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ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY

Read all about Organic Spectroscopy on ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY INTERNATIONAL 

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 29 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 29 year tenure till date Aug 2016, Around 30 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 25 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 13 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 212 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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FDA approves new diagnostic imaging agent FLUCICLOVINE F-18 to detect recurrent prostate cancer


FLUCICLOVINE F-18

Cyclobutanecarboxylic acid, 1-amino-3-(fluoro-18F)-, trans- [

  • Molecular FormulaC5H818FNO2
  • Average mass132.124 Da
Axumin (fluciclovine F 18)
fluciclovinum (18F)
GE-148
NMK36
trans-1-Amino-3-(18F)fluorcyclobutancarbonsäure [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
trans-1-Amino-3-(18F)fluorocyclobutanecarboxylic acid [ACD/IUPAC Name]
UNII-38R1Q0L1ZE
anti-1-amino-3-[18F]fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid
cas 222727-39-1
05/27/2016 11:27 AM EDT
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Axumin, a radioactive diagnostic agent for injection. Axumin is indicated for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in men with suspected prostate cancer recurrence based on elevated prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels following prior treatment.

May 27, 2016

Release

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Axumin, a radioactive diagnostic agent for injection. Axumin is indicated for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in men with suspected prostate cancer recurrence based on elevated prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels following prior treatment.

Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer in U.S. men. In patients with suspected cancer recurrence after primary treatment, accurate staging is an important objective in improving management and outcomes.

“Imaging tests are not able to determine the location of the recurrent prostate cancer when the PSA is at very low levels,” said Libero Marzella, M.D., Ph.D., director of the Division of Medical Imaging Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “Axumin is shown to provide another accurate imaging approach for these patients.”

Two studies evaluated the safety and efficacy of Axumin for imaging prostate cancer in patients with recurrent disease. The first compared 105 Axumin scans in men with suspected recurrence of prostate cancer to the histopathology (the study of tissue changes caused by disease) obtained by prostate biopsy and by biopsies of suspicious imaged lesions. Radiologists onsite read the scans initially; subsequently, three independent radiologists read the same scans in a blinded study.

The second study evaluated the agreement between 96 Axumin and C11 choline (an approved PET scan imaging test) scans in patients with median PSA values of 1.44 ng/mL. Radiologists on-site read the scans, and the same three independent radiologists who read the scans in the first study read the Axumin scans in this second blinded study. The results of the independent scan readings were generally consistent with one another, and confirmed the results of the onsite scan readings. Both studies supported the safety and efficacy of Axumin for imaging prostate cancer in men with elevated PSA levels following prior treatment.

Axumin is a radioactive drug and should be handled with appropriate safety measures to minimize radiation exposure to patients and healthcare providers during administration. Image interpretation errors can occur with Axumin PET imaging. A negative image does not rule out the presence of recurrent prostate cancer and a positive image does not confirm the presence of recurrent prostate cancer. Clinical correlation, which may include histopathological evaluation of the suspected recurrence site, is recommended.

The most commonly reported adverse reactions in patients are injection site pain, redness, and a metallic taste in the mouth.

Axumin is marketed by Blue Earth Diagnostics, Ltd., Oxford, United Kingdom

Patent

http://www.google.com/patents/WO2014023775A1?cl=en

The non-natural amino acid [ F]-l-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-l-carboxylic acid

([18F]-FACBC, also known as [18F]-Fluciclovine) is taken up specifically by amino acid transporters and has shown promise for tumour imaging with positron emission tomography (PET).

A known synthesis of [18F]-FACBC begins with the provision of the protected precursor compound 1 -(N-(t-butoxycarbonyl)amino)-3 –

[((trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl)oxy]-cyclobutane-l-carboxylic acid ethyl ester. This precursor compound is first labelled with [18F]-fluoride:

II before removal of the two protecting groups:

IT III

EP2017258 (Al) teaches removal of the ethyl protecting group by trapping the [18F]- labelled precursor compound (II) onto a solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge and incubating with 0.8 mL of a 4 mol/L solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH). After 3 minutes incubation the NaOH solution was collected in a vial and a further 0.8 mL 4 mol/L NaOH added to the SPE cartridge to repeat the procedure. Thereafter the SPE cartridge was washed with 3 mL water and the wash solution combined with the collected NaOH solution. Then 2.2 mL of 6 mol/L HCl was then added with heating to 60°C for 5 minutes to remove the Boc protecting group. The resulting solution was purified by passing through (i) an ion retardation column to remove Na+ from excess NaOH and Cl~ from extra HCl needed to neutralise excess of NaOH to get a highly acidic solution before the acidic hydrolysis step, (ii) an alumina column, and (iii) a reverse-phase column. There is scope for the deprotection step(s) and/or the

purification step in the production of [18F]-FACBC to be simplified.

Example 1: Synthesis of f FIFACBC

No-carrier- added [18F]fluoride was produced via the 180(p,n)18F nuclear reaction on a GE PETtrace 6 cyclotron (Norwegian Cyclotron Centre, Oslo). Irradiations were performed using a dual-beam, 30μΑ current on two equal Ag targets with HAVAR foils using 16.5 MeV protons. Each target contained 1.6 ml of > 96% [180]water (Marshall Isotopes). Subsequent to irradiation and delivery to a hotcell, each target was washed with 1.6 ml of [160]water (Merck, water for GR analysis), giving approximately 2-5 Gbq in 3.2 ml of [160]water. All radiochemistry was performed on a commercially available GE FASTlab™ with single-use cassettes. Each cassette is built around a one-piece-moulded manifold with 25 three-way stopcocks, all made of polypropylene. Briefly, the cassette includes a 5 ml reactor (cyclic olefin copolymer), one 1 ml syringe and two 5 ml syringes, spikes for connection with five prefilled vials, one water bag (100 ml) as well as various SPE cartridges and filters. Fluid paths are controlled with nitrogen purging, vacuum and the three syringes. The fully automated system is designed for single-step fluorinations with cyclotron-produced [18F]fluoride. The FASTlab was programmed by the software package in a step-by-step time-dependent sequence of events such as moving the syringes, nitrogen purging, vacuum, and temperature regulation. Synthesis of

[18F]FACBC followed the three general steps: (a) [18F]fluorination, (b) hydrolysis of protection groups and (c) SPE purification.

Vial A contained K222 (58.8 mg, 156 μπιοΐ), K2C03 (8.1 mg, 60.8 μπιοΐ) in 79.5% (v/v)

MeCN(aq) (1105 μΐ). Vial B contained 4M HC1 (2.0 ml). Vial C contained MeCN

(4.1ml). Vial D contained the precursor (48.4 mg, 123.5 μιηοΐ) in its dry form (stored at -20 °C until cassette assembly). Vial E contained 2 M NaOH (4.1 ml). The 30 ml product collection glass vial was filled with 200 mM trisodium citrate (10 ml). Aqueous

[18F]fluoride (1-1.5 ml, 100-200 Mbq) was passed through the QMA and into the 180-

H20 recovery vial. The QMA was then flushed with MeCN and sent to waste. The trapped [18F]fluoride was eluted into the reactor using eluent from vial A (730 μΐ) and then concentrated to dryness by azeotropic distillation with acetonitrile (80 μΐ, vial C). Approximately 1.7 ml of MeCN was mixed with precursor in vial D from which 1.0 ml of the dissolved precursor (corresponds to 28.5 mg, 72.7 mmol precursor) was added to the reactor and heated for 3 min at 85°C. The reaction mixture was diluted with water and sent through the tC18 cartridge. Reactor was washed with water and sent through the tC18 cartridge. The labelled intermediate, fixed on the tC18 cartridge was washed with water, and then incubated with 2M NaOH (2.0 ml) for 5 min after which the 2M NaOH was sent to waste. The labelled intermediate (without the ester group) was then eluted off the tC18 cartridge into the reactor using water. The BOC group was hydrolysed by adding 4M HC1 (1.4 ml) and heating the reactor for 5 min at 60 °C. The reactor content with the crude [18F]FACBC was sent through the HLB and Alumina cartridges and into the 30 ml product vial. The HLB and Alumina cartridges were washed with water (9.1 ml total) and collected in the product vial. Finally, 2M NaOH (0.9 ml) and water (2.1 ml) was added to the product vial, giving a purified formulation of [18F]FACBC with a total volume of 26 ml. Radiochemical purity was measured by radio-TLC using a mixture of MeCN:MeOH:H20:CH3COOH (20:5:5: 1) as the mobile phase. The radiochemical yield (RCY) was expressed as the amount of radioactivity in the [18F]FACBC fraction divided by the total used [18F]fluoride activity (decay corrected). Total synthesis time was 43 min.

The RCY of [18F]FACBC was 62.5% ± 1.93 (SD), n=4.

/////FDA,  diagnostic imaging agent,  recurrent prostate cancer, fda 2016, Axumin, marketed, Blue Earth Diagnostics, Ltd., Oxford, United Kingdom, fluciclovine F 18

C1[C@@](C[C@H]1[18F])(N)C(=O)O

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The USFDA has approved Navidea Biopharmaceuticals’ Supplemental New Drug Application (sNDA) for the expanded use of Lymphoseek (technetium Tc 99m tilmanocept) Injection


 

Technetium (99mTc) tilmanocept……………….CAS1262984-82-6
Technetium-99m tilmanocept.svg[99mTc]-DTPA-mannosyl-dextran
Systematic (IUPAC) name
Dextran 3-[(2-aminoethyl)thio]propyl 17-carboxy-10,13,16-tris(carboxymethyl)-8-oxo-4-thia-7,10,13,16-tetraazaheptadec-1-yl 3-[[2-[[1-imino-2-(D-mannopyranosylthio)ethyl]amino]ethyl]thio]propyl ether technetium-99m complexes…………………………………………………..………………..OTHER NAME ………………Dextran 3-[(2-aminoethyl)thio]propyl 17-carboxy-10,13,16-tris(carboxymethyl)-8-oxo-4-thia-7,10,13,16-tetraazaheptadec-1-yl 3-[[2-[[1-imino-2-(D-mannopyranosylthio)ethyl]amino]ethyl]thio]propyl ether technetium-99Tc complexes
(1-6)-alpha-D-pyranoglucan partially etherified by 3-[(2-aminoethyl)sulfanyl]propyl 17-carboxy-10,13,16-tris(carboxymethyl)-8-oxo-4-thia-7,10,13,16-tetraazaheptadecyl and 3-[(2-{[2-(L-mannopyranosylsulfanyl)acetimidoyl]amino}ethyl)sulfanyl]propyl [99mTc]technetium coordination compound
[99mTc]-DTPA-mannosyl-dextran composed of a dextran backbone linked to multiple units of mannose and DTPA (diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid) with an average molecular weight of 35800………………..LAUNCHED………….Launched – 2013
Clinical data
Trade names Lymphoseek
AHFS/Drugs.com entry
Pregnancy cat. C (US)
Legal status -only (US)
Routes Intradermal, subcutaneous
Pharmacokinetic data
Half-life 1.75 to 3.05 hours at injection site
Identifiers
ATC code V09IA09
Chemical data
Formula (C6H10O5)n(C19H28N4O9S99mTc)3–8(C13H24N2O5S2)12–20(C5H11NS)0–17
Mol. mass 15,281–23,454 g/mol[1]……………………..CODES1600
NEO3-06
TcDTPAmanDx
Tilmanocepthttp://chem.sis.nlm.nih.gov/chemidplus/rn/1262984-82-6NDA N202207 APPROVED

Mar 13, 2013

 

PATENT US 6409990, EXPMay 12, 2020

 

商品名:Lymphoseek  通用名:Technetium Tc 99m tilmanocept  中文名:未知
药企:Navidea Biopharmaceuticals, Inc.

FDA approves Navidea’s Lymphoseek for expanded use in head and neck cancer patients

The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Navidea Biopharmaceuticals’ Supplemental New Drug Application (sNDA) for the expanded use of Lymphoseek (technetium Tc 99m tilmanocept) Injection indicated for guiding sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy in head and neck cancer patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity.

http://drugdelivery.pharmaceutical-business-review.com/news/fda-approves-navideas-lymphoseek-for-expanded-use-in-head-and-neck-cancer-patients-160614-4294154

NCI: 99mTc-DTPA-mannosyl-dextran A radiolabeled macromolecule consisting of the chelating agent diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and mannose each attached to a dextran backbone and labeled with metastable technetiumTc-99 (Tc-99m), with mannose binding and radioisotopic activities. Upon injection, the mannose moiety of 99mTc-DTPA-mannosyl-dextran binds to mannose-binding protein (MBP). As MBPs reside on the surface of dendritic cells and macrophages, this gamma-emitting macromolecule tends to accumulate in lymphatic tissue where it may be imaged using gamma scintigraphy. This agent exhibits rapid clearance from the injection site, rapid uptake and high retention within the first draining lymph node, and low uptake by the remaining lymph nodes. MBP is a C-type lectin that binds mannose or fucose carbohydrate residues, such as those found on the surfaces of many pathiogens, and once bound activates the complement system.

 

The active ingredient in technetium Tc 99m tilmanocept is technetium Tc 99m tilmanocept. The active ingredient is formed when Technetium Tc 99m pertechnetate, sodium injection is added to the tilmanocept powder vial.

Technetium Tc 99m binds to the diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) moieties of the tilmanocept molecule.

Chemically, technetium Tc 99m tilmanocept consists of technetium Tc 99m, dextran 3-[(2- aminoethyl)thio]propyl 17-carboxy-10,13,16- tris(carboxymethyl)-8-oxo-4-thia-7,10,13,16- tetraazaheptadec-1-yl 3-[[2-[[1-imino-2-(D- mannopyranosylthio) ethyl]amino]ethyl]thio]propyl ether complexes. Technetium Tc 99m tilmanocept has the following structural formula:

Empirical formula: [C6H10O5]n.(C19H28N4O9S99mTc)b.(C13H24N2O5S2)c.(C5H11NS)a

Calculated average molecular weight: 15,281 to 23,454 g/mol

It contains 3-8 conjugated DTPA (diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid) molecules (b); 12-20 conjugated mannose molecules (c) with 0-17 amine side chains (a) remaining free.

The tilmanocept powder vial contains a sterile, non-pyrogenic, white to off-white powder that consists of a mixture of 250 mcg tilmanocept, 20 mg trehalose dihydrate, 0.5 mg glycine, 0.5 mg sodium ascorbate, and 0.075 mg stannous chloride dihydrate. The contents of the vial are lyophilized and are under nitrogen.

Technetium Tc 99m tilmanocept injection is supplied as a Kit. The Kit includes tilmanocept powder vials which contain the necessary non-radioactive ingredients needed to produce technetium Tc 99m tilmanocept. The Kit also contains DILUENT for technetium Tc 99m tilmanocept. The diluent contains a preservative and is specifically formulated for technetium Tc 99m tilmanocept. No other diluent should be used.

The DILUENT for technetium Tc 99m tilmanocept contains 4.5 mL sterile buffered saline consisting of 0.04% (w/v) potassium phosphate, 0.11% (w/v) sodium phosphate (heptahydrate), 0.5% (w/v) sodium chloride, and 0.4% (w/v) phenol. The pH is 6.8 – 7.2.http://www.druginformation.com/RxDrugs/T/Technetium%20Tc%2099m%20Tilmanocept%20Injection.html

 

Lymphoseek(TM) is a lymphatic tissue-targeting agent which was first launched in 2013 in the U.S. by Navidea Biopharmaceuticals (formerly known as Neoprobe) for lymphatic mapping with a hand-held gamma counter to assist in the localization of lymph nodes draining a primary tumor site in patients with breast cancer or melanoma. In 2014, a supplemental NDA was approved in the U.S. for its use as a sentinel lymph node tracing agent in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. Although several tracing agents exist that are used in “off-label” capacities, Lymphoseek is the first tracing agent specifically labeled for lymph node detection.

In 2012, an MAA was filed in the E.U. for the detection of lymphatic tissue in patients with solid tumors, and in 2013, a supplemental MAA was filed in the E.U. for sentinel lymph node detection in patients with head and neck cancer. The products is also awaiting registration to support broader and more flexible use in imaging and lymphatic mapping procedures, including lymphoscintigraphy and other optimization capabilities.

Navidea holds an exclusive worldwide license of Lymphoseek(TM) through the University of California at San Diego (UCSD), and, in 2007, Lymphoseek(TM) was licensed to Cardinal Health by Navidea for marketing and distribution in the U.S.

Lymphoseek(TM), also known as [99mTc]DTPA-mannosyl-dextran, is a receptor-binding radiopharmaceutical designed specifically for the mapping of sentinel lymph nodes in connection with gamma detection devices in a surgical procedure known as intraoperative lymphatic mapping (ILM). It is made up of multiple DTPA and mannose units, each attached by a 5-carbon thioether spacer to a dextran backbone. The compound features subnanomolar affinity for the mannose binding protein receptor, and consequently shows low distal node accumulation. Additionally, its small molecular diameter of 7 nanometers allows for enhanced diffusion into lymphatic channels and capillaries.

 

1600
99mTc-tilmanocept
Tc-DTPA-mannosyl-dextran
Technetium Tc 99m Tilmanocept
Tilmanocept
UNII-8IHI69PQTC

 

Chemical structure of [99mTc]tilmanocept. [99mTc]Tilmanocept is composed of a dextran backbone (black) to which are attached multiple units of mannose (green) and DTPA (blue). The mannose units provide a molecular mechanism by which [99mTc]tilmanocept avidly binds to a receptor specific to reticuloendothelial cells (CD206), and the DTPA units provide a highly stable means to radiolabel tilmanocept with 99mtechnetium (red). The molecular weight of [99mTc]tilmanocept is approximately 19,000 g/mol; the molecular diameter is 7.1 nm

[(99m)Tc]Tilmanocept is a CD206 receptor-targeted radiopharmaceutical designed for sentinel lymph node (SLN) identification. Two nearly identical nonrandomized phase III trials compared [(99m)Tc]tilmanocept to vital blue dye.

Technetium (99mTc) tilmanocept, trade name Lymphoseek, is a radiopharmaceutical diagnostic imaging agent approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the imaging of lymph nodes.[1][2] It is used to locate those lymph nodes which may be draining from tumors, and assist doctors in locating those lymph nodes for removal during surgery.[3]

http://blog.sina.com.cn/u/1242475203

…………………….

WO 2000069473

http://www.google.com/patents/EP1178838A2?cl=en

…………………………………………..

US 6409990

 http://www.google.co.in/patents/US6409990

References

  1. FDA Professional Drug Information
  2. http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm343525.htm
  3. Marcinow, A. M.; Hall, N.; Byrum, E.; Teknos, T. N.; Old, M. O.; Agrawal, A. (2013). “Use of a novel receptor-targeted (CD206) radiotracer, 99mTc-tilmanocept, and SPECT/CT for sentinel lymph node detection in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma: Initial institutional report in an ongoing phase 3 study”. JAMA otolaryngology– head & neck surgery 139 (9): 895–902. doi:10.1001/jamaoto.2013.4239. PMID 24051744.

http://www.google.com/patents/US8247538

Radiopharmaceuticals for use in therapy employ radionuclides which are generally longer in half-life and weaker in penetration capability, but emit stronger radiation, sufficient to kill cells, in relation to that for use in diagnosis. Alpha ray-emitting radionuclides are excluded from radiopharmaceuticals for the reason that they are highly radioactive and difficult to purchase and to attach to other compounds. All of the radionuclides currently used in pharmaceuticals are species that emit beta rays.

As mentioned above, radiopharmaceuticals, whether for use in therapy or diagnosis, are prepared by labeling pharmaceuticals with specific radionuclides. Technetium-99m (99mTc) is known as the radioisotope most widely used to label radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium-99m has a half life of as short as 6 hours and emits gamma rays at 140 KeV, and thus it is not so toxic to the body. In addition, gamma radiation from the radioisotope is highly penetrative enough to obtain images. Thanks to these advantages, technetium-99m finds a broad spectrum of therapeutic and diagnostic applications in the nuclear medicine field (Sivia, S. J., John, D. L., Potential technetium small molecule radiopharmaceuticals. Chem. Rev. 99, 2205-2218, 1999; Shuang, L., Edwards, D. S., 99mTc-Labeled small peptides as diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals. Chem. Rev. 99, 2235-2268, 1999).

Methods of labeling 99mTc-2,6-diisopropylacetanilidoiminodiacetic acid are well known in the art (Callery, P. S., Faith, W. C., et al., 1976. Tissue distribution of technetium-99m and carbon-labeled N-(2,6)-dimetylphenylcarbamoylmethyl iminodiacetic acid. J. Med. Chem. 19, 962-964; Motter, M. and Kloss, G., 1981. Properties of various IDA derivatives. J. Label. Compounds Padiopharm. 18, 56-58; Cao, Y. and Suresh, M. R. 1998. A Simple And Efficient Method For Radiolabeling Of Preformed Liposomes. J Pharm Pharmaceut Sci. 1 (1), 31-37).

Basically, the conventional methods are based on the following reaction formula. In practice, a solution of SnCl2.2H2O, serving as a reducing agent of technetium-99m, in 0.1 N HCl and 0.1 ml (10 mCi) of sodium pertechnetium were added to lyophilized 2,6-diisopropylacetanilidoiminodiacetic acid in a vial, followed by stirring at room temperature for 30 min to prepare 99mTc-2,6-diisopropylacetanilidoiminodiacetic acid. The preparation of 99mTc-2,6-diisopropylacetanilidoiminodiacetic acid may be realized according to the following reaction formula.

 

 

Such conventional processes of preparing radiopharmaceuticals labeled with technetium-99m can be divided into reactions between the radioisotope and a physiologically active material to be labeled and the separation of labeled compounds from unlabeled compounds.

M. Molter, et al., Properties of Various IDA Derivatives, J. Label. Compounds Padiopharm., vol. 18, pp. 56-58, 1981.
2 Patrick S. Callery, et al., Tissue Distribution of Technetium-99m and Carbon . . . , J. Med. Chem., vol. 19, pp. 962-964, 1976.
3 * Sang Hyun Park et al. Synthesis and Radiochemical Labeling of N-(2,6-diisopropylacetanilido)-Iminodiacetic acid and it s analogues under microwave irradiation: A hepatobiliary imaging agent, QSAR Comb. Sci. 2004, 23, 868-874.
4 Shuang Liu, et al., 99mTc-Labeled Small Peptides as Diagnostic . . . , Chem. Rev., vol. 99, pp. 2235-2268, 1999.
5 Shuang Liu, et al., 99mTc—Labeled Small Peptides as Diagnostic . . . , Chem. Rev., vol. 99, pp. 2235-2268, 1999.
6 Silvia S. Jurisson, et al., Potential Technetium Small Molecule . . . , Chem. Rev., vol. 99, pp. 2205-2218, 1999.
7 Y. Cao, et al., A Simple and Efficient Method for Radiolabeling . . . , J. Phar,. Pharmaceut. Sci., pp. 31-37, 1998.

 

 

 

FDA Approves Neuraceq (florbetaben F18 injection) for PET Imaging of Beta-Amyloid Plaques



FLORBETABEN F18

Diagnostic radiopharmaceutical

1. Benzenamine, 4-[(1E)-2-[4-[2-[2-[2-(fluoro-18F)ethoxy]ethoxy]ethoxy]phenyl]
ethenyl]-N-methyl-

2. 4-{(1E)-2-(4-{2-[2-(2-[18F]fluoroethoxy)ethoxy]ethoxy}phenyl)eth- 1-en-1-yl}-N-methylaniline

C21H26[18F]NO3
358.5
Bayer Healthcare

UNII-TLA7312TOI
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER  902143-01-5
https://www.ama-assn.org/resources/doc/usan/florbetaben-f18.pdf

 

Berlin/Boston, March 20, 2014‒ Piramal Imaging today announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Neuraceq. This approval comes only four weeks after receiving marketing authorization for Neuraceq from the European Commission.

Neuraceq is indicated for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging of the brain to estimate beta-amyloid neuritic plaque density in adult patients with cognitive impairment who are being evaluated for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other causes of cognitive decline.

read at

http://www.drugs.com/newdrugs/fda-approves-neuraceq-florbetaben-f18-pet-imaging-beta-amyloid-plaques-4021.html?utm_source=ddc&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Today%27s+news+summary+-+March+20%2C+2014

4-[(E)-2-(4-{2-[2-(2-fluoroethoxy)ethoxy]ethoxy}phenyl)vinyl]-N-methylaniline has been labeled with [F-18]fluoride and is claimed by patent application WO2006066104 and members of the corresponding patent family.

Figure imgf000002_0001

4-[(E)-2-(4-{2-[2-(2-[F-18]fluoroethoxy)ethoxy]- ethoxy}phenyl)vinyl]-N-methylaniline

The usefulness of this radiotracer for the detection of Αβ plaques have been reported in the literature (W. Zhang et al., Nuclear Medicine and Biology 32 (2005) 799-809; C. Rowe et al., Lancet Neurology 7 (2008) 1 -7).

The synthesis of 4-[(E)-2-(4-{2-[2-(2-[F-18]fluoroethoxy)ethoxy]ethoxy}phenyl)- vinyl]-N-methylaniline has been described before:

a) W. Zhang et al., Nuclear Medicine and Biology 32 (2005) 799-809.

Figure imgf000003_0001

4-[(E)-2-(4-{2-[2-(2-[F-18]fluoroethoxy)ethoxy]- ethoxy}phenyl)vinyl]-N-methylaniline

4 mg precursor 2a (2-[2-(2-{4-[(E)-2-{4-[(tert-butoxycarbonyl)(methyl)amino]- phenyl}vinyl]phenoxy}ethoxy)ethoxy]ethyl methanesulfonate) in 0.2 mL

DMSO were reacted with [F-18]fluoride/kryptofix/potassium carbonate complex. The intermediate was deprotected with HCI and neutralized with

NaOH. The mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate. The solvent was dried and evaporated, the residue was dissolved in acetonitrile and purified by semi-preparative HPLC. 20% (decay corrected), 1 1 % (not corrected for decay) 4-[(E)-2-(4-{2-[2-(2-[F-18]fluoroethoxy)ethoxy]ethoxy}phenyl)vinyl]-N- methylaniline were obtained in 90 min.

WO2006066104

4 mg precursor 2-[2-(2-{4-[(E)-2-{4-[(tert-butoxycarbonyl)(methyl)amino]- phenyl}vinyl]phenoxy}ethoxy)ethoxy]ethyl methanesulfonate in 0.2 mL DMSO were reacted with [F-18]fluoride/kryptofix/potassium carbonate complex. The intermediates was deprotected with HCI and neutralized with NaOH. The mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate. The solvent was dried and evaporated, the residue was dissolved in acetonitrile and purified by semi- preparative HPLC. 30% (decay corrected), 17% (not corrected for decay) 4- [(E)-2-(4-{2-[2-(2-[F-18]fluoroethoxy)ethoxy]ethoxy}phenyl)vinyl]-N- methylaniline were obtained in 90 min. to yield N-Boc protected 4-[(E)-2-(4-{2-[2-(2-[F- 18]fluoroethoxy)ethoxy]ethoxy}phenyl)vinyl]-N-methylaniline. The unreacted perfluorinated precursor was removed using a fluorous phase cartridge.

Deprotection, final purification and formulation to obtain a product, suitable for injection into human is not disclosed. Furthermore, the usefulness (e.g. regarding unwanted F-19/F-18 exchange) of this approach at a higher radioactivity level is not demonstrated. Finally, this method would demand a two-pot setup (first reaction vessel: fluorination, followed by solid-phase- extraction, and deprotection in the second reaction vessel).

However, the focus of the present invention are compounds and methods for an improved “one-pot process” for the manufacturing of 4-[(E)-2-(4-{2-[2-(2- [F-18]fluoroethoxy)ethoxy]ethoxy}phenyl)vinyl]-N-methylaniline.

Very recently, further methods have been described:

d) US201001 13763

The mesylate precursor 2a was reacted with [F-18]fluoride species in a solvent mixture consisting of 100 μΙ_ acetonitrile and 500 μΙ_ tertiary alcohol. After fluorination for 10 min at 100-150 °C, the solvent was evaporated. After deprotection (1 N HCI, 5 min, 100-120 °C), the crude product was purified by HPLC (C18 silica, acetonitrile / 0.1 M ammonium formate).

e) H. Wang et al., Nuclear Medicine and Biology 38 (201 1 ) 121 -127

5 mg precursor 2a (2-[2-(2-{4-[(E)-2-{4-[(tert-butoxycarbonyl)(methyl)amino]- phenyl}vinyl]phenoxy}ethoxy)ethoxy]ethyl methanesulfonate) in 0.5 ml_

DMSO were reacted with [F-18]fluoride/kryptofix/potassium carbonate complex. The intermediate was deprotected with HCI and neutralized with NaOH. The crude product was diluted with acetonitrile / 0.1 M ammonium dformate (6/4) and purified by semi-preparative HPLC. The product fraction was collected, diluted with water, passed through a C18 cartridge and eluted with ethanol, yielding 17% (not corrected for decay) 4-[(E)-2-(4-{2-[2-(2-[F- 18]fluoroethoxy)ethoxy]ethoxy}phenyl)vinyl]-N-methylaniline within 50 min. In the paper, the conversion of an unprotected mesylate precursor (is described:

5 mg unprotected mesylate precursor (2-{2-[2-(4-{(E)-2-[4- (methylamino)phenyl]vinyl}phenoxy)ethoxy]-ethoxy}ethyl 4- methanesulfonate) in 0.5 ml_ DMSO were reacted with [F- 18]fluoride/kryptofix/potassium carbonate complex. The crude product was diluted with acetonitrile / 0.1 M ammonium formate (6/4) and purified by semi- preparative HPLC. The product fraction was collected, diluted with water, passed through a C18 cartridge and eluted with ethanol, yielding 23% (not corrected for decay) 4-[(E)-2-(4-{2-[2-(2-[F-

18]fluoroethoxy)ethoxy]ethoxy}phenyl)vinyl]-N-methylaniline within 30 min. Beside the purification by HPLC, a process based on solid-phase-extraction was investigated, but the purity was inferior to that with HPLC purification. So far, one-pot radiolabelings have been performed using a mesylate precursor. It is know, that for F-18 labeling of stilbenes, mesylates have advantages over corresponding tosylates by providing more clean reactions with less amount of by-products (W. Zhang et al. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 48 (2005) 5980- 5988), whereas the purification starting from the tosylate precursor was tedious and time consuming resulting in a low yield.

In contrast to this teaching of the prior art, we found advantages of tosylate and further arylsulfonate precursors for 4-[(E)-2-(4-{2-[2-(2-[F- 18]fluoroethoxy)ethoxy]ethoxy}phenyl)vinyl]-N-methylaniline compared to the corresponding mesylate. Less non-radioactive by-products that eluted close to the retention time of 4-[(E)-2-(4-{2-[2-(2-[F-

18]fluoroethoxy)ethoxy]ethoxy}phenyl)vinyl]-N-methylaniline were found in the crude products if arylsulfonate precursors were used (Example 2 – Example 6) compared to the crude mixture that was obtained after conversion of the mesylate precursor (Example 1 ).

The favorable by-product profile after radiolabeling of tosylate precursor 2b (Figure 10) compared to the radiolabeling of mesylate precursor 2a (Figure 7) supported an improved cartridge based purification (Example 8, Example 9).

…………………

WO2011151281A1

The term “F-18” means fluorine isotope 18F. The term”F-19″ means fluorine isotope 19F. EXAMPLES

Example 1 Radiolabeling of mesylate precursor 2a

Figure imgf000016_0001

4-[(E)-2-(4-{2-[2-(2-[F-18]fluoroethoxy)ethoxy]- ethoxy}phenyl)vinyl]-N-methylaniline

Radiolabeling was performed on a remote controlled synthesis module (Tracerlab FXN). Precursor 2a (2 mg) in 0.5 mL DMSO + 0.5 mL acetonitrile was treated with dried potassium carbonate/kryptofix/[F-18]fluoride complex for 6 min at 100 °C. 1 M HCI (1 mL) + 10 mg ascorbic acid was added and the mixture was heated for 4 min at 100 °C. 2M NaOH (0.5 mL), water (6 mL) and ethanol (1 mL) were added and the crude mixture was trapped on a C18 cartridge. The crude product mixture was eluted with acetonitrile and diluted with 0.1 M ammonium formiat buffer (1 mL) + 5 mg ascorbic acid. A sample of the crude product was taken and analyzed by analytical HPLC (Figure 1 ). After purification by semi- preparative HPLC, the product was diluted with water + 5 mg ascorbic acid, trapped on a C18 cartridge and eluted with 1 mL ethanol.

Yield of 4-[(E)-2-(4-{2-[2-(2-[F-18]fluoroethoxy)ethoxy]ethoxy}phenyl)-vinyl]-N- methylaniline: 21 % (corrected for decay).

Example 2 Synthesis and radiolabeling of tosylate precursor 2b

Figure imgf000017_0001
Figure imgf000017_0002

4-[(E)-2-(4-{2-[2-(2-[F-18]fluoroethoxy)ethoxy]- ethoxy}phenyl)vinyl]-N-methylaniline

4-Dimethylaminopyridine (26.7 mg) and triethylamine (225 μΙ_) were added to a solution of 1 .0 g terf-butyl {4-[(E)-2-(4-{2-[2-(2- hydroxyethoxy)ethoxy]ethoxy}phenyl)vinyl]phenyl}methylcarbamate (4) in dichloromethane (12 mL) at 0 °C. A solution of p- toluenesulfonyl chloride (417 mg) in dichloromethane (13.5 mL) was added at 0 °C. The resulting mixture was stirred at room temperature over night. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure and the crude product was purified by flash chromatography (silica, 0- 80% ethyl acetate in hexane). 850 mg 2b were obtained as colorless solid.

1 H NMR (300 MHz, CDCI3) δ ppm 1 .46 (s, 9 H), 2.43 (s, 3 H), 3.27 (s, 3 H), 3.59-3.73 (m, 6 H), 3.80- 3.86 (m, 2 H), 4.05-4.19 (m, 2 H), 6.88-7.05 (m, 4 H), 7.21 (d, J = 8.3 Hz, 2 H), 7.32 (d, J = 8.3 Hz, 2 H), 7.39-7-47 (m, 4 H), 7.80 (d, J = 8.3 Hz, 2 H). MS (ESIpos): m/z = 612 (M+H)+

Radiolabeling was performed on a remote controlled synthesis module (Tracerlab FXN). Precursor 2b (2 mg) in 0.5 mL DMSO + 0.5 mL acetonitrile was treated with dried potassium carbonate/kryptofix/[F-18]fluoride complex for 6 min at 100 °C. 1 M HCI (1 mL) + 10 mg ascorbic acid was added and the mixture was heated for 4 min at 100 °C. 2M NaOH (0.5 mL), water (6 mL) and ethanol (1 mL) were added and the crude mixture was trapped on a C18 cartridge. The crude product mixture was eluted with acetonitrile and diluted with 0.1 M ammonium formiat buffer (1 mL) + 5 mg ascorbic acid. A sample of the crude product was taken and analyzed by analytical HPLC (Figure 2). After purification by semi- preparative HPLC, the product was diluted with water + 5 mg ascorbic acid, trapped on a C18 cartridge and eluted with 1 mL ethanol.

Yield of 4-[(E)-2-(4-{2-[2-(2-[F-18]fluoroethoxy)ethoxy]ethoxy}phenyl)-vinyl]-N- methylaniline: 25% (corrected for decay).

Example 3 Synthesis and radiolabeling of 2c (2-[2-(2-{4-[(E)-2-{4-[(tert- butoxycarbonyl)(methyl)amino]phenyl}vinyl]phenoxy}ethoxy)ethoxy]ethyl

4-bromobenzenesulfonate)

Figure imgf000018_0001

4-[(E)-2-(4-{2-[2-(2-[F-18]fluoroethoxy)ethoxy]- ethoxy}phenyl)vinyl]-N-methylaniline To a stirred solution of 100 mg (0,219 mmol) tert-butyl-{4-[(E)-2-(4-{2-[2-(2- hydroxyethoxy)ethoxy]ethoxy}phenyl)vinyl]phenyl}methylcarbamate

(WO2006/066104) in 2 mL THF was added a solution of 140 mg (0.548 mmol) 4-brombenzene sulfonylchlorid in 3 mL THF drop by drop. The reaction mixture was cooled to 0°C. 156.8 mg (1 .1 mmol) potassium trimethylsilanolat was added. The milky suspension was stirred at 0°C for 2 hours and at 80°C for another 2 hours. The reaction mixture was poured onto ice-cooled water. The aqueous solution was extracted with dichloromethane several times. The combined organic phases were dried with sodium sulphate and concentrated in vacuum. The crude product was purified using silica gel with ethyl acetate/hexane-gradient as mobile phase. The desired product 2c was obtained with 77 mg (0.1 14 mmol, 52.0 % yield).

1 H NMR (300 MHz, CDCI3) δ ppm 1 .39 (s, 10 H) 3.20 (s, 3 H) 3.50 – 3.57 (m, 2 H) 3.57 – 3.61 (m, 2 H) 3.61 – 3.66 (m, 2 H) 3.72 – 3.80 (m, 2 H) 4.02 – 4.10 (m, 2 H) 4.10 – 4.17 (m, 2 H) 6.79 – 6.85 (m, 2 H) 6.91 (d, J=8.10 Hz, 2 H) 7.10 – 7.17 (m, 2 H) 7.32 – 7.41 (m, 5 H) 7.57 – 7.65 (m, 2 H) 7.67 – 7.74 (m, 2 H)

MS (ESIpos): m/z = 676/678 (M+H)+

Radiolabeling was performed on a remote controlled synthesis module (Tracerlab FXN). Precursor 2c (2 mg) in 0.5 mL DMSO + 0.5 mL acetonitrile was treated with dried potassium carbonate/kryptofix/[F-18]fluoride complex for 6 min at 100 °C. 1 M HCI (1 mL) + 10 mg ascorbic acid was added and the mixture was heated for 4 min at 100 °C. 2M NaOH (0.5 mL), water (6 mL) and ethanol (1 mL) were added and the crude mixture was trapped on a C18 cartridge. The crude product mixture was eluted with acetonitrile and diluted with 0.1 M ammonium formiat buffer (1 mL) + 5 mg ascorbic acid. A sample of the crude product was taken and analyzed by analytical HPLC (Figure 3). After purification by semi- preparative HPLC, the product was diluted with water + 5 mg ascorbic acid, trapped on a C18 cartridge and eluted with 1 mL ethanol.

Yield of 4-[(E)-2-(4-{2-[2-(2-[F-18]fluoroethoxy)ethoxy]ethoxy}phenyl)-vinyl]-N- methylaniline: 43% (corrected for decay). Example 4 Synthesis and radiolabeling of 2d (2-[2-(2-{4-[(E)-2-{4-[(tert- butoxycarbonyl)(methyl)amino]phenyl}vinyl]phenoxy}ethoxy)ethoxy]ethyl

4-(adamantan-1 -yl)benzenesulfonate)

Figure imgf000020_0001

4-[(E)-2-(4-{2-[2-(2-[F-18]fluoroethoxy)ethoxy]- ethoxy}phenyl)vinyl]-N-methylaniline

To a stirred solution of 151 mg (0,330 mmol) tert-butyl-{4-[(E)-2-(4-{2-[2-(2- hydroxyethoxy)ethoxy]ethoxy}phenyl)vinyl]phenyl}methylcarbamate

(WO2006/066104), 4.03 mg (0,033 mmol) DMAP und 36.7 mg (363 mmol) triethylamine in 4 mL dichlormethane was added a solution of 97,4 mg (0,313 mmol) 4-(adamantan-1 -yl)benzene sulfonylchloride in 1 mL dichlormethane at 0°C. The reaction mixture was stirred at 0°C for 1 hour and over night at room temperature. 7.3 mg (0,072 mmol) triethylamin und 19.5 mg (0.062 mmol) 4- (adamantan-l -yl)benzenesulfonyl chloride were added to the reaction mixture. The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 3 days. It was concentrated in vacuum. The crude product was purified using silica gel with ethyl acetate/hexane-gradient as mobile phase. The desired product 2d was obtained with 104 mg (0.142 mmol, 43.4% yield).

1 H NMR (300 MHz, CDCI3) δ ppm 1 .51 (s, 9 H), 1 .62 (s, 1 H), 1 .74 – 1 .91 (m, 6 H), 1 .94 (d, J=3.20 Hz, 6 H), 2.16 (br. s., 3 H), 3.31 (s, 3 H), 3.63 – 3.69 (m, 2 H), 3.69 – 3.73 (m, 2 H), 3.76 (dd, J=5.27, 4.52 Hz, 2 H), 3.89 (d, J=4.90 Hz, 2 H), 4.13 – 4.26 (m, 4 H), 6.95 (d, J=8.85 Hz, 2 H), 7.02 (d, J=8.29 Hz, 2 H), 7.25 (d, J=8.48 Hz, 2 H), 7.40 – 7.52 (m, 4 H), 7.55 (m, J=8.67 Hz, 2 H), 7.89 (m, J=8.67 Hz, 2 H)

MS (ESIpos): m/z = 732 (M+H)+

Radiolabeling was performed on a remote controlled synthesis module (Tracerlab FXN). Precursor 2d (2 mg) in 0.5 mL DMSO + 0.5 mL acetonitrile was treated with dried potassium carbonate/kryptofix/[F-18]fluoride complex for 6 min at 100 °C. 1 M HCI (1 mL) + 10 mg ascorbic acid was added and the mixture was heated for 4 min at 100 °C. 2M NaOH (0.5 mL), water (6 mL) and ethanol (1 mL) were added and the crude mixture was trapped on a C18 cartridge. The crude product mixture was eluted with acetonitrile and diluted with 0.1 M ammonium formiat buffer (1 mL) + 5 mg ascorbic acid. A sample of the crude product was taken and analyzed by analytical HPLC (Figure 4). After purification by semi- preparative HPLC, the product was diluted with water + 5 mg ascorbic acid, trapped on a C18 cartridge and eluted with 1 mL ethanol.

Yield of 4-[(E)-2-(4-{2-[2-(2-[F-18]fluoroethoxy)ethoxy]ethoxy}phenyl)-vinyl]-N- methylaniline: 27% (corrected for decay).

Example 5 Synthesis and radiolabeling of 2e (2-[2-(2-{4-[(E)-2-{4-[(tert- butoxycarbonyl)(methyl)amino]phenyl}vinyl]phenoxy}ethoxy)ethoxy]ethyl

4-cyanobenzenesulfonate)

Figure imgf000022_0001
Figure imgf000022_0002

4-[(E)-2-(4-{2-[2-(2-[F-18]fluoroethoxy)ethoxy]- ethoxy}phenyl)vinyl]-N-methylaniline

To a stirred solution of 151 mg (0.330 mmol) tert-butyl-{4-[(E)-2-(4-{2-[2-(2- hydroxyethoxy)ethoxy]ethoxy}phenyl)vinyl]phenyl}methylcarbamate

(WO2006/066104), 4.03 mg (0.033 mmol) DMAP und 36.7 mg (0.363 mmol) triethylamine in 4 mL dichlormethane was added a solution of 63.2 mg (0.313 mmol) 4-cyanobenzenesulfonyl chloride in 1 mL dichlormethane at 0°C. The reaction mixture was stirred over night and concentrated in vacuum. The crude product was purified using silica gel with ethyl acetate/hexane-gradient as mobile phase. The desired product 2e was obtained with 118 mg (0.190 mmol, 57.6 % yield).

1 H NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) δ ppm 1 .47 (s, 9 H) 3.28 (s, 3 H) 3.58 – 3.63 (m, 2 H) 3.63 – 3.68 (m, 2 H) 3.70 – 3.75 (m, 2 H) 3.81 – 3.87 (m, 2 H) 4.1 1 – 4.18 (m, 2 H) 4.24 – 4.30 (m, 2 H) 6.91 (d, J=8.59 Hz, 2 H) 6.99 (dt, 2 H) 7.22 (d, J=8.34 Hz, 2 H) 7.39 – 7.50 (m, 4 H) 7.83 (m, J=8.59 Hz, 2 H) 7.98 – 8.1 1 (m, 2 H)

MS (ESIpos): m/z = 623 (M+H)+

Radiolabeling was performed on a remote controlled synthesis module (Tracerlab FXN). Precursor 2e (2 mg) in 0.5 mL DMSO + 0.5 mL acetonitrile was treated with dried potassium carbonate/kryptofix/[F-18]fluoride complex for 6 min at 100 °C. 1 M HCI (1 mL) + 10 mg ascorbic acid was added and the mixture was heated for 4 min at 100 °C. 2M NaOH (0.5 mL), water (6 mL) and ethanol (1 mL) were added and the crude mixture was trapped on a C18 cartridge. The crude product mixture was eluted with acetonitrile and diluted with 0.1 M ammonium formiat buffer (1 mL) + 5 mg ascorbic acid. A sample of the crude product was taken and analyzed by analytical HPLC (Figure 5). After purification by semi- preparative HPLC, the product was diluted with water + 5 mg ascorbic acid, trapped on a C18 cartridge and eluted with 1 mL ethanol.

Yield of 4-[(E)-2-(4-{2-[2-(2-[F-18]fluoroethoxy)ethoxy]ethoxy}phenyl)-vinyl]-N- methylaniline: 31 % (corrected for decay).

Example 6 Synthesis and radiolabeling of 2f (2-[2-(2-{4-[(E)-2-{4-[(tert- butoxycarbonyl)(methyl)amino]phenyl}vinyl]phenoxy}ethoxy)ethoxy]ethyl

2-nitrobenzenesulfonate)

Figure imgf000023_0001
Figure imgf000023_0002

4-[(E)-2-(4-{2-[2-(2-[F-18]fluoroethoxy)ethoxy]- eth oxy} phe nyl )vi ny I] -N -methyla n i I i ne

To a stirred solution of 200 mg (0.437 mmol) tert-butyl-{4-[(E)-2-(4-{2-[2-(2- hydroxyethoxy)ethoxy]ethoxy}phenyl)vinyl]phenyl}methylcarbamate

(WO2006/066104), 5.34 mg (0.044 mmol) DMAP und 47.5 mg (0.470 mmol) triethylamine in 4 mL dichlormethane was added a solution of 92 mg (0,415 mmol) 2-nitrobenzenesulfonyl chloride in 1 mL dichlormethane at 0°C. The reaction mixture was stirred over night and concentrated in vacuum. The crude product was purified with ethyl acetate/hexane-gradient as mobile phase using silica gel. The desired product 2f was obtained with 77 mg (0.1 19 mmol, 59.5 % yield). 1 H NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) δ ppm 1 .39 (s, 9 H) 3.20 (s, 3 H) 3.55 – 3.63 (m, 4 H) 3.59 (m, 4 H) 3.69 – 3.74 (m, 2 H) 3.75 – 3.80 (m, 2 H) 4.06 (dd, J=5.68, 3.92 Hz,

2 H) 4.32 – 4.37 (m, 2 H) 6.80 – 6.84 (m, 2 H) 6.84 – 6.98 (dt, 2 H) 7.14 (d, J=8.59 Hz, 2 H) 7.35 (d, J=3.03 Hz, 2 H) 7.37 (d, J=2.78 Hz, 2 H) 7.62 – 7.74 (m,

3 H) 8.06 – 8.1 1 (m, 1 H)

FDA approves second brain imaging drug Vizamyl (flutemetamol F 18 injection)to help evaluate patients for Alzheimer’s disease, dementia


  is the structure on right

Vizamyl (flutemetamol F 18 injection)

http://jnm.snmjournals.org/content/50/8/1251/F1.expansion.html get structure

 

Chemical name: 2-{3-[18F]fluoro-4-(methylamino)phenyl}-1,3-benzothiazol-6-ol    diagnostic aid
Cas Number 765922-62-1
INN  name flutemetamol
Molecular Formula:

GE Healthcare

FDA PRESS RELEASE

For Immediate Release: Oct. 25, 2013

http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm372261.htm

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Vizamyl (flutemetamol F 18 injection), a radioactive diagnostic drug for use with positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of the brain in adults being evaluated for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and dementia.

Dementia is associated with diminishing brain functions such as memory, judgment, language and complex motor skills. The dementia caused by AD is associated with the accumulation in the brain of an abnormal protein called beta amyloid and damage or death of brain cells. However, beta amyloid can also be found in the brain of patients with other dementias and in elderly people without neurologic disease.

Vizamyl works by attaching to beta amyloid and producing a PET image of the brain that is used to evaluate the presence of beta amyloid. A negative Vizamyl scan means that there is little or no beta amyloid accumulation in the brain and the cause of the dementia is probably not due to AD. A positive scan means that there is probably a moderate or greater amount of amyloid in the brain, but it does not establish a diagnosis of AD or other dementia. Vizamyl does not replace other diagnostic tests used in the evaluation of AD and dementia.

http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm372261.htm

About GE Healthcare

GE Healthcare provides transformational medical technologies and services to meet the demand for increased access, enhanced quality and more affordable healthcare around the world. GE GE -0.23% works on things that matter – great people and technologies taking on tough challenges. From medical imaging, software & IT, patient monitoring and diagnostics to drug discovery, biopharmaceutical manufacturing technologies and performance improvement solutions, GE Healthcare helps medical professionals deliver great healthcare to their patients.

For our latest news, please visit http://newsroom.gehealthcare.com

Flutemetamol [ 18 F] Injection is a diagnostic positron emission tomography (PET) agent for the imaging of β-amyloid plaques in the brain. The synthesis of the agent can be performed using automated synthesis platforms with or without using specially-tailored cassettes. For example, the synthesis can be performed using either the TRACERlab FX F-N platform or the FASTlab™ platform, commercially available from GE Healthcare a division of General Electric Company in conjunction with auxiliary preparative high pressure liquid

chromatography equipment. After synthesis, the bulk agent is transferred to high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipment to separate the physico-chemically similar compounds [ 18 F] flutemetamol from its deprotected precursor, AHl 11832 (6-hydroxy-2-(4′-(N- methyl)amino-3′-nitro)phenylbenzothiazole) and hence obtain purified [ 18 F] flutemetamol.

However there still exists a need in the art for alternative purification methods for the preparation of [ 18 F] flutemetamol. The invention as described below answers such a need. Specifically, Applicants have now found a process that eliminates the use of preparative HPLC equipment. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

As [ 18 F]flutemetamol and its deprotected precursor, AH111832 (6-hydroxy-2-(4′-(N- methyl)amino-3′-nitro)phenylbenzothiazole) are physico-chemically very similar, preparative HPLC is required to separate them. However, Applicants have now found that it is possible to replace the preparative HPLC equipment in previous purification processes with low cost, single-use solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges for purification of [ 18 F]flutemetamol.

Accordingly, the present invention provides a purification process comprising the following steps:

(a) passing a diluted crude product reaction mixture comprising flutemetamol through a first reverse phase SPE cartridge;

(b) washing said first reverse phase SPE cartridge with a water/acetonitrile,

tetrahydrofuran(THF)/water, methanol(MeOH)/water or isopropanol/water mixture; preferably, a water/acetonitrile mixture;

(c) rinsing said first reverse phase SPE cartridge with water once step (b) is completed; (d) eluting said first reverse phase SPE cartridge with acetonitrile or tetrahydrofuran; preferably, acetonitrile;

(e) directly passing the mixture from said eluting step (d) through a normal phase SPE cartridge to give an acetonitrile or tetrahydrofuran solution; preferably, an acetonitrile solution, comprising purified flutemetamol; (f) diluting said acetonitrile or tetrahydrofuran solution; preferably, an acetonitrile solution, comprising purified flutemetamol, with water to form a diluted water/acetonitrile or a diluted water/tetrahydrofuran solution; preferably, a diluted water/acetonitrile solution, comprising purified flutemetamol, wherein said water/acetonitrile solution contains about 40- 70% (v/v) water; preferably at least about 40% (v/v) water; more preferably at least about 50% (v/v) water;

(g) passing the diluted water/acetonitrile or diluted water/tetrahydrofuran solution; preferably, diluted water/acetonitrile solution, comprising purified flutemetamol of step (f) through a second reverse phase SPE cartridge and trapping the flutemetamol on said cartridge second reverse phase SPE cartridge;

(h) rinsing said second reverse phase SPE cartridge with water; and

(i) eluting the trapped purified flutemetamol from second reverse phase SPE cartridge with an injectable organic solvent; preferably, ethanol or DMSO; preferably with ethanol.

According to the invention, the purified flutemetamol can be collected after step (i).

The present invention also provides a purification process of the present invention, wherein the process is automated.

 

yr 2011 clip

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is defined histologically by the presence of extracellular β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques and intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles in the cerebral cortex. The diagnosis of dementia, along with the prediction of who will develop dementia, has been assisted by magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography (PET) by using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). These techniques, however, are not specific for AD. Based on the chemistry of histologic staining dyes, several Aβ-specific positron-emitting radiotracers have been developed to image neuropathology of AD. Among these, [11C]PiB is the most studied Aβ-binding PET radiopharmaceutical in the world. The histologic and biochemical specificity of PiB binding across different regions of the AD brain was demonstrated by showing a direct correlation between Aβ-containing amyloid plaques and in vivo [11C]PiB retention measured by PET imaging. Because 11C is not ideal for commercialization, several 18F-labeled tracers have been developed. At this time, [18F]3′-F-PiB (Flutemetamol), 18F-AV-45 (Florbetapir), and 18F-AV-1 (Florbetaben) are undergoing extensive phase II and III clinical trials. This article provides a brief review of the amyloid biology and chemistry of Aβ-specific 11C and 18F-PET radiopharmaceuticals. Clinical trials have clearly documented that PET radiopharmaceuticals capable of assessing Aβ content in vivo in the brains of AD subjects and subjects with mild cognitive impairment will be important as diagnostic agents to detect in vivo amyloid brain pathology. In addition, PET amyloid imaging will also help test the amyloid cascade hypothesis of AD and as an aid to assess the efficacy of antiamyloid therapeutics currently under development in clinical trials.

Xofigo Injection Recommended for Approval in EU


Cl 223Ra Cl

is the structure

http://www.ama-assn.org/resources/doc/usan/radium-ra-223-dichloride.pdf  check out yourself

Xofigo® (radium Ra 223 dichloride) Injection Recommended for Approval in the European Union

Oslo, Norway, 20 September 2013 – Algeta ASA (OSE: ALGETA), announced today that Bayer has received a positive opinion from the European Medicines Agency’s (EMA) Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) recommending approval of Xofigo® (radium Ra 223 dichloride) in Europe. The proposed indication is for the treatment of adults with castration-resistant prostate cancer, symptomatic bone metastases and no known visceral metastases. The decision of the European Commission (EC) on the approval is expected in the fourth quarter of 2013.

Xofigo® (radium Ra 223 dichloride) injection was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in May 2013 for the treatment of patients with CRPC, symptomatic bone metastases and no known visceral metastatic disease and is now available in the United States at licensed facilities. read all at

http://www.pharmalive.com/xofigo-injection-recommended-for-approval-in-eu

 

old article

FDA Approves Xofigo for Advanced Prostate Cancer

May 15, 2013 — The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Xofigo (radium Ra 223 dichloride) to treat men with symptomatic late-stage (metastatic) castration-resistant prostate cancer that has spread to bones but not to other organs. It is intended for men whose cancer has spread after receiving medical or surgical therapy to lower testosterone.

Prostate cancer forms in a gland in the male reproductive system found below the bladder and in front of the rectum. The male sex hormone testosterone stimulates the prostate tumors to grow. According to the National Cancer Institute, an estimated 238,590 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer and 29,720 will die from the disease in 2013.

Xofigo is being approved more than three months ahead of the product’s prescription drug user fee goal date of Aug. 14, 2013, the date the agency was scheduled to complete review of the drug application. The FDA reviewed Xofigo under the agency’s priority review program, which provides for an expedited review of drugs that appear to provide safe and effective therapy when no satisfactory alternative therapy exists, or offer significant improvement compared to marketed products.

“Xofigo binds with minerals in the bone to deliver radiation directly to bone tumors, limiting the damage to the surrounding normal tissues,” said Richard Pazdur, M.D., director of the Office of Hematology and Oncology Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “Xofigo is the second prostate cancer drug approved by the FDA in the past year that demonstrates an ability to extend the survival of men with metastatic prostate cancer.”

In August 2012, the FDA approved Xtandi to treat men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer that has spread or recurred, even with medical or surgical therapy to minimize testosterone. Xtandi is approved for patients who have previously been treated the chemotherapy drug docetaxel.

Xofigo’s safety and effectiveness were evaluated in a single clinical trial of 809 men with symptomatic castration-resistant prostate cancer that spread to bones but not to other organs. Patients were randomly assigned to receive Xofigo or a placebo plus best standard of care.

The study was designed to measure overall survival. Results from a pre-planned interim analysis showed men receiving Xofigo lived a median of 14 months compared to a median of 11.2 months for men receiving placebo. An exploratory updated analysis conducted later in the trial confirmed Xofigo’s ability to extend overall survival.

The most common side effects reported during clinical trials in men receiving Xofigo were nausea, diarrhea, vomiting and swelling of the leg, ankle or foot. The most common abnormalities detected during blood testing included low levels of red blood cells (anemia), lymphocytes (lymphocytopenia), white blood cells (leukopenia), platelets (thrombocytopenia) and infection-fighting white blood cells (neutropenia).

Xofigo is marketed by Wayne, N.J.-based Bayer Pharmaceuticals. Xtandi is co-marketed by Astellas Pharma U.S., Inc. of Northbrook, Ill., and Medivation, Inc. of San Francisco, Calif.

Navidea starts clinical trial for Alzheimer’s diagnostic drug


Navidea Biopharmaceuticals hopes to bring an early diagnostic drug for Alzheimer’s disease to market.

 

Navidea Biopharmaceuticals hopes to bring an early diagnostic drug for Alzheimer’s disease to market.

AZD4694, NAV4694 STRUCTURE

Navidea starts clinical trial for Alzheimer’s diagnostic drug
Business First of Columbus
The Phase 3 trial for the Alzheimer’s agent, at the moment named NAV4694, will compare how well the drugdisplays the buildup of a damaging protein in the brain of patients believed to have Alzheimer’s compared with what’s found in the autopsy. There 

read all at

http://www.bizjournals.com/columbus/news/2013/06/27/navidea-starts-clinical-trial-for.html

http://jnm.snmjournals.org/content/54/6/880.abstract

Navidea Biopharmaceuticals, a Dublin, Ohio biopharmaceutical company focused on precision diagnostics, earlier this week announced the completion of a study of its novel radiopharmaceutical NAV4694 as a biomarker for Alzheimer’s disease (AD).

NAV4694 is designed to aid visual detection and quantification of cerebral beta amyloid in diagnosing Alzheimer’s disease (AD). One hallmark of AD is the accumulation of beta amyloid plaques between nerve cells in the brain.

The study was designed and conducted by Navidea’s partner, AstraZeneca, to assess the safety and of the biomarker during PET scanning in subjects with AD and in healthy volunteers. Efficacy measures included binding parameters and overall image quality.  The 16-patient trial was completed at Karolinska Institutet sites in Stockholm, Sweden.

PHASE1,Progenics Pharmaceuticals’ Novel Small Molecule Drugs Targeting PSMA Successfully Visualize Prostate Cancer, 123-I-MIP-1095


Name:  123-I-MIP-1095

Synonym:   123-I-MIP-1095;     [123I]-MIP-1095;  iodine I 123 IMP-1095;       2-(3-{l-carboxy-5-[3-(4-iodo-phenyl)-ureido]-pentyl}-ureido)-pentanedioic acid.;   [123I]-(S)-2-(3-((S)-1-carboxy-5-(3-(4-iodophenyl)ureido)pentyl)ureido)pentanedioic acid

 

IUPAC/Chemical name: 

2-(3-(1-carboxy-5-(3-(4-iodophenyl)ureido)pentyl)ureido)pentanedioic acid

Chemical Formula: C19H25123IN4O8

Exact Mass: 560.07284
Molecular Weight: 560.33

123-I-MIP-1095
An iodine 123-radiolabled small molecule that exhibits high affinity for prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) with potential use in molecular imaging. 123-I-MIP-1095, a radiolabeled glutamate-urea-lysine analogue, selectively binds PSMA, which allows imaging of PSMA-expressing prostate cancer cells with gamma scintigraph. PSMA is a transmembrane glycoprotein highly expressed by malignant prostate epithelial cells and vascular endothelial cells of various solid tumors.

Synonym: iodine I 123 IMP-1095
Chemical structure: 2-(3-{l-carboxy-5-[3-(4-iodo-phenyl)-ureido]-pentyl}-ureido)-pentanedioic acid

March 5, 2013

Progenics Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Nasdaq:PGNX) reported positive clinical data from a study of two novel radiolabeled small molecules targeting prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA). The imaging agents — 123I-MIP-1072 and 123I-MIP-1095 — had a high sensitivity of lesion detection in bone, tissue and the prostate gland with minimal retention in non-target tissue. The research was published as the cover article in the March issue of The Journal of Nuclear Medicine.

“Existing imaging techniques are limited in their ability to diagnose and stage prostate cancer,” said John J. Babich, Ph.D., senior author of the article “First-in-Man Evaluation of Two High-Affinity PSMA-Avid Small Molecules for Imaging Prostate Cancer.” “The approach described in this paper has the potential to assess disease status more accurately. It could help clinicians select optimal treatments and lead to better patient outcomes.”

Separate phase 1 studies were conducted under an exploratory investigational new drug (IND) application to measure the potential effectiveness of the small molecules in diagnosing and staging prostate cancer. In the first study, seven patients with documented prostate cancer were administered doses of 123I-MIP-1072 and 123I-MIP-1095, two weeks apart. In the second study, six healthy volunteers received 123I-MIP-1072 only. Whole body planar imaging and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) were performed for each group, and pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, excretion, safety and organ radiation dose were analyzed.

Based on the data reported, Progenics is conductinga global, multi-center phase 2 trial investigating a next generation radiolabeled small molecule targeting PSMA, MIP-1404.

Mark R. Baker, chief executive officer of Progenics, said, “We recently acquired all of the rights to the compounds described in this Journal of Nuclear Medicine paper, as well as to the phase 2 stage imaging agent MIP-1404, through Progenics’ acquisition of Molecular Insight Pharmaceuticals. It is gratifying to see this expansion of our oncology pipeline demonstrating progress so soon.”

Robert J. Israel, M.D., Progenics’ senior vice president of medical affairs and clinical research, said, “We believe that MIP-1404 has excellent potential as a diagnostic radiopharmaceutical. Results to date from the study compounds and MIP-1404 show PSMA as a robust target for prostate cancer molecular imaging, and that a radiolabeled small molecule, which binds PSMA with high affinity, has the potential to detect prostate cancer throughout the body. Cancer treatment guidelines call for imaging prostate cancer with conventional bone scans or MRI. A more accurate method of imaging prostate cancer could be of great value.”

Mr. Baker further added, “Thought leaders in prostate cancer care are focused on avoiding unnecessary surgery and other invasive procedures due to the complications associated with them. Clinicians generally prefer “watchful waiting” when the cancer appears to be indolent. At the same time, some therapeutics to treat aggressive prostate cancer have recently been approved or are under development, such as Progenics’ own PSMA ADC, which currently is in phase 2 testing. Patients and their physicians would benefit from feedback on how therapeutic agents are impacting the course of cancer, and guidance on how and when to use therapeutic agents. It is clear that an improved way to visualize prostate cancer, with a high degree of specificity and sensitivity, would better inform both “watchful waiting” and the treatment of aggressive disease. We believe that data from the ongoing phase 2 trial of MIP-1404 will demonstrate its capabilities to assist prostate cancer patients and their physicians in making these critical decisions.”

About Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer is the most common form of cancer affecting men in the United States and is the second leading cause of cancer deaths among men each year. The American Cancer Society estimates that in 2013, 238,590 new cases of prostate cancer will be diagnosed and approximately 29,720 American men will die from the disease. Accurate diagnosis and staging of prostate cancer is critical to determining appropriate patient management.

About Progenics

Progenics Pharmaceuticals, Inc. is discovering and developing innovative medicines for oncology, with a pipeline that includes product candidates in preclinical through late-stage development. Progenics’ first commercial product, Relistor® (methylnaltrexone bromide) for opioid-induced constipation, is marketed and in further development by Salix Pharmaceuticals, Ltd. for markets worldwide other than Japan, where Ono Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. holds an exclusive license for the subcutaneous formulation. For additional information, please visit http://www.progenics.com.

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