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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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FDA approves new combination treatment for acute myeloid leukemia, Rydapt (midostaurin)


MIDOSTAURIN

04/28/2017
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Rydapt (midostaurin) for the treatment of adult patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who have a specific genetic mutation called FLT3, in combination with chemotherapy. The drug is approved for use with a companion diagnostic, the LeukoStrat CDx FLT3 Mutation Assay, which is used to detect the FLT3 mutation in patients with AML.

April 28, 2017

Release

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Rydapt (midostaurin) for the treatment of adult patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who have a specific genetic mutation called FLT3, in combination with chemotherapy. The drug is approved for use with a companion diagnostic, the LeukoStrat CDx FLT3 Mutation Assay, which is used to detect the FLT3 mutation in patients with AML.

AML is a rapidly progressing cancer that forms in the bone marrow and results in an increased number of white blood cells in the bloodstream. The National Cancer Institute estimated that approximately 19,930 people would be diagnosed with AML in 2016 and 10,430 were projected to die of the disease.

“Rydapt is the first targeted therapy to treat patients with AML, in combination with chemotherapy,” said Richard Pazdur, M.D., acting director of the Office of Hematology and Oncology Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research and director of the FDA’s Oncology Center of Excellence. “The ability to detect the gene mutation with a diagnostic test means doctors can identify specific patients who may benefit from this treatment.”

Rydapt is a kinase inhibitor that works by blocking several enzymes that promote cell growth. If the FLT3 mutation is detected in blood or bone marrow samples using the LeukoStrat CDx FLT3 Mutation Assay, the patient may be eligible for treatment with Rydapt in combination with chemotherapy.

The safety and efficacy of Rydapt for patients with AML were studied in a randomized trial of 717 patients who had not been treated previously for AML. In the trial, patients who received Rydapt in combination with chemotherapy lived longer than patients who received chemotherapy alone, although a specific median survival rate could not be reliably estimated. In addition, patients who received Rydapt in combination with chemotherapy in the trial went longer (median 8.2 months) without certain complications (failure to achieve complete remission within 60 days of starting treatment, progression of leukemia or death) than patients who received chemotherapy alone (median three months).

Common side effects of Rydapt in patients with AML include low levels of white blood cells with fever (febrile neutropenia), nausea, inflammation of the mucous membranes (mucositis), vomiting, headache, spots on the skin due to bleeding (petechiae), musculoskeletal pain, nosebleeds (epistaxis), device-related infection, high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) and upper respiratory tract infection. Rydapt should not be used in patients with hypersensitivity to midostaurin or other ingredients in Rydapt. Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding should not take Rydapt because it may cause harm to a developing fetus or a newborn baby. Patients who experience signs or symptoms of lung damage (pulmonary toxicity) should stop using Rydapt.

Rydapt was also approved today for adults with certain types of rare blood disorders (aggressive systemic mastocytosis, systemic mastocytosis with associated hematological neoplasm or mast cell leukemia). Common side effects of Rydapt in these patients include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, swelling (edema), musculoskeletal pain, abdominal pain, fatigue, upper respiratory tract infection, constipation, fever, headache and shortness of breath.

The FDA granted this application Priority Review, Fast Track (for the mastocytosis indication) and Breakthrough Therapy (for the AML indication) designations.

The FDA granted the approval of Rydapt to Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation. The FDA granted the approval of the LeukoStrat CDx FLT3 Mutation Assay to Invivoscribe Technologies Inc.

MIDOSTAURIN

(9S,10R,11R,13R)-2,3,10,11,12,13-Hexahydro-10-methoxy-9-methyl-11-(methylamino)-9,13-epoxy-1H,9H-diindolo[1,2,3-gh:3′,2′,1′-lm]pyrrolo[3,4-j][1,7]benzodiamzonine-1-one

N-[(9S,10R,11R,13R)-2,3,10,11,12,13-Hexahydro-10-methoxy-9-methyl-1-oxo-9,13-epoxy-1H,9H-diindolo[1,2,3-gh:3′,2′,1′-lm]pyrrolo[3,4-j][1,7]benzodiazonin-11-yl]-N-methylbenzamide

N-((9S,10R,11R,13R)-2,3,9,10,11,12-hexahydro-10-methoxy-9-methyl-1-oxo-9,13-epoxy-1H,9H-diindolo(1,2,3-gh:3′,2′,1′-lm)pyrrolo(3,4-j)(1,7)benzodiazonin-11-yl)-N-methyl-,

N-[(2R,4R,5R,6S)-5-methoxy-6-methyl-18-oxo-29-oxa-1,7,17-triazaoctacyclo[12.12.2.12,6.07,28.08,13.015,19.020,27.021,26]nonacosa-8,10,12,14(28),15(19),20(27),21(26),22,24-nonaen-4-yl]-N-methylbenzamide hydrate

N-benzoyl staurosporine

NOVARTIS ONCOLOGY ORIGINATOR

Chemical Formula: C35H30N4O4

Exact Mass: 570.22671

Molecular Weight: 570.63710

Elemental Analysis: C, 73.67; H, 5.30; N, 9.82; O, 11.22

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors

PKC 412。PKC412A。CGP 41251。Benzoylstaurosporine;4′-N-Benzoylstaurosporine;Cgp 41251;Cgp 41 251.

120685-11-2 CAS

PHASE 3

  • 4′-N-Benzoylstaurosporine
  • Benzoylstaurosporine
  • Cgp 41 251
  • CGP 41251
  • CGP-41251
  • Midostaurin
  • PKC 412
  • PKC412
  • UNII-ID912S5VON

Midostaurin is an inhibitor of tyrosine kinase, protein kinase C, and VEGF. Midostaurin inhibits cell growth and phosphorylation of FLT3, STAT5, and ERK. It is a potent inhibitor of a spectrum of FLT3 activation loop mutations.

it  is prepared by acylation of the alkaloid staurosporine (I) with benzoyl chloride (II) in the presence of diisopropylethylamine in chloroform.Production Route of Midostaurin

Midostaurin is a synthetic indolocarbazole multikinase inhibitor with potential antiangiogenic and antineoplastic activities. Midostaurin inhibits protein kinase C alpha (PKCalpha), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), c-kit, platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) and FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) tyrosine kinases, which may result in disruption of the cell cycle, inhibition of proliferation, apoptosis, and inhibition of angiogenesis in susceptible tumors.

MIDOSTAURIN

Derivative of staurosporin, orally active, potent inhibitor of FLT3 tyrosine kinase (fetal liver tyrosine kinase 3). In addition Midostaurin inhibits further molecular targets such as VEGFR-1 (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 1), c-kit (stem cell factor receptor), H-and K-RAS (Rat Sarcoma Viral homologue) and MDR (multidrug resistance protein).

Midostaurin inhibits both wild-type FLT3 and FLT3 mutant, wherein the internal tandem duplication mutations (FLT3-ITD), and the point mutation to be inhibited in the tyrosine kinase domain of the molecule at positions 835 and 836.Midostaurin is tested in patients with AML.

Midostaurin, a protein kinase C (PKC) and Flt3 (FLK2/STK1) inhibitor, is in phase III clinical development at originator Novartis for the oral treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML).

Novartis is conducting phase III clinical trials for the treatment of aggressive systemic mastocytosis or mast cell leukemia. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is conducting phase I/II trials with the drug for the treatment of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS).

Massachusetts General Hospital is conducting phase I clinical trials for the treatment of adenocarcinoma of the rectum in combination with radiation and standard chemotherapy.

MIDOSTAURIN

Midostaurin (PKC412) is a multi-target protein kinase inhibitor being investigated for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). It is a semi-synthetic derivative of staurosporine, an alkaloid from the bacterium Streptomyces staurosporeus, and is active in patients with mutations of CD135 (FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 receptor).[1]

After successful Phase II clinical trials, a Phase III trial for AML has started in 2008. It is testing midostaurin in combination with daunorubicin and cytarabine.[2] In another trial, the substance has proven ineffective in metastatic melanoma.[3]

Midostaurin has also been studied at Johns Hopkins University for the treatment of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), but no recent progress reports for this indication have been made available. Trials in macular edema of diabetic origin were discontinued at Novartis.

In 2004, orphan drug designation was received in the E.U. for the treatment of AML. In 2009 and 2010, orphan drug designation was assigned for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia and for the treatment of mastocytosis, respectively, in the U.S. In 2010, orphan drug designation was assigned in the E.U. for the latter indication.

MIDOSTAURIN

References

  1.  Fischer, T.; Stone, R. M.; Deangelo, D. J.; Galinsky, I.; Estey, E.; Lanza, C.; Fox, E.; Ehninger, G.; Feldman, E. J.; Schiller, G. J.; Klimek, V. M.; Nimer, S. D.; Gilliland, D. G.; Dutreix, C.; Huntsman-Labed, A.; Virkus, J.; Giles, F. J. (2010). “Phase IIB Trial of Oral Midostaurin (PKC412), the FMS-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3 Receptor (FLT3) and Multi-Targeted Kinase Inhibitor, in Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia and High-Risk Myelodysplastic Syndrome with Either Wild-Type or Mutated FLT3”. Journal of Clinical Oncology 28 (28): 4339–4345. doi:10.1200/JCO.2010.28.9678PMID 20733134edit
  2.  ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00651261 Daunorubicin, Cytarabine, and Midostaurin in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia
  3.  Millward, M. J.; House, C.; Bowtell, D.; Webster, L.; Olver, I. N.; Gore, M.; Copeman, M.; Lynch, K.; Yap, A.; Wang, Y.; Cohen, P. S.; Zalcberg, J. (2006). “The multikinase inhibitor midostaurin (PKC412A) lacks activity in metastatic melanoma: a phase IIA clinical and biologic study”British Journal of Cancer 95 (7): 829–834. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6603331PMC 2360547PMID 16969355.
    1. Midostaurin product page, Fermentek
    2.  Wang, Y; Yin, OQ; Graf, P; Kisicki, JC; Schran, H (2008). “Dose- and Time-Dependent Pharmacokinetics of Midostaurin in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus”. J Clin Pharmacol 48 (6): 763–775. doi:10.1177/0091270008318006PMID 18508951.
    3.  Ryan KS (2008). “Structural studies of rebeccamycin, staurosporine, and violacein biosynthetic enzymes”Ph.D. Thesis. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 1994, 4(3): 399

US 5093330

EP 0657164

EP 0711556

EP 0733358

WO 1998007415

WO 2002076432

WO 2003024420

WO 2003037347

WO 2004112794

WO 2005027910

WO 2005040415

WO 2006024494

WO 2006048296

WO 2006061199

WO 2007017497

WO 2013086133

WO 2012016050

WO 2011000811

8-1-2013
Identification of potent Yes1 kinase inhibitors using a library screening approach.
Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters
 
3-1-2013
Evaluation of potential Myt1 kinase inhibitors by TR-FRET based binding assay.
European journal of medicinal chemistry
2-23-2012
Testing the promiscuity of commercial kinase inhibitors against the AGC kinase group using a split-luciferase screen.
Journal of medicinal chemistry
 
1-26-2012
VX-322: a novel dual receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor for the treatment of acute myelogenous leukemia.
Journal of medicinal chemistry
1-1-2012
H2O2 production downstream of FLT3 is mediated by p22phox in the endoplasmic reticulum and is required for STAT5 signalling.
PloS one
10-27-2011
Discovery of 3-(2,6-dichloro-3,5-dimethoxy-phenyl)-1-{6-[4-(4-ethyl-piperazin-1-yl)-phenylamino]-pyrimidin-4-yl}-1-methyl-urea (NVP-BGJ398), a potent and selective inhibitor of the fibroblast growth factor receptor family of receptor tyrosine kinase.
Journal of medicinal chemistry
 
6-1-2011
Discovery, synthesis, and investigation of the antitumor activity of novel piperazinylpyrimidine derivatives.
European journal of medicinal chemistry
3-1-2010
Colony stimulating factor-1 receptor as a target for small molecule inhibitors.
Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry
7-18-2012
Staurosporine Derivatives as Inhibitors of FLT3 Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Activity
6-13-2012
Crystal form of N-benzoyl-staurosporine
12-14-2011
COMPOSITIONS FOR TREATMENT OF SYSTEMIC MASTOCYTOSIS
7-6-2011
Staurosporine derivatives as inhibitors of flt3 receptor tyrosine kinase activity
7-6-2011
Staurosporine Derivatives for Use in Alveolar Rhabdomyosarcoma
12-10-2010
Pharmaceutical Compositions for treating wouds and related methods
11-5-2010
COMBINATIONS OF JAK INHIBITORS
7-23-2010
COMBINATIONS COMPRISING STAUROSPORINES
3-5-2010
COMBINATION OF IAP INHIBITORS AND FLT3 INHIBITORS
1-29-2010
ANTI-CANCER PHOSPHONATE ANALOGS
1-13-2010
Therapeutic phosphonate compounds
11-20-2009
Use of Staurosporine Derivatives for the Treatment of Multiple Myeloma
7-17-2009
KINASE INHIBITORY PHOSPHONATE ANALOGS
6-19-2009
Organic Compounds
3-20-2009
Use of Midostaurin for Treating Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors
11-21-2008
PHARMACEUTICAL COMPOSITIONS COMPRISING A POORLY WATER-SOLUBLE ACTIVE INGREDIENT, A SURFACTANT AND A WATER-SOLUBLE POLYMER
11-19-2008
Anti-cancer phosphonate analogs
9-12-2008
Multi-Functional Small Molecules as Anti-Proliferative Agents
9-5-2008
Sensitization of Drug-Resistant Lung Caners to Protein Kinase Inhibitors
8-29-2008
Organic Compounds
8-27-2008
Kinase inhibitory phosphonate analogs
4-25-2008
Treatment Of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors With Imatinib And Midostaurin
12-28-2007
Pharmaceutical Uses of Staurosporine Derivatives
12-7-2007
Kinase Inhibitor Phosphonate Conjugates
8-17-2007
Combinations comprising staurosporines
10-13-2006
Staurosporine derivatives for hypereosinophilic syndrome
7-15-2005
Phosphonate substituted kinase inhibitors
10-20-2004
Staurosporin derivatives

MIDOSTAURIN HYDRATE

Midostaurin according to the invention is N-[(9S,10R,11R,13R)-2,3,10,11,12,13-hexahydro-10-methoxy-9-methyl-1-oxo-9,13-epoxy-1H,9H-diindolo[1,2,3-gh:3′,2′,1′-lm]pyrrolo[3,4-j][1,7]benzodiazonin-11-yl]-N-methylbenzamide of the formula (II):

Figure US20090075972A1-20090319-C00002

or a salt thereof, hereinafter: “Compound of formula II or midostaurin”.

Compound of formula II or midostaurin [International Nonproprietary Name] is also known as PKC412.

Midostaurin is a derivative of the naturally occurring alkaloid staurosporine, and has been specifically described in the European patent No. 0 296 110 published on Dec. 21, 1988, as well as in U.S. Pat. No.  5093330 published on Mar. 3, 1992, and Japanese Patent No. 2 708 047.

………………….

https://www.google.co.in/patents/EP0296110B1

The nomenclature of the products is, on the complete structure of staurosporine ([storage]-NH-CH ₃derived, and which is designated by N-substituent on the nitrogen of the methylamino group

Figure imgb0028

Example 18:

     N-Benzoyl-staurospor

  • A solution of 116.5 mg (0.25 mmol) of staurosporine and 0.065 ml (0.38 mmol) of N, N-diisopropylethylamine in 2 ml of chloroform is added at room temperature with 0.035 ml (0.3 mmol) of benzoyl chloride and 10 stirred minutes.The reaction mixture is diluted with chloroform, washed with sodium bicarbonate, dried over magnesium sulfate and evaporated. The crude product is chromatographed on silica gel (eluent methylene chloride / ethanol 30:1), mp 235-247 ° with brown coloration.
  • cut paste may not be ok below

Staurosporine the formula [storage]-NH-CH ₃ (II) (for the meaning of the rest of [storage] see above) as the basic material of the novel compounds was already in 1977, from the cultures of Streptomyces staurosporeus AWAYA, and TAKAHASHI

O ¯

Figure imgb0003

MURA, sp. nov. AM 2282, see Omura, S., Iwai, Y., Hirano, A., Nakagawa, A.; awayâ, J., Tsuchiya, H., Takahashi, Y., and Masuma, R. J. Antibiot. 30, 275-281 (1977) isolated and tested for antimicrobial activity. It was also found here that the compound against yeast-like fungi and microorganisms is effective (MIC of about 3-25 mcg / ml), taking as the hydrochloride = having a LD ₅ ₀ 6.6 mg / kg (mouse, intraperitoneal). Stagnated recently it has been shown in extensive screening, see Tamaoki, T., Nomoto, H., Takahashi, I., Kato, Y, Morimoto, M. and Tomita, F.: Biochem. and Biophys. Research Commun. 135 (No. 2), 397-402 (1986) that the compound exerts a potent inhibitory effect on protein kinase C (rat brain)

…………………

https://www.google.co.in/patents/US5093330

EXAMPLE 18 N-benzoyl-staurosporine

0.035 ml (0.3 mmol) of benzoyl chloride is added at room temperature to a solution of 116.5 mg (0.25 mmol) of staurosporine and 0.065 ml (0.38 mmol) of N,N-diisopropylethylamine in 2 ml of chloroform and the whole is stirred for 10 minutes. The reaction mixture is diluted with chloroform, washed with sodium bicarbonate solution, dried over magnesium sulphate and concentrated by evaporation. The crude product is chromatographed on silica gel (eluant:methylene chloride/ethanol 30:1); m.p. 235

…………………….

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 1994, 4(3): 399

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0960894X94800049

Full-size image (2 K)

……………………

http://www.google.com/patents/WO1998007415A2

A variety of PKC inhibitors are available in the art for use in the invention. These include bryostatin (U.S. Patent 4,560,774), safinogel (WO 9617603), fasudil (EP 187371), 7- hydoxystaurosporin (EP 137632B), various diones described in EP 657458, EP 657411 and WO9535294, phenylmethyl hexanamides as described in WO9517888, various indane containing benzamides as described in WO9530640, various pyrrolo [3,4-c]carbazoles as described in EP 695755, LY 333531 (IMSworld R & D Focus 960722, July 22, 1996 and Pharmaprojects Accession No. 24174), SPC-104065 (Pharmaprojects Accession No. 22568), P-10050 (Pharmaprojects Accession No. 22643), No. 4432 (Pharmaprojects Accession No. 23031), No. 4503 (Pharmaprojects Accession No. 23252), No. 4721 (Pharmaprojects Accession No. 23890), No. 4755 (Pharmaprojects Accession No. 24035), balanol (Pharmaprojects Accession No. 20376), K-7259 (Pharmaprojects Accession No. 16649), Protein kinase C inhib, Lilly (Pharmaprojects Accession No. 18006), and UCN-01 (Pharmaprojects Accession No. 11915). Also see, for example, Tamaoki and Nakano (1990) Biotechnology 8:732-735; Posada et al. (1989) Cancer Commun. 1:285-292; Sato et al. (1990) Biochem Biophys. Res. Commun. 173:1252-1257; Utz et al. (1994) Int. J. Cancer 57:104-110; Schwartz et al. (1993) J. Na . Cancer lnst. 85:402-407; Meyer et al. (1989) Int. J. Cancer 43:851-856; Akinaga et al. (1991) Cancer Res. 51:4888-4892, which disclosures are herein incorporated by reference. Additionally, antisense molecules can be used as PKC inhibitors. Although such antisense molecules inhibit mRNA translation into the PKC protein, such antisense molecules are considered PKC inhibitors for purposes of this invention. Such antisense molecules against PKC inhibitors include those described in published PCT patent applications WO 93/19203, WO 95/03833 and WO 95/02069, herein incorporated by reference. Such inhibitors can be used in formulations for local delivery to prevent cellular proliferation. Such inhibitors find particular use in local delivery for preventing rumor growth and restenosis.

N-benzoyl staurosporine is a benzoyl derivative of the naturally occurring alkaloid staurosporine. It is chiral compound ([a]D=+148.0+-2.0°) with the formula C35H30R1O4 (molecular weight 570.65). It is a pale yellow amorphous powder which remains unchanged up to 220°C. The compound is very lipophilic (log P>5.48) and almost insoluble in water (0.068 mg/1) but dissolves readily in DMSO.

……………………….

staurosporine

Staurosporine (antibiotic AM-2282 or STS) is a natural product originally isolated in 1977 from the bacterium Streptomyces staurosporeus. It was the first of over 50 alkaloids to be isolated with this type of bis-indole chemical structure. The chemical structure of staurosporine was elucidated by X-ray analysis of a single crystal and the absolute stereochemical configuration by the same method in 1994.

Staurosporine was discovered to have biological activities ranging from anti-fungal to anti-hypertensive. The interest in these activities resulted in a large investigative effort in chemistry and biology and the discovery of the potential for anti-cancer treatment

Synthesis of Staurosporine

Staurosporine is the precursor of the novel protein kinase inhibitor midostaurin(PKC412). Besides midostaurin, staurosporine is also used as a starting material in the commercial synthesis of K252c (also called staurosporine aglycone). In the natural biosynthetic pathway, K252c is a precursor of staurosporine.

Indolocarbazoles belong to the alkaloid sub-class of bisindoles. Of these carbazoles the Indolo(2,3-a)carbazoles are the most frequently isolated; the most common subgroup of the Indolo(2,3-a)carbazoles are the Indolo(2,3-a)pyrrole(3,4-c)carbazoles which can be divided into two major classes – halogenated (chlorinated) with a fully oxidized C-7 carbon with only one indole nitrogen containing a β-glycosidic bond and the second class consists of both indole nitrogen glycosilated, non-halogenated, and a fully reduced C-7 carbon. Staurosporine is part of the second non-halogenated class.

The biosynthesis of staurosporine starts with the amino acid L-tryptophan in its zwitterionic form. Tryptophan is converted to an imineby enzyme StaO which is an L-amino acid oxidase (that may be FAD dependent). The imine is acted upon by StaD to form an uncharacterized intermediate proposed to be the dimerization product between 2 imine molecules. Chromopyrrolic acid is the molecule formed from this intermediate after the loss of VioE (used in the biosynthesis of violacein – a natural product formed from a branch point in this pathway that also diverges to form rebeccamycin. An aryl aryl coupling thought to be catalyzed by a cytochrome P450enzyme to form an aromatic ring system occurs

Staurosporine 2

This is followed by a nucleophilic attack between the indole nitrogens resulting in cyclization and then decarboxylation assisted by StaC exclusively forming staurosporine aglycone or K252c. Glucose is transformed to NTP-L-ristoamine by StaA/B/E/J/I/K which is then added on to the staurosporine aglycone at 1 indole N by StaG. The StaN enzyme reorients the sugar by attaching it to the 2nd indole nitrogen into an unfavored conformation to form intermediated O-demethyl-N-demethyl-staurosporine. Lastly, O-methylation of the 4’amine by StaMA and N-methylation of the 3′-hydroxy by StaMB leads to the formation of staurosporine

US4107297 * 28 Nov 1977 15 Aug 1978 The Kitasato Institute Antibiotic compound
US4735939 * 27 Feb 1987 5 Apr 1988 The Dow Chemical Company Insecticidal activity of staurosporine
ZA884238A * Title not available
////////FDA 2017, acute myeloid leukemia, Rydapt, midostaurin, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, LeukoStrat CDx FLT3 Mutation Assay,  Invivoscribe Technologies Inc, Priority Review, Fast Track, (for the mastocytosis indication, Breakthrough Therapy
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An insight into the therapeutic potential of quinazoline derivatives as anticancer agents


The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved several quinazoline derivatives for clinical use as anticancer drugs. These include gefitinib, erlotinib, lapatinib, afatinib, and vandetanib (Fig.1) [43]. Gefitinib (Iressa®) was approved by the FDA in 2003 for the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in patients after failure of both platinum-based and/or docetaxel chemotherapies. In 2004, erlotinib (Tarceva®) was approved by the FDA for treating NSCLC. Furthermore, in 2005, the FDA approved erlotinib in combination with gemcitabine for treatment of locally advanced, unrespectable, or metastatic pancreatic cancer. Erlotinib acts as a reversible tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Lapatinib (Tykreb®) was approved by the FDA in 2012 for breast cancer treatment. It inhibits the activity of both human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2/neu) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathways. Vandetanib (Caprelsa®) was approved by the FDA in 2011 for the treatment of metastatic medullary thyroid cancer. It acts as a kinase inhibitor of a number of cell receptors, mainly the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), EGFR, and rearranged during transfection (RET)-tyrosine kinase (TK). Afatinib (Gilotrif®) was approved by the FDA in 2013 for NSCLC treatment. It acts as an irreversible covalent inhibitor of the receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) for EGFR and erbB-2 (HER2).

An insight into the therapeutic potential of quinazoline derivatives as anticancer agents

*Corresponding authors

Abstract

Cancer is one of the major causes of worldwide human mortality. A wide range of cytotoxic drugs are available on the market, and several compounds are in different phases of clinical trials. Many studies suggest that these cytotoxic molecules are also associated with different types of adverse side effects; therefore researchers around the globe are involved in the development of more efficient and safer anticancer drugs. In recent years, quinazoline and its derivatives have been considered as a novel class of cancer chemotherapeutic agents that show promising activity against different tumors. The aim of this article is to comprehensively review and highlight the recent developments concerning the anticancer activity of quinazoline derivatives as well as offer perspectives on the development of novel quinazoline derivatives as anticancer agents in the near future.

http://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/ArticleLanding/2017/MD/C7MD00097A?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+rss%2FMD+%28RSC+-+Med.+Chem.+Commun.+latest+articles%29#!divAbstract

An insight into the therapeutic potential of quinazoline derivatives as anticancer agents

Med. Chem. Commun., 2017, Advance Article
DOI: 10.1039/C7MD00097A, Review Article
Shagufta, Irshad Ahmad
This article reviews the recent advances in the development of quinazoline derivatives as anticancer agents.
American University of Ras Al Khaimah UAE

Dr. Shagufta Waseem

ASSISTANT PROFESSOR – CHEMISTRY

Office No.: C42
Phone: Tel. Ext. 1331
str1
Biography

Dr. Shagufta joined the American University of Ras Al Khaimah as an Assistant Professor of Chemistry in the School of Arts and Sciences in August 2014. Prior to joining AURAK, Dr. Shagufta worked as an Adjunct Assistant Professor of Chemistry at the University of Modern Sciences, Dubai and American University of Ras Al Khaimah, UAE.

Dr. Shagufta also worked as a Postdoctoral Researcher Associate at the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Oklahoma University, USA. She developed the noble drug delivery system for breast cancer drugs using carbon nanotubes and acquired the significant experience in nanotechnology and synthetic organic chemistry. She was appointed as a Postdoctoral Research Fellow and Visiting Scientist at Leiden/Amsterdam Centre for Drug Research (LACDR), Leiden, The Netherlands. Her research interest was In silico prediction and clinical evaluation of the cardiotoxicity of drug candidates. She was focused to identify chemical substructures as ‘chemical alerts’ that interact with this hERG channel.  Dr. Shagufta received a Ph.D. under the prestigious CSIR-JRF and SRF research fellowship in Chemistry from Central Drug Research Institute (CDRI)/Lucknow University, India in 2008, her PhD research work was in the field of estrogens and antiestrogens, design and synthesis of steroidal and non-steroidal tissue selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) for breast cancer, 3D-QSAR CoMFA and CoMSIA studies and analysis of pharmaceutical important molecules.

Dr. Shagufta has published 20 articles in peer-reviewed International journals of Royal Society of Chemistry, Elsevier, Wiley and Springer. Dr. Shagufta teaches courses such as General chemistry, Organic Chemistry, Chemistry in Everyday Life, and Spectroscopy along with laboratory courses.

Research and Publication

Research Interest-Dr. Shagufta 

Organic Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry focused on Breast Cancer and Osteoporosis, Heterogeneous catalysis and Nanotechnology.

Publications- Dr. Shagufta 

  1. Irshad Ahmad and Shagufta. 2015. Recent developments in steroidal and nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitors for the chemoprevention of estrogen-dependent breast cancer. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 102, 375-386.
  1. Irshad Ahmad and Shagufta. 2015. Sulfones: An important class of organic compounds with diverse biological activities. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 7 (3), 19-27.
  1. Priyanka Singh, Subal Kumar Dinda, Shagufta, Gautam Panda. 2013. Synthetic approach towards trisubstituted methanes and a chiral tertiary α-hydroxyaldehyde, possible intermediate for tetrasubstituted methanes. RSC Adv.(Royal Society of Chemistry) 3, 12100-12103. [ISSN: 2046-2069] 
  1. Donna J. Nelson, Shagufta, Ravi Kumar. 2012. Characterization of a tamoxifen-tethered single-walled carbon nanotube conjugate by using NMR spectroscopy. Anal. Bioanal. Chem.[Springer] 404:771–776. [ISSN: 1618-2642]
  1. Donna J. Nelson, Ravi Kumar, Shagufta. 2012. Regiochemical reversals in nitrosobenzene reactions with carbonyl compounds – α-aminooxy ketone versus α-hydroxyamino ketone products. Eur. J. Org. Chem.(Wiley-VCH) 6013-6020. [ISSN: 1099-0690]
  1. Munikumar R. Reddy, Elisabeth Klaasse, Shagufta, Adriaan P. IJzerman, Andreas Bender. 2010. Validation of an in silico hERG model and its applications to the virtual screening of commercial compound databases. Chem. Med. Chem. (Wiley-VCH)5: 716-729. [ISSN: 1860-7187] 
  1. Shagufta, Dong Guo, Elisabeth Klaasse, Henk de Vries, Johannes Brussee, Lukas Nalos, Martin B Rook, Marc A Vos, Marcel AG van der Heyden and Adriaan P. IJzerman. 2009. Exploring the chemical substructures essential for hERG K+ channel blockade by synthesis and biological evaluation of dofetilide analogues. Chem. Med. Chem.(Wiley-VCH) 4:1722-1732. [ISSN: 1860-7187]
  1. Shagufta, Ritesh Singh and Gautam Panda. 2009, Synthetic studies towards steroid-amino acid hybrids. Indian Journal of Chemistry.(Indian Science) 48B: 989-995. [ISSN: 0975-0983]
  1. Maloy K. Parai, Shagufta, Ajay K. Srivastava, Matthias Kassack, Gautam Panda. 2008. An unexpected reaction of phosphorous tribromide on chromanone, thiochromanone, 3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[b]thiepin-5-one, 3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[b]oxepin-5-one and tetralone derived allylic alcohols: a case study. Tetrahedron (Elsevier)64: 9962-9976. [ISSN: 0040-4020]
  1. Gautam Panda, Maloy Kumar Parai, Sajal Kumar Das, Shagufta, Manish Sinha, Vinita Chaturvedi, Anil K. Srivastava, Anil N. Gaikwad, Sudhir Sinha. 2007. Effect of substituents on diarymethanes for antitubercular activity. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (Elsevier) 42: 410-419. [ISSN: 0223-5234]
  1. Shagufta and Gautam Panda. 2007. A new example of a steroid-amino acid hybrid: Construction of constrained nine membered D-ring steroids. Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry (Royal Society of Chemistry) 5 : 360- 366. [ISSN 1477-0539]
  1. Shagufta, Ashutosh Kumar, Gautam Panda and Mohammad Imran Siddiqi. 2007. CoMFA and CoMSIA 3D-QSAR analysis of diaryloxy methano phenanthrene derivatives as anti- tubercular agents. Journal of Molecular Modeling (Springer) 13: 99-107. [ISSN:0948-5023]
  1. Shagufta, Ajay Kumar Srivastava, Ramesh Sharma, Rajeev Mishra, Anil K. Balapure, Puvvada S. R. Murthy and Gautam Panda. 2006. Substituted phenanthrenes with basic amino side chains: A new series of anti-breast cancer agents. Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry (Elsevier) 14: 1497-1505. [ISSN: 0968-0896]
  1. Shagufta, Ajay Kumar Srivastava and Gautam Panda. 2006. Isomerization of allylic alcohols into saturated carbonyls using phosphorus tribromide. Tetrahedron Letters (Elsevier) 47: 1065-1070. [ISSN: 0040-4039]
  1. Gautam Panda, Jitendra K. Mishra, Shagufta, T. C. Dinadayalane and G. Narahari Sastry & Devendra S Negi. 2006. Hard-soft acid-base (HSAB) principle and difference in d-orbital configurations of metals explain the regioselectivity of nucleophilic attack to a carbinol in Friedel-Crafts reaction catalyzed by Lewis and protonic acids. Indian Journal of Chemistry (Indian Science)45B: 276-287. [ISSN: 0975-0983]
  1. Shagufta, Maloy Kumar Parai and Gautam Panda. 2005. A new strategy for the synthesis of aryl- and heteroaryl-substituted exocyclic olefins from allyl alcohols using PBr3. Terahedron Letters (Elsevier) 46: 8849-8852. [ISSN: 0040-4039]
  1. Shagufta, Resmi Raghunandan, Prakash R. Maulik and Gautam Panda. 2005. Convenient phosphorus tribromide induced syntheses of substituted 1-arylmethylnaphthalenes from 1-tetralone derivatives. Tetrahedron Letters (Elsevier) 46: 5337-5341. [ISSN: 0040-4039]
  1. Gautam Panda, Shagufta, Anil K. Srivastava and Sudhir Sinha. 2005. Synthesis and antitubercular activity of 2-hydroxy-aminoalkyl derivatives of diaryloxy methano phenanthrenes. Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters (Elsevier) 15: 5222-5225. [ISSN: 0960-894X]
  1. Sajal Kumar Das, Shagufta, and Gautam Panda. 2005. An easy access to unsymmetric trisubstituted methane derivatives (TRSMs). Tetrahedron Letters (Elsevier) 46: 3097-3102. [ISSN: 0040-4039]
  1. Shagufta, Jitendra Kumar Mishra, Vinita Chaturvedi, Anil K. Srivastava, Ranjana Srivastava and Brahm S. Srivastava. 2004. Diaryloxy methano phenanthrenes: a new class of antituberculosis agents. Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry (Elsevier) 12: 5269-5276. [ISSN: 0968-0896]

Dr. Irshad Ahmad

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR – CHEMISTRY

Office No.: C21
Phone: Tel. Ext. 1270
Biography

Dr. Irshad Ahmad joined the American University of Ras Al Khaimah in spring 2011 as an Assistant Professor of Chemistry. He received the master’s degree in chemistry from Jiwaji University in 1999. Subsequently acquired significant pharmaceutical industrial experience and developed cardio-selective beta-blocker drug molecule. He joined Central Salt and Marine Chemical Research Institute and Bhavnagar University under the sponsored project of DST and CSIR as a senior research fellow and received his PhD degree in chemistry in 2006. Subsequently, he accepted an invited scientist position in Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, South Korea and contributed his expertise in the field of Nanotechnology. Dr. Irshad is a recipient of prestigious European fellowships (NWO-Rubicon & FCT) and he joined Van’t Hoff Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands as a NWO Rubicon fellow (Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research, the Dutch Science Foundation), he acquired expertise in the field of supramolecular chemistry.

Afterward, he moved to the Leibniz Institute for Surface Modification, Leipzig, Germany under the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft Grant. Dr. Irshad developed “Novel ultra-fast metathesis catalyst” for the production of high quality alternating copolymers. Subsequently Dr. Irshad, joined Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Stephenson Life Science Research Center, University of Oklahoma, USA as a postdoctoral research associate.  He developed strategies for the novel environmentally friendly reactions for the production of value added chemicals from biomass.

Dr. Irshad specialized in the area of chemistry, bridging the traditional disciplines of inorganic, organic and bio-organic chemistry. He contributed US and European patent for green and clean technology development. He has published peer-reviewed international research articles in the American Chemical Society (ACS), Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) Cambridge, Elsevier Science, Wiley, and Springer journals. He has presented his research at several scientific conferences worldwide and received awards.

Research and Publication

Research Interest:

Asymmetric catalysis, Biotechnology, Metathesis, Material science, Nanotechnology, Pharmaceutical, Renewable energy and Supramolecular chemistry

Book:

Asymmetric Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalysts: An Approach to the Synthesis of Chiral Drug Intermediates by Scholars Press, Germany. 2013, ISBN: 978-3-639-51138-3

Membership:   

  • American Chemical Society (ACS), USA
  • The Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK

Patents:

  • United States Patent 7,235,676, H. Khan, S. H. R. Abdi, R. I. Kureshy, S. Singh, I. Ahmad, R. V. Jasra, P. K. Ghosh, ‘Catalytic process for the preparation of epoxides from alkenes.
  • Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) WO/2005/095370, N. H. Khan, S. H. R. Abdi, R. I. Kureshy, S. Singh, I. Ahmad, R. V. Jasra, P. K. Ghosh. An improved catalytic process for the preparation of epoxides from alkenes.
  • European Patent EP 1732910 A1, N. H. Khan, S. H. R. Abdi, R. I. Kureshy, S. SinghA, I. Ahmad, R. V. Jasra, P. K. Ghosh, An improved catalytic process for the preparation of epoxides from alkenes. 

Publications:

  • Pramoda, U. Gupta, I. Ahmad, R. Kumar, C.N.R. Rao, Assemblies of Covalently Cross-linked Nanosheets of MoS2 and of MoS2-RGO: Synthesis and Novel Properties, Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 4, 2016, 8989.
  • Shagufta, I. Ahmad, Recent insight into the biological activities of synthetic xanthone derivatives, European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 116, 2016, 267.
  • Ahmad, Shagufta, Recent Development in Steroidal and Non-steroidal Aromatase Inhibitors for the Chemoprevention of Estrogen dependent Breast Cancer, European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 102, 2015, 375.
  • Ahmad, Shagufta, Sulfones: An important class of organic compounds with diverse biological activities, International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 7, 3, 2015, 19.
  • Kumar, K. Gopalakrishnan, I. Ahmad, and C. N. R. Rao, BN-Graphene Composites Generated by Covalent Cross-Linking with Organic Linkers, Advanced Functional Materials, 25, 37, 2015, 5910.
  • Kumar, D. Raut, I. Ahmad,   U. Ramamurty,   T. K. Maji and   C. N. R. Rao. Functionality preservation with enhanced mechanical integrity in the nanocomposites of the metal–organic framework, ZIF-8, with BN nanosheets, Materials Horizons, 1, 2014, 513.
  • R. Buchmeiser, I. Ahmad, V. Gurram and P. S. Kumar, Pseudo-Halide and Nitrate Derivatives of Grubbs and Grubbs_Hoveyda Initiators: Some Structural Features Related to the Alternating Ring-Opening Metathesis Copolymerization of Norborn-2-ene with Cyclic Olefins, Macromolecule, 44 (11), 2011, 4098.
  • Ahmad, G. Chapman and K. M. Nicholas, Sulfite-Driven, Oxorhenium-Catalyzed Deoxydehydration of Glycols, Organometallics, 30 (10), 2011, 2810.
  • Vkuturi, G. Chapman, I. Ahmad, K. M. Nicholas, Rhenium-Catalyzed Deoxydehydration of Glycols by Sulfite, Inorganic Chemistry, 49, 2010, 4744.
  • I. Kureshy, I. Ahmad, K. Pathak, N. H. Khan, S. H. R. Abdi, H. C. Bajaj, Solvent- free microwave synthesis of aryloxypropanolamines by ring opening of aryloxy epoxides, Research Letters in Organic Chemistry, 2009, Article ID 109717, doi:10.1155/2009/109717.
  • I. Kureshy, I. Ahmad, K. Pathak, N. H. Khan, S. H. R. Abdi, R. V. Jasra, Sulfonic acid functionalized mesoporous SBA-15 as an efficient and recyclable catalyst for the synthesis of chromenes from chromanols, Catalysis Communications 10, 2009, 572.
  • Pathak, I. Ahmad, S. H. R. Abdi, R. I. Kureshy, N. H. Khan, R. V. Jasra, The synthesis of silica-supported chiral BINOL: Application in Ti-catalyzed asymmetric addition of diethylzinc to aldehydes, Journal of Molecular Catalysis A-Chemical 280, 2008, 106.
  • Kluwer, I. Ahmad, J. N. H. Reek, Improved synthesis of monodentate and bidentate 2- and 3-pyridylphosphines, Tetrahedron Letter 48, 2007, 2999.
  • Pathak, I. Ahmad, S. H. R. Abdi, R. I. Kureshy, N. H. Khan, R. V. Jasra, Oxidative Kinetic Resolution of racemic Secondary Alcohols catalyzed by recyclable Dimeric Mn(III) salen catalysts, Journal of Molecular Catalysis A-Chemical 274, 2007, 120.
  • I. Kureshy, I. Ahmad, N. H. Khan, S. H. R. Abdi, K. Pathak, R. V. Jasra, Easily Recyclable Chiral Polymeric Mn (salen) Complex for Oxidative Kinetic resolution of Racemic Secondary Alcohols, Chirality, 19, 2007, 352.
  • Pathak, A. P. Bhatt, S. H. R. Abdi, R. I. Kureshy, N. H. Khan, I. Ahmad, R. V. Jasra, Enantioselective phenylacetylene addition to aromatic aldehydes and ketones catalyzed by recyclable polymeric Zn(II) salen complex, Chirality, 19, 2007, 1.
  • I. Kureshy, I. Ahmad, N. H. Khan, S. H. R. Abdi, K. Pathak, R. V. Jasra, Chiral Mn (III) salen complexes covalently bonded on modified MCM-41 and SBA-15 as efficient catalysts for enantioselective epoxidation of non- functionalized alkenes, Journal of Catalysis A-Chemical, 238, 2006, 134.
  • Pathak, A. P. Bhatt, S. H. R. Abdi, R. I. Kureshy, N. H. Khan, I. Ahmad, R. V. Jasra Enantioselective addition of diethylzinc to aldehydes using immobilized chiral BINOL-Ti complex on ordered mesoporous silicas, Tetrahedron: Asymmetry,17, 2006, 1506.
  • I. Kureshy, I. Ahmad, N. H. Khan, S. H. R. Abdi, K. Pathak, R. V. Jasra, Encapsulation of chiral MnIII (salen) complex in ordered mesoporous silicas: An approach Towards heterogenizing asymmetric Epoxidation catalysts for non-Functionalized alkenes, Tetrahedron: Asymmetry 16, 2005, 3562.
  • I. Kureshy, I. Ahmad, N. H. Khan, S. H. R. Abdi, S. Singh, P. H. Pandia, R. V. Jasra, New immobilized chiral Mn(III) salen complexes on pyridine N-Oxide Modified MCM-41as effective catalysts for epoxidation of nonfunctionalized Alkenes, Journal of Catalysis A- Chemical 235 , 2005, 28.
  • Pathak, A. P. Bhatt, S. H. R. Abdi, R. I. Kureshy, N. H. Khan, I. Ahmad, R. V. Jasra Enantioselective addition of diethylzinc to aldehydes using immobilized chiral BINOL-Ti complex on ordered mesoporous silicas, Tetrahedron: Asymmetry,17, 2006, 1506.
  • I. Kureshy, S. Singh, N. H. Khan, S. H. R. Abdi, I. Ahmad, A. Bhatt, R. V. Jasra, Improved catalytic activity of homochiral dimeric cobalt salen hydrolytic kinetic resolution of terminal racemic epoxides, Chirality, 17, 2005, 1.
  • I. Kureshy, S. Singh, N. H. Khan, S. H. R. Abdi , I. Ahmad, .Bhatt, R. V. Jasra, Environment friendly protocol for enantioselective epoxidation of non-functionalized Alkenes catalyzed by recyclable homochiral dimeric Mn(III)salen complexes with hydrogen peroxide and UHP adduct as Oxidants, Catalysis Letters, 107, 2005, 127.
  • I. Kureshy, N. H. Khan, S. H. R. Abdi, I. Ahmad, S. Singh, and R. V. Jasra, Dicationic chiral Mn (III) Salen complex exchange in the interlayers of Montmorillonite clay: a heterogeneous enantioselective catalyst for epoxidation of non-functionalised alkenes, Journal of Catalysis, 221, 2004, 234.
  • I. Kureshy, N. H. Khan, S. H. R. Abdi, S. Singh, I. Ahmad, R. V. Jasra, Catalytic asymmetric epoxidation of non-functionalised alkenes using polymeric Mn(III)Salen as catalysts and NaOCl as oxidant, Journal of Molecular Catalysis A-Chemical, 218, 2004, 141.
  • I. Kureshy, N.H. Khan, S.H. R. Abdi, A. P. Vyas, I. Ahmad, S. Singh, R. V. Jasra, Enantioselective Epoxidation of Non-Functionalised Alkenes catalysed by recyclable new Homo Chiral Dimeric Mn(III) Salen complexes, Journal of Catalysis, 224, 2004, 229.
  • I. Kureshy, N. H. Khan, S. H. R. Abdi, I. Ahmad, S. Singh, and R. V. Jasra, Immobilization of dicationic Mn(III) salen in the interlayers of montmorrillonite Clay for enantioselective epoxidation of non-functionalised alkenes, Catalysis Letters, 91, 2003, 207.

Selected International Events:

  • Applied Nanotechnology and Nanoscience International Conference (ANNIC), November 9-11, 2016, Barcelona, SPAIN.
  • 2nd International Conference on Smart Material Research (ICSMR), September 22-24, 2016, Istanbul, TURKEY.
  • Emirates Foundation’s Think Science Competition, April 17-19, 2016, World Trade Center, Dubai, UAE.
  • SSL Visiting Fellow 2013-15 at the International Centre for Materials Science, JNCASR, SSL, Bangalore, INDIA.
  • Global Conference on Materials Sciences (GC-MAS-2014), November 13-15, 2014, Antalya, TURKEY.
  • 5th Annual International Workshop on Advanced Material (IWAM 2013), organized by Ras Al Khaimah Center for Advance Materials (RAK CAM), Feb. 24-26, 2013 at Al Hamra Fort Hotel, Ras Al Khaimah, UAE.
  • Internal Quality Assurance in Higher Education Institutions workshop organized by the Commission for Academic Accreditation (CAA)- 2nd May 2011, Alghurair University campus, Dubai, UAE.
  • 45th American Chemical Society (ACS) Midwest Regional meeting, Oct. 27-30, 2010, Wichita, Kansas, USA.
  • 55th Annual American Chemical Society (ACS) PentaSectional Meeting- Biofuel, April 10, 2010, organized by American Chemical Society (ACS), Norman, Oklahoma, USA.
  • 18th International Symposium on Olefin Metathesis and Related Chemistry (ISOM XVIII), Organized by the Leibniz-Institute for Surface modification (IOM), August 2-7, 2009, Leipzig, GERMANY.
  • 16th International Symposium on Homogeneous Catalysis (ISHC-XVI), July 6-11, 2008, Organized by the Institute of Chemistry of Organometallic Compounds (ICCOM) of the Italian Research Council (CNR) held in Florence, ITALY.
  • European IDECAT Summer School on Computational Methods for Catalysis and Materials Science, 15-22 September 2007, Porquerolles, FRANCE.
  • 8th Netherland’s Catalysis and Chemistry Conference (NCCC), March 5-7, 2007, Noordwijkerhout, The NETHERLANDS.
  • 7th International Symposium on Catalysis Applied to Fine Chemicals organized by German Catalysis Society and Dechema. Oct 23-27, 2005, Bingen -Mainz, GERMANY.
  • 1st Indo- German Conference on Catalysis-A Cross Disciplinary Vision, February 6-8, 2003, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (IICT), Hyderabad, INDIA.

FDA approves first treatment for a form of Batten disease, Brineura (cerliponase alfa)


Image result
04/27/2017
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Brineura (cerliponase alfa) as a treatment for a specific form of Batten disease. Brineura is the first FDA-approved treatment to slow loss of walking ability (ambulation) in symptomatic pediatric patients 3 years of age and older with late infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis type 2 (CLN2), also known as tripeptidyl peptidase-1 (TPP1) deficiency.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Brineura (cerliponase alfa) as a treatment for a specific form of Batten disease. Brineura is the first FDA-approved treatment to slow loss of walking ability (ambulation) in symptomatic pediatric patients 3 years of age and older with late infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis type 2 (CLN2), also known as tripeptidyl peptidase-1 (TPP1) deficiency.

“The FDA is committed to approving new and innovative therapies for patients with rare diseases, particularly where there are no approved treatment options,” said Julie Beitz, M.D., director of the Office of Drug Evaluation III in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “Approving the first drug for the treatment of this form of Batten disease is an important advance for patients suffering with this condition.”

CLN2 disease is one of a group of disorders known as neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs), collectively referred to as Batten disease. CLN2 disease is a rare inherited disorder that primarily affects the nervous system. In the late infantile form of the disease, signs and symptoms typically begin between ages 2 and 4. The initial symptoms usually include language delay, recurrent seizures (epilepsy) and difficulty coordinating movements (ataxia). Affected children also develop muscle twitches (myoclonus) and vision loss. CLN2 disease affects essential motor skills, such as sitting and walking. Individuals with this condition often require the use of a wheelchair by late childhood and typically do not survive past their teens. Batten disease is relatively rare, occurring in an estimated two to four of every 100,000 live births in the United States.

Brineura is an enzyme replacement therapy. Its active ingredient (cerliponase alfa) is a recombinant form of human TPP1, the enzyme deficient in patients with CLN2 disease. Brineura is administered into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by infusion via a specific surgically implanted reservoir and catheter in the head (intraventricular access device). Brineura must be administered under sterile conditions to reduce the risk of infections, and treatment should be managed by a health care professional knowledgeable in intraventricular administration. The recommended dose of Brineura in pediatric patients 3 years of age and older is 300 mg administered once every other week by intraventricular infusion, followed by an infusion of electrolytes. The complete Brineura infusion, including the required infusion of intraventricular electrolytes, lasts approximately 4.5 hours. Pre-treatment of patients with antihistamines with or without antipyretics (drugs for prevention or treatment of fever) or corticosteroids is recommended 30 to 60 minutes prior to the start of the infusion.

The efficacy of Brineura was established in a non-randomized, single-arm dose escalation clinical study in 22 symptomatic pediatric patients with CLN2 disease and compared to 42 untreated patients with CLN2 disease from a natural history cohort (an independent historical control group) who were at least 3 years old and had motor or language symptoms. Taking into account age, baseline walking ability and genotype, Brineura-treated patients demonstrated fewer declines in walking ability compared to untreated patients in the natural history cohort.

The safety of Brineura was evaluated in 24 patients with CLN2 disease aged 3 to 8 years who received at least one dose of Brineura in clinical studies. The safety and effectiveness of Brineura have not been established in patients less than 3 years of age.

The most common adverse reactions in patients treated with Brineura include fever, ECG abnormalities including slow heart rate (bradycardia), hypersensitivity, decrease or increase in CSF protein, vomiting, seizures, hematoma (abnormal collection of blood outside of a blood vessel), headache, irritability, increased CSF white blood cell count (pleocytosis), device-related infection, feeling jittery and low blood pressure.

Brineura should not be administered to patients if there are signs of acute intraventricular access device-related complications (e.g., leakage, device failure or signs of device-related infection such as swelling, erythema of the scalp, extravasation of fluid, or bulging of the scalp around or above the intraventricular access device). In case of intraventricular access device complications, health care providers should discontinue infusion of Brineura and refer to the device manufacturer’s labeling for further instructions. Additionally, health care providers should routinely test patient CSF samples to detect device infections. Brineura should also not be used in patients with ventriculoperitoneal shunts (medical devices that relieve pressure on the brain caused by fluid accumulation).

Health care providers should also monitor vital signs (blood pressure, heart rate, etc.) before the infusion starts, periodically during infusion and post-infusion in a health care setting. Health care providers should perform electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring during infusion in patients with a history of slow heart rate (bradycardia), conduction disorder (impaired progression of electrical impulses through the heart) or structural heart disease (defect or abnormality of the heart), as some patients with CLN2 disease can develop conduction disorders or heart disease. Hypersensitivity reactions have also been reported in Brineura-treated patients. Due to the potential for anaphylaxis, appropriate medical support should be readily available when Brineura is administered. If anaphylaxis occurs, infusion should be immediately discontinued and appropriate treatment should be initiated.

The FDA will require the Brineura manufacturer to further evaluate the safety of Brineura in CLN2 patients below the age of 2 years, including device related adverse events and complications with routine use. In addition, a long-term safety study will assess Brineura treated CLN2 patients for a minimum of 10 years.

The FDA granted this application Priority Review and Breakthrough Therapydesignations. Brineura also received Orphan Drug designation, which provides incentives to assist and encourage the development of drugs for rare diseases.

The sponsor is also receiving a Rare Pediatric Disease Priority Review Voucherunder a program intended to encourage development of new drugs and biologics for the prevention and treatment of rare pediatric diseases. A voucher can be redeemed by a sponsor at a later date to receive Priority Review of a subsequent marketing application for a different product. This is the tenth rare pediatric disease priority review voucher issued by the FDA since the program began.

The FDA granted approval of Brineura to BioMarin Pharmaceutical Inc.

////////Brineura, cerliponase alfa, fda 2017, Batten disease, BioMarin Pharmaceutical Inc, Priority Review,  Breakthrough Therapy designations, Orphan Drug designation,

BLU 285


BLU-285

CAS 1703793-34-3

  • Molecular FormulaC26H27FN10
  • Average mass498.558 Da
(1S)-1-(4-Fluorophenyl)-1-(2-{4-[6-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)pyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazin-4-yl]-1-piperazinyl}-5-pyrimidinyl)ethanamine
5-Pyrimidinemethanamine, α-(4-fluorophenyl)-α-methyl-2-[4-[6-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)pyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazin-4-yl]-1-piperazinyl]-, (αS)-
  • 5-Pyrimidinemethanamine, α-(4-fluorophenyl)-α-methyl-2-[4-[6-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)pyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazin-4-yl]-1-piperazinyl]-, (αS)-
  • Originator Blueprint Medicines
  • Class Antineoplastics; Skin disorder therapies; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action Platelet-derived growth factor alpha receptor modulators; Proto oncogene protein c-kit inhibitors
  • Orphan Drug Status Yes – Systemic mastocytosis; Gastrointestinal stromal tumours
  • Phase I Gastrointestinal stromal tumours; Solid tumours; Systemic mastocytosis
  • 04 Dec 2016 Proof-of-concept data from phase I trial in Systemic mastocytosis presented at the 58thAnnual Meeting and Exposition of the American Society of Hematology (ASH Hem-2016)
  • 03 Dec 2016 Pharmacodynamics data from preclinical studies in Systemic mastocytosis presented at the 58th Annual Meeting and Exposition of the American Society of Hematology (ASH-Hem-2016)
  • 03 Dec 2016 Preliminary pharmacokinetic data from a phase I trial in Systemic mastocytosis presented at the 58th Annual Meeting and Exposition of the American Society of Hematology (ASH Hem-2016)

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BLU 285

(S)- 1 – (4- fluorophenyl)- l-(2-(4-(6-(l-methyl-lH-pyrazol-4-yl)pyrrolo[2, l-/] [l,2,4]triazin-4-yl)piperazin-l-yl)pyrimidin-5-yl)ethanamine (Compounds 44) WO2015057873

Inventors Yulian Zhang, Brian L. Hodous, Joseph L. Kim, Kevin J. Wilson, Douglas Wilson
Applicant Blueprint Medicines Corporation

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Yulian Zhang,

Yulian Zhang,

Blueprint Medicines Corporation

ΚΓΓ and PDGFR.

The enzyme KIT (also called CD117) is a receptor tyrosine kinase expressed on a wide variety of cell types. The KIT molecule contains a long extracellular domain, a transmembrane segment, and an intracellular portion. The ligand for KIT is stem cell factor (SCF), whose binding to the extracellular domain of KIT induces receptor dimerization and activation of downstream signaling pathways. KIT mutations generally occur in the DNA encoding the juxtumembrane domain (exon 11). They also occur, with less frequency, in exons 7, 8, 9, 13, 14, 17, and 18. Mutations make KIT function independent of activation by SCF, leading to a high cell division rate and possibly genomic instability. Mutant KIT has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several disorders and conditions including systemic mastocytosis, GIST (gastrointestinal stromal tumors), AML (acute myeloid leukemia), melanoma, and seminoma. As such, there is a need for therapeutic agents that inhibit ΚΓΓ, and especially agents that inhibit mutant ΚΓΓ.Platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGF-R) are cell surface tyrosine kinase receptors for members of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) family. PDGF subunits -A and -B are important factors regulating cell proliferation, cellular differentiation, cell growth, development and many diseases including cancer. A PDGFRA D842V mutation has been found in a distinct subset of GIST, typically from the stomach. The D842V mutation is known to be associated with tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance. As such, there is a need for agents that target this mutation.

CONTD………..

PATENT

WO 2015057873

Example 7: Synthesis of (R)-l-(4-fluorophenyl)- l-(2-(4-(6-(l-methyl-lH-pyrazol-4-yl)pyrrolo[2, 1 -f\ [ 1 ,2,4] triazin-4-yl)piperazin- 1 -yl)pyrimidin-5-yl)ethanamine and (S)- 1 – (4- fluorophenyl)- l-(2-(4-(6-(l-methyl-lH-pyrazol-4-yl)pyrrolo[2, l-/] [l,2,4]triazin-4-yl)piperazin-l-yl)pyrimidin-5-yl)ethanamine (Compounds 43 and 44)

Step 1 : Synthesis of (4-fluorophenyl)(2-(4-(6-(l-methyl- lH-pyrazol-4-yl)pyrrolo[2,l-f] [ 1 ,2,4] triazin-4-yl)piperazin- 1 -yl)pyrimidin-5-yl)methanone:

4-Chloro-6-(l-methyl- lH-pyrazol-4-yl)pyrrolo[2,l-/] [l,2,4]triazine (180 mg, 0.770 mmol), (4-fluorophenyl)(2-(piperazin-l-yl)pyrimidin-5-yl)methanone, HC1 (265 mg, 0.821 mmol) and DIPEA (0.40 mL, 2.290 mmol) were stirred in 1,4-dioxane (4 mL) at room temperature for 18 hours. Saturated ammonium chloride was added and the products extracted into DCM (x2). The combined organic extracts were dried over Na2S04, filtered through Celite eluting with DCM, and the filtrate concentrated in vacuo. Purification of the residue by MPLC (25- 100% EtOAc-DCM) gave (4-fluorophenyl)(2-(4-(6-(l-methyl-lH-pyrazol-4-yl)pyrrolo[2,l- ] [l,2,4]triazin-4-yl)piperazin- l-yl)pyrimidin-5-yl)methanone (160 mg, 0.331 mmol, 43 % yield) as an off-white solid. MS (ES+) C25H22FN90 requires: 483, found: 484 [M + H]+.

Step 2: Synthesis of (5,Z)-N-((4-fluorophenyl)(2-(4-(6-(l-methyl- lH-p razol-4-yl)p rrolo[2, l- ] [l,2,4]triazin-4- l)piperazin- l-yl)pyrimidin-5-yl)methylene)-2-methylpropane-2-sulfinamide:

(S)-2-Methylpropane-2-sulfinamide (110 mg, 0.908 mmol), (4-fluorophenyl)(2-(4-(6-(l-methyl- lH-pyrazol-4-yl)pyrrolo[2,l-/][l,2,4]triazin-4-yl)piperazin- l-yl)pyrimidin-5-yl)methanone (158 mg, 0.327 mmol) and ethyl orthotitanate (0.15 mL, 0.715 mmol) were stirred in THF (3.2 mL) at 70 °C for 18 hours. Room temperature was attained, water was added, and the products extracted into EtOAc (x2). The combined organic extracts were washed with brine, dried over Na2S04, filtered, and concentrated in vacuo while loading onto Celite. Purification of the residue by MPLC (0- 10% MeOH-EtOAc) gave (5,Z)-N-((4-fluorophenyl)(2-(4-(6-(l-methyl- lH-pyrazol-4-yl)pyrrolo[2, l-/] [l,2,4]triazin-4-yl)piperazin-l-yl)pyrimidin-5-yl)methylene)-2- methylpropane-2-sulfinamide (192 mg, 0.327 mmol, 100 % yield) as an orange solid. MS (ES+) C29H3iFN10OS requires: 586, found: 587 [M + H]+.

Step 3: Synthesis of (lS’)-N-(l-(4-fluorophenyl)- l-(2-(4-(6-(l-methyl- lH-pyrazol-4- l)pyrrolo[2, l-/] [l,2,4]triazin-4-yl)piperazin-l-yl)pyrimidin-5-yl)ethyl)-2-methylpropane-2-

(lS’,Z)-N-((4-Fluorophenyl)(2-(4-(6-(l-methyl-lH-pyrazol-4-yl)pyrrolo[2,l- ] [l,2,4]triazin-4-yl)piperazin- l-yl)pyrimidin-5-yl)methylene)-2-methylpropane-2-sulfinamide (190 mg, 0.324 mmol) was taken up in THF (3 mL) and cooled to 0 °C. Methylmagnesium bromide (3 M solution in diethyl ether, 0.50 mL, 1.500 mmol) was added and the resulting mixture stirred at 0 °C for 45 minutes. Additional methylmagnesium bromide (3 M solution in diethyl ether, 0.10 mL, 0.300 mmol) was added and stirring at 0 °C continued for 20 minutes. Saturated ammonium chloride was added and the products extracted into EtOAc (x2). The combined organic extracts were washed with brine, dried over Na2S04, filtered, and concentrated in vacuo while loading onto Celite. Purification of the residue by MPLC (0-10% MeOH-EtOAc) gave (lS’)-N-(l-(4-fluorophenyl)-l-(2-(4-(6-(l-methyl- lH-pyrazol-4-yl)pyrrolo[2, l- ] [l,2,4]triazin-4-yl)piperazin- l-yl)pyrimidin-5-yl)ethyl)-2-methylpropane-2-sulfinamide (120 mg, 0.199 mmol, 61.5 % yield) as a yellow solid (mixture of diastereoisomers). MS (ES+) C3oH35FN10OS requires: 602, found: 603 [M + H]+.

Step 4: Synthesis of l-(4-fluorophenyl)- l-(2-(4-(6-(l-methyl- lH-pyrazol-4-yl)pyrrolo[2,l-f\ [ 1 ,2,4] triazin-4- l)piperazin- 1 -yl)pyrimidin-5-yl)ethanamine:

(S)-N- ( 1 – (4-Fluorophenyl)- 1 -(2- (4- (6-( 1 -methyl- 1 H-pyrazol-4-yl)pyrrolo [2,1-/] [l,2,4]triazin-4-yl)piperazin- l-yl)pyrimidin-5-yl)ethyl)-2-methylpropane-2-sulfinamide (120 mg, 0.199 mmol) was stirred in 4 M HCl in 1,4-dioxane (1.5 mL)/MeOH (1.5 mL) at room temperature for 1 hour. The solvent was removed in vacuo and the residue triturated in EtOAc to give l-(4-fluorophenyl)- l-(2-(4-(6-(l -methyl- lH-pyrazol-4-yl)pyrrolo[2, l-/][l,2,4]triazin-4-yl)piperazin- l-yl)pyrimidin-5-yl)ethanamine, HCl (110 mg, 0.206 mmol, 103 % yield) as a pale yellow solid. MS (ES+) C26H27FN10 requires: 498, found: 482 [M- 17 + H]+, 499 [M + H]+.

Step 5: Chiral separation of (R)-l-(4-fluorophenyl)- l-(2-(4-(6-(l-methyl- lH-pyrazol-4-yl)pyrrolo[2, l-/] [l,2,4]triazin-4-yl)piperazin-l-yl)pyrimidin-5-yl)ethanamine and (5)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)- l-(2-(4-(6-(l-methyl-lH-pyrazol-4-yl)pyrrolo[2, l-/] [l,2,4]triazin-4-yl)piperazin-1 -yl)pyrimidin- -yl)ethanamine:

The enantiomers of racemic l-(4-fluorophenyl)- l-(2-(4-(6-(l-methyl- lH-pyrazol-4-yl)pyrrolo[2, l-/] [l,2,4]triazin-4-yl)piperazin-l-yl)pyrimidin-5-yl)ethanamine (94 mg, 0.189 mmol) were separated by chiral SFC to give (R)-l-(4-fluorophenyl)- l-(2-(4-(6-(l-methyl-lH-

pyrazol-4-yl)pyrrolo[2, l-/][l,2,4]triazin-4-yl)piperazin- l-yl)pyrimidin-5-yl)ethanamine (34.4 mg, 0.069 mmol, 73.2 % yield) and (lS,)-l-(4-fluorophenyl)- l-(2-(4-(6-(l-methyl-lH-pyrazol-4-yl)pyrrolo[2, l-/] [l,2,4]triazin-4-yl)piperazin-l-yl)pyrimidin-5-yl)ethanamine (32.1 mg, 0.064 mmol, 68.3 % yield). The absolute stereochemistry was assigned randomly. MS (ES+)

C26H27FN10 requires: 498, found: 499 [M + H]+.

str1

/////////BLU-285,  1703793-34-3, PHASE 1,  Brian Hodous, BlueprintMeds,  KIT & PDGFRalpha inhibitors, Orphan Drug Status

Fc1ccc(cc1)[C@](C)(N)c2cnc(nc2)N3CCN(CC3)c4ncnn5cc(cc45)c6cn(C)nc6

Next in 1st time disclosures Brian Hodous of @BlueprintMeds will talk about KIT & PDGFRalpha inhibitors

str0

Tamibarotene, тамибаротен , تاميباروتان , 他米巴罗汀 ,


Tamibarotene2DACS.svg

Tamibarotene

тамибаротен تاميباروتان 他米巴罗汀 ,

94497-51-5  CAS

  • Molecular FormulaC22H25NO3
  • Average mass351.439 Da

4-(((5,6,7,8-Tetrahydro-5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-2-naphthalenyl)amino)carbonyl)benzoic Acid, Tamibarotene

4-[(5,5,8,8-Tetramethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-yl)carbamoyl]benzoic acid
Benzoic acid, 4-[[(5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-2-naphthalenyl)amino]carbonyl]-
Amnolake®
Amnoleuk
Benzoic acid, 4-(((5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-2-naphthalenyl)amino)carbonyl)-
BR-72889
C061133
DH6940000
MFCD00866188 [MDL number]
N-(5,6,7,8-Tetrahydro-5,5,8,8-tetramethyl)-2-naphthyl)terephthalamic acid
QA-6963
retinobenzoic acid
  • Am 80
  • Am 80 (pharmaceutical)
  • Amnolake
  • NSC 608000
  • RR 110

Hisao Ekimoto, “TAMIBAROTENE CAPSULE PREPARATION.” U.S. Patent US20100048708, issued February 25, 2010.

US20100048708

Image result for Nippon Shinyaku

Tamibarotene , a small molecule retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARα) agonists developed by Nippon Shinyaku, was approved in Japan for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) in 2005. Recently, the drug was in clinical development for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), myelodysplasia, pediatric solid tumor, and steroid-refractory

Tamibarotene (brand name: Amnolake), also called retinobenzoic acid, is orally active, synthetic retinoid, developed to overcome all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) resistance, with potential antineoplastic activity against acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) .[1] It is currently marketed only in Japan and early trials have demonstrated that it tends to be better tolerated than ATRA.[2] It has also been investigated as a possible treatment for Alzheimer’s disease, multiple myeloma and Crohn’s disease.[2][3]

Synthesis

The tetralin-based compound tamibarotene (7) has been tested as an agent for treating leukaemias.

Tamibarotene synth.png

Reaction of the diol (1) with hydrogen chloride affords the corresponding dichloro derivative (2). Aluminum chloride mediated Friedel–Crafts alkylation of acetanilide with the dichloride affords the tetralin (3). Basic hydrolysis leads to the primary amine (4). Acylation of the primary amino group with the half acid chloride half ester from terephthalic acid (5) leads to the amide (6). Basic hydrolysis of the ester grouping then affords (7).[4]

PAPER

Synthesis of Tamibarotene via Ullmann-Type Coupling

Key Laboratory of Structure-Based Drug Design & Discovery, Ministry of Education, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016, China
Org. Process Res. Dev., Article ASAP
Abstract Image

An effective process was developed for the preparation of tamibarotene via an Ullmann-type coupling in a nonpressurized l-proline/DMSO system. Notable features were the telescoping of reactions, avoiding environmentally hazardous materials, and an acceptable overall yield. The safe scalable process was validated on a 1 kg scale.

Mp 223–225 °C (lit.   SEE BELOW  mp 231–232 °C); 1H NMR (400 MHz, chloroform-d) δ 8.22 (d, J = 7.7 Hz, 2H), 7.97 (d, J = 7.7 Hz, 2H), 7.80 (s, 1H), 7.54 (s, 1H), 7.46 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 7.33 (d, J = 8.3 Hz, 1H), 1.70 (s, 4H), 1.31 (s, 6H), 1.29 (s, 6H); MS (ESI) m/z: 350.0 [M – H]

Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (1988), 31 (11), 2182-92

PAPER

Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (1988), 31 (11), 2182-92

PAPER

Chem. Pharm. Bull. 61(8) 846–852 (2013)

https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/cpb/61/8/61_c13-00356/_pdf

References

  1. Jump up^ “Tamibarotene: AM 80, retinobenzoic acid, Tamibaro”. Drugs in R&D. 5 (6): 359–62. 2004. doi:10.2165/00126839-200405060-00010. PMID 15563242.
  2. ^ Jump up to:a b Miwako, I; Kagechika, H (August 2007). “Tamibarotene”. Drugs Today (Barc). 43 (8): 563–568. doi:10.1358/dot.2007.43.8.1072615. PMID 17925887.
  3. Jump up^ Fukasawa, H; Nakagomi, M; Yamagata, N; Katsuki, H; Kawahara, K; Kitaoka, K; Miki, T; Shudo, K (2012). “Tamibarotene: a candidate retinoid drug for Alzheimer’s disease” (PDF). Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 35 (8): 1206–1212. doi:10.1248/bpb.b12-00314. PMID 22863914.
  4. Jump up^ Y. Hamada, I. Yamada, M. Uenaka, T. Sakata, U.S. Patent 5,214,202 (1993).
Tamibarotene
Tamibarotene2DACS.svg
Names
IUPAC name

4-[(1,1,4,4-tetramethyltetralin-6-yl)carbamoyl]benzoic acid
Identifiers
3D model (Jmol)
3564473
ChEBI
ChemSpider
DrugBank
UNII
Properties
C22H25NO3
Molar mass 351.45 g·mol−1
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).

////////////Tamibarotene, тамибаротен تاميباروتان 他米巴罗汀 

CC1(C)CCC(C)(C)C2=C1C=CC(NC(=O)C1=CC=C(C=C1)C(O)=O)=C2

PF 2562


str1

PF 2562

CAS 1609258-91-4

MF C19 H17 N5 O

MW 331.37
1H-Pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridine, 4-[4-(4,6-dimethyl-5-pyrimidinyl)-3-methylphenoxy]-

Jennifer Elizabeth Davoren

Principal Scientist at Pfizer

SYNTHESIS

str1

  • Dopamine acts upon neurons through two families of dopamine receptors, D1-like receptors (D1Rs) and D2-like receptors (D2Rs). The D1-like receptor family consists of D1 and D5 receptors which are expressed in many regions of the brain. D1 mRNA has been found, for example, in the striatum and nucleus accumbens. See e.g., Missale C, Nash S R, Robinson S W, Jaber M, Caron M G “Dopamine receptors: from structure to function”, Physiological Reviews 78:189-225 (1998). Pharmacological studies have reported that D1 and D5 receptors (D1/D5), namely D1-like receptors, are linked to stimulation of adenylyl cyclase, whereas D2, D3, and D4 receptors, namely D2-like receptors, are linked to inhibition of cAMP production.
  • Dopamine D1 receptors are implicated in numerous neuropharmacological and neurobiological functions. For example, D1 receptors are involved in different types of memory function and synaptic plasticity. See e.g., Goldman-Rakic P S et al., “Targeting the dopamine D1 receptor in schizophrenia: insights for cognitive dysfunction”, Psychopharmacology 174(1):3-16 (2004). Moreover, D1 receptors have been implicated in a variety of psychiatric, neurological, neurodevelopmental, neurodegenerative, mood, motivational, metabolic, cardiovascular, renal, ophthalmic, endocrine, and/or other disorders described herein including schizophrenia (e.g., cognitive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia), cognitive impairment associated with D2 antagonist therapy, ADHD, impulsivity, autism spectrum disorder, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), age-related cognitive decline, Alzheimer’s dementia, Parkinson’s disease (PD), Huntington’s chorea, depression, anxiety, treatment-resistant depression (TRD), bipolar disorder, chronic apathy, anhedonia, chronic fatigue, post-traumatic stress disorder, seasonal affective disorder, social anxiety disorder, post-partum depression, serotonin syndrome, substance abuse and drug dependence, Tourette’s syndrome, tardive dyskinesia, drowsiness, sexual dysfunction, migraine, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), hyperglycemia, dislipidemia, obesity, diabetes, sepsis, post-ischemic tubular necrosis, renal failure, resistant edema, narcolepsy, hypertension, congestive heart failure, postoperative ocular hypotonia, sleep disorders, pain, and other disorders in a mammal. See e.g., Goulet M, Madras B K “D(1) dopamine receptor agonists are more effective in alleviating advanced than mild parkinsonism in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-treated monkeys”, Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapy 292(2):714-24 (2000); Surmeier D J et al., “The role of dopamine in modulating the structure and function of striatal circuits”, Prog. Brain Res. 183:149-67 (2010).
    New or improved agents that modulate (such as agonize or partially agonize) D1 are needed for developing new and more effective pharmaceuticals to treat diseases or conditions associated with dysregulated activation of D1, such as those described herein.

PATENT

US 20140128374

Example 6

4-[4-(4,6-Dimethylpyrimidin-5-yl)-3-methylphenoxy]-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridine (6)

Figure US20140128374A1-20140508-C00042

Step 1. Synthesis of 4-[4-(4,6-dimethylpyrimidin-5-yl)-3-methylphenoxy]-1-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridine (C31)

Cesium carbonate (1.03 g, 3.16 mmol) and palladium(II) acetate (24 mg, 0.11 mmol) were added to a solution of C28 (225 mg, 1.05 mmol) and P3 (250 mg, 1.05 mmol) in 1,4-dioxane (10 mL) in a sealable reaction vessel, and the solution was purged with nitrogen for 10 minutes. Di-tert-butyl[3,4,5,6-tetramethyl-2′,4′,6-tri(propan-2-yl)biphenyl-2-yl]phosphane (97%, 104 mg, 0.210 mmol) was added, and the reaction mixture was briefly purged with nitrogen. The vessel was sealed and the reaction mixture was stirred at 100° C. for 3 hours. After cooling to room temperature, the mixture was filtered through Celite and the filter pad was washed with ethyl acetate; the combined filtrates were concentrated in vacuo and purified via silica gel chromatography (Eluents: 20%, then 50%, then 100% ethyl acetate in heptane). The product was obtained as an off-white solid. Yield: 272 mg, 0.655 mmol, 62%. LCMS m/z 416.5 [M+H+]. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 8.99 (s, 1H), 8.11 (d, J=0.6 Hz, 1H), 7.99 (d, J=6.0 Hz, 1H), 7.25-7.27 (m, 2H, assumed; partially obscured by solvent peak), 7.20-7.24 (m, 1H), 7.10 (d, J=8.4 Hz, 1H), 5.73 (dd, J=9.4, 2.5 Hz, 1H), 4.04-4.10 (m, 1H), 3.74-3.82 (m, 1H), 2.49-2.59 (m, 1H), 2.28 (s, 6H), 2.08-2.21 (m, 2H), 2.04 (s, 3H), 1.66-1.84 (s, 3H).

Step 2. Synthesis of 4-[4-(4,6-dimethylpyrimidin-5-yl)-3-methylphenoxy]-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridine (6)

C31 (172 mg, 0.414 mmol) was dissolved in 1,4-dioxane (5 mL) and dichloromethane (5 mL), and cooled to 0° C. A solution of hydrogen chloride in 1,4-dioxane (4 M, 1.04 mL, 4.16 mmol) was added, and the reaction mixture was allowed to stir at room temperature for 45 hours. After removal of solvent in vacuo, the residue was partitioned between saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution and dichloromethane. The aqueous layer was extracted twice with dichloromethane, and the combined organic layers were dried over sodium sulfate, filtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure, affording the product as an off-white solid. Yield: 130 mg, 0.392 mmol, 95%. LCMS m/z 332.3 [M+H+]. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 9.00 (s, 1H), 8.20 (br s, 1H), 7.99 (d, J=6.0 Hz, 1H), 7.28-7.30 (m, 1H), 7.23-7.27 (m, 1H), 7.16 (dd, J=6.0, 1.0 Hz, 1H), 7.11 (d, J=8.2 Hz, 1H), 2.28 (s, 6H), 2.05 (s, 3H).

Preparation P8

6-(4-Hydroxy-2-methylphenyl)-1,5-dimethylpyrazin-2(1H)-one (P8)

Figure US20140128374A1-20140508-C00033

Step 1. Synthesis of 1-(4-methoxy-2-methylphenyl)propan-2-one (C8)

Four batches of this experiment were carried out (4×250 g substrate). Tributyl(methoxy)stannane (400 g, 1.24 mol), 1-bromo-4-methoxy-2-methylbenzene (250 g, 1.24 mol), prop-1-en-2-yl acetate (187 g, 1.87 mol), palladium(II) acetate (7.5 g, 33 mmol) and tris(2-methylphenyl)phosphane (10 g, 33 mmol) were stirred together in toluene (2 L) at 100° C. for 18 hours. After cooling to room temperature, the reaction mixture was treated with aqueous potassium fluoride solution (4 M, 400 mL) and stirred for 2 hours at 40° C. The resulting mixture was diluted with toluene (500 mL) and filtered through Celite; the filter pad was thoroughly washed with ethyl acetate (2×1.5 L). The organic phase from the combined filtrates was dried over sodium sulfate, filtered, and concentrated in vacuo. Purification via silica gel chromatography (Gradient: 0% to 5% ethyl acetate in petroleum ether) provided the product as a yellow oil. Combined yield: 602 g, 3.38 mol, 68%. LCMS m/z 179.0 [M+H+]. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.05 (d, J=8.3 Hz, 1H), 6.70-6.77 (m, 2H), 3.79 (s, 3H), 3.65 (s, 2H), 2.22 (s, 3H), 2.14 (s, 3H).

Step 2. Synthesis of 1-(4-methoxy-2-methylphenyl)propane-1,2-dione (C9)

C8 (6.00 g, 33.7 mmol) and selenium dioxide (7.47 g, 67.3 mmol) were suspended in 1,4-dioxane (50 mL) and heated at 100° C. for 18 hours. The reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature and filtered through Celite; the filtrate was concentrated in vacuo. Silica gel chromatography (Eluent: 10% ethyl acetate in heptane) afforded the product as a bright yellow oil. Yield: 2.55 g, 13.3 mmol, 39%. LCMS m/z 193.1 [M+H+]. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.66 (d, J=8.6 Hz, 1H), 6.81 (br d, half of AB quartet, J=2.5 Hz, 1H), 6.78 (br dd, half of ABX pattern, J=8.7, 2.6 Hz, 1H), 3.87 (s, 3H), 2.60 (br s, 3H), 2.51 (s, 3H).

Step 3. Synthesis of 6-(4-methoxy-2-methylphenyl)-5-methylpyrazin-2(1H)-one (C10)

C9 (4.0 g, 21 mmol) and glycinamide acetate (2.79 g, 20.8 mmol) were dissolved in methanol (40 mL) and cooled to −10° C. Aqueous sodium hydroxide solution (12 N, 3.5 mL, 42 mmol) was added, and the resulting mixture was slowly warmed to room temperature. After stirring for 3 days, the reaction mixture was concentrated in vacuo. The residue was diluted with water, and 1 N aqueous hydrochloric acid was added until the pH was approximately 7. The aqueous phase was extracted with ethyl acetate, and the combined organic extracts were washed with saturated aqueous sodium chloride solution, dried over magnesium sulfate, filtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure. The resulting residue was slurried with 3:1 ethyl acetate/heptane, stirred for 5 minutes, filtered, and concentrated in vacuo. Silica gel chromatography (Eluent: ethyl acetate) provided the product as a tan solid that contained 15% of an undesired regioisomer; this material was used without further purification. Yield: 2.0 g. LCMS m/z 231.1 [M+H+]. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 8.09 (s, 1H), 7.14 (d, J=8.2 Hz, 1H), 6.82-6.87 (m, 2H), 3.86 (s, 3H), 2.20 (s, 3H), 2.11 (s, 3H).

Step 4. Synthesis of 6-(4-methoxy-2-methylphenyl)-1,5-dimethylpyrazin-2(1H)-one (C11)

C10 (from the previous step, 1.9 g) was dissolved in N,N-dimethylformamide (40 mL). Lithium bromide (0.86 g, 9.9 mmol) and sodium bis(trimethylsilyl)amide (95%, 1.91 g, 9.89 mmol) were added, and the resulting solution was stirred for 30 minutes. Methyl iodide (0.635 mL, 10.2 mmol) was added and stirring was continued at room temperature for 18 hours. The reaction mixture was then diluted with water and brought to a pH of approximately 7 by slow portion-wise addition of 1 N aqueous hydrochloric acid. The aqueous layer was extracted with ethyl acetate and the combined organic layers were washed several times with water, dried over magnesium sulfate, filtered, and concentrated. Silica gel chromatography (Gradient: 75% to 100% ethyl acetate in heptane) afforded the product as a viscous orange oil. Yield: 1.67 g, 6.84 mmol, 33% over two steps. LCMS m/z 245.1 [M+H+]. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 8.17 (s, 1H), 7.03 (br d, J=8 Hz, 1H), 6.85-6.90 (m, 2H), 3.86 (s, 3H), 3.18 (s, 3H), 2.08 (br s, 3H), 2.00 (s, 3H).

Step 5. Synthesis of P8

To a −78° C. solution of C11 (1.8 g, 7.37 mmol) in dichloromethane (40 mL) was added a solution of boron tribromide in dichloromethane (1 M, 22 mL, 22 mmol). The cooling bath was removed after 30 minutes, and the reaction mixture was allowed to warm to room temperature and stir for 18 hours. The reaction was cooled to −78° C., and methanol (10 mL) was slowly added; the resulting mixture was slowly warmed to room temperature. The reaction mixture was concentrated in vacuo, methanol (20 mL) was added, and the mixture was again concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was diluted with ethyl acetate (300 mL) and water (200 mL) and the aqueous layer was brought to pH 7 via portion-wise addition of saturated aqueous sodium carbonate solution. The mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate (3×200 mL). The combined organic extracts were washed with water and with saturated aqueous sodium chloride solution, dried over magnesium sulfate, filtered, and concentrated in vacuo to afford the product as a light tan solid. Yield: 1.4 g, 6.0 mmol, 81%. LCMS m/z 231.1 [M+H+]. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 8.21 (s, 1H), 6.98 (d, J=8.2 Hz, 1H), 6.87-6.89 (m, 1H), 6.85 (br dd, J=8.2, 2.5 Hz, 1H), 3.22 (s, 3H), 2.06 (br s, 3H), 2.03 (s, 3H).

Step 1. Synthesis of 5-(4-methoxy-2-methylphenyl)-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine (C27)

1,1′-Bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene]dichloropalladium(II)-dichloromethane complex (5 g, 6 mmol) was added to a degassed mixture of 2-(4-methoxy-2-methylphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolane (30 g, 120 mmol), 5-bromo-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine (22.5 g, 120 mmol), and potassium phosphate (76.3 g, 359 mmol) in 1,4-dioxane (300 mL) and water (150 mL). The reaction mixture was heated at reflux for 4 hours, whereupon it was filtered and concentrated in vacuo. Purification via silica gel chromatography (Gradient: ethyl acetate in petroleum ether) provided the product as a brown solid. Yield: 25 g, 110 mmol, 92%. LCMS m/z 229.3 [M+H+]. 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3) δ 8.95 (s, 1H), 6.94 (d, J=8.2 Hz, 1H), 6.87-6.89 (m, 1H), 6.84 (dd, J=8.3, 2.5 Hz, 1H), 3.86 (s, 3H), 2.21 (s, 6H), 1.99 (s, 3H).

Step 2. Synthesis of 4-(4,6-dimethylpyrimidin-5-yl)-3-methylphenol (C28)

Boron tribromide (3.8 mL, 40 mmol) was added drop-wise to a solution of C27 (3.0 g, 13 mmol) in dichloromethane (150 mL) at −70° C. The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 16 hours, then adjusted to pH 8 with saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution. The aqueous layer was extracted with dichloromethane (3×200 mL), and the combined organic layers were dried over sodium sulfate, filtered, and concentrated in vacuo. Silica gel chromatography (Gradient: 60% to 90% ethyl acetate in petroleum ether) afforded the product as a yellow solid. Yield: 1.2 g, 5.6 mmol, 43%. LCMS m/z 215.0 [M+H+]. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 8.98 (s, 1H), 6.89 (d, J=8.0 Hz, 1H), 6.86 (d, J=2.3 Hz, 1H), 6.80 (dd, J=8.3, 2.5 Hz, 1H), 2.24 (s, 6H), 1.96 (s, 3H).

str1

//////////////PF 2562, non-catechol dopamine 1 receptor agonist, PFIZER, Jennifer Elizabeth Davoren, Amy Beth Dounay, Ivan Viktorovich Efremov, David Lawrence Firman Gray, Scot Richard Mente, Steven Victor O’Neil, Bruce Nelsen Rogers, Chakrapani Subramanyam, Lei Zhang, 1609258-91-4

Now at 1st time disclosures David Gray of @pfizer on a non-catechol dopamine 1 receptor agonist

str2

Cc1ncnc(C)c1c2ccc(cc2C)Oc4nccc3nncc34

GSK 3008348


Graphical abstract: Synthesis and determination of absolute configuration of a non-peptidic αvβ6 integrin antagonist for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

str1

Figure imgf000043_0003

GSK 3008348

(3S)-3-[3-(3,5-Dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)phenyl]-4-{(3S)-3-[2-(5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1,8-naphthyridin-2-yl)ethyl]-1-pyrrolidinyl}butanoic acid

cas 1629249-33-7

1-Pyrrolidinebutanoic acid, β-[3-(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)phenyl]-3-[2-(5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1,8-naphthyridin-2-yl)ethyl]-, (βS,3R)-

(S)-3-(3-(3,5-Dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)phenyl)-4-((R)-3-(2-(5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1,8- naphthyridin-2-yl)ethyl)pyrrolidin-1-yl)butanoic acid

  • (βS,3R)-β-[3-(3,5-Dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)phenyl]-3-[2-(5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1,8-naphthyridin-2-yl)ethyl]-1-pyrrolidinebutanoic acid
  • Molecular Formula C29H37N5O2
  • Average mass 487.636 Da

str1

CAS Number: 1629249-40-6
Molecular Weight: 524.1
Molecular Formula: C29H38ClN5O2
  • Originator GlaxoSmithKline
  • Mechanism of Action Integrin alphaV antagonists
  • Phase I Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
  • 06 Mar 2017 GlaxoSmithKline plans a phase I trial for Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (NCT03069989)
  • 01 Jun 2016 GlaxoSmithKline completes a first-in-human phase I trial for Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in United Kingdom (Inhalation) (NCT02612051)
  • 01 Dec 2015 Phase-I clinical trials in Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in United Kingdom (Inhalation) (NCT02612051)

Inventors Niall Andrew ANDERSON, Brendan John FALLON, John Martin Pritchard

Applicant Glaxosmithkline Intellectual Property Development Limited

Image result for Niall Andrew ANDERSON GSK

Niall Anderson

Image result

GSK-3008348, an integrin alpha(v)beta6 antagonist, is being developed at GlaxoSmithKline in early clinical studies for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic disease characterised by a progressive decline in lung function, due to excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (collagen) within the pulmonary interstitium. It affects approximately 500,000 people in the USA and Europe and is poorly treated. IPF inexorably leads to respiratory failure due to obliteration of functional alveolar units. Patients’ mean life-expectancy is less than 3 years following diagnosis.

IPF therefore represents a major unmet medical need for which novel therapeutic approaches are urgently required.1 Pirfenidone (EsbrietTM from Roche), a non-selective kinase inhibitor, is approved for mild and moderate IPF patients in Japan, Europe, Canada and China and for all IPF patients in USA . Furthermore, nintedanib (OfevTM formerly BIBF-1120 from Boehringer-Ingelheim), a multiple tyrosine-kinase inhibitor targeting vascular endothelial factor receptor, fibroblast growth factor and platelet derived growth factor receptor is approved for all patients with IPF in USA and Europe.  Both compounds are administered orally twice or three times per day at high total doses (pirfenidone at 2.4 g/day and nintedanib at 300 mg/day).

Patient compliance is limited by tolerability due to gastro-intenstinal and phototoxicity issues, which require dose titration. (S)-3-(3-(3,5-Dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)phenyl)-4-((R)-3-(2-(5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1,8- naphthyridin-2-yl)ethyl)pyrrolidin-1-yl)butanoic acid hydrochloride  is a first in class compound (descovered by GlaxoSmithKline) undergoing currently Phase I clinical trials for the treatment of IPF.  It is a non-peptidic αvβ6 integrin inhibitor and in cell adhesion assays has high affinity for the human receptor with a pIC50 of 8.4, and lower affinity for other integrins, such as αvβ3 6.0, αvβ5 5.9 and αvβ8 7.7. Inhibition of integrin αvβ6 is thought to prevent pulmonary fibrosis without exacerbating inflammation.

Integrin superfamily proteins are heterodimeric cell surface receptors, composed of an alpha and beta subunit. 18 alpha and 8 beta subunits have been reported, which have been demonstrated to form 24 distinct alpha/beta heterodimers. Each chain comprises a large extracellular domain (>640 amino acids for the beta subunit, >940 amino acids for the alpha subunit), with a transmembrane spanning region of around 20 amino acids per chain, and generally a short cytoplasmic tail of 30-50 amino acids per chain. Different integrins have been shown to participate in a plethora of cellular biologies, including cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix, cell-cell interactions, and effects on cell migration, proliferation, differentiation and survival (Barczyk et al, Cell and Tissue Research, 2010, 339, 269).

Integrin receptors interact with binding proteins via short protein-protein binding interfaces with ligands and the integrin family can be grouped into sub-families that share similar binding recognition motifs in such ligands. A major subfamily is the RGD-integrins, which recognise ligands that contain an RGD (Arginine-glycine-aspartic acid) motif within their protein sequence. There are 8 integrins in this sub-family, namely ανβι, ανβ3, νβ5ι νβ ανβδ, αι¾β3, α5βι, α8βι, where nomenclature demonstrates that ανβι, ανβ3, νβ5ι νβ & ανβδ share a common V subunit with a divergent β subunit, and ανβι, α5βι & α8βι share a common β!subunit with a divergent a subunit. The βι subunit has been shown to pair with 11 different a subunits, of which only the 3 listed above commonly recognise the RGD peptide motif. (Humphries et al, Journal of Cell Science, 2006, 119, 3901).

Within the 8 RGD-binding integrins are different binding affinities and specificities for different RGD-containing ligands. Ligands include proteins such as fibronectin, vitronectin, osteopontin, and the latency associated peptides (LAPs) of Transforming growth factor βι and β3 (ΤΰΡβι and ΤΰΡβ3). The binding to the LAPs of ΤΰΡβι and ΤΰΡβ3 has been shown in several systems to enable activation of the ΤΰΡβι and ΤΰΡβ3 biological activities, and subsequent ΤΰΡβ- driven biologies (Worthington et al, Trends in Biochemical Sciences, 2011, 36, 47). The specific binding of RGD integrins to such ligands depends on a number of factors, depending on the cell phenotype. The diversity of such ligands, coupled with expression patterns of RGD-binding integrins, generates multiple opportunities for disease intervention. Such diseases include fibrotic diseases (Margadant et al, EMBO reports, 2010, 11, 97), inflammatory disorders, cancer (Desgrosellier et al, Nature Reviews Cancer, 2010, 10, 9), restenosis, and other diseases with an angiogenic component (Weis et al, Cold Spring. Harb. Perspect Med.2011, 1, a006478).

A significant number of av integrin antagonists (Goodman et al, Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 2012, 33, 405) have been disclosed in the literature including antagonist antibodies, small peptides and compounds. For antibodies these include the pan-av antagonist Intetumumab, the selective ανβ3 antagonist Etaracizumab, and the selective a 6 antagonist STX-100. Cilengitide is a cyclic peptide antagonist that inhibits both ανβ3 and ανβ5, and SB-267268 is an example of a compound (Wilkinson-Berka et al, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci, 2006, 47, 1600), which inhibits both ανβ3 and ανβ5. Invention of compounds to act as antagonists of differing combinations of av integrins enables novel agents to be generated and tailored for specific disease indications.

Pulmonary fibrosis represents the end stage of several interstitial lung diseases, including the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, and is characterised by the excessive deposition of extracellular matrix within the pulmonary interstitium. Among the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) represents the commonest and most fatal condition with a median survival of 3 to 5 years following diagnosis. Fibrosis in IPF is generally progressive, refractory to current pharmacological intervention and inexorably leads to respiratory failure due to obliteration of functional alveolar units. IPF affects approximately 500,000 people in the USA and Europe. This condition therefore represents a major unmet medical need for which novel therapeutic approaches are urgently required (Datta A et al, Novel therapeutic approaches for pulmonary fibrosis, British Journal of Pharmacology’2011163: 141-172).

There are strong in vitro, experimental animal and IPF patient immunohistochemistry data to support a key role for the epithelial-restricted integrin, α in the activation of TGF-βΙ. Expression of this integrin is low in normal epithelial tissues and is significantly up-regulated in injured and inflamed epithelia including the activated epithelium in IPF. Targeting this integrin therefore reduces the theoretical possibility of interfering with wider TGF-β homeostatic roles. Partial inhibition of the a 6 integrin by antibody blockade has been shown to prevent pulmonary fibrosis without exacerbating inflammation (Horan GS etal Partial inhibition of integrin a 6 prevents pulmonary fibrosis without exacerbating inflammation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med2008177: 56-65)

The ανβ3 integrin is expressed on a number of cell types including vascular endothelium where it has been characterised as a regulator of barrier resistance. Data in animal models of acute lung injury and sepsis have demonstrated a significant role for this integrin in vascular leak since knockout mice show markedly enhanced vessel leak leading to pulmonary oedema or death. Furthermore antibodies capable of inhibiting ανβ3 function caused dramatic increases in monolayer permeability in human pulmonary artery and umbilical vein endothelial cells in response to multiple growth factors. These data suggest a protective role for ανβ3 in the maintenance of vascular endothelial integrity following vessel stimulation and that inhibition of this function could drive pathogenic responses in a chronic disease setting (Su et al Absence of integrin ανβ3 enhances vascular leak in mice by inhibiting endothelial cortical actin formation Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2012 185: 58-66). Thus, selectivity for cl over α 3 may provide a safety advantage.

It is an object of the invention to provide ανβ6 antagonists.

PATENT

WO 2014154725

Inventors Niall Andrew ANDERSON, Brendan John FALLON, John Martin Pritchard
Applicant Glaxosmithkline Intellectual Property Development Limited

Scheme 1

Figure imgf000012_0001

Reagents and conditions: (a) iodine, imidazole, triphenylphosphine, DCM, 0°C; (b) 2- methyl-[l,8]-naphthyridine, LiN(TMS)2, THF, 0°C; (c) 4M HQ in dioxane.

Scheme 2

Figure imgf000012_0002

Reagents and conditions: (a) isobutylene, cone. H2S04, diethyl ether, 24 h; (b) potassium acetate, acetonitrile, 60 °C, 4 h.

Figure imgf000015_0001
Figure imgf000015_0002

Scheme 3. Reagents and Conditions: (a) LiAIH4, THF; (b) H2, 5% Rh/C, EtOH

Figure imgf000016_0001

Figure imgf000017_0001

Intermediate 42

iate 39

Figure imgf000017_0002
Figure imgf000018_0001

Scheme 6. Reagents and Conditions: (a) EDC, HOBT, NMM, DCM; (b) H2, 5% Rh/C, EtOH; (c) TFA, DCM; (d) BH3.THF; (e) UAIH4, THF, 60°C

Example 1: 3-f3-f3,5-Dimethyl-l pyrazol-l-vnphenvn-4-ff/?)-3-f2-f5,6,7,8- tetrahvdro-l,8-naphthyridin- -vnethvnpyrrolidin-l-vnbutanoic acid

Figure imgf000043_0002

A solution of te/f-butyl 3-(3-(3,5-dimethyl-l pyrazol-l-yl)phenyl)-4-((>?)-3-(2-(5,6,7,8- tetrahydro-l,8-naphthyridin-2-yl)ethyl)pyrrolidin-l-yl)butanoate (Intermediate 14) (100 mg, 0.184 mmol) in 2-methylTHF (0.5 mL) was treated with cone. HCI (12M, 0.077 mL, 0.92 mmol) and stirred at 40 °C for 2 h. The solvent was evaporated in vacuo and the residual oil was dissolved in ethanol (2 mL) and applied to a SCX-2 ion-exchange cartridge (5 g), eluting with ethanol (2 CV) and then 2M ammonia in MeOH (2 CV). The ammoniacal fractions were combined and evaporated in vacuo to give the title compound (79 mg, 88%) as an off-white solid: LCMS (System A) RT= 0.86 min, 100%, ES+ve /77/Z488 (M+H)+; H NMR δ (CDCI3; 600 MHz): 7.42 – 7.37 (m, 1H), 7.31 (d, 7=1.5 Hz, 1H), 7.29 (d, 7=0.9 Hz, 1H), 7.23 (d, 7=7.7 Hz, 1H), 7.21 (d, 7=7.3 Hz, 1H), 6.31 (d, 7=7.3 Hz, 1H), 5.99 (s, 1H), 3.55 (br. s., 1H), 3.60 – 3.52 (m, 1H), 3.45 (t, 7=5.4 Hz, 2H), 3.27 (t, 7=10.6 Hz, 1H), 3.09 (br. S.,1H), 2.93 – 2.86 (m, 1H), 2.82 (d, 7=10.1 Hz, 1H), 2.86 – 2.75 (m, 2H), 2.72 (t, 7=6.2 Hz, 1H), 2.74 – 2.67 (m, 2H), 2.75 (d, 7=9.0 Hz, 1H), 2.61 – 2.50 (m, 1H), 2.31 (s, 3H), 2.29 (s, 3H), 2.33 – 2.26 (m, 1H), 2.24 – 2.11 (m, 1H), 1.94 – 1.86 (m, 2H), 1.94 – 1.84 (m, 1H), 1.78 – 1.66 (m, 1H), 1.65 – 1.51 (m, 1H).

Example 1 was identified by a method described hereinafter as (^-S-iS-iS^-dimethyl-l pyrazol-l-yl)phenyl)-4-((>?)-3-(2-(5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-l,8-naphthyridin-2-yl)ethyl)pyrrolidin-l- yl)butanoic acid.

Figure imgf000043_0003

PAPER

Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry (2016), 14(25), 5992-6009

http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2016/ob/c6ob00496b#!divAbstract

Synthesis and determination of absolute configuration of a non-peptidic αvβ6 integrin antagonist for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

Abstract

A diastereoselective synthesis of (S)-3-(3-(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)phenyl)-4-((R)-3-(2-(5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1,8-naphthyridin-2-yl)ethyl)pyrrolidin-1-yl)butanoic acid (1), a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis, which is currently undergoing Phase I clinical trials is reported. The key steps in the synthesis involved alkylation of 2-methylnaphthyridine with (R)-N-Boc-3-(iodomethyl)-pyrrolidine, and an asymmetric Rh-catalysed addition of an arylboronic acid to a 4-(N-pyrrolidinyl)crotonate ester. The overall yield of the seven linear step synthesis was 8% and the product was obtained in >99.5% ee proceeding with 80% de. The absolute configuration of 1 was established by an alternative asymmetric synthesis involving alkylation of an arylacetic acid using Evans oxazolidinone chemistry, acylation using the resulting 2-arylsuccinic acid, and reduction. The absolute configuration of the benzylic asymmetric centre was established as (S).

Graphical abstract: Synthesis and determination of absolute configuration of a non-peptidic αvβ6 integrin antagonist for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
3-(3-(3,5-Dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)phenyl)-4-((R)-3-(2-(5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1,8-
naphthyridin-2-yl)ethyl)pyrrolidin-1-yl)butanoic acid (1a) FREE FORM
off-white solid: LCMS (System A) RT= 0.86 min,100%,
ES+ve m/z 488 (M+H)+;
[]D20 = + 46 (c 1.00 in EtOH);
Analytical HPLC onChiralpak AD column (250 mm  4.6 mm) eluting with 30% EtOH-heptane (containing 0.1%
isopropylamine), flow-rate = 1 mL/min, detecting at 235 nm, RT=12.5 min, 100% (other
diastereoisomer not present RT=9.6 min);
1H NMR δ (CDCl3; 600 MHz) 7.42 – 7.37 (m,1H), 7.31 (d, J=1.5 Hz, 1H), 7.29 (d, J=0.9 Hz, 1H), 7.23 (d, J=7.7 Hz, 1H), 7.21 (d, J=7.3Hz, 1H), 6.31 (d, J=7.3 Hz, 1H), 5.99 (s, 1H), 3.55 (br. s., 1H), 3.60 – 3.52 (m, 1H), 3.45 (t,
J=5.4 Hz, 2H), 3.27 (t, J=10.6 Hz, 1H), 3.09 (br. s.,1H), 2.93 – 2.86 (m, 1H), 2.82 (d, J=10.1Hz, 1H), 2.86 – 2.75 (m, 2H), 2.72 (t, J=6.2 Hz, 1H), 2.74 – 2.67 (m, 2H), 2.75 (d, J=9.0 Hz,1H), 2.61 – 2.50 (m, 1H), 2.31 (s, 3H), 2.29 (s, 3H), 2.33 – 2.26 (m, 1H), 2.24 – 2.11 (m, 1H),1.94 – 1.86 (m, 2H), 1.94 – 1.84 (m, 1H), 1.78 – 1.66 (m, 1H), 1.65 – 1.51 (m, 1H);
13CNMR δ (CDCl3, 151 MHz) 177.7, 153.6, 150.6, 149.0, 144.4, 140.3, 139.6, 139.3, 129.4,
126.2, 123.7, 123.2, 117.4, 109.7, 107.0, 63.3, 56.7 , 54.5, 44.1, 40.9, 40.0, 36.9, 35.5, 32.8,
30.3, 25.8, 19.9, 13.5, 12.5;
νmax (neat) 3380, 1670, 1588, 1384, 797, 704 cm–1;
HRMS (ESI)calcd for C29H38N5O2 (M+H)+ 488.3020, found 488.3030.
3-(3-(3,5-Dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)phenyl)-4-((R)-3-(2-(5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1,8- naphthyridin-2-yl)ethyl)pyrrolidin-1-yl)butanoic acid, hydrochloride salt (1a.HCl).
1a.HCl  as a white solid: mp 197–202°C; LCMS Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column (100 mm × 2.1 mm i.d. 1.7 μm packing diameter) at 50ºC eluting with 0.1% v/v solution of TFA in water (solvent A), and 0.1% v/v solution of TFA in  acetonitrile (solvent B), using the following elution gradient 0.0 – 8.5 min 3 – 100% B, 8.5 – 9.0 min 100% B, 9.0 – 9.5 min 5%B, 9.5 – 10 min 3% B, at a flow-rate 0.8 mL/min, detecting between 210 nm to 350 nm: RT=2.79 min, 98.9%,
ES+ve m/z 488 (M+H)+ ;
[]D 20 = –22 (c 1.23 in EtOH);
1H NMR (600 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 12.01 (br s, 1H), 7.48–7 .43 (m, 2H), 7.39–7.34 (m, 2H), 7.15 (d, J=7.3 Hz, 1H), 6.90 (br s, 1H), 6.32 (d, J=7.3 Hz, 1H), 6.07 (s, 1H), 3.57 (quin, J=7.15 Hz, 1H), 3.44 (dd, J=7.4, 12.75 Hz, 1H), 3.30–3.23 (m, 4H), 3.18– 3.10 (m, 1H), 3.09–3.03 (m, 1H), 2.99 (dd, J=5.7, 16.3 Hz, 1H), 2.82 (t, J=9.35 Hz, 1H), 2.62 (t, J=6.05 Hz, 2H), 2.62–2.57 (m, 1H), 2.52–2.39 (m, 2H), 2.30 (s, 3H), 2.18 (s, 3H), 2.24– 2.16 (m, 1H), 2.08–1.99 (m, 1H), 1.75 (quin, J=6.0 Hz, 2H), 1.72–1.61 (m, 2H), 1.54 (qd, J=8.2, 12.7 Hz, 1H);
13C NMR (DMSO-d6 ,151MHz) 172.7, 154.7, 154.3, 147.7, 142.3, 139.7, 139.2, 137.2, 129.2, 126.4, 123.5, 122.8, 114.0, 109.9, 107.1, 59.5, 58.2, 53.7, 40.5, 39.3, 38.6, 36.0, 34.1, 32.8, 29.2, 25.6, 20.5, 13.2, 12.1;
νmax (neat) 3369, 1650, 1366, 801 cm–1 ;
HRMS (ESI) calcd for C29H38N5O2 (M+H)+ 488.3020, found 488.3012.

REFERENCES

MacDonald, S.; Pritchard, J.; Anderson, N.
Discovery of a small molecule alphavbeta6 inhibitor for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
253rd Am Chem Soc (ACS) Natl Meet (April 2-6, San Francisco) 2017, Abst MEDI 362

///////////////GSK 3008348, phase 1, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, GSK, Niall Andrew ANDERSON, Brendan John FALLON, John Martin Pritchard, Integrin alphaV antagonists

Next talk in 1st time disclosures is Simon MacDonald of @GSK on a treatment for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

str2

AZD 9567


SCHEMBL17643955.png

str1

AZD 9567

CAS 1893415-00-3

1893415-64-9  as MONOHYDRATE

2,2-Difluoro-N-[(1R,2S)-3-methyl-1-[[1-(1-methyl-6-oxo-1,6-dihydropyridin-3-yl)-1H-indazol-5-yl]oxy]-1-phenylbutan-2-yl]propanamide

Propanamide, N-[(1S)-1-[(R)-[[1-(1,6-dihydro-1-methyl-6-oxo-3-pyridinyl)-1H-indazol-5-yl]oxy]phenylmethyl]-2-methylpropyl]-2,2-difluoro-

2,2-difluoro-N-[(1R,2S)-3-methyl-1-[1-(1-methyl-6-oxopyridin-3-yl)indazol-5-yl]oxy-1-phenylbutan-2-yl]propanamide

2,2-difluoro- V-[(lR,25)-3-methyl-l-{[l-(l-methyl-6-oxo-l,6-dihydropyridin-3-yl)-lH-indazol-5-yl]oxy}-l-phenylbutan-2-yl]propanamide

MF C27 H28 F2 N4 O3, MF 494.533

AstraZeneca INNOVATOR

AZD-9567, a glucocorticoid receptor modulator, is in early clinical development at AstraZeneca in healthy male volunteers.

Phase I Rheumatoid arthritis

  • Originator AstraZeneca
  • Class Antirheumatics
  • Mechanism of Action Glucocorticoid receptor modulators
    • 01 Sep 2016 AstraZeneca completes a phase I trial (In volunteers) in Germany (NCT02512575)
    • 24 May 2016 Phase-I clinical trials in Rheumatoid arthritis (In volunteers) in United Kingdom (PO) (NCT02760316)
    • 24 May 2016 AstraZeneca initiates a phase I trial in Rheumatoid arthritis (In volunteers) in Germany (PO) (NCT02760316)
     
Inventors Lena Elisabeth RIPA, Karolina Lawitz, Matti Juhani Lepistö, Martin Hemmerling, Karl Edman, Antonio Llinas
Applicant Astrazeneca

Warning: Chancellor George Osborne told Scotland it could be forced to give up the pound if it became independent of the rest of the UK. He is pictured yesterday with Jan Milton-Edwards during a visit to the Macclesfield AstraZeneca site in Cheshire

Macclesfield AstraZeneca site in Cheshire

Image result

Glucocorticoids (GCs) have been used for decades to treat acute and chronic inflammatory and immune conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (“COPD”), osteoarthritis, rheumatic fever, allergic rhinitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Crohn’s disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and ulcerative colitis. Examples of GCs include dexamethasone, prednisone, and

prednisolone. Unfortunately, GCs are often associated with severe and sometimes irreversible side effects, such as osteoporosis, hyperglycemia, effects on glucose metabolism (diabetes mellitus). skin thinning, hypertension, glaucoma, muscle atrophy. Cushing’s syndrome, fluid homeostasis, and psychosis (depression ). These side effects can particularly limit the use of GCs in a chronic setting. Thus, a need continues to exist for alternative therapies that possess the beneficial effects of GCs, but with a reduced likel ihood of side effects.

GCs form a complex with the GC receptor ( GR ) to regulate gene transcription. The GC-GR complex translocates to the cell nucleus, and then binds to GC response elements (GREs) in the promoter regions of various genes. The resulting GC-GR- GRE complex, in turn, activates or inhibits transcription of proximally located genes. The GC-GR complex also (or alternatively) may negatively regulate gene transcription by a process that does not involve DNA binding. In this process, termed transrepression, the GC-GR complex enters the nucleus and directly interacts (via protein-protein interaction) with other transcription factors, repressing their ability to induce gene transcription and thus protein expression.

Some of the side effects of GCs are believed to be the result of cross-reactivity with other steroid receptors (e.g., progesterone, androgen, mineralocorticoid, and estrogen receptors), which have somewhat homologous ligand binding domains; and/or the inability to selectively modulate gene expression and downstream signaling. Consequently, it is believed that an efficacious selective GR modulator (SGRM), which binds to GR with greater affinity relative to other steroid hormone receptors, would provide an alternative therapy to address the unmet need for a therapy that possesses the beneficial, effects of GCs, while, at the same time, having fewer side effects.

A range of compounds have been reported to have SGRM activity. See, e.g., WO2007/0467747, WO2007/114763, WO2008/006627, WO2008/055709, WO2008/055710, WO2008/052808, WO2008/063116, WO2008/076048,

WO2008/079073, WO2008/098798, WO2009/065503, WO2009/142569,

WO2009/142571, WO2010/009814, WO2013/001294, and EP2072509. Still, there continues to be a need for new SGRMs that exhibit, for example, an improved potency, efficacy, effectiveness in steroid-insensitive patients, selectivity, solubility allowing for oral administration, pharmacokinetic profile allowing for a desirable dosing regimen, stability on the shelf {e.g., hydro lytic, thermal, chemical, or photochemical stability), crystallinity, tolerability for a range of patients, side effect profile and/or safety profile.

PATENT

WO 2016046260

Scheme 1 below illustrates a general protocol for making compounds described in this specification, using either an Ullman route or an aziridine route.

Scheme 1

In Scheme 1, Ar is

[182] The amino alcohol reagent used in Scheme 1 may be made using the below Scheme 2.

Scheme 2

The Grignard reagent (ArMgBr) used in Scheme 2 can be obtained commercially, or, if not, can generally be prepared from the corresponding aryl bromide and Mg and/or iPrMgCl using published methods.

[183] The iodo and hydroxy pyridone indazole reagents used in Scheme 1 may be made using the below Scheme 3A or 3B, respectively.

Scheme 3A

[184] Scheme 4 below provides an alternative protocol for making compounds described in this specification.

Scheme 4

Example 1. Preparation of 2,2-difluoro- V-[(lR,2S)-3-methyl-l-{[l-(l-methyl-6-oxo-l,6-dihydropyridin-3-yl)-lH-indazol-5-yl]oxy}-l-phenylbutan-2-yl]propanamide.

[199] Step A. Preparation of 5-[5-[(te^butyldimethylsilyl)oxy]-lH-indazol-l-yl]-l-methyl-l,2-dihydropyridin-2-one.

Into a 2 L 4-necked, round-bottom flask, purged and maintained with an inert atmosphere of N2, was placed a solution of 5-[(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)oxy]-lH-indazole (805 g, 3.2 mol) in toluene (8 L), 5 -iodo-1 -methyl- 1 ,2-dihydropyridin-2-one (800 g, 3.4 mol) and

K3PO4 (1.2 kg, 5.8 mol). Cyclohexane-l,2-diamine (63 g, 0.5 mol) was added followed by the addition of Cul (1.3 g, 6.8 mmol) in several batches. The resulting solution was stirred overnight at 102°C. The resulting mixture was concentrated under vacuum to yield 3.0 kg of the title compound as a crude black solid. LC/MS: m/z 356 [M+H]+.

[200] Step B. Preparation of 5-(5-hydroxy-lH-indazol-l-yl)-l-methylpyridin-2(lH)-one.

Into a 2 L 4-necked, round-bottom flask was placed 5-[5-[(fert-butyldimethylsilyl)oxy]-lH-indazol-l-yl]-l-methyl-l,2-dihydropyridin-2-one (3.0 kg, crude) and a solution of HCl (2 L, 24 mol, 36%) in water (2 L) and MeOH (5 L). The resulting solution was stirred for 1 hr at 40°C and then evaporated to dryness. The resulting solid was washed with water (4 x 5 L) and ethyl acetate (2 x 0.5 L) to afford 480 g (61%, two steps) of the title product as a brown solid. LC/MS: m/z 242 [M+H]+. 1HNMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 3.52 (3H, s),6.61 (lH,m),7.06 (2H,m),7.54 (lH,m), 7.77 (lH,m), 8.19 (2H, m) 9.35 (lH,s).

[201] Ste C. Preparation of tert-butyl((lR,25)-l-hydroxy-3-methyl-l-phenylbutan-2-yl)carbamate.

(S)-tert-butyl 3 -methyl- l-oxo-l-phenylbutan-2-ylcarbamate (1.0 kg, 3.5 mol) was dissolved in toluene (4 L). Afterward, 2-propanol (2 L) was added, followed by triisopropoxyaluminum (0.145 L, 0.73 mol). The reaction mixture was heated at 54-58°C for 1 hr under reduced pressure (300-350 mbar) to start azeothropic distillation. After the collection of 0.75 L condensate, 2-propanol (2 L) was added, and the reaction mixture was stirred overnight at reduced pressure to afford 4 L condensate in total. Toluene (3 L) was added at 20°C, followed by 2M HC1 (2 L) over 15 min to keep the temperature below 28°C. The layers were separated (pH of aqueous phase 0-1) and the organic layer was washed successively with water (3 L), 4% NaHCCte (2 L) and water (250 mL). The volume of the organic layer was reduced from 6 L at 50°C and 70 mbar to 2.5 L. The resulting mixture was heated to 50°C and heptane (6.5 L) was added at 47-53°C to maintain the material in solution. The temperature of the mixture was slowly decreased to 20°C, seeded with the crystals of the title compound at 37°C (seed crystals were prepared in an earlier batch made by the same method and then evaporating the reaction mixture to dryness, slurring the residue in heptane, and isolating the crystals by filtration), and allowed to stand overnight. The product was filtered off, washed with heptane (2 x 1 L) and dried under vacuum to afford 806 g (81%) of the title compound as a white solid. 1HNMR (500 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 0.81 (dd, 6H), 1.16 (s, 8H), 2.19 (m, 1H), 3.51 (m, 1H), 4.32 (d, 1H), 5.26 (s, 1H), 6.30 (d, 1H), 7.13 – 7.2 (m, 1H), 7.24 (t, 2H), 7.3 – 7.36 (m, 3H).

[202] Step D. Preparation of (lR,2S)-2-amino-3-methyl-l-phenylbutan-l-ol hydrochloride salt.

To a solution of HC1 in propan-2-ol (5-6 N, 3.1 L, 16 mol) at 20°C was added tert-butyl((li?,25)-l-hydroxy-3-methyl-l-phenylbutan-2-yl)carbamate (605 g, 2.2 mol) in portions over 70 min followed by the addition of MTBE (2 L) over 30 min. The reaction mixture was cooled to 5°C and stirred for 18 hr. The product was isolated by filtration and dried to afford 286 g of the title compound as an HC1 salt (61% yield). The mother liquor was concentrated to 300 mL. MTBE (300 mL) was then added, and the resulting precipitation was isolated by filtration to afford additional 84 g of the title compound as a HC1 salt (18% yield). Total 370 g (79%). 1HNMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 0.91 (dd, 6H), 1.61 – 1.81 (m, 1H), 3.11 (s, 1H), 4.99 (s, 1H), 6.08 (d, 1H), 7.30 (t, 1H), 7.40 (dt, 4H), 7.97 (s, 2H).

[203] Step E. Preparation of (2S,35)-2-isopropyl-l-(4-nitrophenylsulfonyl)-3-phenylaziridine.

(li?,25)-2-Amino-3-methyl-l-phenylbutan-l-ol hydrochloride (430 g, 2.0 mol) was mixed with DCM (5 L) at 20°C. 4-Nitrobenzenesulfonyl chloride (460 g, 2.0 mol) was then added over 5 min. Afterward, the mixture was cooled to -27°C. Triethylamine (1.0 kg, 10 mol) was slowly added while maintaining the temperature at -18°C. The reaction mixture was cooled to -30°C, and methanesulfonyl chloride (460 g, 4.0 mol) was added slowly while maintaining the temperature at -25 °C. The reaction mixture was then stirred at 0°C for 16 hr before adding triethylamine (40 mL, 0.3 mol; 20 mL ,0.14 mol and 10 mL, 0.074 mol) w at 0°C in portions over 4 hr. Water (5 L) was subsequently added at 20°C, and the resulting layers were separated. The organic layer was washed with water (5 L) and the volume reduced to 1 L under vacuum. MTBE (1.5 L) was added, and the mixture was stirred on a rotavap at 20°C over night and filtered to afford 500 g (70%) of the title product as a solid. 1HNMR (400 MHz, CDCls): δ 1.12 (d, 3H), 1.25 (d, 3H), 2.23 (ddt, 1H), 2.89 (dd, 1H), 3.84 (d, 1H), 7.08 – 7.2 (m, 1H), 7.22 – 7.35 (m, 4H), 8.01 – 8.13 (m, 2H), 8.22 – 8.35 (m, 2H)

[204] Step F. Preparation of V-((lR,2S)-3-methyl-l-(l-(l-methyl-6-oxo-l,6-dihydropyridin-3-yl)-lH-indazol-5-yloxy)-l-phenylbutan-2-yl)-4-nitrobenzenesulfonamide.

[205] (25′,35)-2-Isopropyl-l-(4-nitrophenylsulfonyl)-3-phenylaziridine (490 g, 1.3 mol) was mixed with 5-(5-hydroxy-lH-indazol-l-yl)-l-methylpyridin-2(lH)-one (360 g, 1.4 mol) in acetonitrile (5 L) at 20°C. Cesium carbonate (850 g, 2.6 mol) was added in portions over 5 min. The reaction mixture was then stirred at 50°C overnight. Water (5 L) was added at 20°C, and the resulting mixture was extracted with 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (5L and 2.5 L). The combined organic layer was washed successively with 0.5 M HC1 (5 L), water (3 x 5L) and brine (5L). The remaining organic layer was concentrated to a thick oil, and then MTBE (2 L) was added. The resulting precipitate was filtered to afford 780 g (purity 71% w/w) of the crude title product as a yellow solid, which was used in the next step without further purification. 1HNMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 0.93 (dd, 6H), 2.01 -2.19 (m, 1H), 3.50 (s, 3H), 3.74 (s, 1H), 5.00 (d, 1H), 6.54 (d, 1H), 6.78 (d, 1H), 6.95 -7.15 (m, 4H), 7.23 (d, 2H), 7.49 (d, 1H), 7.69 (dd, 1H), 7.74 (d, 2H), 8.00 (s, 1H), 8.08 (d, 2H), 8.13 (d, 2H).

[206] Step G. Preparation of 2,2-difluoro- V-[(lR,25)-3-methyl-l-{[l-(l-methyl-6-oxo-l,6-dihydropyridin-3-yl)-lH-indazol-5-yl]oxy}-l-phenylbutan-2-yl]propanamide.

[207] N-((lR,2S)-3-Methyl- 1 -(1 -(1 -methyl-6-oxo- 1 ,6-dihydropyridin-3-yl)- \H-indazol-5-yloxy)-l-phenylbutan-2-yl)-4-nitrobenzenesulfonamide (780 g, 71%w/w) was mixed with DMF (4 L). DBU (860 g, 5.6 mol) was then added at 20°C over 10 min. 2-Mercaptoacetic acid (170 g, 1.9 mol) was added slowly over 30 min, keeping the temperature at 20°C. After 1 hr, ethyl 2,2-difluoropropanoate (635 g, 4.60 mol) was added over 10 min at 20°C. The reaction mixture was stirred for 18 hr. Subsequently, additional ethyl 2,2-difluoropropanoate (254 g, 1.8 mol) was added, and the reaction mixture was stirred for an additional 4 hr at 20°C. Water (5 L) was then slowly added over 40 min, maintaining the temperature at 20°C. The water layer was extracted with isopropyl acetate (4 L and 2 x 2 L). The combined organic layer was washed with 0.5M HC1 (4 L) and brine (2 L). The organic layer was then combined with the organic layer from a parallel reaction starting from 96 g of N-((li?,25)-3-methyl-l-((l-(l-methyl-6-oxo-l,6-dihydropyridin-3-yl)- lH-indazol-5-yl)oxy)- 1 -phenylbutan-2-yl)-4-nitrobenzenesulfonamide, and concentrated to approximate 1.5 L. The resulting brown solution was filtered. The filter was washed twice with isopropyl acetate (2 x 0.5 L). The filtrate was evaporated until a solid formed. The solid was then co evaporated with 99.5% ethanol (1 L), affording 493 g (77%, two steps) of an amorphous solid.

[208] The solid (464 g, 0.94 mol) was dissolved in ethanol/water 2: 1 (3.7 L) at 50°C. The reaction mixture was then seeded with crystals () of the title compound (0.5 g) at 47°C, and a slight opaque mixture was formed. The mixture was held at that temperature for 1 hr. Afterward, the temperature was decreased to 20°C over 7 hr, and kept at 20°C for 40 hr. The solid was filtrated off, washed with cold (5°C) ethanol/water 1 :2 (0.8 L), and dried in vacuum at 37°C overnight to afford 356 g (0.70 mol, 74%, 99.9 % ee) of the title compound as a monohydrate. LC/MS: m/z 495 [M+H]+. ‘HNMR (600 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 0.91 (dd, 6H), 1.38 (t, 3H), 2.42 (m, 1H), 3.50 (s, 3H), 4.21 (m, 1H), 5.29 (d, 1H), 6.53 (d, 1H), 7.09 (d, 1H), 7.13 (dd, 1H), 7.22 (t, 1H), 7.29 (t, 2H), 7.47 (d, 2H), 7.56 (d, 1H), 7.70 (dd, 1H), 8.13 (d, 1H), 8.16 (d, 1H), 8.27 (d, 1H).

[209] The seed crystals may be prepared from amorphous compound prepared according to Example 2 using 2,2-difluoropropanoic acid, followed by purification on HPLC. The compound (401 mg) was weighed into a glass vial. Ethanol (0.4 mL) was added, and the vial was shaken and heated to 40°C to afford a clear, slightly yellow solution. Ethanol/Water (0.4 mL, 50/50% vol/vol) was added. Crystallization started to

occur within 5 min, and, after 10 min, a white thick suspension formed. The crystals were collected by filtration

/////////////AZD 9567, AstraZeneca, lucocorticoid receptor modulator, Rheumatoid arthritis, phase 1, Lena Elisabeth RIPA, Karolina Lawitz, Matti Juhani Lepistö, Martin Hemmerling, Karl Edman, Antonio Llinas

3rd speaker this afternoon in 1st time disclosures is Lena Ripa of @AstraZeneca on a glucocorticoid receptor modulator

str2

CC(F)(F)C(=O)N[C@@H](C(C)C)[C@H](Oc1cc2cnn(c2cc1)C=3C=CC(=O)N(C)C=3)c4ccccc4

PF 06648671


PF-06648671, PF 06648671,  PF-6648671

CAS 1587727-31-8
C25 H23 Cl F4 N4 O3
538.92
2H-Pyrido[1,2-a]pyrazine-1,6-dione, 2-[(1S)-1-[(2S,5R)-5-[4-chloro-5-fluoro-2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]tetrahydro-2-furanyl]ethyl]-3,4-dihydro-7-(4-methyl-1H-imidazol-1-yl)-

Phase I Alzheimer’s disease

Originator Pfizer

  • 01 Nov 2016 Pfizer completes a phase I pharmacokinetics trial in Healthy volunteers in USA (PO) (NCT02883114)
  • 01 Oct 2016 Pfizer completes a phase I trial in Healthy volunteers in Belgium (NCT02440100)
  • 01 Sep 2016 Pfizer initiates a phase I pharmacokinetics trial in Healthy volunteers in USA (PO) (NCT02883114)
 
Inventors Ende Christopher William Am, Michael Eric GREEN, Douglas Scott Johnson, Gregory Wayne KAUFFMAN, Christopher John O’donnell, Nandini Chaturbhai Patel, Martin Youngjin Pettersson, Antonia Friederike STEPAN, Cory Michael Stiff, Chakrapani Subramanyam, Tuan Phong Tran, Patrick Robert Verhoest
Applicant Pfizer Inc.

Image result

SYNTHESIS 

FIRST KEY INTERMEDIATE

CONTD………….

SECOND KEY INTERMEDIATE

contd……………..

Dementia results from a wide variety of distinctive pathological processes. The most common pathological processes causing dementia are Alzheimer’s disease (AD), cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CM) and prion-mediated diseases (see, e.g., Haan et al., Clin. Neurol. Neurosurg. 1990, 92(4):305-310; Glenner et al., J. Neurol. Sci. 1989, 94:1 -28). AD affects nearly half of all people past the age of 85, the most rapidly growing portion of the United States population. As such, the number of AD patients in the United States is expected to increase from about 4 million to about 14 million by 2050.

The present invention relates to a group of γ-secretase modulators, useful for the treatment of neurodegenerative and/or neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease and Down’s Syndrome, (see Ann. Rep. Med. Chem. 2007, Olsen et al., 42: 27-47).

PATENT

WO 2014045156

Preparations

Preparation P1 : 5-(4-Methyl-1 H-imidazol-1 -yl)-6-oxo-1 ,6-dihvdropyridine-2-carboxylic

Figure imgf000048_0001

Step 1 . Synthesis of methyl 6-methoxy-5-(4-methyl-1 /-/-imidazol-1 -yl)pyridine-2- carboxylate (C2).

To a solution of the known 6-bromo-2-methoxy-3-(4-methyl-1 /-/-imidazol-1 – yl)pyridine (C1 , T. Kimura et al., U.S. Pat. Appl. Publ. 2009, US 20090062529 A1 ) (44.2 g, 165 mmol) in methanol (165 ml_) was added triethylamine (46 ml_, 330 mmol) and [1 ,1 ‘-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene]dichloropalladium(ll), dichloromethane complex (6.7 g, 8.2 mmol). The mixture was degassed several times with nitrogen. The reaction was heated to 70 °C under CO atmosphere (3 bar) in a Parr apparatus. After 30 minutes, the pressure dropped to 0.5 bar; additional CO was added until the pressure stayed constant for a period of 30 minutes. The mixture was allowed to cool to room temperature and filtered through a pad of Celite. The Celite pad was washed twice with methanol and the combined filtrates were concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue (88 g) was dissolved in ethyl acetate (1 L) and water (700 mL); the organic layer was washed with water (200 mL), and the aqueous layer was extracted with ethyl acetate (500 mL). The combined organic layers were dried over magnesium sulfate, filtered and concentrated to provide the title compound. Yield: 42.6 g, quantitative.

Step 2. Synthesis of 5-(4-methyl-1 H-imidazol-1 -yl)-6-oxo-1 ,6-dihydropyridine-2- carboxylic acid, hydrobromide salt (P1 ).

A solution of C2 (3.82 g, 15.9 mmol) in acetic acid (30 mL) and aqueous hydrobromic acid (48%, 30 mL) was heated at reflux for 4 hours. The reaction was allowed to cool to room temperature, and then chilled in an ice bath; the resulting precipitate was collected via filtration and washed with ice water (30 mL).

Recrystallization from ethanol (20 mL) provided the title compound as a light yellow solid. Yield: 3.79 g, 12.6 mmol, 79%. LCMS m/z 220.1 (M+1 ). 1H N MR (400 MHz, DMSO-c/6) δ 12.6 (v br s, 1 H), 9.58-9.60 (m, 1 H), 8.07 (d, J=7.6 Hz, 1 H), 7.88-7.91 (m, 1 H), 7.09 (d, J=7.4 Hz, 1 H), 2.34 (br s, 3H). Preparation P2: 5-(4-Methyl-1 H-imidazol-1 -yl)-6-oxo-1 ,6-dihvdropyridine-2-carboxylic acid, hydrochloride salt (P2)

Figure imgf000049_0001

A mixture of C2 (12.8 g, 51 .8 mmol) and 37% hydrochloric acid (25 mL) was heated at reflux for 18 hours. After the reaction mixture had cooled to room

temperature, the solid was collected via filtration; it was stirred with 1 ,4-dioxane (2 x 20 mL) and filtered again, to afford the product as a yellow solid. Yield: 13 g, 51 mmol, 98%. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) δ 9.52 (br s, 1 H), 8.07 (d, J=7.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.78 (br s, 1 H), 7.21 (d, J=7.5 Hz, 1 H), 2.44 (s, 3H). Preparation P3: 7-(4-Methyl-1 H-imidazol-1 -yl)-3,4-dihvdropyridor2,1 -ciri ,41oxazine-1 ,6- dione (P3)

Figure imgf000050_0001

Compound P2 (65 g, 250 mmol), 1 ,2-dibromoethane (52.5 g, 280 mmol) and cesium carbonate (124 g, 381 mmol) were combined in A/,/V-dimethylformamide (850 mL) and heated at 90 °C for 6 hours. The reaction mixture was then cooled and filtered through Celite. After concentration of the filtrate in vacuo, the residue was dissolved in dichloromethane (500 mL), washed with saturated aqueous sodium chloride solution (100 mL), washed with water (50 mL), dried over magnesium sulfate, filtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure. The resulting solid was washed with acetonitrile to provide the product. Yield: 46.5 g, 190 mmol, 76%. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) δ 8.33 (d, J=1 .4 Hz, 1 H), 7.43 (AB quartet, JAB=7.7 Hz, ΔνΑΒ=33.4 Hz, 2H), 7.15-7.17 (m, 1 H), 4.66-4.70 (m, 2H), 4.38-4.42 (m, 2H), 2.30 (d, J=0.8 Hz, 3H).

//////////PF-06648671, PF 06648671,  PF-6648671, PHASE 1

FC(F)(F)c5cc(Cl)c(F)cc5[C@H]1CCC[C@H](O1)[C@H](C)N4CCN3C(=CC=C(n2cc(C)nc2)C3=O)C4=O

First speaker of the PM session is Martin Pettersson from @pfizer talking about a gamma secretase modulator for Alzheimer’s str2

AMG 176


str1 

AMG 176

C33 H41 Cl N2 O5 S, 613.21
str2
14E/8’E
Spiro[5,7-etheno-1H,11H-cyclobut[i][1,4]oxazepino[3,4-f][1,2,7]thiadiazacyclohexadecine-2(3H),1′(2′H)-naphthalen]-8(9H)-one, 6′-chloro-3′,4′,12,13,16,16a,17,18,18a,19-decahydro-16-methoxy-11,12-dimethyl-, 10,10-dioxide, (1′S,11R,12S,14E,16S,16aR,18aR)-
(1S,3’R,6’R,7’S,8’E,1 l’R,12’R)-6-CHLORO-7′-METHOXY-l 1′-METHYL- 12′-( 1 -METHYL)-3 ,4-DIHYDRO-2H, 15 Ή-SPIRO [NAPHTHALENE- 1 ,22′- [20]OXA[13]THIA[1,14]DIAZATETRACYCLO[14.7.2.036.01924]PENTACOS A[8,16,18,24]TETRAEN]-15′-ONE 13 ‘,13 ‘-DIOXIDE
E FORM 1883727-34-1
.
.
.
14Z/8’Z
Spiro[5,7-etheno-1H,11H-cyclobut[i][1,4]oxazepino[3,4-f][1,2,7]thiadiazacyclohexadecine-2(3H),1′(2′H)-naphthalen]-8(9H)-one, 6′-chloro-3′,4′,12,13,16,16a,17,18,18a,19-decahydro-16-methoxy-11,12-dimethyl-, 10,10-dioxide, (1′S,11R,12S,14Z,16S,16aR,18aR)-
(1S,3’R,6’R,7’S,8’Z,1 l’R,12’R)-6-CHLORO-7′-METHOXY-l 1′-METHYL- 12′-( 1 -METHYL)-3 ,4-DIHYDRO-2H, 15 Ή-SPIRO [NAPHTHALENE- 1 ,22′- [20]OXA[13]THIA[1,14]DIAZATETRACYCLO[14.7.2.036.01924]PENTACOS A[8,16,18,24]TETRAEN]-15′-ONE 13 ‘,13 ‘-DIOXIDE
Z FORM 1883727-35-2
 str3

PHASE 1,  Amgen, Mcl-1 inhibitor,  tumors

  • Class Antineoplastics; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action MCL1 protein inhibitors
  • Phase I Multiple myeloma
  • 01 Jun 2016 Phase-I clinical trials in Multiple myeloma (Second-line therapy or greater) in USA, Australia (IV) (NCT02675452)
  • 12 Feb 2016 Amgen plans a first-in-human phase I trial for Multiple myeloma (Second-line therapy or greater) in USA, Germany and Australia (IV) (NCT02675452)
  • 22 Dec 2015 Preclinical trials in Multiple myeloma in USA (IV) before December 2015

Inventors Sean P. Brown, Yunxiao Li, Mike Elias Lizarzaburu, Brian S. Lucas, Nick A. Paras, Joshua TAYGERLY, Marc Vimolratana, Xianghong Wang, Ming Yu, Manuel Zancanella, Liusheng Zhu, Buenrostro Ana Gonzalez, Zhihong Li
Applicant Amgen Inc.

Synthesis

1 Kang catalyst used, ie Pyridine, 2,6-bis[(4R)-5,5-dibutyl-4,5-dihydro-4-phenyl-2-oxazolyl]-

2 Martin’s reagent to get CHO group

3 Hydrolysis or Hydrogenolysis of Carboxylic Esters :p-MeC6H4SO3H

4 R:(Me3Si)2NH •Li,

5 Hydrolysis of Acetals CF3SO3H

6 Fe, AcOH CYCLIZATION

7 l-Camphor-SO3H, Na+ •(AcO)3BH-,

8 SOCl2, MeOH ESTERIFICATION

9 OXIDATION

CONTD………..

10 GRIGNARD BuLi, Me(CH2)4Me,

11 Hydrogenolysis of Carboxylic Esters

12 Acylation INVOLVING NITROGEN ATOM

13 CYCLIZATION , Ruthenium, [1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)-2-imidazolidinylidene]dichloro(phenylmethylene)(tricyclohexylphosphine)-, (SP-5-41)-

14 METHYL IODIDE, Alkylation TO GET AMD 176

AMG 176

str1 str2

One common characteristic of human cancer is overexpression of Mcl-1. Mcl-loverexpression prevents cancer cells from undergoing programmed cell death (apoptosis), allowing the cells to survive despite widespread genetic damage.

Mcl-1 is a member of the Bcl-2 family of proteins. The Bcl-2 family includes pro-apoptotic members (such as BAX and BAK) which, upon activation, form a homo-oligomer in the outer mitochondrial membrane that leads to pore formation and the escape of mitochondrial contents, a step in triggering apoptosis. Antiapoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family (such as Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, and Mcl-1) block the activity of BAX and BAK. Other proteins (such as BID, BIM, BIK, and BAD) exhibit additional regulatory functions.

Research has shown that Mcl- 1 inhibitors can be useful for the treatment of cancers. MCl-1 is overexpressed in numerous cancers. See Beroukhim et al. (2010) Nature 463, 899-90. Cancer cells containing amplifications surrounding the Mcl-1 and Bcl-2-1-1 anti-apoptotic genes depend on the expression of these genes for survival. Beroukhim et al. Mcl- 1 is a relevant target for the re-iniation of apoptosis in numerous cancer cells. See G. Lessene, P. Czabotar and P.

Colman, Nat. Rev. Drug. Discov., 2008, 7, 989-1000; C. Akgul Cell. Mol. Life

Sci. Vol. 66, 2009; and Arthur M. Mandelin II, Richard M. Pope, Expert Opin. Ther. Targets (2007) l l(3):363-373.

New compositions and methods for preparing and formulating Mcl-1 inhibitors would be useful.

PATENT

WO 2016033486

https://www.google.com/patents/WO2016033486A1?cl=ru

GENERAL SYNTHETIC SCHEMES

General Procedure 1

Intermediates III can be prepared using standard chemistry techniques. For example, cyclobutane carbaldehyde II was combined with oxazepine I in an appropriate solvent at a temperature below RT, preferably about 0°C. Sodium cyanoborohydride was added, and the mixture was added to NaOH solution, to provide compound III.

General Procedure 2

Intermediate AA Intermediate EE IV

Intermediates IV can be prepared using standard peptide like chemistry. For example, DMAP was added to carboxylic acid Intermediate AA and Intermediate EE in an appropriate solvent at a temperature below RT, preferably about 0°C, followed by the addition of EDC hydrochloride. The mixture was warmed to ambient temperature, to provide carboxamide IV.

General Procedure 3

EXAMPLE A

Example A intermediates can be prepared using standard chemistry techniques. For example, carboxamide IV was combined with DCM followed by the addition of Hoveyda-Grubbs II. The mixture was cooled to ambient temperature to provide Example A.

General Procedure 4

Intermediate AA Intermediate EE

Intermediates V can be prepared using standard chemistry techniques. For example, Intermediate AA was combined with Intermediate EE in an appropriate solvent followed by the addition of Hoveyda-Grubbs II to provide compound V.

General Procedure 5

Example A intermediates can be prepared using standard chemistry techniques. For example, N,N-dimethylpyridin-4-amine was combined with compound VI in an appropriate solvent at a temperature below RT, preferably about 0°C, followed by the addition of N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N’-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride. The resulting mixture warmed to ambient temperature to provide Example A.

General Procedure 6

Example B intermediates can be prepared using standard chemistry techniques. For example, sodium hydride was added to a solution of Example A at a temperature below RT, preferably about 0°C, followed by the addition of Mel. The resulting mixture warmed to ambient temperature to provide Example B.

General Pr

Intermediates such as Example C can be prepared using standard chemistry techniques. For example, Example A and/or B and/or VII and platinum (IV) oxide were combined in an appropriate solvent at ambient temperature to provide Example C.

Compounds of the present invention generally can be prepared combining and further elaborating synthetic intermediates generated from commercially available starting materials. The syntheses of these intermediates are outlined below and further exemplification is found in the specific examples provided.

EXAMPLE 4. (1S,3’R,6’R,7’S,8’E,1 l’S,12’R)-6-CHLORO-7′-METHOXY-11′, 12 ‘-DIMETHYL-3 ,4-DIHYDRO-2H, 15 ‘H-SPIRO [NAPHTHALENE- 1 ,22’-[20]OXA[13]THIA[1,14]DIAZATETRACYCLO[14.7.2.036.01924]PENTACOS A[8, 16, 18,24]TETRAEN]-15′-ONE- 13 ‘, 13 ‘-DIOXIDE

To a slurry of (1 S,3’R,6’R,7’S,8’E, 1 l’S, 12’R)-6-chloro-7′-hydroxy-l l’,12′-dimethyl-3,4-dihydro-2h, 15’h-spiro[naphthalene-l,22′- [20]oxa[13]thia[l, 14]diazatetracyclo[14.7.2.036.01924]pentacosa[8,16, 18,24]tetra en]-15′-one 13 ‘, 13 ‘-dioxide (Example 2; 32.6 g, 49.1 mmol) (containing 9.8% toluene, starting material was not completely soluble in Me-THF) and Mel (15.2 mL, 245 mmol) in Me-THF (820 mL) was added KHMDS (1.0 M in THF, 167 mL, 167 mmol) dropwise for 30 min while maintaining reaction temperature between – 44°C and – 38°C under N2. After the mixture was stirred at – 44°C for 30 min, the reaction was allowed to warm to rt and stirred for 1.5 h (LC/MS confirmed the reaction was complete). The reaction mixture was cooled to 5°C, quenched (170 mL of sat. aqueous NH4C1 and 170 mL of FLO) while maintaining temperature between 5°C and 14°C, and acidified (340 mL of 10% aqueous citric acid). The organic layer was separated and the aqueous layer was back-extracted with EtOAc (500 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine (3 x 500 mL), dried (MgS04), and concentrated under reduced pressure to provide a crude target compound (30.1 g, 49.1 mmol, quantitatively) (purity >98% with no over 1% major impurity from HPLC) as a bright yellow solid. After the same scale reaction was repeated four times, all the crude products (4 x 49.1 mmol = 196 mmol) were dissolved in EtOAc, combined, and concentrated under reduced pressure. Then the combined crude product was recrystallized as follows:

ethanol (800 mL) was added to the crude product and the resulting slurry solution was shaken while heating the solution for 20 min. H20 (250 mL) was added dropwise for 30 min at rt and the slurry was cooled down to 0°C. After the slurry was kept in an ice bath for 4 h, the solid product was filtered through filter paper. The filter cake was rinsed with ice-cold 30% FLO in EtOH (300 mL) and air-dried for 2 days. The product was further dried under high vacuum at 40°C for 4 days to provide the pure target compound (1 15 g, 188 mmol, 96 % yield) as a

white solid. XH NMR (600 MHz, DMSO-i¾) δ 11.91 (s, 1 H), 7.65 (d, J= 8.6 Hz, 1 H), 7.27 (dd, J= 8.5, 2.3 Hz, 1 H), 7.17 (d, J= 2.4 Hz, 1 H), 7.04 (dd, J= 8.2, 2.0 Hz, 1 H), 6.90 (d, J= 8.2 Hz, 1 H), 6.76 (d, J= 1.8 Hz, 1 H), 5.71 (ddd, J= 15.1, 9.7, 3.5 Hz, 1 H), 5.50 (ddd, J= 15.2, 9.2, 1.1 Hz, 1 H), 4.08 (qd, J= 7.2, 7.2, 7.2, 1.5 Hz, 1 H), 4.04 (d, J= 12.3 Hz, 1 H), 3.99 (d, J= 12.3 Hz, 1 H), 3.73 (d, J= 14.9 Hz, 1 H), 3.56 (d, J= 14.1 Hz, 1 H), 3.53 (dd, J= 9.1, 3.3 Hz, 1 H), 3.19 (d, J= 14.1 Hz, 1 H), 3.09 (s, 3 H), 3.03 (dd, J= 15.4, 10.4 Hz, 1 H), 2.79 (dt, J= 17.0, 3.5, 3.5 Hz, 1 H), 2.69 (ddd, J= 17.0, 10.7, 6.3 Hz, 1 H), 2.44-2.36 (m, 1 H), 2.24-2.12 (m, 2 H), 2.09 (ddd, J= 15.5, 9.6, 2.3 Hz, 1 H), 1.97 (dt, J = 13.6, 3.6, 3.6 Hz, 1 H), 1.91-1.80 (m, 4 H), 1.80-1.66 (m, 3 H), 1.38 (td, J= 12.3, 12.3, 3.5 Hz, 1 H), 1.33 (d, J= 7.2 Hz, 3 H), 0.95 (d, J= 6.8 Hz, 3 H); [cc]D (24°C, c = 0.0103 g/mL, DCM) = – 86.07 °; m.p. 222.6 – 226.0°C; FT-IR (KBr): 3230 (b), 2931 (b), 1688 (s), 1598 (s), 1570 (s), 1505 (s), 1435 (s), 1384 (s), 1335 (s), 1307 (s), 1259 (s), 1155 (s), 1113 (s), 877 (s), 736 (s) cm“1; Anal. Calcd. for C33H41CIN2O5S: C, 64.64; H, 6.74; N, 4.57; CI, 5.78; S, 5.23. Found: C, 64.71; H, 6.81; N, 4.65; CI, 5.81; S, 5.11; HRMS (ESI) m/z 613.2493 [M + H]+ (C33H41CIN2O5S requires 613.2503).

The mother liquor was concentrated under reduced pressure and further purification of the residue by flash column chromatography (200 g S1O2, 10% and 10% to 45% and 45% EtO A/Hex w/ 0.3% AcOH, gradient elution) provided additional pure product (3.1 g, 5.1 mmol, 2.6%) as an off-white solid.

EXAMPLE 5. (1S,3’R,6’R,7’S,8’Z,1 l’S,12’R)-6-CHLORO-7′-METHOXY-11 ‘, 12 ‘-DIMETHYL-3 ,4-DIHYDRO-2H, 15 Ή-SPIRO [NAPHTHALENE- 1 ,22’-[20]OXA[13]THIA[1,14]DIAZATETRACYCLO[14.7.2.036.01924]PENTACOS A[8, 16, 18,24]TETRAEN]- 15′-ONE 13 ‘, 13’-DIOXIDE

To a solution of (1S,3’R,6’R,7’S,8’Z,1 l’S,12’R)-6-chloro-7′-hydroxy-i r,12′-dimethyl-3,4-dihydro-2h,15’h-spiro[naphthalene-l,22′-[20]oxa[13]thia[l,14]diazatetracyclo[14.7.2.036.01924]pentacosa[8,16,18,24]tetra en]-15′-one 13 ‘,13 ‘-dioxide (Example 3; 34 mg; 0.057 mmol) in THF cooled to 0°C was added sodium hydride (60% dispersion in mineral oil; 22.70 mg, 0.567 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 20 min, and then Mel (0.018 mL, 0.284 mmol) was added. The reaction mixture was stirred at ambient temperature for 1 h, then quenched with aqueous NH4CI, and diluted with

EtOAc. The organic layer was dried over MgS04 and concentrated. Purification of the crude material via column chromatography eluting with 10-40 % EtOAc (containing 0.3% AcOH)/heptanes provided (lS,3’R,6’R,7’S,8’Z,l l’S,12’R)-6-chloro-7′-methoxy-l l’,12′-dimethyl-3,4-dihydro-2h,15’h-spiro[naphthalene-l,22′-[20]oxa[13]thia[l,14]diazatetracyclo[14.7.2.036.01924]pentacosa[8,16,18,24]tetra en]-15′-one 13 ‘,13 ‘-dioxide (34 mg, 0.054 mmol, 95% yield). ¾ NMR (400MHz, CD2C12) δ 8.29 (s, 1H), 7.71 (d, J=8.4 Hz, 1H), 7.17 (dd, J=2.2, 8.5 Hz, 1H), 7.09 (d, J=2.3 Hz, 1H), 7.01 (dd, J=1.6, 7.8 Hz, 1H), 6.92 (d, J=8.2 Hz, 1H), 6.88 (s, 1H), 5.90 – 5.80 (m, 1H), 5.54 (t, J=10.2 Hz, 1H), 4.14 – 4.04 (m, 3H), 3.87 – 3.79 (m, 2H), 3.73 (d, J=14.7 Hz, 1H), 3.32 (d, J=14.5 Hz, 1H), 3.23 (s, 3H), 3.28 -3.19 (m, 1H), 2.82 – 2.73 (m, 2H), 2.62 (t, J=10.6 Hz, 1H), 2.55 – 2.44 (m, 1H), 2.29 – 2.21 (m, 1H), 2.10 – 1.97 (m, 4H), 1.97 – 1.80 (m, 4H), 1.75 (dd, J=8.9, 18.7 Hz, 1H), 1.48 (d, J=7.4 Hz, 3H), 1.43 (br. s., 1H), 1.08 (d, J=6.5 Hz, 3H). MS (ESI, +ve ion) m/z 613.3 (M+H)+.

//////////////AMG 176, PHASE 1,  Amgen, Mcl-1 inhibitor,  tumors

Last talk in AM 1st time disclosures is from Sean Brown of @Amgen on an Mcl-1 inhibitor to treat tumors

str1

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