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ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 29 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 29 year tenure till date Aug 2016, Around 30 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 25 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 13 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 212 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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A Novel and Practical Synthesis of Ramelteon


Ramelteon.svgRAMELTEON
Abstract Image

An efficient and practical process for the synthesis of ramelteon 1, a sedative-hypnotic, is described. Highlights in this synthesis are the usage of acetonitrile as nucleophilic reagent to add to 4,5-dibromo-1,2,6,7-tetrahydro-8H-indeno[5,4-b]furan-8-one 2 and the subsequent hydrogenation which successfully implement four processes (debromination, dehydration, olefin reduction, and cyano reduction) into one step to produce the ethylamine compound 13where dibenzoyl-l-tartaric acid is selected both as an acid to form the salt in the end of hydrogenation and as the resolution agent. Then, target compound 1 is easily obtained from13 via propionylation. The overall yield in this novel and concise process is almost twice as much as those in the known routes, calculated on compound 2.

A Novel and Practical Synthesis of Ramelteon

State Key Lab of New Drug & Pharmaceutical Process, Shanghai Institute of Pharmaceutical Industry, State Institute of Pharmaceutical Industry, Shanghai 200437,China
Org. Process Res. Dev., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/op500386g

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/op500386g

Publication Date (Web): January 6, 2015
Copyright © 2015 American Chemical Society
*Telephone: +86 21 55514600. E-mail: zhouweicheng58@163.com.
Preparation of (S)-N-[2-(1,6,7,8-Tetrahydro-2H-indeno[5,4-b] furan-8-yl)ethyl]propionamide(1).
GAVE
white solid of 1(1.570 g, 85% yield, 99.8% ee). Purity by HPLC 99.6%.
Mp: 115−116 °C(113−115°C in literature 1 ).
Ramelteon.svg
1 H−NMR(400 MHz, CDCl3):
δ 1.39 (t, 3H); 1.63 (m, 1H); 1.83 (m, 1H); 2.02 (m, 1H); 2.16 (dd, J=8, 2H); 2.28 (m, 1H); 2.78 (m, 1H); 2.83 (m, 1H); 3.14 (m, 1H); 3.22 (m, 2H); 3.33 (m, 2H); 4.54 (m, 2H); 5.38 (br s, 1H); 6.61 (d, J=8, 1H); 6.97 (d, J=8, 1H).
Ramelteon.svg
13C−NMR(100 MHz, CDCl3):
δ 173.85, 159.56, 143.26, 135.92, 123.52, 122.28, 107.56, 71.26, 42.37, 38.17, 33.66, 31.88, 30.82, 29.86, 28.73, 10.01.
MS (ES+): m/z 282(M+Na) + .
[α]D −57.3(c=1.0, CHCl3, −57.8 in literature 1 ).
Anal. (C16H21NO2) Calc: C, 74.10; H, 8.16; N, 5.40; found: 74.09; H, 8.17; N, 5.47.
References
(1) Uchikawa, O.; Fukatsu, K.; Tokunoh, R.; Kawada, M.; Matsumoto, K.; Imai, Y.; Hinuma, S.; Kato, K.; Nishikawa, H.; Hirai, K.; Miyamoto M.; Ohkawa, S. J. Med. Chem. 2002, 45, 4222-4239.
(2) Yamano, T.; Yamashita, M.; Adachi, M.; Tanaka, M.; Matsumoto, K.; Kawada, M.; Uchikawa, O.; Fukatsu, K.; Ohkawa, S. Tetrahedron: Asymmetry. 2006, 17, 184-190.
SHANGHAI
SHANGHAI CHINA
The Shanghai International Exhibition Center, an example of Soviet neoclassical architecture in Shanghai
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FDA Approves Zykadia, Ceritinib, LDK378 for ALK-Positive NSCLC


Ceritinib (LDK378)
mw 558.14, C28H36ClN5O3S, CAS 1032900-25-6  
NVP-LDK378, NVP-LDK378-NX 
Novartis Ag  innovator
5-chloro-N2-(2-isopropoxy-5-methyl-4-(piperidin-4-yl)phenyl)-N4-(2-(isopropylsulfonyl) phenyl)pyrimidine-2,4-diamine
5-chloro-N-(2-isopropoxy-5-methyl-4- (piperidin-4-ylphenyl)-N-2-(isopropylsulfonyl)phenyl)-2,4-diamine 
5-Chloro-N2-[5-methyl-4-(piperidin-4-yl)-2-(propan-2-yloxy)phenyl]-N4-[2-(propan-2-ylsulfonyl)phenyl]pyrimidine-2,4-diamine
5-chloro-N-(2-isopropoxy-5-methyl-4- (piperidin-4-ylphenyl)-N-2-(isopropylsulfonyl)phenyl)-2,4-diamine di-hydrochloride salt.
LDK378 is a highly selective inhibitor of an important cancer target, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) 
Ceritinib (LDK378) a selective inhibitor of the cancer target anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), shows a marked clinical response in patients with ALK+ non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) during the 49th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) on June 3, 2013. FDA designated LDK378 as Breakthrough Therapy in March, 2013. A regulatory application was submitted in January 2014 in the US for LDK378 (ceritinib).  see current status………….
April 29, 2014

Acting 4 months ahead of schedule, the FDA has granted an accelerated approval to ceritinib (Zykadia; LDK378) as a treatment for patients with ALK-positive metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) following treatment with crizotinib (Xalkori), based on a single-arm clinical trial demonstrating a durable improvement in overall response rates (ORR).

The approval for the second-generation ALK inhibitor was supported by results from an analysis of 163 patients treated with single-agent ceritinib at 750 mg daily following progression on crizotinib. In these select patients, the ORR was 54.6% with a 7.4-month median duration of response, according to data submitted to the FDA by Novartis, the company developing the drug. Based on these findings, the FDA granted ceritinib a Breakthrough Therapy designation, Priority Review, and orphan product designation.



“Today’s approval illustrates how a greater understanding of the underlying molecular pathways of a disease can lead to the development of specific therapies aimed at these pathways,” Richard Pazdur, MD, director of the Office of Hematology and Oncology Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, said in a statement. “It also demonstrates the FDA’s commitment to working cooperatively with companies to expedite a drug’s development, review and approval, reflecting the promise of the breakthrough therapy designation program.”

In the study that was the basis for the approval, the primary endpoint was ORR by RECIST criteria with a secondary outcome measure of duration of response. Treatment with ceritinib resulted in an ORR of 54.6% by investigator assessment with a median duration of response of 7.4 months. By blinded independent central review, the ORR was 43.6% and the duration of response was 7.1 months.

Earlier this year, results from a dose escalation study that examined ceritinib in 130 patients who were untreated or refractory to crizotinib were published in the New England Journal of Medicine. In this analysis for patients who received doses of at least 400 mg (n = 114), the ORR was 58%. Patients who had progressed on crizotinib (n = 80) experienced an ORR of 56% and those who were crizotinib-naïve (n =34) had an ORR of 62%.

The median progression-free survival was 7.0 months and the median duration of response was 8.2 months (95% CI; 6.9-11.4). Additionally, responses were seen in patients with untreated metastatic brain lesions who progressed on prior therapy with crizotinib, the authors of the study noted.

The most frequent adverse events were nausea (82%), diarrhea (75%), vomiting (65%), fatigue (47%) and increased alanine aminotransferase levels (35%). These adverse events were generally mild and resolved when treatment stopped or the dose was reduced.

The most common grade 3 or 4 drug-related adverse events were increased alanine aminotransferase levels (21%), increased aspartate aminotransferase levels (11%), diarrhea (7%) and increased lipase levels (7%), all of which were reversible upon treatment discontinuation.

“Zykadia represents an important treatment option for ALK-positive NSCLC patients who relapse after starting initial therapy with crizotinib,” Alice Shaw, MD, PhD, of the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Cancer Center, lead author of the report, said in a statement. “This approval will affect the way we manage and monitor patients with this type of lung cancer, as we will now be able to offer them the opportunity for continued treatment response with a new ALK inhibitor.”

Two phase III studies are enrolling patients to further explore the efficacy and safety of ceritinib in patients with ALK-positive NSCLC. These studies will likely act as confirmation for the accelerated approval. In the first, ceritinib will be compared with chemotherapy in untreated patients with ALK-rearranged NSCLC (NCT01828099). The second will compare ceritinib to chemotherapy in ALK-positive patients with NSCLC following progression on chemotherapy and crizotinib (NCT01828112).

“The approval of Zykadia less than three and a half years after the first patient entered our clinical trial exemplifies what is possible with a highly focused approach to drug development and strong collaboration,” Alessandro Riva, MD, president of Novartis Oncology ad interim and global head of Oncology Development and Medical Affairs, said in a statement. “The dedication of clinical investigators, patients, the FDA and others has enabled us to bring this medicine to patients in need as swiftly as possible.” 

 

 

Chemical Synthesis of Ceritinib_LDK378-ALK inhibitor-Lung Cancer-Novartis

Nitration of 2-chloro-4-fluoro-1-methylbenzene  with KNO3 in the presence of H2SO4 gives 1-chloro-5-fluoro-2-methyl-4-nitrobenzene , which upon condensation with isopropyl alcohol  in the presence of Cs2CO3 in 2-PrOH at 60 °C yields 5-isopropoxy-2-methyl-4-nitrobenzene .

Suzuki coupling of chloride  with 4-pyridineboronic acid  in the presence of Pd2dba3, K3PO4 and SPhos in dioxane/water at 150 °C (microwave irradiation) provides 4-(5-isopropoxy-2-methyl-4-nitrophenyl)pyridine , which is then subjected to global reduction using H2 over PtO2 in the presence of TFA in AcOH to afford 2-isopropoxy-5-methyl-4-piperidin-4-ylaniline .

N-Protection of piperidine  with Boc2O in the presence of Et3N in CH2Cl2 furnishes the corresponding carbamate (VIII), which upon Buchwald-Hartwig cross coupling with 2,5-dichloropyrimidine derivative  (prepared by condensation of 2-(isopropylsulfonyl)aniline and 2,4,5-trichloropyrimidine in the presence of NaH in DMSO/DMF) in the presence of Pd(OAc)2, Xantphos and Cs2CO3 in THF affords Boc-protected ceritinib . Finally, removal of Boc-group in compound  using TFA in CH2Cl2 furnishes the target compound ceritinib

/////////////////

 

 Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), a member of the insulin receptor superfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases, has been implicated in oncogenesis in hematopoietic and non- hematopoietic tumors. The aberrant expression of full-length ALK receptor proteins has been reported in neuroblastomas and glioblastomas; and ALK fusion proteins have occurred in anaplastic large cell lymphoma. The study of ALK fusion proteins has also raised the possibility of new therapeutic treatments for patients with ALK-positive malignancies. (Pulford et al., Cell. MoI. Life Sci. 61:2939-2953 (2004)).

Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) is a key enzyme in the integrin-mediated outside-in signal cascade (D. Schlaepfer et al., Prog Biophys MoI Biol 1999, 71, 43578). The trigger in the signal transduction cascade is the autophosphorylation of Y397. Phosphorylated Y397 is a SH2 docking site for Src family tyrosine kinases; the bound c-Src kinase phosphorylates other tyrosine residues in FAK. Among them, phsophorylated Y925 becomes a binding site for the SH2 site of Grb2 small adaptor protein. This direct binding of Grb2 to FAK is one of the key steps for the activation of down stream targets such as the Ras-ERK2/MAP kinase cascade.

 Zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 (ZAP-70), a member of the protein tyrosine kinase family, is of potential prognostic importance in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). ZAP-70, known to be of importance in T and NK cell signaling but absent in normal peripheral B cells, is expressed in the majority of the poorer prognosis unmutated CLL and absent in most cases with mutated IgVH genes. ZAP-70 is also expressed in a minority of other B cell tumors. (Orchard et al., Leuk. Lymphoma 46:1689-98 (2005)). [0006] Insulin- like growth factor (IGF-I) signaling is highly implicated in cancer, with the IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) as the predominating factor. IGR-IR is important for tumor transformation and survival of malignant cells, but is only partially involved in normal cell growth. Targeting of IGF-IR has been suggested to be a promising option for cancer therapy. (Larsson et al., Br. J. Cancer 92:2097-2101 (2005)).

Because of the emerging disease-related roles of ALK, FAK, ZAP-70 and IGF-IR, there is a continuing need for compounds which may be useful for treating and preventing a disease which responds to inhibition of ALK, FAK, ZAP-70 and/or IGF-IR

The compound 5-Chloro-N2-(2-isopropoxy-5-methyl-4-piperidin-4-yl-phenyl)-N4-[2- (propane-2-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-pyrimidine-2, 4-diamine, in the form of a free base, of formula

Figure imgf000003_0001

(I)

is an anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor, a member of the insulin receptor super family of receptor tyrosine kinases. Compound I was originally described in WO 2008/073687 Al as Example 7, compound 66. WO 2008/073687 Al , however, provides no information about crystalline forms of 5-

Chloro-N2-(2-isopropoxy-5-methyl-4-piperidin-4-yl-phenyl)-N4-[2-(propane-2-sulfonyl)- phenyl]-pyriniidine-2, 4-diamine or its corresponding salts. Crystalline forms of 5-Chloro-N2- (2-isopropoxy-5-methyl-4-piperidin-4-yl-phenyl)-N4-[2-(propane-2-sulfonyl)-phenyl]- pyrimidine-2, 4-diamine have been discovered, which are useful in treating diseases which respond to inhibition of anaplastic lymphoma kinase activity, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), zeta- chain-associated protein kinase 70 (ZAP-70) insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1 or a

combination thereof. The crystalline forms exhibit new physical properties that may be exploited in order to obtain new pharmacological properties, and that may be utilized in the drug product development of 5-Chloro-N2-(2-isopropoxy-5-methyl-4-piperidin-4-yl-phenyl)-N4-[2- (propane-2-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-pyrimidine-2, 4-diamine.

 

…………………….

WO 2008073687

http://www.google.com/patents/WO2008073687A2?cl=en

Example 7

5-Chloro-N2-(2-isopropoxy-5-methyl-4-piperidin-4-yl-phenyl)-N4-r2-(propane-2-sulfonyl)- phenvH-pyrimidine-2,4-diamine (66)

Figure imgf000046_0001

1 : 4-(5-Isopropoxv-2-methvl-4-nitro-phenyl)-pvridine

Figure imgf000047_0001

[0111] 4-Pyridineboronic acid (147 mg, 1.20 mmol, 1.1 equiv.) is dissolved in a 2:1 v/v mixture of dioxane and H2O (15 mL) and N2 is bubbled through for 5 minutes. Tris(dibenzylidene acetone)dipalladium (0) (100 mg, 0.109 mmol, 0.1 equiv.), 2- dicyclohexylphosphine-2′-6′-dimethoxy biphenyl (112 mg, 0.272 mmol, 0.25 equiv.), 1-chloro- 5-isopropoxy-2-methyl-4-nitro-benzene (Intermediate 4, 250 mg, 1.09 mmol, 1.0 equiv.) and K3PO4 (462 mg, 2.18 mmol, 2.0 equiv.) are added under a N2 blanket. The reaction vessel is sealed and heated with microwave irradiation to 150 0C for 20 min. After cooling to room temperature, the reaction is diluted with ethyl acetate and washed with 1 N aqueous NaOH (2x), the organic layer is then dried over Na2SO4 and filtered. After concentration, the crude product is purified by silica gel chromatography (gradient from hexanes to 30% ethyl acetate in hexanes) to give 4-(5-Isopropoxy-2-methyl-4-nitro-phenyl)-pyridine as a brown solid: ESMS m/z 273.1 (M + H+).

Steps 2 and 3 : 4-(4-Amino-5-isopropoxy-2-methyl-phenyl)-piperidine-l-carboxylic acid tert- butyl ester

Figure imgf000047_0002

[0112] 4-(5-Isopropoxy-2-methyl-4-nitro-phenyl)-pyridine from the previous step(438 mg, 1.61 mmol) dissolved in acetic acid (30 mL) is treated with TFA (0.24 mL, 3.22 mmol) and PtO2 (176 mg, 40% w/w). The reaction mixture is vigorously stirred under 1 atm. H2 for 36 hours. The reaction mixture is filtered and the filtrate is concentrated under vacuum. The resulting residue is diluted with ethyl acetate and washed with 1 N aqueous NaOH (2x), the organic layer is then dried over Na2SO4 and filtered. After concentration, the crude product (391 mg) is dissolved in anhydrous CH2Cl2 (30 mL). TEA is added (0.44 mL, 3.15, 2 equiv.) followed by Boc2O (344 mg, 1.57 equiv, 1 equiv.). The reaction is stirred at room temperature for 30 min. The reaction is concentrated under vacuum. The resulting residue is purified by silica gel chromatography (gradient from hexanes to 30% ethyl acetate in hexanes) to give 4-(4-amino-5- isopropoxy-2-methyl-phenyl)-piperidine-l-carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester as a sticky foam: ESMS m/z 293.1 (M-?Bu+H)+.

Steps 4 and 5

[0113] 4-(4-Amino-5-isopropoxy-2-methyl-phenyl)-piperidine-l-carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester (170 mg, 0.488 mmol) from the previous step, (2,5-Dichloro-pyrimidin-4-yl)-[2-(propane- 2-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-amine (Intermediate 2, 169 mg, 0.488 mmol, 1 equiv.), xantphos (28 mg, 0.049 mmol, 0.1 equiv.), palladium acetate (5.5 mg, 0.024 mmol, 0.05 equiv.), and Cs2CO3 (477 mg, 1.46 mmol, 3 equiv.) are dissolved in anhydrous THF (6 mL). N2 is bubbled through the reaction mixture for 5 minutes and then the reaction vessel is sealed and heated with microwave irradiation to 150 0C for 20 min. The reaction is filtered and the filtrate concentrated under vacuum. After concentration, the crude product is purified by silica gel chromatography (gradient from hexanes to 30% ethyl acetate in hexanes) to give 4-(4-{5-chloro-4-[2-(propane-2- sulfonyl)-phenylamino]-pyrimidin-2-ylamino}-5-isopropoxy-2-methyl-phenyl)-piperidine-l- carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester as a yellow film: ESMS m/z 658.3 (M + H+). This product (105 mg, 0.160 mmol) is dissolved in CH2Cl2 (3 mL) and treated with TFA (3 mL). After 45 min., the reaction is concentrated under vacuum. 1 N HCl in Et2O (5 mL x 2) is added causing the product HCl salt to precipitate. The solvent is removed by decantation. The resulting 5- Chloro-N2-(2-isopropoxy-5-methyl-4-piperidin-4-yl-phenyl)-N4-[2-(propane-2-sulfonyl)- phenyl]-pyrimidine-2,4-diamine (66) is dried under high vacuum, generating an off-white powder: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-J6+ trace D2O) δ 8.32 (s, IH), 8.27 (d, IH), 7.88 (d, IH), 7.67 (dd, IH), 7.45 (dd, IH), 7.42 (s, IH), 6.79 (s, IH), 4.56-4.48 (m, IH), 3.49-3.32 (m, 3H), 3.10-2.91 (m, 3H), 2.09 (s, 3H), 1.89-1.77 (m, 4H), 1.22 (d, 6H), 1.13 (d, 6H); ESMS m/z 558.1 (M + H+).

Figure imgf000046_000166

……………………..

WO 2012082972

 http://www.google.com/patents/WO2012082972A1

EXAMPLE 1

Preparation of Form A of 5-chloro-N-(2-isopropoxy-5-methyl-4-(piperidin-4-ylphenyl)-N-2- (isopropylsulfonyl phenyl)-2^-diamine

5-chloro-N-(2-isopropoxy-5-methyl-4-(piperidin-4-ylphenyl)-N-2-(isopropylsulfonyl)phenyl)- 2,4-diamine di-hydrochloride salt

The compound 2-isopropoxy-5-methyl-4-(piperdin-4-yl) aniline dihydrochloride (33.00 g, 85.25 mmol) and 2,5-dichloro-N-(2-(isopropyl sulfonyl )phenyl)pyrimidin-4-amine (32.53 g) was added to a 3 -necked 500-mL round-bottomed flask equipped with mechanical stirring, thermocouple, reflux condenser and N2 inlet-outlet. A solvent, 2-propanol (255.0 g, 325 mL), was added and the mixture to heated to reflux at 82±2 °C and stirred for at least 14 hours. The mixture was cooled to 22±3 °C over 1 hour and stirred at 22±3 °C for 3 hours. The resulting solids were filtered and rinsed with 3 x 40 g (3 x 51 mL) of 2-propanol. The solids were dried at 50±5 °C/10 mbar for 16 hours to yield 44.63 g of 5-chloro-N-(2-isopropoxy-5-methyl-4- (piperidin-4-ylphenyl)-N-2-(isopropylsulfonyl)phenyl)-2,4-diamine di-hydrochloride salt. Chemical Purity (as determined by HPLC): 97.3%. Corrected yield: 71.6%. LOD = 11.60%. The dihydrochloride salt was recrystallized using acetone:water (10:l,v/v). Chemical Purity (as determined by HPLC): 98.8%.

 

…………….

J Med Chem 2013, 56(14): 5675

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jm400402q

Figure

 

Synthesis of 5-Chloro-N2-(2-isopropoxy-5-methyl-4-piperidin-4-ylphenyl)-N4-[2-(propane-2-sulfonyl)phenyl]pyrimidine-2,4-diamine 15b

4-(4-Amino-5-isopropoxy-2-methylphenyl)piperidine-1-carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester (13b, 170 mg, 0.488 mmol), (2,5-dichloropyrimidin-4-yl)-[2-(propane-2-sulfonyl)phenyl]amine (9a, 169 mg, 0.488 mmol, 1 equiv), Xantphos (28 mg, 0.049 mmol, 0.1 equiv), Pd(OAc)2 (5.5 mg, 0.024 mmol, 0.05 equiv), and Cs2CO3 (477 mg, 1.46 mmol, 3 equiv) were dissolved in anhydrous THF (6 mL). N2 was bubbled through the reaction mixture for 5 min, and then the reaction vessel was sealed and heated under microwave irradiation to 150 °C for 20 min. The mixture was filtered and the filtrate concentrated under vacuum. After concentration, the crude product was purified by silica gel chromatography (gradient from hexanes to 30% ethyl acetate in hexanes) to give 4-(4-{5-chloro-4-[2-(propane-2-sulfonyl)phenylamino]pyrimidin-2-ylamino}-5-isopropoxy-2-methylphenyl)piperidine-1-carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester as a yellow film (105 mg) which was directly used in the next step: ESMS m/z 658.3 (M + H+). This product (105 mg, 0.160 mmol) was dissolved in CH2Cl2 (3 mL) and treated with TFA (3 mL). After 45 min, the mixture was concentrated under vacuum. Then 1 N HCl in Et2O (5 mL × 2) was added causing the product HCl salt to precipitate. The solvent was removed by decantation.
The resulting 5-chloro-N2-(2-isopropoxy-5-methyl-4-piperidin-4-ylphenyl)-N4-[2-(propane-2-sulfonyl)phenyl]pyrimidine-2,4-diamine (15b) was dried under high vacuum, generating an off-white powder (101 mg, 35% yield):
1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6 + trace D2O) δ 8.32 (s, 1H), 8.27 (d, 1H), 7.88 (d, 1H), 7.67 (dd, 1H), 7.45 (dd, 1H), 7.42 (s, 1H), 6.79 (s, 1H), 4.56–4.48 (m, 1H), 3.49–3.32 (m, 3H), 3.10–2.91 (m, 3H), 2.09 (s, 3H), 1.89–1.77 (m, 4H), 1.22 (d, 6H), 1.13 (d, 6H);
ESMS m/z 558.1 (M + H+).
Anal. Calcd for C28H36ClN5O3S: C, 60.25; H, 6.50; Cl, 6.35; N, 12.55; O, 8.60; S, 5.75. Found: C, 60.29; H, 6.45; N, 12.55 (analytical sample of free base).

 

 

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Merck & Co gets FDA OK for allergy treatment Grastek


Merck & Co and ALK-Abello are celebrating the US green light for their grass pollen allergy immunotherapy Grastek.

The US Food and Drug Administration has approved Grastek, an allergen extract in a sublingual tablet, for the treatment of Timothy grass pollen-induced allergic rhinitis with or without conjunctivitis. The thumbs-up was expected given that the FDA’s Allergenic Products Advisory Committee voted unanimously to recommend approval at the end of 2013 but it does come with a boxed warning regarding severe allergic reactions.

Read more at: http://www.pharmatimes.com/Article/14-04-15/Merck_Co_gets_FDA_OK_for_allergy_treatment_Grastek.aspx#ixzz2z11s8ydQ

APREMILAST …….FDA approves Celgene’s Otezla for psioratic arthritis


APREMILAST

PDE4 inhibitor

N-{2-[(1S)-1-(3-Ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-(methylsulfonyl)ethyl]-1,3-dioxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-isoindol-4-yl}acetamide

(+)-2-[l-(3-ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2- methanesulfonylethyl]-4-acetylaminoisoindolin-l,3-dione,

(S)—N-{2-[1-(3-ethoxy-4-methoxy-phenyl)-2-methanesulfonylethyl]-1,3-dioxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-isoindol-4-yl}acetamide
(S)-N-{2-[1-(3-Ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-methanesulfonylethyl]-1,3-dioxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-isoindol-4-yl}acetamide
Molecular Formula: C22H24N2O7S   Molecular Weight: 460.50016

608141-41-9 CAS NO

Celgene (Originator)

MARCH 22, 2014

Just as the American Academy of Dermatology meeting opens its doors in Denver, Celgene Corp has been boosted by a green light from US regulators for Otezla as a treatment for psoriatic arthritis.

The US Food and Drug Administration has approved Otezla (apremilast), making it the first oral treatment for adults with active PsA. The thumbs-up for the phosphodieasterase-4 (PDE-4) inhibitor is primarily based on three trials involving 1,493 patients where Otezla showed improvement in signs and symptoms of the disease, including tender and swollen joints and physical function, compared to placebo.

Read more at:

http://www.pharmatimes.com/Article/14-03-22/FDA_approves_Celgene_s_Otezla_for_psioratic_arthritis.aspx

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CC-10004, , Apremilast (USAN), SureCN302992, Apremilast (CC-10004), QCR-202,

Apremilast is an orally available small molecule inhibitor of PDE4 being developed byCelgene for ankylosing spondylitispsoriasis, and psoriatic arthritis.[1][2] The drug is currently in phase III trials for the three indications. Apremilast, an anti-inflammatory drug, specifically inhibits phosphodiesterase 4. In general the drug works on an intra-cellular basis to moderate proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediator production.

APREMILAST

Apremilast is being tested for its efficacy in treating “psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis and other chronic inflammatory diseases such as ankylosing spondylitis, Behcet’s disease, and rheutmatoid arthritis.

“Apremilast is Celgene’s lead oral phosphodiesterase IV inhibitor and anti-TNF alpha agent in phase III clinical studies at Celgene for the oral treatment of moderate to severe plaque-type psoriasis and for the oral treatment of psoriatic arthritis.

Early clinical development is also ongoing for the treatment of acne, Behcet’s disease, cutaneous sarcoidosis, prurigo nodularis, ankylosing spondylitis, atopic or contact dermatitis and rheumatoid arthritis. No recent development has been reported for research for the treatment of skin inflammation associated with cutaneous lupus erythematosus.

In 2011, Celgene discontinued development of the compound for the management of vision-threatening uveitis refractory to other modes of systemic immunosuppression due to lack of efficacy.

Celgene had been evaluating the potential of the drug for the treatment of asthma; however, no recent development has been reported for this research. The drug candidate is also in phase II clinical development at the William Beaumont Hospital Research Institute for the treatment of chronic prostatitis or chronic pelvic pain syndrome and for the treatment of vulvodynia (vulvar pain).

In 2013, orphan drug designations were assigned to the product in the U.S. and the E.U. for the treatment of Behcet’s disease.

Celgene Corp has been boosted by more impressive late-stage data on apremilast, an oral drug for psoriatic arthritis, this time in previously-untreated patients.

The company is presenting data from the 52-week PALACE 4 Phase III study of apremilast tested in PsA patients who have not taken systemic or biologic disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) at the American College of Rheumatology meeting in San Diego. The results from the 527-patient trial show that at week 16, patients on 20mg of the  first-in-class oral inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) achieved an ACR20 (ie a 20% improvement in the condition) response of 29.2% and 32.3% for 30mg aapremilast, compared with 16.9% for those on placebo.

After 52 weeks, 53.4% on the lower dose and 58.7% on 30mg achieved an ACR20 response. ACR50 and 70 was reached by 31.9% and 18.1% of patients, respectively, for apremilast 30mg. The compound was generally well-tolerated and discontinuation rates for diarrhoea and nausea were less than 2% over 52 weeks.

Commenting on the data, Alvin Wells, of the Rheumatology and Immunotherapy Center in Franklin, Wisconsin, noted that apremilast demonstrated long-term safety and tolerability and significant clinical benefit in treatment-naive patients. He added that “these encouraging results suggest that apremilast may have the potential to be used alone and as a first-line therapy”. Celgene is also presenting various pooled data from the first three trials in the PALACE programme which, among other things, shows that apremilast significantly improves swollen and tender joints.

Treatment for PSA, which affects about 30% of the 125 million people worldwide who have psoriasis, currently involves injectable tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors, notably AbbVie’s Humira (adalimumab) and Pfizer/Amgen’s Enbrel (etanercept), once patients have not responded to DMARDs (at least in the UK). While the biologics are effective, the side effect profile can be a concern, due to the risk of infection and tuberculosis and many observers believe that apremilast will prove popular with patients and doctors due to the fact that it is oral, not injectable.

Apremilast was filed for PsA with the US Food and Drug Administration in the first quarter and will be submitted on both sides of the Atlantic for psoriasis before year-end. The European filing will also be for PsA.

Apremilast impresses for Behcet’s disease

Celgene has also presented promising Phase II data on apremilast as a treatment for the rare inflammatory disorder Behcet’s disease. 71% of patients achieved complete response at week 12 in clearing oral ulcers

APREMILAST

  1.  “Apremilast Palace Program Demonstrates Robust and Consistent Statistically Significant Clinical Benefit Across Three Pivotal Phase III Studies (PALACE-1, 2 & 3) in Psoriatic Arthritis” (Press release). Celgene Corporation. 6 September 2012. Retrieved 2012-09-10.
  2.  “US HOT STOCKS: OCZ, VeriFone, Men’s Wearhouse, AK Steel, Celgene”The Wall Street Journal. 6 September 2012. Retrieved 2012-09-06.
  3. Discovery of (S)-N-[2-[1-(3-ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-methanesulfonylethyl]-1,3-dioxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-isoindol-4-yl] acetamide (apremilast), a potent and orally active phosphodiesterase 4 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitor.

    Man HW, Schafer P, Wong LM, Patterson RT, Corral LG, Raymon H, Blease K, Leisten J, Shirley MA, Tang Y, Babusis DM, Chen R, Stirling D, Muller GW.

    J Med Chem. 2009 Mar 26;52(6):1522-4. doi: 10.1021/jm900210d.

  4. Therapeutics: Silencing psoriasis.Crow JM.Nature. 2012 Dec 20;492(7429):S58-9. doi: 10.1038/492S58a. No abstract available.
  5. NMR…http://file.selleckchem.com/downloads/nmr/S803401-Apremilast-HNMR-Selleck.pdf
  6. WO 2003080049
  7. WO 2013126495
  8. WO 2013126360
  9. WO 2003080049
  10. WO 2006065814
  11. US2003/187052 A1 …..MP 144 DEG CENT
  12. US2007/155791
  13. J. Med. Chem.200851 (18), pp 5471–5489
    DOI: 10.1021/jm800582j
  14. J. Med. Chem.201154 (9), pp 3331–3347
    DOI: 10.1021/jm200070e


合成路线:
US2013217918A1
US2014081032A1

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INTRODUCTION

2-[l-(3-ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-methylsulfonylethyl]-4- acetylaminoisoindoline-l ,3-dione is a PDE4 inhibitor that is currently under investigation as an anti-inflammatory for the treatment of a variety of conditions, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, psoriasis and other allergic, autoimmune and rheumatologic conditions. S-enantiomer form of 2-[l-(3-ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-methylsulfonylethyl]-4- acetylaminoisoindoline-l ,3-dione can be prepared by reacting (5)-aminosulfone 1 with intermediate 2.

Figure imgf000003_0001

Existing methods for synthesizing (S)-aminosulfone 1 involve resolution of the corresponding racemic aminosulfone by techniques known in the art. Examples include the formation and crystallization of chiral salts, and the use of chiral high performance liquid chromatography. See, e.g., Jacques, J., et al., Enantiomers, Racemates and Resolutions (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1981); Wilen, S. H., et al, Tetrahedron 33:2725 (1977); Eliel, E. L., Stereochemistry of Carbon Compounds (McGraw Hill, NY, 1962); and Wilen, S. H., Tables of Resolving Agents and Optical Resolutions p. 268 (E.L. Eliel, Ed., Univ. of Notre Dame Press, Notre Dame, IN, 1972). In one example, as depicted in Scheme 1 below, (5)-aminosulfone 1 is prepared by resolution of racemic aminosulfone 3 with N-Ac-L-Leu. Racemic aminosulfone 3 is prepared by converting 3-ethoxy-4-methoxybenzonitrile 4 to enamine intermediate 5 followed by enamine reduction and borate hydrolysis. This process has been reported in U.S. Patent

Application Publication No. 2010/0168475.

Figure imgf000003_0002

CH2CI2, NaOH

Figure imgf000003_0003

Scheme 1

The procedure for preparing an enantiomerically enriched or enantiomerically pure aminosulfone, such as compound 1, may be inefficient because it involves the resolution of racemic aminosulfone 3. Thus, a need exists as to asymmetric synthetic processes for the preparation of an enantiomerically enriched or enantiomerically pure aminosulfone, particularly for manufacturing scale production. Direct catalytic asymmetric hydrogenation of a suitable enamine or ketone intermediate is of particular interest because it eliminates the need for either classic resolution or the use of stoichiometric amount of chiral auxiliary, and thus, may be synthetically efficient and economical.

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SYNTHESIS OF KEY INTERMEDIATE

WO2013126495A2

Example 1

Synthesis of 1 -(3-ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-(methylsulfonyl)ethenamine

Figure imgf000058_0001

[00232] A slurry of dimethylsulfone (85 g, 903 mmol) in THF (480 ml) was treated with a

1.6M solution of n-butyllithium in hexane (505 ml, 808 mmol) at 0 – 5 °C. The resulting mixture was agitated for 1 hour then a solution of 3-ethoxy-4-methoxybenzonitrile (80 g, 451 mmol) in THF (240 ml) was added at 0 – 5 °C. The mixture was agitated at 0 – 5 °C for 0.5 hour, warmed to 25 – 30 °C over 0.5 hour and then agitated for 1 hour. Water (1.4 L) was added at 25 – 30 °C and the reaction mass was agitated overnight at room temperature (20 – 30 °C). The solid was filtered and subsequently washed with a 2: 1 mixture of water :THF (200 ml), water (200 ml) and heptane (2 x 200 ml). The solid was dried under reduced pressure at 40 – 45 °C to provide the product as a white solid (102 g, 83% yield); 1H NMR (DMSO-d6) δ 1.34 (t, J=7.0 Hz, 3H), 2.99 (s, 3H), 3.80 (s, 3H), 4.08 (q, J=7.0 Hz, 2H), 5.03 (s, 1H), 6.82 (s, 2H), 7.01 (d, J=8.5 Hz, 1H), 7.09 – 7.22 (m, 2H).

Example 2

Synthesis of (R)- 1 -(3-ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-(methylsulfonyl)ethanamine

Figure imgf000059_0001

[00233] A solution of bis(l,5-cyclooctadiene)rhodium(I) trifluoromethanesulfonate (36 mg, 0.074 mmol) and (i?)-l-[(5)-2-(diphenylphosphino)ferrocenyl]ethyldi-tert-butylphosphine (40 mg, 0.074 mmol) in 25 mL of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol was prepared under nitrogen. To this solution was then charged l-(3-ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-(methylsulfonyl)ethenamine (2.0 g, 7.4 mmol). The resulting mixture was heated to 50 °C and hydrogenated under 90 psig hydrogen pressure. After 18 h, the mixture was cooled to ambient temperature and removed from the hydrogenator. The mixture was evaporated and the residue was purified by chromatography on a CI 8 reverse phase column using a water-acetonitrile gradient. The appropriate fractions were pooled and evaporated to -150 mL. To this solution was added brine (20 mL), and the resulting solution was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 50 mL). The combined organic layers were dried (MgS04) and evaporated to provide the product as a white crystalline solid (1.4 g, 70% yield); achiral HPLC (Hypersil BDS C8, 5.0 μπι, 250 x 4.6 mm, 1.5 mL/min, 278nm, 90/10 gradient to 80/20 0.1% aqueous TFA/MeOH over 10 min then gradient to 10/90 0.1% aqueous TFA/MeOH over the next 15 min): 9.11 (99.6%); chiral HPLC (Chiralpak AD-H 5.0 μιη Daicel, 250 x 4.6 mm, 1.0 mL/min, 280 nm, 70:30:0.1 heptane-z-PrOH-diethylamine): 7.32 (97.5%), 8.26 (2.47%); 1H NMR (DMSO-de) δ 1.32 (t, J= 7.0 Hz, 3H), 2.08 (s, 2H), 2.96 (s, 3H), 3.23 (dd, J= 3.6, 14.4 Hz, 1H), 3.41 (dd, J= 9.4, 14.4 Hz, 1H), 3.73 (s, 3H), 4.02 (q, J= 7.0 Hz, 2H), 4.26 (dd, J= 3.7, 9.3 Hz, 1H), 6.89 (s, 2H), 7.02 (s, 1H); 13C NMR (DMSO-d6) δ 14.77, 41.98, 50.89, 55.54, 62.03, 63.68, 111.48, 111.77, 118.36, 137.30, 147.93, 148.09. Example 3

Synthesis of (6 -l-(3-ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-(methylsulfonyl)ethanamine N-Ac-L-Leu salt

Figure imgf000060_0001

[00234] A solution of bis(l,5-cyclooctadiene)rhodium(I) trifluoromethanesulfonate (17 mg, 0.037 mmol) and (5)-l-[(i?)-2-(diphenylphosphino)ferrocenyl]ethyldi-tert-butylphosphine (20 mg, 0.037 mmol) in 10 mL of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol was prepared under nitrogen. To this solution was then charged l-(3-ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-(methylsulfonyl)ethenamine (2.0 g, 7.4 mmol). The resulting mixture was heated to 50 °C and hydrogenated under 90 psig hydrogen pressure. After 18 h, the mixture was cooled to ambient temperature and removed from the hydrogenator. Ecosorb C-941 (200 mg) was added and the mixture was stirred at ambient temperature for 3 h. The mixture was filtered through Celite, and the filter was washed with additional trifluoroethanol (2 mL). Then, the mixture was heated to 55 °C, and a solution of N- acetyl-L-leucine (1.3 g, 7.5 mmol) was added dropwise over the course of 1 h. Stirring proceeded at the same temperature for 1 h following completion of the addition, and then the mixture was cooled to 22 °C over 2 h and stirred at this temperature for 16 h. The crystalline product was filtered, rinsed with methanol (2 x 5 mL), and dried under vacuum at 45 °C to provide the product as a white solid (2.6 g, 80% yield); achiral HPLC (Hypersil BDS Cg, 5.0 μιη, 250 x 4.6 mm, 1.5 mL/min, 278nm, 90/10 gradient to 80/20 0.1% aqueous TFA/MeOH over 10 min then gradient to 10/90 0.1% aqueous TFA/MeOH over the next 15 min): 8.57 (99.8%); chiral HPLC (Chiralpak AD-H 5.0 μιη Daicel, 250 x 4.6 mm, 1.0 mL/min, 280 nm, 70:30:0.1 heptane-z-PrOH-diethylamine): 8.35 (99.6%); 1H NMR (DMSO-<¾) δ 0.84 (d, 3H), 0.89 (d, J= 6.6 Hz, 3H), 1.33 (t, J= 7.0 Hz, 3H), 1.41 – 1.52 (m, 2H), 1.62 (dt, J= 6.7, 13.5 Hz, 1H), 1.83 (s, 3H), 2.94 (s, 3H), 3.28 (dd, J= 4.0, 14.4 Hz, 1H), 3.44 (dd, J= 9.1, 14.4 Hz, 1H), 3.73 (s, 3H), 4.02 (q, J= 6.9 Hz, 2H), 4.18 (q, J= 7.7 Hz, 1H), 4.29 (dd, J= 4.0, 9.1 Hz, 1H), 5.46 (br, 3H), 6.90 (s, 2H), 7.04 (s, 1H), 8.04 (d, J= 7.9 Hz, 1H); Anal. (C20H34N2O7S) C, H, N. Calcd C, 53.79; H, 7.67; N 6.27. Found C, 53.78; H, 7.57; N 6.18.

SUBSEQUENT CONVERSION

S-enantiomer form of 2-[l-(3-ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-methylsulfonylethyl]-4- acetylaminoisoindoline-l ,3-dione can be prepared by reacting (5)-aminosulfone 1 with intermediate 2.

Figure imgf000003_0001

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APREMILAST

GENERAL SYNTHESIS AND SYNTHESIS OF APREMILAST

WO2012083153A1

Figure imgf000044_0001

Figure imgf000044_0002

Figure imgf000044_0004

(apremilast)

[0145] Preparation of 3-Ethoxy-4-methoxybenzonitrile (Compound 2). 3-Ethoxy-

4-methoxybenzaldehyde (Compound 1, 10.0 gm, 54.9 mmol, Aldrich) and hydroxylamine hydrochloride (4.67 gm, 65.9 mmol, Aldrich) were charged to a 250 mL three-necked flask at room temperature, followed by the addition of anhydrous acetonitrile (50 mL). The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for thirty minutes and then heated to reflux (oil bath at 85 °C). After two hours of reflux, the reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature, and added 50 mL of deionized water. The mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure to remove acetonitrile and then transferred to a separatory funnel with an additional 80 mL of deionized water and 80 mL dichloromethane. The aqueous layer was extracted with dichloromethane (3 x 50 mL). The combined organic layers were washed successively with water (80 mL) and saturated sodium chloride (80 mL). The organic layer was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate (approximately 20 gm). The organic layer was filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure to give a yellow oil. Purification by silica gel chromatography (0 to 1 % MeOH/DCM ) afforded 3-Ethoxy-4-methoxybenzonitrile

(Compound 2) as a white solid (7.69 gm, 79 % yield). MS (ESI positive ion) m/z 178.1 (M + 1). HPLC indicated >99% purity by peak area. 1H-NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-c¾: δ ppm 1.32 (t, 3H), 3.83 (s, 3H), 4.05 (q, 2H), 7.10 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 7.35 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.40 (dd, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H).

[0146] Preparation of l-(3-Ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyi)-2-

(niethylsulfonyl)ethanamine (Compound 3). Dimethyl sulfone (2.60 gm, 27.1 mmol, Aldrich) and tetrahydrofuran (10 mL, Aldrich) were charged to a 250 mL three-necked flask at room temperature. The mixture was cooled to 0 – 5 °C, and the solution gradually turned white. n-Butyllithium (10.8 mL, 27.1 mmol, 2.5 M solution in hexanes, Aldrich) was added to the flask at a rate such that the reaction mixture was maintained at 5 – 10 °C. The mixture was stirred at 0 – 5 °C for one hour, turning light-yellow. 3-Ethoxy-4-methoxybenzonitrile (Compound 2, 4.01 gm, 22.5 mmol) in tetrahydrofuran (8 mL) was then charged to the flask at a rate such that the reaction mixture was maintained at 0 – 5 °C. The mixture was stirred at 0 – 5 °C for another 15 minutes. After warming to room temperature, the reaction mixture was stirred for another 1.5 hours and then transferred to a second 250 mL three-necked flask containing a suspension of sodium borohydride (1.13 gm, 29.3 mmol, Aldrich) in

tetrahydrofuran (1 1 mL), maintained at – 5 – 0 °C for 30 minutes. Trifluoroacetic acid (“TFA,” 5.26 mL, 68.3 mmol, Aldrich) was charged to the flask at a rate such that the reaction mixture was maintained at 0 – 5 °C. The mixture was stirred at 0 – 5 °C for 40 minutes and an additional 17 hours at room temperature. The reaction mixture was then charged with 2.7 mL of deionized water over five minutes at room temperature. The mxiture was stirred at room temperature for 15 hours. Aqueous NaOH (10 N, 4.9 mL) was charged to the flask over 15 minutes at 45 °C. The mixture was stirred at 45 °C for two hours, at 60 °C for 1.5 hours, and at room temperature overnight. After approximately 17 hours at room temperature the mixture was cooled to 0 °C for thirty minutes and then concentrated under reduced pressure. The residual material was charged with deionized water (3 mL) and absolute ethanol (3 mL) and stirred at 0 – 5 °C for 2 hours. The mixture was filtered under vacuum, and the filtered solid was washed with cold absolute ethanol (3 x 5 mL), followed by deionized water until the pH of the wash was about 8. The solid was air dried overnight, and then in a vacuum oven at 60 °C for 17 hours to afford Compound 3 as a white solid (4.75 gm, 77 %). MS (ESI positive ion) m/z 274.1 (M + 1). Ή-NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-c¾): δ ppm 1.32 (t, J = 7.0 Hz, 3H), 2.08 (bs, 2H), 2.95 (s, 3H), 3.23 (dd, J = 4.0 Hz, 1H), 3.40 (dd, J = 9.5 Hz, 1H), 3.72 (s, 3H), 4.01 (q, J = 7.0 Hz, 2H), 4.25 (dd, J = 3.5 Hz, 1H), 6.88 (s, 2H), 7.02 (s, 1H).

[0147] Preparation of 4-Nitroisobenzofuran-l,3-dione (Compound 5). Into a 250 mL round bottom flask, fitted with a reflux condenser, was placed 3-nitrophthalic acid (21.0 gm, 99 mmol, Aldrich) and acetic anhydride (18.8 mL, 199 mmol, Aldrich). The solid mixture was heated to 85 °C, under nitrogen, with gradual melting of the solids. The yellow mixture was heated at 85 °C for 15 minutes, and there was noticeable thickening of the mixture. After 15 minutes at 85 °C, the hot mixture was poured into a weighing dish, and allowed to cool. The yellow solid was grinded to a powder and then placed on a cintered funnel, under vacuum. The solid was washed with diethyl ether (3 x 15 mL), under vacuum and allowed to air dry overnight, to afford 4-nitroisobenzofuran-l ,3-dione, Compound 5, as a light-yellow solid (15.8 gm, 82 %). MS (ESI positive ion) m/z 194.0 (M + 1). TLC: Rf = 0.37 (10% MeOH/DCM with 2 drops Acetic acid) Ή-NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-i¾: δ ppm 8.21 (dd, J = 7.5 Hz, 1H), 8.39 (dd, J = 7.5 Hz, 1H), 8.50 (dd, J = 7.5 Hz, 1 H).

[0148] Preparation of 2-(l-(3-Ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyI)-2-

(methylsulfonyl)ethyl)-4-nitroisoindoline-l,3-dione (Compound 6). Into a 2 – 5 mL microwave vial was added 4-nitroisobenzofuran-l ,3-dione (Compound 5, 0.35 gm, 1.82 mmol), the amino-sulfone intermediate (Compound 3, 0.50 gm, 1.82 mmol) and 4.0 mL of glacial acetic acid. The mixture was placed in a microwave at 125 °C for 30 minutes. After 30 minutes the acetic acid was removed under reduced pressure. The yellow oil was taken up in ethyl acetate and applied to a 10 gm snap Biotage samplet. Purification by silica gel chromatography (0 to 20 % Ethyl Acetate/Hexanes) afforded Compound 6 as a light-yellow solid (0.67 gm, 82 %). MS (ESI positive ion) m/z 449.0 (M + 1). TLC: Rf = 0.19

(EtOAc:Hexanes, 1 : 1). HPLC indicated 99% purity by peak area. Ή-NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-c¾: δ ppm 1.32 (t, 3H), 2.99 (s, 3H), 3.73 (s, 3H), 4.02 (m, 2H), 4.21 (dd, J = 5.0 Hz, 1H), 4.29 (dd, J = 10.0 Hz, 1H), 5.81 (dd, J = 5.0 Hz, 1H), 6.93 (d, J – 8.5 Hz, 1H), 7.00 (dd, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.10 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 1H), 8.07 (t, J = 15.5 Hz, 1H), 8.19 (dd, J = 8.5 Hz, 1H), 8.30 (dd, J = 9.0 Hz, 1H).

[0149] Preparation of 4-Amino-2-(l-(3-ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-

(methylsulfonyl)ethyl)isoindoline-l,3-dione (Compound 7). Compound 6 (0.54 gm, 1.20 mmol) was taken up in ethyl acetate / acetone (1 : 1 , 24 mL) and flowed through the H-cube™ hydrogen reactor using a 10 % Pd/C CatCart™ catalyst cartridge system (ThalesNano, Budapest Hungary). After eluting, the yellow solvent was concentrated under reduced pressure to give Compound 7 as a yellow foam solid (0.48 gm, 95 %). MS (ESI positive ion) m/z 419.1 (M + 1). 1H-NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-<¾): δ ppm 1.31 (t, J = 7.0 Hz, 3H), 2.99 (s, 3H), 3.72 (s, 3H), 4.04 (q, J = 7.0 Hz, 2H), 4.09 (m, 1H), 4.34 (m, 1H), 5.71 (dd, J = 5.5 Hz, 1H), 6.52 (bs, 2H), 6.92-6.98 (m, 3H), 7.06 (bs, 1 H), 7.42 (dd, J = 7.0 Hz, 1H).

[0150] Preparation of N-(2-(l-(3-ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-

(methylsuIfonyl)ethyl)-l,3-dioxoisoindolin-4-yl)acetamide (Apremilast, Compound 8).

Into a 2-5 mL microwave vial was placed Compound 7 (0.18 gm, 0.43 mmol), acetic anhydride (0.052 mL, 0.53 mmol) and acetic acid (4 mL). The microwave vial was placed into a Biotage microwave and heated to 125 °C for 30 minutes. The solvents were removed under reduced pressure and the residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0 to 5% MeOH/DCM) to afford apremilast (Compound 8) as a yellow oil (0.14 gm, 71%). HPLC indicated 94.6% purity by peak area.

1H-NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-c 6): δ ppm 1.31 (t, 3H), 2.18 (s, 3H), 3.01 (s, 3H), 3.73 (s, 3H), 4.01 (t, J = 7.0 Hz, 2H), 4,14 (dd, J = 4.0 Hz, 1H), 4.33 (m, 1H), 5.76 (dd, J = 3.0 Hz, 1H), 6.95 (m, 2H), 7.06 (d, J = 1.5 Hz, 1H), 7.56 (d, J = 7.0 Hz, 1H), 7.79 (t, J = 7.7 Hz, 1H), 8.43 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 1H), 9.72 (bs, 1H).

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SYNTHESIS

EP2501382A1

5. EXAMPLES

Certain embodiments provided herein are illustrated by the following non-limiting examples.

5.1 PREPARATION OF (+)-2-[l-(3-ETHOXY-4-METHOXYPHENYL)-2- METHANESULFONYLETHYLJ-4- ACETYL AMINOISOINDOLIN-1,3- DIONE (APREMILAST)

Figure imgf000021_0001

5.1.1 Preparation of 3-aminopthalic acid

10% Pd/C (2.5 g), 3-nitrophthalic acid (75.0 g, 355 mmol) and ethanol (1.5 L) were charged to a 2.5 L Parr hydrogenator under a nitrogen atmosphere. Hydrogen was charged to the reaction vessel for up to 55 psi. The mixture was shaken for 13 hours, maintaining hydrogen pressure between 50 and 55 psi. Hydrogen was released and the mixture was purged with nitrogen 3 times. The suspension was filtered through a celite bed and rinsed with methanol. The filtrate was concentrated in vacuo. The resulting solid was reslurried in ether and isolated by vacuum filtration. The solid was dried in vacua to a constant weight, affording 54 g (84%> yield) of 3-aminopthalic acid as a yellow product. 1H-NMR (DMSO-d6) δ: 3.17 (s, 2H), 6.67 (d, 1H), 6.82 (d, 1H), 7.17 (t, 1H), 8-10 (brs, 2H). 13C-NMR(DMSO-d6) δ: 112.00, 115.32, 118.20, 131.28, 135.86, 148.82, 169.15, 170.09.

5.1.2 Preparation of 3-acetamidopthalic anhydride

A I L 3 -necked round bottom flask was equipped with a mechanical stirrer, thermometer, and condenser and charged with 3-aminophthalic acid (108 g, 596 mmol) and acetic anhydride (550 mL). The reaction mixture was heated to reflux for 3 hours and cooled to ambient temperature and further to 0-5. degree. C. for another 1 hour. The crystalline solid was collected by vacuum filtration and washed with ether. The solid product was dried in vacua at ambient temperature to a constant weight, giving 75 g (61% yield) of 3-acetamidopthalic anhydride as a white product. 1H-NMR (CDCI3) δ: 2.21 (s, 3H), 7.76 (d, 1H), 7.94 (t, 1H), 8.42 (d, 1H), 9.84 (s, 1H).

5.1.3 Resolution of 2-(3-ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-l-(methylsulphonyl)- ethyl-2-amine

A 3 L 3 -necked round bottom flask was equipped with a mechanical stirrer, thermometer, and condenser and charged with 2-(3-ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-l-(methylsulphonyl)-eth-2-ylamine (137.0 g, 500 mmol), N-acetyl-L-leucine (52 g, 300 mmol), and methanol (1.0 L). The stirred slurry was heated to reflux for 1 hour. The stirred mixture was allowed to cool to ambient temperature and stirring was continued for another 3 hours at ambient temperature. The slurry was filtered and washed with methanol (250 mL). The solid was air-dried and then dried in vacuo at ambient temperature to a constant weight, giving 109.5 g (98% yield) of the crude product (85.8% ee). The crude solid (55.0 g) and methanol (440 mL) were brought to reflux for 1 hour, cooled to room temperature and stirred for an additional 3 hours at ambient temperature. The slurry was filtered and the filter cake was washed with methanol (200 mL). The solid was air-dried and then dried in vacuo at 30°C. to a constant weight, yielding 49.6 g (90%> recovery) of (S)-2-(3-ethoxy-4- methoxyphenyl)-l-(methylsulphonyl)-eth-2-ylamine-N-acety 1-L-leucine salt (98.4% ee). Chiral HPLC (1/99 EtOH/20 mM KH2P04 @pH 7.0, Ultron Chiral ES-OVS from Agilent Technologies, 150 mm.times.4.6 mm, 0.5 mL/min., @240 nm): 18.4 min (S-isomer, 99.2%), 25.5 min (R-isomer, 0.8%)

5.1.4 Preparation of (+)-2-[l-(3-ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2- methanesulfonylethyl] -4-acetylaminoisoindolin- 1 ,3-dione

A 500 mL 3 -necked round bottom flask was equipped with a mechanical stirrer,

thermometer, and condenser. The reaction vessel was charged with (S)-2-(3-ethoxy-4- methoxyphenyl)-l-(methylsulphonyl)-eth-2-yl amine N-acetyl-L-leucine salt (25 g, 56 mmol, 98% ee), 3-acetamidophthalic anhydride (12.1 g, 58.8 mmol), and glacial acetic acid (250 mL). The mixture was refluxed over night and then cooled to <50°C. The solvent was removed in vacuo, and the residue was dissolved in ethyl acetate. The resulting solution was washed with water (250 mL x

2), saturated aqeous NaHC03 (250 mL.times.2), brine (250 mL.times.2), and dried over sodium sulphate. The solvent was evaporated in vacuo, and the residue recrystallized from a binary solvent containing ethanol (150 mL) and acetone (75 mL). The solid was isolated by vacuum filtration and washed with ethanol (100 mL.times.2). The product was dried in vacuo at 60°C. to a constant weight, affording 19.4 g (75% yield) of Compound 3 APREMILAST with 98% ee. Chiral HPLC (15/85 EtOH/20 mM KH2P04 @pH 3.5, Ultron Chiral ES-OVS from Agilent Technology, 150 mm x 4.6 mm, 0.4 mL/min., @240 nm): 25.4 min (S-isomer, 98.7%), 29.5 min (R-isomer, 1.2%).

1H-NMR (CDC13) δ: 1.47 (t, 3H), 2.26 (s, 3H), 2.87 (s, 3H), 3.68-3.75 (dd, 1H), 3.85 (s, 3H), 4.07-4.15 (q, 2H), 4.51-4.61 (dd, 1H), 5.84-5.90 (dd, 1H), 6.82-8.77 (m, 6H), 9.46 (s, 1H).

13C-NMR(DMSO-d6) δ: 14.66, 24.92, 41.61, 48.53, 54.46, 55.91, 64.51, 111.44, 112.40, 115.10, 118.20, 120.28, 124.94, 129.22, 131.02, 136.09, 137.60, 148.62, 149.74, 167.46, 169.14, 169.48.

…………………………………..

NMR

US20100129363

1H-NMR (CDCl3) δ: 1.47 (t, 3H), 2.26 (s, 3H), 2.87 (s, 3H), 3.68-3.75 (dd, 1H), 3.85 (s, 3H), 4.07-4.15 (q, 2H), 4.51-4.61 (dd, 1H), 5.84-5.90 (dd, 1H), 6.82-8.77 (m, 6H), 9.46 (s, 1H). 13C-NMR (DMSO-d6) δ: 14.66, 24.92, 41.61, 48.53, 54.46, 55.91, 64.51, 111.44, 112.40, 115.10, 118.20, 120.28, 124.94, 129.22, 131.02, 136.09, 137.60, 148.62, 149.74, 167.46, 169.14, 169.48.

…………….

APREMILAST

J. Med. Chem., 2009, 52 (6), pp 1522–1524
DOI: 10.1021/jm900210d

Figure

aReagents and conditions: (a) LiN(SiMe3)2, then Me2SO2/n-BuLi/BF3Et2O, −78 °C; (b) N-Ac-l-leucine, MeOH; (c) HOAc, reflux.

……………………

SARCOIDOSIS

Sarcoidosis is a disease of unknown cause. Sarcoidosis is characterized by the presence of granulomas in one or more organ systems. The most common sites of involvement are the lungs and the lymph nodes in the mediastinum and hilar regions. However, sarcoidosis is a systemic disease and a variety of organ systems or tissues may be the source of primary or concomitant clinical manifestations and morbidity. The clinical course of sarcoidosis is extremely variable, and ranges from a mild or even asymptomatic disease with spontaneous resolution to a chronic progressive disease leading to organ system failure and, in 1-5% of cases, death. See Cecil

Textbook of Medicine, 21st ed. (Goldman, L., Bennett, J. C. eds), W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, 2000, p. 433-436.

While the cause of sarcoidosis is unknown, a substantial body of information suggests that immune mechanisms are important in disease pathogenesis. For example, sarcoidosis is

characterized by enhanced lymphocyte and macrophage activity. See Thomas, P.D. and

Hunninghake, G.W., Am. Rev. Respir. Dis., 1987, 135: 747-760. As sarcoidosis progresses, skin rashes, erythema nodosum and granulomas may form. Granulomas or fibrosis caused by sarcoidosis can occur throughout the body, and may affect the function of vital organs such as the lungs, heart, nervous system, liver or kidneys. In these cases, the sarcoidosis can be fatal. See

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/sarcoidosis.html (accessed November 12, 2009).

Moreover, a variety of exogenous agents, both infectious and non-infectious, have been hypothesized as a possible cause of sarcoidosis. See Vokurka et ah, Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med., 1997, 156: 1000-1003; Popper et al, Hum. Pathol, 1997, 28: 796-800; Almenoff et al, Thorax, 1996, 51 : 530-533; Baughman et al., Lancet, 2003, 361 : 1111-1118. These agents include mycobaceria, fungi, spirochetes, and the agent associated with Whipple’s disease. Id.

Sarcoidosis may be acute or chronic. Specific types of sarcoidosis include, but are not limited to, cardiac sarcoidosis, cutaneous sarcoidosis, hepatic sarcoidosis, oral sarcoidosis, pulmonary sarcoidosis, neurosarcoidosis, sinonasal sarcoidosis, Lofgren’s syndrome, lupus pernio, uveitis or chronic cutaneous sarcoidosis.

As the lung is constantly confronted with airborne substances, including pathogens, many researchers have directed their attention to identification of potential causative transmissible agents and their contribution to the mechanism of pulmonary granuloma formation associated with sarcoidosis. See Conron, M. and Du Bois, R.M., Clin. Exp. Allergy, 2001, 31 : 543-554; Agostini et al, Curr. Opin. Pulm. Med. , 2002, 8: 435-440.

Corticosteroid drugs are the primary treatment for the inflammation and granuloma formation associated with sarcoidosis. Rizatto et al. , Respiratory Medicine, 1997, 91 : 449-460. Prednisone is most often prescribed drug for the treatment of sarcoidosis. Additional drugs used to treat sarcoidosis include methotrexate, azathioprine, hydroxychloroquine, cyclophosphamide, minocycline, doxycycline and chloroquin. TNF-a blockers such as thalidomide and infliximab have been reported to be effective in treating patients with sarcoidosis. Baughman et al, Chest, 2002, 122: 227-232; Doty et al, Chest, 2005, 127: 1064-1071. Antibiotics have also been studied for the treatment of sarcoidosis, such as penicillin antibiotics, cephalosporin antibiotics, macrolide antibiotics, lincomycin antibiotics, and tetracycline antibiotics. Specific examples include minocycline hydrochloride, clindamycin, ampicillin, or clarithromycin. See, e.g., U.S. Patent Publication No. 2007/0111956.

There currently lacks a Food and Drug Administration-approved therapeutic agent for the treatment of sarcoidosis, and many patients are unable to tolerate the side effects of the standard corticosteroid therapy. See Doty et al, Chest, 2005, 127: 1064-1071. Furthermore, many cases of sarcoidosis are refractory to standard therapy. Id. Therefore, a demand exists for new methods and compositions that can be used to treat patients with sarcoidosis.

……………..


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The U.S. FDA approved Impavido (miltefosine) to treat a tropical disease called leishmaniasis


Miltefosine.svg

MILTEFOSINE

2-(hexadecoxy-oxido-phosphoryl)oxyethyl-trimethyl-azanium

58066-85-6

Hexadecylphosphocholine, Miltex, HDPC, HePC, Hexadecylphosphorylcholine, 58066-85-6, Miltefosina, Miltefosinum, Impavido
Molecular Formula: C21H46NO4P   Molecular Weight: 407.568002

March 19, 2014 — The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Impavido (miltefosine) to treat a tropical disease called leishmaniasis.

Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by Leishmania, a parasite which is transmitted to humans through sand fly bites. The disease occurs primarily in people who live in the tropics and subtropics. Most U.S. patients acquire leishmaniasis overseas.

Impavido is an oral medicine approved to treat the three main types of leishmaniasis: visceral leishmaniasis (affects internal organs), cutaneous leishmaniasis (affects the skin) and mucosal leishmaniasis (affects the nose and throat). It is intended for patients 12 years of age and older. Impavido is the first FDA-approved drug to treat cutaneous or mucosal leishmaniasis.

“Today’s approval demonstrates the FDA’s commitment to making available therapeutic options to treat tropical diseases,” said Edward Cox, M.D., director of the Office of Antimicrobial Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research.

The FDA granted Impavido fast track designation, priority review, and orphan product designation. These designations were granted because the drug demonstrated the potential to fill an unmet medical need in a serious disease or condition, the potential to be a significant improvement in safety or effectiveness in the treatment of a serious disease or condition, and is intended to treat a rare disease, respectively. With this approval, Impavido’s manufacturer, Paladin Therapeutics, is awarded a Tropical Disease Priority Review Voucher under a provision included in the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 that aims to encourage development of new drugs and biological products for the prevention and treatment of certain tropical diseases.

Impavido’s safety and efficacy were evaluated in four clinical trials. A total of 547 patients received Impavido and 183 patients received either a comparator drug or a placebo. Results from these trials demonstrated that Impavido is safe and effective in treating visceral, cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis.

The labeling for Impavido includes a boxed warning to alert patients and health care professionals that the drug can cause fetal harm and therefore should not be given to pregnant women. Health care professionals should advise women to use effective contraception during and for five months after Impavido therapy.

The most common side effects identified in clinical trials were nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, decreased appetite, dizziness, abdominal pain, itching, drowsiness and elevated levels of liver enzymes (transaminases) and creatinine.

Paladin Therapeutics is based in Montreal, Canada

Miltefosine (INN, trade names Impavido and Miltex) is a phospholipid drug. Chemically it is a derivative of alkylphosphocholinecompounds discovered in the early 1980s. It was developed in the late 1980s as an anticancer drug by German scientists Hansjörg Eibl and Clemens Unger.[2] Simultaneously but independently it was found that the drug could kill Leishmania parasites, and since the mid-1990s successful clinical trials were conducted. The drug became the first (and still the only prescribed) oral drug in the treatment ofleishmaniasis. It is now known to be a broad-spectrum antimicrobial drug, active against pathogenic bacteria and fungi,[1][3] as well as human trematode Schistosoma mansoni and its vector host, the snail Biomphalaria alexandrina.[4] It can be administered orally and topically.

In the target cell, it acts as an Akt inhibitor. Therefore, it is also under investigation as a potential therapy against HIV infection.[5][6]

Phospholipid group alkylphosphocholine were known since the early 1980s, particularly in terms of their binding affinity with cobra venom.[7]In 1987 the phosholids were found to potent toxins on leukemic cell culture.[8] Initial in vivo investigation on the antineoplastic activity showed positive result, but then only at high dosage and at high toxicity.[9] At the same time in Germany, Hansjörg Eibl, at the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, and Clemens Unger, at the University of Göttingen, demonstrated that the antineoplastic activity of the phospholipid analogue miltefosine (at the time known as hexadecylphosphocholine) was indeed tumour-specific. It was highly effective against methylnitrosourea-induced mammary carcinoma, but less so on transplantable mammary carcinomas and autochthonous benzo(a)pyrene-induced sarcomas, and relatively inactive on Walker 256 carcinosarcoma and autochthonous acetoxymethylmethylnitrosamine-induced colonic tumors of rats.[10][11] It was subsequently found that miltefosine was strucrally unique among lipds having anticancer property in that it lacks the glycerol group, is highly selective on cell types and acts through different mechanism.[12][13]

In the same year as the discovery of the acticancer property, miltefosine was reported by S. L. Croft and his team at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine as having antileishmanial effect as well. The compound was effective against Leishmania donovani amastigotes in cultured mouse peritoneal macrophages at a dose of 12.8 mg/kg/day in a five-day course.[14] However priority was given to the development of the compound for cutaneous metastases of breast cancer. In 1992 a new research was reported in which the compound was highly effective in mouse against different life cycle stages of different Leishmania species, and in fect more potent than the conventional sodium stibogluconate therapy by a factor of more than 600.[15] Results of the first clinical trial in humans were reported from Indian patients with chronic leishmaniasis with high degree of success and safety.[16] This promising development promulgated a unique public–private partnership collaboration between ASTA Medica (later Zentaris GmbH), the WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases, and the Government of India. Eventually, several successful Phase II and III trials led to the approval of miltefosine in 2002 as the first and only oral drug for leishmaniasis.[1]

Miltefosine is registered and used by Zentaris GmbH in IndiaColombia and Germany for the treatment of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, and is undergoing clinical trials for this use in several other countries, such as Brazil[17] and Guatemala.[18]

Miltefosine is a phosphocholine analogue that was originally launched in 1993 by Baxter Oncology for the treatment of cancer. In 2003, Zentaris (formerly part of Asta Medica) launched the drug for the oral treatment of visceral leishmaniasis. Zentaris has also brought the product to market for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Jado Technologies is conducting phase II clinical trials for the treatment of antihistamine resistant urticaria. Clinical trials had been ongoing for several indications, including the treatment of cutaneous mastocytosis or cutaneous involvement of systemic mastocytosis. Jado is investigating topical and oral versions of the compound in phase II trials in several allergy indications.

Miltefosine is effective against promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes, which survive and multiply in phagolysosomal compartments of macrophages and make up the two stages of the leishmania lifecycle. Although the exact mechanism of action of the drug has not been determined, it may exert its therapeutic effect through inhibition of phospholipid metabolism. Another theory suggests that miltefosine may interfere with leishmaniacal membrane signal transduction, lipid metabolism and glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor biosynthesis. The drug is well absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract after a single oral administration and is widely distributed throughout the body.

Miltefosine was originally developed under a collaboration between the Indian government, the German biopharmaceutical company Zentaris, and the Tropical Disease Research (TDR) programme, co-sponsored by the World Health Organization and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Subsequent to the product’s approval, Zentaris partnered with various organizations for its distribution. In February 2004, Roche and Zentaris entered into a marketing agreement, pursuant to which Roche agreed to support Zentaris in the registration process and to market miltefosine in Brazil.

Several medical agents have some efficacy against visceral or cutaneous leishmaniasis, however a 2005 survey concluded that Miltefosine is the only effective oral treatment for both forms of leishmaniasis.[19]

Miltefosine is being investigated by researchers interested in finding treatments for infections which have become resistant to existing drugs. Animal and in vitro studies suggest it may have broad anti-protozoal and anti-fungal properties:

  • An in vitro study found that miltefosine is effective against metronidazole-resistant variants of Trichomonas vaginalis, a sexually transmitted protozoal disease.[22]

Investigatory usage against HIV infection

Miltefosine targets HIV infected macrophages, which play a role in vivo as long-lived HIV-1 reservoirs. The HIV protein Tat activates pro-survival PI3K/Akt pathway in primary human macrophages. Miltefosine acts by inhibiting the PI3K/Akt pathway, thus removing the infected macrophages from circulation, without affecting healthy cells.[5] It significantly reduces replication of HIV-1 in cocultures of human dendritic cells (DCs) and CD4(+) T cells, which is due to a rapid secretion of soluble factors and is associated with induction of type-I interferon (IFN) in the human cells.[26]

In leishmanisis the recommended dose as oral monotherapy is 2.5 mg/kg/day for a total of 28 days. However, due to frequent commercial shortage of the 10 mg capsule, dosages are often altered. For example, the Indian government recommends 100 mg/day miltefosine for patients with a body weight ≥25 kg (corresponding to ∼1.7–4 mg/kg/day) and 50 mg/day for body weights <25 kg (corresponding to ∼2–5.5 mg/kg/day).[1] Even up to 150 mg/day for 28 days was found to be quite safe.[27]

The main side effects reported with miltefosine treatment are nausea and vomiting, which occur in 60% of patients. Adverse effect is more severe in women and young children. The overall effects are quite mild and easily reverse.[28] It is embryotoxic and fetotoxic in rats and rabbits, and teratogenic in rats but not in rabbits. It is therefore contraindicated for use during pregnancy, andcontraception is required beyond the end of treatment in women of child-bearing age.[29]

Figure US08394785-20130312-C00009
miltefosine (1-hexadecylphosphoryl-choline, HePC); Calbiochem 475841

Compounds oFigure US08394785-20130312-C00001f the general formula I belonging to the class of phospholipids (X is O and Ris a group of formula II), e.g. alkyloxy phospholipids (Y is O) and the corresponding alkylthio derivatives (Y is S), can be prepared as described in the literature (Bittman, R.; J. Med. Chem. 1997, 40, 1391-1395; Reddy, K. C.; Tetrahedron Lett. 1994, 35, 2679-2682; Guivisdalsky, P. N.; J. Med. Chem. 1990, 33, 2614-2621 and references cited therein) or by standard variations of the procedures described therein. Synthesis of the corresponding ester and thioester analogues (Y is OCO and SCO, respectively) can be accomplished by standard acylation of the hydroxy or thio precursor materials.

Compounds of the general formula I belonging to the class of phosphonolipids (X is a direct bond and Ris a group of formula II), e.g alkyloxy phosphonolipids (Y is O and Ris a group of formula II) and the corresponding alkylthio derivatives (Y is S) can be prepared as published by Bittman et al. (Bittman, R.; J. Med. Chem. 1993, 36, 297-299; Bittman, R.; J. Med. Chem.1994, 37, 425-430 and references cited therein) or by synthetic variations of the procedures described therein. Synthesis of the corresponding ester and thioester analogues (Y is OCO or SCO) can be accomplished by standard acylation of the hydroxy or thio precursor materials.

SEE

Antitumor ether lipids: An improved synthesis of ilmofosine and an enantioselective synthesis of an ilmofosine analog
Tetrahedron Lett 1994, 35(17): 2679

AND

Hexadecylphosphocholine, a new antineoplastic agent: Cytotoxic properties in leukaemic cells
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 1986, 111: 24

References

  1. Dorlo, T. P. C.; Balasegaram, M.; Beijnen, J. H.; de Vries, P. J. (2012). “Miltefosine: a review of its pharmacology and therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of leishmaniasis”. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 67 (11): 2576–2597. doi:10.1093/jac/dks275.PMID 22833634.
  2.  Eibl, H; Unger, C (1990 Sep). “Hexadecylphosphocholine: a new and selective antitumor drug.”. Cancer Treatment Reviews 17 (2-3): 233–42. PMID 2272038.
  3.  Almeida Pachioni, JD; Magalhães, JG; Cardoso Lima, EJ; Moura Bueno, LD; Barbosa, JF; Malta de Sá, M; Rangel-Yagui, CO (2013). “Alkylphospholipids – a promising class of chemotherapeutic agents with a broad pharmacological spectrum.”. Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical sciences : a publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Societe canadienne des sciences pharmaceutiques 16 (5): 742–59. PMID 24393556.
  4.  Eissa, Maha M; El Bardicy, Samia; Tadros, Menerva (2011). “Bioactivity of miltefosine against aquatic stages of Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma haematobium and their snail hosts, supported by scanning electron microscopy”Parasites & Vectors 4 (1): 73.doi:10.1186/1756-3305-4-73PMC PMC3114006PMID 21569375.
  5. Jump up to:a b Chugh P, Bradel-Tretheway B, Monteiro-Filho CM, et al. (2008). “Akt inhibitors as an HIV-1 infected macrophage-specific anti-viral therapy”Retrovirology 5 (1): 11. doi:10.1186/1742-4690-5-11PMC 2265748PMID 18237430.
  6.  “Parasitic Drug Shows HIV-Fighting Promise”. AIDSmeds.com. 2008-02-01. Retrieved 2008-02-02.
  7.  Teshima, K; Ikeda, K; Hamaguchi, K; Hayashi, K (1983). “Bindings of cobra venom phospholipases A2 to micelles of n-hexadecylphosphorylcholine.”. Journal of Biochemistry 94(1): 223–32. PMID 6619110.
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  9.  Berger, MR; Petru, E; Schmähl, D (1987). “Therapeutic ratio of mono or combination bacterial lipopolysaccharide therapy in methylnitrosourea-induced rat mammary carcinoma.”. Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology 113 (5): 437–45. PMID 3624299.
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  11.  Berger, MR; Muschiol, C; Schmähl, D; Eibl, HJ (1987). “New cytostatics with experimentally different toxic profiles.”. Cancer treatment Reviews 14 (3-4): 307–17. PMID 3440252.
  12.  Hilgard, P; Stekar, J; Voegeli, R; Engel, J; Schumacher, W; Eibl, H; Unger, C; Berger, MR (1988). “Characterization of the antitumor activity of hexadecylphosphocholine (D 18506).”.European Journal of Cancer & Clinical Oncology 24 (9): 1457–61. PMID 3141197.
  13.  Eibl, H; Unger, C (1990 Sep). “Hexadecylphosphocholine: a new and selective antitumor drug.”. Cancer Treatment Reviews 17 (2-3): 233–42. PMID 2272038.
  14.  Croft, S.L.; Neal, R.A.; Pendergast, W.; Chan, J.H. (1987). “The activity of alkyl phosphorylcholines and related derivatives against Leishmania donovani”. Biochemical Pharmacology 36 (16): 2633–2636. doi:10.1016/0006-2952(87)90543-0.
  15.  Kuhlencord, A; Maniera, T; Eibl, H; Unger, C (1992). “Hexadecylphosphocholine: oral treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in mice.”Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 36(8): 1630–1634. doi:10.1128/AAC.36.8.1630PMC PMC192021PMID 1329624.
  16.  Sundar, Shyam; Rosenkaimer, Frank; Makharia, Manoj K; Goyal, Ashish K; Mandal, Ashim K; Voss, Andreas; Hilgard, Peter; Murray, Henry W (1998). “Trial of oral miltefosine for visceral leishmaniasis”. The Lancet 352 (9143): 1821–1823. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(98)04367-0.PMID 9851383.
  17.  Cristina, Márcia; Pedrosa, Robert (September 2005). “Hospital de Doenças Tropicais testa droga contra calazar”Sapiência (in Portuguese) (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Piauí). Archived from the original on 2006-08-22. Retrieved 2006-09-01.
  18.  Soto J, Berman J (2006). “Treatment of New World cutaneous leishmaniasis with miltefosine.”. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 100: S34. doi:10.1016/j.trstmh.2006.02.022.PMID 16930649.
  19. Berman, J. (2005). “Clinical status of agents being developed for leishmaniasis”. Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs 14 (11): 1337–1346. doi:10.1517/13543784.14.11.1337.PMID 16255674.
  20. Saraiva V, Gibaldi D, Previato J, Mendonça-Previato L, Bozza M, Freire-De-Lima C, Heise N (2002). “Proinflammatory and cytotoxic effects of hexadecylphosphocholine (miltefosine) against drug-resistant strains of Trypanosoma cruzi.”Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46 (11): 3472–7. doi:10.1128/AAC.46.11.3472-3477.2002PMC 128733PMID 12384352.
  21.  Widmer F, Wright L, Obando D, Handke R, Ganendren R, Ellis D, Sorrell T (2006).“Hexadecylphosphocholine (miltefosine) has broad-spectrum fungicidal activity and is efficacious in a mouse model of cryptococcosis.”Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50 (2): 414–21. doi:10.1128/AAC.50.2.414-421.2006PMC 1366877PMID 16436691.
  22.  Blaha C, Duchêne M, Aspöck H, Walochnik J (2006). “In vitro activity of hexadecylphosphocholine (miltefosine) against metronidazole-resistant and -susceptible strains of Trichomonas vaginalis”. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 57 (2): 273–8.doi:10.1093/jac/dki417PMID 16344287.
  23.  Choubey V, Maity P, Guha M, et al. (February 2007). “Inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum choline kinase by hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide: a possible antimalarial mechanism”Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51 (2): 696–706. doi:10.1128/AAC.00919-06.PMC 1797733PMID 17145794.
  24.  Naegleria fowleri – Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM)
  25.  Brain-Eating Amoeba: How One Girl Survived
  26. Garg, Ravendra; Tremblay, Michel J. (October 2012). “Miltefosine represses HIV-1 replication in human dendritic cell/T-cell cocultures partially by inducing secretion of type-I interferon”.Virology 432 (2): 271–276. doi:10.1016/j.virol.2012.05.032PMID 22704066.
  27.  Sundar, Shyam; Jha, T.K.; Thakur, C.P.; Bhattacharya, S.K.; Rai, M. (2006). “Oral miltefosine for the treatment of Indian visceral leishmaniasis”. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 100 (Suppl 1): S26–S33. doi:10.1016/j.trstmh.2006.02.011.PMID 16730038.
  28.  S.D. Seth (2008). “Drug therapy of leishmaniasis”. In S.D. Seth. Textbook of Pharmacology. Elsevier India. p. 31. ISBN 9788131211588.
  29.  Sindermann, H.; Engel, J. (December 2006). “Development of miltefosine as an oral treatment for leishmaniasis”. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 100 (Suppl 1): S17–S20. doi:10.1016/j.trstmh.2006.02.010PMID 16730362.

7-4-2012
LOCAL TREATMENT OF NEUROFIBROMAS
10-28-2011
METHODS FOR THE TREATMENT AND AMELIORATION OF ATOPIC DERMATITIS
8-17-2011
Methods for the treatment and amelioration of atopic dermatitis
11-16-2007
Mucosal formulation
7-20-2007
NOVEL ALKYL PHOSPHOLIPID DERIVATIVES WITH REDUCED CYTOTOXICITY AND USES THEREOF

 

 

an animation to soothe ones eye

The US FDA has issued full approval for Israeli drugmaker Teva’s Synribo (omacetaxine mepesuccinate)高三尖杉酯碱 for chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML).



Omacetaxine mepesuccinate 高三尖杉酯碱

Alkaloid from Cephalotaxus harringtonia; FDA approved orphan drug status for Ceflatonin in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia due to being an inducer of apoptosis in myeloid cells and inhibitor of angiogenesis.
26833-87-4 CAS NO

1-((1S,3aR,14bS)-2-Methoxy-1,5,6,8,9,14b-hexahydro-4H-cyclopenta(a)(1,3)dioxolo(4,5-h)pyrrolo(2,1-b)(3)benzazepin-1-yl) 4-methyl (2R)-2-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-4-methylpentyl)butanedioate

1-((11bS,12S,14aR)-13-methoxy-2,3,5,6,11b,12-hexahydro-1H-[1,3]dioxolo[4′,5′:4,5]benzo[1,2-d]cyclopenta[b]pyrrolo[1,2-a]azepin-12-yl) 4-methyl 2-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-4-methylpentyl)succinate

Also known as:  NSC-141633,

  • BRN 5687925
  • Ceflatonin
  • CGX-635
  • Homoharringtonine
  • Myelostat
  • NSC 141633
  • Omacetaxine mepesuccinate
  • Omapro
  • Synribo
  • UNII-6FG8041S5B
  • 高三尖杉酯碱

CGX-635-14 (formulation), CGX-635, HHT, ZJ-C, Myelostat, Ceflatonin

 USFDA on 26th October 2012  APPROVED

US FDA:    link

Formula C29H39NO9 
Mol. mass 545.62 g/mol
Melting Point: 144-146 °C
 FEBRUARY 17, 2014

The US Food and Drug Administration has now issued full approval for Israeli drugmaker Teva’s Synribo (omacetaxine mepesuccinate) for chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML).

Synribo is indicated for adult patients with chronic phase (CP) or accelerated phase (AP) CML with resistance and/or intolerance to two or more tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs).

Read more at: http://www.pharmatimes.com/Article/14-02-17/US_green_light_for_Teva_s_CML_drug_Synribo.aspx#ixzz2tdkbGFcw

Homoharringtonine is an angiogenesis-inhibiting and apoptosis-inducing alkaloid which was approved in October 2012 by the FDA for the treatment of adult patients with chronic or accelerated phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) with resistance and/or intolerance to two or more tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). In November 2012, the product was commercialized as Synribo(R) on the U.S. market by Teva.

The original developer, ChemGenex, selected homoharringtonine for the combination trials due to its complementary mechanism of action that can reduce Bcr-Abl protein expression associated with resistance to imatinib mesylate.

In 2004, the compound received orphan drug designation from the EMEA for the treatment of AML and CML. Orphan drug designation was granted by the FDA for the treatment of CML in 2006 and for the treatment of myelodysplasia in 2009. Fast track designation was assigned to homoharringtonine for CML in 2006. In 2009, the product was licensed to Hospira by ChemGenex Pharmaceuticals for development and marketing in Europe, the Middle East and parts of Africa.

Homoharringtonine, AKA HHT or omacetaxine mepesuccinate, is a cephalotaxine ester and protein synthesis inhibitor with established clinical activity as a single agent in hematological malignancies. Homoharringtonine is synthesized from cephalotaxine, which is an extract from the leaves of the plant, Cephalotaxus species. In October 2005, homoharringtonine received Orphan Drug designation from the EMEA for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Then in March 2006, homoharringtonine received Orphan Drug status from the FDA for the treatment of CML. In November 2006, homoharringtonine, for the treatment of CML, was granted Fast Track designation by the FDA. Most recently, in October 2012, homoharringtonine was marketed under the brand name Synribo” and FDA approved for patients who are intolerant and/or resistant to two or more tyrosine kinase inhibitors used to treat accelerated or chronic phase CML

Omacetaxine mepesuccinate is administered subcutaneously and acts differently from TKIs. It may have a therapeutic advantage for patients who have failed TKIs. Omacetaxine is currently in global phase 2/3 clinical trials for CML and has been granted Orphan Drug designations by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMEA) as well as Fast Track status by the FDA. In vitro and animal model trails are promising and recent results showed that omacetaxine has potential to treat resistant leukemia mainly CML and ALL.

 PATENT
3-25-2011
CEPHALOTAXUS ESTERS, METHODS OF SYNTHESIS, AND USES THEREOF

Tetrahedron Letters,Vo1.23,No.34,pp 3431-3434  – Brock University

Omacetaxine mepesuccinate

Omacetaxine mepesuccinate (INN, trade name Synribo) is a semi-synthetic analogue of an alkaloid from Cephalotaxus harringtonia that is indicated for treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). It was approved by the US FDA in October 2012 for the treatment of adult patients with CML with resistance and/or intolerance to two or more tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs).[1]

Omacetaxine mepesuccinate is a semisynthetic derivative of the cytotoxic plant alkaloid homoharringtonine isolated from the evergreen tree Cephalotaxus with potential antineoplastic activity. Omacetaxine mepesuccinate binds to the 80S ribosome in eukaryotic cells and inhibits protein synthesis by interfering with chain elongation. This agent also induces differentiation and apoptosis in some cancer cell types. Omacetaxine mepesuccinate (INN, or homoharringtonine, trade name Synribo) is an alkaloid from Cephalotaxus harringtonia that is indicated for treatment of Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia. It was approved by the USFDA on 26th October 2012 for the treatment of adult patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) with resistance and/or intolerance to two or more tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs)

Omacetaxine is indicated for use as a treatment for patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia who are intolerant of tyrosine kinase inhibitors.[2][3]

In June 2009, results of a long-term open label Phase II study were published, which investigated the use of omacetaxine infusions in CML patients. After twelve months of treatment, about one third of patients showed a cytogenetic response.[4] A study in patients who had failed imatinib and who had the drug resistant T315I mutation achieved cytogenetic response in 28% of patients and haematological response in 80% of patients, according to preliminary data.[5]

Phase I studies including a small number of patients have shown benefit in treating myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS, 25 patients)[6] and acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML, 76 patients).[7] Patients with solid tumors did not benefit from omacetaxine.[8]

Omacetaxine is a protein translation inhibitor. It inhibits protein translation by preventing the initial elongation step of protein synthesis. It interacts with the ribosomal A-site and prevents the correct positioning of amino acid side chains of incoming aminoacyl-tRNAs. Omacetaxine acts only on the initial step of protein translation and does not inhibit protein synthesis from mRNAs that have already commenced translation.[9]

Omacetaxine mepesuccinate

SYNRIBO contains the active ingredient omacetaxine mepesuccinate, a cephalotaxine ester. It is a protein synthesis inhibitor. Omacetaxine mepesuccinate is prepared by a semi-synthetic process from cephalotaxine, an extract from the leaves of Cephalotaxus sp. The chemical name of omacetaxine mepesuccinate is cephalotaxine, 4-methyl (2R)-hydroxyl-2-(4-hydroxyl-4-methylpentyl) butanedioate (ester).

Omacetaxine mepesuccinate has the following chemical structure:

SYNRIBO™ (omacetaxine mepesuccinate)  Structural Formula Illustration

The molecular formula is C29H39NO9 with a molecular weight of 545.6 g/mol. SYNRIBO for injection is a sterile, preservative-free, white to off-white, lyophilized powder in a single-use vial. Each vial contains 3.5 mg omacetaxine mepesuccinate and mannitol.

SYNRIBO is intended for subcutaneous administration after reconstitution with 1.0 mL of 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP. The pH of the reconstituted solution is between 5.5 and 7.0.

…………………………………..

INTRODUCTION

Harringtonines 3 are particular cephalotaxanes formed by attachement of a branched hydroxyacyloxy side-chain at the 3-position of various cephalotaxines moieties. Harringtoriines are natural esters of cephalotaxines exhibiting generally a strong cytotoxic activity. However the lost only one atom of this minimal structure lead to a dramatic lost of activity (see below). Some example of harringtonines are harringtonine

3a, homoharringtonine 3b, drupangtonine 3c, anhydroharringtonine 3d and neoharringtonine 3e.

SCHEME 1 DEFINITION NOMENCLATURE AND NUMBERING OF CEPHALOTAXANES

Figure imgf000003_0001
Figure imgf000003_0002

Examples of harringtonines

Figure imgf000003_0003

Examples of cephalotaxines

Figure imgf000003_0004

Harringtonine 3a (n = 2) Anhydroharringtonine 3d Homoharringtonine 3b (n = 3)

Figure imgf000003_0006

(-)-Cephalotaxine 2a

Figure imgf000003_0008
Figure imgf000003_0007

Drupacine 2b Drupangtonine 3c Neoharringtonine 3e (n = 2)

…………………………………

The term “cephalotaxanes” refers to compounds or salts thereof which have a basic skeleton of formula

Figure US06831180-20041214-C00001

where p is equal to 1 or 2 (it being possible for the two units to be identical or different and linked via a single bond or an oxygen atom), which can contain various oxygenated substituents (aliphatic or aromatic ethers, free or esterified alcohols, substituted or free enols and/or phenols, bridged ethers, and more generally any substituent usually encountered in the natural state on compounds of this type).

Harringtonines are alkaloids which are of high interest in anticancer chemotherapy, in particular on certain haematosarcomas which are multi-resistant to the existing therapies. The selectivity of harringtonines, which is based on a novel mechanism of action relating to protein synthesis, is such that this series is favoured with a great future in anticancer therapy.

Several literature compilations give a seemingly exhaustive review of all of the knowledge relating to cephalotaxanes, these compilations being, chronologically: [C. R. Smith, Jr, R. G. Powell and K. L. Mikolajczack, Cancer Treat. Rep., Vol. 60, 1157 (1976); C. R. Smith, Jr, L. Kenneth, K. L. Mikolajczack and R. G. Powell in “Anticancer Agent Based on Natural Product Model”, 391 (1980); Liang Huang and Zhi Xue in “The Alkaloids”, Vol. XXIII (A. Brossi Ed.), 157 (1984); M. Suffness and G. A. Cordell in “The Alkaloids, Chemistry and Pharmacology” (A. Brossi Ed.), Vol. 25, 57-69, 295-298 (1’987); P. J. O’Dwyer, S. A. King, D. F. Hoth, M. Suffness and B. Leyland-Jones, Journal of Clinical Oncology, 1563 (1986); T. Hudlicky, L. D. Kwart and J. W. Reed, in “Alkaloid: Chemical and Biological Perspectives” (S. W. Pelletier Ed.), Vol. 5, 639 (1987); M. A. Miah, T. Hudlicky and J. Reed in “The Alkaloids”, Vol. 51, 199 (1998)].

Antiparasitic activities, in particular on the haematozoon of malaria, have also been recognized [J. M. Whaun and N. D. Brown, Ann Trop. Med. Par., Vol. 84, 229 (1990)].

Homo-harringtonine (HHT), the most active member of the series, is active at and above daily doses of 2.5 mg/mof body area per 24 hours, i.e., as a guide, at doses twenty times lower than that for Taxol. HHT has already undergone fourteen phase I and II clinical trials and it is the only known product capable of a 70% reinduction of full haematological remissions in patients suffering from chronic myeloid leukaemias that have become resistant to alpha-interferon [S. O’Brien, H. Kantarjian, M. Keating, M. Beran, C. Koler, L. E. Robertson, J. Hester, M. Rios, M. Andreeff and M. Talpaz, Blood, 332 (1995); Leukemia Insights, Vol. 3, No. 1 (1998)].

Harringtonines were extracted over 35 years ago from an exclusively Asiatic cephalotaxacea known as Cephalotaxus harringtonia, following the programme of research into novel anticancer agents in the plant kingdom developed by the National Cancer Institute. In fact, the Cephalotaxus alkaloids consist essentially (at least 50%) of cephalotaxine, a biosynthetic precursor of the harringtonines, the latter individually representing only a few percent of the total alkaloids.

Besides their low concentration in the natural state in plant starting material, harringtonines are mixed with many congeners which have very similar chemical structures. Thus, in a high resolution high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) chromatogram of a semi-purified alkaloid extract, no less than several tens of cephalotaxine esters are counted.

Numerous antileukemia drugs have been investigated but so far, there is no single drug that is effective and safe. As discussed in U.S. 3,497,593, an alkaloid from Tylophora plant is said to have antitumor activity against mouse leukemia (L-1210). U.S. 3,928,584 discloses an organic composition derived from tree sap and is said to have activity against mouse leukemia P-388. Also U.S. 4,431,639 discloses that an extract of Rhisoma Stractylis promotes the production of lymphocytes in the circulating blood, consequently eliminating cancer growth

  • Harringtonine or Homoharringtonine, hereinafter referred to as HH, has been known to be effective against acute chronic granulocytic and monocytic leukemia (Journal of Chinese Internal Medicine 3:162-164, 1978). However, it is highly toxic and causes damage to heart and hematopoietic organs. The results of experiments in animals, such as mice, rabbits and dogs, indicate that most of them die from cardiotoxicity after receiving the drug. Therefore, there is a need to improve the HH drug for safe use against leukemia. This drug is of special importance in that all known antileukemia drugs are effective against lymphatic leukemia and there are no effective drugs for treating nonlymphatic leukemia

All the literature from 1972 to the present date [Mikolajczack et al., Tetrahedron, 1995 (1972); T. Hudlicky, L. D. Kwart and J. W. Reed in “Alkaloid: Chemical and Biological Perspectives” (S. W. Pelletier Ed.), Vol. 5, 639 (1987); M. A. Miah, T. Hudlicky and J. Reed in “The Alkaloids”, Vol. 51, p. 236 (1998)] mention the impossibility hitherto of esterifying the highly sterically hindered secondary hydroxyl of cephalotaxane 2a with the tertiary carboxyl of the alkanoyl chain of harringtonic acid 3 totally preformed to give a harringtonine 4b, i.e. the conversion 2a+3e(4b as described in the example featured in the scheme below

Figure US06831180-20041214-C00002
  • ……………………………………………………..

SYNTHESIS

Tetrahedron Lett 1982,23(34),3431,  J Org Chem 1983,48(26),5321

The oxidation of 2-methyl-1-cyclopentene-1-carbaldehyde (I) with O3 and Ag2O gives 2,6-dioxoheptanoic acid (II), which is esterified with cephalotaxine (III) by means of (COCl)2, yielding the ester (IV). Reformatsky reaction of (IV) with methyl bromoacetate (V) and Zn affords the adduct (VI), which is treated with an excess of methylmagnesium iodide to provide the target homoharringtonine (as a single diastereomer), along with some starting cephalotaxine that is separated by chromatography.

………………………………

SYNTHESIS

EP 1064285; FR 2776292; WO 9948894, Tetrahedron Lett 1999,402931

The intermediate (racemic)-2-(methoxycarbonylmethyl)-6,6-dimethyltetrahydropyran-2-carboxylic acid (VIII) has been obtained by several related methods: 1. The Grignard condensation of 4-methyl-3-pentenyl bromide (I) with diethyl oxalate (II) in HF gives the 2-oxoheptenoate (III), which is condensed with methyl acetate (IV) by means of LiHMDS in THF to yield 3-(ethoxycarbonyl)-3-hydroxy-7-methyl-6-octenoic acid methyl ester (V).

The cyclization of (V) by means of Ts-OH in hot toluene or by means of hot aqueous formic acid affords 2-(methoxycarbonylmethyl)-6,6-dimethyltetrahydropyran-2-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (VI), which is hydrolyzed with KOH in boiling water to provide the corresponding dicarboxylic acid (VII). Finally, this compound is regioselectively monoesterified by means of BF3/MeOH in methanol to furnish the intermediate (racemic)-2-(methoxycarbonylmethyl)-6,6-dimethyltetrahydropyran-2-carboxylic acid (VIII). 2.

The reaction of 3-(ethoxycarbonyl)-3-hydroxy-7-methyl-6-octenoic acid methyl ester (V) with HCl in hot methanol gives 3-(ethoxycarbonyl)-3,7-dihydroxy-7-methyloctanoic acid methyl ester (IX), which is then cyclized by means of ZnCl2 in hot dichloroethane to yield the previously described intermediate (VIII). 3. The hydrolysis of 3-(ethoxycarbonyl)-3-hydroxy-7-methyl-6-octenoic acid methyl ester (V) with KOH in refluxing methanol/water gives the corresponding diacid (X), which is regioselectively monoesterified by means of BF3/MeOH in methanol to yield 3-carboxy-3-hydroxy-7-methyl-6-octenoic acid methyl ester (XI).

Finally, this compound is cyclized by means of Ts-OH in hot toluene to afford the previously described carboxylic intermediate (VIII). The racemic acid (VIII) is submitted to optical resolution by esterification with quinine (XII) by means of 2,4,6-trichlorobenzoyl chloride and TEA or DCC to give a diastereomeric mixture of esters (XIII) that is separated by preparative HPLC to obtain the desired diastereomer (XIV).

The hydrolysis of (XIV) with KOH in refluxing ethanol/water gives the corresponding chiral dicarboxylic acid (XV), which is regioselectively monoesterified with BF3/MeOH in methanol to yield the chiral (R)-2-(methoxycarbonylmethyl)-6,6-dimethyltetrahydropyran-2-carboxylic acid (XVI).

The esterification of (XVI) with cephalotaxine (XVII) by means of 2,4,6-trichlorobenzoyl chloride and TEA in toluene affords the corresponding ester (XVIII), which is treated with HBr in dichloromethane/HOAc, providing the bromoester (XIX). Finally, this compound is treated with NaHCO3, CaCO3 or BaCO3 in acetone/water to give the target hydroxyester.

………………………………………….

EXTRACTION

EP0203386B1

  • Throughout the specification, the concentration of the solvent is the same as first given unless stated otherwise. Redeuced pressure means about 2,27 kPa (17 mm Hg. abs), l is liter, kg is kilogram. ml is milliliter. Yield in weight %.
    Example 1. HH is extracted from the skins, stems, leaves and seeds of Cephalotaxus fortunel Hook and other related species, such as Cephalotaxus sinensis Li, C. hainanensis, and C. wilsoniana, including C.oliveri mast and C.harringtonia.
  • 1 kg of finely ground Cephalotaxus fortunel Hook is extracted with 8 l of 90% ethanol at room temperature for 24 hrs. The solution is filtered to yield a filtrate A and filtercake. The filtercake is percolated with ethanol and filtered again to yield filtrate B. A and B are combined and distilled under reduced pressure to recover ethanol and an aqueous residue. To this residue, 2% HCl is added to adjust the pH to 2.5. The solids are separated from the solution by filtration to yield a filtrate C. The solids are washed once with 2% HCl and filtered to yield a filtrate D. C and D are combined and the pH adjusted to 9.5 by adding saturated sodium carbonate solution. The alkaline filtrate is extracted with chloroform and the chloroform layer separated from the aqueous layer. This extration process is repeated five times. All the chloroform extracts are combined and distilled at reduced pressure to recover chloroform and alkaloid as a solid residue respectively.
  • The solid alkaloid is then dissolved in 20 ml. of 6% citric acid in water. The solution is divided into three equal portions. These are adjusted to pH 7,8 and 9 by adding saturated sodium carbonate solution.
  • The portions having pH 8 and 9 are combined and extracted with chloroform. The chloroform extracts are distilled under reduced pressure, whereby chloroform is removed and recovered and a solid residue of crude Harringtonine is obtained.
  • The crude Harringtonine is dissolved in pure ethanol i.e. alkaloid : anhydrous ethanol 1:10 , and crystallized. The crystals are refined by recrystalliation in diethyl ether. Overall yield of Harringtonine is about 0.1% including yield from mixed HH from the subsequent process.
    Harringtonine has the following chemical structure:

    Figure imgb0001

    wherein R is

    Figure imgb0002
    melting point:
    135° – 137°C
    crystal:
    colorless
    infrared spectrum:
    3750, 1660, 1505, 1490, 1050, and 945 cm⁻¹.
    Figure imgb0003
  • The portion having a pH of 7 and the mother liquors from the foregoing crystallization of Harringtonine are combined and passed through a liquid chromatographic column of diameter to height ratio 1:50 packed with alumina. The column is finally flushed with chloroform and followed by chloroform-methanol of 9:1 mixture. The resulting alkaloids are mixture of HH. The mixed HH is then separated from each other by countercurrent distribution employing chloroform and pH 5 buffer. The first fraction of the countercurrent distribution is Homoharringtonine and the last fraction of the countercurrent distribution is Harringtonine. Homoharringtonine is purified by crystallization in methyl alcohol.
    Homoharringtonine has the following chemical structure:

    Figure imgb0004

    wherein R is

    Figure imgb0005
    yield:
    0.02%
    melting point:
    144° – 146°C
    infrared spectrum:
    3500∼3400, 1750, 1665, 1030 and 940 cm⁻¹.
    Figure imgb0006

…………………………………………………………………………..

EXTRACTION

EP1064285B1

All the literature from 1972 to the present date [Mikolajczack et al.,Tetrahedron, 1995 (1972); T. Hudlicky, L.D. Kwart and J.W. Reed in “Alkaloid: Chemical and Biological Perspectives” (S.W. Pelletier Ed.), Vol. 5, 639 (1987); M.A. Miah, T. Hudlicky and J. Reed in “The Alkaloids”, Vol. 51, p. 236 (1998)] mention the impossibility hitherto of esterifying the highly sterically hindered secondary hydroxyl of cephalotaxine 2a with the tertiary carboxyl of the alkanoyl chain of harringtonic acid 3e totally preformed to give a harringtonine 4b , i.e. the conversion 2a 3e ( 4b as described in the example featured in the scheme below

Figure 00080001

Example 46

Preparation of purified (-) cephalotaxine from total alkaloidic extract of Cephalotaxus sp

    • [0319]
      Figure 01280001
    • Partially racemized cephalotaxine [H. Wenkui; L. Yulin; P. Xinfu, Scientia Sinica,; 23; 7; 835 (1980)]
    • 1H NMR of two batches of cephalotaxine (extracted in the same conditions as above) with the optically active NMR shift reagent europium(III) tris[3-(heptafluoropropylhydroxymethylene)-(+)-camphorate (1 éq) showed the following results:

      • Batch A: 1H NMR 400 MHz (CDCl3)(δ ppm): 6.06 (1H, OCH2O (+)-cephalotaxine) and 5.82 (1H, OCH2O (+)-cephalotaxine) ; 5.99 (1H, OCH2O (-)-cephalotaxine) and 5.76 (1H, OCH2O (-)-cephalotaxine).
        Presence of 11 ± 5 % de (+)-cephalotaxine.
        [α]22 = -134,0° (c = 0,214; CHCl3) : calculated rate 25 ± 5 %
      • Batch B: slightly racemized (1%)
        [α]19 = -173,3° (c = 0,208; CHCl3)

Enantiomeric enrichment of the natural cephalotaxine:

    • Crude chromatographied cephalotaxine (20g) was dissolved at 55°C in dry methanol (100 ml). Crystallization occurs by cooling with rotary evaporator and after filtration the product thus obtained showed 99.9% of HPLC purity.
      [α]20 D =-130° (C1, CHD3) corresponding to 10 % of racemization. The crystallized product thus obtained (20g) was dissolved again in hot methanol (100 ml).
      Slowly cooling the solution allows translucent prisms composed of pure enantiomeric (-)-cephalotaxine [α]20 D= -185°(C1,CHCl3).
      After filtration, the mother liquors was allowed to slowly evaporate at room temperature and crystals in the form of macled needles exclusively composed of racemic cephalotaxine [α]D 20 = 0,5° (C1 ; CHCl3) were obtained.
      After filtration, the second mother liquors allowed prisms composed of (-)-cephalotaxine identical to this obtained at the first crystallization.
      After filtration, the third mother liquors still allowed macled needles (urchins) composed of (±)-cephalotaxine.
      The cycle is repeated three times. The combined prismatic crystals was recrystallized once to give enantiomerically pure (-)-cephalotaxine, while the combined macled needles treated in the same way gives 100% racemic cephalotaxine.

Chemical evaluation of the enantiomeric purity of natural cephalotaxine:

  • A sample of partially racemized natural cephalotaxine was inserted in the process, which sequence is described in the Examples 1,2,3,4,5,6,15,19 and 21, by using a pure (2R)-homoharrintonic acid resulting from Example 19.
    The HPLC analysis of the diastereomeric mixture of anhydro-homoharrintonine thus obtained showed a significant enantio-epi-homoharringtonine rate (11% ± 3%) corresponding to the (+)-cephalotaxine content in the racemic mixture of origin (it has been demonstrated that the two antipodes of the homoharringtonic acid react in a stoechiometric way comparable to the pure enantiomeric cephalotaxine).

Example 47Preparation of homoharringtonine, from anhydro-homoharringtonine:

    • Figure 01300001

1)° Method A

    • A commercial solution of hydrobromic acid in acetic acid (17.4 ml, 86.6 mmol, HBr 30% w/w) was added to a stirred solution of anhydrohomoharringtonine resulting from Example 21 (50.8 g, 9.63 mmol) in anhydrous dichloromethane (25.6 ml) at -10°C. After stirring at -10°C for 3 hours was added water (240 ml) and the reaction mixture was become viscous. The temperature was allowed to rise to room temperature and after stirring for 2.5 hours was added sodium carbonate 0.76M (406 ml) to pH 8. The resulting aqueous layer was saturated with sodium chloride, then was extracted with dichloromethane (3 × 230 ml) and the combined organic layers were dried over magnesium sulfate and evaporated to dryness to afford a foam. After phase reverse chromatography below-mentioned were obtained 4.03g of homoharringtonine (77%). The product thus obtained showed identical characteristics to this resulting from Example 25.

2°) Method B

  • To a stirred solution of anhydrohomoharringtonine resulting from Example 21 (214 mg, 0.406 mmol) in anhydrous dichloromethane (1.1 ml) was added at -10°C a commercial solution of hydrobromic acid in acetic acid (0.728 ml, 3.6 mmol, HBr 30% w/w). After stirring at -10°C for 3 hours, was added water (13 ml) and then the temperature was raised to 20°C. After stirring at 20°C for 3 hours, was added a sodium carbonate solution (0.76M; 31.5 ml) up to pH 8. The resulting aqueous layer, after saturation with sodium chloride, was extracted with dichloromethane (3 × 20 ml) and the combined organic layers were dried over magnesium sulfate and evaporated to dryness. The resulting crude product was purified by phase reverse chromatography below-mentioned to provide homoharringtonine (166 mg, 75%). The product thus obtained showed identical characteristics to this resulting from Example 25.

    Figure 01320001
    Figure 01330001

……………………

SEMISYNTHESIS

US6831180

EXAMPLE 27 Preparation of homoharringtonine as a pharmaceutical use from crude semi-synthetic homoharringtonine resulting from example 25 by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography

Figure US06831180-20041214-C00126

1°) Method A

Crude homoharringtonine (35 g) is dissolved in buffer (triethylamine (1.55/1000) in deionised water and orthophosphoric acid to adjust pH to 3. The solution was filtered then injected on a preparative high-performance liquid chromatograph equipped with axial compression and high pressure pump (stationary phase: n-octadecylsilane, 15 μm, porosity 100, 1 kg; mobile phase; buffer/tetrahydrofurane 85/15). Elution was performed at a flow rate of 0.2 l/min. Fractions contain was monitored by U.V. detector and TLC. Retained fraction were finally checked by HPLC then combined, alkalinised with 2.5% aqueous ammonia and extracted with dichloromethane (4×400 ml). After concentration under reduced pressure homoharringtonine is obtained as a pale yellow resin which on trituration in a 8/2 water-methanol mixture gave pure homoharringtonine as a white crystalline solid (mp=127° C.), HPLC purity was higher than 99.8%.

2°) Method B

Same procedure of purification as method A was performed but mobile phase buffer/methanol (68/32) was used instead buffer/tetrahydrofurane.

3°) Method C

Same procedure of purification as method A was performed but mobile phase buffer/acetonitrile (85/15) was used instead buffer/tetrahydrofurane.

EXAMPLE 28 Preparation of homoharringtonine as a pharmaceutical use from semi-purified natural cephalotaxine

Crude homoharringtonine, prepared according to Example 25 from a partially racemized natural cephalotaxine and purified by chromatography and crystallisation according to the method A of Example 27, gave an homoharringtonine showing a non natural enantiomeric epi-homoharringtonine content less than 0.05%.

EXAMPLE 46 Preparation of purified (−) cephalotaxine from total alkaloidic extract of cephatotaxus sp

Figure US06831180-20041214-C00145

Partially racemized cephalotaxine [H. Wenkui; L. Yulin; P. Xinfu, Scientia Sinica; 23; 7; 835 (1980)]

1H NMR of two batches of cephalotaxine (extracted in the same conditions as above) with the optically active NMR shift reagent europium(III) tris[3-(heptafluoropropylhydroxymethylene)-(+)-camphorate (1éq) showed the following results:

Batch A: 1H NMR 400 MHz (CDCl3)(δ ppm): 6.06 (1H, OCH2O (+)-cephalotaxine) and 5.82 (1H, OCH2O (+)-cephalotaxine); 5.99 (1H, OCH2O (−)-cephalotaxine) and 5.76 (1H, OCH2O (−)-cephalotaxine). Presence of 11±5% de (+)-cephalotaxine. [α]22=−134,0°(c=0,214; CHCl3): calculated rate 25±5%

Batch B: slightly racemized (1%) [α]19=−173,3°(c=0,208; CHCl3)

Enantiomeric Enrichment of the Natural Cephalotaxine:

Crude chromatographied cephalotaxine (20 g) was dissolved at 55° C. in dry methanol (100 ml). Crystallization occurs by cooling with rotary evaporator and after filtration the product thus obtained showed 99.9% of HPLC purity, [α]20 D=−130°(C1, CHD3) corresponding to 10% of racemization. The crystallized product thus obtained (20 g) was dissolyed again in hot methanol (100 ml).

Slowly cooling the solution allows translucent prisms composed of pure enantiomeric (-−)-cephalotaxine [α]20 D=−185°(C1, CHCl3).

After filtration, the mother liquors was allowed to slowly evaporate at room temperature and crystals in the form of macled needles exclusively composed of racemic cephalotaxine [α]D 20=0,5°(C1; CHCl3) were obtained.

After filtration, the second mother liquors allowed prisms composed of (−)-cephalotaxine identical to this obtained at the first crystallization.

After filtration, the third mother liquors still allowed macled needles (urchins) composed of (±)-cephalotaxine.

The cycle is repeated three times. The combined prismatic crystals was recrystallized once to give enantiomerically pure (−)-cephalotaxine, while the combined macled needles treated in the same way gives 100% racemic cephalotaxine.

Chemical Evaluation of the Enantiomeric Purity of Natural Cephalotaxine:

A sample of partially racemized natural cephalotaxine was inserted in the process, which sequence is described in the Examples 1,2,3,4,5,6,15,19 and 21, by using a pure (2R)-homoharrintonic acid resulting from Example 19. The HPLC analysis of the diastereomeric mixture of anhydro-homoharrintonine thus obtained showed a significant enantio-epi-homoharringtonine rate (11%±3%) corresponding to the (+)-cephalotaxine content in the racemic mixture of origin (it has been demonstrated that the two antipodes of the homoharringtonic acid react in a stoechiometric way comparable to the pure enantiomeric cephalotaxine).

EXAMPLE 47

Preparation of homoharringtonine, from anhydro-homoharringtonine

Figure US06831180-20041214-C00146

1°) Method A

A commercial solution of hydrobromic acid in acetic acid (17.4 ml, 86.6 mmol, HBr 30% w/w) was added to a stirred solution of anhydrohomoharringtonine resulting from Example 21 (50.8 g, 9.63 mmol) in anhydrous dichloromethane (25.6 ml) at −10° C. After stirring at −10° C. for 3 hours was added water (240 ml) and the reaction mixture was become viscous. The temperature was allowed to rise to room temperature and after stirring for 2.5 hours was added sodium carbonate 0.76M (406 ml) to pH 8. The resulting aqueous layer was saturated with sodium chloride, then was extracted with dichloromethane (3×230 ml) and the combined organic layers were dried over magnesium sulfate and evaporated to dryness to afford a foam. After phase reverse chromatography below-mentioned were obtained 4.03 g of homoharringtonine (77%). The product thus obtained showed identical characteristics to this resulting from Example 25.

2°) Method B

To a stirred solution of anhydrohomoharringtonine resulting from Example 21 (21.4 mg, 0.406 mmol) in anhydrous dichloromethane (1.1 ml) was added at −10° C. a commercial solution of hydrobromic acid in acetic acid (0.728 ml, 3.6 mmol, HBr 30% w/w). After stirring at −10° C. for 3 hours, was added water (13 ml) and then the temperature was raised to 20° C. After stirring at 20° C. for 3 hours, was added a sodium carbonate solution (0.76M; 31.5 ml) up to pH 8. The resulting aqueous layer, after saturation with sodium chloride, was extracted with dichloromethane (3×20 ml) and the combined organic layers were dried over magnesium sulfate and evaporated to dryness. The resulting crude product was purified by phase reverse chromatography below-mentioned to provide homoharringtonine (166 mg, 75%). The product thus obtained showed identical characteristics to this resulting from Example 25.

…………………………………

EXTRACTION

US20100240887

The remarkable clinical efficacy of Homoharringtonine (HHT) resulting in lot of observations of complete remission of leukemia and other solid cancer in human being since 1988. Recently, research articles reported that the HHT efficacy in glaucoma, inhibition of Hepatities B virus replication and using in bone marrow transplantation. For example, the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center and National Cancer Institute reported that “Ninety-two percent of patients achieved CHR with HHT.” [Susan O’Brien, at al.; Sequential homoharringtonine and interferon-α in the treatment of early chronic phase chronic myelogenous leukemia; Blood, Vol 93, No 12 (June 15), 1999: pp 4149-4153]. Another article reported that “the median number of days on HHT per month was 2 days with a median follow-up of 26 months; the estimated 2-year survival rate was 90%.” (Susan O’Brien, at al.; Simultaneous homoharringtonine and interferon-α in the treatment of patients with chronic-phase chronic myelogenous leukemia; American Cancer Society; Apr. 1, 2002, Vol 94, No. 7).

On Nov. 8, 1988, U.S. Pat. No. 4,783,454 titled Process for producing harringtonine and homoharringtonine disclosed the technique of isolation of a purified HHT from bark of Cephalotaxus. However, the natural source ofCephalotaxus is very limited. Trees of Cephalotaxus grow slowly. Bark ofCephalotaxus has very low content of HHT. Extracting HHT from bark ofCephalotaxus the yield was about 0.02% only. More important to harvest bark ofCephalotaxus will kill and destroy trees. Supply of HHT is very short now. Therefore, it is necessary to find a new manufacturing method.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

Great progress has been made in research on Homoharringtonine (HHT) production and on future generation HHT drug since 1988. For example, the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center and National Cancer Institute reported that “Ninety-two percent of patients achieved CHR with HHT.” Another article reported that “the median number of days on HHT per month was 2 days with a median follow-up of 26 months; the estimated 2-year survival rate was 90%.”

The good clinical results of HHT in treating cancer brought to the major problem, which is the supply of HHT both short term and long term. It is apparent that a huge amount of bark of Cephalotaxus is needed for collection, extraction and purification of HHT. It is clear that due to the slow growth of the trees ofCephalotaxus, which is a nature source of HHT, and the killing of trees by harvesting bark is not a sustainable resource for HHT production.

Present invention disclosed new methods for producing HHT. The new methods of producing HHT are shown as follows.

1. Tissue Culture (Plant Cell Culture):

Culture manipulation to promote secretion of HHT is a new way for an extracellular product HHT. The biosynthetic methods can yield more HHT through precursor of HHT feeding. The production of HHT increased significantly after the addition of the precursors and special biochemical agents. Content of precursor of HHT abounds in tree and it is very cheap. The present methods include several significant developments in technique of culture plant tissues that are

    • (a) yields of HHT selected from rapid growth, resistance to infections organisms; and
    • (b) HHT can excrete into media.

Traditional method of plant culture is very difficult to overcome the problem of high cost. Therefore, traditional method appears too long to have commercial value. HHT is secondary metabolite of Cephalotaxus. Secondary compound acts in defense against the harmful effects of toxins, carcinogens or mutagens found in the plant. In fact, traditional method is very difficult to increase HHT contenting in plant tissues. The present new method uses a special biochemical agent for increasing content of HHT and more easily to purify HHT from other metabolites.

More important is that the key of the present new technique for producing high content of HHT in plant cell culture is to increase production of HHT by directed fermentation through precursor of HHT feeding. The present new methods are used special metabolite of Cephalotaxus for markedly enhance production of HHT. Therefore, the present invention disclosed a new source for the long term of producing HHT.

2. Using Precursor of HHT:

Recent research’s results have established that direct production of HHT from its precursor and advances in biosynthetic understanding for HHT metabolism. Biosynthesis or semisynthesis of HHT from major nonactivity ingredients is well established through great advances in special biochemistry reactions. Using precursor of HHT for semisynthesis and increase of production in plant cell culture are new developing methods for producing HHT.

3. Using Leaves:

Our new method use leaves of tree of Cephalotaxus not use the bark. So far, the extraction of HHT is used bark. The leaves are harvested from the trees ofCephalotaxus, which grow in mountains of South China. The natural source of leaves is very abundance. The new methods do not use bark. Therefore, it can avoid destroy trees. The natural source of Cephalotaxus tree is very limited and slow growing. In fact, bark of Cephalotaxus has very low yield of HHT. The yield of HHT from Cephalotaxus bark is about 50-100 mg/kg of dried bark. The present new method, therefore, has a great economic and environmental value.

4. Semisynthesis:

HHT has received important chemical studies particularly in regard to structure and anticancer activity relationship and semisynthesis.

A great progress in biochemistry allows semisynthesis to use precursor of HHT from leaves of Cephalotaxus and to produce HHT. The total chemical synthesis of HHT appears too long to have commercial value too. Semisynthesis method can yield a high efficient conversion of precursor to HHT. It is other better biological source for manufacturing HHT. This new method uses closing chemical analogues to convert to HHT. This analogue is produced from leaves or other organ of Cephalotaxus. The present invention disclosed that new methods and techniques of manufacturing HHT could avoid chopping down Cephalotaxus trees which governmental environmentalists are trying to have declared a threatened species.

5. Using Taxol Residual

The anticancer drug Taxol is the most promising new chemotherapeutic agents that developed for cancer treatment in the past twenty years. Taxol has a unique mechanism of action. It has been shown to promote tubulin polymerization and stabilize microtubules against depolymerization. The FDA approved the clinical use of Taxol for several types of cancer. So far, annual sales of Taxol are more than $2 billion in market. Taxol is extracted from bark or leaves of an evergreen tree named Taxus species including Taxus brevifolia (or called Pacific yew). After Taxol has been extracted from bark or leaves, all residual materials of Taxus brecifolia named Taxus residual, which are waste.

Both taxol and HHT can be extracted from yew tree. The content of taxol is less than 0.01% in yew tree. The content of HHT in yew tree is about 0.01% -0.22%. The content of HHT is much higher than content of Taxol. Taxol extracted from bark of yew is difficult and expensive. One reason is that the presences of closely related congeners are similar to Taxol. A major congener is Cephalomannine (CPM), which is a waster of process in manufacturing of Taxol.

The chemical and physical characters are very close between Taxol and Cephalomannine (CPM).

CPM characterized by the same ring structure as Taxol and distinguishes from them only in C-13 ester structure. The present invention disclosed that CPM and related derivative are used to produce HHT.

The following specific examples will provide detailed illustrations of methods of producing relative drugs, according to the present invention and pharmaceutical dosage units containing demonstrates its effectiveness in treatment of cancer cells. These examples are not intended, however, to limit or restrict the scope of the invention in any way, and should not be construed as providing conditions, parameters, reagents, or

EXAMPLE 1

Production of HHT by Culture Cells

So far, HHT is extracted from bark and skins of Cephalotaxus species. However, growth of Cephalotaxus species is very slow and concentration of HHT in plant is extremely low. Furthermore, it is difficult to harvest the plants because of their low propagation rate and the danger of drastic reduced in plant availability. Also, cost of total chemical synthesis of HHT is very expensive and is not available for commerce now. For the reasons given above it is more difficult to obtainCephalotaxus on a large scale for long time. Therefore, Cephalotaxus cell cultures are one of best methods for obtaining HHT. In this present invention, special elicitation is disclosed and it will significantly increase production of HHT.

The methods of cell and tissue culture are disclosed as below.

Parts of bark, stems, leaves, or roots of Cephalotaxus species were surface disinfected by treatment in 70% ethanol for 10 minutes and followed by 0.1 HgCl2for 3 minutes. Plant materials were washed five times for 10 minutes each by sterilized water. Parts of plant were cut into small pieces (0.5-1 mm) and put pieces to Murashige and Skoog’s (MS) medium and supplemented with derivative of new active ingredient of phylum mycota (IPM), precursor of HHT which is a derivative of Cephalotaxus (CEP), tyrosine (TYR) naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), Kinetin (3 mg/L), and 3% sucrose (w/v). PH of medium was adjusted to 5.7˜5.8. Agar (10 g/L) added to medium. Callus tissues are collected from agar media and suspension cultured cells were harvested by filtration and cultured in MS medium.

The cultures were kept in a culture room at 26° C.±1° C. Friable callus tissues were obtained. The callu was inoculated into 4 L of MS liquid medium containing sucrose, derivative of CEP, PHE, TYR, NAA and Kinetin. Then callus tissues were cultivated 26° C. for 35 days on rotary shaker operated at 120 rpm in the dark. Cells were subcultured into fresh medium of same composition every 2 weeks and maintained at 120 rpm at 26°±1° C. Packed cell volume (PCV), fresh weight (FW), dry weight (DW), concentration of HHT and concentration of sugar were determined every 5th day. The cells were harvested and dried.

In general, callus and suspension cultures of cephalotaxus species grow very slow and no production of free or esterified HHT. However, according to the present invention, addition of IPM to cultures cause a drastic increasing in HHT after 30 days of incubation. For example, in control group (no IPM), HHT in cultured cells is 0.020 mg/g dry weight, but in treatment group (addition of IPM) HHT is about 0.050 mg/g dry weight. Therefore, IPM can increase 250% of content of HHT. It has resulted in plant cell culture systems that producing HHT at concentration higher than those produced by the mother plant. The production of HHT increases significantly after the addition of precursors (CEP). Addition of CEP can increase HHT. Obviously, the present invention provided a new commercial and economic method for producing HHT. The IPM and precursors (CEP) play key role in cultured cells.

EXAMPLE 2

Semi-Synthesis of HHT

HHT shows a significant inhibitory activity against leukemia and other cancer. Concentration of HHT, however, has only 0.01% in natural sources. Cephalotazine (CEP) is major alkaloids present in plant extracts and the concentration ofCephalotaxus has about 1%. Therefore, concentration of CEP is about 100 times higher then HHT in nature plant sources. But CEP is inactive. For the reason given above, semisynthesis of HHT from CEP will increase huge natural sources of HHT.

    • (1) Extraction of CEP

10 kg of dried stems or leaves or roots of Cephalotaxus species were milled, placed in a percolator, along 80 L of 95% of ethanol, and allowed to stand 24 hours. The ethanol was recovered under reduced pressure (below 40° C.). 20 L of 5% tartaric acid was added to concentrated ethanol solution. The ammonia water was added to the acidic solution and adjusted pH to 9. The solution of pH 9 was filtered and yielded a filtrate. The filtrate was extracted with CHCl3. CHClwas recovered under reduced pressure and residue was obtained. The residue was chromatographed packed with alumna and eluted by CHCl3-MeOH (9:1). Eluate was concentrated under reduced pressure. Residue was dried under vacuum. The product is CEP.

    • (2) Semisynthesized HHT from CEP

Materials and Methods

Melting points were determined on a Fisher-Johns apparatus. Infrared spectra were obtained on a Perkin-Elmer 567 infrared spectrophotometer or on a Beckman 4230 IR spectrophotometer. Peak positions were given in cm−1. The IR spectra of solid samples were measured as potassium bromide dispersions, and the spectra of liquids were determined in chloroform or carbon tetrachloride solutions. NMR spectra were measured on a Varian A-60, Perkin-Elmer R-32, Varian EM-390, or Brüker WH-90 NMR spectrometer. Chemical-shift values were given in parts per million downfield from Me4Si as an internal standard. Mass spectra were run on an AE1 MS-12 Finnigan 3300, or CEC21-110B mass spectrometer.

Preparative thin-layer chromatography was accomplished using 750-μm layers of aluminum oxide HF-254 (type E), aluminum oxide 60 PF-254 (type E), silica gel HF-254 (type 60 PF-254), or silica gel GF-254. Visualization was by short-wave ultraviolet light. Grace silica gel, Grade 923, and Woelm neutral aluminum oxide, activity III, were used for column chromatography. Analytical thin-layer chromatography was run on plastic sheets precoated with aluminum oxide F-254 neutral (type T), 200-μm thick, and on Polygram Sil G/UV254 (silica gel), 250 μm on plastic sheets. Visualization was usually by short-wave ultraviolet light, phosphomolybdic acid, or iodoplatinate.

Preparation of α-Ketoester-Harringtonine

1 g of Benzene-α-acetone Na was put into 10 L of benzene. Mixture was stirred at room temperature then was dissolved in 10 L of pyridine and stirred at 0° C. Oxalic chloride was added from a dropping funnel to solution of pyridine. Stirring was continued while the solution warmed to room temperature and stand overnight. Excess reagent was removed. This solution was dissolved in CH2Cl2and cooled to near 0° C. in an ice water bath. 5 g of CEP, 2.5 L of CH2Cland 2.5 L of pyridine were added to cold CH2Clsolution. Manipulations were done in a dry Natmosphere and all glassware heat-dried just before use. The suspension was stirred at room temperature and overnight. The mixture was washed with 10% Na2COand saturated aqueous NaCl, then dried with auhydrous magenesium sulfate, and filtered and the solvents were removed in vacuo. Evaporation provided as an amorphous solid α-ketoester-harringtonine (mp 143˜145° C.).

Semi-Synthesis of HHT

10 L of CH3CHBrCOOEt and activated zin dust and THF were added to the α-ketoester-harringtonine (at −78° C.) for 6 hours followed by slow warming to room temperature with stirred. The reaction mixture was diluted with 10 L CHCland 10 L H2O and solid Na2COwas added. CHClwas evaporated under reduced pressure and residue was obtained.

The residue was purified by chromatography on alumina. The column was flushed with chloroform and followed by chloroform-methanol (9:1). The solvents were recovered under reduced pressure to provide as a solid. Solid was dissolved in pure ethanol and crystallized. The crystals were refined by recrystalization in diethyl ether. The crystals dried under vacuum. The product is HHT, which has the following characters:

[α]−119° (C=0.96),

MSm/e (%): 689 (M+, 3), 314 (3), 299 (20), 298 (100), 282 (3), 266 (4), 20 (3), 150 (8), 131 (12), 73 (18)

EXAMPLE 3

HHT Extracted from Plant Tissue

Extraction of HHT has several major methods which including extraction by organic solvent, chromatograph and adjust pH.

HHT was extracted from plant tissue culture, plant cells or leaves of Cephalotaxusspecies.

1 kg of ground Cephalotaxus fortunei Hook was extracted with 10 liters of water at room temperature for 24 hrs. To filtered the solution to yield a filtrate. Ten liters of 90% ethanol added to filtrate. The mixture was Centrifugalized to yield a sediment. Percolated the sediment with ethanol and filter again to yield filtrate, combined filtrates, and distilled under reduced pressure to recover ethanol and an aqueous residue. To this residue, added 10% of HCl to adjust the pH to 2.5. To separated the solids from the solution by filtration to yield a filtrate (1). Washed the solids once with 2% HCl and filtered to yield a filtrate (2). Combined (1) and (2) and adjusted the pH to 9.5 by adding saturated sodium carbonate solution. Extracted the alkaline filtrate with chloroform and separated the chloroform layer from the aqueous layer. To repeated this extraction process five times. Combined all the chloroform extracts and distilled at reduced pressure to recover chloroform and alkaloid as a solid residue obtained. The solid alkaloid was then dissolved in 6% citric acid in water. The solution was divided into three equal portions. These were adjusted to pH 7, 8 and 9 by adding saturated sodium carbonate solution. The portions having pH 8 and 9 were combined and extracted with chloroform. The chloroform extracts were distilled under reduced pressure, whereby chloroform was removed and recovered and crude HHT was obtained. The crude HHT was dissolved in pure ethanol and crystallized. The crystals were refined by recrystallization in diethyl ether. The crude HHT obtained.

The portion having a pH of 7 passed through a liquid chromatographic column packed with alumina of diameter to height 1:50. The column was finally flushed with chloroform and followed by chloroform-methanol of 9:1 mixture. The resulting alkaloids were mixture crude of HHT. Combined crude HHT and then separated from each other by countercurrent distribution employing chloroform and pH 5 buffers. The first fraction of the countercurrent distribution was HHT. HHT was purified by crystallization in methyl alcohol. The crystallization was purified by recrystallization in methyl alcohol and dried under vacuum.

…………………….

EP1373275A2

Example 1 : Preparation of harringtonine drug substance by purification of commercial natural harringtonine

A. Analytical profile of starting product

By combination of HPLC analysis with UV detection (see Figure 6) and mass spectrometry detection (see figure 7 and 8) a total of 6.5% of related compound (identified as b,c: position isomer of harringtonine = 3.4%; d: homoharringtonine = 3%; e: 4′-demethyl harringtonine = 0.01%; f: drupacine derivative: 0.05%) are found in the starting product.

B. Chromatography of natural harringtonine

Natural harringtonine (5 grams) is injected on a preparative high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) system (Prochrom stainless steel; permanent axial compression; diameter: 80 mm; length: 1000 mm) containing 1000 grams of reverse phase octadecylsilane specially dedicated for basic compounds as stationary phase. Then elution is performed in using a gradient of pH 3 buffered methanol-water solution as mobile phase (pressure 1200 psi). Unwanted fractions are discarded based upon in-line UV spectrophotometric detection. Kept fractions are collected in 16 separate containers which each are individually checked in using an analytical HPLC system exhibiting a different selectivity pattern (octadecylsilane as stationary phase and buffered acetonitrile-water system as mobile phase). During the development phase, a dual in-line UV-MS detection is used. After discarding of the fractions representing more than 0.5 % of the total content of harringtonine, fractions which complied with pre-established specification were gathered, neutralized then evaporated under reduce pressure. Then crude concentrated solution of harringtonine are alkalinized at pH 8.5 with aqueous ammonia and partitioned with dichloromethane. Resulting organic solution is concentrated under high vacuum. In-process HPLC analysis indicated a total of related compound lower than 1.5 %. C. Crystallization of raw harringtonine

Under a laminar flow hood, the above raw harringtonine (4.1 grams) is dissolved in methanol (5ml), at 30°C. The resulting alcoholic solution was filtered on a 0.25 μ sterile Millipore filter to remove microparticules and germs and collected in a sterilized rotary flask. Then, desionized water (50mL) is added and methanol is completely removed under vacuum at 30°C in using a decontaminated rotary evaporator. After removing methanol, heating is stopped and the aqueous solution of harringtonine is kept under vacuum and rotation is continued during appearance of white crystals of pure harringtonine. The stirring is continued until no more crystal occurs. Under a laminar flow hood, the suspension of is poured on a sintered glass filter with house vacuum. The resulting crystalline solid cake is washed two times with cold desionized water (10 mL x 2). The white translucent crystals are then dried using high vacuum at 40°C for 24 hours. Overall yield is 76%. All operations were documented prior to start the process and full current Good Manufacturing Practices were applied. This clinical batch corresponds to 400 therapeutic units dosed at 10mg.

D. Analysis

Routine analytical procedure includes solvent residues, loss on drying, water determination, melting point, IR and NMR spectrum, related compound and assay by HPLC. Figure 7 and 9 compare HPLC chromatogram before and after purification in using this process. Table II shows the comparison of the corresponding related compound content.

 

Figure imgf000011_0001

For the aim of further characterization, more advanced studies were performed including differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermogravimetry, 2D NMR, solid NMR and X-ray powder diffractometry.

Infrared Spectrometry:

Identical IR spectra were obtained by either the KBr pellet and/or mineral oil mull preparation technique. Figure 5 shows typical infrared spectrum (KBr) for unambiguous identification at the solid state of the crystalline harringtonine obtained by this process. A series of sharp absorption bands are noted at 615, 654, 674, 689, 709, 722, 750, 761 805, 850, 928, 989, 1022, 1033, 1062, 1083, 1112, 1162, 1205, 1224, 1262, 1277, 1308, 1340, 1364, 1382, 1438 1486, 1508, 1625, 1656, 1725, 1745, 2883, 2936, 2972, 3079, 3353, 3552 and 3647 cm“1

Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) And Thermogravimetry (TG) Measurement of DSC and TG were obtained on a Mettler Toledo STAR System. Approximately 12 mg of harringtonine drug substance were accurately weighed (12.4471 mg) into a DSC pan. The sample was heated from 25°C to 200°C at a rate of 10°C/min. The DSC data were obtained following a standard method in the art. The DSC curve of crystalline harringtonine drug substance ((Figure 4), exhibits a melting endotherm at 79.5 °C . No subsequent decomposition occurred under the upper tested temperature 200°C. Simultaneous TG measurement, indicated a loss on drying of 1.3 % which did not correspond to a lost of structural molecule of solvent or water.

Example 2: Preparation of homoharringtonine drug substance by purification of raw semi- synthetic (hemi-synthetic) homoharringtonine

A. Analytical profile of starting product

Crude reaction mixture of raw homoharringtonine contains a potential of 250 grams of homoharringtonine DS together with process impurities such as catalyst, unchanged starting product (anhydro-homo-harringtonine), and some related side product. HPLC analysis with UV detection (see left-side chromatogram on Figure 10) indicated a total of 9 % of related impurities. B. Chromatography of semi-synthetic homoharringtonine

Raw semi-synthetic homoharringtonine (550 grams) is injected on a preparative high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) system (Prochrom stainless steel; permanent axial compression; diameter: 450 mm; length: 1000 mm) containing 48,000 grams of reverse phase octadecylsilane specially dedicated for basic compounds as stationary phase. Then elution is performed in using a gradient of pH 3 buffered methanol-water solution as mobile phase (pressure 1200 psi, flow-rate 540 L/hour). Unwanted fractions are discarded based upon by- passed in-line UV spectrophotometric detector. Kept fractions are collected in 30 separate stainless steel containers (20 or 50 L each) which are individually checked in using an analytical HPLC system exhibiting a different selectivity pattern (octadecylsilane as stationary phase and buffered acetonitrile-water system as mobile phase) and equipped with a diode array detector. After discarding of the fractions representing more than 0.5 % of the total content of homoharringtonine, fractions which complied with pre-established specification were gathered, neutralized then evaporated under reduce pressure in using a mechanically stirred thin film evaporator. Then crude concentrated solution of homoharringtonine are alkalinized at pH 8.5 with aqueous ammonia and partitioned with dichloromethane. Resulting organic solution is concentrated under high vacuum. In-process HPLC analysis indicated a total of related compound lower than 0.5 % (see rigth-side chromatogram on Figure 10)

C. Crystallization of homoharringtonine DS

In a controlled clean room, under a laminar flow hood, the above raw homoharringtonine DS (210 grams) is dissolved in methanol (240 mL), at 30°C. The resulting alcoholic solution is filtered on a 0.25 μ sterile Millipore filter to remove microparticules and germs and collected in a sterilized pilot rotary flask. Then, desionized water (2400mL) is added and methanol is completely removed under vacuum at 30°C in using a decontaminated pilot rotary evaporator. After removing methanol, heating is stopped and the aqueous solution of homoharringtonine DS is kept under vacuum and rotation is continued during appearance of white crystals of pure homoharringtonine. The stirring is continued until no more crystal occurs. Under a laminar flow hood, the suspension of is poured on a sintered glass filter with house vacuum. The resulting crystalline solid cake is washed two times with cold desionized water (450 mL x 2). The white cryitals are then dried using high vacuum at 60°C for 48 hours. Overall yield is 88% from potential content of homoharringtonine in raw semi-synthetic homoharringtonine. All operations were documented prior to start the process and full current Good Manufacturing Practices were applied. This clinical batch corresponds to 40,000 therapeutic units dosed at 5mg.

D. Analysis

Routine analytical procedure includes solvent residues, loss on drying, water determination, melting point, IR and NMR spectrum, related compound and assay by HPLC. Figure 11 shows HPLC chromatogram before and after crystallization. Total of related impurities of homoharringtonine DS is 0.03%.

For the aim of further characterization, more advanced studies were performed including differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry (TD), 2D NMR, solid NMR and X-ray powder diffractometry.

Infrared Spectrometry:

Identical IR spectra were obtained by either the KBr pellet and/or mineral oil mull preparation technique. Figure 3 shows typical infrared spectrum (KBr) for unambiguous identification at the solid state of the crystalline homoharringtonine obtained by this process. A series of sharp absorption bands are noted at 612, 703, 771 , 804, 826, 855, 879, 932, 1029, 1082, 1119,

1135, 1161 , 1191 , 1229, 1274, 1344, 1367, 1436, 1457, 1488, 1505, 1653, 1743, 2814, 2911 ,

2958, 3420, and 3552 cm“1

Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) And Thermogravimetry (TG)

Measurement of DSC and TG were obtained on a Mettler Toledo STAR System. Approximately 11 mg of homoharringtonine drug substance were accurately weighed (10.6251 mg) into a DSC pan. The sample was heated from 25°C to 250°C at a rate of 5°C/min. The

DSC data were obtained following a standard method in the art. The DSC curve of crystalline homoharringtonine drug substance (Figure 1), exhibits a melting endotherm at 145.6 °C.

Melting range performed by the capillary method (Bucchi Apparatus) gave 143-145°C. Literature indicated 144-146°C [Anonymous, Acta Bot. Sin. 22, 156 (1980) cited by L. Huang and Z. Xue, Cephalotaxus Alkaloids, in “The Alkaloids”, vol. XXIII, pp157, (1988).

Crystallization medium was not published. This is the only literature reference regarding melting point of a crystalline form of HHT] X-Ray Powder Diffraction

X-ray powder diffraction pattern was collected on a INEL microdiffractomer, model

DIFFRACTINEL. Powdered homoharringtonine DS was packed in a glass capillary tube and was analyzed according to a standard method in the art. The X-ray generator was opered at 45 kV and 40 mA, using the copper Kalpha line as the radiation source. The sample was rotated along the chi axis and data was collected between 0 and 120 deg 2-theta. A collection time of 1200 sec was used. As showed on Figure 2, the x-ray powder diffraction for this crystalline form of homoharringtonine shows a typical pattern including major reflection peaks at approximately 7.9, 9.2, 10.9, 14.9 16.0, 17.7, 19.5, 19.7, 21.78, 23.1 , 25.3, 25.4 and 25.7 deg 2-theta.

Example 3: Preparation of homoharringtonine drug substance by purification of a commercial sample of impure homoharringtonine from Chinese source

A. Analytical profile of starting product

Analytical HPLC chromatogram of natural homoharringtonine (China National Pharmaceutical) is displayed on Figure 12 (bottom left).

B. Chromatography of Natural Homoharringtonine

Natural homoharringtonine (25 grams) is injected on a preparative high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) system (Prochrom stainless steel; permanent axial compression; diameter: 200 mm; length: 1000 mm) containing 12,000 grams of reverse phase octadecylsilane specially dedicated for basic compounds as stationary phase. Then elution is performed in using a gradient of pH 3 buffered methanol-water solution as mobile phase (pressure 1200 psi, flow-rate 120 IJhour). Unwanted fractions are discarded based upon bypassed in-line UV spectrophotometric detector. Kept fractions are collected in 22 separate stainless steel containers which are individually checked in using an analytical HPLC system exhibiting a different selectivity pattern (octadecylsilane as stationary phase and buffered acetonitrile-water system as mobile phase) and equipped with a diode array detector. After discarding of the fractions representing more than 0.5 % of the total content of homoharringtonine, fractions which complied with pre-established specification were gathered, neutralized then evaporated under reduce pressure in using a mechanically stirred thin film evaporator. Then crude concentrated solution of homoharringtonine are alkalinized at pH 8.5 with aqueous ammonia and partitioned with dichloromethane. Resulting organic solution is concentrated under high vacuum. In-process HPLC analysis indicated a total of related compound lower than 0.5 %.

C. Crystallization of homoharringtonine DS

In a controlled clean room, under a laminar flow hood, the above chromatographied homoharringtonine DS (18 grams) is dissolved in methanol (35 mL), at 30°C. The resulting alcoholic solution is filtered on a 0.25 μ sterile Millipore filter to remove microparticules and germs and collected in a sterilized pilot rotary flask. Then, desionized water (300 mL) is added and methanol is completely removed under vacuum at 30°C in using a decontaminated pilot rotary evaporator. After removing methanol, heating is stopped and the aqueous solution of homoharringtonine DS is kept under vacuum and rotation is continued during appearance of white crystals of pure homoharringtonine. The stirring is continued until no more crystal occurs.

Under a laminar flow hood, the suspension of is poured on a sintered glass filter with house vacuum. The resulting crystalline solid cake is washed two times with cold desionized water

(50 mL x 2). The white crystals are then dried using high vacuum at 60°C for 48 hours. Overall yield is 84% from potential content of homoharringtonine in raw semi-synthetic homoharringtonine. All operations were documented prior to start the process and full current

Good Manufacturing Practices were applied.

D. Analysis

Routine analytical procedure includes solvent residues, loss on drying, water determination, melting point, IR and NMR spectrum, related compound and assay by HPLC. Figure 12 (bottom right) shows HPLC chromatogram after crystallization. Total of related impurities of homoharringtonine DS is 0.05%.

For the aim of further characterization, more advanced studies were performed including differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry (TD), 2D NMR, solid NMR and X-ray powder diffractometry. Infrared Spectra, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and X-Ray Powder Diffraction gave patterns strictly superimposable to the one of example 2 obtained from semi-synthetic homoharringtonine (Figure 3, 1 , and 2, respectively).

………………………………….

KOREAN PAPER.. LINK

Title: 한국산 개비자(Cephalotaxus koreans)에서의 Harringtonine과 Homoharringtonine의 확인 및 함량 분석
Author: 박호일 ; 이연 (한국생물공학회)
Source: 한국생물공학회지 = Korean journal of biotechnology and bioengineering; ISSN:1225-7117 @ 1225-7117 @ ; VOL.11; NO.6; PAGE.689-695; (1996)
Pub.Country: Korea
Language: Korean
Abstract: Harringtonine and homoharringtonine known as anti-cancer agents were isolated from Korean native plumyew(Cephalotaxus koreana) using column chromatography(CHCl3:MeOH=19:1, Rf=0.28). The structure of the mixture of two compounds was characterized by 1H-NMR. Comparison of our spectra of harringtonine and homoharringtonine with previously reported ones indicated that the two are identical. The contents of harringtonine and homoharringtonine in the needles, stems, and roots of Korean native plumyew were determined by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). The contents of both compounds varied with the site of location and the part of plant. The content of harringtonine was higher in needles and roots than in stems, whereas the content of homoharringtonlne was lower than harringtonine. Homoharringtonine contents in needles at Mt. Palgong, Mt. Dukyu, Mt. Baekyang, Mt. Jiri, and Namhae were higher than in stems and roots. But homoharringtonine contents in needles al Mt. Jokye and Jindo were lower than in stems and roots.

http://img.kisti.re.kr/originalView/originalView.jsp

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SYNTHESIS OF HOMOHARRINGTONINE AND SEPARATION OF ITS STEREOMERS

WANG YONG-KENG LI YU-LIN PAN XIN-FU LI SHAO-BAI HUANG WEN-KUI (Institute of Organic Chemistry,Lanzhou University)
Ethyl 2-oxo-6-ethylene dioxy-heptanoate(2),an important intermediate in the preparation of homoharringtonine(8a),was prepared by the reaction of Grignard reagent made from 1-bromo-4-ethylene dioxy pentane with ethyl oxalate in THF. Compound 2 was converted into α-keto-acyl-cephalotaxine(5)via sodium carboxylate 3 and acyl chloride 4.Reformatsky reaction of 5 with methyl bromoacetate in the presence of freshly prepared active zinc affords 6.Acid treatment of 6 gave 7.Reaction of 7 with methyl magnesium iodide provided a mixture of homoharringtonine(8a) and its epimer 8b.Their separation is effected by fractional crystallization of their picrates and subsequent recovery of the free alkaloids 8a and 8b.The TLC,IR,~1H NMR and MS data of 8a are identical with those of natural homoharringtonine.The IR and MS of 8a and 8b are quite similar,but their ~1H NMR are markedly different
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READ
  1. [PDF]

    Chapter 1 Drug Discovery from Plants – Springer

    LC-NMR-MS and LC-SPE-NMR to accelerate their future discovery. Keywords …..Ceflatonine (34), a synthetic version of homoharringtonine produced by.

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References

  1.  “Synribo (omacetaxine) dosing, indications, interactions, adverse effects, and more”Medscape Reference. WebMD. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
  2.  “SYNRIBO (omacetaxine mepesuccinate) injection, powder, lyophilized, for solution [Cephalon, Inc.]”DailyMed. Cephalon, Inc. October 2012. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
  3.  Sweetman, S, ed. (14 November 2012). Omacetaxine Mepesuccinate. “Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference”. Medicines Complete(Pharmaceutical Press).
  4.  Li, Y. F.; Deng, Z. K.; Xuan, H. B.; Zhu, J. B.; Ding, B. H.; Liu, X. N.; Chen, B. A. (2009). “Prolonged chronic phase in chronic myelogenous leukemia after homoharringtonine therapy”. Chinese medical journal122 (12): 1413–1417. PMID 19567163edit
  5.  Quintás-Cardama, A.; Kantarjian, H.; Cortes, J. (2009). “Homoharringtonine, omacetaxine mepesuccinate, and chronic myeloid leukemia circa 2009”. Cancer 115 (23): 5382–5393.doi:10.1002/cncr.24601PMID 19739234edit
  6.  Wu, L.; Li, X.; Su, J.; Chang, C.; He, Q.; Zhang, X.; Xu, L.; Song, L.; Pu, Q. (2009). “Effect of low-dose cytarabine, homoharringtonine and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor priming regimen on patients with advanced myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukemia transformed from myelodysplastic syndrome”. Leukemia & Lymphoma50 (9): 1461. doi:10.1080/10428190903096719edit
  7.  Gu, L. F.; Zhang, W. G.; Wang, F. X.; Cao, X. M.; Chen, Y. X.; He, A. L.; Liu, J.; Ma, X. R. (2010). “Low dose of homoharringtonine and cytarabine combined with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor priming on the outcome of relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia”.Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology 137 (6): 997–1003.doi:10.1007/s00432-010-0947-zPMID 21152934edit
  8.  Kantarjian, H. M.; Talpaz, M.; Santini, V.; Murgo, A.; Cheson, B.; O’Brien, S. M. (2001). “Homoharringtonine”. Cancer 92 (6): 1591–1605.doi:10.1002/1097-0142(20010915)92:6<1591::AID-CNCR1485>3.0.CO;2-UPMID 11745238edit
  9.  Wetzler M, Segal D. Omacetaxine as an Anticancer Therapeutic: What is Old is New Again. Current Pharmaceutical Design 2011;17:59-64
  10. Concise total synthesis of (±)-cephalotaxine via a transannulation strategy: Development of a facile reductive oxy-nazarov cyclization
    Org Lett 2011, 13(13): 3538
  11. The first semi-synthesis of enantiopure homoharringtonine via anhydrohomoharringtonine from a preformed chiral acyl moiety
    Tetrahedron Lett 1999, 40: 2931
  12. Synthesis of homoharringtonine and its derivative by partial esterification of cephalotaxine
    Tetrahedron Lett 1982, 23(34): 3431
  13. Construction of chiral tertiary alcohol stereocenters via the (2,3)-Meisenheimer rearrangement: Enantioselective synthesis of the side-chain acids of homoharringtonine and harringtonine
    J Org Chem 2013, 78(2): 339
  14. Studies in Cephalotaxus alkaloids. Stereospecific total synthesis of homoharringtonine
    J Org Chem 1983, 48(26): 5321
  15. Chemistry – A European Journal, 2008 ,  vol. 14,   14  pg. 4293 – 4306
WO2000040269A2 * Jan 5, 2000 Jul 13, 2000 Clarence C Lee Pharmaceutical compositions for treatment of diseased tissues
WO2002032904A1 * Oct 17, 2000 Apr 25, 2002 Oncopharm Corp New cephalotaxanes, their method of preparation and their use in treatment of cancers, leukemias, parasites including thus resistant to usual chemotherapeutic agents and as reversal agents
EP0393575A1 * Apr 17, 1990 Oct 24, 1990 G.D. Searle &amp; Co. Neoplasia treatment compositions containing antineoplastic agent and side-effect reducing protective agent
USH271 * Dec 18, 1985 May 5, 1987 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Treatment of malaria with esters of cephalotaxine
US7169774 Jun 25, 2004 Jan 30, 2007 Stragen Pharma S.A. Cephalotaxane derivatives and their processes of preparation and purification
US7842687 May 25, 2006 Nov 30, 2010 Chemgenex Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Cephalotaxane derivatives and their processes of preparation and purification
US8466142 Mar 3, 2009 Jun 18, 2013 Sloan-Kettering Institute For Cancer Research Cephalotaxus esters, methods of synthesis, and uses thereof
Reference
1 * KANTARJIAN H.M. ET AL: “Chronic myelogenous leukemia – Progress at the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center over the past two decades and future directions: First Emil J Freireich Award Lecture.” CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH, (1997) 3/12 II (2723-2733). , XP001095529
2 * LEVY, VINCENT (1) ET AL: “Subcutaneous homoharringtonine (SQ HHT ): 1. Pharmacokinetic study in dogs and HHT determination in blood in using LC-MS method.” BLOOD, (NOVEMBER 16, 2001) VOL. 98, NO. 11 PART 2, PP. 179B. HTTP://WWW.BLOODJOURNAL.ORG/. PRINT. MEETING INFO.: 43RD ANNUAL MEETING OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEMATOLOGY, PART 2 ORLANDO, FLORIDA, USA DECEMBER 07-11, 2001 , XP001095449
3 * LEVY, VINCENT (1) ET AL: “Subcutaneous homoharringtonine (SQ HHT ): 2. Tolerance in humans and case report of a refractory patient with AML treated by very small dose of SQ HHT.” BLOOD, (NOVEMBER 16, 2001) VOL. 98, NO. 11 PART 2, PP. 202B. HTTP://WWW.BLOODJOURNAL.ORG/. PRINT. MEETING INFO.: 43RD ANNUAL MEETING OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEMATOLOGY, PART 2 ORLANDO, FLORIDA, USA DECEMBER 07-11, 2001 , XP001095450
4 * WHAUN J M ET AL: “TREATMENT OF CHLOROQUINE -RESISTANT MALARIA WITH ESTERS OF CEPHALOTAXINE HOMOHARRINGTONINE.” ANN TROP MED PARASITOL(1990) 84(3), 229-237, XP008006193

1H NMR

13 CNMR

HPLC

FDA Approves Vimizim to Treat Mucopolysaccharidosis Type IVA


STRUCTURAL FORMULA
Monomer
APQPPNILLL LMDDMGWGDL GVYGEPSRET PNLDRMAAEG LLFPNFYSAN 50
PLCSPSRAAL LTGRLPIRNG FYTTNAHARN AYTPQEIVGG IPDSEQLLPE 100
LLKKAGYVSK IVGKWHLGHR PQFHPLKHGF DEWFGSPNCH FGPYDNKARP 150
NIPVYRDWEM VGRYYEEFPI NLKTGEANLT QIYLQEALDF IKRQARHHPF 200
FLYWAVDATH APVYASKPFL GTSQRGRYGD AVREIDDSIG KILELLQDLH 250
VADNTFVFFT SDNGAALISA PEQGGSNGPF LCGKQTTFEG GMREPALAWW 300
PGHVTAGQVS HQLGSIMDLF TTSLALAGLT PPSDRAIDGL NLLPTLLQGR 350
LMDRPIFYYR GDTLMAATLG QHKAHFWTWT NSWENFRQGI DFCPGQNVSG 400
VTTHNLEDHT KLPLIFHLGR DPGERFPLSF ASAEYQEALS RITSVVQQHQ 450
EALVPAQPQL NVCNWAVMNW APPGCEKLGK CLTPPESIPK KCLWSH 496
Disulfide bridges
139-139′ 282-393 282′-393′ 463-492 463′-492′ 475-481 475′-481′
Modified residues
C
53 , 53′
3-oxoAla
O
CO2H
H NH2

Glycosylation sites (N)
Asn-178 Asn-178′ Asn-397 Asn-397′

Vimizim (elosufase alfa)

Elosulfase alfa nonproprietary drug name  GET STRUCTURE

MOLECULAR FORMULA C5020H7588N1364O1418S34

MOLECULAR WEIGHT 110.8 kDa (peptide)

SPONSOR BioMarin Pharmaceutical Inc.

CODE DESIGNATION BMN 110, rhGALNS

CAS REGISTRY NUMBER 9025-60-9

THERAPEUTIC CLAIM Treatment of Morquio Syndrome

CHEMICAL NAMES

1. Sulfatase, chondroitin

2. Human N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase (chondroitinsulfatase, galactose-6-sulfate
sulfatase, EC=3.1.6.4) dimer (139-139′)-disulfide glycosylated (produced by CHO cells)

Company: BioMarin Pharmaceutical Inc.
Date of FDA Approval: February 14, 2014
Treatment for: Mucopolysaccharidosis Type IVA

  • BMN 110
  • Chondroitin 6-sulfatase
  • Chondroitin sulfatase
  • Chondroitin sulfate sulfatase
  • Chondroitinase
  • Chondrosulfatase
  • E.C. 3.1.6.4
  • Elosulfase alfa
  • rhGALNS
  • UNII-ODJ69JZG85
  • Vimizim

CLINICAL….http://clinicaltrials.gov/search/intervention=Elosulfase%20alfa%20OR%20bmn%20110

Vimizim (elosufase alfa) is an enzyme replacement therapy for patients with Mucopolysaccharidosis Type IVA (Morquio A syndrome).

  • FDA Advisory Committee Recommends Approval for BioMarin’s Vimizim for the Treatment of Patients With Morquio A Syndrome – November 20, 2013

Feb 16, 2014 Approval FDA Approves Vimizim to Treat Mucopolysaccharidosis Type IVA

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Vimizim (elosulfase alfa), the first FDA-approved treatment for Mucopolysaccharidosis Type IVA (Morquio A syndrome). Morquio A syndrome is a rare, autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency in N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS). Vimizim is intended to replace the missing GALNS enzyme involved in an important metabolic pathway. Absence of this enzyme leads to problems with bone development, growth and mobility. There are approximately 800 patients with Morquio A syndrome in the United States.

Vimizim was granted priority review. An FDA priority review provides for an expedited review of drugs for serious diseases or conditions that may offer major advances in treatment. Vimizim is also the first drug to receive the Rare Pediatric Disease Priority Review Voucher – a provision that aims to encourage development of new drugs and biologics for the prevention and treatment of rare pediatric diseases.

“This approval and rare pediatric disease priority review voucher underscores the agency’s commitment to making treatments available to patients with rare diseases,” said Andrew E. Mulberg, M.D., deputy director, Division of Gastroenterology and Inborn Errors Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER). “Prior to today’s approval, patients with this rare disease have had no approved drug treatment options.”

The safety and effectiveness of Vimizim were established in a clinical trial involving 176 participants with Morquio A syndrome, ranging in age from 5 to 57 years. Participants treated with Vimizim showed greater improvement in a 6-minute walk test than participants treated with placebo. On average, patients treated with Vimizim in the trial walked 22.5 meters farther in 6 minutes compared to the patients who received placebo.

The most common side effects in patients treated with Vimizim during clinical trials included fever, vomiting, headache, nausea, abdominal pain, chills and fatigue. The safety and effectiveness of Vimizim have not been established in pediatric patients less than 5 years of age. Vimizim is being approved with a boxed warning to include the risk of anaphylaxis. During clinical trials, life-threatening anaphylactic reactions occurred in some patients during Vimizim infusions.

Vimizim is marketed by Novato, Calif.-based BioMarin Pharmaceutical Inc.

Elosulfase alfa (GALNS), a proposed treatment for Morqio A syndrome. Morquio A syndrome is an inherited, autosomal recessive disease caused by a deficiency of a particular lysosomal enzyme, N- acetylgalactosamine- 6 sulfatase. BioMarin’s experimental drug for Morquio A syndrome is an enzyme replacement of elosulfase alfa (called BMN 110), which is designed to clear keratan sulfate from the lysosome. BMN 110 is being studied to determine if it is safe, if it will slow the progression of the disease and if it will improve some of the symptoms.

BioMarin started BMN 110 clinical studies in humans in 2009 to evaluate safety and efficacy. In a phase III Multicenter, Multinational, Extension Studythe Long-Term Efficacy and Safety of BMN 110 in Patients With Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (Morquio A Syndrome) MOR-005 was evaluated. Participants will receive 2 mg/kg weekly or every other weekly dosing of study drug via infusion until the MOR- 004 study is unblinded and the optimal dose is selected. All subjects will then be treated with the optimal dose for up to approximately 5 years or until the drug is approved.

TASIMELTION…FDA Approves Hetlioz: First Treatment for Non-24 Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder in Blind Individuals


TASIMELTION, an orphan drug for non24

N-([(1R,2R)-2-(2,3-Dihydro-1-benzofuran-4-yl)cyclopropyl]methyl)propanamide

(1R-trans)-N-[[2-(2,3-dihydro-4-benzofuranyl)cyclopropyl]methyl]pro- pananamide VEC162

(-)-(trans)-N-[[2-(2,3-Dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)cycloprop-1-yl]methyl]propanamide

N-(((1R,2R)-2-(2,3-Dihydro-1-benzofuran-4-yl)cyclopropyl)methyl)propanamide

Bristol-Myers Squibb Company

PRODUCT PATENT

U.S. Pat. No. 5,856,529

CAS number 609799-22-6 
Formula C15H19NO2 
Mol. mass 245.3 g/mol

VEC-162, BMS-214778, 609799-22-6, Hetlioz,  UNII-SHS4PU80D9,

January 31, 2014 — The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Hetlioz (tasimelteon), a melatonin receptor agonist, to treat non-24- hour sleep-wake disorder (“non-24”) in totally blind individuals. Non-24 is a chronic circadian rhythm (body clock) disorder in the blind that causes problems with the timing of sleep. This is the first FDA approval of a treatment for the disorder.

Non-24 occurs in persons who are completely blind. Light does not enter their eyes and they cannot synchronize their body clock to the 24-hour light-dark cycle.

http://www.drugs.com/newdrugs/fda-approves-hetlioz-first-non-24-hour-sleep-wake-disorder-blind-individuals-4005.html

Tasimelteon 

TASIMELTION ,  BMS-214,778) is a drug which is under development for the treatment of insomnia and other sleep disorders.[1] It is a selective agonistfor the melatonin receptors MT1 and MT2 in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the brain, similar to older drugs such as ramelteon.[2] It has been through Phase III trials successfully and was shown to improve both onset and maintenance of sleep, with few side effects.[3]

A year-long (2011-2012) study at Harvard is testing the use of tasimelteon in blind subjects with non-24-hour sleep–wake disorder.[4] In May 2013Vanda Pharmaceuticals submitted a New Drug Application to the Food and Drug Administration for Tasimelteon for the treatment of non-24-hour sleep–wake disorder in totally blind people.[5]

SEQUENCE

Discovered by Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS) and co-developed with Vanda Pharmaceuticals, tasimelteon is a hypnotic family benzofuran. In Phase III development, it has an orphan drug status.

 JAN2014.. APPROVED FDA

In mid-November 2013 the FDA announced their recommendation for the approval of Tasimelteon for the treatment of non-24-disorder.Tasimelteon effectively resets the circadian rhythm, helping to restore normal sleep patterns.http://www.fda.gov/downloads/AdvisoryCommittees/CommitteesMeetingMaterials/Drugs/PeripheralandCentralNervousSystemDrugsAdvisoryCommittee/UCM374388.pdf

January 2010: FDA granted orphan drug tasimelteon to disturbed sleep / wake in blind without light perception.

February 2008: Vanda has completed enrollment in its Phase III trial in chronic primary insomnia.

June 2007: Results of a Phase III trial for transient insomnia tasimelteon presented by Vanda at the 21st annual meeting of the Associated Professional Sleep Societies. These results demonstrated improvements in objective and subjective measures of sleep and its maintenance.

2004 Vanda gets a license tasimelteon (or BMS-214778 and VEC-162) from Bristol-Myers Squibb.

About Tasimelteon: Tasimelteon is a circadian regulator in development for the treatment of Non-24. Tasimelteon is a dual melatonin receptor agonist (DMRA) with selective agonist activityat the MT1 and MT2 receptors.Tasimelteon’s ability to reset the master body clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) results in the entrainment of the body’s melatonin and cortisol rhythms with the 24-hour day-night cycle. The patent claiming tasimelteon as a new chemical entity extends through December 2022, assuming a 5-year extension to be granted under the Hatch-Waxman Act. Tasimelteon has been granted orphan drug designation for the treatment of Non-24 from both the U.S. and the European Union.

Previously, BMS-214778, identified as an agonist of melatonin receptors, has been the subject of pre-clinical studies for the treatment of sleep disorders resulting from a disturbance of circadian rhythms.The first Pharmacokinetic studies were performed in rats and monkeys.

The master body clock controls the timing of many aspects of physiology, behavior and metabolism that show daily rhythms, including the sleep-wake cycles, body temperature, alertness and performance, metabolic rhythms and certain hormones which exhibit circadian variation. Outputs from the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) control many endocrine rhythms including those of melatonin secretion by the pineal gland as well as the control of cortisol secretion via effects on the hypothalamus, the pituitary and the adrenal glands.

This master body clock, located in the SCN, spontaneously generates rhythms of approximately 24.5 hours. These non-24-hour rhythms are synchronized each day to the 24-hour day-night cycle by light, the primary environmental time cue which is detected by specialized cells in the retina and transmitted to the SCN via the retino-hypothalamic tract. Inability to detect this light signal, as occurs in most totally blind individuals, leads to the inability of the master body clock to be reset daily and maintain entrainment to a 24-hour day.

Non-24-Hour Disorder

Non-24, also referred to as Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder (N24HSWD) or Non-24-Hour Disorder, is an orphan indication affecting approximately 65,000 to 95,000 people in the U.S. and 140,000 in Europe. Non-24 occurs when individuals, primarily blind with no light perception, are unable to synchronize their endogenous circadian pacemaker to the 24-hour light/dark cycle. Without light as a synchronizer, and because the period of the internal clock is typically a little longer than 24 hours, individuals with Non-24 experience their circadian drive to initiate sleep drifting later and later each day. Individuals with Non-24 have abnormal night sleep patterns, accompanied by difficulty staying awake during the day. Non-24 leads to significant impairment, with chronic effects impacting the social and occupational functioning of these individuals.

In addition to problems sleeping at the desired time, individuals with Non-24 experience excessive daytime sleepiness that often results in daytime napping.TasimelteonTASIMELTION

The severity of nighttime sleep complaints and/or daytime sleepiness complaints varies depending on where in the cycle the individual’s body clock is with respect to their social, work, or sleep schedule. The “free running” of the clock results in approximately a 1-4 month repeating cycle, the circadian cycle, where the circadian drive to initiate sleep continually shifts a little each day (about 15 minutes on average) until the cycle repeats itself. Initially, when the circadian cycle becomes desynchronous with the 24 h day-night cycle, individuals with Non-24 have difficulty initiating sleep. As time progresses, the internal circadian rhythms of these individuals becomes 180 degrees out of synchrony with the 24 h day-night cycle, which gradually makes sleeping at night virtually impossible, and leads to extreme sleepiness during daytime hours.

Eventually, the individual’s sleep-wake cycle becomes aligned with the night, and “free-running” individuals are able to sleep well during a conventional or socially acceptable time. However, the alignment between the internal circadian rhythm and the 24-hour day-night cycle is only temporary. In addition to cyclical nighttime sleep and daytime sleepiness problems, this condition can cause deleterious daily shifts in body temperature and hormone secretion, may cause metabolic disruption and is sometimes associated with depressive symptoms and mood disorders.

It is estimated that 50-75% of totally blind people in the United States (approximately 65,000 to 95,000) have Non-24. This condition can also affect sighted people. However, cases are rarely reported in this population, and the true rate of Non-24 in the general population is not known.

The ultimate treatment goal for individuals with Non-24 is to entrain or synchronize their circadian rhythms into an appropriate phase relationship with the 24-hour day so that they will have increased sleepiness during the night and increased wakefulness during the daytime.

INTRODUCTION

Tasimelteon has the chemical name: trans-N-[[2-(2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)cycloprop-1yl]methyl]propanamide, has the structure of Formula I:

Figure US20130197076A1-20130801-C00001

and is disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,856,529 and in US 20090105333, both of which are incorporated herein by reference as though fully set forth.

Tasimelteon is a white to off-white powder with a melting point of about 78° C. (DSC) and is very soluble or freely soluble in 95% ethanol, methanol, acetonitrile, ethyl acetate, isopropanol, polyethylene glycols (PEG-300 and PEG-400), and only slightly soluble in water. The native pH of a saturated solution of tasimelteon in water is 8.5 and its aqueous solubility is practically unaffected by pH. Tasimelteon has 2-4 times greater affinity for MT2R relative to MT1R. It’s affinity (Ki) for MT1R is 0.3 to 0.4 and for MT2R, 0.1 to 0.2. Tasimelteon is useful in the practice of this invention because it is a melatonin agonist that has been demonstrated, among other activities, to entrain patients suffering from Non-24.

………………………..

SYNTHESIS

(1R-trans)-N-[[2 – (2,3-dihydro-4 benzofuranyl) cyclopropyl] methyl] propanamide PATENT: BRISTOL-MYERS SQUIBB PRIORITY DATE: 1996 HYPNOTIC

Synthesis Tasimelteon

PREPARATION OF XV

XXIV D-camphorsulfonic acid IS REACTED WITH THIONYL CHLORIDE TO GIVE

…………XXV (1S, 4R) -7,7-dimethyl-2-oxo-bicyclo [2.2.1] heptane-1-methanesulfonyl chloride

TREATED WITH

XXVI ammonium hydroxide

TO GIVE

XXVII (1S, 4R) -7,7-dimethyl-2-oxo-bicyclo [2.2.1] heptane-1-methanesulfonamide

TREATED WITH AMBERLYST15

….XXVIII (3aS, 6R) -4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-8 ,8-dimethyl-3H-3a ,6-methano-2 ,1-benzisothiazole-2 ,2-dioxide

TREATED WITH LAH, ie double bond is reduced to get

…..XV (3aS, 6R, 7aR)-hexahydro-8 ,8-dimethyl-3H-3a ,6-methano-2 ,1-benzisothiazole-2 ,2-dioxide

Intermediate

I 3-hydroxybenzoic acid methyl ester

II 3-bromo-1-propene

III 3 – (2-propenyloxy) benzoic acid methyl ester

IV 3-hydroxy-2-(2-propenyl) benzoic acid methyl ester

V 2,3-dihydro-4-hydroxy-2-benzofurancarboxylic acid methyl ester

VI benzofuran-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester

VII benzofuran-4-carboxylic acid

VIII 2,3-dihydro-4-benzofurancarboxylic acid

IX 2,3-dihydro-4-benzofuranmethanol

X 2,3-dihydro-4-benzofurancarboxaldehyde

XI Propanedioic acid

XII (E) -3 – (2,3-dihydro-4-benzofuranyl) propenoic acid

XIII thionyl chloride

XIV (E) -3 – (2,3-dihydro-4-benzofuranyl) propenoyl chloride

XV (3aS, 6R, 7aR)-hexahydro-8 ,8-dimethyl-3H-3a ,6-methano-2 ,1-benzisothiazole-2 ,2-dioxide

XVI (3aS,6R,7aR)-1-[(E)-3-(2,3-dihydro-4-benzofuranyl)-1-oxo-2-propenyl]hexahydro-8,8-dimethyl-3H-3a,6-methano-2,1-benzisothiazole-2,2-dioxide

XVII (3aS,6R,7aR)-1-[[(1R,2R)-2-(2,3-dihydro-4-benzofuranyl)cyclopropyl]carbonyl]hexahydro-8,8-dimethyl-3H-3a,6-methano-2,1-benzisothiazole-2,2-dioxide

XVIII [R-(R *, R *)] -2 – (2,3-dihydro-4-benzofuranyl) cyclopropanemethanol

XIX [R-(R *, R *)] -2 – (2,3-dihydro-4-benzofuranyl) cyclopropanecarboxaldehyde

XX hydroxylamine hydrochloride

XXI [R-(R *, R *)] -2 – (2,3-dihydro-4-benzofuranyl) cyclopropanecarbaldehyde oxime

XXII [R-(R *, R *)] -2 – (2,3-dihydro-4-benzofuranyl) cyclopropanemethanamine

XXIII propanoyl chloride

XXIV D-camphorsulfonic acid

XXV (1S, 4R) -7,7-dimethyl-2-oxo-bicyclo [2.2.1] heptane-1-methanesulfonyl chloride

XXVI ammonium hydroxide

XXVII (1S, 4R) -7,7-dimethyl-2-oxo-bicyclo [2.2.1] heptane-1-methanesulfonamide

XXVIII (3aS, 6R) -4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-8 ,8-dimethyl-3H-3a ,6-methano-2 ,1-benzisothiazole-2 ,2-dioxide

Bibliography

– Patents: Benzofuran and dihydrobenzofuran melatonergic agents: US5856529 (1999)

Priority: US19960032689P, 10 Dec. 1996 (Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, U.S.)

– Preparation III (quinazolines): US2004044015 (2004) Priority: EP20000402845, 13 Oct. 2000

– Preparation of VII (aminoalkylindols): Structure-Activity Relationships of Novel Cannabinoid Mimetics Eissenstat et al, J.. Med. Chem. 1995, 38, 3094-3105

– Preparation XXVIII: Towson et al. Organic Syntheses, Coll. Vol. 8, p.104 (1993) Vol. 69, p.158 (1990)

– Preparation XV: Weismiller et al. Organic Syntheses, Coll. Vol. 8, p.110 (1993) Vol. 69, p.154 (1990).

– G. Birznieks et al. Melatonin agonist VEC-162 Improves sleep onset and maintenance in a model of transient insomnia. Sleep 2007, 30, 0773 Abstract.

-. Rajaratnam SM et al, The melatonin agonist VEC-162 Phase time immediately advances the human circadian system, Sleep 2006, 29, 0159 Abstract.

-. AK Singh et al, Evolution of a manufacturing route for a highly potent drug candidate, 229th ACS Natl Meet, March 13-17, 2005, San Diego, Abstract MEDI 576.

– Vachharajani NN et al, Preclinical pharmacokinetics and metabolism of BMS-214778, a novel melatonin receptor agonist, J Pharm Sci. 2003 Apr; 92 (4) :760-72.

. – JW Scott et al, Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of a melotonin antagonist; synthesis and process optimization. 223rd ACS Natl Meet, April 7-11, Orlando, 2002, Abstract ORGN 186.

…………………….

SYNTHESIS CONSTRUCTION AS IN PATENT

WO1998025606A1

GENERAL SCHEMES

Reaction Scheme 1

Figure imgf000020_0001

The syntheses of the 4-aryl-propenoic acid derivatives, 2 and 3, are shown in Reaction Scheme 1. The starting aldehydes, 1 , can be prepared by methods well known to those skilled in the art. Condensation of malonic acid with the aldehydes, 1, in solvents such as pyridine with catalysts such as piperidine or pyrrolidine, gives the 4-aryl- propenoic acid, 2. Subsequent conversion of the acid to the acid chloride using reagents such as thionyl chloride, phosphoryl chloride, or the like, followed by reaction with N,0-dimethyl hydroxylamine gives the amide intermediate 3 in good yields. Alternatively, aldehyde 1 can be converted directly to amide 3 using reagents such as diethyl (N-methoxy- N-methyl-carbamoylmethyl)phosphonate with a strong base such as sodium hydride.

Reaction Scheme 2

Figure imgf000020_0002

The conversion of the amide intermediate 3 to the racemic, trans- cyclopropane carboxaldehyde intermediate, 4, is shown in Reaction Scheme 2. Intermediate 3 was allowed to react with cyclopropanating reagents such as trimethylsulfoxonium iodide and sodium hydride in solvents such as DMF, THF, or the like. Subsequent reduction using reagents such as LAH in solvents such as THF, ethyl ether, or the like, gives the racemic, trans-cyclopropane carboxaldehyde intermediates, 4.

Reaction Scheme 3

Figure imgf000021_0001

Racemic cyclopropane intermediate 5 (R = halogen) can be prepared from intermediate 2 as shown in Reaction Scheme 3. Intermediate 2 was converted to the corresponding allylic alcohol by treatment with reducing agents such as sodium borohydride plus iodine in solvents such as THF. Subsequent acylation using reagents such as acetic anhydride in pyridine or acetyl chloride gave the allylic acetate which was allowed to react with cyclopropanating reagents such as sodium chloro-difluoroacetate in diglyme to provide the racemic, trans- cyclopropane acetate intermediates, 5. Reaction Scheme 4

Figure imgf000022_0001

The conversion of the acid 2 to the chiral cyclopropane carboxaldehyde intermediate, (-)-(trans)-4, is shown in Reaction Scheme 4. Intermediate 2 is condensed with (-)-2,10-camphorsultam under standard conditions, and then cyclopropanated in the presence of catalysts such as palladium acetate using diazomethane generated from reagents such as 1-methyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine. Subsequent reduction using reagents such as LAH in solvents such as THF, followed by oxidation of the alcohol intermediates using reagents such as DMSO/oxalyl chloride, or PCC, gives the cyclopropane carboxaldehyde intermediate, (-)-(trans)-4, in good yields. The enantiomer, (+)-(trans)-4, can also be obtained employing a similar procedure using (+)-2,10- camphorsultam in place of (-)-2,10-camphorsultam.

When it is desired to prepare compounds of Formula I wherein m = 2, the alcohol intermediate may be activated in the conventional manner such as with mesyl chloride and treated with sodium cyanide followed by reduction of the nitrile group with a reducing agent such as LAH to produce the amine intermediate 6.

Reaction Scheme 5

Figure imgf000023_0001
Figure imgf000023_0002

Reaction Scheme 5 shows the conversion of intermediates 4 and 5 to the amine intermediate, 7, and the subsequent conversion of 6. or 7 to compounds of Formula I. The carboxaldehyde intermediate, 4, is condensed with hydroxylamine and then reduced with reagents such as LAH to give the amine intermediate, 7. The acetate intermediate 5 is hydrolyzed with potassium hydroxide to the alcohol, converted to the mesylate with methane sulfonyl chloride and triethyl amine in CH2CI2and then converted to the azide by treatment with sodium azide in solvents such as DMF. Subsequent reduction of the azide group with a reducing agent such as LAH produced the amine intermediate 7. Further reaction of 6 or 7 with acylating reagents gives compounds of Formula I. Suitable acylating agents include carboxylic acid halides, anhydrides, acyl imidazoles, alkyl isocyanates, alkyl isothiocyanates, and carboxylic acids in the presence of condensing agents, such as carbonyl imidazole, carbodiimides, and the like. Reaction Scheme 6

Figure imgf000024_0001

Reaction Scheme 6 shows the alkylation of secondary amides of Formula I (R2 = H) to give tertiary amides of Formula I (R2 = alkyl). The secondary amide is reacted with a base such as sodium hydride, potassium tert-butoxide, or the like, and then reacted with an alkylating reagent such as alkyl halides, alkyl sulfonate esters, or the like to produce tertiary amides of Formula I.

Reaction Scheme 7

Figure imgf000024_0002

Reaction Scheme 7 shows the halogenation of compounds of Formula I. The carboxamides, i (Q1 = Q2 = H), are reacted with excess amounts of halogenating agents such as iodine, N-bromosuccinimide, or the like to give the dihalo-compounds of Formula I (Q1 = Q2 = halogen). Alternatively, a stoichiometric amount of these halogenating agents can be used to give the monohalo-compounds of Formula I (Q1 = H, Q2 = halogen; or Q1 = halogen, Q2 = H). In both cases, additives such as lead IV tetraacetate can be used to facilitate the reaction. Biological Activity of the Compounds

The compounds of the invention are melatonergic agents. They have been found to bind human melatonergic receptors expressed in a stable cell line with good affinity. Further, the compounds are agonists as determined by their ability, like melatonin, to block the forskolin- stimulated accumulation of cAMP in certain cells. Due to these properties, the compounds and compositions of the invention should be useful as sedatives, chronobiotic agents, anxiolytics, antipsychotics, analgesics, and the like. Specifically, these agents should find use in the treatment of stress, sleep disorders, seasonal depression, appetite regulation, shifts in circadian cycles, melancholia, benign prostatic hyperplasia and related conditions

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES

SEE ORIGINAL PATENT FOR CORECTIONS

Preparation 1

Benzofuran-4-carboxaldehyde

Step 1 : N-Methoxy-N-methyl-benzofuran-4-carboxamide

A mixture of benzofuran-4-carboxylic acid [Eissenstat, et al.. J. Medicinal Chemistry, 38 (16) 3094-3105 (1995)] (2.8 g, 17.4 mmol) and thionyl chloride (25 mL) was heated to reflux for 2 h and then concentrated in vacuo. The solid residue was dissolved in ethyl acetate (50 mL) and a solution of N,O-dimethylhydroxylamine hydrochloride (2.8 g) in saturated NaHC03(60 mL) was added with stirring. After stirring for 1.5 h, the ethyl acetate layer was separated. The aqueous layer was extracted with ethyl acetate. The ethyl acetate extracts were combined, washed with saturated NaHCO3 and concentrated in vacuo to give an oil (3.2 g, 95.4%).

Step 2: Benzofuran-4-carboxaldehyde

A solution of N-methoxy-N-methyl-benzofuran-4-carboxamide (3.2 g, 16.6 mmol) in THF (100 mL) was cooled to -45°C and then LAH (0.7 g, 18.7 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred for 15 min, allowed to warm to -5°C, and then recooled to -45°C. Saturated KHS04 (25 mL) was added with vigorous stirring, and the mixture was allowed to warm to room temperature. The precipitate was filtered and washed with acetone. The filtrate was concentrated in vacuo to give an oil (2.3 g, 94%). Preparation 2

2,3-Dihydrobenzofuran-4-carboxaldehyde

Step 1 : 2,3-Dihydrobenzofuran-4-carboxylic acid

Benzofuran-4-carboxylic acid (10.0 g, 61 .7 mmol) was hydrogenated (60 psi) in acetic acid (100 mL) over 10% Pd/C (2 g) for 12 hr. The mixture was filtered and the filtrate was diluted with water (500 mL) to give 2,3- dihydrobenzofuran-4-carboxylic acid as a white powder (8.4 g, 83%). A sample was recrystallized from isopropanol to give fine white needles (mp: 185.5-187.5°C).

Step 2: (2,3-Dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)methanol

A solution of 2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-4-carboxylic acid (10 g, 61 mmol) in THF (100 mL) was stirred as LAH (4.64 g, 122 mmol) was slowly added. The mixture was heated to reflux for 30 min. The mixture was cooled and quenched cautiously with ethyl acetate and then with 1 N HCI (150 mL). The mixture was then made acidic with 12 N HCI until all the inorganic precipitate dissolved. The organic layer was separated, and the inorganic layer was extracted twice with ethyl acetate. The organic layers were combined, washed twice with brine, and then concentrated in vacuo. This oil was Kϋgelrohr distilled to a clear oil that crystallized upon cooling (8.53 g, 87.6%).

Step 3: 2.3-Dihydrobenzofuran-4-carboxaldehyde

DMSO (8.10 mL, 1 14 mmol) was added at -78°C to a stirred solution of oxalyl chloride in CH2CI2 (40 mL of a 2M solution). A solution of (2,3- dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)methanol (8.53 g, 56.9 mmol) in CH2CI2 (35 mL) was added dropwise, and the solution stirred at -78°C for 30 min. Triethyl amine (33 mL, 228 mmol) was added cautiously to quench the reaction. The resulting suspension was stirred at room temperature for 30 min and diluted with CH2CI2 (100 mL). The organic layer was washed three times with water, and twice with brine, and then concentrated in vacuo to an oil (8.42 g, 100%) that was used without purification.

Preparation 16

(±)-(trans)-2-(2,3-Dihyd robenzofuran-4-yl)cyclopropane- carboxaldehyde

Step 1 : (±Htrans)-N-Methoxy-N-methyl-2-(2.3-dihydrobenzofuran-4- yhcyclopropanecarboxamide

Trimethylsulfoxonium iodide (9.9 g, 45 mmol) was added in small portions to a suspension of sodium hydride (1 .8 g, 45 mmol) in DMF (120 mL). After the foaming had subsided (10 min), a solution of (trans)- N-methoxy-N-methyl-3-(2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)propenamide (3.5 g, 15 mmol) in DMF (60 mL) was added dropwise, with the temperature maintained between 35-40°C. The mixture was stirred for 3 h at room temperature. Saturated NH4CI (50 mL) was added dropwise and the mixture was extracted three times with ethyl acetate. The organic extracts were combined, washed with H2O and brine, dried over K2CO3, and concentrated in vacuo to give a white wax (3.7 g, 100%).

Step 2: (±)-(trans)- 2-(2.3-Dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)cyclopropane- carboxaldehyde

A solution of (±)-(trans)-N-methoxy-N-methyl-2-(2,3-dihydrobenzofuran- 4-yl)cyclopropanecarboxamide (3.7 g, 15 mmol) in THF (10 mL) was added dropwise to a rapidly stirred suspension of LAH (683 mg, 18 mmol) in THF (50 mL) at -45°C, maintaining the temperature below -40°C throughout. The cooling bath was removed, the reaction was allowed to warm to 5°C, and then the reaction was immediately recooled to -45°C. Potassium hydrogen sulfate (3.4 g, 25.5 mmol) in H20 (50 mL) was cautiously added dropwise, the temperature maintained below – 30°C throughout. The cooling bath was removed and the suspension was stirred at room temperature for 30 min. The mixture was filtered through Celite and the filter cake was washed with ether. The combined filtrates were then washed with cold 1 N HCI, 1 N NaOH, and brine. The filtrates were dried over MgSO4, and concentrated in vacuo to give a clear oil (2.6 g, 99%).

Preparation 18

(-)-(trans)-2-(2.3-Dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)cyclopropane-carboxaldehyde

Step 1 : (-Htrans)-N-[3-(2.3-Dihvdrobenzofuran-4-yl)-propenoyll-2.10- camphorsultam

To a solution of (-)-2,10-camphorsultam (8.15 g, 37.9 mmol) in 50 mL toluene at 0°C was added sodium hydride (1.67 g, 41.7 mmol). After stirring for 0.33 h at 0°C and 0.5 h at 20°C and recooling to 0°C, a solution of 3-(2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)-2-propenoyl chloride
(37.9 mmol), prepared in situ from the corresponding acid and thionyl chloride (75 mL), in toluene (50 mL), was added dropwise. After stirring for 18 h at 20°C, the mixture was diluted with ethyl acetate and washed with water, 1 N HCI, and 1 N NaOH. The organic solution was dried and concentrated in vacuo to give 15.8 g of crude product. Recrystallization form ethanol-methanol (600 mL, 1 :1) gave the product (13.5 g, 92%, mp 199.5-200°C).

Step 2: (-)-N-[[(trans)-2-(2,3-Dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)-cyclopropylj- carbonylj-2, 10-camphorsultam

1 -Methyl-3-nitro-1 -nitrosoguanidine (23.88g 163 mmol) was added in portions to a mixture of 10 N sodium hydroxide (60 mL) and ether (200 mL) at 0°C. The mixture was shaken vigorously for 0.25 h and the ether layer carefully decanted into a solution of (-)-N-[3-(2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)-2-propenoyl]-2,10-camphorsultam (9.67 g, 25 mmol) and palladium acetate (35 mg) in methylene chloride (200 mL). After stirring for 18 h, acetic acid (5 mL) was added to the reaction and the mixture stirred for 0.5 h. The mixture was washed with 1 N HCI, 1 N NaOH and brine. The solution was dried, concentrated in vacuo and the residue crystallized twice from ethanol to give the product (6.67 g, 66.5%, mp 157-159°C).

Step 3: (-)-(trans)-2-(2,3-Dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)cyclopropane- methanol

A solution of (-)-N-[(trans)-2-(2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)cyclo-propanecarbonylj-2,10-camphorsultam (4.3 g, 10.7 mmol) in THF (50 mL) was added dropwise to a mixture of LAH (0.81 g, 21.4 mmol) in THF (50 mL) at -45°C. The mixture was stirred for 2 hr while it warmed to 10°C. The mixture was recooled to -40°C and hydrolyzed by the addition of saturated KHS0 (20 mL). The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 30 minutes and filtered. The precipitate was washed twice with acetone. The combined filtrate and acetone washes were concentrated in vacuo. The gummy residue was dissolved in ether, washed with 1 N NaOH and 1 N HCI, and then dried in vacuo to give the product (2.0 g, 98.4%).

Step 4: (-)-(trans)-2-(2.3-Dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)cyclopropane- carboxaldehyde DMSO (1.6 g, 21 mmol) was added to oxalyl chloride in CH2CI2(7.4 mL of 2 M solution, 14.8 mmole) at -78°C. The (-)-(trans)-2-(2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)-cyclopropylmethanol (2.0 g, 10.5 mmol) in CH2CI2(15 mL) was added. The mixture was stirred for 20 min and then triethylamine (4.24 g, 42 mmol) was added. The mixture was warmed to room temperature and stirred for 30 min. The mixture was diluted with CH2CI2 and washed with water, 1 N HCI, and then 1 N NaOH. The organic layer was dried and concentrated iι> vacuo to give the aldehyde product (1.98 g, 100%).

Preparation 24

(-)-(trans)-2-(2.3-Dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)cyclopropane-methanamine A mixture of (-)-(trans)-2-(2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)cyclopropane-carboxaldehyde (1.98 g, 10.5 mmol), hydroxylamine hydrochloride (2.29 g, 33 mmol), and 30% NaOH (3.5 mL, 35 mmol), in 5:1
ethanol/water (50 mL) was heated on a steam bath for 2 h. The solution was concentrated in vacuo. and the residue mixed with water. The mixture was extracted with CH2CI2. The organic extracts were dried and concentrated in vacuo to give a solid which NMR analysis showed to be a mixture of the cis and trans oximes. This material was dissolved in THF (20 mL) and added to solution of alane in THF [prepared from LAH (1.14 g, 30 mmol) and H2S04 (1.47 g, 15 mmol) at 0°Cj. The reaction was stirred for 18 h, and quenched successively with water (1.15 mL), 15% NaOH (1.15 mL), and then water (3.45 mL). The mixture was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated in vacuo. The residue was mixed with ether and washed with water and then 1 N HCI. The acid washes were made basic and extracted with CH2CI . The extracts were dried and concentrated in vacuo to give the amine product (1.4 g, 70.5%). The amine was converted to the fumarate salt in ethanol (mp: 197-198°C).
Anal. Calc’d for C12H15NO • C4H404: C, 62.94; H, 6.27; N, 4.59.
Found: C, 62.87; H, 6.31 ; N, 4.52.

FINAL PRODUCT TASIMELTEON

Example 2

(-)-(trans)-N-[[2-(2,3-Dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)cycloprop-1-yl]methyl]propanamide

This compound was prepared similar to the above procedure using propionyl chloride and (-)-(trans)-2-(2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)- cyclopropanemethanamine to give an oil that solidified upon standing to an off-white solid (61 %, mp: 71-72°C). IR (NaCI Film): 3298, 1645, 1548, 1459, 1235 cm“1.

Mo5 : -17.3°

Anal. Calc’d for C15H19N02: C, 73.44; H, 7.87; N, 5.71 . Found: C, 73.28; H, 7.68; N, 5.58.

References

  1.  ‘Time-bending drug’ for jet lag. BBC News. 2 December 2008
  2.  Vachharajani, Nimish N., Yeleswaram, Krishnaswamy, Boulton, David W. (April 2003). “Preclinical pharmacokinetics and metabolism of BMS-214778, a novel melatonin receptor agonist”. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 92 (4): 760–72. doi:10.1002/jps.10348PMID 12661062.
  3.  Shantha MW Rajaratnam, Mihael H Polymeropoulos, Dennis M Fisher, Thomas Roth, Christin Scott, Gunther Birznieks, Elizabeth B Klerman (2009-02-07). “Melatonin agonist tasimelteon (VEC-162) for transient insomnia after sleep-time shift: two randomised controlled multicentre trials”The Lancet 373 (9662): 482–491. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61812-7PMID 19054552. Retrieved 2010-02-23.
  4.  Audio interview with Joseph Hull of Harvard, spring 2011
  5.  Vanda Pharmaceuticals seeks FDA approval
  6. Recent progress in the development of agonists and antagonists for melatonin receptors.Zlotos DP.

    Curr Med Chem. 2012;19(21):3532-49. Review.

    Preclinical pharmacokinetics and metabolism of BMS-214778, a novel melatonin receptor agonist.

    Vachharajani NN, Yeleswaram K, Boulton DW.J Pharm Sci. 2003 Apr;92(4):760-72.

TASIMELTION

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extra info

Org. Synth. 199069, 154
(−)-D-2,10-CAMPHORSULTAM
[3H-3a,6-Methano-2,1-benzisothiazole, 4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-8,8-dimethyl-2,2-dioxide, (3aS)-]
Submitted by Michael C. Weismiller, James C. Towson, and Franklin A. Davis1.
Checked by David I. Magee and Robert K. Boeckman, Jr..
1. Procedure
(−)-2,10-Camphorsultam. A dry, 2-L, three-necked, round-bottomed flask is equipped with a 1.5-in egg-shaped Teflon stirring bar, a 250-mL addition funnel, and a 300-mL Soxhlet extraction apparatus equipped with a mineral oil bubbler connected to an inert-gas source. The flask is charged with 600 mL of dry tetrahydrofuran (THF) (Note 1) and6.2 g (0.16 mol) of lithium aluminum hydride (Note 2). Into the 50-mL Soxhlet extraction thimble is placed 35.0 g (0.16 mol) of (−)-(camphorsulfonyl)imine (Note 3) and the reaction mixture is stirred and heated at reflux. After all of the(camphorsulfonyl)imine has been siphoned into the reaction flask (3–4 hr), the mixture is allowed to cool to room temperature. The unreacted lithium aluminum hydride is cautiously hydrolyzed by dropwise addition of 200 mL of 1 Nhydrochloric acid via the addition funnel (Note 4). After the hydrolysis is complete the contents of the flask are transferred to a 1-L separatory funnel, the lower, silver-colored aqueous layer is separated, and the upper layer placed in a 1-L Erlenmeyer flask. The aqueous phase is returned to the separatory funnel and washed with methylene chloride (3 × 100 mL). After the reaction flask is rinsed with methylene chloride (50 mL), the organic washings are combined with the THF phase and dried over anhydrous magnesium sulfate for 10–15 min. Filtration through a 300-mL sintered-glass funnel of coarse porosity into a 1-L round-bottomed flask followed by removal of the solvent on arotary evaporator gives 33.5 g (95%) of the crude (−)-2,10-camphorsultam. The crude sultam is placed in a 250-mL Erlenmeyer flask and crystallized from approximately 60 mL of absolute ethanol. The product is collected on a 150-mL sintered-glass funnel of coarse porosity and dried in a vacuum desiccator to give 31.1 g (88%) of the pure sultam. A second crop of crystals can be gained by evaporating approximately half the filtrate; the residue is crystallized as above to give 1.4 g (4%). The combined yield of white crystalline solid, mp 183–184°C, [α]D −30.7° (CHCl3, c 2.3) is92% (Note 5) and (Note 6).
2. Notes
1. Tetrahydrofuran (Aldrich Chemical Company, Inc.) was distilled from sodium benzophenone.
2. Lithium aluminum hydride was purchased from Aldrich Chemical Company, Inc.
3. (−)-(Camphorsulfonyl)imine, [(7S)-(−)-10,10-dimethyl-5-thia-4-azatricyclo[5.2.1.03,7]dec-3-ene 5,5-dioxide] was prepared by the procedure of Towson, Weismiller, Lal, Sheppard, and Davis, Org. Synth., Coll. Vol. VIII1993, 104.
4. The addition must be very slow at first (1 drop/5 sec) until the vigorous reaction has subsided.
5. The NMR spectrum of (−)-2,10-camphorsultam is as follows: 1H NMR (CDCl3) δ: 0.94 (s, 3 H, CH3), 1.14 (s, 3 H, CH3), 1.33 (m, 1 H), 1.47 (m,, 1 H), 1.80–2.05 (5 H), 3.09 (d, 1 H, J = 14), 3.14 (d, 1 H, J = 14), 3.43 (m, 1 H), 4.05 (br s, 1 H, NH); 13C NMR (CDCl3) δ: 20.17 (q, CH3), 26.51 (t), 31.55 (t), 35.72 (t), 44.44 (d), 47.15 (s), 50.08 (t), 54.46 (s), 62.48 (d).
6. Checkers obtained material having the same mp (183–184°C) and [α]D − 31.8° (CHCl3c 2.3).
3. Discussion
(−)-2,10-Camphorsultam was first prepared by the catalytic hydrogenation of (−)-(camphorsulfonyl)imine overRaney nickel.2 Lithium aluminum hydride reduction was used by Oppolzer and co-workers in their synthesis of the sultam.3,4 However, because of the low solubility of the sultam in tetrahydrofuran, a large amount of solvent was required.4 In the procedure described here the amount of solvent is significantly reduced by using a Soxhlet extractor to convey the imine slowly into the reducing medium.5
Oppolzer’s chiral auxiliary,6 (−)-2,10-camphorsultam, is useful in the asymmetric Diels–Alder reaction,3,4 and for the preparation of enantiomerically pure β-substituted carboxylic acids7 and diols,8 in the stereoselective synthesis of Δ2-isoxazolines,9 and in the preparation of N-fluoro-(−)-2,10-camphorsultam, an enantioselective fluorinating reagent.10

References and Notes
  1. Department of Chemistry, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104.
  2. Shriner, R. L.; Shotton, J. A.; Sutherland, H. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 193860, 2794.
  3. Oppolzer, W.; Chapuis, C.; Bernardinelli, G. Helv. Chim. Acta 198467, 1397.
  4. Vandewalle, M.; Van der Eycken, J.; Oppolzer, W.; Vullioud, C. Tetrahedron 198642, 4035.
  5. Davis, F. A.; Towson, J. C.; Weismiller, M. C.; Lal, G.; Carroll,, P. J. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1988110, 8477.
  6. Oppolzer, W. Tetrahedron 198743, 1969.
  7. Oppolzer, W.; Mills, R. J.; Pachinger, W.; Stevenson, T. Helv. Chim. Acta 198669, 1542; Oppolzer, W.; Schneider, P. Helv. Chim. Acta 198669, 1817; Oppolzer, W.; Mills, R. J.; Réglier, M. Tetrahedron Lett. 198627, 183; Oppolzer, W.; Poli. G.Tetrahedron Lett. 198627, 4717; Oppolzer, W.; Poli, G.; Starkemann, C.; Bernardinelli, G. Tetrahedron Lett. 198829, 3559.
  8. Oppolzer, W.; Barras, J-P. Helv. Chim. Acta 198770, 1666.
  9. Curran, D. P.; Kim, B. H.; Daugherty, J.; Heffner, T. A. Tetrahedron Lett. 198829, 3555.
  10. Differding, E.; Lang, R. W. Tetrahedron Lett. 198829, 6087.

Org. Synth. 199069, 158
(+)-(2R,8aS)-10-(CAMPHORYLSULFONYL)OXAZIRIDINE
[4H-4A,7-Methanooxazirino[3,2-i][2,1]benzisothiazole, tetrahydro-9,9-dimethyl-, 3,3-dioxide, [4aS-(4aα,7α,8aR*)]]
Submitted by James C. Towson, Michael C. Weismiller, G. Sankar Lal, Aurelia C. Sheppard, Anil Kumar, and Franklin A. Davis1.
Checked by David I. Magee and Robert K. Boeckman, Jr..
1. Procedure
A. (+)-(1S)-10-Camphorsulfonamide. Into a 2-L, two-necked, round-bottomed flask, equipped with a 250-mL dropping funnel, a magnetic stirring bar, and a reflux condenser fitted with an outlet connected to a disposable pipettedipped in 2 mL of chloroform in a test tube for monitoring gas evolution, were placed 116 g (0.5 mol) ofcamphorsulfonic acid (Note 1) and 750 mL of reagent-grade chloroform. The suspension of camphorsulfonic acid was heated to reflux and 71.4 g (43.77 mL, 0.6 mol, 1.2 equiv) of freshly distilled thionyl chloride was added dropwise over a 1-hr period. Heating was continued until gas evolution (sulfur dioxide and hydrogen chloride) had ceased (approximately 9–10 hr). The resultant solution of camphorsulfonyl chloride in chloroform was converted tocamphorsulfonamide without further purification.
In a 5-L, two-necked, round-bottomed flask fitted with a 250-mL dropping funnel and a mechanical stirrer was placed a solution of 1.6 L of reagent-grade ammonium hydroxide solution and the flask was cooled to 0°C in an ice bath. The solution of the crude camphorsulfonyl chloride, prepared in the preceding section, was added dropwise to the ammonium hydroxide solution at 0–10°C over a period of 1 hr. The reaction mixture was warmed to room temperature, stirred for 4 hr, the organic layer separated, and the aqueous layer was extracted with methylene chloride (3 × 250 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine (250 mL) and dried over anhydrousmagnesium sulfate. Removal of the solvent on the rotary evaporator gave 104.0 g (90%) of the crudecamphorsulfonamide (Note 2) and (Note 3).
B. (−)-(Camphorsulfonyl)imine. A 1-L, round-bottomed flask is equipped with a 2-in. egg-shaped magnetic stirring bar, a Dean–Stark water separator, and a double-walled condenser containing a mineral oil bubbler connected to an inert gas source. Into the flask are placed 5 g of Amberlyst 15 ion-exchange resin (Note 4) and 41.5 g of the crude(+)-(1S)-camphorsulfonamide in 500 mL of toluene. The reaction mixture is heated at reflux for 4 hr. After the reaction flask is cooled, but while it is still warm (40–50°C), 200 mL of methylene chloride is slowly added to dissolve any(camphorsulfonyl)imine that crystallizes. The solution is filtered through a 150-mL sintered glass funnel of coarse porosity an the reaction flask and filter funnel are washed with an additional 75 mL of methylene chloride.
Isolation of the (−)-(camphorsulfonyl)imine is accomplished by removal of the toluene on the rotary evaporator. The resulting solid is recrystallized from absolute ethanol (750 mL) to give white crystals, 34.5–36.4 g (90–95%), mp225–228°C; [α]D −32.7° (CHCl3, c 1.9) (Note 5).
C. (+)-(2R, 8aS)-10-Camphorylsulfonyloxaziridine. A 5-L, three-necked, round-bottomed Morton flask is equipped with an efficient mechanical stirrer, a 125-mm Teflon stirring blade, a Safe Lab stirring bearing (Note 6), and a 500-mL addition funnel. Into the flask are placed the toluene solution of (−)-(camphorsulfonyl)imine (39.9 g, 0.187 mol)prepared in Step B and a room-temperature solution of 543 g (3.93 mol, 7 equiv based on oxone) of anhydrouspotassium carbonate dissolved in 750 mL of water. The reaction mixture is stirred vigorously and a solution of 345 g (0.56 mol, 6 equiv of KHSO5) of oxone dissolved in 1250 mL of water is added dropwise in three portions over 45 min(Note 7) and (Note 8). Completion of the oxidation is determined by TLC (Note 9) and the reaction mixture is filtered through a 150-mL sintered-glass funnel of coarse porosity to remove solids. The filtrate is transferred to a 3-L separatory funnel, the toluene phase is separated and the aqueous phase is washed with methylene chloride (3 × 100 mL). The filtered solids and any solids remaining in the Morton flask are washed with an additional 200 mL of methylene chloride. The organic extracts are combined and washed with 100 mL of saturated sodium sulfite, dried over anhydrousmagnesium sulfate for 15–20 min, filtered, and concentrated on the rotary evaporator. The resulting white solid is crystallized from approximately 500 mL of hot 2-propanol to afford, after drying under vacuum in a desiccator, 35.9 g(84%) of white needles, mp 165–167°C, [α]D +44.6° (CHCl3, c 2.2) (Note 10) and (Note 11).
(−)-(2S,8aR)-10-(camphorylsulfonyl)oxaziridine is prepared in a similar manner starting from (−)-10-camphorsulfonic acid; mp 166–167°C, [α]D +43.6° (CHCl3, c 2.2).
2. Notes
1. (1S)-(+)-10-Camphorsulfonic acid was purchased from Aldrich Chemical Company, Inc.
2. The crude sulfonamide is contaminated with 5–10% of the (camphorsulfonyl)imine, the yield of which increases on standing.
3. The 1H NMR spectrum of (+)-(1S)-10-camphorsulfonamide is as follows: (CDCl3) δ: 0.93 (s, 3 H, CH3), 1.07 (s, 3 H, CH3), 1.40–2.50 (m, 7 H), 3.14 and 3.53 (AB quartet, 2 H, CH2-SO2J = 15.1), 5.54 (br s, 2 H, NH2).
4. Amberlyst 15 ion-exchange resin is a strongly acidic, macroreticular resin purchased from Aldrich Chemical Company, Inc.
5. The spectral properties of (−)-(camphorsulfonyl)imine are as follows: 1H NMR (CDCl3) δ: 1.03 (s, 3 H, CH3), 1.18 (s, 3 H, CH3), 1.45–2.18 (m, 6 H), 2.65 (m, 1 H), 3.10 and 3.28 (AB quartet, 2 H, CH2-SO2J = 14.0); 13C NMR (CDCl3) δ: 19.01 (q, CH3), 19.45 (q, CH3), 26.64 (t), 28.44 (t), 35.92 (t), 44.64 (d), 48.00 (s), 49.46 (t), 64.52 (s), 195.52 (s); IR (CHCl3) cm−1: 3030, 2967, 1366. Checkers obtained material having identical melting point and [α]D−32.3° (CHCl3, c 1.8).
6. The SafeLab Teflon bearing can be purchased from Aldrich Chemical Company, Inc. A glass stirring bearing lubricated with silicone grease is unsatisfactory because the dissolved salts solidify in the shaft, causing freezing.
7. Efficient stirring is important and indicated by a milky white appearance of the solution.
8. Occasionally batches of oxone purchased from Aldrich Chemical Company, Inc., have exhibited reduced reactivity in this oxidation. Oxone exposed to moisture prior to use also gives reduced reactivity in this oxidation. If this occurs, oxone is added until oxidation is complete as determined by TLC (Note 9). Potassium carbonate is added as needed to maintain the pH at approximately 9.0. Oxone stored in the refrigerator under an inert atmosphere has shown no loss in reactivity for up to 6 months.
9. Oxidation is generally complete after addition of the oxone solution. The oxidation is monitored by TLC as follows. Remove approximately 0.5 mL of the toluene solution from the nonstirring solution, spot a 250-μm TLC silica gel plate, elute with methylene chloride, and develop with 10% molybdophosphoric acid in ethanol and heating(camphorsulfonyl)imine Rf = 0.28 and (camphorylsulfonyl)oxaziridine Rf = 0.62. If (camphorsulfonyl)imine is detected, stirring is continued at room temperature until the reaction is complete (see (Note 8)). If the reaction mixture takes on a brownish color after addition of oxone and has not gone to completion after 30 min, the reaction mixture is filtered through a 150-mL sintered-glass funnel of coarse porosity, and the solids are washed with 50 mL of methylene chloride. The aqueous/organic extracts are returned to the 5-L Morton flask and stirred vigorously and 52 g (0.08 mol, 1 equiv KHSO5) of oxone is added over 5 min and stirring continued until oxidation is complete (approximately 10–15 min).
10. The submitters employed a toluene solution of crude imine prepared in Part B and obtained somewhat higher yields (90–95%). However, the checkers obtained yields in this range on one half the scale using isolatedsulfonylimine.
11. The spectral properties of (+)-(camphorsulfonyl)oxaziridine are as follows: 1H NMR (CDCl3) δ: 1.03 (s, 3 H, CH3), 1.18 (s, 3 H, CH3), 1.45–2.18 (m, 6 H), 2.65 (d, 1 H), 3.10 and 3.28 (AB quartet, 2 H, CH2-SO2J = 14.0); 13C NMR (CDCl3) δ: 19.45 (q, CH3), 20.42 (q, CH3), 26.55 (t), 28.39 (t), 33.64 (t), 45.78 (d), 48.16 (s), 48.32 (t), 54.07 (s), 98.76 (s). The checkers obtained material (mp 165–167°C) having [α]D +44.7° (CHCl3, c 2.2).
3. Discussion
Camphorsulfonamide, required for the preparation of the (camphorsulfonyl)imine, was previously prepared in two steps. The first step involved conversion of camphorsulfonic acid to the sulfonyl chloride with PCl5 or SOCl2. The isolated sulfonyl chloride was converted in a second step to the sulfonamide by reaction with ammonium hydroxide. This modified procedure is more efficient because it transforms camphorsulfonic acid directly to camphorsulfonamide, avoiding isolation of the camphorsulfonyl chloride.
(Camphorsulfonyl)imine has been reported as a by-product of reactions involving the camphorsulfonamide.2,3,4,5Reychler in 1898 isolated two isomeric camphorsulfonamides,2 one of which was shown to be the(camphorsulfonyl)imine by Armstrong and Lowry in 1902.3 Vandewalle, Van der Eycken, Oppolzer, and Vullioud described the preparation of (camphorsulfonyl)imine in 74% overall yield from 0.42 mol of the camphorsulfonyl chloride.6 The advantage of the procedure described here is that, by using ammonium hydroxide, the camphorsulfonyl chloride is converted to the sulfonamide in >95% yield.7 The sulfonamide is of sufficient purity that it can be used directly in the cyclization step, which, under acidic conditions, is quantitative in less than 4 hr. These modifications result in production of the (camphorsulfonyl)imine in 86% overall yield from the sulfonyl chloride.
In addition to the synthesis of enantiomerically pure (camphorylsulfonyl)oxaziridine7 and its derivatives,8 the(camphorsulfonyl)imine has been used in the preparation of (−)-2,10-camphorsultam (Oppolzers’ auxiliary),6,9 (+)-(3-oxocamphorysulfonyl) oxaziridine,10 and the N-fluoro-2,10-camphorsultam, an enantioselective fluorinating reagent.11
The N-sulfonyloxaziridines are an important class of selective, aprotic oxidizing reagents.12 13 14 Enantiomerically pure N-sulfonyloxaziridines have been used in the asymmetric oxidation of sulfides to sulfoxides (30–91% ee),15selenides to selenoxides (8–9% ee).16 disulfides to thiosulfinates (2–13% ee),5 and in the asymmetric epoxidation of alkenes (19–65% ee).17,18 Oxidation of optically active sulfonimines (R*SO2N=CHAr) affords mixtures of N-sulfonyloxaziridine diastereoisomers requiring separation by crystallization and/or chromatography.3
(+)-(Camphorylsulfonyl)oxaziridine described here is prepared in four steps from inexpensive (1S)-(+)- or (1R)-(+)-10-camphorsulfonic acid in 77% overall yield.7 Separation of the oxaziridine diastereoisomers is not required because oxidation is sterically blocked from the exo face of the C-N double bond in the (camphorsulfonyl)imine. In general, (camphorsulfonyl)oxaziridine exhibits reduced reactivity compared to other N-sulfonyloxaziridines. For example, while sulfides are asymmetrically oxidized to sulfoxides (3–77% ee), this oxaziridine does not react with amines or alkenes.7 However, this oxaziridine is the reagent of choice for the hydroxylation of lithium and Grignard reagents to give alcohols and phenols because yields are good to excellent and side reactions are minimized.19 This reagent has also been used for the stereoselective oxidation of vinyllithiums to enolates.20
The most important synthetic application of the (camphorylsulfonyl)oxaziridines is the asymmetric oxidation of enolates to optically active α-hydroxy carbonyl compounds.14,21,22,23,24 Chiral, nonracemic α-hydroxy carbonylcompounds have been used extensively in asymmetric synthesis, for example, as chiral synthons, chiral auxiliaries, and chiral ligands. This structural array is also featured in many biologically active natural products. This oxidizing reagent gives uniformly high chemical yields regardless of the counterion, and stereoselectivities are good to excellent (50–95% ee).9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24 Since the configuration of the oxaziridine three-membered ring controls the stereochemistry, both α-hydroxy carbonyl optical isomers are readily available. Representative examples of the asymmetric oxidation of prochiral enolates by (+)-(2R,8aS)-camphorylsulfonyl)oxaziridine are given in Tables I and II.
This preparation is referenced from:

  • Org. Syn. Coll. Vol. 8, 110
  • Org. Syn. Coll. Vol. 9, 212
  • References and Notes
    1. Department of Chemistry, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104.
    2. Reychler, M. A. Bull. Soc. Chim. III 188919, 120.
    3. Armstrong, H. E.; Lowry, T. M. J. Chem. Soc., Trans. 190281, 1441.
    4. Dauphin, G.; Kergomard, A.; Scarset, A. Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr. 1976, 862.
    5. Davis, F. A.; Jenkins, Jr., R. H.; Awad, S. B.; Stringer, O. D.; Watson, W. H.; Galloy, J. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1982104, 5412.
    6. Vandewalle, M.; Van der Eycken, J.; Oppolzer, W.; Vullioud, C. Tetrahedron198642, 4035.
    7. Davis, F. A.; Towson, J. C.; Weismiller, M. C.; Lal, S.; Carroll, P. J. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1988110, 8477.
    8. Davis, F. A.; Weismiller, M. C.; Lal, G. S.; Chen, B. C.; Przeslawski, R. M. Tetrahedron Lett.198930, 1613.
    9. Oppolzer, W. Tetrahedron 198743, 1969.
    10. Glahsl, G.; Herrmann, R. J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. I 1988, 1753.
    11. Differding, E.; Lang, R. W. Tetrahedron Lett. 198829, 6087.
    12. For recent reviews on the chemistry of N-sulfonyloxaziridines, see: (a) Davis, F. A.; Jenkins, Jr., R. H. in “Asymmetric Synthesis,” Morrison, J. D., Ed.; Academic Press: Orlando, FL, 1984, Vol. 4, Chapter 4;
    13. Davis, F. A.; Haque, S. M. in “Advances in Oxygenated Processes,” Baumstark, A. L., Ed.; JAI Press: London, Vol. 2;
    14. Davis, F. A.; Sheppard, A. C. Tetrahedron 198945, 5703.
    15. Davis, F. A.; McCauley, Jr., J. P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Harakal, M. E.; Towson, J. C.; Watson, W. H.; Tavanaiepour, I. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1987109, 3370.
    16. Davis, F. A.; Stringer, O. D.; McCauley, Jr., J. M. Tetrahedron 198541, 4747.
    17. Davis, F. A.; Chattopadhyay, S. Tetrahedron Lett. 198627, 5079.
    18. Davis, F. A.; Harakal, M. E.; Awad, S. B. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1983105, 3123.
    19. Davis, F. A.; Wei, J.; Sheppard, A. C.; Gubernick S. Tetrahedron Lett. 198728, 5115.
    20. Davis, F. A.; Lal, G. S.; Wei, J. Tetrahedron Lett. 198829, 4269.
    21. Davis, F. A.; Haque, M. S.; Ulatowski, T. G.; Towson, J. C. J. Org. Chem. 198651, 2402.
    22. Davis, F. A.; Haque, M. S. J. Org. Chem. 198651, 4083; Davis, F. A.; Haque, M. S.; Przeslawski, R. M. J. Org. Chem. 198954, 2021.
    23. Davis, F. A.; Ulatowski, T. G.; Haque, M. S. J. Org. Chem. 198752, 5288.
    24. Davis, F. A.; Sheppard, A. C., Lal, G. S. Tetrahedron Lett. 198930, 779.
    25. Davis, F. A.; Sheppard, A. C.; Chen, B. C.; Haque, M. S. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1990112, 6679.

dedicated to lionel my son

my daughter Aishal

THEY KEEP ME GOING

Idelalisib ….US FDA Accepts NDA for Gilead’s Idelalisib for the Treatment of Refractory Indolent Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma


Idelalisib

An antineoplastic agent and p110delta inhibitor

(S)-2-(1-(9H-purin-6-ylamino)propyl)-5-fluoro-3-phenylquinazolin-4(3H)-one

Icos (Originator)

  • CAL-101
  • GS-1101
  • Idelalisib
  • UNII-YG57I8T5M0

M.Wt: 415.43
Formula: C22H18FN7O

CAS No.: 870281-82-6
CAL-101 Solubility: DMSO ≥80mg/mL Water <1.2mg/mL Ethanol ≥33mg/mL

5-Fluoro-3-phenyl-2-[(1S)-1-(7H-purin-6-ylamino)propyl]-4(3H)-quinazolinone

idelalisib

Idelalisib (codenamed GS-1101 or CAL-101) is a drug under investigation for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. It is in Phase III clinical trials testing drug combinations with rituximab and/or bendamustine as of 2013. The substance acts as aphosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor; more specifically, it blocks P110δ, the delta isoform of the enzyme phosphoinositide 3-kinase.[1][2]

GDC-0032 is a potent, next-generation beta isoform-sparing PI3K inhibitor targeting PI3Kα/δ/γ with IC 50 of 0.29 nM/0.12 nM/0.97nM,> 10 fold over Selective PI3K [beta].

GS-1101 is a novel, orally available small molecule inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase delta (PI3Kdelta) develop by Gilead and is waiting for registration in U.S. for the treatment of patients with indolent non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma that is refractory (non-responsive) to rituximab and to alkylating-agent-containing chemotherapy and for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The compound is also in phase III clinical evaluation for the treatment of elderly patients with previously untreated small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) and acute myeloid leukemia. Clinical trials had been under way for the treatment of inflammation and allergic rhinitis; however, no recent development has been reported. Preclinical studies have shown that GS-1101 has desirable pharmaceutical properties. The compound was originally developed by Calistoga Pharmaceuticals, acquired by Gilead on April 1, 2011.

clinical trials, click link

http://clinicaltrials.gov/search/intervention=CAL-101%20OR%20GS-1101%20OR%20Idelalisib

FOSTER CITY, Calif.–(BUSINESS WIRE)–Jan. 13, 2014– Gilead Sciences, Inc. (Nasdaq: GILD) announced today that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has accepted for review the company’s New Drug Application (NDA) for idelalisib, a targeted, oral inhibitor of PI3K delta, for the treatment of refractory indolent non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (iNHL). FDA has granted a standard review for the iNHL NDA and has set a target review date under the Prescription Drug User Fee Act (PDUFA) of September 11, 2014.

The NDA for iNHL, submitted on September 11, 2013, was supported by a single arm Phase 2 study (Study 101-09) evaluating idelalisib in patients with iNHL that is refractory (non-responsive) to rituximab and to alkylating-agent-containing chemotherapy. Following Gilead’s NDA submission for iNHL, FDA granted idelalisib a Breakthrough Therapy designation for relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The FDA grants Breakthrough Therapy designation to drug candidates that may offer major advances in treatment over existing options. Gilead submitted an NDA for idelalisib for the treatment of CLL on December 6, 2013.

About Idelalisib

Idelalisib is an investigational, highly selective oral inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) delta. PI3K delta signaling is critical for the activation, proliferation, survival and trafficking of B lymphocytes and is hyperactive in many B-cell malignancies. Idelalisib is being developed both as a single agent and in combination with approved and investigational therapies.

Gilead’s clinical development program for idelalisib in iNHL includes Study 101-09 in highly refractory patients and two Phase 3 studies of idelalisib in previously treated patients. The development program in CLL includes three Phase 3 studies of idelalisib in previously treated patients. Combination therapy with idelalisib and GS-9973, Gilead’s novel spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) inhibitor, also is being evaluated in a Phase 2 trial of patients with relapsed or refractory CLL, iNHL and other lymphoid malignancies.

Additional information about clinical studies of idelalisib and Gilead’s other investigational cancer agents can be found at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Idelalisib and GS-9973 are investigational products and their safety and efficacy have not been established.

About Indolent Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

Indolent non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma refers to a group of largely incurable slow-growing lymphomas that run a relapsing course after therapy and can lead ultimately to life-threatening complications such as serious infections and marrow failure. Most iNHL patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage of disease, and median survival from time of initial diagnosis for patients with the most common form of iNHL, follicular lymphoma, is 8 to 10 years. The outlook for refractory iNHL patients is significantly poorer.

About Gilead Sciences

Gilead Sciences is a biopharmaceutical company that discovers, develops and commercializes innovative therapeutics in areas of unmet medical need. The company’s mission is to advance the care of patients suffering from life-threatening diseases worldwide. Headquartered in Foster City, California, Gilead has operations in North and South America, Europe and Asia Pacific.

The delta form of PI3K is expressed primarily in blood-cell lineages, including cells that cause or mediate hematologic malignancies, inflammation, autoimmune diseases and allergies. By specifically inhibiting only PI3K delta, a therapeutic effect is exerted without inhibiting PI3K signalling that is critical to the normal function of healthy cells. Extensive studies have shown that inhibition of other PI3K forms can cause significant toxicities, particularly with respect to glucose metabolism, which is essential for normal cell activity.

In 2011, orphan drug designation was assigned to GS-1101 in the U.S. for the treatment of CLL. In 2013, several orphan drug designations were assigned to the compound in the E.U. and U.S.: for the treatment of follicular lymphoma, for the treatment of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALT), for the treatment of nodal marginal zone lymphoma, for the treatment of splenic marginal zone lymphoma, and for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma. Orphan drug designation was also assigned in the U.S. for the treatment of lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma with or without Walenstom’s macroglobulinemia and, in the E.U., for the treatment of Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia (lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma).

Later in 2013, some of these orphan drug designations were withdrawn in the E.U.; for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia / small lymphocytic lymphoma, for the treatment of extranodal marginal-zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma), for the treatment of of nodal marginal-zone lymphoma and for the treatment of splenic marginal-zone lymphoma. In 2013, the FDA granted a breakthrough therapy designation for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

  1.  H. Spreitzer (13 May 2013). “Neue Wirkstoffe – Ibrutinib und Idelalisib”. Österreichische Apothekerzeitung (in German) (10/2013): 34.
  2.  Wu, M.; Akinleye, A.; Zhu, X. (2013). “Novel agents for chronic lymphocytic leukemia”.Journal of Hematology & Oncology 6: 36. doi:10.1186/1756-8722-6-36.PMC 3659027PMID 23680477.

idelalisib

CAL-101 is an Oral Delta Isoform-Selective PI3 Kinase Inhibitor.

CAL-101 (GS 1101) is a potent PI3K p110δ inhibitor with an IC50 of 65 nM. PI3K-delta inhibitor CAL-101 inhibits the production of the second messenger phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3), preventing the activation of the PI3K signaling pathway and thus inhibiting tumor cell proliferation, motility, and survival. Unlike other isoforms of PI3K, PI3K-delta is expressed primarily in hematopoietic lineages. The targeted inhibition of PI3K-delta is designed to preserve PI3K signaling in normal, non-neoplastic cells. [3][4]
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……………………….
synthesis

The synthesis of a compound in accordance with formula I is first exemplified using steps A-E below, which provide a synthetic procedure for compound 107, the structure of which is shown below.

Figure imgf000150_0001

(107) is idelalisib

……………….

Synthesis of 2-fluoro-6-nitro-N-phenyl-benzamide (108)

Step A: A solution of 2-fluoro-6- nitrobenzoic acid (100 g, 0.54 mol) and dimethylformamide (5 mL) in dichloromethane (600 mL) was treated dropwise with oxalyl chloride (2 M in dichloromethane, 410 mL, 0.8 mol, 1.5 eq) over 30 min. After stirring 2 h at room temperature, the reaction was concentrated to an orange syrup with some solids present. The syrup was dissolved in dry dioxane (80 mL) and slowly added to a suspension of aniline (49 mL, 0.54 mol, 1 eq) and sodium bicarbonate (90 g, 1.08 mol, 2 eq) in a mixture of dioxane (250 mL) and water (250 mL) at 6 0C. The temperature reached 27°C at the end of the addition. After 30 min, the reaction mixture was treated with water (1.2 L). The precipitate was collected by vacuum filtration, washed with water (300 mL) , air dried in the funnel, and dried in vacuo at 50°C for 24 h to afford an off-white solid product (139 g, 99%). 1H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 10.82 (s, IH), 8.12 (d, J = 7.7 Hz, IH), 7.91-7.77 (m, 2H), 7.64 (d, J = 7.7 Hz, 2H), 7.38 (t, J = 7.9 Hz, 2H), 7.15 > (t, J = 7.4 Hz, IH), ESI-MS m/z 261 (MH+). The reaction described above and compound 108 are shown below.

Figure imgf000151_0001

………………………..

Synthesis of(S) – [1- (2-fluoro-6-nitro-benzoyl) -phenyl-aminocarbonyl] – propyl-carbamic acid tert-butyl ester (109)

Step B: A suspension of compound 108 (0.5 mol) and dimethylformamide (5 mL) in thionyl chloride (256 mL, 2.5 mol, 5 eq) was stirred at 85°C for 5 hours. The reaction mixture was concentrated in vacuo to a brown syrup. The syrup was dissolved in dichloromethane (200 mL) and was slowly added to a solution of N-BOC-L-2-aminobutyric acid (112 g, 0.55 mol, 1.1 eq) and triethylamine (77 mL, 0.55 mol, 1.1 eq) in dichloromethane (600 mL) at 10 0C. After stirring at room temperature for 3 h, salts were removed by filtration, and the solution was washed with 100 mL of water, saturated sodium bicarbonate, water, 5% citric acid, and saturated sodium chloride. The organic phase was dried with magnesium sulfate and concentrated to a red syrup. The syrup was dissolved in dichloromethane (450 mL) and purified by flash chromatography on a silica gel plug (15 x 22 cm, 4 L dry silica) eluted with hexanes/ethyl acetate (10%, 8 L; 15%, 8 L; 20%, 8 L; 25%, 4 L) to yield the compound 109 as an off-white solid (147 g, 66%). 1H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 8.13 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, IH), 7.84 (t, J = 8.6 Hz, IH), 7.78- 7.67 (m, IH), 7.65-7.49 (m, 3H), 7.40-7.28 ( m, 2H), 7.19 (d, J = 7.5 Hz, IH), 4.05 (broad s, IH), 1.75- 1.30 (m, 2H), 1.34 (s, 9H), 0.93 (broad s, 3H). ESI- MS m/z 446.3 (MH+) . The reaction described above and compound 109 are shown below.

Figure imgf000152_0001
…………………….

Synthesis of(S) – [1- (5-fluoro-4-oxo-3-phenyl-3 , 4-dihydro-quinazolin-2- yl) -propyl] -carbamic acid tert-butyl ester (110)

Step C: A solution of compound 109 (125 mmol, 1 eq) in acetic acid (500 mL) was treated with zinc dust (48.4 g, 740 mmol, 6 eq) added in 3 portions, and the reaction mixture was allowed to cool to below 35°C between additions. After stirring for 2 h at ambient temperature, solids were filtered off by vacuum filtration and washed with acetic acid (50 mL) . The filtrate was concentrated in vacuo, dissolved in EtOAc (400 mL) , washed with water (300 mL) , and the water layer was extracted with EtOAc (300 mL) . The combined organic layers were washed with water (200 mL) , sat’d sodium bicarbonate (2 x 200 mL) , sat’d NaCl (100 mL) , dried with MgSO4, and concentrated to a syrup. The syrup was dissolved in toluene (200 mL) and purified by flash chromatography on a silica gel plug (13 x 15 cm, 2 L dry silica) eluted with hexanes/ethyl acetate (10%, 4 L; 15%, 4 L; 17.5%, 8 L; 25%, 4 L) to yield compound 110 as an off-white foamy solid (33.6 g, 69%). 1H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 7.83 (td, J = 8.2, 5.7 Hz, IH), 7.64-7.48 (m, 5H), 7.39 (broad d, J = 7.6 Hz, IH), 7.30 (dd, J = 8.3 Hz, IH), 7.23 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, IH), 4.02-3.90 (m, IH), 1.76-1.66 (m, IH), 1.62-1.46 (m, IH), 1.33 (s, 9H), 0.63 (t, J= 7.3 Hz, 3H). ESI-MS m/z 398.3 (MH+). The reaction described above and compound 110 are shown below.

Figure imgf000153_0001

…………..

Syn of (S) -2- (1-amino-propyl) -5-fluoro-3-phenyl-3H-quinazolin-4- one (111)

Step D: A solution of compound 110 (85 mmol) in dichloromethane (60 mL) was treated with trifluoroacetic acid (60 mL) . The reaction mixture was stirred for 1 h, concentrated in vacuo, and partitioned between dichloromethane (150 mL) and 10% K2CO3 (sufficient amount to keep the pH greated than 10) . The aqueous layer was extracted with additional dichloromethane (100 raL) , and the combined organic layers were washed with water (50 mli) and brine (50 mL) . After drying with Mg SO4, the solution was concentrated to provide compound 111 as an off-white solid (22 g, 88%) . 1H NMR (300 MHz,

CDCl3) δ 7.73-7.65 (m, IH), 7.62-7.49 (m, 4H), 7.32- 7.22 (m, 2H), 7.13-7.06 (m, IH), 3.42 (dd, J= 7.5, 5.2 Hz, IH), 1.87-1.70 (m, IH), 1.58-1.43 (m, IH), 0.80 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 3H) . ESI-MS m/z 298.2 (MH+) . The reaction described above and compound 111 are shown below.

Figure imgf000154_0001

………………

syn of (S) -5-fluoro-3-phenyl-2- [1- (9H-purin-6-ylamino) -propyl] – 3H-quinazolin-4-one (107)

Step E: A suspension of compound 111(65.6 mmol, 1 eq) , 6-bromopurine (14.6 g, 73.4 mmol, 1.1 eq) , and DIEA (24.3 mL, 140 mmol, 2 eq) in tert- butanol (40 mL) was stirred for 24 h at 800C. The reaction mixture was concentrated in vacuo and treated with water to yield a solid crude product that was collected by vacuum filtration, washed with water, and air dried. Half of the obtained solid crude product was dissolved in MeOH (600 mL) , concentrated onto silica gel (300 mL dry) , and purified by flash chromatography (7.5 x 36 cm, eluted with 10 L of 4% MeOH/CH2Cl2) to yield a solid product. The solid product was then dissolved in EtOH (250 mL) and concentrated in vacuo to compound 107 idelalisib as a light yellow solid (7.2 g, 50%).

1H NMR (300 MHz, 80 0C, DMSO-d5) δ 12.66 (broad s, IH), 8.11 (s, IH), 8.02 (broad s, IH), 7.81-7.73 (m, IH),7.60-7.42 (m, 6H), 7.25-7.15 (m, 2H), 4.97 (broad s, IH), 2.02-1.73 (m, 2H), 0.79 (t, J= 7.3 Hz, 3H).

ESI-MS m/z 416.2 (MH+).

C, H, N elemental analysis (C22Hi8N7OF-EtOH- 0.4 H2O).

Chiral purity 99.8:0.2 (S:R) using chiral HPLC (4.6 x 250 mm Chiralpak ODH column, 20 °C, 85:15 hexanes : EtOH, 1 rnL/min, sample loaded at a concentration of 1 mg/mL in EtOH) . The reaction described above and compound 107 idelalisib are shown below.

Figure imgf000155_0001
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DAPAGLIFLOZIN…FDA approves AZ diabetes drug Farxiga


DAPAGLIFLOZIN, BMS-512148

The US Food and Drug Administration has finally approved AstraZeneca’s diabetes drug Farxiga but is insisting on six post-marketing studies, including a cardiovascular outcomes trial.

The approval was expected given that the agency’s Endocrinologic and Metabolic Drugs Advisory Committee voted 13-1 last month that the benefits of Farxiga (dapagliflozin), already marketed in Europe as Forxiga, outweigh identified risks. The FDA rejected the drug in January 2012 due to concerns about possible liver damage and the potential link with breast and bladder cancer.

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