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Read all about Organic Spectroscopy on ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY INTERNATIONAL 

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with AFRICURE PHARMA as ADVISOR, earlier assignment was with GLENMARK LIFE SCIENCES LTD, as CONSUlTANT, Retired from GLENMARK in Jan2022 Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 32 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 32 PLUS year tenure till date Feb 2023, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 100 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 100 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, 227 countries, 7 continents, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 38 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 227 countries...... , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc He has total of 32 International and Indian awards

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I did not run away from a NaCN Exotherm






DELTAMETHRIN PROJECT, 1999-2000 Panoli Gujarat India

ww were trying to add acid chloride into an aldehyde at zero degrees cent using PTC conditions and one of ingredient was sodium cyanide, cooling was done by brine

We  Did not run away when instead of adding acid chloride in 2 hrs the operator added it on 10 min…………..I waited at the reactor and controlled an exotherm in plant by switching off brine supply to other reactors,

The reaction got controlled at 59 deg cent and luckily was ok…………the exotherm was fearful. This extreme tension is experienced in a lifetime when everyone runs away and no one to help, FEARFUL, In this case the ‘I’ worked not the ‘we’


Despite all odds God saves us MAKE IN INDIA




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you can post articles and will be administered by me on the google group which is very popular across the world





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ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTOI was  paralysed in dec2007, Posts dedicated to my family, my organisation Glenmark, Your readership keeps me going and brings smiles to my family

Janssen seeks FDA approval for Yondelis (Trabectedin) drug to treat advanced STS


ET-743, Yondelis (trabectedin)

Trabectedin, Ecteinascidin 743, NSC-684766, ET-743, Yondelis, ID0YZQ2TCP

cas 114899-77-3


Janssen seeks FDA approval for Yondelis drug to treat advanced STS

Janssen Research & Development is seeking approval from US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for its Yondelis (trabectedin) to treat patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma (STS).


Trabectedin, also referred as ET-743 during its development, is a marine derived antitumoral agent discovered in the Carribean tunicate _Ecteinascidia turbinata_ and now produced synthetically. Trabectedin has a unique mechanism of action. It binds to the minor groove of DNA interfering with cell division and genetic transcription processes and DNA repair machinery.It is approved for use in Europe, Russia and South Korea for the treatment of advanced soft tissue sarcoma. It is also undergoing clinical trials for the treatment of breast, prostate, and paediatric sarcomas. The European Commission and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have granted orphan drug status to trabectedin for soft tissue sarcomas and ovarian cancer.


Trabectedin (also known as ecteinascidin 743 or ET-743) is an anti-tumor drug. It is sold by Zeltia and Johnson and Johnson under the brand name Yondelis. It is approved for use in Europe, Russia and South Korea for the treatment of advanced soft tissue sarcoma. It is also undergoing clinical trials for the treatment of breast, prostate, and paediatric sarcomas. The European Commission and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have granted orphan drug status to trabectedin for soft tissue sarcomas and ovarian cancer.

Discovery and development

The ecteinascidins (herein abbreviated ETs) are exceedingly potent antitumor agents isolated from the marine tunicate Ecteinascidia turbinata. Several ecteinascidins have been reported previously in the patent and scientific literature. See, for example U.S. Pat. No. 5,089,273, which describes novel compounds of matter extracted from the tropical marine invertebrate Ecteinascidia turbinata, and designated therein as ecteinascidins 729, 743, 745, 759A, 759B and 770. These compounds are useful as antibacterial and/or antitumor agents in mammals. U.S. Pat. No. 5,478,932 describes other novel ecteinascidins isolated from the Caribbean tunicate Ecteinascidia turbinata, which provide in vivo antitumor activity against P388 lymphoma, B16 melanoma, M5076 ovarian sarcoma, Lewis lung carcinoma, and the LX- I human lung and MX- 1 human mammary carcinoma xenografts.

One of the ETs, ecteinascidin 743 (ET-743), is a tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloid with considerable in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity in murine and human tumors, and potent antineoplastic activity against a variety of human tumor xenografts grown in athymic mice, including melanoma, ovarian and breast carcinoma.

ET-743 is a natural compound with the following structure:

ET-743 is also known with the generic name trabectedin and the trademark Yondelis®, and it is currently approved in Europe for the treatment of soft tissue sarcoma. The clinical development of trabectedin continues in phase 11/ III clinical trials in breast, ovarian and prostate cancer. A clinical development program of ET-743 in cancer patients was started with phase I studies investigating 1- hour, 3-hour, 24-hour, and 72-hour intravenous infusion schedules and a 1 hour daily x 5 (dx5) schedule. Promising responses were observed in patients with sarcoma, breast and ovarian carcinoma.

Therefore this new drug is currently under intense investigation in several phase 11/ III clinical trials in cancer patients with a variety of neoplastic diseases. Further information regarding the dosage, schedules, and administration of ET-743 for the treatment of cancer in the human body, either given alone or in combination is provided in WO 00/69441 , WO 02/36135, WO 03/39571 , WO 2004/ 105761 , WO 2005/039584, WO 2005/049031 , WO 2005/049030, WO 2005/049029, WO 2006/046080, WO 2006/005602, and PCT/US07/98727, which are incorporated by reference herein in their entirety.

A review of ET-743, its chemistry, mechanism of action and preclinical and clinical development can be found in Kesteren, Ch.

Van et al., Anti-Cancer Drugs, 2003, 14 (7), 487-502: “ET-743 (trabectedin, ET-743): the development of an anticancer agent of marine origin”, and references therein.

During the past 30 years medical oncologists have focused to optimise the outcome of cancer patients and it is just now that the new technologies available are allowing to investigate polymorphisms, gene expression levels and gene mutations aimed to predict the impact of a given therapy in different groups of cancer patients to tailor chemotherapy. Representative examples include the relationship between the Thymidylate Synthase (TS) mRNA expression and the response and the survival with antifolates, beta tubulin III mRNA levels and response to tubulin interacting agents, PTEN gene methylation and resistance to CPT- I l and, STAT3 over expression and resistance to Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) interacting agents.

A molecular observation of potential clinical impact relates to the paradoxical relation between the efficiency of the Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) pathway and the cytotoxicity of ET-743. In fact, tumour cells that are efficient in this DNA repair pathway appear to be more sensitive to ET-743. This evidence is in contrast with the pattern noted with platin based therapeutic regimens which are highly dependent on the lack of activity of this repair pathway (ie. an increase in ERCCl expression has been associated to clinical resistance to platinum-based anti-cancer therapy).

There are evidences on the key role of NER pathways on the cytotoxicity of ET-743 in cell lines. ET-743 binds to G residues in the minor groove of DNA forming adducts that distort the DNA helix structure and they are recognised by NER mechanisms (Pourquier, P. et al., 2001 , Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting, Vol. 42, pp. 556. 92nd Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research. New Orleans, LA, USA. March 24-28, 2001. ISSN: 0197-016X). Takebayasi et al. (Nature Medicine, 2001 , 7(8), 961-966) have proposed that the presence of these DNA adducts in transcribed genes, blocks the Transcription Coupled NER (TC-NER) system by stalling the cleavage intermediates and producing lethal Single Strand Breaks (SSBs). It is known from Grazziotin et al (Proc.Natl.Acad.Sic.USA, 104: 13062- 13067) that the DNA adducts formed by exposure to ET-743 are transformed into double strand DNA breaks.

The fact that NER mediates ET-743 ‘s cytotoxicity has also been found in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisae by Grazziotin et al. (Biochemical Pharmacology, 2005, 70, 59-69) and in the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe by Herrero et al. (Cancer Res. 2006, 66(16), 8155-8162).

In addition, Bueren et al. (Proceedings AACR Annual Meeting 2007, Abstract no. 1965) have been shown that ET-743 induces double-strand breaks in the DNA in early S phase that are detected and repaired by the Homologous Recombination Repair (HRR) pathway. In addition, Erba et al (Eur. J. Cancer, 2001 , 37(1), 97- 105) and Bueren et al (Proceedings AACR Annual Meeting 2007, Abstract no. 1965) have shown that inactivation/ mutations of genes related to the Double Strand Break detection such as DNA-PK, ATM and ATR and of genes related to Homologous Recombination Repair pathway, such as Fanconi Anemia genes, BRCAl , BRCA2 and RAD51 make cells more sensitive to trabectedin. Such unique finding is the opposite to the pattern with conventional DNA interacting agents, like in the case of microtubule poisons such as taxanes and vinorelbine.

Finally, pharmacogenomic studies prior have demonstrated that increased expression of the NER genes ERCCl and XPD in the tumor tissue does not impact the outcome of patients treated with

ET-743. However, the low expression of BRCAl in the tumor tissue is correlated with a better outcome in cancer patents treated with

ET-743. Further information can be found in WO 2006/005602, which is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety.

Three rare, autosomal recessive inherited human disorders are associated with impaired NER activity: xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), Cockayne Syndrome (CS), and trichothiodystrophy (Bootsma et al. The Genetic Basis of Human Cancer. McGraw-Hill, 1998, 245- 274). XP patients exhibit extreme sensitivity to sunlight, resulting in a high incidence of skin cancers (Kraemer et al. Arch. Dermatol. 123, 241-250, and Arch. Dermatol. 130, 1018- 1021). About 20% of XP patients also develop neurologic abnormalities in addition to their skin problems. These clinical findings are associated with cellular defects, including hypersensitivity to killing and mutagenic effects of UV, and inability of XP cells to repair UV-induced DNA damage (van Steeg et al. MoI. Med. Today, 1999, 5, 86-94).

Seven different NER genes, which correct seven distinct genetic XP complementation groups (XPA-XPG), have been identified (Bootsma et al. The Genetic Basis of Human Cancer. McGraw-Hill, 1998, 245-274). The human gene responsible for XP group G was identified as ERCC5 (Mudgett et al. Genomics, 1990, 8, 623-633; O’Donovan et al. Nature, 1993, 363, 185- 188; and Nouspikel et al. Hum. MoI. Genet. 1994, 3, 963-967). The XPG gene codes for a structure-specific endonuclease that cleaves damaged DNA ~5 nt 3′ to the site of the lesion and is also required non-enzymatically for subsequent 5’ incision by the XPF/ ERCCl heterodimer during the NER process (Aboussekhra et al. Cell, 1995, 80, 859-868; Mu et al. J. Biol. Chem. 1996, 271 , 8285-8294; and Wakasugi et al. J. Biol. Chem. 1997, 272, 16030- 16034). There is also evidence suggesting that XPG is also involved in transcription-coupled repair of oxidative DNA lesions (Le Page et al. Cell, 101 , 159- 171).

Takebayashi et al. (Cancer Lett., 2001 , 174: 1 15- 125) have observed an increase in heterozygosity loss and microsatellite instability in a substantial percentage of samples of ovarian, lung and colon carcinoma. Le Moirvan et al, (Int.J. Cancer, 2006,1 19: 1732- 1735) have described the presence of polymorphisms in the XPG gene in sarcoma patients. It is also known from Takebayashi et al. (Proceedings of the American Association forCancer Research Annual Meeting, March, 2001 , Vol. 42, pp. 813.92nd Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer

Research. New Orleans, LA, USA. March 24-28, 2001) that cells deficient in the NER system are resistant to treatment with ET-743 (Zewail-Foote, M. et al., 2001 , Chemistry and Biology, 8: 1033- 1049 and Damia, G. et al., 2001 , Symposium AACR NCI EORTC) and that the antiproliferative effects of ET-743 require a functional XPG gene.

Since cancer is a leading cause of death in animals and humans, several efforts have been and are still being undertaken in order to obtain an antitumor therapy active and safe to be administered to patients suffering from a cancer. Accordingly, there is a need for providing additional antitumor therapies that are useful in the treatment of cancer.

Trabectedin is a tetrahydroisoquinoline, a novel marine-derived antitumor agent isolated from the colonial tunicate Ecteinascidia turbinate. The drug binds to the minor groove of the DNA, bending the DNA towards the major groove, blocking the activation of genes in a unique way via several pathways, including selective inhibition of the expression of key genes (including oncogenes) involved in cell growth and drug resistance, inhibition of genetic repair pathways and inhibition of cell cycle progression leading to p53-independent programmed cell death.

In July 2003, the European Committee of Proprietary Medicinal Products (CPMP) recommended against granting marketing authorization to trabectedin for soft tissue sarcoma. PharmaMar appealed the decision in September 2003. Later that year, the CPMP rejected the company’s appeal. In 2006, the company filed another regulatory application for this indication and, finally, in 2007, a positive opinion was received in the E.U. for the treatment of metastatic soft tissue sarcoma. First commercialization of the product in the E.U. took place in October 2007 in the U.K. and Germany.

The compound is also available in several other countries. In 2008, the compound was filed for approval in the U.S. and the E.U. for the treatment of relapsed advanced ovarian cancer in combination with liposomal doxorubicin, and in 2009 approval was received in both countries. Trabectedin is available in several European countries, including the U.K. and Germany. Also in 2009 the drug candidate was approved in Philippines for the ovarian cancer indication.

The compound had been in phase II development by Johnson & Johnson for the treatment of prostate cancer; however, no recent development has been reported for this research. PharmaMar is evaluating the compound in phase II trials for the treatment of breast cancer. Additional early clinical trials are ongoing at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) to evaluate trabectedin for potential use in the treatment of advanced, persistent or recurrent uterine leiomyosarcomas and solid tumors.

In 2011, a regulatory application that had been filed in the U.S. seeking approval for the treatment of relapsed advanced disease in combination with liposomal doxorubicin was withdrawn by the company based on the FDA’s recommendation that an additional phase III study be conducted to obtain approval. In 2014, Janssen Research & Development, LLC submitted an NDA for trabectedin to the FDA for the treatment of patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma (STS), including liposarcoma and leiomyosarcoma subtypes, who have received prior chemotherapy including an anthracycline.

Trabectedin was developed by PharmaMar, a subsidiary of Zeltia. The drug was being codeveloped and comarketed in partnership with Ortho Biotech, a subsidiary of Johnson & Johnson pursuant to an agreement signed in 2001. However, in 2008 the license agreement between the two companies was terminated.

The compound was granted orphan drug designation for the treatment of soft tissue sarcoma and for the treatment of ovarian cancer by the FDA and the EMEA. In 2011, orphan drug designation was granted in Japan for the treatment of malignant soft tissue tumor accompanied with chromosomal translocation. In 2009, the product was licensed to Taiho by PharmaMar in Japan for the treatment of cancer.

During the 1950s and 1960s, the National Cancer Institute carried out a wide ranging program of screening plant and marine organism material. As part of that program extract from the sea squirt Ecteinascidia turbinata was found to have anticancer activity in 1969.[1] Separation and characterisation of the active molecules had to wait many years for the development of sufficiently sensitive techniques, and the structure of one of them, Ecteinascidin 743, was determined by KL Rinehart at the University of Illinois in 1984.[2] Rinehart had collected his sea squirts by scuba diving in the reefs of the West Indies.[3]

Recently, the biosynthetic pathway responsible for producing the drug, has been determined to come from Candidatus Endoecteinascidia frumentensis, a microbial symbiont of the tunicate.[4] The Spanish company PharmaMar licensed the compound from the University of Illinois before 1994 and attempted to farm the sea squirt with limited success.[3]

Yields from the sea squirt are extremely low – it takes 1 tonne of animals to isolate 1 gram of trabectedin – and about 5 grams were believed to be needed for a clinical trial[5] so Rinehart asked the Harvard chemist E. J. Corey to search for a synthetic method of preparation. His group developed such a method and published it in 1996.[6] This was later followed by a simpler and more tractable method which was patented by Harvard and subsequently licensed to PharmaMar.[3] The current supply is based on a semisynthetic process developed by PharmaMar starting from Safracin B, an antibiotic obtained by fermentation of the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens.[7] PharmaMar have entered into an agreement with Johnson and Johnson to market the compound outside Europe.

Trabectedin was first dosed in humans in 1996.In 2007, the EMEA gave authorisation for the marketing of trabectedin, under the trade name Yondelis, for the treatment of patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma, after failure of anthracyclines and ifosfamide, or who are unsuited to receive these agents. The agency’s evaluating committee, the CHMP observed that trabectedin had not been evaluated in an adequately designed and analyzed randomized trial against current best care, and that the clinical efficacy data was mainly based on patients with liposarcoma and leiomyosarcoma. However the pivotal study did show a significant difference between two different trabectedin treatment regimens, and due to the rarity of the disease the CHMP considered that marketing authorisation could be granted under exceptional circumstances.[8] As part of the approval PharmaMar agreed to conduct a further trial to identify whether any specific chromosomal translocations could be used to predict responsiveness to trabectedin.[9] Trabectedin is also approved in South Korea[10] and Russia.

In 2008 the submission was announced of a registration dossier to the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) and the FDA for Yondelis when administered in combination with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (Doxil, Caelyx) for the treatment of women with relapsed ovarian cancer. In 2011, Johnson&Johnson voluntarily withdrew the submission in the United States following a request by the FDA for an additional Phase III study to be done in support of the submission.[11]

Trabectedin is also in phase II trials for prostate, breast and paediatric cancers.[12]



Trabectedin is composed of 3 tetrahydroisoquinoline moieties, 8 rings including one 10-membered heteocyclic ring containing a cysteine residue, and 7 chiral centers.


The biosynthesis of Trabectedin in Candidatus Endoecteinascidia frumentensis starts with a fatty acid loading onto the acyl-ligase domain of the EtuA3 module. A cysteine and glycine are then loaded as canonical NRPS amino acids. A tyrosine residue is modified by the enzymes EtuH, EtuM1, and EtuM2 to add a hydroxyl at the meta position of the phenol, and adding two methyl groups at the para-hydroxyl and the meta carbon position. This modified tyrosine reacts with the original substrate via a Pictet-Spangler reaction, where the amine group is converted to an imine by deprotonation, then attacks the free aldehyde to form a carbocation that is quenched by electrons from the methyl-phenol ring. This is done in the EtuA2 T-domain. This reaction is done a second time to yeid a dimer of modified tyrosine residues that have been further cyclized via Pictet-spangler reaction, yielding a bicyclic ring moiety. The EtuO and EtuF3 enzymes continue to post-translationally modify the molecule, adding several functional groups and making a sulfide bridge between the original cysteine residue and the beta-carbon of the first tyrosine to form ET-583, ET-597, ET-596, and ET-594 which have been previously isolated.[4] A third o-methylated tyrosine is added and cyclized via Pictet-Spangler to yield the final product.[4]

Proposed biosynthetic scheme for the biosynthesis of Trabecteden (ET-743)


The total synthesis by E.J. Corey used this proposed biosynthesis to guide their synthetic strategy. The synthesis uses such reactions as the Mannich reaction, Pictet-Spengler reaction, the Curtius rearrangement, and chiral rhodium-based diphosphinecatalyzed enantioselective hydrogenation. A separate synthetic process also involved the Ugi reaction to assist in the formation of the pentacyclic core. This reaction was unprecedented for using such a one pot multi-component reaction in the synthesis of such a complex molecule.


Org Lett 2000,2(7),993

The previously reported synthesis of 139221 (scheme 13922101a) has been investigated in order to find a more efficient, reproducible and economical route to work in the mutikilogram scale. Herein it is reported a new process which is simpler and proceeds with an overall yield of 54% (the original process, 35%). The condensation of intermediate aminolactone (I) (scheme 13922101a, intermediate (VII)) with acid (XLII) (the acid derived from scheme 13922101a, intermediate ester (IX)) by means of 2-chloro-1,3-dimethylimidazolidinium hexafluorophosphate (CIP), and 1-hydroxy-7-azabenzotriazole (HOAt) in THF/dichloromethane gives the coupling product (XLIII), which is allylated with allyl bromide (XLIV) and Cs2CO3 in DMF yielding the allyl ether (XLV). The reduction of the lactone group of (XLV) with LiAlH2(OEt)2 in ethyl ether affords the lactol (XLVI), which is desilylated with KF in methanol to provide the phenolic compound (XLVII). The opening of the lactol ring of (XLVII) with simultaneous cyclization by means of Tf-OH in water/trifluoroethanol gives the hexacyclic intermediate (XLVIII), which is finally reductocondensed with KCN by means of LiAlH2(OEt)2 in THF to furnish the previously reported pentacyclic intermediate (XI) (scheme 13922101a, intermediate (XI)).



Reaction of cyanosafracin B (I) with Boc2O in ethanol gives the amino-protected compound (II), which is treated with methoxymethyl bromide (MOM-Br), DIEA and DMAP in acetonitrile yielding the O-protected compound (III). The demethylation of (III) with NaOH in methanol affords the hydroxyquinone (IV), which is reduced with H2 over Pd/C and cyclized with bromochloromethane and Cs2CO3 in hot DMF to provide compound (V). Reaction of (V) with allyl bromide (VI) and Cs2CO3 in DMF gives the allyl ether (VII), which first is treated with TFA, phenyl isothiocyanate and HCl to yield the primary amine (VIII) and then protected at the free NH2 group with Troc-Cl and pyridine, to afford the amino protected compound (IX).Org Lett 2000,2(16),2545


Reaction of (IX) with MOM-Br and DIEA as before affords the ether (X), which is treated with Zn/HOAc in order to regenerate the primary amino group giving (XI). The reaction of (XI) with NaNO2 and HOAc eliminates the NH2 group, affording the primary alcohol (XII), which is esterified with the protected (S)-cysteine (XIII) by means of EDC and DMAP in dichloromethane furnishing the cysteine ester (XIV). Reaction of (XIV) with Bu3SnH and PdCl2(PPh3)2, followed by oxidation with (PhSeO)2O in dichloromethane gives the hydroxyketone (XV), which is cyclized with Tf2O and Ac2O yielding the heptacyclic compound (XVI). Elimination of the MOM protecting group with TMSCl and NaI in CH3CN/CH2Cl2 affords the phenolic compound (XVII).



Intermediate (XVII) by a treatment with Zn and HOAc eliminates the Troc protecting group, giving the primary amine (XVIII). This compound by treatment with 4-formyl-1-methylpyridinium iodide (NMPC), DBU and oxalic acid in order to convert the nitrile group into an alcohol, provides compund (XIX), which is finally cyclized with 2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)ethylamine (XX) by means of SiO2 / EtOH, followed treatment with and AgNO3 in acetonitrile/water.


The reaction of cyanosafracin B (I) with Boc2O in ethanol gives the amino protected compound (II), which is treated with Mom-Br, DIEA and DMAP in acetonitrile yielding the O-protected compound (III). The demethylation of (III) with NaOH in methanol affords the hydroxyquinone (IV), which is reduced with H2 over Pd/C and cyclized with bromochloromethane and Cs2CO3 in hot DMF providing the methylenedioxy compound (V). The reaction of (V) with acetyl chloride and pyridine in dichloromethane gives the acetate (VI), which is treated with TFA, phenyl isothiocyanate and HCl yielding the primary amine (VII). Finally, this compound is treated with phthalic anhydride (VIII) and CDI in dichloromethane to afford the target phthalimide (phthalascidin Pt-650)


Org. Lett., 2000, 2 (7), pp 993–996
DOI: 10.1021/ol0056729

Abstract Image

Org. Lett., 2000, 2 (7), pp 993–996
DOI: 10.1021/ol0056729

Enantioselective Total Synthesis of Ecteinascidin 743

Department of Chemistry, Harvard University Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138
J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1996, 118 (38), pp 9202–9203
DOI: 10.1021/ja962480t

Ecteinascidins are a group of marine alkaloid having antineoplasticity which is isolated from the extracted products from the marine tunicate habitat of the Caribbean sea by a very small amount. Arming the ecteinascidins, Et 743 has a very strong antineoplastic activity, studies to put it into practical use as a carcinostatic agent are limited, and the phase II clinical tests are now being carried out in ten countries in Europe and America. It is known that Et 743 has an effect of depressing the proliferation of cancer cells by 10 to 100 times more potent than (IC50=0.1-1 nM) Toxol, Camptotesin, Adriamycin or Mitomycin which are currently used carcinostatic agents.

From the background mentioned above, various studies for synthesis were carried out; however, the complete synthesis was only reported by Prof. E. J. Corey of Harvard University in the U.S.A. (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1996, 118, 9202-9203, reference document A).

In the process of the total synthesis disclosed in Document A (refer to page 9202), the main feature of the process is that Et 743 is synthesized from the analogous compound to the compound represented by general formula 1 of the present invention via intermediates 4 and 8. That is, according to said process, the C4 site of ring B (regarding the location of rings, and the sites of atoms comprising the 6 membered ring, refer to general formula 1), which composes a 6 membered ring, is formed from the intermediate 4 at the first step. Since the atom C4 composing the ring B of the 6-membered ring H, which lacks reactivity, is bonded, it becomes necessary to perform an oxidation reaction at the C4 site on the B ring. This oxidation reaction is not effective and is carried out under harsh conditions; therefore production on an industrial scale is difficult, and also the yield is not good. Further, since the atom N12 site of the synthesized intermediate is substituted by an alkyl group which lacks reactivity, in this case substituted by a methyl group, it is not suited to the synthesis of various compounds. Although total synthesis was reported, the supplying source of Et 743 still depends on the natural sample whose supply is very scarce. Therefore, the establishment of the method for a large scale production of Et 743 is desired and requires accomplishing an effective synthesizing process.

Since ET 743 is known as a medicine having high antineoplasticity, and phthalascidin induced from the intermediate product at the synthesis of Et 743 displays the same activity to ET 743, the establishment of an effective and mild method for synthesis of ET 743 and analogous compounds thereof is strongly desired.

Therefore, the subject of the present invention is to accomplish the effective method for total synthesis of Et 743, and further, to provide not only Et 743 but also analogous compounds.

To dissolve the subject, the present invention uses retrosynthetic analysis for easy synthesis. It will be possible to form a B ring by a ring forming reaction at the ortho position of phenol, which binds an A ring to inner molecular aldehyde in a compound generated by the 4-8 reaction. Further, the present invention contemplates that the generated compound by the 4-8 reaction can be synthesized based on the polycondensation reaction of general formula 4, and general formula 5 via a compound of general formula 3. Then the total synthesis of Et 743, which is the aimed compound, can be accomplished by way of the compounds represented by general formulae 5, 4, 3, 2 and 1 and the specific structure of general formulae 1 and 2. This synthetic route provides for the analogous compounds of Et 743.

Figure US07820838-20101026-C00006
Figure US07820838-20101026-C00007
Figure US07820838-20101026-C00008
Figure US07820838-20101026-C00009

Mechanism of action

The biological mechanism of action is believed to involve the production of superoxide near the DNA strand, resulting in DNA backbone cleavage and cell apoptosis. The actual mechanism is not yet known, but is believed to proceed from reduction of molecular oxygen into superoxide via an unusual auto-redox reaction on a hydroxyquinone moiety of the compound following. There is also some speculation the compound becomes ‘activated’ into its reactive oxazolidine form.

Schematic of the unique and complex mode of action of trabectedin. The antitumor effects of trabectedin are due to multiple mechanisms involving DNA binding in the minor groove, interactions with DNA repair mechanisms, modulation of transcription regulation, and induction of microenvironment changes.


  1. Lichter et al. Worthen LW, ed. “Food-drugs from the sea. Proc: Aug 20–23, 1972.” 173. Marine Tech Soc. pp. 117–127.
  2. Rinehart KL (January 2000). “Antitumor compounds from tunicates”. Med Res Rev 20 (1): 1–27. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-1128(200001)20:1<1::AID-MED1>3.0.CO;2-A. PMID 10608919.
  3. “Potent cancer drugs made — Sea squirts provide recipe”.
  4. Rath CM et al (November 2011). “Meta-omic characterization of the marine invertebrate microbial consortium that produces the chemotherapeutic natural product ET-743”. ACS Chemical Biology 6 (11): 1244–56. doi:10.1021/cb200244t. PMC 3220770. PMID 21875091.
  5. “New Scientist”.
  6. E. J. Corey, David Y. Gin, and Robert S. Kania (1996). “Enantioselective Total Synthesis of Ecteinascidin 743”. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118 (38): 9202–9203. doi:10.1021/ja962480t.
  7. C. Cuevas et al. (2000). “Synthesis of ecteinascidin ET-743 and phthalascidin PT-650 from cyanosafracin”. B. Org. Lett. 2: 2545–2548.
  8. “CHMP evaluation”.
  9. “PharmaMar website”.
  10. S.Korea approves Zeltia cancer drug Yondelis,, May 8, 2008
  11. Grogan, Kevin (3 May 2011). “J&J pulls submission for Zeltia’s Yondelis”. PharmaTimes Magazine (London, England). Online PharmaTimes. Archived from the original on 7 May 2011. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
  12. “PharmaMar website”.
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(1′R,6R,6aR,7R,13S,14S,16R)-6′,8,14-trihydroxy-7′,9-dimethoxy-4,10,23-trimethyl-19-oxo-3′,4′,6,7,12,13,14,16-octahydrospiro[6,16-(epithiopropano-oxymethano)-7,13-imino-6aH-1,3-dioxolo[7,8]isoquino[3,2-b][3]benzazocine-20,1′(2′H)-isoquinolin]-5-yl acetate
Clinical data
AHFS/ International Drug Names
Licence data EMA:Link
Legal status
Routes Intravenous
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability Not applicable (IV only)
Protein binding 94 to 98%
Metabolism Hepatic (mostly CYP3A4-mediated)
Half-life 180 hours (mean)
Excretion Mostly fecal
CAS number 114899-77-3 
ATC code L01CX01
PubChem CID 108150
IUPHAR ligand 2774
DrugBank DB05109
ChemSpider 16736970 Yes
Chemical data
Formula C39H43N3O11S 
Mol. mass 761.84 g/mol



1  Corey, “Enantioselective Total Synthesis of Ecteinascidin 743“, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1996, vol. 118, 9202-9203.

2 * Endo, “Synthetic Study on Ecteinascidin 743 Starting From D-Glucose“, Synlett 1999, No. 7, 1103-1105.
3 * Endo, “Total Synthesis of Ecteinascidin 743“, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2002, vol. 124, 6552-6554.
4 * Hinterding, “Synthesis and In Vitro Evaluation of the Ras Farnesyltransferase Inhibitor Pepticinnamin E“, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 1998, 37, No. 9 1236-1239.
5 * Tohma, “Synthesis of Optically Active alpha-Arylglycines: Stereoselective Mannich-Type Reaction with a New Chiral Template“, Synlett 2001, No. 7, 1179-1181.Hamprecht, D.W.; Berge, J.M.; Copley, R.C.B.; Eggleston, D.S.; Houge-Frydrych, C.S.V.; Jarvest, R.L.; Mensah, L.M.; O’Hanlon, P.J.; Pope, A.J.; Rittenhouse, S.
Derivatives of the natural product SB-219383 and synthetic analogues: Potent inhibitors of bacterial tyrosyl tRNA synthetase
16th Int Symp Med Chem (September 18-22, Bologna) 2000, Abst PA-155Cuevas, C.; Perez, M.; Martin, M.J.; et al.
Synthesis of ecteinascidin ET-743 and phathalascidin Pt-650 from cyanosafracin B
Org Lett 2000, 2(16): 2545



Patent Submitted Granted
Assay for identifying biological targets of polynucleotide-binding compounds [US2008096201] 2008-04-24
Compounds of the saframycin-ecteinascidin series, uses, and synthesis thereof [US6936714] 2004-07-01 2005-08-30
Method For Total Synthesis Of Ecteinascidins And Intermediate Compounds Thereof [US7807833] 2009-08-06 2010-10-05
Method For Total Synthesis Of Ecteinascidins And Intermediate Compounds Thereof [US7820838] 2009-02-05 2010-10-26
Assay for identifying biological targets of polynucleotide-binding compounds [US7183054] 2004-12-09 2007-02-27

Synthesis of Ibuprofen Using Silica-Supported Preyssler Nanoparticles as an Eco-Friendly, Inexpensive, and Efficient Catalyst,


Scheme 1: Synthesis of ibuprofen using Silica-Supported Preyssler Nanoparticles (H14[NaP5W30O110]/SiO2) (SPNPs) using ethanol and pyridine in their reactions.



Synthesis of Ibuprofen Using Silica-Supported Preyssler Nanoparticles as an Eco-Friendly, Inexpensive, and Efficient Catalyst,

Organic Chemistry International
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 906801, 6 pages

Ali Gharib,1,2 Nader Noroozi Pesyan,3 Leila Vojdani Fard,4 and Mina Roshani1

1Department of Chemistry, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran
2Agricultural Researches and Services Center, Mashhad, Iran
3Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Urmia University, Urmia 57159, Iran
4Education Organization of Razavi Khorasan, Education Ministry, Mashhad, Iran
Received 5 January 2014; Revised 15 February 2014; Accepted 31 March 2014; Published 6 May 2014
Academic Editor: Jonathan White

Copyright © 2014 Ali Gharib et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This paper describes an alternative and simple procedure for the synthesis of Ibuprofen using Silica-Supported Preyssler Nanoparticles (H14[NaP5W30O110]/SiO2) (SPNPs), as an eco-friendly, inexpensive, and efficient catalyst. High yields, simplicity of operation, and easy work-up procedure are some advantages of this protocol. Silica-Supported Preyssler Nanoparticles (H14[NaP5W30O110]/SiO2) (SPNPs) offer the advantages of a higher hydrolytic and thermal stability. The salient features of Preyssler’s anion are availability, nontoxicity and reusability. We believe this methodology can find usefulness in organic synthesis.

Synthesis of Ibuprofen (6)

To a solution of ethyl-2-(4-isobutylphenyl) propanoate (1 g, 4.27 mmol) in 6 mL of CH3OH a solution of KOH was added (479 mg, 8.55 mmol) in 5 mL of H2O. The resultant solution was stirred at room temperature for 4 h. Methanol was removed under reduced pressure and the resulting solution was extracted with ethyl acetate and the organic extracts were washed with H2O, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, and concentrated under reduced pressure to give compound 6.

M.P (°C) 130-133,

IR (KBr, cm−1): 3100, 2920, 2870, 1716, 1408, 1419, 1321, 1230, 1184, 935, 779, 668, 583. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) 7.15 (d, J = 8.1 Hz, 2H), 7.02 (d, J = 8.1 Hz, 2H), 3.64 (q, J = 7.2 Hz, 1H), 2.37 (d, J = 7.1 Hz, 2H), 1.75 (m, 1H), 1.43 (d, J = 7.1 Hz, 3H), 0.82 (d, J = 6.6 Hz, 6H).

13C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): 22.81, 22.82, 29.07, 42.64, 44.50, 128.80, 128.93, 128.95, 132.22, 140.23, 181.26. Anal. Calcd. for C13H18O2: C, 75.69; H, 8.80%. Found: C, 75.61; H, 8.70%.

HRMS (EI) Calcd. for C26H25FN4O6 [M]+, 206.1600, Found 206.1009.

KEBUZONE…….An antirheumatic agent.


Kebuzone (or ketophenylbutazone) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug.

Structural formula





Additional Names: 1,2-diphenyl-4-(g-ketobutyl)-3,5-pyrazolidinedione; 1,2-diphenyl-4-(3¢-oxobutyl)-3,5-dioxopyrazolidine; ketophenylbutazone; KPB
Trademarks: Chebutan; Chepirol; Chetazolidin (Zeria); Chetil; Copirene; Ketason; Ketazone (Beytout); Pecnon (Sanken); Phloguron (Steiner); Recheton
MF: C19H18N2O3
MW: 322.36
Percent Comp: C 70.79%, H 5.63%, N 8.69%, O 14.89%
Properties: Crystals, mp 115.5-116.5° or 127.5-128.5° depending on cryst form.
Melting point: mp 115.5-116.5° or 127.5-128.5° depending on cryst form
Therap-Cat: Antirheumatic.
  1. BRN 0308507
  2. Chebutan
  3. Chepirol
  4. Chetazolidin
  5. Chetil
  6. Copirene
  7. EINECS 212-715-7
  8. Hichillos
  9. Kebuzone
  10. Kebuzonum
  11. Kebuzonum [INN-Latin]
  12. Keobutane-jade
  13. Ketason
  14. Ketazone
  15. Ketophenylbutazone
  16. Ketophenylbutazonum
  17. KPB
  18. Pecnon
  19. Quebuzona
  20. Quebuzona [INN-Spanish]
  21. Recheton
  22. UNII-4VD83UL6Y6

Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.

UV – range

Conditions : Concentration – 1 mg / 100 ml
The solvent designation graphics Methanol
0.1М HCl
0.1M NaOH
Maximum absorption 244 nm 237 nm 262 nm
448 404 617
e 14440 13020 19890

IR – spectrum

Wavelength (μm)
Wave number (cm -1 )


  • UV and IR Spectra. H.-W. Dibbern, R.M. Muller, E. Wirbitzki, 2002 ECV
  • NIST/EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Library 2008
  • Handbook of Organic Compounds. NIR, IR, Raman, and UV-Vis Spectra Featuring Polymers and Surfactants, Jr., Jerry Workman. Academic Press, 2000.
  • Handbook of ultraviolet and visible absorption spectra of organic compounds, K. Hirayama. Plenum Press Data Division, 1967.

Brief background information


Salt ATC Formula MM CAS
M01AA06 C 19 H 18 N 2 O 3 322.36 g / mol 853-34-9
Clinical data
Legal status
CAS number 853-34-9 Yes
ATC code M01AA06
PubChem CID 3824
ChemSpider 3692 
KEGG D01567 Yes
ChEBI CHEBI:31749 
Chemical data
Formula C19H18N2O3 
Mol. mass 322.35782 g/mol



  • anti-inflammatory
  • antirheumatic
  • Synthesis pathway
Synthesis of a)

Synthesis b)

Trade names

Country Trade name Manufacturer
Germany Kebuzon Steiner
France Ketazon Beytout
Italy Chetopir Sarm
Ukraine no no


  • ampoules of 1 g / 5 ml;
  • 250 mg capsule


  1. Synthesis of a)
    • Denss, R. et al .: Helv. Chim. Acta (HCACAV) 40, 402 (1957).
    1. material:
      • Kühn, M .: J. Prakt. Chem. (JPCEAO) 156 (II), 103 (1940).
  2. Synthesis b)
    • AT 198 263 (Synfarma; appl. 1955).

References: Prepn: Deuss et al., US 2910481 (1959 to Geigy).

Review of pharmacology: Horakova et al.,Pharmacotherapeutica 1950-1959, 335-350 (1963), C.A. 60, 6072g (1964).

Metabolism: Nemecek et al., Arzneim.-Forsch. 16,1339 (1966); Queisnerova, Nemecek, Cesk. Farm. 20, 55 (1971), C.A. 75, 47077u (1971).

Herrenknecht, Christine; Guernet-Nivaud, Elisabeth; Lafont, Olivier; Guernet, Michel; Gueutin, Claire
Canadian Journal of Chemistry, 1988 ,  v. 66, pg. 1199 – 1202

Cizmarik; Lycka
Pharmazie, 1988 ,  v. 43,  11  pg. 794 – 795

Gueutin-Pelinard, Claire; Nivaud, Elisabeth; Boucly, Patrick; Guernet, Michel
Canadian Journal of Chemistry, 1981 ,  v. 59, pg. 759 – 762

Denss et al.
Helvetica Chimica Acta, 1957 ,  v. 40, pg. 402,406

Patent: CS124279 , 1965 ;Chem.Abstr., 1968 ,  v. 69,   52134r

SPOFA; United Pharmaceutical Work Patent: FR1500627 , 1965 ;Chem.Abstr., 1968 ,  v. 69,   96715k

Nippon Shinyaju Co., Ltd. Patent: US5811547 A1, 1998 ;

Fisnerova,L. et al. Collection of Czechoslovak Chemical Communications, 1974 ,  v. 39, pg. 624 – 633

EU approves Lilly diabetes drug Trulicity, dulaglutide

EU approves Lilly diabetes drug Trulicity

Regulators in Europe have given the green light to Eli Lilly’s Trulicity, its once-weekly glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist for type 2 diabetes.

Read more at:

Dulaglutide is a glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 agonist) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes that can be used once weekly.[1][2]GLP-1 is a hormone that is involved in the normalization of level of glucose in blood (glycemia). The FDA approved dulaglutide for use in the United States in September 2014.[3] The drug is manufactured by Eli Lilly under the brand name Trulicity.[3]

Mechanism of action

Dulaglutide binding to glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor, slows gastric emptying and increases insulin secretion by beta cells in the pancreas. Simultaneously the compound reduces the elevated glucagon secretion by alpha cells of the pancreas, which is known to be inappropriate in the diabetic patient. GLP-1 is normally secreted by L cells of the gastrointestinal mucosa in response to a meal.[4]

Medical uses[

The compound is indicated for adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control. Dulaglutide is not indicated in the treatment of subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus or patients with diabetic ketoacidosis. Dulaglutide can be used either stand-alone or in combination with other medicines for type 2 diabetes, in particular metformin, sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, and insulin taken concomitantly with meals.[5]

Side effects

The most common side effects include gastrointestinal disorders, such as dyspepsia, decreased appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea.[6] Some patients may experience serious adverse reactions: acute pancreatitis (symptoms include persistent severe abdominal pain, sometimes radiating to the back and accompanied by vomiting),hypoglycemia, renal impairment (which may sometimes require hemodialysis). The risk of hypoglycemia is increased if the drug is used in combination with sulfonylureas orinsulin.[7][8]


The compound is contraindicated in subjects with hypersensitivity to active principle or any of the product’s components. As a precautionary measure patients with a personal or family history of medullary thyroid carcinoma or affected by multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 2 should not take dulaglutide, because for now it is unclear whether the compound can increase the risk of these cancers.[9]


  1. JCourtney Aavang Tibble, Tricia Santos Cavaiola, Robert R Henry (2013). “Longer Acting GLP-1 Receptor Agonists and the Potential for Improved Cardiovascular Outcomes: A Review of Current Literature”. Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab 8 (3): 247–259.doi:10.1586/eem.13.20.
  2.  “Lilly’s Once-Weekly Dulaglutide Shows Non-Inferiority to Liraglutide in Head-to-Head Phase III Trial for Type 2 Diabetes”. Eli Lilly. Feb 25, 2014.
  3.  “FDA approves Trulicity to treat type 2 diabetes” (Press release). FDA. Sep 18, 2014.
  4.  Nadkarni P, Chepurny OG, Holz GG (2014). “Regulation of glucose homeostasis by GLP-1”. Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci 121: 23–65. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-800101-1.00002-8.PMC 4159612. PMID 24373234. Retrieved 2014-09-29.
  5.  Terauchi Y, Satoi Y, Takeuchi M, Imaoka T (July 2014). “Monotherapy with the once weekly GLP-1 receptor agonist dulaglutide for 12 weeks in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes: dose-dependent effects on glycaemic control in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study”. Endocr. J. PMID 25029955. Retrieved 2014-09-29.
  6.  Nauck M, Weinstock RS, Umpierrez GE, Guerci B, Skrivanek Z, Milicevic Z (August 2014). “Efficacy and safety of dulaglutide versus sitagliptin after 52 weeks in type 2 diabetes in a randomized controlled trial (AWARD-5)”. Diabetes Care 37 (8): 2149–58.doi:10.2337/dc13-2761. PMID 24742660.
  7.  Amblee A (April 2014). “Dulaglutide for the treatment of type 2 diabetes”. Drugs Today50 (4): 277–89. doi:10.1358/dot.2014.50.4.2132740. PMID 24918645.
  8.  Monami M, Dicembrini I, Nardini C, Fiordelli I, Mannucci E (February 2014). “Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and pancreatitis: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials”. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 103 (2): 269–75. doi:10.1016/j.diabres.2014.01.010.PMID 24485345.
  9. Samson SL, Garber A (April 2013). “GLP-1R agonist therapy for diabetes: benefits and potential risks”. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 20 (2): 87–97.doi:10.1097/MED.0b013e32835edb32. PMID 23403741. Retrieved 2014-09-30.
CAS number 923950-08-7
ATC code None
Chemical data
Formula C2646H4044N704O836S18 
Mol. mass 59669.81 g/mol


Figure US08017633-20110913-C00025

NETOGLITAZONE, isaglitazone



  1. 5-((6-((2-fluorophenyl)methoxy)-2-naphthalenyl)methyl)-2,4-thiazolidinedione
  2. MCC 555
  3. MCC-555
  4. netoglitazone
  5. RWJ-241947

Netoglitazone (MCC-555) is a hypoglycemic agent.





US 5594016

Reaction of aldehyde (III) with 2-fluorobenzyl alcohol (VIII) by means of triphenylphosphine and diethyl azodicarboxylate (DEAD) in THF furnishes 6-(2-fluorobenzyloxy)naphthalene-2-carbaldehyde (IX) , which is then reduced with NaBH4 in ethanol/THF to give the naphthalenemethanol derivative (X). Halogenation of (X) by means of iodide, triphenylphosphine and imidazole in THF yields the naphthylmethyl iodide derivative (XI), which is finally condensed with thiazolidine-2,4-dione (IV) by means of HMPA and butyl lithium in THF.

Ueno, H.; Oe, T.; Suehiro, I.; Nakamura, F. (Mitsubishi Chemical Corp.); Naphthalene derivs.. EP 0604983; JP 1994247945; US 5594016 .


Sorbera, L.A.; Castañer, J.; Del Fresno, M.; Silvestre, J. (2002). “Netoglitazone”. Drugs of the Future 27 (2): 132.doi:10.1358/dof.2002.027.02.657482.

Systematic (IUPAC) name
Clinical data
Legal status
  • Uncontrolled
CAS number 161600-01-7 Yes
ATC code ?
PubChem CID 204109
KEGG D05150 Yes
Chemical data
Formula C21H16FNO3S 
Mol. mass 381.420 g/mol


Pharmaceutical composition comprising a glitazone and a 4-oxobutanoic acid, and the use thereof for treating diabetes [US2005085489] 2005-04-21
Compositions of a cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitor and a peroxisome proliferator activated receptor agonist for the treatment of ischemic mediated central nervous system disorders [US2005107387] 2005-05-19
Pharmaceutical composition comprising an ACAT inhibitor and an insulin resistance reducing agent [US2005119314] 2005-06-02
Medical devices to treat or inhibit restenosis [US2005149174] 2005-07-07
Medicinal compositions containing diuretic and insulin resistance-improving agent [US2005288339] 2005-12-29
Crystals of 5-[{6-(2-fluorobenzyl)oxy-2-naphthyl}methyl]-2,4-thiazolidinedione [US2006149075] 2006-07-06
Concomitant drug as therapeutic agent for inflammatory bowel disease [US2006177444] 2006-08-10
Combination of FBPase inhibitors and insulin sensitizers for the treatment of diabetes [US2004167178] 2004-08-26
Crystals of 5-[{6-(2-fluorobenzyl)oxy-2-naphthyl}methyl]-2,4-thiazolidinedione [US2003158241] 2003-08-21
Pharmacological method for treatment of neuropathic pain [US2007249561] 2007-10-25
Patent Submitted Granted
Medicinal composition containing diabetes remedy [US7943584] 2008-02-14 2011-05-17
Medicinal compositions containing diuretic and insulin resistance-improving agent [US7199139] 2004-03-18 2007-04-03
Crystals of 5-[{6-(2-fluorobenzyl)oxy-2-naphthyl}methyl]-2,4-thiazolidinedione [US6541493] 2003-04-01
Combination of FBPase inhibitors and insulin sensitizers for the treatment of diabetes [US6756360] 2004-06-29
Roflumilast for the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus [US8017633] 2008-09-04 2011-09-13


Combination of FBPase Inhibitors and Insulin Sensitizers for the Treatment of Diabetes [US2008004226] 2008-01-03
Pharmaceutical Composition Comprising Ppar Regulator [US2008153882] 2008-06-26
Pharmaceutical combination comprising vitamin k [US2009137614] 2009-05-28
Pharmaceutical Composition Containing PPARgamma Agonist [US2009137626] 2009-05-28
Pharmaceutical agent comprising insulin resistance improving agent [US2009124626] 2009-05-14
Combination treatment for diabetes mellitus [US2010179131] 2010-07-15
Therapeutic agent for diabetes containing insulin resistance improving agent [US2007049515] 2007-03-01
RESPIRATORY DISEASE TREATMENT [US8236786] 2011-03-03 2012-08-07






2(S)-Methoxy-3-[4-[3-(4-phenoxyphenoxy)propoxy]phenyl]propionic acid


C25 H26 O6, 422.4703

  • CCRIS 9448
  • LY 519818
  • LY 9818
  • LY519818
  • LY9818
  • Naveglitazar
  • UNII-Y995M7GM0G

Naveglitazar, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) modulator, had been in phase II clinical trials for the once-daily oral treatment of type 2 diabetes, however, no recent development for this indication has been reported. The compound was originally discovered through an ongoing research collaboration between Lilly and Ligand, but, in 2006, Lilly discontinued the development program.

Naveglitazar [LY519818; benzenepropanoic acid, alpha-methoxy-4-[3-(4-phenoxyphenoxy)propoxy], (alpha-S)-] is a nonthiozolidinedione peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha-gamma dual, gamma-dominant agonist that has shown glucose-lowering potential in animal models and in the clinic.

Studies have been conducted to characterize the disposition, metabolism, and excretion of naveglitazar in mice, rats, and monkeys after oral and/or i.v. bolus administration.


2-Alkoxydihydrocinnamates as PPAR agonists. Activity modulation by the incorporation of phenoxy substituents.

Martín JA, Brooks DA, Prieto L, González R, Torrado A, Rojo I, López de Uralde B, Lamas C, Ferritto R, Dolores Martín-Ortega M, Agejas J, Parra F, Rizzo JR, Rhodes GA, Robey RL, Alt CA, Wendel SR, Zhang TY, Reifel-Miller A, Montrose-Rafizadeh C, Brozinick JT, Hawkins E, Misener EA, Briere DA, Ardecky R, Fraser JD, Warshawsky AM.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2005 Jan 3;15(1):51-5.



′2-Methoxy-3-{3-[3-(4-phenoxy-phenoxy)-propoxy]-phenyl}-propionic acid

Figure US20050020684A1-20050127-C00299

The title compound was prepared from 3-(3-Hydroxy-phenyl)-2-methoxy-propionic acid methyl ester from Example 152, Step D with 4-(3-bromopropoxy)1-phenoxybenzene in a manner analogous as in Example 152, Step E. MS (ES) for C25H26O6[M+NH4]+: 440.2, [M+Na]+: 445.2. 1H-NMR (CDCl3, 200.15 MHz): 7.33-7.17 (m, 3H), 7.07-6.78 (m, 10H), 4.15 (dt, 4H, J=1.9, 6.2), 4.03 (dd, 1H, J=7.3, 4.3), 3.40 (s, 3H), 3.13 (dd, 1H, J=14.2, 4.6), 2.98 (dd, 1H, J=14.0, 7.5), 2.25 (qui, 2H, J=5.9)ppm.



(2S,4S)-1-[(2S)-2- amino-3,3-bis(4-fluorophenyl)propionyl]-4-fluoropyrrolidine-2-carbonitrile, (2S,4S)-4-fluoro-1-[4-fluoro-beta-(4-fluorophenyl)-L-phenylalanyl]-2-pyrrolidinecarbonitrile


GSK-823093, 823093
811432-66-3 CAS TOSYLATE

483369-58-0 (free base)

Denagliptin (GSK-823093) having the structural formula D below is (2S,4S)-1-[(2S)-2- amino-3,3-bis(4-fluorophenyl)propionyl]-4-fluoropyrrolidine-2-carbonitrile, also named (2S,4S)-4-fluoro-1-[4-fluoro-beta-(4-fluorophenyl)-L-phenylalanyl]-2-pyrrolidinecarbonitrile

Figure imgf000004_0002

(D) – A –

Denagliptin is specifically disclosed in US Patent No. 7,132,443 and in WO 03/002531. In one embodiment, denagliptin is in the form of its hydrochloride salt as disclosed in Example 2 of WO 03/002531 or its tosylate salt as disclosed in WO 2005/009956. A class of this embodiment refers to denagliptin tosylate. Crystalline anhydrous denagliptin tosylate is disclosed in WO 2005/009956.

Denagliptin is a dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitor which entered phase III clinical trials in 2006 for the treatment of type 2 diabetes at GlaxoSmithKline. Development of this compound was put on hold due to unfavorable preliminary data from preclinical long-term toxicity trials.






Example 2

Figure US07132443-20061107-C00015

(2S,4S)-1-[(2S)-2-Amino-3,3-bis(4-fluorophenyl)propanoyl]-4-fluoropyrrolidine-2-carbonitrile hydrochloride

A. 3,3-Bis(4-fluorophenyl)-3-hydroxypropanoic acid.

To an anhydrous THF (80 mL) solution of n-butyl lithium (46 mL of 2.5 M, 115 mmol) at 0° C. was added dropwise diisopropylamine (11.13 g, 115 mmol) and the solution stirred for 10 minutes. Keeping the solution at 0° C., acetic acid (2.64 g, 44 mmol) was added dropwise and the mixture stirred for 10 min and it was then heated 50° C. After 30 min a heavy precipitate had formed and the solution was allowed to cool. A solution of 4,4′-diflurobenzophenone (9.6 g, 0.044 mol) in THF (50 mL, anhydrous) was added at 0° C., and the solution stirred at room temperature overnight. Water (100 mL) and diethyl ether (100 mL) were added and the aqueous layer was separated and acidified with 1M HCl to pH 3. The organics were extracted with ethyl acetate (3×200 mL) followed by drying over MgSO4. Filtration and removal of the solvent in vacuo yielded a crude white solid that could be washed with cold CHCl3 to remove trace amounts of the benzophenone. The solid was dried under high vacuum yielding 5.63 g (20.2 mmol, 46% yield) of compound A as a white solid.

1H NMR (d6-DMSO) 400 MHz δ 12.4 (s(br), 1H), 7.48–7.39 (m, 4H), 7.19–7.02 (m, 4H), 5.91 (s(br), 1H), 3.25 (s, 2H) ppm.

B. 3,3-Bis(4-fluorophenyl)acrylic acid.

To a 20% solution of sulfuric acid in acetic acid (50 mL, V/V) was compound A (5.6 g, 20.2 mmol) and the mixture stirred for 30 minutes at RT. To this solution was added H2O (500 mL) and the organics were extracted with ethyl acetate (3×150 mL) followed by drying over MgSO4. Filtration and removal of the solvent in vacuo yielded a white solid. The solid was dried under high vacuum yielding 4.97 g (19.1 mmol, 95% yield) of compound B as a white solid.

1H NMR (CDCl3) 400 MHz δ 7.27–7.21 (m, 2H), 7.19–7.13 (m, 2H), 7.10–6.95 (m, 4H), 6.26 (s, 1H) ppm.

C. 3,3-Bis(4-fluorophenyl)propanoic acid.

To a solution of compound B (2.5 g, 9.61 mmol) in ethyl acetate (250 mL) was added 10% palladium on carbon (50% w/w) and hydrogenated at 1 atmosphere of hydrogen for 12 hours. The heterogeneous solution was filtered through celite and concentrated in vacuo to provide a yellow oil. The oil was dried under high vacuum yielding 2.40 g (9.16 mmol, 95% yield) of compound C as a yellow oil.

1H NMR (d6-DMSO) 400 MHz δ 12.08 (brs, 1H), 7.40–7.30 (m, 4H), 7.15–7.05 (m, 4H), 4.45 (t, 1H, J=8.1 Hz), 3.05(d, 2H, J=8.1 Hz) ppm.

D. (4S,5R)-3-[3,3-Bis(4-fluorophenyl)propanoyl]-4-methyl-5-phenyl-1,3-oxazolidin-2-one.

To a THF (50 mL, anhydrous) containing compound C (2.0 g, 7.63 mmol) was added N,N-diisopropylethylamine (1.18 g, 9.16 mmol) and then the solution cooled to −78° C. To this solution was added trimethylacetyl chloride (0.97 g, 8.01 mmol) and the solution warmed to 0° C. over 1 hour. The cloudy mixture was filtered and the filtrate added slowly over 10 min to a solution of the lithiated (4S,5R)-(−)-4-methyl-5-phenyl-2-oxazolidinone at −78° C., which was prepared by the dropwise addition of n-butyl lithium (3.0 mL of 2.5 M, 7.63 mmol) to a THF (50 mL) solution of (4S,5R)-(−)-4-methyl-5-phenyl-2-oxazolidinone (1.35 g, 7.63 mmol) at −78° C. which had stirred for 10 min to provide the lithiated (4S,5R)-(−)-4-methyl-5-phenyl-2-oxazolidinone. The yellow mixture was warmed to 0° C. and quenched with H2O (50 mL) and extracted with diethyl ether (3×250 mL) followed by drying over MgSO4. Filtration and removal of the solvent in vacuo yielded a solid. Flash chromatography (silica gel, 20% ethyl acetate/hexanes) provided compound D. The white solid was dried under high vacuum yielding 2.31 g (5.49 mmol, 72% yield) as a white solid.

1H NMR (d6-DMSO) 400 MHz δ 7.40–7.25 (m, 9H), 7.18–7.02 (m, 4H), 5.76 (d, 1H, J=7.6 Hz), 4.65 (m, 1H), 4.58 (t, 1H, J=7.6 Hz), 3.72 (dd, 1H, J=16.8, 7.0 Hz) 3.57 (dd, 1H, J=16.8, 7.0 Hz), 0.58 (d, 3H, J=6.7 Hz) ppm.

E. (4S,5R)-3-[(2S)-2-Azido-3,3-bis(4-fluorophenyl)propanoyl]-4-methyl-5-[(1E,3Z)-1-methylhexa-1,3,5-trienyl]-1,3-oxazolidin-2-one.

To a THF (50 mL anhydrous) solution containing compound D (2.0 g, 4.75 mmol) at −78° C. was added dropwise potassium bis(trimethylsilyl)amide (10.0 mL of 0.5 M toluene solution, 4.98 mmol). After stirring for 10 min 2,4,6-triisopropylbenzenesulfonyl azide (trisyl azide) (1.84 g, 5.94 mmol) in THF (10 mL, anhydrous) was added in one portion. After 3 minutes acetic acid was added (1.31 g, 21.8 mmol) at −78° C. and then the reaction quickly warmed to 30° C. and stirred for 1 hr at that temperature generating a light yellow solution. To this solution was added H2O (100 mL) and the organics were extracted with ethyl acetate (500 mL). After washing with sat NaHCO3 (100 mL) and drying over MgSO4 the solvent was reomved in vacuo yielding a yellow oil. Column chromatography (ethyl acetate/hexanes 1:9) provided compound E as a white solid. HPLC showed a single diastereoisomer. The white solid was dried under high vacuum yielding 1.71 g (3.70 mmol, 78% yield) as a white solid.

1H NMR (CDCl3) 400 MHz δ 7.42–7.35 (m, H), 7.25–7.18 (m, H), 7.10–7.06 (m, 2H), 7.05–6.92 (m, 2H), 5.95 (d, 1H, J=10.8 Hz), 5.05 (d, 1H, J=7.1 Hz), 4.60 (d, 1H, J=10.8 Hz), 4.38 (m, 1H), 0.95 (d, 3H, J=6.8 Hz) ppm.

F. (2S)-2-Azido-3,3-bis(4-fluorophenyl)propanoic acid.

To a THF/H2O (4:1, 50 mL) solution of compound E (1.5 g, 3.25 mmol) at 0° C. was added a solution of lithium hydroxide (0.272 g, 6.49 mmol) in hydrogen peroxide (1.50 mL of 30% soln in H2O, 48.75 mmol). The mixture was stirred at 0° C. for 1 hr and then quenched with Na2SO4 (6.3 g, 50 mL of 1.0 M solution in H2O). The THF was removed in vacuo and the solution acidified to pH 1 with 6.0 M HCl at 0° C. The organics were extracted with ethyl acetate (2×200 mL) followed by drying over MgSO4. Filtration and removal of the solvent in vacuo yielded a clear oil. Column chromatography (EtOAc/hexanes/acetic acid 50:50:1) provided compound F as a white solid. The solid was dried under high vacuum yielding 0.78 g (2.60 mmol, 80% yield) as a white solid.

1H NMR (CDCl3) 400 MHz δ 9.60(s(br), 1H), 7.25–7.10 (m, 4H), 7.10–6.95 (m, 4H), 4.50 (d, 2H, J=8.6 Hz) ppm.

G. (2S)-2-Amino-3,3-bis(4-fluorophenyl)propanoic acid.

To an ethyl acetate (250 mL) solution of compound F (1.5 g, 4.95 mmol) was added 10% palladium on carbon (10% w/w) and hydrogenated at 1 atmosphere of hydrogen for 12 hr. The heterogeneous solution was filtered through celite (1 g) and the filtrate concentrated in vacuo to provide a clear oil. The oil was dried under high vacuum yielding 1.30 g (4.70 mmol, 95% yield) of compound G as a white solid.

1H NMR (d6-DMSO) 400 MHz δ 10.2(s(br), 1H), 7.38–7.27(m, 4H), 7.08–6.98 (m, 4H), 4.25 (d, 1H, J=8.3 Hz), 3.95 (d, 1H, J=8.3 Hz) ppm.

H. (2S)-2-[(tert-Butoxycarbonyl)amino]-3,3-bis(4-fluorophenyl)propanoic acid.

To a CH2Cl2 (150 mL) solution containing compound G (1.30 g, 4.69 mmol) was added triethylamine (2.37 g, 23.4 mmol) and di-tert-butyl dicarbonate (1.23 g, 5.63 mmol). After stirring for 12 hr H2O (50 mL) and CH2Cl2 (300 mL) were added and the solution acidified to pH 3 with 1.0 M HCl. Separation of the ethyl acetate layer followed by drying over MgSO4 and removal of the solvent in vacuo yielded a clear oil. The oil was dried under high vacuum yielding 1.68 g (4.4 mmol, 95% yield) of compound H as a white solid.

1H NMR (d6-DMSO) 400 MHz δ 12.4 (s(br), 1H), 7.35–7.22 (m, 4H), 7.15–6.95 (m, 4H), 4.78 (t, 1H, J=8.9 Hz), 4.25 (d, 1H, J=8.9 Hz), 3.05 (m, 1H), 1.20 (s, 3H), 1.15 (s, 6H) ppm.

I. (2S,4S)-1-[(2S)-2-(tert-Butoxycarbonyl)amino-3,3-bis(4-fluorophenyl)propanoyl]-4-fluoropyrrolidine-2-carbonitrile.

To a DMF solution (25 mL anhydrous) was compound H (1.0 g, 2.65 mmol) and HATU (1.0 g, 2.65 mmol). To this solution was added N,N-diisopropylethylamine (0.462 mL, 2.65 mmol) and after 30 min (2S, 4S)-4-fluoro-2-pyrrolidinecarbonitrile 4-methylbenzenesulfonate (0.619 g, 2.12 mmol) and additional N,N-diisopropylethylamine (0.37 mL 2.12 mmol) were added. This solution was allowed to stir at RT for 12 hr and then saturated sodium bicarbonate (100 mL) was added. The resulting gummy mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate (3×100 mL) and the organics were washed with saturated NaCl (50 mL) followed by drying over MgSO4. Filtration and removal of the solvent in vacuo yielded a clear oil. The oil was chromatographed on silica gel (hexanes/EtOAc 4:1) to provide a white solid. The solid was dried under high vacuum yielding 815 mg (1.72 mmol, 65% yield) of compound I as a white solid.

1H NMR (CDCl3) 400 MHz δ 7.38–7.32 (m, 2H), 7.21–7.15 (m, 2H), 7.12–6.98(m, 4H), 5.15 (d, 1H, J=51 Hz), 5.03 (d, 1H, J=8.9 Hz, 4.89 (d, 1H, J=11.2 Hz), 4.86 (d, 1H, J=8.9 Hz), 4.40 (d, 1H, J=11.2 Hz), 3.83 (ddd, 1H, J=36.8, 12.1, 3.7 Hz), 3.05 (d, 1H, J=12.2 Hz), 2.62 (t, 1H, J=15.3 Hz), 2.25 (m, 1H), 1.38 (s, 9H) ppm.

J. (2S,4S)-1-[(2S)-2-Amino-3,3-bis(4-fluorophenyl)propanoyl]-4-fluoropyrrolidine-2-carbonitrile hydrochloride.

To compound I (0.5 g, 1.05 mmol) was added 4.0 N HCl in 1,4-dioxane (10 mL, 40 mmol) and after 3 hr diethyl ether (100 mL) was added. The resulting precipitate was collected by filtration and after drying under high vacuum 0.41 g (1.0 mmol, 95% yield) of compound J was obtained as a white solid.

1H NMR (d6-DMSO) 400 MHz δ 8.42 (s(br), 3H), 7.72–7.66 (m, 2H), 7.38–7.32 (m, 2H), 7.25–7.19 (m, 2H), 7.06–7.0 (m, 2H), 5.38 (d, 1H, J=51 Hz), 4.91 (d, 2H, J=8.8 Hz), 4.82 (d, 1H, J=11.3 Hz), 4.41 (d, 1H, J=11.3 Hz), 3.86 (ddd, 1H, J=39.2, 12.4, 3.1 Hz), 3.45 (q, 1H, J=12.4 Hz), 2.38–2.20 (m, 2H) ppm.




Org. Process Res. Dev., 2009, 13 (5), pp 900–906
DOI: 10.1021/op900178d



A recent paper from workers at GSK describes improvements to the synthesis of Denagliptin (12). The final chemical step is Boc deprotection of (11) with p-toluenesulphonic acid (p-TSA) in isopropanol (IPA).   Some isolated batches of final product contained impurities 12A (~1%), 12B (~1%), and 12C (~0.3%). Investigation showed that these three impurities were not produced during the reaction but were produced in the dryer if there was any excess p-TSA in the filter cake during drying. These impurities could be avoided by washing the filter cake with 2 volumes of IPA prior to drying.

D.E. Paterson,* J.D. Powers, M. LeBlanc, T. Sharkey, E. Boehler, E. Irdam, and M.H. Osterhout (GlaxoSmithKline), Org. Process. Res. Dev.,2009, 13(5), 900-906.

Denagliptin Tosylate (1)

To a mixture of 11 (110 kg, 232 mmol) in isopropanol (550 L, 5 vol) at 70 °C was added a solution of p-toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate (88.4 kg, 464 mol) in isopropanol (550 L, 5 vol) over one hour while maintaining the temperature at 70 °C. After the addition, the reaction was stirred at 70 °C for 6 h. The batch was cooled to 20 °C, held for 30 min, filtered, and washed with isopropanol (2 × 220 L, 2 vol). The solids were dried at 55 °C to give 118 kg (89%) of 1 as a white solid.
Recrystallization of Denagliptin Tosylate (1)

A mixture of denagliptin tosylate (100 kg, 183 mol) and isopropanol (500 L, 5 vol) and water (500 L, 5 vol), was heated until all the solids dissolved (approximately 72 °C). The hot solution was filtered into another vessel. The solution was cooled to approximately 5 °C, and water (300 L, 3 vol) was added. The reaction was stirred at this temperature for 30 min and was filtered. The filtercake was washed with filtered isopropanol (2 × 200 L, 2 × 2 vol), and pulled dry. The solids were dried at 55 °C to give 91.9 kg (92%) of 1 as a white solid.


(2S,4S)-4-fluoro-1-[4-fluoro-β-(4-fluorophenyl)-L-phenylalanyl]-2-pyrrolidinecarbonitrile p-toluenesulfonic acid salt

Figure US07462641-20081209-C00001

Figure US07462641-20081209-C00003

EXAMPLE 1Preparation of (2S,4S)-4-fluoro-1-[4-fluoro-β-(4-fluorophenyl)-L-phenylalanyl]-2-pyrrolidinecarbonitrile p-toluenesulfonic acid salt, Form 1a) Preparation of (4S)-1-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-4-fluoro-L-prolinamide

A reactor was charged with (4S)-1-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-4-fluoro-L-proline (130 g, 1 wt, 1 eq.), dichloromethane (520 mL, 4 vol), pyridine (55 mL, 0.4 vol, 1.2 eq), and Boc-anhydride (145 g, 1.1 wt, 1.2 eq.). The reaction solution was stirred at approximately 20° C. for 2 hours. The reactor was charged with ammonium bicarbonate (62 g, 0.5 wt, 1.44 eq), and was stirred at approximately 20° C. overnight. The reaction was filtered over a bed of celite (130 g, 1 wt), and the filter cake was washed with dichloromethane (260 mL, 2 vol). The filtrate was concentrated to a volume of 3 volumes, heptane (520 mL, 4 vol) was added, and again concentrated to a final volume of 3 volumes. Heptane (390 mL, 3 vol) was added, and the reaction was cooled to approx. 5° C. for 30 min.

The solid was collected by filtration, washed with heptane (260 mL, 2 vol), and then dried under vacuum at approximately 50° C. to constant weight. Yield: 88-90%.

b) Preparation of (2S,4S)-4-fluoropyrrolidine-2-carbonitrile para-toluenesulfonic acid

The reactor was charged with (4S)-1-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-4-fluoro-L-prolinamide (116 g, 1 wt, 1 eq.), isopropyl acetate (578 mL, 5 vol), and pyridine (88 mL, 0.8 vol, 2.2 eq). The resulting slurry was stirred at approx. 20° C. Trifluoroacetic anhydride (77 mL, 1.0 wt, 1.1 eq.) was added over at least 30 minutes, maintaining the temperature at approx. 20° C. The reaction solution was stirred an additonal 1 hour at approx. 20° C. Water (578 mL, 5 vol) was added slowly, and the reaction mixture was stirred for 15 minutes. The stirring was stopped, the layers were allowed to separate, and the aqueous (lower) layer was discarded. The organic layer was concentrated under vacuum at a jacket temperature of approximately 50° C. to half volume. The reaction was diluted back up to 5 volumes with isopropyl acetate. The reactor contents were cooled to 20° C., and the reactor was charged with p-toluenesulfonic acid (94 g, 0.8 wt, 1 eq). The reaction was stirred for 2 hours, and GC analysis at this point should show complete consumption of (4S)-1-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-4-fluoro-L-prolinamide. The reaction was concentrated to 3 volumes under full vacuum at a jacket temperature of approximately 50° C. and 2 volumes of isopropyl alcohol were added. The reaction was concentrated to a final volume of 4 volumes. The reaction was cooled to 0° C. and held for 30 minutes. The solids were collected by filtration, washed with isopropyl alcohol (1 vol), and then dried under vacuum at approx. 50° C. to constant weight. Yield: 68-71%.

c) Preparation of tert-Butyl{(1S)-1-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methyl]-2-[(2S,4S)-2-cyano-4-fluoro-1-pyrrolidinyl]-2-oxoethyl}carbamate

A reactor was charged with N-{[(1,1-dimethylethyl)oxy]carbonyl}-4-fluoro-β-(4-fluorophenyl)-L-phenylalanine (400 g, 1 wt, 1 eq.), (2S,4S)-4-fluoropyrrolidine-2-carbonitrile para-toluenesulfonic acid (307.7 g, 0.77 wt, 1.01 eq.), O-(7-Azabenzotriazol-1-yl)-N,N,N,N-tetramethyluronium hexaflurophosphate [i.e. HATU] (408 g, 1.02 wt, 1.01 equiv.), and DMF (2.8L, 7 vol). The mixture was cooled to approximately 0° C. Hunig’s base (376 mL, 0.94 vol, 2.04 equiv.) was added over at least 30 minutes. The mixture was heated to approximately 25° C. and was stirred at this temperature until the reaction was complete (ca. 3 hours). MTBE (2.8L mL, 7 vol) was added, followed by water (2L, 5 vol) over at least 30 minutes to quench the reaction. The aqueous phase was extracted with MTBE (1.2L, 3 vol). The combined organic phases were washed with water (2L, 5 vol). The organic phase was concentrated under vacuum to 3 volumes, and ethanol (1.6L, 4 vol) was added. The reaction was further concentrated under vacuum to 3 volumes, and ethanol (1.6 L, 4 vol) was added. The reaction was further concentrated under vacuum to 3 volumes. Added ethanol (2L, 5 vol). The ethanol solution of tert-Butyl {(1 S)-1-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methyl]-2-[(2S,4S)-2-cyano-4-fluoro-1-pyrrolidinyl]-2-oxoethyl}carbamatewas used directly in the next step.

d) Preparation of (2S,4S)-4-fluoro-1-[4-fluoro-β-(4-fluorophenyl)-L-phenylalanyl]-2-pyrrolidinecarbonitrile p-toluenesulfonic acid salt. Form 1

A 10L reactor equipped with overhead stirring was charged with a slurry of tert-Butyl {(1S)-1-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methyl]-2-[(2S,4S)-2-cyano-4-fluoro-1-pyrrolidinyl]-2-oxoethyl}carbamate (500 g, 1 wt, 1 eq) in ethanol (3.5L, 7 vol). To this solution was added para-toluenesulfonic acid (403g, 0.806 wt, 2 eq). This solution was heated to 60° C., and was allowed to stir at this temperature for 12 hours. The reaction mixture was cooled to 5° C. and was stirred at this temperature for 30 minutes. The solids were collected by filtration, washed with ethanol (2×1 L), and dried to constant weight in a 50° C. vacuum oven. Yield: 70-80% over 2 steps.


Augustyns, K. et al., “The Unique Properties of Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV (DPP IV/CD26) and the Therapeutic Potential of DPP IV Inhibitors,” Current Medicinal Chemistry, V6, N4, 1999, pp. 311-327.

US7132443 * 26 Jun 2002 7 Nov 2006 Smithklinebeecham Corporation Fluoropyrrolidines as dipeptidyl peptidase inhibitors
WO2003002531A2 26 Jun 2002 9 Jan 2003 Curt Dale Haffner Fluoropyrrolidines as dipeptidyl peptidase inhibitors



MURAGLITAZAR(CAS-No. 331741-94-7), ROSIGLITAZONE (CAS-NO. 122320-73-4), PIOGLITAZONE (CAS-No. 111025-46-8), RAGAGLITAZAR(CAS-No. 222834-30-2), FARGLITAZAR(CAS-No. 196808-45-4), TESAGLITAZAR(CAS-No. 251565-85-2), NAVEGLITAZAR(CAS-No. 476-436-68-7), NETOGLITAZONE (CAS-NO. 161600-01-7), RIVOGLITAZONE (CAS-No. 185428-18-6), K-111 (CAS-No. 221564-97-2), GW-677954 (CAS-No. 622402-24-8), FK-614 (CAS-No 193012-35-0) and (−)-Halofenate (CAS-No. 024136-23-0).

INN or Research
Code Structure/Chemical Name
BIM-51077 L-histidyl-2-methylalanyl-L-glutamyl-glycyl-L-threonyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-threonyl-L-seryl-L-
EXENATIDE L-histidylglycyl-L-glutamylglycyl-L-threonyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-threonyl-L-seryl-L-aspartyl-L-leucyl-
CJC-1131 L-histidyl-D-alanyl-L-alpha-glutamylglycyl-L-threonyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-threonyl-L-seryl-L-alpha-
LIRAGLUTIDE L-histidyl-L-alanyl-L-glutamyl-glycyl-L-threonyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-threonyl-L-seryl-L-aspartyl-L-
ZP-10 H-His-Gly-Glu-Gly-Thr-Phe-Thr-Ser-Asp-Leu-Ser-Lys-Gln-Met-Glu-Glu-Glu-Ala-Val-Arg-Leu-Phe-
Figure US08017633-20110913-C00003
Figure US08017633-20110913-C00004
Figure US08017633-20110913-C00005
Figure US08017633-20110913-C00006
Figure US08017633-20110913-C00007
Figure US08017633-20110913-C00008
Figure US08017633-20110913-C00009
Figure US08017633-20110913-C00010
Figure US08017633-20110913-C00011
Figure US08017633-20110913-C00012
Figure US08017633-20110913-C00013
Figure US08017633-20110913-C00014
Figure US08017633-20110913-C00015
Figure US08017633-20110913-C00016
Figure US08017633-20110913-C00017
Figure US08017633-20110913-C00018
Figure US08017633-20110913-C00019
Figure US08017633-20110913-C00020
Figure US08017633-20110913-C00021
Figure US08017633-20110913-C00022
Figure US08017633-20110913-C00023
Figure US08017633-20110913-C00024
Figure US08017633-20110913-C00025
Figure US08017633-20110913-C00026
Figure US08017633-20110913-C00027
Figure US08017633-20110913-C00028
Figure US08017633-20110913-C00029
Figure US08017633-20110913-C00030
Figure US08017633-20110913-C00031
Figure US08017633-20110913-C00032
Figure US08017633-20110913-C00033
Figure US08017633-20110913-C00034
Figure US08017633-20110913-C00035
Figure US08017633-20110913-C00036
Figure US08017633-20110913-C00037
Figure US08017633-20110913-C00038
Figure US08017633-20110913-C00039
Figure US08017633-20110913-C00040
Figure US08017633-20110913-C00041
Figure US08017633-20110913-C00042
PRAMLINTIDE L-lysyl-L-cysteinyl-L-asparaginyl-L-threonyl-L-alanyl-L-threonyl-L-cysteinyl-L-alanyl-L-threonyl-
tyrosinamide, cyclic (2−>7)disulfide
Figure US08017633-20110913-C00043
Figure US08017633-20110913-C00044
Figure US08017633-20110913-C00045
Figure US08017633-20110913-C00046

Additional information with regard to the preparation, suitable dosage forms and dose ranges of the glucagon-like-peptide-1 receptor agonists listed in Table 1 can be found in the following patents/patent applications: WO0334331, EP0981611, EP1180121, WO9808871 and WO0104156.


Dutogliptin tartrate
Syn name: 1-[N-[3(R)-Pyrrolidinyl]glycyl]pyrrolidin-2(R)-ylboronic acid L-tartrate
Cas number: 890402-81-0
Molecular Formula: C14H26BN3O9
Molecular Weight: 391.18



[1-[2-(Pyrrolidin-3-ylamino)acetyl]pyrrolidin-2-yl]boronic Acid; [(2R)-1-[2-[[(3R)-Pyrrolidin-3-yl]amino]acetyl]pyrrolidin-2-yl]boronic acid

C10H20BN3O3, 241.0951



  • Dutogliptin
  • PHX1149
  • UNII-38EAO245ZX

clinical trials

PHX-1149 is a dipeptidyl peptidase IV (CD26; DPP-IV; DP-IV) inhibitor which had been in phase III clinical trials at Phenomix and Forest for the oral, once-daily treatment of type 2 diabetes.

In 2008, the compound was licensed to Forest by Phenomix in North America for development and commercialization; however this license agreement was terminated in 2010. In 2009, the compound was licensed to Chiesi by Phenomix for development and commercialization for the treatment of diabetes type 2 in Europe, Brazil, the Russian Federation and all other members of the Commonwealth of Independent States, Turkey and Northern Africa. Phenomix ceased operations in 2010.






The enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) is a member of the dipeptidyl peptidase family, which cleaves N-terminal dipeptide residues from proteins, particularly where the dipeptide includes an N-terminal penultimate proline or alanine residue. DPP-IV is believed to be involved in glucose control, as its peptidolytic action inactivates the insulotropic peptides glucagon-like peptide I (GLP-I) and gastric inhibitory protein (GIP).

Inhibition of DPP- IV, such as with synthetic inhibitors in vivo, can serve to increase plasma concentrations of GLP-I and GIP, and thus improve glycemic control in the body. Such synthetic inhibitors would therefore be useful in the treatment of diabetes mellitus and related conditions. Certain such selective DPP-IV inhibitors have been developed, as are disclosed in U.S. Patent 7,317,109, U.S. Patent 7,576,121, U.S. Application Publication Nos. 2007/0060547, 2007/0185061, 2007/0299036, 2008/0182995, 2008/0300413, 2006/0264400, and 2006/0264401, and in International Applications WO2008/027273 and WO2008/144730, the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference. Inhibition of DPP-IV by compounds of the structure of formula (I) is disclosed therein:

Figure imgf000002_0001

Example 1 – Synthesis of (R)-N-( 1 , 1 -Dimethylethoxycarbonyl)(pyrrolidine-2-yl)boronic Acid.

Figure imgf000054_0001

An oven dried 1 L three neck round bottom flask equipped with an overhead stirrer, addition funnel and internal thermocouple was charged with (IS, 2S)-Dimethyl-bis(3,3- dimethylbutyl)cyclohexane-l,2-diamine (approx. 50 g, 161.23 mmol, 1.2 eq), BOC-pyrrolidine (approx. 23.55 ml, 134.35 mmol, 1 eq) and dry toluene (approx. 500 ml) under inert atmosphere. The clear colorless solution was cooled to 78° C and a solution of sec-BuLi (approx. 115.16 ml of a 1.4 solution in cyclohexane, 161.23 mmol, 1.2 eq) was added slowly via dropping funnel over approx. 10 minutes (the temperature of the reaction mixture was maintained between approx. – 780C and -650C). The light orange colored solution was stirred for 3.5 hours at approx. -780C, which was then followed by the addition of a solution of trimethylborate (approx. 45.06 ml, 403.05 mmol, 3 eq) in toluene (approx. 75 ml) via dropping funnel over 30 minutes while maintaining the temperature below -650C. The reaction mixture was warmed slowly to room temperature, and stirred for 16 hours at room temperature. The reaction mixture was added into an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution (approx. 670 ml of 2.0 M solution, 1340 mmol, 10 eq) and the resulting cloudy mixture was stirred for 30 minutes before allowing layers to separate. The aqueous phase (product) was transferred to a receiver and backwashed with toluene (approx. 100 ml). The organic phases (chiral amine ligand) were transferred to a receiver for later isolation. The aqueous phase was acidified to pH 5-6 by slow addition of HCl {cone), then extracted with EtOAc (approx. 3 x 500 ml). The organic extracts were combined, dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated until a final volume of approximately 100 ml. Heptane (approx. 300 ml) was added and the concentrated mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight (approx. 15 hours). The resulting white precipitate was filtered and the filter cake was washed with cold heptane. The product was dried at room temperature under vacuum to yield (R)- (pyrrolidine-2-yl)boronic acid (approx. 20.31 g, 94.44 mmol, 70.27 %) as a white solid. [α]25D – 72.5 (c 1, DCM); 94-95 % ee (% ee was determined through chiral HPLC); 1H NMR (400 MHz, D2O) δ 3.40-3.50 (IH), 3.20- 3.30 (IH), 2.90-3.00 (IH), 2.10 (IH), 2.00 (IH), 1.85 (IH), 1.72 (IH), 1.45-1.48 (9H); m/z (ES+) 216.06.

Example 2 – Isolation of the chiral ligand ((1S, 2S)-Dimethyl-bis(3,3-dimethyl butyl) cyclohexane- 1 ,2-diamine)

Figure imgf000055_0001

Water (approx. 300 ml) was added to the first organic extract from the previous workup and cooled to 0° C the mixture was acidified to pH 3 by slow addition of HCl. The resulting cloudy mixture was stirred vigorously before allowing layers to separate. The aqueous phase (product) was transferred to a receiver and backwashed with toluene (approx. 100 ml). The aqueous phase was stirred at O0C and the pH of the solution was adjusted to 12-13 by the addition of sodium hydroxide. The mixture was extracted with toluene (approx. 3 x 500 ml) and the combined organic phases were concentrated under reduced pressure to give the crude chiral diamine (approx. 48.32 g, 155.57 mmol, 96.5%) as light yellow oil. Further purification by vacuum distillation (approx. 120-1300C, house vacuum) yielded the chiral diamine as a colorless oil (approx. 45.57 g, 146.72 mmol) in 91% recovery).Example 3 – Synthesis of (R)-N-(I, l-dimethylethoxycarbonyl)-pinanediol-(Pyrrolidin-2-yl) boronate

Figure imgf000056_0001

A solution of (R)-Pyrrolidine boronic acid (approx. 300 mg, 1.39 mmol) in isopropyl acetate (approx. 10 ml) was treated with (+)-pinanediol (approx. 236.35 mg, 1.39 mmol, 1 eq) and Na2SO4 (approx. 203.25 mg, 1.39 mmol, 1 eq). After 24 hr, the solvent was evaporated to give crude boronic ester (approx. 475.55 mg, 1.36 mmol, 98 %) as a clear oil: 98-99 % de via chiral HPLC; 1U NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 4.32 (IH), 3.47 (IH), 3.41-3.31 (2H), 3.22-3.05 (IH), 2.38- 2.30 (IH), 2.20-1.75 (8H), 1.45 (9H), 1.41 (3H), 1.28 (3H), .85 (3H); m/z (ES, M+l) 350.28.Example 4 – (R)-N-(Pyrrolidine-2-yl)-pinacol boronate

To a solution of pyrrolidine boronic acid (approx. 456 mg, 2.12 mmol) in isopropyl acetate

(approx. 15 ml) was added pinacol (approx. 251 mg, 2.12 mmol, 1 eq) and Na2SO4 (approx. 310 mg, 2.12 mmol, 1 eq). The mixture was stirred for 24 hr and the solvent was evaporated to yield crude pinacol boronate. The residue was triturated with EtOAc/hexane (approx. 1 : 10) at RT for 1 hr then filtered to give the pinacol boronate (approx. 611 mg, 2.06 mmol, 97 %) as a white solid: . 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 3.40-2.95 (3H), 1.95-1.50 (4H), 1.40 (9H), 1.20 (12H); m/z (ES+) 298.21. Removal of the Boc-protecting group was achieved by dissolving the white solid pinacol boronate in dry ether (approx. 15 ml), cooling to 0° C in an ice bath followed with addition of 1.5 eq of HCl in dioxane After 8 hours, the solvent was evaporated then triturated in hexane for 1 hr. The white precipitate was filtered and dried to yield the acid salt (approx. 472 mg, 2.02 mmol, 98 %): 1HNMR (CDCl3) δ 3.48 (IH), 3.36 (IH), 3.21 (IH), 2.21 (IH), 2.03 (2H), 1.95 (IH), 1.35 (12H); m/z (ES M+l) 198.21.

Example 5 – Synthesis of (R)-3-(Benzyloxycarbonyl-{2-oxo-2-[(R)-2-((lS,2S,6R,8S)-2,9,9- trimethyl-3,5-dioxa-4-bora-tricyclo[^'”]dec-4-yl)-pyrrolidin-l-yl]-ethyl}-amino)- pyrrolidine- 1-carboxylic acid benzyl ester

Figure imgf000057_0001

A mixture of (R)-3-(benzyloxycarbonyl-carboxymethyl-amino)-pyrrolidine- 1-carboxylic acid benzyl ester dicyclohexylamine salt) (approx. 300.Og, 0.505mol), water (approx. 1.5L), 2M aqueous sulfuric acid (approx. 0.75L, 1.5mol) and toluene (approx. 2L) was stirred in a 1OL reactor at room temperature for 15 min. After settling the layers were separated. The aqueous layer was stirred with toluene (approx. 1.0L) for 15 min, and the layers were separated. The combined organic layers were washed with water (approx. 1.5L), and concentrated under vacuum at 450C to 1.5L. To this solution was added N-methylmorpholine (approx. 55.4 mL, 0.505mol) and this mixture was added to a cold solution (approx. 0°-5°C) of ethyl chloroformate (approx. 48.1 mL, 0.505mol) in toluene (approx. 1.0L). The reaction mixture was stirred at 0° – 50C for 15 min and solid (2-(2,9,9-trimethyl-3,5-dioxa-4-bora-tricyclo[]dec-4-yl)-pyrrolidine hydrochloride) (approx. 144.4g, 0.505mol) was added in one portion followed by addition of N- Methylmorpholine (approx. 110.8 mL, l.Olmol). The mixture was stirred for 30 min at 0°-5°C, and allowed to warm to 20°-25°C. Stirring was continued for an additional 2.5 h. Water (approx. 2.0L) was then added, and the mixture was stirred for an additional 15 min. The layers were separated and the organic layer was subsequently washed with 0.85M aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution (approx. 1.2L), water (approx. 2.0L), and 0.065M citric acid solution (approx. 1.5L). Toluene solution was concentrated under vacuum at 450C, to give 287.3 g (approx. 88.4%) of the title compound. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3, ppm): mixture of rotomers, 7.35-7.25 (10H,m); 5.22- 4.99 (4H,m); 4.60 (IH, d); 4.22 (IH, dd); 4.11-3.65 (3H, m); 3.60-3.00 (6H, m); 2.32-1.91 (8H, m); 1.89-1.67 (4H, m); 1.42-1.18 (6H, m); 0.84-0.72 (3H, m); m/z (M+H)=644. Example 6 – Synthesis of 2-((R)-Pyrrolidin-3-ylamino)-l-[(R)-2-((lS,2S,6R,8S)-2,9,9-trimethyl- 3,5-dioxa-4-bora-tricyclo[ ‘ ]dec-4-yl)-pyrrolidin- 1 -yl]-ethanone

Figure imgf000058_0001

a) THF solvateA solution of (R)-3-(Benzyloxycarbonyl-{2-oxo-2-[(R)-2-((l S,2S,6R,8S)-2,9,9-trimethyl-3,5- dioxa-4-bora-tricyclo[‘”]dec-4-yl)-pyrrolidin- 1 -yl] -ethyl }-amino)-pyrrolidine- 1 – carboxylic acid benzyl ester (approx. 4.76 g, 7.4 mmol) in toluene (approx. 60 mL) was diluted with methanol (approx. 60 mL). 10% Pd/C (wet, 500 mg) was added, and the mixture was hydrogenated at 50 psi for 3 h. The mixture was filtered through celite and washed with methanol (approx. 10 mL). The solution was then concentrated under vacuum to dryness. The residue was dissolved in THF (approx. 10 mL) at 4O0C and crystallized overnight at -1O0C to -15°C. Crystals were filtered, washed with cold THF (approx. 3 mL), and dried under vacuum for 5 h to yield 1.9 g (approx. 68.5%) of the title compound. 1H NMR (400 MHz, D2O, 1 drop TFA), 64.18 – 4.89 (m, IH), 3.93 – 3.85 (m, IH), 3.77 (s, 2H), 3.55 (dd, IH)5 3.45 -3.38 (m, 4H), 3.35 – 3.25 (m, 2H), 3.24 – 3.05 (m, 3H), 2.93 (t, IH), 2.33 – 2.24 (m, IH), 2.15 – 1.42 (m, 16H), 1.09 (s, 3H), 0.94 (s, 3H), 0.78 (d, IH), 0.50 (s, 3H). m/z (ES+) = 376.30.

Thermogravimetric analysis of THF solvate of 2-((R)-Pyrrolidin-3-ylamino)-l-[(R)-2-

((lS,2S,6R,8S)-2,9,9-trimethyl-3,5-dioxa-4-bora-tricyclo[]dec-4-yl)-pyrrolidin-l-yl]- ethanone was performed as is shown in Figure 5.

X-Ray Diffractogram of THF solvate of 2-((R)-Pyrrolidin-3-ylamino)-l-[(R)-2-((lS,2S,6R,8S)- 2,9,9-trimethyl-3,5-dioxa-4-bora-tricyclo[]dec-4-yl)-pyrrolidin-l-yl]-ethanone was performed as is shown in Figure 6. b) Non-solvate

A solution of (3-(Benzyloxycarbonyl-{2-oxo-2-[2-(2,9,9-trimethyl-3,5-dioxa-4-bora- tricyclo[]dec-4-yl)-pyrrolidin-l-yl]-ethyl}-amino]-pyrrolidine-l-carboxylic acid benzyl ester) (approx. 20.Og, 31.Ommol) in toluene (approx. 8OmL) was diluted with methanol (approx. 20 mL). 10% Pd/C (2g, wet) was added, and the mixture was hydrogenated at 50 psi for 3 h. The mixture was filtered through celite and the filter bed was washed with a mixture of toluene (approx. 2OmL) and methanol (approx. 4 mL). The solution was concentrated to 8OmL at 30 -35 0C under vacuum (approx. 90 to 120 mBar). THF (approx. 10OmL) was added and the solution was concentrated to 12OmL at 30 -35 0C under vacuum (approx. 90 to 120 mBar). The mixture was stirred at 35 0C for Ih, resulting in crystallization. The mixture was cooled to 0 0C and held at that temperature for 2h. Crystals were isolated by filtration, washed with a cold mixture of toluene (approx. 20 mL) and THF (approx. 5 mL), and dried under vacuum at 35 0C for 16 h to yield 9.11 g (approx. 24.3 mmol, 78%) of the title compound as a white solid.1H NMR (400 MHz, D20, 1 drop TFA), δ 4.34 (dd, IH, J= 9, 2 Hz), 4.08 (m, IH), 3.99 (s, 2H), 3.74 (dd, IH, J= 13, 8 Hz), 3.52 -3.29 (m, 6H), 3.12 (t, IH, J= 8 Hz), 2.47 (m, IH), 2.27 (m, IH), 2.19 – 2.06 (m, 2H), 2.02 – 1.84 (m, 6H), 1.67 (m, 2H), 1.30 (s, 3H), 1.15 (s, 3H), 1.00 (d, IH, J= 11 Hz), 0.71 (s, 3H). m/z (ES+) = 376.30.

Thermogravimetric analysis of 2-((R)-Pyrrolidin-3-ylamino)-l-[(R)-2-((lS,2S,6R,8S)-2,9,9- trimethyl-3,5-dioxa-4-bora-tricyclo[^'”]dec-4-yl)-pyrrolidin-l-yl]-ethanone was performed as is shown in Figure 7.

X-Ray Diffractogram of2-((R)-Pyrrolidin-3-ylamino)-l-[(R)-2-((lS,2S,6R,8S)-2,9,9-trimethyl-

3,5-dioxa-4-bora-tricyclo[ ‘ ]dec-4-yl)-pyrrolidin-l-yl]-ethanone was performed as is shown in Figure 8.

Example 7 – Synthesis of Dutogliptin Tartrate

Figure imgf000060_0001

A round bottom flask equipped with a magnetic stirrer was charged with 2-(Pyrrolidin-3- ylamino)- 1 -[2-(2,9,9-trimethyl-3,5-dioxa-4-boratricyclo[]dec-4-yl)-pyrrolidin-l-yl]- ethanone (approx. l:l-Pinanediol borane / THF complex; 2.98 g, 6.67 mmol, leq), (L)-tartaric acid (approx. 1.00 g, 6.67 mmol, 1 eq), and H2O (approx. 15 mL). The mixture was allowed to stir for 1 hour then tert-Butyl methyl ether (approx. 15 ml) and (i?)-N-(l,l- dimethylethoxycarbonyl)(pyrrolidine-2-yl)boronic acid (approx. 1.46 g, 6.80 mmol, 1.02 eq) were added. The bi-phasic mixture was allowed to stir for 20 hours at room temperature before separating the layers. The aqueous phase backwashed with tert-butyl methyl ether (approx. 15 ml) and the organic layers were combined. Lyophilization of the aqueous layer provided dutogliptin tartrate as a white solid (approx. 2.60 g, 6.65 mmol, 99.7%): 1H NMR (400 MHz, D2O, one drop of TFA) δ 4.48 (2H), 3.95-3.88 (IH), 3.81 (2H), 3.59-3.54 (IH), 3.37-3.28 (2H), 3.21-3.16 (2H), 3.11-3.07 (IH), 2.82-2.78 (IH), 2.37-2.28 (IH), 2.04-1.96 (IH), 1.88-1.78 (2H), 1.71-1.60 (IH), 1.50-1.42 (IH); m/z (ES+) 241.10 (-tartrate acid).








US20060069250 * Sep 28, 2005 Mar 30, 2006 Xiaohu Deng Synthesis by chiral diamine-mediated asymmetric alkylation
US20080182995 * Oct 31, 2007 Jul 31, 2008 Phenomix Corporation Pyrrolidine compounds and methods for selective inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-iv
US20080300413 * Jul 27, 2006 Dec 4, 2008 David Alan Campbell Efficiently preparing boropyrrolidines and derivatives by coupling a (pyrrolidin3-yl-amino-)acetic acid and a 7,9,8-dioxaborotricyclic- (4,3,0,1(2,4))decane; protecting groups avert side reactions; antidiabetic agents


Regeneron and Sanofi’s dupilumab gets FDA breakthrough therapy status for atopic dermatitis

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Regeneron Pharmaceuticals and Sanofi’s dupilumab has received breakthrough therapy designation from US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat adults with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis (AD).

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