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ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY

Read all about Organic Spectroscopy on ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY INTERNATIONAL 

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK LIFE SCIENCES LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 PLUS year tenure till date June 2021, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 90 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, 233 countries, 7 continents, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 33 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 233 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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Verdiperstat


Verdiperstat (AZD3241) | MPO Inhibitor | MedChemExpress
Verdiperstat.png

Verdiperstat

AZD 3241; BHV-3241

CAS No. : 890655-80-8

1-(2-propan-2-yloxyethyl)-2-sulfanylidene-5H-pyrrolo[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-one

4H-​Pyrrolo[3,​2-​d]​pyrimidin-​4-​one, 1,​2,​3,​5-​tetrahydro-​1-​[2-​(1-​methylethoxy)​ethyl]​-​2-​thioxo-

1-(2-isopropoxyethyl)-2-thioxo-1,2,3,5-tetrahydro-pyrrolo[3,2-d] pyrimidin-4-one

l-(2-Isopropoxyethyl)-2-thioxo-l,2,3,5-tetrahydro-pyrrolo[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-one

  • Molecular FormulaC11H15N3O2S
  • Average mass253.321 Da

AZD-3241BHV-3421UNII-TT3345YXVRTT3345YXVRBHV-3241, WHO 10251вердиперстат [Russian] [INN]فيرديبيرستات [Arabic] [INN]维地泊司他 [Chinese] [INN]

  • OriginatorAstraZeneca
  • DeveloperAstraZeneca; Biohaven Pharmaceuticals
  • ClassAntiparkinsonians; Ethers; Organic sulfur compounds; Pyrimidinones; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of ActionPeroxidase inhibitors
  • Orphan Drug StatusYes – Multiple system atrophy
  • Phase IIIMultiple system atrophy
  • Phase II/IIIAmyotrophic lateral sclerosis
  • DiscontinuedParkinson’s disease
  • 23 Jun 20213574186: Added patent info and HE
  • 23 Jun 2021Biohaven Pharmaceuticals has patents pending for the composition of matter of verdiperstat, pharmaceutical compositions and various neurological diseases in Europe, Japan and other countries
  • 01 Nov 2020Brigham and Women’s Hospital plans a phase I trial for Multiple System Atrophy in USA , (NCT04616456)

EU/3/14/1404: Orphan designation for the treatment of multiple system atrophy

This medicine is now known as verdiperstat.

On 16 December 2014, orphan designation (EU/3/14/1404) was granted by the European Commission to Astra Zeneca AB, Sweden, for 1-(2-isopropoxyethyl)-2-thioxo-1,2,3,5-tetrahydro-pyrrolo[3,2-d] pyrimidin-4-one for the treatment of multiple system atrophy.

The sponsorship was transferred to Richardson Associates Regulatory Affairs Limited, Ireland, in March 2019.

The sponsorship was transferred to Biohaven Pharmaceutical Ireland DAC, Ireland, in September 2021.

Key facts

Active substance1-(2-isopropoxyethyl)-2-thioxo-1,2,3,5-tetrahydro-pyrrolo[3,2-d] pyrimidin-4-one (verdiperstat)
Intented useTreatment of multiple system atrophy
Orphan designation statusPositive
EU designation numberEU/3/14/1404
Date of designation16/12/2014
SponsorBiohaven Pharmaceutical Ireland DAC

VERDIPERSTAT

For Initial Indications in Multiple System Atrophy (MSA) and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)

Verdiperstat is a first-in-class, potent, selective, brain-penetrant, irreversible myeloperoxidase (MPO) enzyme inhibitor. Verdiperstat was progressed through Phase 2 clinical trials by AstraZeneca. Seven clinical studies were completed by AstraZeneca, including four Phase 1 studies in healthy subjects, two Phase 2a studies in subjects with Parkinson’s Disease, and one Phase 2b study in subjects with MSA. These Phase 2 clinical studies provide evidence that verdiperstat achieves peripheral target engagement (i.e., reduces MPO specific activity in plasma) and central target engagement in the brain and offer proof of its mechanism of action (i.e., reduce microglial activation and neuroinflamation).

A Phase 3 clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of verdiperstat in MSA is currently ongoing. A Phase 2/3 trial to evaluate the efficacy of verdiperstat in ALS is currently ongoing as part of the HEALEY ALS Platform Trial.

Verdiperstat has received Fast Track and Orphan Drug designations by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicine Agency due to the unmet medical needs in MSA.

Verdiperstat Overview

DESCRIPTIONClick to expendFirst-in-class, brain-penetrant, irreversible inhibitor of MPO

CLINICAL STATUSClick to expendOver 250 healthy volunteers and patients have been treated with verdiperstat in Phase 1 and Phase 2 studies. A Phase 3 study in MSA is currently underway and a Phase 2/3 study in ALS is currently enrolling.
Verdiperstat (AZD3241) is a selective, irreversible and orally active myeloperoxidase (MPO) inhibitor, with an IC50 of 630 nM, and can be used in the research of neurodegenerative brain disorders.

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PATENTWO 2006062465https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2006062465A1/enExample 9 l-(2-Isopropoxyethyl)-2-thioxo-l,2,3,5-tetrahydro-pyrrolo[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-one (a) 3-[(2-Isopropoxyethyl)ωnino]-lH-pyrwle-2-carboxylic acid ethyl ester Trichlorocyanuric acid (1.84 g, 7.93 mmol) was added to a solution of 2- isopropoxyethanol (0.75 g, 7.21 mmol) in CH2Cl2 (3 mL). The reaction mixture was cooled to 0 °C and TEMPO (0.022 g, 0.14 mmol) was carefully added in small portions. The mixture was stirred at r.t. for 20 minutes then filtered through Celite and washed with CH2Cl2. The filtrate was kept cold, 0 °C, during filtration. The aldehyde solution was added to a stirred mixture of 3-amino-lH-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid ester (0.83 g, 5.41 mmol) and HOAc (0.62 mL, 10.8 mmol) at 0 °C in methanol (5 mL). The mixture was stirred for 20 minutes, then NaCNBH3 (0.34 g, 5.41 mmol) was added. After stirring at r.t for 2 h, the solution was evaporated onto silica and purified by flash column chromatography (heptane/ethyl acetate gradient; 0 to 100% ethyl acetate) to yield the title compound (0.75 g, 58%) as an oil. 1H NMR (DMSO-d6) δ ppm 10.72 (IH, br s), 6.76-6.74 (IH, m), 5.66-5.65 (IH, m), 5.34(1H, br s), 4.17 (2H, q, J=7.0 Hz), 3.59-3.49 (3H, m), 3.15 (2H, q, J=5.6 Hz), 1.26 (3H, t, J=7.0 Hz), 1.10 (3H, s), 1.08 (3H, s); MS (ESI) m/z 241 (M +1).(b) l-(2-Isopropoxyethyl)-2-thioxo-l,2,3,5-tetrahydro-pyrrolo[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-one The title compound (0.17 g, 23%) was prepared in accordance with the general method B using 3-[(2-isopropoxyethyl)amino]-lH-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (0.7 g, 2.91 mmol) and ethoxycarbonyl isothiocyanate (0.40 mL, 3.50 mmol).1H NMR (DMSO-d6) δ ppm 12.74 (2H, br s), 7.35 (IH, d, J=2.8 Hz), 6.29 (IH, d, J=3.0Hz), 4.49 (2H, t, J=6.3 Hz), 3.72 (2H, t, J=6.3 Hz), 3.60-3.58 (IH, m), 1.02 (3H, s), 1.01 (3H, s);MS (ESI) m/z 254 (M +1).

/////////verdiperstat, вердиперстат , فيرديبيرستات , 维地泊司他 , WHO 10251, AZD-3241BHV-3421UNII-TT3345YXVRTT3345YXVRBHV-3241, AZD 3241, BHV 3241, BHV 3421

CC(C)OCCN1C2=C(C(=O)NC1=S)NC=C2

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Rilzabrutinib


Click here for structure editor
(R)-2-(3-(4-Amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxyphenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]-pyrimidin-1-yl)piperidine-1-carbonyl)-4-methyl-4-(4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin-1-yl)pent-2-enenitrile.png
20200818lnp2-rilza.jpg

PRN 1008, Rilzabrutinib

CAS 1575591-66-0

リルザブルチニブ;

C36H40FN9O3,

MW 665.7597

2-[(3R)-3-[4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxyphenyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-1-yl]piperidine-1-carbonyl]-4-methyl-4-[4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin-1-yl]pent-2-enenitrile

Anti-inflammatory disease, Autoimmune disease treatment

  • OriginatorPrincipia Biopharma
  • Class2 ring heterocyclic compounds; Amines; Anti-inflammatories; Fluorobenzenes; Nitriles; Phenyl ethers; Piperazines; Piperidines; Pyrazoles; Pyrimidines; Skin disorder therapies; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of ActionAgammaglobulinaemia tyrosine kinase inhibitors
  • Orphan Drug StatusYes – Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura; Pemphigus vulgaris
  • Phase IIIIdiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura; Pemphigus vulgaris
  • Phase IIAutoimmune disorders
  • 02 Jun 2021Efficacy data from a phase IIa trial in Ankylosing spondylitis presented at the 22nd Annual Congress of the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR-2021)
  • 07 Apr 2021Sanofi initiates enrollment in a phase I pharmacokinetics trial in healthy volunteers in Australia (PO, Tablet, Capsule) (NCT04748926)
  • 31 Mar 2021Sanofi announces intention to seek regulatory approval for Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura in 2023 (Sanofi pipeline, May 2021)

CLIP

https://cen.acs.org/pharmaceuticals/drug-development/Sanofi-acquire-BTK-inhibitor-firm/98/web/2020/08

Sanofi to acquire BTK inhibitor firm Principia for $3.7 billion

Principia is testing its small-molecule compounds in multiple sclerosis and immune system diseases

Sanofi will pay $3.7 billion to acquire Principia Biopharma, a San Francisco-based biotech firm developing small molecules that inhibit Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK). The price represents about a 75% premium over Principia’s stock market value in early July, before reports surfaced that Sanofi was interested in buying the firm.

BTK is a protein important for both normal B cell development and the proliferation of lymphomas, which are B cell cancers. AbbVie, AstraZeneca, and BeiGene all market BTK inhibitors for treating specific kinds of lymphomas. Sales of AbbVie’s inhibitor, Imbruvica, approached $4.7 billion in 2019.

Other drug firms have been eager to get in on the action as well. In January, Merck & Co. spent $2.7 billion to acquire ArQule, whose experimental noncovalent BTK inhibitor is designed to overcome resistance that some cancers develop after treatment with current covalent BTK inhibitors. Eli Lilly and Company’s $8 billion acquisition of Loxo Oncology in 2019 also included a noncovalent BTK inhibitor.

BTK is also linked to inflammation, and Principia focuses on developing BTK inhibitors for immune system diseases and multiple sclerosis. Its compound rilzabrutinib is currently in clinical trials for pemphigus and immune thrombocytopenia. In 2017, Sanofi struck a deal to develop Principia’s brain-penetrant BTK inhibitor, SAR442168, for multiple sclerosis.

Sanofi announced in April of this year that the inhibitor reduced formation of new lesions—the scarred nervous tissue that gives multiple sclerosis its name—by 85% in a Phase II clinical trial. A Phase III trial of the compound began in June.

Upon announcing its deal to acquire Principia, Sanofi said that both rilzabrutinib and SAR442168 have the potential to become a “pipeline in a product,” indicating they can be used for many immune-related and neurological diseases, respectively.

The anti-inflammatory effects of BTK inhibitors have raised interest in the drugs as treatments for people hospitalized with COVID-19. Notably, the US National Cancer Institute conducted a small study suggesting acalabrutinib may help reduce the respiratory distress and inflammation in people with COVID-19. Based on that preliminary study, AstraZeneca—which markets acalabrutinib as Calquence—is conducting a 60-person randomized trial of the drug for COVID-19.

Sanofi has not indicated interest in investigating Principia’s BTK inhibitors as COVID-19 treatments.Chemical & Engineering NewsISSN 0009-2347 
PATENTWO 2021127231https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2021127231&tab=PCTDESCRIPTION&_cid=P20-KRA0I9-18818-1

SOLID FORMS OF 2-[3-[4-AMTNO-3-(2-FT,TTORO-4-PHENOXY- PHEN¥L)PYRAZOLO[3,4 D]PYRIMIDIN l~YL]PIPERIDINE~l~CARBON¥L] 4~

METHYL-4-[4-(OXETAN-3-YL)PIPERAZIN-l-YLjPENT-2-ENENITRILE

[11 This application claims the benefit of priority to U.S. Provisional Application

No 62/951,958, filed December 20, 2019, and U.S Provisional Application No. 63/122,309, filed December 7, 2020, the contents of each of which are incorporated by reference herein in their entirety.

[2] Disclosed herein are solid forms of 2-[3-[4~amino-3~(2~fluoro-4-phenoxy-plienyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-l-yl]piperidine-l Carbonyl]~4-nietliyl-4~[4-(oxetaii~3-yl)piperazin-!~yi]pent-2~enenitriie (Compound (I)), methods of using the same, and processes for making Compound (I), including its solid forms. The solid forms of Compound (I) may be inhibitors of Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) comprising low residual solvent content.

[3| The enzyme BTK is a member of the Tec family non-receptor tyrosine kinases.

BTK is expressed in most hematopoietic cells, including B cells, mast cells, and macrophages BTK plays a role in the development and activation of B cells. BTK activity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several disorders and conditions, such as B cell-related hematological cancers (e.g., non-Hodgkin lymphoma and B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia) and autoimmune diseases (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren’s syndrome, pemphigus, IBD, lupus, and asthma).

[4] Compound (I), pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof, and solid forms of any of the foregoing may inhibit BTK and be useful in the treatment of disorders and conditions mediated by BTK activity. Compound (I) is disclosed in Example 31 of WO 2014/039899 and has the following structure:

where *C is a stereochemical center. An alternative procedure for producing Compound (!) is described in Example 1 of WO 2015/127310.

[5] Compound (I) obtained by the procedures described in WO 2014/039899 and WO 2015/127310 comprises residual solvent levels well above the limits described in the International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (“ICH”) guidelines. In general, manufacturing processes producing residual solvent levels near or above the ICH limits are not desirable for preparing active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs).

Example 1: Spray Drying Process A

[311] A solution of Compound (I) in dichloromethane (prepared according to Example 31 on pages 86-87 of WO 2014/039899) was washed with pH 3 phosphate buffer to remove basic impurities that are more soluble than Compound (I) in the aqueous layer. The dichloromethane solution was then washed with pH 7 buffer and solvent exchanged into isopropyl acetate. The isopropyl acetate solution was then washed with pH 3 phosphate buffer, bringing Compound (I) into the aqueous layer and removing non-basic impurities. The pH of the aqueous layer was adjusted to pH 9 with 10% sodium hydroxide, and the aqueous layer was extracted with isopropyl acetate. Upon concentration under vacuum, Compound (I) was precipitated from heptane at 0 °C, filtered and dried to give a white amorphous solid as a mixture of the (E) and (Z) isomers, as wet Compound (I). Wet Compound (I) was dissolved in methanol and spray dried at dryer inlet temperature of 125 °C to 155 °C and dryer outlet temperature of 48 to 58 °C to obtain the stable amorphous Compound (I) free base with levels of isopropyl acetate and heptane below 0.5% and 0.05%, respectively.

Example 2: Spray Drying Process B


intermediate A

Compound (!)

[241] A jacketed reactor with overhead stirrer, condenser, nitrogen line, temperature probe, and recirculating fluid chiller/heater was charged with Intermediate A (20.2 kg) and Intermediate B (13.6 kg, 1.5 equiv). DCM (361.3 kg, 14.5 vol) was charged to the reactor. The mixture was agitated, and the batch cooled to 0 °C to 5 °C. The reactor was charged with pyrrolidine (18.3 kg, 6 equiv) and then charged with TMSC1 (18.6 kg, 4 eq). Stirring was continued at 0 °C to 5 °C for 0.5 to 1 hour

[242] At 0 °C to 5 °C, acetic acid (2.0 equiv) was charged to the reactor followed by water (5 equiv). Stirring was continued at 0 °C to 5 °C for 1 to 1.5 hours. Water (10 equiv) was charged to the reactor, and the solution was adjusted to 20 °C to 25 °C. The internal temperature was adjusted to 20 °C to 25 °C and the biphasic mixture was stirred for 15 to 20 mins. Stirring was stopped and phases allowed to separate for at least 0.5 h. The lower aqueous layer was removed.

[243] Water (7 vol) was charged to the reactor. The pH was adjusted to 2.8-3.3 with a 10 wt. % solution of citric acid. Stirring was continued at 0 to 5 °C for 1 to 1.5 hours. Stirring was stopped and phases allowed to separate for at least 0.5 h. The lower aqueous layer was removed.

[244] A jacketed reactor with overhead stirrer, condenser, nitrogen line, temperature probe, and recirculating fluid chiller/heater was charged with an approximately 9% solution of NaHCCri (1 vol) and the organic layer. The internal temperature was adjusted to 20 °C to 25 °C, and the biphasic mixture was stirred for 15 to 20 mins. Stirring was stopped and phases allowed to separate for at least 0.5 h. The lower aqueous layer was removed. The aqueous layer was measured to have a pH greater than 7.

[245] A jacketed reactor with overhead stirrer, condenser, nitrogen line, temperature probe and recirculating fluid chiller/heater was charged with the organic layer. The organic phase ¾s distilled under vacuum at less than 25 °C to 4 total volumes. IP AC (15 vol) was charged to the reactor. The organic phase was distilled under vacuum at less than 25 °C to 10 total volumes. Water (15 vol) followed by pH 2.3 phosphate buffer were charged to the reactor at an internal temperature of 20 °C to 25 °C. The pH adjusted to 3 Stirring was stopped and phases allowed to separate for at least 0.5 h. The organic phase was removed.

[246] The following steps were repeated twice: IP AC (5 vol) was charged to the reactor containing the aqueous layer. Stirring was continued for 0.25 to 0.5 hours. Stirring was stopped and phases allowed to separate for at least 0.5 h. The organic phase was removed. [247] IP AC (15 vol) was charged to the reactor containing the aqueous layer. A pH 10 phosphate buffer was charged to the reactor and the pH adjusted to 10 with 14% NaOH solution. Stirring was continued for 1.5 to 2 hours. Stirring was stopped and phases allowed to separate for at. least 0.5 h. The aqueous layer was discarded. The organic layer was dried over brine.

[248] The organic solution was distilled under vacuum at less than 25 °C to 5 total volumes.

[249] A jacketed reactor with overhead stirrer, condenser, nitrogen line, temperature probe and recirculating fluid chiller/heater was charged with n-heptane (20 vol). The internal temperature was adjusted to 0 to 5 °C, and the IP AC solution was added.

[250] The suspension was filtered. The filter cake was washed with n-heptane and the tray was dried at 35 °C. Compound (I) (24.6 kg) was isolated in 86% yield.

[251] Compound (1) was dissolved in methanol (6 kg) and spray dried to remove residual IP AC and n-heptane.

Example 3: Precipitation Process A

[252] A solution of Compound (I) in dichloromethane (prepared according to Example 31 on pages 86-87 of WO 2014/039899) was quenched with acetic acid and water, followed by washing with pH 3 aqueous solution to remove basic impurities that are more soluble than Compound (1) in the aqueous layer. Washing was repeated as needed to reduce impurities. Methanesulfonic acid was added to the dichloromethane solution, and the dichloromethane solution was concentrated by distillation under reduced pressure, followed by addition of 1% NaCi aqueous solution and isopropyl acetate before adjustment of pH to approximately 3 with potassium hydroxide. The isopropyl acetate layer was removed and discarded. The aqueous layer containing Compound (I) was washed with isopropyl acetate to remove hydrophobic impurities. Washing was repeated as needed to reduce related substance impurities. Residual isopropyl acetate was removed by distillation under reduced pressure. The aqueous solution containing Compound (I) was cooled to 0 to 5°C before adjusting the pH to approximately 9 with potassium hydroxide. The free base of Compound (I) was allowed to precipitate and maturate at 20 °C for 20 hours. The mixture temperature was then adjusted to 20 °C to 25 °C, and the hydrate impurity was verified to be less than 0.3% (< 0.3%). The cake of the free base of Compound (I) was filtered and washed as needed to reduce conductivity. The cake was then allowed to dry on the filter under vacuum and nitrogen swept to reduce water content by Karl-Fischer (KF < 50%) before transferring to the oven for drying. The wet cake of the free base of Compound (1) was dried under vacuum at 25 °C until water content by Karl -Fischer was less than 1.5% (KF < 1.5%), and then dehmiped by milling to yield a uniform white amorphous solid as a mixture of the (E) and (Z) isomers, with no detectible levels of isopropyl acetate or heptane.

Example 4: Precipitation Process 3B

[253] A solution of Compound (I) in dichloromethane (prepared according to Example 31 on pages 86-87 of WO 2014/039899) was quenched with acetic acid and water, followed by washing with pH 3 aqueous solution to remove basic impurities that are more soluble than Compound (I) in the aqueous layer. The washing was repeated as needed to reduce residual solvents and impurities. The dichloromethane solution was then washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate (pH > 7). Dichloromethane was removed by distillation under reduced pressure, followed by addition of water and isopropyl acetate. The pH of the aqueous layer was adjusted to pH to 2.8 – 3.3 with 2 M aqueous sulfuric acid (H2SQ4) at 0 – 5 °C, and the mixture rvas stirred and settled. After phase separation removal of the organic layer, the aqueous layer was washed with isopropyl acetate three times and the residual isopropyl acetate in aqueous layer was distilled out under vacuum at a temperature below 25 °C and the solution was basitied with 5% aqueous KOFI to pH 9 – 10 to a slurry . The resulting suspension was stirred and warmed up to 20 °C to 25 °C and aged for 20 h. The product was filtered and washed with water and dried to give white solid in 86% yield.

Example 5: Precipitation Process C

[254] A solution of Compound (I) in dichloromethane (prepared according to Example 31 on pages 86-87 of WO 2014/039899) was quenched with acetic acid and water, followed by washing to remove basic impurities that are more soluble than Compound (I) in the aqueous layer. Washing was repeated as needed to reduce impurities. Methanesulfonic acid was added to the d chloromethane solution, and the dichloromethane solution was concentrated under reduced pressure to obtain a thin oil. The concentrated oil was cooled to approximately 5°C before washing with an aqueous solution of sodium chloride. The organic phase was discarded. Washing of the aqueous layer was repeated as needed with dichloromethane to remove low level impurities. The pH of the aqueous solution was adjusted to approximately 3 with an aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide. Residual dichloromethane was removed

under reduced pressure. The level of residual acetic acid was determined by, for example, titration. The aqueous solution containing Compound (I) was cooled to a temperature between 0°C and 5°C. Acetic acid was present at 0 wt % to 8 wt. %. Acetic acid level was 0 wt % if the aqueous acid solution was washed with aqueous sodium bicarbonate or another aqueous inorganic base. Optionally, additional acetic acid was added to achieve a 0 wt.% to 8 wt. % acetic acid level. An aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide was constantly charged to the aqueous solution to obtain a pH to approximately 9.5. The free base of Compound (I) was allowed to precipitate and maturate at approximately 20 °C for least 3 hours. The cake (wet solid) of the free base of Compound (I) was filtered and washed with water. The wet cake was then dried under reduced vacuum with slight heat. Alternatively, instead of washing the wet cake with water, the wet cake was reslurried with water at approximately 15 °C for at least 1 hour before filtering. The free base of Compound (I) in the fomi of a wet cake was dried under vacuum with slight heat at 25°C.

[255] FIGs. 12-15 are example SEM images showing the variable morphologies of particles of Compound (I) during the filtration step to isolate Compound (I) based on the amount acetic acid added during the initial step in the precipitation of Compound (Ϊ) (FIG. 12: at 0 wt. % acetic acid; FIG 13: at 3 wt. % acetic acid; FIG. 14: at 5 wt. % acetic acid; FIG 15: at 8 wt. % acetic acid). Filtration speed depended on the morphology and was the fastest for 0 wt. % acetic acid. At 1 wt. % acetic acid, the filtration speed diminished considerably, improving at 2 wt. % to 3 wt. % acetic acid. Morphologies with more open holes (such as, e.g., more porous particles) resulted in improved filtration speeds, whereas more compact particles resulted in decreased filtration speed.

Example 6: Conversion of a Crystalline Form of Compound (Ϊ) to an Amorphous Form

[256] 9.8 grams of a crystalline form of Compound (I) were dissolved in approximately 20 mL of dichloromethane and approximately 120 ml. of brine solution. Then, approximately 1 equivalent of methanesulfonic acid was added. The pH w¾s approximately 2. The layers were separated. The aqueous layer was concentrated at a temperature between 0°C and 5°C to remove residual dichloromethane before slowly adding aqueous KOI I solution (approximately 5%) to adjust the pH to a value between 9 and 10. During aqueous KOH addition, an amorphous form of Compound (I) precipitated out. The slurry was slowly warmed to room temperature and then was stirred for approximately 24 hours before filtering and rinsing the wet cake with water. The wet cake was dried under vacuum with slight heat at approximately 30°C to provide 7 grams of a white to an off-white solid (87% yield and 98 4% purity). XRPD showed that the product was an amorphous solid form of Compound (I).

Example 7: Micronization of Compound (I) Particles Obtained by Precipitation Processes

[257] A fluid jet mill equipment was used during lab scale jet milling trials. The fluid jet mill equipment includes a flat cylindrical chamber with 1.5” diameter, fitted with four symmetric jet nozzles winch are tangentially positioned in the inner wall. Prior to feeding material to the fluid jet mill in each trial, the material was sieved in a 355 iim screen to remove any agglomerates and avoid blocking of the nozzles during the feed of material to the micronization chamber. The material to be processed was drawn into the grinding chamber through a vacuum created by the venturi (P vent ~ 0 5 – 1 0 bar above P grind). The feed flow rate of solids (F_feed) was controlled by a manual valve and an infinite screw volumetric feeder. Compressed nitrogen was used to inject the feed material; compressed nitrogen was also used for the jet nozzles in the walls of the milling chamber. Compressed fluid issuing from the nozzles expands from P grind and imparts very’ high rotational speeds in the chamber. Accordingly, material is accelerated by rotating and expanding gases and subjected to centrifugal forces. Particles move outward and are impacted by high velocity jets, directing the particles radially inward at very high speeds. Rapidly moving particles impact the slower moving path of particles circulating near the periphery of the chamber. Attrition takes place due to the violent impacts of particles against each other. Particles with reduced size resulting from this sequence of impacts are entrained in the circulating stream of gas and swept against the action of centrifugal force toward the outlet at the center. Larger particles in the gas stream are subjected to a centrifugal force and returned to the grinding zone. Fine particles are carried by the exhaust gas to the outlet and pass from the grinding chamber into a collector.

[258] The feeder has continuous feed rate control; however, to more precisely control the feed rate, the full scale of feed rates was arbitrary divided in 10 positions. To calibrate F feed, the feeder was disconnected from milling chamber and 10 g of Compound (I) powder was fed through the feeder operating at various feed rate positions. The mass of powder flowing through the feeder over 6 minutes was marked. The resulting feed rate was directly proportional to feeder position. After processing each of the four trials, the jet mill was stopped, micronized product removed from the container, and the milling chamber checked for any powder accumulation.

Variables/Parameters

F_feed Feed flow rate of solids [kg/h]

P grind Grinding pressure inside the

drying chamber [bar]

P vent Feed pressure in the venturi [bar]

Example 8: Residual Solvent Levels

[251] Retention of process solvents (/.<?., res dual solvents) depends on van der Waal s’ forces that are unique to and an inherent property of each molecule. Additionally, solvent retention depends how the API solid is formed, isolated, washed, and dried (i.e., during the manufacturing process). Because residual solvents may pose safety risks, pharmaceutical processes should be designed to minimize residual solvent levels (e.g , to result in residual solvent levels below the limits established in the ICH guidelines).

[252] Residual solvent analysis was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The residual solvent levels in solid forms of Compound (I) prepared by spray drying processes described herein and precipitation processes described herein are provided in Table 2. The residual solvent levels in crude Compound (I) listed in Table 2 are comparable to the residual solvent levels in crude Compound (I) prepared according to the procedures detailed in Example 31 of WO 2014/039899 and Example 1 of WO 2015/127310.

Table 2: Residual solvent levels in solid forms of Compound (I)

PATENTWO 2015127310https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2015127310A1/enExample 1Synthesis of 2-[(3R)-3-[4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxy-phenyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-l- yl]-piperidine-l-carbonyl]-4-m iperazin-l-yl]pent-2-enenitrile

Figure imgf000045_0001

Step 1To a solution of 3-[(3R)-3-[4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxy-phenyl)pyrazolo[3,4- d]pyrimidin-l -yl]-l-piperidyl]-3-oxo-propanenitrile (15 g, 3.12mmol), 2-methyl-2-[4- (oxetan-3-yl)piperazin-l-yl]propanal (794.25mg, 3.74mmol) in DCM (40mL), pyrrolidine (1.54mL,18.71mmol) at 0-5 °C was added, which is followed by TMS-Cl (1.58mL,12.47mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at 0-5 °C for 3 h and was quenched with 1 M potassium phosphate buffer (pH 3). Layers were separated and the organic layer was washed once more with 1 M potassium phosphate buffer (pH 3). The organic layer was extracted withl M potassium Phosphate buffer at pH 1.5. Layers were separated. The aqueous phase contained the desired product while the impurities stayed in the organic phase. The aqueous phase was neutralized with 1 M potassium phosphate (pH 7) and was extracted with isopropylacetate (10 volumes). Upon concentration 2-[(3R)-3-[4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4- phenoxy-phenyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-l-yl]piperidine-l-carbonyl]-4-methyl-4-[4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin-l-yl]pent-2-enenitrile was obtained as a foam having >99% HPLC purity. MS (pos. ion) m/z: 666 (M+l ).The foam containing high levels of residual solvent was dissolved in 2 M HC1 and the resulting solution was placed under vacuum to remove residual organic solvents. pH of the solution was then adjusted to ~ 7 and the resulting paste was filtered and dried in vacuum without heat. This resulted in isolation of 2-[(3R)-3-[4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxy- phenyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-l-yl]piperidine-l-carbonyl]-4-methyl-4-[4-(oxetan-3- yl)piperazin- l-yl]pent-2-enenitrile containing residual water up to 10%. Drying under vacuum without heat reduces the water level but lead to generation of impurities.Step 1AAlternatively, the isopropylacetate solution of 2-[(3R)-3-[4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4- phenoxy-phenyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin- 1 -yl]piperidine- 1 -carbonyl]-4-methyl-4-[4- (oxetan-3-yl)piperazin-l -yl]pent-2-enenitrile can be concentrated to 4 vol and added to heptane (20 volume) at 0 °C. The resulting suspension was stirred at 0 °C overnight and the product was filtered, washed twice with heptane and dried at 45 °C for 2 days under vacuum to give 2-[(3R)-3-[4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxy-phenyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-l – yl]piperidine-l-carbonyl]-4-methyl-4-[4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin-l-yl]pent-2-enenitrile in 85 – 90 % yield as a free flowing solid. However, the solids obtained by this method contained high residual solvents (3.9 wt% isopropylacetate and 1.7 wt% heptane). In addition, the free base form was not very stable as degradation products were observed during the drying process at less than 45 °C.Salt formationExample 2Preparation of 2-[(3R)-3-[4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxy-phenyl)-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin- l-yl]-piperidine-l-carbonyl]-4-methyl-4-[4-(oxetan-3-yl)-piperazin-l-yl]pent-2-enenitrile hemisulfate and sulfate saltHemisulfate: To the solution of 2-[(3R)-3-[4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxy-phenyl)-pyrazolo[3,4- d]pyrimidin-l-yl]-piperidine -carbonyl]-4-methyl-4-[4-(oxetan-3-yl)-piperazin-l-yl]pent-2- enenitrile (4.2 g) in EtOAc (60 mL, 15 vol) was added sulfuric acid (0.31 g, 0.17 mL, 0.5 eq) in EtOAc (20 mL, 5 vol) at ambient temperature. The suspension was stirred at ambient temperature for ~ 2 hr and then 40 °C for 4 hr and then at ambient temperature for at least 1 hr. After filtration and drying at ambient temperature under vacuum, 1.5 g of white powder was obtained. Solubility of the hemi-sulfate at ambient temperature was > 100 mg/mL in water.Sulfate saltTo the solution of 2-[(3R)-3-[4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxy-phenyl)-pyrazolo[3,4- d]pyrimidin-l-yl]-piperidine-l-carbonyl]-4-methyl-4-[4-(oxetan-3-yl)-piperazin-l-yl]pent-2- enenitrile (810 mg) in EtOAc (8 mL, 10 vol) was added sulfuric acid (0.06 mL, 1.0 equiv.) in EtOAc (2.5 mL, 5 vol) at ambient temperature. The resulting suspension was stirred at 40 °C for 2 hr and then cooled to ambient temperature for at least 1 hr. After filtration, solids were dried by suction under Argon for 1 h to give a white powder (0.68 g) in 69% yield.

Figure imgf000047_0001

Example 3Preparation of 2-[(3R)-3-[4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxy-phenyl)-pyrazolo[3,4- d]pyrimidin- 1 -yl]-piperidine- 1 -carbonyl] -4-methyl-4-[4-(oxetan-3-yl)-piperazin- 1 -yl]pent-2- enenitrile hydrochlorideTo a solution of 2-[(3R)-3-[4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxy-phenyl)pyrazolo[3,4- d]pyrimidin- 1 -yl]piperidine- 1 -carbonyl]-4-methyl-4-[4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin- 1 -yl]pent-2- enenitrile (100 mg, 0.15 mmol) in CH2CI2 (1ml) at ambient temperature was added 2 equivalent of HC1 (0.3 mmol, 0.15 ml of 2M HC1 in 1 : 1 dioaxane:CH2Cl2). The resulting homogeneous solution was stirred at ambient temperature for 1 h and was added dropwise to 15 volumes of ethylacetate (as compared to CH2C12) resulting in formation of a white solid. The mixtures was aged at ambient temperature for lh and placed at 2-8 C for 19 h. Upon filtration and washing of the filter cake with ethylacetate and drying a white solid was obtained. Analysis by XRPD indicated formation of an amorphous solid. Both Ή-NMR and IC analysis indicated formation of the salt. IC indicated formation mono-HCl salt.

Figure imgf000048_0001

Example 4General procedure for preparation of 2-[(3R)-3-[4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxy- phenyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-l-yl]-piperidine-l-carbonyl]-4-methyl-4-[4-(oxetan-3-yl)- piperazin-l-yl]pent-2-enenitrile mono- and di-mesylate saltsTo a solution of 2-[(3R)-3-[4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxy-phenyl)pyrazolo[3,4- d]pyrimidin-l-yl]piperidine-l-carbonyl]-4-methyl-4-[4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin-l-yl]pent-2- enenitrile (100 mg, 0.15 mmol) in CH2C12 (1 ml) at ambient temperature was added either 1 equivalent of methanesulfonic acid (0.15 mmol, 0.2 ml of 74 mg/ml solution in CH2C12) or 2 equivalent of methanesulfonic acid (0.3 mmol, 0.4 ml of 74 mg/ml solution in CH2C12). The resulting homogeneous solution was stirred at ambient temperature for 1 h and was added dropwise to 10 volumes of antisolvents (ethylacetate, methyl tert-butylether (MTBE), or cyclohexane) (10 ml as compared to CH2C12) resulting in formation of a white solid. The mixture was aged at ambient temperature for lh and placed at 2-8 °C for 19 h. Upon filtration and washing of the filter cake with the antisolvent and drying, a white solid was obtained. Analysis by XRPD indicated formation of an amorphous solid. Both Ή-NMR and IC analysis indicated formation of the salt as well as counterion ratio.Alternatively 2-[(3R)-3-[4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxy-phenyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]- pyrimidin- 1 -yl]piperidine- 1 -carbonyl]-4-methyl-4-[4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin- 1 -yl]pent-2- enenitrile can be dissolved in 4 volumes of isopropylacetate and added to 2 equivalent of methanesulfonic acid in 6 volumes of isopropylacetate at 0 °C to generate the dimesylate salt.

Figure imgf000049_0001

1. Theoretical mesylate content, monomesylate=12.6% and dimesylate=22.4%, NO- not determinedExample 5 General procedure for the preparation of carboxylate salt Approximately 20 mg of the compound (I) was dissolved in minimum amount of the allocated solvent system. These were then mixed with the appropriate number of equivalents of counterion dissolved or slurried in the allocated solvent.If compound (I) was insoluble in the selected solvent, slurry of the sample was used after adding 300 μί.If the acid was insoluble in the selected solvent, slurry of the acid was used after adding 300 xL.If the acid was a liquid, the acid was added to the dissolved/slurried compound (I) from a stock solution in the allocated solvent.The suspensions/ precipitates resulting from the mixtures of compound (I) were temperature cycled between ambient (ca. 22°C) and 40°C in 4 hour cycles for ca. 48 hrs (the cooling/heating rate after each 4 hour period was ca. 1 °C/min). The mixtures were visually checked and any solids present were isolated and allowed to dry at ambient conditions prior to analysis. Where no solid was present, samples were allowed to evaporate at ambient. Samples which produced amorphous material, after the treatment outlined above, were re- dissolved and precipitated using anti-solvent (ter/-butylmethylether) addition methods at ambient conditions (ca. 22°C). i.e. the selected anti-solvent was added to each solution, until no further precipitation could be observed visually or until no more anti-solvent could be added. The solvents used in this preparation were acetonitrile, acetone, isopropyl acetate, THF and MTBE. The acid used were oxalic acid, L-aspartic acid, maleic acid, malonic acid, L-tartaric acid, and fumaric acid.Example 6General procedure for preparation of 2-[(3R)-3-[4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxy- phenyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-l-yl]-piperidine-l-carbonyl]-4-methyl-4-[4-(oxetan-3-yl)- piperazin-l-yl]pent-2-enenitrile hemicitrate saltTo a solution 2-[(3R)-3-[4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxy-phenyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]- pyrimidin- 1 -yl]piperidine- 1 -carbonyl]-4-methyl-4-[4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin- 1 -yl]pent-2- enenitrile (5 g, 7.5 mmol) in ethanol (50 ml) was added citric acid (720.5 mg, 3.76 mmol) dissolved in 2 ml of water. Mixture was stirred at ambient temperature for 15 min, additional 0.5 ml of water was added and the mixture was stirred for 1 h, concentrated in vacuo to a gum. Ethanol was added and the mixture was concentrated. This process was repeated twice more and then CH2CI2 was added to the mixture. Upon concentration a white solid was obtained which was tumble dried under reduced pressure at 40 C for 4 h, then in a vacuum oven for 19h to give 5.4 g of a solid. Analysis by XRD indicated formation of an amorphous solid 

PATENT

WO2014039899, Example 31

Rilzabrutinib (PRN1008) is an oral, reversible covalent inhibitor of Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) [1].

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2014039899A1/enExample 31Synthesis of (R)-2-(3-(4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxyphenyl)- 1 H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin- 1 -yl)piperidine- 1 -carbonyl)-4-methyl-4-(4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin- 1 -yl)pent-2-enenitrile

Figure imgf000087_0002

Step 1A solution of 2-bromo-2-methyl-propanal (696.6 mg, 4.61 mmol) in DCM (10 mL) was cooled with an ice bath and l -(oxetan-3-yl)piperazine (328 mg, 2.31 mmol), diluted with 5-10 mL of DCM, was slowly added via addition funnel over a 15 min period. Next, Hunig’s base (0.4 mL, 2.31 mmol) was added and then the cooling bath was removed. The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight and the DCM layer was washed three times with 0.5N HC1. The combined aqueous layer was neutralized with NaOH to pH 10-11 and extracted with DCM. The combined organic layer was washed with brine and dried over Na?S04. Filtration and removal of solvent afforded 2-methyl-2-[4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin-l- yl]propanal as a light yellow liquid, which was used directly in the next step without further purification.Step 2To a cooled (0 °C) solution of 3-[(3R)-3-[4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxy-phenyl)- pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-l-yl]-l-piperidyl]-3-oxo-propanenitrile (80 mg, 0.17 mmol), was added 2-methyl-2-[4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin-l-yl]propanal (-108 mg, 0.51 mmol) in DCM (10 mL) followed by pyrrolidine (0.08 mL, 1.02 mmol) and TMS-C1 (0.09 raL, 0.68 mmol.) The ice bath was removed, and the reaction stirred 1 hour. Most of the solvent was removed and the residues were purified by chromatography, using 95:5 CH2Cl2:MeOH to obtain 79 mg of (R)-2-(3-(4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxyphenyl)-lH-pyrazolo[3,4-d]-pyrimidin-l- yl)piperidine- 1 -carbonyl)-4-methyl-4-(4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin- 1 -yl)pent-2-enenitrile as a white solid. MS (pos. ion) m/z: 666 (M+l).

PAPER

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0223523421001781?dgcid=rss_sd_all

Therapy based on Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitors one of the major treatment options currently recommended for lymphoma patients. The first generation of BTK inhibitor, Ibrutinib, achieved remarkable progress in the treatment of B-cell malignancies, but still has problems with drug-resistance or off-target induced serious side effects. Therefore, numerous new BTK inhibitors were developed to address this unmet medical need. In parallel, the effect of BTK inhibitors against immune-related diseases has been evaluated in clinical trials. This review summarizes recent progress in the research and development of BTK inhibitors, with a focus on structural characteristics and structure-activity relationships. The structure-refinement process of representative pharmacophores as well as their effects on binding affinity, biological activity and pharmacokinetics profiles were analyzed. The advantages and disadvantages of reversible/irreversible BTK inhibitors and their potential implications were discussed to provide a reference for the rational design and development of novel potent BTK inhibitors.

Image 17

///////////////PRN-1008,  PRN 1008, Rilzabrutinib, リルザブルチニブ,
N#CC(=CC(N(C1COC1)C)(C)C)C(=O)N1CCCC1Cn1nc(c2c1ncnc2N)c1ccc(cc1F)Oc1ccccc1

Uprifosbuvir


Uprifosbuvir structure.svg
Uprifosbuvir.png
ChemSpider 2D Image | Uprifosbuvir | C22H29ClN3O9P

Uprifosbuvir

MK 3682, IDX 21437

ウプリホスブビル;

Formula C22H29ClN3O9P
CAS 1496551-77-9
Mol weight 545.9071

уприфосбувир [Russian] [INN]أوبريفوسبوفير [Arabic] [INN]乌磷布韦 [Chinese] [INN]

propan-2-yl (2R)-2-[[[(2R,3R,4R,5R)-4-chloro-5-(2,4-dioxopyrimidin-1-yl)-3-hydroxy-4-methyloxolan-2-yl]methoxy-phenoxyphosphoryl]amino]propanoate

Isopropyl (2R)-2-{[(R)-{[(2R,3R,4R,5R)-4-chloro-5-(2,4-dioxo-3,4-dihydro-1(2H)-pyrimidinyl)-3-hydroxy-4-methyltetrahydro-2-furanyl]methoxy}(phenoxy)phosphoryl]amino}propanoate

IDX-21437DB15206SB18784D10996Q27281714

Uprifosbuvir (MK-3682) is an antiviral drug developed for the treatment of Hepatitis C. It is a nucleotide analogue which acts as an NS5B RNA polymerase inhibitor. It is currently in Phase III human clinical trials.[1][2][3]

Uprifosbuvir is under investigation in clinical trial NCT02332707 (Efficacy and Safety of Grazoprevir (MK-5172) and Uprifosbuvir (MK-3682) With Elbasvir (MK-8742) or Ruzasvir (MK-8408) for Chronic Hepatitis C Genotype (GT)1 and GT2 Infection (MK-3682-011)).Hepatitis C viruss (HCV) have the newly-increased patients of 3-4 million every year, and World Health Organization (WHO) is estimated in global sense More than 200,000,000, in China more than 10,000,000 patients, HCV belongs to flaviviridae hepatovirus virus to dye person.Long-term hepatitis C virus Gently to inflammation, weight is to liver cirrhosis, hepatocarcinoma for poison infection.And during hepatitis C cirrhosis patients in decompensation, can there are various complication, such as abdomen Water abdominal cavity infection, upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, hepatic encephalopathy, hepatorenal syndrome, liver failure etc. are showed.The side of HCV infection is treated initially Method is interferon and interferon and ribavirin combination therapy, and only 50% therapist has reaction, and interferon to the method With obvious side effect, such as flu-like symptoms, body weight lower and fatigue and weak, and interferon and ribavirin Conjoint therapy then produces sizable side effect, including haemolysis, anemia and tired etc..U.S. FDA have approved multiple HCV medicines, including the polymerization of protease inhibitor, ucleosides and non-nucleoside in recent years Enzyme inhibitor and NS5A inhibitor etc..The protease inhibitor class medicine of FDA approvals has three:VX‐950 (Telaprevir), SCH-503034 (Boceprevir) and TMC435 (Simeprevir), the shortcoming of protease inhibitor is It is also easy to produce that mutation, toxicity is big, poor bioavailability, it is effective to individual other gene type.Eggs of the Telaprevir as the first generation White enzyme inhibitor has logged out market.The second filial generation and third generation protease inhibitor of high activity and wide spectrum is mainly used as and other One of component of drug combination of hepatitis C medicine.NS5A inhibitor is the highly active anti-HCV medicament of a class.The most representative Daclatasive for having BMS, The Ombitasvir of the Ledipasvir and AbbVie of Gilead, as this kind of medicine independent medication is easy to produce drug resistance, They treat one of drug component of HCV primarily as drug combination.The AG14361 of hepatitis C is generally divided into two kinds of ucleosides and non-nucleoside.At present, clinically only Suo Feibu One ucleosides hepatitis C medicine of Wei is listed by FDA approvals, and other are still in the anti-hepatitis C virus medicine of ucleosides of clinical experimental stage Thing also has the MK-3682 (IDX21437) of Mo Shadong, the AL-335 of the ACH-3422 and Alios of Achillion drugmakers.Third Hepatitis virus have the features such as Multi-genotype and fast variation, and single medicine treatment hepatitis C has generation drug resistance fast, to part Genotype cure rate is low and the various defects such as course for the treatment of length.In order to overcome these defects, the treatment of drug combination is primarily now taken Scheme, in order to overcome these defects, primarily now takes the therapeutic scheme of drug combination, the Sovaldi conducts of FDA approval listings The key component of drug combination, for the patient of 4 type of 1 type of gene and gene be Suo Feibuwei, profit Ba Wei woodss and Polyethylene Glycol-α- The drug combination of interferon three, the course for the treatment of are 12 weeks;For 1 type of gene and the patient of 3 types, the big woods joints of Suo Feibuwei and Li Ba Medication, the course for the treatment of are respectively 12 weeks and 24 weeks.- 2016 years 2013, FDA ratified Suo Feibuwei and NS3 protein inhibitors again in succession Simeprevir shares the patient of 1 type of therapeutic gene;The NS5A inhibitor Daclatavir therapeutic genes 1 of Suo Feibuwei and BMS With the patient of 3 types.Harvoni is the patient that Suo Feibuweijia NS5A inhibitor Ledipasvir is used for 1 type of gene.Even if using Same nucleoside, the NS5A inhibitor and/or NS3 protease inhibitor for sharing varying strength can effectively extend composition of medicine Clinical application range and Shorten the Treatment Process.In June, 2016, FDA have approved Suo Feibuwei and more potent secondary NS5A inhibitor Velpatasvir shares the hepatitis C patient suitable for all gene types, it is not necessary to carry out genetic test.Just in three phases clinic Suo Feibuwei, NS5A inhibitor Velpatasvir and NS3 protease inhibitor Voxilaprevir goes for all of disease People, is try to the course for the treatment of and shortened to 8 weeks from 12 weeks.Suo Feibuwei just in clinical trial target spots different with hepatitis C virus are directed to Drug regimen (such as Suo Feibuweijia new type NS 5A inhibitor Velpatasvir and/or protease inhibitor GS5816), its knot Fruit show than single drug more wide spectrum, effectively, and can be with Shorten the Treatment Process.MSD Corp. is by MK-3682 and NS5A inhibitor Grazoprevir and/or protease inhibitor Elbasvir is used as new drug regimen, effective for all genotype of HCV, And further shorten to the course for the treatment of of 8 weeks.New deuterated nucleoside phosphoric acid ester compound disclosed in patent of the present invention, especially The double deuterated compound such as VI-1b2 in 5 ‘-position, shows than the more preferable bioavailability of former compound MK-3682 and longer partly declines Phase.In addition, this kind of novel nucleoside phosphoramidate is significantly superior to the Suo Feibuwei of clinical practice in terms of anti-hepatitis C activity, On sugared ring, chlorine atom replaces fluorine atom, and cytotoxicity is significantly reduced in surveyed cell line.By to base, sugared ring With the transformation and optimization of prodrug moiety system, the anti-hepatitis C activity of partial synthesis compound is higher than Suo Feibuwei 2-10 times, meanwhile, In the optimization of metabolism key position, synthesis compound shows that in blood plasma the higher metabolic stabilities of peso Fei Buwei and chemistry are steady It is qualitative.Therefore this kind of new deuterated nucleotide phosphate and NS5A inhibitor and/or egg as shown in formula a, a1, a2, b, b1, b2 The newtype drug combination constituted by white enzyme inhibitor is with extremely wide application prospect.Deuterium is the naturally occurring hydrogen isotope of nature, the deuterated isotopic body in common drug all containing trace.Deuterium without It is malicious, “dead”, it is safe to human body, C-D keys are more stable (6-9 times) than c h bond, hydrogen is replaced with after deuterium, can extend medicine Half-life, while pharmacologically active (shape difference of H and D is little, J Med Chem.2011,54,2529-2591) is not affected, in addition Deuterated medicine usually shows more preferable bioavailability and less toxicity, and the active ribonucleoside triphosphote of its metabolism is more stable, So deuterated nucleoside phosphoramidate will be better than corresponding nucleoside medicine in the curative effect of clinical practice.For example, 2013 It is exactly a deuterated compound that the nucleoside anti hepatitis C virus drug ACH-3422 of clinical trial is in the approval of year FDA, with non-deuterium (WO2014169278, WO are 2014169280) than having higher bioavailability and longer half-life for the former compound phase in generation. 
Based on above-mentioned present Research, we design and are prepared for the new deuterated nucleoside that compound VI-1b2 is representative Phosphoramidate.Below we will be described in the architectural feature of deuterated nucleoside phosphoramidate of our inventions, preparation method, Antiviral activity experimental result and it as anti-hepatitis c virus drug combination key component and NS5A inhibitor and/ Or the drug regimen of protease inhibitor is in the application of anti-virus aspect.

The EPA awarded the greener reaction conditions to the pharmaceutical company Merck & Co. for building a prodrug synthesis that eliminated the use of toxic reagents. Prodrugs are molecules that get metabolized by our bodies into an active pharmaceutical. Some hepatitis C and HIV medications are prodrugs and get synthesized through a method call pronucleotide (ProTide) synthesis. The method uses toxic and corrosive thionyl chloride, plus an excess of expensive pentafluorophenol that generates a lot of waste. Merck’s new method creates their target compounds in 90 to 92% yields without these reagents and eliminates the need for halogenated solvents entirely through strategic catalyst loading and the use of different starting materials from the traditional route.

20200616lnp3-structure.jpg

The design of greener chemicals award went to the development of more environmentally friendly versions of chemicals called thermoset binders, which can serve as carpet adhesives and are involved in the manufacture of mineral and fiberglass products. Generally, these chemicals are based on formaldehyde or polycarboxylic acids, and they can give off toxic formaldehyde and often use small amounts of sulfuric and hypophosphorous acid as catalysts to activate them. The insulation and commercial roofing company Johns Manville created a new binder based on the reaction between renewable dextrose, fructose, and other simple sugars, bound together by the α-carbon-containing cross-linking agent glyoxal. The reaction also uses a biodegradable acid in water as a catalyst. The binder can be made in just one step instead of the traditional multistep synthesis. Also, the synthesis can be done directly at the manufacturing site, instead of beforehand like with the traditional approach, meaning this new binder creates fewer of the health and environmental hazards that come from storage and transportation.

wdt-25

NEW DRUG APPROVALS

ONE TIME

$10.00

SYN

US 20170226146,

Paper

Organic Process Research & Development (2021), 25(3), 661-667.

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.oprd.0c00487

Abstract Image

A novel application of the synthesis of pronucleotide (ProTide) 5′-phosphoramidate monoesters promoted by aluminum-based Lewis acids is described. In the multikilogram synthesis of uprifosbuvir (MK-3682, 1), a clinical candidate for the treatment of hepatitis C, this methodology provided >100:1 diastereoselectivity at the phosphorus stereocenter and >100:1 selectivity for the 5′-mono phosphorylation over undesired bisphosphorylation side products. The high diastereoselectivity and mono/bis ratio achieved enabled elimination of the tedious workup associated with the tert-butyl magnesium chloride protocol commonly used to install this functionality in similar nucleotide prodrugs, achieving a near doubling of the isolated yield from 45% to 81%. The process development and purity control strategy of MK-3682, as well as handling of the pyrophoric reagent on scale, will also be discussed.

PAPER

Science (Washington, DC, United States) (2020), 369(6504), 725-730.

Science (Washington, DC, United States) (2017), 356(6336), 426-430.

Chemical Science (2017), 8(4), 2804-2810.

PATENT

CN 106543253

https://patents.google.com/patent/CN106543253A/zh

PATENT

WO 2014058801

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2014058801A1/enExample 1Preparation of 2′-Chloro Nucleoside Analogs

Scheme 1

Figure imgf000136_0001
Figure imgf000136_0002

Ethyl (3R)-2-chloro-3-[(4R)-2,2-dimethyl-l,3-dioxolan-4-yl]-3-hydroxy-2- methylpropanoate (A2):

Figure imgf000137_0001

[00273] A 5 L flange flask was fitted with a thermometer, nitrogen inlet, pressure equalizing dropping funnel, bubbler, and a suba»seal. Methyl lithium solution (1.06 L, 1.6 M in diethylether, 1.7 equiv.) was added, and the solution was cooled to about -25 °C.Diisopropyl amine (238 ml, 1.7 equiv.) was added using the dropping funnel over about 40 minutes. The reaction was left stirring, allowing to warm to ambient temperature overnight. C02(s)/acetone cooling was applied to the LDA solution, cooling to about -70 °C.[00274] i?-Glyceraldehyde dimethylacetal solution (50% in DCM) was evaporated down to -100 mbar at a bath temp of 35 °C, to remove the DCM, then azeotroped with anhydrous hexane (200 ml), under the same Buchi conditions. 1H NMR was used to confirm that all but a trace of DCM remained.[00275] The fresh aldehyde (130 g, 1 mol) and ethyl 2-chloropropionionate (191 ml, 1.5 equiv.) were placed in a 1 L round bottom flask, which was filled with toluene (800 ml). This solution was cooled in a C02(s)/acetone bath, and added via cannula to the LDA solution over about 50 minutes, keeping the internal temperature of the reaction mixture cooler than -60 °C. The mixture was stirred with cooling (internal temp, slowly fell to ~ -72 °C) for 90 min, then warmed to room temperature over 30 minutes using a water bath. This solution was added to a sodium dihydrogen phosphate solution equivalent to 360 g of NaH2P04 in 1.5 L of ice/water, over about 10 minutes, with ice-bath cooling. The mixture was stirred for 20 minutes, then transferred to a sep. funnel, and partitioned. The aqueous layer was further extracted with EtOAc (2 x 1 L), and the combined organic extracts were dried over sodium sulfate. The volatiles were removed in vacuo (down to 20 mbar). The resultant oil was hydrolyzed crude.

(3R,4R,5R)-3-chIoro-4-hydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyI)-3-methyIoxoIan-2-one (A4):

Figure imgf000137_0002

H O CI[00276] The crude oil A2 was taken up in acetic acid (1.5 L, 66% in water) and heated to 90 °C over one hour, then at held at that temperature for one hour. Once the mixture had cooled to room temperature, the volatiles were removed in vacuo, and azeotroped with toluene (500 ml). The resultant oil was combined with some mixed material from an earlier synthesis and columned in two portions (each -1.25 L of silica, 38→ 75% EtOAc in DCM). The lower of the two main spots is the desired material; fractions containing this material as the major component were combined and the solvent removed in vacuo to give 82 g of orange solid whose 1 H NMR showed the material to be of about 57% purity (of the remainder 29% was the indicated epimer). This material was recrystallized fromtoluene/butanone (600 ml / -185 ml), the butanone being the ‘good’ solvent. The resultant solid was filtered washing with toluene and hexane, and dried in vacuo to give product of about 92% purity (30 g).(2R,3R,4R)-2-[(benzoyIoxy)methyI]-4-chIoro-4-methyI-5-oxooxoIan-3-yI benzoate(A5):

Figure imgf000138_0001

[00277] A 2 L 3 -neck round bottom flask was fitted with an overhead stirrer, thermometer and pressure equalizing dropping funnel (→N2). The intermediate A4 (160 mmol) in acetonitrile (1 L) was added, followed by 4-dimethylaminopyridine (3.2 mmol) and benzoyl chloride (352 mmol). Finally triethylamine (384 mmol) was added over 10 minutes using the dropping funnel. The addition of the triethylamine is accompanied by a mild exotherm, which obviated the addition of a cold water bath to keep the internal temperature below 25 °C. The reaction was stirred at ambient temperature for 2.5 hours. The reaction mixture was transferred to a sep. funnel with EtOAc (2 L) and half saturated brine (2 L), and partitioned. The aqueous layer was re-extracted with EtOAc (1 L). The combined organic layers were washed with 50%> sodium bicarbonate/25%) brine (1.5 L) and dried over sodium sulfate, to give 62 g of solid. This was recrystallized from 1.8 L of 1 : 1 toluene/trimethylpentane (95 °C), to give 52.4 g of product.[00278] 1H NMR (CDCls, 400 MHz): δ (ppm) 1.91 (s, 3H), 4.57 (dd, J= 5.12Hz and J = 12.57Hz, 1H), 4.77 (dd, J= 3.29Hz and J= 12.68Hz, 1H), 4.92-4.96 (m, 1H), 5.60 (d, J = 8.36Hz, 1H), 7.38-7.66 (m, 6H), 7.97-7.99 (m, 2H), 8.08-8.10 (m, 2H); MS (ESI) m/z= 411.1(MNa ).

3,5-Di-0-benzoyl-2-C-chloro-2-C-methyl-D-ribofuranose (A6):

Figure imgf000139_0001

[00279] To a solution of A5 (14.48 mmol) in anhydrous tetrahydrofurane (70 ml) was added under inert atmosphere at -35°C, LiAlH(OtBu)3 (1M in tetrahydrofurane, 21.7 mmol) over a 30 min period. The reaction mixture was stirred for 1 hour at -20 °C and quenched by addition of a saturated NH4C1 solution, keeping the temperature bellow 0 °C. Ethyl acetate was added and the white suspension was filtered through a pad of celite and washed with ethyl acetate. The filtrate was extracted with ethyl acetate twice. The combined organic layers were dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filtered and evaporated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by chromatography on silica gel (eluent: petroleum ether/ethyl acetate 0 to 20%). The product was dried in vacuum (50 °C) overnight to afford expected intermediate as a colorless oil in 96% yield (mixture α/β: 45/55).[00280] 1H NMR (CDC13, 400 MHz): δ (ppm) 1.74 (s, 1.75HP), 1.76 (s, 1.25Ha), 4.42-4.69 (m, 3H), 5.30 (d, J= 12.8Hz, 0.55HP), 5.43-5.47 (m, 0.45Ha), 5.60 (d, J= 7.0Hz, 0.55HP), 5.78 (d, J= 7.0Hz , 0.45Ha), 7.35-7.41 (m, 2H), 7.45-7.56 (m, 3H), 7.59-7.65 (m, 1H), 7.96- 8.04 (m, 2H), 8.06-8.14 (m, 2H); MS (ESI) m/z= 413 (MNa+).3,5-Di-0-benzoyl-2-C-chloro-2-C-methyl-D-arabinofuranosyl bromide (A7):

Figure imgf000139_0002

[00281] To a solution of A6 (12.80 mmol) in anhydrous dichloromethane (80 ml) was added under inert atmosphere at -20 °C, triphenylphosphine (18.0 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred for 15 minutes at -20 °C and CBr4 (19.20 mmol) was added. The reaction mixture was then stirred for 1 hour at -20 °C. The crude was partially concentrated under reduced pressure (bath temperature bellow 30 °C) and directly purified by chromatography on silica gel (eluent: petroleum ether/ethyl acetate 0 to 30%) to afford a mixture of β sugar A7a (1.67 g) and a sugar A7b (2.15 g) as a colorless gum in 66%> global yield.[00282] 1H NMR (CDC13, 400 MHz): β sugar δ (ppm) 1.93 (s, 3H), 4.60-4.88 (m, 3H), 6.08 (d, J= 7.9 Hz, 1H), 6.62 (s, 1H), 7.31-7.38 (m, 2H), 7.41-7.55 (m, 3H), 7.59-7.65 (m, 1H), 8.00-8.05 (m, 2H), 8.06-8.12 (m, 2H); a sugar δ (ppm) 1.88 (s, 3H), 4.66-4.89 (m, 3H), 5.37 (d, J= 4.88Hz, 1H), 6.44 (s, 1H), 7.41-7.55 (m, 4H), 7.54-7.65 (m, 2H), 8.00-8.05 (m, 2H), 8.14-8.20 (m, 2H); MS (ESI) m/z= 476/478 (MNa+).3 ,5′-Di-0-benzoyl-2′-C-chloro-2′-C-methyl-4-benzoyl-cytidine (A8):

Figure imgf000140_0001

[00283] To a suspension of N-benzoyl cytosine (9.48 mmol), and a catalytic amount of ammonium sulfate in 4-chlorobenzene (24 ml) was added HMDS (28.44 mmol). The reaction mixture was heated during 2 hours at 140 °C. The solvent was removed under inert atmosphere and the residue was taken in 4-chlorobenzene (15 ml). Then, A7b (4.74 mmol) in chlorobenzene (10 ml) was added dropwise to the reaction mixture followed by SnCl4 (14.22 mmol) dropwise. The reaction mixture was stirred at 70 °C overnight, cooled to room temperature and diluted with dichloromethane and a saturated NaHC03 solution. The white suspension was filtered through a pad of celite and washed with dichloromethane. The filtrate was extracted with dichloromethane twice. The combined organic layers were dried over anhydrous Na2S04, filtered and evaporated under reduced pressure to afford expected intermediate as a white solid in 89% yield.[00284] 1H NMR (DMSO, 400 MHz): δ (ppm) 1.58 (s, 3H), 4.68-4.81 (m, 3H), 5.68 (brs, 1H), 6.55 (brs, 1H), 7.36 (d, J= 7.84 Hz, 1H), 7.39-7.76 (m, 9H), 7.88-8.07 (m, 6H), 8.30 (d, J= 7.84 Hz, 1H); MS (ESI) m/z= 588 (MH+).3′,5′-Di-0-benzoyl-2,-C-chloro-2,-C-methyluridine (A9):

Figure imgf000140_0002

[00285] A suspension of A8 (4.19 mmol) in an acetic acid/water mixture (67 ml/17 ml, v/v), was heated at 110 °C for 3 hours. The reaction mixture was evaporated to dryness and co-evaporated with toluene (three times) to afford expected intermediate in quantitative yield as an oil which was directly used for the next step; MS (ESI) m/z= 485 (MH+). 2 -C-Chloro-2 -C-methyluridine (301):

Figure imgf000141_0001

H O CI[00286] Intermediate A9 (4.19 mmol) in 7 N methanolic ammonia (80 ml) was stirred at room temperature for 24 hours. The mixture was evaporated to dryness, diluted with water and transferred into a separatory funnel. The aqueous layer was extracted withdichloromethane and water was removed under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by flash RP18 gel chromatography (eluent: water/acetonitrile 0 to 40%) to afford pure expected compound as a white foam in 79% yield.[00287] 1H NMR (DMSO, 400 MHz): δ (ppm) 1.44 (s, 3H), 3.60-3.68 (m, 1H), 3.80-3.94 (m, 3H), 5.39 (t, J= 4.45 Hz, 1H), 5.63 (d, J= 8.26 Hz, 1H), 5.93 (d, J= 5.72 Hz, 1H), 6.21 (s, 1H), 8.16 (d, J= 8.90 Hz, 1H), 11.44 (m, 1H); MS (ESI) m/z= 277 (MH+).2′-C-Chloro-2′-C-methyl-3-benzyloxymethyluridine (Al 1):

Figure imgf000141_0002

H O CI[00288] To a solution of 301 (0.361 mmol) in anhydrous DMF (4 ml) was added at -5 °C, DBU (0.723 mmol) followed by benzyloxymethylchloride (0.542 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred for 45 minutes between -5 °C and 5 °C. The solvent was evaporated under reduced pressure and the residue was purified by chromatography on silica gel (eluent: dichloromethane/methanol 0 to 10%) to afford pure expected intermediate as a white solid in 80% yield.[00289] 1H NMR (DMSO, 400 MHz): δ (ppm) 1.41 (s, 3H), 3.61-3.69 (m, 1H), 3.82-3.95 (m, 3H), 4.57 (s, 2H), 5.32 (s, 2H), 5.43 (t, J= 4.46Hz, 1H), 5.80 (d, J= 8.08Hz, 1H), 5.96 (d, J= 4.46 Hz, 1H), 6.23 (s, 1H), 7.22-7.36 (m, 5H), 8.25 (d, J= 8.22Hz, 1H); MS (ESI) m/z= 397 (MH+). Isopropyl (2S)-2-[[chloro(phenoxy)phosphoryl]amino]propanoate (A12a):

Figure imgf000142_0001

2,2-Dimethylpropyl (2S)-2-[[chloro(phenoxy)phosphoryl]amino]propanoate (A12b):

Figure imgf000142_0002

[00290] To a solution of aminoester, HC1 salt (0.434 mmol) in anhydrous dichloromethane (or acetonitrile) (4 ml) (3 times vacuo/nitrogen) under nitrogen was added at -30°C phenyldichlorophosphate (0.434 mmol) followed by N-methylimidazole (2.90 mmol)(or only 1.45 mmol for A12b). The reaction mixture was stirred at -30°C during 1 hour. The reaction was monitored by LC/MS (the sample was quenched by methanol or water) to check the complete formation of expected intermediate A12a [MS (ESI) m/z= 302 (MH+)(-OMe compounder A12b [MS (ESI) m/z= 314 (MH~)].Compound (A13a), (A13b) or (83ii):[00291] To the previous reaction mixture containing A12 was added All (or 302) (0.29 mmol) at -25°C under nitrogen. The reaction mixture was allowed to warm up slowly to room temperature overnight, and then diluted with dichloromethane and water (or with NaHCC”3 and EtOAc). The organic layer was extracted, dried, filtered and evaporated under reduced pressure. The crude residue was purified by chromatography on silica gel (eluent: dichloromethane/methanol 0 to 10%) (followed by preparative HPLC for A29).Compound (A13a):

Figure imgf000142_0003

[00292] Mixture of diastereoisomers; MS (ESI) m/z= 666 (MH+). Compound (A13b):

Figure imgf000143_0001

[00293] Mixture of diastereoisomers; MS (ESI) m/z= 692.3 (MH ).Compound (83ii):

Figure imgf000143_0002

[00294] Glassy solid; 1H NMR (CDCI3, 400MHz): δ (ppm) 1.19-1.24 (m, 9H), 1.35 (d, J = 7.1Hz, 3H), 3.95-4.05 (m, 1H), 4.31 (d, J= 8.1Hz, 2H), 4.41 (d, J= 9.0Hz, 1H), 4.59 (d, J = 7.1Hz, 2H), 4.98 (heptuplet, J= 6.28Hz, 1H), 6.38 (brs, 1H), 6.52 (s, 1H), 7.08-7.15 (m, 1H), 7.23-7.30 (m, 4H), 8.07 (s, 1H), 8.31 (s, 1H); 31P NMR (CDC13, 161.98 MHz): δ (ppm) 3.96 (s, IP); MS (ESI) m/z= 569.20 (MH+).Compounds (40iia) and (40iib):

Figure imgf000143_0003

[00295] To a solution of A13 (0.29 mmol) in anhydrous ethanol (6 ml) was added trifluoroacetic acid (2.9 mmol) dropwise (then 3 times vacuo/nitrogen purges), followed by Palladium hydroxide (20% on Carbon). The reaction mixture was purged 3 timesvacuo/nitrogen, and 3 times vacuo/hydrogen and then stirred under hydrogen for 5 hours. The reaction mixture was diluted with ethyl acetate and filtered through a pad of celite. The filtrate was evaporated under reduced pressure, and the crude compound was purified by preparative MS/HP LC to afford two pure compounds in 48% global yield.[00296] Compound 40ii (diastereoisomer 1): white solid; 1H NMR (CDC13, 400 MHz): δ (ppm) 1.22-1.26 (m, 6H), 1.37 (d, J= 7.08 Hz, 3H), 1.51 (s, 3H), 3.71-3.88 (m, 2H), 3.97- 4.06 (m, 1H), 4.16-4.18 (m, 1H), 4.45-4.57 (m, 2H), 4.97-5.07 (m, 1H), 5.57 (d, J= 8.20 Hz, 1H), 6.39 (s, 1H), 7.18-7.37 (m, 5H), 7.44 (d, J= 8.20 Hz, 1H), 8.40 (s, 1H); 31P NMR (CDC13, 161.98 MHz): δ (ppm) 4.20 (s, IP); MS (ESI, El+) m/z= 546 (MH+).[00297] Compound 40ii (diastereoisomer 2): white solid; 1H NMR (CDC13, 400 MHz): δ (ppm) 1.24-1.26 (m, 6H), 1.36 (d, J= 7.04 Hz, 3H), 1.59 (s, 3H), 3.69-3.77 (m, 1H), 3.91- 3.99 (m, 2H), 4.17-4.19 (m, 1H), 4.43-4.59 (m, 2H), 5.01-5.06 (m, 1H), 5.68 (d, J= 8.20 Hz, 1H), 6.42 (s, 1H), 7.21-7.39 (m, 5H), 7.60 (d, J=8.20 Hz, 1H), 8.14 (s, 1H); 31P NMR (CDC13, 161.98 MHz): δ (ppm) 3.47 (s, IP); MS (ESI) m/z= 546 (MH+).Compound 42ii:

Figure imgf000144_0001

[00298] Compound 42ii was synthesized from compound A13b (0.144 mmol) as described for compound 40ii.[00299] White solid; 1H NMR (MeOD, 400 MHz) δ (ppm) 0.94 (s, 9H), 1.40 (d, J= 7.10 Hz, 3H), 1.53 (s, 3H), 3.76 (d, J= 10.43 H, 1H), 3.86 (d, J= 10.44 H, 1H), 3.98-4.06 (m, 2H), 4.18-4.22 (m, 1H), 4.39-4.44 (m, 1H), 4.52-4.57 (m, 1H), 5.62 (d, J= 8.18 Hz, 1H), 6.40 (s, 1H), 7.20-7.29 (m, 3H), 7.36-7.41 (m, 2H), 7.74 (d, J= 8.18 Hz, 1H); 31P NMR (MeOD, 161.98 MHz) δ (ppm) 3.68 (s, IP); MS (ESI) m/z = 574.08 (MH+).

PAPER

US 20170226146

https://patents.google.com/patent/US20170226146A1/en

  • [0250]
  • [0251]
    A 3-neck 100 mL jacketed round bottom flask with nitrogen inlet and mechanical stirrer was charged with compound 4 (3.0 g, 10.8 mmol), compound 13 (0.484 g, 2.17 mmol, 0.20 equiv), 2-butanone (21 mL), and 2,6-lutidine (2.53 mL, 21.7 mmol, 2.0 equiv). The resulting slurry was cooled to −15° C., then a solution of compound 12 (7.96 g, 13.0 mmol) in 2-butanone (3 mL) was added over 14 hours. The reaction mixture was allowed to stir at −15° C. for an additional 25 hours and then warmed to 20° C. n-Heptane (16 mL) was added with stirring over a 1 hour period then the mixture was allowed to stir at 25° C. for 3 hours, then filtered through a fitted funnel. The filter cake was slurry-washed with a 3:2 mixture of 2-butanone and n-heptane (10 mL and then 15 mL), then dried by pulling nitrogen stream through the fritted funnel. The filter cake was slurried in a 10:1 mixture of water and 2-butanone (21 mL) and then filtered. This slurrying and filtration sequence was repeated two more times. The resulting filter cake was dried with nitrogen stream through the fritted funnel to provide compound 6.

Example 21Alternate Preparation of Compound A

  • [0252]
  • [0253]
    Compound 6 (0.072 mmol, 1 equiv), K2HPO(63.0 mg, 0.361 mmol) and compound 14 (5.45 mg, 0.018 mmol) were added to a 1 dram vial with 4 A mol sieves (40 mg). To the resulting mixture was added DCM (800 μl), then the resulting reaction was allowed to stir for 5 minutes. To the reaction mixture was then added compound 14 (28.7 mg, 0.094 mmol, 1.3 equiv) and the resulting reaction was allowed to stir for about 15 hours at room temperature to provide Compound A.
  • [0256]
  • [0257]
    A 100 mL reactor with nitrogen inlet and mechanical stirrer was charged with compound 4 (7.00 g, 25.3 mmol), compound 15 (0.225 g, 0.506 mmol, 0.020 equiv), 1,3-dioxolane (42 mL), and 2,6-lutidine (4.42 mL, 38.0 mmol, 1.5 equiv). The mixture was cooled to −10° C. and a 33 wt % solution of compound 12 in isopropyl acetate (29 mL, 30 mmol) was added over 1 hour. The reaction mixture was allowed to stir at −10° C. for additional 40 hours, then isopropyl acetate (28 mL) was added, and the resulting mixture was warmed to 0° C. A 10 wt % aqueous NaHSOsolution was added (14 mL), and the mixture was allowed to stir at 30° C. for 30 minutes, then the layers were separated. To the organic layer was added an aqueous solution containing 5 wt % NaHCOand 5 wt % Na2SO(21 mL). The mixture was allowed to stir at 50° C. for 6 h. The layers were separated. To the organic layer was added 10 wt % aqueous NaCl solution (21 mL). The mixture was allowed to stir at 50° C. for 30 min. The organic layer was separated, combined with isopropyl acetate (5 mL) and concentrated in vacuo to half volume at 20000 pa in a 50° C. bath. The resulting solution was solvent-switched with isopropanol (4×35 mL) to 60 g weight. The mixture was seeded with 100 mg of compound A at 60° C. The resulting slurry was allowed to stir at 55° C. for 30 minutes, then n-Heptane (35 mL) was added over 1 hour at 55° C. The resulting slurry was allowed to stir for an additional 1 hour at 55° C., then cooled to room temperature and filtered. The filter cake was washed with a 1:1 mixture of isopropanol and n-heptane (3×14 mL), followed by n-heptane (14 mL), then dried under nitrogen to provide Compound A.

PAPER

https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2021/sc/d1sc01978c#!divAbstract

Uprifosbuvir is an antiviral agent developed for treatment of chronic hepatitis C infections. Its original synthesis route requires twelve steps with an overall yield of only 1 %. Such a difficult and time-consuming synthesis approach is acceptable for the early trial phase of a new drug, but impractical for broad application as hepatitis C treatment or for repurposing against novel viral diseases.

Artis Klapars, John Y. L. Chung, and colleagues, Merck & Co., Inc., Rahway, NJ, USA, and WuXi STA, Shanghai, China, have developed a synthesis route for uprifosbuvir requiring only five steps and starting from readily available uridine. Initially, uridine is selectively oxidized after OH-acylation with pivaloyl chloride in an acyl migration/oxidation process driven by complexation with the Lewis acid BF3*OEt2 in toluene. In the second step, methylation is achieved by MeMgBr/MgCl2 in a toluene/anisole mixture where a more reactive methyl-manganese species is formed in-situ from the Grignard reagent, providing high yield and a good diastereomeric ratio (dr). Subsequently, the tertiary chloride group is introduced. Due to the high functional-group density, a cyclodehydration step is required before chlorination to avoid side reactions. The chlorination is carried out using dichlorodimethylsilane with FeCl3*6H2O and tetramethyldisiloxane as additives which avoids the hazardous use of HCl gas under pressure required in the initial synthesis. In the final step, the regioselective phosphoramidation is achieved using a chlorophosphoramidate precursor and a dimeric chiral imidazole carbamate catalyst which led to a dr of 97:3 starting from a 1:1 diastereomeric mixture of the chlorophosphoramidate reagent.

Uprifosbuvir was synthesized with an overall yield of 50 %, a vast improvement compared to the 1 % of the original synthesis route. Additionally, the newly developed synthesis steps have the potential to provide easier access to other nucleoside-based antiviral agents.


Efficient synthesis of antiviral agent uprifosbuvir enabled by new synthetic methods

Artis Klapars,  *a

This article is Open Access

Creative Commons BY license

All publication charges for this article have been paid for by the Royal Society of Chemistry

Abstract

An efficient route to the HCV antiviral agent uprifosbuvir was developed in 5 steps from readily available uridine in 50% overall yield. This concise synthesis was achieved by development of several synthetic methods: (1) complexation-driven selective acyl migration/oxidation; (2) BSA-mediated cyclization to anhydrouridine; (3) hydrochlorination using FeCl3/TMDSO; (4) dynamic stereoselective phosphoramidation using a chiral nucleophilic catalyst. The new route improves the yield of uprifosbuvir 50-fold over the previous manufacturing process and expands the tool set available for synthesis of antiviral nucleotides.

Graphical abstract: Efficient synthesis of antiviral agent uprifosbuvir enabled by new synthetic methods

Scheme 1 Synthetic approaches to uprifosbuvir 1 with the two main challenges highlighted. (a) Me2NH, AcOH, EtOH/MeOH, 80 °C, 1.5 h; (b) Ca(OH)2, water, 70 °C, 24 h, 19% over 2 steps.9

Scheme 3 Complexation-driven selective acyl migration/oxidation to access 12. (a) PivCl, pyridine, 0 °C, 16 h; (b) BF3·OEt2, PhMe, 40 °C, 10 h; (c) TEMPO, Bu4NBr, AcOOH, dioctyl sulphide, PhMe, −10 °C to 20 °C, 24 h, 83% from 5.

Scheme 6 Completion of uprifosbuvir synthesis. (a) TMS-Cl, iPrOH, 70 °C, 12 h; (b) NEt3, iPrOAc, wiped film evaporation, 80%; (c) PhOP(O)Cl2, NEt3, iPrOAc, −20 °C, 2 h, 90%; (d) C6F5OH, NEt3, iPrOAc, −5 °C to 10 °C, 18 h, 76%;26 (e) 4, 3 mol% 24, 2,6-lutidine, 1,3-dioxolane, −10 °C, 24 h, 88%; (f) 4, tBuMgCl, THF, −5 °C to 5 °C, 15 h, 50%;27 (g) 4, Me2AlCl, 2,6-lutidine, THF, 35 °C, 16 h, 81%.27

Scheme 7 Summary of uprifosbuvir synthesis. AY = assay yield; IY = isolated yield. 

https://www.rsc.org/suppdata/d1/sc/d1sc01978c/d1sc01978c1.pdf

PAPERhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0960894X17308314

References

  1. ^ Soriano V, Fernandez-Montero JV, de Mendoza C, Benitez-Gutierrez L, Peña JM, Arias A, Barreiro P (August 2017). “Treatment of hepatitis C with new fixed dose combinations”. Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy18 (12): 1235–1242. doi:10.1080/14656566.2017.1346609PMID 28644739S2CID 205819421.
  2. ^ Borgia G, Maraolo AE, Nappa S, Gentile I, Buonomo AR (March 2018). “NS5B polymerase inhibitors in phase II clinical trials for HCV infection”. Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs27 (3): 243–250. doi:10.1080/13543784.2018.1420780PMID 29271672S2CID 3672885.
  3. ^ Lawitz E, Gane E, Feld JJ, Buti M, Foster GR, Rabinovitz M, et al. (September 2019). “Efficacy and safety of a two-drug direct-acting antiviral agent regimen ruzasvir 180 mg and uprifosbuvir 450 mg for 12 weeks in adults with chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6”. Journal of Viral Hepatitis26 (9): 1127–1138. doi:10.1111/jvh.13132PMID 31108015S2CID 160014275.
 
Clinical data
Trade names Uprifosbuvir
Legal status
Legal status US: Investigational New Drug
Identifiers
showIUPAC name
CAS Number 1496551-77-9
PubChem CID 90055716
DrugBank DB15206
ChemSpider 57427403
UNII JW31KPS26S
KEGG D10996
ChEMBL ChEMBL3833371
Chemical and physical data
Formula C22H29ClN3O9P
Molar mass 545.9 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol) Interactive image
showSMILES
showInChI

Uprifosbuvir (MK-3682) is an antiviral drug developed for the treatment of Hepatitis C. It is a nucleotide analogue which acts as an NS5B RNA polymerase inhibitor. It is currently in Phase III human clinical trials.[1][2][3]

References

  1. ^ Soriano V, Fernandez-Montero JV, de Mendoza C, Benitez-Gutierrez L, Peña JM, Arias A, Barreiro P (August 2017). “Treatment of hepatitis C with new fixed dose combinations”. Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy18 (12): 1235–1242. doi:10.1080/14656566.2017.1346609PMID 28644739S2CID 205819421.
  2. ^ Borgia G, Maraolo AE, Nappa S, Gentile I, Buonomo AR (March 2018). “NS5B polymerase inhibitors in phase II clinical trials for HCV infection”. Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs27 (3): 243–250. doi:10.1080/13543784.2018.1420780PMID 29271672S2CID 3672885.
  3. ^ Lawitz E, Gane E, Feld JJ, Buti M, Foster GR, Rabinovitz M, et al. (September 2019). “Efficacy and safety of a two-drug direct-acting antiviral agent regimen ruzasvir 180 mg and uprifosbuvir 450 mg for 12 weeks in adults with chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6”. Journal of Viral Hepatitis26 (9): 1127–1138. doi:10.1111/jvh.13132PMID 31108015S2CID 160014275.

//////////uprifosbuvir, MK 3682, ウプリホスブビル, уприфосбувирأوبريفوسبوفير , 乌磷布韦 , IDX-21437DB15206SB18784D10996Q27281714, IDX 21437, PHASE 3 
CC(C)OC(=O)C(C)NP(=O)(OCC1C(C(C(O1)N2C=CC(=O)NC2=O)(C)Cl)O)OC3=CC=CC=C3

wdt-24

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RIDINILAZOLE


ChemSpider 2D Image | Ridinilazole | C24H16N6
Ridinilazole.svg

RIDINILAZOLE

SMT19969

  • Molecular FormulaC24H16N6
  • Average mass388.424 Da
  • ридинилазол [Russian] [INN]ريدينيلازول [Arabic] [INN]利地利唑 [Chinese] [INN]
  • リジニラゾール;

10075
2,2′-Di(4-pyridinyl)-3H,3’H-5,5′-bibenzimidazole
308362-25-6[RN]6,6′-Bi-1H-benzimidazole, 2,2′-di-4-pyridinyl-

Summit Therapeutics (formerly Summit Corp ) is developing ridinilazole the lead compound from oral narrow-spectrum, GI-restricted antibiotics, which also include SMT-21829, for the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection and prevention of recurrent disease.

Ridinilazole (previously known as SMT19969) is an investigational small molecule antibiotic being evaluated for oral administration to treat Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). In vitro, it is bactericidal against C. difficile and suppresses bacterial toxin production; the mechanism of action is thought to involve inhibition of cell division.[1] It has properties which are desirable for the treatment of CDI, namely that it is a narrow-spectrum antibiotic which exhibits activity against C. difficile while having little impact on other normal intestinal flora and that it is only minimally absorbed systemically after oral administration.[2] At the time ridinilazole was developed, there were only three antibiotics in use for treating CDI: vancomycinfidaxomicin, and metronidazole.[1][2] The recurrence rate of CDI is high, which has spurred research into other treatment options with the aim to reduce the rate of recurrence.[3][4]

As of 2019, two phase II trials have been completed and two phase III trials comparing ridinilazole to vancomycin for CDI are expected to be completed in September 2021.[2][5][6] Ridinilazole was designated as a Qualified Infectious Disease Product (QIDP) and was granted Fast Track status by the U.S. FDA.[2] Fast Track status is reserved for drugs designed to treat diseases where there is currently a gap in the treatment, or a complete lack thereof.[7] The QIDP designation adds five more years of exclusivity for ridinazole upon approval.[8]

str1-1

PATENT

WO-2021009514

Process for preparing ridinilazole useful for treating Clostridium difficile infection. Also claimed is the crystalline form of a compound.

The present invention relates to processes for the preparation of 2,2′-di(pyridin-4-yl)-1/-/,T/-/-5,5′-bibenzo[d]imidazole (which may also be known as 5,5’-bis[2-(4-pyridinyl)-1/-/-benzimidazole], 2,2′-bis(4-pyridyl)-3/-/,3’/-/-5,5′-bibenzimidazole or 2-pyridin-4-yl-6-(2-pyridin-4-yl-3/-/-benzimidazol-5-yl)-1/-/-benzimidazole), referenced herein by the INN name ridinilazole, and pharmaceutically acceptable derivatives, salts, hydrates, solvates, complexes, bioisosteres, metabolites or prodrugs thereof. The invention also relates to various crystalline forms of ridinilazole, to processes for their preparation and to related pharmaceutical preparations and uses thereof (including their medical use and their use in the efficient large-scale synthesis of ridinilazole).

WO2010/063996 describes various benzimidazoles, including ridinilazole, and their use as antibacterials (including in the treatment of CDAD).

WO 2011/151621 describes various benzimidazoles and their use as antibacterials

(including in the treatment of CDAD).

W02007056330, W02003105846 and W02002060879 disclose various 2-amino benzimidazoles as antibacterial agents.

W02007148093 discloses various 2-amino benzothiazoles as antibacterial agents.

W02006076009, W02004041209 and Bowser et at. (Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett., 2007, 17, 5652-5655) disclose various substituted benzimidazole compounds useful as anti-infectives that decrease resistance, virulence, or growth of microbes. The compounds are said not to exhibit intrinsic antimicrobial activity in vitro.

US 5,824,698 discloses various dibenzimidazoles as broad-spectrum antibiotics, disclosing activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including Staphylococcus spp.and Enterococcus spp. However, this document does not disclose activity against anaerobic spore-forming bacteria and in particular does not disclose activity against any Clostridioides spp. (including C. difficile).

US 2007/0112048 A1 discloses various bi- and triarylimidazolidines and bi- and

triarylamidines as broad-spectrum antibiotics, disclosing activity against both Gram negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including Staphylococcus spp., Enterococcus spp. and Clostridioides spp. However, this document does not disclose compounds of formula (I) as described herein.

Chaudhuri et al. (2007) J.Org. Chem. 72, 1912-1923 describe various bis-2-(pyridyl)-1 H-benzimidazoles (including compounds of formula I as described herein) as DNA binding agents. This document is silent as to potential antibacterial activity.

Singh et al. (2000) Synthesis 10: 1380-1390 describe a condensation reaction for producing 2,2′-di(pyridin-4-yl)-1/-/,T/-/-5,5′-bibenzo[d]imidazole using 4-pyridine

carboxaldehyde, FeCI3, 02, in DMF at 120°C.

Bhattacharya and Chaudhuri (2007) Chemistry – An Asian Journal 2: 648-655 describe a condensation reaction for producing 2,2′-di(pyridin-4-yl)-1/-/,T/-/-5,5′-bibenzo[d]imidazole using 4-pyridine carboxaldehyde and nitrobenzene at 120°C.

WO2019/068383 describes the synthesis of ridinilazole by metal-ion catalyzed coupling of 3,4,3’,4’-tetraaminobiphenyl with 4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde in the presence of oxygen, followed by the addition of a complexing agent.

PATENT

WO2010063996

claiming antibacterial compounds. Bicyclic heteroaromatic compounds, particularly bi-benzimidazole derivatives.

WO2007056330, WO2003105846 and WO2002060879 disclose various 2-amino benzimidazoles as antibacterial agents.

WO2007148093 discloses various 2-amino benzothiazoles as antibacterial agents.

WO2006076009, WO2004041209 and Bowser et al. (Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett., 2007, 17, 5652-5655) disclose various substituted benzimidazole compounds useful as anti-infectives that decrease resistance, virulence, or growth of microbes. The compounds are said not to exhibit intrinsic antimicrobial activity in vitro.

US 5,824,698 discloses various dibenzimidazoles as broad-spectrum antibiotics, disclosing activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including Staphylococcus spp.and Enterococcus spp. However, this document does not disclose activity against anaerobic spore-forming bacteria and in particular does not disclose activity against any Clostridium spp. (including C. difficile).

US 2007/0112048 A1 discloses various bi- and triarylimidazolidines and bi- and triarylamidines as broad-spectrum antibiotics, disclosing activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including Staphylococcus spp., Enterococcus spp.

and Clostridium spp. However, this document does not disclose compounds of general formula (I) as described herein.

Chaudhuri et al. (J.Org. Chem., 2007, 72, 1912-1923) describe various bis-2-(pyridyl)-1 H-benzimidazoles (including compounds of formula I as described herein) as DNA binding agents. This document is silent as to potential antibacterial activity.

PATENT

Product PATENT, WO2010063996 ,

protection in the EP until 2029 and expire in the US in December 2029.

PAPER

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2018.01206/full

PAPER

Synthesis (2000), (10), 1380-1390.

https://www.thieme-connect.de/products/ejournals/abstract/10.1055/s-2000-7111

PAPERT

Chemistry – An Asian Journal (2007), 2(5), 648-655.

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/asia.200700014

Studies of double‐stranded‐DNA binding have been performed with three isomeric bis(2‐(n‐pyridyl)‐1H‐benzimidazole)s (n=2, 3, 4). Like the well‐known Hoechst 33258, which is a bisbenzimidazole compound, these three isomers bind to the minor groove of duplex DNA. DNA binding by the three isomers was investigated in the presence of the divalent metal ions Mg2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+. Ligand–DNA interactions were probed with fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy. These studies revealed that the binding of the 2‐pyridyl derivative to DNA is dramatically reduced in the presence of Co2+, Ni2+, and Cu2+ ions and is abolished completely at a ligand/metal‐cation ratio of 1:1. Control experiments done with the isomeric 3‐ and 4‐pyridyl derivatives showed that their binding to DNA is unaffected by the aforementioned transition‐metal ions. The ability of 2‐(2‐pyridyl)benzimidazole to chelate metal ions and the conformational changes of the ligand associated with ion chelation probably led to such unusual binding results for the ortho isomer. The addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) reversed the effects completely.

PAPER

 Journal of Organic Chemistry (2007), 72(6), 1912-1923.

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/jo0619433

Three symmetrical positional isomers of bis-2-(n-pyridyl)-1H-benzimidazoles (n = 2, 3, 4) were synthesized and DNA binding studies were performed with these isomeric derivatives. Like bisbenzimidazole compound Hoechst 33258, these molecules also demonstrate AT-specific DNA binding. The binding affinities of 3-pyridine (m-pyben) and 4-pyridine (p-pyben) derivatized bisbenzimidazoles to double-stranded DNA were significantly higher compared to 2pyridine derivatized benzimidazole o-pyben. This has been established by combined experimental results of isothermal fluorescence titration, circular dichroism, and thermal denaturation of DNA. To rationalize the origin of their differential binding characteristics with double-stranded DNA, computational structural analyses of the uncomplexed ligands were performed using ab initio/Density Functional Theory. The molecular conformations of the symmetric head-to-head bisbenzimidazoles have been computed. The existence of intramolecular hydrogen bonding was established in o-pyben, which confers a conformational rigidity to the molecule about the bond connecting the pyridine and benzimidazole units. This might cause reduction in its binding affinity to double-stranded DNA compared to its para and meta counterparts. Additionally, the predicted stable conformations for p-, m-, and o-pyben at the B3LYP/6-31G* and RHF/6-31G* levels were further supported by experimental pKa determination. The results provide important information on the molecular recognition process of such symmetric head to head bisbenzimidazoles toward duplex DNA.

Patent

US 8975416

PATENT

WO 2019068383

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2019068383

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the leading cause of infectious healthcare-associated diarrhoea. CDI remains a challenge to treat clinically, because of a limited number of antibiotics available and unacceptably high recurrence rates. Because of this, there has been significant demand for creating innovative therapeutics, which has resulted in the development of several novel antibiotics.

Ridinilazole (SMT19969) is the INN name of 5,5’bis[2-(4-pyridinyl)-lH-benzimidazole], which is a promising non-absorbable small molecule antibiotic intended for oral use in the treatment of CDI. It has been shown to exhibit a prolonged post-antibiotic effect and treatment with ridinilazole has resulted in decreased toxin production. A phase 1 trial demonstrated that oral ridinilazole is well tolerated and specifically targets Clostridia whilst sparing other faecal bacteria.

Ridinilazole has the following chemical structure:

Bhattacharya & Chaudhuri (Chem. Asian J., 2007, No. 2, 648-655) report performing double-stranded DNA binding with three benzimidazole derivatives, including ridinilazole. The compounds have been prepared by dissolving the reactants in nitrobenzene, heating at 120°C for 8- 1 Oh and purifying the products by column chromatography over silica gel. The compounds were obtained in 65-70% yield. Singh et al., (Synthesis, 2000, No. 10, 1380-1390) describe a catalytic redox cycling approach based on Fe(III) and molecular oxygen as co-oxidant for providing access to benzimidazole and

imidazopyridine derivatives, such as ridinilazole. The reaction is performed at high temperatures of 120°C and the product is isolated in 91% yield by using silica flash chromatography.

Both processes are not optimal, for example in terms of yield, ease of handling and scalability. Thus, there is a need in the art for an efficient and scalable preparation of ridinilazole, which overcomes the problems of the prior art processes.

Example 1 : Preparation of crude ridinilazole free base

A solution of 3,4,3′,4′-tetraaminobiphenyl (3.28 g, 15.3 mmol) and isonicotinaldehyde (3.21 g, 30.0 mmol) in DMF (40 mL) was stirred at 23 °C for one hour. Then anhydrous ferric chloride (146 mg, 0.90 mmol), water (0.10 mL, 5.4 mmol) and additional DMF (2 mL) were added and fresh air was bubbled into the solution during vigorous stirring for 5 hours at room temperature. Next, water (80 mL) and EDTA (0.29 g) were added resulting in a brownish suspension, which was stirred overnight. The product was isolated by filtration, washed with water, and dried in a desiccator in vacuo as a brown powder (5.56 g; 95%). The addition of EDTA had held iron in solution and the crude ridinilazole contained significantly lower amounts of iron than comparative example 1.

Example 12: Formation of essentially pure ridinilazole free base

To a suspension von ridinilazole tritosylate (1 10 mg, 0.12 mmol) in water (35 mL) featuring a pH value of about 4.5 stirring at 70 °C sodium bicarbonate (580 mg, 6.9 mmol) were added and caused a change of color from orange to slightly tan. The mixture, now at a pH of about 8.5, was cooled down to room temperature and the solids were separated by filtration, washed with water (1 ML) and dried in vacuo providing 40 mg (85%) essentially pure ridinilazole as a brownish powder.

Spectroscopic analysis:

¾ NMR (DMSO-de, 300 MHz): δ 7.55 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 2H), 7.70 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 2H), 7.88 (s, 2H), 8.13 (d, J = 5.8 Hz, 4H), 8.72 (d, J = 5.8 Hz, 4H) ppm.

13C NMR (DMSO-d6, 75 MHz): δ 1 13.4 (2C), 1 16.4 (2C), 120.4 (4C), 121.8 (2C), 135.7 (2C), 138.7 (2C), 140.7 (2C), 141.4 (2C), 150.3 (4C), 151.1 (2C) ppm.

IR (neat): v 3033 (w), 1604 (s), 1429 (m), 1309 (m), 1217 (m), 1 1 15 (w), 998 (m), 964 (m), 824 (m), 791 (s), 690 (s), 502 (s) cm .

UV-Vis (MeOH): 257, 341 nm.

The sharp peaks in the ¾ NMR indicated that iron had been efficiently removed.

Comparative example 1 : Preparation of ridinilazole

A solution of 3,4,3′,4′-tetraaminobiphenyl (0.69 g, 3.2 mmol) and isonicotinaldehyde (0.64 g, 6.0 mmol) in DMF (20 mL) was stirred at 80°C for one hour. Then ferric chloride hexahydrate (49 mg, 0.18 mmol), water (0.10 mL, 5.4 mmol) and additional DMF (2 mL) were added and fresh air was bubbled into the solution during vigorous stirring for 10 hours at 120 °C. After cooling to room temperature water (50 mL) and the mixture was stirred for one hour. A black crude product was isolated by filtration and comprised ridinilazole and iron.

References

  1. Jump up to:a b Cho JC, Crotty MP, Pardo J (March 2019). “Clostridium difficile infection”Annals of Gastroenterology32 (2): 134–140. doi:10.20524/aog.2018.0336PMC 6394264PMID 30837785.
  2. Jump up to:a b c d Carlson TJ, Endres BT, Bassères E, Gonzales-Luna AJ, Garey KW (April 2019). “Ridinilazole for the treatment of Clostridioides difficile infection”Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs28 (4): 303–310. doi:10.1080/13543784.2019.1582640PMID 30767587.
  3. ^ Bassères E, Endres BT, Dotson KM, Alam MJ, Garey KW (January 2017). “Novel antibiotics in development to treat Clostridium difficile infection”Current Opinion in Gastroenterology33 (1): 1–7. doi:10.1097/MOG.0000000000000332PMID 28134686These tables highlight the increased drug development directed towards CDI due to the rise in prevalence of infections and to attempt to reduce the number of recurrent infections.
  4. ^ Vickers RJ, Tillotson G, Goldstein EJ, Citron DM, Garey KW, Wilcox MH (August 2016). “Ridinilazole: a novel therapy for Clostridium difficile infection”International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents48 (2): 137–43. doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2016.04.026PMID 27283730there exists a significant unmet and increasing medical need for new therapies to treat CDI, specifically those that can reduce the rate of disease recurrence.
  5. ^ Clinical trial number NCT03595553 for “Ri-CoDIFy 1: Comparison of Ridinilazole Versus Vancomycin Treatment for Clostridium Difficile Infection” at ClinicalTrials.gov
  6. ^ Clinical trial number NCT03595566 for “Ri-CoDIFy 2: To Compare Ridinilazole Versus Vancomycin Treatment for Clostridium Difficile Infection” at ClinicalTrials.gov
  7. ^ “Fast Track”. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 2018-11-03.
  8. ^ “”HHS spurs new antibiotic development for biodefense and common infections””Public Health Emergency. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved 2020-12-04.
Clinical data
Other namesSMT19969
ATC codeNone
Identifiers
IUPAC name[show]
CAS Number308362-25-6
PubChem CID16659285
ChemSpider17592423
UNII06DX01190R
KEGGD11958
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC24H16N6
Molar mass388.42 g/mol
3D model (JSmol)Interactive image
SMILES[hide]c6cc(c5nc4ccc(c3ccc2nc(c1ccncc1)[nH]c2c3)cc4[nH]5)ccn6

/////////RIDINILAZOLE, SMT19969, SMT 19969, ридинилазол , ريدينيلازول , 利地利唑 , リジニラゾール , Qualified Infectious Disease Product, QIDP,  Fast Track , PHASE 3,  Clostridioides difficile infection , 

REPROXALAP


2-(3-Amino-6-chloroquinolin-2-yl)propan-2-ol.png

REPROXALAP

レプロキサラップ;

ADX-102

2-(3-amino-6-chloroquinolin-2-yl)propan-2-ol

C12H13ClN2O, 236.7 g/mol

CAS 916056-79-6

UNII-F0GIZ22IJH

2-(3-amino-6-chloroquinolin-2-yl)propan-2-ol

Phase 3 Clinical

Aldeyra Therapeutics is developing reproxalap, which binds and traps free aldehydes, formulated using Captisol technology licensed from Ligand Pharmaceuticals as an eye drop formulation, for treating acute noninfectious anterior uveitis, allergic conjunctivitis and dry eye syndrome.

PATENT

product case, WO2006127945 ,

EU states until 2026

expire US in 2029 with US154 extension.

PATENTS

WO2018170476

United States patent application serial number US 13/709,802, filed December 10, 2012 and published as US 2013/0190500 on July 25, 2013 (“the ‘500 publication,” the entirety of which is hereby incorporated herein by reference), describes certain aldehyde scavenging compounds. Such compounds include com ound A:

[0036] Compound A, (6-chloro-3-amino-2-(2-hydroxypropyl)-l-azanaphthalene), is designated as compound A in the ‘500 publication and the synthesis of compound A is described in detail at Example 5 of the ‘500 publication, and is reproduced herein for ease of reference.

Example A – General Preparation of Compound A

Compound A

[00436] The title compound was prepared according to the steps and intermediates (e.g., Scheme 1) described below and in the ‘500 publication, the entirety of which is incorporated herein by reference.

Step 1: Synthesis of Intermediate A- 1

[00437] To a 2 L round bottom flask was charged ethanol (220 mL), and pyridine (31 g, 392 mmol) and the resulting solution stirred at a moderate rate of agitation under nitrogen. To this solution was added ethyl bromopyruvate (76.6 g, 354 mmol) in a slow, steady stream. The reaction mixture was allowed to stir at 65±5° C. for 2 hours.

Step 2: Synthesis of Intermediate A-2

[00438] Upon completion of the 2-hour stir time in example 1, the reaction mixture was slowly cooled to 18-22° C. The flask was vacuum-purged three times at which time 2-amino-5-chloro-benzaldehyde (ACB) (50.0 g, 321 mmol) was added directly to the reaction flask as a solid using a long plastic funnel. Pyridine (64.0 g, 809 mmol) was added followed by an EtOH rinse (10 mL) and the reaction mixture was heated at 80±3° C. under nitrogen for about 16 hours (overnight) at which time HPLC analysis indicated that the reaction was effectively complete.

Step 3: Synthesis of Intermediate A-3

[00439] The reaction mixture from example 2 was cooled to about 70° C. and morpholine (76.0 g, 873 mmol)) was added to the 2 L reaction flask using an addition funnel. The reaction mixture was heated at 80±2° C. for about 2.5 hours at which time the reaction was considered complete by HPLC analysis (area % of A-3 stops increasing). The reaction mixture was cooled to 10-15° C. for the quench, work up, and isolation.

Step 4: Isolation of Intermediate A-3

[00440] To the 2 L reaction flask was charged water (600 g) using the addition funnel over 30-60 minutes, keeping the temperature below 15° C. by adjusting the rate of addition and using a cooling bath. The reaction mixture was stirred for an additional 45 minutes at 10-15° C. then the crude A-3 isolated by filtration using a Buchner funnel. The cake was washed with water (100 mLx4) each time allowing the water to percolate through the cake before applying a vacuum. The cake was air dried to provide crude A-3 as a nearly dry brown solid. The cake was returned to the 2 L reaction flask and heptane (350 mL) and EtOH (170 mL) were added and the mixture heated to 70±3° C. for 30-60 minutes. The slurry was cooled to 0-5° C. and isolated by filtration under vacuum. The A-3 was dried in a vacuum drying oven under vacuum and 35±3° C. overnight (16-18 hours) to provide A-3 as a dark green solid.

Step 5: Synthesis of Compound A

[00441] To a 2 L round bottom flask was charged methylmagnesium chloride (200 mL of 3.0 M solution in THF, 600 mmol). The solution was cooled to 0-5° C. using an ice bath.

[00442] A 500 mL flask (magnetic stirring) was charged with 22.8 grams A-3 from example 4 and THF (365 mL), stirred to dissolve then transferred to an addition funnel on the 2 L Reaction Flask. The A-3 solution was added drop-wise to the reaction flask over 5.75 hours, keeping the temperature of the reaction flask between 0-5° C throughout the addition. At the end of the addition the contents of the flask were stirred for an additional 15 minutes at 0-5° C. then the cooling bath was removed and the reaction was allowed to stir overnight at ambient temperature.

[00443] The flask was cooled in an ice bath and the reaction mixture was carefully quenched by adding EtOH (39.5 g, 857 mmol) drop-wise to the reaction mixture, keeping the temperature of the reaction mixture below 15° C. during the course of the addition. An aqueous solution of H4C1 (84.7 g H4C1 in 415 mL water) was then carefully added and the mixture stirred under moderate agitation for about 30 minutes then transferred to a separately funnel to allow the layers to separate. Solids were present in the aqueous phase so HO Ac (12.5 g) was added and the contents swirled gently to obtain a nearly homogeneous lower aqueous phase. The lower aqueous layer was transferred back to the 2 L reaction flask and stirred under moderate agitation with 2-methylTHF (50 mL) for about 15 minutes. The original upper organic layer was reduced in volume to approximately 40 mL using a rotary evaporator at≤40° C. and vacuum as needed. The phases in the separatory funnel were separated and the upper 2-MeTHF phase combined with the product residue, transferred to a 500 mL flask and vacuum distilled to an approximate volume of 25 mL. To this residue was added 2-MeTHF (50 mL) and distilled to an approximate volume of 50 mL. The crude compound A solution was diluted with 2-MeTHF (125 mL), cooled to 5-10° C. and 2M H2S04 (aq) (250 mL) was slowly added and the mixture stirred for 30 minutes as the temperature was allowed to return to ambient. Heptane (40 mL) was charged and the reaction mixture stirred for an additional 15 minutes then transferred to a separatory funnel and the layers were allowed to separate. The lower aqueous product layer was extracted with additional heptane (35 mL) then the lower aqueous phase was transferred to a 1 L reaction flask equipped with a mechanical stirrer and the mixture was cooled to 5-10° C. The combined organic layers were discarded. A solution of 25% NaOH(aq) was prepared (NaOH, 47 g, water, 200 mL) and slowly added to the 1 L reaction flask to bring the pH to a range of 6.5-8.5.

[00444] EtOAc (250 mL) was added and the mixture was stirred overnight. The mixture was transferred to a separatory funnel and the lower phase discarded. The upper organic layer was washed with brine (25 mL) then the upper organic product layer was reduced in volume on a rotary evaporator to obtain the crude compound A as a dark oil that solidified within a few minutes. The crude compound A was dissolved in EtOAc (20 mL) and filtered through a plug of silica gel (23 g) eluting with 3/1 heptane/EtOAc until all compound A was eluted (approximately 420 mL required) to remove most of the dark color of compound A. The solvent was removed in vacuo to provide 14.7 g of compound A as a tan solid. Compound A was taken up in EtOAc (25 mL) and eluted through a column of silica gel (72 g) using a mobile phase gradient of 7/1 heptane/EtOAc to 3/lheptane/EtOAc (1400 mL total). The solvent fractions containing compound A were stripped, compound A diluted with EtOAc (120 mL) and stirred in a flask with Darco G-60 decolorizing carbon (4.0 g) for about 1 hour. The mixture was filtered through celite using a fitted funnel, rinsing the cake with EtOAc (3 x 15 mL). The combined filtrates were stripped on a rotary evaporator and compound A dissolved in heptane (160 mL)/EtOAc(16 mL) at 76° C. The

homogeneous solution was slowly cooled to 0-5° C, held for 2 hours then compound A was isolated by filtration. After drying in a vacuum oven for 5 hours at 35° C. under best vacuum, compound A was obtained as a white solid. HPLC purity: 100% (AUC).

Example 1 – Preparation of Free Base Forms A and B of Compound A

Compound A

[00445] Compound A is prepared according to the method described in detail in Examples 1-5 of the ‘500 publication, the entirety of which is hereby incorporated herein by reference.

PATENT

example 5 [WO2018039197A1]

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2018039197A1/en

Exam le 5: Synthesis of NS2

Figure imgf000055_0001

NS2

[00190] 2-(3-amino-6-chloroquinolin-2-yl)propan-2-ol. To a 2 L round bottom flask was charged methylmagnesium chloride (200 mL of 3.0 M solution in THF, 600 mmol). The solution was cooled to 0-5 °C using an ice bath.

[00191] A 500 mL flask (magnetic stirring) was charged with 22.8 grams A-3a from Example 4 and THF (365 mL), stirred to dissolve, and then transferred to an addition funnel on the 2 L reaction flask. The A-3a solution was added drop-wise to the reaction flask over 5.75 hours, keeping the temperature of the reaction flask between 0-5 °C throughout the addition. At the end of the addition the contents of the flask were stirred for an additional 15 minutes at 0-5 °C, then the cooling bath was removed and the reaction was allowed to stir overnight at ambient temperature.

[00192] The flask was cooled in an ice bath and the reaction mixture was carefully quenched by adding EtOH (39.5 g, 857 mmol) drop-wise to the reaction mixture, keeping the temperature of the reaction mixture below 15 °C during the course of the addition. An aqueous solution of H4CI (84.7 g H4CI in 415 mL water) was then carefully added and the mixture stirred under moderate agitation for about 30 minutes then transferred to a separatory funnel to allow the layers to separate. Solids were present in the aqueous phase so HOAc (12.5 g) was added and the contents swirled gently to obtain a nearly homogeneous lower aqueous phase. The lower aqueous layer was transferred back to the 2 L reaction flask and stirred under moderate agitation with 2-methyl-tetrahydrofuran (2-MeTHF) (50 mL) for about 15 minutes. The original upper organic layer was reduced in volume to approximately 40 mL using a rotary evaporator at < 40 °C under vacuum as needed. The phases in the separatory funnel were separated and the upper 2-MeTHF phase combined with the product residue was transferred to a 500 mL flask and vacuum distilled to an approximate volume of 25 mL. To this residue was added 2-MeTHF (50 mL) and the mixture again distilled to an approximate volume of 50 mL. The crude compound NS2 solution was diluted with 2-MeTHF (125 mL), cooled to 5-10 °C, and 2 M H2S04 (aq) (250 mL) was slowly added and the mixture stirred for 30 minutes as the temperature was allowed to return to ambient. Heptane (40 mL) was charged and the reaction mixture stirred for an additional 15 minutes then transferred to a separatory funnel, and the layers were allowed to separate. The lower aqueous product layer was extracted with additional heptane (35 mL), then the lower aqueous phase was transferred to a 1 L reaction flask equipped with a mechanical stirrer, and the mixture was cooled to 5-10 °C. The combined organic layers were discarded. A solution of 25% NaOH (aq) was prepared (NaOH, 47 g, water, 200 mL) and slowly added to the 1 L reaction flask to bring the pH to a range of 6.5 – 8.5.

[00193] EtOAc (250 mL) was added and the mixture was stirred overnight. The mixture was transferred to a separatory funnel and the lower phase discarded. The upper organic layer was washed with brine (25 mL), then the upper organic product layer was reduced in volume on a rotary evaporator to obtain a obtain the crude compound NS2 as a dark oil that solidified within a few minutes. The crude compound NS2 was dissolved in EtOAc (20 mL) and filtered through a plug of silica gel (23 g) eluting with 3/1 heptane/EtOAc until all compound NS2 was eluted (approximately 420 mL required) to remove most of the dark color of compound NS2. The solvent was removed in vacuo to provide 14.7 g of compound NS2 as a tan solid. Compound NS2 was taken up in EtOAc (25 mL) and eluted through a column of silica gel (72g) using a mobile phase gradient of 7/1 heptane/EtOAc to 3/1 heptane/EtOAc (1400 mL total). The solvent fractions containing compound NS2 were evaporated. Compound NS2 was diluted with EtOAc (120 mL) and stirred in a flask with Darco G-60 decolorizing carbon (4.0 g) for about 1 hour. The mixture was filtered through celite using a firtted funnel, rinsing the cake with EtOAc (3 x 15 mL). The combined filtrates were evaporated on a rotary evaporator and compound NS2 dissolved in heptane (160 mL)/EtOAc (16 mL) at 76 °C. The homogeneous solution was slowly cooled to 0-5 °C, held for 2 hours, then compound NS2 was isolated by filtration. After drying in a vacuum oven for 5 hours at 35 °C under best vacuum, compound NS2 was obtained as a white solid. HPLC purity: 100% (AUC); HPLC (using standard conditions): A-2: 7.2 minutes; A-3 : 11.6 minutes.

Preparation of ACB

Figure imgf000057_0001

[00194] After a N2 atmosphere had been established and a slight stream of N2 was flowing through the vessel, platinum, sulfided, 5 wt. % on carbon, reduced, dry (9.04 g, 3.0 wt. % vs the nitro substrate) was added to a 5 L heavy walled pressure vessel equipped with a large magnetic stir-bar and a thermocouple. MeOH (1.50 L), 5-chloro-2-nitrobenzaldehyde (302.1 g, 1.63 mol), further MeOH (1.50 L) and Na2C03 (2.42 g, 22.8 mmol, 0.014 equiv) were added. The flask was sealed and stirring was initiated at 450 rpm. The solution was evacuated and repressurized with N2 (35 psi), 2x. The flask was evacuated and repressurized with H2 to 35 psi. The temperature of the solution reached 30 °C w/in 20 min. The solution was then cooled with a water bath. Ice was added to the water bath to maintain a temperature below 35 °C. Every 2h, the reaction was monitored by evacuating and repressurizing with N2 (5 psi), 2x prior to opening. The progress of the reaction could be followed by TLC: 5-Chloro-2-nitrobenzaldehyde (Rf = 0.60, CH2CI2, UV) and the intermediates (Rf = 0.51, CH2CI2, UV and Rf = 0.14, CH2CI2, UV) were consumed to give ACB (Rf = 0.43, CH2CI2, UV). At 5 h, the reaction had gone to 98% completion (GC), and was considered complete. To a 3 L medium fritted funnel was added celite (ca. 80 g). This was settled with MeOH (ca. 200 mL) and pulled dry with vacuum. The reduced solution was transferred via cannula into the funnel while gentle vacuum was used to pull the solution through the celite plug. This was chased with MeOH (4 x 150 mL). The solution was transferred to a 5 L three-necked round-bottom flask. At 30 °C on a rotavap, solvent (ca. 2 L) was removed under reduced pressure. An N2 blanket was applied. The solution was transferred to a 5L four-necked round-bottomed flask equipped with mechanical stirring and an addition funnel. Water (2.5 L) was added dropwise into the vigorously stirring solution over 4 h. The slurry was filtered with a minimal amount of vacuum. The collected solid was washed with water (2 x 1.5 L), 2-propanol (160 mL) then hexanes (2 x 450 mL). The collected solid (a canary yellow, granular solid) was transferred to a 150 x 75 recrystallizing dish. The solid was then dried under reduced pressure (26-28 in Hg) at 40°C overnight in a vacuum-oven. ACB (> 99% by HPLC) was stored under a N2 atmosphere at 5°C.

PATENT

WO-2020223717

Process for preparing reproxalap as acetaldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor useful for treating ocular diseases and cancer.

PATENT

WO-2020223685

Novel crystalline forms of reproxalap (compound 1; designated as Forms A and B) as acetaldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor useful for treating ocular diseases and cancer.

PATENT

WO 2020123730

//////////REPROXALAP, レプロキサラップ  , ADX-102, Phase 3 Clinical

CC(C)(C1=C(C=C2C=C(C=CC2=N1)Cl)N)O

Odevixibat


img

Odevixibat.png

Odevixibat

A-4250, AR-H 064974

CAS 501692-44-0

BUTANOIC ACID, 2-(((2R)-2-((2-((3,3-DIBUTYL-2,3,4,5-TETRAHYDRO-7-(METHYLTHIO)-1,1-DIOXIDO-5-PHENYL-1,2,5-BENZOTHIADIAZEPIN-8-YL)OXY)ACETYL)AMINO)-2-(4-HYDROXYPHENYL)ACETYL)AMINO)-, (2S)-

(2S)-2-[[(2R)-2-[[2-[(3,3-dibutyl-7-methylsulfanyl-1,1-dioxo-5-phenyl-2,4-dihydro-1λ6,2,5-benzothiadiazepin-8-yl)oxy]acetyl]amino]-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetyl]amino]butanoic acid

Molecular Formula C37H48N4O8S2
Molecular Weight 740.929
        • UPDATE 7/20/2021FDA APPROVED, To treat pruritus,

      Bylvay

    • New Drug Application (NDA): 215498
      Company: ALBIREO PHARMA INC
  • Orphan Drug Status Yes – Primary biliary cirrhosis; Biliary atresia; Intrahepatic cholestasis; Alagille syndrome
  • New Molecular Entity Yes
  • Phase III Biliary atresia; Intrahepatic cholestasis
  • Phase II Alagille syndrome; Cholestasis; Primary biliary cirrhosis
  • No development reported Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis
  • 22 Jul 2020 Albireo initiates an expanded-access programme for Intrahepatic cholestasis in USA, Canada, Australia and Europe
  • 14 Jul 2020 Phase-III clinical trials in Biliary atresia (In infants, In neonates) in Belgium (PO) after July 2020 (EudraCT2019-003807-37)
  • 14 Jul 2020 Phase-III clinical trials in Biliary atresia (In infants, In neonates) in Germany, France, United Kingdom, Hungary (PO) (EudraCT2019-003807-37)

UPDATE Bylvay, FDA APPROVED2021/7/20 AND EMA 2021/7/16

Odevixibat, sold under the trade name Bylvay, is a medication for the treatment of progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC).[1]

The most common side effects include diarrhea, abdominal pain, hemorrhagic diarrhea, soft feces, and hepatomegaly (enlarged liver).[1]

Odevixibat is a reversible, potent, selective inhibitor of the ileal bile acid transporter (IBAT).[1][2]

In May 2021, the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) recommended granting a marketing authorization in the European Union for odevixibat for the treatment of PFIC in people aged six months or older.[1][3]

A-4250 (odevixibat) is a selective inhibitor of the ileal bile acid transporter (IBAT) that acts locally in the gut. Ileum absorbs glyco-and taurine-conjugated forms of the bile salts. IBAT is the first step in absorption at the brush-border membrane. A-4250 works by decreasing the re-absorption of bile acids from the small intestine to the liver, whichreduces the toxic levels of bile acids during the progression of the disease. It exhibits therapeutic intervention by checking the transport of bile acids. Studies show that A-4250 has the potential to decrease the damage in the liver cells and the development of fibrosis/cirrhosis of the liver known to occur in progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis. A-4250 is a designated orphan drug in the USA for October 2012. A-4250 is a designated orphan drug in the EU for October 2016. A-4250 was awarded PRIME status for PFIC by EMA in October 2016. A-4250 is in phase II clinical trials by Albireo for the treatment of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and cholestatic pruritus. In an open label Phase 2 study in children with cholestatic liver disease and pruritus, odevixibat showed reductions in serum bile acids and pruritus in most patients and exhibited a favorable overall tolerability profile.

str1

albireo_logo_nav.svg

Odevixibat is a highly potent, non-systemic ileal bile acid transport inhibitor (IBATi) that has has minimal systemic exposure and acts locally in the small intestine. Albireo is developing odevixibat to treat rare pediatric cholestatic liver diseases, including progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasisbiliary atresia and Alagille syndrome.

With normal function, approximately 95 percent of bile acids released from the liver into the bile ducts to aid in liver function are recirculated to the liver via the IBAT in a process called enterohepatic circulation. In people with cholestatic liver diseases, the bile flow is interrupted, resulting in elevated levels of toxic bile acids accumulating in the liver and serum. Accordingly, a product capable of inhibiting the IBAT could lead to a reduction in bile acids returning to the liver and may represent a promising approach for treating cholestatic liver diseases.

The randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, global multicenter PEDFIC 1 Phase 3 clinical trial of odevixibat in 62 patients, ages 6 months to 15.9 years, with PFIC type 1 or type 2 met its two primary endpoints demonstrating that odevixibat reduced serum bile acids (sBAs) (p=0.003) and improved pruritus (p=0.004), and was well tolerated with a low single digit diarrhea rate. These topline data substantiate the potential for odevixibat to be first drug for PFIC patients. The Company intends to complete regulatory filings in the EU and U.S. no later than early 2021, in anticipation of regulatory approval, issuance of a rare pediatric disease priority review voucher and launch in the second half of 2021.

Odevixibat is being evaluated in the ongoing PEDFIC 2 open-label trial (NCT03659916) designed to assess long-term safety and durability of response in a cohort of patients rolled over from PEDFIC 1 and a second cohort of PFIC patients who are not eligible for PEDFIC 1.

Odevixibat is also currently being evaluated in a second Phase 3 clinical trial, BOLD (NCT04336722), in patients with biliary atresia. BOLD, the largest prospective intervention trial ever conducted in biliary atresia, is a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial which will enroll approximately 200 patients at up to 75 sites globally to evaluate the efficacy and safety of odevixibat in children with biliary atresia who have undergone a Kasai procedure before age three months. The company also anticipates initiating a pivotal trial of odevixibat for Alagille syndrome by the end of 2020.

For more information about the PEDFIC 2 or BOLD studies, please visit ClinicalTrials.gov or contact medinfo@albireopharma.com.

The odevixibat PFIC program, or elements of it, have received fast track, rare pediatric disease and orphan drug designations in the United States. In addition, the FDA has granted orphan drug designation to odevixibat for the treatment of Alagille syndrome, biliary atresia and primary biliary cholangitis. The EMA has granted odevixibat orphan designation, as well as access to the PRIority MEdicines (PRIME) scheme for the treatment of PFIC. Its Paediatric Committee has agreed to Albireo’s odevixibat Pediatric Investigation Plan for PFIC. EMA has also granted orphan designation to odevixibat for the treatment of biliary atresia, Alagille syndrome and primary biliary cholangitis.

PATENT

https://patents.google.com/patent/US9694018B1/en

Example 5

1,1-Dioxo-3,3-dibutyl-5-phenyl-7-methylthio-8-(N—{(R)-α-[N—((S)-1-carboxypropyl) carbamoyl]-4-hydroxybenzyl}carbamoylmethoxy)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1,2,5-benzothiadiazepine, Mw. 740.94.

This compound is prepared as described in Example 29 of WO3022286.

PATENT

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2003022286A1/sv

Example 29

1,1-Dioxo-3,3-dibutyl-5-phenyl-7-methylthio-8-(N-((R)-α-[N-((S)- 1-carboxypropyl) carbamoyl]-4-hydroxybenzyl}carbamoylmethoxy)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1,2,5-benzothiadiazepine

A solution of 1,1-dioxo-3,3-dibutyl-5-phenyl-7-methylthio-8-[N-((R)-α-carboxy-4-hydroxybenzyl)carbamoylmethoxy]-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1,2,5-benzothiadiazepine (Example 18; 0.075 g, 0.114 mmol), butanoic acid, 2-amino-, 1,1-dimethylethyl ester, hydrochloride, (2S)-(0.031 g, 0.160 mmol) and Ν-methylmorpholine (0.050 ml, 0.457 mmol) in DMF (4 ml) was stirred at RT for 10 min, after which TBTU (0.048 g, 0.149 mmol) was added. After 1h, the conversion to the ester was complete. M/z: 797.4. The solution was diluted with toluene and then concentrated. The residue was dissolved in a mixture of DCM (5 ml) and TFA (2 ml) and the mixture was stirred for 7h. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by preparative HPLC using a gradient of 20-60% MeCΝ in 0.1M ammonium acetate buffer as eluent. The title compound was obtained in 0.056 g (66 %) as a white solid. ΝMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6): 0.70 (3H, t), 0.70-0.80 (6H, m), 0.85-1.75 (14H, m), 2.10 (3H, s), 3.80 (2H, brs), 4.00-4.15 (1H, m), 4.65 (1H, d(AB)), 4.70 (1H, d(AB)), 5.50 (1H, d), 6.60 (1H, s), 6.65-7.40 (11H, m), 8.35 (1H, d), 8.50 (1H, d) 9.40 (1H, brs).

PATENT

https://patents.google.com/patent/US20140323412A1/en

PATENT

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2013063526A1/e

PATENT

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2019245448A1/en

The compound l,l-dioxo-3,3-dibutyl-5-phenyl-7-methylthio-8-(A/-{(R)-a-[A/-((S)-l-carboxypropyl) carbamoyl]-4-hydroxybenzyl}carbamoylmethoxy)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-l,2,5-benzothiadiazepine (odevixibat; also known as A4250) is disclosed in WO 03/022286. The structure of odevixibat is shown below.

Figure imgf000002_0001

As an inhibitor of the ileal bile acid transporter (IBAT) mechanism, odevixibat inhibits the natural reabsorption of bile acids from the ileum into the hepatic portal circulation. Bile acids that are not reabsorbed from the ileum are instead excreted into the faeces. The overall removal of bile acids from the enterohepatic circulation leads to a decrease in the level of bile acids in serum and the liver. Odevixibat, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, is therefore useful in the treatment or prevention of diseases such as dyslipidemia, constipation, diabetes and liver diseases, and especially liver diseases that are associated with elevated bile acid levels.

According to the experimental section of WO 03/022286, the last step in the preparation of odevixibat involves the hydrolysis of a tert-butyl ester under acidic conditions. The crude compound was obtained by evaporation of the solvent under reduced pressure followed by purification of the residue by preparative HPLC (Example 29). No crystalline material was identified.

Amorphous materials may contain high levels of residual solvents, which is highly undesirable for materials that should be used as pharmaceuticals. Also, because of their lower chemical and physical stability, as compared with crystalline material, amorphous materials may display faster

decomposition and may spontaneously form crystals with a variable degree of crystallinity. This may result in unreproducible solubility rates and difficulties in storing and handling the material. In pharmaceutical preparations, the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) is for that reason preferably used in a highly crystalline state. Thus, there is a need for crystal modifications of odevixibat having improved properties with respect to stability, bulk handling and solubility. In particular, it is an object of the present invention to provide a stable crystal modification of odevixibat that does not contain high levels of residual solvents, that has improved chemical stability and can be obtained in high levels of crystallinity.

Example 1

Preparation of crystal modification 1

Absolute alcohol (100.42 kg) and crude odevixibat (18.16 kg) were charged to a 250-L GLR with stirring under nitrogen atmosphere. Purified water (12.71 kg) was added and the reaction mass was stirred under nitrogen atmosphere at 25 ± 5 °C for 15 minutes. Stirring was continued at 25 ± 5 °C for 3 to 60 minutes, until a clear solution had formed. The solution was filtered through a 5.0 m SS cartridge filter, followed by a 0.2 m PP cartridge filter and then transferred to a clean reactor.

Purified water (63.56 kg) was added slowly over a period of 2 to 3 hours at 25 ± 5 °C, and the solution was seeded with crystal modification 1 of odevixibat. The solution was stirred at 25 ± 5 °C for 12 hours. During this time, the solution turned turbid. The precipitated solids were filtered through centrifuge and the material was spin dried for 30 minutes. The material was thereafter vacuum dried in a Nutsche filter for 12 hours. The material was then dried in a vacuum tray drier at 25 ± 5 °C under vacuum (550 mm Hg) for 10 hours and then at 30 ± 5 °C under vacuum (550 mm Hg) for 16 hours. The material was isolated as an off-white crystalline solid. The isolated crystalline material was milled and stored in LDPE bags.

An overhydrated sample was analyzed with XRPD and the diffractogram is shown in Figure 2.

Another sample was dried at 50 °C in vacuum and thereafter analysed with XRPD. The diffractogram of the dried sample is shown in Figure 1.

The diffractograms for the drying of the sample are shown in Figures 3 and 4 for 2Q ranges 5 – 13 ° and 18 – 25 °, respectively (overhydrated sample at the bottom and dry sample at the top).

References

  1. Jump up to:a b c d “First treatment for rare liver disease”European Medicines Agency (EMA) (Press release). 21 May 2021. Retrieved 21 May 2021. Text was copied from this source which is © European Medicines Agency. Reproduction is authorized provided the source is acknowledged.
  2. ^ “Odevixibat”Albireo Pharma. Retrieved 21 May 2021.
  3. ^ “Bylvay: Pending EC decision”European Medicines Agency (EMA). 19 May 2021. Retrieved 21 May 2021.

External links

  • “Odevixibat”Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine.

ClinicalTrials.gov

CTID Title Phase Status Date
NCT04336722 Efficacy and Safety of Odevixibat in Children With Biliary Atresia Who Have Undergone a Kasai HPE (BOLD) Phase 3 Recruiting 2020-09-02
NCT04483531 Odevixibat for the Treatment of Progressive Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis Available 2020-08-25
NCT03566238 This Study Will Investigate the Efficacy and Safety of A4250 in Children With PFIC 1 or 2 Phase 3 Active, not recruiting 2020-03-05
NCT03659916 Long Term Safety & Efficacy Study Evaluating The Effect of A4250 in Children With PFIC Phase 3 Recruiting 2020-01-21
NCT03608319 Study of A4250 in Healthy Volunteers Under Fasting, Fed and Sprinkled Conditions Phase 1 Completed 2018-09-19
CTID Title Phase Status Date
NCT02630875 A4250, an IBAT Inhibitor in Pediatric Cholestasis Phase 2 Completed 2018-03-29
NCT02360852 IBAT Inhibitor A4250 for Cholestatic Pruritus Phase 2 Terminated 2017-02-23
NCT02963077 A Safety and Pharmakokinetic Study of A4250 Alone or in Combination With A3384 Phase 1 Completed 2016-11-16

EU Clinical Trials Register

EudraCT Title Phase Status Date
2019-003807-37 A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Odevixibat (A4250) in Children with Biliary Atresia Who Have Undergone a Kasai Hepatoportoenterostomy (BOLD) Phase 3 Ongoing 2020-07-29
2015-001157-32 An Exploratory Phase II Study to demonstrate the Safety and Efficacy of A4250 Phase 2 Completed 2015-05-13
2014-004070-42 An Exploratory, Phase IIa Cross-Over Study to Demonstrate the Efficacy Phase 2 Ongoing 2014-12-09
2017-002325-38 An Open-label Extension Study to Evaluate Long-term Efficacy and Safety of A4250 in Children with Progressive Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis Types 1 and 2 (PEDFIC 2) Phase 3 Ongoing
2017-002338-21 A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Phase 3 Study to Demonstrate Efficacy and Safety of A4250 in Children with Progressive Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis Types 1 and 2 (PEDFIC 1) Phase 3 Ongoing, Completed

.

Odevixibat
Odevixibat structure.png
Clinical data
Trade names Bylvay
Routes of
administration
By mouth
ATC code
  • None
Identifiers
CAS Number
  • 501692-44-0
PubChem CID
IUPHAR/BPS
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEMBL
Chemical and physical data
Formula C37H48N4O8S2
Molar mass 740.93 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)

////////////odevixibat, Orphan Drug Status, phase 3, Albireo, A-4250, A 4250, AR-H 064974

CCCCC1(CN(C2=CC(=C(C=C2S(=O)(=O)N1)OCC(=O)NC(C3=CC=C(C=C3)O)C(=O)NC(CC)C(=O)O)SC)C4=CC=CC=C4)CCCC

publicationnumber
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Desidustat


Desidustat.svg

DESIDUSTAT

Formal Name
N-[[1-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-1,2-dihydro-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-3-quinolinyl]carbonyl]-glycine
CAS Number 1616690-16-4
Molecular Formula   C16H16N2O6
Formula Weight 332.3
FormulationA crystalline solid
λmax233, 291, 335

2-(1-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxamido)acetic acid

desidustat

Glycine, N-((1-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-1,2-dihydro-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-3-quinolinyl)carbonyl)-

N-(1-(Cyclopropylmethoxy)-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-3-carbonyl)glycine

ZYAN1 compound

BCP29692

EX-A2999

ZB1514

CS-8034

HY-103227

A16921

(1-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-3-carbonyl) glycine in 98% yield, as a solid. MS (ESI-MS): m/z 333.05 (M+H) +1H NMR (DMSO-d 6): 0.44-0.38 (m, 2H), 0.62-0.53 (m, 2H), 1.34-1.24 (m, 1H), 4.06-4.04 (d, 2H), 4.14-4.13 (d, 2H), 7.43-7.39 (t, 1H), 7.72-7.70 (d, 1H), 7.89-7.85 (m, 1H), 8.11-8.09 (dd, 1H), 10.27-10.24 (t, 1H), 12.97 (bs, 1H), 16.99 (s, 1H). HPLC Purity: 99.85%

Desidustat | C16H16N2O6 - PubChem

breakingnewspharma hashtag on Twitter

Desidustat (INN, also known as ZYAN1) is an investigational drug for the treatment of anemia of chronic kidney disease. Clinical trials on desidustat have been done in India and Australia.[1] In a Phase 2, randomized, double-blind, 6-week, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging, safety and efficacy study, a mean Hb increase of 1.57, 2.22, and 2.92 g/dL in Desidustat 100, 150, and 200 mg arms, respectively, was observed.[2] It is currently undergoing Phase 3 clinical trials.[3] Desidustat is being developed for the treatment of anemia, where currently erythropoietin and its analogues are drugs of choice. Desidustat is a prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD) inhibitor. In preclinical studies, effect of desidustat was assessed in normal and nephrectomized rats, and in chemotherapy-induced anemia. Desidustat demonstrated hematinic potential by combined effects on endogenous erythropoietin release and efficient iron utilization.[4][5] Desidustat can also be useful in treatment of anemia of inflammation since it causes efficient erythropoiesis and hepcidin downregulation.[6]. In January 2020, Zydus entered into licensing agreement with China Medical System Holdings for development and commercialization of Desidustat in Greater China. Under the license agreement, CMS will pay Zydus an initial upfront payment, regulatory milestones, sales milestones and royalties on net sales of the product. CMS will be responsible for development, registration and commercialization of Desidustat in Greater China [7]

 

PATENT

US277539705

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf;jsessionid=C922CC7937C0B6D7F987FE395E8B6F34.wapp2nB?docId=US277539705&_cid=P21-KCEB8C-83913-1

      Patent applications WO 2004041818, US 20040167123, US 2004162285, US 20040097492 and US 20040087577 describes the utility of N-arylated hydroxylamines of formula (IV), which are intermediates useful for the synthesis of certain quinolone derivatives (VI) as inhibitors of hepatitis C (HCV) polymerase useful for the treatment of HCV infection. In these references, the compound of formula (IV) was prepared using Scheme 1 which involves partial reduction of nitro group and subsequent O-alkylation using sodium hydride as a base.

 (MOL) (CDX)

      The patent application WO 2014102818 describes the use of certain quinolone based compound of formula (I) as prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors for the treatment of anemia. Compound of formula (I) was prepared according to scheme 2 which involved partial reduction of nitro group and subsequent O-alkylation using cesium carbonate as a base.

 (MOL) (CDX)

      The drawback of process disclosed in WO 2014102818 (Scheme 2) is that it teaches usage of many hazardous reagents and process requires column chromatographic purification using highly flammable solvent at one of the stage and purification at multi steps during synthesis, which is not feasible for bulk production.
Scheme 3:

 (MOL) (CDX)

 Scheme 4.

 (MOL) (CDX)

      The process for the preparation of compound of formula (I-a) comprises the following steps:

Step 1′a Process for Preparation of ethyl 2-iodobenzoate (XI-a)

      In a 5 L fixed glass assembly, Ethanol (1.25 L) charged at room temperature. 2-iodobenzoic acid (250 g, 1.00 mol) was added in one lot at room temperature. Sulphuric acid (197.7 g, 2.01 mol) was added carefully in to reaction mixture at 20 to 35° C. The reaction mixture was heated to 80 to 85° C. Reaction mixture was stirred for 20 hours at 80 to 85° C. After completion of reaction distilled out ethanol at below 60° C. The reaction mixture was cooled down to room temperature. Water (2.5 L) was then added carefully at 20 to 35° C. The reaction mixture was then charged with Ethyl acetate (1.25 L). After complete addition of ethyl acetate, reaction mixture turned to clear solution. At room temperature it was stirred for 5 to 10 minutes and separated aqueous layer. Aqueous layer then again extracted with ethyl acetate (1.25 L) and separated aqueous layer. Combined organic layer then washed with twice 10% sodium bicarbonate solution (2×1.25 L) and twice process water (2×1.25L) and separated aqueous layer. Organic layer then washed with 30% brine solution (2.5 L) and separated aqueous layer. Concentrated ethyl acetate in vacuo to get ethyl 2-iodobenzoate in 95% yield, as an oil, which was used in next the reaction, without any further purification. MS (ESI-MS): m/z 248.75 (M+H). 1H NMR (CDCl 3): 1.41-1.37 (t, 3H), 4.41-4.35 (q, 2H), 7.71-7.09 (m, 1H), 7.39-7.35 (m, 1H), 7.94-7.39 (m, 1H), 7.96-7.96 (d, 1H). HPLC Purity: 99.27%

Step-2 Process for the Preparation of ethyl 2-((tert-butoxycarbonyl)(cyclopropylmethoxy)aminolbenzoate (XII-a)

      In a 5 L fixed glass assembly, toluene (1.5 L) was charged at room temperature. Copper (I) iodide (15.3 g, 0.08 mol) was added in one lot at room temperature. Glycine (39.1 g, 0.520 mol) was added in one lot at room temperature. Reaction mixture was stirred for 20 minutes at room temperature. Ethyl 2-iodobenzoate (221.2 g, 0.801 mol) was added in one lot at room temperature. Tert-butyl (cyclopropylmethoxy)carbamate (150 g, 0.801 mol) was added in one lot at room temperature. Reaction mixture was stirred for 20 minutes at room temperature. Potassium carbonate (885.8 g, 6.408 mol) and ethanol (0.9 L) were added at 25° C. to 35° C. Reaction mixture was stirred for 30 minutes. The reaction mixture was refluxed at 78 to 85° C. for 24 hours. Reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature and stirred for 30 minutes. The reaction mixture was then charged with ethyl acetate (1.5 L). After complete addition of ethyl acetate, reaction mixture turned to thick slurry. At room temperature it was stirred for 30 minutes and the solid inorganic material was filtered off through hyflow supercel bed. Inorganic solid impurity was washed with ethyl acetate (1.5 L), combined ethyl acetate layer was washed with twice water (2×1.5 L) and separated aqueous layer. Organic layer washed with 30% sodium chloride solution (1.5 L) and separated aqueous layer. Ethyl acetate was concentrated in vacuo to get ethyl 2-((tert-butoxycarbonyl)(cyclopropylmethoxy)amino)benzoate in 89% yield, as an oil, which was used in next the reaction, without any further purification. MS (ESI-MS): m/z 357.93 (M+Na). 1H NMR (CDCl 3): 0.26-0.23 (m, 2H), 0.52-0.48 (m, 2H), 1.10-1.08 (m, 1H), 1.38-1.35 (t, 3H), 1.51 (s, 9H), 3.78-3.76 (d, J=7.6 Hz, 2H), 4.35-4.30 (q, J=6.8 Hz, 2H), 7.29-7.25 (m, 1H), 7.49-7.47 (m, 2H), 7.78-7.77 (d, 1H). HPLC Purity: 88.07%

Step 3 Process for the Preparation of ethyl 2-((cyclopropylmethoxy)amino)benzoate (XIII-a)

      In a 10 L fixed glass assembly, dichloromethane (2.4 L) was charged at room temperature. Ethyl 2-((tert-butoxycarbonyl)(cyclopropylmethoxy)amino)benzoate (200 g, 0.596 mol) was charged and cooled externally with ice-salt at 0 to 10° C. Methanolic HCl (688.3 g, 3.458 mol, 18.34% w/w) solution was added slowly drop wise, over a period of 15 minutes, while maintaining internal temperature below 10° C. Reaction mixture was warmed to 20 to 30° C., and stirred at 20 to 30° C. for 3 hours. The reaction mixture was quenched with addition of water (3.442 L). Upon completion of water addition, the reaction mixture turn out to light yellow coloured solution. At room temperature it was stirred for another 15 minutes and separated aqueous layer. Aqueous layer was again extracted with Dichloromethane (0.8 L). Combined dichloromethane layer then washed with 20% sodium chloride solution (1.0 L) and separated aqueous layer. Concentrated dichloromethane vacuo to get Ethyl 2-((cyclopropylmethoxy)amino)benzoate in 92% yield, as an oil. MS (ESI-MS): m/z 235.65 (M+H) +1H NMR (CDCl 3): 0.35-0.31 (m, 2H), 0.80-0.59 (m, 2H), 0.91-0.85 (m, 1H), 1.44-1.38 (t, 3H), 3.76-3.74 (d, 2H), 4.36-4.30 (q, 2H), 6.85-6.81 (t, 1H), 7.36-7.33 (d, 1H), 7.92-7.43 (m, 1H), 7.94-7.93 (d, 1H), 9.83 (s, 1H). HPLC Purity: 87.62%

Step 4 Process for the Preparation of ethyl 24N-(cyclopropylinethoxy)-3-ethoxy-3-oxopropanamido)benzoate (XIV-a)

      In a 2 L fixed glass assembly, Acetonitrile (0.6 L) was charged at room temperature. Ethyl 2-((cyclopropylmethoxy)amino)benzoate (120 g, 0.510 mol) was charged at room temperature. Ethyl hydrogen malonate (74.1 g, 0.561 mol) was charged at room temperature. Pyridine (161.4 g, 2.04 mol) was added carefully in to reaction mass at room temperature and cooled externally with ice-salt at 0 to 10° C. Phosphorous oxychloride (86.0 g, 0.561 mol) was added slowly drop wise, over a period of 2 hours, while maintaining internal temperature below 10° C. Reaction mixture was stirred at 0 to 10° C. for 45 minutes. The reaction mixture was quenched with addition of water (1.0 L). Upon completion of water addition, the reaction mixture turns out to dark red coloured solution. Dichloromethane (0.672 L) was charged at room temperature and it was stirred for another 15 minutes and separated aqueous layer. Aqueous layer was again extracted with dichloromethane (0.672 L). Combined dichloromethane layer then washed with water (0.400 L) and 6% sodium chloride solution (0.400 L) and separated aqueous layer. Mixture of acetonitrile and dichloromethane was concentrated in vacuo to get Ethyl 2-(N-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-3-ethoxy-3-oxopropanamido)benzoate in 95% yield, as an oil. MS (ESI-MS): m/z 350.14 (M+H) l1H NMR (DMSO-d 6): 0.3-0.2 (m, 2H), 0.6-0.4 (m, 2H), 1.10-1.04 (m, 1H), 1.19-1.15 (t, 3H), 1.29-1.25 (t, 3H), 3.72-3.70 (d, 2H), 3.68 (s, 2H), 4.17-4.12 (q, 2H), 4.25-4.19 (q, 2H), 7.44-7.42 (d, 1H), 7.50-7.46 (t, 1H), 7.68-7.64 (m, 1H), 7.76-7.74 (d, 1H). HPLC Purity: 86.74%

Step 5: Process for the Preparation of ethyl 1-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2 dihydroquinolline-3-carboxylate (XY-a)

      In a 10 L fixed glass assembly under Nitrogen atmosphere, Methanol (0.736 L) was charged at room temperature. Ethyl 2-(N-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-3-ethoxy-3-oxopropanamido)benzoate (160 g, 0.457 mol) was charged at room temperature. Sodium methoxide powder (34.6 g, 0.641 mol) was added portion wise, over a period of 30 minutes, while maintaining internal temperature 10 to 20° C. Reaction mixture was stirred at 10 to 20° C. for 30 minutes. The reaction mixture was quenched with addition of ˜1N aqueous hydrochloric acid solution (0.64 L) to bring pH 2, over a period of 20 minutes, while maintaining an internal temperature 10 to 30° C. Upon completion of aqueous hydrochloric acid solution addition, the reaction mixture turned to light yellow coloured slurry. Diluted the reaction mass with water (3.02 L) and it was stirred for another 1 hour. Solid material was filtered off and washed twice with water (2×0.24 L). Dried the compound in fan dryer at temperature 50 to 55° C. for 6 hours to get crude ethyl 1-(cyclopropylmetboxy)-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylate as a solid.

Purification

      In a 10 L fixed glass assembly, DMF (0.48 L) was charged at room temperature. Crude ethyl 1-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylate (120 g) was charged at room temperature. Upon completion of addition of crude compound, clear reaction mass observed. Reaction mixture stirred for 30 minutes at room temperature. Precipitate the product by addition of water (4.8 L), over a period of 30 minutes, while maintaining an internal temperature 25 to 45° C. Upon completion of addition of water, the reaction mixture turned to light yellow colored slurry. Reaction mixture was stirred at 25 to 45° C. for 30 minutes. Solid material was filtered off and washed with water (0.169 L). Dried the product in fan dryer at temperature 50 to 55° C. for 6 hours to get pure ethyl 1-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylate in 81% yield, as a solid. MS (ESI-MS): m/z 303.90 (M+H) +1H NMR (DMSO-d 6): 0.37-0.35 (m, 2H), 0.59-0.55 (m, 2H), 1.25-1.20 (m, 1H), 1.32-1.29 (t, 3H), 3.97-3.95 (d, 2H), 4.36-4.31 (q, 2H), 7.35-7.31 (in, 1H), 7.62-7.60 (dd, 1H), 7.81-7.77 (m, 1H), 8.06-7.04 (dd, 1H). HPLC Purity: 95.52%

Step 6 Process for the Preparation of ethyl (1-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-3-carbonyl)glycinate (XVI-a)

      In a 5 L fixed glass assembly, tetrahydrofuran (0.5 L) was charged at room temperature. Ethyl 1-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylate (100 g, 0.329 mol) was charged at room temperature. Glycine ethyl ester HCl (50.7 g, 0.362 mol) was charged at room temperature. N,N-Diisopropylethyl amine (64 g, 0.494 mol) was added carefully in to reaction mass at room temperature and heated the reaction mass at 65 to 70° C. Reaction mixture was stirred at 65 to 70° C. for 18 hours. The reaction mixture was quenched with addition of water (2.5 L).
      Upon completion of water addition, the reaction mixture turns out to off white to yellow coloured slurry. Concentrated tetrahydrofuran below 55° C. in vacuo and reaction mixture was stirred at 25 to 35° C. for 1 hour. Solid material was filtered off and washed with water (3×0.20 L). Dried the compound in fan dryer at temperature 55 to 60° C. for 8 hours to get crude ethyl (1-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-3-carbonyl)glycinate as a solid.

Purification

      In a 2 L fixed glass assembly, Methanol (1.15 L) was charged at room temperature. Crude ethyl (1-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-3-carbonyl)glycinate (100 g) was charged at room temperature. The reaction mass was heated to 65 to 70° C. Reaction mass was stirred for 1 h at 65 to 70° C. Removed heating and cool the reaction mass to 25 to 35° C. Reaction mass stirred for 1 h at 25 to 35° C. Solid material was filtered off and washed with methanol (0.105 L). The product was dried under fan dryer at temperature 55 to 60° C. for 8 hours to get pure ethyl 1-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylate in 80% yield, as a solid. MS (ESI-MS): m/z 360.85 (M+H) +1H NMR (DMSO-d 6): 0.39 (m, 2H), 0.60-0.54 (m, 2H), 1.23-1.19 (t, 3H), 1.31-1.26 (m, 1H), 4.04-4.02 (d, 2H), 4.18-4.12 (q, 2H), 4.20-4.18 (d, 2H), 7.40-7.36 (m, 1H), 7.70-7.68 (d, 1H), 7.87-7.83 (m, 1H), 8.08-8.05 (dd, 1H), 10.27-10.24 (t, 1H). HPLC Purity: 99.84%

Step 7: Process for the Preparation of (1-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-3-carbonyl)glycine (I-a)

      In a 5 L fixed glass assembly, methanol (0.525 L) was charged at room temperature. Ethyl 1-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylate (75 g, 0.208 mol) was charged at room temperature. Water (0.30 L) was charged at room temperature. Sodium hydroxide solution (20.8 g, 0.520 mol) in water (0.225 L) was added carefully at 30 to 40° C. Upon completion of addition of sodium hydroxide solution, the reaction mass turned to clear solution. Reaction mixture stirred for 30 minutes at 30 to 40° C. Diluted the reaction by addition of water (2.1 L). Precipitate the solid by addition of hydrochloric acid solution (75 mL) in water (75 mL). Upon completion of addition of hydrochloric acid solution, the reaction mass turned to off white colored thick slurry. Reaction mixture was stirred for 1 h at room temperature. Solid material was filtered off and washed with water (4×0.375 L). The compound was dried under fan dryer at temperature 25 to 35° C. for 6 hours and then dried for 4 hours at 50 to 60° C. to get (1-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-3-carbonyl) glycine in 98% yield, as a solid. MS (ESI-MS): m/z 333.05 (M+H) +1H NMR (DMSO-d 6): 0.44-0.38 (m, 2H), 0.62-0.53 (m, 2H), 1.34-1.24 (m, 1H), 4.06-4.04 (d, 2H), 4.14-4.13 (d, 2H), 7.43-7.39 (t, 1H), 7.72-7.70 (d, 1H), 7.89-7.85 (m, 1H), 8.11-8.09 (dd, 1H), 10.27-10.24 (t, 1H), 12.97 (bs, 1H), 16.99 (s, 1H). HPLC Purity: 99.85%

Polymorphic Data (XRPD):

References

  1. ^ Kansagra KA, Parmar D, Jani RH, Srinivas NR, Lickliter J, Patel HV, et al. (January 2018). “Phase I Clinical Study of ZYAN1, A Novel Prolyl-Hydroxylase (PHD) Inhibitor to Evaluate the Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacokinetics Following Oral Administration in Healthy Volunteers”Clinical Pharmacokinetics57 (1): 87–102. doi:10.1007/s40262-017-0551-3PMC5766731PMID28508936.
  2. ^ Parmar DV, Kansagra KA, Patel JC, Joshi SN, Sharma NS, Shelat AD, Patel NB, Nakrani VB, Shaikh FA, Patel HV; on behalf of the ZYAN1 Trial Investigators. Outcomes of Desidustat Treatment in People with Anemia and Chronic Kidney Disease: A Phase 2 Study. Am J Nephrol. 2019 May 21;49(6):470-478. doi: 10.1159/000500232.
  3. ^ “Zydus Cadila announces phase III clinical trials of Desidustat”. 17 April 2019. Retrieved 20 April 2019 – via The Hindu BusinessLine.
  4. ^ Jain MR, Joharapurkar AA, Pandya V, Patel V, Joshi J, Kshirsagar S, et al. (February 2016). “Pharmacological Characterization of ZYAN1, a Novel Prolyl Hydroxylase Inhibitor for the Treatment of Anemia”. Drug Research66 (2): 107–12. doi:10.1055/s-0035-1554630PMID26367279.
  5. ^ Joharapurkar AA, Pandya VB, Patel VJ, Desai RC, Jain MR (August 2018). “Prolyl Hydroxylase Inhibitors: A Breakthrough in the Therapy of Anemia Associated with Chronic Diseases”. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry61 (16): 6964–6982. doi:10.1021/acs.jmedchem.7b01686PMID29712435.
  6. ^ Jain M, Joharapurkar A, Patel V, Kshirsagar S, Sutariya B, Patel M, et al. (January 2019). “Pharmacological inhibition of prolyl hydroxylase protects against inflammation-induced anemia via efficient erythropoiesis and hepcidin downregulation”. European Journal of Pharmacology843: 113–120. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2018.11.023PMID30458168S2CID53943666.
  7. ^ “Zydus enters into licensing agreement with China Medical System Holdings”. 20 January 2020. Retrieved 20 January 2020 – via Business Standard.

 

 

Publication Dates
20160
20170
20180
1.WO/2020/086736RGMC-SELECTIVE INHIBITORS AND USE THEREOF
WO – 30.04.2020
Int.Class A61P 7/06Appl.No PCT/US2019/057687Applicant SCHOLAR ROCK, INC.Inventor NICHOLLS, Samantha
Selective inhibitors of repulsive guidance molecule C (RGMc), are described. Related methods, including methods for making, as well as therapeutic use of these inhibitors in the treatment of disorders, such as anemia, are also provided.
2.WO/2020/058882METHODS OF PRODUCING VENOUS ANGIOBLASTS AND SINUSOIDAL ENDOTHELIAL CELL-LIKE CELLS AND COMPOSITIONS THEREOF
WO – 26.03.2020
Int.Class C12N 5/071Appl.No PCT/IB2019/057882Applicant UNIVERSITY HEALTH NETWORKInventor KELLER, Gordon
Disclosed herein are methods of producing a population of venous angioblast cells from stem cells using a venous angioblast inducing media and optionally isolating a CD34+ population from the cell population comprising the venous angioblast cells, for example using a CD34 affinity reagent, CD31 affinity reagent and/or CD144 affinity reagent, optionally with or without a CD73 affinity reagent as well as methods of further differentiating the venous angioblasts in vitro to produce SEC-LCs and/or in vivo to produce SECs. Uses of the cells and compositions comprising the cells are also described.
3.110876806APPLICATION OF HIF2ALPHA AGONIST AND ACER2 AGONIST IN PREPARATION OF MEDICINE FOR TREATING ATHEROSCLEROSIS
CN – 13.03.2020
Int.Class A61K 45/00Appl.No 201911014253.3Applicant PEKING UNIVERSITYInventor JIANG CHANGTAO
The invention discloses application of an HIF2alpha agonist and an ACER2 agonist in preparation of a medicine for treating and/or preventing atherosclerosis. Wherein the HIF2alpha agonist can be an adipose cell HIF2alpha agonist, and the ACER2 agonist can be a visceral fat ACER2 enzyme activator. The invention also discloses an application of Roxadustat in preparing a medicine for treating and/orpreventing atherosclerosis. The HIF2alpha agonist, the ACER2 agonist and the Roxadustat can be used for inhibiting or alleviating the occurrence and development of atherosclerosis.
4.20190359574PROCESS FOR THE PREPARATION OF QUINOLONE BASED COMPOUNDS
US – 28.11.2019
Int.Class C07D 215/58Appl.No 16421671Applicant CADILA HEALTHCARE LIMITEDInventor Ranjit C. Desai

The present invention relates to an improved process for the preparation of quinolone based compounds of general formula (I) using intermediate compound of general formula (XII). Invention also provides an improved process for the preparation of compound of formula (I-a) using intermediate compound of formula (XII-a) and some novel impurities generated during process. Compounds prepared using this process can be used to treat anemia.

5.WO/2019/169172SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR TREATING MEIBOMIAN GLAND DYSFUNCTION
WO – 06.09.2019
Int.Class A61F 9/00Appl.No PCT/US2019/020113Applicant THE SCHEPENS EYE RESEARCH INSTITUTEInventor SULLIVAN, David, A.
Systems and methods of treating meibomian and sebaceous gland dysfunction. The methods include reducing oxygen concentration in the environment of one or more dysfunctional meibomian and sebaceous glands, thereby restoring a hypoxic status of one or more dysfunctional meibomian and sebaceous glands. The reducing of the oxygen concentration is accomplished by restricting blood flow to the one or more dysfunctional meibomian and sebaceous glands and the environment of one or more dysfunctional meibomian sebaceous glands. The restricting of the blood flow is accomplished by contracting or closing one or more blood vessels around the one or more dysfunctional meibomian or sebaceous glands. The methods also include giving local or systemic drugs that lead to the generation of hypoxia-inducible factors in one or more dysfunctional meibomian and sebaceous glands.
6.201591195ХИНОЛОНОВЫЕ ПРОИЗВОДНЫЕ
EA – 30.10.2015
Int.Class C07D 215/58Appl.No 201591195Applicant КАДИЛА ХЕЛЗКЭР ЛИМИТЕДInventor Десаи Ранджит К.

Настоящее изобретение относится к новым соединениям общей формулы (I), фармацевтическим композициям, содержащим указанные соединения, применению этих соединений для лечения состояний, опосредованных пролилгидроксилазой HIF, и к способу лечения анемии, включающему введение заявленных соединений

7.2935221QUINOLONE DERIVATIVES
EP – 28.10.2015
Int.Class C07D 215/58Appl.No 13828997Applicant CADILA HEALTHCARE LTDInventor DESAI RANJIT C
The present invention relates to novel compounds of the general formula (I), their tautomeric forms, their stereoisomers, their pharmaceutically acceptable salts, pharmaceutical compositions containing them, methods for their preparation, use of these compounds in medicine and the intermediates involved in their preparation. [Formula should be inserted here].
8.20150299193QUINOLONE DERIVATIVES
US – 22.10.2015
Int.Class C07D 215/58Appl.No 14652024Applicant Cadila Healthcare LimitedInventor Ranjit C. Desai

The present invention relates to novel compounds of the general formula (I), their tautomeric forms, their stereoisomers, their pharmaceutically acceptable salts, pharmaceutical compositions containing them, methods for their preparation, use of these compounds in medicine and the intermediates involved in their preparation.

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9.WO/2014/102818NOVEL QUINOLONE DERIVATIVES
WO – 03.07.2014
Int.Class C07D 215/58Appl.No PCT/IN2013/000796Applicant CADILA HEALTHCARE LIMITEDInventor DESAI, Ranjit, C.
The present invention relates to novel compounds of the general formula (I), their tautomeric forms, their stereoisomers, their pharmaceutically acceptable salts, pharmaceutical compositions containing them, methods for their preparation, use of these compounds in medicine and the intermediates involved in their preparation. [Formula should be inserted here].

 

 

Desidustat
Desidustat.svg
Clinical data
Other names ZYAN1
Identifiers
CAS Number
UNII
Chemical and physical data
Formula C16H16N2O6
Molar mass 332.312 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)

Date

CTID Title Phase Status Date
NCT04215120 Desidustat in the Treatment of Anemia in CKD on Dialysis Patients Phase 3 Recruiting 2020-01-02
NCT04012957 Desidustat in the Treatment of Anemia in CKD Phase 3 Recruiting 2019-12-24

////////// DESIDUSTAT, ZYDUS CADILA, COVID 19, CORONA VIRUS, PHASE 3, ZYAN 1

Remdesivir, レムデシビル , ремдесивир , ريمديسيفير , 瑞德西韦 ,


Remdesivir (USAN.png

GS-5734 structure.png

ChemSpider 2D Image | remdesivir | C27H35N6O8P

Remdesivir

Formula
C27H35N6O8P
CAS
1809249-37-3
Mol weight
602.576

レムデシビル

UNII:3QKI37EEHE
ремдесивир [Russian] [INN]
ريمديسيفير [Arabic] [INN]
瑞德西韦 [Chinese] [INN]
 
2-Ethylbutyl (2S)-2-{[(S)-{[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(4-aminopyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazin-7-yl)-5-cyano-3,4-dihydroxytetrahydro-2-furanyl]methoxy}(phenoxy)phosphoryl]amino}propanoate (non-preferred name)

L-Alanine, N-((S)-hydroxyphenoxyphosphinyl)-, 2-ethylbutyl ester, 6-ester with 2-C-(4-aminopyrrolo(2,1-f)(1,2,4)triazin-7-yl)-2,5-anhydro-D-altrononitrile

2-Ethylbutyl (2S)-2-(((S)-(((2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(4-aminopyrrolo(2,1-f)(1,2,4)triazin-7-yl)-5-cyano-3,4-dihydroxytetrahydrofuran-2-yl)methoxy)(phenoxy)phosphoryl)amino)propanoate

  • 2-Ethylbutyl (2S)-2-[[(S)-[[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(4-aminopyrrolo(2,1-f)(1,2,4)triazin-7-yl)-5-cyano-3,4-dihydroxytetrahydrofuran-2-yl]methoxy]phenoxyphosphoryl]amino]propanoate
  • 2-Ethylbutyl (2S)-2-[[[[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(4-aminopyrrolo(2,1-f)(1,2,4)triazin-7-yl)-5-cyano-3,4-dihydroxytetrahydrofuran-2-yl]methoxy]phenoxyphosphoryl]amino]propanoate
  • 2-Ethylbutyl N-[(S)-[2-C-(4-aminopyrrolo(2,1-f)(1,2,4)triazin-7-yl)-2,5-anhydro-D-altrononitril-6-O-yl]phenoxyphosphoryl]-L-alaninate
  • GS 5734
  • L-Alanine, N-[(S)-hydroxyphenoxyphosphinyl)-, 2-ethylbutyl ester,6-ester with 2-C-(4-aminopyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazin-7-yl)-2,5-anhydro-D-altrononitrile
 
GS-5734

Treatment of viral infections

Phase III, clinical trials for the treatment of hospitalized patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection (COVID-19). National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) is evaluating remdesivir in phase II/III clinical trials for the treatment of Ebola virus infection.

The compound has been evaluated in preclinical studies for the potential treatment of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infections.

Remdesivir is a nucleoside analogue, with effective antiviral activity, with EC50s of 74 nM for ARS-CoV and MERS-CoV in HAE cells, and 30 nM for murine hepatitis virus in delayed brain tumor cells.

Remdesivir (development code GS-5734) is a novel antiviral drug in the class of nucleotide analogs. It was developed by Gilead Sciences as a treatment for Ebola virus disease and Marburg virus infections,[1] though it has subsequently also been found to show antiviral activity against other single stranded RNA viruses such as respiratory syncytial virusJunin virusLassa fever virusNipah virus, Hendra virus, and the coronaviruses (including MERS and SARS viruses).[2][3] It is being studied for SARS-CoV-2 and Nipah and Hendra virus infections.[4][5][6] Based on success against other coronavirus infections, Gilead provided remdesivir to physicians who treated an American patient in Snohomish County, Washington in 2020, infected with SARS-CoV-2[7] and is providing the compound to China to conduct a pair of trials in infected individuals with and without severe symptoms.[8]

Research usage

Laboratory tests suggest remdesivir is effective against a wide range of viruses, including SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. The medication was pushed to treat the West African Ebola virus epidemic of 2013–2016. Although the drug turned out to be safe, it was not particularly effective against filoviruses such as the Ebola virus.

Ebola virus

Remdesivir was rapidly pushed through clinical trials due to the West African Ebola virus epidemic of 2013–2016, eventually being used in at least one human patient despite its early development stage at the time. Preliminary results were promising and it was used in the emergency setting during the Kivu Ebola epidemic that started in 2018 along with further clinical trials, until August 2019, when Congolese health officials announced that it was significantly less effective than monoclonal antibody treatments such as mAb114 and REGN-EB3. The trials, however, established its safety profile.[9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16]

SARS-CoV-2

In response to the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak induced by coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, Gilead provided remdesivir for a “small number of patients” in collaboration with Chinese medical authorities for studying its effects.[17]

Gilead also started laboratory testing of remdesivir against SARS-CoV-2. Gilead stated that remdesivir was “shown to be active” against SARS and MERS in animals.[3][18]

In late January 2020, remdesivir was administered to the first US patient to be confirmed to be infected by SARS-CoV-2, in Snohomish County, Washington, for “compassionate use” after he progressed to pneumonia. While no broad conclusions were made based on the single treatment, the patient’s condition improved dramatically the next day,[7] and he was eventually discharged.[19]

Also in late January 2020, Chinese medical researchers stated to the media that in exploratory research considering a selection of 30 drug candidates. Remdesivir and two other drugs, chloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir, seemed to have “fairly good inhibitory effects” on SARS-CoV-2 at the cellular level. Requests to start clinical testing were submitted,[20][21]. On February 6, 2020, a clinical trial of remdesivir began in China.[22]

Other viruses

The active form of remdesivir, GS-441524, shows promise for treating feline coronavirus.[23]

Mechanism of action and resistance

Remdesivir is a prodrug that metabolizes into its active form GS-441524. GS-441524 is an adenosine nucleotide analog that confuses viral RNA polymerase and evades proofreading by viral exoribonuclease (ExoN), causing a decrease in viral RNA production. It was unknown whether it terminates RNA chains or causes mutations in them.[24]However, it has been learned that the RNA dependent RNA polymerase of ebolavirus is inhibited for the most part by delayed chain termination.[25]

Mutations in the mouse hepatitis virus RNA replicase that cause partial resistance were identified in 2018. These mutations make the viruses less effective in nature, and the researchers believe they will likely not persist where the drug is not being used.[24]

MORE SYNTHESIS COMING, WATCH THIS SPACE…………………..

 

SYNTHESIS

Remdesivir can be synthesized in multiple steps from ribose derivatives. The figure below is one of the synthesis route of remdesivir invented by Chun et al. from Gilead Sciences.[26]In this method, intermediate a is firstly prepared from L-alanine and phenyl phosphorodichloridate in presence of triethylamine and dichloromethane; triple benzyl-protected ribose is oxidized by dimethyl sulfoxide with acetic anhydride and give the lactone intermediate b; pyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazin-4-amine is brominated, and the amine group is protected by excess trimethylsilyl chloriden-Butyllithium undergoes a halogen-lithium exchange reaction with the bromide at -78 °C to yield the intermediate c. The intermediate b is then added to a solution containing intermediate c dropwise. After quenching the reaction in a weakly acidic aqueous solution, a mixture of 1: 1 anomers was obtained. It was then reacted with an excess of trimethylsilyl cyanide in dichloromethane at -78 °C for 10 minutes. Trimethylsilyl triflate was added and reacts for an additional 1 hour, and the mixture was quenched in an aqueous sodium hydrogen carbonate. A nitrile intermediate was obtained. The protective group, benzyl, was then removed with boron trichloride in dichloromethane at -20 °C. The excess of boron trichloride was quenched in a mixture of potassium carbonate and methanol. A benzyl-free intermediate was obtained. The isomers were then separated via reversed-phase HPLC. The optically pure compound and intermediate a are reacted with trimethyl phosphate and methylimidazole to obtain a diastereomer mixture of remdesivir. In the end, optically pure remdesivir can be obtained through methods such as chiral resolution.

The synthesis of Remdesivir was invented by Byoung Kwon Chun et al. from Gilead Sciences, Inc. and claimed in the patent, WO2016069826A1.
中文: 瑞德西韋的合成方法是由吉利德科學公司的 Byoung Kwon Chun等人所發明,並在WO2016069826A1中聲明專利。

Synthesis of Remdesivir

PATENT

WO 2018204198

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf;jsessionid=E7724EB6CA3959303E18B3D392E0219F.wapp1nA?docId=WO2018204198&tab=PCTDESCRIPTION

Prevention and treatment methods for some Arenaviridae , Coronaviridae , Filoviridae, Flaviviridae, and Paramyxoviridae viruses present challenges due to a lack of vaccine or post-exposure treatment modality for preventing or managing these infections. In some cases, patients only receive supportive and resource intensive therapy such as electrolyte and fluid balancing, oxygen, blood pressure maintenance, or treatment for secondary infections. Thus, there is a need for antiviral therapies having a potential for broad antiviral activity.

[0004] The compound (S)-2-ethylbutyl 2-(((S)-(((2R,3 S,4R,5R)-5-(4-aminopyrrolo[2, 1-f][l,2,4]triazin-7-yl)-5-cyano-3,4-dihydroxytetrahydrofuran-2-yl)methoxy)(phenoxy) phosphoryl)amino)propanoate, referred herein as Compound 1 or Formula I, is known to exhibit antiviral properties against Arenaviridae, Coronaviridae, Filoviridae, and

Paramyxoviridae viruses as described in Warren, T. et al., Nature (2016) 531 :381-385 and antiviral activities against Flaviviridae viruses as described in co-pending United States provisional patent application no. 62/325,419 filed April 20, 2016.

[0005] (S)-2-Ethylbutyl 2-(((S)-(((2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(4-aminopyrrolo[2, l-f][l,2,4]triazin-7-yl)-5-cyano-3,4-dihydroxytetrahydrofuran-2-yl)methoxy)(phenoxy)phosphoryl)amino)

propanoate or 2-ethylbutyl ((S)-(((2R,3 S,4R,5R)-5-(4-aminopyrrolo[2, l-f][l,2,4]triazin-7-yl)-5-cyano-3,4-dihydroxytetrahydrofuran-2-yl)methoxy)(phenoxy)phosphoryl)-L-alaninate, (Formula I), has the following structure:

Formula I

PATENT

WO 2017184668

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2017184668A1/en

A. Preparation of Compounds

Example 1. (2S)-ethyl 2-(chloro(phenoxy)phosphorylamino)pro anoate (Chloridate A)

Figure imgf000086_0001

[0246] Ethyl alanine ester hydrochloride salt (1.69 g, 11 mmol) was dissolved in anhydrous CH2CI2 (10 mL) and the mixture stirred with cooling to 0 °C under N2(g). Phenyl dichlorophosphate (1.49 mL, 10 mmol) was added followed by dropwise addition of Et3N over 10 min. The reaction mixture was then slowly warmed to RT and stirred for 12 h. Anhydrous Et20 (50 mL) was added and the mixture stirred for 30 min. The solid that formed was removed by filtration, and the filtrate concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was subjected to silica gel chromatography eluting with 0-50% EtOAc in hexanes to provide intermediate A (1.13 g, 39%). H NMR (300 MHz, CDC13) δ 7.39-7.27 (m, 5H), 4.27 (m, 3H), 1.52 (m, 3H), 1.32 (m, 3H). 31P NMR (121.4 MHz, CDC13) δ 8.2, 7.8.

Example 2. (2S)-2-ethylbutyl 2-(chloro(phenoxy)phosphorylamino)propanoate

(Chloridate B

Figure imgf000087_0001

[0247] The 2-ethylbutyl alanine chlorophosphoramidate ester B was prepared using the same procedure as chloridate A except substituting 2-ethylbutyl alanine ester for ethyl alanine ester. The material is used crude in the next reaction. Treatment with methanol or ethanol forms the displaced product with the requisite LCMS signal.

Example 3. (2S)-isopropyl 2-(chloro(phenoxy)phosphorylamino)propanoate

(Chloridate C)

Figure imgf000087_0002

C

[0248] The isopropyl alanine chlorophosphoramidate ester C was prepared using the same procedure as chloridate A except substituting isopropyl alanine ester for the ethyl alanine ester. The material is used crude in the next reaction. Treatment with methanol or ethanol forms the displaced product with the requisite LCMS signal.

Example 4. (2S)-2-ethylbutyl 2-((((2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(4-aminopyrrolo[l,2-firi,2,41triazin- 7-yl)-5-cvano-3,4-dihvdroxytetrahydrofuran-2- yl)methoxy)(phenoxy)phosphorylamino)propanoate (Compound 9)

[0249] Compound 9 can be prepared by several methods described below. Procedure 1

Figure imgf000088_0001

[0250] Prepared from Compound 1 and chloridate B according to the same method as for the preparation of compound 8 as described in PCT Publication no. WO 2012/012776. 1H NMR (300 MHz, CD3OD) δ 7.87 (m, 1H), 7.31-7.16 (m, 5H), 6.92-6.89 (m, 2H), 4.78 (m, 1H), 4.50-3.80 (m, 7H), 1.45-1.24 (m, 8H), 0.95-0.84 (m, 6H). 31P NMR (121.4 MHz, CD3OD) δ 3.7. LCMS m/z 603.1 [M+H], 601.0 [M-H].

Procedure 2

Figure imgf000088_0002

9

[0251] (2S)-2-ethylbutyl 2-(((((2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(4-aminopyrrolo[2,l-f][l,2,4]triazin-7- yl)-5-cyano-3,4-dihydroxytetrahydrofuran-2-yl)methoxy)(phenoxy)phosphoryl)amino) propanoate. (2S)-2-ethylbutyl 2-(((4-nitrophenoxy)(phenoxy)phosphoryl)amino)propanoate (1.08 g, 2.4 mmol) was dissolved in anhydrous DMF (9 mL) and stirred under a nitrogen atmosphere at RT. (2R,3R,4S,5R)-2-(4-aminopyrrolo[2,l-f][l,2,4]triazin-7-yl)-3,4- dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydrofuran-2-carbonitrile (350 mg, 1.2 mmol) was added to the reaction mixture in one portion. A solution of i-butylmagnesium chloride in THF (1M, 1.8 mL, 1.8 mmol) was then added to the reaction drop wise over 10 minutes. The reaction was stirred for 2 h, at which point the reaction mixture was diluted with ethyl acetate (50 mL) and washed with saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution (3 x 15 mL) followed by saturated aqueous sodium chloride solution (15 mL). The organic layer was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated under reduced pressure. The resulting oil was purified with silica gel column chromatography (0-10% MeOH in DCM) to afford (2S)-2- ethylbutyl 2-(((((2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(4-aminopyrrolo[2, l-f][l,2,4]triazin-7-yl)-5-cyano-3,4- dihydroxytetrahydrofuran-2-yl)methoxy)(phenoxy)phosphoryl)amino) propanoate (311 mg, 43%, 1 :0.4 diastereomeric mixture at phosphorus) as a white solid. H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) δ 7.85 (m, 1H), 7.34 – 7.23 (m, 2H), 7.21 – 7.09 (m, 3H), 6.94 – 6.84 (m, 2H), 4.78 (d, / = 5.4 Hz, 1H), 4.46 – 4.33 (m, 2H), 4.33 – 4.24 (m, 1H), 4.18 (m, 1H), 4.05 – 3.80 (m, 3H), 1.52 – 1.39 (m, 1H), 1.38 – 1.20 (m, 7H), 0.85 (m, 6H). 31P NMR (162 MHz, CD3OD) δ 3.71, 3.65. LCMS m/z 603.1 [M+H], 600.9 [M-H]. HPLC (2-98% MeCN-H20 gradient with 0.1% TFA modifier over 8.5 min, 1.5mL/min, Column: Phenomenex Kinetex C18, 2.6 um 100 A, 4.6 x 100 mm ) tR = 5.544 min, 5.601 min

Separation of the (S) and (R) Diastereomers

[0252] (2S)-2-ethylbutyl 2-(((((2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(4-aminopyrrolo[2,l-f][l,2,4]triazin-7-yl)- 5-cyano-3,4-dihydroxytetrahydrofuran-2-yl)methoxy)(phenoxy)phosphoryl)amino) propanoate was dissolved in acetonitrile. The resulting solution was loaded onto Lux Cellulose-2 chiral column, equilibrated in acetonitrile, and eluted with isocratic

acetonitrile/methanol (95 :5 vol/vol). The first eluting diastereomer had a retention time of 17.4 min, and the second eluting diastereomer had a retention time of 25.0 min.

[0253] First Eluting Diastereomer is (S)-2-ethylbutyl 2-(((R)-(((2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(4- aminopyrrolo[2, 1 -f] [ 1 ,2,4]triazin-7-yl)-5-cyano-3 ,4-dihydroxytetrahydrofuran-2- yl)methoxy)(phenoxy)phos horyl)amino)propanoate:

Figure imgf000089_0001

!HNMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) δ 8.05 (s, 1H), 7.36 (d, / = 4.8 Hz, 1H), 7.29 (br t, J = 7.8 Hz, 2H), 7.19 – 7.13 (m, 3H), 7.11 (d, / = 4.8 Hz, 1H), 4.73 (d, / = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.48 – 4.38 (m, 2H), 4.37 – 4.28 (m, 1H), 4.17 (t, / = 5.6 Hz, 1H), 4.08 – 3.94 (m, 2H), 3.94 – 3.80 (m, 1H), 1.48 (sep, / = 12.0, 6.1 Hz, 1H), 1.34 (p, / = 7.3 Hz, 4H), 1.29 (d, / = 7.2 Hz, 3H), 0.87 (t, / = 7.4 Hz, 6H). 31PNMR (162 MHz, CD3OD) δ 3.71 (s). HPLC (2-98% MeCN-H20 gradient with 0.1 % TFA modifier over 8.5 min, 1.5mL/min, Column: Phenomenex Kinetex C18, 2.6 um 100 A, 4.6 x 100 mm ) is = 5.585 min. [0254] Second Eluting Diastereomer is (S)-2-ethylbutyl 2-(((S)-(((2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(4- aminopyrrolo[2, 1 -f] [ 1 ,2,4]triazin-7-yl)-5-cyano-3 ,4-dihydroxytetrahydrofuran-2- yl)methoxy)(phenoxy)phosphoryl)amino)propanoate:

Figure imgf000090_0001

HNMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) δ 8.08 (s, 1H), 7.36 – 7.28 (m, 3H), 7.23 – 7.14 (m, 3H), 7.08 (d, 7 = 4.8 Hz, 1H), 4.71 (d, 7 = 5.3 Hz, 1H), 4.45 – 4.34 (m, 2H), 4.32 – 4.24 (m, 1H), 4.14 (t, / = 5.8 Hz, 1H), 4.08 – 3.94 (m, 2H), 3.93 – 3.85 (m, 1H), 1.47 (sep, / = 6.2 Hz, 1H), 1.38 – 1.26 (m, 7H), 0.87 (t, / = 7.5 Hz, 6H). 31PNMR (162 MHz, CD3OD) δ 3.73 (s). HPLC (2- 98% MeCN-H20 gradient with 0.1% TFA modifier over 8.5 min, 1.5mL/min, Column: Phenomenex Kinetex C18, 2.6 urn 100 A, 4.6 x 100 mm ) tR = 5.629 min.

Example 5. (S)-2-ethylbutyl 2-(((S)-(((2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(4-aminopyrrolor2J- f|[l,2,41triazin-7-yl)-5-cvano-3,4-dihvdroxytetrahvdrofuran-2- yl)methoxy)(phenoxy)phosphoryl)amino)propanoate (32)

Figure imgf000090_0002

[0255] The preparation of (S)-2-ethylbutyl 2-(((S)-(((2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(4-aminopyrrolo[2,l f][l,2,4]triazin-7-yl)-5-cyano-3,4-dihydroxytetrahydrofuran-2- yl)methoxy)(phenoxy)phosphoryl)amino)propanoate is described below.

Preparation of (3R,4R,5R)-3,4-bis(benzyloxy)-5-((benzyloxy)methyl)dihydrofuran-2(3H)- one.

Figure imgf000090_0003

[0256] (3R,4R,5R)-3,4-bis(benzyloxy)-5-((benzyloxy)methyl)tetrahydrofuran-2-ol (15.0g) was combined with MTBE (60.0 mL), KBr (424.5 mg), aqueous K2HP04solution (2.5M, 14.3 mL), and TEMPO (56 mg). This mixture was cooled to about 1 °C. Aqueous bleach solution (7.9%wt.) was slowly charged in portions until complete consumption of starting material as indicated through a starch/iodide test. The layers were separated, and the aqueous layer was extracted with MTBE. The combined organic phase was dried over MgS04 and concentrated under reduced pressure to yield the product as a solid.

Preparation (4-amino-7-iodopyrrolor2,l-fl ri,2,41triazine)

Figure imgf000091_0001

[0257] To a cold solution of 4-aminopyrrolo[2, l-f][l,2,4]-triazine (10.03 g; 74.8 mmol) in N,N-dimethylformamide (70.27 g), N-iodosuccinimide (17.01g; 75.6 mmol) was charged in portions, while keeping the contents at about 0 °C. Upon reaction completion (about 3 h at about 0 °C), the reaction mixture was transferred into a 1 M sodium hydroxide aqueous solution (11 g NaOH and 276 mL water) while keeping the contents at about 20-30 °C. The resulting slurry was agitated at about 22 °C for 1.5 h and then filtered. The solids are rinsed with water (50 mL) and dried at about 50 °C under vacuum to yield 4-amino-7- iodopyrrolo[2,l-f] [l,2,4]triazine as a solid. !H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 7.90 (s, 1H), 7.78 (br s, 2H), 6.98 (d, J = 4.4 Hz, 1H), 6.82 (d, J = 4.4 Hz, 1H). 13C NMR (101 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 155.7, 149.1, 118.8, 118.1, 104.4, 71.9. MS m/z = 260.97 [M+H].

Preparation (3R,4R,5R)-2-(4-aminopyrrolor2, l-firi,2,41triazin-7-yl)-3,4-bis(benzyloxy)-5- ((benzyloxy)methyl)tetrahvdrofuran-2-ol via (4-amino-7-iodopyrrolor2,l-fl ri,2,41triazine)

Figure imgf000091_0002

[0258] To a reactor under a nitrogen atmosphere was charged iodobase 2 (81 g) and THF (1.6 LV). The resulting solution was cooled to about 5 °C, and TMSC1 (68 g) was charged. PhMgCl (345mL, 1.8 M in THF) was then charged slowly while maintaining an internal temperature at about < 5°C. The reaction mixture was stirred at about 0°C for 30 min, and then cooled to about -15 °C. zPrMgCl-LiCl (311 mL, 1.1 M in THF) was charged slowly while maintaining an internal temperature below about -12 °C. After about 10 minutes of stirring at about -15 °C, the reaction mixture was cooled to about -20 °C, and a solution of lactone 1 (130 g) in THF (400 mL) was charged. The reaction mixture was then agitated at about -20 °C for about 1 h and quenched with AcOH (57 mL). The reaction mixture was warmed to about 0 °C and adjusted to pH 7-8 with aqueous NaHCC>3 (5 wt%, 1300 mL). The reaction mixture was then diluted with EtOAc (1300 mL), and the organic and aqueous layers were separated. The organic layer was washed with IN HC1 (1300 mL), aqueous NaHCC>3 (5 wt%, 1300 mL), and brine (1300 mL), and then dried over anhydrous Na2S04 and concentrated to dryness. Purification by silica gel column chromatography using a gradient consisting of a mixture of MeOH and EtOAc afforded the product.

Preparation ((2S)-2-ethylbutyl 2- (((perfluorophenoxy)(phenoxy)phosphoryl)amino)propanoate) (mixture of Sp and Rp):

1 ) phenyl dichlorophosphate

CH2CI2, -78 °C to ambient

2) pentafluorophenol

Et3N, 0 °C to ambient

Figure imgf000092_0001

[0259] L- Alanine 2-ethylbutyl ester hydrochloride (5.0 g, 23.84 mmol) was combined with methylene chloride (40 mL), cooled to about -78 °C, and phenyl dichlorophosphate (3.65 mL, 23.84 mmol) was added. Triethylamine (6.6 mL, 47.68 mmol) was added over about 60 min at about -78 °C and the resulting mixture was stirred at ambient temperature for 3h. The reaction mixture was cooled to about 0 °C and pentafluorophenol (4.4 g, 23.84 mmol) was added. Triethylamine (3.3 mL, 23.84 mmol) was added over about 60 min. The mixture was stirred for about 3h at ambient temperature and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was dissolved in EtOAc, washed with an aqueous sodium carbonate solution several times, and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by silica gel column chromatography using a gradient of EtOAc and hexanes (0 to 30%). Product containing fractions were concentrated under reduced pressure to give (2S)-2-ethylbutyl 2-(((perfluorophenoxy)(phenoxy)phosphoryl)amino)propanoate as a solid. H NMR (400 MHz, Chloroform-d) δ 7.41 – 7.32 (m, 4H), 7.30 – 7.17 (m, 6H), 4.24 – 4.16 (m, 1H), 4.13 – 4.03 (m, 4H), 4.01 – 3.89 (m, 1H), 1.59 – 1.42 (m, 8H), 1.40 – 1.31 (m, 8H), 0.88 (t, J = 7.5 Hz, 12H). 31P NMR (162 MHz, Chloroform-d) δ – 1.52. 19F NMR (377 MHz, Chloroform-d) δ – 153.63, – 153.93 (m), – 160.05 (td, J = 21.9, 3.6 Hz), – 162.65 (qd, J = 22.4, 20.5, 4.5 Hz). MS m/z = 496 [M+H]. Preparation of Title Compound (mixture of Sp and Rp):

Figure imgf000093_0001

[0260] The nucleoside (29 mg, 0.1 mmol) and the phosphonamide (60 mg, 0.12 mmol) and N,N-dimethylformamide (2 mL) were combined at ambient temperature. 7¾ri-Butyl magnesiumchloride (1M in THF, 0.15 mL) was slowly added. After about lh, the reaction was diluted with ethyl acetate, washed with aqueous citric acid solution (5%wt.), aqueous saturated NaHC03 solution and saturated brine solution. The organic phase was dried over Na2S04 and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by silica gel column chromatography using a gradient of methanol and CH2CI2 (0 to 5%). Product containing fractions were concentrated under reduced pressure to provide the product.

Preparation of (3aR,4R,6R,6aR)-4-(4-aminopyrrolor2, l-firi,2,41triazin-7-yl)-6- (hvdroxymethyl)-2,2-dimethyltetrahydrofuror3,4-diri,31dioxole-4-carbonitrile:

Figure imgf000093_0002

[0261] To a mixture of (2R,3R,4S,5R)-2-(4-aminopyrrolo[2, l-f] [l,2,4]triazin-7-yl)-3,4- dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydrofuran-2-carbonitrile (5.8g, 0.02 mol), 2,2- dimethoxypropane (11.59 mL, 0.09 mol) and acetone (145 mL) at ambient temperature was added sulfuric acid (18M, 1.44 mL). The mixture was warmed to about 45 °C. After about 30 min, the mixture was cooled to ambient temperature and sodium bicarbonate (5.8 g) and water 5.8 mL) were added. After 15 min, the mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was taken up in ethyl acetate (150 mL) and water (50 mL). The aqueous layer was extracted with ethyl acetate (2 x 50 mL). The combined organic phase was dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated under reduced pressure to give crude (2R,3R,4S,5R)-2-(4-aminopyrrolo[2, l-f] [l,2,4]triazin-7-yl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5- (hydroxymethyl)tetrahydrofuran-2-carbonitrile. !H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) δ 7.84 (s, 1H), 6.93 (d, / = 4.6 Hz, 1H), 6.89 (d, / = 4.6 Hz, 1H), 5.40 (d, / = 6.7 Hz, 1H), 5.00 (dd, / = 6.7, 3.3 Hz, 1H), 4.48 – 4.40 (m, 1H), 3.81 – 3.72 (m, 2H), 1.71 (s, 3H), 1.40 (s, 3H). MS m/z = 332.23 [M+l].

Preparation of (2S)-2-ethylbutyl 2-(((((2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(4-aminopyrrolor2,l-firi,2,41triazin- 7-yl)-5-cvano-3,4-dihvdroxytetrahydrofuran-2- yl)methoxy)(phenoxy)phosphoryl)amino)propanoate:

Figure imgf000094_0001

[0262] Acetonitrile (100 mL) was combined with (2S)-2-ethylbutyl 2-(((4- nitrophenoxy)(phenoxy)phosphoryl)-amino)propanoate (9.6 g, 21.31 mmol), the substrate alcohol (6.6 g, 0.02 mol), magnesium chloride (1.9 g, 19.91 mmol) at ambient temperature. The mixture was agitated for about 15 min and N,N-diisopropylethylamine (8.67 mL, 49.78 mmol) was added. After about 4h, the reaction was diluted with ethyl acetate (100 mL), cooled to about 0 °C and combined with aqueous citric acid solution (5%wt., 100 mL). The organic phase was washed with aqueous citric acid solution (5%wt., 100 mL) and aqueous saturated ammonium chloride solution (40 mL), aqueous potassium carbonate solution

(10%wt., 2 x 100 mL), and aqueous saturated brine solution (100 mL). The organic phase was dried with sodium sulfate and concentrated under reduced pressure to provide crude product. !H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) δ 7.86 (s, 1H), 7.31 – 7.22 (m, 2H), 7.17 – 7.09 (m, 3H), 6.93 – 6.84 (m, 2H), 5.34 (d, / = 6.7 Hz, 1H), 4.98 (dd, / = 6.6, 3.5 Hz, 1H), 4.59 – 4.50 (m, 1H), 4.36 – 4.22 (m, 2H), 4.02 (dd, / = 10.9, 5.7 Hz, 1H), 3.91 (dd, / = 10.9, 5.7 Hz, 1H), 3.83 (dq, / = 9.7, 7.1 Hz, 1H), 1.70 (s, 3H), 1.50 – 1.41 (m, 1H), 1.39 (s, 3H), 1.36 – 1.21 (m, 7H), 0.86 (t, / = 7.4 Hz, 6H). MS m/z = 643.21 [M+l]. Preparation of (S)-2-ethylbutyl 2-(((S)-(((2R.3S.4R.5R)-5-(4-aminopyrrolor2.1- firi,2,41triazin-7-yl)-5-cvano-3,4-ditivdroxytetratiydrofuran-2- yl)methoxy)( henoxy)phosphoryl)amino)propanoate (Compound 32)

Figure imgf000095_0001

Compound 32

[0263] The crude acetonide (12.85 g) was combined with tetrahydrofuran (50 mL) and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was taken up in tetrahydrofuran (100 mL), cooled to about 0 °C and concentrated HC1 (20 mL) was slowly added. The mixture was allowed to warm to ambient temperature. After consumption of the starting acetonide as indicated by HPLC analysis, water (100 mL) was added followed by aqueous saturated sodium bicarbonate solution (200 mL). The mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate (100 mL), the organic phase washed with aqueous saturated brine solution (50 mL), dried over sodium sulfated and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by silica gel column chromatography using a gradient of methanol and ethyl acetate (0 to 20%).

Product containing fractions were concentrated under reduced pressure to provide the product.

PATENT

US 20170071964

US 20160122374

PAPER

Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2017), 60(5), 1648-1661.

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.6b01594

The recent Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak in West Africa was the largest recorded in history with over 28,000 cases, resulting in >11,000 deaths including >500 healthcare workers. A focused screening and lead optimization effort identified 4b (GS-5734) with anti-EBOV EC50 = 86 nM in macrophages as the clinical candidate. Structure activity relationships established that the 1′-CN group and C-linked nucleobase were critical for optimal anti-EBOV potency and selectivity against host polymerases. A robust diastereoselective synthesis provided sufficient quantities of 4b to enable preclinical efficacy in a non-human-primate EBOV challenge model. Once-daily 10 mg/kg iv treatment on days 3–14 postinfection had a significant effect on viremia and mortality, resulting in 100% survival of infected treated animals [ Nature 2016531, 381−385]. A phase 2 study (PREVAIL IV) is currently enrolling and will evaluate the effect of 4b on viral shedding from sanctuary sites in EBOV survivors.

(S)-2-Ethylbutyl 2-(((S)-(((2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(4-Aminopyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazin-7-yl)-5-cyano-3,4-dihydroxytetrahydrofuran-2-yl)methoxy)(phenoxy)phosphoryl)amino)propanoate (4b)

Compound 4b was prepared from 4 and 22b as described previously.(17)1H NMR (400 MHz, methanol-d4): δ 7.86 (s, 1H), 7.33–7.26 (m, 2H), 7.21–7.12 (m, 3H), 6.91 (d, J = 4.6 Hz, 1H), 6.87 (d, J = 4.6 Hz, 1H), 4.79 (d, J = 5.4 Hz, 1H), 4.43–4.34 (m, 2H), 4.28 (ddd, J = 10.3, 5.9, 4.2 Hz, 1H), 4.17 (t, J = 5.6 Hz, 1H), 4.02 (dd, J = 10.9, 5.8 Hz, 1H), 3.96–3.85 (m, 2H), 1.49–1.41 (m, 1H), 1.35–1.27 (m, 8H), 0.85 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 6H).
 
13C NMR (100 MHz, methanol-d4): δ 174.98, 174.92, 157.18, 152.14, 152.07, 148.27, 130.68, 126.04, 125.51, 121.33, 121.28, 117.90, 117.58, 112.29, 102.60, 84.31, 84.22, 81.26, 75.63, 71.63, 68.10, 67.17, 67.12, 51.46, 41.65, 24.19, 20.56, 20.50, 11.33, 11.28.
 
 31P NMR (162 MHz, methanol-d4): δ 3.66 (s).
 
HRMS (m/z): [M]+ calcd for C27H35N6O8P, 602.2254; found, 602.2274.
 
[α]21D – 21 (c 1.0, MeOH).

PAPER

Nature (London, United Kingdom) (2016), 531(7594), 381-385.

https://www.nature.com/articles/nature17180

Remdesivir
GS-5734 structure.png
Clinical data
Other names GS-5734
Routes of
administration
By mouthinsufflation
ATC code
  • None
Legal status
Legal status
Identifiers
CAS Number
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
Chemical and physical data
Formula C27H35N6O8P
Molar mass 602.585 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
Remdesivir
GS-5734 structure.png
Clinical data
Other names GS-5734
Routes of
administration
By mouthinsufflation
ATC code
  • None
Legal status
Legal status
Identifiers
CAS Number
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
Chemical and physical data
Formula C27H35N6O8P
Molar mass 602.585 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)

//////////////Remdesivir, レムデシビル , UNII:3QKI37EEHE, ремдесивир ريمديسيفير 瑞德西韦 , GS-5734 , GS 5734, PHASE 3 , CORONOVIRUS, COVID-19

CCC(CC)COC(=O)[C@H](C)N[P@](=O)(OC[C@H]1O[C@](C#N)([C@H](O)[C@@H]1O)c2ccc3c(N)ncnn23)Oc4ccccc4

wdt-23

NEW DRUG APPROVALS

ONE TIME

$10.00

Coblopasvir


img

Coblopasvir.png

Coblopasvir
CAS: 1312608-46-0
Chemical Formula: C41H50N8O8
Molecular Weight: 782.89

UNII-67XWL3R65W

methyl {(2S)-1-[(2S)-2-(4-{4-[7-(2-[(2S)-1-{(2S)-2- [(methoxycarbonyl)amino]-3-methylbutanoyl}pyrrolidin-2-yl]-1H-imidazol-4-yl)-2H-1,3-benzodioxol-4-yl]phenyl}-1Himidazol-2-yl)pyrrolidin-1-yl]-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl}carbamate

Carbamic acid, N-((1S)-1-(((2S)-2-(5-(4-(7-(2-((2S)-1-((2S)-2-((methoxycarbonyl)amino)-3-methyl-1-oxobutyl)-2-pyrrolidinyl)-1H-imidazol-5-yl)-1,3-benzodioxol-4-yl)phenyl)-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-1-pyrrolidinyl)carbonyl)-2-methylpropyl)-, methyl ester

hepatitis C virus infection

KW-136

Coblopasvir is an antiviral drug candidate.

Coblopasvir dihydrochloride

CAS 1966138-53-3

C41 H50 N8 O8 . 2 Cl H
 Molecular Weight 855.806
PHASE 3 Beijing Kawin Technology Share-Holding
Hepatitis C virus (HCV), or hepatitis C virus infection, is a chronic blood-borne infection. Studies have shown that 40% of chronic liver diseases are associated with HCV infection, and an estimated 8,000-10,000 people die each year. HCV-related end-stage liver disease is the most common indication for liver transplantation in adults.
In the past ten years, antiviral therapy for chronic liver disease has developed rapidly, and significant improvement has been seen in the treatment effect. However, even with the combination therapy with pegylated IFN-α plus ribavirin, 40% to 50% of patients fail to treat, that is, they are non-responders or relapsers. These patients do not currently have an effective treatment alternative. Because the risk of HCV-related chronic liver disease is related to the duration of HCV infection, and the risk of cirrhosis increases in patients who have been infected for more than 20 years, chronic liver disease often progresses to advanced stages with cirrhosis, ascites, jaundice, and rupture of varicose veins. , Brain disease, and progressive liver failure, and the risk of liver cancer is also significantly increased.
HCV is a enveloped positive-strand RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family. The single-stranded HCV RNA genome is approximately 9500 nucleotides in length and has a single open reading frame (ORF) that encodes a single open reading frame (ORF) of approximately 3,000 amino acids. Mostly polyprotein. In infected cells, cellular and viral proteases cleave this polyprotein at multiple sites to produce viral structural and non-structural (NS) proteins. There are two viral proteases that affect the production of mature non-structural proteins (NS2, NS3, NS4, NS4A, NS4B, NS5A, and NS5B). The first viral protease is cleaved at the NS2-NS3 junction of the polyprotein; the second viral protease is A “NS3 protease” that mediates all subsequent cleavage events at a site downstream of the NS3 position relative to the polyprotein (ie, the site between the C-terminus of NS3 and the C-terminus of the polyprotein). The NS3 protease exhibits cis-activity at the NS3-NS4 cleavage site and, conversely, exhibits trans-activity at the remaining NS4A-NS4B, NS4B-NS5A, and NS5A-NS5B sites. The NS4A protein is thought to provide multiple functions, such as acting as a cofactor for the NS3 protease, and may promote membrane localization of NS3 and other viral replicase components. The formation of a complex between NS3 and NS4A may be necessary for NS3-mediated processing events and improves the proteolytic efficiency at all sites recognized by NS3. NS3 protease may also exhibit nucleotide triphosphatase and RNA helicase activity. NS5B is an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase involved in HCV RNA replication. In addition, compounds that inhibit the effects of NS5A in viral replication may be useful for treating HCV.

Beijing Kawin Technology Share-Holding, in collaboration with Beijing Fu Rui Tiancheng Biotechnology and Ginkgo Pharma , is developing coblopasvir as an oral capsule formulation of dihydrochloride salt (KW-136), for treating hepatitis C virus infection. In June 2018, an NDA was filed in China by Beijing Kawin Technology and Sichuan Qingmu Pharmaceutical . In August 2018, the application was granted Priority Review in China . Also, Beijing Kawin is investigating a tablet formulation of coblopasvir dihydrochloride.

PATENT

WO2011075607 , claiming substituted heterocyclic derivatives as HCV replication inhibitors useful for treating HCV infection and liver fibrosis, assigned to Beijing Kawin Technology Share-Holding Co Ltd and InterMune Inc ,

PATENT

CN 108675998

PATENT

WO-2020001089

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2020001089&tab=FULLTEXT&_cid=P22-K53D18-32430-1

Novel crystalline and amorphous forms of methyl carbamate compound, particularly coblopasvir dihydrochloride , (designated as Forms H) processes for their preparation, compositions and combinations comprising them are claimed. Also claim is an article or kit comprising a container and a package insert, wherein the container contains coblopasvir dihydrochloride.

Step 7
To a solution of compound 1-IXf (250 mg, 0.31 mmol) in toluene (10.0 mL) was added NH4OAc (4.0 g, 50 mmol) and the mixture was refluxed for 16 hours. The reaction mixture was diluted with ethyl acetate and washed with water and brine. The solvent was removed and the residue was purified by preparative HPLC to give Compound I (43.5 mg, yield 20%) as a white solid. MS (ESI) m / z (M + H) + 783.4.
Example 2 Preparation of a compound of formula II
Compound of formula (I) N-[(2S) -1-[(2S) -2- {4- [7- (4- {2-[(2S) -1-[(2S) -2-[(A Oxycarbonyl) amino] -3-methylbutanoyl] pyrrolidin-2-yl] -1H-imidazol-4-yl} phenyl) -2H-1,3-benzodioxo-4-yl] Preparation of -1H-imidazol-2-yl} pyrrolidin-1-yl] -3-methyl-1-oxobutane-2-yl] carbamate dihydrochloride
At room temperature, a solution of the pure product of structural formula I (800 g, 1.0 eq) and ethyl acetate (8 L) were sequentially added to a 20 L bottle and stirred. A 11.2% HCl / ethyl acetate solution (839 g) was added dropwise to the system, the temperature of the system was controlled at 15 ° C to 25 ° C, and the mixture was stirred for more than 3 hours to stop the reaction. The filter cake was filtered with ethyl acetate (2L). Wash the cake, bake the cake at a controlled temperature of 40-60 ° C, sample and test until the ethyl acetate residue is <0.5%, (about 73 hours of baking), to obtain the compound of formula II, off-white solid powder or granules, 774 g, HPLC Purity: 98.65%, yield: 88.5%, tested XRPD as amorphous.

///////////////Coblopasvir , KW-136, hepatitis C virus infection, CHINA, Beijing Kawin Technology, NDA, Phase III

O=C(OC)N[C@@H](C(C)C)C(N1[C@H](C2=NC(C3=CC=C(C4=C5OCOC5=C(C6=CNC([C@H]7N(C([C@@H](NC(OC)=O)C(C)C)=O)CCC7)=N6)C=C4)C=C3)=CN2)CCC1)=O

Benvitimod, Tapinarof, тапинароф , تابيناروف , 他匹那罗 ,


Chemical structure of benvitimod

ChemSpider 2D Image | 3,5-Dihydroxy-4-isopropyl-trans-stilbene | C17H18O2

Benvitimod, Tapinarof

3,5-dihydroxy-4-isopropyl-trans-stilbene

Launched – 2019 CHINA, Psoriasis, Tianji Pharma
тапинароф
 [Russian] [INN]WBI-1001

تابيناروف [Arabic] [INN]
他匹那罗 [Chinese] [INN]
(E)-2-(1-Methylethyl)-5-(2-phenylethenyl)-1,3-benzenediol
1,3-Benzenediol, 2-(1-methylethyl)-5-(2-phenylethenyl)-, (E)-
1,3-Benzenediol, 2-(1-methylethyl)-5-[(E)-2-phenylethenyl]-
10253
2-Isopropyl-5-[(E)-2-phenylvinyl]-1,3-benzenediol
3,5-Dihydroxy-4-isopropyl-trans-stilbene
5-[(E)-2-phenylethenyl]-2-(propan-2-yl)benzene-1,3-diol
79338-84-4 [RN]
84HW7D0V04
Research Code:WB-1001; WBI-1001
Trade Name:MOA:NSAID
Indication:Atopic dermatitis; PsoriasisStatus:
Phase III (Active)
Company:GlaxoSmithKline (Originator), Welichem Biotech (Originator), 天济药业 (Originator)
2894512
DMVT-505
GSK-2894512
RVT-505
WB-1001
WBI-1001
84HW7D0V04 (UNII code)
In May 2019, the drug was appoved in China for the treatment of moderate stable psoriasis vulgaris in adults and, in July 2019, Tianji Pharma (subsidiary of Guanhao Biotech) launched the product in China for the treatment of moderate stable psoriasis vulgaris in adults.

Benvitimod is in phase III clinical trials, Dermavant Sciences for the treatment of atopic dermatitis and psoriasis.

The compound was co-developed by Welichem Biotech and Stiefel Laboratories (subsidiary of GSK). However, Shenzhen Celestial Pharmaceuticals acquired the developement rights in China, Taiwan, Macao and Hong Kong.

Benvitimod (also known as Tapinarof or 3,5-dihydroxy-4-isopropyl-trans-stilbene) is a bacterial stilbenoid produced in Photorhabdus bacterial symbionts of Heterorhabditis nematodes.It is a product of an alternative ketosynthase-directed stilbenoids biosynthesis pathway. It is derived from the condensation of two β-ketoacyl thioesters. It is produced by the Photorhabdus luminescens bacterial symbiont species of the entomopathogenic nematode, Heterorhabditis megidis.

Benvitimod (also known as tapinarof or 3,5-dihydroxy-4-isopropyl-trans-stilbene) is a bacterial stilbenoid produced in Photorhabdus bacterial symbionts of Heterorhabditis nematodes. It is a product of an alternative ketosynthase-directed stilbenoids biosynthesis pathway. It is derived from the condensation of two β-ketoacyl thioesters .[1] It is produced by the Photorhabdus luminescens bacterial symbiont species of the entomopathogenic nematode, Heterorhabditis megidis. Experiments with infected larvae of Galleria mellonella, the wax moth, support the hypothesis that the compound has antibiotic properties that help minimize competition from other microorganisms and prevents the putrefaction of the nematode-infected insect cadaver.[2]

Tapinarof is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug originated by Welichem Biotech. Dermavant Sciences is developing the product outside China in phase III clinical trials for the treatment of plaque psoriasis. The company is also conducting phase II clinical trials for the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Phase II studies had also been conducted by Welichem Biotech and Stiefel (subsidiary of GlaxoSmithKline) for these indications.

Tapinarof was originated at Welichem Biotech, from which Tianji Pharma and Shenzen Celestial Pharmaceuticals obtained rights to the product in the Greater China region in 2005. In 2012, Welichem licensed development and commercialization rights in all other regions to Stiefel. In 2013, Welichem entered into an asset purchase agreement to regain Greater China rights to the product from Tianji Pharma and Celestial; however, this agreement was terminated in 2014. In 2018, Stiefel transferred its product license to Dermavant Sciences.

Entomopathogenic nematodesemerging from a wax moth cadaver

Medical research

Benvitimod is being studied in clinical trials for the treatment of plaque psoriasis.[3]

PATENTS

Route 1

1. US2003171429A1.

2. US2005059733A1.

Route 2

Reference:1. CN103265412A.

 

Patent

https://patents.google.com/patent/CN103992212A/en

phenalkenyl Maude (Benvitimod) is a new generation of anti-inflammatory drugs, are useful for treating a variety of major autoimmune diseases, such as psoriasis, eczema, hair and more concentrated colitis allergic diseases.Phenalkenyl Maud stilbene compound, comprising cis and trans isomers, the trans alkenyl benzene Maude has a strong physiological activity, stability and physical and chemical properties, and cis alkenyl benzene Modesto predominantly trans phenalkenyl Maud byproducts during synthesis, conventional methods such as benzene alkenyl Maude Wittig reaction of cis-isomer impurity is inevitable.

Figure CN103992212AD00041

[0004] benzyl trans-alkenyl Maude as main impurities in the synthesis, whether a drug is detected, or monitored during the reaction, the synthesis and analysis methods established cis alkenyl benzene Maude has very important significance.Phenalkenyl Maud conventional synthetic methods the impurity content is very low, and the properties of the cis compound is extremely unstable, easily converted to trans-structure, the synthetic method according to the preceding, the cis compound difficult to separate. The synthesis method has not been reported before in the literature. Thus, to find a synthesis route of cis-alkenyl benzene Maude critical.

[0005] The synthesis of compounds of cis-stilbene, in the prior art, there have been many reports, however, the prior art method of synthesizing a reaction product of the cis starting materials and reagents difficult source, the catalyst used is expensive higher costs, operational difficulties, is not conducive to large-scale production, such as:

① Gaukroger K, John A.Hadfield.Novel syntheses of cis and trans isomers ofcombretastatin A-4 [J] .J.0rg.Chemj 2001, (66): 8135-8138, instead of styrene and substituted phenyl bromide boric acid as the raw material, the Suzuki coupling reaction is a palladium catalyst, to give the cis compound, the reaction follows the formula:

Figure CN103992212AD00051

Yield and selectivity of the process the structure is good, but the reaction is difficult source of raw materials, catalyst more expensive, limiting the use of this method.

[0006] ② Felix N, Ngassaj Erick A, Lindsey, Brandon Ej Haines.The first Cu- and

amine-free Sonogashira-type cross-coupling in the C_6 -alkynylation of protected

2, -deoxyadenosine [J] .Tetrahedron Letters, 2009, (65): 4085-4091, with a substituted phenethyl m

Alkynyl easily catalyst Pd / CaC03, Fe2 (CO) 9, Pd (OAc) 2 and the like produce cis compound to catalytic reduction. The reaction follows the formula:

Figure CN103992212AD00052

Advantage of this method is stereospecific reduction of alkynes in the catalyst, to overcome the phenomenon of cis-trans isomerization of the Wittig reaction, but the reaction requires at _78 ° C, is not conducive to the operation, and the reagent sources difficult, expensive than high cost increase is not conducive to mass production.

[0007] ③ Belluci G, Chiappe C, Moro G L0.Crown ether catalyzed stereospecificsynthesis of Z_and E-stilbenes by Wittig reaction in a solid-liquid two-phasessystem [J] .Tetrahedron Letters, 1996, (37): 4225-4228 using Pd (PPh3) 4 as catalyst, an organic zinc reagent with a halide compound of cis-coupling reaction formula as follows:

Figure CN103992212AD00053

The advantage of this method is that selective, high yield to give cis; deficiency is difficult to handle, the catalyst is expensive.

[0008] ④ new Wang, Zhangxue Jing, Zhou Yue, Zouyong Shun, trans-3,4 ‘, 5-trihydroxy-stilbene China Pharmaceutical Synthesis, 2005, 14 (4);. 204-208, reported that the trans compound of formula was dissolved in DMSO solution at a concentration dubbed, ultraviolet irradiation was reacted at 365nm, converted into cis compounds, see the following reaction formula:

Figure CN103992212AD00061

However, the concentration of the solution preparation method, the reaction time is more stringent requirements.

Figure CN103992212AD00062

The synthesis of cis-alkenyl benzene Maude application embodiments Example 1 A synthesis of cis-alkenyl Maude benzene and benzene-cis-ene prepared Maude, the reaction was carried out according to the following scheme:

Figure CN103992212AD00101

Specific preparation process steps performed in the following order:

(O methylation reaction

The 195.12g (Imol) of 3, 5-hydroxy-4-isopropyl benzoic acid, 414.57g (3mol) in DMF was added 5000ml anhydrous potassium carbonate, mixing, stirred at room temperature, then cooled in an ice-salt bath next, slowly added dropwise 425.85g (3mol) of iodomethane, warmed to room temperature after the addition was complete, the reaction 2h, after completion of the reaction was stirred with water, extracted with ethyl acetate, and concentrated to give 3,5-dimethoxy-4- isopropyl benzoate; yield 93%, purity of 99%.

[0033] (2) a reduction reaction

3000ml tetrahydrofuran and 240g (Imol) 3,5-dimethoxy-4-isopropyl benzoate, 151.40g (4mol) mixing at room temperature sodium borohydride was stirred and heated to reflux was slowly added dropwise 400ml methanol, reaction 4h, was added 3L of water was stirred, extracted with ethyl acetate, washed with water, the solvent was removed by rotary evaporation to give a white solid, to give 3,5-dimethoxy-4-isopropylbenzene methanol; 96% yield purity was 99%.

[0034] (3) the oxidation reaction

The 212g (ImoI) of 3,5-dimethoxy-4-isopropylbenzene methanol, DMSO 800ml and 500ml of acetic anhydride were mixed and stirred at rt After 2h, stirred with water, extracted with ethyl acetate, washed with water, dried , and concentrated to give 3,5-dimethoxy-4-isopropyl-benzaldehyde; 94% yield, 99% purity.

[0035] (4) a condensation reaction

The mixture was 209.18g (lmol) of 3,5-dimethoxy-4-isopropyl-benzoic awake and 136.15g (Imol) phenylacetic acid was added 5000ml of acetic anhydride, stirred to dissolve, sodium acetate was added 246.09g , heating to 135 ° C, the reaction after 6h, cooled to room temperature after adjusting the dilute acid 2 was added, extracted with ethyl acetate, the pH was concentrated, added saturated sodium bicarbonate solution adjusted to pH 7, stirred 2h, and extracted with dichloromethane , adding dilute aqueous hydrochloric acid pH 2, the yellow solid was filtered, to obtain 3,5-dimethoxy-4-isopropyl-stilbene acid; 96% yield, 80% purity.

[0036] (5) decarboxylation reaction

The 327g (Imol) of 3,5-dimethoxy-4-isopropyl-stilbene acid and 384g (6mol) of copper powder were added to 5000ml of quinoline, 180 ° C reaction 3h, cooled to room temperature ethyl acetate was added with stirring, filtered, and the filtrate was washed with dilute hydrochloric acid to the aqueous layer was colorless and the aqueous phase was extracted with ethyl acetate inverted, the organic layers were combined, washed with water and saturated brine until neutral, i.e., spin-dried to give 3,5 – dimethoxy-4-isopropyl-stilbene; 92% yield, 77% purity.

[0037] (6) Demethylation

The 282.32g (Imol) of 3,5-dimethoxy-4-isopropyl-stilbene 4000ml toluene was placed in an ice bath and stirring, was cooled to 0 ° C, and dissolved slowly added 605.9g (5mol after) in N, N- dimethylaniline, was added 666.7g (5mol) of anhydrous aluminum chloride. after stirring for 0.5h, warmed to room temperature, the reaction was heated to 100 ° C 2h, cooled to 60 ° C , hot toluene layer was separated, diluted hydrochloric acid was added to the aqueous phase with stirring to adjust the PH value of 2, extracted with ethyl acetate, washed with water, and concentrated to give the cis-alkenyl benzene Modesto; crude yield 95%, purity 74 %.After separation by column chromatography using 300-400 mesh silica gel, benzene-cis-ene was isolated Maude pure, 68% yield, 98.5% purity. The resulting cis-alkenyl benzene Maud NMR shown in Figure 1, NMR data are as follows:

1HNMR (CDCl3, 500 Hz, δ: ppm), 7.255 (m, 5H), 6.558 (d, 1H), 6.402 (d, 1H), 6.218 (s, 2H), 4.872 (s, 2H), 3.423 (m , 1H), 1.359 (q, 6H). Coupling constants / = 12.

[0038] trans-alkenyl benzene Maud NMR shown in Figure 2, the following NMR data:

1HNMR (CDCl3, 500 Hz, δ: ppm), 7.477 (d, 2H), 7.360 (t, 2H), 6.969 (q, 2H), 6.501 (s, 1H), 4.722 (s, 2H), 3.486 (m , 1H), 1.380 (t, 6H). Coupling constants / = 16.

[0039] HPLC conditions a cis alkenyl benzene Maude pure product: column was Nucleosil 5 C18; column temperature was 20 ° C; detection wavelength 318nm; mobile phase consisting of 50:50 by volume of acetonitrile and water; flow rate It was 0.6mL / min, injection volume of 5 μ L; cis phenalkenyl Maude 18.423min retention time of a peak in an amount of 96.39%, see Figure 3. Trans phenalkenyl Maude 17.630min retention time of a peak, the content was 99.8%, see Figure 4.After mixing the two, trans-alkenyl benzene Maude 17.664min retention time of the peak, cis-alkenyl benzene Maude 18.458min retention time of the peak, see Figure 5.

PATENT

https://patents.google.com/patent/CN103172497A/en

Figure CN103172497AC00021

phenalkenyl Maude is a natural product, a metabolite as to be symbionts.Phenalkenyl Maud Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus has a very significant inhibitory effect, in addition, there is a styrenic Maude suppression of inflammation and its reactive derivative with immunomodulating activity. Alkenyl benzene Modesto topical ointment as an active ingredient, as a class of drugs has been completed two clinical treatment of psoriasis and eczema, the results of ongoing clinical phase III clinical studies, it has been shown to be completed in both psoriasis and eczema clearly effect, together with a styrenic Maude is a non-hormonal natural small molecule compounds, can be prepared synthetically prepared, therefore, it exhibits good market prospect.

[0004] a styrenic Maude initial synthesis route is as follows:

[0005]

Figure CN103172497AD00041

[0006] The reaction conditions for each step: 1) isopropanol, 80% sulfuric acid, 60 ° C, 65% .2) sodium borohydride, boron trifluoride, tetrahydrofuran, 0 ° C, 90% .3). of thionyl chloride, heated under reflux, 85% .4). triethyl phosphate, 120 ° C, 80% .5). benzaldehyde, sodium hydride, 85% .6) pyridine hydrochloride, 190 ° C, 60 %.

[0007] The chemical synthesis route, although ultimately obtained a styrenic Maude, but the overall yield is low, part of the reaction step is not suitable for industrial production, due to process conditions result in the synthesis of certain byproducts produced is difficult to remove impurities, difficult to achieve the quality standard APIs.

Preparation of 4-isopropyl-dimethoxy-benzoic acid [0011] 1,3,5_

[0012] 1000 l reactor 200 liters of 80% sulfuric acid formulation (V / V), the temperature was lowered to room temperature, put 80 kg 3,5_-dimethoxybenzoate ,, stirring gradually warmed to 60 ° C, in was added dropwise within 25 kg of isopropanol I hour, the reaction was complete after 5 hours, 500 liters of hot water, filtered, the filter cake was washed with a small amount of hot water I th, crushed cake was removed and dried. The dried powder was recrystallized from toluene, the product was filtered to give 78 kg `, yield 86%. Preparation 2,3,5_ dimethoxy-4-isopropylbenzene methanol

[0013] 1000 l reactor was added 50 kg 3,5_ _4_ isopropyl dimethoxy benzoic acid, 24 kg of potassium borohydride, 400 l of THF, at room temperature was slowly added dropwise 65 kg BF3.Et2O was stirred 12 hours, the reaction was complete, pure water was added dropwise to destroy excess BF3, filtered, concentrated to dryness, methanol – water to give an off-white recrystallized 40.3 kg, yield 90.1%.

[0014] Preparation of 3,3,5-_ ■ methoxy _4- isopropyl group gas section

[0015] 1000 l autoclave, 100 kg of 3,5-dimethoxy-4-isopropylbenzene methanol, 220 l of DMF, 0 ° C and added dropwise with stirring and 50 l of thionyl chloride, 24 hours after the reaction was complete, 300 liters of water and 300 liters of ethyl acetate, the aqueous phase was stirred layered discharged, and then washed with 200 liters of water was added 3 times, until complete removal of DMF, was added concentrated crystallized from petroleum ether to give 98 kg of white solid was filtered and dried a yield of 91%.

Preparation of methyl-dimethoxy-4-isopropylbenzene of diethyl [0016] 4,3,5_

[0017] 500 l autoclave, 98 kg 3,5_ _4_ isopropyl dimethoxy benzyl chloride and 120 l of triethyl phosphite, the reaction at 120 ° C 5h, fear distilled off under reduced pressure, the collection 145-155 ° C / 4mmHg fear minutes, cured at room temperature to give a colorless light solid was 118 kg, yield 81.6%.

, 3- [0018] 5, E-1 _ ■ methoxy-2-isopropyl-5- (2-phenylethyl lean-yl) – benzene

[0019] 500 l autoclave, 33 kg 3,5_-dimethoxy-4-isopropylbenzene acid diethyl ester, 10.8 kg of benzaldehyde, and 120 l of tetrahydrofuran, at 40 ° C, and nitrogen with stirring, was added dropwise a solution of 11.8 kg potassium tert-butoxide in 50 liters of tetrahydrofuran, the temperature dropping control not to exceed 50 ° C. after the dropwise addition stirring was continued for I h, the reaction was complete, 150 liters of ethyl acetate and extracted , washed twice with 150 liters of water, 100 l I washed with brine, and the organic phase was dried and concentrated, methanol – water (I: D as a white crystalline solid 25.3 kg, yield 91%.

[0020] 6> 1, 3 ~ _ ■ Light-2-isopropyl-5- (2-phenylethyl lean-yl) – benzene (I), (De Dae dilute benzene)

[0021] 100 l autoclave, 10 kg 1,3_-dimethoxy-2-isopropyl-5- (2-styryl) benzene _ pyridine hydrochloride and 25 kg nitrogen atmosphere was heated to 180 -190 ° C, stirred for 3 hours after the reaction was completed, 20 l HCl (2N) cooling to 100 ° C, and 20 liters of ethyl acetate the product was extracted, dried and concentrated to give the product 7.3 kg, 83% yield.

[0022] The method for purifying:

[0023] 100 l added to the reaction vessel 15.5 kg of crude product and 39 liters of toluene, heated to the solid all dissolved completely, filtered hot and left to crystallize, after crystallization, filtration, the crystals with cold toluene 10 washed liter at 60 ° C, protected from light vacuo dried for 24 hours, to obtain 14 kg of white needle crystals, yield 90%.

CLIP

https://www.eosmedchem.com/article/237.html

Design new synthesis of Route of Benvitimod

Nov 26, 2018
1.Benvitimod and intermediates
Benvitimod 79338-84-4  intermediate: 1999-10-5
Benvitimod 79338-84-4  intermediate: 2150-37-0
Benvitimod 79338-84-4  intermediate: 344396-17-4
Benvitimod 79338-84-4  intermediate: 344396-18-5
Benvitimod 79338-84-4  intermediate: 344396-19-6
Benvitimod 79338-84-4  intermediate: 1080-32-6
Benvitimod 79338-84-4  intermediate: 678986-73-7
Benvitimod 79338-84-4  intermediate: 55703-81-6
Benvitimod 79338-84-4  intermediate: 1190122-19-0
Benvitimod 79338-84-4  intermediate: 443982-76-1
Benvitimod 79338-84-4  intermediate: 100-52-72.ROS-Benvitimod
(1)

(2)
3.
Name: Benvitimod
CAS#: 79338-84-4
Chemical Formula: C17H18O2
Exact Mass: 254.1307
Molecular Weight: 254.329
Elemental Analysis: C, 80.28; H, 7.13; O, 12.58

References

  1. ^ Joyce SA; Brachmann AO; Glazer I; Lango L; Schwär G; Clarke DJ; Bode HB (2008). “Bacterial biosynthesis of a multipotent stilbene”. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl47 (10): 1942–5. doi:10.1002/anie.200705148PMID 18236486.
  2. ^ Hu, K; Webster, JM (2000). “Antibiotic production in relation to bacterial growth and nematode development in Photorhabdus–Heterorhabditis infected Galleria mellonella larvae”. FEMS Microbiology Letters189 (2): 219–23. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6968.2000.tb09234.xPMID 10930742.
  3. ^ “New Topical for Mild to Moderate Psoriasis in the Works”Medscape. March 5, 2017.
  4. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/action/downloadSupplement?doi=10.1002%2Fanie.201814016&file=anie201814016-sup-0001-misc_information.pdf

///Benvitimod, Tapinarof, WBI-1001, тапинароф , تابيناروف , 他匹那罗 , Welichem Biotech, Stiefel Laboratories, Shenzhen Celestial Pharmaceuticals,CHINA 2019 , Psoriasis, Tianji Pharma, Dermavant Sciences, PHASE 3

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