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ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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Selinexor


Skeletal formula of selinexor

Selinexor.png

Selinexor

セリネクソル

KPT-330

UNII-31TZ62FO8F

(Z)-3-[3-[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl]-N‘-pyrazin-2-ylprop-2-enehydrazide

Formula
C17H11F6N7O
CAS
1393477-72-9
Mol weight
443.306

FDA, APPROVED 2019/7/3, Xpovio

CAS : 1393477-72-9 (free base)   1421923-86-5 (E-isomer)   1621865-82-4 (E-isomer)   Unknown (HCl)

Treatment of cancer, Antineoplastic, Nuclear export inhibitor

Selinexor (INN, trade name Xpovio; codenamed KPT-330) is a selective inhibitor of nuclear export used as an anti-cancer drug. It works by quasi-irreversibly binding to exportin 1 and thus blocking the transport of several proteins involved in cancer-cell growth from the cell nucleus to the cytoplasm, which ultimately arrests the cell cycle and leads to apoptosis.[1] It is the first drug with this mechanism of action.[2][3]

Selinexor was granted accelerated approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in July 2019, for use as a drug of last resort in people with multiple myeloma. In clinical trials, it was associated with a high incidence of severe side effects, including low platelet counts and low blood sodium levels.[3][4]

Selinexor is an orally available, small molecule inhibitor of CRM1 (chromosome region maintenance 1 protein, exportin 1 or XPO1), with potential antineoplastic activity. Selinexor modifies the essential CRM1-cargo binding residue cysteine-528, thereby irreversibly inactivates CRM1-mediated nuclear export of cargo proteins such as tumor suppressor proteins (TSPs), including p53, p21, BRCA1/2, pRB, FOXO, and other growth regulatory proteins. As a result, this agent, via the approach of selective inhibition of nuclear export (SINE), restores endogenous tumor suppressing processes to selectively eliminate tumor cells while sparing normal cells. CRM1, the major export factor for proteins from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, is overexpressed in a variety of cancer cell types.

Selinexor has been used in trials studying the treatment of AML, Glioma, Sarcoma, Leukemia, and Advanced, among others.

 Selinexor, also known as KPT-330, is an orally bioavailable, potent and selective XPO1/CRM1 Inhibitor. Selinexor is effective in acquired resistance to ibrutinib and synergizes with ibrutinib in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Selinexor potentiates the antitumor activity of gemcitabine in human pancreatic cancer through inhibition of tumor growth, depletion of the antiapoptotic proteins, and induction of apoptosis. Selinexor has strong activity against primary AML cells while sparing normal stem and progenitor cells.

SYN

Medical uses

Selinexor is restricted for use in combination with the steroid dexamethasone in people with relapsed or refractory multiple myelomawhich has failed to respond to at least four or five other therapies (so-called “quad-refractory” or “penta-refractory” myeloma),[5] for whom no other treatment options are available.[3][4] It is the first drug to be approved for this indication.[6]

Adverse effects

In the clinical study used to support FDA approval, selinexor was associated with high rates of pancytopenia, including leukopenia(28%), neutropenia (34%, severe in 21%), thrombocytopenia (74%, severe in 61% of patients), and anemia (59%).[4][7] The most common non-hematological side effects were gastrointestinal reactions (nausea, anorexia, vomiting, and diarrhea), hyponatremia (low blood sodium levels, occurring in up to 40% of patients), and fatigue.[7][8] More than half of all patients who received the drug developed infections, including fatal cases of sepsis.[7] However, these data are from an open-label trial, and thus cannot be compared to placebo or directly attributed to treatment.

Mechanism of action

Schematic illustration of the Ran cycle of nuclear transport. Selinexor inhibits this process at the nuclear export receptor (upper right).

Like other so-called selective inhibitors of nuclear export (SINEs), selinexor works by binding to exportin 1 (also known as CRM1). CRM1 is a karyopherin which performs nuclear transport of several proteins, including tumor suppressorsoncogenes, and proteins involved in governing cell growth, from the cell nucleus to the cytoplasm; it is often overexpressed and its function misregulated in several types of cancer.[1] By restoring nuclear transport of these proteins to normal, SINEs lead to a buildup of tumor suppressors in the nucleus of malignant cells and reduce levels of oncogene products which drive cell proliferation. This ultimately leads to cell cycle arrest and death of cancer cells by apoptosis.[1][2][7] In vitro, this effect appeared to spare normal (non-malignant) cells.[1][8]

Because CRM1 is a pleiotropic gene, inhibiting it affects many different systems in the body, which explains the high incidence of adverse reactions to selinexor.[2] Thrombocytopenia, for example, is a mechanistic and dose-dependent effect, occurring because selinexor causes a buildup of the transcription factor STAT3 in the nucleus of hematopoietic stem cells, preventing their differentiation into mature megakaryocytes (platelet-producing cells) and thus slowing production of new platelets.[2]

Chemistry

Selinexor is a fully synthetic small-molecule compound, developed by means of a structure-based drug design process known as induced-fit docking. It binds to a cysteine residue in the nuclear export signal groove of exportin 1. Although this bond is covalent, it is not irreversible.[1]

History

Selinexor was developed by Karyopharm Therapeutics of Newton, Massachusetts, a pharmaceutical company devoted entirely to the development of drugs that target nuclear transport. It was approved by the FDA on July 3, 2019, on the basis of a single uncontrolled clinical trial. The decision was controversial, and overruled the previous recommendation of an FDA Advisory Panel which had voted 8–5 against approving the drug, due to concerns about efficacy and toxicity.[3]

Research

Under the codename KPT-330, selinexor was tested in several preclinical animal models of cancer, including pancreatic cancerbreast cancernon-small-cell lung cancerlymphomas, and acute and chronic leukemias.[9] In humans, early clinical trials (phase I) have been conducted in non-Hodgkin lymphomablast crisis, and a wide range of advanced or refractory solid tumors, including colon cancerhead and neck cancermelanomaovarian cancer, and prostate cancer.[9] Compassionate use in patients with acute myeloid leukemia has also been reported.[9]

The pivotal clinical trial which served to support approval of selinexor for people with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma was an open-label study of 122 patients known as the STORM trial.[7] In all of the enrolled patients, selinexor was used as fifth-line or sixth-line therapy after conventional chemotherapytargeted therapy with bortezomibcarfilzomiblenalidomidepomalidomide, and a monoclonal antibody (daratumumab or isatuximab)[5]; nearly all had also undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplantation to no effect.[7] The overall response rate was 25%, and no patients had a complete response.[7] However, the response rate was higher in patients with high-risk myeloma (cytogenetic abnormalities associated with a worse prognosis).[5] The median time to progression was 2.3 months overall and 5 months in patients who responded to the drug.[2]

As of 2019, phase I/II and III trials are ongoing,[3][9] including the use of selinexor in other cancers and in combinations with other drugs used for multiple myeloma.[2]

PATENT

WO 2013019561

WO 2013019548

US 9079865

PATENT

WO 2016025904 A

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2016025904A1/tr

International Publication No. WO 2013/019548 describes a series of compounds that are indicated to have inhibitory activity against chromosomal region maintenance 1 (CRM1, also referred to as exportin 1 or XPO1) and to be useful in the treatment of disorders associated with CRM1 activity, such as cancer. (Z)-3-(3-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-N’-(pyrazin-2-yl)acrylohydrazide (also referred to as selinexor) is one of the compounds disclosed in International Publication No. WO 2013/019548. Selinexor has the chemical structure shown in Structural Formula I:

Example 1. Preparation of Selinexor Lot No.1305365 (Form A).

[00274] Selinexor for Lot No. 1305365 was made in accordance with the following reaction scheme:

[00275] A solution of propane phosphonic acid anhydride (T3P®, 50% in ethyl acetate, 35Kg) in THF (24.6Kg) was cooled to about -40 °C. To this solution was added a solution of KG1 (13.8Kg) and diisopropylethylamine (12.4Kg) in tetrahydrofuran (THF, 24.6Kg). The resulting mixture was stirred at about -40°C for approximately 2.5 hours.

[00276] In a separate vessel, KJ8 (4.80Kg) was mixed with THF (122.7Kg), and the resulting mixture cooled to about -20°C. The cold activated ester solution was then added to the KJ8 mixture with stirring, and the reaction was maintained at about -20°C. The mixture was warmed to about 5°C, water (138.1Kg) was added and the temperature adjusted to about 20°C. After agitating for about an hour, the lower phase was allowed to separate from the mixture and discarded. The upper layer was diluted with ethyl acetate (EtOAc). The organic phase was then washed three times with potassium phosphate dibasic solution (~150Kg), then with water (138.6Kg).

[00277] The resulting organic solution was concentrated under reduced pressure to 95L, EtOAc (186.6Kg) was added and the distillation repeated to a volume of 90L. Additional EtOAc (186.8Kg) was added and the distillation repeated a third time to a volume of 90L. The batch was filtered to clarify, further distilled to 70L, then heated to about 75°C, and slowly cooled to 0 to 5°C. The resulting slurry was filtered and the filter cake washed with a mixture of EtOAc (6.3Kg) and toluene (17.9Kg) before being dried in a vacuum oven to provide selinexor designated Lot No. 1305365 (Form A).

Example 2. Preparation of Selinexor Lot No.1341-AK-109-2 (Form A).

[00278] The acetonitrile solvate of selinexor was prepared in accordance with Example 6.

[00279] The acetonitrile solvate of selinexor (2.7g) was suspended in a mixture of isopropanol (IPA, 8mL) and water (8mL), and the resulting mixture heated to 65 to 70 °C to effect dissolution. The solution was cooled to 45 °C, and water (28mL) was added over 15 minutes, maintaining the temperature between 40 and 45 °C. The slurry was cooled to 20 to 25 °C over an hour, then further cooled to 0 to 5 °C and held at that temperature for 30 minutes before being filtered. The filter cake was washed with 20% v/v IPA in water and the product dried under suction overnight, then in vacuo (40°C).

Example 3. Preparation of SelinexorSelinexorSelinexor Lot No. PC-14-005 (Form A).

[00280] The acetonitrile solvate of selinexor (Form D) was prepared in accordance with the procedure described in Example 6.

[00281] The acetonitrile solvate of selinexor (1.07Kg) was suspended in a mixture of IPA (2.52Kg) and water (3.2Kg) and the mixture heated to 70 to 75 °C to dissolve. The temperature was then adjusted to 40 to 45 °C and held at that temperature for 30 minutes. Water (10.7Kg) was added while maintaining the temperature at 40 to 45 °C, then the batch was cooled to 20 to 25 °C and agitated at that temperature for 4 hours before being further cooled to 0 to 5 °C. After a further hour of agitation, the slurry was filtered and the filter cake washed with a cold mixture of IPA (0.84Kg) and water (4.28Kg) before being dried.

Example 4. Preparation of SelinexorSelinexorSelinexor Lot No. PC-14-009 (Form A).

[00282] The acetonitrile solvate of selinexor (Form D) was prepared in accordance with the procedure described in Example 6.

[00283] The acetonitrile solvate of selinexor (1.5Kg) was suspended in IPA (3.6Kg) and water (4.5Kg) and warmed to 37 to 42 °C with gentle agitation. The suspension was agitated at that temperature for 4 hours, and was then cooled to 15 to 20 °C over 1 hour. Water (15.1Kg) was added, maintaining the temperature, then the agitation was continued for 1 hour and the batch was filtered. The filter cake was washed with a mixture of IPA (1.2Kg) and water (6Kg), then dried under a flow of nitrogen.

Example 5. Preparation of Selinexor Lot Nos.1339-BS-142-1, 1339-BS-142-2 and PC-14-008 (Form A).

[00284] A reactor, under nitrogen, was charged with KG1 (1Kg, 1.0 Eq), KJ8 (0.439 Kg, 1.4 Eq) and MeTHF (7L, 7 parts with respect to KG1). Diisopropylethylamine (0.902Kg, 2.45 Eq with respect to KG1) was added to the reaction mixture at -20 °C to -25 °C with a MeTHF rinse. To the reaction mixture, 50% T3P® in ethyl acetate (2.174Kg, 1.2 Eq with respect to KG1) was then charged, maintaining the temperature at -20 °C to -25 °C with a MeTHF rinse. After the completion of the addition, the reaction mixture was stirred briefly

and then warmed to 20 °C to 25 °C. Upon completion, the reaction mixture was washed first with water (5L, 5 parts with respect to KG1) and then with dilute brine (5L, 5 parts with respect to KG1). The organic layer was concentrated by vacuum distillation to a volume of 5 L (5 parts with respect to KG1), diluted with acetonitrile (15L, 15 parts with respect to KG1) at approximately 40 °C and concentrated again (5L, 5 parts with respect to KG1). After solvent exchange to acetonitrile, the reaction mixture was then heated to approximately 60 °C to obtain a clear solution. The reaction mixture was then cooled slowly to 0-5 °C, held briefly and filtered. The filter cake was washed with cold acetonitrile (2L, 5 parts with respect to KG1) and the filter cake was then dried under a stream of nitrogen to provide the acetonitrile solvate of selinexor (Form D) as a slightly off-white solid.

[00285] Form D of selinexor (0.9Kg) was suspended in IPA (2.1Kg, 2.7L, 3 parts with respect to Form D) and water (2.7Kg, 2.7L, 3 parts with respect to Form D) and warmed to approximately 40 °C. The resulting suspension was agitated for about 4 hours, selinexor, cooled to approximately 20 °C, and diluted with additional water (9Kg, 10 parts with respect to Form D). The mixture was stirred for a further 4-6 hours, then filtered, and the cake washed with a mixture of 20% IPA and water (4.5L, 5 parts with respect to Form D). The filter cake was then dried under vacuum to provide selinexor designated Lot No. PC-14-008 as a white crystalline powder with a >99.5% a/a UPLC purity (a/a=area to area of all peaks; UPLC-ultra performance HPLC).

Example 6. Preparation of Selinexor Lot No.1405463 (Form A).

[00286] Selinexor Lot No. 1405463 was prepared in accordance with the following reaction scheme:

 .

[00287] A reactor was charged with KG1 (15.8Kg), KJ8 (6.9Kg) and MeTHF (90Kg). Diisopropylethylamine (14.2Kg) was added to the reaction mixture over approximately 35 minutes at about -20 °C. Following the addition of the diisopropylethylamine, T3P® (50%

solution in EtAOc, 34.4Kg) was added maintaining the temperature at -20 °C. The mixture stirred to complete the reaction first at -20 °C, then at ambient temperature.

[00288] Upon completion of the reaction, water (79Kg) was added over about 1 hour. The layers were separated and the organic layer was washed with a mixture of water (55Kg) and brine (18Kg), The mixture was filtered, and the methyl-THF/ethyl acetate in the mixture distillatively replaced with acetonitrile (volume of approximately 220L). The mixture was warmed to dissolve the solids, then slowly cooled to 0 to 5 °C before being filtered. The filter cake was washed with acetonitrile to provide the acetonitrile solvate of

selinexorSelinexorSelinexor (Form D).

[00289] The acetonitrile solvate of selinexorSelinexorSelinexor was dried, then mixed with isopropanol (23Kg) and water (55Kg). The slurry was warmed to about 38 °C and held at that temperature for approximately 4 hours before being cooled to 15 to 20 °C. Water (182Kg) was added. After a further 5 hours of agitation, the mixture was filtered and the filter cake washed with a mixture of isopropanol (14Kg) and water (73Kg), before being dried under vacuum (45 °C). The dried product was packaged to provide

selinexorSelinexorSelinexor Lot No. 1405463 (Form A).

Example 7. Polymorphism Studies of Selinexor.

[00290] A comprehensive polymorphism assessment of selinexor was performed in a range of different solvents, solvent mixtures and under a number of experimental conditions based on the solubility of selinexor. Three anhydrous polymorphs of

selinexorSelinexorSelinexor were observed by XRPD investigation, designated Form A, Form B and Form C. Form A is a highly crystalline, high-melting form, having a melting point of 177 °C, and was observed to be stable from a physico-chemical point of view when exposed for 4 weeks to 25 °C/97% relative humidity (RH) and to 40 °C/75% RH. A solvated form of selinexor was also observed in acetonitrile, designated Form D. A competitive slurry experiment confirmed Form A as the stable anhydrous form under the conditions investigated, except in acetonitrile, in which solvate formation was observed. It was further found that in acetonitrile, below 50 °C, only Form D is observed, at 50 °C both Form A and Form D are observed, and at 55 °C, Form A is observed .

PATENT

CN 106831731

https://patents.google.com/patent/CN106831731A/en

Selinexor is an orally bioavailable selective nuclear export inhibitors, 2012 for the first time in clinical, so far carried out a total of 21 trials, indications include chronic myelogenous leukemia, acute myelogenous leukemia, acute lymphatic leukemia, prostate cancer, melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, glioma, neuroblastoma into, gynecological cancer, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, squamous cell carcinoma, colorectal cancer and the like. May 2014, FDA granted orphan drug designation Selinexor treatment of acute myeloid leukemia and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, in June 2014, EMA is also granted orphan drug designation Selinexor treatment of both diseases. January 2015, received FDA orphan drug to treat multiple myeloma identified.

[0003] Currently, the synthesis process has been disclosed, the following reaction equation:

Figure CN106831731AD00041

[0006] wherein the compound is 5 Selinexor drug.

[0007] In this method, however, easy to produce Intermediate 1-2 double bond is easily reversed when synthetically produced from trans impurities, in addition to more difficult to impact yield; Intermediate 3 Intermediate 4 Synthesis APIs 5 when required ultra-low temperature, and the product was purified by column required, only a yield of 20%.

SUMMARY

[0008] The object of the present invention to provide a novel compound Selinexor drug synthesis of 5, in order to solve technical problems.

[0009] – novel synthetic method of Se species I inexor drug, comprising the steps of:

Synthesis [0010] A, Compound 7

[0011] Compound 6, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate mixture, stirred and dissolved, compound 4, T3P (n-propyl phosphoric anhydride) and DIPEA (N, N- diisopropylethylamine) at a low temperature; the reaction was stirred for 25-35min at a low temperature, dichloromethane and water were added after the completion of the reaction, liquid separation, the organic phase was evaporated to dryness to give crude compound 7, crude without purification cast down;

[0012] B, Synthesis of Compound 8

[0013] the compound obtained in Step 7, and mixed sodium iodide acetic acid, warmed to 110-120 ° C, the reaction 2.5-3.5h; After completion of the reaction, the system cooled to room temperature, water and dichloromethane were added, stirred for 8 after -15min, standing layered organic phase was washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate and saturated sodium chloride, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and distilled to give crude compound 8, was dissolved in DMF (dimethyl fumarate) to give compound in DMF 8;

Synthesis [0014] C, of Compound 5

[0015] Compound 1, DBAC0 (triethylenediamine), the DMF mixed and dissolved with stirring, dropwise adding to the reaction system of the compound obtained in DMF step 8, after the addition was complete, stirring was continued for 3-4 hours; the reaction after completion, water and ethyl acetate were added to the system, the organic phase is evaporated to dryness and petroleum ether and recrystallized from ethyl acetate to give compound 5.

[0016] Preferably, said step A, the low temperature is 0-2 ° C.

[0017] Preferably, said step B in DMF, the crude compound 8 concentration of less than 1%.

[0018] The novel synthetic methods of the present invention Selinexor drug, the chemical equation is as follows:

Figure CN106831731AD00051

[0020] The present invention has the following advantages: novel synthetic method Selinexor drug of the present invention to overcome the conventional synthesis process, is easy to produce trans impurities, more difficult in addition, the influence the yield and the need for ultra-low temperature, and the product requires problems purified by column, the yield is very low, reducing the synthetic steps, increased yield, there is provided a new process for the synthesis of the drug Selinexor.

[0021] In addition to the above-described objects, features and advantages of the present invention as well as other objects, features and advantages. Below the invention will be described in further detail present.

Example 1

[0024] – novel synthetic method of Se species I inexor drug, comprising the steps of:

Synthesis [0025] A, Compound 7

[0026] 50ml three □ flask, 15ml of dichloromethane and 0.2g compound 6,15ml ethyl acetate, stirred and dissolved, was added 0.3g of compound 4 and 3gT3P, 0.75gDIPEA at 0 ° C; the system at 0 ° C the reaction was stirred for 30min, 50ml of dichloromethane and 30ml of water were added after the completion of the reaction, liquid separation, the organic phase was evaporated to dryness to give crude compound 7, crude without purification cast down;

[0027] B, Synthesis of Compound 8

[0028] 50ml three-necked flask, added the compound obtained in Step 7,40ml of glacial acetic acid and 1.38g of sodium iodide was heated to 115. (:, The reaction 3H; After completion of the reaction, cooled to room temperature system, the system will be transferred to 500ml flask, 50ml of water was added and IOOml dichloromethane, after stirring IOmin, standing separation, the organic phase was washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate and saturated washed with sodium chloride, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and distilled to give crude compound 8, was dissolved in IOmL DMF to give DMF solution of compound 8;

Synthesis [0029] C, of Compound 5

[0030] After 50ml 3-necked flask was added 0.2g compound 1,0.24gDBAC0,20mlDMF, dissolved with stirring, dropwise adding to the reaction system in DMF compound obtained in Step 8, after the addition was complete, stirring continued for 3.5 hours; after completion of the reaction, 20ml water was added to the system and 50ml ethyl acetate, the organic phase is evaporated to dryness and petroleum ether to ethyl acetate to give 0.158g of compound 5, yield 50.9%.

[0031] Example 2

[0032] – new type Se Iinexor drug synthesis, comprising the steps of:

Synthesis [0033] A, Compound 7

[0034] 50ml three □ flask, 15ml of dichloromethane and 0.2g compound 6,15ml ethyl acetate, stirred and dissolved, was added 0.3g of compound 4 and 3gT3P, 0.75gDIPEA at 1 ° C; system at 1 ° C the reaction was stirred for 35min, 50ml of dichloromethane and 30ml of water were added after the completion of the reaction, liquid separation, the organic phase was evaporated to dryness to give crude compound 7, crude without purification cast down;

[0035] B, Synthesis of Compound 8

Three-neck flask [0036] 50ml of addition of the compound obtained in Step 7,40ml glacial acetic acid and 1.38g of sodium iodide was heated to 120. (:, The reaction for 2.5 h; After completion of the reaction, cooled to room temperature system, the system will be transferred to 500ml flask, 60ml water and 120ml dichloromethane was added, after stirring for 15min, allowed to stand for separation, the organic phase was washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate and washed with saturated sodium chloride, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and distilled to give crude compound 8, 12mLDMF was dissolved in DMF to give a solution of compound 8;

Synthesis [0037] C, of Compound 5

[0038] After 50ml 3-necked flask was added 0.2g compound 1,0.24gDBAC0,20mlDMF, dissolved with stirring, dropwise adding to the reaction system of the compound obtained in DMF step 8, after the addition was complete, stirring continued for 3 hours; after completion of the reaction, 25ml of water and 50ml of ethyl acetate was added to the system, the organic phase is evaporated to dryness and petroleum ether to ethyl acetate to give 0.152g of compound 5, yield 49.0% billion

[0039] Example 3

[0040] – novel synthetic method of Se species I inexor drug, comprising the steps of:

Synthesis [0041] A, Compound 7

Three [0042] 50ml of flask, 15ml of dichloromethane and 0.2g compound 6,15ml ethyl acetate, stirred and dissolved, was added 0.3g of compound 4 and 3gT3P, 0.75gDIPEA at 2 ° C; system from 0 ° C the reaction was stirred for 25min, 40ml of dichloromethane and 35ml of water were added after the completion of the reaction, liquid separation, the organic phase was evaporated to dryness to give crude compound 7, crude without purification cast down;

[0043] B, Synthesis of Compound 8

Three-neck flask [0044] 50ml of addition of the compound obtained in Step 7,35ml glacial acetic acid and 1.38g of sodium iodide was heated to 110. (:, The reaction for 3.5 h; After completion of the reaction, cooled to room temperature system, the system will be transferred to 500ml flask, 50ml of water was added and dichloromethane IOOml After Smin of stirring, standing separation, the organic phase was washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate and washed with saturated sodium chloride, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and distilled to give crude compound 8, was dissolved in IOmL DMF to give DMF solution of compound 8;

Synthesis [0045] C, of Compound 5

[0046] 50ml three-neck flask was added 0.2g compound 1,0.24gDBA⑶, 20mlDMF, and dissolved with stirring, dropwise adding to the reaction system of the compound obtained in DMF step 8, after the addition was complete, stirring was continued for 4 hours; after completion of the reaction, 20ml of water and 40ml ethyl acetate were added to the system, the organic phase is evaporated to dryness and petroleum ether to ethyl acetate to give 0.155g of compound 5, yield 49.9% billion

PATENT

WO 2017118940

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2017118940&tab=PCTDESCRIPTION

The drug compound having the adopted name “Selinexor” has chemical name:(Z)-3-(3-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-IH-l,2,4-triazol-1 -yl)-N’-(pyrazin-2yl) acrylohydrazide as below.

Figure imgf000003_0001

Selinexor (KPT-330) is a first-in-class, oral Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export / SINE™ compound. Selinexor functions by binding with and inhibiting the nuclear export protein XP01 (also called CRM1 ), leading to the accumulation of tumor suppressor proteins in the cell nucleus. This reinitiates and amplifies their tumor suppressor function and is believed to lead to the selective induction of apoptosis in cancer cells, while largely sparing normal cells. Over 1 ,200 patients have been treated with Selinexor in company and investigator-sponsored Phase 1 and Phase 2 clinical trials in advanced hematologic malignancies and solid tumors. Karyopharm has initiated four later-phase clinical trials of Selinexor, including one in older patients with acute myeloid leukemia (SOPRA), one in patients with Richter’s transformation (SIRRT), one in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (SADAL) and a single-arm trial of Selinexor and lose-dose dexamethasone in patients with multiple myeloma (STORM). Patients may receive a twice-weekly combination of Selinexor in combination with low dose dexamethasone. Randomized 1 :1 , Selinexor will be dosed either at 60mg + dexamethasone or at 100 mg + dexamethasone.

US 8999996 B2 discloses Selinexor and a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, pharmaceutical compositions and use for treating disorders associated with CRM1 activity. Further, it discloses preparative methods for the preparation of compounds disclosed therein including Selinexor by reacting (Z)-3-(3- (3,5-

bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-IH-l,2,4-triazol-l-yl)acrylic acid in 1 :1 CH2CI2: AcOEt with 2-Hydrazinopyrazine at -40 °C followed by addition of T3P[Propylphosphonic anhydride] (50%) and DIPEA. After 30 minutes, the reaction mixture was concentrated and the crude oil was purified by preparative TLC using 5% MeOH in CH2CI2 as mobile phase (under ammonia atmosphere) to afford 40 mg of Selinexor with purity: 95.78%. However, it is not disclosed about the nature of the compound obtained therein.

WO 2016025904 A1 discloses various crystalline forms of Selinexor namely Form A, Form B, Form C, Form D, compositions and MoU thereof for the treatment of disorder associated with CRM1 activity and their preparative processes.

Prior art process for the preparation of Selinexor suffers from disadvantages interms of process such as the use of lengthy procedures to practice and resulting in low yields, which may not be viable at industrial scale. Synthetic product obtained therein has very low purity and contains significant amounts of unreacted starting materials and trans-isomer of Selinexor, which are further purified by time consuming and expensive chromatographic separations leading to loss of yield. Hence, there remains a need for improved process for the preparation of Selinexor which is industrially viable and reproducible. Particularly, it is desirable to have a process avoiding purification steps still meeting desired pharmaceutical quality.

EXAMPLES

Example-1 : Preparation of isopropyl (Z)-3-(3-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl) phenyl)-1 H- -triazol-1 -yl)acrylate

Figure imgf000061_0001

3-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-1 H-1 ,2,4-triazole (250 g) was dissolved in tetrahydrofuran (2 I) under nitrogen atmosphere at 27°C and cooled to -5°C. 1 ,4- diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO, 1 99.5 g) was added to the reaction mixture at -5°C and stirred at the same temperature for 40 minutes. Isopropyl (Z)-3- iodoacrylate (234.8 g in 500 mL of tetrahydrofuran) was added drop wise to the reaction mixture in 1 hour 1 0 minutes at -5°C and stirred at the same temperature for 2 hours. After the completion of the reaction, the reaction mixture was added to ice cold water (2 I) and separated the organic layer. The aqueous layer was extracted with ethyl acetate (2 x 1 I). The combined organic layer was washed with brine solution (1 I) and dried over sodium sulphate. The dried solution was evaporated completely under vacuum at 40°C to obtain crude product with HPLC purity of 93.53% The crude product was triturated with hexane (700 mL) and stirred for 20 minutes at -30°C and filtered the solid. Trituration of crude product with hexane was repeated for three times and dried under vacuum to obtain the title compound with HPLC purity of 97.46% and trans-isomer content of 0.66%. Yield: 297 g Example-2: Preparation of (Z)-3-(3-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-1 H-1 ,2,4- triazol-1 -yl)acr lic acid.

Figure imgf000062_0001

To a mixture of tetrahydrofuran (300 mL) and water (300 mL), Isopropyl (Z)-3-(3- (3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-1 H-1 ,2,4-triazol-1 -yl)acrylate (30 g) was added and cooled to 0°C. Lithium hydroxide monohydrate (16.03 g) under cooling condition at 0°C was added to the reaction mixture and stirred the reaction mixture at same temperature for 7 hours. After completion of the reaction, 2 N HCI (180 mL) was added to adjust the pH of the reaction mixture to 2 and extracted it with ethyl acetate (300 mL). Organic layer was dried over sodium sulphate and evaporated under vacuum at 40°C. The crude compound was stirred with hexane (150 mL) and filtered the solid. Dried the compound under vacuum at 40°C for 0.5 hour to obtain the title compound with HPLC purity of 97.25% with trans-isomer content of 3 %. Yield: 24 g

Example-3: Purification of (Z)-3-(3-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-1 H-1 ,2,4- tria

Figure imgf000062_0002

A mixture of (Z)-3-(3-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-1 H-1 ,2,4-triazol-1 -yl)acrylic acid (24 g) and acetone (240 mL) was stirred for complete dissolution at 30°C. Dicyclohexyl amine (1 5 mL) was added drop wise for 20 minutes under stirring at the same temperature. Acetone (50 mL) was added to the reaction mixture and stirred for 2 hours at 27°C. Filtered the solid and washed with hot acetone (150 mL) and dried in vacuum drier at 30°C for 1 hour to obtain the Dicyclohexyl amine salt of (Z)-3-(3-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-1 H-1 ,2,4-triazol-1 -yl)acrylic acid. To the above salt, dichloromethane (150 mL) and water (1 00 mL) was added and stirred for complete dissolution at 30and adjusted the pH of the solution with 2 N sulphuric acid (100 mL) to 2. Filtered the reaction mixture and washed the product with water (1 00 mL) and then with hexane (150 mL). The solid was dried under vacuum at 40°C for 0.5 hour to obtain title compound with HPLC purity 99.98% with no detectable content of trans-isomer. Yield: 17 g

Example-4: Preparation of Selinexor

Figure imgf000063_0001

(Z)-3-(3-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-1 H-1 ,2,4-triazol-1 -yl)acrylic acid (10 g) was combined with a mixture of acetonitrile (1 00 mL) and ethyl acetate (50 mL) then added the 2-hydrazinylpyrazine (3.76 g) and stirred for 5 min. Reaction mixture was cooled to 0°C and diisopropyl ethyl amine (16.63 ml) and then Propylphosphonic anhydride (T3P, 33.31 mL) was added at 0°C and stirred the reaction mixture for 2.5 hours at the same temperature. After completion of the reaction, the reaction mixture was quenched with cold water (100 mL) and extracted the product with ethyl acetate (2 x 150 mL). The combined organic layer was dried over sodium sulphate and evaporated the solvent under vacuum at 40°C to obtain the crude product as yellow syrup. The obtained crude product was combined with dichloromethane (1 00 mL) and filtered the solid and washed with dichloromethane (2 x 50 mL). The solid was dried under vacuum at 40°C to obtain the title compound with purity by HPLC of 99.86%. Yield : 7 g

PATENT
WO 2018129227

References

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  2. Jump up to:a b c d e f Gandhi UH, Senapedis W, Baloglu E, Unger TJ, Chari A, Vogl D; et al. (2018). “Clinical implications of targeting XPO1-mediated nuclear export in multiple myeloma”. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk18 (5): 335–345. doi:10.1016/j.clml.2018.03.003PMID 29610030.
  3. Jump up to:a b c d e Feuerstein, Adam (2019-07-03). “FDA approves new multiple myeloma drug despite toxicity concerns”STAT. Retrieved 2019-07-06.
  4. Jump up to:a b c Mulcahy, Nick (2019-07-03). “FDA Approves Selinexor for Refractory Multiple Myeloma”Medscape. Retrieved 2019-07-06.
  5. Jump up to:a b c Chim CS, Kumar SK, Orlowski RZ, Cook G, Richardson PG, Gertz MA; et al. (2018). “Management of relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma: novel agents, antibodies, immunotherapies and beyond”Leukemia32 (2): 252–262. doi:10.1038/leu.2017.329PMC 5808071PMID 29257139.
  6. ^ Barrett, Jennifer (2019-07-03). “New Treatment for Refractory Multiple Myeloma Granted FDA Approval”Pharmacy Times. Retrieved 2019-07-07.
  7. Jump up to:a b c d e f g “XPOVIO Prescribing Information” (PDF). Newton, MA: Karyopharm Therapeutics. 2019-07-03. Retrieved 2019-07-06.
  8. Jump up to:a b Chen C, Siegel D, Gutierrez M, Jacoby M, Hofmeister CC, Gabrail N (2018). “Safety and efficacy of selinexor in relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma and Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia”. Blood131 (8): 855–863. doi:10.1182/blood-2017-08-797886PMID 29203585.
  9. Jump up to:a b c d Parikh K, Cang S, Sekhri A, Liu D; et al. (2014). “Selective inhibitors of nuclear export (SINE)—a novel class of anti-cancer agents”J Hematol Oncol7: 78. doi:10.1186/s13045-014-0078-0PMC 4200201PMID 25316614.

REFERENCES

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7: Azmi AS, Li Y, Muqbil I, Aboukameel A, Senapedis W, Baloglu E, Landesman Y, Shacham S, Kauffman MG, Philip PA, Mohammad RM. Exportin 1 (XPO1) inhibition leads to restoration of tumor suppressor miR-145 and consequent suppression of pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and migration. Oncotarget. 2017 Jul 17;8(47):82144-82155. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.19285. eCollection 2017 Oct 10. PubMed PMID: 29137251; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5669877.

8: Chen Y, Zhang L, Huang J, Hong X, Zhao J, Wang Z, Zhang K. Dasatinib and chemotherapy in a patient with early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia and NUP214-ABL1 fusion: A case report. Exp Ther Med. 2017 Nov;14(5):3979-3984. doi: 10.3892/etm.2017.5046. Epub 2017 Aug 28. PubMed PMID: 29067094; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5647690.

9: Body S, Esteve-Arenys A, Miloudi H, Recasens-Zorzo C, Tchakarska G, Moros A, Bustany S, Vidal-Crespo A, Rodriguez V, Lavigne R, Com E, Casanova I, Mangues R, Weigert O, Sanjuan-Pla A, Menéndez P, Marcq B, Picquenot JM, Pérez-Galán P, Jardin F, Roué G, Sola B. Cytoplasmic cyclin D1 controls the migration and invasiveness of mantle lymphoma cells. Sci Rep. 2017 Oct 24;7(1):13946. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-14222-1. PubMed PMID: 29066743; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5654982.

10: Broccoli A, Argnani L, Zinzani PL. Peripheral T-cell lymphomas: Focusing on novel agents in relapsed and refractory disease. Cancer Treat Rev. 2017 Nov;60:120-129. doi: 10.1016/j.ctrv.2017.09.002. Epub 2017 Sep 18. Review. PubMed PMID: 28946015.

11: Soung YH, Kashyap T, Nguyen T, Yadav G, Chang H, Landesman Y, Chung J. Selective Inhibitors of Nuclear Export (SINE) compounds block proliferation and migration of triple negative breast cancer cells by restoring expression of ARRDC3. Oncotarget. 2017 May 18;8(32):52935-52947. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.17987. eCollection 2017 Aug 8. PubMed PMID: 28881784; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5581083.

12: Garg M, Kanojia D, Mayakonda A, Ganesan TS, Sadhanandhan B, Suresh S, S S, Nagare RP, Said JW, Doan NB, Ding LW, Baloglu E, Shacham S, Kauffman M, Koeffler HP. Selinexor (KPT-330) has antitumor activity against anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in vitro and in vivo and enhances sensitivity to doxorubicin. Sci Rep. 2017 Aug 29;7(1):9749. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-10325-x. PubMed PMID: 28852098; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5575339.

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Selinexor
Skeletal formula of selinexor
Clinical data
Trade names Xpovio
Pregnancy
category
  • Known to cause fetal harm
Routes of
administration
Oral
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Protein binding 95%
Metabolism Hepatic oxidation, glucuronidation, and conjugation, by CYP3A4UGTand GST
Elimination half-life 6–8 h
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
DrugBank
UNII
Chemical and physical data
Formula C17H11F6N7O
Molar mass 443.313 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)

Karyopharm’s Selinexor Receives Fast Track Designation from FDA for the Treatment of Patients with Penta-Refractory Multiple Myeloma

NEWTON, Mass., April 10, 2018 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) — Karyopharm Therapeutics Inc. (Nasdaq:KPTI), a clinical-stage pharmaceutical company, today announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted Fast Track designation to the Company’s lead, oral Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE) compound selinexor for the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma who have received at least three prior lines of therapy.  The FDA’s statement, consistent with the design of Karyopharm’s Phase 2b STORM study, noted that the three prior lines of therapy include regimens comprised of an alkylating agent, a glucocorticoid, Velcade® (bortezomib), Kyprolis® (carfilzomib), Revlimid® (lenalidomide), Pomalyst® (pomalidomide) and Darzalex® (daratumumab).  In addition, the patient’s disease must be refractory to at least one proteasome inhibitor (Velcade or Kyprolis), one immunomodulatory agent (Revlimid or Pomalyst), glucocorticoids and to Darzalex, as well as to the most recent therapy.  The Company expects to report top-line data from the STORM study at the end of April 2018.

ChemSpider 2D Image | selinexor | C17H11F6N7O

The FDA’s Fast Track program facilitates the development of drugs intended to treat serious conditions and that have the potential to address unmet medical needs.  A drug program with Fast Track status is afforded greater access to the FDA for the purpose of expediting the drug’s development, review and potential approval.  In addition, the Fast Track program allows for eligibility for Accelerated Approval and Priority Review, if relevant criteria are met, as well as for Rolling Review, which means that a drug company can submit completed sections of its New Drug Application (NDA) for review by FDA, rather than waiting until every section of the NDA is completed before the entire application can be submitted for review.

“The designation of Fast Track for selinexor represents important recognition by the FDA of the potential of this anti-cancer agent to address the significant unmet need in the treatment of patients with penta-refractory myeloma that has continued to progress despite available therapies,” said Sharon Shacham, PhD, MBA, Founder, President and Chief Scientific Officer of Karyopharm.  “We are fully committed to working closely with the FDA as we continue development of this potential new, orally-administered treatment for patients who currently have no other treatment options of proven benefit.”

About the Phase 2b STORM Study

In the multi-center, single-arm Phase 2b STORM (Selinexor Treatment oRefractory Myeloma) study, approximately 122 patients with heavily pretreated, penta-refractory myeloma receive 80mg oral selinexor twice weekly in combination with 20mg low-dose dexamethasone, also dosed orally twice weekly.  Patients with penta-refractory disease are those who have previously received an alkylating agent, a glucocorticoid, two immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) (Revlimid® (lenalidomide) and Pomalyst® (pomalidomide)), two proteasome inhibitors (PIs) (Velcade® (bortezomib) and Kyprolis® (carfilzomib)), and the anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody Darzalex® (daratumumab), and their disease is refractory to at least one PI, at least one IMiD, Darzalex, glucocorticoids and their most recent anti-myeloma therapy.  Overall response rate is the primary endpoint of the study, with duration of response and clinical benefit rate being secondary endpoints.  All responses will be adjudicated by an Independent Review Committee (IRC).

About Selinexor

Selinexor (KPT-330) is a first-in-class, oral Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE) compound. Selinexor functions by binding with and inhibiting the nuclear export protein XPO1 (also called CRM1), leading to the accumulation of tumor suppressor proteins in the cell nucleus. This reinitiates and amplifies their tumor suppressor function and is believed to lead to the selective induction of apoptosis in cancer cells, while largely sparing normal cells. To date, over 2,300 patients have been treated with selinexor, and it is currently being evaluated in several mid- and later-phase clinical trials across multiple cancer indications, including in multiple myeloma in a pivotal, randomized Phase 3 study in combination with Velcade® (bortezomib) and low-dose dexamethasone (BOSTON), in combination with low-dose dexamethasone (STORM) and as a potential backbone therapy in combination with approved therapies (STOMP), and in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (SADAL), and liposarcoma (SEAL), among others. Additional Phase 1, Phase 2 and Phase 3 studies are ongoing or currently planned, including multiple studies in combination with one or more approved therapies in a variety of tumor types to further inform Karyopharm’s clinical development priorities for selinexor. Additional clinical trial information for selinexor is available at www.clinicaltrials.gov.

About Karyopharm Therapeutics

Karyopharm Therapeutics Inc. (Nasdaq:KPTI) is a clinical-stage pharmaceutical company focused on the discovery, development and subsequent commercialization of novel first-in-class drugs directed against nuclear transport and related targets for the treatment of cancer and other major diseases. Karyopharm’s SINE compounds function by binding with and inhibiting the nuclear export protein XPO1 (or CRM1). In addition to single-agent and combination activity against a variety of human cancers, SINE compounds have also shown biological activity in models of neurodegeneration, inflammation, autoimmune disease, certain viruses and wound-healing. Karyopharm, which was founded by Dr. Sharon Shacham, currently has several investigational programs in clinical or preclinical development.

/////////Selinexor, FDA 2019, セリネクソル  ,KPT-330, KPT 330 , KPT330,  AML, Glioma, Sarcoma, Leukemia, Fast Track, CANCER

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Reldesemtiv


Reldesemtiv.png

Image result for Reldesemtiv

Reldesemtiv

CK-2127107

CAS 1345410-31-2

UNII-4S0HBYW6QE, 4S0HBYW6QE

MW 384.4 g/mol, MF C19H18F2N6O

1-[2-({[trans-3-fluoro-1-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutyl]methyl}amino)pyrimidin-5-yl]-1H-pyrrole-3- carboxamide

1-[2-[[3-fluoro-1-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutyl]methylamino]pyrimidin-5-yl]pyrrole-3-carboxamide

Reldesemtiv, also known as CK-2127107, is a skeletal muscle troponin activator (FSTA) and is a potential treatment for people living with debilitating diseases and conditions associated with neuromuscular or non-neuromuscular dysfunction, muscular weakness, and/or muscle fatigue such as SMA, COPD, and ALS.

Cytokinetics , in collaboration with  Astellas , is developing reldesemtiv, the lead from a program of selective fast skeletal muscle troponin activators, in an oral suspension formulation, for the treatment of indications associated with neuromuscular dysfunction, including spinal muscular atrophy and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  • Originator Cytokinetics
  • Developer Astellas Pharma; Cytokinetics
  • Class Pyridines; Pyrimidines; Pyrroles; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action Troponin stimulants
  • Orphan Drug Status Yes – Spinal muscular atrophy
  • Phase II Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; Spinal muscular atrophy
  • Suspended Muscle fatigue
  • No development reported Muscular atrophy
  • 05 May 2019 Safety and efficacy data from the phase II FORTITUDE-ALS trial in Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis presented at the American Academy of Neurology Annual Meeting (AAN-2019)
  • 07 Mar 2019 Cytokinetics completes the phase III FORTITUDE-ALS trial for Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in USA, Australia, Canada, Spain, Ireland and Netherlands (PO) (NCT03160898)
  • 22 Jan 2019 Cytokinetics plans a phase I trial in Healthy volunteers in the first quarter of 2019

Reldesemtiv, a next-generation, orally-available, highly specific small-molecule is being developed by Cytokinetics, in collaboration with Astellas Pharma, for the improvement of skeletal muscle function associated with neuromuscular dysfunction, muscle weakness and/or muscle fatigue in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The drug candidate is a fast skeletal muscle troponin activator (FSTA) or troponin stimulant intended to slow the rate of calcium release from the regulatory troponin complex of fast skeletal muscle fibers. Clinical development for ALS, COPD and SMA is underway in the US, Australia, Canada, Ireland, Netherlands and Spain. No recent reports of development had been identified for phase I development for muscular atrophy in the US. Due to lack of of efficacy determined at interim analysis Cytokinetics suspended phase I trial in muscle fatigue in the elderly.

The cytoskeleton of skeletal and cardiac muscle cells is unique compared to that of all other cells. It consists of a nearly crystalline array of closely packed cytoskeletal proteins called the sarcomere. The sarcomere is elegantly organized as an interdigitating array of thin and thick filaments. The thick filaments are composed of myosin, the motor protein responsible for transducing the chemical energy of ATP hydrolysis into force and directed movement. The thin filaments are composed of actin monomers arranged in a helical array. There are four regulatory proteins bound to the actin filaments, which allows the contraction to be modulated by calcium ions. An influx of intracellular calcium initiates muscle contraction; thick and thin filaments slide past each other driven by repetitive interactions of the myosin motor domains with the thin actin filaments.

[0003] Of the thirteen distinct classes of myosin in human cells, the myosin-II class is responsible for contraction of skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle. This class of myosin is significantly different in amino acid composition and in overall structure from myosin in the other twelve distinct classes. Myosin-II forms homo-dimers resulting in two globular head domains linked together by a long alpha-helical coiled-coiled tail to form the core of the sarcomere’s thick filament. The globular heads have a catalytic domain where the actin binding and ATPase functions of myosin take place. Once bound to an actin filament, the release of phosphate (cf. ADP-Pi to ADP) signals a change in structural conformation of the catalytic domain that in turn alters the orientation of the light-chain binding lever arm domain that extends from the globular head; this movement is termed the powerstroke. This change in orientation of the myosin head in relationship to actin causes the thick filament of which it is a part to move with respect to the thin actin filament to which it is bound. Un-binding of the globular head from the actin filament (Ca2+ regulated) coupled with return of the catalytic domain and light chain to their starting conformation/orientation completes the catalytic cycle, responsible for intracellular movement and muscle contraction.

Tropomyosin and troponin mediate the calcium effect on the interaction on actin and myosin. The troponin complex is comprised of three polypeptide chains: troponin C, which binds calcium ions; troponin I, which binds to actin; and troponin T, which binds to tropomyosin. The skeletal troponin-tropomyosin complex regulates the myosin binding sites extending over several actin units at once.

Troponin, a complex of the three polypeptides described above, is an accessory protein that is closely associated with actin filaments in vertebrate muscle. The troponin complex acts in conjunction with the muscle form of tropomyosin to mediate the

Ca2+ dependency of myosin ATPase activity and thereby regulate muscle contraction. The troponin polypeptides T, I, and C, are named for their tropomyosin binding, inhibitory, and calcium binding activities, respectively. Troponin T binds to tropomyosin and is believed to be responsible for positioning the troponin complex on the muscle thin filament. Troponin I binds to actin, and the complex formed by troponins I and T, and tropomyosin inhibits the interaction of actin and myosin. Skeletal troponin C is capable of binding up to four calcium molecules. Studies suggest that when the level of calcium in the muscle is raised, troponin C exposes a binding site for troponin I, recruiting it away from actin. This causes the tropomyosin molecule to shift its position as well, thereby exposing the myosin binding sites on actin and stimulating myosin ATPase activity.

U.S. Patent No. 8962632 discloses l-(2-((((trans)-3-fluoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutyl)methyl)amino)pyrimidin-5-yl)-lH-pyrrole-3-carboxamide, a next-generation fast skeletal muscle troponin activator (FSTA) as a potential treatment for people living with debilitating diseases and conditions associated with neuromuscular or non-neuromuscular dysfunction, muscular weakness, and/or muscle fatigue.

PATENT

WO 2011133888

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2011133888&recNum=202&docAn=US2011033614&queryString=&maxRec=57668

PATENT

WO2016039367 ,

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2016039367&tab=FULLTEXT

claiming the use of a similar compound for treating stress urinary incontinence.

Compound A is 1- [2-({[trans-3-fluoro-1- (3-fluoropyridin-2-yl) cyclobutyl] methyl} amino) pyrimidin-5-yl] -1H Pyrrole-3-carboxamide, which is the compound described in Example 14 of the aforementioned US Pat. The chemical structure is as shown below.
[Chemical formula 1]

PATENT

WO-2019133605

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2019133605&tab=PCTDESCRIPTION&_cid=P11-JXY4C3-99085-1

Process for preparing reldesemtiv , a myosin, actin, tropomyosin, troponin C, troponin I, troponin T modulator, useful for treating neuromuscular disorders, muscle wasting, claudication and metabolic syndrome.

Scheme 1

[0091] Scheme 1 illustrates a scheme of synthesizing the compound of Formula (1C).

Scheme 2

[0092] Scheme 2 illustrates an alternative scheme of synthesizing the compound of Formula (1C).

M

TFAA DS, toluene

Et

to


HCI, H20

50°C

Scheme 3

[0093] Scheme 3 illustrates a scheme of converting the compound of Formula (1C) to the compound of Formula (II).

H2

Ni Raney

NH3

Scheme 4

[0094] Scheme 4 illustrates a scheme of converting the compound of Formula (II) to the compound of Formula (1).

Examples

[0095] To a flask was added N-methylpyrrolidone (30 mL), tert-butyl cyanoacetate (8.08 g) at room temperature. To a resulting solution was added potassium tert-butoxide (7.71 g), l,3-dibromo-2,2-dimethoxy propane (5.00 g) at 0 °C. To another flask, potassium iodide (158 mg), 2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol (42 mg), N-methylpyrrolidone (25 mL) were added at room temperature and then resulting solution was heated to 165 °C. To this solution, previously prepared mixture was added dropwise at 140-165 °C, then stirred for 2 hours at 165 °C. To the reaction mixture, water (65 mL) was added. A resulting solution was extracted with toluene (40 mL, three times) and then combined organic layer was washed with water (20 mL, three times) and 1N NaOH aq. (20 mL). A resulting organic layer was concentrated below 50 °C under reduced pressure to give 3, 3 -dimethoxy cyclobutane- l-carbonitrile (66% yield,

GC assay) as toluene solution. 1H MR (CDCl3, 400 MHz) d 3.17 (s, 3H), 3.15 (s, 3H), 2.93-2.84 (m, 1H), 2.63-2.57 (m, 2H), 2.52-2.45 (m, 2H).

Example 2 Synthesis of methyl 3,3-dimethoxycyclobutane-l-carboxylate

[0096] A reactor was vacuumed to 0.02 MPa and less and then inerted with nitrogen to atmosphere for three times. MeOH (339.00 kg), 3-oxocyclobutanecarboxylic acid (85.19 kg, 746.6 mol, 1.0 eq.), Amberlyst-l5 ion exchange resin (8.90 kg, 10% w/w), and

trimethoxymethane (196.00 kg, 1847.3 mol, 2.5 eq.) were charged into the reactor and the resulting mixture was heated to 55±5°C and reacted for 6 hours to give methyl 3,3-dimethoxycyclobutane-l-carboxylate solution in MeOH. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz) d 3.70 (s, 3H), 3.17 (s, 3H), 3.15 (s, 3H), 2.94-2.85 (m, 1H), 2.47-2.36 (m, 4H).

Example 3 Synthesis of 3, 3-dimethoxycyclobutane-l -carboxamide

[0097] The methyl 3, 3 -dimethoxy cyclobutane- l-carboxylate solution in MeOH prepared as described in Example 2 was cooled to below 25°C and centrifuged. The filter cake was washed with MeOH(7.00 kg) and the filtrate was pumped to the reactor. The solution was concentrated under vacuum below 55°C until the system had no more than 2 volumes. MeOH

(139.40 kg) was charged to the reactor and the solution was concentrated under vacuum below 55°C until the system had no more than 2 volumes. MeOH (130.00 kg) was charged to the reactor and the solution was concentrated under vacuum below 55°C until the system had no more than 2 volumes. Half of the resulting solution was diluted with MeOH (435.00 kg) and cooled to below 30°C. NH3 gas (133.80 kg) was injected into the reactor below 35°C for

24 hours. The mixture was stirred at 40±5°C for 72 hours. The resulting solution was

concentrated under vacuum below 50°C until the system had no more than 2 volumes.

MTBE(l8l.OO kg) was charged into the reactor. The resulting solution was concentrated under vacuum below 50°C until the system had no more than 2 volumes. PE (318.00 kg) was charged into the reactor. The resulting mixture was cooled to 5±5°C, stirred for 4 hours at 5±5°C, and centrifuged. The filter cake was washed with PE (42.00 kg) and the wet filter cake was put into a vacuum oven. The filter cake was dried at 30±5°C for at least 8 hours to give 3,3-dimethoxycyclobutane-l-carboxamide as off-white solid (112.63 kg, 94.7% yield). 1H NMR (CDCf, 400 MHz) d 5.76 (bs, 1H), 5.64 (bs, 1H), 3.18 (s, 3H), 3.17 (s, 3H), 2.84-2.76 (m, 1H), 2.45-2.38 (m, 4H).

[0098] A reactor was vacuumed to 0.02 MPa and less and then inerted with nitrogen to atmosphere for three times. Toluene (500.00 kg), 3,3-dimethoxycyclobutane-l-carboxamide (112.54kg, 706.9 mol, 1.0 eq.), and TEA (158.00 kg, 1561.3 mol, 2.20 eq) were charged into the reactor and the resulting mixture was cooled to 0+ 5°C. TFAA (164.00 kg, 781 mol, 1.10 eq.) was added dropwise at 0±5°C. The resulting mixture was stirred for 10 hours at 20±5°C and cooled below 5±5°C. H20 (110.00 kg) was charged into the reactor at below 15 °C. The resulting mixture was stirred for 30 minutes and the water phase was separated. The aqueous phase was extracted with toluene (190.00 kg) twice. The organic phases were combined and washed with H20 (111.00 kg). H20 was removed by azeotrope until the water content was no more than 0.03%. The resulting solution was cooled to below 20°C to give 3,3-dimethoxycyclobutane-l-carbonitrile solution in toluene (492.00 kg with 17.83% assay content, 87.9% yield).

Example 5 Synthesis of l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)-3,3-dimethoxycyclobutane-l-carbonitrile

[0099] A reactor was vacuumed to 0.02 MPa and less and then inerted with nitrogen to atmosphere for three times. The 3,3-dimethoxycyclobutane-l-carbonitrile solution in toluene prepared as described in Example 4 (246.00 kg of a 17.8% solution of 3,3-dimethoxycyclobutane-l-carbonitrile in toluene, 1.05 eq.) and 2-chloro-3-fluoropyridine (39.17 kg, 297.9 mol, 1.00 eq.) were charged into the reactor. The reactor was vacuumed to 0.02 MPa and less and then inerted with nitrogen to atmosphere for three times. The mixture was slowly cooled to -20±5°C. NaHDMS (2M in THF) (165.71 kg, 1.20 eq) was added

dropwise at -20±5°C. The resulting mixture was stirred at -l5±5°C for 1 hour. The mixture was stirred until the content of 2-chloro-3-fluoropyridine is no more than 2% as measured by HPLC. Soft water (16.00 kg) was added dropwise at below 0°C while maintaining the reactor temperature. The resulting solution was transferred to another reactor. Aq. NH4Cl (10% w/w, 88.60 Kg) was added dropwise at below 0°C while maintaining the reactor temperature. Soft water (112.00 kg) was charged into the reactor and the aqueous phase was separated and collected. The aqueous phase was extracted with ethyl acetate (70.00 kg) and an organic phase was collected. The organic phase was washed with sat. NaCl (106.00 kg) and collected. The above steps were repeated to obtain another batch of organic phase. The two batches of organic phase were concentrated under vacuum below 70°C until the system had no more than 2 volumes. The resulting solution was cooled to below 30°C to give a l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)-3, 3 -dimethoxy cyclobutane- l-carbonitrile solution. 1H NMR (CDC13, 400 MHz) d 8.42-8.38 (m, 1H), 7.50-7.45 (m, 1H), 7.38-7.33 (m, 1H), 3.28 (s, 3 H), 3.13 (s, 3H), 3.09-3.05 (m, 4H).

Example 6 Synthesis of I-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)-3-oxocyclohutanecarhonitrile

[0100] A reactor was vacuumed to 0.02 MPa and less and then inerted with nitrogen to atmosphere for three times. Water (603.00 kg) was added to the reactor and was stirred.

Concentrated HC1 (157.30 kg) was charged into the reactor at below 35°C. The l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)-3, 3 -dimethoxy cyclobutane- l-carbonitrile solution prepared as described in Example 5 (206.00 kg) was charged into the reactor and the resulting mixture was heated to 50±5°C and reacted for 3 hours at 50±5°C. The mixture was reacted until the content of 1-(3 -fluoropyridin-2-yl)-3, 3 -dimethoxycyclobutane- l-carbonitrile was no more than 2.0% as measured by HPLC. The reaction mixture was cooled to below 30°C and extracted with ethyl acetate (771.00 kg). An aqueous phase was collected and extracted with ethyl acetate (770.00 kg). The organic phases were combined and the combined organic phase was washed with soft water (290.00 kg) and brine (385.30 kg). The organic phase was concentrated under vacuum at below 60°C until the system had no more than 2 volumes. Propan-2-ol (218.00 kg) was charged into the reactor. The organic phase was concentrated under vacuum at below

60°C until the system had no more than 1 volume. PE (191.00 kg) was charged into the reactor at 40±5 °C and the resulting mixture was heated to 60±5 °C and stirred for 1 hour at 60±5 °C. The mixture was then slowly cooled to 5±5 °C and stirred for 5 hours at 5±5 °C. The mixture was centrifuged and the filter cake was washed with PE (48.00 kg) and the wet filter cake was collected. Water (80.00 kg), concentrated HC1 (2.20 kg), propan-2-ol (65.00 kg), and the wet filter cake were charged in this order into a drum. The resulting mixture was stirred for 10 minutes at 20±5 °C. The mixture was centrifuged and the filter cake was washed with a mixture solution containing 18.00 kg of propan-2-ol, 22.50 kg of soft water, and 0.60 kg of concentrated HC1. The filter cake was put into a vacuum oven and dried at 30±5°C for at least 10 hours. The filter cake was dried until the weight did not change to give l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)-3-oxocyclobutanecarbonitrile as off-white solid (77.15 kg, 68.0% yield). 1H NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz) d 8.45-8.42 (m, 1H), 7.60-7.54 (m, 1H), 7.47-7.41 (m, 1H), 4.18-4.09 (m, 2H), 4.02-3.94 (m, 2H).

Example 7 Synthesis of I-(3-fhtoropyridin-2-yl)-3-hydroxycyclobulanecarbonilrile

[0101] To a solution of l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)-3-oxocyclobutanecarbonitrile (231 g,

1.22 mol) in a mixture ofDCM (2 L) and MeOH (200 mL) was added NaBH4 portionwise at -78° C. The reaction mixture was stirred at -78°C. for 1 hour and quenched with a mixture of methanol and water (1 : 1). The organic layer was washed with water (500 mL><3), dried over Na2S04, and concentrated. The residue was purified on silica gel (50% EtO Ac/hexanes) to provide the title compound as an amber oil (185.8 g, 77.5%). Low Resolution Mass

Spectrometry (LRMS) (M+H) m/z 193.2.

Example 8 Synthesis of (ls,3s)-3-fluoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutane-l-carbonitrile

[0102] To a solution of 1 -(3 -fluoropyridin-2-yl)-3 -hydroxy cyclobutanecarbonitrile (185 g, 0.96 mol) in DCM (1 L) was added DAST portionwise at 0-10 °C. Upon the completion of addition, the reaction was refluxed for 6 hours. The reaction was cooled to rt and poured onto sat. NaHCCf solution. The mixture was separated and the organic layer was washed with water, dried over Na2S04, and concentrated. The residue was purified on silica gel (100% DCM) to provide the title compound as a brown oil (116g) in a 8: 1 transxis mixture. The above brown oil (107 g) was dissolved in toluene (110 mL) and hexanes (330mL) at 70 °C. The solution was cooled to 0 °C and stirred at 0 °C overnight. The precipitate was filtered and washed with hexanes to provide the trans isomer as a white solid (87.3 g). LRMS (M+H) m/z 195.1.

Example 9 Synthesis of ((lr,3r)-3-fluoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutyl)methanamine

[0103] A mixture of ( 1.v,3.v)-3-fluoro- 1 -(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutane- 1 -carbonitrile (71 g, 0.37 mol) and Raney nickel (~7 g) in 7N ammonia in methanol (700 mL) was charged with hydrogen (60 psi) for 2 days. The reaction was filtered through a celite pad and washed with methanol. The filtrate was concentrated under high vacuum to provide the title compound as a light green oil (70 g, 97.6%). LRMS (M+H) m/z 199.2.

Example 10 Synthesis of t-butyl 5-bromopyrimidin-2-yl((trans-3-fluoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutyl)methyl) carbamate

[0104] A mixture of ((lr,3r)-3-fluoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutyl)methanamine (37.6 g, 190 mmol), 5-bromo-2-fluoropyrimidine (32.0 g, 181 mmol), DIPEA (71 mL, 407 mmol), and NMP (200 mL) was stirred at rt overnight. The reaction mixture was then diluted with EtOAc (1500 mL) and washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate (500 mL). The

organic layer was separated, dried over Na2S04, and concentrated. The resultant solid was dissolved in THF (600 mL), followed by the slow addition of DMAP (14 g, 90 mmol) and Boc20 (117.3 g, 542 mmol). The reaction was heated to 60° C. and stirred for 3 h. The reaction mixture was then concentrated and purified by silica gel chromatography

(EtO Ac/hex) to give 59.7 g oft-butyl 5-bromopyrimidin-2-yl((trans-3-fluoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutyl)methyl)carbamate as a white solid.

Example 11 Synthesis of t-butyl 5-(3-cyano- 1 H -pyrrol- 1 -yl)pyrimidin-2-yl(((lrans)-3-fhtoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclohutyl)methyl)carhamate

[0105] To a solution oft-butyl 5-bromopyrimidin-2-yl((trans-3-fluoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutyl)methyl) carbamate (1.0 g, 2.8 mmol) in 15 mL of toluene (degassed with nitrogen) was added copper iodide (100 mg, 0.6 mmol), potassium phosphate (1.31 g, 6.2 mmol), trans-N,N’-dimethylcyclohexane-l, 2-diamine (320 mg, 2.2 mmol), and 3-cyanopyrrole (310 mg, 3.6 mmol). The reaction was heated to 100 °C and stirred for 2 h. The reaction was then concentrated and purified by silica gel chromatography (EtOAc/hexanes) to afford 1.1 g of t-butyl 5-(3-cyano-lH-pyrrol-l-yl)pyrimidin-2-yl(((trans)-3-fluoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutyl)methyl)carbamate as a clear oil.

Example 12 Synthesis of l-(2-((((trans)-3-fluoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutyl)methyl)amino)pyrimidin-5-yl)-lH-pyrrole-3-carboxamide

[0106] To a solution oft-butyl 5-(3-cyano-lH-pyrrol-l-yl)pyrimidin-2-yl(((trans)-3-fluoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutyl)methyl)carbamate (1.1 g, 3.1 mmol) in DMSO (10 mL) was added potassium carbonate (1.3 g, 9.3 mmol). The mixture was cooled to 0 °C and hydrogen peroxide (3 mL) was slowly added. The reaction was warmed to rt and stirred for 90 min. The reaction was diluted with EtO Ac (75 mL) and washed three times with brine (50 mL). The organic layer was then dried over Na2S04, filtered, and concentrated to give a crude solid that was purified by silica gel chromatography (10% MeOH/CH2Cl2) to afford 1.07 g of a white solid compound. This compound was dissolved in 25% TFA/CH2CI2 and stirred for 1 hour. The reaction was then concentrated, dissolved in ethyl acetate (75 mL), and washed three times with saturated potassium carbonate solution. The organic layer was then dried over Na2S04, filtered, and concentrated to give a crude solid that was triturated with 75% ethyl acetate/hexanes. The resultant slurry was sonicated and filtered to give 500 mg of l-(2-((((trans)-3-fluoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutyl)methyl)amino)pyrimidin-5-yl)-lH-pyrrole-3 -carboxamide as a white solid. LRMS (M+H=385).

REFERENCES

1: Andrews JA, Miller TM, Vijayakumar V, Stoltz R, James JK, Meng L, Wolff AA, Malik FI. CK-2127107 amplifies skeletal muscle response to nerve activation in humans. Muscle Nerve. 2018 May;57(5):729-734. doi: 10.1002/mus.26017. Epub 2017 Dec 11. PubMed PMID: 29150952.

2: Gross N. The COPD Pipeline XXXII. Chronic Obstr Pulm Dis. 2016 Jul 14;3(3):688-692. doi: 10.15326/jcopdf.3.3.2016.0150. PubMed PMID: 28848893; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5556764.

//////////////CK-2127107, CK 2127107, CK2127107, Reldesemtiv, Cytokinetics,   Astellas, neuromuscular disorders, muscle wasting, claudication, metabolic syndrome, spinal muscular atrophy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Orphan Drug Status, Spinal muscular atrophy, Phase II

C1C(CC1(CNC2=NC=C(C=N2)N3C=CC(=C3)C(=O)N)C4=C(C=CC=N4)F)F

Picropodophyllin


Picropodophyllin.png

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2D chemical structure of 477-47-4

Picropodophyllin

Picropodophyllotoxin

CAS 477-47-4

AXL1717, NSC 36407, BRN 0099161

414.4 g/mol, C22H22O8

(5R,5aR,8aS,9R)-5-hydroxy-9-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-5a,6,8a,9-tetrahydro-5H-[2]benzofuro[5,6-f][1,3]benzodioxol-8-one

Furo(3′,4′:6,7)naphtho(2,3-d)-1,3-dioxol-6(5aH)-one, 5,8,8a,9-tetrahydro-9-hydroxy-5-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-, (5R-(5-alpha,5a-alpha,8a-alpha,9-alpha))-

5-19-10-00665 (Beilstein Handbook Reference)

Axelar is developing picropodophyllin, a small-molecule IGF-1 receptor antagonist for the treatment of cancer including NSCLC and malignant astrocytoma. In February 2019, a phase Ia study was planned to initiate for solid tumor in March 2019.

Picropodophyllin is a cyclolignan alkaloid found in the mayapple plant family (Podophyllum peltatum), and a small molecule inhibitor of the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) with potential antineoplastic activity. Picropodophyllin specifically inhibits the activity and downregulates the cellular expression of IGF1R without interfering with activities of other growth factor receptors, such as receptors for insulin, epidermal growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, fibroblast growth factor and mast/stem cell growth factor (KIT). This agent shows potent activity in the suppression o f tumor cell proliferation and the induction of tumor cell apoptosis. IGF1R, a receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed in a variety of human cancers, plays a critical role in the growth and survival of many types of cancer cells.

Picropodophyllotoxin is an organic heterotetracyclic compound that has a furonaphthodioxole skeleton bearing 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl and hydroxy substituents. It has a role as an antineoplastic agent, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, an insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 antagonist and a plant metabolite. It is a lignan, a furonaphthodioxole and an organic heterotetracyclic compound.

Picropodophyllin has been investigated for the treatment of Non Small Cell Lung Cancer.

One of the largest challenges in pharmaceutical drug development is that drug compounds often are poorly soluble, or even insoluble, in aqeous media. Insufficient drug solubility means insufficient bioavailability, as well as poor plasma exposure of the drug when administered to humans and animals. Variability of plasma exposure in humans is yet a problem when developing drugs which are poorly soluble, or even insoluble, in aqeous media.

It is estimated that between 40% and 70 % of all new chemical entities identified in drug discovery programs, are insufficiently soluble in aqeous media (M. Lindenberg, S et al: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceuticals, vol. 58, no.2, pp. 265-278, 2004). Scientists have investigated various ways of solving the problem with poor drug solubility in order to enhance bioavailability of poorly absorbed drugs, aiming at increasing their clinical efficacy when administered orally.

Technologies such as increase of the surface area and hence dissolution may sometimes solve solubility problems. Other techniques that may also solve bioavailability problems are addition of surfactants and polymers. However, each chemical compound has its own unique chemical and physical properties, and hence has its own unique challenges when being formulated into a pharmaceutical product that can exert its clinical efficacy.

Picropodophyllin is an insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor inhibitor fiGF-lR inhibitor) small-molecule compound belonging to the class of compounds denominated cyclolignans, having the chemical structure:

The patent applicant is presently entering clinical phase II development with its development compound picropodophyllin (AXL1717). However, picropodophyllin is poorly soluble in aqueous media. In a phase I clinical study performed by the applicant in 2012 (Ekman S et al; Acta Oncologica, 2016; 55: pp. 140-148), it was discovered that picropodophyllin, when administered as an oral suspension to lung cancer patients, resulted in unacceptable variability in drug exposure. A large variability in plasma exposure of the active drug picropodophyllin occurred not only within certain patients, but also between several patients.

Yet a problem with administering picropodophyllin as an aqeous solution, is that due to the poor solubility in aqueous media, it is difficult or even impossible to reach the required therapeutic doses.

The compound picropodophyllin is furthermore physically unstable, and transforms from amorphous picropodophyllin into crystalline picropodophyllin. Yet a stability problem with picropodophyllin is that it is chemically unstable in solution.

Image result for Picropodophyllin AND podophyllotoxin

Product case, WO02102804

Patent

WO-2019130194

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2019130194&tab=PCTDESCRIPTION&_cid=P10-JXYAA3-53049-1

Novel amorphous forms of picropodophyllin , processes for their preparation and compositions comprising them are claimed. Also claims are their use for treating cancers, such as neurologic cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, head and neck cancer, gastrointestinal cancer, genitourinary cancer, gynecologic cancer, hematologic cancer, musculoskeletal cancer, skin cancer, endocrine cancer, and eye cancers. , claiming picropodophyllin derivatives as modulators of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1), useful for treating cancers, assigned to Axelar AB ,

CLIP

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CLIP

https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2004/cc/b312245j/unauth#!divAbstract

Image result for Picropodophyllin

http://www.rsc.org/suppdata/cc/b3/b312245j/b312245j.pdf

dH(CDCl3; 300 MHz; Me4Si): 2.64-2.78 (1 H, m, 3-H), 3.23 (1 H, dd, J 4.4 and 8.2, 2-H), 3.81 (6 H, s, 2 x OMe), 3.85 (3 H, s, OMe), 4.09 (1 H, d, J 4.4, 1-H), 4.38–4.59 (3 H, m, 11-H2 and 4-H), 5.91 (1 H, d, J 1.5, OCH2O), 5.93 (1 H, d, J 1.5, OCH2O), 6.35 (1 H, s, 5-H/8-H), 6.46 (1 H, s, 2’-H and 6’-H) and 7.07 (1 H, s, 5-H/8-H).

CLIP

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PAPER

Organic Letters (2018), 20(6), 1651-1654

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.orglett.8b00408

Abstract Image

A nickel-catalyzed reductive cascade approach to the efficient construction of diastereodivergent cores embedded in podophyllum lignans is developed for the first time. Their gram-scale access paved the way for unified syntheses of naturally occurring podophyllotoxin and other members.

Synthesis of (−)-Podophyllotoxin (1)

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/suppl/10.1021/acs.orglett.8b00408/suppl_file/ol8b00408_si_001.pdf

The residue was purified by flash column chromatography (petroleum ether/EtOAc = 4 : 1 → petroleum ether/EtOAc = 2 : 1) on silica gel to afford 1 (8.6 mg, 87% yield) as a white solid; Rf = 0.23 (petroleum ether/EtOAc = 1 : 1); [α]20 D = –115.00 (c = 1.00, CHCl3) [ref.13: [α]20 D = –101.7 (c = 0.55, EtOH)]; Mp. 167–168 °C; 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): δ = 7.11 (s, 1H), 6.51 (s, 1H), 6.37 (s, 2H), 5.98 (s, 1H), 5.96 (s, 1H), 4.77 (t, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 4.60 (t, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 4.59 (d, J = 4.4 Hz, 1H), 4.08 (dd, J = 9.6, 8.8 Hz, 1H), 3.81 (s, 3H), 3.75 (s, 6H), 2.84 (dd, J = 14.0, 4.4 Hz, 1H), 2.83−2.74 (m, 1H), 2.13 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H, −OH) ppm; 13C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): δ = 174.6, 152.5 (2C), 147.7, 147.6, 137.1, 135.5, 133.3, 131.0, 109.7, 108.4 (2C), 106.3, 101.4, 72.6, 71.4, 60.7, 56.2 (2C), 45.2, 44.1, 40.6 ppm.

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/suppl/10.1021/acs.orglett.8b00408/suppl_file/ol8b00408_si_002.pdf

PAPER

Organic Letters (2017), 19(24), 6530-6533

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.orglett.7b03236

Abstract Image

he first catalytic enantioselective total synthesis of (−)-podophyllotoxin is accomplished by a challenging organocatalytic cross-aldol Heck cyclization and distal stereocontrolled transfer hydrogenation in five steps from three aldehydes. Reversal of selectivity in hydrogenation led to the syntheses of other stereoisomers from the common precursor.

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/suppl/10.1021/acs.orglett.7b03236/suppl_file/ol7b03236_si_001.pdf

(-)-Picropodophyllin 4. The lactone 5 (0.2 g, 0.38 mmol) was taken in 1-pentanol (5 mL) in a double neck RB flask at rt. Water (0.14 mL, 7.6 mmol) was added to above mixture and it was then degassed with argon followed by addition of Pd/C (0.04 g, 20% by wt.) and HCO2Na (0.78g, 11.4 mmol). The reaction mixture was heated at 40 °C for 12 h. On completion, the reaction mixture was diluted with EtOAc (200 mL), filtered through a celite pad and solvent was removed under vacuum. This crude mixture was dissolved in THF (3.8 mL), TBAF (1.9 mL, 1.9 mmol, 1M in THF) was added and stirred for 6 h at 27 °C. On completion, EtOAc (250 mL) was added, washed with water (100 mL), brine and dried over Na2SO4. After removal of solvent, the crude product was purified by column chromatography (hexanes-EtOAc, 3:2) to get the title compound as a white solid (0.082 g, 52%): Rf 0.32 (hexanes/EtOAc, 1:1); [α]25 D = -10.6 (c = 0.4, CHCl3) [lit. -10 (c = 0.3, CHCl3), -11 (c = 0.41, CHCl3)]3a,b;

Mp 214-216 °C; 1H NMR (600 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.05 (s, 1H), 6.47 (s, 2H), 6.41 (s, 1H), 5.95 (d, J = 14.1 Hz, 2H), 4.5 (m, 2H), 4.44 (t, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 4.15 (d, J = 4.1 Hz, 1H), 3.86 (s, 3H), 3.83 (s, 6H), 3.24 (dd, J = 8.7, 5.0 Hz, 1H), 2.75 (m, 1H), 2.12 (s, 1H); 13C NMR (150 MHz, CDCl3) δ 177.6, 153.7, 147.5, 147.1, 139.3, 137.4, 131.9, 130.6, 109.3, 105.9, 105.5, 101.2, 69.8, 69.6, 60.9, 56.3, 45.4, 44.1, 42.7; HRMS (ESI-TOF) m/z 437.1219 [(M+Na)+ ; calcd for C22H22O8Na+ : 437.1212].

PAPER

The Journal of organic chemistry (2000), 65(3), 847-60.

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jo991582+

Abstract Image

REF

Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft [Abteilung] B: Abhandlungen (1932), 65B, 1846.

Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie (1932), 499, 59-76.

Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie (1932), 494, 126-42.

Journal of the American Chemical Society (1954), 76, 5890-1

Helvetica Chimica Acta (1954), 37, 190-202.

 Journal of the American Chemical Society (1988), 110(23), 7854-8.

//////////////Picropodophyllin, AXL1717, NSC 36407, BRN 0099161, Picropodophyllotoxin, AXELAR, PHASE 1, CANCER, neurologic cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, head and neck cancer, gastrointestinal cancer, genitourinary cancer, gynecologic cancer, hematologic cancer, musculoskeletal cancer, skin cancer, endocrine cancer, eye cancers,  NSCLC, malignant astrocytoma, SOLID TUMOUR

COC1=CC(=CC(=C1OC)OC)C2C3C(COC3=O)C(C4=CC5=C(C=C24)OCO5)O

Podofilox, Podophyllotoxin, Wartec, Condyline, Condylox

J Org Chem 2000,65(3),847

The formylation of 6-bromo-1,3-benzodioxole-5-carbaldehyde dimethyl acetal (I) with BuLi and DMF gives the 6-formyl derivative (II), which is reduced with NaBH4 in ethanol to yield the corresponding carbinol (III). The cyclization of (III) with dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate (V) in hot acetic acid (through the nonisolated intermediate (IV)) affords dimethyl 1,4-epoxy-6,7-(methylenedioxy)naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxylate (VI), which is hydrogenated with H2 over Pd/C in ethyl acetate to give the (1R*,2S*,3R*,4S*)-tetrahydro derivative (VII). The reduction of (VII) with LiAlH4 in refluxing ethyl ether affords the corresponding bis carbinol (VIII), which is treated with acetic anhydride to afford the diacetate (IX). The enzymatic monodeacetylation of (VIII) with PPL enzyme in DMSO/buffer gives (1R,2R,3S,4S)-2-(acetoxymethyl)-1,4-epoxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)-6,7-(methylenedioxy)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (X), which is silylated with TBDMS-Cl and imidazole in DMF yielding the silyl ether (XI). The hydrolysis of the acetoxy group of (XI) with K2CO3 in methanol affords the carbinol (XII), which is oxidized with oxalyl chloride in dichloromethane affording the carbaldehyde (XIII). The exchange of the silyl protecting group of (XIII) (for stability problems) provided the triisopropylsilyl ether (XIV), which is treated with sodium methoxide in methanol to open the epoxide ring yielding the hydroxy aldehyde (XV). The protection of the hydroxy group of (XV) with 2-(trimethylsilyl)ethoxymethyl chloride and DIEA in dichloromethane provides the corresponding ether (XVI). The carbinol (III) can also be obtained directly from 6-bromo-1,3-benzodioxole-5-carbaldehyde dimethyl acetal (I) by reaction with formaldehyde and BuLi in THF.

The oxidation of the aldehyde group of (XVI) with NaClO2 in tert-butanol affords the corresponding carboxylic acid (XVII), which is condensed with 2-oxazolidinone (XVIII) by means of carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) in THF to give the acyl imidazolide (XIX). The arylation of (XIX) with 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenylmagnesium bromide (XX) in THF yields the expected addition product (XXI), which is cyclized by means of TBAF in hot THF to afford the tetracyclic intermediate (XXII). Isomerization of the cis-lactone ring of (XXII) with LDA in THF affords intermediate (XXIII) with its lactone ring with the correct trans-conformation. Finally, this compound is deprotected with ethyl mercaptane and MgBr2 in ethyl ether to provide the target compound.

Synthesis 1992,719

The intermediate trans-8-oxo-5-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-5,6,7,8-tetra-hydronaphtho[2,3-d][1,3]benzodioxole-6-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (XI) has been obtained by several different ways: (a) The condensation of benzophenone (XXXVIII) with diethyl malonate (XXXIX) by means of t-BuOK gives the alkylidenemalonate (XL), which is hydrogenated with H2 over Pd/C to the alkylmalonate hemiester (XLI). The reaction of (XLI) with acetyl chloride affords the mixed anhydride (XLII), which is finally cyclized to the target (XI) by means of SnCl4. (b) The cyclization of the malonic ester derivative (XLIII) by means of Ti(CF3–CO2)3 gives the 5-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphtho [2,3-d][1,3]dioxole-6,6-dicarboxylic acid dimethyl ester (XLIV), which is finally oxidized and decarboxylated with NBS and NaOH in methanol to afford the target intermediate (XI). (c) The cyclization of the benzylidenemalonate (XLV) with the aryllithium derivative (XLVI) gives the 8-methoxy-5-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphtho[2,3-d][1,3]dioxole-6,6-dicarboxylic acid dimethyl ester (XLVII), which is demethylated with TFA and oxidized with CrO3 and pyridine to the target compound (XI). (d) The cyclopropanation of the chalcone (XLVIII) with (ethoxycarbonyl) (dimethylsulfonium)methylide (XLIX) gives the cyclopropanecarboxylate (L), which is finally rearranged with BF3/Et2O to the target intermediate (IX).

The cyclization of 3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamic acid ethyl ester (LI) with malonic acid ethyl ester potassium salt (LII) by means of Mn(OAc)3 gives the tetrahydrofuranone (LIII), which is acylated with 1,3-benzodioxol-5-ylcarbonyl chloride (LIV) yielding the tetrahydrofuranone (LV). Finally, this compound is rearranged and decarboxylated with SnCl4 to the target intermediate (XI).

The cyclization of 6-[1-hydroxy-1-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)methyl]-1,3-benzodioxol-5-carbaldehyde dimethylacetal (LVI) by means of AcOH gives 5-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-1,3-dioxolo[4,5-f]isobenzofuran (LVII), which is submitted to a Diels-Alder cyclization with acetylenedicarboxylic acid dimethyl ester (LVIII) yielding the epoxy derivative (LIX). The selective reduction of (LIX) with LiBEt3H and H2 affords the carbinol (LX), which is treated with H2 over RaNi in order to open the epoxide ring to give the diol (LXI) with the wrong configuration at the secondary OH group. The treatment of (LXI) with aqueous acid isomerizes the secondary OH group to (LXII) with the suitable configuration. Finally, this compound is cyclized with DCC to the desired target compound.

The Diels-Alder cyclization of 5-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-7H-pyrano[3,4-f][1,3]benzodioxol-7-one (I) with dimethyl maleate (LXIII) gives the expected adduct (LXIV), which by thermal extrusion of CO2 yields the dihydronaphthodioxole (LXV). This compound is then converted to dihydroxycompound (X), which is finally cyclized by means of ZnCl2 to provide the target compound. The Diels-Alder cyclization of 5-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-7H-pyrano[3,4-f][1,3]benzodioxol-7-one (I) with dimethyl fumarate (LXVI) gives the expected adduct (LXVII), which by hydrogenation with H2 over Pd/C yields the tricarboxylic acid derivative (LXVIII). The reaction of (LXVIII) with Pb(OAc)4 affords the acetoxy derivative (LXIX), which is selectively reduced with LiBEt3H providing the diol (LXI) with the wrong configuration at the secondary OH group. The treatment of (LXI) with aqueous acid isomerizes the secondary OH group to give the previously described (X) with the suitable configuration.

The reaction of benzocyclobutane derivative (LXX) with isocyanate (LXXI) by means of Ph3SnOAc gives the carbamate (LXXII), which is cyclized by a thermal treatment with LiOH yielding the tetracyclic carboxylic acid (LXXIII). The opening of the oxazinone ring of (LXXIII) in basic medium affords the tricyclic amino acid (LXXIV), which is finally cyclized to the target compound by reaction with sodium nitrite in acidic medium (pH = 4).

J Chem Soc Chem Commun 1993,1200

The Diels-Alder cyclization of 5-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-7H-pyrano[3,4-f][1,3]benzodioxol-7-one (I) with the chiral dihydrofuranone (II) in hot acetonitrile gives the pentacyclic anhydride (III), which is opened with warm acetic acid yielding the carboxylic acid (IV). Hydrogenation of the benzylic double bond of (IV) with H2 over Pd/C affords (V), which is treated with lead tetraacetate and acetic acid in THF to give the acetoxy compound (VI). The hydrolysis of the acetoxy group and the menthol hemiacetal group with HCl in hot dioxane yields the diol (VII), which is treated with diazomethane in ether/methanol affording the aldehyde (VIII). The reduction of the aldehyde group of (VIII) with LiEt3BH in THF gives the diol (IX) as a diastereomeric mixture, which is treated with HCl in THF to afford the diol (X) with the right conformation. Finally, this compound is lactonized to the target compound with ZnCl2 in THF.

//////////

SELPERCATINIB


img

Selpercatinib.png

SELPERCATINIB

LOXO 292

CAS: 2152628-33-4
Chemical Formula: C29H31N7O3
Molecular Weight: 525.613

CEGM9YBNGD

UNII-CEGM9YBNGD

 6-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropoxy)-4-(6-{6-[(6-methoxypyridin- 3-yl)methyl]-3,6-diazabicyclo[3.1.1]heptan-3-yl}pyridin-3- yl)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine-3-carbonitrile

Selpercatinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor with antineoplastic properties.

A phase I/II trial is also under way in pediatric patients and young adults with activating RET alterations and advanced solid or primary CNS tumors.

Loxo Oncology (a wholly-owned subsidiary of Eli Lilly ), under license from Array , is developing selpercatinib, a lead from a program of RET kinase inhibitors, for treating cancer, including non-small-cell lung cancer, medullary thyroid cancer, colon cancer, breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, papillary thyroid cancer, other solid tumors, infantile myofibromatosis, infantile fibrosarcoma and soft tissue sarcoma

In 2018, the compound was granted orphan drug designation in the U.S. for the treatment of pancreatic cancer and in the E.U. for the treatment of medullary thyroid carcinoma.

Trk is a high affinity receptor tyrosine kinase activated by a group of soluble growth factors called neurotrophic factor (NT). The Trk receptor family has three members, namely TrkA, TrkB and TrkC. Among the neurotrophic factors are (1) nerve growth factor (NGF) which activates TrkA, (2) brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and NT4/5 which activate TrkB, and (3) NT3 which activates TrkC. Trk is widely expressed in neuronal tissues and is involved in the maintenance, signaling and survival of neuronal cells.
The literature also shows that Trk overexpression, activation, amplification and/or mutations are associated with many cancers including neuroblastoma, ovarian cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, multiple myeloma, astrocytoma. And medulloblastoma, glioma, melanoma, thyroid cancer, pancreatic cancer, large cell neuroendocrine tumor and colorectal cancer. In addition, inhibitors of the Trk/neurotrophin pathway have been shown to be effective in a variety of preclinical animal models for the treatment of pain and inflammatory diseases.
The neurotrophin/Trk pathway, particularly the BDNF/TrkB pathway, has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, and Alzheimer’s disease. The modulating neurotrophic factor/Trk pathway can be used to treat these and related diseases.
It is believed that the TrkA receptor is critical for the disease process in the parasitic infection of Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease) in human hosts. Therefore, TrkA inhibitors can be used to treat Chagas disease and related protozoal infections.
Trk inhibitors can also be used to treat diseases associated with imbalances in bone remodeling, such as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and bone metastasis. Bone metastases are a common complication of cancer, up to 70% in patients with advanced breast or prostate cancer and about 15 in patients with lung, colon, stomach, bladder, uterine, rectal, thyroid or kidney cancer Up to 30%. Osteolytic metastases can cause severe pain, pathological fractures, life-threatening hypercalcemia, spinal cord compression, and other neurostress syndromes. For these reasons, bone metastases are a serious cancer complication that is costly. Therefore, an agent that can induce apoptosis of proliferating bone cells is very advantageous. Expression of the TrkA receptor and TrkC receptor has been observed in the osteogenic region of the fractured mouse model. In addition, almost all osteoblast apoptosis agents are very advantageous. Expression of the TrkA receptor and TrkC receptor has been observed in the osteogenic region of the fractured mouse model. In addition, localization of NGF was observed in almost all osteoblasts. Recently, it was demonstrated that pan-Trk inhibitors in human hFOB osteoblasts inhibit tyrosine signaling activated by neurotrophic factors that bind to all three Trk receptors. This data supports the theory of using Trk inhibitors to treat bone remodeling diseases, such as bone metastases in cancer patients.
Developed by Loxo Oncology, Larotrectinib (LOXO-101) is a broad-spectrum antineoplastic agent for all tumor patients expressing Trk, rather than tumors at an anatomical location. LOXO-101 chemical name is (S)-N-(5-((R)-2-(2,5-difluorophenyl)-pyrrolidin-1-yl)pyrazolo[1,5-a] Pyrimidin-3-yl)-3-hydroxypyrrolidine-1-carboxamide, the structural formula is as follows. LOXO-101 began treatment of the first patient in March 2015; on July 13, 2016, the FDA granted a breakthrough drug qualification for the inoperable removal or metastatic solid tumor of adults and children with positive Trk fusion gene mutations; Key entry was completed in February 2017; in November 2018, the FDA approved the listing under the trade name Vitrakvi.
Poor absorption, distribution, metabolism, and/or excretion (ADME) properties are known to be the primary cause of clinical trial failure in many drug candidates. Many of the drugs currently on the market also limit their range of applications due to poor ADME properties. The rapid metabolism of drugs can lead to the inability of many drugs that could be effectively treated to treat diseases because they are too quickly removed from the body. Frequent or high-dose medications may solve the problem of rapid drug clearance, but this approach can lead to problems such as poor patient compliance, side effects caused by high-dose medications, and increased treatment costs. In addition, rapidly metabolizing drugs may also expose patients to undesirable toxic or reactive metabolites.
Although LOXO-101 is effective as a Trk inhibitor in the treatment of a variety of cancers and the like, it has been found that a novel compound having a good oral bioavailability and a drug-forming property for treating a cancer or the like is a challenging task. Thus, there remains a need in the art to develop compounds having selective inhibitory activity or better pharmacodynamics/pharmacokinetics for Trk kinase mediated diseases useful as therapeutic agents, and the present invention provides such compounds.
SYN
WO 2018071447

PATENT

WO2018071447

PATENT

US 20190106438

PATENT

WO 2019075108

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2019075108&tab=PCTDESCRIPTION

Compounds of Formula I-IV, 4-(6-(4-((6-methoxypyridin-3-yl)methyl)piperazin-1-yl)pyridin-3-yl)-6-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine-3-carbonitrile (Formula I); 6-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropoxy)-4-(6-(6-((6-methoxypyridin-3-yl)methyl)-3,6-diazabicyclo[3.1.1]heptan-3-yl)pyridin-3-yl)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine-3-carbonitrile (Formula II); 6-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropoxy)-4-(6-(6-(6-methoxynicotinoyl)-3,6-diazabicyclo[3.1.1]heptan-3-yl)pyridin-3-yl)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine-3-carbonitrile (Formula III); and 6-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropoxy)-4-(6-(4-hydroxy-4-(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)piperidin-1-yl)pyridin-3-yl)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine-3-carbonitrile (Formula IV) are inhibitors of RET kinase, and are useful for treating diseases such as proliferative diseases, including cancers.

[0007] Accordingly, provided herein is a compound of Formula I-IV:

and pharmaceutically acceptable salts, amorphous, and polymorph forms thereof.

PATENT

WO 2019075114

PATENT

WO-2019120194

Novel deuterated analogs of pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine compounds, particularly selpercatinib , processes for their preparation and compositions comprising them are claimed. Also claims are their use for treating pain, inflammation, cancer and certain infectious diseases.

Example 2(S)-N-(5-((R)-2-(2,5-difluorophenyl)pyrrolidin-1-yl-2,3,3-d 3)-pyrazolo[ 1,5-a] pyrimidin-3-yl) -3-hydroxypyrazole prepared pyrrolidine-1-carboxamide (compound L-2) a.

[0163]

[0164]
Use the following route for synthesis:

[0165]
Patent ID Title Submitted Date Granted Date
US10137124 Substituted pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine compounds as RET kinase inhibitors 2018-01-03
US10172851 Substituted pyrazolo[1,5-A]pyridine compounds as RET kinase inhibitors 2018-01-03
US10112942 Substituted pyrazolo[1,5-A]pyridine compounds as RET kinase inhibitors 2017-12-29

/////////////SELPERCATINIB, non-small-cell lung cancer, medullary thyroid cancer, colon cancer, breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, papillary thyroid cancer, other solid tumors, infantile myofibromatosis, infantile fibrosarcoma, soft tissue sarcoma, LOXO, ELI LILY,  ARRAY, LOXO 292, orphan drug designation

N#CC1=C2C(C3=CC=C(N4CC(C5)N(CC6=CC=C(OC)N=C6)C5C4)N=C3)=CC(OCC(C)(O)C)=CN2N=C1

Ceralasertib, AZD 6738


Image result for azd 6738

Image result for azd 6738

Image result for azd 6738

AZD-6738, Ceralasertib

  • Molecular Formula C20H24N6O2S
  • Average mass 412.509 Da
CAS 1352226-88-0 [RN]
1H-Pyrrolo[2,3-c]pyridine, 4-[4-[(3R)-3-methyl-4-morpholinyl]-6-[1-(S-methylsulfonimidoyl)cyclopropyl]-2-pyrimidinyl]-
4-{4-[(3R)-3-Methyl-4-morpholinyl]-6-[1-(S-methylsulfonimidoyl)cyclopropyl]-2-pyrimidinyl}-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-c]pyridine
1H-Pyrrolo(2,3-b)pyridine, 4-(4-(1-((S(R))-S-methylsulfonimidoyl)cyclopropyl)-6-((3R)-3-methyl-4-morpholinyl)-2-pyrimidinyl)-
imino-methyl-[1-[6-[(3R)-3-methylmorpholin-4-yl]-2-(1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-4-yl)pyrimidin-4-yl]cyclopropyl]-oxo-λ6-sulfane
85RE35306Z
AZD-6738
UNII:85RE35306Z
CAS : 1352226-88-0 (free base)   1352280-98-8 (formic acid)   1352226-97-1 (racemic)
  • 4-[4-[1-[[S(R)]-S-Methylsulfonimidoyl]cyclopropyl]-6-[(3R)-3-methyl-4-morpholinyl]-2-pyrimidinyl]-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine
  • AZD 6738
  • Ceralasertib
  • Originator AstraZeneca; University of Pennsylvania
  • Class Antineoplastics; Morpholines; Pyrimidines; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action ATR protein inhibitors
  • Phase II Breast cancer; Gastric cancer; Non-small cell lung cancer; Ovarian cancer
  • Phase I/II Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia; Solid tumours
  • Phase I Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
  • Preclinical Diffuse large B cell lymphoma
  • No development reported B-cell lymphoma; Lymphoid leukaemia
  • 26 Mar 2019 National Cancer Institute plans a phase II trial for Cholangiocarcinoma (Combination therapy, Second-line therapy or greater) and Solid tumours (Combination therapy, Second-line therapy or greater) in March 2019 (NCT03878095)
  • 18 Mar 2019 Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust and AstraZeneca re-initiate the phase I PATRIOT trial in Solid tumours (Second-line therapy or greater) in United Kingdom (NCT02223923)
  • 25 Dec 2018 University of Michigan Cancer Center plans the phase II TRAP trial for Prostate cancer (Combination therapy; Metastatic disease; Second-line therapy or greater) in February 2019 (NCT03787680)

Inhibits ATR kinase.

Ceralasertib, also known as AZD6738, is an orally available morpholino-pyrimidine-based inhibitor of ataxia telangiectasia and rad3 related (ATR) kinase, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, ATR kinase inhibitor Ceralasertib selectively inhibits ATR activity by blocking the downstream phosphorylation of the serine/threonine protein kinase CHK1. This prevents ATR-mediated signaling, and results in the inhibition of DNA damage checkpoint activation, disruption of DNA damage repair, and the induction of tumor cell apoptosis.

ATR (also known as FRAP-Related Protein 1; FRP1; MEC1; SCKL; SECKL1) protein kinase is a member of the PI3 -Kinase like kinase (PIKK) family of proteins that are involved in repair and maintenance of the genome and its stability (reviewed in Cimprich K.A. and Cortez D. 2008, Nature Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 9:616-627). These proteins co-ordinate response to DNA damage, stress and cell-cycle perturbation. Indeed ATM and ATR, two members of the family of proteins, share a number of downstream substrates that are themselves recognised components of the cell cycle and DNA-repair machinery e.g. Chkl, BRCAl, p53 (Lakin ND et al,1999, Oncogene; Tibbets RS et al, 2000, Genes & Dev.). Whilst the substrates of ATM and ATR are to an extent shared, the trigger to activate the signalling cascade is not shared and ATR primarily responds to stalled replication forks (Nyberg K.A. et al., 2002, Ann. Rev.

Genet. 36:617-656; Shechter D. et al. 2004, DNA Repair 3:901-908) and bulky DNA damage lesions such as those formed by ultraviolet (UV) radiation (Wright J. A. et al, 1998, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 23:7445-7450) or the UV mimetic agent, 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxi-e, 4NQO (Ikenaga M. et al. 1975, Basic Life Sci. 5b, 763-771). However, double strand breaks (DSB) detected by ATM can be processed into single strand breaks (SSB) recruiting ATR; similarly SSB, detected by ATR can generate DSB, activating ATM. There is therefore a significant interplay between ATM and ATR.

Mutations of the ATR gene that result in complete loss of expression of the ATR protein are rare and in general are not viable. Viability may only result under heterozygous or hypomorphic conditions. The only clear link between ATR gene mutations and disease exists in a few patients with Seckel syndrome which is characterized by growth retardation and microcephaly (O’Driscoll M et al, 2003 Nature Genet. Vol3, 497-501). Cells from patients with hypomorphic germline mutations of ATR (seckel syndrome) present a greater susceptibility to chromosome breakage at fragile sites in presence of replication stress compared to wild type cells (Casper 2004). Disruption of the ATR pathway leads to genomic instability. Patients with Seckel syndrome also present an increased incidence of cancer,suggestive of the role of ATR in this disease in the maintenance of genome stability .

Moreover, duplication of the ATR gene has been described as a risk factor in rhabdomyosarcomas (Smith L et al, 1998, Nature Genetics 19, 39-46). Oncogene-driven tumorigenesis may be associated with ATM loss-of- function and therefore increased reliance on ATR signalling (Gilad 2010). Evidence of replication stress has also been reported in several tumour types such as colon and ovarian cancer, and more recently in glioblastoma, bladder, prostate and breast (Gorgoulis et al, 2005; Bartkova et al. 2005a; Fan et al., 2006; Tort et al, 2006; Nuciforo et al, 2007; Bartkova et al., 2007a). Loss of Gl checkpoint is also frequently observed during tumourigenesis. Tumour cells that are deficient in Gl checkpoint controls, in particular p53 deficiency, are susceptible to inhibition of ATR activity and present with premature chromatin condensation (PCC) and cell death (Ngheim et al, PNAS, 98, 9092-9097).

ATR is essential to the viability of replicating cells and is activated during S-phase to regulate firing of replication origins and to repair damaged replication forks (Shechter D et al, 2004, Nature cell Biology Vol 6 (7) 648-655). Damage to replication forks may arise due to exposure of cells to clinically relevant cytotoxic agents such as hydroxyurea (HU) and platinums (O’Connell and Cimprich 2005; 118, 1-6). ATR is activated by most cancer chemotherapies (Wilsker D et al, 2007, Mol. Cancer Ther. 6(4) 1406-1413). Biological assessment of the ability of ATR inhibitors to sensitise to a wide range of chemotherapies have been evaluated. Sensitisation of tumour cells to chemotherapeutic agents in cell growth assays has been noted and used to assess how well weak ATR inhibitors (such as Caffeine) will sensitise tumour cell lines to cytotoxic agents. (Wilsker D .et al, 2007, Mol Cancer Ther. 6 (4)1406-1413; Sarkaria J.N. et al, 1999, Cancer Res. 59, 4375-4382). Moreover, a reduction of ATR activity by siRNA or ATR knock-in using a dominant negative form of ATR in cancer cells has resulted in the sensitisation of tumour cells to the effects of a number of therapeutic or experimental agents such as antimetabolites (5-FU, Gemcitabine, Hydroxyurea, Metotrexate, Tomudex), alkylating agents (Cisplatin, Mitomycin C, Cyclophosphamide, MMS) or double-strand break inducers (Doxorubicin, Ionizing radiation) (Cortez D. et al. 2001, Science, 294:1713-1716; Collis S.J. et al, 2003, Cancer Res. 63:1550-1554; Cliby W.A. et al, 1998, EMBO J. 2:159-169) suggesting that the combination of ATR inhibitors with some cytotoxic agents might be therapeutically beneficial.

An additional phenotypic assay has been described to define the activity of specific ATR inhibitory compounds is the cell cycle profile (PJ Hurley, D Wilsker and F Bunz, Oncogene, 2007, 26, 2535-2542). Cells deficient in ATR have been shown to have defective cell cycle regulation and distinct characteristic profiles, particularly following a cytotoxic cellular insult. Furthermore, there are proposed to be differential responses between tumour and normal tissues in response to modulation of the ATR axis and this provides further potential for therapeutic intervention by ATR inhibitor molecules (Rodnguez-Bravo V et al, Cancer Res., 2007, 67, 11648-11656).

Another compelling utility of ATR-specific phenotypes is aligned with the concept of synthetic lethality and the observation that tumour cells that are deficient in G1 checkpoint controls, in particular p53 deficiency, are susceptible to inhibition of ATR activity resulting in premature chromatin condensation (PCC) and cell death (Ngheim et al, PNAS, 98, 9092-9097). In this situation, S-phase replication of DNA occurs but is not completed prior to M-phase initiation due to failure in the intervening checkpoints resulting in cell death from a lack of ATR signalling. The G2/M checkpoint is a key regulatory control involving ATR (Brown E. J. and Baltimore D., 2003, Genes Dev. 17, 615-628) and it is the compromise of this checkpoint and the prevention of ATR signalling to its downstream partners which results in PCC. Consequently, the genome of the daughter cells is compromised and viability of the cells is lost (Ngheim et al, PNAS, 98, 9092-9097).

It has thus been proposed that inhibition of ATR may prove to be an efficacious approach to future cancer therapy (Collins I. and Garret M.D., 2005, Curr. Opin. Pharmacol., 5:366-373; Kaelin W.G. 2005, Nature Rev. Cancer, 5:689-698) in the appropriate genetic context such as tumours with defects in ATM function or other S-phase checkpoints. Until recently, There is currently no clinical precedent for agents targeting ATR, although agents targeting the downstream signalling axis i.e. Chk1 are currently undergoing clinical evaluation (reviewed in Janetka J.W. et al. Curr Opin Drug Discov Devel, 2007, 10:473-486). However, inhibitors targeting ATR kinase have recently been described (Reaper 2011, Charrier 2011).

In summary ATR inhibitors have the potential to sensitise tumour cells to ionising radiation or DNA-damage inducing chemotherapeutic agents, have the potential to induce selective tumour cell killing as well as to induce synthetic lethality in subsets of tumour cells with defects in DNA damage response.

PAPER

Discovery and Characterization of AZD6738, a Potent Inhibitor of Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated and Rad3 Related (ATR) Kinase with Application as an Anticancer Agent

  • Kevin M. Foote
Cite This:J. Med. Chem.201861229889-9907
Publication Date:October 22, 2018
https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.8b01187
The kinase ataxia telangiectasia mutated and rad3 related (ATR) is a key regulator of the DNA-damage response and the apical kinase which orchestrates the cellular processes that repair stalled replication forks (replication stress) and associated DNA double-strand breaks. Inhibition of repair pathways mediated by ATR in a context where alternative pathways are less active is expected to aid clinical response by increasing replication stress. Here we describe the development of the clinical candidate 2(AZD6738), a potent and selective sulfoximine morpholinopyrimidine ATR inhibitor with excellent preclinical physicochemical and pharmacokinetic (PK) characteristics. Compound 2 was developed improving aqueous solubility and eliminating CYP3A4 time-dependent inhibition starting from the earlier described inhibitor 1 (AZ20). The clinical candidate 2 has favorable human PK suitable for once or twice daily dosing and achieves biologically effective exposure at moderate doses. Compound 2 is currently being tested in multiple phase I/II trials as an anticancer agent.
 ATR Inhibitors
4-{4-[(3R)-3-Methylmorpholin-4-yl]-6-[1-((R)-S-methylsulfonimidoyl)cyclopropyl]pyrimidin-2-yl}-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine (2)
2 (139 g, 42%) as a white crystalline solid.
1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6): 1.19 (3H, d), 1.29–1.50 (3H, m), 1.61–1.72 (1H, m), 3.01 (3H, s), 3.22 (1H, d), 3.43 (1H, td), 3.58 (1H, dd), 3.68–3.76 (2H, m), 3.87–3.96 (1H, m), 4.17 (1H, d), 4.60 (1H, s), 6.98 (1H, s), 7.20 (1H, dd), 7.55–7.58 (1H, m), 7.92 (1H, d), 8.60 (1H, d), 11.67 (1H, s).
13C NMR (176 MHz, DMSO-d6) 11.29, 12.22, 13.39, 38.92, 41.14, 46.48, 47.81, 65.97, 70.19, 101.54, 102.82, 114.58, 117.71, 127.21, 136.70, 142.21, 150.12, 161.88, 162.63, 163.20.
HRMS-ESI m/z 413.17529 [MH+]; C20H24N6O2S requires 413.1760.
Chiral HPLC: (HP1100 system 4, 5 μm Chiralpak AS-H (250 mm × 4.6 mm) column, eluting with isohexane/EtOH/MeOH/TEA 50/25/25/0.1) Rf = 8.252, >99%. Anal. Found (% w/w): C, 58.36; H, 5.87; N, 20.20; S, 7.55; H2O, <0.14. C20H24N6O2S requires C, 58.23; H, 5.86; N, 20.37; S, 7.77.

Patent

WO 2011154737

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf;jsessionid=CF8CA857FDD8BF59DA9F336056132BB7.wapp2nA?docId=WO2011154737&tab=PCTDESCRIPTION

Example 1.01

4-{4-[(3R)-3-Methylmorpholin-4-yl]-6-[((R)-S-methylsulfonimidoyl)methyl]pyrimidin-2-yl}-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine

(R)-3-Methyl-4-(6-((R)-S-methylsulfonimidoylmethyl)-2-(1-tosyl-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-4-yl)pyrimidin-4-yl)morpholine (98 mg, 0.18 mmol) was dissolved in MeOH (10 ml) and DCM (10 ml) and heated to 50 °C. Sodium hydroxide, 2M aqueous solution (0.159 ml, 0.32 mmol) was then added and heating continued for 5 hours. The reaction mixture was evaporated and the residue dissolved in DME: water :MeCN 2: 1 : 1 (4 ml) and then purified by preparative HPLC using decreasingly polar mixtures of water (containing 1% NH3) and MeCN as eluents. Fractions containing the desired compound were evaporated and the residue trituated with Et2O

(1 ml) to afford the title compound (34.6 mg, 49%); 1HNMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) 1.40 (3H, d), 3.17 (3H, s), 3.39 (1H, tt), 3.62 (1H, td), 3.77 (1H, dd), 3.85 (1H, d), 4.08 (1H, dd), 4.18 (1H, d), 4.37 – 4.48 (2H, q), 4.51 (1H, s), 6.59 (1H, s), 7.35 (1H, t), 7.46 (1H, d), 8.06 (1H, d), 8.42 (1H, d), 10.16 (1H, s); m/z: (ES+) MH+, 387.19.

The (R)-3-methyl-4-(6-((R)-S-methylsulfonimidoylmethyl)-2-(1-tosyl-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-4-yl)pyrimidin-4-yl)morpholine, used as starting material, can be prepared as follows:

a) (R)-3-methylmorpholine (7.18 g, 71.01 mmol) and triethylamine (12.87 ml, 92.31 mmol) were added to methyl 2,4-dichloropyrimidine-6-carboxylate (14.70 g, 71.01 mmol) in DCM (100 ml). The resulting mixture was stirred at RT for 18 hours. Water (100 ml) was added, the layers separated and extracted with DCM (3 × 75 ml). The combined organics were

dried over MgSO4, concentrated in vacuo and the residue triturated with Et2O to yield (R)-methyl 2-chloro-6-(3-methylmorpholino)pyrimidine-4-carboxylate (14.77 g, 77%); 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) 1.35 (3H, d), 3.34 (1H, td), 3.55 (1H, td), 3.70 (1H, dd), 3.81 (1H, d), 3.97 (3H, s), 4.03 (1H, dd), 4.12 (1H, br s), 4.37 (1H, br s), 7.15 (1H, s); m/z: (ESI+) MH+, 272.43. The liquors were concentrated onto silica and purified by chromatography on silica eluting with a gradient of 20 to 40% EtOAc in isohexane. Fractions containing product were combined and evaporated to afford (R)-methyl 2-chloro-6-(3-methylmorpholino)pyrimidine-4-carboxylate (1.659 g, 9%); 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) 1.35 (3H, d), 3.33 (1H, td), 3.55 (1H, td), 3.69 (1H, dd), 3.80 (1H, d), 3.97 (3H, s), 4.03 (1H, dd), 4.12 (1H, br s), 4.36 (1H, br s), 7.15 (1H, s); m/z: (ESI+) MH+, 272.43.

b) Lithium borohydride, 2M in THF (18 ml, 36.00 mmol) was added dropwise to (R)-methyl 2-chloro-6-(3-methylmorpholino)pyrimidine-4-carboxylate (16.28 g, 59.92 mmol) in THF (200 ml) at 0°C over a period of 20 minutes under nitrogen. The resulting solution was stirred at 0 °C for 30 minutes and then allowed to warm to RT and stirred for a further 18 hours. Water (200 ml) was added and the THF evaporated. The aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (2 × 100 ml) and the organic phases combined, dried over MgSO4 and then evaporated to afford (R)-(2-chloro-6-(3-methylmorpholino)pyrimidin-4-yl)methanol (14.54 g, 100%) which was used in the next step without purification; 1HNMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) 1.32 (3H, d), 2.65 (1H, br s), 3.25 – 3.32 (1H, m), 3.51 – 3.57 (1H, m), 3.67 – 3.70 (1H, m), 3.78 (1H, d), 3.98 – 4.09 (2H, m), 4.32 (1H, br s), 4.59 (2H, s), 6.44 (1H, s); m/z: (ESI+) MH+, 244.40.

c) Methanesulfonyl chloride (4.62 ml, 59.67 mmol) was added dropwise to (R)-(2-chloro-6-(3-methylmorpholino)pyrimidin-4-yl)methanol (14.54 g, 59.67 mmol) and triethylamine (8.32 ml, 59.67 mmol) in DCM (250 ml) at 25 °C over a period of 5 minutes. The resulting solution was stirred at 25 °C for 90 minutes. The reaction mixture was quenched with water (100 ml) and extracted with DCM (2 × 100 ml). The organic phases were combined, dried over MgSO4, filtered and evaporated to afford (R)-(2-chloro-6-(3-methylmorpholino)pyrimidin-4-yl)methyl methanesulfonate (20.14 g, 105%) which was used in the next step without further purification; 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) 1.33 (3H, d), 3.13 (3H, s), 3.27 – 3.34 (1H, m), 3.51 -3.57 (1H, m), 3.66 – 3.70 (1H, m), 3.79 (1H, d), 3.99 – 4.03 (2H, m), 4.34 (1H, br s), 5.09 (2H, d) , 6.52 (1H, s); m/z: (ESI+) MH+, 322.83.

Alternatively, this step can be carried out as follows:

In a 3 L fixed reaction vessel with a Huber 360 heater / chiller attached, under a nitrogen atmosphere, triethylamine (0.120 L, 858.88 mmol) was added in one go to a stirred solution of (R)-(2-chloro-6-(3-methylmorpholino)pyrimidin-4-yl)methanol (161 g, 660.68 mmol) in DCM (7.5vol) (1.2 L) at 20°C (3°C exotherm seen). The mixture was cooled to 5°C and then methanesulfonyl chloride (0.062 L, 792.81 mmol) was added dropwise over 15 minutes, not allowing the internal temperature to exceed 15°C. The reaction mixture was stirred at 15°C for 2 hours and then held (not stirring) overnight at RT under a nitrogen atmosphere. Water (1.6 L, 10 vol) was added and the aqueous layer was separated and then extracted with DCM (2 × 1.6 L, 2 × 10 vol). The organics were combined, washed with 50% brine / water (1.6 L, 10 vol), dried over magnesium sulphate, filtered and then evaporated to afford a mixture of

approximately two thirds (R)-(2-chloro-6-(3-methylmorpholino)pyrimidin-4-yl)methyl methanesulfonate and one third (R)-4-(2-chloro-6-(chloromethyl)pyrimidin-4-yl)-3-methylmorpholine (216 g) which was used in the next step without further purification, d) Lithium iodide (17.57 g, 131.27 mmol) was added to (R)-(2-chloro-6-(3-methylmorpholino)pyrimidin-4-yl)methyl methanesulfonate (19.2 g, 59.67 mmol) in dioxane (300 ml) and heated to 100 °C for 2 hours under nitrogen. The reaction mixture was quenched with water (200 ml) and extracted with EtOAc (3 × 200 ml). The organic layers were combined and washed with 2M sodium bisulfite solution (400 ml), water (400 ml), brine (400 ml) dried over MgSO4 and then evaporated. The residue was triturated with Et2O to afford (R)-4-(2-chloro-6-(iodomethyl)pyrimidin-4-yl)-3-methylmorpholine (13.89 g, 66%); 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) 1.32 (3H, d), 3.28 (1H, td), 3.54 (1H, td), 3.69 (1H, dd), 3.78 (1H, d), 3.98 -4.02 (2H, m), 4.21 (2H, s), 4.29 (1H, br s), 6.41 (1H, s); m/z: (ESI+) MH+ 354.31.

The mother liquors were concentrated down and triturated with Et2O to afford a further crop of (R)-4-(2-chloro-6-(iodomethyl)pyrimidin-4-yl)-3-methylmorpholine (2.46 g, 12%); 1HNMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) 1.32 (3H, d), 3.28 (1H, td), 3.54 (1H, td), 3.69 (1H, dd), 3.78 (1H, d), 3.98 – 4.02 (2H, m), 4.21 (2H, s), 4.30 (1H, s), 6.41 (1H, s); m/z: (ESI+) MH+, 354.31.

Alternatively, this step can be carried out as follows:

(R)-(2-Chloro-6-(3-methylmorpholino)pyrimidin-4-yl)methyl methanesulfonate (80 g, 248.62 mmol) and lithium iodide (83 g, 621.54 mmol) were dissolved in dioxane (300 ml) and then heated at 107 °C for 1 hour. The reaction mixture was quenched with water (250 ml), extracted with EtOAc (3 × 250 ml), the organic layer was dried over MgSO4, filtered and evaporated. The residue was dissolved in DCM and Et2O was added, the mixture was passed through silica (4 inches) and eluted with Et2O. Fractions containing product were evaporated and the residue was then triturated with Et2O to give a solid which was collected by filtration and dried under vacuum to afford (R)-4-(2-chloro-6-(iodomethyl)pyrimidin-4-yl)-3-methylmorpholine (75 g, 86%) ; m/z: (ESI+) MH+, 354.27.

e) (R)-4-(2-Chloro-6-(iodomethyl)pyrimidin-4-yl)-3-methylmorpholine (17.0 g, 48.08 mmol) was dissolved in DMF (150 ml), to this was added sodium methanethiolate (3.37 g, 48.08 mmol) and the reaction was stirred for 1 hour at 25 °C. The reaction mixture was quenched with water (50 ml) and then extracted with Et2O (3 × 50 ml). The organic layer was dried over MgSO4, filtered and then evaporated. The residue was purified by flash

chromatography on silica, eluting with a gradient of 50 to 100% EtOAc in iso-hexane. Pure fractions were evaporated to afford (R)-4-(2-chloro-6-(methylthiomethyl)pyrimidin-4-yl)-3-methylmorpholine (12.63 g, 96%); m/z: (ES+) MH+, 274.35.

Alternatively, (R)-4-(2-chloro-6-(methylthiomethyl)pyrimidin-4-yl)-3-methylmorpholine, may be prepared as follows:

In a 3 L fixed vessel, sodium thiomethoxide (21% in water) (216 g, 646.69 mmol) was added dropwise over 5 minutes to a stirred solution of a mixture of approximately two thirds (R)-(2-chloro-6-(3-methylmorpholino)pyrimidin-4-yl)methyl methanesulfonate and one third (R)-4-(2-chloro-6-(chloromethyl)pyrimidin-4-yl)-3-methylmorpholine (130.2 g, 431 mmol) and sodium iodide (1.762 ml, 43.11 mmol) in MeCN (1 L) at RT (temperature dropped from 20 °C to 18 °C over the addition and then in the next 5 minutes rose to 30 °C). The reaction mixture was stirred for 16 hours and then diluted with EtOAc (2 L), and washed sequentially with water (750 ml) and saturated brine (1 L). The organic layer was dried over MgSO4, filtered and then evaporated to afford (R)-4-(2-chloro-6-(methylthiomethyl)pyrimidin-4-yl)-3-methylmorpholine (108 g, 91%); 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO- d6) 1.20 (3H, d), 2.07 (3H, s), 3.11 – 3.26 (1H, m), 3.44 (1H, td), 3.53 (2H, s), 3.59 (1H, dd), 3.71 (1H, d), 3.92 (1H, dd), 3.92 – 4.04 (1H, br s), 4.33 (1H, s), 6.77 (1H, s); m/z: (ES+) MH+, 274.36.

f) (R)-4-(2-Chloro-6-(methylthiomethyl)pyrimidin-4-yl)-3-methylmorpholine (12.63 g, 46.13 mmol) was dissolved in DCM (100 ml), to this was added mCPBA (7.96 g, 46.13 mmol) in one portion and the reaction mixture was stirred for 10 minutes at 25 °C. An additional portion of mCPBA (0.180 g) was added. The reaction mixture was quenched with saturated Na2CO3 solution (50 ml) and extracted with DCM (3 × 50 ml). The organic layer was dried over MgSO4, filtered and then evaporated. The residue was dissolved in DCM (80 ml) in a 150

ml conical flask which was placed into a beaker containing Et2O (200 ml) and the system covered with laboratory film and then left for 3 days. The obtained crystals were filtered, crushed and sonicated with Et2O. The crystallisation procedure was repeated to afford (R)-4-(2-chloro-6-((R)-methylsulfinylmethyl)pyrimidin-4-yl)-3-methylmorpholine as white needles (3.87 g, 29%); 1HNMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) 1.33 (3H, d), 2.62 (3H, s), 3.30 (1H, td), 3.53 (1H, td), 3.68 (1H, dd), 3.76 (2H, dd), 3.95 (1H, d), 4.00 (1H, dd), 4.02 (1H, s), 4.32 (1H, s), 6.42 (1H, s).

The remaining liquour from the first vapour diffusion was purified by flash chromatography on silica, eluting with a gradient of 0 to 5% MeOH in DCM. Pure fractions were evaporated to afford (R)-4-(2-chloro-6-((S)-methylsulfinylmethyl)pyrimidin-4-yl)-3-methylmorpholine as an orange gum (5.70 g, 43%); 1 HNMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) 1.33 (3H, d), 2.62 (3H, d), 3.29 (1H, td), 3.54 (1H, td), 3.68 (1H, dd), 3.73 – 3.82 (2H, m), 3.94 (1H, dd), 4.00 (2H, dd), 4.33 (1H, s), 6.42 (1H, s).

Alternatively, this step can be carried out as follows:

Sodium meta-periodate (64.7 g, 302.69 mmol) was added in one portion to (R)-4-(2-chloro-6-(methylthiomethyl)pyrimidin-4-yl)-3-methylmorpholine (82.87 g, 302.69 mmol) in water (500 ml), EtOAc (1000 ml) and MeOH (500 ml). The resulting solution was stirred at 20 °C for 16 hours. Sodium metabisulfite (50 g) was added and the mixture stirred for 30 minutes. The reaction mixture was filtered and then partially evaporated to remove the MeOH. The organic layer was separated, dried over MgSO4, filtered and then evaporated. The aqueous layer was washed with DCM (3 x 500 ml). The organic layers were combined, dried over MgSO4, filtered and then evaporated. The residues were combined and dissolved in DCM (400 ml) and purified by flash chromatography on silica, eluting with a gradient of 0 to 5% MeOH in DCM. Fractions containing product were evaporated and the residue was dissolved in DCM (400 ml) and then divided into four 450 ml bottles. An aluminium foil cap was placed over the top of each bottle and a few holes made in each cap. The bottles were placed in pairs in a large dish containing Et2O (1000 ml), and then covered and sealed with a second glass dish and left for 11 days. The resultant white needles were collected by filtration and dried under vacuum. The crystals were dissolved in DCM (200 ml) and placed into a 450 ml bottle. An aluminium foil cap was placed over the top of the bottle and a few holes made in the cap. The bottle was placed in a large dish containing Et2O (1500 ml) and then covered and sealed with a second glass dish and left for 6 days. The resultant crystals were collected by filtration and dried under vacuum to afford (R)-4-(2-chloro-6-((R)-methylsulfinylmethyl)pyrimidin-4-yl)-3-methylmorpholine (16.53 g, 19%); 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) 1.33 (3H, d), 2.61 (3H, s),

3.29 (1H, td), 3.53 (1H, td), 3.68 (1H, dd), 3.76 (2H, dd), 3.95 (1H, d), 3.99 (1H, dd), 4.02 (1H, s), 4.31 (1H, s), 6.41 (1H, s). Chiral HPLC: (HP1100 System 5, 20μm Chiralpak AD-H (250 mm × 4.6 mm) column eluting with Hexane/EtOH/TEA 50/50/0.1) Rf, 12.192 98.2%.

The filtrate from the first vapour diffusion was concentrated in vacuo to afford an approximate

5:2 mixture of (R)-4-(2-chloro-6-((S)-methylsulfinylmethyl)pyrimidin-4-yl)-3-methylmorpholine and (R)-4-(2-chloro-6-((R)-methylsulfinylmethyl)pyrimidin-4-yl)-3-methylmorpholine (54.7 g, 62%).

Alternatively, this step can be carried out as follows:

Sodium meta-periodate (2.87 g, 13.44 mmol) was added in one portion to (R)-4-(2-chloro-6-(methylthiomethyl)pyrimidin-4-yl)-3-methylmorpholine (3.68 g, 13.44 mmol) in water (10.00 ml), EtOAc (20 ml) and MeOH (10.00 ml). The resulting solution was stirred at 20 °C for 16 hours. The reaction mixture was diluted with DCM (60 ml) and then filtered. The DCM layer was separated and the aqueous layer washed with DCM (3 × 40 ml). The organics were combined, dried over MgSO4, filtered and then evaporated. The residue was purified by flash chromatography on silica, eluting with a gradient of 0 to 7% MeOH in DCM. Pure fractions were evaporated to afford (R)-4-(2-chloro-6-(methylsulfinylmethyl)pyrimidin-4-yl)-3-methylmorpholine (2.72 g, 70%); 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) 1.22 (3H, d), 2.64 (3H, d), 3.14 – 3.26 (1H, m), 3.45 (1H, td), 3.59 (1H, dd), 3.73 (1H, d), 3.88 – 3.96 (2H, m), 4.00 (1H, d), 4.07 (1H, dt), 4.33 (1H, s), 6.81 (1H, s); m/z: (ESI+) MH+, 290.43.

The (3R)-4-(2-chloro-6-(methylsulfinylmethyl)pyrimidin-4-yl)-3-methylmorpholine (2.7 g, 9.32 mmol) was purified by preparative chiral chromatography on a Merck 100 mm 20 μm Chiralpak AD column, eluting isocratically with a 50:50:0.1 mixture of iso-Hexane:EtOH:TEA as eluent. The fractions containing product were evaporated to afford (R)-4-(2-chloro-6-((S)-methylsulfinylmethyl)pyrimidin-4-yl)-3-methylmorpholine (1.38 g, 51%) as the first eluting compound; 1HNMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) 1.29 (3H, dd), 2.56 (3H, s), 3.15 – 3.33 (1H, m), 3.46 (1H, tt), 3.55 – 3.83 (3H, m), 3.85 – 4.06 (3H, m), 4.31 (1H, s), 6.37 (1H, s). Chiral HPLC: (HP1100 System 6, 20μm Chiralpak AD (250 mm × 4.6 mm) column eluting with iso-Hexane/EtOH/TEA 50/50/0.1) Rf, 7.197 >99%.

and (R)-4-(2-chloro-6-((R)-methylsulfinylmethyl)pyrimidin-4-yl)-3-methylmorpholine (1.27 g, 47 %) as the second eluting compound; 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) 1.28 (3H, d), 2.58 (3H, s),

3.26 (1H, td), 3.48 (1H, td), 3.62 (1H, dt), 3.77 (2H, dd), 3.88 – 4.13 (3H, m), 4.28 (1H, s), 6.37 (1H, s). Chiral HPLC: (HP1100 System 6, 20μm Chiralpak AD (250 mm × 4.6 mm) column eluting with iso-Hexane/EtOH/TEA 50/50/0.1) Rf, 16.897 >99%.

g) Iodobenzene diacetate (18.98 g, 58.94 mmol) was added to (R)-4-(2-chloro-6-((R)-methylsulfinylmethyl)pyrimidin-4-yl)-3-methylmorpholine (17.08 g, 58.94 mmol), 2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide (13.33 g, 117.88 mmol), magnesium oxide (9.50 g, 235.76 mmol) and rhodium(II) acetate dimer (0.651 g, 1.47 mmol) in DCM (589 ml) under air. The resulting suspension was stirred at 20 °C for 24 hours. Further 2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide (13.33 g, 117.88 mmol), magnesium oxide (9.50 g, 235.76 mmol), iodobenzene diacetate (18.98 g, 58.94 mmol) and rhodium(II) acetate dimer (0.651 g, 1.47 mmol) were added and the suspension was stirred at 20 °C for 3 days. The reaction mixture was filtered and then silica gel (100 g) added to the filtrate and the solvent removed in vacuo. The resulting powder was purified by flash chromatography on silica, eluting with a gradient of 20 to 50% EtOAc in isohexane. Pure fractions were evaporated to afford N-[({2-chloro-6-[(3R)-3-methylmorpholin-4-yl]pyrimidin-4-yl}methyl)(methyl)oxido-λ6-(R)-sulfanylidene]-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide (19.39 g, 82%); 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) 1.22 (3H, d), 3.17 – 3.27 (1H, m), 3.44 (1H, td), 3.59 (1H, dd), 3.62 (3H, s), 3.74 (1H, d), 3.95 (1H, dd), 4.04 (1H, br s), 4.28 (1H, s), 5.08 (2H, q), 6.96 (1H, s); m/z: (ESI+) MH+, 401.12 and 403.13.

h) Dichlorobis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(II) (8.10 mg, 0.01 mmol) was added in one portion to N-[({2-chloro-6-[(3R)-3-methylmorpholin-4-yl]pyrimidin-4-yl}methyl)(methyl)oxido-λ6-(R)-sulfanylidene]-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide (185 mg, 0.46 mmol), 2M aqueous Na2CO3 solution (0.277 ml, 0.55 mmol) and 4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)-1-tosyl-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine (193 mg, 0.48 mmol) in DME:water 4: 1 (5 ml) at RT. The reaction mixture was stirred at 90 °C for 1 hour, filtered and then purified by preparative HPLC using decreasingly polar mixtures of water (containing 1% NH3) and MeCN as eluents. Fractions containing the desired compound were evaporated to afford (R)-3-methyl-4-(6-((R)-S-methylsulfonimidoylmethyl)-2-(1-tosyl-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-4-yl)pyrimidin-4-yl)morpholine (102 mg, 41%); 1HNMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) 1.33 (3H, d), 3.21 – 3.38 (1H, m), 3.42 (3H, d), 3.45 – 3.57 (1H, m), 3.61 – 3.70 (1H, m), 3.78 (1H, d), 4.01 (1H, dd), 3.90 -4.15 (1H, br s), 4.30 (1H, s), 4.64 (1H, dd), 4.84 (1H, dd), 6.49 (1H, d); m/z: (ESI+) MH+, 541.35

The 4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)-1-tosyl-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine, used as starting material, can be prepared as follows:

a) To a 3L fixed vessel was charged 3-chlorobenzoperoxoic acid (324 g, 1444.67 mmol) portionwise to 1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine (150 g, 1244.33 mmol) in DME (750 ml) and heptane (1500 ml) at 20°C over a period of 1 hour under nitrogen. The resulting slurry was stirred at 20 °C for 18 hours. The precipitate was collected by filtration, washed with DME / heptane (1/2 5 vol) (750 ml) and dried under vacuum at 40°C to afford 1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b] pyridine 7-oxide 3-chlorobenzoate (353 g, 97%) as a cream solid, which was used without further purification; 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) 6.59 (1H, d), 7.07 (1H, dd), 7.45 (1H, d), 7.55 (1H, t), 7.65 (1H, dd), 7.70 (1H, ddd), 7.87 – 7.93 (2H, m), 8.13 (1H, d), 12.42 (1H, s), 13.32 (1H, s).

b) A 2M solution of potassium carbonate (910 ml, 1819.39 mmol) was added dropwise to a stirred slurry of 1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine 7-oxide 3-chlorobenzoate (352.6 g, 1212.93 mmol) in water (4.2 vol) (1481 ml) at 20°C, over a period of 1 hour adjusting the pH to 10. To the resulting slurry was charged water (2 vol) (705 ml) stirred at 20 °C for 1 hour. The slurry was cooled to 0°C for 1 hour and the slurry filtered, the solid was washed with water (3 vol 1050ml) and dried in a vacuum oven at 40°C over P2O5 overnight to afford 1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b] pyridine 7-oxide (118 g, 73%); 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) 6.58 (1H, d), 7.06 (1H, dd), 7.45 (1H, d), 7.64 (1H, d), 8.13 (1H, d), 12.44 (1H, s); m/z: (ES+) (MH+MeCN)+, 176.03. c) To a 3L fixed vessel under an atmosphere of nitrogen was charged methanesulfonic anhydride (363 g, 2042.71 mmol) portionwise to 1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine 7-oxide (137 g, 1021.36 mmol), and tetramethylammonium bromide (236 g, 1532.03 mmol) in DMF (10 vol) (1370 ml) cooled to 0°C over a period of 30 minutes under nitrogen. The resulting suspension was stirred at 20 °C for 24 hours. The reaction mixture was quenched with water (20 vol, 2740 ml) and the reaction mixture was adjusted to pH 7 with 50% sodium hydroxide (approx 200 ml). Water (40 vol, 5480 ml) was charged and the mixture cooled to 10°C for 30 minutes. The solid was filtered, washed with water (20 vol, 2740 ml) and the solid disssolved into

DCM/methanol (4: 1, 2000 ml), dried over MgSO4 and evaporated to provide a light brown solid. The solid was taken up in hot methanol (2000 ml) and water added dropwise until the solution went turbid and left overnight. The solid was filtered off and discarded, the solution was evaporated and the solid recrystallised from MeCN (4000 ml). The solid was filtered and washed with MeCN to afford 4-bromo-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine (68.4 g, 34%) as a pink

solid; 1H NMR (400 MHz, OMSO-d6) 6.40 – 6.45 (1H, m), 7.33 (1H, d), 7.57 – 7.63 (1H, m), 8.09 (1H, t), 12.02 (1H, s); m/z: (ES+) MH+, 198.92. The crude mother liquors were purified by Companion RF (reverse phase CI 8, 415g column), using decreasingly polar mixtures of water (containing 1% NH3) and MeCN as eluents (starting at 26% upto 46% MeCN). Fractions containing the desired compound were evaporated to afford 4-bromo-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine (5.4 g, 3%) as a pink solid; 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) 6.43 (1H, dd), 7.33 (1H, d), 7.55 – 7.66 (1H, m), 8.09 (1H, d), 12.03 (1H, s); m/z: (ES+) MH+, 199.22.

d) Sodium hydroxide (31.4 ml, 188.35 mmol) was added to 4-bromo-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine (10.03 g, 50.91 mmol), tosyl chloride (19.41 g, 101.81 mmol) and

tetrabutylammonium hydrogensulfate (0.519 g, 1.53 mmol) in DCM (250 ml) at RT. The resulting mixture was stirred at RT for 1 hour. The reaction was quenched through the addition of saturated aqueous NH4Cl, the organic layer removed and the aqueous layer further extracted with DCM (3 × 25 ml). The combinbed organics were washed with brine (100 ml), dried over Na2SO4 and then concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by flash chromatography on silica, eluting with a gradient of 0 to 20% EtOAc in isohexane. Pure fractions were evaporated to afford 4-bromo-1-tosyl-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine (14.50 g, 81%); 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) 2.38 (3H, s), 6.64 (1H, d), 7.28 (2H, d), 7.36 (1H, d), 7.78 (1H, d), 8.06 (2H, d), 8.22 (1H, d); m/z: (ES+) MH+, 353.23.

e) 1,1′-Bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocenedichloropalladium(II) (3.37 g, 4.13 mmol) was added in one portion to 4-bromo-1-tosyl-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine (14.5 g, 41.28 mmol), bis(pinacolato)diboron (20.97 g, 82.57 mmol) and potassium acetate (12.16 g, 123.85 mmol) in anhydrous DMF (300 ml) at RT. The resulting mixture was stirred under nitrogen at 90 °C for 24 hours. After cooling to RT, 1N aqueous NaOH was added untill the aqueous layer was taken to pH 10. The aqueous layer was washed with DCM (1L), carefully acidified to pH 4 with 1 N aqueous HCl, and then extracted with DCM (3 × 300 ml). The organic layer was concentrated under reduced pressure to afford a dark brown solid. The solid was triturated with diethyl ether, filtered and dried to afford 4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)-1-tosyl-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine (7.058 g, 43%); 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) 1.36 (12H, s), 2.35 (3H, s), 7.01 (1H, d), 7.22 (2H, d), 7.52 (1H, d), 7.74 (1H, d), 8.03 (2H, m), 8.42 (1H, d); m/z: (ES+) MH+, 399.40. The mother liquors were concentrated in vacuo and the residue triturated in isohexane, filtered and dried to afford a further sample of 4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)-1-tosyl-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine (3.173 g, 19%); 1H NMR (400 MHz,

CDCI3) 1.36 (12H, s), 2.35 (3H, s), 7.01 (1H, d), 7.23 (2H, d), 7.52 (1H, d), 7.74 (1H, d), 8.03 (2H, d), 8.42 (1H, d); m/z: (ES+) MH+, 399.40.

Example 2.01 and example 2.02

4-{4-[(3R)-3-Methylmorpholin-4-yl]-6-[1-((S)-S-methylsulfonimidoyl)cyclopropyl]pyrimidin-2-yl}-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-blpyridine, and

4-{4-[(3R)-3-Methylmorpholin-4-yl]-6-[1-((R)-S-methylsulfonimidoyl)cyclopropyl]pyrimidin-2-yl}-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-blpyridine


(3R)-3-Methyl-4-(6-(1-(S-methylsulfonimidoyl)cyclopropyl)-2-(1-tosyl-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-4-yl)pyrimidin-4-yl)morpholine (1.67 g, 2.95 mmol) was dissolved in DME:water 4: 1 (60 ml) and heated to 50 °C. Sodium hydroxide, 2M aqueous solution (2.58 ml, 5.16 mmol) was then added and heating continued for 18 hours. The reaction mixture was acidified with 2M H Cl (~2 ml) to pH5. The reaction mixture was evaporated to dryness and the residue dissolved in EtOAc (250 ml), and washed with water (200 ml). The organic layer was dried over MgSO4, filtered and evaporated onto silica gel (10 g). The resulting powder was purified by flash chromatography on silica, eluting with a gradient of 0 to 7% MeOH in DCM. Pure fractions were evaporated and the residue was purified by preparative chiral chromatography on a Merck 50mm, 20μm ChiralCel OJ column, eluting isocratically with 50% isohexane in EtOH/MeOH (1 : 1) (modified with TEA) as eluent. The fractions containing the desired compound were evaporated to dryness to afford the title compound: 4-{4-[(3R)-3-methylmorpholin-4-yl]-6-[1-((R)-S-methylsulfonimidoyl)cyclopropyl]pyrimidin-2-yl}-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine (0.538g, 44%) as the first eluting compound; 1H NMR (400 MHz,

DMSO-d6) 1.29 (3H, d), 1.51 (3H, m), 1.70 – 1.82 (1H, m), 3.11 (3H, s), 3.28 (1H, m, obscured by water peak), 3.48 – 3.60 (1H, m), 3.68 (1H, dd), 3.75 – 3.87 (2H, m), 4.02 (1H, dd), 4.19 (1H, d), 4.60 (1H, s), 7.01 (1H, s), 7.23 (1H, dd), 7.51 – 7.67 (1H, m), 7.95 (1H, d), 8.34 (1H, d), 11.76 (1H, s); m/z: (ES+) MH+, 413.12. Chiral HPLC: (HP1100 System 4, 5μm Chiralcel OJ-H (250 mm × 4.6 mm) column eluting with iso-Hexane/EtOH/MeOH/TEA 50/25/25/0.1) Rf, 9.013 >99%. Crystals were grown and isolated by slow evaporation to dryness in air from EtOAc. These crystals were used to obtain the structure shown in Fig 1 by X-Ray diffraction (see below). Example 2.02: 4-{4-[(3R)-3-methylmorpholin-4-yl]-6-[1-((R)-S-methylsulfonimidoyl)cyclopropyl]pyrimidin-2-yl}-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine (326 mg, 0.79 mmol) was dissolved in DCM (3 ml). Silica gel (0.5 g) was added and the mixture concentrated in vacuo. The resulting powder was purified by flash chromatography on silica, eluting with a gradient of 0 to 5% MeOH in DCM. Pure fractions were evaporated to dryness and the residue was crystallized from EtOAc/n-heptane to afford 4-{4-[(3R)-3-methylmorpholin-4-yl]-6-[1-((R)-S-methylsulfonimidoyl)cyclopropyl]pyrimidin-2-yl}-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine (256 mg, 79%) as a white crystalline solid; 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) 1.29 (3H, d), 1.39 – 1.60 (3H, m), 1.71 – 1.81 (1H, m), 3.10 (3H, d), 3.21 – 3.29 (1H, m), 3.52 (1H, td), 3.67 (1H, dd), 3.80 (2H, t), 4.01 (1H, dd), 4.19 (1H, d), 4.59 (1H, s), 7.01 (1H, s), 7.23 (1H, dd), 7.54 – 7.62 (1H, m), 7.95 (1H, d), 8.34 (1H, d), 11.75 (1H, s). DSC (Mettler-Toledo DSC 820, sample run at a heating rate of 10°C per minute from 30°C to 350°C in a pierced aluminium pan) peak, 224.1 FC.

and the title compound: 4-{4-[(3R)-3-methylmorpholin-4-yl]-6-[1-((S)-S-methylsulfonimidoyl)cyclopropyl]pyrimidin-2-yl}-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine (0.441 g, 36%) as the second eluting compound; 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) 1.28 (3H, d), 1.40 – 1.58 (3H, m), 1.70 – 1.80 (1H, m), 3.10 (3H, d), 3.23 – 3.27 (1H, m), 3.51 (1H, dt), 3.66 (1H, dd), 3.80 (2H, d), 4.01 (1H, dd), 4.21 (1H, d), 4.56 (1H, s), 6.99 (1H, s), 7.22 (1H, dd), 7.54 – 7.61 (1H, m), 7.94 (1H, d), 8.33 (1H, d), 11.75 (1H, s); m/z: (ES+) MH+, 413.12. Chiral HPLC: (HP1100 System 4, 5μm Chiralcel OJ-H (250 mm × 4.6 mm) column eluting with iso-Hexane/EtOH/MeOH/TEA 50/25/25/0.1) Rf, 15.685 >99%. Example 2.01 : 4-{4-[(3R)-3-methylmorpholin-4-yl]-6-[1-((S)-S-methylsulfonimidoyl)cyclopropyl]pyrimidin-2-yl}-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine (66.5 mg) was purified by crystallisation from EtOH/water to afford 4-{4-[(3R)-3-methylmorpholin-4-yl]-6-[1-((S)-S-methylsulfonimidoyl)cyclopropyl]pyrimidin-2-yl}-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine (0.050 g); 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) 1.40 (3H, d), 1.59 (2H, s), 1.81 (2H, s), 2.41 (1H, s), 3.16 (3H, s), 3.39 (1H, td), 3.59 – 3.67 (1H, m), 3.77 (1H, dd), 3.86 (1H, d), 4.07 (1H, dd), 4.17 (1H, d), 4.54 (1H, s), 6.91 (1H, s), 7.34 (1H, t), 7.43 (1H, t), 8.05 (1H, d), 8.41 (1H, d), 9.14 (1H, s).

Scheme 1. Medicinal Chemistry Route to AZD6738

Reagent and conditions:

(a) (3R)-3-methylmorpholine, TEA, DCM, 77%;

(b) LiBH4, THF, 100%;

(c) MsCl, TEA, DCM, 100%;

(d) LiI, dioxane, 78%;

(e) NaSMe, DMF, 96%;

(f) m-CPBA, DCM;

(g) crystallization or chromatography, 40% (two steps);

(h) IBDA, trifluoroacetamide, MgO, DCM, Rh2(OAc)4 82%;

(i) 1,2-dibromoethane, sodium hydroxide, TOAB, 2-MeTHF, 47%;

(j) TsCl, tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulfate, sodium hydroxide, DCM, 92%;

(k) bis(pinacolato)diboron, potassium acetate, 1,1′-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene dichloro palladium(II), DMF, 62%;

(l) Pd(II)Cl2(PPh3)2, Na2CO3, DME, water, 80%;

(m) 2 N NaOH, DME, water, 92%.

Foote, K. M. N.Johannes, W. M.Turner, P.Morpholino Pyrimidines and their use in therapyWO 2011/154737 A1, 15 December 2011.

PAPER

Development and Scale-up of a Route to ATR Inhibitor AZD6738

  • William R. F. Goundry et al
Cite This:Org. Process Res. Dev.2019XXXXXXXXXX-XXX
Publication Date:June 21, 2019
https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.oprd.9b00075
AZD6738 is currently being tested in multiple phase I/II trials for the treatment of cancer. Its structure, comprising a pyrimidine core decorated with a chiral morpholine, a cyclopropyl sulfoximine, and an azaindole, make it a challenging molecule to synthesize on a large scale. We describe the evolution of the chemical processes, following the manufacture of AZD6738 from the initial scale-up through to multikilos on plant scale. During this evolution, we developed a biocatalytic process to install the sulfoxide with high enantioselectivity, followed by introduction of the cyclopropyl group first in batch, then in a continuous flow plate reactor, and finally through a series of continuous stirred tank reactors. The final plant scale process to form AZD6738 was operated on 46 kg scale with an overall yield of 18%. We discuss the impurities formed throughout the process and highlight the limitations of this route for further scale-up.
Abstract Image
imino-methyl-[1-[6-[(3R)-3-methylmorpholin-4-yl]-2-(1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-4-yl)pyrimidin-4-yl]cyclopropyl]-oxo-λ6-sulfane (1) (30.0 g) were added at 75 °C, and the reaction mixture was held for 2 h. The mixture was cooled to 20 °C, and n-heptane (141.9 kg) was added at the rate of 40 kg/h. The solid was collected by filtration, washed with a mixture of 1-butanol and n-heptane (9.3 and 22.4 kg respectively), and then given a further wash with n-heptane (32.2 kg). The solid was dried at 40 °C to give imino-methyl-[1-[6-[(3R)-3-methylmorpholin-4-yl]-2-(1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-4-yl)pyrimidin-4-yl]cyclopropyl]-oxo-λ6-sulfane (1) as a whit  solid (41.4 kg, 92% yield): Assay (HPLC) 99.9%; Assay (NMR) 99% wt/wt.

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15: Kim HJ, Min A, Im SA, Jang H, Lee KH, Lau A, Lee M, Kim S, Yang Y, Kim J, Kim TY, Oh DY, Brown J, O’Connor MJ, Bang YJ. Anti-tumor activity of the ATR inhibitor AZD6738 in HER2 positive breast cancer cells. Int J Cancer. 2017 Jan 1;140(1):109-119. doi: 10.1002/ijc.30373. Epub 2016 Oct 21. PubMed PMID: 27501113.

16: Biskup E, Naym DG, Gniadecki R. Small-molecule inhibitors of Ataxia Telangiectasia and Rad3 related kinase (ATR) sensitize lymphoma cells to UVA radiation. J Dermatol Sci. 2016 Dec;84(3):239-247. doi: 10.1016/j.jdermsci.2016.09.010. Epub 2016 Sep 16. PubMed PMID: 27743911.

17: Checkley S, MacCallum L, Yates J, Jasper P, Luo H, Tolsma J, Bendtsen C. Corrigendum: Bridging the gap between in vitro and in vivo: Dose and schedule predictions for the ATR inhibitor AZD6738. Sci Rep. 2016 Feb 9;6:16545. doi: 10.1038/srep16545. PubMed PMID: 26859465; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4747154.

18: Kwok M, Davies N, Agathanggelou A, Smith E, Oldreive C, Petermann E, Stewart G, Brown J, Lau A, Pratt G, Parry H, Taylor M, Moss P, Hillmen P, Stankovic T. ATR inhibition induces synthetic lethality and overcomes chemoresistance in TP53- or ATM-defective chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells. Blood. 2016 Feb 4;127(5):582-95. doi: 10.1182/blood-2015-05-644872. Epub 2015 Nov 12. PubMed PMID: 26563132.

19: Vendetti FP, Lau A, Schamus S, Conrads TP, O’Connor MJ, Bakkenist CJ. The orally active and bioavailable ATR kinase inhibitor AZD6738 potentiates the anti-tumor effects of cisplatin to resolve ATM-deficient non-small cell lung cancer in vivo. Oncotarget. 2015 Dec 29;6(42):44289-305. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.6247. PubMed PMID: 26517239; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4792557.

20: Karnitz LM, Zou L. Molecular Pathways: Targeting ATR in Cancer Therapy. Clin Cancer Res. 2015 Nov 1;21(21):4780-5. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-15-0479. Epub 2015 Sep 11. Review. PubMed PMID: 26362996; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4631635.

//////AZD6738AZD-6738AZD 6738, AstraZeneca,  University of Pennsylvania, Phase II,  Breast cancer, Gastric cancer, Non-small cell lung cancer, Ovarian cancer, Ceralasertib
C[C@@H]1COCCN1c2cc(nc(n2)c3cncc4[nH]ccc34)C5(CC5)[S@](=N)(=O)C

Unoprostone


Unoprostone

Unoprostone

  • Molecular FormulaC22H38O5
  • Average mass382.534 Da
[1R-[1a(Z),2b,3a,5a]]-7-[3,5-Dihydroxy-2-(3-oxodecyl)cyclopentyl]-5-heptenoic acid
120373-36-6 [RN]
13,14-Dihydro-15-keto-20-ethyl-PGF2a
6920
6X4F561V3W
CAS Registry Number: 120373-36-6
CAS Name: (5Z)-7-[(1R,2R,3R,5S)-3,5-Dihydroxy-2-(3-oxodecyl)cyclopentyl]-5-heptenoic acid
Additional Names: 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-20-ethyl-PGF2a
Molecular Formula: C22H38O5
Molecular Weight: 382.53
Percent Composition: C 69.08%, H 10.01%, O 20.91%
Literature References: Prepn: R. Ueno et al., EP 289349eidem, US 5221763 (1988, 1993 both to Ueno). Pharmacological characterization: Y. Goh, J. Kishino, Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 38, 236 (1994). Mechanism of action study: M. Sakurai et al., ibid. 37, 252 (1993). Comparative clinical trial in glaucoma and ocular hypertension: J.-P. Nordmann et al., Am. J. Ophthalmol. 133, 1 (2002).
2D chemical structure of 120373-24-2
13,14-Dihydro-15-keto-20-ethyl-PGF2
Derivative Type: Isopropyl ester
CAS Registry Number: 120373-24-2
Manufacturers’ Codes: UF-021
Trademarks: Rescula (Novartis)
Molecular Formula: C25H44O5
Molecular Weight: 424.61
Percent Composition: C 70.72%, H 10.44%, O 18.84%
Therap-Cat: Antiglaucoma; in treatment of ocular hypertension.
Keywords: Antiglaucoma; Prostaglandin/Prostaglandin Analog.

Unoprostone (INN) is a prostaglandin analogue. Its isopropyl esterunoprostone isopropyl, was marketed under the trade name Rescula for the management of open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension, but is now discontinued in the US.[1]

Unoprostone isopropyl is a prostaglandin analogue. Ophthalmic Solution 0.15% is a synthetic docosanoid. Unoprostone isopropyl has the chemical name isopropyl (+)-(Z)-7-[(1R,2R,3R,5S)-3,5 dihydroxy-2-(3-oxodecyl)cyclopentyl]-5-heptenoate. The main indication of Unoprostane is treatment of glucoma.

This compound can be prepared by two different ways: 1) The reaction of 1-benzyl-4-(hydroxymethyl)pyrrolidin-2-one (I) with SOCl2 in refluxing dichloromethane gives 1-benzyl-4-(chloromethyl)pyrrolidin-2-one (II), which is condensed with potassium phthalimide (III) in DMF yielding 1-benzyl-4-(phthalimidomethyl)pyrrolidin-2-one (IV). Finally, this compound is treated with hydrazine in ethanol and neutralized with fumaric acid. 2) The dehydration of 1-benzyl-2-oxo-pyrrolidine-4-carboxamide (V) with POCl3 in hot DMF gives 1-benzyl-4-cyanopyrrolidine-2-one (VI), which is reduced with H2 and RaNi in methanol – NH3 and neutralized with fumaric acid. EP 0289349; JP 1989151552; US 5001153; US 5106869

syn 2

The condensation of dimethyl methylphosphonate (I) with ethyl octanoate (II) by means of butyllithium in THF gives dimethyl 2-oxononylphosphonate (III), which is condensed with the protected aldehyde (IV) by means of NaH in THF, yielding the unsaturated ketone (V). The hydrogenation of (V) with H2 over Pd/C in ethyl acetate affords the corresponding saturated ketone (VI), which is treated with ethylene glycol and p-toluenesulfonic acid to give the cyclic ketal (VII). The mild hydrolysis of (VII) with K2CO3 and acetic acid gives the alcohol derivative (VIII); the reduction of the lactone group of (VIII) with dibutylaluminum hydride in toluene affords the lactol (IX), which is condensed with (4-carboxybutyl)triphenylphosphonium bromide (X) by means of NaH in DMSO yielding the protected prostaglandin (XI). Esterification of (XI) with isopropyl iodide and DBU in acetonitrile gives the precursor (XII), which is finally deprotected with acetic acid in THF – water.

References

Unoprostone
Unoprostone.svg
Clinical data
Trade names Rescula
AHFS/Drugs.com Micromedex Detailed Consumer Information
Pregnancy
category
  • US: C (Risk not ruled out)
Routes of
administration
Topical (eye drops)
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
  • US: Discontinued
Pharmacokinetic data
Elimination half-life 14 min
Excretion Renal
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEMBL
ECHA InfoCard 100.227.145 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
Formula C22H38O5
Molar mass 382.534 g/mol g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)

///////////////Antiglaucoma, ocular hypertension, UF-021, Unoprostone

CCCCCCCC(=O)CC[C@H]1[C@H](O)C[C@H](O)[C@@H]1C\C=C/CCCC(O)=O

CCCCCCCC(=O)CC[C@H]1[C@H](O)C[C@H](O)[C@@H]1C\C=C/CCCC(=O)OC(C)C

HEC-68498


HEC-68498, CT-365

CAS 1621718-37-3

C20 H13 F2 N5 O3 S
441.41
Benzenesulfonamide, N-[5-(3-cyanopyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridin-5-yl)-2-methoxy-3-pyridinyl]-2,4-difluoro-

N-[5-(3-Cyanopyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridin-5-yl)-2-methoxy-3-pyridinyl]-2,4-difluorobenzenesulfonamide

HEC Pharm , Calitor Sciences Llc; Sunshine Lake Pharma Co Ltd

PHASE 1, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and solid tumors

Phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor; mTOR inhibitor

Image result for hec pharm

  • Originator HEC Pharm
  • Developer HEC Pharm; Sunshine Lake Pharma
  • Class Anti-inflammatories; Antifibrotics; Isoenzymes
  • Mechanism of Action 1 Phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase inhibitors; MTOR protein inhibitors
  • Phase I Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
  • 22 May 2018 Phase-I clinical trials in Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in USA (PO) (NCT03502902)
  • 24 Apr 2018 Sunshine Lake Pharma in collaboration with Covance plans a phase I trial for Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (In volunteers) in China , (NCT03502902)
  • 19 Apr 2018 Preclinical trials in Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in China (PO)
  • US 20140234254
  • CN 103965199

CN 103965199

CN 103965199

Sunshine Lake Pharma , a subsidiary of  HEC Pharm  is developing an oral capsule formulation of HEC-68498 (phase 1, in July 2019) sodium salt, a dual inhibitor of phosphoinositide-3 kinase and the mTOR pathway, for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and solid tumors

HEC 68498 is an oral inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and mammalian target of rapamycin in clinical development at HEC Pharm for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. A phase I trial is under way in healthy volunteers.

The phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3 kinases or PI3Ks), a family of lipid kinases, have been found to play key regulatory roles in many cellular processes including cell survival, proliferation and differentiation. The PI3K enzymes consist of three classes with variable primary structure, function and substrate specificity. Class I PI3Ks consist of heterodimers of regulatory and catalytic subunits, and are subdivided into 1A and 1B based on their mode of activation. Class 1A PI3Ks are activated by various cell surface tyrosine kinases, and consist of the catalytic pl lO and regulatory p85 subunits. The three known isoforms of Class 1A pl lO are pl lOot, rΐ ΐqb, and rΐ ΐqd, which all contain an amino terminal regulatory interacting region (which interfaces with p85), a Ras binding domain, and a carboxy terminal catalytic domain. Class IB PI3Ks consist of the catalytic (pl lOy) and regulatory (p 101 ) subunits and are activated by G-protein coupled receptors. (“Small-molecule inhibitors of the PI3K signaling network” Future Med. Chem ., 2011, 3, 5, 549-565).

[0004] As major effectors downstream of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), PI3Ks transduce signals from various growth factors and cytokines into intracellular massages by generating phospholipids, which activate the serine-threonine protein kinase ART (also known as protein kinase B (PKB)) and other downstream effector pathways. The tumor suppressor or PTEN (phosphatase and tensin

homologue) is the most important negative regulator of the PI3K signaling pathway. (“Status of PBK/Akt/mTOR Pathway Inhibitors in Lymphoma.” Clin Lymphoma, Myeloma Leuk , 2014, 14(5), 335-342.)

[0005] The signaling network defined by phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks), AKT and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) controls most hallmarks of cancer, including cell cycle, survival, metabolism, motility and genomic instability. The pathway also contributes to cancer promoting aspects of the tumor environment, such as angiogenesis and inflammatory cell recruitment. The lipid second messenger produced by PI3K enzymes, phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3; also known as PIP3), is constitutively elevated in most cancer cells and recruits cytoplasmic proteins to membrane-localized‘onco’ signal osomes.

[0006] Cancer genetic studies suggest that the PI3K pathway is the most frequently altered pathway in human tumors: the PIK3CA gene (encoding the PI3K catalytic isoform pl lOa) is the second most frequently mutated oncogene, and PTEN (encoding phosphatase and tensin homolog, the major PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 phosphatase) is among the most frequently mutated tumor suppressor genes. In accord, a recent genomic study of head and neck cancer found the PI3K pathway to be the most frequently mutated. Indeed, even in cancer cells expressing normal PI3K and PTEN genes, other lesions are present that activate the PI3K signaling network (that is, activated tyrosine kinases, RAS and AKT, etc ). As a net result of these anomalies, the PI3K pathway is activated, mutated or amplified in many malignancies, including in ovarian cancer (Campbell et al., Cancer Res., 2004, 64, 7678-7681; Levine et al., Clin. Cancer Res., 2005, 11, 2875-2878; Wang et al., Hum. Mutat., 2005, 25, 322; Lee et al., Gynecol. Oncol. ,2005, 97, 26-34), cervical cancer, breast cancer (Bachman et al.,· Cancer Biol., Ther, 2004, 3, 772-775; Levine et al., supra; Li et al., Breast Cancer Res. Treat., 2006, 96, 91-95; Saal et al., Cancer Res., 2005, 65, 2554-2559; Samuels and Velculescu, Cell Cycle, 2004, 3, 1221-1224), colorectal cancer (Samuels et al., Science, 2004, 304, 554; Velho et al., Eur. J. Cancer, 2005, 41, 1649-1654), endometrial cancer (Oda et al ., Cancer Res., 2005, 65, 10669-10673), gastric carcinomas (Byun et al., M. J. Cancer, 2003 , 104, 318-327; Li et al., supra; Velho et al., supra; Lee et al., Oncogene, 2005 , 24, 1477-1480), hepatocellular carcinoma (Lee et al., id), small and non-small cell lung cancer (Tang et al., Lung Cancer 2006, 11, 181-191; Massion et al , Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med., 2004, 170, 1088-1094), thyroid carcinoma (Wu et al., J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 2005, 90, 4688-4693),

acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) (Sujobert et al., Blood, 1997, 106, 1063-1066), chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) (Hickey et al., J. Biol. Chem ., 2006, 281, 2441-2450), glioblastomas (Hartmann et al. Jlcta Neuropathol (Bert ), 2005, 109, 639-642; Samuels et al., supra), Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas (“PI3K and cancer: lessons, challenges and opportunities”, Nature Reviews Drug Discovery., 2014, 13, 140).

[0007] The PI3K pathway is hyperactivated in most cancers, yet the capacity of PI3K inhibitors to induce tumor cell death is limited. The efficacy of PI3K inhibition can also derive from interference with the cancer cells’ ability to respond to stromal signals, as illustrated by the approved PI3K5 inhibitor idelalisib in B-cell malignancies. Inhibition of the leukocyte-enriched PI3K5 or RI3Kg may unleash antitumor T-cell responses by inhibiting regulatory T cells and immune-suppressive myeloid cells. Moreover, tumor angiogenesis may be targeted by PI3K inhibitors to enhance cancer therapy. (“Targeting PI3K in Cancer: Impact on Tumor Cells, Their Protective Stroma, Angiogenesis, and Immunotherapy”, Cancer Discov., 2016, 6(10), 1090-1105.)

[0008] mTOR is a highly conserved serine-threonine kinase with lipid kinase activity and participitates as an effector in the PI3K/AKT pathway. mTOR exists in two distinct complexes, mTORCl and mTORC2, and plays an important role in cell proliferation by monitoring nutrient avaliability and cellular energy levels. The downstream targets of mTORCl are ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1, both of which are crucial to the regulation of protein synthesis. (“Present and future of PI3K pathway inhibition in cancer: perspectives and limitations”, Current Med. Chem., 2011, 18, 2647-2685).

[0009] Knowledge about consequences of dysregulated mTOR signaling for tumorigenesis comes mostly from studies of pharmacologically disruption of mTOR by repamycin and its analogues such as temsirolimus (CCI-779) and everolimus (RADOOl).Rapamycin was found to inhibit mTOR and thereby induce G1 arrest and apoptosis. The mechanism of rapamycin growth inhibition was found to be related to formation of complexes of rapamycin with FK-binding protein 12 (FKBP-12). These complexes then bound with high affinity to mTOR, preventing activation and resulting in inhibition of protein translation and cell growth. Cellular effects of mTOR inhibition are even more pronounced in cells that have concomitant inactivation of PTEN. Antitumor activity of rapamycin was subsequently identified, and a number of rapamycin analogues such as temsirolimus and everolimus have been approved by the US Food and Drug

Administration for the treatment certain types of cancer.

[0010] Fibrosis is the formation of excess fibrous connective tissue in an organ or tissue in a reparative or reactive process. Examples of fibrosis include, but are not limited to pulmonary fibrosis, liver fibrosis, dermal fibrosis, and renal fibrosis. Pulmonary fibrosis, also called idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), interstitial diffuse pulmonary fibrosis, inflammatory pulmonary fibrosis, or fibrosing alveolitis, is a lung disorder and a heterogeneous group of conditions characterized by abnormal formation of fibrous tissue between alveoli caused by alveolitis comprising cellular infiltration into the alveolar septae with resulting fibrosis. The effects of IPF are chronic, progressive, and often fatal.

[0011] The clinical course of IPF is variable and largely unpredictable. IPF is ultimately fatal, with historical data suggesting a median survival time of 2-3 years from diagnosis. A decline in forced vital capacity (FVC) is indicative of disease progression in patients with IPF and change in FVC is the most commonly used endpoint in clinical trials. A decline in FVC of 5% or 10% of the predicted value over 6-12 months has been associated with increased mortality in patients with IPF.

[0012] Our understanding of the pathogenesis of IPF has evolved from that of a predominantly inflammatory disease to one driven by a complex interplay of repeated epithelial cell damage and aberrant wound healing, involving fibroblast recruitment, proliferation and differentiation, and culminating in excess deposition of extracellular matrix. This shift in knowledge prompted a change in the type of compounds being investigated as potential therapies, with those targeted at specific pathways in the development and progression of fibrosis becoming the focus.

[0013] In patients with IPF, the mechanisms whereby PI3K/mTOR inhibitors act may involve inhibition of kinases such as PI3Ks and mTOR. This results in inactivation of cellular receptors for mediators involved in the development of pulmonary fibrosis. As a result, fibroblast proliferation is inhibited and extracellular matrix deposition is reduced. (“Update on diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis”, J Bras Pneumol. 2015, 41(5), 454-466.)

[0014] Accordingly, small-molecule compounds that specially inhibit, regulate and/or modulate the signal transduction of kinases, particularly including PI3K and mTOR as described above, are desirable as a means to prevent, manage, or treat proliferative disorders and fibrosis, particular idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in a patient. One such small-molecule is A-(5-(3-cyanopyrazolo[l,5-a]pyridin-5-yl)-2-methoxypyridin-3-yl)-2,4-difluorobenzenesulfon-amide, which has the chemical structure as shown in the following:

[0015] WO 2014130375A1 described the synthesis of N-(5 -(3 -cyanopyrazol o [l,5-a]pyridin-5-yl)-2-methoxypyridin-3-yl)-2,4-difluorobenzenesulfonamide (Example 3) and also disclosed the therapeutic activity of this molecule in inhibiting, regulating and modulating the signal transduction of protein kinases.

[0016] Different salts and solid state forms of an active pharmaceutical ingredient may possess different properties. Such variations in the properties of different salts and solid state forms may provide a basis for improving formulation, for example, by facilitating better processing or handling characteristics, improving the dissolution profile, stability (polymorph as well as chemical stability) and shelf-life. These variations in the properties of different salts and solid state forms may also provide improvements to the final dosage form, for example, if they serve to improve bioavailability. Different salts and solid state forms of an active pharmaceutical ingredient may also give rise to a variety of polymorphs or crystalline forms, which may in turn provide additional opportunities to assess variations in the properties and characteristics of a solid active pharmaceutical ingredient.

Different salts and solid state forms of /V-(5-(3-cyanopyrazolo[l,5- ]pyridin-5-yl)-2-methoxypyridin-3-yl)-2,4-difluorobenzenesulfonamide are described herein.

PATENT

WO2014130375 ,

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2014130375

claiming new pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine derivatives are PI3K and mTOR inhibitors, useful for treating proliferative diseases

Example 3 N-(5-(3-cyanopyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridin-5-yl)-2-methoxypyridin-3-yl)-2,4-difluorobenzenesulfonamide

Step 1) 5-bromopyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine

[196] A solution of ethyl 5-bromopyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine-3-carboxylate (240

mmol) in 40% H2SO4 (12 mL) was stirred at 100 °C for 4 hours, then cooled to rt, and neutralized to pH=7 with aq. NaOH (6 M) in ice bath. The resulted mixture was extracted with DCM (25 mL x 2). The combined organic phases were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and concentrated in vacuo to give the title compound as a light yellow solid (175 mg, 99.5%).

MS (ESI, pos. ion) m/z: 196.9 [M+H]+.

Step 2) 5-bromopyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine-3-carbaldehyde

[197] To a solution of 5-bromopyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine (175 mg, 0.89 mmol) in DCM (6 mL) was added (chloromethylene)dimethyliminium chloride (632 mg, 3.56 mmol). The reaction was stirred at 44 °C overnight, and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was dissolved in saturated NaHCO3 aqueous solution (25 mL) and the resulted mixture was then extracted with EtOAc (25 mL x 3). The combined organic phases were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and concentrated in vacuo to give the title compound as a light yellow solid (225 mg, 100%).

MS (ESI, pos. ion) m/z: 225.0 [M+H]+.

Step 3) (E)-5-bromopyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine-3-carbaldehyde oxime

[198] To a suspension of 5-bromopyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine-3-carbaldehyde (225 mg, 1 mmol) in EtOH (10 mL) and H2O (5 mL) was added hydroxylamine hydrochloride (104 mg, 1.5 mmol). The reaction was stirred at 85 °C for 2 hours, then cooled to rt, and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was adjusted to pH=7 with saturated NaHCO3 aqueous solution. The resulted mixture was then filtered and the filter cake was dried in vacuo to give title compound as a yellow solid (240 mg, 99%).

MS (ESI, pos. ion) m/z: 240.0 [M+H]+.

Step 4) 5-bromopyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine-3-carbonitrile

[199] A solution of (E)-5-bromopyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine-3-carbaldehyde oxime (240 mg,

1 mmol) in Ac2O (6 mL) was stirred at 140 °C for 18 hours, then cooled to rt, and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was washed with Et2O (1 mL) to give the title compound as a yellow solid (44 mg, 22.5%).

MS (ESI, pos. ion) m/z: 222.0 [M+H]+.

Step 5) N-(5-(3-cyanopyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridin-5-yl)-2-methoxypyridin-3-yl)-2,4-difluorobenzenesulfonamide

[200] 2,4-difluoro-N-(2-methoxy-5-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl)benzenesulfonamide (612 mg, 1.5 mmol), 5-bromopyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine-3-carbonitrile (222 mg, 1 mmol), Pd(dppf)Cl2·CH2Cl2 (16 mg, 0.02 mmol) and Na2CO3 (85 mg, 0.8 mmol) were placed into a two-neck flask, then degassed with N2 for 3 times, and followed by adding 1,4-dioxane (5 mL) and water (1 mL). The resulted mixture was degassed with N2 for 3 times, then heated to 90 °C and stirred further for 5 hours. The mixture was cooled to rt and filtered. The filtrate was concentrated in vacuo and the residue was purified by a silica gel column chromatography (PE/EtOAc (v/v) = 1/2) to give the title compound as a light yellow solid (400 mg, 81.6%).

MS (ESI, pos. ion) m/z: 442.0 [M+H]+;

1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ (ppm): 10.37 (s, 1H), 9.02 (d, J = 7.2 Hz, 1H), 8.67 (s, 1H), 8.60 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 8.26-8.16 (m, 2H), 7.82-7.72 (m, 1H), 7.57 (dd, J = 13.2, 5.8 Hz, 2H), 7.21 (t, J= 8.5 Hz, 1H), 3.67 (s, 3H).

PATENT

WO-2019125967

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf;jsessionid=DEB329777DB01EA82943FE896E1050CE.wapp1nA?docId=WO2019125967&tab=PCTDESCRIPTION

The invention relates to salts of pyrazolo[l,5-a]pyridine derivatives and use thereof, specifically relates to salt of /V-(5-(3-cyanopyrazolo[l,5-a]pyridin-5-yl)-2-methoxypyridin-3-yl) -2,4-difluorobenzenesulfonamide (compound of formula (I)) and use thereof, further relates to composition containing said salts above. The salts or the composition can be used to inhibit/modulate protein kinases, further prevent, manage or treat proliferative disorders or pulmonary fibrosis in a patient.

Amorphous form of mono-sodium salt of HEC-68498 , useful for treating a proliferative disorder or pulmonary fibrosis.

The invention is further illustrated by the following examples, which are not be construed as limiting the invention in scope.

[00108] /V-(5-(3-cyanopyrazolo[l,5-a]pyridin-5-yl)-2-methoxypyridin-3-yl)-2,4-difluoroben zenesulfonamide can be prepared according to the synthetic method of example 3 disclosed in WO2014130375 Al.

//////////////HEC-68498, HEC 68498, HEC68498, HEC Pharm , Calitor Sciences,  Sunshine Lake Pharma, PHASE 1, proliferative disorder,  pulmonary fibrosis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis,  solid tumors, CT-365 , CT 365 , CT365

Fc1ccc(c(F)c1)S(=O)(=O)Nc2cc(cnc2OC)c3ccn4ncc(C#N)c4c3

GNE-0877


img

GNE-0877

Maybe  DNL-151 ?

CAS 1374828-69-9
Chemical Formula: C14H16F3N7
Molecular Weight: 339.31895

2-methyl-2-(3-methyl-4-(4-(methylamino)-5-(trifluoromethyl)pyrimidin-2-ylamino)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)propanenitrile

Denali Therapeutics Inc, useful for treating Alzheimer’s disease, breast tumor, type I diabetes mellitus and Crohn’s disease

GNE-0877 is a highly potent and selective LRRK2 inhibitor. Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) has drawn significant interest in the neuroscience research community because it is one of the most compelling targets for a potential disease-modifying Parkinson’s disease therapy.

  • Developer Denali Therapeutics Inc
  • Class Antiparkinsonians; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action LRRK2 protein inhibitors
  • Phase I Parkinson’s disease
  • 20 Dec 2017 Denali Therapeutics plans clinical studies for Parkinson’s disease
  • 13 Nov 2017 Phase-I clinical trials in Parkinson’s disease (In volunteers) in Netherlands (unspecified route)
  • 13 Nov 2017 Preclinical trials in Parkinson’s disease in USA (unspecified route) before November 2017

Denali Therapeutics  is developing DNL-151 (phase 1, in July 2019), a lead from a program of small-molecule inhibitors of LRRK2 originally licensed from Genentech, for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease.

Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is a complex signaling protein that is a key therapeutic target, particularly in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Combined genetic and biochemical evidence supports a hypothesis in which the LRRK2 kinase function is causally involved in the pathogenesis of sporadic and familial forms of PD, and therefore that LRRK2 kinase inhibitors could be useful for treatment (Christensen, K.V. (2017) Progress in medicinal chemistry 56:37-80). Inhibition of the kinase activity of LRRK2 is under investigation as a possible treatment for Parkinson’s disease (Fuji, R.N. et al (2015) Science Translational Medicine 7(273):ral5;

Taymans, J.M. et al (2016) Current Neuropharmacology 14(3):214-225). A group of LRRK2 kinase inhibitors have been studied (Estrada, A.A. et al (2015) Jour. Med. Chem. 58(17): 6733-6746; Estrada, A.A. et al (2013) Jour. Med. Chem. 57:921-936; Chen, H. et al (2012) Jour. Med. Chem. 55:5536-5545; Estrada, A.A. et al (2015) Jour. Med. Chem. 58:6733-6746; US 8354420; US 8569281; US8791130; US 8796296; US 8802674; US 8809331; US 8815882; US 9145402; US 9212173; US 9212186; WO 2011/151360; WO 2012/062783; and WO 2013/079493.

PATENT

WO2012062783 , assigned to Hoffmann-La Roche , but naming inventors specifically associated with both Genentech and BioFocus (which had an agreement with Genentech for drug discovery programs); the compound was also later identified in J.Med.Chem (57(3), 921-936, 2014) in an article from these two companies, with the lab code GNE-0877. So while this represents the first application in the name of Denali Therapeutics Inc that focuses on this compound, it is likely that it provides the structure of DNL-151 , a lead from a program of small-molecule inhibitors of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) originally licensed from Genentech, being developed for the oral treatment of Parkinson’s disease, and which had begun phase I trials by December 2017 (when this application was lodged).

PATENT

WO2019104086 ,

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2019104086

claiming novel crystalline and amorphous forms of pyrimidinylamino-pyrazole compound, useful for treating Alzheimer’s disease, breast tumor, type I diabetes mellitus and Crohn’s disease.

Novel crystalline and amorphous forms of 2-methyl-2-(3-methyl-4-(4-(methylamino)-5-(trifluoromethyl)pyrimidin-2-ylamino)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)propanenitrile (which is substantially pure form) and their anhydrous and solvates such as cyclohexanol solvate (designated as Forms B-D), processes for their preparation and compositions comprising them are claimed. The compound is disclosed to be leucine rich serine threonine kinase 2 inhibitor, useful for treating Gaucher disease, Alzheimer’s disease, motor neurone disease, Parkinson’s disease, prostate tumor, Lewy body dementia, mild cognitive impairment, breast tumor, type I diabetes mellitus and Crohn’s disease.

The present disclosure relates to crystalline polymorph or amorphous forms of a pyrimidinylamino-pyrazole kinase inhibitor, referred to herein as the Formula I compound and having the structure:

FORMULA I COMPOUND

The present disclosure includes polymorphs and amorphous forms of Formula I compound, (CAS Registry Number 1374828-69-9), having the structure:

and named as: 2-methyl-2-(3-methyl-4-(4-(methylamino)-5-(trifluoromethyl)pyrimidin-2-ylamino)-lH-pyrazol-l-yl)propanenitrile (WO 2012/062783; US 8815882; US 2012/0157427, each of which are incorporated by reference). As used herein, the Formula I compound includes tautomers, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts or cocrystals thereof. The Formula I compound is the API (Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient) in formulations for use in the treatment of neurodegenerative and other disorders, with pKa when protonated calculated at 6.7 and 2.1.

CRYSTALLIZATION 

Initial polymorph screening experiments were performed using a variety of

crystallization or solid transition methods, including: anti-solvent addition, reverse anti-solvent addition, slow evaporation, slow cooling, slurry at room temperature (RT), slurry at 50 °C, solid vapor diffusion, liquid vapor diffusion, and polymer induced crystallization. By all these methods, the Form A crystal type was identified. Polarized light microscopy (PLM) images of Form A obtained from various polymorph screening methods were collected (Example 5).

Particles obtained via anti-solvent addition showed small size of about 20 to 50 microns (pm) diameter while slow evaporation, slow cooling (except for THF/isooctane), liquid vapor diffusion and polymer-induced crystallization resulted in particles with larger size. Adding isooctane into a dichloromethane (DCM) solution of the Formula I compound produced particles with the most uniform size. Crude Formula I compound crystallized from THF///-heptane and then was micronized. A crystallization procedure was developed to control particle size.

A total of four crystal forms (Forms A, B, C, and D) and an amorphous form E of Formula I compound were prepared, including 3 anhydrates (Form A, C, and D) and one solvate (Form B). Slurry competition experiments indicated that Form D was thermodynamically more stable when the water activity aw< 0.2 at RT, while Form C was more stable when aw> 0.5 at RT. The 24 hrs solubility evaluation showed the solubility of Form A, C and D in FLO at RT was 0.18, 0.14 and 0.11 mg/mL, respectively. DVS (dynamic vapor sorption) results indicated that Form A and D were non-hygroscopic as defined by less than 0.1% reversible water intake in DVS, while Form C was slightly hygroscopic. Certain characterization data and observations of the crystal forms are shown in Table 1.

Table 1 Characterization summary for crystal forms of Formula I compound

Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) analysis of Forms A and C showed that Form C had higher melting point and higher heat of fusion (Table 1), suggesting that the two forms are monotropic with Form C being the more stable form. Competitive slurry experiments with 1 : 1 Form A and C in a variety of solvents always produced Form C confirming that Form C was

more stable than Form A. In accordance with this, Form C was produced even when the crystallization batch was seeded with seeds of Form A.

PATENT

WO-2019126383

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2019126383&tab=PCTDESCRIPTION&_cid=P10-JXOARZ-73253-1

Methods of making leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2)-inhibiting, pyrimidinyl-4-aminopyrazole compounds (eg 2-methyl-2-(3-methyl-4-((4-(methylamino)-5-(trifluoromethyl)pyrimidin-2-yl)amino)- lH-pyrazol-1-yl)propanenitrile), useful for treating LRRK2 mediated diseases such as Parkinson’s disease.

Example 1 Preparation of 2-(4-amino-3 -methyl- liT-pyrazol-l -yl)-2-methylpropanamide 5a

4a 5a

To a 20-L reactor containing dimethyl formamide (4.5 L) was charged 5-methyl-4-nitro-lH-pyrazole la (1.5 kg, 1.0 equiv). The solution was cooled to 0 °C and charged with finely ground K2CO3 (2.45 kg, 1.5 equiv) in three portions over ~l h. Methyl 2-bromo-2-methylpropanoate (3.2 kg, 1.5 equiv) was added dropwise to the mixture and then was allowed to warm to ~25 °C. The reaction mixture was maintained for 16 h and then quenched with water (15 L) and product was extracted with ethyl acetate. The combined organic layer was washed with water, and then with a brine. The organic layer was dried over anhydrous Na2S04, filtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure to give a light yellow solid. The crude product was purified by crystallization with petroleum ether (15 L), filtered, and dried to give methyl 2-m ethyl -2-(3 -methyl -4-nitro- l//-pyrazol- l -yl)propanoate 3a (2.25 kg, >99% purity by HPLC, 84 % yield) as an off-white solid. ¾ NMR (400 MHz, CDCb) 8.28 (s, 1H), 3.74 (s, 3H), 2.53 (s, 3H), 1.85 (s, 6H).

Methanol (23 L) and 2-methyl-2-(3-methyl-4-nitro-lif-pyrazol-l-yl)propanoate 3a (2.25 kg, 1.0 equiv) were charged into a 50-L reactor and cooled to approximately -20 °C. Ammonia gas was purged over a period of 5 h and then the reaction mixture warmed to 25 °C. After 16 h, the reaction mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure (~50 °C) to give the crude product. Ethyl acetate (23 L) was charged and the solution agitated in the presence of charcoal (0.1 w/w) and Celite® (0.1 w/w) at 45 °C. The mixture was filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure, and then the solid was slurried in methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE, 11.3 L) at RT for 2 h. Filtration and drying at ~45 °C gave 2-m ethyl -2-(3 -m ethyl -4-ni tro- 1 //-pyrazol – 1 -yl)propanamide 4a (1.94 kg, >99% purity by HPLC, 92% yield).

Methanol (5 L) and 2-m ethyl-2-(3 -methyl -4-nitro-lif-pyrazol-l-yl)propanamide 4a (0.5 kg) were charged into a 10-L autoclave under nitrogen atmosphere, followed by slow addition of 10 % (50% wet) Pd/C (50 g). Hydrogen was charged (8.0 kg pressure/l 13 psi) and the reaction mixture agitated at 25 °C until complete. The mixture was filtered, concentrated under reduced

pressure and then slurried in MTBE (2.5 L) for 2 h at 25 °C. Filtration and drying under reduced pressure (45 °C) gave 2-(4-amino-3-methyl- l//-pyrazol- l -yl)-2-methyl propanamide 5a (0.43 kg, >99% purity by HPLC, 99% yield).

Example 2 Preparation of 2-(4-((4-chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl)pyrimidin-2-yl)amino)-3-methyl-lH-pyrazol-l-yl)-2-methylpropanamide 7a

DCM

Into a first reactor was charged /-BuOH (or alternatively 2-propanol) (15.5 vol) and 2-(4-amino-3 -methyl- li7-pyrazol-l-yl)-2-methylpropanamide 5a (15 kg), followed by zinc chloride (13.5 kg, 1.2 equiv) at room temperature and the suspension agitated ~2 h. Into a second reactor was charged dichloromethane (DCM, 26.6 vol) and 2,4-dichloro-5-trifluoromethyl pyrimidine 6a (19.6 kg, 1.1 equiv) and then cooled to 0 °C. The contents from first reactor were added portion-wise to the second reactor. After addition, the reaction mixture was agitated at 0 °C for ~l h and then Et3N (9.2 kg, 1.1 equiv) was slowly charged. After agitation for 1 h, the temperature was increased to 25 °C and monitored for consumption of starting material. The reaction mixture was quenched with 5% aqueous NaHCO, and then filtered over Celite®. The DCM layer was removed and the aqueous layer was back-extracted with DCM (3x). The combined organics were washed with water, dried (Na2S04), and concentrated. Methanol (2.5 vol) was charged and the solution was heated to reflux for 1 h, then cooled to 0 °C. After 1 h, the solids were filtered and dried under reduced pressure to give 2-(4-((4-chloro-5-(tri fluoromethyl)pyri mi din-2-yl)amino)-3 -methyl – l//-pyrazol- l -yl)-2-methyl propanamide 7a

(31.2 kg (wet weight)). 1H NMR (600 MHz, DMSO-de) 10.05 (br. s., 1H), 8.71 (d, J= 11 Hz, 1H), 7.95 (app. d, 1H), 7.18 (br. s., 1H), 6.78 (br. s., 1H), 2.14 (s, 3H), 1.67 (s, 6H).

Example 3 Preparation of 2-methyl-2-(3-methyl-4-((4-(methylamino)-5-(trifluoromethyl)pyrimidin-2-yl)amino)- lH-pyrazol- 1 -yl)propanamide 8a

A reactor was charged with anhydrous tetrahydrofuran (THF, 10 vol) and 2-(4-((4-chloro-5-(trifl uoromethyl )pyrimi din-2-yl)amino)-3 -methyl – l //-pyrazol- l -yl)-2-methylpropanamide 7a (21 kg) at room temperature with agitation. A solution of 2M

methylamine in THF (3.6 vol) was slowly charged to the reactor at 25 °C and maintained for ~3 h. The reaction mixture was diluted with 0.5 w/w aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution (10 w/w), and extracted with ethyl acetate (EtOAc, 4.5 w/w). The aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (4x), the organics were combined and then washed with H20 (7 w/w). The organic layer was dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. «-Heptane (3 w/v) was added to the residue, agitated, filtered and dried under reduced pressure to give 2-m ethyl -2-(3 -methyl -4-((4-(methyl ami no)-5-(trifl uoromethyl )pyri mi din-2-yl)amino)- l //-pyrazol-1 -yl)propanamide 8a (19.15 kg, 93% yield). ¾ NMR (600 MHz, DMSO-d6) 8.85 (m, 1H), 8.10 (s, 1H), 8.00 (m, 1H), 7.16 (br. s., 1H), 6.94 (m, 1H), 6.61 (br. s., 1H), 2.90 (d, J = 4.3 Hz, 3H), 2.18 (br. s., 3H), 1.65 (s, 6H).

Example 4 Preparation of 2-methyl-2-(3-methyl-4-((4-(methylamino)-5-(trifluoromethyl)pyrimidin-2-yl)amino)- lH-pyrazol- 1 -yl)propanenitrile 9a

To a reactor was charged 2-methyl-2-(3-methyl-4-((4-(methylamino)-5-(trifl uoromethyl )pyri mi din-2-yl)amino)- l //-pyrazol- l -yl)propan amide 8a (15 kg, 1 equiv) at room temperature followed by EtOAc (2 vol) and 6.7 vol T3P (50% w/w in EtOAc). The reaction mixture was heated to 75 °C over 1 h and then agitated for 16 h until consumption of starting material. The reaction mixture was cooled between -10 to -15 °C then added drop-wise 5N aqueous NaOH (7 vol) resulting in pH 8-9. The layers were separated and the aqueous layer back-extracted with EtOAc (2 x 4 vol). The combined organic extracts were washed with 5 %

aqueous NaHCO, solution, and then distilled to azeotropically remove water. The organics were further concentrated, charged with «-heptane (2 vol) and agitated for 1 h at room temperature. The solids were filtered, rinsed with «-heptane (0.5 vol) and then dried under vacuum (<50 °C). The dried solids were dissolved in EtOAc (1.5 vol) at 55 °C, and then «-heptane (3 vol) was slowly added followed by 5-10% of 9a seeds. To the mixture was slowly added «-heptane (7 vol) at 55 °C, agitated for 1 h, cooled to room temperature and then maintained for 16 h. The suspension was further cooled between 0-5 °C, agitated for 1 hour, filtered, and then rinsed the filter with chilled 1 :6.5 EtOAc/«-heptane (1 vol). The product was dried under vacuum at 50 °C to give 2-methyl-2-(3-methyl-4-((4-(methylamino)-5-(trifluoromethyl)pyrimidin-2-yl)amino)-1 //-pyrazol – 1 -yl )propaneni tri 1 e 9a (9.5 kg, first crop), 67% yield). ‘H NMR (600 MHz, DMSO-d6) 8.14 (s, 1H), 8.13 (br. s., 1H), 7.12 (br. s., 1H), 5.72 (br. s, 1H), 3.00 (d, J= 4.6 Hz, 3H),

2.23 (s, 3H), 1.96 (s, 3H).

Example 5 Preparation of methyl 2-(4-amino-3-methyl-lH-pyrazol-l-yl)-2-methylpropanoate 10a

Following the procedure of Example 1, a mixture of methanol and methyl 2-methyl-2-(3-methyl-4-nitro-lH-pyrazol-l-yl)propanoate 3a (0.5 kg) was charged into an autoclave under nitrogen atmosphere, followed by slow addition of 10 % (50% wet) Pd/C. Hydrogen was charged under pressure and the reaction mixture agitated at 25 °C until complete. The mixture was filtered, concentrated under reduced pressure and then slurried in MTBE for 2 h at 25 °C. Filtration and drying under reduced pressure gave methyl 2-(4-amino-3-methyl-lH-pyrazol-l-yl)-2-methylpropanoate 10a (LC-MS, M+l=l98).

Example 6 Preparation of methyl 2-(4-((4-chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl)pyrimidin-2-yl)amino)-3 -methyl- lH-pyrazol- 1 -yl)-2-methylpropanoate 11a

Following the procedure of Example 2, a mixture of methyl 2-(4-amino-3-methyl-lH-pyrazol-l-yl)-2-methylpropanoate 10a and DIPEA (1.2 equiv) in /-BuOH was warmed to 80 °C. Then a solution of 2,4-dichloro-5-trifluoromethyl pyrimidine 6a in /-BuOH was added slowly drop wise at 80 °C. After 15 minutes, LCMS showed the reaction was complete, including later eluting 59.9% of product ester 11a, earlier eluting 31.8% of undesired regioisomer (ester), and no starting material 10a. After completion of reaction, the mixture was cooled to room temperature and a solid was precipitated. The solid precipitate was filtered and dried to give methyl 2-(4-((4-chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl)pyrimi din-2 -yl)amino)-3-methyl-lH-pyrazol-l-yl)-2-methylpropanoate 11a (LC-MS, M+l=378).

PAPER

J.Med.Chem (57(3), 921-936, 2014

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/jm401654j

2-Methyl-2-(3-methyl-4-((4-(methylamino)-5-(trifluoromethyl)pyrimidin-2-yl)amino)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)propanenitrile (11)

A solution of 2-methyl-2-(3-methyl-4-((4-(methylamino)-5-(trifluoromethyl)pyrimidin-2-yl)amino)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)propanamide (34, 250 mg, 0.7 mmol) in POCl3 (5 mL) was stirred at 90 °C for 1 h. The POCl3 was removed by evaporation. The mixture was then slowly poured onto ice (10 mL). The pH of the solution was adjusted to 8 with saturated sodium carbonate. The aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc (3×). The combined organic phase was washed with brine, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filtered, and concentrated to give a residue that was purified by recrystallization to give 11 (100 mg, 42% yield) as a white solid. 1H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO) δ 9.18 (s, 1H), 8.29 (s, 1H), 8.14 (s, 1H), 7.10 (s, 1H), 2.91 (d, 3H), 2.22 (s, 3H), 1.94 (s, 6H). HRMS (ES) m/z: [M + H]+ calcd for C14H16F3N7H+, 340.1492; found, 340.1484.
Scheme 2

Scheme 2. Synthesis of N-Alkyl Pyrazole Analoguesa

aReagents and conditions: (a) NaH, methyl 2-bromo-2-methylpropanoate, DMF, 70%; (b) LiOH, THF-H2O, 90%; (c) (i) (COCl)2, CH2Cl2, (ii) R-NH2, THF; (d) Pd/C, H2, MeOH; (e) 26, Et3N, n-BuOH, 120 °C; (f) 26, TFA, 2-methoxyethanol, 70 °C; (g) POCl3, 90 °C, 42%.

GNE-9605

product image (CAS 1536200-31-3)

CAS № 1536200-31-3

Molecular Formula
C17H20ClF4N7O
Formula Weight
449.8

GNE-9065 is an orally bioavailable and potent inhibitor of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2; IC50 = 18.7 nM).1 It is selective for LRRK2 over 178 kinases, inhibiting only TAK1-TAB1 >50% at a concentration of 0.1 μM. GNE-9065 (10 and 50 mg/kg) inhibits LRRK2 Ser1292 autophosphorylation in BAC transgenic mice expressing human LRRK2 protein with the G2019S mutation found in families with autosomal Parkinson’s disease.

CNC1=C(C(F)(F)F)C=NC(NC2=C(Cl)N([C@H]3CCN(C4COC4)C[C@@H]3F)N=C2)=N1

N2-(5-Chloro-1-((trans)-3-fluoro-1-(oxetan-3-yl)piperidin-4-yl)-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-N4-methyl-5-(trifluoromethyl)pyrimidine-2,4-diamine (20)

A mixture of (±)-(trans)-4-(5-chloro-4-nitro-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-3-fluoro-1-(oxetan-3-yl)piperidine (53, 2.2 g, 3.9 mmol), iron dust (1.6 g, 29 mmol), and ammonium chloride (1.5 g, 29 mmol) in ethanol (20 mL) was stirred at 90 °C for 30 min. The reaction was filtered and concentrated. The residue was sonicated with 100 mL of EtOAc for 5 min. The mixture was filtered to remove all insoluble solids. The filtrate was then concentrated to give crude (±)- (trans)-4-(5-chloro-4-amino-pyrazol-1-yl)-3-fluoro-1-(oxetan-3-yl)piperidine (1.9 g).
To a mixture of the crude (±)-(trans)-4-(5-chloro-4-amino-pyrazol-1-yl)-3-fluoro-1-(oxetan-3-yl)piperidine (1.9 g) and 2-chloro-N-methyl-5-(trifluoromethyl)pyrimidin-4-amine (26, 1.5 g, 6.9 mmol) in 2-methoxyethanol (25 mL) was added TFA (0.60 mL, 7.7 mmol). The reaction was stirred at 90 °C for 15 min. The mixture was then diluted with saturated sodium bicarbonate and extracted with EtOAc (3×). The combined extracts were washed with brine, dried over sodium sulfate, filtered, and concentrated. The crude product was purified by preparative HPLC, chiral SFC, and recrystallized in isopropanol to give 20 (0.70 g, 40% yield). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO) δ 8.91 (s, 1H), 8.08 (s, 1H), 7.87 (s, 1H), 7.00 (s, 1H), 5.03 4.79 (m, 1H), 4.56 (m, 1H), 4.46 (m, 2H), 3.68–3.51 (m, 1H), 3.26–3.12 (m, 1H), 2.92–2.73 (m, 3H), 2.54 (s, 2H), 2.20–1.88 (m, 3H). HRMS (ES) m/z: [M + H]+ calcd for C17H20ClF4N7OH+, 450.1427; found, 450.1418.
Scheme 8

Scheme 8. Synthesis of Inhibitor 20a

aReagents and conditions: (a) (±)-(cis)-tert-butyl 3-fluoro-4-hydroxypiperidine-1-carboxylate, PPh3, diisopropyl azodicarboxylate, THF; (b) TFA, DCM, 58% over two steps; (c) oxetan-3-one, DIPEA, NaBH(OAc)3, acetic acid, DCE, 85%; (d) LiHMDS then C2Cl6, THF, −78 °C, 65%; (e) iron dust, NH4Cl, EtOH, 90 °C; (f) 26, TFA, 2-methoxyethanol, 90 °C, 40%, two steps.

REFERENCES

1: Estrada AA, Chan BK, Baker-Glenn C, Beresford A, Burdick DJ, Chambers M, Chen H, Dominguez SL, Dotson J, Drummond J, Flagella M, Fuji R, Gill A, Halladay J, Harris SF, Heffron TP, Kleinheinz T, Lee DW, Pichon CE, Liu X, Lyssikatos JP, Medhurst AD, Moffat JG, Nash K, Scearce-Levie K, Sheng Z, Shore DG, Wong S, Zhang S, Zhang X, Zhu H, Sweeney ZK. Discovery of Highly Potent, Selective, and Brain-Penetrant Aminopyrazole Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase 2 (LRRK2) Small Molecule Inhibitors. J Med Chem. 2014 Jan 15. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 24354345.

/////////////DNL-151, DNL 151, DNL151, Alzheimer’s disease, breast tumor, type I diabetes mellitus,  Crohn’s disease, phase 1, Parkinson’s disease, GNE0877, GNE 0877, GNE-0877, GNE-9605, GNE 9605, GNE9605, Genentech

CC(N1N=C(C)C(NC2=NC=C(C(F)(F)F)C(NC)=N2)=C1)(C)C#N

Nicotinamide riboside chloride


Nicotinamide-beta-riboside.svg

ChemSpider 2D Image | Nicotinamide riboside | C11H15N2O5

Image result for nicotinamide riboside chloride

Image result for nicotinamide riboside chloride

1-[(2R,3R,4S,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-methylol-tetrahydrofuran-2-yl]pyridin-1-ium-3-carboxamide
CAS 1341-23-7 [RN]
3-(aminocarbonyl)-1-β-D-ribofuranosyl-Pyridinium

Nicotinamide riboside chloride

CAS 23111-00-4 CHLORIDE

CAS : 1341-23-7 (cation)   23111-00-4 (chloride)   445489-49-6 (Triflate)

3-Carbamoyl-1-((2r,3r,4s,5r)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydrofuran-2-yl)pyridin-1-ium chloride

Nicotinamide ribose chloride

UNII-8XM2XT8VWI

MW 290.7 g/mol

1-[(2R,3R,4S,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]pyridin-1-ium-3-carboxamide;chloride

C1=CC(=C[N+](=C1)C2C(C(C(O2)CO)O)O)C(=O)N.[Cl-]

 Nicotinamide riboside; SRT647; SRT-647; SRT 647; Nicotinamide Riboside Triflate, α/β mixture

EH-301, nicotinamide riboside chloride,AND  pterostilbene,, BY Elysium Health Inc

Nicotinamide riboside, also known as NR and SRT647, is a pyridine-nucleoside form of vitamin B3 that functions as a precursor to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide or NAD+. NR blocks degeneration of surgically severed dorsal root ganglion neurons ex vivo and protects against noise-induced hearing loss in living mice. Nicotinamide riboside prevents muscle, neural and melanocyte stem cell senescence. Increased muscular regeneration in mice has been observed after treatment with nicotinamide riboside, leading to speculation that it might improve regeneration of organs such as the liver, kidney, and heart. Nicotinamide riboside also lowers blood glucose and fatty liver in prediabetic and type 2 diabetic models while preventing the development of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Note: Nicotinamide Riboside chloride is a α/β mixture

Nicotinamide riboside (NR) is a pyridinenucleoside form of vitamin B3 that functions as a precursor to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide or NAD+.[1][2]

Chemistry

While the molecular weight of nicotinamide riboside is 255.25 g/mol,[3] that of its chloride salt is 290.70 g/mol.[4][5] As such, 100 mg of nicotinamide riboside chloride provides 88 mg of nicotinamide riboside.

History

Nicotinamide riboside (NR) was first described in 1944 as a growth factor, termed Factor V, for Haemophilus influenza, a bacterium that lives in and depends on blood. Factor V, purified from blood, was shown to exist in three forms: NAD+, NMN and NR. NR was the compound that led to the most rapid growth of this bacterium.[6] Notably, H. influenza cannot grow on nicotinic acidnicotinamidetryptophan or aspartic acid, which were the previously known precursors of NAD+.[7]

In 2000, yeast Sir2 was shown to be an NAD+-dependent protein lysine deacetylase,[8] which led several research groups to probe yeast NAD+ metabolism for genes and enzymes that might regulate lifespan. Biosynthesis of NAD+ in yeast was thought to flow exclusively through NAMN (nicotinic acid mononucleotide).[9][10][11][12][13]

When NAD+ synthase (glutamine-hydrolysing) was deleted from yeast cells, NR permitted yeast cells to grow. Thus, these Dartmouth College investigators proceeded to clone yeast and human nicotinamide riboside kinases and demonstrate the conversion of NR to NMN by nicotinamide riboside kinases in vitro and in vivo. They also demonstrated that NR is a natural product found in cow’s milk.[14][15]

Properties

Although it is a form of vitamin B3, NR exhibits unique properties that distinguish it from the other B3 vitamins—niacin and nicotinamide. In a head-to-head experiment conducted on mice, each of these vitamins exhibited unique effects on the hepatic NAD+ metabolome with unique kinetics, and with NR as the form of B3 that produced the greatest increase in NAD+ at a single timepoint.[16]

Different biosynthetic pathways are responsible for converting the different B3 vitamins into NAD+. The enzyme nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of the two-step pathway converting nicotinamide to NAD+. Two nicotinamide riboside kinases (NRK1 and NRK2) convert NR to NAD+ via a pathway that does not require Nampt.[14]

Animal studies have demonstrated that these enzymes respond differently to age and stress. In a mouse model of dilated cardiomyopathy, NRK2 mRNA expression increased, while Nampt mRNA expression decreased.[17] A similar increase in NRK1 and NRK2 expression has been observed in injured central and peripheral neurons.[18][19][20][21][22]

Niacin is known for its tendency to cause an uncomfortable flushing of the skin. This flushing is triggered by the activation of the GPR109A G-protein coupled receptor. NR does not activate this receptor,[23] and has not been shown to cause flushing in humans—even at doses as high as 2,000 mg/day.[16][24][25][26]

Despite being an NAD+ precursor, nicotinamide acts as an inhibitor of the NAD+-consuming sirtuin enzymes.[10] When sirtuins consume NAD+, they create nicotinamide and O-acetyl-ADP-ribose as products of the deacetylation reaction. Consistent with high-dose nicotinamide as a sirtuin inhibitor, NR and niacin, but not nicotinamide, have been shown to increase hepatic levels of O-acetyl-ADP-ribose.[16]

Commercialization

In 2004, Dartmouth Medical School researcher Dr. Charles Brenner discovered that NR could be converted to NAD+ via the eukaryotic nicotinamide riboside kinase biosynthetic pathway[14] Dartmouth was subsequently issued patents for nutritional and therapeutic uses of NR, in 2006.[27] ChromaDex licensed these patents in July 2012, and began to develop a commercially viable, full-scale process to bring NR to market.[28]

Human Clinical Testing

There have been five published clinical trials on groups of both men and women testing for safety. One of these trials studied NR in combination with pterostilbene,[29] while the other four examined the effects of NR alone.[16][24][25][26]

The first published clinical trial established the safety and characterized the pharmacokinetics of single doses of NR.[16] Since then, doses as high as 2,000 mg/day have been administered over periods as long as 12 weeks.[25] These studies show that NR can significantly increase levels of NAD+ and some of its associated metabolites in both whole blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cells.[16][24][26]

In a 12 week clinical trial of obese insulin-resistant men using 2000 mg/day, NR appeared safe, but did not improve insulin sensitivity or whole-body glucose metabolism.[26] In a trial of NR 250 mg plus 50 mg of pterostilbene, as well as with double this dose, the combined supplement raised NAD+ levels in a trial of older adults.[29]

PATENT

WO-2019126482

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf;jsessionid=E20C1C824C8C705AFA323203013A909F.wapp1nB?docId=WO2019126482&tab=PCTDESCRIPTION

Crystalline form of nicotinamide riboside chloride, useful for treating motor neuron disease or ALS, infertility, kidney damage, and liver damage or fatty liver. Elysium Health  in collaboration with  Mayo Clinic , is developing EH-301 (clinical, in July 2019), a combination of nicotinamide riboside chloride and pterostilbene for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. See WO2019108878 , claiming use of composition comprising nicotinamide riboside and pterostilbene, for treating obesity.

Nicotinamide riboside is a pyridine-nucleoside form of niacin ( i.e ., vitamin B3) that serves as a precursor to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). NAD+promotes cellular metabolism, mitochondrial function, and energy production. Currently, nicotinamide riboside is made through synthetic methods or fermentation processes. Because of its significant potential to confer health benefits when used as a dietary supplement, there exists a need to develop highly efficient and scalable processes for the manufacture and purification of nicotinamide riboside.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

In certain aspects, the present invention provides a crystalline form of a compound having the structure of formula (I)

Example 1. Scale-Up Synthesis and Crystallization of Nicotinamide Riboside Chloride

900 kg of nicotinamide riboside triacetate and 2133 kg of methanol were charged to a reactor and mixed, then cooled to 0 °C. 747 kg of 7M mmmonia in methanol (i.e.,“methanolic NH3”) was slowly charged to the reactor at 0 °C. The reaction mixture was passed through a polish filter, then the reaction mixture was stirred for 14 hours. A sample from the reaction mixture was taken to assess reaction progress. Upon completion of the reaction, the reaction mixture was

placed under vacuum, then warmed to 20 °C to 25 °C for 4 hours. Vacuum was applied until solids formed. Once solids were formed, the resultant slurry was filtered on a Nutsche filter dryer. Solids were washed with 1422 kg of ethanol, then 1422 kg of acetone, then 1322 kg of methyl tert butyl ether (MTBE). The resultant solids were then dried at 40 °C. Product was formed with 60% yield. The process flow diagram for this reaction is shown in FIG. 6.

Example 2. Optional Secondary Isolation

The crystalline form may optionally undergo a second isolation process according to the following steps: The solids obtained in Example 1 were dissolved in purified water at 30 °C to 40 °C. Ethanol was slowly added to the solution and mixed for 10 hours, over which time the solids began to precipitate. MTBE was then added and mixed for 2 hours. The mixture was then filtered on a Buchner funnel, and the solids were washed with ethanol, then acetone, then MTBE. Solids were dried at 40 °C.

Example 3. Spectroscopic Data.

The crystalline form made by the process described in Examples 1 and 2 has an XRD spectrum substantially as shown in FIG. 1. The instrument utilized in collecting the XRD data is a Rigaku Smart Lab X-Ray diffraction system.

Specifically, in order to collect the XRD data, The Rigaku Smart-Lab X-ray diffraction system was configured for reflection Bragg-Brentano geometry using a line source X-ray beam. The X-ray source is a Cu Long Fine Focus tube that was operated at 40 kV and 44 mA. That source provides an incident beam profile at the sample that changes from a narrow line at high angles to a broad rectangle at low angles. Beam conditioning slits are used on the line X-ray source to ensure that the maximum beam size is less than 10 mm both along the line and normal to the line. The Bragg-Brentano geometry is a para-focusing geometry controlled by passive divergence and receiving slits with the sample itself acting as the focusing component for the optics. The inherent resolution of Bragg-Brentano geometry is governed in part by the diffractometer radius and the width of the receiving slit used. Typically, the Rigaku Smart-Lab is operated to give peak widths of 0.1 °2Q or less. The axial divergence of the X-ray beam is controlled by 5.0-degree Sober slits in both the incident and diffracted beam paths.

The samples were prepared in a low background Si holder using light manual pressure to keep the sample surface flat and level with the reference surface of the sample holder. The single crystal Si low background holder has a small circular recess (10 mm diameter and about 0.2 mm depth) that held between 20 and 25 mg of the sample. The samples were analyzed from 2 to 40

°2Q using a continuous scan of 6 °20 per minute with an effective step size of 0.02 °20. The data collection procedure used to analyze these samples was not validated. The peak lists were generated using PDXL2 v.2.3.1.0. The figures were created using PlotMon VI.00.

PATENT

WO2019108878 , claiming use of composition comprising nicotinamide riboside and pterostilbene, for treating obesity.

CLIP

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0186459

CLIP

Syntheses and chemical properties of β-nicotinamide riboside and its analogues and derivatives
  • February 2019
  • Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry 15(1):401-430
  • DOI: 10.3762/bjoc.15.36
 License, CC BY

Image result for Nicotinamide riboside chloride SYNTHESIS

References

  1. ^ Bogan, K.L., Brenner, C. (2008). “Nicotinic acid, nicotinamide, and nicotinamide riboside: a molecular evaluation of NAD+ precursor vitamins in human nutrition”. Annu. Rev. Nutr28: 115–130. doi:10.1146/annurev.nutr.28.061807.155443PMID 18429699.
  2. ^ Chi Y, Sauve AA (November 2013). “Nicotinamide riboside, a trace nutrient in foods, is a vitamin B3 with effects on energy metabolism and neuroprotection”. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care16 (6): 657–61. doi:10.1097/MCO.0b013e32836510c0PMID 24071780.
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  16. Jump up to:a b c d e f Trammell, Samuel A. J.; Schmidt, Mark S.; Weidemann, Benjamin J.; Redpath, Philip; Jaksch, Frank; Dellinger, Ryan W.; Li, Zhonggang; Abel, E. Dale; Migaud, Marie E.; Brenner, Charles (10 October 2016). “Nicotinamide riboside is uniquely and orally bioavailable in mice and humans”Nature Communications7 (1): 12948. doi:10.1038/ncomms12948PMC 5062546PMID 27721479.
  17. ^ Diguet, Nicolas; Trammell, Samuel A.J.; Tannous, Cynthia; Deloux, Robin; Piquereau, Jérôme; Mougenot, Nathalie; Gouge, Anne; Gressette, Mélanie; Manoury, Boris; Blanc, Jocelyne; Breton, Marie; Decaux, Jean-François; Lavery, Gareth G.; Baczkó, István; Zoll, Joffrey; Garnier, Anne; Li, Zhenlin; Brenner, Charles; Mericskay, Mathias (22 May 2018). “Nicotinamide Riboside Preserves Cardiac Function in a Mouse Model of Dilated Cardiomyopathy”. Circulation137 (21): 2256–2273. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.116.026099PMID 29217642.
  18. ^ Vaur, Pauline; Brugg, Bernard; Mericskay, Mathias; Li, Zhenlin; Schmidt, Mark S.; Vivien, Denis; Orset, Cyrille; Jacotot, Etienne; Brenner, Charles; Duplus, Eric (December 2017). “Nicotinamide riboside, a form of vitamin B , protects against excitotoxicity-induced axonal degeneration”. The FASEB Journal31 (12): 5440–5452. doi:10.1096/fj.201700221RRPMID 28842432.
  19. ^ Sasaki, Y.; Araki, T.; Milbrandt, J. (16 August 2006). “Stimulation of Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Biosynthetic Pathways Delays Axonal Degeneration after Axotomy”. Journal of Neuroscience26 (33): 8484–8491. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2320-06.2006PMID 16914673.
  20. ^ Frederick, David W.; Loro, Emanuele; Liu, Ling; Davila, Antonio; Chellappa, Karthikeyani; Silverman, Ian M.; Quinn, William J.; Gosai, Sager J.; Tichy, Elisia D.; Davis, James G.; Mourkioti, Foteini; Gregory, Brian D.; Dellinger, Ryan W.; Redpath, Philip; Migaud, Marie E.; Nakamaru-Ogiso, Eiko; Rabinowitz, Joshua D.; Khurana, Tejvir S.; Baur, Joseph A. (August 2016). “Loss of NAD Homeostasis Leads to Progressive and Reversible Degeneration of Skeletal Muscle”Cell Metabolism24 (2): 269–282. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2016.07.005PMC 4985182PMID 27508874.
  21. ^ Cantó, Carles; Jiang, Lake Q.; Deshmukh, Atul S.; Mataki, Chikage; Coste, Agnes; Lagouge, Marie; Zierath, Juleen R.; Auwerx, Johan (March 2010). “Interdependence of AMPK and SIRT1 for Metabolic Adaptation to Fasting and Exercise in Skeletal Muscle”Cell Metabolism11 (3): 213–219. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2010.02.006PMC 3616265PMID 20197054.
  22. ^ Rappou, Elisabeth; Jukarainen, Sakari; Rinnankoski-Tuikka, Rita; Kaye, Sanna; Heinonen, Sini; Hakkarainen, Antti; Lundbom, Jesper; Lundbom, Nina; Saunavaara, Virva; Rissanen, Aila; Virtanen, Kirsi A.; Pirinen, Eija; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H. (March 2016). “Weight Loss Is Associated With Increased NAD /SIRT1 Expression But Reduced PARP Activity in White Adipose Tissue”. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism101 (3): 1263–1273. doi:10.1210/jc.2015-3054PMID 26760174.
  23. ^ Cantó, Carles; Houtkooper, Riekelt H.; Pirinen, Eija; Youn, Dou Y.; Oosterveer, Maaike H.; Cen, Yana; Fernandez-Marcos, Pablo J.; Yamamoto, Hiroyasu; Andreux, Pénélope A.; Cettour-Rose, Philippe; Gademann, Karl; Rinsch, Chris; Schoonjans, Kristina; Sauve, Anthony A.; Auwerx, Johan (June 2012). “The NAD+ Precursor Nicotinamide Riboside Enhances Oxidative Metabolism and Protects against High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity”Cell Metabolism15 (6): 838–847. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2012.04.022PMC 3616313PMID 22682224.
  24. Jump up to:a b c Airhart, Sophia E.; Shireman, Laura M.; Risler, Linda J.; Anderson, Gail D.; Nagana Gowda, G. A.; Raftery, Daniel; Tian, Rong; Shen, Danny D.; O’Brien, Kevin D.; Sinclair, David A. (6 December 2017). “An open-label, non-randomized study of the pharmacokinetics of the nutritional supplement nicotinamide riboside (NR) and its effects on blood NAD+ levels in healthy volunteers”PLOS ONE12 (12): e0186459. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0186459PMC 5718430PMID 29211728.
  25. Jump up to:a b c Dollerup, Ole L; Christensen, Britt; Svart, Mads; Schmidt, Mark S; Sulek, Karolina; Ringgaard, Steffen; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans; Møller, Niels; Brenner, Charles; Treebak, Jonas T; Jessen, Niels (August 2018). “A randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial of nicotinamide riboside in obese men: safety, insulin-sensitivity, and lipid-mobilizing effects”. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition108 (2): 343–353. doi:10.1093/ajcn/nqy132PMID 29992272.
  26. Jump up to:a b c d Martens, Christopher R.; Denman, Blair A.; Mazzo, Melissa R.; Armstrong, Michael L.; Reisdorph, Nichole; McQueen, Matthew B.; Chonchol, Michel; Seals, Douglas R. (29 March 2018). “Chronic nicotinamide riboside supplementation is well-tolerated and elevates NAD+ in healthy middle-aged and older adults”Nature Communications9 (1): 1286. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-03421-7PMC 5876407PMID 29599478.
  27. ^ Brenner, Charles (20 April 2006). “Nicotinamide riboside kinase compositions and methods for using the same”Google Patents. Dartmouth College. Retrieved 19 February2019.
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Further reading

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

High dose nicotinic acid is used as an agent that elevates high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, lowers low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lower free fatty acids through a mechanism that is not completely understood. It was suggested that nicotinamide riboside might possess such an activity by elevating NAD in the cells responsible for reverse cholesterol transport. The discovery that the Wallerian degeneration slow gene encodes a protein fusion with NMN adenylyltransferase 1 indicated that increased NAD+ precursor supplementation might oppose neurodegenerative processes.

ChromaDex acquired intellectual property on uses and synthesis of NR from Dartmouth College, Cornell University, and Washington University and began distributing NR as Niagen in 2013. In November 2015 ChromaDex received New Dietary Ingredient (NDI) status for Niagen from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the FDA issued a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) No Objection Letter for Nicotinamide Riboside Chloride (NR) on August 3, 2016.

REFERENCES

1: Chi Y, Sauve AA. Nicotinamide riboside, a trace nutrient in foods, is a vitamin B3 with effects on energy metabolism and neuroprotection. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2013 Nov;16(6):657-61. doi: 10.1097/MCO.0b013e32836510c0. Review. PubMed PMID: 24071780.

2: Bogan KL, Brenner C. Nicotinic acid, nicotinamide, and nicotinamide riboside: a molecular evaluation of NAD+ precursor vitamins in human nutrition. Annu Rev Nutr. 2008;28:115-30. doi: 10.1146/annurev.nutr.28.061807.155443. Review. PubMed PMID: 18429699.

3: Ghanta S, Grossmann RE, Brenner C. Mitochondrial protein acetylation as a cell-intrinsic, evolutionary driver of fat storage: chemical and metabolic logic of acetyl-lysine modifications. Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol. 2013 Nov-Dec;48(6):561-74. doi: 10.3109/10409238.2013.838204. Review. PubMed PMID: 24050258; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4113336.

4: Yang Y, Sauve AA. NAD(+) metabolism: Bioenergetics, signaling and manipulation for therapy. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016 Dec;1864(12):1787-1800. doi: 10.1016/j.bbapap.2016.06.014. Review. PubMed PMID: 27374990.

5: Sauve AA. NAD+ and vitamin B3: from metabolism to therapies. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2008 Mar;324(3):883-93. doi: 10.1124/jpet.107.120758. Review. PubMed PMID: 18165311.

6: Kato M, Lin SJ. Regulation of NAD+ metabolism, signaling and compartmentalization in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. DNA Repair (Amst). 2014 Nov;23:49-58. doi: 10.1016/j.dnarep.2014.07.009. Review. PubMed PMID: 25096760; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4254062.

7: Gerlach G, Reidl J. NAD+ utilization in Pasteurellaceae: simplification of a complex pathway. J Bacteriol. 2006 Oct;188(19):6719-27. Review. PubMed PMID: 16980474; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1595515.

8: Srivastava S. Emerging therapeutic roles for NAD(+) metabolism in mitochondrial and age-related disorders. Clin Transl Med. 2016 Dec;5(1):25. doi: 10.1186/s40169-016-0104-7. Review. PubMed PMID: 27465020; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4963347.

9: Handschin C. Caloric restriction and exercise “mimetics”: Ready for prime time? Pharmacol Res. 2016 Jan;103:158-66. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2015.11.009. Review. PubMed PMID: 26658171; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4970791.

10: Ruggieri S, Orsomando G, Sorci L, Raffaelli N. Regulation of NAD biosynthetic enzymes modulates NAD-sensing processes to shape mammalian cell physiology under varying biological cues. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015 Sep;1854(9):1138-49. doi: 10.1016/j.bbapap.2015.02.021. Review. PubMed PMID: 25770681.

11: Imai S, Guarente L. NAD+ and sirtuins in aging and disease. Trends Cell Biol. 2014 Aug;24(8):464-71. doi: 10.1016/j.tcb.2014.04.002. Review. PubMed PMID: 24786309; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4112140.

12: Jaehme M, Slotboom DJ. Structure, function, evolution, and application of bacterial Pnu-type vitamin transporters. Biol Chem. 2015 Sep;396(9-10):955-66. doi: 10.1515/hsz-2015-0113. Review. PubMed PMID: 26352203.

13: Magni G, Di Stefano M, Orsomando G, Raffaelli N, Ruggieri S. NAD(P) biosynthesis enzymes as potential targets for selective drug design. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(11):1372-90. Review. PubMed PMID: 19355893.

14: Mendelsohn AR, Larrick JW. Partial reversal of skeletal muscle aging by restoration of normal NAD⁺ levels. Rejuvenation Res. 2014 Feb;17(1):62-9. doi: 10.1089/rej.2014.1546. Review. PubMed PMID: 24410488.

15: Penberthy WT. Pharmacological targeting of IDO-mediated tolerance for treating autoimmune disease. Curr Drug Metab. 2007 Apr;8(3):245-66. Review. PubMed PMID: 17430113.

16: Gazzaniga F, Stebbins R, Chang SZ, McPeek MA, Brenner C. Microbial NAD metabolism: lessons from comparative genomics. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2009 Sep;73(3):529-41, Table of Contents. doi: 10.1128/MMBR.00042-08. Review. PubMed PMID: 19721089; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2738131.

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18: Magni G, Orsomando G, Raffelli N, Ruggieri S. Enzymology of mammalian NAD metabolism in health and disease. Front Biosci. 2008 May 1;13:6135-54. Review. PubMed PMID: 18508649.

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Nicotinamide riboside
Nicotinamide-beta-riboside.svg
Nicotinamideriboside.png
Names
Other names

1-(β-D-Ribofuranosyl)nicotinamide; N-Ribosylnicotinamide
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChEBI
ChemSpider
KEGG
PubChem CID
Properties
C11H15N2O5+
Molar mass 255.25 g/mol
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).

///////////// EH-301,  EH 301,  EH301, Nicotinamide riboside,  SRT647, SRT-647, SRT 647, Nicotinamide Riboside Triflate, α/β mixture

C1=CC(=C[N+](=C1)C2C(C(C(O2)CO)O)O)C(=O)N.[Cl-]

New patent, Opicapone, WO 2019123066, Unichem


New patent, Opicapone, WO 2019123066, Unichem

WO-2019123066

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2019123066&tab=PCTDESCRIPTION

Process for the preparation of opicapone and its intermediates, useful for treating parkinson’s disease. Bial-Portela  has developed and launched opicapone, for treating Parkinson’s disease.

Opicapone is a selective and reversible catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitor, use as adjunctive therapy for parkinson’s disease. Opicapone was approved by European Medicine Agency (EMA) on June 24, 2016 and it is developed and marketed as ONGENTYS® by Bial-Portela in Europe. Opicapone is chemically described as 2,5-dichloro-3-(5-(3,4-dihydroxy-5-nitrophenyl)-l,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)-4,6-dimethylpyridine-l-oxide and depicted below as compound of formula (I).

Opicapone and a process for preparation of it is disclosed in US 8,168,793. The process disclosescondensation of 3, 4-dibenzyloxy-5-nitrobenzoic acid with (Z)-2, 5-dichloro-N’-hydroxy-4, 6-dimethylnicotinimidamide in presence of N, N’-Carbonyl diimidazole in N, N’-dimethylformamide. The crude condensation intermediate was subjected to tetrabutylammonium fluoride (TBAF) mediated cyclization in tetrahydrofuran to give l,2,4-oxadiazole derivative, purifying it by precipitating in 1:1 mixture of dichloromethane: diethyl ether and recrystallized it in isopropyl alcohol. Oxidation of l,2,4-oxadiazole compound is carried out using 10 fold excess of urea hydrogen peroxide complex and trifluoroacetic anhydride in dichloromethane and was purified by column chromatography. Obtained N-oxide compound was converted into opicaponecompound of formula (I) by deprotection O-benzoyl groups by exposure it to boron tribromide (BBr3) in dichloromethane at -78°C to room temperature. Final product was purified in mixture of toluene and ethanol. Above synthetic stepsare outline in scheme 1.


c eme

This process has several drawbacks like cyclization reaction involve use of TBAF and THF. Use of expensive TBAF, leads to high cost in the production and therefore uneconomical for industrial production, whereas use of THF during this reaction has limitation due to peroxide contents. . Similarly diethyl ether is a potential fire hazard and can form peroxides rapidly and thus should be avoided in commercial scale production. Above cyclization is also carried out in presence of DMF and CDI at l20°C.

Similar approach was reported in W02008094053 which describes preparation of opicapone by one pot cyclization of 3,4-dibenzyloxy-5-nitrobenzoic acid with (Z)-2,5-dichloro-N’-hydroxy-4,6-dimethylnicotinimidamide using N,N’-Carbonyl diimidazole in N,N’-dimethylformamide followed by heating the reaction mixture at l35°C for 5 hours to obtain l,2,4-oxadiazole derivative. This oxadiazole derivative was purified by recrystallization from isopropyl alcohol. Further oxidation using urea hydrogen peroxide complex followed by o-debenzylation using boron tribromide (BBr3) was achieved to obtain Opicapone.

This process also suffers from drawback like use of elevated temperature (l35°C) and use of expensive BBr3.

US 9,126,988 also disclose process for the preparation of opicapone, whichinvolves several chemical steps: 1) nitrating vanillic acid in presence of nitric acid in acetic acidfollowed by recrystallization with acetic acid to get nitro compound with yield 40-46%; 2)which converted into acid chloride compoundby treating it with thionyl chloride in presence of catalytic amount of N, N-dimethylformamide in dichloromethane or l,4-dioxane; 3) condensing acid chloride compound with (Z)-2, 5-dichloro-N’-hydroxy-4, 6-dimethylnicotinimidamide in presence of excess amount of pyridine in N,N-dimethyl acetamide/ tetrahydrofuran/ dichloromethane or l,4-dioxane at 5-10 °C and then heating the reaction mixture at H0-l l5°C for 5-6 hours to get 1,2,4-oxadiazole compound; 4) which was oxidized using urea hydrogen peroxide complex and trifluoroacetic anhydride in dichloromethane to get N-oxide product which was purified by repeated recrystallization (2 or more times) using mixture of formic acid and toluene to get pure product with 59% yield; 5) O-methyl group was deprotected using aluminium chloride and pyridine in N-Methyl pyrrolidone at 60 C to obtain opicapone. After completion of reaction, the crude product was isolated by quenching the reaction mixture in mixture cone. HC1: water followed by filtration, washing with water: isopropyl alcohol and recrystallization from ethanol. Final purification was done in mixture of formic acid and isopropyl alcohol. Above synthetic steps are outline in scheme 2.

Scheme 2

As described above, cited literature processes suffers from some drawbacks like elevated reaction temperature and longer duration, use of excess amount of pyridine for cyclization reaction which is difficult to handle on large scale preparation. Another drawback of reported procedure is unsafe workup procedures for isolation of N-oxide as residual peroxides were not quenched by any peroxide quenching reagent. Also repeated crystallizations (more than two) are required for purification of N-oxide derivative to remove unreacted starting material which is tedious and time consuming process. Also for its purification mixture of solvent i.e. formic acid and toluene are used which hamper its recovery and is not cost effective process.

US 9,126,988 also disclosed process for the preparation of 2,5-dichloro-N’-hydroxy-4,6-dimethylnicotinimidamide compound of formula (IV), in which 2,5-dichloro-4,6-dimethylnicotinonitrile compound of formula (VIII) was reacted with hydroxyl amine solution in the presence of catalytic amount of 1,10-phenanthroline in methanokwater at 70-80°C for 6 hrs. After completion reaction mixture was cooled, filtered and dried to get 2,5-dichloro-N’-hydroxy-4,6-dimethylnicotinimidamide of formula (IV) (88%).

Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry 13 (2005) 5740-5749, Karl Bailey et.al. disclosed process for preparation of 3,4-dimethoxy-5-nitro benzoic acid compound of formula (Ilia). In which a solution of Cr03, concentrated H2S04 and water was added to solution of 3,4-dimethoxy-5-nitro benzaldehyde in acetone and water. The obtained solution was stirred for 24 hrs and then isopropanol was added to eliminate any unreacted Cr(VI) species to obtained crude green sludge, which was extracted into ethyl acetate and washed with 1M HC1 to remove remaining Cr(III) species. Obtained product is then recrystallized from water and ethanol to yield 69 % of 3,4-dimethoxy-5-nitro benzoic acid compound of formula (Ilia).

US 5,358, 948 also disclosed process for preparation of 3,4-dimethoxy-5-nitro benzoic acid compound of formula (Ilia). In which a solution of potassium permanganate was added to a solution of 3,4-dimethoxy-5-nitro benzaldehyde in acetone. The mixture was then stirred at 20°C for 18 hrs togives 3,4-dimethoxy-5-nitro benzoic acid compound of formula (Ilia) with 72% yield.

Disadvantage of the above cited literature (Karl Bailey et.al and US’ 948) processes are harsh, acidic condition and involve expensive reagents. The process is both uneconomical and time consuming, (18-24 hrs) hence not suitable for commercial production.

Oxidation of aldehydes to the corresponding carboxylic acids, on the other hand, are commonly carried out using KMn04 in acidic or basic media, or K2Cr207 in acidic medium or chromic acid. These heavy metal-based reagents are hazardous and the protocols produce metal wastes that require special handling owing to their toxicities.

It is therefore, desirable to provide efficient, robust, alternative simple process, cost effective process which is used on a large scale and allows product to be easily workup, purified and isolate without the disadvantages mentioned above.

Example 1: Preparation of 3, 4-dimethoxy-5-nitro benzoic acid (Ilia).

To a cooled solution of 3,4-dimethoxy-5-nitro benzaldehyde (lOOg, 0.474 mole) in DMF (500 ml) was added Oxone (294.1 g, 0.478 mole) lot wise at 5-10 °C. Reaction mixture was stirred for 30 minutes at same temperature, allowed to warm to room temperature and stirred for 2-3 hours. After completion, the reaction mixture was diluted with 1500 ml of water and filtered. The solid was washed with water until all peroxides removed and drying at 50°C under vacuum afforded 3,4-dimethoxy-5-nitro benzoic acid of formula (Ilia) (l02g, 95%).

Example 2: Preparation of 2 ,5-dichloro-N’ {[(3,4-dimethoxy-5-nitrophenyl) carbonyl]oxy}-4, 6-dimethylpyridine-3-carboximidamide (Va)

To a solution of 3,4-dimethoxy-5-nitro benzoic acid of formula (Ilia) (5 g, 0.022 mole)in 60 ml of acetonitrile was added N,N’-Carbonyldiimidazole (4.28g, 0.026 mole) in portions and the reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1.5 hours. Then was added 2,5-dichloro-N’-hydroxy-4,6-dimethylnicotinimidamide of formula (IV) (5.4g, 0.023 mole) and stirring was continued for 3 hours. After completion, the reaction mixture was diluted with 240 ml of water and 300 ml of dichloromethane. Organic layer was separated and washed with water (200 ml x 3), concentrated under reduced pressure to obtain 2,5-dichloro-N'{ [(3,4-dimethoxy-5-nitrophenyl)carbonyl]oxy}-4,6-dimethylpyridine-3-carboximidamide of formula (Va) (8.67g, 88.9%).

Example 3: Preparation of 2, 5-dichloro-3-[5-(3, 4-dimethoxy-5-nitrophenyl)-l,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl]-4,6-dimethylpyridine (Via)

To a solution of 2,5-dichloro-N'{ [(3,4-dimethoxy-5-nitrophenyl)carbonyl]oxy}- 4,6-dimethylpyridine-3-carboximidamide of formula (Va) (0.5g, 0.0011 mole)in 10 ml of dichloromethane was added isopropyl alcohol (1 ml) followed by KOH (0.075g, 0.001 lmole) dissolved in 0.1 ml of water. After stirring for 1 hour at room temperature the reaction mixture was diluted with 30 ml of dichloromethane and washed with water (lOml x 2). The reaction mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure to obtain 2,5-dichloro-3-[5-(3,4-dimethoxy-5-nitrophenyl)-l,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl]-4,6-dimethylpyridine of formula (Via) (0.4 g, 83%).

Example 4: Preparation of 2,5-dichloro-3-[5-(3,4-dimethoxy-5-nitrophenyl)-l,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl]-4,6-dimethylpyridine (Via) (One pot cyclization procedure)

To a stirred solution of 3,4-dimethoxy-5-nitro benzoic acid formula (Ilia) (lOOg, 0.44 mol)in 1000 ml of dichloromethane was added N,N’-Carbonyldiimidazole (86g, 0.53 mole) in portions and the reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1.5 hours. Then was added 2,5-dichloro-N’-hydroxy-4,6-dimethylnicotinimidamide of formula (IV) (l08g, 0.46 mole) and stirring was continued for 3 hours. Isopropyl alcohol (200 ml) and KOH (30g, 0.53 mole) dissolved in 30 ml of water was then added to the reaction mixture. After stirring for 1 hour at room temperature the organic layer was washed with water (1000 ml x 2). Solvent was distilled out at atmospheric pressure, added 1000 ml of isopropyl alcohol and suspension was stirred at 55-60°C for 2 hours. The reaction mixture was allowed to cool to room temperature, stirred for 2 hours and filtered. The solid was washed with isopropyl alcohol (100 ml x 2) and dried at 50-60°C under vacuum to obtain 2,5-dichloro-3-[5-(3,4-dimethoxy-5-nitrophenyl)-l,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl]-4,6-dimethylpyridine of formula (Via) (l60g, 85%).

Example 5: Preparation of 2,5-dichloro-3-[5-(3,4-dimethoxy-5-nitrophenyl)-l,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl]-4,6-dimethylpyridine (Via) (cyclization procedure using thionyl chloride)

To a stirred solution of 3,4-dimethoxy-5-nitro benzoic acid of formula (Ilia) (lOOg, 0.44 mol) in 500 ml of dichloromethane was added 0.4 ml of N,N-dimethyl formamide followed bythionyl chloride (82g, 0.69 mole) drop wise at room temperature and the reaction mixture was heated at 40°C for 4 hours. After completion, dichloromethane and excess of thionyl chloride was distilled out under reduced pressure at 40°C. The obtained residue was dissolved in 500 ml of dichloromethane and was added to pre-cooled mixture of 2,5-dichloro-N’-hydroxy-4,6-dimethylnicotinimidamide of formula (IV) (l03g, 0.44 mole) and triethyl amine (73 ml, 0.53 mole) in 500 ml of dichloromethane at 5°C. After addition, the reaction mixture was allowed to warm to 25-30°C and stirred for 2 hours. Then was added isopropyl alcohol (200 ml) followed by KOH (62g, 1.1 mole) dissolved in 62 ml of water and stirring was continued for 2 hours at room temperature. The reaction mixture was washed with 1000 ml of water, 1N aqueous HC1 solution (500ml x 2) followed by 500 ml of 5% aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution. Solvent was distilled out at atmospheric pressure at 40°C. To the residue was added 1200 ml of methanol and the suspension was stirred at 55-60°C for 2 hours. The reaction mixture was allowed to cool to room temperature, maintained for 2 hours and filtered. The solid product was washed with methanol (100 ml x 2) and dried at 50°C under vacuum to obtain 2,5-dichloro-3-[5-(3,4-dimethoxy-5-nitrophenyl)- 1, 2, 4-oxadiazol-3-yl]-4, 6-dimethyl pyridine of formula (Via) (l65g, 88%).

Example 6: Preparation of 2,5-dichloro-3-[5-(3,4-dimethoxy-5-nitrophenyl)-l,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl]-4,6-dimethylpyridine-l-oxide (Vila)

To a cooled solution of 2,5-dichloro-3-[5-(3,4-dimethoxy-5-nitrophenyl)-l,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl]-4,6-dimethylpyridine of formula (Via) (25g, 0.0588 mole) in 300 ml of dichloromethane was added urea hydrogen peroxide complex (l8.26g, 0.194 mole) in portions followed by trifluoroacetic anhydride (37g, 0.176 mole) maintaining temperature below l0°C. After stirring at 5-l0°C for 1 hour, the reaction mixture was allowed to warm to room temperature and stirred for 5 hours. The reaction mixture was washed with water (300 ml x 2), 300ml of 5% aqueous sodium sulphite solution to quench residual peroxides and finally with 300 ml of water. Dichloromethane layer was distilled out at atmospheric pressure. The obtained solid was suspended in 250 ml of ethyl acetate and 12.5 ml of cone. HC1 was added at room temperature. The resulting suspension was then stirred at 65-70°C for 1 hour and allowed to cool to room temperature. After stirring for 2 hours, the reaction mixture was filtered, solid was washed with ethyl acetate (50 ml x 2) followed by water (50 x 3) and dried at 50°C under vacuum to obtain (5-(3,4-bis(methoxy)-5-nitrophenyl)-l,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)-2,5-dichloro-4,6-dimethylpyridine 1 -oxide of formula (Vila) (18g, 69%).

Example 7: Preparation of 5-[3-(2,5-Dichloro-4,6-dimethyl-l-oxido-3-pyridinyl)-l,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]-3-nitro-l,2-benzenediol (Opicapone, I)

To a cooled solution of 2,5-dichloro-3-[5-(3,4-dimethoxy-5-nitrophenyl)-l,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl]-4,6-dimethylpyridine-l-oxide of formula (Vila) (25g, 0.056 mole) in 200 ml of N,N-Dimethylformamide was added AlCl3 (l l.34g, 0.085 mol) at 5-l0°C in portions. The reaction mixture was then heated at 85 °C for 6 hours. After completion, the reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature and poured onto cold mixture of cone. HC1 (200 ml) and water (400 ml). The reaction mixture was filtered, solid washed with water (100 ml X 3) followed by methanol (50 ml x2) and dried at 50°C under vacuum to obtain 5-[3-(2,5-Dichloro-4, 6-dimethyl- l-oxido-3-pyridinyl)- 1,2, 4-oxadiazol-5-yl]-3-nitro- 1,2-benzenediol of formula (I) (22 g, 94%).

Example 8: Preparation of 2, 5-dichloro-N’-hydroxy-4, 6-dimethyl nicotinimidamide of formula (IV)

To a suspension of 2,5-dichloro-4,6-dimethylnicotinonitrile of formula (VIII) (lOOg, 0.497 mole) in l,4-dioxane (400 ml) and water (900 ml) was added 50% aqueous solution of hydroxyl amine (l30g) and N-methyl morpholine (50.2g, 0.497) at room temperature. The reaction mixture was then stirred at 70-80°C for 10 hours. After completion, water (1100 ml) was added to the reaction mixture at 70-80°C and allowed to cool to room temperature. After stirring for 2 hours the reaction mixture was filtered, solid was washed with water (200ml x 3) and dried at 50°C under vacuum to obtain 2,5-dichloro-N’-hydroxy-4,6-dimethylnicotinimidamide of formula (IV) (68 g, 58%).

Example 9:Preparation of 2,5-dichloro-N’-hydroxy-4, 6-dimethylnicotinimidamide of formula (IV)

To a suspension of 2,5-dichloro-4,6-dimethylnicotinonitrile of formula (VIII) (lOOg, 0.497 mole) in methanol (600 ml) and water (800 ml) was added 50% aqueous solution of hydroxyl amine (l30g) and 2-methylpyrazine (7.02g, 0.0746) at room temperature. The reaction mixture was then stirred at 70-80°C for 6-8 hours. After completion, water (800 ml) was added to the reaction mixture at 70-80°C and allowed to cool to room temperature. After stirring for 2 hours the reaction mixture was filtered, solid was washed with water (200ml x 3) and dried at 50°C under vacuum to obtain 2,5-dichloro-N’-hydroxy-4,6-dimethylnicotinimidamide of formula (IV) (82 g, 70%).

Example 10: Preparation of 2,5-dichloro-N’-hydroxy-4,6-dimethylnicotinimidamide of formula (IV)

To a solution of hydroxylamine hydrochloride (86.4g, 1.243 mole) in 400 ml of water was added LiOH.H20 (52.7g, 1.25 mole) at room temperature and heated at 50°C for 30 minutes. To the reaction mixture was added 300 ml of methanol, 2-methylpyrazine (3.5 lg, 0.037 mole) and 2,5-dichloro-4,6-dimethylnicotinonitrile of formula (VIII) (50g, 0.248 mole) at 50°C. The reaction mixture was then stirred at 70-80°C for 6 hours. After completion, water (500 ml) was added to the reaction mixture at 70-80°C and allowed to cool to room temperature. After stirring for 2 hours the reaction mixture was filtered, solid was washed with water (lOOml x 3) and dried at 50°C under vacuum to obtain 2,5-dichloro-N’-hydroxy-4,6-dimethylnicotinimidamide of formula (IV) (37.6 g, 64%).

Example 11: Purification of 5-[3-(2,5-Dichloro-4,6-dimethyl-l-oxido-3-pyridinyl)-l,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]-3-nitro-l,2-benzenediol (Opicapone, I)

The crude 5-[3-(2,5-Dichloro-4, 6-dimethyl- l-oxido-3-pyridinyl)- 1,2, 4-oxadiazol-5-yl]-3-nitro-l,2-benzenediol of formula (I)(25.0g) was suspended in 250 ml of N,N-dimethylformamide and reaction mixture was heated at 60-65°C to obtain clear solution. Then was added 500 ml of methanol and reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature. After stirring for 2-3 hours, the reaction mixture was filtered, solid was washed with methanol and dried at 50°C under vacuum to obtain 5-[3-(2, 5-Dichloro-4, 6-dimethyl- l-oxido-3-pyridinyl)- 1,2, 4-oxadiazol-5-yl]-3-nitro-l,2-benzenediol of formula (I) (22.0 g, 88%).

/////////////New patent, Opicapone, WO 2019123066, Unichem, WO2019123066

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