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ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK LIFE SCIENCES LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 PLUS year tenure till date June 2021, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 90 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, 233 countries, 7 continents, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 33 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 233 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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Efgartigimod alfa-fcab


DKTHTCPPCP APELLGGPSV FLFPPKPKDT LYITREPEVT CVVVDVSHED PEVKFNWYVD
GVEVHNAKTK PREEQYNSTY RVVSVLTVLH QDWLNGKEYK CKVSNKALPA PIEKTISKAK
GQPREPQVYT LPPSRDELTK NQVSLTCLVK GFYPSDIAVE WESNGQPENN YKTTPPVLDS
DGSFFLYSKL TVDKSRWQQG NVFSCSVMHE ALKFHYTQKS LSLSPGK
(Disulfide bridge: 6-6′, 9-9′, 41-101, 147-205, 41′-101′, 147′-205′)

Efgartigimod alfa-fcab

FormulaC2310H3554N602O692S14
CAS1821402-21-4
Mol weight51279.464

US FDA APPROVED 12/17/2021, To treat generalized myasthenia gravis
Press ReleaseVyvgart BLA 761195

エフガルチギモドアルファ (遺伝子組換え)

PEPTIDE

Treatment of IgG-driven autoimmune diseases

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https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-approves-new-treatment-myasthenia-gravis

FDA Approves New Treatment for Myasthenia Gravis

Approval is the First of a New Class of Medication for this Rare, Chronic, Autoimmune, Neuromuscular DiseaseFor Immediate Release:December 17, 2021

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Vyvgart (efgartigimod) for the treatment of generalized myasthenia gravis (gMG) in adults who test positive for the anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibody.

Myasthenia gravis is a chronic autoimmune, neuromuscular disease that causes weakness in the skeletal muscles (also called voluntary muscles) that worsens after periods of activity and improves after periods of rest. Myasthenia gravis affects voluntary muscles, especially those that are responsible for controlling the eyes, face, mouth, throat, and limbs. In myasthenia gravis, the immune system produces AChR antibodies that interfere with communication between nerves and muscles, resulting in weakness. Severe attacks of weakness can cause breathing and swallowing problems that can be life-threatening.

“There are significant unmet medical needs for people living with myasthenia gravis, as with many other rare diseases,” said Billy Dunn, M.D., director of the Office of Neuroscience in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “Today’s approval is an important step in providing a novel therapy option for patients and underscores the agency’s commitment to help make new treatment options available for people living with rare diseases.”

Vyvgart is the first approval of a new class of medication. It is an antibody fragment that binds to the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), preventing FcRn from recycling immunoglobulin G (IgG) back into the blood. The medication causes a reduction in overall levels of IgG, including the abnormal AChR antibodies that are present in myasthenia gravis.

The safety and efficacy of Vyvgart were evaluated in a 26-week clinical study of 167 patients with myasthenia gravis who were randomized to receive either Vyvgart or placebo. The study showed that more patients with myasthenia gravis with antibodies responded to treatment during the first cycle of Vyvgart (68%) compared to those who received placebo (30%) on a measure that assesses the impact of myasthenia gravis on daily function. More patients receiving Vyvgart also demonstrated response on a measure of muscle weakness compared to placebo.

The most common side effects associated with the use of Vyvgart include respiratory tract infections, headache, and urinary tract infections. As Vyvgart causes a reduction in IgG levels, the risk of infections may increase. Hypersensitivity reactions such as eyelid swelling, shortness of breath, and rash have occurred. If a hypersensitivity reaction occurs, discontinue the infusion and institute appropriate therapy. Patients using Vyvgart should monitor for signs and symptoms of infections during treatment. Health care professionals should administer appropriate treatment and consider delaying administration of Vyvgart to patients with an active infection until the infection is resolved.

The FDA granted this application Fast Track and Orphan Drug designations. The FDA granted the approval of Vyvgart to argenx BV.

///////////efgartigimod alfa-fcab, Vyvgart, FDA 2021,APPROVALS 2021, myasthenia gravis, argenx BV, Fast Track,  Orphan Drug, PEPTIDE,

エフガルチギモドアルファ (遺伝子組換え)
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Pafolacianine


Pafolacianine skeletal.svg
ChemSpider 2D Image | OTL-38 | C61H67N9O17S4
2D chemical structure of 1628858-03-6
img

Pafolacianine

OTL-38

  • Molecular FormulaC61H67N9O17S4
  • Average mass1326.495 Da

FDA APPROVED NOV 2021

2-{(E)-2-[(3E)-2-(4-{2-[(4-{[(2-Amino-4-oxo-3,4-dihydro-6-pteridinyl)methyl]amino}benzoyl)amino]-2-carboxyethyl}phenoxy)-3-{(2E)-2-[3,3-dimethyl-5-sulfo-1-(4-sulfobutyl)-1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-ylidene ]ethylidene}-1-cyclohexen-1-yl]vinyl}-3,3-dimethyl-1-(4-sulfobutyl)-3H-indolium-5-sulfonate OTL-38Tyrosine, N-[4-[[(2-amino-3,4-dihydro-4-oxo-6-pteridinyl)methyl]amino]benzoyl]-O-[(6E)-6-[(2E)-2-[1,3-dihydro-3,3-dimethyl-5-sulfo-1-(4-sulfobutyl)-2H-indol-2-ylidene]ethylidene]-2-[(E)-2-[3,3-dimethy l-5-sulfo-1-(4-sulfobutyl)-3H-indolium-2-yl]ethenyl]-1-cyclohexen-1-yl]-, inner salt

 2-(2-(2-(4-((2S)-2-(4-(((2-amino-4-oxo-3,4-dihydropteridin-6-yl)methyl)amino)benzamido)-2-carboxyethyl)phenoxy)-3-(2-(3,3-dimethyl-5-sulfo-1-(4-sulfobutyl)-1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-ylidene)ethylidene)cyclohex-1-en-1-yl)ethenyl)-3,3-dimethyl-5-sulfo-1-(4-sulfobutyl)-3H-indolium inner salt,sodium salt (1:4)

  • 3H-Indolium, 2-(2-(2-(4-((2S)-2-((4-(((2-amino-3,4-dihydro-4-oxo-6-pteridinyl)methyl)amino)benzoyl)amino)-2-carboxyethyl)phenoxy)-3-(2-(1,3-dihydro-3,3-dimethyl-5-sulfo-1-(4-sulfobutyl)-2H-indol-2-ylidene)ethylidene)-1-cyclohexen-1-yl)ethenyl)-3,3-dimethyl-5-sulfo-1 (4-sulfobutyl)-, inner salt,sodium salt (1:4)

1628423-76-6 [RN]

Pafolacianine sodium.png

Pafolacianine sodium [USAN]
RN: 1628858-03-6
UNII: 4HUF3V875C

C61H68N9Na4O17S4+5

  • Intraoperative Imaging and Detection of Folate Receptor Positive Malignant Lesions

Pafolacianine, sold under the brand name Cytalux, is an optical imaging agent.[1][2]

The most common side effects of pafolacianine include infusion-related reactions, including nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, flushing, dyspepsia, chest discomfort, itching and hypersensitivity.[2]

It was approved for medical use in the United States in November 2021.[2][3]

Pafolacianine is a fluorescent drug that targets folate receptor (FR).[1]

Medical uses

Pafolacianine is indicated as an adjunct for intraoperative identification of malignant lesions in people with ovarian cancer.[1][2]

History

The safety and effectiveness of pafolacianine was evaluated in a randomized, multi-center, open-label study of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer or with high clinical suspicion of ovarian cancer who were scheduled to undergo surgery.[2] Of the 134 women (ages 33 to 81 years) who received a dose of pafolacianine and were evaluated under both normal and fluorescent light during surgery, 26.9% had at least one cancerous lesion detected that was not observed by standard visual or tactile inspection.[2]

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted the application for pafolacianine orphan drugpriority review, and fast track designations.[2][4] The FDA granted the approval of Cytalux to On Target Laboratories, LLC.[2]

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SYN

WO 2014149073

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2014149073

In another aspect of the invention, this disclosure provides a method of synthesizing a compound having the formula

[0029] In a fourth embodiment of the invention, this disclosure provides a method of synthesizing a compound having the formula

[0030] 

 [0032] wherein C is any carbon isotope. In this embodiment, the amino acid linker is selected from a group consisting of methyl 2-di-tert-butyl dicarbonate-amino-3-(4-phenyl)propanoate, 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-(di-tert-butyl-dicarbonate methylamino)propanoic acid, 2-amino-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)butanoic acid, and Tert-butyl (2-di-tert-butyl dicarbonate- amino)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propanoate . In a particular embodiment, the aqueous base is potassium hydroxide (KOH). The method of this embodiment may also further include purifying the compound by preparatory HPLC.

EXAMPLE 1 : General synthesis of Pte – L Tyrosine – S0456 (OTL-0038)

[0088] Scheme:

C33H37CIF3N

Reactants for Step I:

[0089] A 500 mL round bottom flask was charged with a stirring bar, pteroic acid

(12.0 g, 29.40 mmol, 1 equiv), (L)-Tyr(-OfBu)-OfBu- HCI (1 1 .63 g, 35.28 mmol, 1 .2

equiv) and HATU (13.45 g, 35.28 mmol, 1 .2 equiv) then DMF (147 mL) was added to give a brown suspension [suspension A]. DIPEA (20.48 mL, 1 17.62 mmol, 4.0 equiv) was added slowly to suspension A at 23 °C, over 5 minutes. The suspension turned in to a clear brown solution within 10 minutes of addition of DIPEA. The reaction was stirred at 23 °C for 2.5 h. Reaction was essentially complete in 30 minutes as judged by LC/MS but was stirred further for 2.5 h. The formation of Pte_N10(TFA)_L_Tyr(-OfBu)-OfBu HCI (Figure 12) was confirmed by LC/MS showing m/z 409→m/z 684. LC/MS method: 0-50% acetonitrile in 20 mM aqueous NH4OAc for 5 min using Aquity UPLC-BEH C18, 1 .7μιη 2.1 * 50 mm column . The reaction mixture was cannulated as a steady stream to a stirred solution of aq. HCI (2.0 L, 0.28 M) over the period of 30 minutes to give light yellow precipitate of Pte_N10(TFA)_L_Tyr(-OfBu)-OfBu HCI. The precipitated Pte_N 10(TFA)_L_Tyr(- OfBu)-OfBu HCI was filtered using sintered funnel under aspirator vacuum, washed with water (8 * 300 mL) until the pH of the filtrate is between 3 and 4. The wet solid was allowed to dry under high vacuum for 12 hours on the sintered funnel. In a separate batch, where this wet solid (3) was dried under vacuum for 48 hours and then this solid was stored at -20 0 C for 48 h. However, this brief storage led to partial decomposition of 3. The wet cake (58 g) was transferred to a 500 mL round bottom flask and was submitted to the next step without further drying or purification.

Reactants for Step II:

The wet solid (58 g) was assumed to contain 29.40 mmol of the desired compound (3) (i. e. quantitative yield for the step I ).

[0090] A 500 mL round bottom flask was charged with a stirring bar, Pte_N10(TFA)_L_Tyr(-OfBu)-OfBu HCI as a wet cake (58 g, 29.40 mmol, 1 equiv). A solution of TFA:TIPS:H20 (95:2.5:2.5, 200 mL) was added at once to give a light brown suspension. The reaction content was stirred at 23°C for 1 .5 hours and was monitored by LC/MS. The suspension became clear dull brown solution after stirring for 5 minutes. LC/MS method: 0-50% acetonitrile in 20 mM aqueous NH4OAc for 5 min using Aquity UPLC-BEH C18, 1 .7μιη 2.1 * 50 mm column. The formation of Pte_TFA_L_Tyr (Figure 12) was confirmed by showing m/z 684→m/z 572. Reaction time varies from 30 min to 1 .5 hours depending on the water content of Pte_N10(TFA)_L_Tyr(-OfBu)-OfBu HCI. The reaction mixture was cannulated as a steady stream to a stirred MTBE (1 .8 L) at 23 °C or 100 °C to give light yellow precipitate of Pte_TFA_L_Tyr. The precipitated Pte_TFA_L_Tyr was filtered using sintered funnel under aspirator vacuum, washed with MTBE (6 * 300 mL) and dried under high vacuum for 8 hours to obtain Pte_TFA_L_Tyr (14.98 g, 83.98% over two steps) as a pale yellow solid. The MTBE washing was tested for absence of residual TFA utilizing wet pH paper (pH between 3-4). The yield of the reaction was between 80-85% in different batches. The deacylated side product was detected in 3.6% as judged by LC/MS. For the different batches this impurity was never more than 5%.

Reactants for Step III:

[0091] A 200 mL round bottom flask was charged with a stirring bar and Pte_TFA_L_Tyr (13.85 g, 22.78 mmol, 1 equiv), then water (95 mL) was added to give a yellow suspension [suspension B]. A freshly prepared solution of aqueous 3.75 M NaOH (26.12 mL, 97.96 mmol, 4.30 equiv), or an equivalent base at a corresponding temperature using dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as a solvent (as shown in Table 1 ), was added dropwise to suspension B at 23 °C, giving a clear dull yellow solution over 15 minutes [solution B]. The equivalence of NaOH varied from 3.3 to 5.0 depending on the source of 4 (solid or liquid phase synthesis) and the residual TFA. Trianion 5 (Figure 12) formation was confirmed by LC/MS showing m/z 572→m/z 476 while the solution pH was 9-10 utilizing wet pH paper. The pH of the reaction mixture was in the range of 9-10. This pH is crucial for the overall reaction completion. Notably, pH more than 10 leads to hydrolysis of S0456. Excess base will efficiently drive reaction forward with potential hydrolysis of S0456. The presence of hydrolysis by product can be visibly detected by the persistent opaque purple/blue to red/brown color.

TABLE 1 : Separate TFA deprotection via trianion formation; S0456

[0092] The precipitated OTL-0038 product could also be crashed out by adding the reaction solution steady dropwise to acetone, acetonitrile, isopropanol or ethyl acetate/acetone mixture. Acetone yields optimal results. However, viscous reactions could be slower due to partial insolubility and/or crashing out of S0456. In this reaction, the equivalence of the aqueous base is significant. Excess base will efficiently drive reaction forward with potential hydrolysis of S0456. This solution phase synthesis provides Pte_N10(TFA)_Tyr-OH »HCI salt and desires approximately 4.1 to approximately 4.8 equiv base as a source to hydrolyze the product. Particularly, precipitation of Pte_Tyr_S0456 was best achieved when 1 mL of reaction mixture is added dropwise to the stirred acetone (20 mL). Filtration of the precipitate and washing with acetone (3 x10 mL) gave the highest purity as judged from LC/MS chromatogram.

[0093] During experimentation of this solution-phase synthesis of Pte – L Tyrosine -S0456 (OTL-0038) at different stages, some optimized conditions were observed:

Mode of addition: Separate TFA deprotection via trianion formation; S0456 @ 23 °C; reflux.

Stability data of Pte – L Tyrosine – S0456 (OTL-0038):

Liquid analysis: At 40 °C the liquid lost 8.6% at 270 nm and 1 % at 774 nm. At room temperature the liquid lost about 1 .4% at 270 nm and .5% at 774 nm. At 5 °C the

270 nm seems stable and the 774 nm reasonably stable with a small degradation purity.

Source Purity Linker S0456 Base Solvent Duration % Conversion

4.3-4.6

Solution 0.95

95% 1 equiv equiv H20 15 min 100% phase equiv

K2C03

PATENT

 US 20140271482

FDA approves pafolacianine for identifying malignant ovarian cancer lesions

https://www.fda.gov/drugs/resources-information-approved-drugs/fda-approves-pafolacianine-identifying-malignant-ovarian-cancer-lesions

On November 29, 2021, the Food and Drug Administration approved pafolacianine (Cytalux, On Target Laboratories, LLC), an optical imaging agent, for adult patients with ovarian cancer as an adjunct for interoperative identification of malignant lesions. Pafolacianine is a fluorescent drug that targets folate receptor which may be overexpressed in ovarian cancer. It is used with a Near-Infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging system cleared by the FDA for specific use with pafolacianine.

Efficacy was evaluated in a single arm, multicenter, open-label study (NCT03180307) of 178 women diagnosed with ovarian cancer or with high clinical suspicion of ovarian cancer scheduled to undergo primary surgical cytoreduction, interval debulking, or recurrent ovarian cancer surgery. All patients received pafolacianine. One hundred and thirty-four patients received fluorescence imaging evaluation in addition to standard of care evaluation which includes pre-surgical imaging, intraoperative palpation and normal light evaluation of lesions. Among these patients, 36 (26.9%) had at least one evaluable ovarian cancer lesion detected with pafolacianine that was not observed by standard visual or tactile inspection. The patient-level false positive rate of pafolacianine with NIR fluorescent light with respect to the detection of ovarian cancer lesions confirmed by central pathology was 20.2% (95% CI 13.7%, 28.0%).

The most common adverse reactions (≥1%) occurring in patients were nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, flushing, dyspepsia, chest discomfort, pruritus, and hypersensitivity.

The recommended pafolacianine dose is 0.025 mg/kg administered intravenously over 60 minutes, 1 to 9 hours before surgery. The use of folate, folic acid, or folate-containing supplements should be avoided within 48 hours before administration of pafolacianine.

View full prescribing information for Cytalux.

This application was granted priority review, fast track designation, and orphan drug designation. A description of FDA expedited programs is in the Guidance for Industry: Expedited Programs for Serious Conditions-Drugs and Biologics.

USFDA approves new drug to help identify cancer lesions

This drug is indicated for use in adult patients with ovarian cancer to help identify cancerous lesions during surgery.By The Health Master -December 2, 2021

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) has approved Cytalux (pafolacianine), an imaging drug intended to assist surgeons in identifying ovarian cancer lesions. The drug is designed to improve the ability to locate additional ovarian cancerous tissue that is normally difficult to detect during surgery.

Cytalux is indicated for use in adult patients with ovarian cancer to help identify cancerous lesions during surgery. The drug is a diagnostic agent that is administered in the form of an intravenous injection prior to surgery.

Alex Gorovets, M.D., deputy director of the Office of Specialty Medicine in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research said, “The FDA’s approval of Cytalux can help enhance the ability of surgeons to identify deadly ovarian tumors that may otherwise go undetected.

By supplementing current methods of detecting ovarian cancer during surgery, Cytalux offers health care professionals an additional imaging approach for patients with ovarian cancer.”

The American Cancer Society estimates there will be more than 21,000 new cases of ovarian cancer and more than 13,000 deaths from this disease in 2021, making it the deadliest of all female reproductive system cancers.

Conventional treatment for ovarian cancer includes surgery to remove as many of the tumors as possible, chemotherapy to stop the growth of malignant cells or other targeted therapy to identify and attack specific cancer cells.

Ovarian cancer often causes the body to overproduce a specific protein in cell membranes called a folate receptor. Following administration via injection, Cytalux binds to these proteins and illuminates under fluorescent light, boosting surgeons’ ability to identify the cancerous tissue.

Currently, surgeons rely on preoperative imaging, visual inspection of tumors under normal light or examination by touch to identify cancer lesions. Cytalux is used with a Near-Infrared fluorescence imaging system cleared by the FDA for specific use with pafolacianine.

The safety and effectiveness of Cytalux was evaluated in a randomized, multi-center, open-label study of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer or with high clinical suspicion of ovarian cancer who were scheduled to undergo surgery.

Of the 134 women (ages 33 to 81 years) who received a dose of Cytalux and were evaluated under both normal and fluorescent light during surgery, 26.9% had at least one cancerous lesion detected that was not observed by standard visual or tactile inspection.

The most common side effects of Cytalux were infusion-related reactions, including nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, flushing, dyspepsia, chest discomfort, itching and hypersensitivity. Cytalux may cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman.

The use of folate, folic acid, or folate-containing supplements should be avoided within 48 hours before administration of Cytalux. There is a risk of image interpretation errors with the use of Cytalux to detect ovarian cancer during surgery, including false negatives and false positives.

References

  1. Jump up to:a b c d https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2020/214907s000lbl.pdf
  2. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i “FDA Approves New Imaging Drug to Help Identify Ovarian Cancer Lesions”U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Press release). 29 November 2021. Retrieved 30 November 2021. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  3. ^ “On Target Laboratories Announces FDA Approval of Cytalux (pafolacianine) injection for Identification of Ovarian Cancer During Surgery”. On Target Laboratories. 29 November 2021. Retrieved 30 November 2021 – via PR Newswire.
  4. ^ “Pafolacianine Orphan Drug Designations and Approvals”U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 23 December 2014. Retrieved 30 November 2021.
Clinical data
Trade namesCytalux
Other namesOTL-0038
License dataUS DailyMedPafolacianine
Pregnancy
category
Not recommended
Routes of
administration
Intravenous
ATC codeNone
Legal status
Legal statusUS: ℞-only [1][2]
Identifiers
showIUPAC name
CAS Number1628423-76-6
PubChem CID135565623
DrugBankDB15413
ChemSpider64880249
UNIIF7BD3Z4X8L
ChEMBLChEMBL4297412
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC61H67N9O17S4
Molar mass1326.49 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)Interactive image
showSMILES
showInChI

////////////Pafolacianine, FDA 2021, APPROVALS 2021,  Cytalux, OVARIAN CANCER, OTL 38, 

[Na+].[Na+].[Na+].[Na+].CC1(C)\C(=C/C=C/2\CCCC(=C2Oc3ccc(C[C@H](NC(=O)c4ccc(NCc5cnc6N=C(N)NC(=O)c6n5)cc4)C(=O)O)cc3)\C=C\C7=[N](CCCCS(=O)(=O)O)c8ccc(cc8C7(C)C)S(=O)(=O)O)\N(CCCCS(=O)(=O)O)c9ccc(cc19)S(=O)(=O)O

NEW DRUG APPROVALS

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Avalglucosidase alfa


QQGASRPGPR DAQAHPGRPR AVPTQCDVPP NSRFDCAPDK AITQEQCEAR GCCYIPAKQG
LQGAQMGQPW CFFPPSYPSY KLENLSSSEM GYTATLTRTT PTFFPKDILT LRLDVMMETE
NRLHFTIKDP ANRRYEVPLE TPRVHSRAPS PLYSVEFSEE PFGVIVHRQL DGRVLLNTTV
APLFFADQFL QLSTSLPSQY ITGLAEHLSP LMLSTSWTRI TLWNRDLAPT PGANLYGSHP
FYLALEDGGS AHGVFLLNSN AMDVVLQPSP ALSWRSTGGI LDVYIFLGPE PKSVVQQYLD
VVGYPFMPPY WGLGFHLCRW GYSSTAITRQ VVENMTRAHF PLDVQWNDLD YMDSRRDFTF
NKDGFRDFPA MVQELHQGGR RYMMIVDPAI SSSGPAGSYR PYDEGLRRGV FITNETGQPL
IGKVWPGSTA FPDFTNPTAL AWWEDMVAEF HDQVPFDGMW IDMNEPSNFI RGSEDGCPNN
ELENPPYVPG VVGGTLQAAT ICASSHQFLS THYNLHNLYG LTEAIASHRA LVKARGTRPF
VISRSTFAGH GRYAGHWTGD VWSSWEQLAS SVPEILQFNL LGVPLVGADV CGFLGNTSEE
LCVRWTQLGA FYPFMRNHNS LLSLPQEPYS FSEPAQQAMR KALTLRYALL PHLYTLFHQA
HVAGETVARP LFLEFPKDSS TWTVDHQLLW GEALLITPVL QAGKAEVTGY FPLGTWYDLQ
TVPIEALGSL PPPPAAPREP AIHSEGQWVT LPAPLDTINV HLRAGYIIPL QGPGLTTTES
RQQPMALAVA LTKGGEARGE LFWDDGESLE VLERGAYTQV IFLARNNTIV NELVRVTSEG
AGLQLQKVTV LGVATAPQQV LSNGVPVSNF TYSPDTKVLD ICVSLLMGEQ FLVSWC
(Disulfide bridge:26-53, 36-52, 47-71, 477-502, 591-602, 882-896)

Avalglucosidase alfa

アバルグルコシダーゼアルファ (遺伝子組換え)

Avalglucosidase alfa (USAN/INN);
Avalglucosidase alfa (genetical recombination) (JAN);
Avalglucosidase alfa-ngpt

To treat late-onset Pompe disease

FormulaC4490H6818N1197O1299S32
CAS1802558-87-7
Mol weight99375.4984

FDA APPROVED Nexviazyme, 2021/8/6, Enzyme replacement therapy product
Treatment of Pompe disease

Biologic License Application (BLA): 761194
Company: GENZYME CORP

https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-approves-new-treatment-pompe-diseaseFor Immediate Release:August 06, 2021

Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Nexviazyme (avalglucosidase alfa-ngpt) for intravenous infusion to treat patients 1 year of age and older with late-onset Pompe disease.

Patients with Pompe disease have an enzyme deficiency that leads to the accumulation of a complex sugar, called glycogen, in skeletal and heart muscles, which cause muscle weakness and premature death from respiratory or heart failure. Normally, glycogen—the stored form of glucose—breaks down to release glucose into the bloodstream to be used as fuel for the cells.

“Pompe disease is a rare genetic disease that causes premature death and has a debilitating effect on people’s lives,” said Janet Maynard, M.D., deputy director of the Office of Rare Diseases, Pediatrics, Urologic and Reproductive Medicine in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “Today’s approval brings patients with Pompe disease another enzyme replacement therapy option for this rare disease. The FDA will continue to work with stakeholders to advance the development of additional new, effective and safe therapies for rare diseases, including Pompe disease.”

Nexviazyme, an enzyme replacement therapy, is an intravenous medication that helps reduce glycogen accumulation. The effectiveness of Nexviazyme for the treatment of Pompe disease was demonstrated in a study of 100 patients who were randomized to take Nexviazyme or another FDA-approved enzyme replacement therapy for Pompe disease. Treatment with Nexviazyme improved lung function similar to the improvement seen with the other therapy.

The most common side effects included headache, fatigue, diarrhea, nausea, joint pain (arthralgia), dizziness, muscle pain (myalgia), itching (pruritus), vomiting, difficulty breathing (dyspnea), skin redness (erythema), feeling of “pins and needles” (paresthesia) and skin welts (urticaria). Serious reactions included hypersensitivity reactions like anaphylaxis and infusion-associated reactions, including respiratory distress, chills and raised body temperature (pyrexia). Patients susceptible to fluid volume overload or with compromised cardiac or respiratory function may be at risk for serious acute cardiorespiratory failure.

The FDA granted this application Fast TrackPriority Review and Breakthrough Therapy designations. Nexviazyme also received an orphan drug designation, which provides incentives to assist and encourage the development of drugs for rare diseases. The FDA granted the approval of Nexviazyme to Genzyme Corporation.

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NEW DRUG APPROVALS

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$10.00

FDA grants priority review for avalglucosidase alfa, a potential new therapy for Pompe disease

  • The FDA decision date for avalglucosidase alfa, an investigational enzyme replacement therapy, is set for May 18, 2021
  • Regulatory submission based on positive data from two trials in patients with late-onset and infantile-onset Pompe disease, respectively
  • Avalglucosidase alfa received FDA Breakthrough Therapy and Fast Track designations for the treatment of people with Pompe Disease
  • Pompe disease, a rare degenerative muscle disorder, affects approximately 3,500 people in the U.S.
  • Milestone reinforces 20+year commitment to Pompe disease community


PARIS – November 18, 2020 – The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has accepted for priority review the Biologics License Application (BLA) for avalglucosidase alfa for long-term enzyme replacement therapy for the treatment of patients with Pompe disease (acid α-glucosidase deficiency). The target action date for the FDA decision is May 18, 2021.

Avalglucosidase alfa is an investigational enzyme replacement therapy designed to improve the delivery of acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA) enzyme to muscle cells, and if approved, would offer a potential new standard of care for patients with Pompe disease.

In October, the European Medicines Agency accepted for review the Marketing Authorization Application for avalglucosidase alfa for long-term enzyme replacement therapy for the treatment of patients with Pompe disease. The Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency in the UK has granted Promising Innovative Medicine designation for avalglucosidase alfa.

“The hallmarks of Pompe disease are the relentless and debilitating deterioration of the muscles, which causes decreased respiratory function and mobility,” said Karin Knobe, Head of Development for Rare Diseases and Rare Blood Disorders at Sanofi. “Avalglucosidase alfa is specifically designed to deliver more GAA enzyme into the lysosomes of the muscle cells.  We have been greatly encouraged by positive clinical trial results in patients with late-onset and infantile-onset Pompe disease.”

Pompe disease is a rare, degenerative muscle disorder that can impact an individual’s ability to move and breathe. It affects an estimated 3,500 people in the U.S. and can manifest at any age from infancy to late adulthood.i

The BLA is based on positive data from two trials:

  • Pivotal Phase 3, double-blind, global comparator-controlled trial (COMET), which evaluated the safety and efficacy of avalglucosidase alfa compared to alglucosidase alfa (standard of care) in patients with late-onset Pompe disease. Results from this trial were presented during a Sanofi-hosted virtual scientific session in June 2020 and in October 2020 at World Muscle Society and the American Association of Neuromuscular and Electrodiagnostic Medicine.
  • The Phase 2 (mini-COMET) trial evaluated the safety and exploratory efficacy of avalglucosidase alfa in patients with infantile-onset Pompe disease previously treated with alglucosidase alfa. Results from this trial were presented at the WORLDSymposium, in February 2020.

Delivery of GAA to Clear Glycogen

Pompe disease is caused by a genetic deficiency or dysfunction of the lysosomal enzyme GAA, which results in build-up of complex sugars (glycogen) in muscle cells throughout the body. The accumulation of glycogen leads to irreversible damage to the muscles, including respiratory muscles and the diaphragm muscle supporting lung function, and other skeletal muscles that affect mobility.

To reduce the glycogen accumulation caused by Pompe disease, the GAA enzyme must be delivered into the lysosomes within muscle cells. Research led by Sanofi has focused on ways to enhance the delivery of GAA into the lysosomes of muscle cells by targeting the mannose-6-phosphate (M6P) receptor that plays a key role in the transport of GAA.

Avalglucosidase alfa is designed with approximately 15-fold increase in M6P content, compared to standard of care alglucosidase alfa, and aims to help improve cellular enzyme uptake and enhance glycogen clearance in target tissues.ii The clinical relevance of this difference has not been confirmed.

Avalglucosidase alfa is currently under clinical investigation and its safety and efficacy have not been evaluated by any regulatory authority worldwide.

 

About Sanofi

 

Sanofi is dedicated to supporting people through their health challenges. We are a global biopharmaceutical company focused on human health. We prevent illness with vaccines, provide innovative treatments to fight pain and ease suffering. We stand by the few who suffer from rare diseases and the millions with long-term chronic conditions.

 

With more than 100,000 people in 100 countries, Sanofi is transforming scientific innovation into healthcare solutions around the globe.

 

Sanofi, Empowering Life

/////////Avalglucosidase alfa, FDA 2021,  Nexviazyme, APPROVALS 2021, PEPTIDE, Enzyme replacement therapy ,  Pompe disease, アバルグルコシダーゼアルファ (遺伝子組換え), Fast TrackPriority Review,  Breakthrough Therapy,  orphan drug designation, genzyme, sanofi

Asparaginase erwinia chrysanthemi (recombinant)-rywn


Rylaze

Sequence:

1ADKLPNIVIL ATGGTIAGSA ATGTQTTGYK AGALGVDTLI NAVPEVKKLA51NVKGEQFSNM ASENMTGDVV LKLSQRVNEL LARDDVDGVV ITHGTDTVEE101SAYFLHLTVK SDKPVVFVAA MRPATAISAD GPMNLLEAVR VAGDKQSRGR151GVMVVLNDRI GSARYITKTN ASTLDTFKAN EEGYLGVIIG NRIYYQNRID201KLHTTRSVFD VRGLTSLPKV DILYGYQDDP EYLYDAAIQH GVKGIVYAGM251GAGSVSVRGI AGMRKAMEKG VVVIRSTRTG NGIVPPDEEL PGLVSDSLNP301AHARILLMLA LTRTSDPKVI QEYFHTY

>Protein sequence for asparaginase (Erwinia chrysanthemi) monomer
ADKLPNIVILATGGTIAGSAATGTQTTGYKAGALGVDTLINAVPEVKKLANVKGEQFSNM
ASENMTGDVVLKLSQRVNELLARDDVDGVVITHGTDTVEESAYFLHLTVKSDKPVVFVAA
MRPATAISADGPMNLLEAVRVAGDKQSRGRGVMVVLNDRIGSARYITKTNASTLDTFKAN
EEGYLGVIIGNRIYYQNRIDKLHTTRSVFDVRGLTSLPKVDILYGYQDDPEYLYDAAIQH
GVKGIVYAGMGAGSVSVRGIAGMRKAMEKGVVVIRSTRTGNGIVPPDEELPGLVSDSLNP
AHARILLMLALTRTSDPKVIQEYFHTY
References:
  1. Therapeutic Targets Database: TTD Biologic drug sequences in fasta format [Link]

Asparaginase erwinia chrysanthemi (recombinant)-rywn

JZP458-201

JZP458

CAS Registry Number 1349719-22-7

Protein Chemical FormulaC1546H2510N432O476S9

Protein Average Weight 140000.0 Da

Rylaze, FDA APPROVED 6/30/2021, BLA 761179

L-Asparaginase (ec 3.5.1.1, L-asparagine amidohydrolase) erwinia chrysanthemi tetramer alpha4Asparaginase (Dickeya chrysanthemi subunit) 

Other Names

  • Asparaginase Erwinia chrysanthemi
  • Crisantaspase
  • Cristantaspase
  • Erwinase
  • Erwinaze
  • L-Asparagine amidohydrolase (Erwinia chrysanthemi subunit)

D733ET3F9O

1349719-22-7

Asparaginase erwinia chrysanthemi [USAN]

UNII-D733ET3F9O

L-Asparaginase (erwinia)

Erwinia asparaginase

L-Asparaginase, erwinia chrysanthemi

Asparaginase (erwinia chrysanthemi)

Erwinase

Asparaginase erwinia chrysanthemi

Erwinaze

Crisantaspase

Crisantaspase [INN]

L-Asparaginase (ec 3.5.1.1, L-asparagine amidohydrolase) erwinia chrysanthemi tetramer alpha4

Asparaginase erwinia sp. [MI]

Asparaginase erwinia chrysanthemi (recombinant) [USAN]

Asparaginase erwinia chrysanthemi (recombinant)

JZP-458

A hydrolase enzyme that converts L-asparagine and water to L-aspartate and NH3.

NCI: Asparaginase Erwinia chrysanthemi. An enzyme isolated from the bacterium Erwinia chrysanthemi (E. carotovora). Asparagine is critical to protein synthesis in leukemic cells, which cannot synthesize this amino acid due to the absence of the enzyme asparagine synthase. Asparaginase hydrolyzes L-asparagine to L-aspartic acid and ammonia, thereby depleting leukemic cells of asparagine and blocking protein synthesis and tumor cell proliferation, especially in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. This agent also induces apoptosis in tumor cells. The Erwinia-derived product is often used for those patients who have experienced a hypersensitivity reaction to the E. Coli formulation. (NCI Thesaurus)

  • Treatment of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)
  • Antineoplastic Agents
10MG/0.5MLINJECTABLE;INTRAMUSCULAR

Label (PDF)
Letter (PDF)

Label (PDF)

PATENT

WO 2011003633

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2011003633A1/en

The present invention concerns a conjugate of a protein having substantial L-asparagine aminohydrolase activity and polyethylene glycol, particularly wherein the polyethylene glycol has a molecular weight less than or equal to about 5000 Da, particularly a conjugate wherein the protein is a L-asparaginase from Erwinia, and its use in therapy.Proteins with L-asparagine aminohydrolase activity, commonly known as L- asparaginases, have successfully been used for the treatment of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia(ALL) in children for many years. ALL is the most common childhood malignancy (Avramis and Panosyan, Clin. Pharmacokinet. (2005) 44:367-393).[0003] L-asparaginase has also been used to treat Hodgkin’s disease, acute myelocytic leukemia, acute myelomonocytic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, lymphosarcoma, reticulosarcoma, and melanosarcoma (Kotzia and Labrou, J. Biotechnol. 127 (2007) 657-669).The anti-tumor activity of L-asparaginase is believed to be due to the inability or reduced ability of certain malignant cells to synthesize L-asparagine (Kotzia and Labrou, J. Biotechnol. 127 (2007) 657-669). These malignant cells rely on an extracellular supply of L-asparagine. However, the L-asparaginase enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of L-asparagine to aspartic acid and ammonia, thereby depleting circulating pools of L-asparagine and killing tumor cells which cannot perform protein synthesis without L-asparagine (Kotzia and Labrou, J. Biotechnol. 127 (2007) 657-669).[0004] L-asparaginase from E. coli was the first enzyme drug used in ALL therapy and has been marketed as Elspar® in the USA or as Kidrolase® and L-asparaginase Medac® in Europe. L- asparaginases have also been isolated from other microorganisms, e.g., an L-asparaginase protein from Erwinia chrysanthemi, named crisantaspase, that has been marketed as Erwinase® (Wriston Jr., J.C. (1985) “L-asparaginase” Meth. Enzymol. 113, 608-618; Goward, CR. et al. (1992) “Rapid large scale preparation of recombinant Erwinia chrysanthemi L-asparaginase”, Bioseparation 2, 335-341). L-asparaginases from other species of Erwinia have also been identified, including, for example, Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 (Genbank Accession#AAS67028), Erwinia chrysanthemi NCPPB 1125 (Genbank Accession #CAA31239), Erwinia carotovora (Genbank Accession #AAP92666), and Erwinia carotovora subsp. Astroseptica (Genbank Accession #AAS67027). These Erwinia chrysanthemi L-asparaginases have about 91-98% amino acid sequence identity with each other, while the Erwinia carotovora L- asparaginases have approximately 75-77% amino acid sequence identity with the Erwinia chrysanthemi L-asparaginases (Kotzia and Labrou, J. Biotechnol. 127 (2007) 657-669).[0005] L-asparaginases of bacterial origin have a high immunogenic and antigenic potential and frequently provoke adverse reactions ranging from mild allergic reaction to anaphylactic shock in sensitized patients (Wang, B. et al. (2003) “Evaluation of immunologic cross reaction of anti- asparaginase antibodies in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL and lymphoma patients),Leukemia 17, 1583-1588). E. coli L-asparaginase is particularly immunogenic, with reports of the presence of anti-asparaginase antibodies to E. coli L-asparaginase following i.v. or i.m. administration reaching as high as 78% in adults and 70% in children (Wang, B. et al. (2003) Leukemia 17, 1583-1588).[0006] L-asparaginases from Escherichia coli and Erwinia chrysanthemi differ in their pharmacokinetic properties and have distinct immunogenic profiles, respectively (Klug Albertsen, B. et al. (2001) “Comparison of intramuscular therapy with Erwinia asparaginase and asparaginase Medac: pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, formation of antibodies and influence on the coagulation system” Brit. J. Haematol. 115, 983-990). Furthermore, it has been shown that antibodies that developed after a treatment with L-asparaginase from E. coli do not cross react with L-Asparaginase from Erwinia (Wang, B. et al., Leukemia 17 (2003) 1583-1588). Thus, L-asparaginase from Erwinia (crisantaspase) has been used as a second line treatment of ALL in patients that react to E. coli L-asparaginase (Duval, M. et al. (2002) “Comparison of Escherichia co/z-asparaginase with £Vwzmα-asparaginase in the treatment of childhood lymphoid malignancies: results of a randomized European Organisation for Research and Treatment ofCancer, Children’s Leukemia Group phase 3 trial” Blood 15, 2734-2739; Avramis and Panosyan,Clin. Pharmacokinet. (2005) 44:367-393).[0007] In another attempt to reduce immunogenicity associated with administration of microbial L-asparaginases, an E. coli L-asparaginase has been developed that is modified with methoxy- polyethyleneglycol (mPEG). This method is commonly known as “PEGylation” and has been shown to alter the immunological properties of proteins (Abuchowski, A. et al. (1977) “Alteration of Immunological Properties of Bovine Serum Albumin by Covalent Attachment of Polyethylene Glycol,” J.Biol.Chem. 252 (11), 3578-3581). This so-called mPEG-L- asparaginase, or pegaspargase, marketed as Oncaspar® (Enzon Inc., USA), was first approved in the U.S. for second line treatment of ALL in 1994, and has been approved for first- line therapy of ALL in children and adults since 2006. Oncaspar® has a prolonged in vivo half-life and a reduced immunogenicity/antigenicity.[0008] Oncaspar® is E. coli L-asparaginase that has been modified at multiple lysine residues using 5 kDa mPEG-succinimidyl succinate (SS-PEG) (U.S. Patent No. 4,179,337). SS-PEG is aPEG reagent of the first generation that contains an instable ester linkage that is sensitive to hydro lysis by enzymes or at slightly alkaline pH values (U.S. Patent No. 4,670,417; Makromol. Chem. 1986, 187, 1131-1144). These properties decrease both in vitro and in vivo stability and can impair drug safety.[0009] Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that antibodies developed against L-asparaginase from E. coli will cross react with Oncaspar® (Wang, B. et al. (2003) “Evaluation of immunologic cross-reaction of anti-asparaginase antibodies in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL and lymphoma patients),” Leukemia 17, 1583-1588). Even though these antibodies were not neutralizing, this finding clearly demonstrated the high potential for cross-hypersensitivity or cross-inactivation in vivo. Indeed, in one report 30-41% of children who received pegaspargase had an allergic reaction (Wang, B. et al. (2003) Leukemia 17, 1583-1588).[0010] In addition to outward allergic reactions, the problem of “silent hypersensitivity” was recently reported, whereby patients develop anti-asparaginase antibodies without showing any clinical evidence of a hypersensitivity reaction (Wang, B. et al. (2003) Leukemia 17, 1583-1588). This reaction can result in the formation of neutralizing antibodies to E. coli L-asparaginase and pegaspargase; however, these patients are not switched to Erwinia L-asparaginase because there are not outward signs of hypersensitivity, and therefore they receive a shorter duration of effective treatment (Holcenberg, J., J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol. 26 (2004) 273-274).[0011] Erwinia chrysanthemi L-asparaginase treatment is often used in the event of hypersensitivity to E. co/z-derived L-asparaginases. However, it has been observed that as many as 30-50% of patients receiving Erwinia L-asparaginase are antibody-positive (Avramis andPanosyan, Clin. Pharmacokinet. (2005) 44:367-393). Moreover, because Erwinia chrysanthemi L-asparaginase has a significantly shorter elimination half-life than the E. coli L-asparaginases, it must be administered more frequently (Avramis and Panosyan, Clin. Pharmacokinet. (2005) 44:367-393). In a study by Avramis et al., Erwinia asparaginase was associated with inferior pharmacokinetic profiles (Avramis et al., J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol. 29 (2007) 239-247). E. coli L-asparaginase and pegaspargase therefore have been the preferred first-line therapies for ALL over Erwinia L-asparaginase.[0012] Numerous biopharmaceuticals have successfully been PEGylated and marketed for many years. In order to couple PEG to a protein, the PEG has to be activated at its OH terminus. The activation group is chosen based on the available reactive group on the protein that will bePEGylated. In the case of proteins, the most important amino acids are lysine, cysteine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, C-terminal carboxylic acid and the N-terminal amino group. In view of the wide range of reactive groups in a protein nearly the entire peptide chemistry has been applied to activate the PEG moiety. Examples for this activated PEG-reagents are activated carbonates, e.g., p-nitrophenyl carbonate, succinimidyl carbonate; active esters, e.g., succinimidyl ester; and for site specific coupling aldehydes and maleimides have been developed (Harris, M., Adv. Drug – A -DeI. Rev. 54 (2002), 459-476). The availability of various chemical methods for PEG modification shows that each new development of a PEGylated protein will be a case by case study. In addition to the chemistry the molecular weight of the PEG that is attached to the protein has a strong impact on the pharmaceutical properties of the PEGylated protein. In most cases it is expected that, the higher the molecular weight of the PEG, the better the improvement of the pharmaceutical properties (Sherman, M. R., Adv. Drug Del. Rev. 60 (2008), 59-68; Holtsberg, F. W., Journal of Controlled Release 80 (2002), 259-271). For example, Holtsberg et al. found that, when PEG was conjugated to arginine deaminase, another amino acid degrading enzyme isolated from a microbial source, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic function of the enzyme increased as the size of the PEG attachment increased from a molecular weight of 5000Da to 20,000 Da (Holtsberg, F.W., Journal of Controlled Release 80 (2002), 259-271).[0013] However, in many cases, PEGylated biopharmaceuticals show significantly reduced activity compared to the unmodified biopharmaceutical (Fishburn, CS. (2008) Review “The Pharmacology of PEGylation: Balancing PD with PK to Generate Novel Therapeutics” J. Pharm. Sd., 1-17). In the case of L-asparaginase from Erwinia carotovora, it has been observed that PEGylation reduced its in vitro activity to approximately 57% (Kuchumova, A.V. et al. (2007) “Modification of Recombinant asparaginase from Erwinia carotovora with Polyethylene Glycol 5000” Biochemistry (Moscow) Supplement Series B: Biomedical Chemistry, 1, 230-232). The L-asparaginase from Erwinia carotovora has only about 75% homology to the Erwinia chrysanthemi L-asparaginase (crisantaspase). For Oncaspar® it is also known that its in vitro activity is approximately 50% compared to the unmodified E. coli L-asparaginase.[0014] The currently available L-asparaginase preparations do not provide alternative or complementary therapies— particularly therapies to treat ALL— that are characterized by high catalytic activity and significantly improved pharmacological and pharmacokinetic properties, as well as reduced immunogenicity. L-asparaginase protein has at least about 80% homology or identity with the protein comprising the sequence of SEQ ID NO:1, more specifically at least about 85%, 86%, 87%, 88%, 89%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99%, or 100% homology or identity with the protein comprising the sequence of SEQ ID NO:1. SEQ ID NO:1 is as follows:ADKLPNIVILATGGTIAGSAATGTQTTGYKAGALGVDTLINAVPEVKKLANVKGE QFSNMASENMTGDVVLKLSQRVNELLARDDVDGVVITHGTDTVEESAYFLHLTV KSDKPVVFVAAMRPATAISADGPMNLLEAVRVAGDKQSRGRGVMVVLNDRIGSA RYITKTNASTLDTFKANEEGYLGVIIGNRIYYQNRIDKLHTTRSVFDVRGLTSLPKV DILYGYQDDPEYLYDAAIQHGVKGIVYAGMGAGSVSVRGIAGMRKAMEKGVVVIRSTRTGNGIVPPDEELPGLVSDSLNPAHARILLMLALTRTSDPKVIQEYFHTY (SEQ ID NO:1) [0048] The term “comprising the sequence of SEQ ID NO:1” means that the amino-acid sequence of the protein may not be strictly limited to SEQ ID NO:1 but may contain additional amino-acids.ExamplesExample 1 : Preparation of Recombinant Crisantaspase [0100] The recombinant bacterial strain used to manufacture the naked recombinant Erwinia chrysanthemi L-asparaginase protein (also referred to herein as “r-crisantaspase”) was an E. coli BL21 strain with a deleted ansB gene (the gene encoding the endogenous E. coli type II L- asparaginase) to avoid potential contamination of the recombinant Erwinia chrysanthemi L- asparaginase with this enzyme. The deletion of the ansB gene relies on homologous recombination methods and phage transduction performed according to the three following steps:1) a bacterial strain (NMI lOO) expressing a defective lambda phage which supplies functions that protect and recombine electroporated linear DNA substrate in the bacterial cell was transformed with a linear plasmid (kanamycin cassette) containing the kanamycin gene flanked by an FLP recognition target sequence (FRT). Recombination occurs to replace the ansB gene by the kanamycin cassette in the bacterial genome, resulting in a ΛansB strain; 2) phage transduction was used to integrate the integrated kanamycin cassette region from the ΛansB NMI lOO strain to the ansB locus in BL21 strain. This results in an E. coli BL21 strain with a deleted ansB gene and resistant to kanamycin; 3) this strain was transformed with a FLP -helper plasmid to remove the kanamycin gene by homologous recombination at the FRT sequence. The genome of the final strain (BL21 ΛansB strain) was sequenced, confirming full deletion of the endogenous ansB gene.[0101] The E. co/z-optimized DNA sequence encoding for the mature Erwinia chrysanthemi L- asparaginase fused with the ENX signal peptide from Bacillus subtilis was inserted into an expression vector. This vector allows expression of recombinant Erwinia chrysanthemi L- asparaginase under the control of hybrid T5/lac promoter induced by the addition of Isopropyl β- D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) and confers resistance to kanamycin.[0102] BL21 ΛansB strain was transformed with this expression vector. The transformed cells were used for production of the r-crisantaspase by feed batch glucose fermentation in Reisenberg medium. The induction of the cell was done 16h at 23°C with IPTG as inducer. After cell harvest and lysis by homogenization in 1OmM sodium phosphate buffer pH6 5mM EDTA (Buffer A), the protein solution was clarified by centrifugation twice at 1500Og, followed by 0.45μm and 0.22μm filtration steps. The recombinant Erwinia chrysanthemi L-asparaginase was next purified using a sequence of chromatography and concentration steps. Briefly, the theoretical isoelectric point of the Erwinia chrysanthemi L-asparaginase (7.23) permits the recombinant enzyme to adsorb to cation exchange resins at pH6. Thus, the recombinant enzyme was captured on a Capto S column (cation exchange chromatography) and eluted with salt gradient in Buffer A. Fractions containing the recombinant enzyme were pooled. The pooled solution was next purified on Capto MMC column (cation exchange chromatography) in Buffer A with salt gradient. . The eluted fractions containing Erwinia chrysanthemi L-asparaginase were pooled and concentrated before protein separation on Superdex 200pg size exclusion chromatography as polishing step. Fractions containing recombinant enzymes were pooled, concentrated, and diafiltered against 10OmM sodium phosphate buffer pH8. The purity of the final Erwinia chrysanthemi L-asparaginase preparation was evaluated by SDS-PAGE (Figure 1) and RP-HPLC and was at least 90%. The integrity of the recombinant enzyme was verified byN-terminal sequencing and LC-MS. Enzyme activity was measured at 37°C using Nessler’s reagent. The specific activity of the purified recombinant Erwinia chrysanthemi L-asparaginase was around 600 U/mg. One unit of enzyme activity is defined as the amount of enzyme that liberates lμmol of ammonia from L-asparagine per minute at 37°C. Example 2: Preparation of 10 kDa mPEG-L- Asparaginase Conjugates[0103] A solution of L-asparaginase from Erwinia chrysanthemi was stirred in a 100 mM sodium phosphate buffer at pH 8.0, at a protein concentration between 2.5 and 4 mg/mL, in the presence of 150 mg/mL or 36 mg/mL 10 kDa mPEG-NHS, for 2 hours at 22°C. The resulting crude 10 kDa mPEG-L-asparaginase was purified by size exclusion chromatography using a Superdex 200 pg column on an Akta purifier UPC 100 system. Protein-containing fractions were pooled and concentrated to result in a protein concentration between 2 and 8 mg/mL. Two 10 kDa mPEG-L-asparaginase conjugates were prepared in this way, differing in their degree of PEGylation as determined by TNBS assay with unmodified L-asparaginase as a reference, one corresponding to full PEGylation (100% of accessible amino groups (e.g., lysine residues and/or the N-terminus) residues being conjugated corresponding to PEGylation of 78% of total amino groups (e.g., lysine residues and/or the N-terminus)); the second one corresponding to partial PEGylation (39% of total amino groups (e.g., lysine residues and/or the N-terminus) or about 50% of accessible amino groups (e.g., lysine residues and/or the N-terminus)) . SDS-PAGE analysis of the conjugates is shown in Figure 2. The resulting conjugates appeared as an essentially homogeneous band and contained no detectable unmodified r-crisantaspase.Example 3: Preparation of 5 kDa mPEG-L-Asparaginase Conjugates[0104] A solution of L-asparaginase from Erwinia chrysanthemi was stirred in a 100 mM sodium phosphate buffer at pH 8.0, at a protein concentration of 4 mg/mL, in the presence of 150 mg/mL or 22.5 mg/mL 5 kDa mPEG-NHS, for 2 hours at 22°C. The resulting crude 5 kDa mPEG-L-asparaginase was purified by size exclusion chromatography using a Superdex 200 pg column on an Akta purifier UPC 100 system. Protein-containing fractions were pooled and concentrated to result in a protein concentration between 2 and 8 mg/mL. Two 5 kDa mPEG-L- asparaginase conjugates were prepared in this way, differing in their degree of PEGylation as determined by TNBS assay with unmodified L-asparaginase as a reference, one corresponding to full PEGylation (100% of accessible amino groups (e.g., lysine residues and/or the N-terminus) being conjugated corresponding to PEGylation of 84% of total amino groups (e.g., lysine residues and/or the N-terminus)); the second one corresponding to partial PEGylation (36% of total amino groups (e.g., lysine residues and/or the N-terminus) or about 43% of accessible amino groups (e.g., lysine residues and/or the N-terminus)). SDS-PAGE analysis of the conjugates is shown in Figure 2. The resulting conjugates appeared as an essentially homogeneous band and contained no detectable unmodified r-crisantaspase.Example 4: Preparation of 2 kDa mPEG-L-Asparaginase Conjugates[0105] A solution of L-asparaginase from Erwinia chrysanthemi was stirred in a 100 mM sodium phosphate buffer pH 8.0 at a protein concentration of 4 mg/mL in the presence of150 mg/mL or 22.5 mg/mL 2 kDa mPEG-NHS for 2 hours at 22°C. The resulting crude 2 kDa mPEG-L-asparaginase was purified by size exclusion chromatography using a Superdex 200 pg column on an Akta purifier UPC 100 system. Protein containing fractions were pooled and concentrated to result in a protein concentration between 2 and 8 mg/mL. Two 2 kDa mPEG-L- asparaginase conjugates were prepared in this way, differing in their degree of PEGylation as determined by TNBS assay with unmodified L-asparaginase as reference, one corresponding to maximum PEGylation (100% of accessible amino groups (e.g., lysine residues and/or the N- terminus) being conjugated corresponding to PEGylation of 86% of total amino groups (e.g., lysine residues and/or the N-terminus)); the second one corresponding to partial PEGylation (47% of total amino groups (e.g., lysine residues and/or the N-terminus) or about 55% of accessible amino groups {e.g., lysine residues and/or the N-terminus)). SDS-PAGE analysis of the conjugates is shown in Figure 2. The resulting conjugates appeared as an essentially homogeneous band and contained no detectable unmodified r-crisantaspase.Example 5: Activity of mPEG-r-Crisantaspase Conjugates[0106] L-asparaginase aminohydrolase activity of each conjugate described in the proceeding examples was determined by Nesslerization of ammonia that is liberated from L-asparagine by enzymatic activity. Briefly, 50μL of enzyme solution were mixed with 2OmM of L-asparagine in a 50 mM Sodium borate buffer pH 8.6 and incubated for 10 min at 37°C. The reaction was stopped by addition of 200μL of Nessler reagent. Absorbance of this solution was measured at 450 nm. The activity was calculated from a calibration curve that was obtained from Ammonia sulfate as reference. The results are summarized in Table 2, below:Table 2: Activity of mPEG-r-crisantaspase conjugates

Figure imgf000031_0001

* the numbers “40%” and “100%” indicate an approximate degree of PEGylation of respectively 40-55% and 100% of accessible amino groups (see Examples 2-4, supra).** the ratio mol PEG / mol monomer was extrapolated from data using TNBS assay, that makes the assumption that all amino groups from the protein (e.g., lysine residues and the N-terminus) are accessible.[0107] Residual activity of mPEG-r-crisantaspase conjugates ranged between 483 and 543 Units/mg. This corresponds to 78-87% of L-asparagine aminohydrolase activity of the unmodified enzyme. Example 6: L-Asparagine-Depleting Effect of Unmodified Crisantaspase

PAPER

Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry (2019), 66(3), 281-289.  |

https://iubmb.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/bab.1723

Crisantaspase is an asparaginase enzyme produced by Erwinia chrysanthemi and used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in case of hypersensitivity to Escherichia coli l-asparaginase (ASNase). The main disadvantages of crisantaspase are the short half-life (10 H) and immunogenicity. In this sense, its PEGylated form (PEG-crisantaspase) could not only reduce immunogenicity but also improve plasma half-life. In this work, we developed a process to obtain a site-specific N-terminal PEGylated crisantaspase (PEG-crisantaspase). Crisantaspase was recombinantly expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) strain cultivated in a shaker and in a 2-L bioreactor. Volumetric productivity in bioreactor increased 37% compared to shaker conditions (460 and 335 U L−1 H−1, respectively). Crisantaspase was extracted by osmotic shock and purified by cation exchange chromatography, presenting specific activity of 694 U mg−1, 21.7 purification fold, and yield of 69%. Purified crisantaspase was PEGylated with 10 kDa methoxy polyethylene glycol-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl (mPEG-NHS) at different pH values (6.5–9.0). The highest N-terminal pegylation yield (50%) was at pH 7.5 with the lowest poly-PEGylation ratio (7%). PEG-crisantaspase was purified by size exclusion chromatography and presented a KM value three times higher than crisantaspase (150 and 48.5 µM, respectively). Nonetheless, PEG-crisantaspase was found to be more stable at high temperatures and over longer periods of time. In 2 weeks, crisantaspase lost 93% of its specific activity, whereas PEG-crisantaspase was stable for 20 days. Therefore, the novel PEG-crisantaspase enzyme represents a promising biobetter alternative for the treatment of ALL.

ADKLPNIVILATGGTIAGSAATGTQTTGYKAGALGVDTLINAVPEVKKLANVKGEQFSN

MASENMTGDVVLKLSQRVNELLARDDVDGVVITHGTDTVEESAYFLHLTVKSDKPVV

FVAAMRPATAISADGPMNLLEAVRVAGDKQSRGRGVMVVLNDRIGSARYITKTNAST

LDTFKANEEGYLGVIIGNRIYYQNRIDKLHTTRSVFDVRGLTSLPKVDILYGYQDDPEY

LYDAAIQHGVKGIVYAGMGAGSVSVRGIAGMRKAMEKGVVVIRSTRTGNGIVPPDEE

LPGLVSDSLNPAHARILLMLALTRTSDPKVIQEYFHTY

Figure S1 – Amino acid sequence of the enzyme crisantaspase without the signal peptide and with the lysines highlighted in red (Swiss-Prot/TrEMBL accession number: P06608|22-348 AA).

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

As a component of a chemotherapy regimen to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia and lymphoblastic lymphoma in patients who are allergic to E. coli-derived asparaginase products
Press ReleaseFor Immediate Release:June 30, 2021

FDA Approves Component of Treatment Regimen for Most Common Childhood Cancer

Alternative Has Been in Global Shortage Since 2016

Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Rylaze (asparaginase erwinia chrysanthemi (recombinant)-rywn) as a component of a chemotherapy regimen to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia and lymphoblastic lymphoma in adult and pediatric patients who are allergic to the E. coli-derived asparaginase products used most commonly for treatment. The only other FDA-approved drug for such patients with allergic reactions has been in global shortage for years.

“It is extremely disconcerting to patients, families and providers when there is a lack of access to critical drugs for treatment of a life-threatening, but often curable cancer, due to supply issues,” said Gregory Reaman, M.D., associate director for pediatric oncology in the FDA’s Oncology Center of Excellence. “Today’s approval may provide a consistently sourced alternative to a pivotal component of potentially curative therapy for children and adults with this type of leukemia.”

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia occurs in approximately 5,700 patients annually, about half of whom are children. It is the most common type of childhood cancer. One component of the chemotherapy regimen is an enzyme called asparaginase that kills cancer cells by depriving them of substances needed to survive. An estimated 20% of patients are allergic to the standard E. coli-derived asparaginase and need an alternative their bodies can tolerate.

Rylaze’s efficacy was evaluated in a study of 102 patients who either had a hypersensitivity to E. coli-derived asparaginases or experienced silent inactivation. The main measurement was whether patients achieved and maintained a certain level of asparaginase activity. The study found that the recommended dosage would provide the target level of asparaginase activity in 94% of patients.

The most common side effects of Rylaze include hypersensitivity reactions, pancreatic toxicity, blood clots, hemorrhage and liver toxicity.

This review was conducted under Project Orbis, an initiative of the FDA Oncology Center of Excellence. Project Orbis provides a framework for concurrent submission and review of oncology drugs among international partners. For this review, FDA collaborated with Health Canada, where the application review is pending.

Rylaze received Fast Track and Orphan Drug designations for this indication. Fast Track is a process designed to facilitate the development and expedite the review of drugs to treat serious conditions and fulfill an unmet medical need. Orphan Drug designation provides incentives to assist and encourage drug development for rare diseases.

The FDA granted approval of Rylaze to Jazz Pharmaceuticals.

REF

https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/jazz-pharmaceuticals-announces-us-fda-approval-of-rylaze-asparaginase-erwinia-chrysanthemi-recombinant-rywn-for-the-treatment-of-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-or-lymphoblastic-lymphoma-301323782.html#:~:text=Jazz%20Pharmaceuticals%20Announces,details%20to%20follow

DUBLIN, June 30, 2021 /PRNewswire/ — Jazz Pharmaceuticals plc (Nasdaq: JAZZ) today announced the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of Rylaze (asparaginase erwinia chrysanthemi (recombinant)-rywn) for use as a component of a multi-agent chemotherapeutic regimen for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL) in pediatric and adult patients one month and older who have developed hypersensitivity to E. coli-derived asparaginase.1 Rylaze is the only recombinant erwinia asparaginase manufactured product that maintains a clinically meaningful level of asparaginase activity throughout the entire duration of treatment, and it was developed by Jazz to address the needs of patients and healthcare providers with an innovative, high-quality erwinia-derived asparaginase with reliable supply.

“We are excited to bring this important new treatment to patients who are in critical need, and we are grateful to FDA for the approval of Rylaze based on its established safety and efficacy profile. We are pleased Rylaze was approved before the trial is complete and are diligently working to advance additional clinical trial data. We are committed to quickly engaging with FDA to evolve the Rylaze product profile with additional dosing options and an IV route of administration,” said Bruce Cozadd, chairman and CEO of Jazz Pharmaceuticals. “Thank you to our collaborators within the Children’s Oncology Group, the clinical trial investigators, patients and their families, and all of the other stakeholders who helped us achieve this significant milestone.”

Rylaze was granted orphan drug designation for the treatment of ALL/LBL by FDA in June 2021. The Biologics Licensing Application (BLA) approval followed review under the Real-Time Oncology Review (RTOR) program, an initiative of FDA’s Oncology Center of Excellence designed for efficient delivery of safe and effective cancer treatments to patients.

The company expects Rylaze will be commercially available in mid-July.

“The accelerated development and approval of Rylaze marks an important step in bringing a meaningful new treatment option for many ALL patients – most of whom are children – who cannot tolerate E. coli-derived asparaginase medicine,” said Dr. Luke Maese, assistant professor at the University of Utah, Primary Children’s Hospital and Huntsman Cancer Institute. “Before the approval of Rylaze, there was a significant need for an effective asparaginase medicine that would allow patients to start and complete their prescribed treatment program with confidence in supply.”

Recent data from a Children’s Oncology Group retrospective analysis of over 8,000 patients found that patients who did not receive a full course of asparaginase treatment due to associated toxicity had significantly lower survival outcomes – regardless of whether those patients were high risk or standard risk, slow early responders.2

About Study JZP458-201
The FDA approval of Rylaze, also known as JZP458, is based on clinical data from an ongoing pivotal Phase 2/3 single-arm, open-label, multicenter, dose confirmation study evaluating pediatric and adult patients with ALL or LBL who have had an allergic reaction to E. coli-derived asparaginases and have not previously received asparaginase erwinia chrysanthemi. The study was designed to assess the safety, tolerability and efficacy of JZP458. The determination of efficacy was measured by serum asparaginase activity (SAA) levels. The Phase 2/3 study is being conducted in two parts. The first part is investigating the intramuscular (IM) route of administration, including a Monday-Wednesday-Friday dosing schedule. The second part remains active to further confirm the dose and schedule for the intravenous (IV) route of administration.

The FDA approval of Rylaze was based on data from the first of three IM cohorts, which demonstrated the achievement and maintenance of nadir serum asparaginase activity (NSAA) greater than or equal to the level of 0.1 U/mL at 48 hours using IM doses of Rylaze 25 mg/m2. The results of modeling and simulations showed that for a dosage of 25 mg/m2 administered intramuscularly every 48 hours, the proportion of patients maintaining NSAA ≥ 0.1 U/mL at 48 hours after a dose of Rylaze was 93.6% (95% CI: 92.6%, 94.6%).1

The most common adverse reactions (incidence >15%) were abnormal liver test, nausea, musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, infection, headache, pyrexia, drug hypersensitivity, febrile neutropenia, decreased appetite, stomatitis, bleeding and hyperglycemia. In patients treated with the Rylaze, a fatal adverse reaction (infection) occurred in one patient and serious adverse reactions occurred in 55% of patients. The most frequent serious adverse reactions (in ≥5% of patients) were febrile neutropenia, dehydration, pyrexia, stomatitis, diarrhea, drug hypersensitivity, infection, nausea and viral infection. Permanent discontinuation due to an adverse reaction occurred in 9% of patients who received Rylaze. Adverse reactions resulting in permanent discontinuation included hypersensitivity (6%) and infection (3%).1

The company will continue to work with FDA and plans to submit additional data from a completed cohort of patients evaluating 25mg/m2 IM given on Monday and Wednesday, and 50 mg/m2 given on Friday in support of a M/W/F dosing schedule. Part 2 of the study is evaluating IV administration and is ongoing. The company also plans to submit these data for presentation at a future medical meeting.

Investor Webcast
The company will host an investor webcast on the Rylaze approval in July. Details will be announced separately.

About Rylaze (asparaginase erwinia chrysanthemi (recombinant)-rywn)
Rylaze, also known as JZP458, is approved in the U.S. for use as a component of a multi-agent chemotherapeutic regimen for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL) in pediatric and adult patients one month and older who have developed hypersensitivity to E. coli-derived asparaginase. Rylaze has orphan drug designation for the treatment of ALL/LBL in the United States. Rylaze is a recombinant erwinia asparaginase that uses a novel Pseudomonas fluorescens expression platform. JZP458 was granted Fast Track designation by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in October 2019 for the treatment of this patient population. Rylaze was approved as part of the Real-Time Oncology Review program, an initiative of the FDA’s Oncology Center of Excellence designed for efficient delivery of safe and effective cancer treatments to patients.

The full U.S. Prescribing Information for Rylaze is available at: <http://pp.jazzpharma.com/pi/rylaze.en.USPI.pdf>

Important Safety Information

RYLAZE should not be given to people who have had:

  • Serious allergic reactions to RYLAZE
  • Serious swelling of the pancreas (stomach pain), serious blood clots, or serious bleeding during previous asparaginase treatment

RYLAZE may cause serious side effects, including:

  • Allergic reactions (a feeling of tightness in your throat, unusual swelling/redness in your throat and/or tongue, or trouble breathing), some of which may be life-threatening
  • Swelling of the pancreas (stomach pain)
  • Blood clots (may have a headache or pain in leg, arm, or chest)
  • Bleeding
  • Liver problems

Contact your doctor immediately if any of these side effects occur.

Some of the most common side effects with RYLAZE include: liver problems, nausea, bone and muscle pain, tiredness, infection, headache, fever, allergic reactions, fever with low white blood cell count, decreased appetite, mouth swelling (sometimes with sores), bleeding, and too much sugar in the blood.

RYLAZE can harm your unborn baby. Inform your doctor if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or nursing. Females of reproductive potential should use effective contraception (other than oral contraceptives) during treatment and for 3 months following the final dose. Do not breastfeed while receiving RYLAZE and for 1 week after the final dose.

Tell your healthcare provider if there are any side effects that are bothersome or that do not go away.

These are not all the possible side effects of RYLAZE. For more information, ask your healthcare provider.

You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit www.fda.gov/medwatch, or call 1-800-FDA-1088 (1-800-332-1088).

About ALL
ALL is a cancer of the blood and bone marrow that can progress quickly if not treated.3 Leukemia is the most common cancer in children, and about three out of four of these cases are ALL.4  Although it is one of the most common cancers in children, ALL is among the most curable of the pediatric malignancies due to recent advancements in treatment.5,6 Adults can also develop ALL, and about four of every 10 cases of ALL diagnosed are in adults.7  The American Cancer Society estimates that almost 6,000 new cases of ALL will be diagnosed in the United States in 2021.7 Asparaginase is a core component of multi-agent chemotherapeutic regimens in ALL.8  However, asparaginase treatments derived from E. coli are associated with the potential for development of hypersensitivity reactions.9

About Lymphoblastic Lymphoma
LBL is a rare, fast-growing, aggressive subtype of Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, most often seen in teenagers and young adults.8 LBL is a very aggressive lymphoma – also called high-grade lymphoma – which means the lymphoma grows quickly with early spread to different parts of the body.10,11

About Jazz Pharmaceuticals plc
Jazz Pharmaceuticals plc (NASDAQ: JAZZ) is a global biopharmaceutical company whose purpose is to innovate to transform the lives of patients and their families. We are dedicated to developing life-changing medicines for people with serious diseases – often with limited or no therapeutic options. We have a diverse portfolio of marketed medicines and novel product candidates, from early- to late-stage development, in neuroscience and oncology. We actively explore new options for patients including novel compounds, small molecules and biologics, and through cannabinoid science and innovative delivery technologies. Jazz is headquartered in Dublin, Ireland and has employees around the globe, serving patients in nearly 75 countries. For more information, please visit www.jazzpharmaceuticals.com and follow @JazzPharma on Twitter.

About The Children’s Oncology Group (COG)
COG (childrensoncologygroup.org), a member of the NCI National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN), is the world’s largest organization devoted exclusively to childhood and adolescent cancer research. COG unites over 10,000 experts in childhood cancer at more than 200 leading children’s hospitals, universities, and cancer centers across North America, Australia, and New Zealand in the fight against childhood cancer. Today, more than 90% of the 14,000 children and adolescents diagnosed with cancer each year in the United States are cared for at COG member institutions. Research performed by COG institutions over the past 50 years has transformed childhood cancer from a virtually incurable disease to one with a combined 5-year survival rate of 80%. COG’s mission is to improve the cure rate and outcomes for all children with cancer.

Caution Concerning Forward-Looking Statements 
This press release contains forward-looking statements, including, but not limited to, statements related to Jazz Pharmaceuticals’ belief in the potential of Rylaze to provide a reliable therapeutic option for adult and pediatric patients to maximize their chance for a cure, plans for a mid-July 2021 launch of Rylaze, the availability of a reliable supply of Rylaze and other statements that are not historical facts. These forward-looking statements are based on Jazz Pharmaceuticals’ current plans, objectives, estimates, expectations and intentions and inherently involve significant risks and uncertainties. Actual results and the timing of events could differ materially from those anticipated in such forward-looking statements as a result of these risks and uncertainties, which include, without limitation, effectively launching and commercializing new products; obtaining and maintaining adequate coverage and reimbursement for the company’s products; delays or problems in the supply or manufacture of the company’s products and other risks and uncertainties affecting the company, including those described from time to time under the caption “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in Jazz Pharmaceuticals’ Securities and Exchange Commission filings and reports (Commission File No. 001-33500), including Jazz Pharmaceuticals’ Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020 and future filings and reports by Jazz Pharmaceuticals. Other risks and uncertainties of which Jazz Pharmaceuticals is not currently aware may also affect Jazz Pharmaceuticals’ forward-looking statements and may cause actual results and the timing of events to differ materially from those anticipated. The forward-looking statements herein are made only as of the date hereof or as of the dates indicated in the forward-looking statements, even if they are subsequently made available by Jazz Pharmaceuticals on its website or otherwise. Jazz Pharmaceuticals undertakes no obligation to update or supplement any forward-looking statements to reflect actual results, new information, future events, changes in its expectations or other circumstances that exist after the date as of which the forward-looking statements were made.

Jazz Media Contact:
Jacqueline Kirby
Vice President, Corporate Affairs
Jazz Pharmaceuticals plc
CorporateAffairsMediaInfo@jazzpharma.com
Ireland, +353 1 697 2141
U.S. +1 215 867 4910

Jazz Investor Contact:
Andrea N. Flynn, Ph.D.
Vice President, Head, Investor Relations
Jazz Pharmaceuticals plc
investorinfo@jazzpharma.com  
Ireland, +353 1 634 3211

References

  1. Rylaze (asparaginase erwinia chrysanthemi (recombinant)-rywn) injection, for intramuscular use Prescribing Information. Palo Alto, CA: Jazz Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
  2. Gupta S, Wang C, Raetz EA et al. Impact of Asparaginase Discontinuation on Outcome in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Report From the Children’s Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol. 2020 Jun 10;38(17):1897-1905. doi: 10.1200/JCO.19.03024
  3. National Cancer Institute. Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version. Available at www.cancer.gov/types/leukemia/patient/adult-all-treatment-pdq. Accessed June 29, 2021
  4. American Cancer Society. Key Statistics for Childhood Leukemia. Available at https://www.cancer.org/cancer/leukemia-in-children/about/key-statistics.html. Accessed June 29, 2021.
  5. American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures 2019. www.cancer.org/research/cancer-facts-statistics/all-cancer-facts-figures/cancer-facts-figures-2019.html. Accessed June 29, 2021.
  6. Pui C, Evans W. A 50-Year Journey to Cure Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. Seminars in Hematology. 2013;50(3), 185-196.
  7. American Cancer Society. Key Statistics for Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL). Available at https://cancerstatisticscenter.cancer.org/?_ga=2.8163506.1018157754.1621008457-1989786785.1621008457#!/data-analysis/NewCaseEstimates. Accessed June 29, 2021.
  8. Salzer W, Bostrom B, Messinger Y et al. 2018. Asparaginase activity levels and monitoring in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Leukemia & Lymphoma. 59:8, 1797-1806, DOI: 10.1080/10428194.2017.1386305.
  9. Hijiya N, van der Sluis IM. Asparaginase-associated toxicity in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Leuk Lymphoma. 2016;57(4):748–757. DOI: 10.3109/10428194.2015.1101098.
  10. Leukemia Foundation. Lymphoblastic Lymphoma. Available at https://www.leukaemia.org.au/disease-information/lymphomas/non-hodgkin-lymphoma/other-non-hodgkin-lymphomas/lymphoblastic-lymphoma/. Accessed June 29, 2021.
  11. Mayo Clinic. Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Diagnosis. Available at https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/acute-lymphocytic-leukemia/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20369083. Accessed June 29, 2021.

SOURCE Jazz Pharmaceuticals plc

Related Links

CLIP

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4776285/

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/////////////asparaginase erwinia chrysanthemi (recombinant)-rywn, Rylaze, Jazz Pharmaceuticals, JZP458-201, JZP458, FDA 2021, APPROVALS 2021, ORPHAN, Fast TrackAcute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, ALL, Antineoplastic Agents

https://chem.nlm.nih.gov/chemidplus/id/1349719227

https://go.drugbank.com/drugs/DB08886

wdt-4

NEW DRUG APPROVALS

ONE TIME

$10.00

Pegcetacoplan


Sequence:

1ICVWQDWGAH RCTXK

Sequence:

1ICVWQDWGAH RCTXK

Sequence Modifications

TypeLocationDescription
terminal mod.Lys-15C-terminal amide
terminal mod.Lys-15′C-terminal amide
bridgeCys-2 – Cys-12disulfide bridge, dimer
bridgeLys-15 – Lys-15′covalent bridge, dimer
bridgeCys-2′ – Cys-12′disulfide bridge, dimer
uncommonOaa-14
uncommonOaa-14′

Pegcetacoplan

ペグセタコプラン;

FDA APPROVED Empaveli, 2021/5/14

Protein Sequence

Sequence Length: 30, 15, 15multichain; modifiedPoly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), α-hydro-ω-hydroxy-, 15,15′-diester with N-acetyl-L-isoleucyl-L-cysteinyl-L-valyl-1-methyl-L-tryptophyl-L-glutaminyl-L-α-aspartyl-L-tryptophylglycyl-L-alanyl-L-histidyl-L-arginyl-L-cysteinyl-L-threonyl-2-[2-(2-aminoethoxy)ethoxy]acetyl-N6-carboxy-L-lysinamide cyclic (2→12)-(disulfide)Polymer

Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), alpha-hydro-omega-hydroxy-, 15,15′-diester with N-acetyl-Lisoleucyl-L-cysteinyl-L-valyl-1-methyl-L-tryptophyl-L-glutaminyl-L-alpha-aspartyl-L-tryptophylglycyl-L-alanyl-L-histidyl-L-arginyl-L-cysteinyl-L-threonyl-2-(2-(2-aminoethoxy)ethoxy)acetyl-N6-carboxy-L-lysinamide cyclic (2�-&gt;12)-(disulfide)

O,O’-bis((S2,S12-cyclo(N-acetyl-L-isoleucyl-L-cysteinyl-L-valyl-1-methyl-Ltryptophyl-L-glutaminyl-L-alpha-aspartyl-L-tryptophylglycyl-L-alanyl-L-histidyl-L-arginyl-L-cysteinyl-L-threonyl-2-(2-(2-aminoethoxy)ethoxy)acetyl-L-lysinamide))-N6.15-carbonyl)polyethylene glycol(n = 800-1100)

  • APL-2
  • WHO 10743
FormulaC170H248N50O47S4. (C2H4O)n3872.40 g·mol−1
EfficacyDiseaseComplement inhibitorParoxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
  CAS2019171-69-6
CommentTreatment of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), complement-mediated nephropathies, and age-related macular degeneration (AMD)
  • OriginatorApellis Pharmaceuticals
  • ClassAnti-inflammatories; Anti-ischaemics; Antianaemics; Cyclic peptides; Eye disorder therapies; Polyethylene glycols; Urologics
  • Mechanism of ActionComplement C3 inhibitors
  • Orphan Drug StatusYes – Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria; Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia; Glomerulonephritis
  • RegisteredParoxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria
  • Phase IIIAge-related macular degeneration
  • Phase IIAmyotrophic lateral sclerosis; Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia; Glomerulonephritis; IgA nephropathy; Lupus nephritis; Membranous glomerulonephritis
  • Phase I/IIWet age-related macular degeneration
  • DiscontinuedIschaemia
  • 02 Jun 2021Apellis Pharmaceuticals plans a phase III trial for Glomerulonephritis in the second half of 2021
  • 25 May 2021Top-line efficacy and safety results from the phase III PRINCE trial for Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria released by Apellis Pharmaceuticals
  • 18 May 2021Registered for Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria in USA (SC) – First global approval

Pegcetacoplan, sold under the brand name Empaveli, is a medication used to treat paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH).[1][2]

The most common side effects include injection-site reactions, infections, diarrheaabdominal pain, respiratory tract infection, viral infection, and fatigue.[2]

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria is characterized by red blood cell destruction, anemia (red blood cells unable to carry enough oxygen to tissues), blood clots, and impaired bone marrow function (not making enough blood cells).[1]

Pegcetacoplan is the first treatment for paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria that binds to complement protein C3.[1] Pegcetacoplan was approved for medical use in the United States in May 2021.[1][3]

Pegcetacoplan is a complement inhibitor indicated in the treatment of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH).5,7 Prior to its FDA approval, patients with PNH were typically treated with the C5 inhibiting monoclonal antibody eculizumab.5 Patients given eculizumab experienced less hemolysis caused by the membrane attack complex, but were still somewhat susceptible to hemolysis caused by C3b opsonization.5,6 Pegcetacoplan was developed out of a need for an inhibitor of complement mediated hemolysis further upstream of C5.5,6 Pegcetacoplan is a pegylated C3 inhibitor that can disrupt the processes leading to both forms of hemolysis that threaten patients with PNH.5

Pegcetacoplan was granted FDA approval on 14 May 2021.7

Medical uses

Pegcetacoplan is indicated to treat adults with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH).[1][2]

EMPAVELI contains pegcetacoplan, a complement inhibitor. Pegcetacoplan is a symmetrical molecule comprised of two identical pentadecapeptides covalently bound to the ends of a linear 40-kiloDalton (kDa) PEG molecule. The peptide portions of pegcetacoplan contain 1-methyl-L-tryptophan (Trp(Me)) in position 4 and amino(ethoxyethoxy)acetic acid (AEEA) in position 14.

The molecular weight of pegcetacoplan is approximately 43.5 kDa. The molecular formula is C1970H3848N50O947S4. The structure of pegcetacoplan is shown below.

EMPAVELI™ (pegcetacoplan) Structural Formula - Illustration

EMPAVELI injection is a sterile, clear, colorless to slightly yellowish aqueous solution for subcutaneous use and is supplied in a 20-mL single-dose vial. Each 1 mL of solution contains 54 mg of pegcetacoplan, 41 mg of sorbitol, 0.384 mg of glacial acetic acid, 0.490 mg of sodium acetate trihydrate, and Water for Injection USP. EMPAVELI may also contain sodium hydroxide and/or additional glacial acetic acid for adjustment to a target pH of 5.0.

FDA approves new treatment for adults with serious rare blood disease..

https://www.fda.gov/drugs/drug-safety-and-availability/fda-approves-new-treatment-adults-serious-rare-blood-disease

FDA has approved Empaveli (pegcetacoplan) injection to treat adults with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), a rare, life-threatening blood disease. Empaveli is the first PNH treatment that binds to compliment protein C3.

PNH is characterized by red blood cell destruction, anemia (red blood cells unable to carry enough oxygen to tissues), blood clots, and impaired bone marrow function (not making enough blood cells). The disease affects 1-1.5 people per million. Individuals are typically diagnosed around ages 35 to 40. PNH can be serious, with median survival of 10 years after diagnosis. However, some patients live for decades with only minor symptoms.

PNH is caused by gene mutations that affect red blood cells. Red blood cells in people with these mutations are defective and can be destroyed by the immune system, which causes anemia.

The effectiveness of Empaveli was evaluated in a study enrolling 80 patients with PNH and anemia who had been taking eculizumab, a treatment previously approved for PNH. Patients first completed a four-week period during which they received Empaveli 1,080 mg twice weekly in addition to eculizumab at their previous dose. After the first four weeks, patients were randomly assigned to receive either Empaveli or their current dose of eculizumab for 16 weeks.

After 16 weeks, the severity of anemia was compared in the two treatment groups on the basis of hemoglobin concentration (a laboratory measure of anemia). In both treatment groups, the average hemoglobin was 8.7 g/dL at baseline, indicating severe anemia. (Normal hemoglobin values in adult men are 14 g/dL or above; normal values in adult women are 12 g/dL or above.) During the 16 weeks of treatment, patients in the Empaveli group had an average increase in their hemoglobin of 2.4 g/dL. Meanwhile, patients in the eculizumab group had an average decrease in their hemoglobin of 1.5 g/dL.

Empaveli is available only through a restricted program under a risk evaluation and mitigation strategy. Meningococcal (a type of bacteria) infections can occur in patients taking Empaveli and can become life-threatening or fatal if not treated early. Empaveli may also predispose individuals to serious infections, especially infections caused by encapsulated bacteria. Patients should be monitored for infusion-related reactions. Empaveli can interfere with certain laboratory tests. The most common side effects are injection site reactions, infections, diarrhea, abdominal pain, respiratory tract infection, viral infection, and fatigue.

Empaveli received priority reviewfast track and orphan drug designations for this indication.

FDA granted the approval of Empaveli to Apellis Pharmaceuticals.

Adverse effects

Meningococcal (a type of bacteria) infections can occur in people taking pegcetacoplan and can become life-threatening or fatal if not treated early.[1] Pegcetacoplan may also predispose individuals to serious infections, especially infections caused by encapsulated bacteria.[1]

History

The effectiveness of pegcetacoplan was evaluated in a study enrolling 80 participants with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and anemia who had been taking eculizumab, a treatment previously approved for paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.[1]

References

  1. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i “FDA approves new treatment for adults with serious rare blood disease”U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 14 May 2021. Retrieved 14 May 2021.  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  2. Jump up to:a b c d https://pi.apellis.com/files/PI_Empaveli.pdf
  3. ^ “Apellis Announces U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Approval of Empaveli (pegcetacoplan) for Adults with Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria (PNH)” (Press release). Apellis Pharmaceuticals. 14 May 2021. Retrieved 14 May 2021 – via GlobeNewswire.

External links

  • “Pegcetacoplan”Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Clinical trial number NCT03500549 for “Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of APL-2 in Patients With Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria (PNH)” at ClinicalTrials.gov
Clinical data
Trade namesEmpaveli
Other namesAPL-2
License dataUS DailyMedPegcetacoplan
Routes of
administration
Subcutaneous infusion
Drug classComplement inhibitor
ATC codeNone
Legal status
Legal statusUS: ℞-only [1][2]
Identifiers
CAS Number2019171-69-6
UNIITO3JYR3BOU
KEGGD11613
ChEMBLChEMBL4298211
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC170H248N50O47S4
Molar mass3872.40 g·mol−1

/////////Pegcetacoplan, ペグセタコプラン , FDA 2021, APPROVALS 2021, APL-2, WHO 10743, Apellis Pharmaceuticals, Empaveli, priority reviewfast track,  orphan drug

https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/1492422/000156459020007350/apls-10k_20191231.htm

wdt-7

NEW DRUG APPROVALS

ONE TIME

$10.00

Sotorasib


AMG 510.svg
4-((S)-4-Acryloyl-2-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-6-fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one.png

Sotorasib

6-fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(4-methyl-2-propan-2-ylpyridin-3-yl)-4-[(2S)-2-methyl-4-prop-2-enoylpiperazin-1-yl]pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2-one

AMG 510
AMG-510
AMG510

FormulaC30H30F2N6O3
CAS2296729-00-3
Mol weight560.5944

FDA APPROVED, 2021/5/28 Lumakras

Antineoplastic, Non-small cell lung cancer (KRAS G12C-mutated)

ソトラシブ (JAN);

2296729-00-3 (racemate)

4-((S)-4-Acryloyl-2-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-6-fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one

6-fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(4-methyl-2-propan-2-ylpyridin-3-yl)-4-[(2S)-2-methyl-4-prop-2-enoylpiperazin-1-yl]pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2-one

Sotorasib [INN]

6-Fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(4-methyl-2-propan-2-ylpyridin-3-yl)-4-((2S)-2-methyl-4-prop-2-enoylpiperazin-1-yl)pyrido(2,3-d)pyrimidin-2-one

Sotorasib

(1M)-6-Fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-[4-methyl-2-(propan-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl]-4-[(2S)-2-methyl-4-(prop-2-enoyl)piperazin-1-yl]pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one

C30H30F2N6O3 : 560.59
[2296729-00-3]

Sotorasib is an inhibitor of the RAS GTPase family. The molecular formula is C30H30F2N6O3, and the molecular weight is 560.6 g/mol. The chemical name of sotorasib is 6-fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-(1M)-1-[4-methyl-2-(propan-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl]-4-[(2S)-2-methyl-4-(prop-2enoyl) piperazin-1-yl]pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one. The chemical structure of sotorasib is shown below:

LUMAKRAS™ (sotorasib) Structural Formula Illustration

Sotorasib has pKa values of 8.06 and 4.56. The solubility of sotorasib in the aqueous media decreases over the range pH 1.2 to 6.8 from 1.3 mg/mL to 0.03 mg/mL.

LUMAKRAS is supplied as film-coated tablets for oral use containing 120 mg of sotorasib. Inactive ingredients in the tablet core are microcrystalline cellulose, lactose monohydrate, croscarmellose sodium, and magnesium stearate. The film coating material consists of polyvinyl alcohol, titanium dioxide, polyethylene glycol, talc, and iron oxide yellow.

FDA grants accelerated approval to sotorasib for KRAS G12C mutated NSCLC

https://www.fda.gov/drugs/drug-approvals-and-databases/fda-grants-accelerated-approval-sotorasib-kras-g12c-mutated-nsclc

On May 28, 2021, the Food and Drug Administration granted accelerated approval to sotorasib (Lumakras™, Amgen, Inc.), a RAS GTPase family inhibitor, for adult patients with KRAS G12C ‑mutated locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), as determined by an FDA ‑approved test, who have received at least one prior systemic therapy.

FDA also approved the QIAGEN therascreen® KRAS RGQ PCR kit (tissue) and the Guardant360® CDx (plasma) as companion diagnostics for Lumakras. If no mutation is detected in a plasma specimen, the tumor tissue should be tested.

Approval was based on CodeBreaK 100, a multicenter, single-arm, open label clinical trial (NCT03600883) which included patients with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC with KRAS G12C mutations. Efficacy was evaluated in 124 patients whose disease had progressed on or after at least one prior systemic therapy. Patients received sotorasib 960 mg orally daily until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

The main efficacy outcome measures were objective response rate (ORR) according to RECIST 1.1, as evaluated by blinded independent central review and response duration. The ORR was 36% (95% CI: 28%, 45%) with a median response duration of 10 months (range 1.3+, 11.1).

The most common adverse reactions (≥ 20%) were diarrhea, musculoskeletal pain, nausea, fatigue, hepatotoxicity, and cough. The most common laboratory abnormalities (≥ 25%) were decreased lymphocytes, decreased hemoglobin, increased aspartate aminotransferase, increased alanine aminotransferase, decreased calcium, increased alkaline phosphatase, increased urine protein, and decreased sodium.

The recommended sotorasib dose is 960 mg orally once daily with or without food.

The approved 960 mg dose is based on available clinical data, as well as pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modeling that support the approved dose. As part of the evaluation for this accelerated approval, FDA is requiring a postmarketing trial to investigate whether a lower dose will have a similar clinical effect.

View full prescribing information for Lumakras.

This indication is approved under accelerated approval based on overall response rate and duration of response. Continued approval for this indication may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in a confirmatory trial(s).

This review was conducted under Project Orbis, an initiative of the FDA Oncology Center of Excellence. Project Orbis provides a framework for concurrent submission and review of oncology drugs among international partners. For this review, FDA collaborated with the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA), the Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency (ANVISA), Health Canada, and the United Kingdom Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). The application reviews are ongoing at the other regulatory agencies.

This review used the Real-Time Oncology Review (RTOR) pilot program, which streamlined data submission prior to the filing of the entire clinical application, the Assessment Aid, and the Product Quality Assessment Aid (PQAA), voluntary submissions from the applicant to facilitate the FDA’s assessment. The FDA approved this application approximately 10 weeks ahead of the FDA goal date.

This application was granted priority review, fast-track, breakthrough therapy and orphan drug designation. A description of FDA expedited programs is in the Guidance for Industry: Expedited Programs for Serious Conditions-Drugs and Biologics.

Sotorasib, sold under the brand name Lumakras is an anti-cancer medication used to treat non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).[1][2] It targets a specific mutation, G12C, in the protein KRAS which is responsible for various forms of cancer.[3][4]

The most common side effects include diarrhea, musculoskeletal pain, nausea, fatigue, liver damage and cough.[1][2]

Sotorasib is an inhibitor of the RAS GTPase family.[1]

Sotorasib is the first approved targeted therapy for tumors with any KRAS mutation, which accounts for approximately 25% of mutations in non-small cell lung cancers.[2] KRAS G12C mutations represent about 13% of mutations in non-small cell lung cancers.[2] Sotorasib was approved for medical use in the United States in May 2021.[2][5]

Sotorasib is an experimental KRAS inhibitor being investigated for the treatment of KRAS G12C mutant non small cell lung cancer, colorectal cancer, and appendix cancer.

Sotorasib, also known as AMG-510, is an acrylamide derived KRAS inhibitor developed by Amgen.1,3 It is indicated in the treatment of adult patients with KRAS G12C mutant non small cell lung cancer.6 This mutation makes up >50% of all KRAS mutations.2 Mutant KRAS discovered in 1982 but was not considered a druggable target until the mid-2010s.5 It is the first experimental KRAS inhibitor.1

The drug MRTX849 is also currently being developed and has the same target.1

Sotorasib was granted FDA approval on 28 May 2021.6

Medical uses

Sotorasib is indicated for the treatment of adults with KRAS G12C-mutated locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), as determined by an FDA-approved test, who have received at least one prior systemic therapy.[1][2]

Clinical development

Sotorasib is being developed by Amgen. Phase I clinical trials were completed in 2020.[6][7][8] In December 2019, it was approved to begin Phase II clinical trials.[9]

Because the G12C KRAS mutation is relatively common in some cancer types, 14% of non-small-cell lung cancer adenocarcinoma patients and 5% of colorectal cancer patients,[10] and sotorasib is the first drug candidate to target this mutation, there have been high expectations for the drug.[10][11][12] The Food and Drug Administration has granted a fast track designation to sotorasib for the treatment of metastatic non-small-cell lung carcinoma with the G12C KRAS mutation.[13]

Chemistry and pharmacology

Sotorasib can exist in either of two atropisomeric forms and one is more active than the other.[10] It selectively forms an irreversible covalent bond to the sulfur atom in the cysteine residue that is present in the mutated form of KRAS, but not in the normal form.[10]

History

Researchers evaluated the efficacy of sotorasib in a study of 124 participants with locally advanced or metastatic KRAS G12C-mutated non-small cell lung cancer with disease progression after receiving an immune checkpoint inhibitor and/or platinum-based chemotherapy.[2] The major outcomes measured were objective response rate (proportion of participants whose tumor is destroyed or reduced) and duration of response.[2] The objective response rate was 36% and 58% of those participants had a duration of response of six months or longer.[2]

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted the application for sotorasib orphan drugfast trackpriority review, and breakthrough therapy designations.[2] The FDA collaborated with the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA), the Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency (ANVISA), Health Canada and the United Kingdom Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).[2] The application reviews are ongoing at the other regulatory agencies.[2]

The FDA granted approval of Lumakras to Amgen Inc.[2]

Society and culture

Economics

Sotorasib costs US$17,900 per month.[5]

Names

Sotorasib is the recommended international nonproprietary name (INN).[14]

PAPER

Nature (London, United Kingdom) (2019), 575(7781), 217-223

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-019-1694-1

KRAS is the most frequently mutated oncogene in cancer and encodes a key signalling protein in tumours1,2. The KRAS(G12C) mutant has a cysteine residue that has been exploited to design covalent inhibitors that have promising preclinical activity3,4,5. Here we optimized a series of inhibitors, using novel binding interactions to markedly enhance their potency and selectivity. Our efforts have led to the discovery of AMG 510, which is, to our knowledge, the first KRAS(G12C) inhibitor in clinical development. In preclinical analyses, treatment with AMG 510 led to the regression of KRASG12C tumours and improved the anti-tumour efficacy of chemotherapy and targeted agents. In immune-competent mice, treatment with AMG 510 resulted in a pro-inflammatory tumour microenvironment and produced durable cures alone as well as in combination with immune-checkpoint inhibitors. Cured mice rejected the growth of isogenic KRASG12D tumours, which suggests adaptive immunity against shared antigens. Furthermore, in clinical trials, AMG 510 demonstrated anti-tumour activity in the first dosing cohorts and represents a potentially transformative therapy for patients for whom effective treatments are lacking.

Paper

Scientific Reports (2020), 10(1), 11992

PAPER

European journal of medicinal chemistry (2021), 213, 113082.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0223523420310540

Image 1

KRAS is the most commonly altered oncogene of the RAS family, especially the G12C mutant (KRASG12C), which has been a promising drug target for many cancers. On the basis of the bicyclic pyridopyrimidinone framework of the first-in-class clinical KRASG12C inhibitor AMG510, a scaffold hopping strategy was conducted including a F–OH cyclization approach and a pyridinyl N-atom working approach leading to new tetracyclic and bicyclic analogues. Compound 26a was identified possessing binding potency of 1.87 μM against KRASG12C and cell growth inhibition of 0.79 μM in MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cells. Treatment of 26a with NCI–H358 cells resulted in down-regulation of KRAS-GTP levels and reduction of phosphorylation of downstream ERK and AKT dose-dependently. Molecular docking suggested that the fluorophenol moiety of 26a occupies a hydrophobic pocket region thus forming hydrogen bonding to Arg68. These results will be useful to guide further structural modification.

PAPER

Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2020), 63(1), 52-65.

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.9b01180

KRASG12C has emerged as a promising target in the treatment of solid tumors. Covalent inhibitors targeting the mutant cysteine-12 residue have been shown to disrupt signaling by this long-“undruggable” target; however clinically viable inhibitors have yet to be identified. Here, we report efforts to exploit a cryptic pocket (H95/Y96/Q99) we identified in KRASG12C to identify inhibitors suitable for clinical development. Structure-based design efforts leading to the identification of a novel quinazolinone scaffold are described, along with optimization efforts that overcame a configurational stability issue arising from restricted rotation about an axially chiral biaryl bond. Biopharmaceutical optimization of the resulting leads culminated in the identification of AMG 510, a highly potent, selective, and well-tolerated KRASG12C inhibitor currently in phase I clinical trials (NCT03600883).

AMG 510 [(R)-38]. (1R)-6-Fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-[4-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)-3-pyridinyl]-4-[(2S)-2-methyl-4-(1-oxo-2-propen-1-yl)-1-piperazinyl]-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one

………… concentrated in vacuo. Chromatographic purification of the residue (silica gel; 0–100% 3:1 EtOAc–EtOH/heptane) followed by chiral supercritical fluid chromatography (Chiralpak IC, 30 mm × 250 mm, 5 μm, 55% MeOH/CO2, 120 mL/min, 102 bar) provided (1R)-6-fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-[4-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)-3-pyridinyl]-4-[(2S)-2-methyl-4-(1-oxo-2-propen-1-yl)-1-piperazinyl]pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one (AMG 510; (R)-38; 2.25 g, 43% yield) as the first-eluting peak. 1H NMR (600 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 10.20 (s, 1H), 8.39 (d, J = 4.9 Hz, 1H), 8.30 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 0.5H), 8.27 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 0.5H), 7.27 (q, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 7.18 (d, J = 4.9 Hz, 1H), 6.87 (dd, J = 16.2, 10.8 Hz, 0.5H), 6.84 (dd, J = 16.2, 10.7 Hz, 0.5H), 6.74 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 6.68 (t, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 6.21 (d, J = 16.2 Hz, 0.5H), 6.20 (d, J = 16.2 Hz, 0.5H), 5.76 (d, J = 10.8 Hz, 0.5H), 5.76 (d, J = 10.7 Hz, 0.5H), 4.91 (m, 1H), 4.41 (d, J = 12.2 Hz, 0.5H), 4.33 (d, J = 12.2 Hz, 1H), 4.28 (d, J = 12.2 Hz, 0.5H), 4.14 (d, J = 12.2 Hz, 0.5H), 4.02 (d, J = 13.6 Hz, 0.5H), 3.69 (m, 1H), 3.65 (d, J = 13.6 Hz, 0.5H), 3.52 (t, J = 12.2 Hz, 0.5H), 3.27 (d, J = 12.2 Hz, 0.5H), 3.15 (t, J = 12.2 Hz, 0.5H), 2.72 (m, 1H), 1.90 (s, 3H), 1.35 (d, J = 6.7 Hz, 3H), 1.08 (d, J = 6.7 Hz, 3H), 0.94 (d, J = 6.7 Hz, 3H). 
19F NMR (376 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ −115.6 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1 F), −128.6 (br s, 1 F). 
13C NMR (151 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 165.0 (1C), 163.4 (1C), 162.5 (1C), 160.1 (1C), 156.8 (1C), 153.7 (1C), 151.9 (1C), 149.5 (1C), 148.3 (1C), 145.2 (1C), 144.3 (1C), 131.6 (1C), 130.8 (1C), 127.9 (0.5C), 127.9 (0.5C), 127.8 (0.5C), 127.7 (0.5C), 123.2 (1C), 122.8 (1C), 111.7 (1C), 109.7 (1C), 105.7 (1C), 105.3 (1C), 51.4 (0.5C), 51.0 (0.5C), 48.9 (0.5C), 45.4 (0.5C), 44.6 (0.5C), 43.7 (0.5C), 43.5 (0.5C), 41.6 (0.5C), 29.8 (1C), 21.9 (1C), 21.7 (1C), 17.0 (1C), 15.5 (0.5C), 14.8 (0.5C). 
FTMS (ESI) m/z: [M + H]+ calcd for C30H30F2N6O3 561.24202. Found 561.24150. 

d (1R)-6-Fluoro7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-[4-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)-3-pyridinyl]-4-[(2S)-2-methyl-4-(1-oxo-2-propen-1-yl)-1- piperazinyl]-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one ((R)-38; AMG 510; 2.25 g, 43% yield) as the first-eluting peak.1 H NMR (600 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 10.20 (s, 1H), 8.39 (d, J = 4.9 Hz, 1H), 8.30 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 0.5H), 8.27 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 0.5H), 7.27 (q, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 7.18 (d, J = 4.9 Hz, 1H), 6.87 (dd, J = 16.2, 10.8 Hz, 0.5H), 6.84 (dd, J = 16.2, 10.7 Hz, 0.5H), 6.74 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 6.68 (t, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 6.21 (d, J = 16.2 Hz, 0.5H), 6.20 (d, J = 16.2 Hz, 0.5H), 5.76 (d, J = 10.8 Hz, 0.5H), 5.76 (d, J = 10.7 Hz, 0.5H), 4.91 (m, 1H), 4.41 (d, J = 12.2 Hz, 0.5H), 4.33 (d, J = 12.2 Hz, 1H), 4.28 (d, J = 12.2 Hz, 0.5H), 4.14 (d, J = 12.2 Hz, 0.5H), 4.02 (d, J = 13.6 Hz, 0.5H), 3.69 (m, 1H), 3.65 (d, J = 13.6 Hz, 0.5H), 3.52 (t, J = 12.2 Hz, 0.5H), 3.27 (d, J = 12.2 Hz, 0.5H), 3.15 (t, J = 12.2 Hz, 0.5H), 2.72 (m, 1H), 1.90 (s, 3H), 1.35 (d, J = 6.7 Hz, 3H), 1.08 (d, J = 6.7 Hz, 3H), 0.94 (d, J = 6.7 Hz, 3H). 
19F NMR (376 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ –115.6 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1 F), –128.6 (br. s., 1 F). 
13C NMR (151 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 165.0 (1C), 163.4 (1C), 162.5 (1C), 160.1 (1C), 156.8 (1C), 153.7 (1C), 151.9 (1C), 149.5 (1C), 148.3 (1C), 145.2 (1C), 144.3 (1C), 131.6 (1C), 130.8 (1C), 127.9 (0.5C), 127.9 (0.5C), 127.8 (0.5C), 127.7 (0.5C), 123.2 (1C), 122.8 (1C), 111.7 (1C), 109.7 (1C), 105.7 (1C), 105.3 (1C), 51.4 (0.5C), 51.0 (0.5C), 48.9 (0.5C), 45.4 (0.5C), 44.6 (0.5C), 43.7 (0.5C), 43.5 (0.5C), 41.6 (0.5C), 29.8 (1C), 21.9 (1C), 21.7 (1C), 17.0 (1C), 15.5 (0.5C), 14.8 (0.5C). 
FTMS (ESI) m/z: [M+H]+ Calcd for C30H30F2N6O3 561.24202; Found 561.24150. Atropisomer configuration (R vs. S) assigned crystallographically.The Supporting Information is available free of charge at https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.9b01180.

PATENT

WO 2021097212

The present disclosure relates to an improved, efficient, scalable process to prepare intermediate compounds, such as compound of Formula 6A, having the structure,


useful for the synthesis of compounds for the treatment of KRAS G12C mutated cancers.

BACKGROUND

[0003] KRAS gene mutations are common in pancreatic cancer, lung adenocarcinoma, colorectal cancer, gall bladder cancer, thyroid cancer, and bile duct cancer. KRAS mutations are also observed in about 25% of patients with NSCLC, and some studies have indicated that KRAS mutations are a negative prognostic factor in patients with NSCLC. Recently, V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) mutations have been found to confer resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeted therapies in colorectal cancer; accordingly, the mutational status of KRAS can provide important information prior to the prescription of TKI therapy. Taken together, there is a need for new medical treatments for patients with pancreatic cancer, lung adenocarcinoma, or colorectal cancer, especially those who have been diagnosed to have such cancers characterized by a KRAS mutation, and including those who have progressed after chemotherapy.

Related Synthetic Processes

[0126] The following intermediate compounds of 6-Fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(4-methyl-2-(2-propanyl)-3-pyridinyl)-4-((2S)-2-methyl-4-(2-propenoyl)-1-piperazinyl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one are representative examples of the disclosure and are not intended to be construed as limiting the scope of the present invention.

[0127] A synthesis of Compound 9 and the relevant intermediates is described in U.S. Serial No.15/984,855, filed May 21, 2018 (U.S. Publication No.2018/0334454, November 22, 2018) which claims priority to and the benefit claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No.62/509,629, filed on May 22, 2017, both of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entireties for all purposes. 6-Fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(4-methyl-2-(2-propanyl)-3-pyridinyl)-4-((2S)-2-methyl-4-(2-propenoyl)-1-piperazinyl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one was prepared using the following process, in which the isomers of the final product were isolated via chiral chromatography.

[0128] Step 1: 2,6-Dichloro-5-fluoronicotinamide (Intermediate S). To a mixture of 2,6-dichloro-5-fluoro-nicotinic acid (4.0 g, 19.1 mmol, AstaTech Inc., Bristol, PA) in dichloromethane (48 mL) was added oxalyl chloride (2M solution in DCM, 11.9 mL, 23.8 mmol), followed by a catalytic amount of DMF (0.05 mL). The reaction was stirred at room temperature overnight and then was concentrated. The residue was dissolved in 1,4-dioxane (48 mL) and cooled to 0 °C. Ammonium hydroxide solution (28.0-30% NH3 basis, 3.6 mL, 28.6 mmol) was added slowly via syringe. The resulting mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 30 min and then was concentrated. The residue was diluted with a 1:1 mixture of EtOAc/Heptane and agitated for 5 min, then was filtered. The filtered solids were discarded, and the remaining mother liquor was partially concentrated to half volume and filtered. The filtered solids were washed with heptane and dried in a reduced-pressure oven (45 °C) overnight to provide 2,6-dichloro-5-fluoronicotinamide. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 8.23 (d, J = 7.9 Hz, 1 H) 8.09 (br s, 1 H) 7.93 (br s, 1 H). m/z (ESI, +ve ion): 210.9 (M+H)+.

[0129] Step 2: 2,6-Dichloro-5-fluoro-N-((2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)carbamoyl)nicotinamide. To an ice-cooled slurry of 2,6-dichloro-5-fluoronicotinamide (Intermediate S, 5.0 g, 23.9 mmol) in THF (20 mL) was added oxalyl chloride (2 M solution in DCM, 14.4 mL, 28.8 mmol) slowly via syringe. The resulting mixture was heated at 75 °C for 1 h, then heating was stopped, and the reaction was concentrated to half volume. After cooling to 0 °C, THF (20 mL) was added, followed by a solution of 2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-amine (Intermediate R, 3.59 g, 23.92 mmol) in THF (10 mL), dropwise via cannula. The resulting mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 1 h and then was quenched with a 1:1 mixture of brine and saturated aqueous ammonium chloride. The mixture was extracted with EtOAc (3x) and the combined organic layers were dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated to provide 2,6-dichloro-5-fluoro-N-((2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)carbamoyl)nicotinamide. This material was used without further purification in the following step. m/z (ESI, +ve ion): 385.1(M+H)+.

[0130] Step 3: 7-Chloro-6-fluoro-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione. To an ice-cooled solution of 2,6-dichloro-5-fluoro-N-((2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)carbamoyl)nicotinamide (9.2 g, 24.0 mmol) in THF (40 mL) was added KHMDS (1 M solution in THF, 50.2 mL, 50.2 mmol) slowly via syringe. The ice bath was removed and the resulting mixture was stirred for 40 min at room temperature. The reaction was quenched with saturated aqueous ammonium chloride and extracted with EtOAc (3x). The combined organic layers were dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (eluent: 0-50% 3:1 EtOAc-EtOH/heptane) to provide 7-chloro-6-fluoro-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione.1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 12.27 (br s, 1H), 8.48-8.55 (m, 2 H), 7.29 (d, J = 4.8 Hz, 1 H), 2.87 (quin, J = 6.6 Hz, 1 H), 1.99-2.06 (m, 3 H), 1.09 (d, J = 6.6 Hz, 3 H), 1.01 (d, J = 6.6 Hz, 3 H).19F NMR (376 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ: -126.90 (s, 1 F). m/z (ESI, +ve ion): 349.1 (M+H)+.

[0131] Step 4: 4,7-Dichloro-6-fluoro-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one. To a solution of 7-chloro-6-fluoro-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione (4.7 g, 13.5 mmol) and DIPEA (3.5 mL, 20.2 mmol) in acetonitrile (20 mL) was added phosphorus oxychloride (1.63 mL, 17.5 mmol), dropwise via syringe. The resulting mixture was heated at 80 °C for 1 h, and then was cooled to room temperature and concentrated to provide 4,7-dichloro-6-fluoro-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one. This material was used without further purification in the following step. m/z (ESI, +ve ion): 367.1 (M+H)+.

[0132] Step 5: (S)-tert-Butyl 4-(7-chloro-6-fluoro-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-3-methylpiperazine-1-carboxylate. To an ice-cooled solution of 4,7-dichloro-6-fluoro-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one (13.5 mmol) in acetonitrile (20 mL) was added DIPEA (7.1 mL, 40.3 mmol), followed by (S)-4-N-Boc-2-methyl piperazine (3.23 g, 16.1 mmol, Combi-Blocks, Inc., San Diego, CA, USA). The resulting mixture was warmed to room temperature and stirred for 1 h, then was diluted with cold saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution (200 mL) and EtOAc (300 mL). The mixture was stirred for an additional 5 min, the layers were separated, and the aqueous layer was extracted with more EtOAc (1x). The combined organic layers were dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (eluent: 0-50% EtOAc/heptane) to provide (S)-tert-butyl 4-(7-chloro-6-fluoro-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-3-methylpiperazine-1-carboxylate. m/z (ESI, +ve ion): 531.2 (M+H)+.

[0133] Step 6: (3S)-tert-Butyl 4-(6-fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-3-methylpiperazine-1-carboxylate. A mixture of (S)-tert-butyl 4-(7-chloro-6-fluoro-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-3-methylpiperazine-1-carboxylate (4.3 g, 8.1 mmol), potassium trifluoro(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)borate (Intermediate Q, 2.9 g, 10.5 mmol), potassium acetate (3.2 g, 32.4 mmol) and [1,1′-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene]dichloropalladium(II), complex with dichloromethane (661 mg, 0.81 mmol) in 1,4-dioxane (80 mL) was degassed with nitrogen for 1 min. De-oxygenated water (14 mL) was added, and the resulting mixture was heated at 90 °C for 1 h. The reaction was allowed to cool to room temperature, quenched with half-saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate, and extracted with EtOAc (2x) and DCM (1x). The combined organic layers were dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (eluent: 0-60% 3:1 EtOAc-EtOH/heptane) to provide (3S)-tert-butyl 4-(6-fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-3-methylpiperazine-1-carboxylate.1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 10.19 (br s, 1 H), 8.38 (d, J = 5.0 Hz, 1 H), 8.26 (dd, J = 12.5, 9.2 Hz, 1 H), 7.23-7.28 (m, 1 H), 7.18 (d, J = 5.0 Hz, 1 H), 6.72 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1 H), 6.68 (t, J = 8.9 Hz, 1 H), 4.77-4.98 (m, 1 H), 4.24 (br t, J = 14.2 Hz, 1 H), 3.93-4.08 (m, 1 H), 3.84 (br d, J=12.9 Hz, 1 H), 3.52-3.75 (m, 1 H), 3.07-3.28 (m, 1 H), 2.62-2.74 (m, 1 H), 1.86-1.93 (m, 3 H), 1.43-1.48 (m, 9 H), 1.35 (dd, J = 10.8, 6.8 Hz, 3 H), 1.26-1.32 (m, 1 H), 1.07 (dd, J = 6.6, 1.7 Hz, 3 H), 0.93 (dd, J = 6.6, 2.1 Hz, 3 H).19F NMR (376 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ: -115.65 (s, 1 F), -128.62 (s, 1 F). m/z (ESI, +ve ion): 607.3 (M+H)+.

[0134] Step 7: 6-Fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(4-methyl-2-(2-propanyl)-3-pyridinyl)-4-((2S)-2-methyl-4-(2-propenoyl)-1-piperazinyl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one. Trifluoroacetic acid (25 mL, 324 mmol) was added to a solution of (3S)-tert-butyl 4-(6-fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-3-methylpiperazine-1-carboxylate (6.3 g, 10.4 mmol) in DCM (30 mL). The resulting mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 h and then was concentrated. The residue was dissolved in DCM (30 mL), cooled to 0 °C, and sequentially treated with DIPEA (7.3 mL, 41.7 mmol) and a solution of acryloyl chloride (0.849 mL, 10.4 mmol) in DCM (3 mL; added dropwise via syringe). The reaction was stirred at 0 °C for 10 min, then was quenched with half-saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate and extracted with DCM (2x). The combined organic layers were dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (eluent: 0-100% 3:1 EtOAc-EtOH/heptane) to provide 6-fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(4-methyl-2-(2-propanyl)-3-pyridinyl)-4-((2S)-2-methyl-4-(2-propenoyl)-1-piperazinyl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one.1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 10.20 (s, 1 H), 8.39 (d, J = 4.8 Hz, 1 H), 8.24-8.34 (m, 1 H), 7.23-7.32 (m, 1 H), 7.19 (d, J = 5.0 Hz, 1 H), 6.87 (td, J = 16.3, 11.0 Hz, 1 H), 6.74 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 1 H), 6.69 (t, J = 8.6 Hz, 1 H), 6.21 (br d, J = 16.2 Hz, 1 H), 5.74-5.80 (m, 1 H), 4.91 (br s, 1 H), 4.23-4.45 (m, 2 H), 3.97-4.21 (m, 1 H), 3.44-3.79 (m, 2 H), 3.11-3.31 (m, 1 H), 2.67-2.77 (m, 1 H), 1.91 (s, 3 H), 1.35 (d, J = 6.8 Hz, 3 H), 1.08 (d, J = 6.6 Hz, 3 H), 0.94 (d, J = 6.8 Hz, 3 H).19F NMR (376 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm -115.64 (s, 1 F), -128.63 (s, 1 F). m/z (ESI, +ve ion): 561.2 (M+H)+.

[0135] Another synthesis of Compound 9 and the relevant intermediates was described in a U.S. provisional patent application filed November 16, 2018, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety for all purposes.

Representative Synthetic Processes

[0136] The present disclosure comprises the following steps wherein the synthesis and utilization of the boroxine intermediate is a novel and inventive step in the manufacture of AMG 510 (Compound 9):

Raw Materials

Step la

[0137] To a solution of 2,6-dichloro-5-fluoro-3-pyridinecarboxylic acid (25kg; 119. lmol) in dichloromethane (167kg) and DMF (592g) was added Oxalyl chloride (18.9kg; 148.9mol) while maintaining an internal temp between 15-20 °C. Additional dichloromethane (33kg) was added as a rinse and the reaction mixture stirred for 2h. The reaction mixture is cooled then quenched with ammonium hydroxide (40.2L; 595.5mol) while maintaining internal temperature 0 ± 10°C. The resulting slurry was stirred for 90min then the product collected by filtration. The filtered solids were washed with DI water (3X 87L) and dried to provide 2,6-dichloro-5-fluoronicotinamide (Compound 1).

Step 1b

[0138] In reactor A, a solution of 2,6-dichloro-5-fluoronicotinamide (Compound 1) (16.27kg; 77.8mol) in dichloromethane (359.5kg) was added oxalyl chloride (11.9kg;

93.8mol) while maintaining temp ≤ 25°C for 75min. The resulting solution was then headed to 40°C ± 3°C and aged for 3h. Using vacuum, the solution was distilled to remove dichloromethane until the solution was below the agitator. Dichloromethane (300 kg) was then added and the mixture cooled to 0 ± 5°C. To a clean, dry reactor (reactor B) was added,2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-amine (ANILINE Compound 2A) (12.9kg; 85.9mol) followed by dichloromethane (102.6 kg). The ANILINE solution was azeodried via vacuum distillation while maintaining an internal temperature between 20-25 °), replacing with additional dichloromethane until the solution was dry by KF analysis (limit ≤ 0.05%). The solution volume was adjusted to approx. 23L volume with dichloromethane. The dried ANILINE solution was then added to reactor A while maintaining an internal temperature of 0 ± 5°C throughout the addition. The mixture was then heated to 23 °C and aged for 1h. the solution was polish filtered into a clean reactor to afford 2,6-dichloro-5-fluoro-N-((2- isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)carbamoyl)nicotinamide (Compound 3) as a solution in DCM and used directly in the next step.

Step 2

[0139] A dichloromethane solution of 2,6-dichloro-5-fluoro-N-{[4-methyl-2-(propan-2- yl)pyridin-3-yl]carbamoyl}pyridine-3-carboxamide (UREA (Compound 3)) (15kg contained; 38.9mol) was solvent exchanged into 2-MeTHF using vacuum distillation while maintaining internal temperature of 20-25 °C. The reactor volume was adjusted to 40L and then

additional 2-MeTHF was charged (105.4 kg). Sodium t-butoxide was added (9.4 kg;

97.8mol) while maintaining 5-10 °C. The contents where warmed to 23 °C and stirred for 3h. The contents where then cooled to 0-5C and ammonium chloride added (23.0kg; 430mol) as a solution in 60L of DI water. The mixture was warmed to 20 C and DI water added (15L) and further aged for 30min. Agitation was stopped and the layers separated. The aqueous layer was removed and to the organic layer was added DI water(81.7L). A mixture of conc HCl (1.5kg) and water (9L) was prepared then added to the reactor slowly until pH measured between 4-5. The layers were separated, and the aqueous layer back extracted using 2-MeTHF (42.2kg). The two organic layers combined and washed with a 10% citric acid solution (75kg) followed by a mixture of water (81.7L) and saturated NaCl (19.8 kg). The organic layer was then washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate (75kg) repeating if necessary to achieve a target pH of ≥ 7.0 of the aqueous. The organic layer was washed again with brine (54.7kg) and then dried over magnesium sulfate (5kg). The mixture was filtered to remove magnesium sulfate rinsing the filtered bed with 2-MeTHF (49.2 kg). The combined filtrate and washes where distilled using vacuum to 40L volume. The concentrated solution was heated to 55 °C and heptane (10-12kg) slowly added until cloud point. The solution was cooled to 23 °C over 2h then heptane (27.3 kg) was added over 2h. The product slurry was aged for 3h at 20-25 °C then filtered and washed with a mixture of 2-MeTHF (2.8kg) and heptane (9kg). The product was dried using nitrogen and vacuum to afford solid 7-chloro-6-fluoro-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione (rac-DIONE (Compound 4)).

Step 3

[0140] To a vessel, an agitated suspension of Compound 4, (1.0 eq.) in 2- methylterahydrofuran (7.0 L/kg) was added (+)-2,3-dibenzoyl-D-tartaric acid (2.0 eq.) under an atmosphere of nitrogen. 2-MeTHF is chiral, but it is used as a racemic mixture. The different enantiomers of 2-MeTHF are incorporated randomly into the co-crystal. The resulting suspension was warmed to 75°C and aged at 75°C until full dissolution was observed (< 30 mins.). The resulting solution was polish filtered at 75°C into a secondary vessel. To the polish filtered solution was charged n-Heptane (2.0 L/kg) at a rate that maintained the internal temperature above 65°C. The solution was then cooled to 60°C, seeded with crystals (0.01 kg/kg) and allowed to age for 30 minutes. The resulting suspension was cooled to 20°C over 4 hours and then sampled for chiral purity analysis by HPLC. To the suspension, n-Heptane (3.0 L/kg) was charged and then aged for 4 hours at 20°C under an atmosphere of nitrogen. The suspension was filtered, and the isolated solids were washed two times with (2:1) n-Heptane:2-methyltetrahydrofuran (3.0 L/kg). The material was dried with nitrogen and vacuum to afford M-Dione:DBTA: Me-THF complex (Compound 4a).

Step 4

[0141] To vessel A, a suspension of disodium hydrogen phosphate (21.1 kg, 2.0 equiv) in DI water (296.8 L, 6.3 L/kg) was agitated until dissolution was observed (≥ 30 min.). To vessel B, a suspension of the M-Dione:DBTA: Me-THF complex (Composition 4a)[46.9 kg (25.9 kg corrected for M-dione, 1.0 equiv.)] in methyl tert-butyl ether (517.8 L, 11.0 L/kg) was agitated for 15 to 30 minutes. The resulting solution from vessel A was added to vessel B, and then the mixture was agitated for more than 3 hours. The agitation was stopped, and the biphasic mixture was left to separate for more than 30 minutes. The lower aqueous phase was removed and then back extracted with methyl tert-butyl ether (77.7 L, 1.7 L/kg). The organic phases were combined in vessel B and dried with magnesium sulfate (24.8 kg, 0.529 kg/kg). The resulting suspension from vessel B was agitated for more than three hours and then filtered into vessel C. To vessel B, a methyl tert-butyl ether (46.9 L, 1.0 L/kg) rinse was charged and then filtered into vessel C. The contents of vessel C were cooled to 10 °C and then distilled under vacuum while slowly being warmed to 35°C. Distillation was continued until 320-350 kg (6.8-7.5 kg/kg) of methyl tert-butyl ether was collected. After cooling the contents of vessel C to 20°C, n-Heptane (278.7 L, 5.9 L/kg) was charged over one hour and then distilled under vacuum while slowly being warmed to 35°C. Distillation was continued until a 190-200 kg (4.1-4.3 kg/kg) mixture of methyl tert-butyl ether and n-Heptane was collected. After cooling the contents of vessel C to 20°C, n-Heptane (278.7 L, 5.9 L/kg) was charged a second time over one hour and then distilled under vacuum while slowly being warmed to 35°C. Distillation was continued until a 190-200 kg (4.1-4.3 kg/kg) mixture of methyl tert-butyl ether and n-Heptane was collected. After cooling the contents of vessel C to 20°C, n-Heptane (195.9 L, 4.2 L/kg) was charged a third time over one hour and then sampled for solvent composition by GC analysis. The vessel C suspension continued to agitate for more than one hour. The suspension was filtered, and then washed with a n-Heptane (68.6 L, 1.5 L/kg) rinse from vessel C. The isolated solids were dried at 50°C, and a sample was submitted for stock suitability. Afforded 7-chloro-6-fluoro-(1M)-1-[4-methyl-2-(propan-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl]pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione (M-DIONE) Compound 5M.

[0142] The first-generation process highlighted above has been successfully scaled on 200+ kg of rac-dione starting material (Compound 4). In this process, seeding the crystallization with the thermodynamically-stable rac-dione crystal form (which exhibits low solubility) would cause a batch failure. Based on our subsequent studies, we found that increasing the DBTA equivalents and lowering the seed temperature by adjusting heptane

charge schedule improves robustness of the process. The improved process is resistant to the presence of the thermodynamically-stable rac-dione crystal form and promotes successful separation of atropisomers. Subsequent batches will incorporate the improved process for large scale manufacture.

Step 5

Note: All L/kg amounts are relative to M-Dione input; All equiv. amounts are relative to M-Dione input after adjusted by potency.

[0143] M-Dione (Compound 5M, 1.0 equiv.) and Toluene-1 (10.0 L/kg) was charged to Vessel A. The resulting solution was dried by azeotropic distillation under vacuum at 45 °C until 5.0 L/kg of solvents has been removed. The contents of Vessel A were then cooled to 20 °C.

[0144] Vessel C was charged with Toluene-3 (4.5 L/kg), Phosphoryl chloride (1.5 equiv.) and N,N-Diisopropylethylamine-1 (2.0 equiv.) while maintaining the internal temperature below 20 ± 5 °C.

Upon finishing charging, Vessel C was warmed to 30 ± 5 °C. The contents of Vessel A were then transferred to Vessel C over 4 hours while maintaining the internal temperature at 30 ± 5°C. Vessel A was rinsed with Toluene-2 (0.5 L/kg) and transferred to Vessel C. The contents of Vessel C were agitated at 30°C for an additional 3 hours. The contents of Vessel C were cooled to 20 ± 5 °C. A solution of (s)-1-boc-3-methylpiperazine (1.2 equiv.), N,N-Diisopropylethylamine-2 (1.2 equiv.) in isopropyl acetate-1 (1.0 L/kg) was prepared in Vessel D. The solution of Vessel D was charged to vessel C while maintaining a batch temperature of 20 ± 5 °C (Note: Exotherm is observed). Upon the end of transfer, Vessel D was rinsed with additional dichloromethane (1.0 L/kg) and transferred to Vessel C. The contents of Vessel C were agitated for an additional 60 minutes at 20 °C. A solution of sodium bicarbonate [water-1 (15.0 L/kg + Sodium bicarbonate (4.5 equiv.)] was then charged into Vessel C over an hour while maintaining an internal temperature at 20 ± 5 °C throughout the addition. The contents of Vessel C were agitated for at least 12 hours at which point the Pipazoline (Compound 6) product was isolated by filtration in an agitated filter dryer. The cake was washed with water-2 and -3 (5.0 L/kg x 2 times, agitating each wash for 15 minutes) and isopropyl acetate-2 and 3 (5.0 L/kg x 2 times, agitating each wash for 15 min). The cake as dried under nitrogen for 12 hours.

Acetone Re-slurry (Optional):

[0145] Pipazoline (Compound 6) and acetone (10.0 L/kg) were charged to Vessel E. The suspension was heated to 50 °C for 2 hours. Water-4 (10.0 L/kg) was charged into Vessel E over 1 hour. Upon completion of water addition, the mixture was cooled to 20 °C over 1 hour. The contents of Vessel E were filtered to isolate the product, washing the cake with 1:1 acetone/water mixture (5.0 L/kg). The cake was dried under nitrogen for 12 hours.

Step 6

General Note: All equivalents and volumes are reported in reference to Pipazoline input

Note: All L/kg and kg/kg amounts are relative to Pipazoline input

[0146] Reactor A is charged with Pipazoline (Compound 6, 1.0 equiv), degassed 2- MeTHF (9.0 L/kg) and a solution of potassium acetate (2.0 equiv) in degassed water (6.5 L/kg). The resulting mixture is warmed to 75 ± 5 °C and then, charge a slurry of

Pd(dpePhos)Cl2 (0.003 equiv) in 2-MeTHF (0.5 L/kg). Within 2 h of catalyst charge, a solution of freshly prepared Boroxine (Compound 6A, 0.5 equiv) in wet degassed 2-MeTHF (4.0 L/kg, KF > 4.0%) is charged over the course of >1 hour, but < 2 hours, rinsing with an additional portion of wet 2-MeTHF (0.5 L/kg) after addition is complete. After reaction completion ( <0.15 area % Pipazoline remaining, typically <1 h after boroxine addition is complete), 0.2 wt% (0.002 kg/kg) of Biaryl seed is added as a slurry in 0.02 L/kg wet 2- MeTHF, and the resulting seed bed is aged for > 60 min. Heptane (5.0 L/kg) is added over 2 hours at 75 ± 5 °C. The batch is then cooled to 20 ± 5 °C over 2 hours and aged for an additional 2 h. The slurry is then filtered and cake washed with 1 x 5.0L/kg water, 1 x 5.0L/kg 1:1 iPrOH:water followed by 1 x 5.0 L/kg 1:1 iPrOH:heptane (resuspension wash: the cake is resuspended by agitator and allow to set before filtering) . The cake (Biaryl, Compound 7) is then dried under vacuum with a nitrogen sweep.

Note: If the reaction stalls, an additional charge of catalyst and boroxine is required

Step 7 Charcoal Filtration for Pd removal


General Note: All equivalents and volumes are reported in reference to crude Biaryl input

Note: All L/kg and kg/kg amounts are relative to crude Biaryl input

[0147] In a clean Vessel A, charge crude Biaryl (1 equiv) and charge DCM (10 L/kg). Agitate content for > 60 minutes at 22 ± 5 °C, observing dissolution. Pass crude Biaryl from Vessel A, through a bag filter and carbon filters at a flux ≤ 3 L2/min/m and collect filtrate in clean Vessel B. Charge DCM rinse (1 L/kg) to Vessel A, and through carbon filters to collect in vessel B.

[0148] From filtrate in Vessel B, pull a solution sample for IPC Pd content. Sample is concentrated to solid and analyzed by ICP-MS. IPC: Pd ≤ 25 ppm with respect to Biaryl. a. If Pd content is greater than 25 ppm with respect to Biaryl on first or second IPC sample, pass solution through carbon filter a second time at ≤ 3 L2/min/m2, rinsing with 1 L/kg DCM; sample filtrate for IPC.

b. If Pd content remains greater than 25 ppm after third IPC, install and condition fresh carbon discs. Pass Biaryl filtrate through refreshed carbon filter, washing with 1 L/kg DCM. Sample for IPC.

[0149] Distill and refill to appropriate concentration. Prepare for distillation of recovered filtrate by concentrating to ≤ 4 L/kg DCM, and recharge to reach 5.25 ± 0.25 L/kg DCM prior to moving into Step 7 Boc-deprotection reaction.

Step 7

 General Note: All equivalents and volumes are reported in reference to crude Biaryl input

Note: All L/kg and kg/kg amounts are relative to Biaryl input

[0150] To Reactor A was added: tert-butyl (3S)-4-{6-fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-(1M)-1-[4-methyl-2-(propan-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl]-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl}-3-methylpiperazine-1-carboxylate (Biaryl) (1.0 equiv), dichloromethane (5.0 L/kg), and the TFA (15.0 equiv, 1.9 L/kg) is charged slowly to maintain the internal temperature at 20 ± 5 °C. The reaction was stirred for 4 h at 20 ± 5 °C.

[0151] To Reactor B was added: potassium carbonate (18.0 equiv), water (20.0 L/kg), and NMP (1.0) to form a homogenous solution. While agitating at the maximum acceptable rate for the equipment, the reaction mixture in A was transferred into the potassium carbonate solution in B over 30 minutes (~ 0.24 L/kg/min rate). The mixture was stirred at 20 ± 5 °C for an additional 12 h.

[0152] The resulting slurry was filtered and rinsed with water (2 x 10 L/kg). The wet cake was dried for 24 h to give 6-fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-4-[(2S)-2-methylpiperazin- 1-yl]-(1M)-1-[4-methyl-2-(propan-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl]pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one (Des- Boc, Compound 8).

Step 8

Note: All L/kg and kg/kg amounts are relative to Des-Boc input

[0153] Des-Boc (Compound 8, 1.0 equiv) and NMP (4.2 L/kg) are charged to Vessel A under nitrogen, charge the TFA (1.0 equiv.) slowly to maintain the Tr <25 °C. The mixture is aged at 25 °C until full dissolution is observed (about 0.5 hour). The solution is then polish filtered through a 0.45 micron filter into Vessel B, washing with a NMP (0.8 L/kg). The filtrate and wash are combined, and then cooled to 0 °C. To the resulting solution, Acryloyl Chloride (1.3 equiv.) is added while maintaining temperature < 10 C. The reaction mixture is then aged at 5 ±5°C until completed by IPC (ca.1.5 hrs).

Preparation of Aqueous Disodium Phosphate Quench:

[0154] Disodium Phosphate (3.0 equiv) and Water (15.0 L/kg) are charged to Vessel C. The mixture is aged at 25 °C until full dissolution is observed. The solution is warmed to 45 ±5°C. A seed slurry of AMG 510 (0.005 equiv.) in Water (0.4 L/kg) is prepared and added to Vessel C while maintaining temperature at 45 ±5°C.

[0155] The reaction mixture in Vessel B is transferred to Vessel C (quench solution) while maintaining temperature at 45 ±5°C (ca.1 hrs). Vessel B is washed with a portion of NMP (0.5 L/kg). The product slurry is aged for 2 hrs at 45 ±5°C, cooled to 20 °C over 3 hrs, aged at 20 °C for a minimum of 12 hrs, filtered and washed with Water (2 x 10.0 L/kg). The product is dried using nitrogen and vacuum to afford Crude AMG 510 (Compound 9A).

Step 9

 General Note: All equivalents and volumes are reported in reference to crude AMG 510 input

Note: All L/kg and kg/kg amounts are relative to Crude AMG 510 input

[0156] Reactor A was charged with 6-fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-(1M)-1-[4- methyl-2-(propan-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl]-4-[(2S)-2-methyl-4-(prop-2-enoyl)piperazin-1- yl]pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one (Crude AMG 510) (1.0 equiv), ethanol (7.5 L/kg), and water (1.9 L/kg). The mixture heated to 75 °C and polish filtered into a clean Reactor B. The solution was cool to 45 °C and seeded with authentic milled AMG 510 seed (0.015 േ 0.005

1 Seed performs best when reduced in particle size via milling or with other type of mechanical grinding if mill is not available (mortar/ pestle). Actual seed utilized will be based on seed availability. 1.0- 2.0% is seed is target amount.

kg/kg); the resulting slurry was aged for 30 min. Water (15.0 L/kg) was added over 5h while maintaining an internal temperature > 40 °C; the mixture was aged for an additional 2h.

[0157] The mixture was cooled to 20 °C over 3 hours and aged for 8h, after which the solid was collected by filtration and washed using a mixture of ethanol (2.5 L/kg) and water (5.0 L/kg). The solid was dried using vacuum and nitrogen to obtain 6-fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-(1M)-1-[4-methyl-2-(propan-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl]-4-[(2S)-2-methyl-4-(prop-2-enoyl)piperazin-1-yl]pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one (AMG 510, Compound 9).

Compound 6A Boroxine Synthesis:

Lithiation/borylation

[0158] Reactor A was charged with THF (6 vol), a secondary amine base, Diisopropylamine (1.4 equiv), and a catalyst, such as triethylamine hydrochloride (0.01 equiv.). The resulting solution was cooled to -70 °C and a first base, n-BuLi (2.5 M in hexane, 1.5 equiv) was slowly added. After addition is complete, a solution of 3-fluoroanisole (1.0 equiv) in THF (6 vol) was added slowly and kept at -70 °C for 5 min. Concurrently or subsequently, a reagent, B(EtO)3 (2.0 equiv), was added slowly and kept at -70 °C for 10 min. The reaction mixture was quenched with an acid, 2N HCl. The quenched reaction mixture was extracted with MTBE (3 x 4 vol). The combined organic phases were concentrated to 1.5-3 total volumes. Heptane (7-9 vol) was added drop-wise and the mixture was cooled to 0-10 °C and stirred for 3 h. The mixture was filtrated and rinsed with heptane (1.5 vol). The solid was dried under nitrogen at < 30 °C to afford (2-fluoro-6-methoxyphenyl)boronic acid.

Demethylation:

Note: All L/kg and kg/kg amounts are relative to (2-fluoro-6-methoxyphenyl)boronic acid input

[0159] To a reactor, charge dichloromethane (solvent, 4.0 L/kg) and an acid, BBr3 (1.2 equiv), and cool to -20 °C. To this solution, a suspension of (2-fluoro-6-methoxyphenyl)boronic acid (1.0 equiv) in dichloromethane (4.0 L/kg) was added into the BBr3/DCM mixture while keeping temperature -15 to -25 °C. The reaction was allowed to proceed for approximately 2 hours while monitored by HPLC [≤1% (2-fluoro-6-methoxyphenyl)boronic acid] before reverse quenching into water (3.0 L/kg). The precipitated solid was then isolated by filtration and slurried with water (3.0 L/kg) on the filter prior to deliquoring. The filtrates were adjusted to pH 4-6 by the addition of sodium bicarbonate. The bottom organic phase was separated and the resulting aqueous layer was washed with dichloromethane (solvent, 5.0 Vol) and adjusted to pH = 1 by addition of concentrated hydrochloric acid. The resulting solids were isolated by filtration, washing the cake with water (2 x 5.0 L/kg)

Purification via Reslurry (required)

[0160] The combined crude solids were charged into a reactor and slurried with 5% EtOH/water (5.0 L/kg) at 20 °C for >1 h. The purified product was then isolated by filtration and rinsed with water (2 x 3 L/kg) before drying on the filter at < 30 °C to with nitrogen/vacuum to afford 2,2′,2”-(1,3,5,2,4,6-trioxatriborinane-2,4,6-triyl)tris(3-fluorophenol) (Boroxine, Compound 6A).

PATENT

WO 2020102730

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2020102730

PATENT

US 20180334454

References

  1. Jump up to:a b c d e “Lumakras- sotorasib tablet, coated”DailyMed. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
  2. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m n “FDA Approves First Targeted Therapy for Lung Cancer Mutation Previously Considered Resistant to Drug Therapy”U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 28 May 2021. Retrieved 28 May 2021.  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  3. ^ “KRAS mutant-targeting AMG 510”NCI Drug Dictionary. National Cancer Institute. 2 February 2011. Retrieved 16 November2019.
  4. ^ Canon J, Rex K, Saiki AY, Mohr C, Cooke K, Bagal D, et al. (November 2019). “The clinical KRAS(G12C) inhibitor AMG 510 drives anti-tumour immunity”. Nature575 (7781): 217–23. Bibcode:2019Natur.575..217Cdoi:10.1038/s41586-019-1694-1PMID 31666701.
  5. Jump up to:a b “FDA approves Amgen drug for lung cancer with specific mutation”CNBC. 28 May 2021. Retrieved 28 May 2021.
  6. ^ Hong DS, Fakih MG, Strickler JH, Desai J, Durm GA, Shapiro GI, et al. (2020). “KRASG12C inhibition with sotorasib in advanced solid tumors”N Engl J Meddoi:10.1056/NEJMoa1917239PMC 7571518.
  7. ^ Clinical trial number NCT03600883 for “A Phase 1/2, Study Evaluating the Safety, Tolerability, PK, and Efficacy of AMG 510 in Subjects With Solid Tumors With a Specific KRAS Mutation ” at ClinicalTrials.gov
  8. ^ “The Discovery Of Amgen’s Novel Investigational KRAS(G12C) Inhibitor AMG 510 Published In Nature” (Press release). Amgen. 30 October 2019. Retrieved 16 November 2019.
  9. ^ Irving M (24 December 2019). “Drug targeting common cancer cause enters phase 2 clinical trials”New Atlas. Retrieved 24 December 2019.
  10. Jump up to:a b c d Halford B (3 April 2019). “Amgen unveils its KRas inhibitor in human clinical trials: AMG 510 shuts down a mutant version of the cancer target via covalent interaction”Chemical & Engineering News97 (4). Retrieved 16 November 2019.
  11. ^ Al Idrus A (9 September 2019). “Amgen’s KRAS drug continues to deliver but faces ‘curse’ of high expectations”. fiercebiotech.com. Retrieved 16 November 2019.
  12. ^ Kaiser J (30 October 2019). “Two new drugs finally hit ‘undruggable’ cancer target, providing hope for treatments”Science Magazine. AAAS. Retrieved 16 November 2019.
  13. ^ Astor L (9 September 2019). “FDA Grants AMG 510 Fast Track Designation for KRAS G12C+ NSCLC”. targetedonc.com. Retrieved 16 November 2019.
  14. ^ World Health Organization (2021). “International nonproprietary names for pharmaceutical substances (INN): recommended INN: list 85” (PDF). WHO Drug Information35 (1).

Further reading

External links

  • “Sotorasib”Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Clinical trial number NCT03600883 for “A Phase 1/2, Study Evaluating the Safety, Tolerability, PK, and Efficacy of AMG 510 in Subjects With Solid Tumors With a Specific KRAS Mutation (CodeBreaK 100)” at ClinicalTrials.gov
Clinical data
Trade namesLumakras
Other namesAMG 510
License dataUS DailyMedSotorasib
Routes of
administration
By mouth
ATC codeNone
Legal status
Legal statusUS: ℞-only [1][2]
Identifiers
showIUPAC name
CAS Number2252403-56-6
PubChem CID137278711
DrugBankDB15569
ChemSpider72380148
UNII2B2VM6UC8G
KEGGD12055
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC30H30F2N6O3
Molar mass560.606 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)Interactive image
showSMILES
showInChI

////////Sotorasib, ソトラシブ , FDA 2021,  APPROVALS 2021,  Lumakras, CANCER, ANTINEOPLASTIC, AMG 510, AMG-510, AMG510, AMGEN, priority review, fast-track, breakthrough therapy, orphan drug

CC1CN(CCN1C2=NC(=O)N(C3=NC(=C(C=C32)F)C4=C(C=CC=C4F)O)C5=C(C=CN=C5C(C)C)C)C(=O)C=C

AMG 510.svg
4-((S)-4-Acryloyl-2-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-6-fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one.png

Sotorasib

6-fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(4-methyl-2-propan-2-ylpyridin-3-yl)-4-[(2S)-2-methyl-4-prop-2-enoylpiperazin-1-yl]pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2-one

AMG 510
AMG-510
AMG510

FormulaC30H30F2N6O3
CAS2296729-00-3
Mol weight560.5944

FDA APPROVED, 2021/5/28 Lumakras

Antineoplastic, Non-small cell lung cancer (KRAS G12C-mutated)

ソトラシブ (JAN);

2296729-00-3 (racemate)

4-((S)-4-Acryloyl-2-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-6-fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one

6-fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(4-methyl-2-propan-2-ylpyridin-3-yl)-4-[(2S)-2-methyl-4-prop-2-enoylpiperazin-1-yl]pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2-one

Sotorasib [INN]

6-Fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(4-methyl-2-propan-2-ylpyridin-3-yl)-4-((2S)-2-methyl-4-prop-2-enoylpiperazin-1-yl)pyrido(2,3-d)pyrimidin-2-one

Sotorasib

(1M)-6-Fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-[4-methyl-2-(propan-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl]-4-[(2S)-2-methyl-4-(prop-2-enoyl)piperazin-1-yl]pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one

C30H30F2N6O3 : 560.59
[2296729-00-3]

Sotorasib is an inhibitor of the RAS GTPase family. The molecular formula is C30H30F2N6O3, and the molecular weight is 560.6 g/mol. The chemical name of sotorasib is 6-fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-(1M)-1-[4-methyl-2-(propan-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl]-4-[(2S)-2-methyl-4-(prop-2enoyl) piperazin-1-yl]pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one. The chemical structure of sotorasib is shown below:

LUMAKRAS™ (sotorasib) Structural Formula Illustration

Sotorasib has pKa values of 8.06 and 4.56. The solubility of sotorasib in the aqueous media decreases over the range pH 1.2 to 6.8 from 1.3 mg/mL to 0.03 mg/mL.

LUMAKRAS is supplied as film-coated tablets for oral use containing 120 mg of sotorasib. Inactive ingredients in the tablet core are microcrystalline cellulose, lactose monohydrate, croscarmellose sodium, and magnesium stearate. The film coating material consists of polyvinyl alcohol, titanium dioxide, polyethylene glycol, talc, and iron oxide yellow.

FDA grants accelerated approval to sotorasib for KRAS G12C mutated NSCLC

https://www.fda.gov/drugs/drug-approvals-and-databases/fda-grants-accelerated-approval-sotorasib-kras-g12c-mutated-nsclc

On May 28, 2021, the Food and Drug Administration granted accelerated approval to sotorasib (Lumakras™, Amgen, Inc.), a RAS GTPase family inhibitor, for adult patients with KRAS G12C ‑mutated locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), as determined by an FDA ‑approved test, who have received at least one prior systemic therapy.

FDA also approved the QIAGEN therascreen® KRAS RGQ PCR kit (tissue) and the Guardant360® CDx (plasma) as companion diagnostics for Lumakras. If no mutation is detected in a plasma specimen, the tumor tissue should be tested.

Approval was based on CodeBreaK 100, a multicenter, single-arm, open label clinical trial (NCT03600883) which included patients with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC with KRAS G12C mutations. Efficacy was evaluated in 124 patients whose disease had progressed on or after at least one prior systemic therapy. Patients received sotorasib 960 mg orally daily until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

The main efficacy outcome measures were objective response rate (ORR) according to RECIST 1.1, as evaluated by blinded independent central review and response duration. The ORR was 36% (95% CI: 28%, 45%) with a median response duration of 10 months (range 1.3+, 11.1).

The most common adverse reactions (≥ 20%) were diarrhea, musculoskeletal pain, nausea, fatigue, hepatotoxicity, and cough. The most common laboratory abnormalities (≥ 25%) were decreased lymphocytes, decreased hemoglobin, increased aspartate aminotransferase, increased alanine aminotransferase, decreased calcium, increased alkaline phosphatase, increased urine protein, and decreased sodium.

The recommended sotorasib dose is 960 mg orally once daily with or without food.

The approved 960 mg dose is based on available clinical data, as well as pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modeling that support the approved dose. As part of the evaluation for this accelerated approval, FDA is requiring a postmarketing trial to investigate whether a lower dose will have a similar clinical effect.

View full prescribing information for Lumakras.

This indication is approved under accelerated approval based on overall response rate and duration of response. Continued approval for this indication may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in a confirmatory trial(s).

This review was conducted under Project Orbis, an initiative of the FDA Oncology Center of Excellence. Project Orbis provides a framework for concurrent submission and review of oncology drugs among international partners. For this review, FDA collaborated with the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA), the Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency (ANVISA), Health Canada, and the United Kingdom Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). The application reviews are ongoing at the other regulatory agencies.

This review used the Real-Time Oncology Review (RTOR) pilot program, which streamlined data submission prior to the filing of the entire clinical application, the Assessment Aid, and the Product Quality Assessment Aid (PQAA), voluntary submissions from the applicant to facilitate the FDA’s assessment. The FDA approved this application approximately 10 weeks ahead of the FDA goal date.

This application was granted priority review, fast-track, breakthrough therapy and orphan drug designation. A description of FDA expedited programs is in the Guidance for Industry: Expedited Programs for Serious Conditions-Drugs and Biologics.

Sotorasib, sold under the brand name Lumakras is an anti-cancer medication used to treat non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).[1][2] It targets a specific mutation, G12C, in the protein KRAS which is responsible for various forms of cancer.[3][4]

The most common side effects include diarrhea, musculoskeletal pain, nausea, fatigue, liver damage and cough.[1][2]

Sotorasib is an inhibitor of the RAS GTPase family.[1]

Sotorasib is the first approved targeted therapy for tumors with any KRAS mutation, which accounts for approximately 25% of mutations in non-small cell lung cancers.[2] KRAS G12C mutations represent about 13% of mutations in non-small cell lung cancers.[2] Sotorasib was approved for medical use in the United States in May 2021.[2][5]

Sotorasib is an experimental KRAS inhibitor being investigated for the treatment of KRAS G12C mutant non small cell lung cancer, colorectal cancer, and appendix cancer.

Sotorasib, also known as AMG-510, is an acrylamide derived KRAS inhibitor developed by Amgen.1,3 It is indicated in the treatment of adult patients with KRAS G12C mutant non small cell lung cancer.6 This mutation makes up >50% of all KRAS mutations.2 Mutant KRAS discovered in 1982 but was not considered a druggable target until the mid-2010s.5 It is the first experimental KRAS inhibitor.1

The drug MRTX849 is also currently being developed and has the same target.1

Sotorasib was granted FDA approval on 28 May 2021.6

Medical uses

Sotorasib is indicated for the treatment of adults with KRAS G12C-mutated locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), as determined by an FDA-approved test, who have received at least one prior systemic therapy.[1][2]

Clinical development

Sotorasib is being developed by Amgen. Phase I clinical trials were completed in 2020.[6][7][8] In December 2019, it was approved to begin Phase II clinical trials.[9]

Because the G12C KRAS mutation is relatively common in some cancer types, 14% of non-small-cell lung cancer adenocarcinoma patients and 5% of colorectal cancer patients,[10] and sotorasib is the first drug candidate to target this mutation, there have been high expectations for the drug.[10][11][12] The Food and Drug Administration has granted a fast track designation to sotorasib for the treatment of metastatic non-small-cell lung carcinoma with the G12C KRAS mutation.[13]

Chemistry and pharmacology

Sotorasib can exist in either of two atropisomeric forms and one is more active than the other.[10] It selectively forms an irreversible covalent bond to the sulfur atom in the cysteine residue that is present in the mutated form of KRAS, but not in the normal form.[10]

History

Researchers evaluated the efficacy of sotorasib in a study of 124 participants with locally advanced or metastatic KRAS G12C-mutated non-small cell lung cancer with disease progression after receiving an immune checkpoint inhibitor and/or platinum-based chemotherapy.[2] The major outcomes measured were objective response rate (proportion of participants whose tumor is destroyed or reduced) and duration of response.[2] The objective response rate was 36% and 58% of those participants had a duration of response of six months or longer.[2]

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted the application for sotorasib orphan drugfast trackpriority review, and breakthrough therapy designations.[2] The FDA collaborated with the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA), the Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency (ANVISA), Health Canada and the United Kingdom Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).[2] The application reviews are ongoing at the other regulatory agencies.[2]

The FDA granted approval of Lumakras to Amgen Inc.[2]

Society and culture

Economics

Sotorasib costs US$17,900 per month.[5]

Names

Sotorasib is the recommended international nonproprietary name (INN).[14]

PAPER

Nature (London, United Kingdom) (2019), 575(7781), 217-223

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-019-1694-1

KRAS is the most frequently mutated oncogene in cancer and encodes a key signalling protein in tumours1,2. The KRAS(G12C) mutant has a cysteine residue that has been exploited to design covalent inhibitors that have promising preclinical activity3,4,5. Here we optimized a series of inhibitors, using novel binding interactions to markedly enhance their potency and selectivity. Our efforts have led to the discovery of AMG 510, which is, to our knowledge, the first KRAS(G12C) inhibitor in clinical development. In preclinical analyses, treatment with AMG 510 led to the regression of KRASG12C tumours and improved the anti-tumour efficacy of chemotherapy and targeted agents. In immune-competent mice, treatment with AMG 510 resulted in a pro-inflammatory tumour microenvironment and produced durable cures alone as well as in combination with immune-checkpoint inhibitors. Cured mice rejected the growth of isogenic KRASG12D tumours, which suggests adaptive immunity against shared antigens. Furthermore, in clinical trials, AMG 510 demonstrated anti-tumour activity in the first dosing cohorts and represents a potentially transformative therapy for patients for whom effective treatments are lacking.

Paper

Scientific Reports (2020), 10(1), 11992

PAPER

European journal of medicinal chemistry (2021), 213, 113082.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0223523420310540

Image 1

KRAS is the most commonly altered oncogene of the RAS family, especially the G12C mutant (KRASG12C), which has been a promising drug target for many cancers. On the basis of the bicyclic pyridopyrimidinone framework of the first-in-class clinical KRASG12C inhibitor AMG510, a scaffold hopping strategy was conducted including a F–OH cyclization approach and a pyridinyl N-atom working approach leading to new tetracyclic and bicyclic analogues. Compound 26a was identified possessing binding potency of 1.87 μM against KRASG12C and cell growth inhibition of 0.79 μM in MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cells. Treatment of 26a with NCI–H358 cells resulted in down-regulation of KRAS-GTP levels and reduction of phosphorylation of downstream ERK and AKT dose-dependently. Molecular docking suggested that the fluorophenol moiety of 26a occupies a hydrophobic pocket region thus forming hydrogen bonding to Arg68. These results will be useful to guide further structural modification.

PAPER

Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2020), 63(1), 52-65.

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.9b01180

KRASG12C has emerged as a promising target in the treatment of solid tumors. Covalent inhibitors targeting the mutant cysteine-12 residue have been shown to disrupt signaling by this long-“undruggable” target; however clinically viable inhibitors have yet to be identified. Here, we report efforts to exploit a cryptic pocket (H95/Y96/Q99) we identified in KRASG12C to identify inhibitors suitable for clinical development. Structure-based design efforts leading to the identification of a novel quinazolinone scaffold are described, along with optimization efforts that overcame a configurational stability issue arising from restricted rotation about an axially chiral biaryl bond. Biopharmaceutical optimization of the resulting leads culminated in the identification of AMG 510, a highly potent, selective, and well-tolerated KRASG12C inhibitor currently in phase I clinical trials (NCT03600883).

AMG 510 [(R)-38]. (1R)-6-Fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-[4-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)-3-pyridinyl]-4-[(2S)-2-methyl-4-(1-oxo-2-propen-1-yl)-1-piperazinyl]-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one

………… concentrated in vacuo. Chromatographic purification of the residue (silica gel; 0–100% 3:1 EtOAc–EtOH/heptane) followed by chiral supercritical fluid chromatography (Chiralpak IC, 30 mm × 250 mm, 5 μm, 55% MeOH/CO2, 120 mL/min, 102 bar) provided (1R)-6-fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-[4-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)-3-pyridinyl]-4-[(2S)-2-methyl-4-(1-oxo-2-propen-1-yl)-1-piperazinyl]pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one (AMG 510; (R)-38; 2.25 g, 43% yield) as the first-eluting peak. 1H NMR (600 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 10.20 (s, 1H), 8.39 (d, J = 4.9 Hz, 1H), 8.30 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 0.5H), 8.27 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 0.5H), 7.27 (q, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 7.18 (d, J = 4.9 Hz, 1H), 6.87 (dd, J = 16.2, 10.8 Hz, 0.5H), 6.84 (dd, J = 16.2, 10.7 Hz, 0.5H), 6.74 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 6.68 (t, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 6.21 (d, J = 16.2 Hz, 0.5H), 6.20 (d, J = 16.2 Hz, 0.5H), 5.76 (d, J = 10.8 Hz, 0.5H), 5.76 (d, J = 10.7 Hz, 0.5H), 4.91 (m, 1H), 4.41 (d, J = 12.2 Hz, 0.5H), 4.33 (d, J = 12.2 Hz, 1H), 4.28 (d, J = 12.2 Hz, 0.5H), 4.14 (d, J = 12.2 Hz, 0.5H), 4.02 (d, J = 13.6 Hz, 0.5H), 3.69 (m, 1H), 3.65 (d, J = 13.6 Hz, 0.5H), 3.52 (t, J = 12.2 Hz, 0.5H), 3.27 (d, J = 12.2 Hz, 0.5H), 3.15 (t, J = 12.2 Hz, 0.5H), 2.72 (m, 1H), 1.90 (s, 3H), 1.35 (d, J = 6.7 Hz, 3H), 1.08 (d, J = 6.7 Hz, 3H), 0.94 (d, J = 6.7 Hz, 3H). 
19F NMR (376 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ −115.6 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1 F), −128.6 (br s, 1 F). 
13C NMR (151 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 165.0 (1C), 163.4 (1C), 162.5 (1C), 160.1 (1C), 156.8 (1C), 153.7 (1C), 151.9 (1C), 149.5 (1C), 148.3 (1C), 145.2 (1C), 144.3 (1C), 131.6 (1C), 130.8 (1C), 127.9 (0.5C), 127.9 (0.5C), 127.8 (0.5C), 127.7 (0.5C), 123.2 (1C), 122.8 (1C), 111.7 (1C), 109.7 (1C), 105.7 (1C), 105.3 (1C), 51.4 (0.5C), 51.0 (0.5C), 48.9 (0.5C), 45.4 (0.5C), 44.6 (0.5C), 43.7 (0.5C), 43.5 (0.5C), 41.6 (0.5C), 29.8 (1C), 21.9 (1C), 21.7 (1C), 17.0 (1C), 15.5 (0.5C), 14.8 (0.5C). 
FTMS (ESI) m/z: [M + H]+ calcd for C30H30F2N6O3 561.24202. Found 561.24150. 

d (1R)-6-Fluoro7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-[4-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)-3-pyridinyl]-4-[(2S)-2-methyl-4-(1-oxo-2-propen-1-yl)-1- piperazinyl]-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one ((R)-38; AMG 510; 2.25 g, 43% yield) as the first-eluting peak.1 H NMR (600 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 10.20 (s, 1H), 8.39 (d, J = 4.9 Hz, 1H), 8.30 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 0.5H), 8.27 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 0.5H), 7.27 (q, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 7.18 (d, J = 4.9 Hz, 1H), 6.87 (dd, J = 16.2, 10.8 Hz, 0.5H), 6.84 (dd, J = 16.2, 10.7 Hz, 0.5H), 6.74 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 6.68 (t, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 6.21 (d, J = 16.2 Hz, 0.5H), 6.20 (d, J = 16.2 Hz, 0.5H), 5.76 (d, J = 10.8 Hz, 0.5H), 5.76 (d, J = 10.7 Hz, 0.5H), 4.91 (m, 1H), 4.41 (d, J = 12.2 Hz, 0.5H), 4.33 (d, J = 12.2 Hz, 1H), 4.28 (d, J = 12.2 Hz, 0.5H), 4.14 (d, J = 12.2 Hz, 0.5H), 4.02 (d, J = 13.6 Hz, 0.5H), 3.69 (m, 1H), 3.65 (d, J = 13.6 Hz, 0.5H), 3.52 (t, J = 12.2 Hz, 0.5H), 3.27 (d, J = 12.2 Hz, 0.5H), 3.15 (t, J = 12.2 Hz, 0.5H), 2.72 (m, 1H), 1.90 (s, 3H), 1.35 (d, J = 6.7 Hz, 3H), 1.08 (d, J = 6.7 Hz, 3H), 0.94 (d, J = 6.7 Hz, 3H). 
19F NMR (376 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ –115.6 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1 F), –128.6 (br. s., 1 F). 
13C NMR (151 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 165.0 (1C), 163.4 (1C), 162.5 (1C), 160.1 (1C), 156.8 (1C), 153.7 (1C), 151.9 (1C), 149.5 (1C), 148.3 (1C), 145.2 (1C), 144.3 (1C), 131.6 (1C), 130.8 (1C), 127.9 (0.5C), 127.9 (0.5C), 127.8 (0.5C), 127.7 (0.5C), 123.2 (1C), 122.8 (1C), 111.7 (1C), 109.7 (1C), 105.7 (1C), 105.3 (1C), 51.4 (0.5C), 51.0 (0.5C), 48.9 (0.5C), 45.4 (0.5C), 44.6 (0.5C), 43.7 (0.5C), 43.5 (0.5C), 41.6 (0.5C), 29.8 (1C), 21.9 (1C), 21.7 (1C), 17.0 (1C), 15.5 (0.5C), 14.8 (0.5C). 
FTMS (ESI) m/z: [M+H]+ Calcd for C30H30F2N6O3 561.24202; Found 561.24150. Atropisomer configuration (R vs. S) assigned crystallographically.The Supporting Information is available free of charge at https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.9b01180.

PATENT

WO 2021097212

The present disclosure relates to an improved, efficient, scalable process to prepare intermediate compounds, such as compound of Formula 6A, having the structure,


useful for the synthesis of compounds for the treatment of KRAS G12C mutated cancers.

BACKGROUND

[0003] KRAS gene mutations are common in pancreatic cancer, lung adenocarcinoma, colorectal cancer, gall bladder cancer, thyroid cancer, and bile duct cancer. KRAS mutations are also observed in about 25% of patients with NSCLC, and some studies have indicated that KRAS mutations are a negative prognostic factor in patients with NSCLC. Recently, V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) mutations have been found to confer resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeted therapies in colorectal cancer; accordingly, the mutational status of KRAS can provide important information prior to the prescription of TKI therapy. Taken together, there is a need for new medical treatments for patients with pancreatic cancer, lung adenocarcinoma, or colorectal cancer, especially those who have been diagnosed to have such cancers characterized by a KRAS mutation, and including those who have progressed after chemotherapy.

Related Synthetic Processes

[0126] The following intermediate compounds of 6-Fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(4-methyl-2-(2-propanyl)-3-pyridinyl)-4-((2S)-2-methyl-4-(2-propenoyl)-1-piperazinyl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one are representative examples of the disclosure and are not intended to be construed as limiting the scope of the present invention.

[0127] A synthesis of Compound 9 and the relevant intermediates is described in U.S. Serial No.15/984,855, filed May 21, 2018 (U.S. Publication No.2018/0334454, November 22, 2018) which claims priority to and the benefit claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No.62/509,629, filed on May 22, 2017, both of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entireties for all purposes. 6-Fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(4-methyl-2-(2-propanyl)-3-pyridinyl)-4-((2S)-2-methyl-4-(2-propenoyl)-1-piperazinyl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one was prepared using the following process, in which the isomers of the final product were isolated via chiral chromatography.

[0128] Step 1: 2,6-Dichloro-5-fluoronicotinamide (Intermediate S). To a mixture of 2,6-dichloro-5-fluoro-nicotinic acid (4.0 g, 19.1 mmol, AstaTech Inc., Bristol, PA) in dichloromethane (48 mL) was added oxalyl chloride (2M solution in DCM, 11.9 mL, 23.8 mmol), followed by a catalytic amount of DMF (0.05 mL). The reaction was stirred at room temperature overnight and then was concentrated. The residue was dissolved in 1,4-dioxane (48 mL) and cooled to 0 °C. Ammonium hydroxide solution (28.0-30% NH3 basis, 3.6 mL, 28.6 mmol) was added slowly via syringe. The resulting mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 30 min and then was concentrated. The residue was diluted with a 1:1 mixture of EtOAc/Heptane and agitated for 5 min, then was filtered. The filtered solids were discarded, and the remaining mother liquor was partially concentrated to half volume and filtered. The filtered solids were washed with heptane and dried in a reduced-pressure oven (45 °C) overnight to provide 2,6-dichloro-5-fluoronicotinamide. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 8.23 (d, J = 7.9 Hz, 1 H) 8.09 (br s, 1 H) 7.93 (br s, 1 H). m/z (ESI, +ve ion): 210.9 (M+H)+.

[0129] Step 2: 2,6-Dichloro-5-fluoro-N-((2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)carbamoyl)nicotinamide. To an ice-cooled slurry of 2,6-dichloro-5-fluoronicotinamide (Intermediate S, 5.0 g, 23.9 mmol) in THF (20 mL) was added oxalyl chloride (2 M solution in DCM, 14.4 mL, 28.8 mmol) slowly via syringe. The resulting mixture was heated at 75 °C for 1 h, then heating was stopped, and the reaction was concentrated to half volume. After cooling to 0 °C, THF (20 mL) was added, followed by a solution of 2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-amine (Intermediate R, 3.59 g, 23.92 mmol) in THF (10 mL), dropwise via cannula. The resulting mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 1 h and then was quenched with a 1:1 mixture of brine and saturated aqueous ammonium chloride. The mixture was extracted with EtOAc (3x) and the combined organic layers were dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated to provide 2,6-dichloro-5-fluoro-N-((2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)carbamoyl)nicotinamide. This material was used without further purification in the following step. m/z (ESI, +ve ion): 385.1(M+H)+.

[0130] Step 3: 7-Chloro-6-fluoro-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione. To an ice-cooled solution of 2,6-dichloro-5-fluoro-N-((2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)carbamoyl)nicotinamide (9.2 g, 24.0 mmol) in THF (40 mL) was added KHMDS (1 M solution in THF, 50.2 mL, 50.2 mmol) slowly via syringe. The ice bath was removed and the resulting mixture was stirred for 40 min at room temperature. The reaction was quenched with saturated aqueous ammonium chloride and extracted with EtOAc (3x). The combined organic layers were dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (eluent: 0-50% 3:1 EtOAc-EtOH/heptane) to provide 7-chloro-6-fluoro-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione.1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 12.27 (br s, 1H), 8.48-8.55 (m, 2 H), 7.29 (d, J = 4.8 Hz, 1 H), 2.87 (quin, J = 6.6 Hz, 1 H), 1.99-2.06 (m, 3 H), 1.09 (d, J = 6.6 Hz, 3 H), 1.01 (d, J = 6.6 Hz, 3 H).19F NMR (376 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ: -126.90 (s, 1 F). m/z (ESI, +ve ion): 349.1 (M+H)+.

[0131] Step 4: 4,7-Dichloro-6-fluoro-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one. To a solution of 7-chloro-6-fluoro-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione (4.7 g, 13.5 mmol) and DIPEA (3.5 mL, 20.2 mmol) in acetonitrile (20 mL) was added phosphorus oxychloride (1.63 mL, 17.5 mmol), dropwise via syringe. The resulting mixture was heated at 80 °C for 1 h, and then was cooled to room temperature and concentrated to provide 4,7-dichloro-6-fluoro-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one. This material was used without further purification in the following step. m/z (ESI, +ve ion): 367.1 (M+H)+.

[0132] Step 5: (S)-tert-Butyl 4-(7-chloro-6-fluoro-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-3-methylpiperazine-1-carboxylate. To an ice-cooled solution of 4,7-dichloro-6-fluoro-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one (13.5 mmol) in acetonitrile (20 mL) was added DIPEA (7.1 mL, 40.3 mmol), followed by (S)-4-N-Boc-2-methyl piperazine (3.23 g, 16.1 mmol, Combi-Blocks, Inc., San Diego, CA, USA). The resulting mixture was warmed to room temperature and stirred for 1 h, then was diluted with cold saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution (200 mL) and EtOAc (300 mL). The mixture was stirred for an additional 5 min, the layers were separated, and the aqueous layer was extracted with more EtOAc (1x). The combined organic layers were dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (eluent: 0-50% EtOAc/heptane) to provide (S)-tert-butyl 4-(7-chloro-6-fluoro-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-3-methylpiperazine-1-carboxylate. m/z (ESI, +ve ion): 531.2 (M+H)+.

[0133] Step 6: (3S)-tert-Butyl 4-(6-fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-3-methylpiperazine-1-carboxylate. A mixture of (S)-tert-butyl 4-(7-chloro-6-fluoro-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-3-methylpiperazine-1-carboxylate (4.3 g, 8.1 mmol), potassium trifluoro(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)borate (Intermediate Q, 2.9 g, 10.5 mmol), potassium acetate (3.2 g, 32.4 mmol) and [1,1′-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene]dichloropalladium(II), complex with dichloromethane (661 mg, 0.81 mmol) in 1,4-dioxane (80 mL) was degassed with nitrogen for 1 min. De-oxygenated water (14 mL) was added, and the resulting mixture was heated at 90 °C for 1 h. The reaction was allowed to cool to room temperature, quenched with half-saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate, and extracted with EtOAc (2x) and DCM (1x). The combined organic layers were dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (eluent: 0-60% 3:1 EtOAc-EtOH/heptane) to provide (3S)-tert-butyl 4-(6-fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-3-methylpiperazine-1-carboxylate.1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 10.19 (br s, 1 H), 8.38 (d, J = 5.0 Hz, 1 H), 8.26 (dd, J = 12.5, 9.2 Hz, 1 H), 7.23-7.28 (m, 1 H), 7.18 (d, J = 5.0 Hz, 1 H), 6.72 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1 H), 6.68 (t, J = 8.9 Hz, 1 H), 4.77-4.98 (m, 1 H), 4.24 (br t, J = 14.2 Hz, 1 H), 3.93-4.08 (m, 1 H), 3.84 (br d, J=12.9 Hz, 1 H), 3.52-3.75 (m, 1 H), 3.07-3.28 (m, 1 H), 2.62-2.74 (m, 1 H), 1.86-1.93 (m, 3 H), 1.43-1.48 (m, 9 H), 1.35 (dd, J = 10.8, 6.8 Hz, 3 H), 1.26-1.32 (m, 1 H), 1.07 (dd, J = 6.6, 1.7 Hz, 3 H), 0.93 (dd, J = 6.6, 2.1 Hz, 3 H).19F NMR (376 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ: -115.65 (s, 1 F), -128.62 (s, 1 F). m/z (ESI, +ve ion): 607.3 (M+H)+.

[0134] Step 7: 6-Fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(4-methyl-2-(2-propanyl)-3-pyridinyl)-4-((2S)-2-methyl-4-(2-propenoyl)-1-piperazinyl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one. Trifluoroacetic acid (25 mL, 324 mmol) was added to a solution of (3S)-tert-butyl 4-(6-fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-3-methylpiperazine-1-carboxylate (6.3 g, 10.4 mmol) in DCM (30 mL). The resulting mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 h and then was concentrated. The residue was dissolved in DCM (30 mL), cooled to 0 °C, and sequentially treated with DIPEA (7.3 mL, 41.7 mmol) and a solution of acryloyl chloride (0.849 mL, 10.4 mmol) in DCM (3 mL; added dropwise via syringe). The reaction was stirred at 0 °C for 10 min, then was quenched with half-saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate and extracted with DCM (2x). The combined organic layers were dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (eluent: 0-100% 3:1 EtOAc-EtOH/heptane) to provide 6-fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(4-methyl-2-(2-propanyl)-3-pyridinyl)-4-((2S)-2-methyl-4-(2-propenoyl)-1-piperazinyl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one.1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 10.20 (s, 1 H), 8.39 (d, J = 4.8 Hz, 1 H), 8.24-8.34 (m, 1 H), 7.23-7.32 (m, 1 H), 7.19 (d, J = 5.0 Hz, 1 H), 6.87 (td, J = 16.3, 11.0 Hz, 1 H), 6.74 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 1 H), 6.69 (t, J = 8.6 Hz, 1 H), 6.21 (br d, J = 16.2 Hz, 1 H), 5.74-5.80 (m, 1 H), 4.91 (br s, 1 H), 4.23-4.45 (m, 2 H), 3.97-4.21 (m, 1 H), 3.44-3.79 (m, 2 H), 3.11-3.31 (m, 1 H), 2.67-2.77 (m, 1 H), 1.91 (s, 3 H), 1.35 (d, J = 6.8 Hz, 3 H), 1.08 (d, J = 6.6 Hz, 3 H), 0.94 (d, J = 6.8 Hz, 3 H).19F NMR (376 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm -115.64 (s, 1 F), -128.63 (s, 1 F). m/z (ESI, +ve ion): 561.2 (M+H)+.

[0135] Another synthesis of Compound 9 and the relevant intermediates was described in a U.S. provisional patent application filed November 16, 2018, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety for all purposes.

Representative Synthetic Processes

[0136] The present disclosure comprises the following steps wherein the synthesis and utilization of the boroxine intermediate is a novel and inventive step in the manufacture of AMG 510 (Compound 9):

Raw Materials

Step la

[0137] To a solution of 2,6-dichloro-5-fluoro-3-pyridinecarboxylic acid (25kg; 119. lmol) in dichloromethane (167kg) and DMF (592g) was added Oxalyl chloride (18.9kg; 148.9mol) while maintaining an internal temp between 15-20 °C. Additional dichloromethane (33kg) was added as a rinse and the reaction mixture stirred for 2h. The reaction mixture is cooled then quenched with ammonium hydroxide (40.2L; 595.5mol) while maintaining internal temperature 0 ± 10°C. The resulting slurry was stirred for 90min then the product collected by filtration. The filtered solids were washed with DI water (3X 87L) and dried to provide 2,6-dichloro-5-fluoronicotinamide (Compound 1).

Step 1b

[0138] In reactor A, a solution of 2,6-dichloro-5-fluoronicotinamide (Compound 1) (16.27kg; 77.8mol) in dichloromethane (359.5kg) was added oxalyl chloride (11.9kg;

93.8mol) while maintaining temp ≤ 25°C for 75min. The resulting solution was then headed to 40°C ± 3°C and aged for 3h. Using vacuum, the solution was distilled to remove dichloromethane until the solution was below the agitator. Dichloromethane (300 kg) was then added and the mixture cooled to 0 ± 5°C. To a clean, dry reactor (reactor B) was added,2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-amine (ANILINE Compound 2A) (12.9kg; 85.9mol) followed by dichloromethane (102.6 kg). The ANILINE solution was azeodried via vacuum distillation while maintaining an internal temperature between 20-25 °), replacing with additional dichloromethane until the solution was dry by KF analysis (limit ≤ 0.05%). The solution volume was adjusted to approx. 23L volume with dichloromethane. The dried ANILINE solution was then added to reactor A while maintaining an internal temperature of 0 ± 5°C throughout the addition. The mixture was then heated to 23 °C and aged for 1h. the solution was polish filtered into a clean reactor to afford 2,6-dichloro-5-fluoro-N-((2- isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)carbamoyl)nicotinamide (Compound 3) as a solution in DCM and used directly in the next step.

Step 2

[0139] A dichloromethane solution of 2,6-dichloro-5-fluoro-N-{[4-methyl-2-(propan-2- yl)pyridin-3-yl]carbamoyl}pyridine-3-carboxamide (UREA (Compound 3)) (15kg contained; 38.9mol) was solvent exchanged into 2-MeTHF using vacuum distillation while maintaining internal temperature of 20-25 °C. The reactor volume was adjusted to 40L and then

additional 2-MeTHF was charged (105.4 kg). Sodium t-butoxide was added (9.4 kg;

97.8mol) while maintaining 5-10 °C. The contents where warmed to 23 °C and stirred for 3h. The contents where then cooled to 0-5C and ammonium chloride added (23.0kg; 430mol) as a solution in 60L of DI water. The mixture was warmed to 20 C and DI water added (15L) and further aged for 30min. Agitation was stopped and the layers separated. The aqueous layer was removed and to the organic layer was added DI water(81.7L). A mixture of conc HCl (1.5kg) and water (9L) was prepared then added to the reactor slowly until pH measured between 4-5. The layers were separated, and the aqueous layer back extracted using 2-MeTHF (42.2kg). The two organic layers combined and washed with a 10% citric acid solution (75kg) followed by a mixture of water (81.7L) and saturated NaCl (19.8 kg). The organic layer was then washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate (75kg) repeating if necessary to achieve a target pH of ≥ 7.0 of the aqueous. The organic layer was washed again with brine (54.7kg) and then dried over magnesium sulfate (5kg). The mixture was filtered to remove magnesium sulfate rinsing the filtered bed with 2-MeTHF (49.2 kg). The combined filtrate and washes where distilled using vacuum to 40L volume. The concentrated solution was heated to 55 °C and heptane (10-12kg) slowly added until cloud point. The solution was cooled to 23 °C over 2h then heptane (27.3 kg) was added over 2h. The product slurry was aged for 3h at 20-25 °C then filtered and washed with a mixture of 2-MeTHF (2.8kg) and heptane (9kg). The product was dried using nitrogen and vacuum to afford solid 7-chloro-6-fluoro-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione (rac-DIONE (Compound 4)).

Step 3

[0140] To a vessel, an agitated suspension of Compound 4, (1.0 eq.) in 2- methylterahydrofuran (7.0 L/kg) was added (+)-2,3-dibenzoyl-D-tartaric acid (2.0 eq.) under an atmosphere of nitrogen. 2-MeTHF is chiral, but it is used as a racemic mixture. The different enantiomers of 2-MeTHF are incorporated randomly into the co-crystal. The resulting suspension was warmed to 75°C and aged at 75°C until full dissolution was observed (< 30 mins.). The resulting solution was polish filtered at 75°C into a secondary vessel. To the polish filtered solution was charged n-Heptane (2.0 L/kg) at a rate that maintained the internal temperature above 65°C. The solution was then cooled to 60°C, seeded with crystals (0.01 kg/kg) and allowed to age for 30 minutes. The resulting suspension was cooled to 20°C over 4 hours and then sampled for chiral purity analysis by HPLC. To the suspension, n-Heptane (3.0 L/kg) was charged and then aged for 4 hours at 20°C under an atmosphere of nitrogen. The suspension was filtered, and the isolated solids were washed two times with (2:1) n-Heptane:2-methyltetrahydrofuran (3.0 L/kg). The material was dried with nitrogen and vacuum to afford M-Dione:DBTA: Me-THF complex (Compound 4a).

Step 4

[0141] To vessel A, a suspension of disodium hydrogen phosphate (21.1 kg, 2.0 equiv) in DI water (296.8 L, 6.3 L/kg) was agitated until dissolution was observed (≥ 30 min.). To vessel B, a suspension of the M-Dione:DBTA: Me-THF complex (Composition 4a)[46.9 kg (25.9 kg corrected for M-dione, 1.0 equiv.)] in methyl tert-butyl ether (517.8 L, 11.0 L/kg) was agitated for 15 to 30 minutes. The resulting solution from vessel A was added to vessel B, and then the mixture was agitated for more than 3 hours. The agitation was stopped, and the biphasic mixture was left to separate for more than 30 minutes. The lower aqueous phase was removed and then back extracted with methyl tert-butyl ether (77.7 L, 1.7 L/kg). The organic phases were combined in vessel B and dried with magnesium sulfate (24.8 kg, 0.529 kg/kg). The resulting suspension from vessel B was agitated for more than three hours and then filtered into vessel C. To vessel B, a methyl tert-butyl ether (46.9 L, 1.0 L/kg) rinse was charged and then filtered into vessel C. The contents of vessel C were cooled to 10 °C and then distilled under vacuum while slowly being warmed to 35°C. Distillation was continued until 320-350 kg (6.8-7.5 kg/kg) of methyl tert-butyl ether was collected. After cooling the contents of vessel C to 20°C, n-Heptane (278.7 L, 5.9 L/kg) was charged over one hour and then distilled under vacuum while slowly being warmed to 35°C. Distillation was continued until a 190-200 kg (4.1-4.3 kg/kg) mixture of methyl tert-butyl ether and n-Heptane was collected. After cooling the contents of vessel C to 20°C, n-Heptane (278.7 L, 5.9 L/kg) was charged a second time over one hour and then distilled under vacuum while slowly being warmed to 35°C. Distillation was continued until a 190-200 kg (4.1-4.3 kg/kg) mixture of methyl tert-butyl ether and n-Heptane was collected. After cooling the contents of vessel C to 20°C, n-Heptane (195.9 L, 4.2 L/kg) was charged a third time over one hour and then sampled for solvent composition by GC analysis. The vessel C suspension continued to agitate for more than one hour. The suspension was filtered, and then washed with a n-Heptane (68.6 L, 1.5 L/kg) rinse from vessel C. The isolated solids were dried at 50°C, and a sample was submitted for stock suitability. Afforded 7-chloro-6-fluoro-(1M)-1-[4-methyl-2-(propan-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl]pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione (M-DIONE) Compound 5M.

[0142] The first-generation process highlighted above has been successfully scaled on 200+ kg of rac-dione starting material (Compound 4). In this process, seeding the crystallization with the thermodynamically-stable rac-dione crystal form (which exhibits low solubility) would cause a batch failure. Based on our subsequent studies, we found that increasing the DBTA equivalents and lowering the seed temperature by adjusting heptane

charge schedule improves robustness of the process. The improved process is resistant to the presence of the thermodynamically-stable rac-dione crystal form and promotes successful separation of atropisomers. Subsequent batches will incorporate the improved process for large scale manufacture.

Step 5

Note: All L/kg amounts are relative to M-Dione input; All equiv. amounts are relative to M-Dione input after adjusted by potency.

[0143] M-Dione (Compound 5M, 1.0 equiv.) and Toluene-1 (10.0 L/kg) was charged to Vessel A. The resulting solution was dried by azeotropic distillation under vacuum at 45 °C until 5.0 L/kg of solvents has been removed. The contents of Vessel A were then cooled to 20 °C.

[0144] Vessel C was charged with Toluene-3 (4.5 L/kg), Phosphoryl chloride (1.5 equiv.) and N,N-Diisopropylethylamine-1 (2.0 equiv.) while maintaining the internal temperature below 20 ± 5 °C.

Upon finishing charging, Vessel C was warmed to 30 ± 5 °C. The contents of Vessel A were then transferred to Vessel C over 4 hours while maintaining the internal temperature at 30 ± 5°C. Vessel A was rinsed with Toluene-2 (0.5 L/kg) and transferred to Vessel C. The contents of Vessel C were agitated at 30°C for an additional 3 hours. The contents of Vessel C were cooled to 20 ± 5 °C. A solution of (s)-1-boc-3-methylpiperazine (1.2 equiv.), N,N-Diisopropylethylamine-2 (1.2 equiv.) in isopropyl acetate-1 (1.0 L/kg) was prepared in Vessel D. The solution of Vessel D was charged to vessel C while maintaining a batch temperature of 20 ± 5 °C (Note: Exotherm is observed). Upon the end of transfer, Vessel D was rinsed with additional dichloromethane (1.0 L/kg) and transferred to Vessel C. The contents of Vessel C were agitated for an additional 60 minutes at 20 °C. A solution of sodium bicarbonate [water-1 (15.0 L/kg + Sodium bicarbonate (4.5 equiv.)] was then charged into Vessel C over an hour while maintaining an internal temperature at 20 ± 5 °C throughout the addition. The contents of Vessel C were agitated for at least 12 hours at which point the Pipazoline (Compound 6) product was isolated by filtration in an agitated filter dryer. The cake was washed with water-2 and -3 (5.0 L/kg x 2 times, agitating each wash for 15 minutes) and isopropyl acetate-2 and 3 (5.0 L/kg x 2 times, agitating each wash for 15 min). The cake as dried under nitrogen for 12 hours.

Acetone Re-slurry (Optional):

[0145] Pipazoline (Compound 6) and acetone (10.0 L/kg) were charged to Vessel E. The suspension was heated to 50 °C for 2 hours. Water-4 (10.0 L/kg) was charged into Vessel E over 1 hour. Upon completion of water addition, the mixture was cooled to 20 °C over 1 hour. The contents of Vessel E were filtered to isolate the product, washing the cake with 1:1 acetone/water mixture (5.0 L/kg). The cake was dried under nitrogen for 12 hours.

Step 6

General Note: All equivalents and volumes are reported in reference to Pipazoline input

Note: All L/kg and kg/kg amounts are relative to Pipazoline input

[0146] Reactor A is charged with Pipazoline (Compound 6, 1.0 equiv), degassed 2- MeTHF (9.0 L/kg) and a solution of potassium acetate (2.0 equiv) in degassed water (6.5 L/kg). The resulting mixture is warmed to 75 ± 5 °C and then, charge a slurry of

Pd(dpePhos)Cl2 (0.003 equiv) in 2-MeTHF (0.5 L/kg). Within 2 h of catalyst charge, a solution of freshly prepared Boroxine (Compound 6A, 0.5 equiv) in wet degassed 2-MeTHF (4.0 L/kg, KF > 4.0%) is charged over the course of >1 hour, but < 2 hours, rinsing with an additional portion of wet 2-MeTHF (0.5 L/kg) after addition is complete. After reaction completion ( <0.15 area % Pipazoline remaining, typically <1 h after boroxine addition is complete), 0.2 wt% (0.002 kg/kg) of Biaryl seed is added as a slurry in 0.02 L/kg wet 2- MeTHF, and the resulting seed bed is aged for > 60 min. Heptane (5.0 L/kg) is added over 2 hours at 75 ± 5 °C. The batch is then cooled to 20 ± 5 °C over 2 hours and aged for an additional 2 h. The slurry is then filtered and cake washed with 1 x 5.0L/kg water, 1 x 5.0L/kg 1:1 iPrOH:water followed by 1 x 5.0 L/kg 1:1 iPrOH:heptane (resuspension wash: the cake is resuspended by agitator and allow to set before filtering) . The cake (Biaryl, Compound 7) is then dried under vacuum with a nitrogen sweep.

Note: If the reaction stalls, an additional charge of catalyst and boroxine is required

Step 7 Charcoal Filtration for Pd removal


General Note: All equivalents and volumes are reported in reference to crude Biaryl input

Note: All L/kg and kg/kg amounts are relative to crude Biaryl input

[0147] In a clean Vessel A, charge crude Biaryl (1 equiv) and charge DCM (10 L/kg). Agitate content for > 60 minutes at 22 ± 5 °C, observing dissolution. Pass crude Biaryl from Vessel A, through a bag filter and carbon filters at a flux ≤ 3 L2/min/m and collect filtrate in clean Vessel B. Charge DCM rinse (1 L/kg) to Vessel A, and through carbon filters to collect in vessel B.

[0148] From filtrate in Vessel B, pull a solution sample for IPC Pd content. Sample is concentrated to solid and analyzed by ICP-MS. IPC: Pd ≤ 25 ppm with respect to Biaryl. a. If Pd content is greater than 25 ppm with respect to Biaryl on first or second IPC sample, pass solution through carbon filter a second time at ≤ 3 L2/min/m2, rinsing with 1 L/kg DCM; sample filtrate for IPC.

b. If Pd content remains greater than 25 ppm after third IPC, install and condition fresh carbon discs. Pass Biaryl filtrate through refreshed carbon filter, washing with 1 L/kg DCM. Sample for IPC.

[0149] Distill and refill to appropriate concentration. Prepare for distillation of recovered filtrate by concentrating to ≤ 4 L/kg DCM, and recharge to reach 5.25 ± 0.25 L/kg DCM prior to moving into Step 7 Boc-deprotection reaction.

Step 7

 General Note: All equivalents and volumes are reported in reference to crude Biaryl input

Note: All L/kg and kg/kg amounts are relative to Biaryl input

[0150] To Reactor A was added: tert-butyl (3S)-4-{6-fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-(1M)-1-[4-methyl-2-(propan-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl]-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl}-3-methylpiperazine-1-carboxylate (Biaryl) (1.0 equiv), dichloromethane (5.0 L/kg), and the TFA (15.0 equiv, 1.9 L/kg) is charged slowly to maintain the internal temperature at 20 ± 5 °C. The reaction was stirred for 4 h at 20 ± 5 °C.

[0151] To Reactor B was added: potassium carbonate (18.0 equiv), water (20.0 L/kg), and NMP (1.0) to form a homogenous solution. While agitating at the maximum acceptable rate for the equipment, the reaction mixture in A was transferred into the potassium carbonate solution in B over 30 minutes (~ 0.24 L/kg/min rate). The mixture was stirred at 20 ± 5 °C for an additional 12 h.

[0152] The resulting slurry was filtered and rinsed with water (2 x 10 L/kg). The wet cake was dried for 24 h to give 6-fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-4-[(2S)-2-methylpiperazin- 1-yl]-(1M)-1-[4-methyl-2-(propan-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl]pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one (Des- Boc, Compound 8).

Step 8

Note: All L/kg and kg/kg amounts are relative to Des-Boc input

[0153] Des-Boc (Compound 8, 1.0 equiv) and NMP (4.2 L/kg) are charged to Vessel A under nitrogen, charge the TFA (1.0 equiv.) slowly to maintain the Tr <25 °C. The mixture is aged at 25 °C until full dissolution is observed (about 0.5 hour). The solution is then polish filtered through a 0.45 micron filter into Vessel B, washing with a NMP (0.8 L/kg). The filtrate and wash are combined, and then cooled to 0 °C. To the resulting solution, Acryloyl Chloride (1.3 equiv.) is added while maintaining temperature < 10 C. The reaction mixture is then aged at 5 ±5°C until completed by IPC (ca.1.5 hrs).

Preparation of Aqueous Disodium Phosphate Quench:

[0154] Disodium Phosphate (3.0 equiv) and Water (15.0 L/kg) are charged to Vessel C. The mixture is aged at 25 °C until full dissolution is observed. The solution is warmed to 45 ±5°C. A seed slurry of AMG 510 (0.005 equiv.) in Water (0.4 L/kg) is prepared and added to Vessel C while maintaining temperature at 45 ±5°C.

[0155] The reaction mixture in Vessel B is transferred to Vessel C (quench solution) while maintaining temperature at 45 ±5°C (ca.1 hrs). Vessel B is washed with a portion of NMP (0.5 L/kg). The product slurry is aged for 2 hrs at 45 ±5°C, cooled to 20 °C over 3 hrs, aged at 20 °C for a minimum of 12 hrs, filtered and washed with Water (2 x 10.0 L/kg). The product is dried using nitrogen and vacuum to afford Crude AMG 510 (Compound 9A).

Step 9

 General Note: All equivalents and volumes are reported in reference to crude AMG 510 input

Note: All L/kg and kg/kg amounts are relative to Crude AMG 510 input

[0156] Reactor A was charged with 6-fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-(1M)-1-[4- methyl-2-(propan-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl]-4-[(2S)-2-methyl-4-(prop-2-enoyl)piperazin-1- yl]pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one (Crude AMG 510) (1.0 equiv), ethanol (7.5 L/kg), and water (1.9 L/kg). The mixture heated to 75 °C and polish filtered into a clean Reactor B. The solution was cool to 45 °C and seeded with authentic milled AMG 510 seed (0.015 േ 0.005

1 Seed performs best when reduced in particle size via milling or with other type of mechanical grinding if mill is not available (mortar/ pestle). Actual seed utilized will be based on seed availability. 1.0- 2.0% is seed is target amount.

kg/kg); the resulting slurry was aged for 30 min. Water (15.0 L/kg) was added over 5h while maintaining an internal temperature > 40 °C; the mixture was aged for an additional 2h.

[0157] The mixture was cooled to 20 °C over 3 hours and aged for 8h, after which the solid was collected by filtration and washed using a mixture of ethanol (2.5 L/kg) and water (5.0 L/kg). The solid was dried using vacuum and nitrogen to obtain 6-fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-(1M)-1-[4-methyl-2-(propan-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl]-4-[(2S)-2-methyl-4-(prop-2-enoyl)piperazin-1-yl]pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one (AMG 510, Compound 9).

Compound 6A Boroxine Synthesis:

Lithiation/borylation

[0158] Reactor A was charged with THF (6 vol), a secondary amine base, Diisopropylamine (1.4 equiv), and a catalyst, such as triethylamine hydrochloride (0.01 equiv.). The resulting solution was cooled to -70 °C and a first base, n-BuLi (2.5 M in hexane, 1.5 equiv) was slowly added. After addition is complete, a solution of 3-fluoroanisole (1.0 equiv) in THF (6 vol) was added slowly and kept at -70 °C for 5 min. Concurrently or subsequently, a reagent, B(EtO)3 (2.0 equiv), was added slowly and kept at -70 °C for 10 min. The reaction mixture was quenched with an acid, 2N HCl. The quenched reaction mixture was extracted with MTBE (3 x 4 vol). The combined organic phases were concentrated to 1.5-3 total volumes. Heptane (7-9 vol) was added drop-wise and the mixture was cooled to 0-10 °C and stirred for 3 h. The mixture was filtrated and rinsed with heptane (1.5 vol). The solid was dried under nitrogen at < 30 °C to afford (2-fluoro-6-methoxyphenyl)boronic acid.

Demethylation:

Note: All L/kg and kg/kg amounts are relative to (2-fluoro-6-methoxyphenyl)boronic acid input

[0159] To a reactor, charge dichloromethane (solvent, 4.0 L/kg) and an acid, BBr3 (1.2 equiv), and cool to -20 °C. To this solution, a suspension of (2-fluoro-6-methoxyphenyl)boronic acid (1.0 equiv) in dichloromethane (4.0 L/kg) was added into the BBr3/DCM mixture while keeping temperature -15 to -25 °C. The reaction was allowed to proceed for approximately 2 hours while monitored by HPLC [≤1% (2-fluoro-6-methoxyphenyl)boronic acid] before reverse quenching into water (3.0 L/kg). The precipitated solid was then isolated by filtration and slurried with water (3.0 L/kg) on the filter prior to deliquoring. The filtrates were adjusted to pH 4-6 by the addition of sodium bicarbonate. The bottom organic phase was separated and the resulting aqueous layer was washed with dichloromethane (solvent, 5.0 Vol) and adjusted to pH = 1 by addition of concentrated hydrochloric acid. The resulting solids were isolated by filtration, washing the cake with water (2 x 5.0 L/kg)

Purification via Reslurry (required)

[0160] The combined crude solids were charged into a reactor and slurried with 5% EtOH/water (5.0 L/kg) at 20 °C for >1 h. The purified product was then isolated by filtration and rinsed with water (2 x 3 L/kg) before drying on the filter at < 30 °C to with nitrogen/vacuum to afford 2,2′,2”-(1,3,5,2,4,6-trioxatriborinane-2,4,6-triyl)tris(3-fluorophenol) (Boroxine, Compound 6A).

PATENT

WO 2020102730

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2020102730

PATENT

US 20180334454

References

  1. Jump up to:a b c d e “Lumakras- sotorasib tablet, coated”DailyMed. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
  2. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m n “FDA Approves First Targeted Therapy for Lung Cancer Mutation Previously Considered Resistant to Drug Therapy”U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 28 May 2021. Retrieved 28 May 2021.  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  3. ^ “KRAS mutant-targeting AMG 510”NCI Drug Dictionary. National Cancer Institute. 2 February 2011. Retrieved 16 November2019.
  4. ^ Canon J, Rex K, Saiki AY, Mohr C, Cooke K, Bagal D, et al. (November 2019). “The clinical KRAS(G12C) inhibitor AMG 510 drives anti-tumour immunity”. Nature575 (7781): 217–23. Bibcode:2019Natur.575..217Cdoi:10.1038/s41586-019-1694-1PMID 31666701.
  5. Jump up to:a b “FDA approves Amgen drug for lung cancer with specific mutation”CNBC. 28 May 2021. Retrieved 28 May 2021.
  6. ^ Hong DS, Fakih MG, Strickler JH, Desai J, Durm GA, Shapiro GI, et al. (2020). “KRASG12C inhibition with sotorasib in advanced solid tumors”N Engl J Meddoi:10.1056/NEJMoa1917239PMC 7571518.
  7. ^ Clinical trial number NCT03600883 for “A Phase 1/2, Study Evaluating the Safety, Tolerability, PK, and Efficacy of AMG 510 in Subjects With Solid Tumors With a Specific KRAS Mutation ” at ClinicalTrials.gov
  8. ^ “The Discovery Of Amgen’s Novel Investigational KRAS(G12C) Inhibitor AMG 510 Published In Nature” (Press release). Amgen. 30 October 2019. Retrieved 16 November 2019.
  9. ^ Irving M (24 December 2019). “Drug targeting common cancer cause enters phase 2 clinical trials”New Atlas. Retrieved 24 December 2019.
  10. Jump up to:a b c d Halford B (3 April 2019). “Amgen unveils its KRas inhibitor in human clinical trials: AMG 510 shuts down a mutant version of the cancer target via covalent interaction”Chemical & Engineering News97 (4). Retrieved 16 November 2019.
  11. ^ Al Idrus A (9 September 2019). “Amgen’s KRAS drug continues to deliver but faces ‘curse’ of high expectations”. fiercebiotech.com. Retrieved 16 November 2019.
  12. ^ Kaiser J (30 October 2019). “Two new drugs finally hit ‘undruggable’ cancer target, providing hope for treatments”Science Magazine. AAAS. Retrieved 16 November 2019.
  13. ^ Astor L (9 September 2019). “FDA Grants AMG 510 Fast Track Designation for KRAS G12C+ NSCLC”. targetedonc.com. Retrieved 16 November 2019.
  14. ^ World Health Organization (2021). “International nonproprietary names for pharmaceutical substances (INN): recommended INN: list 85” (PDF). WHO Drug Information35 (1).

Further reading

External links

  • “Sotorasib”Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Clinical trial number NCT03600883 for “A Phase 1/2, Study Evaluating the Safety, Tolerability, PK, and Efficacy of AMG 510 in Subjects With Solid Tumors With a Specific KRAS Mutation (CodeBreaK 100)” at ClinicalTrials.gov
Clinical data
Trade namesLumakras
Other namesAMG 510
License dataUS DailyMedSotorasib
Routes of
administration
By mouth
ATC codeNone
Legal status
Legal statusUS: ℞-only [1][2]
Identifiers
showIUPAC name
CAS Number2252403-56-6
PubChem CID137278711
DrugBankDB15569
ChemSpider72380148
UNII2B2VM6UC8G
KEGGD12055
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC30H30F2N6O3
Molar mass560.606 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)Interactive image
showSMILES
showInChI

////////Sotorasib, ソトラシブ , FDA 2021,  APPROVALS 2021,  Lumakras, CANCER, ANTINEOPLASTIC, AMG 510, AMG-510, AMG510, AMGEN, priority review, fast-track, breakthrough therapy, orphan drug

CC1CN(CCN1C2=NC(=O)N(C3=NC(=C(C=C32)F)C4=C(C=CC=C4F)O)C5=C(C=CN=C5C(C)C)C)C(=O)C=C

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RIDINILAZOLE


ChemSpider 2D Image | Ridinilazole | C24H16N6
Ridinilazole.svg

RIDINILAZOLE

SMT19969

  • Molecular FormulaC24H16N6
  • Average mass388.424 Da
  • ридинилазол [Russian] [INN]ريدينيلازول [Arabic] [INN]利地利唑 [Chinese] [INN]
  • リジニラゾール;

10075
2,2′-Di(4-pyridinyl)-3H,3’H-5,5′-bibenzimidazole
308362-25-6[RN]6,6′-Bi-1H-benzimidazole, 2,2′-di-4-pyridinyl-

Summit Therapeutics (formerly Summit Corp ) is developing ridinilazole the lead compound from oral narrow-spectrum, GI-restricted antibiotics, which also include SMT-21829, for the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection and prevention of recurrent disease.

Ridinilazole (previously known as SMT19969) is an investigational small molecule antibiotic being evaluated for oral administration to treat Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). In vitro, it is bactericidal against C. difficile and suppresses bacterial toxin production; the mechanism of action is thought to involve inhibition of cell division.[1] It has properties which are desirable for the treatment of CDI, namely that it is a narrow-spectrum antibiotic which exhibits activity against C. difficile while having little impact on other normal intestinal flora and that it is only minimally absorbed systemically after oral administration.[2] At the time ridinilazole was developed, there were only three antibiotics in use for treating CDI: vancomycinfidaxomicin, and metronidazole.[1][2] The recurrence rate of CDI is high, which has spurred research into other treatment options with the aim to reduce the rate of recurrence.[3][4]

As of 2019, two phase II trials have been completed and two phase III trials comparing ridinilazole to vancomycin for CDI are expected to be completed in September 2021.[2][5][6] Ridinilazole was designated as a Qualified Infectious Disease Product (QIDP) and was granted Fast Track status by the U.S. FDA.[2] Fast Track status is reserved for drugs designed to treat diseases where there is currently a gap in the treatment, or a complete lack thereof.[7] The QIDP designation adds five more years of exclusivity for ridinazole upon approval.[8]

str1-1

PATENT

WO-2021009514

Process for preparing ridinilazole useful for treating Clostridium difficile infection. Also claimed is the crystalline form of a compound.

The present invention relates to processes for the preparation of 2,2′-di(pyridin-4-yl)-1/-/,T/-/-5,5′-bibenzo[d]imidazole (which may also be known as 5,5’-bis[2-(4-pyridinyl)-1/-/-benzimidazole], 2,2′-bis(4-pyridyl)-3/-/,3’/-/-5,5′-bibenzimidazole or 2-pyridin-4-yl-6-(2-pyridin-4-yl-3/-/-benzimidazol-5-yl)-1/-/-benzimidazole), referenced herein by the INN name ridinilazole, and pharmaceutically acceptable derivatives, salts, hydrates, solvates, complexes, bioisosteres, metabolites or prodrugs thereof. The invention also relates to various crystalline forms of ridinilazole, to processes for their preparation and to related pharmaceutical preparations and uses thereof (including their medical use and their use in the efficient large-scale synthesis of ridinilazole).

WO2010/063996 describes various benzimidazoles, including ridinilazole, and their use as antibacterials (including in the treatment of CDAD).

WO 2011/151621 describes various benzimidazoles and their use as antibacterials

(including in the treatment of CDAD).

W02007056330, W02003105846 and W02002060879 disclose various 2-amino benzimidazoles as antibacterial agents.

W02007148093 discloses various 2-amino benzothiazoles as antibacterial agents.

W02006076009, W02004041209 and Bowser et at. (Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett., 2007, 17, 5652-5655) disclose various substituted benzimidazole compounds useful as anti-infectives that decrease resistance, virulence, or growth of microbes. The compounds are said not to exhibit intrinsic antimicrobial activity in vitro.

US 5,824,698 discloses various dibenzimidazoles as broad-spectrum antibiotics, disclosing activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including Staphylococcus spp.and Enterococcus spp. However, this document does not disclose activity against anaerobic spore-forming bacteria and in particular does not disclose activity against any Clostridioides spp. (including C. difficile).

US 2007/0112048 A1 discloses various bi- and triarylimidazolidines and bi- and

triarylamidines as broad-spectrum antibiotics, disclosing activity against both Gram negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including Staphylococcus spp., Enterococcus spp. and Clostridioides spp. However, this document does not disclose compounds of formula (I) as described herein.

Chaudhuri et al. (2007) J.Org. Chem. 72, 1912-1923 describe various bis-2-(pyridyl)-1 H-benzimidazoles (including compounds of formula I as described herein) as DNA binding agents. This document is silent as to potential antibacterial activity.

Singh et al. (2000) Synthesis 10: 1380-1390 describe a condensation reaction for producing 2,2′-di(pyridin-4-yl)-1/-/,T/-/-5,5′-bibenzo[d]imidazole using 4-pyridine

carboxaldehyde, FeCI3, 02, in DMF at 120°C.

Bhattacharya and Chaudhuri (2007) Chemistry – An Asian Journal 2: 648-655 describe a condensation reaction for producing 2,2′-di(pyridin-4-yl)-1/-/,T/-/-5,5′-bibenzo[d]imidazole using 4-pyridine carboxaldehyde and nitrobenzene at 120°C.

WO2019/068383 describes the synthesis of ridinilazole by metal-ion catalyzed coupling of 3,4,3’,4’-tetraaminobiphenyl with 4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde in the presence of oxygen, followed by the addition of a complexing agent.

PATENT

WO2010063996

claiming antibacterial compounds. Bicyclic heteroaromatic compounds, particularly bi-benzimidazole derivatives.

WO2007056330, WO2003105846 and WO2002060879 disclose various 2-amino benzimidazoles as antibacterial agents.

WO2007148093 discloses various 2-amino benzothiazoles as antibacterial agents.

WO2006076009, WO2004041209 and Bowser et al. (Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett., 2007, 17, 5652-5655) disclose various substituted benzimidazole compounds useful as anti-infectives that decrease resistance, virulence, or growth of microbes. The compounds are said not to exhibit intrinsic antimicrobial activity in vitro.

US 5,824,698 discloses various dibenzimidazoles as broad-spectrum antibiotics, disclosing activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including Staphylococcus spp.and Enterococcus spp. However, this document does not disclose activity against anaerobic spore-forming bacteria and in particular does not disclose activity against any Clostridium spp. (including C. difficile).

US 2007/0112048 A1 discloses various bi- and triarylimidazolidines and bi- and triarylamidines as broad-spectrum antibiotics, disclosing activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including Staphylococcus spp., Enterococcus spp.

and Clostridium spp. However, this document does not disclose compounds of general formula (I) as described herein.

Chaudhuri et al. (J.Org. Chem., 2007, 72, 1912-1923) describe various bis-2-(pyridyl)-1 H-benzimidazoles (including compounds of formula I as described herein) as DNA binding agents. This document is silent as to potential antibacterial activity.

PATENT

Product PATENT, WO2010063996 ,

protection in the EP until 2029 and expire in the US in December 2029.

PAPER

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2018.01206/full

PAPER

Synthesis (2000), (10), 1380-1390.

https://www.thieme-connect.de/products/ejournals/abstract/10.1055/s-2000-7111

PAPERT

Chemistry – An Asian Journal (2007), 2(5), 648-655.

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/asia.200700014

Studies of double‐stranded‐DNA binding have been performed with three isomeric bis(2‐(n‐pyridyl)‐1H‐benzimidazole)s (n=2, 3, 4). Like the well‐known Hoechst 33258, which is a bisbenzimidazole compound, these three isomers bind to the minor groove of duplex DNA. DNA binding by the three isomers was investigated in the presence of the divalent metal ions Mg2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+. Ligand–DNA interactions were probed with fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy. These studies revealed that the binding of the 2‐pyridyl derivative to DNA is dramatically reduced in the presence of Co2+, Ni2+, and Cu2+ ions and is abolished completely at a ligand/metal‐cation ratio of 1:1. Control experiments done with the isomeric 3‐ and 4‐pyridyl derivatives showed that their binding to DNA is unaffected by the aforementioned transition‐metal ions. The ability of 2‐(2‐pyridyl)benzimidazole to chelate metal ions and the conformational changes of the ligand associated with ion chelation probably led to such unusual binding results for the ortho isomer. The addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) reversed the effects completely.

PAPER

 Journal of Organic Chemistry (2007), 72(6), 1912-1923.

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/jo0619433

Three symmetrical positional isomers of bis-2-(n-pyridyl)-1H-benzimidazoles (n = 2, 3, 4) were synthesized and DNA binding studies were performed with these isomeric derivatives. Like bisbenzimidazole compound Hoechst 33258, these molecules also demonstrate AT-specific DNA binding. The binding affinities of 3-pyridine (m-pyben) and 4-pyridine (p-pyben) derivatized bisbenzimidazoles to double-stranded DNA were significantly higher compared to 2pyridine derivatized benzimidazole o-pyben. This has been established by combined experimental results of isothermal fluorescence titration, circular dichroism, and thermal denaturation of DNA. To rationalize the origin of their differential binding characteristics with double-stranded DNA, computational structural analyses of the uncomplexed ligands were performed using ab initio/Density Functional Theory. The molecular conformations of the symmetric head-to-head bisbenzimidazoles have been computed. The existence of intramolecular hydrogen bonding was established in o-pyben, which confers a conformational rigidity to the molecule about the bond connecting the pyridine and benzimidazole units. This might cause reduction in its binding affinity to double-stranded DNA compared to its para and meta counterparts. Additionally, the predicted stable conformations for p-, m-, and o-pyben at the B3LYP/6-31G* and RHF/6-31G* levels were further supported by experimental pKa determination. The results provide important information on the molecular recognition process of such symmetric head to head bisbenzimidazoles toward duplex DNA.

Patent

US 8975416

PATENT

WO 2019068383

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2019068383

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the leading cause of infectious healthcare-associated diarrhoea. CDI remains a challenge to treat clinically, because of a limited number of antibiotics available and unacceptably high recurrence rates. Because of this, there has been significant demand for creating innovative therapeutics, which has resulted in the development of several novel antibiotics.

Ridinilazole (SMT19969) is the INN name of 5,5’bis[2-(4-pyridinyl)-lH-benzimidazole], which is a promising non-absorbable small molecule antibiotic intended for oral use in the treatment of CDI. It has been shown to exhibit a prolonged post-antibiotic effect and treatment with ridinilazole has resulted in decreased toxin production. A phase 1 trial demonstrated that oral ridinilazole is well tolerated and specifically targets Clostridia whilst sparing other faecal bacteria.

Ridinilazole has the following chemical structure:

Bhattacharya & Chaudhuri (Chem. Asian J., 2007, No. 2, 648-655) report performing double-stranded DNA binding with three benzimidazole derivatives, including ridinilazole. The compounds have been prepared by dissolving the reactants in nitrobenzene, heating at 120°C for 8- 1 Oh and purifying the products by column chromatography over silica gel. The compounds were obtained in 65-70% yield. Singh et al., (Synthesis, 2000, No. 10, 1380-1390) describe a catalytic redox cycling approach based on Fe(III) and molecular oxygen as co-oxidant for providing access to benzimidazole and

imidazopyridine derivatives, such as ridinilazole. The reaction is performed at high temperatures of 120°C and the product is isolated in 91% yield by using silica flash chromatography.

Both processes are not optimal, for example in terms of yield, ease of handling and scalability. Thus, there is a need in the art for an efficient and scalable preparation of ridinilazole, which overcomes the problems of the prior art processes.

Example 1 : Preparation of crude ridinilazole free base

A solution of 3,4,3′,4′-tetraaminobiphenyl (3.28 g, 15.3 mmol) and isonicotinaldehyde (3.21 g, 30.0 mmol) in DMF (40 mL) was stirred at 23 °C for one hour. Then anhydrous ferric chloride (146 mg, 0.90 mmol), water (0.10 mL, 5.4 mmol) and additional DMF (2 mL) were added and fresh air was bubbled into the solution during vigorous stirring for 5 hours at room temperature. Next, water (80 mL) and EDTA (0.29 g) were added resulting in a brownish suspension, which was stirred overnight. The product was isolated by filtration, washed with water, and dried in a desiccator in vacuo as a brown powder (5.56 g; 95%). The addition of EDTA had held iron in solution and the crude ridinilazole contained significantly lower amounts of iron than comparative example 1.

Example 12: Formation of essentially pure ridinilazole free base

To a suspension von ridinilazole tritosylate (1 10 mg, 0.12 mmol) in water (35 mL) featuring a pH value of about 4.5 stirring at 70 °C sodium bicarbonate (580 mg, 6.9 mmol) were added and caused a change of color from orange to slightly tan. The mixture, now at a pH of about 8.5, was cooled down to room temperature and the solids were separated by filtration, washed with water (1 ML) and dried in vacuo providing 40 mg (85%) essentially pure ridinilazole as a brownish powder.

Spectroscopic analysis:

¾ NMR (DMSO-de, 300 MHz): δ 7.55 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 2H), 7.70 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 2H), 7.88 (s, 2H), 8.13 (d, J = 5.8 Hz, 4H), 8.72 (d, J = 5.8 Hz, 4H) ppm.

13C NMR (DMSO-d6, 75 MHz): δ 1 13.4 (2C), 1 16.4 (2C), 120.4 (4C), 121.8 (2C), 135.7 (2C), 138.7 (2C), 140.7 (2C), 141.4 (2C), 150.3 (4C), 151.1 (2C) ppm.

IR (neat): v 3033 (w), 1604 (s), 1429 (m), 1309 (m), 1217 (m), 1 1 15 (w), 998 (m), 964 (m), 824 (m), 791 (s), 690 (s), 502 (s) cm .

UV-Vis (MeOH): 257, 341 nm.

The sharp peaks in the ¾ NMR indicated that iron had been efficiently removed.

Comparative example 1 : Preparation of ridinilazole

A solution of 3,4,3′,4′-tetraaminobiphenyl (0.69 g, 3.2 mmol) and isonicotinaldehyde (0.64 g, 6.0 mmol) in DMF (20 mL) was stirred at 80°C for one hour. Then ferric chloride hexahydrate (49 mg, 0.18 mmol), water (0.10 mL, 5.4 mmol) and additional DMF (2 mL) were added and fresh air was bubbled into the solution during vigorous stirring for 10 hours at 120 °C. After cooling to room temperature water (50 mL) and the mixture was stirred for one hour. A black crude product was isolated by filtration and comprised ridinilazole and iron.

References

  1. Jump up to:a b Cho JC, Crotty MP, Pardo J (March 2019). “Clostridium difficile infection”Annals of Gastroenterology32 (2): 134–140. doi:10.20524/aog.2018.0336PMC 6394264PMID 30837785.
  2. Jump up to:a b c d Carlson TJ, Endres BT, Bassères E, Gonzales-Luna AJ, Garey KW (April 2019). “Ridinilazole for the treatment of Clostridioides difficile infection”Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs28 (4): 303–310. doi:10.1080/13543784.2019.1582640PMID 30767587.
  3. ^ Bassères E, Endres BT, Dotson KM, Alam MJ, Garey KW (January 2017). “Novel antibiotics in development to treat Clostridium difficile infection”Current Opinion in Gastroenterology33 (1): 1–7. doi:10.1097/MOG.0000000000000332PMID 28134686These tables highlight the increased drug development directed towards CDI due to the rise in prevalence of infections and to attempt to reduce the number of recurrent infections.
  4. ^ Vickers RJ, Tillotson G, Goldstein EJ, Citron DM, Garey KW, Wilcox MH (August 2016). “Ridinilazole: a novel therapy for Clostridium difficile infection”International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents48 (2): 137–43. doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2016.04.026PMID 27283730there exists a significant unmet and increasing medical need for new therapies to treat CDI, specifically those that can reduce the rate of disease recurrence.
  5. ^ Clinical trial number NCT03595553 for “Ri-CoDIFy 1: Comparison of Ridinilazole Versus Vancomycin Treatment for Clostridium Difficile Infection” at ClinicalTrials.gov
  6. ^ Clinical trial number NCT03595566 for “Ri-CoDIFy 2: To Compare Ridinilazole Versus Vancomycin Treatment for Clostridium Difficile Infection” at ClinicalTrials.gov
  7. ^ “Fast Track”. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 2018-11-03.
  8. ^ “”HHS spurs new antibiotic development for biodefense and common infections””Public Health Emergency. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved 2020-12-04.
Clinical data
Other namesSMT19969
ATC codeNone
Identifiers
IUPAC name[show]
CAS Number308362-25-6
PubChem CID16659285
ChemSpider17592423
UNII06DX01190R
KEGGD11958
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC24H16N6
Molar mass388.42 g/mol
3D model (JSmol)Interactive image
SMILES[hide]c6cc(c5nc4ccc(c3ccc2nc(c1ccncc1)[nH]c2c3)cc4[nH]5)ccn6

/////////RIDINILAZOLE, SMT19969, SMT 19969, ридинилазол , ريدينيلازول , 利地利唑 , リジニラゾール , Qualified Infectious Disease Product, QIDP,  Fast Track , PHASE 3,  Clostridioides difficile infection , 

Devimistat


Devimistat Chemical Structure
DEVIMISTAT
6,8-Bis(benzylthio)octanoic acid.png

Devimistat

CPI-613

Molecular Weight388.59
FormulaC₂₂H₂₈O₂S₂
CAS No.95809-78-2
SMILESO=C(O)CCCCC(SCC1=CC=CC=C1)CCSCC2=CC=CC=C2

phase III, hematological cancer

6,8-Bis(benzylsulfanyl)octanoic acid

Octanoic acid, 6,8-bis[(phenylMethyl)thio]-

Octanoic acid, 6,8-bis((phenylmethyl)thio)-

Rafael Pharmaceuticals (formerly Cornerstone Pharmaceuticals), a subsidiary of Rafael Holdings, is developing devimistat, the lead candidate from a program of thioctans and their derivatives that act as pyruvate dehydrogenase and alpha-ketoglutarate inhibitors and stimulators of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK), using the company’s proprietary Altered Energy Metabolism Directed (AEMD) platform, for the iv treatment of hematological cancer [phase III, January 2021].

Devimistat (INN; development code CPI-613) is an experimental anti-mitochondrial drug being developed by Rafael Pharmaceuticals.[1] It is being studied for the treatment of patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer and relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML).

Devimistat’s mechanism of action differs from other drugs, operating on the tricarboxylic acid cycle and inhibiting enzymes involved with cancer cell energy metabolism. A lipoic acid derivative different from standard cytotoxic chemotherapy, devimistat is currently being studied in combination with modified FOLFIRINOX to treat various solid tumors and heme malignancies.

Regulation

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has designated devimistat as an orphan drug for the treatment of pancreatic cancer, AML, myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), peripheral T-cell lymphoma, and Burkitt’s lymphoma, and given approval to initiate clinical trials in pancreatic cancer and AML.

Clinical trials

Clinical trials of the drug are underway including a Phase III open-label clinical trial[2] to evaluate efficacy and safety of devimistat plus modified FOLFIRINOX (mFFX) versus FOLFIRINOX (FFX) in patients with metastatic adenocarcinoma of the pancreas.

Developed as part of Rafael’s proprietary Altered Metabolism Directed (AMD) drug platform, CPI-613® was discovered at Stony Brook University. CPI-613® is designed to target the mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, an indispensable process essential to tumor cell multiplication and survival, selectively in cancer cells.

The attacks of CPI-613® on the TCA cycle also substantially increases the sensitivity of cancer cells to a diverse range of chemotherapeutic agents. This synergy allows for combinations of CPI-613® with lower doses of these generally toxic drugs to be highly effective with lower patient side effects. Combinations with CPI-613® represent a diverse range of potential opportunities to substantially improve patient benefit in many different cancers.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has given Rafael approval to initiate pivotal clinical trials in pancreatic cancer and acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and has designated CPI-613® as an orphan drug for the treatment of pancreatic cancer, AML, Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), peripheral T-cell lymphoma and Burkitt’s lymphoma. The EMA has granted orphan drug designation to CPI-613® for pancreatic cancer and AML.


Learn more about recent developments involving CPI-613®CPI-613® (devimistat) Fact Sheet

he FDA granted a Fast Track designation to devimistat for the treatment of patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

The FDA has granted a Fast Track designation to devimistat (CPI-613) for the treatment of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), Rafael Pharmaceuticals, announced in a press release.1

“This designation underscores the pressing need to find new ways to combat this aggressive disease,” said Jorge Cortes, MD, director of the Georgia Cancer Center at Augusta University, and principal investigator on the phase 3 clinical trial, in a statement. “It brings hope not only to clinicians, but to patients who hear that they have been diagnosed.”

The first-in-class agent devimistat targets enzymes that are involved in cancer cell energy metabolism. This therapy substantially increases the sensitivity of cancer cells to a diverse range of chemotherapies, and this synergy allows for potential combinations that could be more effective with devimistat and lower doses of drugs that are generally toxic.

“Receiving Fast Track designation, especially during a pandemic that has created significant challenges for many trials across the globe, is a testament to the dedicated work of the Rafael team,” stated Sanjeev Luther, president and CEO of Rafael Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Devimistat combinations appear promising with a diverse range of potential opportunities to improve benefit in patients with various cancer types. Two pivotal phase 3 clinical trials, including the AVENGER 500 study in pancreatic cancer (NCT03504423) and ARMADA 2000 for AML (NCT03504410), have been approved for initiation by the FDA.

The primary end point of the multicenter, open-label, randomized ARMADA 2000 study is complete response (CR), and secondary end points include overall survival and CR plus CR with partial hematologic recovery rate. To be eligible to enroll to the study, patients must be aged ≥50 years with a documented AML diagnosis that has relapsed from or became refractory to previous standard therapy. Patients must have an ECOG performance status of 0 to 2 and an expected survival longer than 3 months.

Five hundred patients are expected to be enrolled and randomized in the study. To enroll, patients could not have received prior radiotherapy or cytotoxic chemotherapy for their current AML. Those with active central nervous system involvement, active uncontrolled bleeding, history of other malignancy, or known hypersensitivity to study drugs are ineligible to enroll to the trial as well.

This study aims to determine the safety and efficacy of devimistat in combination with high-dose cytarabine and mitoxantrone in older patients with relapsed/refractory AML compared with high-dose cytarabine and mitoxantrone therapy alone. Other control groups include patients treated with mitoxantrone, etoposide, and cytarabine and the combination of fludarabine, cytarabine, and filgrastim. The addition of devimistat is expected to improve the CR rate in patients who are aged 50 years or older with relapsed/refractory AML.

In a prior phase 1 study of devimistat plus high-dose cytarabine and mitoxantrone in patients with relapsed/refractory AML, the addition of devimistat sensitized AML cells to chemotherapy treatment.2

The objective response rate was 50% including CRs in 26 of 62 evaluable patients. Median overall survival was 6.7 months. In patients above age 60, the CR or CR with incomplete hematologic recovery rate was 47% and the median survival was 6.9 months.

This designation for this experimental anti-mitochondrial agent follows news of another Fast Track designation granted to devimistat for the treatment of patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer in November 2020, as well as an Orphan Drug designation granted in October 2020 for the treatment of patients with soft tissue sarcoma.

References

1. Rafael Pharmaceuticals Receives FDA Fast Track Designation for CPI-613® (devimistat) for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). News Release. Rafael Pharmaceuticals, Inc. December 15, 2020. Accessed December 15, 2020. https://bit.ly/34g6YsR

2. Pardee TS, Anderson RG, Pladna KM, et al. A Phase I Study of CPI-613 in Combination with High-Dose Cytarabine and Mitoxantrone for Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia. Clin Cancer Res. 2018;24(9):2060-2073. doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-17-2282 P[APERJournal of the American Chemical Society (1954), 76, 4109-12.https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ja01645a016
PAPERJournal of the American Chemical Society (1955), 77, 416-19.https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ja01607a057PAPERJustus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie (1958), 614, 66-83.https://chemistry-europe.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/jlac.19586140108PATENTWO 2009123597WO 2009110859WO 2010110771PATENTCN 111362848

PATENT

WO-2021011334

Deuterated derivatives of 6,8-bis(benzylsulfanyl)octanoic acid (CPI-613 or devimistat ) or its salts for treating cancer.

CPI-613 (6,8-bis(benzylsulfanyl)octanoic acid) is a first-in-class investigational small-molecule (lipoate analog), which targets the altered energy metabolism unique to many cancer cells. CPI-613 is currently being evaluated in two phase III clinical trials, and has been granted orphan drug designation for the treatment of pancreatic cancer, acute myeloid leukemia (AML), peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL), Burkitt lymphoma and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS).

[0004] One limitation to the clinical utility of CPI-613 is its very rapid metabolism. After IV dosing the half-life of 6,8-bis(benzylsulfanyl)octanoic acid is only about 1-2 hours (Pardee,

T.S. et al, Clin Cancer Res. 2014, 20, 5255-64). The short half-life limits the patient’s overall exposure to the drug and necessitates administration of relatively high doses. For safety reasons, CPI-613 is administered via a central venous catheter as an IV infusion over 30-120 minutes, with higher doses requiring longer infusion times.

The terms“6,8-bis(benzylsulfanyl)octanoic acid” and“ 6,8-bis-benzylthio-octanoic acid” refer to the compound known as CPI-613 or devimistat, having the chemical structure

PATENT

WO2020132397

claiming the use of CPI-613 in combination with an autophagy inhibitor eg chloroquine for treating eg cancers.

CPI-613 (6,8-bis-benzylthio-octanoic acid) is a first-in-class investigational small-molecule (lipoate analog), which targets the altered energy metabolism that is common to many cancer cells. CPI-613 has been evaluated in multiple phase I, I/II, and II clinical studies, and has been granted orphan drug designation for the treatment of pancreatic cancer, acute myeloid leukemia (AML), peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL), Burkitt lymphoma and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS).

PAPER

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/op200091t

An Efficient, Economical Synthesis of the Novel Anti-tumor Agent CPI-613

Cite this: Org. Process Res. Dev. 2011, 15, 4, 855–857

Publication Date:May 2, 2011
https://doi.org/10.1021/op200091t

An efficient and practical synthesis of the novel anti-tumor compound 6,8-dithiobenzyl octanoic acid, CPI-613 (2), was developed and executed on a practical scale. CPI-613 can be made in a single vessel from (±)-lipoic acid (1) via reductive opening of the disulfide ring followed by benzylation of the sulfhydryls with benzyl bromide. CPI-613 was isolated by simple crystallization in high yield and purity. The process is scaleable and has been demonstrated at up to 100 kg.CPI-613 (2) was isolated [4.7 kg (90%)] with an HPLC purity of 99.8 area %. Mp 66–67 °C. IR: 3050, 1710, 1400, 668 cm–11H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.40–7.20 (m, 10 H), 3.80–3.60 (m, 4 H), 2.60–2.50 (m, 2 H), 2.44 (t, J = 8.7, 2 H), 2.23 (t, J = 8.1, 2 H) 2.03–1.30 (m, 8 H). Anal. Calc for C22H28O2S2: C, 68.00; H, 7.26; S, 16.50. Found: C, 67.99; H, 7.31; S, 16.37. 

References

  1. ^ “CPI-613”. Rafael Pharmaceuticals.
  2. ^ Philip PA, Buyse ME, Alistar AT, Rocha Lima CM, Luther S, Pardee TS, Van Cutsem E (October 2019). “A Phase III open-label trial to evaluate efficacy and safety of CPI-613 plus modified FOLFIRINOX (mFFX) versus FOLFIRINOX (FFX) in patients with metastatic adenocarcinoma of the pancreas”Future Oncology15 (28): 3189–3196. doi:10.2217/fon-2019-0209PMC 6854438PMID 31512497.
Clinical data
Other namesCPI-613
Legal status
Legal statusInvestigational
Identifiers
IUPAC name[show]
CAS Number95809-78-2
PubChem CID24770514
DrugBank12109
ChemSpider28189062
UNIIE76113IR49
ChEMBLChEMBL3186849
CompTox Dashboard(EPA)DTXSID70914807
ECHA InfoCard100.231.125 
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC22H28O2S2
Molar mass388.58 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)Interactive image
SMILES[hide]C1=CC=C(C=C1)CSCCC(CCCCC(=O)O)SCC2=CC=CC=C2

//////////devimistat, CPI-613, CPI 613, phase 3, hematological cancer , Fast Track designation, ORPHAN DRUG, 

LYS 228


2D chemical structure of 1810051-96-7

LYS228

BOS-228
LYS-228

Molecular Formula, C16-H18-N6-O10-S2

Molecular Weight, 518.4783

(3S,4R)-3-((Z)-2-(2-Ammoniothiazol-4-yl)-2-((1-carboxycyclopropoxy)imino)acetamido)-2-oxo-4-((2-oxooxazolidin-3-yl)methyl)azetidine-1-sulfonate

RN: 1810051-96-7
UNII: 29H7N9XI1B

Unii-005B24W9YP.png

UNII-005B24W9YP

005B24W9YP

Lys-228 trihydrate

2091840-43-4

Yclopropanecarboxylic acid, 1-(((Z)-(1-(2-amino-4-thiazolyl)-2-oxo-2-(((3S,4R)-2-oxo-4-((2-oxo-3-oxazolidinyl)methyl)-1-sulfo-3-azetidinyl)amino)ethylidene)amino)oxy)-, hydrate (1:3)

1-[(Z)-[1-(2-amino-1,3-thiazol-4-yl)-2-oxo-2-[[(3S,4R)-2-oxo-4-[(2-oxo-1,3-oxazolidin-3-yl)methyl]-1-sulfoazetidin-3-yl]amino]ethylidene]amino]oxycyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid;trihydrate

BOS-228 (LYS-228) is a monobactam discovered at Novartis and currently in phase II clinical development at Boston Pharmaceuticals for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infection and complicated intraabdominal infections in adult patients.

The compound has been granted fast track and Qualified Infectious Disease Product (QIDP) designation from the FDA.

In October 2018, Novartis licensed to Boston Pharmaceuticals worldwide rights to the product.

Paper

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.oprd.9b00330

Patent

US 20150266867

PATENT

WO 2017050218

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2017050218&tab=FULLTEXT

Compound X: 1- ( ( (Z) – (1- (2-aminothiazol-4-yl) -2-oxo-2- ( ( (3S, 4R) -2-oxo-4- ( (2-oxooxazolidin-3-yl) methyl) -1-sulfoazetidin-3-yl) amino) ethylidene) amino) oxy) cyclopropanecarboxylic acid.

[0126]
Step 1: Benzhydryl 1- ( ( (Z) – (1- (2- ( (tert-butoxycarbonyl) amino) thiazol-4-yl) -2-oxo-2- ( ( (3S, 4R) -2-oxo-4- ( (2-oxooxazolidin-3-yl) methyl) azetidin-3-yl) amino) ethylidene) amino) oxy) cyclopropanecarboxylate. To a solution of (Z) -2- ( (1- ( (benzhydryloxy) carbonyl) cyclopropoxy) imino) -2- (2- ( (tert-butoxycarbonyl) amino) thiazol-4-yl) acetic acid (854 mg, 1.59 mmol) prepared according to published patent application US2011/0190254, Intermediate B (324 mg, 1.75 mmol) and HATU (785 mg, 2.07 mmol) in DMF (7.9 mL) , DIPEA was added (832 μL, 4.77 mmol) . After 1 h of stirring, it was poured into water and extracted with EtOAc. Brine was added to the aqueous layer, and it was further extracted with ethyl acetate (EtOAc) (3x) . The combined organic layers were dried over Na 2SO 4 and concentrated in vacuo. The crude residue was purified via silica gel chromatography (0-10%MeOH-DCM) to afford the title compound (1.09 g, 97%) as a beige foam. LCMS: R t = 0.97 min, m/z =705.3 (M+1) Method 2m_acidic.

[0127]
Instead of HATU, a variety of other coupling reagents can be used, such as any of the typical carbodiimides, or CDMT (2-chloro-4, 6-dimethoxy-1, 3, 5-triazine) and N-methylmorpholine to form the amide bond generated in Step 1.

[0128]
Step 2: (3S, 4R) -3- ( (Z) -2- ( (1- ( (benzhydryloxy) carbonyl) cyclopropoxy) imino) -2- (2- ( (tert-butoxycarbonyl) amino) thiazol-4-yl) acetamido) -2-oxo-4- ( (2-oxooxazolidin-3-yl) methyl) azetidine-1-sulfonic acid. Benzhydryl 1- ( ( (Z) – (1- (2- ( (tert-butoxycarbonyl) amino) thiazol-4-yl) -2-oxo-2- ( ( (3S, 4R) -2-oxo-4- ( (2-oxooxazolidin-3-yl) methyl) azetidin-3-yl) amino) ethylidene) amino) oxy) cyclopropanecarboxylate (1.00 g, 1.42 mmol) in DMF (7.0 mL) at 0 ℃ was treated with SO 3·DMF (448 mg, 2.84 mmol) . After 2 h of stirring at rt, the solution was poured into ice-cold brine and extracted with EtOAc (3x) . The combined organic layers were dried over Na 2SO 4 and concentrated in vacuo, affording the title compound (assumed quantitative) as a white solid. LCMS: Rt =0.90 min, m/z = 785.2 (M+1) Method 2m_acidic.

[0129]
Step 3: 1- ( ( (Z) – (1- (2-aminothiazol-4-yl) -2-oxo-2- ( ( (3S, 4R) -2-oxo-4- ( (2-oxooxazolidin-3-yl) methyl) -1-sulfoazetidin-3-yl) amino) ethylidene) amino) oxy) cyclopropanecarboxylic acid.

[0130]

[0131]
To a solution of (3S, 4R) -3- ( (Z) -2- ( (1- ( (benzhydryloxy) carbonyl) cyclopropoxy) imino) -2- (2- ( (tert-butoxycarbonyl) amino) thiazol-4-yl) acetamido) -2-oxo-4- ( (2-oxooxazolidin-3-yl) methyl) azetidine-1-sulfonic acid (1.10 g, 1.40 mmol) in DCM (1.5 mL) at 0℃, TFA (5.39 mL, 70.0 mmol) was added, and after 10 minutes, the ice bath was removed. Additional TFA (3.24 mL, 42.0 mmol) was added after 1 hr at rt and the solution was diluted with DCM and concentrated in vacuo after an additional 30 min. Optionally, anisole may be added to the TFA reaction to help reduce by-product formation, which may increase the yield of desired product in this step. The crude residue was purified by reverse phase prep HPLC (XSelect CSH, 30 x 100 mm, 5 μm, C18 column; ACN-water with 0.1%formic acid modifier, 60 mL/min) , affording the title compound (178 mg, 23%) as a white powder. LCMS: R t = 0.30 min, m/z = 518.9 (M+1) Method 2m_acidic; 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d 6) δ 9.27 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 1H) 6.92 (s, 1H) 5.23 (dd, J = 9.1, 5.7 Hz, 1H) 4.12-4.23 (m, 3H) 3.72-3.62 (m, 2H assumed; obscured by water) 3.61-3.52 (m, 1H assumed; obscured by water) 3.26 (dd, J = 14.5, 5.9 Hz, 1H) 1.36 (s, 4H) . 1H NMR (400 MHz, D 2O) δ 7.23 (s, 1H) , 5.48 (d, J = 5.8 Hz, 1H) , 4.71-4.65 (m, 1H) , 4.44 (t, J = 8.2 Hz, 2H) , 3.89-3.73 (m, 3H) , 3.54 (dd, J = 14.9, 4.9 Hz, 1H) , 1.65-1.56 (m, 2H) , 1.56-1.46 (m, 2H) . The product of this process is amorphous. Compound X can be crystallized from acetone, ethanol, citrate buffer at pH 3 (50 mM) , or acetate buffer at pH 4.5 (50 mM) , in addition to solvents discussed below.

PAPER

Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters (2018), 28(4), 748-755.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960894X18300064

PATENT

WO 2019026004

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2019026004&tab=PCTDESCRIPTION

Over the past several decades, the frequency of antimicrobial resistance and its association with serious infectious diseases have increased at alarming rates. The increasing prevalence of resistance among nosocomial pathogens is particularly disconcerting. Of the over 2 million (hospital-acquired) infections occurring each year in the United States, 50 to 60% are caused by antimicrobial-resistant strains of bacteria. The high rate of resistance to commonly used antibacterial agents increases the morbidity, mortality, and costs associated with nosocomial infections. In the United States, nosocomial infections are thought to contribute to or cause more than 77,000 deaths per year and cost approximately $5 to $10 billion annually.

Important causes of Gram-negative resistance include extended-spectrum 13- lactamases (ESBLs), serine carbapenemases (KPCs) and metallo-13-lactamases (for example NDM-1 ) in Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis, high-level third-generation cephalosporin (AmpC) 13-lactamase resistance among Enterobacter species and Citrobacter freundii, and multidrug-resistance genes observed in Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, and Stenotrophomonas. The problem of antibacterial resistance is compounded by the existence of bacterial strains resistant to multiple antibacterials. For example, Klebsiella pneumonia harboring NDM-1 metallo-13- lactamase carries frequently additional serine-13-lactamases on the same plasmid that carries the NDM-1 .

Thus there is a need for new antibacterials, particularly antibacterial compounds that are effective against existing drug-resistant microbes, or are less susceptible to development of new bacterial resistance. Monobactam antibiotic, which is referred to herein as Compound X, is primarily effective against Gram-negative bacteria, including strains that show resistance to other monobactams.

The present invention relates to a process for the preparation of monobactam antibiotic Compound X and intermediates thereof.

More particularly, the present invention relates to a process for the preparation of Compound X

Compound X

also referred to as 1 -(((Z)-(1 -(2-aminothiazol-4-yl)-2-oxo-2-(((3S,4R)-2-oxo-4-((2-oxooxazolidin-3-yl)methyl)-1 -sulfoazetidin-3-yl)amino)ethylidene)amino)oxy)cyclopropanecarboxylic acid, or a salt thereof, or a solvate including hydrate thereof.

Patent application number PCT/US2015/02201 1 describes certain monobactam antibiotics. Compound X may be prepared using the method disclosed in PCT/US2015/02201 1 , in particular example 22, and in PCT/CN2016/099482.

A drawback from these processes is that they exhibit a large number of process steps and intermediate nitrogen protection/deprotection steps, reducing the overall yield and efficiency. Furthermore, these processes require several chromatographic purification steps to be carried out in course of the processes. We have found that the preparation of Compound X, as previously prepared on a manufacturing scale, possesses a number of disadvantages, in particular poor handling characteristics.

It would thus be beneficial to develop alternative or improved processes for the production of Compound X that do not suffer from some or all of these disadvantages.

Compound x Compound x

Scheme 1

Preparation of Compound X from Intermediates 22 and 2A

Scheme 3

Examples

The Following examples are merely illustrative of the present disclosure and they should not be considered as limiting the scope of the disclosure in any way, as these examples and other equivalents thereof will become apparent to those skilled in the art in the light of the present disclosure, and the accompanying claims.

Synthesis of Compound 8 (R = benzyl)

1 .50kg oxazolidin-2-one (7b) was charged into the reactor. 7.50kg THF was charged and the stirring started. The mixture was cooled to 10~20°C. 2.18kg potassium fert-butoxide was charged intol 2.00kg THF and stirred to dissolve.

The potassium fert-butoxide solution was added dropwise into the reactor while maintaining the temperature at 10-20 °C. The reaction was stirred for 1 ~2hrs at 10-20 °C after the addition. The solution of 2.36kg methyl-2-chloroacetate (7a) in 3.00kg of THF was added to the reactor while maintaining the temperature at 10-20 °C. The reaction mixture was stirred for 16-18 h at 20-25 °C. The IPC (in process control) showed completion of the reaction. The mixture was centrifuged and the wet cake was washed with 7.50kg THF. The filtrate was concentrated and the crude 7 was provided as reddish brown liquid, which was used for the next step without further purification,

1H NMR (400 MHz, CHLOROFORM- /) δ ppm 3.65 – 3.71 (m, 2 H) 3.74 (s, 3 H) 4.02 (s, 2 H) 4.34 – 4.45 (m, 2 H).

The dried reactor was exchanged with N2 three times. 3.71 kg LiHMDS solution in THF/Hep (1 M) and 1 .30kg THF were charged under nitrogen protection. The stirring was started and the solution was cooled to -70—60 °C. The solution of 0.71 kg benzyl acetate (6) in 5.20 kg THF was added dropwisely at -70— 60 °C, and the resulted mixture was stirred for 1 -1 .5 h after the addition. The solution of 0.65kg 7 in 3.90kg THF was added dropwise while maintaining the temperature at -70—60 °C, then stirred for 30-40 minutes. The reaction mixture was warmed to 20-25 °C and stirring was continued for 0.5-1 .0 h. IPC showed 6 was less than1 .0% (Otherwise, continue the reaction till IPC passes). The reaction mixture was poured into 13.65 kg aqueous citric acid below 10 °C. The mixture was stirred for 15-20 minutes after the addition. Phases were separated and the organic layer was collected. The aqueous layer was extracted with EA (6.50kg * 2). The organic layer was combined, washed by 6.50 kg 28% NaCI solution and dried with 0.65

kg anhydrous MgSC . The mixture was filtered and the wet cake was washed with 1 .30kg EA. The filtrate was concentrated under vacuum to provide crude 8. The crude 8 was stirred in 2.60 kg MTBE at 20-25 °C for 1 -1 .5 h. The mixture was cooled to 0-10 °C and stirred for 1 .5-2.0 h and filtered. The filter cake was washed with 0.65kg pre-cooled MTBE and dried under vacuum (<-0.096Mpa) at 20-25 °C for 12~16hrs till a constant weight to give 513 g of 8 as a white solid, Yield: 45%, HPLC purity 96.4%,1 H NMR (400 MHz, CHLOROFORM-c δ ppm 3.48 – 3.55 (m, 1 H) 3.56 – 3.63 (m, 2 H) 3.66 – 3.74 (m, 1 H) 4.17 – 4.26 (m, 2 H) 4.31 – 4.44 (m, 2H) 5.12 – 5.24 (m, 2 H) 7.30 – 7.44 (m, 5 H).

Synthesis of Compound 9 (R = benzyl)

The dried reactor was charged with 3.75kg HOAc and 1 .50 kg 8. The stirring was started and the reaction mixture was cooled to 0-5 °C. 3.53kg aqueous NaN02 was added dropwise at 0-10 °C, and the reaction mixture was stirred for 15-30 minutes after the addition. IPC showed 8 was less than 0.2%. The reaction mixture was treated with 7.50kg EA and 7.50 kg water. Phases were separated and the organic layer was collected. The aqueous layer was extracted with EA (7.50kg * 2). The organic layers were combined, washed with 7.50 kg 28% NaCI solution, and concentrated under vacuum to provide crude 9. The crude 9 was slurried with 5.25 kg water at 10-20 °C for 3~4hrs, and filtered. The wet cake was washed with 1 .50kg water. The solid was dried under vacuum (<-0.096 Mpa) at 45-50 °C for 5-6 h till a constant weight to give 1 .44 Kg of 9, yield: 86.9%, HPLC purity 92.9%,1H NMR (400 MHz, CHLOROFORM- /) δ ppm 3.60 – 3.76 (m, 2 H) 4.44 (t, J=8.07 Hz, 2 H) 4.60 (s, 2 H) 5.25 – 5.41 (m, 2 H) 7.30 – 7.43 (m, 5 H) 1 1 .62 (br s, 1 H).

Synthesis of Compound 9a (R = benzyl)

9

The dried reactor was charged with 0.58 kg Zn, 4.72kg (Βο Ο, 6.00 kg water, 1 .20 kg NH4CI and 6.00kg THF. The reaction mixture was stirred and heated to 50-55 °C. The solution of 0.60 kg 9 in 4.20kg THF

was added dropwisely while maintaining the temperature at 50-55 °C. The reaction mixture was stirred for 0.5-1 .Ohrs after the addition. IPC showed 9 was less than 0.1 %. The reaction mixture was treated withl .50 kg ethyl acetate and stirred for 15-20 minutes. Phase was separated and the water layer was extracted by1 .50 kg ethyl acetate. The organic layers were combined, washed with 6.00 kg 28% NaCI solution and concentrated under vacuum to provide crude 9a. The crude 9a was stirred with 3.60kg*2 n-heptane to remove excess (Βο Ο. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography column eluted with ethyl acetate: Heptane= 1 :1 to provide crude 9a solution. The solution was concentrated under reduced pressure to obtain crude 9a. The crude 9a was slurried with 1 .80 kg MTBE for 2.0-3. Ohrs, filtered, and the wet cake was washed with MTBE. The solid was dried under vacuum (<-0.096 Mpa) at 50-55 °C for 16-18 h till a constant weight to give 392 g of 9a as a white solid, Yield: 51 %, HPLC purity 98.1 %,1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-cfe) δ ppm 1.17 – 1 .57 (m, 9 H) 3.39 – 3.61 (m, 2 H) 4.20 – 4.45 (m, 3 H) 5.10 – 5.32 (m, 3 H) 5.75 (s, 1 H) 7.38 (br s, 5 H) 7.75 – 7.99 (m, 1 H).

Synthesis of compound (VII) (R = benzyl, X = CI)

9a VII

The dried reactor was charged with 13.0kg HCI in IPA and the stirring was started. 1 .33 kg 9a was charged in portions at 20-25 °C. The mixture was stirred at 20-25 °C for 3-4 h. IPC showed 9a was less than 0.1 %. The reaction solution was concentrated under vacuum 40-45 °C. The residue was treated with 21 .58kg MTBE at 20-25 °C for 3-4 h. The mixture was filtered and the wet cake was washed with 2.60kg MTBE. The solid was dried under vacuum (<-0.096 Mpa) at 45-50 °C for 5-6 h till a constant weight to give 1 .045 Kg of compound VII (R = benzyl, X = CI) as a yellow solid, Yield: 93.7%, HPLC purity 99.2%,1 H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-cfe) δ ppm 3.16 – 3.74 (m, 3 H) 4.10 – 4.35 (m, 4 H) 5.09 – 5.39 (m, 2 H) 7.27 – 7.60 (m, 5 H) 8.72 (br s, 2 H).

Synthesis of compound (Vile) (R = benzyl)

VII Vile

To an autoclave (3L) were added VII (R = benzyl, X = CI) (100 g, 304.2 mmol, 1 .0 equiv.), DCM (2650 g, 26.5 equiv., w/w) and (S-BINAP)RuCl2 (2.4 g, 3.04 mmol, 0.01 equiv.), successively. Air in the autoclave was replaced with N2 5 times. N2 in the autoclave was was replaced with H2 5 times. The solution was stirred with 250-260 r/min and H2 (2.1 ±0.1 MPa) at 40±5°C for 24 h. The reaction mixture was filtered, and the filter cake was washed with DCM (400 g, 4.0 equiv., w/w). The filter cake was slurried with IPA (785 g, 7.85 equiv., w/w) and H2O (40 g, 0.4 equiv., w/w) overnight (18-20 h). The mixture was filtered. The filter cake was washed with IPA (200 g, 2.0 equiv., w/w) and dried at 45±5°C overnight (18-20 h). Vile (R = benzyl) was obtained as off-white solid, 80.4 g, 79.9% yield, 95.5% purity, 97.6% de, >99.5% ee. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-cfe) δ ppm 3.34-3.38 (m, 2 H) 3.50-3.52 (m, 1 H) 3.60-3.62 (m, 1 H) 4.18-4.24 (m, 4 H) 5.23 (s, 2H) 6.16 (s, 1 H) 7.32 (m, 5H) 8.74 (s, 1 H).

Alternative synthesis of compound 9a (R = benzyl)

5b

Mg(OtBu)2

To a flask was added 5a (1 .88 g, 12.93 mmol), THF (40 mL), and CDI (2.20 g, 13.58 mmol) at 25 °C. The mixture was stirred for 3 h. To the reaction mixture was added 5b (2.00 g, 6.47 mmol), and Mg(OfBu)2 (2.21 g, 12.93 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 24 h. The reaction mixture was concentrated under vacuum to remove most of the THF solvent. To the concentrated solution was added MTBE (40 mL), followed by addition of an aqueous solution of HCI (1 M, 60mL) to adjust to pH = 2-3. Two phases were separated, and the water phase was extracted with MTBE (20 mL). The combined organic phase was washed with aqueous NaHCC (5%, 50 mL) and brine (20%, 40 mL). The organic phase was concentrated to a weight of -19 g, and a lot of white solid was obtained in the concentration process. The suspension was cooled to 0 °C, and filtered. The filter cake was washed with cold MTBE (5 mL) and dried under vacuum to obtain product 9a (1 .6g, 63% yield).

Synthesis of compound (Vile) (R = benzyl, PG = Cbz)

Vile Vile

To a flask (5 L) were added Vile (R = benzyl) (140 g, 423.2 mmol, LOequiv.), H20 (1273 g, 9.09 equiv., w/w) and toluene (2206 g, 15.76 equiv., w/w). The solution was stirred and cooled to 0-5 °C with ice bath. Then NaHCOa (78.4 g, 933 mmol, 2.22 equiv.) was added and CbzCI (89.6 g, 527 mmol, 1 .24 equiv.) was dropped into the stirring solution, respectively. The solution was stirred at 30±5 °C overnight (18-20 h). Heptane (3612 g, 25.8 equiv., w/w) was added dropwise to the stirring solution over 1 h at 20-30 °C. The mixture was filtered. The filter cake was washed with heptane (280 g, 2.00 equiv., w/w) and MTBE (377 g, 2.69 equiv., w/w), respectively. The filter cake was dried at 45±5°C overnight (18-20 h). Vile (R = benzyl, PG = Cbz) was obtained as an off-white solid, 169.4 g, 93% yield, 96.7% purity, 98% de, >99.5% ee, 1 H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-cfe) δ ppm 3.23-3.24 (m, 1 H) 3.30 (m, 1 H) 3.51 -3.55 (m, 2 H) 3.99 (s, 1 H) 4.17-4.21 (m, 3 H) 5.02-5.03 (m, 2H) 5.12 (s, 2H) 5.46-5.48 (d, 1 H) 7.33-7.36 (m, 10H) 7.75-7.73 (d, 1 H).

Synthesis of compound (IV) (PG = Cbz)

Vile IV

Vile (R = benzyl) (220 g, 513.5 mmol, 1 .0 equiv.) was dissolved in THF (1464g, 6.65 equiv., w/w). The solution was filtered. The filter cake was washed with THF (488g, 2.22 equiv., w/w). The filtrate (Vile) was collected. To an autoclave (3L) were added the filtrate (Vile). The reactor was cooled down to -75 – -65 °C with dry-ice/EtOH bath, and bubbled with NH3 for not less than 4 h. Then the solution was stirred at 25±5 °C with NH3 (0.5-0.6 MPa) for 24 h. The autoclave was deflated to release NH3. The reaction solution was concentrated with a rotary evaporator to remove THF until the residue was around 440 g. The residue was slurried with EA (2200 g, 10 equiv., w/w) at 70±2 °C, then cooled to 25±5 °C and stirred for 16-18 h. The mixture was filtered. The filter cake was washed with EA (440 g). The filter cake was slurried with EA (1320 g, 6.00 equiv. w/w), and the temperature was raised to 70±2 °C, then cooled to 25±5 °C and stirred for 16-20 h. The mixture was filtered. The filter cake was washed with EA, and dried at 50±5 °C overnight (18-20 h). IV (PG = Cbz) was obtained as off-white solid, 141 g, 81 .5% yield, 99.1 % purity, >99.5% assay, 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-cfe) δ ppm 3.12 – 3.23 (m, 2 H) 3.31 (br s, 1 H) 3.56 (t, J=8.01 Hz, 2 H) 3.88 (quin, J=6.02 Hz, 1 H) 3.93 – 4.03 (m, 1 H) 4.20 (t, J=8.01 Hz, 2 H) 5.02 (s, 2 H) 5.27 (d, J=5.87 Hz, 1 H) 7.12 (s, 1 H) 7.22 – 7.45 (m, 5 H).

Synthesis of compound (III) (PG = Cbz, LG = S02CH3)

IV III

To a flask was added IV (PG = Cbz) (14.00 g, 41 .50 mmol, 1 .00 equiv), and dry 1 , 2-dimethoxyethane (300 mL) under N2. The mixture was stirred at -5°C ~ 0°C for 1 h to obtain a good suspension. MsCI (7.89 g, 68.89 mmol, 5.33 mL, 1 .66 eq) in 1 , 2-dimethoxyethane (20.00 mL) was added dropwise during 30 min, and Et3N (12.60 g, 124.50 mmol, 17.26 mL, 3.00 eq) in 1 , 2-dimethoxyethane (20.00 mL) was added dropwise during 30 min side to side. The reaction mixture was stirred for additional 5 min at -5°C ~ 0°C, and was quenched with water (6 mL). The reaction mixture was concentrated to remove DME. The solid was slurried in water (250 mL) and MTBE (125 mL) for 1 h. The solid was collected by filtration, and then slurried in water (250 mL) for 1 hr. The solid was collected by filtration, and washed with water (25 mL) to give white solid. The solid was slurried in EA (150 mL) and dried in vacuum at 60°C for 24 h to give III (PG = Cbz, LG = SO2CH3) (15.00 g, 36.1 1 mmol, 87.01 % yield), 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-cfe) δ ppm 3.17 (s, 3 H) 3.26 (br d, J=15.04 Hz, 1 H) 3.47 – 3.57 (m, 1 H) 3.64 (br d, J=6.36 Hz, 2 H) 4.22 (br dd, J=17.79, 8.50 Hz, 2 H) 4.50 (br s, 1 H) 4.95 – 5.17 (m, 3 H) 7.21 – 7.56 (m, 5H) 7.43 (s, 1 H) 7.63 – 7.89 (m, 2 H).

Synthesis of compound II (PG = Cbz, LG = SO2CH3, M+ = NBu4+)

O OMs o CISO3H, 2-picoline – ° O ?yO

HN Bu4NHS04< NHCbz

“Cbz

III II

To a flask was added 2-picoline (1 1 .50 g, 12.23 mL) and DMF (10 mL). The solution was cooled to 5 SC, followed by slow addition of chlorosulfonic acid (7.20 g, 4.14 mL). The temperature was increased to 20 SC. Ill (PG = Cbz, LG = SO2CH3) (5.13 g, 12.35 mmol) was added to the reaction mixture. The reaction mixture was heated to 42 SC for 18h. IPC (in process control) showed complete conversion of starting material. The reaction was cooled to 20 SC and dropwise added to a solution of tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulfate (4.6 g, 13.6 mmol) in the mixed solvents of dichloromethane (100 mL) and water (100 mL) at 5SC. The phases were separated and the water phase was extracted with dichloromethane (2*50mL). The combined organic phase was washed with water (5*100mL). The organic phase was concentrated to dryness and purified by column chromatography (dichloromethane/methanol = 15/1 v/v) to afford II (PG = Cbz, LG = SO2CH3, M+ = NBii4+) (8.4 g, 92.30%), 1 H NMR (400 MHz, CHLOROFORM-c/) δ ppm 0.99 (t, J=7.34 Hz, 12 H) 1 .36 – 1 .50 (m, 8 H) 1 .54 – 1 .76 (m, 8 H) 3.15 (br d, J=8.31 Hz, 2 H) 3.21 – 3.35 (m, 8 H) 3.47 (br dd, J=14.73, 7.27 Hz, 1 H) 3.54 – 3.65 (m, 1 H) 3.67 – 3.81 (m, 2 H) 4.17 – 4.32 (m, 1 H) 4.39 – 4.62 (m, 1 H) 4.74 (br s, 1 H) 5.1 1 (s, 3 H) 5.32 – 5.50 (m, 1 H) 6.47 (br s, 1 H) 7.29 – 7.47 (m, 5 H) 8.69 – 8.94 (m, 1 H).

Synthesis of compound (IA)

A solution of II (PG = Cbz, LG = SO2CH3, M+ = NBu4+) (4.0 g) in dichloromethane (38 mL) was pumped to tube A at rate of 2.0844 mL/min, and a solution of KHCO3 (3.0 g) in water (100 mL) was pumped to tube B at a rate of 1 .4156 mL/min side to side. These two streams were mixed in a cross-mixer then flowed to a tube coil that was placed in an oil bath at 100 °C. The residence time of the mixed stream in the coil was 2 min. The reaction mixture flowed through a back-pressure regulator that was set at ~ 7 bars, and was collected to a beaker. After completion of the collection, two phases was separated. The organic phase was concentrated to dryness. The residue was slurried in ethyl acetate (5 mL). The solid was filtered and the filter cake was dried to give IA (2.6 g, 75%),

1H NMR (400 MHz, CHLOROFORM-c/) δ ppm 1.00 (t, J=7.27 Hz, 12 H) 1 .42 (sxt, J=7.31 Hz, 8 H) 1 .62 (quin, J=7.83 Hz, 8 H) 3.13 – 3.39 (m, 8 H) 3.54 – 3.69 (m, 2 H) 3.81 (dd, J=14.98, 2.51 Hz, 1 H) 3.96 – 4.13 (m, 1 H) 4.22 – 4.47 (m, 3 H) 4.99 – 5.23 (m, 3 H) 6.42 (br d, J=9.29 Hz, 1 H) 7.26 – 7.44 (m, 5 H).

Synthesis of compound 2A

Step 1

To a stirring solution of compound 16b (2 g, 10.14mmol, 1 .0 eq) in DMF (20 ml_) was added CS2CO3 (5.29g, 16.22 mmol, 1 .6 eq), then the resulting solution was stirred at room temperature for 10mins, then compound 16a (5.27g, 20.28mmol, 2eq) was added dropwise to the mixture for 2 minutes, then the resulting solution was stirred for another 2 hours. TLC showed the starting material was consumed completely. The mixture was added with water (60mL) and extracted with MTBE (20mL*3). The combined organic layers were dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated. The crude was slurried in heptane to give 1 .65 g 16 as a white solid (Yield: 57%), 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-cfe) δ ppm 7.48-7.28 (m, 10 H), 5.00-4.96 (t, J=6.0 Hz, 1 H), 3.81 (s, 3H), 3.44-3.42 (m, 2H), 2.40-2.37 (m, 2H).

Compound 16 (1 g, 2.66mmol, 1 eq) was dissolved in THF (20mL) under Nitrogen, and cooled to -40 °C. NaHMDS (1 .6mL, 2.0M THF solution, 1 .2 eq) was added dropwise. The reaction was stirred for 1 h at -40 °C. HPLC indicated the reaction was finished. The reaction was quenched with 10% Citric acid, extracted with MTBE (25 ml_ x 2). The combined organic layers were washed with brine (30 ml_), dried with Na2S04, filtered and concentrated to give 17 as a yellow solid, which was used for the next step without purification (assay yield: 65%); 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-cfe) δ ppm 7.27-7.13 (m, 10 H), 3.46 (s, 3H), 1 .21 -1 .17(dd, J=7.2, 10.4 Hz, 2H ); 1 .14-1 .1 1 (dd, J=7.2, 10.4 Hz, 2H).

Step 3

Compound 17 (100 mg) was dissolved in methanol (5 mL) and 2.0 M HCI IPAC solution (5 mL). The solution was heated at 45 °C for 3 days. HPLC indicated the reaction was finished. The reaction was cooled to room temperature and was diluted with 10 mL water. The reaction mixture was washed with MTBE (10 mL x 2), organic layer was discarded and the aqueous layer was concentrated to give compound 2A HCI (32 mg, 62% yield), 1 H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-cfe) δ ppm 3.80-3.44 (br, 4H), 1 .56 (s, 2H), 1 .38 (s, 2H).

Step 4

To a solution of 2A HCI (0.70 g, 4.57 mmol) in methanol (5 mL) was added triethylamine (1 .26 mL, 9.14 mmol) at room temperature. The solution was stirred for 20 min, and the solvent was removed under vacuum. To the residue was added IPAC (10 mL) leading to precipitation. The solid was filtered, and the filtrate was concentrated to provide 2A (0.50g, 94% yield) containing ca. 6 wt% Et3N-HCI.

Synthesis of Compound X from compound of formula (I), (IA)

Compound x

To a flask was charged 21 (1 .00 g, 68.43 wt%, 2.50 mmol) and DMF (10 mL). The suspension was cooled to -20 °C, to which was added diphenylphosphinic chloride (0.52 mL, 2.75 mmol). The solution was stirred at -20 °C for 30 min, followed by addition of a mixed solution of (IA) (1 .52g, 3.00 mmol) and triethylamine (0.52 mL, 3.76 mmol) in DMF (2mL). The reaction mixture was stirred at 20 °C for 20 h, followed by addition of MTBE (20 mL). The reaction mixture was adjusted to pH = 2-3 using aqueous HCI solution (37%). To the mixture was added isopropanol (100 mL). The resulting mixture was stirred for 4 h to obtain a suspension. The suspension was filtered and the filter cake was dried under vacuum to afford crude 22 (1 .17 g). The crude 22 was slurried in a combined solvent of THF/H2O (= 12 mL / 3mL), and filtered to afford 22 (0.744 g, 75 wt% by Q-NMR, 53.3% yield). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-cfe) δ ppm 3.47 – 3.55 (m, 2 H) 3.59 – 3.63 (m, 2 H) 4.13 – 4.21 (m, 3 H ) 5.05 (dd, J=8.8, 5.6 Hz, 1 H) 8.22 (s, 1 H) 9.73 (d, J=8.7 Hz, 1 H).

To a suspension of 22 (580 mg, 75 wt%, 1 .037 mmol) in DMAC (1 .5 mL) was added 2A (214.3 mg, 85 wt%, 1 .556 mmol). The reaction was stirred at 25 °C for 3 days, and in process control showed 22, Compound X = 4/96, and Z/E = 91 /9. the mixture was slowly added into 15ml acetone to precipitate yellowish solid. The reaction mixture was filtered to afford Compound X (0.7 g, 34 wt% by QNMR, 44% yield).

Synthesis of compound 3 (R2 = CH(Ph)2)

R2 = CH(Ph)2

2-(2-aminothiazol-4-yl)-2-oxoacetic acid (Y) (10.00 g, 47.93 mmol) and compound W (R2 = CH(Ph)2) (13.31 g, 46.98 mmol) were suspended in DMAC (40 mL), followed by addition of triethylamine (5.01 mL, 35.95 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at 20 °C for 5 h. HPLC showed completion of the reaction, and Z/E

= 97/3. To the reaction mixture was added water (120 mL) with stirring. The mixture was stirred for 20 min to obtain a suspension. The suspension was filtered and the filter cake was washed with water (50 mL).

The filter cake was slurried in a combined solvent of THF/ethyl acetate (50 mL / 50 mL) at 60 °C and cooled to 20 °C. The solid was filtered and dried at 50 °C for 3 h to get 3 (R2 = CH(Ph)2) (19.5 g, 88% yield). 1H

NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-cfe) δ ppm 1.37 -1 .42 (m, 2 H) 1 .44 – 1 .49 (m, 2 H) 6.87 (s, 1 H) 6.94 (s, 1 H) 7.22

– 7.30 (m, 6 H) 7.45 – 7.49 (m, 4 H).

Alternative Synthesis of Compound X from compound of formula (I), (IA)

Compound x

IA (40.14 g, 62.63 mmol) was dissolved in methanol (200 ml_), followed by addition of Pd/C (10%, 1 .1 g). The reaction mixture was maintained under hydrogen atmosphere (1 -2 bar) at 20 °C for 24 h. In process control showed completion of the reaction. The reaction mixture was filtered. The filtrate was concentrated to give an oil of IB (M+ = NBu4+) (58.20 g, 55 wt% by Q-NMR, 100% yield). 1 H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-cfe) δ ppm 0.93 (t, J=7.3 Hz, 12 H) 1 .23 – 1 .36 (m, 8 H) 1 .57 (m, 8 H) 2.99 – 3.28 (m, 8 H) 3.37 (dd, J=14.3, 7.5 Hz, 1 H) 3.65 – 3.70 (m, 3 H) 3.84 – 3.88 (m, 1 H) 4.08 (d, J=5.6 Hz, 1 H) 4.18 – 4.22 (m, 2 H).

3 (R2 = CH(Ph)2) (0.95 g, 2.17 mmol) was dissolved in THF (20 ml_). To the solution was added /V-methyl morpholine (0.77 g, 7.60 mmol) and 2-chloro-4,6-dimethoxy-1 ,3,5-triazine (0.57 g, 3.26 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at 20 °C for 1 h followed by addition of IB (M+ = NBu +) (2.70 g, 48.98 wt%, 2.61 mmol). The reaction was stirred at 20 °C for 5 h. In process control showed completion of the reaction. To the reaction mixture was added ethyl acetate (20 ml_). The organic phase was washed with brine (10 ml_). Solvent was removed. Acetone (40ml) was added to dissolve residue. TFA (1 .24 g, 10.86 mmol) dissolved in acetone (3 ml) was added slowly. The white solid was filtered and washed by acetone (10 ml) two times. Dried at 40 °C for 5h to get compound 4 (R2 = CH(Ph)2). 1 H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-cfe) δ ppm 1 .49 – 1 .55 (m, 4 H) 3.27 (dd, J=14.4, 6.2 Hz, 1 H) 3.49 – 3.65 (m, 2 H) 3.71 (dd, J=14.4, 6.2 Hz, 1 H) 4.04 – 4.10 (m, 1 H) 4.07 (dd, J=16.0, 8.6 Hz, 1 H) 4.17 (dd, J=1 1 .8, 6.0 Hz, 1 H) 5.28 (dd, J=9.0, 5.7 Hz, 1 H) 6.88 (s, 1 H) 7.03 (s, 1 H) 7.18 – 7.32 (m, 6 H) 7.43 (m, 4 H) 9.45 (d, J=9.0 Hz, 1 H).

Crude 4 (R2 = CH(Ph)2) (2.13 g) was dissolved in dichloromethane (20 ml_). The solution was cooled to 0 °C. To the solution was added anisole (0.68 ml_, 6.24 mmol) and trifluoroacetic acid (2.16 ml_, 28.08 mmol). The reaction was warmed to 20 °C, and stirred for 15 h. In process control showed completion of the

reaction. The aqueous phase was separated and added to acetone (40 mL) to obtain a suspension. The suspension was filtered to afford Compound X (0.98 g, 54.5% yield over two steps). 1 H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-c/e) δ ppm 1.40 (m, 4 H) 3.26 (dd, J=14.4, 6.0 Hz, 1 H) 3.54 – 3.69 (m, 3 H) 4.14 – 4.21 (m, 3 H) 5.25 (dd, J= 8.9, 5.7 Hz, 1 H) 7.02 (s, 1 H) 9.38 (d, J=9.0 Hz, 1 H).

REF

Synthesis and optimization of novel monobactams with activity against carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae – Identification of LYS228
57th Intersci Conf Antimicrob Agents Chemother (ICAAC) (June 1-5, New Orleans) 2017, Abst SATURDAY-297

//////////////LYS228, LYS 228, BOS-228, LYS-228, monobactam, Novartis, phase II,  Boston Pharmaceuticals, complicated urinary tract infection, complicated intraabdominal infections,  fast track, Qualified Infectious Disease Product, QIDP,

Nc1nc(cs1)\C(=N\OC2(CC2)C(=O)O)\C(=O)N[C@H]3[C@@H](CN4CCOC4=O)N(C3=O)S(=O)(=O)O

FDA approves novel treatment Oxbryta (voxelotor) to target abnormality in sickle cell disease


Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration granted accelerated approval to Oxbryta (voxelotor) for the treatment of sickle cell disease (SCD) in adults and pediatric patients 12 years of age and older.
“Today’s approval provides additional hope to the 100,000 people in the U.S., and the more than 20 million globally, who live with this debilitating blood disorder,” said Acting FDA Commissioner Adm. Brett P. Giroir, M.D. “Our scientific investments have brought us to a point where we have many more tools available in the battle against sickle cell disease, which presents daily challenges for those living with it. We remain committed to raising the profile of this disease as a public health priority and to approving new therapies that are proven to be safe and effective. Together with improved provider education, patient empowerment, and improved care delivery systems, these newly approved drugs have the potential to immediately impact people living with SCD.”

Sickle cell disease is a lifelong, inherited blood disorder in which red blood cells are abnormally shaped (in a crescent, or “sickle” shape), which restricts the flow in blood vessels and limits oxygen delivery to the body’s tissues, leading to severe pain and organ damage. It is also characterized by severe and chronic inflammation that worsens vaso-occlusive crises during which patients experience episodes of extreme pain and organ damage. Nonclinical studies have demonstrated that Oxbryta inhibits red blood cell sickling, improves red blood cell deformability (ability of a red blood cell to change shape) and improves the blood’s ability to flow.

“Oxbryta is an inhibitor of deoxygenated sickle hemoglobin polymerization, which is the central abnormality in sickle cell disease,” said Richard Pazdur, M.D., director of the FDA’s Oncology Center of Excellence and acting director of the Office of Oncologic Diseases in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “With Oxbryta, sickle cells are less likely to bind together and form the sickle shape, which can cause low hemoglobin levels due to red blood cell destruction. This therapy provides a new treatment option for patients with this serious and life-threatening condition.”

Oxbryta’s approval was based on the results of a clinical trial with 274 patients with sickle cell disease. In the study, 90 patients received 1500 mg of Oxbryta, 92 patients received 900 mg of Oxbryta and 92 patients received a placebo. Effectiveness was based on an increase in hemoglobin response rate in patients who received 1500 mg of Oxbryta, which was 51.1% for these patients compared to 6.5% in the placebo group.

Common side effects for patients taking Oxbryta were headache, diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, fatigue, rash and pyrexia (fever).
Oxbryta was granted Accelerated Approval, which enables the FDA to approve drugs for serious conditions to fill an unmet medical need based on a result that is reasonably likely to predict a clinical benefit to patients. Further clinical trials are required to verify and describe Oxbryta’s clinical benefit.
The FDA granted this application Fast Track designation. Oxbryta also received Orphan Drug designation, which provides incentives to assist and encourage the development of drugs for rare diseases. The FDA granted the approval of Oxbryta to Global Blood Therapeutics.

/////////fda 2019, Fast Track designation,  Oxbryta, Orphan Drug designation, voxelotor, Global Blood Therapeutics, sickle cell disease

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