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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 29 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 29 year tenure till date Aug 2016, Around 30 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 25 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 13 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 212 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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SEN 826


figure

SEN 826
CAS 1160833-51-1
C25 H31 N5 O, 417.55
Methanone, [1-[3-(1-methyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)phenyl]-4-piperidinyl](4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-
CAS HBr SALT 1612250-71-1

WO2009074300 product patent

Russell John Thomas, Mohr Gal.La Pericot, Giacomo Minetto, Annette Cornelia Bekker, Pietro Ferruzzi
Applicant Siena Biotech S.P.A.
Image result for Siena Biotech S.P.A.
Siena Biotech S.p.A. operates as a drug discovery and development company which develops a portfolio of disease modifying small molecule therapeutics for oncology and neurodegenerative diseases. Its products include blood-brain barrier penetrant compounds, which are in pipeline, for the treatment of brain cancers and peripheral tumors capable of metastasizing to the brain; clinical candidates for Alzheimer’s disease; and SEN196, a Sirtuin 1 inhibitor against Huntington disease. The company also provides contract research services, drug discovery, integrated chemistry, in-vitro technologies, and preclinical technologies. Siena Biotech S.p.A. has a strategic partnership with Aptuit Inc. The company was founded in 2000 and is based in Siena, Italy. Siena Biotech S.p.A operates as a subsidiary of THERAMetrics holding AG
Russell Thomas

Russell Thomas

https://www.linkedin.com/in/russell-thomas-0317464/

PLEASE MAIL ME AT amcrasto@gmail.com if picture is a mistake or cal +919323115463

The SMO receptor mediates Hedgehog (Hh) signaling critical to development, differentiation, growth, and cell migration. In normal conditions, activation of the pathway is induced by binding of specific endogenous ligands (i.e., Sonic Hh) to its receptor Patched (Ptch), which in turns reverts the Ptch inhibitory effect on SMO. SMO activation ultimately determines specific target genes activation through a family of three transcription factors, Gli1, Gli2 and Gli3.
Although Hh signaling is significantly curtailed in adults, it retains functional roles in stem cell maintenance, and aberrant Hh signaling has been described in a range of tumours.
Mutational inactivation of the inhibitory pathway components results in a constitutive ligand-independent activation seen in tumours such as basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and medulloblastoma. Ligand-dependent activation is seen in tumours such as prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, gastrointestinal malignancies, melanoma, gliomas, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, leukemia, and B-cell lymphomas. A significant body of evidence supports the conclusion that SMO receptor antagonism will block the downstream signaling events.
As part of a program to address unmet medical need with regard to tumours in the CNS, Siena Biotech has designed and investigated selective antagonists of the SMO receptor. The newly designed API development candidate SEN826 1  is part of a group of potent antagonists of the Hedgehog pathway.
SYNTHESIS

PATENT

WO 2009074300

Figure imgf000025_0001

Figure imgf000019_0002

Figure

The synthesis starts with the formation of the 2-arylbenzimidazole derivative 6 which can be carried out starting from N-methylphenylenediamine 2 (Method A; blue path in Scheme 1) or employing o-phenylenediamine 4 in the ring closure reaction followed by N-methylation (Method B; orange path in Scheme 1). Sodium hydrogen sulfite is used to promote the condensation of the corresponding o-phenylenediamine with the Br-aromatic aldehyde 3.(6b) The next step is the coupling of the aryl bromide with isonipecotic ethyl ester in Buchwald conditions. After acidic hydrolysis with HCl under microwave irradiation, the final amide 1 was synthesized with CDI as coupling agent.

PAPER

A Scalable Route to the SMO Receptor Antagonist SEN826: Benzimidazole Synthesis via Enhanced in Situ Formation of the Bisulfite–Aldehyde Complex

Process Chemistry Unit, Siena Biotech SpA, 53100 Siena, Italy
Compound Management & Analysis Unit, Siena Biotech SpA, 53100 Siena, Italy
Org. Process Res. Dev., 2014, 18 (6), pp 699–708
Abstract Image

A practical and scalable route to the SMO antagonist SEN826 1 is described herein, including the discussion of an alternative approach to the synthesis of the target molecule. The optimized route consists of five chemical steps. A new and efficient access to the key intermediate 6 via the bisulfite–aldehyde complex was developed, significantly enhancing the yields and reducing costs. As a result, a synthetic procedure for preparation of multihundred gram quantities of the final product has been developed.

1 as hydrobromide salt. Yield: 71%.
UPLC–MS: tR = 1.24 min; m/z = 418 [M + 1]+.
HRMS calcd for C25H33N5O [M + 1]+ 418.26069, found 418.26075.
HPLC: tR = 5.99 min; purity 99.1%.
1H NMR (400 MHz DMSO-d6): δ 9.80 (broad, 1H), 7.89 (m, 1H), 7.77 (m, 1H), 7.55–7.45 (m, 3H), 7.38 (s, 1H), 7.24 (m, 2H), 4.48–4.15 (m, 2H), 3.96 (s, 3H), 3.86 (m, 2H), 3.55–3.15 (m, 3H), 3.10–2.82 (m, 6H), 2.81 (s, 3H), 1.76–1.57 (m, 4H).
13C NMR (100 MHz DMSO-d6): δ 173.5, 152.3, 151.5, 135.1, 135.0, 130.5, 126.2, 125.6, 125.3, 119.9, 119.1, 117.1, 116.5, 113.0, 53.2, 48.2, 42.7, 38.8, 37.4, 33.1, 28.2.
Water content (KF): 3.5 wt %.
Pd content (ICP-MS): 128 ppm.
Bromine content (ionic exchange LC): 20 wt % (1.2 equiv).
str1 str2
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Astellas Pharma Inc. new Glucokinase Activator, ASP ? for Type 2 Diabetes


str1

ASP ?

(2R)-2-(4-cyclopropanesulfonyl-3-cyclopropylphenyl)-N-[5-(hydroxymethyl)pyrazin-2-yl]-3-[(R)-3-oxocyclopentyl]propanamide

CAS 1174229-89-0
MW C25 H29 N3 O5 S
Benzeneacetamide, 3-cyclopropyl-4-(cyclopropylsulfonyl)-N-[5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-pyrazinyl]-α-[[(1R)-3-oxocyclopentyl]methyl]-, (αR)-
Molecular Weight, 483.58
[α]D20 −128.7 (c 1.00, MeOH);
1H NMR (DMSO-d6, 400 MHz) δ 11.07 (s, 1H), 9.20 (d, J = 1.4 Hz, 1H), 8.41 (d, J = 1.4 Hz, 1H), 7.79 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 1H), 7.41 (dd, J = 8.2, 1.8 Hz, 1H), 7.15 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 5.52 (t, J = 5.7 Hz, 1H), 4.56 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 2H), 4.04 (t, J = 7.6 Hz, 1H), 3.03–2.97 (m, 1H), 2.79 (tt, J = 8.4, 5.1 Hz, 1H), 2.25–1.81 (m, 8H), 1.53–1.47 (m, 1H), 1.17–1.12 (m, 2H), 1.08–1.02 (m, 4H), 0.89–0.84 (m, 2H);
13C NMR (DMSO-d6, 101 MHz) δ 218.5, 171.8, 152.1, 147.3, 145.7, 143.2, 140.3, 138.2, 134.8, 129.0, 125.3, 125.1, 62.5, 49.9, 44.4, 38.4, 38.2, 34.8, 32.1, 29.1, 12.4, 10.8, 10.7, 5.8;
FTIR (ATR, cm–1) 3544, 3257, 1727, 1692, 1546, 1507, 1363, 1285, 1149, 719;
HRMS (ESI) m/z [M + Na]+ calcd for C25H29N3O5S 506.1726, found 506.1747.
Anal. Calcd for C25H29N3O5S: C, 62.09; H, 6.04; N, 8.69. Found: C, 61.79; H, 6.19; N, 8.62.

To Astellas Pharma,Inc.

Inventors Masahiko Hayakawa, Yoshiyuki Kido, Takahiro Nigawara, Mitsuaki Okumura, Akira Kanai, Keisuke Maki, Nobuaki Amino
Applicant Astellas Pharma Inc.

Image result for Process Chemistry Labs., Astellas Pharma Inc., 160-2 Akahama, Takahagi-shi, Ibaraki 318-0001, Japan

Synthesis

contd…………………………..

PATENT

WO2009091014

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf;jsessionid=56E9927692EF5105140FE1CD1FD14A5D.wapp1nC?docId=WO2009091014&recNum=114&maxRec=374&office=&prevFilter=&sortOption=&queryString=FP%3A%28astellas+pharma%29&tab=FullText

str1

PAPER

A Practical and Scalable Synthesis of a Glucokinase Activator via Diastereomeric Resolution and Palladium-Catalyzed C–N Coupling Reaction

Process Chemistry Labs., Astellas Pharma Inc., 160-2 Akahama, Takahagi-shi, Ibaraki 318-0001, Japan
Astellas Research Technologies Co., Ltd., 21 Miyukigaoka, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8585, Japan
§ Department of Applied Chemistry and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoicho, Inageku, Chiba 263-8522, Japan
Org. Process Res. Dev., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acs.oprd.6b00415
 Abstract Image

Here we describe the research and development of a process for the practical synthesis of glucokinase activator (R)-1 as a potential drug for treating type-2 diabetes. The key intermediate, chiral α-arylpropionic acid (R)-2, was synthesized in high diastereomeric excess through the diasteromeric resolution of 7 without the need for a chiral resolving agent. The counterpart 2-aminopyrazine derivative 3 was synthesized using a palladium-catalyzed C–N coupling reaction. This efficient process was demonstrated at the pilot scale and yielded 19.0 kg of (R)-1. Moreover, an epimerization process to obtain (R)-7 from the undesired (S)-7 was developed.

Hayakawa, M.; Kido, Y.; Nigawara, T.; Okumura, M.; Kanai, A.; Maki, K.; Amino, N. PCT Int. Appl. WO/2009/091014 A1 20090723,2009.

https://www.astellas.com/en/ir/library/pdf/3q2017_rd_en.pdf

///////////1174229-89-0, ASTELLAS, Glucokinase Activator, TYPE 2 DIABETES, PRECLINICAL, ASP ?, WO 2009091014Masahiko Hayakawa, Yoshiyuki Kido, Takahiro Nigawara, Mitsuaki Okumura, Akira Kanai, Keisuke Maki, Nobuaki AminoWO2009091014,

O=C(Nc1cnc(cn1)CO)[C@H](C[C@@H]2CC(=O)CC2)c3ccc(c(c3)C4CC4)S(=O)(=O)C5CC5

AMG-3969


Image result for amg 3969

AMG-3969

M.Wt: 522.46
Cas : 1361224-53-4 , MF: C21H20F6N4O3S

WO 2012027261 PRODUCT PATENT

Inventors Kate Ashton, Michael David Bartberger, Yunxin Bo, Marian C. Bryan, Michael Croghan, Christopher Harold Fotsch, Clarence Henderson Hale, Roxanne Kay Kunz, Longbin Liu, Nobuko Nishimura, Mark H. Norman, Lewis Dale Pennington, Steve Fong Poon, Markian Myroslaw Stec, Jean David Joseph St., Jr., Nuria A. Tamayo, Christopher Michael Tegley, Kevin Chao Yang
Applicant Amgen Inc.

2-[4-[(2S)-4-[(6-Amino-3-pyridinyl)sulfonyl]-2-(1-propyn-1-yl)-1-piperazinyl]phenyl]-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol)

(S)-2-(4-(4-((6-Aminopyridin-3-yl)sulfonyl)-2-(prop-1-yn-1-yl)piperazin-1-yl)phenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol,

mp 113–123 °C;
[α]D20 = +75.1 (c = 2.2, MeOH).
Agents for Type 2 Diabetes,  PRECLINICAL

AMG-3969, a novel and stable small-molecule disruptor of glucokinase (GK) and glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP) interaction by the optimization of initial screening hit and AMG-1694. AMG-3969 potently induced the dissociation of the GK-GKRP complex and promoted GK translocation both in-vitro and in-vivo. In rodent model of diabetes, AMG-3969 reduced blood glucose levels without affecting euglycemic animals. The study represents the first successful discovery of a small molecule that targets the GK-GKRP complex as a novel pathway for managing blood glucose levels with reduced hypoglycemic risk.

Image result for AMGEN

 Kate Ashton

Kate Ashton

Senior Scientist at Amgen, Inc

Amgen
Thousand Oaks, United States
Dr. Kate Ashton received a Masters in Chemistry with Industrial Experience from the University of Edinburgh. She conducted her PhD thesis research on the synthesis and structure elucidation of Reidispongiolide A with Prof. Ian Paterson at the University of Cambridge, and her postdoctoral work on SOMO catalysis with Prof. David W. C. MacMillan at both Caltech and Princeton. She has been at Amgen for 6 years and has worked on indications for cancer, Alzheimer’s and diabetes.Dr Fecke works in the area of industrial early drug discovery since 1996. He is currently Group Leader in the Primary Pharmacology department at UCB Pharma (UK) and is involved in the identification and characterization of NCE and NBE drugs in molecular interaction assays for both immunological and CNS diseases. Prior to joining UCB, he worked for Novartis and Siena Biotech in the areas of transplant rejection, neurodegeneration and oncology. He obtained his PhD at the Heinrich-Heine-University Dusseldorf in Germany in 1994.

Image result for amg 3969

(S)-2-(4-(4-((6-Aminopyridin-3-yl)sulfonyl)-2-(prop-1-yn-1-yl)piperazin-1-yl)phenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol, AMG-3969

Glucokinase (GK) is a member of a family of four hexokinases that are critical in the cellular metabolism of glucose. Specifically GK, also known as hexokinase IV or hexokinase D, facilitates glucose induced insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells as well as glucose conversion into glycogen in the liver. GK has a unique catalytic activity that enables the enzyme to be active within the physiological range of glucose (from 5mM glucose to lOmM glucose).

Genetically modified mouse models support the role of GK playing an important role in glucose homeostasis. Mice lacking both copies of the GK gene die soon after birth from severe hyperglycemia, whereas mice lacking only one copy of the GK gene present with only mild diabetes. Mice that are made to overexpress the GK gene in their livers are hypoglycemic.

Numerous human mutations in the GK gene have been identified, with the vast majority of them resulting in proteins with impaired or absent enzymatic activity. These loss-of-function mutations are thought to contribute to the hyperglycemia seen with maturity-onset diabetes of the young type II (MODY-2). A small fraction of these mutations result in a GK with increased catalytic function. These individuals present with moderate to severe hypoglycemia.

GK activity in the liver is transiently regulated by glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP). GK catalytic activity is inhibited when GK is bound to GKRP. This interaction is antagonized by increasing concentrations of both glucose and fructose -1 -phosphate (F1P). The complex of the two proteins is localized primarily to the nuclear compartment of a cell. Post prandially as both glucose and fructose levels rise, GK released from GKRP translocates to the cytoplasm. Cytoplasmic GK is now free of the inhibitory effects of GKRP and able to kinetically respond to glucose. Evidence from the Zucker diabetic fatty rat (ZDF) indicates that their glucose intolerance may be a result of this mechanism failing to function properly.

A compound that acts directly on GKRP to disrupt its interaction with GK and hence elevate levels of cytoplasmic GK is a viable approach to modulate GK activity. Such an approach would avoid the unwanted hypoglycemic effects of over stimulation of GK catalytic activity, which has been seen in the

development of GK activators. A compound having such an effect would be useful in the treatment of diabetes and other diseases and/or conditions in which GKRP and/or GK plays a role.

CLIP

Antidiabetic effects of glucokinase regulatory protein small-molecule disruptors
Nature 2013, 504(7480): 437

Image result for Antidiabetic effects of glucokinase regulatory protein small-molecule disruptors.

Image result for Antidiabetic effects of glucokinase regulatory protein small-molecule disruptors.

SYNTHESIS

Figure

aReagents and conditions: (a) 1-propynylmagnesium bromide, THF, 0 °C, 99%; (b) TFA, DCM, then NaBH(OAc)3 77%; (c) NH4OH, EtOH, 120 °C, 88%; (d) chiral SFC, 38%………..Nature 2013,504, 437440

PATENT

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2012027261

EXAMPLE 241 : 2-(4-(4-((6-AMINO-3-PYRIDINYL)SULFONYL)-2-(l-PROP YN- 1 – YL)- 1 -PIPERAZINYL)PHENYL)- 1,1,1 ,3 ,3 ,3 -HEXAFLUORO-2-PROPANOL

STEP 1 : 4-BENZYL 1 -TERT-BUTYL 2-0X0-1,4-PIPERAZINEDICARBOXYLATE

A 2-L Erlenmeyer flask was charged with 2-piperazinone (36.5 g, 364 mmol, Sigma- Aldrich, St. Louis, MO), sodium carbonate (116 g, 1093 mmol), 600 mL of dioxane, and 150 mL of water. To this was slowly added benzyl chloroformate (62.1 g, 364 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) at room temperature over 20 min. After the addition was complete, the mixture was stirred for 2 h and then diluted with water and extracted with EtOAc (2 L). The combined organic extracts were dried (MgS04), filtered, and concentrated to give a white solid. To this solid was added 500 mL of DCM, triethylamine (128 mL, 911 mmol), DMAP (4.45 g, 36.4 mmol), and di-tert-butyl dicarbonate (119 g, 546 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO). After 1 h at room temperature, the mixture was diluted with water and the organics were separated. The organics were dried (MgS04), filtered, and concentrated to give a brown oil. To this oil was added 100 mL of DCM followed by 1 L of hexane. The resulting white solid was collected by filtration to give 4-benzyl 1-tert-butyl 2-oxo-l,4-piperazinedicarboxylate (101 g).

STEP 2: BENZYL (2-((TERT-BUTOXYCARBONYL)AMINO)ETHYL)(2-OXO-3 -PENTYN- 1 -YL)CARBAMATE

A 150-mL round-bottomed flask was charged with 4-benzyl 1-tert-butyl

2- oxo-l,4-piperazinedicarboxylate (1.41 g, 4.22 mmol) and THF (5 mL). 1-Propynylmagnesium bromide (0.5 M in THF, 20.0 mL, 10.0 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) was added at 0 °C slowly. The mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 2 h. Saturated aqueous NH4C1 (40 mL) was added and the aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc (200 mL, then 2 x 100 mL). The combined organic phases were dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was purified by column chromatography (50 g of silica, 0 to 50% EtOAc in hexanes) to afford benzyl (2-((tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino)ethyl)(2-oxo- 3- pentyn-l-yl)carbamate (1.55 g) as a clear oil.

STEP 3: BENZYL 3-(l-PROPYN-l-YL)-l-PIPERAZINECARBOXYLATE

A 3-L round-bottomed flask was charged with 2-((tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino)ethyl)(2-oxo-3-pentyn-l-yl)carbamate (82.2 g, 219 mmol) and 300 mL of DCM. After cooling to -10 °C, TFA (169 mL, 2195 mmol) was added and the resulting dark solution was stirred at room temperature for 15 min. Sodium triacetoxyborohydride (186 g, 878 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) was then added portion- wise over 10 min. After 2 h, the mixture was

concentrated, diluted with EtOAc (1 L), and neutralized with 5 N NaOH. The layers were separated and the organic extracts were washed with brine, dried (MgS04), filtered and concentrated. The resulting orange oil was purified via column chromatography (750 g of silica gel, 0 to 4.5 % MeOH/DCM) to give benzyl 3-(l-propyn-l-yl)-l-piperazinecarboxylate (43.7 g) as a brown foam.

STEP 4: BENZYL 3-(l-PROPYN-l-YL)-4-(4-(2,2,2-TRIFLUORO-l-HYDROXY- 1 -(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)ETHYL)PHENYL)- 1 -PIPERAZINECARBOXYLATE

A 150-mL reaction vessel was charged with benzyl 3-(prop-l-yn-l-yl)piperazine-l-carboxylate (2.88 g, 11.2 mmol), 2-(4-bromophenyl)-l, 1,1, 3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (4.36 g, 13.5 mmol, Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2002, 12, 3009), dicyclohexyl(2′,6′-diisopropoxy-[ 1 , 1 ‘-biphenyl]-2-yl)phosphine, RuPhos (0.530 g, 1.14 mmol, Sigma- Aldrich, St. Louis, MO), RuPhos Palladacycle (0.417 g, 0.572 mmol, Strem Chemical Inc, Newburyport, MA), sodium tert-butoxide (2.73 g, 28.4 mmol, Strem Chemical Inc, Newburyport, MA) and toluene (35 mL). The mixture was degassed by bubbling Ar through the solution for 10 min. The vessel was sealed and heated at 100 °C for 1.5 h. The reaction mixture was cooled to room temerature and water (100 mL) was added. The aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 100 mL) and the combined organic phases were washed with saturated aqueous sodium chloride (150 mL). The organic extracts were dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was purified by column chromatography (100 g of silica, 0 to 50% EtOAc in hexanes) to afford benzyl 3-(l-propyn-l-yl)-4-(4-(2,2,2-trifluoro- 1 -hydroxy- 1 -(trifluoromethyl)ethyl)phenyl)- 1 -piperazinecarboxylate as a yellow solid.

STEP 5: 2-(4-(4-((6-CHLORO-3-PYRIDINYL)SULFONYL)-2-(l-PROPYN-l-YL)- 1 -PIPERAZIN YL)PHENYL)- 1,1,1 ,3 ,3 ,3 -HEXAFLUORO-2-PROPANOL

A 500-mL round-bottomed flask was charged with benzyl 3-(l-propyn-l-yl)-4-(4-(2,2,2-trifluoro- 1 -hydroxy- 1 -(trifluoromethyl)ethyl)phenyl)- 1 -piperazinecarboxylate (3.13 g, 6.25 mmol) and TFA (40 mL).

Trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (1.25 mL, 14.1 mmol, Acros/Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA) was added dropwise at room temperature. After 5 min, additional TfOH (0.45 mL, 5.1 mmol) was added. After an additional 10 min, solid

NaHC03 was carefully added in potions. Saturated aqueous NaHC03 (250 mL) was added slowly to bring pH to approximately 7. The aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc (100 mL). At this time, more solid NaHC03 was added to the aqueous phase and extracted again with EtOAc (100 mL). The combined organic phases were washed with water (200 mL) and saturated aqueous sodium chloride (200 mL). The combined organic extracts were dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated in vacuo to afford 3.10 g of tan solid.

A 500-mL round-bottomed flask was charged with this material, triethylamine (5.00 mL, 35.9 mmol) and CH2CI2 (30 mL). 6-Chloropyridine-3-sulfonyl chloride (1.58 g, 7.43 mmol, Organic Process Research & Development 2009, 13, 875) was added in potions at 0 °C. The brown mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 10 min. The volume of the reaction mixture was reduced to approximately 10 mL in vacuo then the mixture was purified twice by column chromatography (100 g of silica, 0 to 50% EtOAc in hexanes) to afford 2-(4-(4-((6-chloro-3-pyridinyl)sulfonyl)-2-( 1 -propyn- 1 -yl)- 1 -piperazinyl)phenyl)- 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (3.46 g) as an off-white solid.

STEP 6: 2-(4-(4-((6-AMINO-3-PYRIDINYL)SULFONYL)-2-(l-PROPYN-l-YL)- 1 -PIPERAZIN YL)PHENYL)- 1,1,1 ,3 ,3 ,3 -HEXAFLUORO-2-PROPANOL

A 20-mL sealed tube was charged with 2-(4-(4-((6-chloro-3-pyridinyl)sulfonyl)-2-( 1 -propyn- 1 -yl)- 1 -piperazinyl)phenyl)- 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (0.340 g, 0.627 mmol), concentrated ammonium hydroxide (5.00 mL, 38.5 mmol) and EtOH (5 mL). The reaction mixture was heated in an Initiator (Biotage, AB, Uppsala, Sweden) at 120 °C for 1 h. The reaction mixture was further heated in a heating block at 110 °C for 5 h. The reaction mixture was concentrated and purified by column chromatography (25 g of silica, 30 to 80% EtOAc in hexanes) to afford 2-(4-(4-((6-amino-3-pyridinyl)sulfonyl)-2-( 1 -propyn- 1 -yl)- 1 -piperazinyl)phenyl)- 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (0.289 g) as a mixture of two enantiomers.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) δ ppm 8.49 (br. s., 1 H), 7.80 (dd, J= 2.3, 8.8 Hz, 1 H), 7.59 (d, J= 8.8 Hz, 2 H), 6.97 (d, J= 9.0 Hz, 2 H), 6.55 (d, J= 8.8 Hz, 1 H), 5.05 (s, 2 H), 4.46 (br. s., 1 H), 3.85 – 3.72 (m, 2 H), 3.54 (br. s., 1 H), 3.50 – 3.34 (m, 2 H), 2.83 (dd, J= 3.3, 11.0 Hz, 1 H), 2.69 (dt, J= 3.4, 11.0 Hz, 1 H), 1.80 (s, 3 H). m/z (ESI, +ve ion) 523.1 (M+H)+. GK-GKRP IC50 (Binding) = 0.003 μΜ

The individual enantiomers were isolated using chiral SFC. The method used was as follows: Chiralpak® ADH column (21 x 250 mm, 5 μιη) using 35% methanol in supercritical C02 (total flow was 70 mL/min). This produced the two enantiomers with enantiomeric excesses greater than 98%.

2-(4-((2S)-4-((6-amino-3-pyridinyl)sulfonyl)-2-(l -propyn- 1-yl)- 1 -piperazinyl)phenyl)- 1,1,1 ,3 ,3 ,3 -hexafluoro-2-propanol and 2-(4-((2R)-4-((6-amino-3 -pyridinyl)sulfonyl)-2-( 1 -propyn- 1 -yl)- 1 -piperazinyl)phenyl)- 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol.

FIRST ELUTING PEAK (PEAK #1)

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) δ 8.48 (d, J= 2.3 Hz, 1 H), 7.77 (dd, J= 2.5, 8.8 Hz, 1 H), 7.57 (d, J= 8.8 Hz, 2 H), 6.95 (d, J= 9.2 Hz, 2 H), 6.52 (d, J= 8.8 Hz, 1 H), 4.94 (s, 2 H), 4.44 (br. s., 1 H), 3.82 – 3.71 (m, 2 H), 3.58 – 3.33 (m, 3 H), 2.81 (dd, J= 3.2, 11.1 Hz, 1 H), 2.67 (dt, J= 3.9, 11.0 Hz, 1 H), 1.78 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 3 H). m/z (ESI, +ve ion) 523.2 (M+H)+. GK-GKRP IC50 (Binding) = 0.002 μΜ.

SECOND ELUTING PEAK (PEAK #2)

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) δ 8.49 (d, J= 1.8 Hz, 1 H), 7.78 (dd, J= 2.3, 8.8 Hz, 1 H), 7.59 (d, J= 8.6 Hz, 2 H), 6.97 (d, J= 9.0 Hz, 2 H), 6.54 (d, J= 8.8 Hz, 1 H), 4.97 (s, 2 H), 4.46 (br. s., 1 H), 3.77 (t, J= 11.7 Hz, 2 H), 3.67 (br. s., 1 H), 3.51 – 3.33 (m, 2 H), 2.82 (dd, J= 3.3, 11.0 Hz, 1 H), 2.68 (dt, J= 3.9, 11.1 Hz, 1 H), 1.79 (d, J= 2.0 Hz, 3 H). m/z (ESI, +ve ion) 523.2 (M+H)+. GK-GKRP IC50 (Binding) = 0.342 μΜ.

Alternative procedure starting after Step 4.

STEP 5 : 2-(4-(4-((6-AMINO-3-PYRIDINYL)SULFONYL)-2-(l-PROPYN-l-YL)- 1 -PIPERAZIN YL)PHENYL)- 1,1,1 ,3 ,3 ,3 -HEXAFLUORO-2-PROPANOL

Alternatively, 2-(4-(4-((6-amino-3-pyridinyl)sulfonyl)-2-( 1 -propyn- 1 -yl)-l-piperazinyl)phenyl)-l,l,l,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol was synthesized from benzyl 3-( 1 -propyn- 1 -yl)-4-(4-(2,2,2-trifluoro- 1 -hydroxy- 1 -(trifluoromethyl)ethyl)phenyl)- 1 -piperazinecarboxylate as follows.

A 2-L round-bottomed flask was charged with benzyl 3 -(1 -propyn- 1-yl)-4-(4-(2,2,2-trifluoro- 1 -hydroxy- 1 -(trifluoromethyl)ethyl)phenyl)- 1 -piperazinecarboxylate (21.8 g, 43.5 mmol, step 5) and TFA (130 mL).

Trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (11.6 mL, 131 mmol, Acros/Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA) was added slowly at rt resulting orange cloudy mixture. After stirring at rt for 10 min, the volume of the reaction mixture was reduced to half in vacuo. Solid NaHC03 was added in potions until the mixture became sludge. Saturated aqueous NaHC03(800 mL) was added slowly until the pH was about

8. The aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 250 mL). The combined organic phases were washed with water (500 mL) and saturated aqueous NaCl (500 mL). The organic phase was dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. This material was dissolved into DCM (200 mL) and triethylamine (31.0 mL, 222 mmol) was added. Then 6-aminopyridine-3-sulfonyl chloride (9.40 g, 48.8 mmol, published PCT patent application no. WO

2009/140309) was added in potions over 10 min period. The brown mixture was stirred at room temperature for 10 min. The reaction mixture was washed with water (300 mL) and saturated aqueous NaCl (300 mL). The organic phase was dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was purified by column chromatography (780 g of total silica, 30 to 90% EtOAc in hexanes) to afford 2-(4-(4-((6-amino-3-pyridinyl)sulfonyl)-2-(l-propyn-l-yl)-l-piperazinyl)phenyl)-l,l,l,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (19.4 g) as a mixture of two enantiomers.

Paper

Nonracemic Synthesis of GK–GKRP Disruptor AMG-3969

Therapeutic Discovery, Amgen Inc., One Amgen Center Drive, Thousand Oaks, California 91320, United States
Amgen Inc. 360 Binney Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, United States
J. Org. Chem., 2014, 79 (8), pp 3684–3687

Abstract Image

A nonracemic synthesis of the glucokinase–glucokinase regulatory protein disruptor AMG-3969 (5) is reported. Key features of the synthetic approach are an asymmetric synthesis of the 2-alkynyl piperazine core via a base-promoted isomerization and a revised approach to the synthesis of the aminopyridinesulfonamide with an improved safety profile.

(S)-2-(4-(4-((6-Aminopyridin-3-yl)sulfonyl)-2-(prop-1-yn-1-yl)piperazin-1-yl)phenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol, AMG-3969 (5)

(S)-2-(4-(4-((6-aminopyridin-3-yl)sulfonyl)-2-(prop-1-yn-1-yl)piperazin-1-yl)phenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (5) (64.0 g, 49% yield) as white solid. The enanatiomeric excess was found to be >99.5% by chiral SFC (see Supporting Information):
1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 8.47 (s, 1 H), 7.79 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 1 H), 7.59 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 2 H), 6.97 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 2 H), 6.55 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1 H), 5.06 (br s, 2 H), 4.45 (br s, 1 H), 3.96 (br s, 1 H), 3.77 (t, J = 12.1 Hz, 2 H), 3.50–3.35 (m, 2 H), 2.82 (d, J = 11.0 Hz, 1 H), 2.68 (t, J = 10.9 Hz, 1 H), 1.79 (s, 3 H);
13C NMR (101 MHz, CD3OD) δ 163.8, 152.0, 150.1, 138.2, 129.0, 124.7 (q), 123.9, 121.1, 117.5, 109.3, 82.8, 78.3 (m), 75.5, 52.0, 47.2, 44.9, 3.2;
 
HRMS (ESI-TOF) m/z [M + H]+calcd for C21H21F6N4O3S 523.1239, found 523.1229;
 
mp 113–123 °C;
 
[α]D20 = +75.1 (c = 2.2, MeOH).
 

Clip

AMG-3969 is a disruptor of the glucokinase (GK)–glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP) protein–protein interaction. Bourbeau and co-workers at Amgen describe their efforts towards an asymmetric synthesis of this compound ( J. Org. Chem. 2014, 79, 3684). The discovery route to this compound involved seven steps (14% overall yield), had certain safety concerns and relied upon SFC separation of the API enantiomers. The new route requires five steps (26% overall yield) and delivers the API in excellent enantiomeric excess (99% ee). A key feature of the synthetic approach was an asymmetric synthesis of the 2-alkynylpiperazine core via a base-promoted isomerization. It was found that the strongly basic conditions employed for the “alkyne-walk” did not erode the previously established stereocenter. Also, safety concerns around a late-stage amination of a 2-chloropyridine intermediate in the discovery route were alleviated by starting with a Boc-protected diaminopyridine instead.
PATENT

INTERMEDIATE A: TERT-EUTYL (5-(CHLOROSULFONYL)-2-PYRIDINYL)CARBAMATE

0,N

STEP 1 : TERT-BUTY (5-NITRO-2-PYRIDINYL)CARBAMATE

A 3-L round-bottomed flask was charged with 5-nitro-2-pyridinamine (75.0 g, 539 mmol, Alfa Aesar, Ward Hill, MA) and 500 mL of DCM. To this was added triethylamine (82 g, 810 mmol), di-tert-butyl dicarbonate (129 g, 593 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO), and N,N-dimethylpyridin-4-amine (32.9 g, 270 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO). After stirring at rt for 18 h, the mixture was diluted with water and the solid was collected by filtration. The yellow solid was washed with MeOH to give tert-butyl (5-nitro-2-pyridinyl)carbamate (94.6 g) as a light yellow solid.

STEP 2: TERT-BUTY (5 – AMINO-2-P YRIDINYL)C ARB AM ATE

A 3-L round-bottomed flask was charged with tert-butyl (5-nitro-2-pyridinyl)carbamate (96.4 g, 403 mmol), 500 mL of MeOH, 500 mL of THF, and 100 mL of sat aq NH4Cl. Zinc (105 g, 1610 mmol, Strem Chemical Inc, Newburyport, MA) was slowly added (over 10 min) to this solution. The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 12 h, then filtered. The filtrate was concentrated and then diluted with EtOAc and washed with water. The organic extracts were dried over MgS04, filtered, and concentrated. The resulting solid was recrystallized from MeOH to give tert-butyl(5-amino-2-pyridinyl)carbamate (38.6 g) as a light-yellow solid.

STEP 3: TERT-BUTYL (5-(CHLOROSULFONYL)-2-PYRIDINYL)CARBAMATE

A 3-L round-bottomed flask was charged with sodium nitrite (15.3 g, 221 mmol, J. T. Baker, Philipsburg, NJ), 100 mL of water and 500 mL of MeCN. After cooling to 0 °C, cone, hydrochloric acid (231 mL, 2770 mmol) was slowly added keeping the internal temperature below 10 °C. After stirring at 0 °C for 10 min, tert-butyl (5-amino-2-pyridinyl)carbamate (38.6 g, 184 mmol) was added as a suspension in MeCN (200 mL). The mixture was stirred for 30 min, then 150 mL of AcOH, copper(ii) chloride (12.4 g, 92.2 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO), and copper(i) chloride (0.183 g, 1.85 mmol, Strem Chemical Inc,

Newburyport, MA) were added. S02 gas (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) was bubbled through the solution for 15 min. The mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 30 min, then about 500 mL of ice-cold water was added. The resulting precipitate was collected by filtration and dried over MgS04 to give tert-butyl (5-(chlorosulfonyl)-2-pyridinyl)carbamate (15.5 g) as a white solid.

1H NMR (400MHz, CDC13) δ ppm 8.93 (br s, 1 H), 8.63 – 8.42 (m, 1 H), 8.35 -7.94 (m, 2 H), 1.58 (s, 9 H).

INTERMEDIATE B: (3S)-l-BENZYL-3-(l-PROPYN-l-YL)PIPERAZINE

STEP 1 : (3S)-l-BENZYL-3-(2-PROPYN-l-YL)-2,5-PIPERAZINEDIONE

A 1-L round-bottoemd flask was charged with (S)-2-((tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino)pent-4-ynoic acid (42.0 g, 197 mmol, AK Scientific, Union City, CA), ethyl 2-(benzylamino)acetate (40.0 g, 207 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO), HATU (90 g, 240 mmol, Oakwood Products, West Columbia, SC) and 200 mL of DMF. To this was added N-ethyl-N-isopropylpropan-2-amine (51.5 ml, 296 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO). After 15 min of stirring at rt, the mixture was diluted with water 300 mL and extracted with 1 L of 20% EtOAc in diethyl ether. The layers were separated and the organic was washed with 2 M HCl, water, sat. aq. NaHC03 and brine. The extracts were dried and concentrated to give an off-white solid. To this was added 200 mL of DCM and TFA (152 ml, 1970 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO). After stirring at rt for 30 min, the mixture was concentrated and then azetroped with 100 mL toluene (twice). To the brown oil obtained was added ammonia (2 M in MeOH, 394 ml, 789 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO). The mixture was stirred at rt for 30 min. The mixture was concentrated, dissolved in EtOAc, and washed with water. The organics were dried (MgS04), filtered, and concentrated to give a white solid that was triturated with diethyl ether to give (S)-l-benzyl-3-(prop-2-yn-l-yl)piperazine-2,5-dione (37.3 g) as a white solid.

STEP 2: (3S)-l-BENZYL-3-(2-PROPYN-l-YL)PIPERAZINE

A 1-L round-bottomed flask was charged with (S)-l-benzyl-3-(prop-2-yn-l-yl)piperazine-2,5-dione (37.3 g, 154 mmol) and 150 mL of THF. To this was slowly added aluminum (III) lithium hydride (1M in THF, 539 ml, 539 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO). After the addition was complete the mixture was heated at 80 °C for 12 h. The mixture was then cooled to 0 °C and solid sodium sulfate decahydrate was added until bubbling ceased. The mixture was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated to give (S)-l-benzyl-3-(prop-2-yn-l-yl)piperazine (18.1 g) as a yellow oil.

STEP 3: (35)-l-BENZYL-3-(l-PROPYN-l-YL)PIPERAZINE

To a solution of (35)-l-benzyl-3-(2-propyn-l-yl)piperazine (2.3 g, 11 mmol) in THF (50 mL) was added potassium t-butoxide (2.41 g, 21.5 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO). The reaction mixture was stirred at rt for 30 min, then quenched with water (200 mL) and EtOAc (300 mL) was added. The organic phase was dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated under a vacuum to give a solid that was purified by silica gel column chromatography (0 to 10% MeOH in CH2CI2) and then recrystallized from hexanes to afford (35)- 1-benzyl-3-(l-propyn-l-yl)piperazine (2.16 g) as an off-white solid.

1H NMR (400MHz, CD3OD) δ ppm 7.42 – 7.21 (m, 5 H), 3.59 – 3.49 (m, 3 H), 2.93 (td, J= 2.9, 12.4 Hz, 1 H), 2.86 – 2.73 (m, 2 H), 2.68 (d, J= 11.3 Hz, 1 H), 2.22 – 2.04 (m, 2 H), 1.80 (d, J= 2.3 Hz, 3 H).

INTERMEDIATE C: N,N-BIS(4-METHOXYBENZYL)-5-(((35)-3-(l-PROPYN- 1 – YL)- 1 -PIPERAZINYL)SULFONYL)-2-PYRIDIN AMINE

STEP 1 : (35)-l-((6-CHLORO-3-PYRIDINYL)SULFONYL)-3-(l-PROPYN-l-YL)PIPERAZINE

To a stirred solution of benzyl (35)-3-(l-propyn-l-yl)-l-piperazinecarboxylate (2.51 g, 9.71 mmol, Intermediate E) in TFA (20 mL) in 250-mL round-bottomed flask, trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (2.59 mL, 29.1 mmol, Alfa Aesar, Ward Hill, MA) was added slowly at rt. After stirring at room temperature for 3 min, the reaction mixture was concentrated to dryness under a vacuum. DCM (20 mL) was added to the residue followed by triethylamine (13.5 mL, 97 mmol). After the material went into solution, the mixture was cooled to 0 °C and 6-chloro-3-pyridinesulfonyl chloride (2.06 g, 9.73 mmol, Organic Process Research & Development 2009, 13, 875) was added portion-wise. After 5 min of stirring at 0 °C, water (40 mL) was added at that temperature and the layers were separated. The aqueous phase was extracted with DCM (2 x 50 mL). The combined organic phases were washed with saturated aqueous sodium chloride (60 mL). The organic phase was dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated under a vacuum. The crude product was purified by column chromatography (100 g of silica, 30 to 90% EtOAc in hexanes) to afford (35)- 1-((6-chloro-3-pyridinyl)sulfonyl)-3-(l-propyn-l-yl)piperazine (2.61 g) as an off-white solid.

STEP 2: N,N-BIS(4-METHOXYBENZYL)-5-(((35)-3-(l-PROPYN-l-YL)-l-PIPERAZINYL)SULFONYL)-2-PYRIDIN AMINE

A mixture of (35)-l-((6-chloro-3-pyridinyl)sulfonyl)-3-(l-propyn-l-yl)piperazine (2.6 g, 8.7 mmol), N-(4-methoxybenzyl)-l-(4-methoxyphenyl)methanamine (2.40 g, 9.33 mmol, WO2007/109810A2), and DIPEA (2.4 mL, 14 mmol) in z-BuOH (8.0 mL) was heated at 132 °C using a microwave reactor for 3 h. This reaction was run three times (total starting material amount was 7.2 g). The mixtures from the three runs were combined and partitioned between EtOAc (200 mL) and aqueous NaHC03 (half saturated, 50 mL). The organic layer was washed with aqueous NaHC03 (3 x 50 mL), dried over Na2S04, filtered, and concentrated. The residue was purified (5-times total) by chromatography on silica using MeOH:DCM:EtOAc:hexane

(4:20:20:60) as eluent to give N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-5-(((3S)-3-(l-propyn-i-yl)-l-piperazinyl)sulfonyl)-2-pyridinamine (6.6 g) as a white foam.

1H NMR (400MHz ,CDC13) δ ppm 8.55 (d, J= 2.3 Hz, 1 H), 7.64 (dd, J= 2.5, 9.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.13 (d, J= 8.6 Hz, 4 H), 6.91 – 6.81 (m, 4 H), 6.47 (d, J= 9.0 Hz, 1 H), 4.75 (s, 4 H), 3.80 (s, 6 H), 3.68 – 3.61 (m, 1 H), 3.57 (d, J= 11.2 Hz, 1 H), 3.41 (d, J= 11.3 Hz, 1 H), 3.07 (td, J= 3.3, 12.1 Hz, 1 H), 2.87 (ddd, J= 2.9, 9.7, 12.2 Hz, 1 H), 2.63 – 2.47 (m, 2 H), 1.80 (d, J= 2.2 Hz, 3 H). One exchangeable proton was not observed, m/z (ESI, +ve ion) 521.2 (M+H)+.

INTERMEDIATE D: rEi?r-BUTYL(5-(((35)-3-(l-PROPYN-l-YL)-4-(4-(2-(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)-2-OXIRANYL)PHENYL)- 1 -PIPERAZINYL)SULFONYL)-2-PYRIDINYL)CARBAMATE

step 1 step 2

STEP 1 : l-BR0M0-4-(l-(TRIFLU0R0METHYL)ETHENYL)BENZENE

To a 1-L round-bottomed flask was added methyl phenylphosphonium bromide (25.4 g, 71.1 mmol, Sigma- Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) and toluene (75 mL). The resulting mixture was stirred for 5 min then concentrated and dried under high vacuum for 30 min. To this residue was added THF (300 mL) followed by n-butyllithium (2.5 M in hexanes, 29.0 mL, 71.1 mmol, Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) dropwise via an addition funnel. After being stirred for 1 h at rt, a solution of l-(4-bromophenyl)-2,2,2-trifluoroethanone (15.0 g, 59.3 mmol, Matrix Scientific, Columbia, SC) in THF (20 mL) was added to the reaction mixture dropwise via an addition funnel. The reaction mixture was stirred at rt for 2 h. The reaction was quenched with saturated aqueous NH4C1 and the mixture was concentrated. The residue was partitioned between diethyl ether (150 mL) and saturated aqueous NH4C1 (80 mL). The organic layer was washed with water and brine, dried over MgS04, filtered, and concentrated. The resulting crude product was purified by column chromatography (330 g of silica gel, 2 to 5% EtOAc in hexanes) to afford l-bromo-4-(l-(trifluoromethyl)ethenyl)benzene (14.0 g) as a brown liquid.

STEP 2: 2-(4-BROMOPHENYL)-3,3,3-TRIFLUORO-l,2-PROPANEDIOL

To a solution of l-bromo-4-(l-(trifluoromethyl)ethenyl)benzene (13.5 g, 53.8 mmol) in acetone (100 mL) and water (100 mL) was added NMO (6.90 g, 59.2 mmol, Sigma- Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) and osmium tetroxide (0.140 mL, 2.70 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO). The resulting mixture was stirred at rt for 6 h. The reaction mixture was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated. The residue was partitioned between EtOAc (100 mL) and water (30 mL). The aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 75 mL). The combined organic layers were dried over MgS04, filtered, and concentrated. The resulting product was purified by column chromatography (330 g of silica gel, 0 to 8% MeOH in DCM) to afford 2-(4-bromophenyl)-3,3,3-trifluoro-l,2-propanediol (14.5 g) as an off-white solid.

STEP 3: 4-(4-BROMOPHENYL)-2,2-DIMETHYL-4-(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)-1,3-DIOXOLANE

To a solution of 2-(4-bromophenyl)-3,3,3-trifluoro-l,2-propanediol (14.5 g, 51.0 mmol) in acetone (200 mL) was added 2,2-dimethoxypropane (19.0 mL, 153 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) and /?-toluenesulfonic acid (0.485 g, 2.54 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO). The resulting mixture was stirred at rt for 20 h. Additional 2,2-dimethoxypropane (19.0 mL, 153 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) and /?-toluenesulfonic acid (0.485 g, 2.54 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) were added and the reaction was stirred for another 20 h. The reaction was quenched with saturated aqueous NaHC03 (10 mL). The reaction mixture was concentrated and the residue was partitioned between

EtOAc (100 mL) and saturated aqueous NaHC03 (60 mL). The aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 50 mL). The combined organic layers were dried over MgS04, filtered, and concentrated. The resulting product was purified by column chromatography (330 g of silica gel, 0 to 8% EtOAc in hexanes) to afford 4-(4-bromophenyl)-2,2-dimethyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)-l,3-dioxolane (15.7 g) as a colorless liquid.

STEP 4: BENZYL (3S)-4-(4-(2,2-DIMETHYL-4-(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)-l,3-DIOXOLAN-4-YL)PHENYL)-3-(l -PROPYN- 1 -YL)- 1 -PIPERAZINECAPvBOXYLATE

To a 20-mL vial was added benzyl (3S)-3-(l -propyn- l-yl)-l-piperazinecarboxylate (1.0 g, 3.87 mmol, Intermediate E), RuPhos Palladacycle (0.250 g, 0.310 mmol, Strem Chemical, Newburyport, MA), 4-(4-bromophenyl)-2,2-dimethyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)-l,3-dioxolane (2.50 g, 7.74 mmol), dioxane (15.0 mL), and sodium t-butoxide (0.740 g, 7.74 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St.

Louis, MO). The reaction mixture was degassed by bubbling N2 through the solution for 5 min, then the vial was capped. The reaction mixture was heated at 80 °C for 30 min then allowed to cool to rt and partitioned between EtOAc (70 mL) and water (40 mL). The aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (1 x 50 mL). The combined organic layers were dried over MgS04, filtered, and concentrated. The crude product was purified by column chromatography (80 g of silica, 5% to 30% EtOAc in hexanes) to afford benzyl (35)-4-(4-(2,2-dimethyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)- 1 ,3-dioxolan-4-yl)phenyl)-3-(l -propyn- 1 -yl)- 1 -piperazinecarboxylate (1.6 g) as a yellow foam.

STEP 5: rEi?r-BUTYL(5-(((35)-3-(l-PROPYN-l-YL)-4-(4-(2,2,2-TRIFLUORO- 1 -HYDROXY- 1 -(HYDROXYMETH YL)ETHYL)PHENYL)- 1 -PIPERAZINYL)SULFONYL)-2-PYRIDINYL)CARBAMATE

To a 150-mL round-bottomed flask was added benzyl (3S)-4-(4-(2,2-dimethyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)- 1 ,3 -dioxolan-4-yl)phenyl)-3 -( 1 -propyn- 1 -yl)- 1 -piperazinecarboxylate (1.60 g, 3.18 mmol) and TFA (20 mL, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO). After the substrate was completely dissolved in TFA,

trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (0.850 mL, 9.55 mmol, Alfa Aesar, Ward Hill,

MA) was added and the resulting mixture was stirred at rt for 1.5 h. The reaction mixture was slowly poured into a 300-mL beaker which contained 100 mL ice water. The resulting mixture was stirred while NaOH pellets (11.0 g) were slowly added to adjust the pH to 7. The solution was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 70 mL) and 10% IPA in CHCI3 (2 x 40 mL). The combined organic layers were dried over MgS04, filtered, and concentrated. The resulting intermediate was redissolved in DCM (60 mL). Triethylamine (2.20 mL, 16.0 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) and tert-butyl (5-(chlorosulfonyl)-2-pyridinyl)carbamate (1.04 g, 3.60 mmol, Intermediate A) were added. The reaction mixture was stirred at rt for 1 h then partitioned between DCM (70 mL) and water (30 mL). The aqueous layer was extracted with DCM (2 x 40 mL). The combined organic layers were dried over MgS04, filtered, and concentrated. The crude product was purified by column chromatography (120 g of silica, 10% to 40% acetone in hexanes) to afford tert-butyl (5-(((35)-3-(l-propyn-l-yl)-4-(4-(2,2,2-trifiuoro-l-hydroxy- 1 -(hydroxymethyl)ethyl)phenyl)- 1 -piperazinyl)sulfonyl)-2-pyridinyl)carbamate (1.0 g) as a yellow foam.

STEP 6: rEi?r-BUTYL(5-(((35)-3-(l-PROPYN-l-YL)-4-(4-(2-(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)-2-OXIRANYL)PHENYL)- 1 -PIPERAZINYL)SULFONYL)-2-PYRIDINYL)CARBAMATE

To a solution of tert-butyl (5-(((35)-3-(l-propyn-l-yl)-4-(4-(2,2,2-trifiuoro- 1 -hydroxy- 1 -(hydroxymethyl)ethyl)phenyl)- 1 -piperazinyl)sulfonyl)-2-pyridinyl)carbamate (0.300 g, 0.513 mmol) in DCM (5 mL) was added triethylamine (0.400 mL, 2.88 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) and p-toluenesulfonyl chloride (0.108 g, 0.564 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO). The resulting mixture was heated at reflux (50 °C) under N2 for 2 h. The reaction mixture was cooled to rt and partitioned between sat. NaHCOs (30 mL) and DCM (70 mL). The aqueous layer was extracted with DCM (2 x 40 mL). The combined organic layers were dried over MgS04, filtered, and concentrated. The crude product was purified by column chromatography (40 g of silica, 10 to 40%> acetone in hexanes) to afford tert-butyl (5-(((35)-3-(l-propyn-l-yl)-4-(4-(2-(trifluoromethyl)-2-oxiranyl)phenyl)- 1 -piperazinyl)sulfonyl)-2-pyridinyl)carbamate (0.240 g) as an off-white solid.

1H NMR (400MHz, CDC13) δ ppm 8.66 (dd, J= 0.6, 2.3 Hz, 1 H), 8.20 – 8.10 (m, 1 H), 8.04 (dd, J= 2.2, 8.9 Hz, 1 H), 7.63 (s, 1 H), 7.41 (d, J= 8.6 Hz, 2 H), 6.94 (d, J= 8.8 Hz, 2 H), 4.42 (d, J= 2.2 Hz, 1 H), 3.89 – 3.67 (m, 2 H), 3.38 (d, J = 5.3 Hz, 3 H), 2.97 – 2.83 (m, 2 H), 2.80 – 2.60 (m, 1 H), 1.78 (dd, J= 0.8, 2.0 Hz, 3 H), 1.55 (s, 9 H). m/z (ESI, +ve ion) 567.2 (M+H)+.

ALTERNATIVE ROUTE TO 2-(4-BROMOPHENYL)-3,3,3-TRIFLUORO-l,2-PROPANEDIOL (INTERMEDIATE D STEP 2):

F3

step 1

STEP 1 : 2-(4-BROMOPHENYL)-2-(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)OXIRANE

To a flame-dried, 50-mL, round-bottomed flask was added potassium t-butoxide (0.450 g, 4.01 mmol, Sigma- Aldrich, St. Louis, MO), DMSO (5.0 mL) and trimethylsulfoxonium iodide (1.00 g, 4.54 mmol, Sigma- Aldrich, St. Louis, MO). The resulting mixture was stirred at rt for 40 min. To this reaction mixture was added l-(4-bromophenyl)-2,2,2-trifluoroethanone (1.0 g, 4.0 mmol, Matrix Scientific, Columbia, SC) in DMSO (5.0 mL) dropwise via an addition funnel. The reaction mixture was stirred at rt for 30 min then quenched with water (1 mL) and partitioned between EtOAc (70 mL) and water (30 mL). The organic layer was washed with water (4 x 30 mL), dried over MgS04, filtered, and concentrated. The crude product was purified by column chromatography (40 g of silica, 10 to 20% acetone in hexanes) to afford 2-(4-bromophenyl)-2-(trifluoromethyl)oxirane (0.610 g) as a pale-yellow liquid.

STEP 2: 2-(4-BROMOPHENYL)-3,3,3-TRIFLUORO-l,2-PROPANEDIOL

To a 20-mL vial was added 2-(4-bromophenyl)-2-(trifluoromethyl)oxirane (0.200 g, 0.750 mmol), dioxane (2.0 mL), and water (3.0 mL). The resulting mixture was heated at 85 °C for 24 h. The reaction mixture was cooled to rt and extracted with EtOAc (3 x 50 mL). The combined organic layers were dried over MgS04, filtered and concentrated. The crude product was purified by column chromatography (40 g of silica, 10 to 30% acetone in hexanes) to afford 2-(4-bromophenyl)-3,3,3-trifluoro-l,2-propanediol (2.0 g) as a white solid.

INTERMEDIATE E: BENZYL (3S)-3-(l-PROPYN-l-YL)-l-PIPERAZINECARBOXYLATE

-Cbz

STEP 1 : 4-BENZYL 1 – TER Γ-BUT YL 2-0X0-1,4-PIPERAZINEDICARBOXYLATE

A 2-L Erlenmeyer flask was charged with 2-piperazinone (36.5 g, 364 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO), sodium carbonate (116 g, 1090 mmol, J. T. Baker, Philipsburg, NJ), 600 mL of dioxane, and 150 mL of water. To this was slowly added benzyl chloroformate (62.1 g, 364 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) at rt over 20 min. After the addition was complete, the mixture was stirred for 2 h and then diluted with water and extracted with EtOAc (2 L). The combined organic extracts were dried (MgS04), filtered, and concentrated to give a white solid. To this solid was added 500 mL of DCM, triethylamine (128 mL, 911 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO), DMAP (4.45 g, 36.4 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO), and di-tert-butyl dicarbonate (119 g, 546 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO). After stirring at room temperature for 1 h, the mixture was diluted with water and the organics were separated. The organics were dried (MgS04), filtered, and concentrated to give a brown oil. To this oil was added 100 mL of DCM followed by 1 L of hexane. The resulting white solid was collected by filtration to give 4-benzyl 1-tert-butyl 2-oxo-l,4-piperazinedicarboxylate (101 g).

STEP 2: BENZYL (2-((7¾’i?J,-BUTOXYCARBONYL)AMINO)ETHYL)(2-OXO-3 -PENT YN- 1 – YL)C ARB AMATE

A 150-mL round-bottomed flask was charged with 4-benzyl 1-tert-butyl 2-oxo- 1 ,4-piperazinedicarboxylate (1.41 g, 4.22 mmol) and THF (5 mL). 1-Propynylmagnesium bromide (0.5 M in THF, 20.0 mL, 10.0 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) was added at 0 °C slowly. The mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 2 h. Saturated aqueous NH4C1 (40 mL) was added and the aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc (200 mL, then 2 x 100 mL). The combined organic phases were dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated under a vacuum. The crude product was purified by column chromatography (50 g of silica, 0 to 50% EtOAc in hexanes) to afford benzyl (2- tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino)ethyl)(2-oxo-3-pentyn-l-yl)carbamate (1.55 g) as a clear oil.

STEP 3: BENZYL 3-(l-PROPYN-l-YL)-l-PIPERAZINECARBOXYLATE

A 3-L round-bottomed flask was charged with 2-((tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino)ethyl)(2-oxo-3-pentyn-l-yl)carbamate (82.17 g, 219 mmol) and 300 mL of DCM. After cooling to -10 °C, TFA (169 mL, 2200

mmol) was added and the resulting dark solution was stirred at rt for 15 min.

Sodium triacetoxyborohydride (186 g, 878 mmol, Sigma- Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) was then added portion- wise over 10 min. After 2 h, the mixture was

concentrated, diluted with EtOAc (1 L), and neutralized with 5 N NaOH. The layers were separated and the organic extracts were washed with brine, dried (MgS04), filtered and concentrated. The resulting orange oil was purified via column chromatography (750 g of silica gel, 0 to 4.5 % MeOH/DCM) to give benzyl 3 -(l-propyn-l-yl)-l -piperazmecarboxylate (43.67 g) as a brown foam.

STEP 4: 4-BENZYL 1 – TER Γ-BUT YL 2-(l -PROP YN-l-YL)- 1,4-PIPERAZINEDICARBOXYLATE

A 20-mL vial was charged with benzyl 3-(l-propyn-l-yl)-l-piperazinecarboxylate (0.616 g, 2.38 mmol), di-tert-butyl dicarbonate (0.979 g, 4.49 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO), DMAP (0.0287 g, 0.235 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO), TEA (0.90 mL, 6.5 mmol) and DCM (8 mL). The mixture was stirred at rt for 30 min. The reaction mixture was partitioned between water (20 mL) and EtOAc (20 mL). The aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc (20 mL). The organic phase was washed with saturated aqueous sodium chloride (40 mL), dried over sodium sulfate, filtered, and concentrated under a vacuum. The crude product was purified by column chromatography (25 g of silica, 0 to 50% EtOAc in hexanes) to afford 4-benzyl 1-tert-butyl 2-(l-propyn-l-yl)-l,4-piperazinedicarboxylate (0.488 g) as a colorless oil.

STEP 5: 4-BENZYL 1 – TER Γ-BUT YL (2S)-2-( 1 -PROP YN-l-YL)- 1,4-PIPERAZINEDICARBOXYLATE

The individual enantiomers of 4-benzyl 1-tert-butyl 2-(l-propyn-l-yl)-1 ,4-piperazinedicarboxylate were isolated using chiral SFC. The method used was as follows: Chiralpak® ADH column (Daicel Inc., Fort Lee, NJ) (30 x 250 mm, 5 μιη) using 12% ethanol in supercritical C02 (total flow was 170 mL/min).

This separated the two enantiomers with enantiomeric excesses greater than 98%. The first eluting peak was subsequently identified as 4-benzyl 1-tert-butyl (2S)-2-(l-propyn-l-yl)-l,4-piperazinedicarboxylate and used in the next step.

STEP 6: BENZYL (3S)-3-(l-PROPY -l-YL)-l-PIPERAZINECAPvBOXYLATE

A 100-mL round-bottomed flask was charged with 4-benzyl 1-tert-butyl (25)-2-(l-propyn-l-yl)-l,4-piperazinedicarboxylate (0.145 g, 0.405 mmol), TFA (1.0 mL, 13 mmol) and DCM (2 mL). The mixture was stirred at rt for 40 min. The mixture was concentrated and solid NaHC03 was added followed by saturated aqueous NaHC03. The aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 20 mL). The combined organic phases were washed with IN NaOH (40 mL), saturated aqueous NaHC03 (40 mL), water (40 mL) and saturated aqueous sodium chloride (40 mL). The organic phase was dried over sodium sulfate, filtered, and concentrated under a vacuum to afford benzyl (35)-3-(l-propyn-l-yl)-l-piperazinecarboxylate (0.100 g) as a pale yellow clear oil which solidified upon standing to give a pale yellow solid.

1H NMR (400MHz, MeOD) δ ppm 7.47 – 7.13 (m, 5 H), 5.27 – 5.00 (m, 2 H), 3.88 – 3.58 (m, 3 H), 3.48 – 3.33 (m, 2 H), 3.22 – 3.02 (m, 1 H), 2.89 – 2.63 (m, 1 H), 1.80 (s, 3 H). m/z (ESI, +ve ion) 259.1 (M+H)+.

XAMPLE 23: 5-(((3S)-3-(l-PROPYN-l-YL)-4-(4-(l,2,2,2-TETRAFLUORO-1 -(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)ETHYL)PHENYL)- 1 -PIPERAZINYL)SULFONYL)-2-PYRIDIN AMINE

STEP 1 : 2-(4-((2S)-4-BENZYL-2-(l-PROPYN-l-YL)-l-PIPERAZINYL)PHENYL)-1 , 1 ,1 ,3,3,3-HEXAFLUORO-2-PROPANOL

A 20-mL vial was charged with (3S)-l-benzyl-3-(l-propyn-l-yl)piperazine (2.143 g, 10 mmol, Intermediate B), 2-(4-bromophenyl)-1,1,1, 3,3, 3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (3.09 g, 11.5 mmol, Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2002, 12, 3009), sodium 2-methylpropan-2-olate (1.92 g, 20.0 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO), dioxane (5 mL), RuPhos palladacycle (0.364 g, 0.500 mmol, Strem Chemical Inc., Newburyport, MA), and RuPhos (0.233 g, 0.500 mmol, Strem Chemical Inc., Newburyport, MA). The vial was sealed and heated at 100 °C for 1 h. The mixture was allowed to cool to rt, and diluted with water and extracted with EtOAc. The combined organic phases were dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated under a vacuum to give a solid that was purified by silica gel column chromatography (0 to 40% EtOAc in hexanes) to afford 2-(4-((2S)-4-benzyl-2-( 1 -propyn- 1 -yl)- 1 -piperazinyl)phenyl)- 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (1.75 g) as a slightly yellow oil.

STEP 2: l,l,l,3,3,3-HEXAFLUORO-2-(4-((2S)-2-(l-PROPYN-l-YL)-l-PIPERAZINYL)PHENYL)-2-PROPANOL

A 250 mL round-bottomed flask was charged with 2-(4-((2S)-4-benzyl-2-( 1 -propyn- 1 -yl)- 1 -piperazinyl)phenyl)- 1,1,1 ,3 ,3 ,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (1.75 g, 4.35 mmol), potassium carbonate (2.40 g, 17.4 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO), CH2CI2 (25 mL), and 1-chloroethyl chlorocarbonate (1.88 mL, 17.4 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO). After 30 min at rt, the reaction was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated. To the resulting oil was added MeOH (25 mL). This mixture was heated at 75 °C for 1.5 h then concentrated. The residue was triturated with diethyl ether to give l,l,l,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-(4-((2S)-2-(l-propyn-l-yl)-l-piperazinyl)phenyl)-2-propanol (1.44 g) as a white solid.

STEP 3: TERT-BUTYL (5-(((3S)-3-(l-PROPYN-l-YL)-4-(4-(2,2,2-TRIFLUORO- 1 -HYDROXY- 1 -(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)ETHYL)PHENYL)- 1 -PIPERAZINYL)SULFONYL)-2-PYRIDINYL)CARBAMATE

A 250-mL round-bottomed flask was charged with 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexaf uoro-2-(4-((2S)-2-( 1 -propyn- 1 -yl)- 1 -piperazinyl)phenyl)-2-propanol (18.9 g, 51.6 mmol) and DCM (150 mL) and cooled to 0 °C. TEA was added (14.4 mL, 103 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) followed by tert-butyl (5- (chlorosulfonyl)pyridin-2-yl)carbamate (15.9 g, 54.2 mmol, Intermediate A) portionwise. After 10 min, the reaction mixture was diluted with water (100 mL) and the organic layer was separated, dried over Na2S04, filtered and concentrated under a vacuum to give a solid that was purified by silica gel column

chromatography (0 to 50% EtO Ac in hexanes) to afford tert-butyl (5 -(((3 S)-3 -( 1 -propyn- 1 -yl)-4-(4-(2,2,2-trifluoro- 1 -hydroxy- 1 -(trifluoromethyl)ethyl)phenyl)- 1 -piperazinyl)sulfonyl)-2-pyridinyl)carbamate (19.9 g) as a tan foam.

STEP 4: 5-(((3S)-3-(l-PROPYN-l-YL)-4-(4-(l,2,2,2-TETRAFLUORO-l- (TRIFLUOROMETHYL)ETHYL)PHENYL)- 1 -PIPERAZINYL)SULFONYL)-2-PYRIDIN AMINE

A 500-mL round-bottomed flask was charged with tert-butyl (5-(((3S)-3-(1 -propyn- 1 -yl)-4-(4-(2,2,2-trifluoro- 1 -hydroxy- 1 – (trifluoromethyl)ethyl)phenyl)-l-piperazinyl)sulfonyl)-2-pyridinyl)carbamate (19.7 g, 31.6 mmol) and DCM (300 mL) and cooled to 0 °C.

(Diethylamino)sulfur trifluoride (4.18 mL, 31.6 mmol, Matrix Scientific, Columbia, SC) was added, and after 10 min, the reaction was diluted with water (250 mL) and DCM (200 mL). The organic layer was separated, dried over

Na2S04, filtered and concentrated under a vacuum. The resultant foam was taken up in DCM (200 mL) and cooled to 0 °C. TFA (100 mL, 1298 mmol) was added and the reaction mixture was warmed to rt for 1.5 h. The reaction was then re-cooled to 0 °C and solid sodium bicarbonate was added slowly until gas evolution ceased. The mixture was diluted with water (250 mL) and DCM (300 mL) and the organic layer was separated, dried over Na2S04, filtered and concentrated under a vacuum to give a solid that was purified by silica gel column chromatography (0 to 100% EtOAc in hexanes) to afford 5-(((3S)-3-(l-propyn- 1 -yl)-4-(4-( 1 ,2,2,2-tetrafluoro- 1 -(trifluoromethyl)ethyl)phenyl)- 1 -piperazinyl)sulfonyl)-2-pyridinamine (11.05 g) as a single enantiomer.

1H NMR (400MHz, CD3OD) δ ppm 8.31 (d, J= 2.2 Hz, 1 H), 7.74 (dd, J= 2.4, 8.9 Hz, 1 H), 7.47 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 2 H), 7.12 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 2 H), 6.63 (d, J= 8.8 Hz, 1 H), 4.76-4.70 (m, 1 H), 3.76 (dd, J= 1.9, 11.2 Hz, 2 H), 3.66 – 3.52 (m, 1 H), 3.29 – 3.20 (m, 1 H), 2.79 – 2.72 (m, 1 H), 2.66 – 2.53 (m, 1 H), 1.76 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 3 H). m/z (ESI, +ve ion) 525.2 (M+H)+. GK-GKRP IC50 (Binding) = 0.187 μΜ.

PAPER

Small Molecule Disruptors of the Glucokinase–Glucokinase Regulatory Protein Interaction: 2. Leveraging Structure-Based Drug Design to Identify Analogues with Improved Pharmacokinetic Profiles

Department of Therapeutic Discovery—Medicinal Chemistry, Department of Therapeutic Discovery—Molecular Structure and Characterization, §Department of Metabolic Disorders, Department of Pharmacokinetics and Drug Metabolism, Department of Pathology, #Department of Pharmaceutics Amgen, Inc., One Amgen Center Drive, Thousand Oaks, California, 91320 and 360 Binney Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 02142, United States
J. Med. Chem., 2014, 57 (2), pp 325–338
DOI: 10.1021/jm4016747
Abstract Image

In the previous report, we described the discovery and optimization of novel small molecule disruptors of the GK-GKRP interaction culminating in the identification of 1 (AMG-1694). Although this analogue possessed excellent in vitro potency and was a useful tool compound in initial proof-of-concept experiments, high metabolic turnover limited its advancement. Guided by a combination of metabolite identification and structure-based design, we have successfully discovered a potent and metabolically stable GK-GKRP disruptor (27, AMG-3969). When administered to db/db mice, this compound demonstrated a robust pharmacodynamic response (GK translocation) as well as statistically significant dose-dependent reductions in fed blood glucose levels.

2-(4-((2S)-4-((6-Amino-3-pyridinyl)sulfonyl)-2-(1-propyn-1-yl)-1-piperazinyl)phenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (27)

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 8.48 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1 H), 7.77 (dd, J = 2.5, 8.8 Hz, 1 H), 7.57 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 2 H), 6.95 (d, J = 9.2 Hz, 2 H), 6.52 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1 H), 4.94 (s, 2 H), 4.44 (br s, 1 H), 3.82–3.71 (m, 2 H), 3.58–3.33 (m, 3 H), 2.81 (dd, J = 3.2, 11.1 Hz, 1 H), 2.67 (dt, J = 3.9, 11.0 Hz, 1 H), 1.78 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 3 H).
m/z (ESI, +ve ion) 523.2 (M + H)+.
REFERENCES
St Jean, D.J. Jr.; Ashton, K.; Andrews, K.; et al.
Small molecule disruptors of the glucokinase-glucokinase regulatory protein (GK-GKRP) interaction
34th Natl Med Chem Symp (May 18-21, Charleston) 2014, Abst 4
Small molecule disruptors of the GK-GKRP interaction as potential antidiabetics
247th Am Chem Soc (ACS) Natl Meet (March 16-20, Dallas) 2014, Abst MEDI 214
Use of non-traditional conformational restriction in the design of a novel, potent, and metabolically stable series of GK-GKRP inhibitors
248th Am Chem Soc (ACS) Natl Meet (August 10-14, San Francisco) 2014, Abst MEDI 267
Small molecule inhibitors for glucokinase-glucokinase regulatory protein (GK-GKRP) binding: Optimization for in vivo target assessment of type II diabetes
248th Am Chem Soc (ACS) Natl Meet (August 10-14, San Francisco) 2014, Abst MEDI 268

MAKING CONNECTIONS Aleksandra Baranczak (right), a fourth-year grad student in Gary A. Sulikowski’s lab at Vanderbilt University, discusses her efforts to synthesize the core of the diazo-containing natural product lomaiviticin A with Kate Ashton, a medicinal chemist at Amgen
Dr. Kate Ashton

Mark Norman

Mark Norman

Michael Bartberger

Michael Bartberger

Chris Fotsch

Chris Fotsch

David St. Jean

David St. Jean

Klaus Michelsen

Klaus Michelsen

///////////1361224-53-4, AMGEN, AMG 3969, Type 2 Diabetes,  PRECLINICAL
O=S(=O)(c1ccc(N)nc1)N2C[C@H](C#CC)N(CC2)c3ccc(cc3)C(O)(C(F)(F)F)C(F)(F)F

Hoshinolactam, A new antitrypanosomal lactam


Abstract Image
Tropical diseases caused by parasitic protozoa are a threat to human health, mainly in developing countries. Trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease and sleeping sickness) and leishmaniasis, inter alia, are classified as neglected tropical diseases, and over 400 million people are at risk of contracting these diseases.

In addition, a parasite of the Trypanosoma genus, Trypanosoma brucei brucei, is the causative agent of Nagana disease in wild and domestic animals, and this disease is a major obstacle to the economic development of affected rural areas.

Although some therapeutic agents for these diseases exist, they have limitations, such as serious side effects and the emergence of drug resistance. Thus, new and more effective antiprotozoal medicines are needed

Marine natural products have recently been considered to be good sources for drug leads. In particular, secondary metabolites produced by marine cyanobacteria have unique structures and versatile biological activities, and some of these compounds show antiprotozoal activities. For example, coibacin A isolated from cf. Oscillatoria sp. exhibited potent antileishmanial activity, and viridamide A isolated from Oscillatoria nigro-viridis showed antileishmanial and antitrypanosomal activities.

constituents of marine cyanobacteria and reported an antitrypanosomal cyclodepsipeptide, janadolide.

The marine cyanobacterium was collected at the coast near Hoshino, Okinawa.

Image result for OKINAWA

Image result for OKINAWA

Okinawa
沖縄市
Uchinaa
City
Okinawa City downtown.jpg
Flag of Okinawa
Flag

EARLIER MERCK TEAM HAD REPORTED

CAS 159153-15-8
MF C20 H33 N O5
MW 367.48
2-Pyrrolidinone, 3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)-3-[3-(2-nonylcyclopropyl)-1-oxo-2-propenyl]-, [3S-[3α,3[E(1S*,2S*)],4β,5α]]-
Image result for AntitrypanosomalImage result for Antitrypanosomal
Antitrypanosomal
Image result for marine cyanobacterium
Marine cyanobacterium
Image result for human fetal lung fibroblast MRC-5 cells
Human fetal lung fibroblast MRC-5 cells
Majusculoic acid.png
Majusculoic acid
Image result for malyngamide A.
Malyngamide A.

PAPER

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/suppl/10.1021/acs.orglett.7b00047

Recently, we isolated a new antitrypanosomal lactam, hoshinolactam (1), from a marine cyanobacterium.Structurally, 1 contains a cyclopropane ring and a γ-lactam ring. So far, some metabolites possessing either a cyclopropane ring or a γ-lactam ring have been discovered from marine cyanobacteria, such as majusculoic acid and malyngamide A. To the best of our knowledge, on the other hand, hoshinolactam (1) is the first compound discovered in marine cyanobacteria that possesses both of these ring systems. In addition, we clarified that 1 exhibited potent antitrypanosomal activity without cytotoxicity against human fetal lung fibroblast MRC-5 cells. Here, we report the isolation, structure elucidation, first total synthesis, and preliminary biological characterization of hoshinolactam (1).

Isolation and Total Synthesis of Hoshinolactam, an Antitrypanosomal Lactam from a Marine Cyanobacterium

Department of Chemistry, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8522, Japan
Research Center for Tropical Diseases, Kitasato Institute for Life Sciences, and §Graduate School of Infection Control Sciences, Kitasato University, 5-9-1, Shirokane, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8641, Japan
Org. Lett., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acs.orglett.7b00047

Abstract Image

In the search for new antiprotozoal substances, hoshinolactam, an antitrypanosomal lactam, was isolated from a marine cyanobacterium. The gross structure was elucidated by spectroscopic analyses, and the absolute configuration was determined by the first total synthesis. Hoshinolactam showed potent antitrypanosomal activity with an IC50 value of 3.9 nM without cytotoxicity against human fetal lung fibroblast MRC-5 cells (IC50 > 25 μM).

Table 1. 1H and 13C NMR Data for 1 in C6D6
unit position δCa δHb (J in Hz)
HIMP 1 177.8, C
2 44.1, CH 2.51, dq (5.2, 7.6)
3 80.8, CH 4.94, dd (4.6, 5.2)
4 57.3, CH 3.49, ddd (4.6, 4.7, 9.4)
5a 44.6, CH2 1.21, m
5b 1.36, m
6 25.0, CH 1.61, m
7 21.7, CH3 0.74, d (6.2)
8 23.2, CH3 0.76, d (6.3)
9 15.0, CH3 1.33, d (7.6)
NH 7.65, s
PCPA 1 166.0, C
2 117.4, CH 5.88, d (15.5)
3 155.0, CH 6.59, dd (10.3, 15.5)
4 22.4, CH 0.91, m
5 23.3, CH 0.59, m
6 35.7, CH2 0.96, m
7 22.5, CH2 1.20, tq (7.1, 7.3)
8 14.0, CH3 0.78, t (7.3)
9a 16.1, CH2 0.35, ddd (4.5, 6.0, 8.2)
9b 0.42, ddd (4.5, 4.5, 8.8)
aMeasured at 100 MHz.
bMeasured at 400 MHz.
Positive HRESIMS data (m/z 308.2228, calcd for C18H30NO3 [M + H]+ 308.2225). Table 1 shows the NMR data for 1.
An analysis of the 1H NMR spectrum indicated the presence of four methyl groups (δH 0.74, 0.76, 0.78 and 1.33), four protons of the cyclopropane ring (δH 0.35, 0.42, 0.59 and 0.91), and two olefinic protons (δH 5.88 and 6.59).
The 13C NMR and HMQC spectra revealed the existence of two carbonyl groups (δC 166.0 and 177.8) and two sp2 methines (δC 117.4 and 155.0).
Examination of the COSY and HMBC spectra established the presence of two fragments derived from 4-hydroxy-5-isobutyl-3-methylpyrrolidin-2-one (HIMP) and 3-(2-propylcyclopropyl) acrylic acid (PCPA), respectively. The configuration of the C-2–C-3 olefinic bond in the PCPA was determined to be trans on the basis of the coupling constant (3JH2–H3 = 15.5 Hz). The connectivity of the two partial structures was determined from the HMBC correlation (H-3 of HIMP/C-1 of PCPA).
1H, 13C, COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY NMR spectra in C6D6 and 1H and 13C NMR spectra in CD3OD for hoshinolactam (1)
1H, 13C, COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY NMR spectra in C6D6

1H and 13C NMR spectra in CD3OD

1H NMR PREDICT

13 C NMR PREDICT

Image result for OKINAWAImage result for OKINAWA

OKINAWA

///////////Hoshinolactam

CC(C)C[C@@H]2NC(=O)[C@H](C)C2OC(=O)/C=C/[C@H]1C[C@@H]1CCC

BMS-960


Figure imgf000099_0001

str1

BMS-960

PRECLINICAL

(S)-1-((S)-2-Hydroxy-2-(4-(5-(3-phenyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)isoxazol-5-yl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)phenyl)ethyl)piperidine-3-carboxylic Acid

3-Piperidinecarboxylic acid, 1-[(2S)-2-hydroxy-2-[4-[5-[3-phenyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)-5-isoxazolyl]-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl]phenyl]ethyl]-, (3S)-

(S)-1-((S)-2-Hydroxy-2-(4-(5-(3-phenyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)isoxazol-5-yl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)phenyl)ethyl)piperidine-3-carboxylic Acid

CAS 1265321-86-5 FREE FORM

FREE FORM 528.48, C26 H23 F3 N4 O5

CAS 1265323-40-7 HCL SALT

BASIC PATENT WO201117578, 2011, (US Patent 8399451)

Inventors John L. Gilmore, James E. Sheppeck
Applicant Bristol-Myers Squibb Company

Image result for Bristol-Myers Squibb Company

Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is the endogenous ligand for the sphingosine-1-phophate receptors (S1P1–5) and triggers a number of cellular responses through their stimulation. S1P and its interaction with the S1P receptors play a significant role in a variety of biological processes including vascular stabilization, heart development, lymphocyte homing, and cancer angiogenesis. Agonism of S1P1, especially, has been shown to play an important role in lymphocyte trafficking from the thymus and secondary lymphoid organs, inducing immunosuppression, which has been established as a novel mechanism of treatment for immune diseases and vascular diseases

Sphingosine-1 -phosphate (SlP) has been demonstrated to induce many cellular effects, including those that result in platelet aggregation, cell proliferation, cell morphology, tumor cell invasion, endothelial cell and leukocyte chemotaxis, endothelial cell in vitro angiogenesis, and lymphocyte trafficking. SlP receptors are therefore good targets for a wide variety of therapeutic applications such as tumor growth inhibition, vascular disease, and autoimmune diseases. SlP signals cells in part via a set of G protein-coupled receptors named SlPi or SlPl, SlP2 or S1P2, SlP3 or S1P3, SlP4 Or S1P4, and SlP5 or S1P5 (formerly called EDG-I, EDG-5, EDG-3, EDG-6, and EDG-8, respectively).

SlP is important in the entire human body as it is also a major regulator of the vascular and immune systems. In the vascular system, SlP regulates angiogenesis, vascular stability, and permeability. In the immune system, SlP is recognized as a major regulator of trafficking of T- and B-cells. SlP interaction with its receptor SlPi is needed for the egress of immune cells from the lymphoid organs (such as thymus and lymph nodes) into the lymphatic vessels. Therefore, modulation of SlP receptors was shown to be critical for immunomodulation, and SlP receptor modulators are novel immunosuppressive agents.

The SlPi receptor is expressed in a number of tissues. It is the predominant family member expressed on lymphocytes and plays an important role in lymphocyte trafficking. Downregulation of the SlPi receptor disrupts lymphocyte migration and homing to various tissues. This results in sequestration of the lymphocytes in lymph organs thereby decreasing the number of circulating lymphocytes that are capable of migration to the affected tissues. Thus, development of an SlPi receptor agent that suppresses lymphocyte migration to the target sites associated with autoimmune and aberrant inflammatory processes could be efficacious in a number of autoimmune

Among the five SlP receptors, SlPi has a widespread distribution and is highly abundant on endothelial cells where it works in concert with SIP3 to regulate cell migration, differentiation, and barrier function. Inhibition of lymphocyte recirculation by non-selective SlP receptor modulation produces clinical immunosuppression preventing transplant rejection, but such modulation also results in transient bradycardia. Studies have shown that SlPi activity is significantly correlated with depletion of circulating lymphocytes. In contrast, Sl P3 receptor agonism is not required for efficacy. Instead, SIP3 activity plays a significant role in the observed acute toxicity of nonselective SlP receptor agonists, resulting in the undesirable cardiovascular effects, such as bradycardia and hypertension. (See, e.g., Hale et al, Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett., 14:3501 (2004); Sanna et al., J. Biol. Chem., 279: 13839 (2004); Anliker et al., J. Biol. Chem., 279:20555 (2004); Mandala et al., J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 309:758 (2004).)

An example of an SlPi agonist is FTY720. This immunosuppressive compound FTY720 (JPI 1080026-A) has been shown to reduce circulating lymphocytes in animals and humans, and to have disease modulating activity in animal models of organ rejection and immune disorders. The use of FTY720 in humans has been effective in reducing the rate of organ rejection in human renal transplantation and increasing the remission rates in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (see Brinkman et al., J. Biol. Chem., 277:21453 (2002); Mandala et al., Science, 296:346 (2002); Fujino et al., J.

Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 305:45658 (2003); Brinkman et al, Am. J. Transplant., 4: 1019 (2004); Webb et al., J. Neuroimmunol, 153: 108 (2004); Morris et al., Eur. J. Immunol, 35:3570 (2005); Chiba, Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 108:308 (2005); Kahan et al., Transplantation, 76: 1079 (2003); and Kappos et al., N. Engl. J. Med., 335: 1124 (2006)). Subsequent to its discovery, it has been established that FTY720 is a prodrug, which is phosphorylated in vivo by sphingosine kinases to a more biologically active agent that has agonist activity at the SlPi, SIP3, SlP4, and SIP5 receptors. It is this activity on the SlP family of receptors that is largely responsible for the pharmacological effects of FTY720 in animals and humans. [0007] Clinical studies have demonstrated that treatment with FTY720 results in bradycardia in the first 24 hours of treatment (Kappos et al, N. Engl. J. Med., 335: 1124 (2006)). The observed bradycardia is commonly thought to be due to agonism at the SIP3 receptor. This conclusion is based on a number of cell based and animal experiments. These include the use of SIP3 knockout animals which, unlike wild type mice, do not demonstrate bradycardia following FTY720 administration and the use of SlPi selective compounds. (Hale et al., Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett., 14:3501 (2004); Sanna et al., J. Biol. Chem., 279: 13839 (2004); and Koyrakh et al., Am. J. Transplant, 5:529 (2005)).

The following applications have described compounds as SlPi agonists: WO 03/061567 (U.S. Patent Publication No. 2005/0070506), WO 03/062248 (U.S. Patent No. 7,351,725), WO 03/062252 (U.S. Patent No. 7,479,504), WO 03/073986 (U.S. Patent No. 7,309,721), WO 03/105771, WO 05/058848, WO 05/000833, WO 05/082089 (U.S. Patent Publication No. 2007/0203100), WO 06/047195, WO 06/100633, WO 06/115188, WO 06/131336, WO 2007/024922, WO 07/109330, WO 07/116866, WO 08/023783 (U.S. Patent Publication No. 2008/0200535), WO 08/029370, WO 08/114157, WO 08/074820, WO 09/043889, WO 09/057079, and U.S. Patent No. 6,069,143. Also see Hale et al., J. Med. Chem., 47:6662 (2004).

There still remains a need for compounds useful as SlPi agonists and yet having selectivity over Sl P3.

Applicants have found potent compounds that have activity as SlPi agonists. Further, applicants have found compounds that have activity as SlPi agonists and are selective over SIP3. These compounds are provided to be useful as pharmaceuticals with desirable stability, bioavailability, therapeutic index, and toxicity values that are important to their drugability.

SYNTHESIS

Figure

(S)-1-((S)-2-Hydroxy-2-(4-(5-(3-phenyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)isoxazol-5-yl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)phenyl)ethyl)piperidine-3-carboxylic acid, HCl (BMS-960). CAS 1265323-40-7

(S)-1-((S)-2-hydroxy-2-(4-(5-(3-phenyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)isoxazol-5-yl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)phenyl)ethyl)piperidine-3-carboxylic acid, HCl (BMS-960)

1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 12.88 (br. s, 1H), 10.5 (br. s, 1H), 8.14 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 2H), 7.72 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 2H), 7.69–7.57 (m, 5H), 6.43 (br. s., 1H), 5.37 (d, J = 10.8 Hz, 1H), 3.89–3.60 (m, 2H), 3.50–2.82 (m, 6H), 2.14–1.99 (m, 1H), 1.97–1.75 (m, 1H), 1.63–1.35 (m, 1H);

13C NMR (101 MHz, CDCl3) δ 172.8, 168.5, 164.0, 161.6, 155.4, 156.2, 131.2, 129.0, 128.9, 127.4, 127.2, 125.5, 124.3, 122.2, 111.6, 66.6. 63.0, 52.9, 52.2, 38.8, 25.0, 21.7;

19F NMR (376 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ −54.16;

Anal. calcd for C26H23F3N4O5·HCl: C, 54.71; H, 4.36; N, 9.80. Found: C, 54.76; H, 3.94; N, 9.76;

HRMS (ESI) m/e 529.17040 [(M + H)+, calcd for C26 H24 N4 O5 F3 529.16933].

PATENT

WO 2011017578

Example 14

(S)-l-((S)-2-Hydroxy-2-(4-(5-(3-phenyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)isoxazol-5-yl)-l,2,4- oxadiazol-3-yl)phenyl)ethyl)piperidine-3-carboxylic acid

Figure imgf000099_0001

Preparation 14A: (3S)-Ethyl l-(2-(4-cyanophenyl)-2-hydroxyethyl)piperidine-3- carboxylate

Figure imgf000099_0002

(14A)-isomer A (14A)-isomer B [00210] To a mixture of (S)-ethyl piperidine-3-carboxylate (1.3 g, 8.27 mmol) in toluene (50 mL) was added 4-(2-bromoacetyl)benzonitrile (2.4 g, 10.71 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred overnight. LCMS indicated completion of reaction. MeOH (10 mL) was added to the mixture, followed by the portionwise addition of sodium borohydride (0.313 g, 8.27 mmol). After 1 hour, LCMS show complete reduction to the desired alcohol. The reaction was quenched with water. The reaction mixture was diluted with ethyl acetate and washed with saturated NaCl. The organic layer was dried with MgSO4, filtered, concentrated, and purified on a silica gel cartridge using an EtOAc/hexanes gradient to yield 2.0 g of solid product. The product was separated by chiral HPLC (Berger SFC MGIII instrument equipped with a CHIRALCEL® OJ (25 x 3 cm, 5 μM). Temp: 30 0C; Flow rate: 130 mL/min; Mobile phase: C(V(MeOH +

0.1%DEA) in 9: 1 ratio isocratic:

[00211] Peak 1 (Isomer A): RT = 2.9 min. for (S)-ethyl l-((S)-2-(4-cyanophenyl)-2- hydroxyethyl)piperidine-3-carboxylate (>99% d.e.). The absolute and relative stereochemistry of compound 14A-isomer A was assigned (S,S) by X-ray crystal structure (see Alternative Route data). 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.63 (2 H, m, J=8.35 Hz), 7.49 (2 H, m, J=8.35 Hz), 4.77 (1 H, dd, J=10.55, 3.52 Hz), 4.17 (2 H, q, J=7.03 Hz), 3.13 (1 H, d, J=9.23 Hz), 2.53-2.67 (3 H, m), 2.44 (2 H, dd, J=18.68, 9.89 Hz), 2.35 (1 H, dd, J=12.74, 10.55 Hz), 1.87-2.01 (1 H, m), 1.71-1.82 (1 H, m), 1.52-1.70 (2 H, m), 1.28 (3 H, t, J=7.03 Hz).

[00212] Peak 2 (Isomer B): RT = 3.8 min for (S)-ethyl l-((R)-2-(4-cyanophenyl)-2- hydroxyethyl)piperidine-3-carboxylate (>99% d.e.). The absolute and relative stereochemistry of 14A-isomer B was assigned (S,R) based on the crystal structure of 14A-isomer A. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.63 (2 H, m, J=8.35 Hz), 7.49 (2 H, m, J=8.35 Hz), 4.79 (1 H, dd, J=10.55, 3.52 Hz), 4.16 (2 H, q, J=7.03 Hz), 2.69-2.91 (3 H, m), 2.60-2.68 (1 H, m), 2.56 (1 H, dd, J=12.30, 3.52 Hz), 2.36 (1 H, dd, J=12.52, 10.77 Hz), 2.25 (1 H, t, J=8.79 Hz), 1.65-1.90 (3 H, m), 1.52-1.64 (1 H, m, J=12.69, 8.49, 8.49, 4.17 Hz), 1.27 (3 H, t, J=7.25 Hz).

[00213] (S)-Ethyl l-((S)-2-(4-cyanophenyl)-2-hydroxyethyl)piperidine-3-carboxylate (14A-isomer A) was carried forward to make Example 14 and (S)-ethyl l-((R)-2-(4- cyanophenyl)-2-hydroxyethyl)piperidine-3-carboxylate (14A-isomer B) was carried forward to make Example 15.

Preparation 14B: (S)-Ethyl l-((S)-2-hydroxy-2-(4-((Z)-N’-hydroxycarbamimidoyl) phenyl)ethyl)piperidine-3 -carboxylate

Figure imgf000100_0001

[00214] To a mixture of ((S)-ethyl l-((S)-2-hydroxy-2-(4-((Z)-N’- hydroxycarbamimidoyl) phenyl)ethyl)piperidine-3 -carboxylate (14A-Isomer A) (58 mg, 0.192 mmol) and hydroxylamine hydrochloride (26.7 mg, 0.384 mmol) in 2-propanol (10 mL) was added sodium bicarbonate (64.5 mg, 0.767 mmol). The reaction mixture was heated at 85 0C. The reaction mixture was diluted with ethyl acetate and washed with sat NaCl. The organic layer was dried with MgSO4, filtered, and concentrated to yield 56 mg. MS (M+l) = 464. HPLC Peak RT = 1.50 minutes.

Preparation 14C: (S)-Ethyl l-((S)-2-hydroxy-2-(4-(5-(3-phenyl-4-(trifluoromethyl) isoxazol-5-yl)-l,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)phenyl)ethyl)piperidine-3-carboxylate

Figure imgf000101_0001

[00215] 3-Phenyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)isoxazole-5-carbonyl fluoride, InM-G (214 mg, 0.78 mmol) was dissolved in acetonitrile (5.00 mL). DIEA (0.272 mL, 1.555 mmol) and (S)-ethyl- 1 -((S)-2-hydroxy-2-(4-((Z)-N’-hydroxycarbamimidoyl) phenyl)ethyl)- piperidine-3-carboxylate (261 mg, 0.778 mmol) were added. The reaction mixture was stirred for 2 hours, then IM TBAF in THF (0.778 mL, 0.778 mmol) was added. The reaction mixture was stirred overnight at room temperature. The reaction mixture was filtered and purified by HPLC in three batches. HPLC conditions: PHENOMENEX® Luna C18 5 micron column (250 x 30mm); 25-100% CH3CN/water (0.1% TFA); 25 minute gradient; 30 mL/min. Isolated fractions with correct mass were partitioned between EtOAc and saturated NaHCO3 with back extracting aqueous layer once. The organic layer was dried with MgSO4, filtered, and concentrated to give 155mg of (S)- ethyl l-((S)-2-hydroxy-2-(4-(5-(3-phenyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)isoxazol-5-yl)-l,2,4- oxadiazol-3-yl)phenyl)ethyl) piperidine-3-carboxylate. 1H NMR (400 MHz, MeOH-d3) δ ppm 8.04 (2 H, d, J=8.13 Hz), 7.55-7.60 (2 H, m), 7.41-7.54 (5 H, m), 4.81 (1 H, ddd, J=8.35, 4.06, 3.84 Hz), 3.96-4.10 (2 H, m), 2.82-3.08 (1 H, m), 2.67-2.82 (1 H, m), 2.36- 2.61 (3 H, m), 2.08-2.33 (2 H, m), 1.73-1.87 (1 H, m, J=8.54, 8.54, 4.45, 4.17 Hz), 1.32- 1.70 (3 H, m), 1.09-1.19 (3 H, m). MS (m+l) = 557. HPLC Peak RT = 3.36 minutes. Purity = 99%.

Example 14: [00216] (S)-Ethyl l-((S)-2-hydroxy-2-(4-(5-(3-phenyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)isoxazol-5- yl)-l,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)phenyl)ethyl)piperidine-3-carboxylate (89 mg, 0.16 mmol) was heated at 50 0C in 6N HCl (5 mL) in acetonitrile (5 mL). The reaction mixture was stirred overnight and then filtered and purified by HPLC. HPLC conditions:

PHENOMENEX® Luna C 18 5 micron column (250 x 30mm); 25-100% CH3CN/water (0.1% TFA); 25 minute gradient; 30 mL/min. Isolated fractions with correct mass were freeze-dried overnight to yield 36 mg of (S)-l-((S)-2-hydroxy-2-(4-(5-(3-phenyl-4- (trifluoromethyl)isoxazol-5-yl)-l,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)phenyl)ethyl) piperidine-3- carboxylic acid as a TFA salt. 1H NMR (400 MHz, MeOH-d3) δ ppm 8.23 (2 H, d, J=8.35 Hz), 7.65-7.74 (4 H, m), 7.54-7.65 (3 H, m), 5.29 (1 H, t, J=7.03 Hz), 4.00 (1 H, br. s.), 3.43-3.75 (1 H, m), 3.34-3.41 (2 H, m), 2.82-3.24 (2 H, m), 2.26 (1 H, d, J=I 1.86 Hz), 1.84-2.14 (2 H, m), 1.52-1.75 (1 H, m). MS (m+1) = 529. HPLC Peak RT = 3.24 minutes. Purity = 98%. Example 14-Alternate Synthesis Route 1

Preparation 14D (Alternate Synthesis Route 1): (S)-4-(Oxiran-2-yl)benzonitrile

Figure imgf000102_0001

[00217] To 800 mL of 0.2M, pH 6.0 sodium phosphate buffer in a 2 L flask equipped with an overhead stirrer was added D-glucose (38.6 g, 1.2 eq), β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, free acid (1.6 g, mmol), glucose dehydrogenase (36 mg, 3.2 kU,

CODEXIS® GDH- 102, 90 U/mg), and enzyme KRED-NADH-110 (200 mg,

CODEXIS®, 25 U/mg). The vessels containing the reagents above were rinsed with 200 mL of fresh sodium phosphate buffer and added to the reaction which was stirred to dissolution and then heated to 40 0C. To this mixture was added a solution of 2-bromo- 4′-cyanoacetophenone (40 g, 178.5 mmol) in 100 mL DMSO through an addition funnel in about 30 min. The container was rinsed with 20 mL DMSO and the rinse was added to the reactor. A pH of 5.5-6.0 was maintained by adding 1 M NaOH through a fresh addition funnel (total volume of 200 mL over 6h) after which HPLC showed complete consumption of the starting material. The reaction mixture was extracted with 800 mL MTBE x 2 and the combined extracts were washed with 300 mL of 25% brine. The crude alcohol was transferred to a 3L 3-neck flask and treated with solid NaOtBu (34.3 g, 357 mmol) stirring for 1 h and then additional NaOtBu (6.9 g, 357 mmol) and stirring for 30 min. The reaction mixture was filtered and the solution was washed with 300 mL 0.2 M pH 6.0 sodium phosphate buffer, brine, and then the solvent was removed in vacuo and the resulting white solid was dried in a vacuum oven to give (S)-4-(oxiran-2- yl)benzonitrile (23 g, 90% yield, 100% e.e.). 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.62 (2 H, d), 7.35 (2 H, d), 3.88 (1 H, dd), 3.18 (1 H, app t), 2.73 (1 H, dd) Purity = 99%.

[00218] Chiral HPLC was done on a CHIRALP AK® AD-RH 4.6x150mm (Daicel Chemical Industries Ltd.) column using gradient of solvent A (10 mM NH4OAc in water/acetonitrile, 90: 10) and solvent B (10 mM NH4OAc in water/acetonitrile, 10:90) with 70% to 90% in 40 min at a flow rate of 0.5 ml/min at ambient temperature. The detection employed UV at 235 nm. The retention times are as follows:

[00219] Peak 1 (Isomer A): RT = 16.7 min. for (S)-4-(oxiran-2-yl)benzonitrile

[00220] Peak 2 (Isomer B): RT = 14.0 min. for (R)-4-(oxiran-2-yl)benzonitrile Preparation of 14A-isomer A (Alternate Synthesis Route 1): (S)-Ethyl l-((S)-2-(4- cyanophenyl)-2 -hydroxy ethyl)piperidine-3-carboxylate

Figure imgf000103_0001

(14A)-isomer A

[00221] (S)-4-(Oxiran-2-yl)benzonitrile (10.00 g, 68.9 mmol), (S)-ethyl piperidine-3- carboxylate (10.83 g, 68.9 mmol) and iPrOH (100 mL) was charged into a round bottom flask under N2. After heating at 55 0C for 4 hours, 4-dimethylaminopyridine (1.683 g, 13.78 mmol) was then added. The reaction mixture was then heated to 50 0C for an additional 12 hours. At this time HPLC indicated the starting material was completely converted to the desired product. The reaction mixture was then cooled to room temperature. EtOAc (120 ml) was added, followed by 100 ml of water. The organic layer was separated, extracted with EtOAc (2x 100 mL) and concentrated under vacuo to give a crude product. The crude product was recrystallized from EtOH/EtOAc/H2O (3/2/2) (8ml/lg) to give a crystalline off-white solid 14A-alt (15 g, 72% yield, 99.6% e.e.). The absolute and relative stereochemistry was determined by single X-ray crystallography employing a wavelength of 1.54184 A. The crystalline material had an orthorhombic crystal system and unit cell parameters approximately equal to the following:

a = 5.57 A α = 90.0°

b = 9.7l A β = 90.0°

c = 30.04 A γ = 90.0°

Space group: P212121

Molecules/asymmetric unit: 2

Volume/Number of molecules in the unit cell = 1625 A3

Density (calculated) = 1.236 g/cm3

Temperature 298 K.

Preparation 14E (Alternate Route 1): (S)-Ethyl l-((S)-2-(tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy)-2- (4-cyanophenyl)ethyl)piperidine-3-carboxylate

Figure imgf000104_0001

[00222] To a mixture of (S)-ethyl 1 -((S)-2-(4-cyanophenyl)-2-hydroxy ethyl) piperidine-3-carboxylate (17.0 g, 56.2 mmol) and DIPEA (17.68 ml, 101 mmol) in CH2Cl2 (187 mL) was added tert-butyldimethylsilyl trifluoromethanesulfonate (16 ml, 69.6 mmol) slowly. The reaction was monitored with HPLC. The reaction completed in 2 hours. The reaction mixture (a light brown solution) was quenched with water, the aqueous layer was extracted with DCM. The organic phase was combined and dried with Na2SO4. After concentration, the crude material was further purified on a silica gel cartridge (33Og silica, 10-30% EtOAc/hexanes gradient) to afford a purified product (S)- ethyl 1 -((S)-2-(tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy)-2-(4-cyanophenyl)ethyl) piperidine-3 – carboxylate (22.25 g, 53.4 mmol, 95 % yield). 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.61 (2 H, d), 7.45 (2 H, d), 4.79 (1 H, m), 4.15 (2 H, m), 2.88 (1 H, m), 2.75 (1 H, m), 2.60 (1 H, dd), 2.48 (1 H, m), 2.40 (1 H, dd), 2.33 (1 H, tt), 2.12 (1 H, tt), 1.90 (1 H, m), 1.68 (1 H, dt), 1.52 (1 H, m), 1.48 (1 H, m), 1.27 (3 H, t), 0.89 (9 H, s), 0.08 (3 H, s), -0.07 (3 H, s).

Preparation 14F (Alternate Route 1): (S)-Ethyl l-((S)-2-(tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy)-2- (4-((Z)-N’-hydroxycarbamimidoyl)phenyl)ethyl)piperidine-3-carboxylate

Figure imgf000105_0001

[00223] (S)-Ethyl- 1 -((S)-2-(tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy)-2-(4-cyanophenyl)ethyl) piperidine-3-carboxylate (31.0 g, 74.4 mmol) was dissolved in EtOH (248 mL).

Hydroxylamine (50% aq) (6.84 ml, 112 mmol) was added and stirred at room temperature overnight. Then all volatiles were removed with ROTA VAPOR®. The residue was purified with on a silica gel cartridge (33Og silica, 0-50% EtOAc/hexanes gradient) to give (S)-ethyl l-((S)-2-(tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy)-2-(4-((Z)-N’- hydroxycarbamimidoyl)phenyl)ethyl)piperidine-3-carboxylate (31 g, 68.9 mmol, 93 % yield) as a white foam. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 8.38 (1 H, br s), 7.58 (2 H, d), 7.37 (2 H, d), 4.88 (2 H, br s), 4.81 (1 H, m), 4.13 (2 H, m), 2.96 (1 H, m), 2.82 (1 H, m), 2.61 (1 H, dd), 2.51 (1 H, m), 2.42 (1 H, dd), 2.32 (1 H, tt), 2.13 (1 H, dt), 1.91 (1 H, m), 1.66 (1 H, dt), 1.58 (1 H, m), 1.48 (1 H, m), 1.27 (3 H, t), 0.89 (9 H, s), 0.08 (3 H, s), -0.09 (3 H, s). Preparation 14G (Alternate Route 1): (S)-Ethyl l-((S)-2-(tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy)-2- (4-(5-(3-phenyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)isoxazol-5-yl)-l,2,4-oxadiazol-3- yl)phenyl)ethyl)piperidine-3-carboxylate

Figure imgf000105_0002

[00224] (S)-Ethyl- 1 -((S)-2-(tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy)-2-(4-((Z)-N’- hydroxycarbamimidoyl)phenyl)ethyl)piperidine-3-carboxylate (32.6g, 72.5 mmol) was dissolved in acetonitrile (145 ml) (anhydrous) and cooled to ~3 0C with ice-bath. 3- phenyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)isoxazole-5-carbonyl chloride (19.98 g, 72.5 mmol) was dissolved in 5OmL anhydrous acetonitrile and added dropwise. The internal temperature was kept below 10 0C during addition. After addition, the reaction mixture was allowed to warm to room temperature. At 30 minutes, HPLC showed completion of the first reaction step. The reaction mixture was re-cooled to below 10 0C. DIEA (18.99 ml, 109 mmol) was added slowly. After the addition, the reaction mixture was heated up to 55 0C for 17 hr s. HPLC/LCMS showed completion of the reaction. The solvents were removed by ROTA VAPOR®. The residue was stirred in 25OmL 20% EtOAc/hexanes and the DIPEA HCl salt precipitated from solution and was removed via filtration. The filtrate was concentrated and purified using a silica gel cartridge (3X33Og silica, 0-50%

EtOAc/hexanes gradient). (S)-ethyl l-((S)-2-(tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy)-2-(4-(5-(3- phenyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)isoxazol-5-yl)-l,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)phenyl)ethyl)piperidine-3- carboxylate (43g, 64.1 mmol, 88 % yield) was obtained a light yellow oil. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 8.16 (2 H, d), 7.68 (2 H, d), 7.57 (5 H, m), 4.85 (1 H, m), 4.14 (2 H, m), 2.95 (1 H, m), 2.82 (1 H, m), 2.64 (1 H, dd), 2.51 (1 H, m), 2.49 (1 H, dd), 2.35 (1 H, tt), 2.14 (1 H, dt), 1.91 (1 H, m), 1.66 (1 H, dt), 1.57 (1 H, m), 1.48 (1 H, m), 1.27 (3 H, t), 0.92 (9 H, s), 0.11 (3 H, s), -0.05 (3 H, s).

Example 14 (Alternate Route 1): (S)-l-((S)-2-Hydroxy-2-(4-(5-(3-phenyl-4- (trifluoromethyl)isoxazol-5-yl)-l,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)phenyl)ethyl)piperidine-3- carboxylic acid

Figure imgf000106_0001

[00225] (S)-Ethyl l-((S)-2-(tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy)-2-(4-(5-(3-phenyl-4- (trifluoromethyl)isoxazol-5-yl)-l,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)phenyl)ethyl)piperidine-3- carboxylate (42g, 62.6 mmol) was dissolved in dioxane (150 ml) and treated with 6M HCl (150 ml). The reaction mixture was heated to 65 0C for 6 hours (the reaction was monitored with HPLC, EtOH was distilled out to push the equilibrium forward). Dioxane was removed and the residue was redissolved in ACN/water and lyophilized separately to give crude (S)-l-((S)-2-hydroxy-2-(4-(5-(3-phenyl-4-(trifluoromethyl) isoxazol-5-yl)- l,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)phenyl)ethyl)piperidine-3-carboxylic acid, HCl, (37g crude foamy solid). The crude solid (36 g, 63.7 mmol) was suspended in acetonitrile (720 mL) and heated to 60 0C and water (14.4 mL) was added dropwise. A clear solution was obtained, which was cooled to room temperature and concentrated to a viscous oil, treated with ethyl acetate (1.44 L) with vigorously stirring, heated to 60 0C, and cooled to room temperature. (S)-l-((S)-2-hydroxy-2-(4-(5-(3-phenyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)isoxazol-5-yl)- l,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)phenyl)ethyl) piperidine-3-carboxylic acid, HCl (28g, 49.3 mmol, 77 % yield) was collected and vacuum dried. Characterization of product by 1H NMR and chiral HPLC matched Example 14 prepared in previous synthesis.

Preparation of Intermediate (14A)-isomer A-Alternate Route 2; 2-Steps: (S)-Ethyl 1- ((S)-2-(4-cyanophenyl)-2-hydroxyethyl)piperidine-3-carboxylate

Figure imgf000107_0001

(14A)-isomer A

Step 1 : Preparation (14D) (Alternate Route 2): (S)-Ethyl l-(2-(4-cyanophenyl)-2- oxoethyl)piperidine-3-carboxylate hydrobromide

Figure imgf000107_0002

(14D)-isomer A

[00226] To a solution of commercially available (S)-ethyl piperidine-3-carboxylate (10 g, 63.6 mmol) in 200 mL toluene was added 4-(2-bromoacetyl)benzonitrile (17g, 76 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred overnight. The next day, the precipitated solid was collected by filtration and washed with ethyl acetate (x3) and dried under vacuum to give 15.2g of (S)-ethyl l-(2-(4-cyanophenyl)-2-oxoethyl)piperidine-3-carboxylate hydrobromide. MS (M+ 1) = 301. HPLC Peak RT = 1.51 minutes.

Step 2: Preparation of 14 A-isomer A (Alternate Route 2): (S)-Ethyl l-((S)-2-(4- cyanophenyl)-2-hydroxyethyl)piperidine-3 -carboxylate

[00227] Phosphate buffer (1100 mL, BF045, pH 7.0, 0. IM) was added into two liter jacketed glass reactor. The temperature of the reactor was adjusted to 20 0C with the help of a circulator and the reaction mixture was stirred with a magnetic stirrer. Dithiothretol (185.2 mg, 1 mM), magnesium sulfate (288.9 mg, 2 mM), and D-glucose (11.343 g, 62.95 m moles) were added into the reactor. (5*)-Ethyl l-(2-(4-cyanophenyl)-2-oxoethyl) piperidine-3 -carboxylate HBr salt (12 g, 31.47 m moles dissolved in 60 mL DMSO) was added into the reactor slowly with continuous stirring, β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate sodium salt (NADP), 918.47 mg, glucose dehydrogenase, 240 mg (total 18360 U, 76.5 U/mg, ~ 15U/mL, Amano Lot. GDHY1050601) and KRED-114, 1.2 g (CODEXIS® assay 7.8 U/mg of solid), were dissolved in 2.0 mL, 2.0 mL and 10 ml of the same buffer, respectively. Next, NADP, GDH and KRED-114 were added to the reactor in that order. The remaining 26 mL of same buffer was used to wash the NADP, GDH and KRED-114 containers and buffer was added into the same reactor. The starting pH of the reaction was 7.0 which decreased with the progress of the reaction and was maintained at pH 6.5 during the course of the reaction (used pH stat, maintained with IM NaOH). The reaction was run for 4.5 hours and immediately stopped and extracted with ethyl acetate. The ethyl acetate solution was evaporated under reduced pressure and weight of the dark brown residue was 12.14 g. The product was precipitated with dichloromethane and heptane to give 9 g of crude product which was further purified by dissolving it in minimum amount of dichloromethane and re-precipitating by the addition of excess amount of heptane to give 5.22 g. The process was repeated to give an additional 2.82 g of highly pure product for a total of 8.02 g of de > 99.5%.

[00228] Chiral HPLC was done on a CHIRALP AK® AD-RH 4.6x150mm (Daicel Chemical Industries Ltd.) column using gradient of solvent A (10 mM NH4OAc in water/acetonitrile, 90: 10) and solvent B (IO mM NH4OAc in water/acetonitrile, 10:90) with 70% to 90% in 40 min at a flow rate of 0.5 ml/min at ambient temperature. The detection was done by UV at 235 nm. The retention times are as follows: [00229] Peak 1 (14A-isomer A): RT = 20.7 min. for (S)-ethyl l-((S)-2-(4- cyanophenyl)-2-hydroxyethyl)piperidine-3-carboxylate.

[00230] Peak 2 (14B-isomer B): RT = 30.4 min. for (S)-ethyl l-((R)-2-(4- cyanophenyl)-2-hydroxyethyl)piperidine-3-carboxylate.

[00231] Compound 14A-isomer A prepared using this asymmetric method was unambiguously assigned since it was identical to the 14A-isomer A (by 1H NMR and chiral HPLC retention time) that was prepared above and determined by X-ray crystallography. Synthesis of Example 14 from this material followed the same route as described above.

paper

Regioselective Epoxide Ring Opening for the Stereospecific Scale-Up Synthesis of BMS-960, A Potent and Selective Isoxazole-Containing S1P1Receptor Agonist

Discovery Chemistry, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, New Jersey 08540, United States
Chemical & Synthetic Development, Bristol-Myers Squibb, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903, United States
Org. Process Res. Dev., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acs.oprd.6b00366
Abstract Image

This article presents a stereospecific scale-up synthesis of (S)-1-((S)-2-hydroxy-2-(4-(5-(3-phenyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)isoxazol-5-yl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)phenyl)ethyl)piperidine-3-carboxylic acid (BMS-960), a potent and selective isoxazole-containing S1P1 receptor agonist. The process highlights an enzymatic reduction of α-bromoketone toward the preparation of (S)-bromo alcohol, a key precursor of (S)-4-(oxiran-2-yl)benzonitrile. A regioselective and stereospecific epoxide ring-opening reaction was also optimized along with improvements to 1,2,4-oxadiazole formation, hydrolysis, and crystallization. The improved process was utilized to synthesize batches of BMS-960 for Ames testing and other toxicological studies.

PAPER

Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2016), 59(13), 6248-6264.

Discovery and Structure–Activity Relationship (SAR) of a Series of Ethanolamine-Based Direct-Acting Agonists of Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P1)

Abstract

Abstract Image

Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid metabolite that regulates a multitude of physiological processes such as lymphocyte trafficking, cardiac function, vascular development, and inflammation. Because of the ability of S1P1 receptor agonists to suppress lymphocyte egress, they have great potential as therapeutic agents in a variety of autoimmune diseases. In this article, the discovery of selective, direct acting S1P1 agonists utilizing an ethanolamine scaffold containing a terminal carboxylic acid is described. Potent S1P1 agonists such as compounds 18a and 19a which have greater than 1000-fold selectivity over S1P3 are described. These compounds efficiently reduce blood lymphocyte counts in rats through 24 h after single doses of 1 and 0.3 mpk, respectively. Pharmacodynamic properties of both compounds are discussed. Compound 19a was further studied in two preclinical models of disease, exhibiting good efficacy in both the rat adjuvant arthritis model (AA) and the mouse experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model (EAE).

BASE

(S)-1-((S)-2-Hydroxy-2-(4-(5-(3-phenyl-4-(trifluoromethyl) isoxazol-5-yl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)phenyl)ethyl)piperidine-3-carboxylic Acid (18a)

(S)-ethyl 1-((S)-2-hydroxy-2-(4-(5-(3-phenyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)isoxazol-5-yl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)phenyl)ethyl)piperidine-3-carboxylate (36%).

1H NMR (400 MHz, MeOH-d3) δ ppm 8.04 (2 H, d, J = 8.13 Hz), 7.55–7.60 (2 H, m), 7.41–7.54 (5 H, m), 4.81 (1 H, ddd, J = 8.35, 4.06, 3.84 Hz), 3.96–4.10 (2 H, m), 2.82–3.08 (1 H, m), 2.67–2.82 (1 H, m), 2.36–2.61 (3 H, m), 2.08–2.33 (2 H, m), 1.73–1.87 (1 H, m, J = 8.54, 8.54, 4.45, 4.17 Hz), 1.32–1.70 (3 H, m), 1.09–1.19 (3 H, m).

MS (M + H)+ at m/z 557. HPLC purity: 99%, tr = 3.36 min (method B).

TFA salt

(S)-1-((S)-2-hydroxy-2-(4-(5-(3-phenyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)isoxazol-5-yl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)phenyl)ethyl)piperidine-3-carboxylic acid, TFA salt (18a, 61%) as a white solid.

1H NMR (400 MHz, MeOH-d3) δ ppm 8.23 (2 H, d, J = 8.35 Hz), 7.65–7.74 (4 H, m), 7.54–7.65 (3 H, m), 5.29 (1 H, t, J = 7.03 Hz), 4.00 (1 H, br s), 3.43–3.75 (1 H, m), 3.34–3.41 (2 H, m), 2.82–3.24 (2 H, m), 2.26 (1 H, d, J = 11.86 Hz), 1.84–2.14 (2 H, m), 1.52–1.75 (1 H, m).

MS (M + H)+ at m/z 529.

HPLC tr = 3.27 min (method B). HPLC purity: 99.4%, tr = 8.78 min (method E); 99.0%, tr = 7.29 min (method F).

HCL SALT

This material was converted to the HCl salt for the following analyses: mp: 219.2 °C. Anal. Calcd for C26H23N4O5F3·HCl: 0.14% water: C, 55.2; H, 4.31; N, 9.87; Cl, 6.25. Found: C, 55.39; H, 4.10; N, 9.88; Cl, 6.34. [α]D20 + 30.47 (c 0.336, MeOH). HPLC with chiral stationary phase (A linear gradient using CO2 (solvent A) and IPA with 0.1% DEA (solvent B); t = 0 min, 30% B, t = 10 min, 55% B was employed on a Chiralcel AD-H 250 mm × 4.6 mm ID, 5 μm column; flow rate was 2.0 mL/min): tr = 5.38 min with >99% ee.

References

Gilmore, J. L.; Sheppeck, J. E.; Watterson, S. H.; Haque, L.; Mukhopadhyay, P.; Tebben, A. J.; Galella, M. A.; Shen, D. R.; Yarde, M.; Cvijic, M. E.; Borowski, V.; Gillooly, K.; Taylor, T.; McIntyre, K. W.; Warrack, B.; Levesque, P. C.; Li, J. P.; Cornelius, G.; D’Arienzo, C.; Marino, A.; Balimane, P.; Salter-Cid, L.; Barrish, J. C.; Pitts, W. J.; Carter, P. H.; Xie, J.; Dyckman, A. J.Discovery and Structure Activity Relationship (SAR) of a Series of Ethanolamine-Based Direct-Acting Agonists of Sphingosine-1-Phosphate (S1P1) J. Med. Chem. 2016, 59, 62486264, DOI: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.6b00373
Gilmore, J. L.; Sheppeck, J. E. Preparation of 3-(4-(1-hydroxyethyl)phenyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazole derivatives as sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor agonists for the treatment of autoimmune disease and inflammation. PCT Int. Appl. 2011, WO 2011017578.

//////BMS-960, PRECLINICAL, BMS 960

Cl.O=C(O)[C@H]1CCCN(C1)C[C@@H](O)c2ccc(cc2)c3nc(on3)c5onc(c4ccccc4)c5C(F)(F)F

DNDI-VL-2098


str0

DNDI-VL-2098

CAS 681492-17-1

(R)-2-Methyl-6-nitro-2-(4-trifluoromethoxyphenoxymethyl)-2,3-dihydroimidazo[2,1-b]oxazole

Watch this post, will be updated………..

MF C14 H12 F3 N3 O5,
MW 359.26
Imidazo[2,1-b]oxazole, 2,3-dihydro-2-methyl-6-nitro-2-[[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenoxy]methyl]-, (2R)-
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Medicinal Chemistry Research Institute, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., 463-10 Kagasuno, Kawauchi-cho, Tokushima 771-0192, Japan, and Microbiological Research Institute, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., 463-10 Kagasuno, Kawauchi-cho, Tokushima 771-0192, Japan
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(left to right) Hidetsugu Tsubouchi, Ph.D., Compliance & Ethics Department, manager; Hirofumi Sasaki, Medicinal Chemistry Research Laboratories, associate head and project OPC; Makoto Matsumoto, Ph.D, Pharmaceutical Business Division, senior director; Hiroyuki Hashizume, Pharmaceutical Marketing Headquarters, Product Planning and Management Group, product management manager; Masanori Kawasaki, TB Projects, associate director
Melting Point: 176-178 °C , Condition: Solvent ethyl acetate; isopropanol

(2R)-2-Methyl-6-nitro-2-(4-trifluoromethoxyphenoxymethyl)-2,3-dihydroimidazo[2,1-b]oxazole

Mp: 169–171 °C; Org. Process Res. Dev., Article ASAP, DOI: 10.1021/acs.oprd.6b00331

HPLC (area %): 99.52%; HPLC (chiral): 99.8% (a/a);

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): δ 7.57 (s, 1H), 7.14–7.16 (d, 2H, J = 10.0 Hz), 6.83–6.86 (d, 2H, J = 7.2 Hz), 4.48–4.50 (d, 1H, J = 10.0 Hz), 4.22–4.24 (d, 1H, J = 10.0 Hz), 4.05–4.10 (t, 2H, J = 9.6 and 10.4 Hz), 1.79 (s, 3H);

13C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): δ 156.0, 155.8, 147.1, 143.5, 122.6, 115.5, 112.6, 122.6, 121.7, and 119.1 (JC–F = 255.1 Hz), 116.6, 92.9, 71.8, 51.3, 23.0;

19F NMR (CDCl3, 376 MHz): δ −58.4;

IR (KBr, cm–1): 3155, 2996, 1607, 1456, 1281, 1106, 978, 921, 834,783, 708;

mass (m/z): 360.3 (M + 1)+;

[α]25589 = (+)8.445 (c 1.00 g/100 mL, CHCl3).

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), infamously known as kala-azar (black fever) in the Indian subcontinent, is the most lethal form of leishmaniasis and is caused by protozoan parasites. This deadly disease is the second largest parasitic killer in the world, surpassed only by malaria, with a worldwide distribution in Asia, East Africa, South America, and the Mediterranean region. In the search for effective treatments for visceral leishmaniasis, the Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative (DNDi) recently evaluated fexinidazole a nitroimidazole being developed as a treatment for Human African Trypanosomiasis. Fexinidazole  showed potential as a safe and effective oral drug for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis and is now in clinical trials.

Figure

fexinidazole (1) and DNDI-VL-2098 (2).

Earlier, through an agreement with TB Alliance and in association with the ACSRC at the University of Auckland (NZ), DNDi screened about 70 other nitroimidazole analogues belonging to four chemical subclasses and investigated them for antileishmanial activity

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Paper

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.5b01699

Repositioning Antitubercular 6-Nitro-2,3-dihydroimidazo[2,1-b][1,3]oxazoles for Neglected Tropical Diseases: Structure–Activity Studies on a Preclinical Candidate for Visceral Leishmaniasis

Auckland Cancer Society Research Centre, School of Medical Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
Faculty of Infectious & Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, United Kingdom
§ Laboratory for Microbiology, Parasitology and Hygiene, Faculty of Pharmaceutical, Biomedical and Veterinary Sciences, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Antwerp, Belgium
Division of Parasitology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031, India
Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative, 15 Chemin Louis Dunant, 1202 Geneva, Switzerland
# Institute for Tuberculosis Research, College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago, 833 South Wood Street, Chicago, Illinois 60612, United States
Global Alliance for TB Drug Development, 40 Wall Street, New York 10005, United States
J. Med. Chem., 2016, 59 (6), pp 2530–2550
DOI: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.5b01699
*Phone: (+649) 923-6145. Fax: (+649) 373-7502. E-mail: am.thompson@auckland.ac.nz.

Abstract

Abstract Image

6-Nitro-2,3-dihydroimidazo[2,1-b][1,3]oxazole derivatives were initially studied for tuberculosis within a backup program for the clinical trial agent pretomanid (PA-824). Phenotypic screening of representative examples against kinetoplastid diseases unexpectedly led to the identification of DNDI-VL-2098 as a potential first-in-class drug candidate for visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Additional work was then conducted to delineate its essential structural features, aiming to improve solubility and safety without compromising activity against VL. While the 4-nitroimidazole portion was specifically required, several modifications to the aryloxy side chain were well-tolerated e.g., exchange of the linking oxygen for nitrogen (or piperazine), biaryl extension, and replacement of phenyl rings by pyridine. Several less lipophilic analogues displayed improved aqueous solubility, particularly at low pH, although stability toward liver microsomes was highly variable. Upon evaluation in a mouse model of acute Leishmania donovani infection, one phenylpyridine derivative (37) stood out, providing efficacy surpassing that of the original preclinical lead.

Figure

Structures of various antileishmanial or antitubercular agents.

 str1 str0

CLICK ON IMAGE

2-Methyl-6-nitro-2-{[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenoxy]methyl}-2,3-dihydroimidazo[2,1- b][1,3]oxazole (7).

Method A (Scheme 1B): Reaction of alcohol 88 with NaH, using procedure C, followed by chromatography of the product on silica gel, eluting with CH2Cl2, gave 71 (87%) as a pale yellow solid: mp (CH2Cl2/hexane) 122-124 C (lit.1 mp 126.8-127.9 C); 1 H NMR (CDCl3)  7.56 (s, 1 H), 7.16 (br d, J = 9.1 Hz, 2 H), 6.85 (br d, J = 9.2 Hz, 2 H), 4.48 (d, J = 10.2 Hz, 1 H), 4.23 (d, J = 10.1 Hz, 1 H), 4.09 (d, J = 10.1 Hz, 1 H), 4.05 (d, J = 10.2 Hz, 1 H), 1.79 (s, 3 H); 13C NMR (CDCl3)  156.3 (C-1’), 156.1 (C-7a), 147.4 (C- 6), 143.9 (q, JC-F = 2.1 Hz, C-4’), 122.8 (2 C, C-3’,5’), 120.7 (q, JC-F = 256.5 Hz, 4’-OCF3), 115.8 (2 C, C-2’,6’), 112.8 (C-5), 93.1 (C-2), 72.2 (2-CH2O), 51.6 (C-3), 23.3 (2-CH3). Anal. (C14H12F3N3O5) C, H, N.

Method B (Scheme 2B): Reaction of 2-bromo-1-[(2-methyloxiran-2-yl)methyl]-4-nitro-1Himidazole2 (98) with 4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenol (0.95 equiv) and NaH (1.2 equiv), using procedure I, followed by chromatography of the product on silica gel, eluting with 2:1 and 3:1 CH2Cl2/petroleum ether (foreruns) and then with 3:1 CH2Cl2/petroleum ether and CH2Cl2, S8 gave a crude product, which was crystallized from CH2Cl2/hexane (and the mother liquors further purified by chromatography on silica gel, eluting as before), to give 71 (55%) as a pale yellow solid (see data above). Method C (Scheme 2D): Reaction of 2-chloro-1-[(2-methyloxiran-2-yl)methyl]-4-nitro-1Himidazole1 (109) with 4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenol (1.0 equiv) and NaH, using procedure I, followed by chromatography of the product on silica gel, eluting with 1:1 and 3:2 CH2Cl2/petroleum ether (foreruns) and then with 3:1 CH2Cl2/petroleum ether and CH2Cl2, gave a crude product, which was crystallized from CH2Cl2/hexane (and the mother liquors further purified by chromatography on silica gel, eluting with 1:1 and 3:1 Et2O/petroleum ether and then with Et2O and CH2Cl2), to give 71 (51%) as a pale yellow solid (see data above).

Synthesis of 9 (Scheme 2A): (2R)-2-Methyl-6-nitro-2-{[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenoxy]methyl}-2,3-dihydroimidazo- [2,1-b][1,3]oxazole (9). Reaction of 2-chloro-1-{[(2R)-2-methyloxiran-2-yl]methyl}-4-nitro- 1H-imidazole3 (96) with 4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenol and NaH, using procedure H, gave 91,3 (36%) as a pale brown solid: mp 170-171 C (lit.1 mp 176.5-178 C); 1 H NMR (CDCl3)  7.56 (s, 1 H), 7.16 (br d, J = 8.8 Hz, 2 H), 6.85 (br d, J = 9.0 Hz, 2 H), 4.48 (d, J = 10.2 Hz, 1 H), 4.23 (d, J = 10.0 Hz, 1 H), 4.09 (d, J = 10.2 Hz, 1 H), 4.05 (d, J = 10.3 Hz, 1 H), 1.79 (s, 3 H); [α] 25 D 9.0 (c 1.002, CHCl3) [lit.1 [α] 28 D 7.67 (c 1.030, CHCl3)]. Anal. (C14H12F3N3O5) C, H, N. HPLC purity: 100%. Chiral HPLC (using a CHIRALPAK AD-H analytical column and eluting with 15% EtOH/hexane at 1 mL/min) determined that the ee of 9 was 98.7%.

Paper

Sasaki, Hirofumi; Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 2006, VOL 49(26), Pg 7854-7860

Synthesis and Antituberculosis Activity of a Novel Series of Optically Active 6-Nitro-2,3-dihydroimidazo[2,1-b]oxazoles

Medicinal Chemistry Research Institute, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., 463-10 Kagasuno, Kawauchi-cho, Tokushima 771-0192, Japan, and Microbiological Research Institute, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., 463-10 Kagasuno, Kawauchi-cho, Tokushima 771-0192, Japan
J. Med. Chem., 2006, 49 (26), pp 7854–7860
DOI: 10.1021/jm060957y

Abstract

Abstract Image

In an effort to develop potent new antituberculosis agents that would be effective against both drug-susceptible and drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, we prepared a novel series of optically active 6-nitro-2,3-dihydroimidazo[2,1-b]oxazoles substituted at the 2-position with various phenoxymethyl groups and a methyl group and investigated the in vitro and in vivo activity of these compounds. Several of these derivatives showed potent in vitro and in vivo activity, and compound 19 (OPC-67683) in particular displayed excellent in vitro activity against both drug-susceptible and drug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis H37Rv (MIC = 0.006 μg/mL) and dose-dependent and significant in vivo efficacy at lower oral doses than rifampicin in mouse models infected with M. tuberculosis Kurono. The synthesis and structure−activity relationships of these new compounds are presented.

(R)-2-Methyl-6-nitro-2-(4-trifluoromethoxyphenoxymethyl)-2,3-dihydroimidazo[2,1-b]oxazole (8). Mp 176−178 °C.

1H NMR (CDCl3) δ 1.79 (3H, s), 4.06 (1H, d, J = 6.8 Hz), 4.10 (1H, d, J = 6.8 Hz), 4.23 (1H, d, J = 10.1 Hz), 4.49 (1H, d, J = 10.1 Hz), 6.84 (2H, d, J = 9.0 Hz), 7.13 (2H, d, J = 9.0 Hz), 7.56 (1H, s).

MS (DI) m/z 359 (M+). Anal. (C14H12F3N3O5) C, H, N.

PAPER

Abstract Image

A process suitable for kilogram-scale synthesis of (2R)-2-methyl-6-nitro-2-{[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenoxy]methyl}-2,3-dihydroimidazo[2,1-b][1,3]oxazole (DNDI-VL-2098, 2), a preclinical drug candidate for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis, is described. The four-step synthesis of the target compound involves the Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation of 2-methyl-2-propen-1-ol, 8. Identification of a suitable synthetic route using retrosynthetic analysis and development of a scalable process to access several kilograms of 2 are illustrated. The process was simplified by employing in situ synthesis of some intermediates, reducing safety hazards, and eliminating the need for column chromatography. The improved reactions were carried out on the kilogram scale to produce 2 in good yield, high optical purity, and high quality.

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.oprd.6b00331

Development of a Scalable Process for the Synthesis of DNDI-VL-2098: A Potential Preclinical Drug Candidate for the Treatment of Visceral Leishmaniasis

Process Chemistry Division, Advinus Therapeutics Ltd., 21 & 22, Phase II, Peenya Industrial Area, Bangalore 560058, Karnataka, India
Auckland Cancer Society Research Centre, School of Medical Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative (DNDi), 15 Chemin Louis Dunant, 1202 Geneva, Switzerland
Org. Process Res. Dev., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acs.oprd.6b00331
*Process Chemistry Division, Advinus Therapeutics Ltd., 21 & 22, Phase II, Peenya Industrial Area, Bangalore -560058, Karnataka, India. E-mail: hari.pati@advinus.com. Tel. No.: (+91)9900212096.
 
Hiroyuki Fujiki, Ph.D, New Drug Research Division, Biology and Translational Research Unit, senior research scientist; Yoshitaka Yamamura, Pharmaceutical Business Division, senior director; Youichi Yabuuchi, Ph.D, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Factory, Inc., corporate adviser; Hidenori Ogawa, Ph.D, Medicinal Chemistry Research Laboratories
/////////////preclinical, DNDI-VL-2098, 681492-17-1, Visceral Leishmaniasis

CEP 33779


img

CEP-33779, CEP33779
CAS 1257704-57-6
Chemical Formula: C24H26N6O2S
Molecular Weight: 462.57
Elemental Analysis: C, 62.32; H, 5.67; N, 18.17; O, 6.92; S, 6.93

N-(3-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)phenyl)-8-(4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl)-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyridin-2-amine

PRECLINICAL Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis, Agents for Colorectal Cancer Therapy Systemic Lupus Erythematosus,

Jak2 Inhibitors

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Matthew A. Curry, Bruce D. Dorsey, Benjamin J. Dugan, Diane E. Gingrich, Eugen F. Mesaros, Karen L. Milkiewicz,
Applicant Cephalon, Inc.

Worldwide Discovery Research, Cephalon, Inc., 145 Brandywine Parkway, West Chester, Pennsylvania 19380, United States

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Matt Curry

 Matthew A. Curry

Bruce Dorsey

Bruce Dorsey

Image result for Cephalon, Inc. Benjamin J. Dugan

Benjamin Dugan

Benjamin J. Dugan received a B.S. degree in Chemistry from the University of Delaware in 1993 under the tutelage of the late Dr. Cynthia McClure. He began his career at FMC Corporation in the agricultural products division. In 2006, he moved to Cephalon, Inc., acquired by Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. in 2011, and engaged in oncology research focused on small molecule, ATP competitive, kinase inhibitors culminating with the discovery of CEP-33779. He is currently a Research Scientist focused on the development of novel, bioactive small molecules for treatment of central nervous system disorders.

Cephalon Inc.
Malvern, United States

Image result for Cephalon, Inc. Diane E. Gingrich

Members of the Cephalon research team that discovered CEP-5214 and CEP-7055 include (from left) Hudkins, Thelma S. Angeles, Bruce A. Ruggeri, and Diane E. Gingrich. CEPHALON PHOTO

Eugen F. Mesaros

Cephalon Inc.
Malvern, United States
Image result for cephalon Karen L. Milkiewicz

Lupus (systemic lupus erythematosus, SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by the presence of activated T and B cells, autoantibodies and chronic inflammation that attacks various parts of the body including the joints, skin, kidneys, CNS, cardiac tissue and blood vessels. In severe cases, antibodies are deposited in the cells (glomeruli) of the kidneys, leading to inflammation and possibly kidney failure, a condition known as lupus nephritis.

Although the cause of lupus remains unknown, manifestations of the disease have been linked to genetic polymorphisms, environmental toxins and pathogens (Morel;

Fairhurst, Wandstrat et al. 2006). In addition, gender, hormonal influences and cytokine dysregulation have been tightly linked to the development of lupus (Aringer and Smolen 2004; Smith-Bouvier, Divekar et al. 2008). Lupus affects nine times as many women as men. It may occur at any age, but appears most often in people between the ages of 10 and 50 years. African Americans and Asians are affected more often than people from other races.

There is no cure for lupus. Current treatments for lupus are aimed at controlling symptoms and are limited to toxic and immunosuppressive agents with severe side-effects such as high dose glucocorticoids and/or hydroxchloroquine. Severe disease (e.g., patients that have signs of renal involvement) require more aggressive drugs including

mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), azathioprine (AZA) and/or cyclophosphamide (CTX) (Bertsias and Boumpas 2008). CTX, AZA and MMF are very toxic and

immunosuppressive, and only 50% of treated patients enter complete remission, with relapse rates up to 30% over a 2-year period.

Memory B cells, and more important, long-lived plasma cells (LL-PCs) which differentiate from memory B cells, are key cell types involved in lupus (Neubert, Meister et al. 2008; Sanz and Lee 2010). Long-lived plasma cells synthesize and secrete large quantities of high-affinity isotype switched antibodies (Meister, Schubert et al. 2007;

Muller, Dieker et al. 2008). Circulating antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) increase the chances of antibody depositing onto self tissues, forming immune-complexes and eventually leading to tissue destruction, epitope spreading and involvement of other organ systems. LL-PCs are commonly found to be chemo- and radio-resistant, over expressing various heat shock proteins and drug pumps (Obeng, Carlson et al. 2006; Neubert, Meister et al. 2008). In addition, LL-PCs primarily reside in the bone marrow where they are protected from current lupus therapies such as cyclophosphamide and glucocorticoids.

A need exists for new treatments for lupus, including lupus nephritis. A need particularly exists for lupus treatments that can target and reduce LL-PCs.

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CEP-33779 is a highly selective, orally active, small-molecule inhibitor of JAK2. CEP-33779 induced regression of established colorectal tumors, reduced angiogenesis, and reduced proliferation of tumor cells. Tumor regression correlated with inhibition of STAT3 and NF-κB (RelA/p65) activation in a CEP-33779 dose-dependent manner. The ability of CEP-33779 to suppress growth of colorectal tumors by inhibiting the IL-6/JAK2/STAT3 signaling suggests a potential therapeutic utility of JAK2 inhibitors in multiple tumors types, particularly those with a strong inflammatory component.

str0

{[8-(4-Methanesulfonyl-phenyl)-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyridin-2-yl]-[3-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-phenyl]-amine} (1)

LC/MS: (M+H+)+ = 463.2;
1H NMR (DMSO, 400 MHz) δ 9.61 (s, 1H), 8.85 (d, J = 6.8 Hz, 1H), 8.43 (d, J = 6.8 Hz, 2H), 8.06 (d, J = 6.8 Hz, 2H), 7.96 (d, J = 7.5 Hz, 1H), 7.59 (s, 1H), 7.17 (t, J = 6.8 Hz, 1H), 7.11 (t, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 7.05 (d, J = 8.6 Hz 1H), 6.49 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 3.30 (s, 3H), 3.13 (m, 4H), 2.48 (m, 4H), 2.24 (s, 3H).
CEP-33779 Diglycolate Salt
1H NMR (DMSO, 400 MHz) δ 9.61 (s, 1H), 8.85 (d, J = 6.7 Hz, 1H), 8.43 (d, J = 6.7 Hz, 2H), 8.06 (d, J = 6.7 Hz, 2H), 7.97 (d, J = 7.5 Hz, 1H), 7.59 (s, 1H), 7.18 (d, J = 6.7 Hz, 1H), 7.11 (m, 1H), 7.05 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 1H), 6.50 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 3.89 (s, 4H), 3.30 (s, 3H), 3.13 (m, 4H), 2.48 (m, 4H), 2.24 (s, 3H).
DSC: Endotherm onset at 153.0 °C; Peak at 155.8 °C.

PATENT

WO 2010141796

https://www.google.com/patents/WO2010141796A3?cl=en

Example 35 [8-(4-Methanesulfonyl-phenyl)-[ 1 ,2,4]triazolo[ 1 ,5-a]pyridin-2-yl]-[3-(4-methyl-piperazin-

1 -yl)-phenyl]-amine

Figure imgf000156_0001

35 a) l-(3-Bromo-phenyl)-4-methyl-piperazine was prepared from l-(3-bromo-phenyl)- piperazine (1.33 g, 5.52 mmol) in a manner analogous to Step 32a. The reaction product was isolated as a pale yellow oil (1.4 g, 100%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3, δ, ppm): 7.10 (dd, J=8.2, 8.2 Hz, IH), 7.04 (dd, J=2.1, 2.1 Hz, IH), 6.95 (ddd, J=I. S, 1.7, 0.7 Hz, IH), 6.83 (ddd, J=8.3, 2.4, 0.6 Hz, IH), 3.23-3.18 (m, 4H), 2.58-2.54 (m, 4H), 2.35 (s, 3H). MS = 255, 257 (MH)+. 35b) [8-(4-Methanesulfonyl-phenyl)-[ 1 ,2,4]triazolo[ 1 ,5-a]pyridin-2-yl]-[3-(4-methyl- piperazin-l-yl)-phenyl]-amine was prepared from 8-(4-methanesulfonyl-phenyl)- [l,2,4]triazolo[l,5-a]pyridin-2-ylamine (75.0 mg, 0.260 mmol) and l-(3-bromo-phenyl)-4- methyl-piperazine (80.0 mg, 0.314 mmol) with 2,2′-bis-dicyclohexylphosphanyl-biphenyl (30.0 mg, 0.0549 mmol) as the ligand in a manner analogous to Step 2d and was isolated as a yellow solid (0.072 g, 60%).

MP = 232-234 0C.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3, δ, ppm): 8.49 (d, J=I 2 Hz, IH), 8.25 (d, J=I .5 Hz, 2H), 8.08 (d, J=I .9 Hz, 2H), 7.65 (d, J=I .1 Hz, IH), 7.38 (s, IH), 7.27-7.20 (m, IH), 7.04-6.95 (m, 2H), 6.84 (s, IH), 6.60 (d, J=8.0 Hz, IH), 3.30-3.25 (m, 4H), 3.10 (s, 3H), 2.63-2.58 (m, 4H), 2.38 (s, 3H).

MS = 463 (MH)+.

PATENT

WO 2012078504

PATENT

WO 2012078574

https://google.com/patents/WO2012078574A2?cl=da

COMPOUND A is a JAK2 inhibitor with the chemical name [8-(4-methanesulfonyl-phenyl)-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyridin-2-yl]-[3-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-phenyl]-amine. COMPOUND A has the following structure:

COMPOUND A

COMPOUND A was prepared in a manner analogous to the five-step method described below (see Example 35 of International Application No. PCT/US10/37363):

Step 1 : To a solution of 1-(3-bromo-phenyl)-piperazine (about 1 g) and acetic acid (about 0.4 mL) in methanol (about 25 mL) is added 37% formaldehyde in water/methanol (about 56.7:37:6.3, water:formaldehyde:methanol; about 5 mL). The mixture is stirred at room temperature for about 18 hours. The suspension is cooled to about 5°C in an ice/water bath and sodium cyanoborohydride (about 5 g) is added in small portions. The mixture is stirred and warmed to room temperature for about 18 hours. The mixture is slowly poured into saturated aqueous ammonium chloride (about 200 mL) and stirred for about 1 hour. The mixture is extracted with dichloromethane (3 x about 75 mL). The combined organic layers are dried over magnesium sulfate, filtered and evaporated. The material is placed under high vacuum for about 18 hours to yield 1-(3-bromo-phenyl)-4-methyl-piperazine as a pale yellow oil (about 1 g). 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3, δ, ppm): 7.10 (dd, J=8.2, 8.2 Hz, 1H), 7.04 (dd, J=2.1, 2.1 Hz, 1H), 6.95 (ddd, J=7.8, 1.7, 0.7 Hz, 1H), 6.83 (ddd, J=8.3, 2.4, 0.6 Hz, 1H), 3.23-3.18 (m, 4H), 2.58-2.54 (m, 4H), 2.35 (s, 3H). MS = 255, 257 (MH)+.

Step 2: To a solution of 3-bromo-pyridin-2-ylamine (about 10 g) in 1,4-dioxane (about 100 mL) is added dropwise ethoxycarbonyl isothiocyanate (about 7 mL). The mixture is stirred under an atmosphere of nitrogen for about 18 hours. The volatiles are evaporated to yield a waxy solid. The recovered material is triturated with hexane (about 250 mL). N-(3-bromo-2-pyridinyl)-N’-carboethoxy-thiourea is isolated and used without further purification. 1H NMR (400 MHz, (D3C)2SO, δ, ppm): 11.46 (s, 1H), 11.43 (s, 1H), 8.49 (dd, J=4.6, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 8.18 (dd, J=8.0, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 7.33 (dd, J=8.0, 4.7 Hz, 1H), 4.23 (q, J=7.1 Hz, 2H), 1.27 (t, J=7.2 Hz, 3H). MS = 215 (MH)+.

Step 3: To a stirred suspension of hydroxylamine hydrochloride (about 17 g) and Ν,Ν-diisopropylethylamine (about 26 mL) in a mixture of methanol (about 70 mL) and

ethanol (about 70 mL) is added N-(3-bromo-2-pyridinyl)-N’-carboethoxy-thiourea. The mixture is stirred for about 2 hours at room temperature then heated to about 60°C for about 18 hours. The suspension is cooled to room temperature, filtered and rinsed with methanol, water then methanol. 8-Bromo-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyridin-2-ylamine is isolated as an off-white solid (about 8 g). 1H NMR (400 MHz, (D3C)2SO, δ, ppm): 8.58 (d, J=6.4 Hz, 1H), 7.73 (d, J=7.6 Hz, 1H), 6.80 (t, J=7.0 Hz, 1H), 6.25 (s, 2H). MS = 213, 215 (MH)+.

Step 4: An oven dried tube is charged with palladium acetate (about 0.2 g) and triphenylphosphine (about 0.6 g). The tube is evacuated under high vacuum and backflushed under a stream of nitrogen for about 5 minutes. A suitable solvent such as

1,4-dioxane (about 10 mL) is added and the mixture is stirred under nitrogen for a suitable time (e.g., for about 10 minutes). 8-Bromo-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyridin-2-ylamine (about 0.75 g), (4-methylsulfonylphenyl)boronic acid (about 1 g), a suitable solvent, such as N,N-dimethylformamide (about 10 mL) and a suitable base, such as about 1.5 M of sodium carbonate in water (about 10 mL) are added. The mixture is stirred for about 2 minutes at room temperature under nitrogen then the tube is sealed and heated at about 80°C for about 18 hours. The mixture is transferred to a round bottom flask and the volatiles are evaporated under reduced pressure. The product is isolated in a suitable manner. For example, water (about 100 mL) may be added and the mixture stirred. The solid may then be collected by filtration, and optionally rinsed with water, air dried, triturated with ether/dichloromethane (about 4: 1; about 10 mL), filtered and rinsed with ether. 8-(4-methanesulfonyl-phenyl)-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyridin-2-ylamine is isolated as a tan solid (about 0.6 g). MP = 236-239 °C. 1H NMR (400 MHz, (D3C)2SO, δ, ppm): 8.63 (d, J=6.3 Hz, 1H), 8.38 (d, J=7.9 Hz, 2H), 8.03 (d, J=7.9 Hz, 2H), 7.84 (d, J= 7.3 Hz, 1H), 7.03 (t, J=7.0 Hz, 1H), 6.21 (br s, 2H), 3.28 (s, 3H). MS = 289 (MH)+.

Step 5: To an oven dried tube is added palladium acetate (about 10 mg) and 2,2′-bis-dicyclohexylphosphanyl-biphenyl (about 30 mg), 8-(4-methanesulfonyl-phenyl)-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyridin-2-ylamine (about 75 mg), 1-(3-bromo-phenyl)-4-methyl-piperazine (about 80 mg), a suitable base, such as cesium carbonate (about 270 mg) and a suitable solvent, such as 1,4-dioxane (about 5 mL). The tube is evacuated and backflushed with nitrogen three times. The tube is sealed and heated at about 80°C for about 72 hours. The mixture is cooled to room temperature and the product isolated in a suitable manner.

For example, the cooled mixture may be diluted with dichloromethane (about 10 mL), filtered through a plug of diatomaceous earth, rinsed with dichloromethane and evaporated. The material may then be purified, e.g., via chromatography, e.g., utilizing an ISCO automated purification apparatus (e.g., amine modified silica gel column 5%→100% ethyl acetate in hexanes). [8-(4-Methanesulfonyl-phenyl)-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyridin-2-yl]-[3-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-phenyl]-amine (i.e., COMPOUND A) is isolated as a yellow solid (about 0.07 g). MP = 232-234 °C. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3, δ, ppm): 8.49 (d, J=7.2 Hz, 1H), 8.25 (d, J=7.5 Hz, 2H), 8.08 (d, J=7.9 Hz, 2H), 7.65 (d, J=7.7 Hz, 1H), 7.38 (s, 1H), 7.27-7.20 (m, 1H), 7.04-6.95 (m, 2H), 6.84 (s, 1H), 6.60 (d, J=8.0 Hz, 1H), 3.30-3.25 (m, 4H), 3.10 (s, 3H), 2.63-2.58 (m, 4H), 2.38 (s, 3H). MS = 463 (MH)+.

PATENT

WO 2015089153

https://www.google.com/patents/WO2015089153A1?cl=un

This disclosure relates to a l,2,4 riazolo[l,5a]pyridine derivative, [8-(4 methanesulfonyl-phenyl)-[ 1 ,2,4]triazoio[1 ,5-a]pyridin-2-yl]-[3-(4-methyl-piperazin- 1 -yl phenyl] -amine, re g structure:

or a pharmaceutical salt thereof, and its use in the treatment of multiple sclerosis.

Compound A is a potent, orally active, small molecule inhibitor of JA 2. See, e.g..International Application No. PCT/USlO/37363, U.S. Patent Nos. 8,501,936 and ,633,173, and U.S. Published Patent Application Nos. 2013/0267535 and 2014/0024655, each of which is incorporated by reference herein. Compound A can be prepared, for example, using methods analogous to Example 35 of International Application No.PCT/US 10/37363.

PAPER

A Selective, Orally Bioavailable 1,2,4-Triazolo[1,5-a]pyridine-Based Inhibitor of Janus Kinase 2 for Use in Anticancer Therapy: Discovery of CEP-33779

Worldwide Discovery Research, Cephalon, Inc., 145 Brandywine Parkway, West Chester, Pennsylvania 19380, United States
J. Med. Chem., 2012, 55 (11), pp 5243–5254
DOI: 10.1021/jm300248q
Publication Date (Web): May 10, 2012
Copyright © 2012 American Chemical Society
*Phone: 610-738-6733. Fax: 610-738-6643. E-Mail: bdugan@cephalon.com.

Abstract

Abstract Image

Members of the JAK family of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases play a critical role in the growth and progression of many cancers and in inflammatory diseases. JAK2 has emerged as a leading therapeutic target for oncology, providing a rationale for the development of a selective JAK2 inhibitor. A program to optimize selective JAK2 inhibitors to combat cancer while reducing the risk of immune suppression associated with JAK3 inhibition was undertaken. The structure–activity relationships and biological evaluation of a novel series of compounds based on a 1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]pyridine scaffold are reported. Para substitution on the aryl at the C8 position of the core was optimum for JAK2 potency (17). Substitution at the C2 nitrogen position was required for cell potency (21). Interestingly, meta substitution of C2-NH-aryl moiety provided exceptional selectivity for JAK2 over JAK3 (23). These efforts led to the discovery of CEP-33779 (29), a novel, selective, and orally bioavailable inhibitor of JAK2.

[8-(4-Methanesulfonyl-phenyl)-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyridin-2-yl]-[3-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-phenyl]-amine (29)

 1H NMR (CDCl3) δ 8.49 (dd, J = 6.6, 1.0 Hz, 1H), 8.25 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 2H), 8.08 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 2H), 7.66 (dd, J = 7.5, 0.9 Hz, 1H), 7.39–7.36 (m, 1H), 7.23 (t, J = 8.2 Hz, 1H), 7.02 (t, J = 7.1 Hz, 1H), 6.97 (dd, J = 7.8, 1.4 Hz, 1H), 6.88 (s, 1H), 6.60 (dd, J = 8.3, 1.8 Hz, 1H), 3.30–3.25 (m, 4H), 3.10 (s, 3H), 2.63–2.58 (m, 4H), 2.38 (s, 3H).
13C NMR (CDCl3) δ 162.65, 152.28, 148.87, 141.00, 140.91, 140.05, 129.64, 129.29, 128.18, 127.85, 127.76, 124.77, 112.03, 109.40, 108.59, 104.80, 55.19, 49.02, 46.19, 44.59;
mp 208–211 °C.
High resolution mass spectrum (ESI+) m/z 463.1925 [(M + H)+calcd for C24H26N6O2S: 463.1916]. HPLC: 95 A%.

PAPER

An Improved Synthesis of the Free Base and Diglycolate Salt of CEP-33779; A Janus Kinase 2 Inhibitor

Chemical Process Research and Development, Teva Branded Pharmaceutical Products R&D Inc., 383 Phoenixville Pike, Malvern, Pennsylvania 19355, United States
Org. Process Res. Dev., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acs.oprd.6b00311
Publication Date (Web): November 30, 2016
Copyright © 2016 American Chemical Society

Abstract

Abstract Image

CEP-33779 is a triazole that has been reported to show highly selective inhibition of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2). An efficient process to form CEP-33779 will be presented that uses multiple palladium couplings to provide the drug substance in a convergent manner. The existing medicinal chemistry route was modified to avoid chromatographic purification, improve safety, and utilize palladium ligands which are available in quantities amenable to scale-up. Challenges faced during the development of the new process included optimization of conditions for Buchwald–Hartwig and Suzuki couplings, control of homocoupled impurities and removal of residual palladium. In addition, a screen of conditions to form a diglycolate salt of the parent compound are also presented.

REFERENCES

1: Dugan BJ, Gingrich DE, Mesaros EF, Milkiewicz KL, Curry MA, Zulli AL, Dobrzanski P, Serdikoff C, Jan M, Angeles TS, Albom MS, Mason JL, Aimone LD, Meyer SL, Huang Z, Wells-Knecht KJ, Ator MA, Ruggeri BA, Dorsey BD. A selective, orally bioavailable 1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]pyridine-based inhibitor of Janus kinase 2 for use in anticancer therapy: discovery of CEP-33779. J Med Chem. 2012 Jun 14;55(11):5243-54. doi: 10.1021/jm300248q. Epub 2012 May 18. PubMed PMID: 22594690.

2: Tagoe C, Putterman C. JAK2 inhibition in murine systemic lupus erythematosus. Immunotherapy. 2012 Apr;4(4):369-72. doi: 10.2217/imt.12.20. PubMed PMID: 22512630.

3: Seavey MM, Lu LD, Stump KL, Wallace NH, Hockeimer W, O’Kane TM, Ruggeri BA, Dobrzanski P. Therapeutic efficacy of CEP-33779, a novel selective JAK2 inhibitor, in a mouse model of colitis-induced colorectal cancer. Mol Cancer Ther. 2012 Apr;11(4):984-93. doi: 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-11-0951. Epub 2012 Feb 14. PubMed PMID: 22334590.

4: Lu LD, Stump KL, Wallace NH, Dobrzanski P, Serdikoff C, Gingrich DE, Dugan BJ, Angeles TS, Albom MS, Mason JL, Ator MA, Dorsey BD, Ruggeri BA, Seavey MM. Depletion of autoreactive plasma cells and treatment of lupus nephritis in mice using CEP-33779, a novel, orally active, selective inhibitor of JAK2. J Immunol. 2011 Oct 1;187(7):3840-53. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1101228. Epub 2011 Aug 31. PubMed PMID: 21880982.

5: Stump KL, Lu LD, Dobrzanski P, Serdikoff C, Gingrich DE, Dugan BJ, Angeles TS, Albom MS, Ator MA, Dorsey BD, Ruggeri BA, Seavey MM. A highly selective, orally active inhibitor of Janus kinase 2, CEP-33779, ablates disease in two mouse models of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2011 Apr 21;13(2):R68. doi: 10.1186/ar3329. PubMed PMID: 21510883; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3132063.

/////////////CEP-33779, CEP33779, CEP 33779, 1257704-57-6, PRECLINICAL, TEVA,  Rheumatoid Arthritis, Colorectal Cancer Therapy, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus,

Jak2 Inhibitors

O=S(C1=CC=C(C2=CC=CN3C2=NC(NC4=CC=CC(N5CCN(C)CC5)=C4)=N3)C=C1)(C)=O

str1 str2

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Design and synthesis of indoline thiohydantoin derivatives based on enzalutamide as antiproliferative agents against prostate cancer


str0

str0

4-(6-chloro-1-oxo-3-thioxo-9,9a-dihydro-1H-imidazo[1,5-a]indol-2(3H)-yl)-2-(trifluoromethyl)-benzonitrile

WILL BE UPDATED………

Prostate cancer, one of the most malignant tumors worldwide, is the second leading cause of cancer deaths among men in America . Although androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been proved to be effective initially, the tumor will eventually progress and develop into the lethal castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) . The androgen receptor (AR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily and plays a critical role in the progression of normal prostate cells. However, overexpression of AR was found in most CRPC, which is essential for CRPC to adapt to the low levels of androgens. As AR contributes significantly to the resistance to castration, it has been recognized as an attractive target for the treatment of CRPC

Reagents and conditions: (i) HNO3 , H2SO4 , -5 oC, 3 h; (ii) SOCl2 , MeOH, reflux, 12 h; (iii) H2 , Pd/C, MeOH, rt, 12 h; (iv) (CH3CO)2O, TEA, 50 oC, 6 h; (v) H2 , Pd/C, MeOH, rt, 12 h; (vi) acetone, HCl (6 mol/L), -10 oC, 0.5 h, NaNO2 , H2O, -10 oC, 1 h, CuCl/CuBr/KI, 0 oC, 3 h; (vii) HCl, 50 oC, 3 h; (viii) SOCl2 , MeOH, reflux, 12 h; (ix) 2, DMF, TEA, 60 oC, 1 h.

4-(6-chloro-1-oxo-3-thioxo-9,9a-dihydro-1H-imidazo[1,5-a]indol-2(3H)-yl)-2-(trifluoromethyl)-benzonitrile (48c). It was obtained as a yellow solid

m.p. 220-222 oC;

1H-NMR (300 MHz,DMSO-d6): δ 8.40 (d, J = 8.1 Hz, 1H, Ar-H), 8.19 (s, 1H, Ar-H), 8.02-7.92 (m, 2H, Ar-H), 7.49-7.46 (m, 1H, Ar-H), 7.34-7.32 (m, 1H, Ar-H), 5.56 (t, J = 9.6 Hz, 1H, -CH-), 3.58 (d, J = 9.6 Hz, 2H, -CH2-) ppm;

13C-NMR (75 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 184.1, 172.1, 142.3, 138.5, 136.8, 134.7, 131.9, 131.5, 128.0, 126.1 (q, J = 267.9 Hz, CF3), 117.2, 115.4, 66.9, 39.9 ppm;

IR (KBr): 3094, 2232, 1763, 1607, 1499, 1270, 1136, 1052, 998, 786 cm-1;

HRMS (ESI): m/z, calculated for C18H9ClF3N3OS 408.0180 (M + H)+ , found 408.0173.

Paper

A series of indoline thiohydantoin derivatives were synthesized and evaluated in vitro.The most potent compound 48c shows comparable ability with enzalutamide in proliferation inhibition of LNCaP cells.Compound 48c has less cytotoxic to AR-negative cells compared with Enzalutamide.

The bicalutamide-resistant mechanism was clarified and overcome by compound 48c.


Abstract

A novel scaffold of indoline thiohydantoin was discovered as potent androgen receptor (AR) antagonist through rational drug designation. Several compounds showed good biological profiles in AR binding and higher selective toxicity than enzalutamide toward LNCaP cells (AR-rich) versus DU145 cells (AR-deficient). In addition, the docking studies supported the rationalization of the biological evaluation. Among these compounds, the representative compound 48c exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect on LNCaP growth and also acted as a competitive AR antagonist. Further preliminary mechanism study confirmed that 48c exerted its AR antagonistic activity through impairing AR nuclear translocation. All these results indicated that the novel scaffold compounds demonstrated AR antagonistic behaviour and promising candidates for future development were identified.


Graphical abstract

Image 1
Research paper

Design and synthesis of indoline thiohydantoin derivatives based on enzalutamide as antiproliferative agents against prostate cancer

  • Department of Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tongjiaxiang, Nanjing 210009, PR China
  • zhiyuli@cpu.edu.cn

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0223523416309114

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2016.10.049

////////Prostate cancer, Androgen receptor, Antagonist, Indoline thiohydantoin derivatives, indoline thiohydantoin derivatives, enzalutamide, antiproliferative agents, prostate cancer

c1c(cc(c(c1)C#N)C(F)(F)F)N2C(C3Cc4ccc(cc4N3C2=S)Cl)=O

BMS-852927


str1

str1

BMS-852927

CAS 256918-39-4

609.51 MW

C29 H28 Cl2 F2 N2 O4 S MF

2-(2-(2-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)propan-2-yl)-1-(3,3′-difluoro-4′-(hydroxymethyl)-5′-(methylsulfonyl)biphenyl-4-yl)-1H-imidazol-4-yl)propan-2-ol

1H-Imidazole-4-methanol, 2-[1-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-1-methylethyl]-1-[3,3′-difluoro-4′-(hydroxymethyl)-5′-(methylsulfonyl)[1,1′-biphenyl]-4-yl]-α,α-dimethyl-

Treat metabolic syndrome

Brett Busch, Ph.D.

Brett Busch, Ph.D.

https://www.linkedin.com/in/brettbbusch

Exelixis

Brett B. Busch, William C. Stevens, Jr., Ellen K. Kick, Haiying Zhang, Venkataiah Bollu,Richard Martin, Raju Mohan
Applicant Exelixis, Inc.
Brett B. Busch, William C. Stevens, JR., Ellen K. Kick, Haiying Zhang, Venkataiah Bollu,Richard Martin, Raju Mohan
Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Exelixis Patent Company Llc
  • Originator Exelixis
  • Developer Bristol-Myers Squibb
  • Class Antihyperlipidaemics; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action Liver X receptor modulators
  • Discontinued Atherosclerosis; Hypercholesterolaemia

Most Recent Events

  • 04 Jun 2014 BMS 852927 is still in phase I trials for atherosclerosis and in preclinical development for hypecholesterolaemia in USA
  • 02 Aug 2013 Bristol-Myers Squibb terminates the planned phase I trial for Hypercholesterolaemia in Germany, Canada and Switzerland (NCT01651273)
  • 06 Jul 2012 Bristol-Myers Squibb plans a phase I trial for Hypercholesterolaemia in Germany, Canada and Switzerland (NCT01651273)

1H-NMR (DMSO-d6, 400 MHz) δ 7.94 (m, 2H), 7.63 (dd, 1H, J = 11.29, 1.51 Hz), 7.34 (d, 1H, J = 9.54
Hz), 7.14 (m, 3H), 7.05 (m, 1H), 6.83 (s, 1H), 5.58 (t, 1H, J = 5.27 Hz), 4.96 (d, 2H, J = 4.27 Hz), 4.70
(s, 1H), 3.46 (s, 3H), 1.96 (s, 6H), 1.45 (s, 6H); MS m/e 609.16 (M+H+);

13CNMR (DMSO-d6, 400MHz) 161.42 (d, J=249.49 Hz), 156.85 (d, J=250.25 Hz), 153.18, 148.39, 141.69 (d, J=3.05 Hz), 139.45 (dd, J=9.16, 1.53 Hz), 139.32 (dd, J=8.39, 1.53 Hz), 138.58, 134.68, 131.39, 129.96, 128.40,
127.12 (d, J=17.55 Hz), 125.72 (d, J=12.97 Hz), 123.15 (d, J=2.29 Hz), 122.49 (d, J=3.05 Hz), 119.04
(d, J=25.18 Hz), 116.30, 114.52 (d, J=22.13 Hz), 68.11, 51.97 (d, J=5.34 Hz ), 45.53, 44.78, 44.29,
31.01, 30.53.

19F-NMR (JEOL 500 MHz, CDCl3) -113.55, -116.73.

HPLC (XBridge 5μ C18 4.6x50mm, 4 mL/min, Solvent A: 10 % MeOH/water with 0.2 % H3PO4, Solvent B: 90 % MeOH/water with0.2 % H3PO4, gradient with 0-100 % B over 4 minutes): 2.56 minutes, Purity, 99.7%.

HRMS (m/z,Obs.): 609.12065 [M+H]+; (Calc.): 609.11877. Formula: C29H29Cl2F2N2O4S. Anal. Calcd. for
C29H28N2O4SCl2F2•0.10 C2H6O•0.10 C4H5O2: C, 57.05; H, 4.75; Cl, 11.42; F, 6.10; N, 4.50; S, 5.15.
Found: C, 57.14; H, 4.54; Cl, 11.57; F, 5.94; N, 4.36; S, 5.07. The residual solvents, ethyl acetate (1.39
weight %), ethanol (0.74 weight %), dichloromethane (0.05 weight %), and heptane (< 0.05 weight %)
were identified in the sample by GC/MS and the retention times were matched with the reference standards.

Image result for BMS-852927

Image result for BMS-852927

Liver X receptors (LXRs) belong to a family of nuclear hormone receptors that are endogenously activated by cholesterol and its oxidized derivatives to mediate transcription of genes involved in maintaining glucose, cholesterol, and fatty acid metabolism. LXRa is found predominantly in the liver, with low levels found in kidney, intestine, spleen, and adrenal tissue. LXRp is ubiquitous in mammals and was found in nearly all tissues examined. Given the intricate link between lipid metabolism and cancer cell growth, the ubiquitous expression of LXRp in some types of cancer is unlikely to be coincidental, allowing cancer cells to synthesize lipids and lipoprotein particles to sustain their growth. At the same time, however, such stable basal expression levels make LXRp an ideal therapeutic target.

Figure

Examples of LXR agonists reported in the literature

PATENT

WO 2010138598

PATENT

WO 2012135082

PATENT

WO 2014028461

PATENT

WO 2016100619

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2016100619&recNum=1&maxRec=&office=&prevFilter=&sortOption=&queryString=&tab=PCTDescription

PATENT

https://www.google.com/patents/US8618154?cl=enIt

Figure US08618154-20131231-C00002

Example 9 2-(2-(2-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)propan-2-yl)-1-(3,3′-difluoro-4′-(hydroxymethyl)-5′-(methylsulfonyl)biphenyl-4-yl)-1H-imidazol-4-yl)propan-2-ol

Figure US08618154-20131231-C00021

Example 9a Preparation of 2-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-2-methylpropanenitrile

Figure US08618154-20131231-C00022

To a 1 M solution of potassium tert-butoxide (403 mL, 403 mmol) at −66° C. (acetone/dry ice) was slowly added 2-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)acetonitrile (25.0 g, 134 mmol) in anhydrous THF (150 mL). The mixture was stirred at −66° C. for 20 minutes. Then, iodomethane (33.6 mL, 538 mmol) was added drop-wise over 25 minutes at −66° C. At this stage, it was exothermic and a large amount of light yellow precipitate was observed. The suspension was stirred at −60° C. for 30 minutes. The reaction mixture was quenched with 200 mL ice water, and extracted with ether (3×150 mL). The organics were combined, washed with 150 mL brine, dried over Na2SO4, and concentrated on a rotary evaporator. The crude product (30 g, yellow oil) was purified by column chromatography (ISCO, 330 g silica, 20% EtOAc in hexanes) to afford 2-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-2-methylpropanenitrile (28.2 g, 132 mmol, 98% yield) as a light yellowish oil. 1H-NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz) δ 7.35 (d, 2H, J=8.03 Hz), 7.16 (t, 1H, J=8.0 Hz), 2.09 (s, 6H); 13C-NMR (CDCl3, 126 MHz) δ134.6, 133.8, 131.4, 129.0, 124.1, 38.6, 29.2; MS m/e 214.10 (M+H+); HPLC (XBridge 5μ C18 4.6×50 mm, 4 mL/min, Solvent A: 10% MeOH/water with 0.2% H3PO4, Solvent B: 90% MeOH/water with 0.2% H3PO4, gradient with 0-100% B over 4 minutes): 3.16 minutes.

Example 9b Preparation of N-(4-bromo-2-fluorophenyl)-2-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-2-methylpropanimidamide

Figure US08618154-20131231-C00023

2-(2,6-Dichlorophenyl)-2-methylpropanenitrile (20 g, 93 mmol) and 4-bromo-2-fluoroaniline (28.4 g, 149 mmol) were dissolved in anhydrous o-xylene (200 mL) and heated to 100° C. under N2. Trimethylaluminum (2 M) in toluene (140 mL, 280 mmol) was added drop-wise (˜0.9 mL per minute) over 2.5 hours while the reaction mixture was stirred at 100° C. After addition, the reaction mixture was stirred at 100° C. for 30 minutes, and then cooled to −5° C. The reaction mixture was very carefully quenched with potassium sodium tartrate (20 g in 100 mL water) (Caution: gas and heat formation). The reaction mixture was filtered through Celite 545. The filtrate was washed with 1N HCl (4×70 mL). The aqueous was neutralized with 2N NaOH and extracted with EtOAc (4×100 mL). The organics were combined, washed with brine, dried with Na2SO4, and concentrated on a rotary evaporator to afford 24 g of crude product. The crude product was recrystallized with 72 mL of MTBE and 240 mL of hexane to give N-(4-bromo-2-fluorophenyl)-2-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-2-methylpropanimidamide (17.5 g, 43.3 mmol, 46.4% yield) as a white solid (purity: 99%). 1H-NMR (MeOD, 400 MHz) δ 7.42 (d, 2H, J=8.0 Hz), 7.30 (m, 2H), 7.16 (t, 1H, J=8.0 Hz), 6.93 (t, 1H, J=8.0 Hz), 2.11 (s, 6H); 13C-NMR (DMSO-d6, 100 MHz) δ 166.5, 156.1, 153.7, 140.6, 138.5, 135.9, 131.4, 128.6, 128.0, 125.7, 119.5, 112.9, 50.0, 29.2; MS m/e 403.09 (M+H+); HPLC (XBridge 5μ C18 4.6×50 mm, 4 mL/min, Solvent A: 10% MeOH/water with 0.2% H3PO4, Solvent B: 90% MeOH/water with 0.2% H3PO4, gradient with 0-100% B over 4 minutes): 2.32 minutes.

Example 9c Preparation of ethyl 1-(4-bromo-2-fluorophenyl)-2-(2-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)propan-2-yl)-4-hydroxy-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazole-4-carboxylate

Figure US08618154-20131231-C00024

To a mixture of N-(4-bromo-2-fluorophenyl)-2-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-2-methylpropanimidamide (48.0 g, 119 mmol), K2CO3(41.0 g, 297 mmol) in toluene (180 mL) and THF (180 mL) at 55° C. was added slowly a solution of ethyl 3-bromo-2-oxopropanoate (23.3 mL, 166 mmol) in 24 mL of THF over 50 minutes. The reaction mixture was kept at 55° C. for 1.5 hours. A white slurry was observed. The reaction mixture was cooled to 5° C. HCl (0.5N, 450 mL) was added drop-wise (end point pH=9˜10). After addition, the suspension was cooled to 0° C. The solid was collected by filtration, washed with water (2×50 mL), and then dried in a vacuum oven at 60° C. overnight. Ethyl 1-(4-bromo-2-fluorophenyl)-2-(2-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)propan-2-yl)-4-hydroxy-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazole-4-carboxylate (59 g, 114 mmol, 96% yield) was obtained as a white solid. 1H-NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz) δ 7.11 (m, 3H), 6.96 (m, 2H), 6.72 (t, 1H, J=8.28 Hz), 4.35 (m, 2H), 4.25 (d, 1H, J=10.5 Hz), 3.80 (d, 1H, J=10.8 Hz), 1.98 (s, 3H), 1.93 (s, 3H), 1.38 (t, 3H, J=7.03 Hz); 13C-NMR (CDCl3, 126 MHz) δ 173.0, 171.5, 159.8, 157.8, 137.3, 135.7, 132.1, 131.1, 128.1, 127.4, 125.6, 122.2, 120.1, 93.5, 62.5, 45.5, 30.2, 14.0; MS m/e 517.05 (M+H+); HPLC (XBridge 5μ C18 4.6×50 mm, 4 mL/min, Solvent A: 10% MeOH/water with 0.2% H3PO4, Solvent B: 90% MeOH/water with 0.2% H3PO4, gradient with 0-100% B over 4 minutes): 2.74 minutes.

Example 9d Preparation of ethyl 1-(4-bromo-2-fluorophenyl)-2-(2-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)propan-2-yl)-1H-imidazole,4-carboxylate

Figure US08618154-20131231-C00025

To a mixture of ethyl 1-(4-bromo-2-fluorophenyl)-2-(2-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)propan-2-yl)-4-hydroxy-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazole-4-carboxylate (38 g, 73 mmol) in EdOH (200 mL) was added TFA (25.0 g, 220 mmol). The mixture was stbsequently heated tn 95° C. HPLC analysis after 2.5 hours showed <1% of alcohol intermediate remaining The mixture was diluted with 300 mL of CH2Cl2 and cooled to approximately 5° C. with an ice bath. The mixture was neutralized with 1N NaOH (120 mL) and the organic layer was separated. The aqueous layer was dxtracted with CH2Cl2 (2×100 mL). The combined organic layers were concentrated on a rotary evaporator to give crude material. Recrystallization in EtOH (5 mL/1 g) provided 32 g of ethyl 1-(4-bromo-2-fluorophenyl)-2-(2-(2,6-dichlorophdnyl)propan-2-yl)-1H-imidazole-4-carboxylate as `n off-white solhd (86% yield). 1H-NMR (DMSO-d6, 400 MHz) δ 7.92 (s, 1H), 7.16 (d, 1H, J=8.0 Hz), 7.22 (m, 3H), 7.11 (m, 1H), 7.04 (t, 1H, J=12.0 Hz), 4.25 (q, 2H, J=8.0 Hz), 1.94 (s, 6H(, 1.27 (t, 3H, J=8.0 Hz); MS m/e 502.68 (M+H+); HPLC (XBridge 5μ C18 4.6×50 mm, 4 mL/min, Solvent A: 10% MeOH/water with 0.2% H3PO4, Solvent B: 90% MeOH/water with 0.2% H3PO4, gradient with 0-100% B over 4 minutes): 3.87 minutes.

Example 9e Prepar`tion of 2-(1-(4-bromo-2-fluorophenyl)-2-(2-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)propan-2-yl)-1H-imidazol-4-yl)propan-2-ol

Figure US08618154-20131231-C00026

To a mixture of methylmagnesium bromide (60.0 mL, 180 mmol, 3M in ether) in 120 ml, of THF cooled with an ice/salt bath (−15 to −17° C.) was added slowly a solution of ethyl 1-(4-bromo-2-fluorophenyl)-2-(2-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)propan-2-yl)-1H-imidazole-4-carboxylate (30 g, 60 mmol) in 65 mL of CH2Cl2 and 87 mL of THF over 45 minutes. The internal temperature was carefully kept below 0° C. A further 2×20 mL of CH2Cl2 was used to wash forward the residual material. The reaction mixture temperature was maintained below 0° C. for 1 hour with stirring. Then the reaction mixture was diluted with 100 mL of CH2Cl2, and saturated NH4Cl was added slowly. The resulting mixture was extracted with CH2Cl2 (2×80 mL). Organics were combined, washed with brine, dried with Na2SO4, and concentrated on a rotary evaporator to afford 2-(1-(4-bromo-2-fluorophenyl)-2-(2-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)propan-2-yl)-1H-imidazol-4-yl)propan-2-ol (28.5 g, 58.6 mmol, 98% yield) as a white solid. 1H-NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz) δ 7.13 (dd, 1H, J=9.03, 2.01 Hz), 7.09 (s, 1H), 7.07 (s, 1H), 6.93 (m, 2H), 6.75 (t, 1H, J=8.16 Hz), 6.55 (s, 1H), 3.18 (s, 1H), 2.00 (s, 6H), 1.58 (s, 6H); 13C-NMR (CDCl3, 126 MHz) δ 158.1, 156.1, 154.5, 147.8, 139.3, 135.7, 131.3, 130.3, 127.8, 126.9, 122.7, 119.8, 115.1, 68.7, 44.8, 31.1, 29.9; MS m/e 485.05 (M+H+); HPLC (XBridge 5μ C18 4.6×50 mm, 4 mL/min, Solvent A: 10% MeOH/water with 0.2% H3PO4, Solvent B: 90% MeOH/water with 0.2% H3PO4, gradient with 0-100% B over 4 minutes): 2.78 minutes.

Example 9 Preparation of 2-(2-(2-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)propan-2-yl)-1-(3,3′-difluoro-4′-(hydroxymethyl)-5′-(methylsulfonyl)biphenyl-4-yl)-1H-imidazol-4-yl)propan-2-ol

Figure US08618154-20131231-C00027

To a 1 L 3-necked round bottom flask under nitrogen was added 2-(1-(4-bromo-2-fluorophenyl)-2-(2-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)propan-2-yl)-1H-imidazol-4-yl)propan-2-ol (12.0 g, 24.7 mmol), [2-fluoro-6-methanesulfonyl-4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-[1,3,2]dioxaborolan-2-yl)-phenyl]-methanol (9.78 g, 29.6 mmol), K2CO3 (10.2 g, 74 mmol), DME (120 mL) and water (12 mL). The mixture was heated to 60° C., and then 1,1′-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene palladium (II) chloride complex (4.06 g, 4.94 mmol) was added under nitrogen. The reaction mixture was heated to 80° C. for 30 minutes. The resulting darkly colored mixture was cooled with an ice bath, and partitioned in 200 mL of CH2Cl2 and 200 mL of water. The organic layers were combined and dried with Na2SO4. After concentration, the crude product was purified by flash chromatography (ISCO, 330 g silica, 0% to 100% EtOAc in hexanes) to afford 12.79 g of crude product (85% yield) as a light yellow solid.

Recrystallization was carried out by dissolving 9.5 g of crude product in acetone (80 mL) at 65° C. The resulting solution was cooled slowly to 25° C. over 5 hours, and then cooled to 0° C. for an additional 30 minutes. Crystals began to form at 45° C. The solid was collected by filtration and rinsed with cold acetone. After drying in an oven at 45° C. under vacuum for 14 hours, 4.9 g of pure product was obtained. To recover additional crystalline product, the mother liquid was concentrated to approximately 10 mL and passed through a silica pad. EtOAc (100 mL) was used to elute the compound. The filtrate was concentrated under vacuum to give a crude solid. The crude solid was recrystallized in acetone following the procedure above to afford an additional 2.5 g of product. The combined recovery for the two crops after recrystallization was a 78% yield. 1H-NMR (DMSO-d6, 400 MHz) δ 7.94 (m, 2H), 7.63 (dd, 1H, J=11.29, 1.51 Hz), 7.34 (d, 1H, J=9.54 Hz), 7.14 (m, 3H), 7.05 (m, 1H), 6.83 (s, 1H), 5.58 (t, 2H, J=5.27 Hz), 4.96 (d, 2H, J=4.27 Hz), 4.70 (s, 1H), 3.46 (s, 3H), 1.96 (s, 6H), 1.45 (s, 6H); MS m/e 609.16 (M+H+); HPLC (XBridge 5μ C18 4.6×50 mm, 4 mL/min, Solvent A: 10% MeOH/water with 0.2% H3PO4, Solvent B: 90% MeOH/water with 0.2% H3PO4, gradient with 0-100% B over 4 minutes): 2.56 minutes.

Alternatively, Example 9 was prepared as follows:

To a 1 L 3-necked round bottom flask under nitrogen was added methyltetrahydrofuran (“MeTHF”, 6.9 kg), 2-(1-(4-bromo-2-fluorophenyl)-2-(2-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)propan-2-yl)-1H-imidazol-4-yl)propan-2-ol (1.994 kg, 4.1 moles) and (2-fluoro-6-(methylsulfonyl)-4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)phenyl)methanol (1.38 kg, 4.19 moles). The mixture was agitated at 23° C. for 15 min until all the solids dissolved. At the conclusion of this period, (oxydi-2,1-phenylene)bis(diphenylphosphine) (0.022 kg, 0.041 moles) and Pd(OAc)2 (0.01 kg, 0.045 moles) were added as a slurry via a subsurface line. Upon completion of addition, the mixture was rinsed with additional MeTHF (1.65 kg). The resulting mixture was evacuated to less than 80 Torr and backfilled with nitrogen. This process was repeated two more times. After completion of the degassing sequence, the reaction mixture was agitated for at least 15 min and a clear, golden color was observed. In a separate reaction vessel, a solution of potassium hydroxide (0.352 kg) in water (10.00 kg) was prepared and degassed by sparging the solution with nitrogen gas for at least 15 min prior to use. The KOH solution (10.35 kg) was transferred into the reactor by vacuum. The reaction temperature exhibited a known exotherm from 20° C. to 29° C. Upon completion of addition, the resulting biphasic mixture was degassed by a series of pressure swings. The mixture was warmed to between 45-50° C. where it was stirred for at least 2 h. After this time, the reaction mixture was analyzed by HPLC, which indicated the reaction was complete. The reaction mixture was cooled to 23° C. and the stirring was stopped. The mixture was allowed to separate for 30 min and the lower spent KOH stream was removed. The product rich organic was passed through a column of thiourea functionalized silica gel (0.782 kg) (Silicycle) at ˜0.1 kg per min to remove the palladium. The product rich organic phase was washed with a 5% NaHCO3 solution (5 vol) and the phases separated. The organic phase was washed with water (5 vol) and the organic and aqueous phases separated.

The product rich organic phase was polish filtered into a clean reaction vessel and then concentrated to ˜8 volumes (˜16 L) under vacuum (80 Torr, Tjacket=60° C.). Once at the prescribed volume, the reaction mixture was allowed to cool to 25° C. Once at the prescribed temperature the reaction mixture was seeded with 2-(2-(2-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)propan-2-yl)-1-(3,3′-difluoro-4′-(hydroxymethyl)-5′-(methylsulfonyl)biphenyl-4-yl)-1H-imidazol-4-yl)propan-2-ol (0.5%, 0.008 kg). The resulting slurry was stirred at 25° C. for about 18 h. At the conclusion of this period, the reaction mixture was concentrated to ˜8 L under vacuum (150 Torr, Tjacket=60° C.). Once at the prescribed volume, the reaction mixture was heated to 50° C. and isopropyl acetate (IPAc, 13.90 kg) was added to the reactor during a 90 min period. Upon completion of addition, the reaction mixture was cooled to 25° C. during a 3 h period. Once at the prescribed temperature the reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for about 16 h. At the conclusion of this period, the reaction mixture was filtered, deliquored, and washed with additional IPAc (10.4 kg). The filter cake was dried via suction on the filter under a stream of dry nitrogen to yield a white solid. The white solid was transferred to a dryer and dried at 50° C. under full vacuum to afford 2.03 kg of product (81% yield, 99.40 AP, 98 wt %).

PAPER

Abstract Image

Introducing a uniquely substituted phenyl sulfone into a series of biphenyl imidazole liver X receptor (LXR) agonists afforded a dramatic potency improvement for induction of ATP binding cassette transporters, ABCA1 and ABCG1, in human whole blood. The agonist series demonstrated robust LXRβ activity (>70%) with low partial LXRα agonist activity (<25%) in cell assays, providing a window between desired blood cell ABCG1 gene induction in cynomolgus monkeys and modest elevation of plasma triglycerides for agonist 15. The addition of polarity to the phenyl sulfone also reduced binding to the plasma protein, human α-1-acid glycoprotein. Agonist 15 was selected for clinical development based on the favorable combination of in vitroproperties, excellent pharmacokinetic parameters, and a favorable lipid profile.

Discovery of Highly Potent Liver X Receptor β Agonists

Department of Discovery Chemistry, Department of Cardiovascular Biology, #Pharmaceutical Candidate Optimization, Research & Development, Bristol-Myers Squibb, P.O. Box 5400, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-5400, United States
Exelixis Inc., 210 East Grand Avenue, South San Francisco, California 94080, United States
ACS Med. Chem. Lett., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acsmedchemlett.6b00234
Publication Date (Web): October 23, 2016
Copyright © 2016 American Chemical Society
*Tel: 609 466-5053. E-mail: ellen.kick@bms.com.

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/acsmedchemlett.6b00234

WO2007002563A1 Jun 26, 2006 Jan 4, 2007 Exelixis, Inc. Imidazole based lxr modulators
WO2008073825A1 Dec 7, 2007 Jun 19, 2008 Exelixis, Inc. Lxr and fxr modulators
Citing Patent Filing date Publication date Applicant Title
US8901106 Mar 26, 2012 Dec 2, 2014 Bristol-Myers Squibb Company Imidazole prodrug LXR modulators
US20140163081 * Nov 21, 2013 Jun 12, 2014 Exelixis Patent Company Llc Lxr modulators
US20150299136 * May 4, 2015 Oct 22, 2015 Bristol-Myers Squibb Company Lxr modulators

///////////Discovery, Highly Potent,  Liver X Receptor β Agonists, ABCA1 ABCG1 Liver X receptor LXRα LXRβ α-1-acid glycoproteinBMS-852927, BMS 852927

CS(=O)(=O)c1cc(cc(F)c1CO)c2cc(F)c(cc2)n3cc(nc3C(C)(C)c4c(Cl)cccc4Cl)C(C)(C)O

Novel Autotaxin Inhibitors for the Treatment of Osteoarthritis Pain from Lilly Research Laboratories


SCHEMBL15875396.png

str1Figure imgf000023_0002

2-(2-(1H-1,2,3-triazol-5-yl)ethoxy)-1-(2-((2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-2-yl)amino)-5,7-dihydro-6Hpyrrolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-6-yl)ethan-1-one

l-[2-(2,3-dihydro- lH-inden-2-ylamino)-5,7-dihydro-6H-pyrrolo[3,4- d]pyrimidin-6-yl]-2-[2-(lH- l ,2,3-triazol-4-yl)ethoxy]ethanone.

CAS 1619971-30-0

1-[2-(2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-2-ylamino)-5,7-dihydro-6H-pyrrolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-6-yl]-2-[2-(1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)ethoxy]ethanone;
Molecular Formula: C21H23N7O2
Molecular Weight: 405.45302 g/mol

US2014200231

Scheme A

Scheme B

Scheme C

VI

Scheme E

Autotaxin is an enzyme reported to be the source of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) which up-regulates pain-related proteins through one if its cognate receptors, LPAi. LPA is an intracellular lipid mediator which influences a multiplicity of biological and biochemical processes. Targeted inhibition of autotaxin-mediated LPA biosynthesis may provide a novel mechanism to prevent nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain.

Compounds that inhibit autotaxin are desired to offer a potential treatment option for patients in need of treatment for pain.

Pain associated with osteoarthritis (OA) is reported to be the primary symptom leading to lower extremity disability in OA patients. Over 20 million Americans have been diagnosed with OA, the most common of the arthropathies. The currently approved treatments for OA pain may be invasive, lose efficacy with long term use, and may not be appropriate for treating all patients. Additional treatment options for patients suffering from pain associated with OA are desired. Compounds that inhibit autotaxin represent another possible treatment option for patients with pain associated with OA.

U.S. Patent 7,524,852 (‘852) discloses substituted bicyclic pyrimidine derivatives as anti-inflammatory agents.

PCT/US2011/048477 discloses indole compounds as autotoxin inhibitors.

There is a need for novel compounds that provide autotaxin inhibition. The present invention provides novel compounds which are autotaxin inhibitors. The present invention provides certain novel compounds that inhibit the production of LPA.

Autotaxin inhibitor compounds are desired to provide treatments for autotaxin mediated conditions, such as pain and pain associated with OA.

PAPER

Abstract Image

In an effort to develop a novel therapeutic agent aimed at addressing the unmet need of patients with osteoarthritis pain, we set out to develop an inhibitor for autotaxin with excellent potency and physical properties to allow for the clinical investigation of autotaxin-induced nociceptive and neuropathic pain. An initial hit identification campaign led to an aminopyrimidine series with an autotaxin IC50 of 500 nM. X-ray crystallography enabled the optimization to a lead compound that demonstrated favorable potency (IC50 = 2 nM), PK properties, and a robust PK/PD relationship.

Image result for Lilly Research Laboratories

Novel Autotaxin Inhibitors for the Treatment of Osteoarthritis Pain: Lead Optimization via Structure-Based Drug Design

Lilly Research Laboratories, A Division of Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, Indiana 46285, United States
ACS Med. Chem. Lett., 2016, 7 (9), pp 857–861
DOI: 10.1021/acsmedchemlett.6b00207
*E-mail: jonessp@lilly.com. Tel: +1-317-277-5543.

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acsmedchemlett.6b00207

Spencer Jones

Spencer Jones

Senior Research Scientist at Eli Lilly and Company

2-(2-(1H-1,2,3-triazol-5-yl)ethoxy)-1-(2-((2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-2-yl)amino)-5,7-dihydro-6Hpyrrolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-6-yl)ethan-1-one (9)

………… Purified the resulting residue by silica gel chromatography (gradient elution: 0-9% methanol in ethyl acetate ) to give the title compound……..

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): 60:40 mixure of rotamers * indicates minor rotamer δ 8.18 (bs, 0.6H), *8.13 (bs, 0.4H), 7.49 (s, 1H), 7.21-7.09 (m, 4 H), 5.70-5.50 (m, 1H), 4.87-4.78 (m, 1H), 4.75 (s, 1.2H), *4.67 (s, 0.8H), 4.64 (s, 1.2H) *4.53 (s, 0.8H), *4.30 (s, 0.8H), 4.28 (s, 1.2H), 3.93 (t, J = 5.6 Hz, 2H), 3.43 (dd, J = 16.2, 7.1 Hz, 2H), 3.10 (t, J = 5.6 Hz, 2H), 2.89 (dd, J = 16.2, 4.9 Hz, 2H).

13C NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): * indicates minor δ *169.3, 16 169.2, 167.0, *166.8, *162.4, 162.2, 152.8, *152.3, 141.1, 137.8, 130.9, 126.7, 124.9, 115.9, 69.8, 69.3, *69.0, 52.7, *52.5, 51.2, 49.0, *47.9, 40.1, 24.7.

LC/MS (ESI+ ): (m/z) 406 (C21H24N7O2 = (M+1)+ ).

PATENT

WO-2014110000-A1

Example 2

Synthesis of l-[2-(2,3-dihydro- lH-inden-2-ylamino)-5,7-dihydro-6H-pyrrolo[3,4- d]pyrimidin-6-yl]-2-[2-(lH- l ,2,3-triazol-4-yl)ethoxy]ethanone.

Figure imgf000023_0002

Stir a mixture of 2-[2-(lH-triazol-5-yl)ethoxy]acetic acid 2,2,2-trifluoroacetic acid

(20.22 g; 70.90 mmol), N-(2,3-dihydro- lH-inden-2-yl)-6,7-dihydro-5H-pyrrolo[3,4- d]pyrimidin-2-amine dihydrochloride hydrate (27.99 g; 81.54 mmol) and triethylamine (98.83 mL; 709.03 mmol) in dimethylformamide (404.40 mL) at 0°C. Add a solution of 1-propanephosphonic acid cyclic anhydride (50% solution in DMF; 51.89 mL; 81.54 mmol) over 30 minutes, and stir the mixture at room temperature for 18 hours.

Concentrate the reaction mixture under reduced pressure to give a residue. Add water (200 mL) and extract the mixture with ethyl acetate (4 x 250 mL) and

dichloromethane (4 x 250 mL). Wash the combined organic layers with saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate (2 x 100 mL) and brine (100 mL), then dry over anhydrous sodium sulfate. Filter the mixture and concentrate the solution under reduced pressure to give a red solid (25.70 g) that is slurried in ethyl acetate/methanol (9: 1 mixture; 200 mL) for 2 hours at room temperature. Filter the resulting solid and wash with cold ethyl acetate (50 mL) to give a solid (ca.18.2 g) that is re-slurried in ethyl acetate (200 mL) at reflux for 1 hour. On cooling to room temperature, stir the mixture for 1 hour and filter the resulting light pink solid.

Slurry the light pink solid in water/methanol (1 : 1 mixture; 200 mL) and heat the mixture at 50°C for 30 minutes. Add ammonium hydroxide solution (32% ; 50 mL) and continue to heat the mixture at 50°C for 30 minutes. Upon cooling to room temperature, add additional ammonium hydroxide solution (32% ; 50 mL) and continue stirring for 1 hour at room temperature. Filter the resulting light gray solid, dry and slurry again in ethyl acetate (200 mL) for 1 hour to afford a light gray solid that is filtered, washed with ethyl acetate (25 mL), and dried to give the title compound (12.42 g; 43%) as a gray solid. MS (m/z): 406 (M+l).

PATENT

US-20140200231-A1

https://www.google.com/patents/US20140200231

Scheme E

Figure imgf000014_0001

Preparation 7

Synthesis of 2-[2-(lH-triazol-5-yl)ethoxy]acetic acid.

Figure imgf000018_0001

Pressurize 1 atmosphere of hydrogen (g) to a flask containing [2-(l-benzyl-lH- l,2,3-triazol-5-yl)ethoxy]acetic acid (10.1 g; 1.00 equiv; 38.66 mmoles) and palladium (II) chloride (3 g; 16.92 mmoles; 3.00 g) in isopropyl alcohol (300 mL) and water (60 mL). Maintain the flask under a hydrogen atmosphere for 3 h, then filter through Celite™ and concentrate. Add toluene (2×50 mL) and concentrate to afford the title compound (7.96 g, 100%). ]H NMR (d6-DMSO): 2.86 (t, / = 7 Hz, 2 H), 3.65 (t, / = 7 Hz, 2 H), 3.98 (s, 2 H), 7,77 (s, 1 H), 13.4 – 13.6 (br s, 2 H).

Example 1

Synthesis of l-[2-(2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-2-ylamino)-7,8-dihydropyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidin- 6(5H)-yl]-2-[2-(lH-l,2,3-triazol-4- l)ethoxy]ethanone.

Figure imgf000018_0002

Add N-indan-2-yl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidin-2-amine (4.2 g, 15.8 mmol) to a mixture of 2-[2-(lH-triazol-5-yl)ethoxy]acetic acid (2.7 g, 15.8 mmol), 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (3.20 g, 23.7 mmol), and dimethylaminopropyl)-3- ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (5.44 g, 28.4 mmol) in dichloromethane (40 mL) at 25 °C. Add triethylamine (4.40 mL, 31.6 mmol) to the reaction mixture and stir for 16 h. Wash with water (2 x 50 mL) and concentrate the organic layer. Purify by silica gel column chromatography, eluting with ethyl acetate/methanol, to give the title compound (4.0 g, 60%) as a solid. MS (m/z): 420 (M + Η). Preparation 8

Synthesis of 2-chloro-l-[2-(2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-2-ylamino)-7,8-dihydropyrido[4,3- d]pyrimidin-6(5H)-yl]ethanone.

Figure imgf000019_0001

To N-indan-2-yl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidin-2-amine (11.0 g, 41.3 mmol) and triethylamine (7.48 mL, 53.7 mmol) in dichloromethane (200 mL), add 2- chloroacetyl chloride (3.61 mL, 5.13 g, 45.4 mmol) dropwise over five minutes at 23 °C. Stir for 30 minutes and pour the reaction mixture into 1 : 1 50% saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate: dichloromethane (75 mL). Separate the organic layer from the aqueous layer and further extract the aqueous layer with dichloromethane (2 x 25 mL). Combine the organic extracts and dry over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filter, and concentrate. Dissolve the residue in chloroform (10 mL) and purify via silica gel column chromatography (gradient elution: 25% ethyl acetate in hexanes to 100% ethyl acetate) to give the title compound (9.75 g, 69%). ]H NMR (CDC13, * = minor amide rotamer) δ 2.77* (t, 2H), 2.84 (dd, 2H), 2.87 (t, 2H), 3.35 (dd, 2H), 3.76 (t, 2H), 3.85* (t, 2H), 4.12 (s, 2H), 4.52* (s, 2H), 4.57 (s, 2H), 4.72-4.82 (m, IH), 5.48-5.64 (m, IH), 7.12-7.21 (m, 4H), 8.03-8.10 (m, IH).

Preparation 9

Synthesis of 2-(but-3-yn-l-yloxy)-l-[2-(2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-2-ylamino)-7,8- dihydropyrido[4,3-d]p rimidin-6(5H)-yl]ethanone.

Figure imgf000019_0002

To sodium hydride (60 wt% in mineral oil, 1.58 g, 39.6 mmol) in tetrahydrofuran (50 mL) at 23 °C, add 3-butyn-l-ol (7.93 g, 8.59 mL, 113.2 mmol) dropwise, then stir at 23 °C for 20 minutes. Add this solution to 2-chloro-l-[2-(2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-2- ylamino)-7,8-dihydropyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidin-6(5H)-yl]ethanone (9.70 g, 28.3 mmol) in tetrahydrofuran (150 mL) at 23 °C and stir for one hour. Pour the reaction mixture into 50% saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution. Separate the organic layer and further extract the aqueous layer with ethyl ether (x 2) and ethyl acetate (x 2). Combine the organic extracts and wash with brine, then dry over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filter, and concentrate. Purify the resulting crude product by silica gel column chromatography (gradient elution: 20% ethyl acetate in hexanes to 100% ethyl acetate) to give the title compound (8.16 g, 77%). MS (m/z): 377 (M + 1).

Example la

Alternative synthesis of l-[2-(2,3-dihydro- lH-inden-2-ylamino)-7,8-dihydropyrido[4,3- d]pyrimidin-6(5H)-yl]-2-[2-(lH- l,2,3-triazol-4- l)ethoxy]ethanone.

Figure imgf000020_0001

Sparge a solution of 2-(but-3-yn- l-yloxy)-l-[2-(2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-2- ylamino)-7,8-dihydropyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidin-6(5H)-yl]ethanone (8.15 g, 21.7 mmol) and L-ascorbic acid sodium salt (8.58 g, 43.3 mmol) in dimethylformamide (60 mL) and water (60 mL) with nitrogen for ten minutes, then evacuate and backfill with nitrogen three times. Add copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate (1.08 g, 4.33 mmol) and heat to 90 °C, then add azidotrimethylsilane (23.1 mL, 20.0 g, 173 mmol) dropwise and stir for one hour. Cool reaction mixture to 23 °C and pour into water (50 mL). Extract this mixture with ethyl acetate (4 x 50 mL). Combine the organic extracts and wash with saturated aqueous sodium chloride, dry over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filter, and concentrate.

Purify the resulting crude product by silica gel column chromatography (gradient elution: 0 to 10% methanol in ethyl acetate) to give the title compound (3.60 g, 40%). MS (m/z): 420 (M + 1). Preparation 10

Synthesis of tert-butyl-2-(2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-2-ylamino)-5,7-dihydro-6H-pyrrolo[3,4- d]pyrimidine-6-carboxylate.

Figure imgf000021_0001

Charge 450 rriL (2.58 mol) of N-ethyl-N-isopropylpropan-2-amine into a 15 °C solution of tert-butyl 2-chloro-5,7-dihydro-6H-pyrrolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine-6-carboxylate (220 g, 860.37 mmol) and 2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-2-amine (137.7 g, 1.03 mol) in 1- methylpyrrolidin-2-one (3.6 L). Heat the resulting mixture to 80 °C for 16 h, then cool to 30 °C and transfer the resulting mixture into 5 L of water at 25 °C. Filter the resulting solid and rinse the filter cake with water (2 x 300 rriL). Reslurry the solid in ethyl acetate (350 iriL) for 45 min at 15 °C. Filter the slurry, rinsing with 15 °C ethyl acetate ( 2 x 250 rriL), and dry to give the title compound (226 g, 75%) as an off-white solid. ‘H NMR (d6-DMSO) 1.45 (s, 9 H), 2.87 (dd, /= 7.2, 15.8 Hz, 2 H), 3.24 (dd, /= 7.2, 15.8 Hz, 2 H), 4.36 (d, 10.4 Hz, 2 H), 4.44 (d, /= 12.8 Hz, 2 H), 4.60 (m, 1 H), 7.14 (m, 2 H), 7.20 (m, 2 H), 7.55 (d, /= 6.8 Hz, 1 H), 8.27 (d, /= 7.2 Hz, 1 H).

Preparation 11

Synthesis of N-(2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-2-yl)-6,7-dihydro-5H-pyrrolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-2- amine dihydrochloride hydrate.

Figure imgf000021_0002

Charge 670 rriL of 5 M hydrochloric acid (3.35 mol) to a solution of tert-butyl 2-

(2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-2-ylamino)-5,7-dihydro-6H pyrrolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine-6- carboxylate (226 g, 641.25 mmol) in tetrahydrofuran (2.0 L) at 17 °C, maintaining the internal temperature below 26 °C during the addition. Heat the resulting solution to 50 °C for 16 h, cool to 25 °C and dilute with 500 rriL of water and 500 mL of tert- butylmethylether. Separate the resulting layers and extract with tert-butylmethylether (3 x 1 L). Concentrate the water phase down to a reaction volume of ca. 200 mL, and filter the resulting slurry. Rinse the cake with tert-butylmethylether (2 x 200 mL) and dry to give the title product (177 g, 80%) as a light brown solid. MS (m/z): 253.2 (M-2HC1- H20+1).

Preparation 12

Syntheis of tert-butyl 2-but-3-ynox acetate.

Figure imgf000022_0001

Stir a mixture of but-3-yn-l-ol (6.00 g; 85.60 mmol), tetrabutylammonium sulfate (2.07 g; 8.54 mmol) and sodium hydroxide (40% wt/wt; 150 mL) in dichloromethane (150 mL) at 0°C. Add tert-butyl bromoacetate (19.34 mL; 128.40 mmol) dropwise and stir the mixture for 2.5 hours at room temperature. Dilute the reaction mixture with dichloromethane (200 mL) and water (100 mL), separate the layers, and further extract the aqueous layer with dichloromethane (2 x 100 mL). Wash the combined organic layers with brine (100 mL), dry over anhydrous sodium sulfate, and concentrate to afford the crude title compound as a brown oil (11.93 g). Purify the oil by silica gel column chromatography, eluting with hexane: ethyl acetate (0% to 10% mixtures) to give the title compound (11.35 g; 72%) as a colorless oil. ]H NMR (CDCI3) δ 1.48 (s, 9H), 2.00 (m, 1H), 2.52 (m, 2H), 3.67 (m, 2H), 4.01 (bs, 2H).

Preparation 13

Synthesis of tert-butyl 2-[2-(lH-triazol-5- l)ethoxy]acetate.

Figure imgf000022_0002

Stir tert-Butyl 2-but-3-ynoxyacetate (11.34 g; 61.55 mmol) and copper(I)iodide (584 mg; 3.07 mmol) in a mixture of dimethylformamide (56.70 mL) and methanol (11.34 mL) at 0°C. Add azido(trimethyl)silane (12.33 mL; 86.47 mmol) dropwise and heat the mixture at 90°C for 18 hours.

In a second batch, stir tert-butyl 2-but-3-ynoxyacetate (4.38 g; 23.77 mmol) and copper(I)iodide (226 mg; 1.19 mmol) in a mixture of dimethylformamide (22 mL) and methanol (6 mL) at 0°C. Add azido(trimethyl)silane (4.8 mL; 33.66 mmol) dropwise and the mixture heated at 90°C for 18 hours.

Upon cooling to room temperature, combine the crude products from both batches and concentrate the mixture to afford a greenish residue. Purify the crude product by filtration through a plug of silica eluting with dichloromethane: ethyl acetate (75% to 100% mixtures) to afford the title compound (14.15 g, 73%) as a colorless oil. MS (m/z): 228.15 (M+l).

Preparation 14

Synthesis of 2-[2-(lH-triazol-5-yl)ethoxy]acetic acid 2,2,2-trifluoroacetic acid.

Figure imgf000023_0001

Stir a mixture of ieri-butyl 2-[2-(lH-triazol-5-yl)ethoxy]acetate (14.15 g; 62.26 mmol) and trifluoroacetic acid (70.75 mL, 935.69 mmol) in dichloromethane (70.75 mL) for 2 hours at room temperature. Concentrate the reaction mixture under reduced pressure to provide the title compound containing additional trifluoroacetic acid (20.22 g, >100%) as a brown solid. MS (m/z): 172.05 (M+l).

Example 2

Synthesis of l-[2-(2,3-dihydro- lH-inden-2-ylamino)-5,7-dihydro-6H-pyrrolo[3,4- d]pyrimidin-6-yl]-2-[2-(lH- l ,2,3-triazol-4-yl)ethoxy]ethanone.

Figure imgf000023_0002

Stir a mixture of 2-[2-(lH-triazol-5-yl)ethoxy]acetic acid 2,2,2-trifluoroacetic acid

(20.22 g; 70.90 mmol), N-(2,3-dihydro- lH-inden-2-yl)-6,7-dihydro-5H-pyrrolo[3,4- d]pyrimidin-2-amine dihydrochloride hydrate (27.99 g; 81.54 mmol) and triethylamine (98.83 mL; 709.03 mmol) in dimethylformamide (404.40 mL) at 0°C. Add a solution of 1-propanephosphonic acid cyclic anhydride (50% solution in DMF; 51.89 mL; 81.54 mmol) over 30 minutes, and stir the mixture at room temperature for 18 hours.

Concentrate the reaction mixture under reduced pressure to give a residue. Add water (200 mL) and extract the mixture with ethyl acetate (4 x 250 mL) and

dichloromethane (4 x 250 mL). Wash the combined organic layers with saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate (2 x 100 mL) and brine (100 mL), then dry over anhydrous sodium sulfate. Filter the mixture and concentrate the solution under reduced pressure to give a red solid (25.70 g) that is slurried in ethyl acetate/methanol (9: 1 mixture; 200 mL) for 2 hours at room temperature. Filter the resulting solid and wash with cold ethyl acetate (50 mL) to give a solid (ca.18.2 g) that is re-slurried in ethyl acetate (200 mL) at reflux for 1 hour. On cooling to room temperature, stir the mixture for 1 hour and filter the resulting light pink solid.

Slurry the light pink solid in water/methanol (1 : 1 mixture; 200 mL) and heat the mixture at 50°C for 30 minutes. Add ammonium hydroxide solution (32% ; 50 mL) and continue to heat the mixture at 50°C for 30 minutes. Upon cooling to room temperature, add additional ammonium hydroxide solution (32% ; 50 mL) and continue stirring for 1 hour at room temperature. Filter the resulting light gray solid, dry and slurry again in ethyl acetate (200 mL) for 1 hour to afford a light gray solid that is filtered, washed with ethyl acetate (25 mL), and dried to give the title compound (12.42 g; 43%) as a gray solid. MS (m/z): 406 (M+l).

Preparation 15

Synthesis of 2-chloro- l-[2-(2,3-dihydro- lH-inden-2-ylamino)-5,7-dihydro-6H- pyrrolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-6-yl]ethanone.

Figure imgf000024_0001

Stir a suspension of N-(2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-2-yl)-6,7-dihydro-5H-pyrrolo[3,4- d]pyrimidin-2-amine dihydrochloride hydrate (14.4 g, 41.9 mmol) and triethylamine (14.3 g, 19.7 mL, 141.4 mmol) in dichloromethane (200 mL) at 23 °C for 10 minutes, then cool to -30 °C. Add 2-chloroacetyl chloride (5.49 g, 3.86 mL, 48.6 mmol) over two minutes and warm to 23 °C over 10 minutes. Add methanol (5 mL) and remove the solvent in vacuo. Slurry the crude reaction mixture in methanol (30 mL), add 50 g silica gel and remove solvent in vacuo. Load the resulting residue onto a loading column and purify via silica gel column chromatography (gradient elution: 50% ethyl acetate in hexanes to ethyl acetate to 10% methanol in ethyl acetate) to give the title compound (11.5 g, 84%). MS (m/z): 329(M+1).

Preparation 16

Synthesis of 2-(but-3-yn-l-yloxy)-l-[2-(2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-2-ylamino)-5,7-dihydro- 6H-pyrrolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-6-yl]ethanone.

Figure imgf000025_0001

To sodium hydride (60 wt% in mineral oil, 2.06 g, 51.4 mmol) in tetrahydrofuran (86 mL) at 0 °C, add 3-butyn-l-ol (4.64 g, 5.03 mL, 64.3 mmol), then stir at 23 °C for 15 minutes. Add this solution to 2-chloro-l-[2-(2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-2-ylamino)-5,7- dihydro-6H-pyrrolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-6-yl]ethanone (8.45 g, 25.7 mmol) in

tetrahydrofuran (86 mL) at 0 °C and stir for five minutes. Pour reaction mixture into 50% saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution. Separate the organic layer and further extract the aqueous layer with ethyl ether and ethyl acetate (2 x 50 mL each). Combine the organic extracts and wash with brine, then dry over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filter, and concentrate. Combine the crude product with the crude product from a second reaction (run reaction under identical conditions and stoichiometry employing 2-chloro- 1- [2-(indan-2-ylamino)-5,7-dihydropyrrolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-6-yl]ethanone (3.0 g, 9.1 mmol)) and purify by silica gel column chromatography (gradient elution: 25% ethyl acetate in hexanes to 100% ethyl acetate) to give the title compound (2.90 g, 23%). MS

(m/z): 363(M+1). Example 2a

Alternative synthesis of l-[2-(2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-2-ylamino)-5,7-dihydro- pyrrolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-6-yl]-2-[2-(lH-l,2,3-triazol-4-yl)ethoxy]ethanone.

Figure imgf000026_0001

Add dimethylformamide (27 mL) and water (27 mL) to a flask containing 2-(but- 3-yn-l-yloxy)-l-[2-(2,3-dihydro-lH-inden-2-ylamino)-5,7-dihydro-6H-pyrrolo[3,4- d]pyrimidin-6-yl]ethanone (2.90 g, 8.00 mmol). Add copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate (400 mg, 1.60 mmol) and L-ascorbic acid sodium salt (3.17 g, 16.0 mmol). Evacuate flask and backfill with nitrogen (x 2), then add azidotrimethylsilane (7.37 g, 8.53 mL, 64.0 mmol) and heat the reaction to 90 °C for 70 minutes. Cool the reaction mixture to 23 °C and remove all solvent in vacuo. Suspend the residue in methanol/dichloromethane and then add silica gel and remove solvent in vacuo. Load this material onto a loading column and purify via silica gel column chromatography (gradient elution: 0-9% methanol in ethyl acetate) to give the title compound (980 mg, 30%). MS (m/z):

406(M+1).

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N1(Cc2cnc(nc2C1)NC3Cc4ccccc4C3)C(=O)COCCc5cnnn5

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