to the unsynchronized contraction of the atrial and ventricular compartments of the heart.[2][3][4] When Ca2+ sparks occur from the SR, the increase in intracellular Ca2+ contributes to the rising membrane potential which leads to the irregular heart beat associated to cardiac arrhythmias.[3] It can also prevent SOICR in the same manner; preventing opening of the channel due to the increase of Ca2+ inside the SR levels beyond its threshold.[2]

Molecular problem

In the closed state, N-terminal and central domains come into close contact interacting to cause a “zipping” of domains. This leads to conformational constraints that stabilize the channel and maintain the closed state.[1] Most RyR2 mutations are clustered into three regions of the channel, all affecting the same domains that interact to stabilize the channel.[1] Any of these mutations can lead to “unzipping” of the domains and a decrease in the energy barrier required for opening the channel (increasing its open probability).[1]This channel “unzipping” allows for an increase in protein kinase A phosphorylation and calstabin2 dissociation. Phosphorylation of RyR2 increases the channel’s response to Ca2+, which usually binds the RyR2 to open it.[1] If the channel become phosphorylated, this can lead to an increase in Ca2+ sparks due to an increase in Ca2+ sensitivity.

Some researchers believe that the depletion of calstabin2 from the RyR2 causes the calcium leak.[3] The depletion of calstabin2 can occur in both heart failure and CPVT.[3]Calstabin2 is a protein that stabilizes RyR2 in its closed state, preventing Ca2+ leakage during diastole. When calstabin2 is lost, the interdomain interactions of RyR2 become loose, allowing the Ca2+ leak.[3] However, the role of calstabin2 has been controversial, as some studies have found it necessary for the effect of JTV-519,[3] whereas others have found the drug functions without the stabilizing protein.[2]

Molecular mechanism

JTV-519 seems to restore the stable conformation of RyR2 during the closed state.[1][4] It is still controversial whether or not calstabin2 is necessary for this process, however, many studies believe that JTV-519 can act directly on the channel and by binding, prevents conformational changes.[2] This stabilization of the channel decreases its open probability resulting in fewer leaks of Ca2+ into the cytosol and fewer Ca2+ sparks to occur.[3][4] Researchers who believe that calstabin2 is necessary for JTV-519 effect, found that this drug may function by inducing the binding of calstabin2 back to the channel or increasing calstabin2’s affinity for the RyR2 and thus increasing its stability.[2][3]



US 20050186640

Inventors Andrew MarksDonald LandryShi DengZhen Cheng
Original Assignee Marks Andrew R.Landry Donald W.Deng Shi X.Cheng Zhen Z.


WO 9212148

Inventors Noboru KanekoTatsushi OosawaTeruyuki SakaiHideo Oota
Applicant Noboru Kaneko


US 2014121368

2,3,4,5-tetrahydrobenzo[f][1,4]thiazepines are important compounds because of their biological activities, as disclosed, for example, in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,416,066 and 5,580,866 and published US Patent Applications Nos. 2005/0215540, 2007/0049572 and 2007/0173482.

Synthetic procedures exist for the preparation of 2-oxo-, 3-oxo-, 5-oxo- and 3,5-dioxo-1,4-benzothiazepines and for 2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzothiazepines. However, relatively few publications describe the preparation of 2,3,4,5-tetrahydrobenzo-1,4-thiazepines that contain no carbonyl groups, and most of these involve reduction of a carbonyl group or an imine. Many of the routes described in the literature proceed from an ortho-substituted arene and use the ortho substituents as “anchors” for the attachment of the seven-membered ring. Essentially all the preparatively useful syntheses in the literature that do not begin with an ortho-substituted arene employ a modification of the Bischler-Napieralski reaction in which the carbon of the acyl group on the γ-amide becomes the carbon adjacent the bridgehead and the acyl substituent becomes the 5-substituent. Like earlier mentioned syntheses, the Bischler-Napieralski synthesis requires reduction of an iminium intermediate.

It would be useful to have an intramolecular reaction for the direct construction of 2,3,4,5-tetrahydrobenzo[1,4]thiazepines that would allow more flexibility in the 4- and 5-substituents and that would avoid a separate reduction step. The Pictet Spengler reaction, in which a β-arylethylamine such as tryptamine undergoes 6-membered ring closure after condensation (cyclization) with an aldehyde, has been widely used in the synthesis of 6-membered ring systems over the past century and might be contemplated for this purpose. The Pictet Spengler reaction, however, has not been generally useful for 7-membered ring systems such as 1,4-benzothiazepines. A plausible explanation is that the failure of the reaction for typical arenes was due to the unfavorable conformation of the 7-membered ring. There are two isolated examples of an intramolecular Pictet-Spengler-type reaction producing a good yield of a benzothiazepine from the addition of formaldehyde. In one case, the starting material was a highly unusual activated arene (a catechol derivative) [Manini et al. J. Org. Chem. (2000), 65, 4269-4273]. In the other case, the starting material is a bis(benzotriazolylmethyl)amine that cyclizes to a mono(benzotriazolyl)benzothiazole [Katritzky et al. J. Chem. Soc. Pl (2002), 592-598].


US 20050186640

WO 2015031914

US 20040229781

US 20090292119

US 7704990


Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2013), 56(21), 8626-8655


Synthesis of 2,3,4,5-Tetrahydrobenzo[1,4]thiazepines via N-Acyliminium Cyclization

 ARMGO Pharma, Inc., 777 Old Saw Mill River Road, Tarrytown, New York 10591, United States
 Department of Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York 10032, United States
Org. Process Res. Dev., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acs.oprd.7b00260
Publication Date (Web): September 28, 2017
Copyright © 2017 American Chemical Society
*Phone: (914)-425-0000. E-mail:


Abstract Image

We report an efficient and scalable synthesis of 7-methoxy-2,3,4,5-tetrahydrobenzo[1,4]thiazepine, the core structure of biologically active molecules like JTV-519 and S107. This synthetic route, starting with 4-methoxythiophenol and proceeding via acyliminum cyclization, gives the target product in four steps and 68% overall yield and is a substantial improvement over previously published processes. Nine additional examples of tetrahydrobenzo[1,4]thiazepine synthesis via acyliminium ring closure are also presented.


  1. Jump up to:a b c d e f Oda, T; Yano, M; Yamamoto, T; Tokuhisa, T; Okuda, S; Doi, M; Ohkusa, T; Ikeda, Y; et al. (2005). “Defective regulation of interdomain interactions within the ryanodine receptor plays a key role in the pathogenesis of heart failure”. Circulation111 (25): 3400–10. PMID 15967847doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.104.507921.
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  4. Jump up to:a b c d e f g Toischer, K; Lehnart, SE; Tenderich, G; Milting, H; Körfer, R; Schmitto, JD; Schöndube, FA; Kaneko, N; et al. (2010). “K201 improves aspects of the contractile performance of human failing myocardium via reduction in Ca2+ leak from the sarcoplasmic reticulum”Basic research in cardiology105 (2): 279–87. PMC 2807967Freely accessiblePMID 19718543doi:10.1007/s00395-009-0057-8.
  5. Jump up^ Viswanathan, MN; Page, RL (2009). “Pharmacological therapy for atrial fibrillation: Current options and new agents”. Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs18 (4): 417–31. PMID 19278302doi:10.1517/13543780902773410.
IUPAC name

Other names

3D model (JSmol)
PubChem CID
Molar mass 424.60 g·mol−1
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).

//////////////JTV-519K201, JTV 519, K 201, 

Phytomenadione, Phytonadione, фитоменадион ,فيتوميناديون ,

Vitamin K1.png

ChemSpider 2D Image | Phylloquinone | C31H46O2


PHYTONADIONE, Phylloquinone

Molecular Formula: C31H46O2
Molecular Weight: 450.707 g/mol
1,4-Naphthalenedione, 2-methyl-3-((2E,7R,11R)-3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecenyl)-
2′,3′-trans-Vitamin K1
фитоменадион [Russian] [INN]
فيتوميناديون [Arabic] [INN]
 CAS 84-80-0[RN]
Antihemorrhagic vitamin
Aqua mephyton
Combinal K1
Kativ N
Phylloquinone (8CI)
Optical Rotatory Power -0.28 ° Solv: 1,4-dioxane (123-91-1); Wavlen: 589.3 nm; Temp: 25 °CKarrer, P.; Helvetica Chimica Acta 1944, VOL 27, PG317-19








  1. Murahashi, Shun-ichi; European Journal of Organic Chemistry 2011, VOL2011(27), P5355-5365 
  2. Huang, Zhihong; Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis 2007, VOL349(4+5), PG539-545 



Phylloquinone is a family of phylloquinones that contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and an isoprenoid side chain. Members of this group of vitamin K 1 have only one double bond on the proximal isoprene unit. Rich sources of vitamin K 1 include green plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria. Vitamin K1 has antihemorrhagic and prothrombogenic activity.

Phytomenadione, also known as vitamin K1 or phylloquinone, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.[1][2] As a supplement it is used to treat certain bleeding disorders.[2] This includes in warfarin overdosevitamin K deficiency, and obstructive jaundice.[2] It is also recommended to prevent and treat hemorrhagic disease of the newborn.[2] Use is typically recommended by mouth or injection under the skin.[2] Use by injection into a vein or muscle is recommended only when other routes are not possible.[2] When given by injection benefits are seen within two hours.[2]

Common side effects when given by injection include pain at the site of injection and altered taste.[2] Severe allergic reactions may occur with injected into a vein or muscle.[2] It is unclear if use during pregnancy is safe; however, use is likely okay during breastfeeding.[3] It works by supplying a required component for making a number of blood clotting factors.[2] Found sources include green vegetables, vegetable oil, and some fruit.[4]

Phytomenadione was first isolated in 1939.[5] It is on the World Health Organization’s List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.[6] The wholesale cost in the developing world is about 0.11 to 1.27 USD for a 10 mg vial.[7]In the United States a course of treatment costs less than 25 USD.[8] In 1943 Edward Doisy and Henrik Dam were given a Nobel Prizefor its discovery.[5]


Phytomenadione is often called phylloquinone or vitamin K,[9] phytomenadione or phytonadione. Sometimes a distinction is made between phylloquinone, which is considered to be a natural substance, and phytonadione, which is considered to be a synthetic substance.[10]

stereoisomer of phylloquinone is called vitamin k1 (note the difference in capitalization).


Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin that is stable in air and moisture but decomposes in sunlight. It is a polycyclic aromatic ketone, based on 2-methyl1,4-naphthoquinone, with a 3-phytyl substituent. It is found naturally in a wide variety of green plants, particularly in leaves, since it functions as an electron acceptor during photosynthesis, forming part of the electron transport chain of photosystem I.

Phylloquinone is an electron acceptor during photosynthesis, forming part of the electron transport chain of Photosystem I.

The best-known function of vitamin K in animals is as a cofactor in the formation of coagulation factors II (prothrombin), VII, IX, and X by the liver. It is also required for the formation of anticoagulant factors protein C and S. It is commonly used to treat warfarin toxicity, and as an antidote for coumatetralyl.

Vitamin K is required for bone protein formation.


e-EROS Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis, 1-2; 2001




Helvetica Chimica Acta (1944), 27, 317-19.


US 2683176

CN 105399615

WO 2016060670


  1. Jump up^ Watson, Ronald Ross (2014). Diet and Exercise in Cystic Fibrosis. Academic Press. p. 187. ISBN 9780128005880.
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  3. Jump up^ “Phytonadione Use During Pregnancy” Retrieved 29 December 2016.
  4. Jump up^ “Office of Dietary Supplements – Vitamin K” 11 February 2016. Retrieved 30 December 2016.
  5. Jump up to:a b Sneader, Walter (2005). Drug Discovery: A History. John Wiley & Sons. p. 243. ISBN 9780471899792.
  6. Jump up^ “WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (19th List)” (PDF). World Health Organization. April 2015. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  7. Jump up^ “Vitamin K1”International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  8. Jump up^ Hamilton, Richart (2015). Tarascon Pocket Pharmacopoeia 2015 Deluxe Lab-Coat Edition. Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 229. ISBN 9781284057560.
  9. Jump up^ Haroon, Y.; Shearer, M. J.; Rahim, S.; Gunn, W. G.; McEnery, G.; Barkhan, P. (June 1982). “The content of phylloquinone (vitamin K1) in human milk, cows’ milk, and infant formula foods determined by high-performance liquid chromatography”J. Nutr112 (6): 1105–1117. PMID 7086539.
  10. Jump up^ “Vitamin K”. Retrieved 2009-03-18.
Vitamin K1.png
Clinical data
Trade names Mephyton, others
Synonyms Vitamin K1, phytonadione, phylloquinone
AHFS/ Monograph
  • US: C (Risk not ruled out)
Routes of
by mouth, subQ, IM, IV
ATC code
CAS Number
PubChem CID
ECHA InfoCard 100.001.422
Chemical and physical data
Formula C31H46O2
Molar mass 450.70 g/mol
3D model (JSmol)

/////////////PHYTONADIONE, фитоменадион ,فيتوميناديون PHYTONADIONE, Phylloquinone

MELTING POINT : Yellow viscous oil (Ref. 0001)

REFRACTIVE INDEX : n20D=1.5263(Ref. 0010)

OPTICAL ROTATION : [a]25D=-28deg(Ref. 0001)Optical rotation
[Table ] (Ref. 0010)

SOLUBILITY : Insol in water. Sparingly sol in methanol; sol in ethanol, acetone, benzene, petr ether, hexane, dioxane, chloroform, ether, other fat solvents and in vegetable oils(Ref. 0001)
UV SPECTRA : Uv max (petr ether) 242, 248, 260, 269, 325 nm (E1%1cm396, 419, 383, 387, 68) (Ref. 0001). Uv max (ethanol) 243, 248, 262, 270, 330 nm (Ref. 0002).
(UV Ref. 0010)Em at 248 nm (EtOH) =18,900 (Ref. 0002/0006).

IR SPECTRA : (liquid) : 6.05m (CO), 6.21, 6.28m (aromatic nucleus) (Ref. 0008)
(IR Ref. 0010)
[Table 0002] (Ref. 0010)

NMR SPECTRA : at 60 MHz in CDCl3, i nternal standard Si(CH3)4: multiplet at 453-486 Hz (4 aromatic H), triplet at 302 Hz (J=7 Hz) (olefinic H at C2. , doublet at 201 Hz ) (J=7 Hz) (CH2.-1), singlet at 130 Hz (CH3-2), signal at 107 Hz (trans-methyl group at C3. .(Ref. 0008)
( NMR Ref. 0010) Proton magnetic resonance data

MASS SPECTRA : [Spectrum  (Ref. 0005)


AUTHOR : Anonym. (1989) Vitamin K1 in The Merck Index , 11th edition (Budavari, S., O’Neil, M. J., Smith, A., and Heckelman, P.E., eds), pp1580, Merck & Co., Inc., Rahway, N. J.
VOL : PAGE : – ()


AUTHOR : Dunphy,P.J., and Brodie,A.F.
TITLE : The structure and function of quinones in respiratory metabolism.
JOURNAL : Methods in Enzymology
VOL : 18 PAGE : 407 -461 (1971)


AUTHOR : Di Mari, S. J., Supple, J. H., and Rapoport, H.
TITLE : Mass spectra of naphthoquinones. Vitamin K1(20) PubMed ID:5910960
JOURNAL : J Am Chem Soc.
VOL : 88 PAGE : 1226-1232 (1966)


AUTHOR : Suttie,W.J. (1991) Vitamin K, in Handbook of Vitamins (2nd ed., Machlin,L.J., ed) , pp145-194, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York
VOL : PAGE : – ()


AUTHOR : Kodaka,K., Ujiie,T.,Ueno,T., and Saito,M.
TITLE : Contents of Vitamin K1 and Chlorophyll in Green Vegetables.
JOURNAL : J Jpn Soc Nutr Food Sci
VOL : 39 PAGE : 124 -126 (1986)


AUTHOR : Mayer,H., and Isler,O .
TITLE : Synthesis of Vitamin K.
JOURNAL : Methods in Enzymology
VOL : 18 PAGE : 491 -547 (1971)


AUTHOR : Naruta,Y., and Maruyama,K.
TITLE : Regio- and sterocontrolled polyprenylation of quinones. A new synthetic method of vitamin K series.
JOURNAL : Chemistry Lett
VOL : PAGE : 881 -884 (1979)


AUTHOR : Sommer,P., and Kofler,M.
TITLE : Physicochemical Properties and Methods of Analysis of Phylloquinones, Menaquinones, Ubiquinones, and Related Compounds. PubMed ID:5340867
JOURNAL : Vitamins and Hormones
VOL : 24 PAGE : 349 -399 (1966)


AUTHOR : Bristol, J. A., Ratcliffe, J. V., Roth, D. A., Jacobs, M. A., Furie, B. C., and Furie, B.
TITLE : Biosynthesis of prothrombin: intracellular localization of the vitamin K-dependent carboxylase and the sites of gamma-carboxylation PubMed ID:8839851
JOURNAL : Blood.
VOL : 88 PAGE : 2585-2593 (1996)


AUTHOR : Usui, Y., Nishimura, N., Kobayashi, N., Okanoue, T., Kimoto, M., and Ozawa, K.
TITLE : Measurement of vitamin K in human liver by gradient elution high-performance liquid chromatography using platinum-black catalyst reduction and fluorimetric detection PubMed ID:2753953
JOURNAL : J Chromatogr.
VOL : 489 PAGE : 291-301 (1989)



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