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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries...... , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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ADAFOSBUVIR, адафосбувир , أدافوسبوفير ,


ChemSpider 2D Image | adafosbuvir | C22H29FN3O10P



2D chemical structure of 1613589-09-5


AL335; ALS-335; JNJ-64146212 , D11364

адафосбувир [Russian] [INN]
أدافوسبوفير [Arabic] [INN]

Propan-2-yl N-((P5’S)-4′-fluoro-2′-C-methyl-p-o-phenyl- 5′-uridylyl)-L-alaninate

propan-2-yl (2S)-2-{[(S)-{[(2S,3S,4R,5R)-5-(2,4-dioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidin-1-yl)-2-fluoro-3,4-dihydroxy-4-methyloxolan-2-yl]methoxy}(phenoxy)phosphoryl]amino}propanoate

Isopropyl (2S)-2-{[(S)-{[(2S,3S,4R,5R)-5-(2,4-dioxo-3,4-dihydro-1(2H)-pyrimidinyl)-2-fluoro-3,4-dihydroxy-4-methyltetrahydro-2-furanyl]methoxy}(phenoxy)phosphoryl]amino}propanoate (non-preferred name

Propan-2-yl N-((P5’S)-4′-fluoro-2′-C-methyl-p-o-phenyl- 5′-uridylyl)-L-alaninate

545.5 g/mol, C22H29FN3O10P

CAS Registry Number 1613589-09-5

Adafosbuvir is under investigation in clinical trial NCT02894905 (A Study to Evaluate the Effect of Renal Impairment on the Pharmacokinetics of AL-335).

  • Originator Alios BioPharma
  • Developer Alios BioPharma; Janssen
  • Class Antivirals; Pyrimidine nucleotides; Uracil nucleotides
  • Mechanism of Action Hepatitis C virus NS 5 protein inhibitors
  • Phase II Hepatitis C
  • 28 Oct 2019 No recent reports of development identified for phase-I development in Hepatitis-C(In volunteers) in USA (PO)
  • 28 Sep 2018 No recent reports of development identified for phase-I development in Hepatitis-C in France (PO)
  • 28 Sep 2018 No recent reports of development identified for phase-I development in Hepatitis-C in Georgia (PO)

Adafosbuvir (AL 335), a monophosphate prodrug, is being developed by Alios BioPharma (a subsidiary of Johnson & Johnson) for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. Adafosbuvir acts a uridine-based nucleotide analogue polymerase inhibitor. Clinical development is underway in New Zealand, Japan, the UK, the US, France, Georgia, Mauritius and Moldova.

Adafosbuvir has emerged from the company’s research programme focused on developing anti-viral nucleotides for the treatment of HCV infections , In November 2014, Alios BioPharma was acquired by Johnson & Johnson As at September 2018, no recent reports of development had been identified for phase-I development in Hepatitis-C in France (PO), Georgia (PO).

As at October 2019, no recent reports of development had been identified for phase-I development in Hepatitis-C (In volunteers) in USA (PO).

useful for the treatment of hepatitis C viral infections, assignaed to Janssen Pharmaceuticals Inc and Achillion Pharmaceuticals Inc . Janssen Pharmaceuticals, following Johnson & Johnson’s acquisition of Alios , was developing adafosbuvir, a uridine (pyrimidine) nucleotide analog, from a series of back-up compounds, that acts by inhibiting HCV NS5B polymerase, for the potential treatment of HCV infection.

As of December 2019, AL-335 dose increased from 400 to 800 mg qd in the presence of reduced simeprevir and odalasvlr doses increased ALS-022227 less than dose proportionally. However, this effect was minimal in the absence of slmeprevir [1973148]. Also, the company was also developing JNJ-4178 , a triple combination of adafosbuvir, odalasvir and simeprevir for the same indication.

Figure 2. McGuigan phosphoramidate nucleotide prodrugs. (a) Sofosbuvir (GS-7977) (Sp isomer), (b) BMS-986094 (Rp and Sp isomer mixture), (c) Adafosbuvir (AL-335) (Sp isomer), (d) ACH-3422*, and (e) MIV-802* (Sp isomer). *Potential structure from Deshpande,31 Kalayanov et al.,45 and Andersson.46

McGuigan phosphoramidate nucleotide prodrugs. (a) Sofosbuvir (GS-7977) (Sp isomer), (b) BMS-986094 (Rp and Sp isomer mixture), (c) Adafosbuvir (AL-335) (Sp isomer), (d) ACH-3422*, and (e) MIV-802* (Sp isomer)

Figure 3. Clinical and preclinical 30,50-CPO prodrug. (a) GS-0938 (Rp isomer) and (b) IDX19368 (Sp isomer).

Figure 3. Clinical and preclinical 30,50-CPO prodrug. (a) GS-0938 (Rp isomer) and (b) IDX19368 (Sp isomer).


Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2019), 62(9), 4555-4570.

We report the synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of 4′-fluoro-2′-C-substituted uridines. Triphosphates of the uridine analogues exhibited a potent inhibition of hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B polymerase with IC50values as low as 27 nM. In an HCV subgenomic replicon assay, the phosphoramidate prodrugs of these uridine analogues demonstrated a very potent activity with EC50 values as low as 20 nM. A lead compound AL-335(53) demonstrated high levels of the nucleoside triphosphate in vitro in primary human hepatocytes and Huh-7 cells as well as in dog liver following a single oral dose. Compound 53 was selected for the clinical development where it showed promising results in phase 1 and 2 trials.

Abstract Image


WO 2014209979


Family members of the product case of adafosbuvir, WO2014100505 , expire in the US in December 2033.


US 20150368286

WO 2015054465


WO2017059147 ( US20170087174 ), claiming combination comprising simeprevir , odalasvir and AL-335



Process for preparing AL-335 (also known as adafosbuvir) and its intermediates. AL-355 is a nucleoside inhibitor of NS3B polymerase, which plays an important role in the replication of the hepatitis C virus.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) , a member of the Flaviviridae family of viruses in the hepacivirus genus, is the leading cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. Recent estimates report the global hepatitis C prevalence at around 2.4%with up to 170 million people thought to be chronically infected. Although the development of diagnostics and blood screening has considerably reduced the rate of new infections, HCV remains a global health burden due to its chronic nature and its potential for long-term liver damage. It is now known that HCV has the ability to incorporate into the host’s genome.
The hepatitis C virus genome is a small positive-sense single stranded RNA enclosed in a nucleocapsid and lipid envelope. It consists of 9.6 kb ribonucleotides, which encodes a large polypeptide of about 3,000 amino acids (Dymock et al. Antiviral Chemistry &Chemotherapy 2000, 11, 79) . Following maturation, this polypeptide is processed into at least ten proteins. NS3/4A serine protease is responsible for the cleavage of the non-structural downstream proteins. NS5A is a zinc-binding proline-rich hydrophilic phosphoprotein which has no apparent enzymatic activity yet has an important function mediating the interaction with other nonstructural viral and cellular proteins. NS5B is an enzyme with polymerase activity that is involved in the synthesis of double-stranded RNA from the single-stranded viral RNA genome, which serves as the template.
NS3/4A serine protease, NS5A and NS5B polymerase are essential for viral replication, and inhibitors are important drug candidates for HCV treatment.
HCV is mainly transmitted by blood contact. Following initial acute infection, a majority of infected individuals develop chronic hepatitis because HCV replicates preferentially in hepatocytes, but is not directly cytopathic. Over decades, a considerable number of infected persons develop fibrosis, at least 30%develop cirrhosis, 1-4%develop hepatocellular carcinoma, and chronic HCV infection is the leading cause for liver transplantation. HCV is responsible for 50-76%of all liver cancer cases and two thirds of all liver transplants in the developed world. This and the number of patients involved has made HCV the focus of considerable medical research.
A huge amount of research has gone into discovery of a number of types of direct-acting antivirals against HCV, including NS5B polymerase inhibitors. Within this category, there exists both non-nucleoside and nucleoside types, and in relation to the latter category the following compound, also known as AL-335 (adafosbuvir) has been discovered and is currently in development:
Various processes are already known to prepare AL-335, including those described in e.g. international patent applications WO 2014/100505 and WO 2015/200216 and US patent application US 2015/0368286, where amongst other routes the following synthetic schemes are disclosed:
Compound 1 (1.0 equiv) was dissolved in THF (10 L/kg) and cooled down to -8℃. Compound 2 (1.0 equiv) was then added to the mixture. Triethylamine was then added dropwise slowly (the longer the period over which triethylamine is added, the better the filtration will be vis-à-vis scale) . The reaction was left stirring 30 minutes after the end of addition and then warmed up to 0℃. Cyclohexane (10 L/kg) was then added to the reaction mixture and stirred for 30 min. The heterogenous mixture was then filtered, concentrated to 6V and cooled down to 0℃. After one hour stirring, the mixture was filtered, assayed and stored under nitrogen. The Compound 3 (as a mixture of configurations at the phosphorous atoms) so formed was thus used as such in the next step, without any further purification.

Compound 4 may be prepared in accordance with the procedures described in international patent application WO 2015/200216. Compound 4 (1.0 equiv) was then dissolved in THF (10 L/kg) and cooled down to -25℃. iPrMgCl (2M in THF) was added slowly over one hour and the resulting mixture was stirred for one hour. The Compound 3 solution previously made (see above) was then added dropwise at -25℃ and the mixture was stirred for 5h at that temperature before being warmed to -5℃ and stirred for 10 additional hours at that temperature. Once the reaction was complete, the reaction was warmed up to 5℃ and an aqueous solution of NH 4Cl (5L/kg -9 w/w%) was added slowly over 30 minutes. After phase separation, the organic layer was washed with aqueous NaHCO 3 solution (5L/kg -10 w/w%) and twice with aqueous NaCl solution (5L/kg -10 w/w%) . After solvent switch to acetonitrile, the reaction was assayed and stored under nitrogen and used as such in the next step.

Preparation of the compound of AL-335 (adafosbuvir) :
Compound 5 prepared above is essentially a compound of formula (I) as defined herein. The relevant protecting group (e.g. tri-alkyl-silyl group) may be cleaved off under appropriate conditions (e.g. using acid conditions, e.g. HCl conditions, e.g. in between 2 to 2.6 equivalents) to prepare the compound AL-335, also known as adafosbuvir:

/////////////ADAFOSBUVIR, AL335, ALS-335, JNJ-64146212, Alios BioPharma,  Janssen,  hepatitis C viral infections, D11364адафосбувир أدافوسبوفير , PHASE 2


Blarcamesine, ブラルカメシン ,






  • Anavex 2-73
  • Tetrahydro-N,N-dimethyl-2,2-diphenyl-3-furanemethanamine
  • AE-37 / AE37 / ANAVEX 2-73 FREE BASE
  • UNII 9T210MMZ3F
195615-84-0 HCL
Mol weight

Treatment of Rett syndrome, Investigated for use/treatment in breast cancer.

Anti-amnesic, Muscarinic/sigma receptor agonist

  • Originator Anavex Life Sciences
  • Developer ABX-CRO; Anavex Life Sciences; The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinsons Research
  • Class Antidementias; Antidepressants; Antiepileptic drugs; Antiparkinsonians; Anxiolytics; Behavioural disorder therapies; Dimethylamines; Furans; Neuroprotectants; Neuropsychotherapeutics; Nootropics; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action Muscarinic receptor modulators; Sigma-1 receptor agonists
  • Orphan Drug Status Yes – Epilepsy; Rett syndrome
  • Phase II/III Alzheimer’s disease
  • Phase II Parkinson’s disease; Rett syndrome
  • Preclinical Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; Angelman syndrome; Anxiety disorders; Autistic disorder; Fragile X syndrome; Multiple sclerosis
  • No development reported Cognition disorders; Epilepsy; Stroke
  • 28 Oct 2019 No recent reports of development identified for phase-I development in Cognition-disorders in USA
  • 09 Oct 2019 Anavex Life Sciences initiates enrolment in the long term extension ATTENTION-AD trial for Alzheimer’s disease in (country/ies)
  • 02 Oct 2019 Anavex Life Sciences has patent protection covering compositions of matter and methods of treating Alzheimer’s disease for blarcamesine in USA
  • Anavex Life Sciences is developing ANAVEX-2-73 and its active metabolite ANAVEX-19-144, for treating Alzheimer’s disease, epilepsy, stroke and Rett syndrome.

ANAVEX2-73 is an experimental drug is in Phase II trials for Alzheimer’s diseasephase I trials for epilepsy, and in preclinical trials for amyotrophic lateral sclerosisParkinson’s diseaseRett syndrome, stroke.[1][2] ANAVEX2-73 acts as a muscarinic receptor and a moderate sigma1 receptor agonist.[1] ANAVEX2-73 may function as a pro-drug for ANAVEX19-144 as well as a drug itself. ANAVEX19-144 is the active metabolite of ANAVEX 1-41, which is similar to ANAVEX2-73 but it is not as selective for sigma receptor.[2]

Properties and uses

ANAVEX2-73 has an inhibitory constant (ki) lower than 500 nM for all M1–M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes, demonstrating that it acts as a powerful antimuscarinic compound.[2] ANAVEX2-73 was originally tested in mice against the effect of the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine, which induces learning impairment.[1] M1 receptor agonists are known to reverse the amnesia caused by scopolamine.[3] Scopolamine is used in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease and motion sickness by reducing the secretions of the stomach and intestines and can also decreases nerve signals to the stomach.[3] This is via competitive inhibition of muscarinic receptors.[3] Muscarinic receptors are involved in the formation of both short term and long term memories.[1] Experiments in mice have found that M1 and M3 receptor agonists inhibit the formation of amyloid-beta and target GSK-3B.[clarification needed]Furthermore, stimulation of the M1 receptor activates AF267B, which in turn blocks β-secretase, which cleaves the amyloid precursor protein to produce the amyloid-beta peptide. These amyloid-beta peptides aggregate together to form plaques. This enzyme[clarification needed] is involved in the formation of Tau plaques, which are common in Alzheimer’s disease.[clarification needed][4]Therefore. M1 receptor activation appears to decreases tau hyperphosphorylation and amyloid-beta accumulation.[4]

Sigma1 activation appears to be only involved in long-term memory processes. This partly explains why ANAVEX2-73 seems to be more effective in reversing scopolamine-induced long-term memory problems compared to short-term memory deficits.[1] The sigma-1 receptor is located on mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membranes and modulates the ER stress response and local calcium exchanges with the mitochondria. ANAVEX2-73 prevented Aβ25-35-induced increases in lipid peroxidation levels, Bax/Bcl-2ratio and cytochrome c release into the cytosol, which are indicative of elevated toxicity.[clarification needed] ANAVEX2-73 inhibits mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction and therefore prevents against oxidative stress and apoptosis. This drug prevented the appearance of oxidative stress. ANAVEX2-73 also exhibits anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidant activity. This is due in part because sigma-1 agonists stimulate the anti-apoptoic factor Bcl-2 due to reactive oxygen species dependent transcriptional activation of nuclear factor kB.[5] Results from Marice (2016) demonstrate that sigma1 compounds offer a protective potential, both alone and possibly with other agents like donepezil, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, or the memantine, a NMDA receptor antagonist.[6]




Novel crystalline forms of A2-73 (blarcamesine hydrochloride, ANAVEX2-73, AV2-73), a mixed muscarinic receptor ligand and Sig-1 R agonist useful for treating Alzheimer’s disease.




By Foscolos, George B. et alFrom Farmaco, 51(1), 19-26; 1996


  1. Jump up to:a b c d e “Anti-amnesic and neuroprotective potentials of the mixed muscarinic receptor/sigma” (PDF)Journal of Psychopharmacology. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-11-12. Retrieved 2016-05-25.
  2. Jump up to:a b c “ANAVEX 2-73 – AdisInsight” Retrieved 2016-05-25.
  3. Jump up to:a b c Malviya, M; Kumar, YC; Asha, D; Chandra, JN; Subhash, MN; Rangappa, KS (2008). “Muscarinic receptor 1 agonist activity of novel N-arylthioureas substituted 3-morpholino arecoline derivatives in Alzheimer’s presenile dementia models”. Bioorg Med Chem16: 7095–7101. doi:10.1016/j.bmc.2008.06.053.
  4. Jump up to:a b Leal, NS; Schreiner, B; Pinho, CM; Filadi, R; Wiehager, B; Karlström, H; Pizzo, P; Ankarcrona, M (2016). “Mitofusin-2 knockdown increases ER-mitochondria contact and decreases amyloid β-peptide production”J Cell Mol Med20: 1686–1695. doi:10.1111/jcmm.12863PMC 4988279PMID 27203684.
  5. ^ Lahmy, V; Long, R; Morin, D; Villard, V; Maurice, T (2015-09-28). “Mitochondrial protection by the mixed muscarinic/σ1 ligand ANAVEX2-73, a tetrahydrofuran derivative, in Aβ25-35 peptide-injected mice, a nontransgenic Alzheimer’s disease model”Front Cell Neurosci8: 463. doi:10.3389/fncel.2014.00463PMC 4299448PMID 25653589.
  6. ^ Maurice, T (2015-09-28). “Protection by sigma-1 receptor agonists is synergic with donepezil, but not with memantine, in a mouse model of amyloid-induced memory impairments”. Behav. Brain Res296: 270–8. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2015.09.020PMID 26386305.

//////////Blarcamesine, ブラルカメシン , Orphan Drug Status, PHASE 2




ChemSpider 2D Image | Vidofludimus | C20H18FNO4


2-[[2-fluoro-4-(3-methoxyphenyl)phenyl]carbamoyl]cyclopentene-1-carboxylic acid

1-Cyclopentene-1-carboxylic acid, 2-[[(3-fluoro-3′-methoxy[1,1′-biphenyl]-4-yl)amino]carbonyl]- [ACD/Index Name]
2-[(3-Fluoro-3′-methoxy-4-biphenylyl)carbamoyl]-1-cyclopentene-1-carboxylic acid
2-[(3-Fluoro-3′-methoxybiphenyl-4-yl)carbamoyl]cyclopent-1-ene-1-carboxylic acid

355.4 g/mol, C20H18FNO4

CAS 717824-30-1




2D chemical structure of 1354012-90-0

Vidofludimus calcium anhydrous
RN: 1354012-90-0


Molecular Formula, 2C20-H17-F-N-O4.Ca, Molecular Weight, 748.7886

1-Cyclopentene-1-carboxylic acid, 2-(((3-fluoro-3′-methoxy(1,1′-biphenyl)-4-yl)amino)carbonyl)-, calcium salt (2:1)

Inflammatory Bowel Disease,
Multiple Sclerosis,
Rheumatoid Arthritis,
Liver and Biliary Tract Disorders,
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus,

Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase (DHODH) Inhibitors

phase II clinical development at Immunic (previously Immunic AG) as an induction and maintenance therapy for patients with moderate to severe ulcerative colitis, as well as for the treatment of patients with relapsed-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Immunic is also conducting early clinical evaluation of the drug as a potential treatment for Crohn’s disease, whereas a phase II clinical trial is ongoing at the Mayo Clinic in patients suffering from primary sclerosing cholangitis.

In 2016, Immunic acquired the product from 4SC.

Vidofludimus is under investigation in clinical trial NCT03722576 (Vidofludimus Calcium for Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis).

Ca salt of vidofludimus (designated as form A) as dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) inhibitor eg graft versus host disease, rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis

Immunic AG  (a subsidiary of  Immunic Inc ), following an asset acquisition from 4SC, is developing vidofludimus an orally available, small molecule DHODH inhibitor and IL-17 blocker which inhibits pyrimidine biosynthesis, for the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders including ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease and multiple sclerosis


Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters (2005), 15(21), 4854-4857


WO 03006424

SPC protection in most of the EU states until 2021 and expire in the US in January 2022 with US154 extension


WO2019101888 claiming composition comprising vidofludimus


WO 2012001151

WO 2016200778

WO 2018177151


WO2012001148 claiming similar compound (assigned to 4SC Ag ) naming the inventor Daniel Vitt. Immunic AG  (a subsidiary of  Immunic Inc ),;jsessionid=2957C3C97CE4063A06C879928DCA435C.wapp2nA?docId=WO2012001148&tab=PCTDESCRIPTION

Example 4: Preparation of the calcium salts

300.4 mg of Vidofludimus free acid was dissolved in 18 mL of DCM/MeOH (3:1) and sonicated for 8 minutes. 31.5 mg of calcium hydroxide was suspended in 3 mL of DCM/MeOH (3:1); this was slowly added to the Vidofludimus free acid solution. The slight suspension was stirred overnight at 25°C. The solvent was partially evaporated under nitrogen flow at 25°C. A thick light yellow suspension was observed. The solid was recovered by filtration and washed with DCM/MeOH (3:1). The material was dried for 15 min under vacuum at 25°C. The material was shown to be crystalline using the methods described in the following.

From elemental analysis, the ratio of fluorine to calcium was calculated. The elemental composition is essentially consistent with a hemi-calcium-salt.

The Raman spectrum of the newly formed compound demonstrated differences to that of the free acid (see Figure 3 for both spectra.). Note that a Raman spectrum that is not simply the superposition of the free acid, the salt former and the solvent spectra, e.g., a Raman spectrum where new peaks or shifted peaks are observed, may correspond to a salt.

However, from the Raman spectrum alone, it cannot be determined whether crystalline salt formation has occurred. Peak shifts could also be due, in principle, to complexation of the free acid and salt former as an amorphous product, to polymorphs of either the free acid or salt former, to impurities, or to degradation products. Therefore, the integrity of the molecular structure was confirmed by 1H-NMR.

In addition, the powder X-ray diffraction shown in Figure 5 show that crystalline material was obtained, however with a pattern different from that of the free acid (see Figure 6). With light microscopy the crystals were visualized (Figure 4), DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) demonstrated a melting point of about 155°C (indicating a melting of a solvate and of a non-solvated form), TG-FTIR (thermogravimetric analyzer-coupled Fourier-Transform Infrared) indicates that probably a methanol solvate and a hydrate were formed and dynamic vapor sorption revealed desolvation followed by 0.3% water uptake at about 85% r.h. and 0.4% water uptake at 95% r.h. (not reversible).



Novel white crystalline calcium salt of vidofludimus and its solvates and hydrates (designated as polymorph A), process for its preparation, composition comprising it and its use for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease, psoriasis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, lupus erythematosus, fibrosis, uveitis, rhinitis and Pneumocystis carinii are claimed. Vidofludimus is known to be an IL-17 antagonist, immunosuppressant and dihydroorotate dehydrogenase inhibitor.

Novel calcium salt polymorphs as Anti-Inflammatory, Immunomodulatory and Anti- Proliferatory Agents

Subject matter of the present invention is a white crystalline polymorph A of the Ca salt of a compound according to formula I or a solvate and/or a hydrate thereof with a molar ratio of a compound according to formula 1 or a solvate and/or a hydrate thereof to calcium which is 2±0.3. Subject matter of the present invention is in particular a compound according to formula I or a solvate and/or a hydrate thereof which is characterized by an X-ray powder diffraction pattern having characteristic peaks expressed in degrees 2theta at ±0.2 of the values shown below: 2 theta = 5.91°, 9.64°, 16.78°, 17.81°, 19.81°, 25.41° In particular the invention refers to new polymorphs of calcium salts of the Ca salt of a compound according to formula I or a solvate and/or a hydrate thereof which inhibits dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH), a process for their manufacture, pharmaceutical compositions containing them and to their use for the treatment and prevention of diseases, in particular their use in diseases where there is an advantage in inhibiting dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH). Examples of relevant diseases are given below.

Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine. With Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis as principal types thereof. Crohn’s disease can affect the small intestine and large intestine, as well as the mouth, esophagus, stomach and the anus. Ulcerative colitis primarily affects the colon and the rectum.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a disease that is quite common especially among elder people. Its treatment with usual medications as for example non-steroid anti-inflammatory agents is not satisfactory. In view of the increasing ageing of the population, especially in the developed Western countries or in Japan the development of new medications for the treatment of RA is urgently required.

WO 2003/006425 describes certain specific compounds, which are reported to be useful for treatment and prevention of diseases where there is an advantage in inhibiting dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH). However, the specific salts according to the present invention are not disclosed. WO 2012/001148 describes the calcium salts of said compounds. However, the specific polymorphs according to the present invention are not disclosed.

WO 99/38846 and EP 0 646 578 disclose compounds which are reported to be useful for treatment of RA.

A medicament against rheumatoid arthritis with a new mechanism of action, leflunomide, was put on the market by the company Aventis under the tradename ARAVA [EP 780128, WO 97/34600]. Leflunomide has immunomodulatory as well as anti-inflammatory properties [EP 217206, DE 2524929]. The mechanism of action is based upon the inhibition of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH), an enzyme of the pyrimidine biosynthesis.

De Julian-Ortiz (J. Med. Chem. 1999, 42, 3308-3314) describes certain potential Anti-Herpes compounds with cyclopentenoic acid moieties.

DE 33 46 814 A1 describes certain carbonic acid amide derivatives for the treatment, prevention and amelioration of diseases connected to cerebral dysfunction and symptoms caused thereby.

In the human body, DHODH catalyzes the synthesis of pyrimidines, which are in particular necessary for cellular metabolism. An inhibition of DHODH leads to block of transcription of sensitive genes in metabolically activated cells, whereas cells with normal metabolic activity obtain their required pyrimidine building blocks from the pyrimidine salvage pathway and show normal transcriptional activity. Disease relevant activated lymphocytes rely on de novo pyrimidine syntheses and react particularly sensitively to DHODH inhibition. Some substances that inhibit DHODH are important medicaments for the treatment of chronic inflammatory and auto-immune diseases.

A compound named leflunomide (ARAVA) has been the first approved inhibitor of DHODH and is used for the treatment of human diseases, in particular rheumatoid arthritis. WO 99/45926 is a further reference that discloses compounds which act as inhibitors of DHODH. Another drug which is targeting DHODH is teriflunomide (AUBAGIO®) is the metabolite of leflunomide. Teriflunomide is approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis in some countries.

JP-A-50-121428 discloses N-substituted cyclopentene-l,2-dicarboxylic acid monoamides as herbicides and their syntheses. For example, N-(4-chlorophenyl)-l-cyclopentene-l,2-dicarboxylic acid monoamide is produced by reacting l-cyclopentene-l,2-dicarboxylic anhydride with 4- chloroaniline.

In the Journal of Med. Chemistry, 1999, Vol. 42, pages 3308-3314, virtual combinatorial syntheses and computational screening of new potential Anti-Herpes compounds are described. In Table 3 on page 3313 experimental results regarding IC50 and cytotoxicity are presented for 2-(2,3-difluorophenylcarbamoyl)-l -cyclopentene- 1 -carboxylic acid, 2-(2,6-difluorophenylcarbamoyl)-l -cyclopentene-l -carboxylic acid and 2-(2,3,4-trifluorophenyl-carbamoyl)- 1 -cyclopentene- 1 -carboxylic acid.

DE 3346814 and US 4661630 disclose carboxylic acid amides. These compounds are useful for diseases attended with cerebral dysfunction and also have anti-ulcer, anti-asthma, anti-inflammatory and hypo-cholesterol activities.

In EP 0097056, JP 55157547, DE 2851379 and DE 2921002 tetrahydrophthalamic acid derivatives are described.

It is an object of the present invention to provide effective agents, specifically in the form of certain polymorphs of their calcium salts, which can be used for the treatment of diseases which require the inhibition of DHODH.

It was also an object of the present invention to provide compounds that inhibit DHODH in a range similar to the compounds disclosed in W02003/006425 and WO 2012/001148 and at the same time show a white colour in order to facilitate double blind placebo controlled clinical studies.

It was also an object of the present invention to provide compounds and composition comprising that compounds that inhibit DHODH in a range similar to the compounds disclosed in

W02003/006425 and WO 2012/001148 and are characterized by having a THF content below

720 ppm in order to be in compliance with guidelines of the European Medicines Agency (e.g. with the version 6 December 2016 ; EMA/CHMP/ICH/82260/2006)

Particularly, it has previously been found that certain compounds of the general formula (I) shown herein below, such as 2-(3-Fluoro-3′-methoxy-biphenyl-4-ylcarbamoyl)-cyclopent-l-enecarboxylic acid (INN Vidofludimus), exhibit good anti-inflammatory activity and their usability in the oral therapy for the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as for example rheumatoid arthritis or inflammatory bowel diseases had been addressed.

Accordingly, a novel white polymorph of Calcium- vidofludimus named polymorph A with an inhibitory effect on DHODH, in particular human DHODH, was provided. Furthermore, a composition was provided comprising said white polymorph of Calcium-vidofludimus named polymorph A characterized by having a Tetrahydroduran (THF) content below 720 ppm.
[I,I ‘ – biphenyl] – 4 – yl}carbamoyl)cyclopent – 1 – ene – 1 – carboxylic acid) according to formula (I) or a solvate and/or a hydrate thereof, CAS-No 717824-30-1white crystalline calcium salt of 2 – ({3 – fluoro – 3’ – methoxy –

Thus, subject matter of the present invention is a white crystalline calcium salt of vidofludimus with a molar ratio of vidofludimus to calcium is 2±0.3 or a solvate and/or a hydrate thereof. In contrast to the pale yellow polymorph as described in EP 2588446B1, e.g. example 4, subject matter of the present invention is of white color.

White crystal can be defined as crystals with pure white color similar to the RAL color code RAL9010 that is equal or similar to the US Federal Standard 595 color code“White 506”, #27885.

A solvate for all embodiments of the invention maybe selected from the group comprising ethanol, propanol, isopropanol, butanol, ΊΊ IF, water. In a preferred embodiment for all embodiments of the invention the solvate is a hydrate. In one preferred embodiment the solvate is a calcium dihydrate for all embodiments of the invention.

In particular, subject matter of the present invention is a white crystalline polymorph A of the Ca salt of a compound according to formula I (vidofludimus) or a solvate and/or a hydrate thereof thereof which is characterized by an X-ray powder diffraction pattern having characteristic peaks expressed in degrees 2theta at ±0.2 of the values shown below:

2 theta = 5.91°, 9.64°, 16.78°, 17.81°, 19.81°, 25.41 °


/////////vidofludimus, PHASE 2, Inflammatory Bowel Disease,  (IBD),  Crohn’s Disease, Ulcerative Colitis, 4SC-101, UNII-8Y1PJ3VG81, SC12267, IM-90838, IMU-838, Immunic, 4SC,





CK-101, RX-518

CAS 1660963-42-7

MF C29 H28 F2 N6 O2
MW 530.57
2-Propenamide, N-[3-[2-[[2,3-difluoro-4-[4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazinyl]phenyl]amino]-8-quinazolinyl]phenyl]-







Suzhou NeuPharma (Originator)
Checkpoint Therapeutics

Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Therapy
Solid Tumors Therapy

PHASE 2 Checkpoint Therapeutics, Cancer, lung (non-small cell) (NSCLC), solid tumour

RX518(CK-101) is an orally available third-generation and selective inhibitor of certain epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activating mutations, including the resistance mutation T790M, and the L858R and exon 19 deletion (del 19) mutations, with potential antineoplastic activity.

In August 2019, Suzhou Neupharma and its licensee Checkpoint Therapeutics are developing CK-101 (phase II clinical trial), a novel third-generation, covalent, EGFR inhibitor, as a capsule formulation, for the treatment of cancers including NSCLC and other advanced solid tumors. In September 2017, the FDA granted Orphan Drug designation to this compound, for the treatment of EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC; in January 2018, the capsule was being developed as a class 1 chemical drug in China.

CK-101 (RX-518), a small-molecule inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), is in early clinical development at Checkpoint Therapeutics and Suzhou NeuPharma for the potential treatment of EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and other advanced solid malignancies.

In 2015, Suzhou NeuPharma granted a global development and commercialization license to its EGFR inhibitor program, excluding certain Asian countries, to Coronado Biosciences (now Fortress Biotech). Subsequently, Coronado assigned the newly acquired program to its subsidiary Checkpoint Therapeutics.

In 2017, the product was granted orphan drug designation in the U.S. for the treatment of EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC.

There are at least 400 enzymes identified as protein kinases. These enzymes catalyze the phosphorylation of target protein substrates. The phosphorylation is usually a transfer reaction of a phosphate group from ATP to the protein substrate. The specific structure in the target substrate to which the phosphate is transferred is a tyrosine, serine or threonine residue. Since these amino acid residues are the target structures for the phosphoryl transfer, these protein kinase enzymes are commonly referred to as tyrosine kinases or serine/threonine kinases.

[0003] The phosphorylation reactions, and counteracting phosphatase reactions, at the tyrosine, serine and threonine residues are involved in countless cellular processes that underlie responses to diverse intracellular signals (typically mediated through cellular receptors), regulation of cellular functions, and activation or deactivation of cellular processes. A cascade of protein kinases often participate in intracellular signal transduction and are necessary for the realization of these cellular processes. Because of their ubiquity in these processes, the protein kinases can be found as an integral part of the plasma membrane or as cytoplasmic enzymes or localized in the nucleus, often as components of enzyme complexes. In many instances, these protein kinases are an essential element of enzyme and structural protein complexes that determine where and when a cellular process occurs within a cell.

[0004] The identification of effective small compounds which specifically inhibit signal transduction and cellular proliferation by modulating the activity of tyrosine and serine/threonine kinases to regulate and modulate abnormal or inappropriate cell proliferation, differentiation, or metabolism is therefore desirable. In particular, the identification of compounds that specifically inhibit the function of a kinase which is essential for processes leading to cancer would be beneficial.

[0005] While such compounds are often initially evaluated for their activity when dissolved in solution, solid state characteristics such as polymorphism are also important. Polymorphic forms of a drug substance, such as a kinase inhibitor, can have different physical properties, including melting point, apparent solubility, dissolution rate, optical and mechanical properties, vapor pressure, and density. These properties can have a direct effect on the ability to process or manufacture a drug substance and the drug product. Moreover, differences in these properties

can and often lead to different pharmacokinetics profiles for different polymorphic forms of a drug. Therefore, polymorphism is often an important factor under regulatory review of the ‘sameness’ of drug products from various manufacturers. For example, polymorphism has been evaluated in many multi-million dollar and even multi-billion dollar drugs, such as warfarin sodium, famotidine, and ranitidine. Polymorphism can affect the quality, safety, and/or efficacy of a drug product, such as a kinase inhibitor. Thus, there still remains a need for polymorphs of kinase inhibitors. The present disclosure addresses this need and provides related advantages as well.





Crystalline form II-VIII of the compound presumed to be CK-101 (first disclosed in WO2015027222 ), for treating a disorder mediated by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) eg cancer.


Scheme B

General Procedures

Example 1: Preparation of the compound of Formula I (N-(3-(2-((2,3-difluoro-4-(4-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazin-l-yl)phenyl)amino)quinazolin-8-yl)phenyl)acrylamide)

[0253] To a solution of l,2,3-trifluoro-4-nitrobenzene (2.5 g, 14 mmol, 1.0 eq.) in DMF (20 mL) was added K2C03 (3.8 g, 28 mmol, 2.0 eq.) followed by 2-(piperazin-l-yl)ethanol (1.8 g, 14 mmol, 1.0 eq.) at 0 °C and the mixture was stirred at r.t. overnight. The mixture was poured into ice-water (200 mL), filtered and dried in vacuo to afford 2-(4-(2,3-difluoro-4-nitrophenyl)piperazin-l-yl)ethanol (2.7 g, 67.5%).

[0254] To a solution of 2-(4-(2,3-difluoro-4-nitrophenyl)piperazin-l-yl)ethanol (2.7 g, 9.0 mmol) in MeOH (30 mL) was added Pd/C (270 mg) and the resulting mixture was stirred at r.t.

overnight. The Pd/C was removed by filtration and the filtrate was concentrated to afford 2-(4-(4-amino-2,3-difluorophenyl)piperazin-l-yl)ethanol (2.39 g, 99% yield) as off-white solid.

[0255] To a solution of 8-bromo-2-chloroquinazoline (15.4 g, 63.6 mmol, 1 eq. ) and (3-aminophenyl)boronic acid (8.7 g, 63.6 mmol, 1 eq.) in dioxane/H20 (200 mL/20 mL) was added Na2C03 (13.5 g, 127.2 mmol, 2 eq.), followed by Pd(dppf)Cl2 (2.6 g, 3.2 mmol, 0.05 eq.) under N2, then the mixture was stirred at 80 °C for 12 h. Then the solution was cooled to r.t.,

concentrated and the residue was purified via column chromatography (PE/EA=3 :2, v/v) to afford 3-(2-chloroquinazolin-8-yl)aniline as yellow solid (8.7 g, 53.7% yield).

[0256] To a solution of 3-(2-chloroquinazolin-8-yl)aniline (8.7 g, 34 mmol, 1 eq.) in DCM ( 200 mL ) cooled in ice-bath was added TEA (9.5 mL, 68 mmol, 2 eq. ), followed by acryloyl chloride (4.1 mL, 51 mmol, 1.5 eq.) dropwise. The resulting mixture was stirred at r.t. for 1 h, then washed with brine, dried over anhydrous N2S04 concentrated and the residue was purified via column chromatography (PE/EA=l : 1, v:v) to afford N-(3-(2-chloroquinazolin-8-yl)phenyl)acryl amide as yellow solid(6.6 g, 65% yield).

[0257] To a suspension of 2-(4-(4-amino-2,3-difluorophenyl)piperazin-l-yl)ethanol (83 mg,

0.32 mmol, 1 eq.) and N-(3-(2-chloroquinazolin-8-yl)phenyl)acrylamide (100 mg, 0.32 mmol, 1 eq.) in n-BuOH (5 mL) was added TFA (68 mg, 0.64 mmol, 2 eq.) and the resulting mixture was stirred at 90 °C overnight. The mixture was concentrated, diluted with DCM (20 mL) , washed with Na2C03 solution (20 mL), dried over anhydrous Na2S04, concentrated and the residue was purified via column chromatography (MeOH/DCM=l/30, v:v) to afford N-(3-(2-((2,3-difluoro-4-(4-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazin-l-yl)phenyl)amino)quinazolin-8-yl)phenyl)acrylamide as a yellow solid(l6.3 mg, 9.5% yield). LRMS (M+H+) m/z calculated 531.2, found 531.2. 1H NMR

(CD3OD, 400 MHz) d 9.21 (s, 1 H), 7.19-8.01 (m, 10 H), 8.90 (s, 1 H), 6.41-6.49 (m, 3 H), 5.86 (m, 1 H), 3.98-4.01 (m, 3 H), 3.70-3.76 (m, 3 H), 3.40-3.49 (m, 2 H), 3.37-3.39 (m, 4 H), 3.18 (m, 2H).

Example 2. Preparation of Form I of the compound of Formula I

[0258] Crude compound of Formula I (~30 g, 75% of weight based assay) was dissolved in ethyl acetate (3 L) at 55-65 °C under nitrogen. The resulting solution was filtered via silica gel pad and washed with ethyl acetate (3 L><2) at 55-65 °C. The filtrate was concentrated via vacuum at 30-40 °C to ~2.4 L. The mixture was heated up to 75-85 °C and maintained about 1 hour.

Then cooled down to 50-60 °C and maintained about 2 hours. The heat-cooling operation was repeated again and the mixture was then cooled down to 20-30 °C and stirred for 3 hours. The resulting mixture was filtered and washed with ethyl acetate (60 mL><2). The wet cake was dried via vacuum at 30-40 °C to get (about 16 g) of the purified Form I of the compound of Formula I.

Example 3. Preparation of Form III of the compound of Formula I

[0259] The compound of Formula I (2 g) was dissolved in EtOH (40 mL) at 75-85 °C under nitrogen. n-Heptane (40 mL) was added dropwise into reaction at 75-85 °C. The mixture was stirred at 75-85 °C for 1 hour. Then cooled down to 50-60 °C and maintained about 2 hours. The heat-cooling operation was repeated again and continued to cool the mixture down to 20-30 °C and stirred for 3 hours. The resulting mixture was filtered and washed with EtOH/n-Heptane (1/1, 5 mL><2). The wet cake was dried via vacuum at 30-40 °C to get the purified Form III of the compound of Formula I (1.7 g).

Example 4. Preparation of Form IV of the compound of Formula I The crude compound of Formula I (15 g) was dissolved in ethyl acetate (600 mL) at 75-85 °C under nitrogen and treated with anhydrous Na2S04, activated carbon, silica metal scavenger for 1 hour. The resulting mixture was filtered via neutral Al203 and washed with ethyl acetate (300 mL><2) at 75-85 °C. The filtrate was concentrated under vacuum at 30-40 °C and swapped with DCM (150 mL). n-Heptane (75 mL) was added into this DCM solution at 35-45 °C, and then the mixture was cooled down to 20-30 °C slowly. The resulting mixture was filtered and washed with DCM/n-Heptane (2/1, 10 mL><3). The wet cake was dried via vacuum at 35-40 °C to get the purified Form IV of the compound of Formula I (9.6 g).

Example 5. Preparation of Form V of the compound of Formula I

[0260] Polymorph Form III of the compound of Formula I was dried in oven at 80 °C for 2 days to obtain the polymorph Form V.

Example 6. Preparation of Form VI of the compound of Formula I

[0261] The compound of Formula I (1 g) was dissolved in IPA (20 mL) at 75-85 °C under nitrogen. n-Heptane (20 mL) was added dropwise into reaction at 75-85 °C. The mixture was stirred at 45-55 °C for 16 hours. Then heated up to 75-85 °C and maintained about 0.5 hour.

Then cooled down to 45-55 °C for 0.5 hour and continued to cool the mixture down to 20-30 °C and stirred for 3 hours. Filtered and washed with IPA/n-Heptane (1/1, 3 mL><2). The wet cake was dried via vacuum at 75-80 °C for 2 hours to get the purified Form VI of the compound of Formula I.

Example 7. Preparation of Form VIII of the compound of Formula I

[0262] The polymorph Form VI of the compound of Formula I was dried in oven at 80 °C for 2 days to obtain the polymorph Form VIII.

Example 8. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD)

[0263] X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) patterns were obtained on a Bruker D8 Advance. A CuK source (=1.54056 angstrom) operating minimally at 40 kV and 40 mA scans each sample between 4 and 40 degrees 2-theta. The step size is 0.05°C and scan speed is 0.5 second per step.

Example 9. Thermogravimetric Analyses (TGA)

[0264] Thermogravimetric analyses were carried out on a TA Instrument TGA unit (Model TGA 500). Samples were heated in platinum pans from ambient to 300 °C at 10 °C/min with a nitrogen purge of 60mL/min (sample purge) and 40mL/min (balance purge). The TGA temperature was calibrated with nickel standard, MP=354.4 °C. The weight calibration was performed with manufacturer-supplied standards and verified against sodium citrate dihydrate desolvation.

Example 10. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)

[0265] Differential scanning calorimetry analyses were carried out on a TA Instrument DSC unit (Model DSC 1000 or 2000). Samples were heated in non-hermetic aluminum pans from ambient to 300 °C at 10 °C/min with a nitrogen purge of 50mL/min. The DSC temperature was calibrated with indium standard, onset of l56-l58°C, enthalpy of 25-29J/g.

Example 11. Hygroscopicity (DVS)

[0266] The moisture sorption profile was generated at 25°C using a DVS Moisture Balance Flow System (Model Advantage) with the following conditions: sample size approximately 5 to 10 mg, drying 25°C for 60 minutes, adsorption range 0% to 95% RH, desorption range 95% to 0% RH, and step interval 5%. The equilibrium criterion was <0.01% weight change in 5 minutes for a maximum of 120 minutes.

Example 12: Microscopy

[0267] Microscopy was performed using a Leica DMLP polarized light microscope equipped with 2.5X, 10X and 20X objectives and a digital camera to capture images showing particle shape, size, and crystallinity. Crossed polars were used to show birefringence and crystal habit for the samples dispersed in immersion oil.

Example 13: HPLC

[0256] HPLCs were preformed using the following instrument and/or conditions.

///////////////CK-101 , CK 101 , CK101 , phase II , Suzhou Neupharma, Checkpoint Therapeutics ,  Orphan Drug designation, EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC, NSCLC, CANCER, SOLID TUMOUR,  China, RX-518, AK543910



Image result for PF-06651600

Image result for PF-06651600

Image result for PF-06651600


CAS 1792180-81-4

C₁₅H₁₉N₅O, 285.34, UNII-2OYE00PC25


Image result for PF-06651600

 1-[(2S,5R)-2-Methyl-5-(7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino)-1-piperidinyl]-2-propen-1-one malonate

PF-06651600 malonate
CAS: 2140301-97-7 (malonate)
Chemical Formula: C18H23N5O5

Molecular Weight: 389.412

PHASE 2  alopecia areata, rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease, and ulcerative colitis.

PF-06651600 is a potent and selective JAK3 inhibitor. PF-06651600 is a potent and low clearance compound with demonstrated in vivo efficacy. The favorable efficacy and safety profile of this JAK3-specific inhibitor PF-06651600 led to its evaluation in several human clinical studies. JAK3 was among the first of the JAKs targeted for therapeutic intervention due to the strong validation provided by human SCID patients displaying JAK3 deficiencies

Pfizer has established a leading kinase research capability with multiple unique kinase inhibitors in development as potential medicines. PF-06651600 is a highly selective and orally bioavailable Janus Kinase 3 (JAK3) inhibitor that represents a potential immunomodulatory therapy. With the favorable efficacy, safety profile, and ADME properties, this JAK3-specific covalent inhibitor has been under clinical investigation for the treatment of alopecia areata, rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease, and ulcerative colitis. Supported by positive results from a Phase 2 study, 1 was granted Breakthrough Therapy designation by the FDA on Sept. 5, 2018 for treatment of alopecia areata.



J. Med. Chem. 201760 (5), 19711993DOI: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.6b01694


Process Development and Scale Up of a Selective JAK3 Covalent Inhibitor PF-06651600, 

Yong Tao*

Cite This:Org. Process Res. Dev.2019XXXXXXXXXX-XXX

Publication Date:July 19, 2019

A scalable process for PF-06651600 (1) has been developed through successful enabling of the first generation syntheis. The synthesis highlights include the following: (1) replacement of costly PtO2 with a less expensive 5% Rh/C catalyst for a pyridine hydrogenation, (2) identification of a diasteroemeric salt crystallization to isolate the enantiomerically pure cis-isomer directly from a racemic mixture of cis/trans isomers, (3) a high yielding amidation via Schotten–Baumann conditions, and (4) critical development of a reproducible crystallization procedure for a stable crystalline salt (1·TsOH), which is suitable for long-term storage and tablet formulation. All chromatographic purifications, including two chiral SFC chromatographic separations, were eliminated. Combined with other improvements in each step of the synthesis, the overall yield was increased from 5% to 14%. Several multikilogram batches of the API have been delivered to support clinical studies.

1-((2S,5R)-5-((7H-Pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)-2-methylpiperidin-1-yl)prop-2-en-1-one p-Toluenesulfonate (1·TsOH)

1·TsOH (4.41 kg, 9.64 mol) as a white powder in 89.6% yield (accounting for the amount of seed charged). Achiral HPLC purity: 99.6% with 0.22% of dimer 15. Chiral SFC purity: >99.7%. Mp 199 °C. Rotomers observed for NMR spectroscopies. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ ppm 12.68 (brs, 1H), 9.22 (brs, 1H), 8.40 (s, 1H), 7.50 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 2H), 7.45 (m, 1H), 7.12 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 2H), 6.94 (d, J = 1.2 Hz, 1H), 6.84 (m, 1H), 6.13 (m, 1H), 5.70 (m, 1H), 4.81 (m, 0.5H), 4.54 (m, 0.5H), 4.41 (m, 0.5H), 4.12 (m, 0.5H), 3.99 (m, 1H), 3.15 (m, 0.5H), 2.82 (m, 0.5H), 2.29 (s, 3H), 1.91–1.72 (m, 4H), 1.24–1.17 (m, 3H). 13C NMR (100 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ ppm 165.52, 165.13, 150.50, 145.64, 143.06, 138.48, 129.51, 129.24, 128.67, 127.99, 127.73, 125.97, 125.02, 102.30, 49.53, 48.92, 47.27, 43.83, 42.96, 29.37, 28.41, 25.22, 21.28, 16.97, 15.51. HRMS (ESI) m/z: calculated for C15H20N5O [M + H]+286.1668; observed 286.1692.


Telliez JB, et al. Discovery of a JAK3-Selective Inhibitor: Functional Differentiation of JAK3-Selective Inhibition over pan-JAK or JAK1-Selective Inhibition. ACS Chem Biol. 2016 Dec 16;11(12):3442-3451.


WO 2015083028


1: D’Amico F, Fiorino G, Furfaro F, Allocca M, Danese S. Janus kinase inhibitors for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases: developments from phase I and phase II clinical trials. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2018 Jul;27(7):595-599. doi: 10.1080/13543784.2018.1492547. Epub 2018 Jul 6. Review. PubMed PMID: 29938545.

2: Robinette ML, Cella M, Telliez JB, Ulland TK, Barrow AD, Capuder K, Gilfillan S, Lin LL, Notarangelo LD, Colonna M. Jak3 deficiency blocks innate lymphoid cell development. Mucosal Immunol. 2018 Jan;11(1):50-60. doi: 10.1038/mi.2017.38. Epub 2017 May 17. PubMed PMID: 28513593; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5693788.

3: Thorarensen A, Dowty ME, Banker ME, Juba B, Jussif J, Lin T, Vincent F, Czerwinski RM, Casimiro-Garcia A, Unwalla R, Trujillo JI, Liang S, Balbo P, Che Y, Gilbert AM, Brown MF, Hayward M, Montgomery J, Leung L, Yang X, Soucy S, Hegen M, Coe J, Langille J, Vajdos F, Chrencik J, Telliez JB. Design of a Janus Kinase 3 (JAK3) Specific Inhibitor 1-((2S,5R)-5-((7H-Pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)-2-methylpiperidin-1-yl)prop -2-en-1-one (PF-06651600) Allowing for the Interrogation of JAK3 Signaling in Humans. J Med Chem. 2017 Mar 9;60(5):1971-1993. doi: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.6b01694. Epub 2017 Feb 16. PubMed PMID: 28139931.

4: Telliez JB, Dowty ME, Wang L, Jussif J, Lin T, Li L, Moy E, Balbo P, Li W, Zhao Y, Crouse K, Dickinson C, Symanowicz P, Hegen M, Banker ME, Vincent F, Unwalla R, Liang S, Gilbert AM, Brown MF, Hayward M, Montgomery J, Yang X, Bauman J, Trujillo JI, Casimiro-Garcia A, Vajdos FF, Leung L, Geoghegan KF, Quazi A, Xuan D, Jones L, Hett E, Wright K, Clark JD, Thorarensen A. Discovery of a JAK3-Selective Inhibitor: Functional Differentiation of JAK3-Selective Inhibition over pan-JAK or JAK1-Selective Inhibition. ACS Chem Biol. 2016 Dec 16;11(12):3442-3451. Epub 2016 Nov 10. PubMed PMID: 27791347.

5: Walker G, Croasdell G. The European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) – 17th Annual European Congress of Rheumatology (June 8-11, 2016 – London, UK). Drugs Today (Barc). 2016 Jun;52(6):355-60. doi: 10.1358/dot.2016.52.6.2516435. PubMed PMID: 27458612.

////////////PF-06651600, PF 06651600, PF06651600, Breakthrough Therapy designation, PHASE 2,   alopecia areata, rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease,  ulcerative colitis,


LK-01, Apomorphine



Leukos Biotech S.L.

APL-130277, H-001, Apokyn

200-360-0 [EINECS]
41372-20-7 [RN]
4H-Dibenzo[de,g]quinoline-10,11-diol, 5,6,6a,7-tetrahydro-6-methyl-, (6aR)-
4H-Dibenzo[de,g]quinoline-10,11-diol, 5,6,6a,7-tetrahydro-6-methyl-, (R)-
CAS Registry Number: 58-00-4
CAS Name: (6aR)-5,6,6a,7-Tetrahydro-6-methyl-4H-dibenzo[de,g]quinoline-10,11-diol
Additional Names: 6ab-aporphine-10,11-diol
Molecular Formula: C17H17NO2
Molecular Weight: 267.32
Percent Composition: C 76.38%, H 6.41%, N 5.24%, O 11.97%
Literature References: Dopamine (D1 and D2) receptor agonist. Synthetic opiate obtained by treating morphine with concd HCl: A. Matthiessen, C. R. A. Wright, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B17, 455 (1869). Structure: R. Pschorr et al.,Ber.35, 4377 (1902). Configuration: H. Corrodi, E. Hardegger, Helv. Chim. Acta38, 2038 (1955). Total synthesis of (±)-form: J. L. Neumeyer et al.,J. Pharm. Sci.59, 1850 (1970); of (+)- and (-)-forms: V. J. Ram, J. L. Neumeyer, J. Org. Chem.46, 2830 (1981). Toxicity data: J. Z. Ginos et al.,J. Med. Chem.18, 1194 (1975). Clinical evaluation in impotence: J. P. W. Heaton et al.,Urology45, 200 (1995). Historical review: J. L. Neumeyer et al., in Apomorphine and Other Dopaminomimeticsvol. 1, G. L. Gessa, G. U. Corsini, Eds. (Raven, New York, 1981) p 1-17. Comprehensive description: F. J. Muhtadi, M. S. Hifnawy, Anal. Profiles Drug Subs.20, 121-166 (1991). Review of pharmacology and clinical efficacy in Parkinson’s disease: D. Muguet et al.,Biomed. Pharmacother.49, 197-209 (1995); in erectile dysfunction: F. Giuliano, J. Allard, Int. J. Impotence Res.14, Suppl. 1, S53-S56 (2002).
Properties: Hexagonal plates from chloroform and petr ether, dec 195°; subl in high vacuum. Oxidizes rapidly in air and becomes green. Sol in alcohol, acetone, chloroform. Slightly sol in water, benzene, ether, petr ether. Solns darken rapidly. pKb 7.0; pKa 8.92. uv max (98% alc): 336, 399 nm.
pKa: pKb 7.0; pKa 8.92
Absorption maximum: uv max (98% alc): 336, 399 nm
Image result for Apomorphine SYNTHESIS

Apomorphine hydrochloride hemihydrate

CAS 41372-20-7

Derivative Type: Hydrochloride
CAS Registry Number: 314-19-2; 41372-20-7 (hemihydrate)
Trademarks: Apokinon (Aguettant); Apokyn (Mylan Bertek); Apomine (Faulding); Britaject (Britannia); Ixense (Takeda); Uprima (TAP)
Molecular Formula: C17H17NO2.HCl
Molecular Weight: 303.78
Percent Composition: C 67.21%, H 5.97%, N 4.61%, O 10.53%, Cl 11.67%
Properties: Small crystals (usually hemihydrate). Dec and turn green on exposure to light and air. [a]D25 -48° (c = 1.2). uv spectrum: Csokan, Z. Anal. Chem.124, 344 (1942). pH of aq soln (1 in 300) = 4.8. One gram dissolves in 50 ml water, 17 ml water at 80°, 50 ml alcohol. Very slightly sol in chloroform and ether. LD50 i.p. in mice: 145 mg/g (Ginos).
Optical Rotation: [a]D25 -48° (c = 1.2)
Toxicity data: LD50 i.p. in mice: 145 mg/g (Ginos)
Derivative Type: Diacetate (ester)
CAS Registry Number: 6191-56-6
Additional Names: Diacetylapomorphine
Molecular Formula: C21H21NO4
Molecular Weight: 351.40
Percent Composition: C 71.78%, H 6.02%, N 3.99%, O 18.21%
Properties: mp 127-128°, [a]D24 -88° (c = 1.12 in 0.1N HCl).
Melting point: mp 127-128°
Optical Rotation: [a]D24 -88° (c = 1.12 in 0.1N HCl)
Therap-Cat: Antiparkinsonian; emetic. In treatment of male erectile dysfunction.
Therap-Cat-Vet: Emetic.
Keywords: Antiparkinsonian; Dopamine Receptor Agonist; Emetic; Impotence Therapy.

Leukos Biotech  (following its spin-off from Jose Carreras Leukaemia Research Institute) is developing LK-01 , a solid form of apomorphine for the sc treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and the phase II trial results were expected later in 2019.

Apomorphine (brand names ApokynIxenseSpontaneUprima) is a type of aporphine having activity as a non-selective dopamine agonist which activates both D2-like and, to a much lesser extent, D1-like receptors.[1] It also acts as an antagonist of 5-HT2 and α-adrenergic receptors with high affinity. The compound is historically a morphine decomposition product made by boiling morphine with concentrated acid, hence the –morphine suffix. Contrary to its name, apomorphine does not actually contain morphine or its skeleton, nor does it bind to opioid receptors. The apo– prefix relates to it being a morphine derivative (“[comes] from morphine”).

Historically, apomorphine has been tried for a variety of uses, including as a way to relieve anxiety and craving in alcoholics, an emetic (to induce vomiting), for treating stereotypies (repeated behaviour) in farmyard animals, and more recently in treating erectile dysfunction. Currently, apomorphine is used in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. It is a potent emetic and should not be administered without an antiemetic such as domperidone. The emetic properties of apomorphine are exploited in veterinary medicine to induce therapeutic emesis in canines that have recently ingested toxic or foreign substances.

Apomorphine was also used as a private treatment of heroin addiction, a purpose for which it was championed by the author William S. Burroughs. Burroughs and others claimed that it was a “metabolic regulator” with a restorative dimension to a damaged or dysfunctional dopaminergic system. There is more than enough anecdotal evidence to suggest that this offers a plausible route to an abstinence-based model; however, no clinical trials have ever tested this hypothesis. A recent study indicates that apomorphine might be a suitable marker for assessing central dopamine system alterations associated with chronic heroin consumption.[2] There is, however, no clinical evidence that apomorphine is an effective and safe treatment regimen for opiate addiction.[3]


Apomorphine is used in advanced Parkinson’s disease intermittent hypomobility (“off” episodes), where a decreased response to an anti-Parkinson drug such as L-DOPA causes muscle stiffness and loss of muscle control.[4][5] While apomorphine can be used in combination with L-DOPA, the intention is usually to reduce the L-DOPA dosing, as by this stage the patient often has many of dyskinesias caused by L-DOPA and hypermobility periods.[6][7] When an episode sets in, the apomorphine is injected subcutaneously, and signs subside. It is used an average of three times a day.[6] Some people use portable mini-pumps that continuously infuse them with apomorphine, allowing them to stay in the “on” state and using apomorphine as an effective monotherapy.[7][8]


The main and absolute contraindication to using apomorphine is the concurrent use of adrenergic receptor antagonists; combined, they cause a severe drop in blood pressure and fainting.[6][5] Alcohol causes an increased frequency of orthostatic hypotension (a sudden drop in blood pressure when getting up), and can also increase the chances of pneumonia and heart attacks.[6] Dopamine antagonists, by their nature of competing for sites at dopamine receptors, reduce the effectiveness of the agonistic apomorphine.[6][5]

IV administration of apomorphine is highly discouraged, as it can crystallize in the veins and create a blood clot (thrombus) and block a pulmonary artery (pulmonary embolism).[6][5]

Side effects

Nausea and vomiting are common side effects when first beginning therapy with apomorphine;[9] antiemetics such as trimethobenzamide or domperidone, dopamine antagonists,[10] are often used while first starting apomorphine. Around 50% of people grow tolerant enough to apomorphine’s emetic effects that they can discontinue the antiemetic.[5][6]

Other side effects include orthostatic hypotension and resultant fainting, sleepinessdizzinessrunny nosesweatingpaleness, and flushing. More serious side effects include dyskenesias (especially when taking L-DOPA), fluid accumulation in the limbs (edema), suddenly falling asleep, confusion and hallucinationsincreased heart rate and heart palpitations, and persistent erections(priaprism).[5][6][11] The priaprism is caused by apomorphine increasing arterial blood supply to the penis. This side effect has been exploited in studies attempting to treat erectile dysfunction.[12]


Mechanism of action

Apomorphine’s R-enantiomer is an agonist of both D1 and D2 dopamine receptors, with higher activity at D2.[6][10] The members of the D2 subfamily, consisting of D2D3, and D4receptors, are inhibitory G protein–coupled receptors. The D4 receptor in particular is an important target in the signaling pathway, and is connected to several neurological disorders.[13] Shortage or excess of dopamine can prevent proper function and signaling of these receptors leading to disease states.[14]

Apomorphine improves motor function by activating dopamine receptors in the nigrostriatal pathway, the limbic system, the hypothalamus, and the pituitary gland.[15] It also increases blood flow to the supplementary motor area and to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (stimulation of which has been found to reduce the tardive dyskinesia effects of L-DOPA).[16][17]Parkinson’s has also been found to have excess iron at the sites of neurodegeneration; both the R- and S-enantiomers of apomorphine are potent iron chelators and radical scavengers.[10][18]

Apomorphine also reduces the breakdown of dopamine in the brain (though it inhibits its synthesis as well).[19][20] It is a powerful upregulator of certain neural growth factors,[21] in particular NGF and BDNFepigenetic downregulation of which has been associated with addictive behaviour in rats.[22][23]

Apomorphine causes vomiting by acting on dopamine receptors in the chemoreceptor trigger zone of the medulla; this activates the nearby vomiting center.[15][20][24]


While apomorphine has lower bioavailability when taken orally, due to not being absorbed well in the GI tract and undergoing heavy first-pass metabolism,[18][8] it has a bioavailability of 100% when given subcutaneously.[6][15] It reaches peak plasma concentration in 10–60 minutes. Ten to twenty minutes after that, it reaches its peak concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid. Its lipophilic structure allows it to cross the blood–brain barrier.[6][15]

Apomorphine possesses affinity for the following receptors (note that a higher Ki indicates a lower affinity):[25][26][27]

Receptor Ki (nM) Action
D1 484 (partial) agonista
D2 52 partial agonist (IA = 79% at D2S; 53% at D2L)
D3 26 partial agonist (IA = 82%)
D4 4.37 partial agonist (IA = 45%)
D5 188.9 (partial) agonista
aThough its efficacies at D1 and D5 are unclear, it is known to act as an agonist at these sites.[28]
Receptor Ki (nM) Action
5-HT1A 2,523 partial agonist
5-HT1B 2,951 no action
5-HT1D 1,230 no action
5-HT2A 120 antagonist
5-HT2B 132 antagonist
5-HT2C 102 antagonist
Receptor Ki (nM) Action
α1A-adrenergic 1,995 antagonist
α1B-adrenergic 676 antagonist
α1D-adrenergic 64.6 antagonist
α2A-adrenergic 141 antagonist
α2B-adrenergic 66.1 antagonist
α2C-adrenergic 36.3 antagonist

It has a Ki of over 10,000 nM (and thus negligible affinity) for β-adrenergicH1, and mACh.[1]

Apomorphine has a high clearance rate (3–5 L/kg/hr) and is mainly metabolized and excreted by the liver.[15] It is likely that while the cytochrome P450 system plays a minor role, most of apomorphine’s metabolism happens via auto-oxidationO-glucuronidationO-methylationN-demethylation, and sulfation.[6][15][20] Only 3–4% of the apomorphine is excreted unchanged and into the urine. The half-life is 30–60 minutes, and the effects of the injection last for up to 90 minutes.[6][7][15]

Toxicity depends on the route of administraion; the LD50s in mice were 300 mg/kg for the oral route, 160 mg/kg for intraperitoneal, and 56 mg/kg intravenous.[29]



Apomorphine has a catechol structure similar to that of dopamine.[19]


Several techniques exist for the creation of apomorphine from morphine. In the past, morphine had been combined with hydrochloric acid at high temperatures (around 150 °C) to achieve a low yield of apomorphine, ranging anywhere from 0.6% to 46%.[30]

More recent techniques create the apomorphine in a similar fashion, by heating it in the presence of any acid that will promote the essential dehydration rearrangement of morphine-type alkaloids, such as phosphoric acid. The method then deviates by including a water scavenger, which is essential to remove the water produced by the reaction that can react with the product and lead to decreased yield. The scavenger can be any reagent that will irreversibly react with water such as phthalic anhydride or titanium chloride. The temperature required for the reaction varies based upon choice of acid and water scavenger. The yield of this reaction is much higher: at least 55%.[30]

Conversion of Morphine (I) to Apomorphine (II) in the presence of acid following the example of the morphine skeleton dehydration rearrangement, outlined by Bentley.[31]


The pharmacological effects of the naturally-occurring analog aporphine in the blue lotus (N. caerulea)[32] were known to the ancient Egyptians and Mayans,[33] with the plant featuring in tomb frescoes and associated with entheogenic rites. It is also observed in Egyptian erotic cartoons, suggesting that they were aware of its erectogenic properties.

The modern medical history of apomorphine begins with its synthesis by Arppe in 1845[34] from morphine and sulfuric acid, although it was named sulphomorphide at first. Matthiesen and Wright (1869) used hydrochloric acid instead of sulfuric acid in the process, naming the resulting compound apomorphine. Initial interest in the compound was as an emetic, tested and confirmed safe by London doctor Samuel Gee,[35] and for the treatment of stereotypies in farmyard animals.[36] Key to the use of apomorphine as a behavioural modifier was the research of Erich Harnack, whose experiments in rabbits (which do not vomit) demonstrated that apomorphine had powerful effects on the activity of rabbits, inducing licking, gnawing and in very high doses convulsions and death.

Treatment of alcoholism

Apomorphine was one of the earliest used pharmacotherapies for alcoholism. The Keeley Cure (1870s to 1900) contained apomorphine, among other ingredients, but the first medical reports of its use for more than pure emesis come from James Tompkins[37] and Charles Douglas.[38][39] Tompkins reported, after injection of 6.5 mg (“one tenth of a grain”):

In four minutes free emesis followed, rigidity gave way to relaxation, excitement to somnolence, and without further medication the patient, who before had been wild and delirious, went off into a quiet sleep.

Douglas saw two purposes for apomorphine:

[it can be used to treat] a paroxysm of dipsomania [an episode of intense alcoholic craving]… in minute doses it is much more rapidly efficient in stilling the dipsomaniac craving than strychnine or atropine… Four or even 3m [minim – roughly 60 microlitres] of the solution usually checks for some hours the incessant demands of the patient… when he awakes from the apomorphine sleep he may still be demanding alcohol, though he is never then so insistent as before. Accordingly it may be necessary to repeat the dose, and even to continue to give it twice or three times a day. Such repeated doses, however, do not require to be so large: 4 or even 3m is usually sufficient.

This use of small, continuous doses (1/30th of a grain, or 2.16 mg by Douglas) of apomorphine to reduce alcoholic craving comes some time before Pavlov‘s discovery and publication of the idea of the “conditioned reflex” in 1903. This method was not limited to Douglas; the Irish doctor Francis Hare, who worked in a sanatorium outside London from 1905 onwards, also used low-dose apomorphine as a treatment, describing it as “the most useful single drug in the therapeutics of inebriety”.[40] He wrote:

In (the) sanatorium it is used in three different sets of circumstances: (1) in maniacal or hysterical drunkenness: (2) during the paroxysm of dipsomania, in order to still the craving for alcohol; and (3) in essential insomnia of a special variety… [after giving apomorphine] the patient’s mental condition is entirely altered. He may be sober: he is free from the time being from any craving from alcohol. The craving may return, however, and then it is necessary to repeat the injection, it may be several times at intervals of a few hours. These succeeding injections should be quite small, 3 to 6 min. being sufficient. Doses of this size are rarely emetic. There is little facial pallor, a sensation as of the commencement of sea-sickness, perhaps a slight malaise with a sudden subsidence of the craving for alcohol, followed by a light and short doze.

He also noted there appeared to be a significant prejudice against the use of apomorphine, both from the associations of its name and doctors being reluctant to give hypodermic injections to alcoholics. In the US, the Harrison Narcotics Tax Act made working with any morphine derivatives extremely hard, despite apomorphine itself not being an opiate.

In the 1950s the neurotransmitter dopamine was discovered in the brain by Kathleen Montagu, and characterised as a neurotransmitter a year later by Arvid Carlsson, for which he would be awarded the Nobel Prize.[41] A. N. Ernst then discovered in 1965 that apomorphine was a powerful stimulant of dopamine receptors.[42] This, along with the use of sublingual apomorphine tablets, led to a renewed interest in the use of apomorphine as a treatment for alcoholism. A series of studies of non-emetic apomorphine in the treatment of alcoholism were published, with mostly positive results.[43][44][45][46][47] However, there was little clinical consequence.

Parkinson’s disease

The use of apomorphine to treat “the shakes” was first suggested by Weil in France in 1884,[48] although seemingly not pursued until 1951.[49] Its clinical use was first reported in 1970 by Cotzias et al.,[50] although its emetic properties and short half-life made oral use impractical. A later study found that combining the drug with the antiemetic domperidoneimproved results significantly.[51] The commercialization of apomorphine for Parkinson’s disease followed its successful use in patients with refractory motor fluctuations using intermittent rescue injections and continuous infusions.[52]

Aversion therapy

Aversion therapy in alcoholism had its roots in Russia in the early 1930s,[53] with early papers by Pavlov, Galant and Sluchevsky and Friken,[54] and would remain a strain in the Soviet treatment of alcoholism well into the 1980s. In the US a particularly notable devotee was Dr Voegtlin,[55] who attempted aversion therapy using apomorphine in the mid to late 1930s. However, he found apomorphine less able to induce negative feelings in his subjects than the stronger and more unpleasant emetic emetine.

In the UK, however, the publication of J Y Dent’s (who later went on to treat Burroughs) 1934 paper “Apomorphine in the treatment of Anxiety States”[56] laid out the main method by which apomorphine would be used to treat alcoholism in Britain. His method in that paper is clearly influenced by the then-novel idea of aversion:

He is given his favourite drink, and his favourite brand of that drink… He takes it stronger than is usual to him… The small dose of apomorphine, one-twentieth of a grain [3.24mg], is now given subcutaneously into his thigh, and he is told that he will be sick in a quarter of an hour. A glass of whisky and water and a bottle of whisky are left by his bedside. At six o’clock (four hours later) he is again visited and the same treatment is again administered… The nurse is told in confidence that if he does not drink, one-fortieth [1.62mg] of a grain of apomorphine should be injected during the night at nine o’clock, one o’clock, and five o’clock, but that if he drinks the injection should be given soon after the drink and may be increased to two hourly intervals. In the morning at about ten he is again given one or two glasses of whisky and water… and again one-twentieth of a grain [3.24mg] of apomorphine is injected… The next day he is allowed to eat what he likes, he may drink as much tea as he likes… He will be strong enough to get up and two days later he leaves the home.

However, even in 1934 he was suspicious of the idea that the treatment was pure conditioned reflex – “though vomiting is one of the ways that apomorphine relives the patient, I do not believe it to be its main therapeutic effect.” – and by 1948 he wrote:[3]

It is now twenty-five years since I began treating cases of anxiety and alcoholism with apomorphine, and I read my first paper before this Society fourteen years ago. Up till then I had thought, and, unfortunately, I said in my paper, that the virtue of the treatment lay in the conditioned reflex of aversion produced in the patient. This statement is not even a half truth… I have been forced to the conclusion that apomorphine has some further action than the production of a vomit.

This led to his development of lower-dose and non-aversive methods, which would inspire a positive trial of his method in Switzerland by Dr Harry Feldmann[57] and later scientific testing in the 1970s, some time after his death. However, the use of apomorphine in aversion therapy had escaped alcoholism, with its use to treat homosexuality leading to the death of a British Army Captain Billy Clegg HIll in 1962,[58] helping to cement its reputation as a dangerous drug used primarily in archaic behavioural therapies.

Opioid addiction

In his Deposition: Testimony Concerning a Sickness in the introduction to later editions of Naked Lunch (first published in 1959), William S. Burroughs wrote that apomorphine treatment was the only effective cure to opioid addiction he has encountered:

The apomorphine cure is qualitatively different from other methods of cure. I have tried them all. Short reduction, slow reduction, cortisoneantihistaminestranquilizers, sleeping cures, tolserol, reserpine. None of these cures lasted beyond the first opportunity to relapse. I can say that I was never metabolically cured until I took the apomorphine cure… The doctor, John Yerbury Dent, explained to me that apomorphine acts on the back brain to regulate the metabolism and normalize the blood stream in such a way that the enzyme stream of addiction is destroyed over a period of four to five days. Once the back brain is regulated apomorphine can be discontinued and only used in case of relapse.

He goes on to lament the fact that as of his writing, little to no research has been done on apomorphine or variations of the drug to study its effects on curing addiction, and perhaps the possibility of retaining the positive effects while removing the side effect of vomiting.

Despite his claims throughout his life, Burroughs never really cured his addiction and was back to using opiates within years of his apomorphine “cure”.[59] However, he insisted on apomorphine’s effectiveness in several works and interviews.[citation needed]

Society and culture

  • Apomorphine has a vital part in Agatha Christie‘s detective story Sad Cypress.
  • The 1965 Tuli Kupferberg song “Hallucination Horrors” recommends apomorphine at the end of each verse as a cure for hallucinations brought on by a humorous variety of intoxicants; the song was recorded by The Fugs and appears on the album Virgin Fugs.


There is renewed interest in the use of apomorphine to treat addiction, in both smoking cessation[60] and alcoholism.[61] As the drug is old, out of patent, and safe for use in humans, it is a viable target for repurposing.

Flow chart depicting the role of apomorphine in Alzheimer’s disease.

Apomorphine has been researched as a possible treatment for erectile dysfunction and female hypoactive sexual desire disorder, though the arousal effects were found not to be reliable enough. One large study found that only 39.4% got erections (compared to baseline 13.1); another found that apomorphine was successful 45–51% of the time, but the placebo also worked 36% of the time.[12][62] Nonetheless, it was under development as a treatment for erectile dysfunction by TAP Pharmaceuticals under the brand name Uprima. In 2000, TAP withdrew its new drug application after an FDA review panel raised questions about the drug’s safety, due to many clinical trial subjects fainting after taking the drug.[63]

Alzheimer’s disease

Apomorphine is reported to be an inhibitor of amyloid beta protein (Aβ) fiber formation, whose presence is a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and a potential therapeutic under the amyloid hypothesis.[64] While it promotes oligomerization of the Aβ40 group of molecules, it inhibits more advanced fibril formation; this is thought to be due to the autoxidation that occurs at the hydroxyl groups. Once this functional group was altered, the inhibitory effect could be seen to decrease, reducing either the indirect or direct interference of the fibril formation.[64]

The protective effects of apomorphine were tested in mouse models with mutations in genes related to AD, such as the amyloid precursor protein gene. Apomorphine was seen to significantly improve memory function through the increased successful completion of the Morris Water Maze. The levels of the aberrant proteins that lead to neuronal disruption were also tested in the brains of mice. Treatment was seen to decrease the intraneuronal levels of the more aggressive Aβ42 molecule when compared to the control mice. This result is consistent with the finding that another protein linked to AD, tau protein, was seen to decrease with apomorphine treatment.[65]

Veterinary use

Apomorphine is used to inducing vomiting in dogs the after ingestion of various toxins or foreign bodies. It can be given subcutaneously, intramuscularly, intravenously, or, when a tablet is crushed, in the conjunctiva of the eye.[66][67] The oral route is ineffective, as apomorphine cannot cross the blood–brain barrier fast enough, and blood levels don’t reach a high enough concentration to stimulate the chemoreceptor trigger zone.[66] It can remove around 40–60% of the contents in the stomach.[68]

One of the reasons apomorphine is a preferred drug is its reversibility:[69] in cases of prolonged vomiting, the apomorphine can be reversed with dopamine antagonists like the phenothiazines (for example, acepromazine). Giving apomorphine after giving acepromazine, however, will no longer stimulate vomiting, because apomorphine’s target receptors are already occupied.[66] An animal who undergoes severe respiratory depression due to apomorphine can be treated with naloxone.[66][67]

Apomorphine does not work in cats, who have too few dopamine receptors.[66]



Novel crystalline forms of apomorphine or its palmitate or hydrochloride salt useful treating acute myeloid leukemia, Parkinson’s disease, sexual dysfunction and solid tumors. Also claims the process for preparing apomorphine palmitic acid cocrystal salt.

Apomorphine (APO) is a commercial available medical drug with the chemical formula C-17H-17NO2 and structure:

Apomorphine (APO) has been described for treatment of different medical indications – for instance:

– WO2015/197839A1 : leukemia such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML);

– WO2016/103262A2: Parkinson’s disease;

– WO02/39879A2: sexual dysfunction in a patient taking antidepressant medication;

– W02004/082630A2: neurological function of an individual who has a brain injury.

Apomorphine hydrochloride (HCI) is a salt present in commercially available medical products (e.g. APO-Go® PFS or Apokyn®).

A common side effect of administering apomorphine hydrochloride by e.g. subcutaneous injection is e.g. the development of subcutaneous nodules at the injection site, which can become infected, necessitating treatment or surgical involvement.

In relation to this problem – above discussed WO2016/103262A2 describes an alternative solid form of apomorphine, which is e.g. an alcohol solvate crystal of apomorphine free base, wherein the solvate forming solvent is (C-|-C8) alkanol, preferably isopropanol (IPA – i.e. a solid crystalline form of apomorphine-IPA.

Palmitic acid (hexadecanoic acid in IUPAC nomenclature) is a fatty acid found with the chemical formula CH3(CH2)14COOH.

Palmitate is the salt and ester of palmitic acid.

A herein relevant synonyms name may e.g. be palmitoate.

Beside apomorphine hydrochloride, above discussed WO2015/197839A1 and W02004/082630A2 provide a list of other possible suitable pharmaceutically acceptable salts – palmitic acid (or synonyms like palmitate or palmitoate) is not mentioned in the lists of these two WO documents.

As discussed in the review article of Schultheiss et al. (“Pharmaceutical Cocrystals and Their Physicochemical Properties”; Crystal Growth & Design, Vol. 9, No. 6, 2009, p. 2950-2967) – solid-state chemists call upon a variety of different strategies when attempting to alter the chemical and physical solid-state properties of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), namely, the formation of salts, polymorphs, hydrates, solvates, and cocrystals.

Salt formation is one of the primary solid-state approaches used to modify the physical properties of APIs, and it is estimated that over half of the medicines on the market are administered as salts. However, a limitation within this approach is that the API must possess a suitable (basic or acidic)

ionizable site. In comparison, cocrystals (multicomponent assemblies held together by freely reversible, noncovalent interactions) offer a different pathway, where any API regardless of acidic, basic, or ionizable groups, could potentially be cocrystallized.

Above discussed WO02/39879A2 also provides a long list of suitable pharmaceutically acceptable salts and mentions palmitoate (see page 5, line 16).

However, in all herein relevant experimental work of this WO document was used apomorphine hydrochloride and a palmitic acid based salt is simply mentioned in a list – i.e. a palmitic acid based salt is not a preferred salt.

Alternatively expressed, by reading this WO document the skilled person has in practice no motivation to use any other solid form than apomorphine-HCI – one reason for this is that apomor-phine-HCI is used in all herein relevant experimental work of this WO document.



claiming synergistic combination comprising antimetabolite antineoplastic agent (eg cytarabine ) and type 1 serotonin receptor antagonist (5-HTR1) (eg apomorphine ), useful for treating cancer.



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  • Small, L. et al.: J. Org. Chem. (JOCEAH) 5, 334 (1940)


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  68. ^ Plumb, Donald C. (2011). “Apomorphine”. Plumb’s Veterinary Drug Handbook (7th ed.). Stockholm, Wisconsin: Wiley. pp. 77–79. ISBN 978-0-470-95964-0.
  69. ^ Peterson ME, Talcott PA (2006). Small Animal Toxicology. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 131. ISBN 978-0-7216-0639-2.
Clinical data
Trade names Apokyn
AHFS/ Monograph
MedlinePlus a604020
  • AU: B3
  • US: C (Risk not ruled out)
Routes of
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
  • AU: S4 (Prescription only)
  • CA℞-only
  • UK: POM (Prescription only)
  • US: ℞-only
  • In general: ℞ (Prescription only)
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 100% following injection
Protein binding ~50%
Metabolism Hepaticphase II
Onset of action 10–20 min
Elimination half-life 40 minutes
Duration of action 60–90 min
Excretion Hepatic
CAS Number
PubChem CID
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
ECHA InfoCard 100.000.327 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
Formula C17H17NO2
Molar mass 267.322 g/mol g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)


    • ATC:N04BC07
  • Use:emetic, erectile dysfunction
  • Chemical name:(R)-5,6,6a,7-tetrahydro-6-methyl-4H-dibenzo[de,g]quinoline-10,11-diol
  • Formula:C17H17NO2
  • MW:267.33 g/mol
  • CAS-RN:58-00-4
  • InChI:InChI=1S/C17H17NO2/c1-18-8-7-10-3-2-4-12-15(10)13(18)9-11-5-6-14(19)17(20)16(11)12/h2-6,13,19-20H,7-9H2,1H3
  • EINECS:200-360-0
  • LD50:56 mg/kg (M, i.v.); >100 mg/kg (M, p.o.)

///////////// LK-01,  LK 01 ,  LK01, Apomorphine


Fluazolepali, 氟唑帕利 , Fluzoparib


CAS  2170504-09-1

Fluzoparib; SHR-3162, (HS10160)

  • HS 10160
  • SHR 3162

An orally available inhibitor of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 and 2 (PARP-1/2) for treatment of solid tumors (Jiangsu Hengrui Medicine Co. Ltd., Lianyungang, China)

Fluazolepali, developed by Hengrui and Howson, is intended for the treatment of recurrent ovarian cancer, triple-negative breast cancer, advanced gastric cancer and other advanced solid tumors. Currently, the drug has been introduced into China for recurrent ovarian cancer. Clinical stage.

In February 2019, a randomized, double-blind, controlled, multicenter, phase III clinical study (CTR20190294) of flazopril capsule versus placebo for maintenance of recurrent ovarian cancer was initiated in China and was sponsored by Hengrui Medicine.

Jiangsu Hansoh Pharmaceutical , in collaboration with  Jiangsu Hengrui Medicine , is developing an oral capsule formulation of fluazolepali (fluzoparib; SHR-3162), a small molecule inhibitor to PARP-1 and PARP-2, for the treatment of solid tumors including epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal, breast and gastric cancer.

  • Originator Jiangsu Hengrui Medicine Co.
  • Class Antineoplastics
  • Mechanism of Action Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 inhibitors; Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 2 inhibitors
  • Phase II Ovarian cancer
  • Phase I Breast cancer; Fallopian tube cancer; Gastric cancer; Peritoneal cancer; Solid tumours
  • 09 Jul 2019 Jiangsu HengRui Medicine initiates a phase I trial in Solid tumors in China (NCT04013048) [14C]-Fluzoparib
  • 01 Jul 2019 Jiangsu HengRui Medicine plans a phase I drug-drug interaction trial (In volunteers) in China (PO) (NCT04011124)
  • 12 Jun 2019 Jiangsu HengRui Medicine completes a phase I trial in Gastric cancer (Combination therapy, Recurrent, Metastatic disease, Second-line therapy or greater, Late-stage disease) in China (PO) (NCT03026881)

Fluzoparib (SHR 3162) is a selective poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1 (PARP1) and poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 2 inhibitor (PARP2), being developed by Jiangsu HengRui Medicine, for the treatment of cancer. PARP enzymes play a vital role in repair of DNA damage and maintaining genomic stability. Fluzoparib inhibits PARP enzymes and induces DNA-double strands breaks, G2/M arrest and apoptosis in homologous recombination repair (HR)-deficient cells. Clinical development for ovarian cancer, breast cancer, fallopian tube cancer, peritoneal cancer, gastric cancer and solid tumours is underway in China and Australia.

An orally available inhibitor of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) types 1 and 2, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, fluzoparib inhibits PARP 1 and 2 activity, which inhibits PARP-mediated repair of damaged DNA via the base excision repair (BER) pathway, enhances the accumulation of DNA strand breaks, promotes genomic instability, and leads to an induction of apoptosis. The PARP family of proteins catalyze post-translational ADP-ribosylation of nuclear proteins, which then transduce signals to recruit other proteins to repair damaged DNA. PARP inhibition may enhance the cytotoxicity of DNA-damaging agents and may reverse tumor cell chemoresistance and radioresistance. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)



Process for preparing heterocyclic compounds (presumed to be fluazolepali ) and its intermediates as PARP inhibitors useful for treating cancer.

Example 1

The compound and 5.0kg of 10% palladium on carbon 250g, 80L of methanol was added to the kettle at 0.4MPa, 24h 25 ℃ hydrogenation reaction. The palladium carbon was removed by filtration, the filter cake was washed with methanol, and the filtrate was collected, evaporated to dryness under reduced pressure, and ethyl acetate (20 L) was added to the concentrate, and the mixture was stirred and evaporated, and then cooled to 0° C. ~3, stirring, filtration, filter cake and then adding 20 L of ethyl acetate, pulping at room temperature for 3 to 4 h, filtration, vacuum drying at 45 ° C for 6-8 h to obtain 5.5 kg of compound 3 solid, yield 91.7%, HPLC purity 99.69%.
Example 2
According to the method of Example 19 of CN102686591A, 2 g of the compound 3 and 2.79 g of the compound 4 were charged to obtain 3.6 g of the compound of the formula I in a yield of 87.8%.
Example 3
At room temperature, 2.0 g of compound 2 (prepared according to the method disclosed in WO2009025784) was dissolved in 30 mL of isopropanol, and concentrated sulfuric acid was added dropwise with stirring to adjust the pH to 3, and stirred at room temperature without solid precipitation; the reaction solution was poured into 150 mL of n-hexane. After stirring at room temperature, no solid precipitated, and the sulfate solid of Compound 2 could not be obtained.
Example 4
1. At room temperature, 1.11 g of compound 2 was dissolved in 10 mL of isopropanol, and 15% phosphoric acid/isopropanol solution was added dropwise with stirring to adjust the pH to 3, stirred at room temperature, filtered, and the filter cake was washed with isopropyl alcohol and dried under vacuum. Compound 2 phosphate solid 1.46 g, yield 87.1%, HPLC purity 99.72%.
Example 5
At room temperature, 1.28 g of compound 2 was dissolved in 10 mL of isopropanol, and 20% acetic acid/isopropanol solution was added dropwise with stirring to adjust the pH to 3, and stirred at room temperature without solid precipitation; the reaction solution was poured into 100 mL of n-hexane, and continued. After stirring at room temperature, no solid precipitated, and the acetate solid of Compound 2 could not be obtained.
Example 6
1.05g of compound 2 was dissolved in 10mL of isopropanol at room temperature, and the pH was adjusted to 3 by adding 15% citric acid/isopropanol solution while stirring. At room temperature, no solid precipitated; the reaction solution was poured into 100 mL of n-hexane. After stirring at room temperature, no solid precipitated, and the citrate solid of Compound 2 could not be obtained.
Example 7
1.12 g of compound 2 was dissolved in 10 mL of isopropanol at room temperature, and 0.74 g of maleic acid was added thereto with stirring. The mixture was stirred at room temperature, filtered, and the filter cake was washed with isopropyl alcohol and dried in vacuo to obtain the maleate salt of compound 2. 1.51 g, yield 84.6%.



claiming synergistic combination comprising PARP inhibitor fluazolepali and apatinib mesylate .


WO 2018005818

WO 2018129553

WO 2018129559

WO 2018208968

WO 2018213732

WO 2018191277

WO 2018201096

WO 2018085469

WO 2018085468

WO 2019090227

WO 2019133697

WO 2019067978

WO 2019071123

WO 2019090141

///////////Fluazolepali, Jiangsu Hansoh Pharmaceutical,  Jiangsu Hengrui Medicine, fluzoparib,  SHR-3162, 氟唑帕利 , Phase II,  Ovarian cancer, HS10160, CHINA, HS 10160



ChemSpider 2D Image | Tanzisertib | C21H23F3N6O2


CAS 899805-25-5



C21-H23-F3-N6-O2, 448.4467

Cyclohexanol, 4-[[9-[(3S)-tetrahydro-3-furanyl]-8-[(2,4,6-trifluorophenyl)amino]-9H-purin-2-yl]amino]-, trans-
  • CC 930
  • CC-930
  • Tanzisertib
  • UNII-M5O06306UO
  • A c-Jun amino-terminal kinase inhibitor.UNII, M5O06306UO

Treatment of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF)

  • Originator Celgene Corporation
  • Class Antifibrotics; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of ActionJ NK mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors
  • Orphan Drug Status Yes – Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
  • Discontinued Discoid lupus erythematosus; Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
  • 16 Jul 2012 Celgene Corporation terminates a phase II trial in Discoid lupus erythematosus in USA (NCT01466725)
  • 23 Feb 2012 Celgene initiates enrolment in a phase II trial for Discoid lupus erythematosus in the USA (NCT01466725)
  • 08 Nov 2011The Committee for Orphan Medicinal Products (COMP) recommends orphan drug designation for tanzisertib in European Union for Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

Tanzisertib has been granted orphan drug status by the FDA for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. A positive opinion has been received from the EU Committee for Orphan Medicinal Products (COMP

Tanzisertib has been used in trials studying the treatment of Fibrosis, Discoid Lupus, Pulmonary Fibrosis, Interstitial Lung Disease, and Lung Diseases, Interstitial, among others.


Image result for US 20090048275

Image result for US 20090048275


WO 2006076595

US 20070060598

WO 2008057252

US 20080021048

US 20140094456

WO 2014055548


WO 2015153683

/////////Tanzisertib, CC 930,  Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis, Orphan Drug, phase II, CELGENE




Image result for Reldesemtiv



CAS 1345410-31-2


MW 384.4 g/mol, MF C19H18F2N6O

1-[2-({[trans-3-fluoro-1-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutyl]methyl}amino)pyrimidin-5-yl]-1H-pyrrole-3- carboxamide


Reldesemtiv, also known as CK-2127107, is a skeletal muscle troponin activator (FSTA) and is a potential treatment for people living with debilitating diseases and conditions associated with neuromuscular or non-neuromuscular dysfunction, muscular weakness, and/or muscle fatigue such as SMA, COPD, and ALS.

Cytokinetics , in collaboration with  Astellas , is developing reldesemtiv, the lead from a program of selective fast skeletal muscle troponin activators, in an oral suspension formulation, for the treatment of indications associated with neuromuscular dysfunction, including spinal muscular atrophy and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  • Originator Cytokinetics
  • Developer Astellas Pharma; Cytokinetics
  • Class Pyridines; Pyrimidines; Pyrroles; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action Troponin stimulants
  • Orphan Drug Status Yes – Spinal muscular atrophy
  • Phase II Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; Spinal muscular atrophy
  • Suspended Muscle fatigue
  • No development reported Muscular atrophy
  • 05 May 2019 Safety and efficacy data from the phase II FORTITUDE-ALS trial in Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis presented at the American Academy of Neurology Annual Meeting (AAN-2019)
  • 07 Mar 2019 Cytokinetics completes the phase III FORTITUDE-ALS trial for Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in USA, Australia, Canada, Spain, Ireland and Netherlands (PO) (NCT03160898)
  • 22 Jan 2019 Cytokinetics plans a phase I trial in Healthy volunteers in the first quarter of 2019

Reldesemtiv, a next-generation, orally-available, highly specific small-molecule is being developed by Cytokinetics, in collaboration with Astellas Pharma, for the improvement of skeletal muscle function associated with neuromuscular dysfunction, muscle weakness and/or muscle fatigue in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The drug candidate is a fast skeletal muscle troponin activator (FSTA) or troponin stimulant intended to slow the rate of calcium release from the regulatory troponin complex of fast skeletal muscle fibers. Clinical development for ALS, COPD and SMA is underway in the US, Australia, Canada, Ireland, Netherlands and Spain. No recent reports of development had been identified for phase I development for muscular atrophy in the US. Due to lack of of efficacy determined at interim analysis Cytokinetics suspended phase I trial in muscle fatigue in the elderly.

The cytoskeleton of skeletal and cardiac muscle cells is unique compared to that of all other cells. It consists of a nearly crystalline array of closely packed cytoskeletal proteins called the sarcomere. The sarcomere is elegantly organized as an interdigitating array of thin and thick filaments. The thick filaments are composed of myosin, the motor protein responsible for transducing the chemical energy of ATP hydrolysis into force and directed movement. The thin filaments are composed of actin monomers arranged in a helical array. There are four regulatory proteins bound to the actin filaments, which allows the contraction to be modulated by calcium ions. An influx of intracellular calcium initiates muscle contraction; thick and thin filaments slide past each other driven by repetitive interactions of the myosin motor domains with the thin actin filaments.

[0003] Of the thirteen distinct classes of myosin in human cells, the myosin-II class is responsible for contraction of skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle. This class of myosin is significantly different in amino acid composition and in overall structure from myosin in the other twelve distinct classes. Myosin-II forms homo-dimers resulting in two globular head domains linked together by a long alpha-helical coiled-coiled tail to form the core of the sarcomere’s thick filament. The globular heads have a catalytic domain where the actin binding and ATPase functions of myosin take place. Once bound to an actin filament, the release of phosphate (cf. ADP-Pi to ADP) signals a change in structural conformation of the catalytic domain that in turn alters the orientation of the light-chain binding lever arm domain that extends from the globular head; this movement is termed the powerstroke. This change in orientation of the myosin head in relationship to actin causes the thick filament of which it is a part to move with respect to the thin actin filament to which it is bound. Un-binding of the globular head from the actin filament (Ca2+ regulated) coupled with return of the catalytic domain and light chain to their starting conformation/orientation completes the catalytic cycle, responsible for intracellular movement and muscle contraction.

Tropomyosin and troponin mediate the calcium effect on the interaction on actin and myosin. The troponin complex is comprised of three polypeptide chains: troponin C, which binds calcium ions; troponin I, which binds to actin; and troponin T, which binds to tropomyosin. The skeletal troponin-tropomyosin complex regulates the myosin binding sites extending over several actin units at once.

Troponin, a complex of the three polypeptides described above, is an accessory protein that is closely associated with actin filaments in vertebrate muscle. The troponin complex acts in conjunction with the muscle form of tropomyosin to mediate the

Ca2+ dependency of myosin ATPase activity and thereby regulate muscle contraction. The troponin polypeptides T, I, and C, are named for their tropomyosin binding, inhibitory, and calcium binding activities, respectively. Troponin T binds to tropomyosin and is believed to be responsible for positioning the troponin complex on the muscle thin filament. Troponin I binds to actin, and the complex formed by troponins I and T, and tropomyosin inhibits the interaction of actin and myosin. Skeletal troponin C is capable of binding up to four calcium molecules. Studies suggest that when the level of calcium in the muscle is raised, troponin C exposes a binding site for troponin I, recruiting it away from actin. This causes the tropomyosin molecule to shift its position as well, thereby exposing the myosin binding sites on actin and stimulating myosin ATPase activity.

U.S. Patent No. 8962632 discloses l-(2-((((trans)-3-fluoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutyl)methyl)amino)pyrimidin-5-yl)-lH-pyrrole-3-carboxamide, a next-generation fast skeletal muscle troponin activator (FSTA) as a potential treatment for people living with debilitating diseases and conditions associated with neuromuscular or non-neuromuscular dysfunction, muscular weakness, and/or muscle fatigue.


WO 2011133888


WO2016039367 ,

claiming the use of a similar compound for treating stress urinary incontinence.

Compound A is 1- [2-({[trans-3-fluoro-1- (3-fluoropyridin-2-yl) cyclobutyl] methyl} amino) pyrimidin-5-yl] -1H Pyrrole-3-carboxamide, which is the compound described in Example 14 of the aforementioned US Pat. The chemical structure is as shown below.
[Chemical formula 1]



Process for preparing reldesemtiv , a myosin, actin, tropomyosin, troponin C, troponin I, troponin T modulator, useful for treating neuromuscular disorders, muscle wasting, claudication and metabolic syndrome.

Scheme 1

[0091] Scheme 1 illustrates a scheme of synthesizing the compound of Formula (1C).

Scheme 2

[0092] Scheme 2 illustrates an alternative scheme of synthesizing the compound of Formula (1C).


TFAA DS, toluene



HCI, H20


Scheme 3

[0093] Scheme 3 illustrates a scheme of converting the compound of Formula (1C) to the compound of Formula (II).


Ni Raney


Scheme 4

[0094] Scheme 4 illustrates a scheme of converting the compound of Formula (II) to the compound of Formula (1).


[0095] To a flask was added N-methylpyrrolidone (30 mL), tert-butyl cyanoacetate (8.08 g) at room temperature. To a resulting solution was added potassium tert-butoxide (7.71 g), l,3-dibromo-2,2-dimethoxy propane (5.00 g) at 0 °C. To another flask, potassium iodide (158 mg), 2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol (42 mg), N-methylpyrrolidone (25 mL) were added at room temperature and then resulting solution was heated to 165 °C. To this solution, previously prepared mixture was added dropwise at 140-165 °C, then stirred for 2 hours at 165 °C. To the reaction mixture, water (65 mL) was added. A resulting solution was extracted with toluene (40 mL, three times) and then combined organic layer was washed with water (20 mL, three times) and 1N NaOH aq. (20 mL). A resulting organic layer was concentrated below 50 °C under reduced pressure to give 3, 3 -dimethoxy cyclobutane- l-carbonitrile (66% yield,

GC assay) as toluene solution. 1H MR (CDCl3, 400 MHz) d 3.17 (s, 3H), 3.15 (s, 3H), 2.93-2.84 (m, 1H), 2.63-2.57 (m, 2H), 2.52-2.45 (m, 2H).

Example 2 Synthesis of methyl 3,3-dimethoxycyclobutane-l-carboxylate

[0096] A reactor was vacuumed to 0.02 MPa and less and then inerted with nitrogen to atmosphere for three times. MeOH (339.00 kg), 3-oxocyclobutanecarboxylic acid (85.19 kg, 746.6 mol, 1.0 eq.), Amberlyst-l5 ion exchange resin (8.90 kg, 10% w/w), and

trimethoxymethane (196.00 kg, 1847.3 mol, 2.5 eq.) were charged into the reactor and the resulting mixture was heated to 55±5°C and reacted for 6 hours to give methyl 3,3-dimethoxycyclobutane-l-carboxylate solution in MeOH. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz) d 3.70 (s, 3H), 3.17 (s, 3H), 3.15 (s, 3H), 2.94-2.85 (m, 1H), 2.47-2.36 (m, 4H).

Example 3 Synthesis of 3, 3-dimethoxycyclobutane-l -carboxamide

[0097] The methyl 3, 3 -dimethoxy cyclobutane- l-carboxylate solution in MeOH prepared as described in Example 2 was cooled to below 25°C and centrifuged. The filter cake was washed with MeOH(7.00 kg) and the filtrate was pumped to the reactor. The solution was concentrated under vacuum below 55°C until the system had no more than 2 volumes. MeOH

(139.40 kg) was charged to the reactor and the solution was concentrated under vacuum below 55°C until the system had no more than 2 volumes. MeOH (130.00 kg) was charged to the reactor and the solution was concentrated under vacuum below 55°C until the system had no more than 2 volumes. Half of the resulting solution was diluted with MeOH (435.00 kg) and cooled to below 30°C. NH3 gas (133.80 kg) was injected into the reactor below 35°C for

24 hours. The mixture was stirred at 40±5°C for 72 hours. The resulting solution was

concentrated under vacuum below 50°C until the system had no more than 2 volumes.

MTBE(l8l.OO kg) was charged into the reactor. The resulting solution was concentrated under vacuum below 50°C until the system had no more than 2 volumes. PE (318.00 kg) was charged into the reactor. The resulting mixture was cooled to 5±5°C, stirred for 4 hours at 5±5°C, and centrifuged. The filter cake was washed with PE (42.00 kg) and the wet filter cake was put into a vacuum oven. The filter cake was dried at 30±5°C for at least 8 hours to give 3,3-dimethoxycyclobutane-l-carboxamide as off-white solid (112.63 kg, 94.7% yield). 1H NMR (CDCf, 400 MHz) d 5.76 (bs, 1H), 5.64 (bs, 1H), 3.18 (s, 3H), 3.17 (s, 3H), 2.84-2.76 (m, 1H), 2.45-2.38 (m, 4H).

[0098] A reactor was vacuumed to 0.02 MPa and less and then inerted with nitrogen to atmosphere for three times. Toluene (500.00 kg), 3,3-dimethoxycyclobutane-l-carboxamide (112.54kg, 706.9 mol, 1.0 eq.), and TEA (158.00 kg, 1561.3 mol, 2.20 eq) were charged into the reactor and the resulting mixture was cooled to 0+ 5°C. TFAA (164.00 kg, 781 mol, 1.10 eq.) was added dropwise at 0±5°C. The resulting mixture was stirred for 10 hours at 20±5°C and cooled below 5±5°C. H20 (110.00 kg) was charged into the reactor at below 15 °C. The resulting mixture was stirred for 30 minutes and the water phase was separated. The aqueous phase was extracted with toluene (190.00 kg) twice. The organic phases were combined and washed with H20 (111.00 kg). H20 was removed by azeotrope until the water content was no more than 0.03%. The resulting solution was cooled to below 20°C to give 3,3-dimethoxycyclobutane-l-carbonitrile solution in toluene (492.00 kg with 17.83% assay content, 87.9% yield).

Example 5 Synthesis of l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)-3,3-dimethoxycyclobutane-l-carbonitrile

[0099] A reactor was vacuumed to 0.02 MPa and less and then inerted with nitrogen to atmosphere for three times. The 3,3-dimethoxycyclobutane-l-carbonitrile solution in toluene prepared as described in Example 4 (246.00 kg of a 17.8% solution of 3,3-dimethoxycyclobutane-l-carbonitrile in toluene, 1.05 eq.) and 2-chloro-3-fluoropyridine (39.17 kg, 297.9 mol, 1.00 eq.) were charged into the reactor. The reactor was vacuumed to 0.02 MPa and less and then inerted with nitrogen to atmosphere for three times. The mixture was slowly cooled to -20±5°C. NaHDMS (2M in THF) (165.71 kg, 1.20 eq) was added

dropwise at -20±5°C. The resulting mixture was stirred at -l5±5°C for 1 hour. The mixture was stirred until the content of 2-chloro-3-fluoropyridine is no more than 2% as measured by HPLC. Soft water (16.00 kg) was added dropwise at below 0°C while maintaining the reactor temperature. The resulting solution was transferred to another reactor. Aq. NH4Cl (10% w/w, 88.60 Kg) was added dropwise at below 0°C while maintaining the reactor temperature. Soft water (112.00 kg) was charged into the reactor and the aqueous phase was separated and collected. The aqueous phase was extracted with ethyl acetate (70.00 kg) and an organic phase was collected. The organic phase was washed with sat. NaCl (106.00 kg) and collected. The above steps were repeated to obtain another batch of organic phase. The two batches of organic phase were concentrated under vacuum below 70°C until the system had no more than 2 volumes. The resulting solution was cooled to below 30°C to give a l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)-3, 3 -dimethoxy cyclobutane- l-carbonitrile solution. 1H NMR (CDC13, 400 MHz) d 8.42-8.38 (m, 1H), 7.50-7.45 (m, 1H), 7.38-7.33 (m, 1H), 3.28 (s, 3 H), 3.13 (s, 3H), 3.09-3.05 (m, 4H).

Example 6 Synthesis of I-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)-3-oxocyclohutanecarhonitrile

[0100] A reactor was vacuumed to 0.02 MPa and less and then inerted with nitrogen to atmosphere for three times. Water (603.00 kg) was added to the reactor and was stirred.

Concentrated HC1 (157.30 kg) was charged into the reactor at below 35°C. The l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)-3, 3 -dimethoxy cyclobutane- l-carbonitrile solution prepared as described in Example 5 (206.00 kg) was charged into the reactor and the resulting mixture was heated to 50±5°C and reacted for 3 hours at 50±5°C. The mixture was reacted until the content of 1-(3 -fluoropyridin-2-yl)-3, 3 -dimethoxycyclobutane- l-carbonitrile was no more than 2.0% as measured by HPLC. The reaction mixture was cooled to below 30°C and extracted with ethyl acetate (771.00 kg). An aqueous phase was collected and extracted with ethyl acetate (770.00 kg). The organic phases were combined and the combined organic phase was washed with soft water (290.00 kg) and brine (385.30 kg). The organic phase was concentrated under vacuum at below 60°C until the system had no more than 2 volumes. Propan-2-ol (218.00 kg) was charged into the reactor. The organic phase was concentrated under vacuum at below

60°C until the system had no more than 1 volume. PE (191.00 kg) was charged into the reactor at 40±5 °C and the resulting mixture was heated to 60±5 °C and stirred for 1 hour at 60±5 °C. The mixture was then slowly cooled to 5±5 °C and stirred for 5 hours at 5±5 °C. The mixture was centrifuged and the filter cake was washed with PE (48.00 kg) and the wet filter cake was collected. Water (80.00 kg), concentrated HC1 (2.20 kg), propan-2-ol (65.00 kg), and the wet filter cake were charged in this order into a drum. The resulting mixture was stirred for 10 minutes at 20±5 °C. The mixture was centrifuged and the filter cake was washed with a mixture solution containing 18.00 kg of propan-2-ol, 22.50 kg of soft water, and 0.60 kg of concentrated HC1. The filter cake was put into a vacuum oven and dried at 30±5°C for at least 10 hours. The filter cake was dried until the weight did not change to give l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)-3-oxocyclobutanecarbonitrile as off-white solid (77.15 kg, 68.0% yield). 1H NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz) d 8.45-8.42 (m, 1H), 7.60-7.54 (m, 1H), 7.47-7.41 (m, 1H), 4.18-4.09 (m, 2H), 4.02-3.94 (m, 2H).

Example 7 Synthesis of I-(3-fhtoropyridin-2-yl)-3-hydroxycyclobulanecarbonilrile

[0101] To a solution of l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)-3-oxocyclobutanecarbonitrile (231 g,

1.22 mol) in a mixture ofDCM (2 L) and MeOH (200 mL) was added NaBH4 portionwise at -78° C. The reaction mixture was stirred at -78°C. for 1 hour and quenched with a mixture of methanol and water (1 : 1). The organic layer was washed with water (500 mL><3), dried over Na2S04, and concentrated. The residue was purified on silica gel (50% EtO Ac/hexanes) to provide the title compound as an amber oil (185.8 g, 77.5%). Low Resolution Mass

Spectrometry (LRMS) (M+H) m/z 193.2.

Example 8 Synthesis of (ls,3s)-3-fluoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutane-l-carbonitrile

[0102] To a solution of 1 -(3 -fluoropyridin-2-yl)-3 -hydroxy cyclobutanecarbonitrile (185 g, 0.96 mol) in DCM (1 L) was added DAST portionwise at 0-10 °C. Upon the completion of addition, the reaction was refluxed for 6 hours. The reaction was cooled to rt and poured onto sat. NaHCCf solution. The mixture was separated and the organic layer was washed with water, dried over Na2S04, and concentrated. The residue was purified on silica gel (100% DCM) to provide the title compound as a brown oil (116g) in a 8: 1 transxis mixture. The above brown oil (107 g) was dissolved in toluene (110 mL) and hexanes (330mL) at 70 °C. The solution was cooled to 0 °C and stirred at 0 °C overnight. The precipitate was filtered and washed with hexanes to provide the trans isomer as a white solid (87.3 g). LRMS (M+H) m/z 195.1.

Example 9 Synthesis of ((lr,3r)-3-fluoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutyl)methanamine

[0103] A mixture of ( 1.v,3.v)-3-fluoro- 1 -(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutane- 1 -carbonitrile (71 g, 0.37 mol) and Raney nickel (~7 g) in 7N ammonia in methanol (700 mL) was charged with hydrogen (60 psi) for 2 days. The reaction was filtered through a celite pad and washed with methanol. The filtrate was concentrated under high vacuum to provide the title compound as a light green oil (70 g, 97.6%). LRMS (M+H) m/z 199.2.

Example 10 Synthesis of t-butyl 5-bromopyrimidin-2-yl((trans-3-fluoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutyl)methyl) carbamate

[0104] A mixture of ((lr,3r)-3-fluoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutyl)methanamine (37.6 g, 190 mmol), 5-bromo-2-fluoropyrimidine (32.0 g, 181 mmol), DIPEA (71 mL, 407 mmol), and NMP (200 mL) was stirred at rt overnight. The reaction mixture was then diluted with EtOAc (1500 mL) and washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate (500 mL). The

organic layer was separated, dried over Na2S04, and concentrated. The resultant solid was dissolved in THF (600 mL), followed by the slow addition of DMAP (14 g, 90 mmol) and Boc20 (117.3 g, 542 mmol). The reaction was heated to 60° C. and stirred for 3 h. The reaction mixture was then concentrated and purified by silica gel chromatography

(EtO Ac/hex) to give 59.7 g oft-butyl 5-bromopyrimidin-2-yl((trans-3-fluoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutyl)methyl)carbamate as a white solid.

Example 11 Synthesis of t-butyl 5-(3-cyano- 1 H -pyrrol- 1 -yl)pyrimidin-2-yl(((lrans)-3-fhtoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclohutyl)methyl)carhamate

[0105] To a solution oft-butyl 5-bromopyrimidin-2-yl((trans-3-fluoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutyl)methyl) carbamate (1.0 g, 2.8 mmol) in 15 mL of toluene (degassed with nitrogen) was added copper iodide (100 mg, 0.6 mmol), potassium phosphate (1.31 g, 6.2 mmol), trans-N,N’-dimethylcyclohexane-l, 2-diamine (320 mg, 2.2 mmol), and 3-cyanopyrrole (310 mg, 3.6 mmol). The reaction was heated to 100 °C and stirred for 2 h. The reaction was then concentrated and purified by silica gel chromatography (EtOAc/hexanes) to afford 1.1 g of t-butyl 5-(3-cyano-lH-pyrrol-l-yl)pyrimidin-2-yl(((trans)-3-fluoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutyl)methyl)carbamate as a clear oil.

Example 12 Synthesis of l-(2-((((trans)-3-fluoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutyl)methyl)amino)pyrimidin-5-yl)-lH-pyrrole-3-carboxamide

[0106] To a solution oft-butyl 5-(3-cyano-lH-pyrrol-l-yl)pyrimidin-2-yl(((trans)-3-fluoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutyl)methyl)carbamate (1.1 g, 3.1 mmol) in DMSO (10 mL) was added potassium carbonate (1.3 g, 9.3 mmol). The mixture was cooled to 0 °C and hydrogen peroxide (3 mL) was slowly added. The reaction was warmed to rt and stirred for 90 min. The reaction was diluted with EtO Ac (75 mL) and washed three times with brine (50 mL). The organic layer was then dried over Na2S04, filtered, and concentrated to give a crude solid that was purified by silica gel chromatography (10% MeOH/CH2Cl2) to afford 1.07 g of a white solid compound. This compound was dissolved in 25% TFA/CH2CI2 and stirred for 1 hour. The reaction was then concentrated, dissolved in ethyl acetate (75 mL), and washed three times with saturated potassium carbonate solution. The organic layer was then dried over Na2S04, filtered, and concentrated to give a crude solid that was triturated with 75% ethyl acetate/hexanes. The resultant slurry was sonicated and filtered to give 500 mg of l-(2-((((trans)-3-fluoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutyl)methyl)amino)pyrimidin-5-yl)-lH-pyrrole-3 -carboxamide as a white solid. LRMS (M+H=385).


1: Andrews JA, Miller TM, Vijayakumar V, Stoltz R, James JK, Meng L, Wolff AA, Malik FI. CK-2127107 amplifies skeletal muscle response to nerve activation in humans. Muscle Nerve. 2018 May;57(5):729-734. doi: 10.1002/mus.26017. Epub 2017 Dec 11. PubMed PMID: 29150952.

2: Gross N. The COPD Pipeline XXXII. Chronic Obstr Pulm Dis. 2016 Jul 14;3(3):688-692. doi: 10.15326/jcopdf.3.3.2016.0150. PubMed PMID: 28848893; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5556764.

//////////////CK-2127107, CK 2127107, CK2127107, Reldesemtiv, Cytokinetics,   Astellas, neuromuscular disorders, muscle wasting, claudication, metabolic syndrome, spinal muscular atrophy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Orphan Drug Status, Spinal muscular atrophy, Phase II






LOXO 292

CAS: 2152628-33-4
Chemical Formula: C29H31N7O3
Molecular Weight: 525.613



 6-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropoxy)-4-(6-{6-[(6-methoxypyridin- 3-yl)methyl]-3,6-diazabicyclo[3.1.1]heptan-3-yl}pyridin-3- yl)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine-3-carbonitrile

Selpercatinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor with antineoplastic properties.

A phase I/II trial is also under way in pediatric patients and young adults with activating RET alterations and advanced solid or primary CNS tumors.

Loxo Oncology (a wholly-owned subsidiary of Eli Lilly ), under license from Array , is developing selpercatinib, a lead from a program of RET kinase inhibitors, for treating cancer, including non-small-cell lung cancer, medullary thyroid cancer, colon cancer, breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, papillary thyroid cancer, other solid tumors, infantile myofibromatosis, infantile fibrosarcoma and soft tissue sarcoma

In 2018, the compound was granted orphan drug designation in the U.S. for the treatment of pancreatic cancer and in the E.U. for the treatment of medullary thyroid carcinoma.

Trk is a high affinity receptor tyrosine kinase activated by a group of soluble growth factors called neurotrophic factor (NT). The Trk receptor family has three members, namely TrkA, TrkB and TrkC. Among the neurotrophic factors are (1) nerve growth factor (NGF) which activates TrkA, (2) brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and NT4/5 which activate TrkB, and (3) NT3 which activates TrkC. Trk is widely expressed in neuronal tissues and is involved in the maintenance, signaling and survival of neuronal cells.
The literature also shows that Trk overexpression, activation, amplification and/or mutations are associated with many cancers including neuroblastoma, ovarian cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, multiple myeloma, astrocytoma. And medulloblastoma, glioma, melanoma, thyroid cancer, pancreatic cancer, large cell neuroendocrine tumor and colorectal cancer. In addition, inhibitors of the Trk/neurotrophin pathway have been shown to be effective in a variety of preclinical animal models for the treatment of pain and inflammatory diseases.
The neurotrophin/Trk pathway, particularly the BDNF/TrkB pathway, has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, and Alzheimer’s disease. The modulating neurotrophic factor/Trk pathway can be used to treat these and related diseases.
It is believed that the TrkA receptor is critical for the disease process in the parasitic infection of Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease) in human hosts. Therefore, TrkA inhibitors can be used to treat Chagas disease and related protozoal infections.
Trk inhibitors can also be used to treat diseases associated with imbalances in bone remodeling, such as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and bone metastasis. Bone metastases are a common complication of cancer, up to 70% in patients with advanced breast or prostate cancer and about 15 in patients with lung, colon, stomach, bladder, uterine, rectal, thyroid or kidney cancer Up to 30%. Osteolytic metastases can cause severe pain, pathological fractures, life-threatening hypercalcemia, spinal cord compression, and other neurostress syndromes. For these reasons, bone metastases are a serious cancer complication that is costly. Therefore, an agent that can induce apoptosis of proliferating bone cells is very advantageous. Expression of the TrkA receptor and TrkC receptor has been observed in the osteogenic region of the fractured mouse model. In addition, almost all osteoblast apoptosis agents are very advantageous. Expression of the TrkA receptor and TrkC receptor has been observed in the osteogenic region of the fractured mouse model. In addition, localization of NGF was observed in almost all osteoblasts. Recently, it was demonstrated that pan-Trk inhibitors in human hFOB osteoblasts inhibit tyrosine signaling activated by neurotrophic factors that bind to all three Trk receptors. This data supports the theory of using Trk inhibitors to treat bone remodeling diseases, such as bone metastases in cancer patients.
Developed by Loxo Oncology, Larotrectinib (LOXO-101) is a broad-spectrum antineoplastic agent for all tumor patients expressing Trk, rather than tumors at an anatomical location. LOXO-101 chemical name is (S)-N-(5-((R)-2-(2,5-difluorophenyl)-pyrrolidin-1-yl)pyrazolo[1,5-a] Pyrimidin-3-yl)-3-hydroxypyrrolidine-1-carboxamide, the structural formula is as follows. LOXO-101 began treatment of the first patient in March 2015; on July 13, 2016, the FDA granted a breakthrough drug qualification for the inoperable removal or metastatic solid tumor of adults and children with positive Trk fusion gene mutations; Key entry was completed in February 2017; in November 2018, the FDA approved the listing under the trade name Vitrakvi.
Poor absorption, distribution, metabolism, and/or excretion (ADME) properties are known to be the primary cause of clinical trial failure in many drug candidates. Many of the drugs currently on the market also limit their range of applications due to poor ADME properties. The rapid metabolism of drugs can lead to the inability of many drugs that could be effectively treated to treat diseases because they are too quickly removed from the body. Frequent or high-dose medications may solve the problem of rapid drug clearance, but this approach can lead to problems such as poor patient compliance, side effects caused by high-dose medications, and increased treatment costs. In addition, rapidly metabolizing drugs may also expose patients to undesirable toxic or reactive metabolites.
Although LOXO-101 is effective as a Trk inhibitor in the treatment of a variety of cancers and the like, it has been found that a novel compound having a good oral bioavailability and a drug-forming property for treating a cancer or the like is a challenging task. Thus, there remains a need in the art to develop compounds having selective inhibitory activity or better pharmacodynamics/pharmacokinetics for Trk kinase mediated diseases useful as therapeutic agents, and the present invention provides such compounds.
WO 2018071447




US 20190106438


WO 2019075108

Compounds of Formula I-IV, 4-(6-(4-((6-methoxypyridin-3-yl)methyl)piperazin-1-yl)pyridin-3-yl)-6-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine-3-carbonitrile (Formula I); 6-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropoxy)-4-(6-(6-((6-methoxypyridin-3-yl)methyl)-3,6-diazabicyclo[3.1.1]heptan-3-yl)pyridin-3-yl)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine-3-carbonitrile (Formula II); 6-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropoxy)-4-(6-(6-(6-methoxynicotinoyl)-3,6-diazabicyclo[3.1.1]heptan-3-yl)pyridin-3-yl)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine-3-carbonitrile (Formula III); and 6-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropoxy)-4-(6-(4-hydroxy-4-(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)piperidin-1-yl)pyridin-3-yl)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine-3-carbonitrile (Formula IV) are inhibitors of RET kinase, and are useful for treating diseases such as proliferative diseases, including cancers.

[0007] Accordingly, provided herein is a compound of Formula I-IV:

and pharmaceutically acceptable salts, amorphous, and polymorph forms thereof.


WO 2019075114



Novel deuterated analogs of pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine compounds, particularly selpercatinib , processes for their preparation and compositions comprising them are claimed. Also claims are their use for treating pain, inflammation, cancer and certain infectious diseases.

Example 2(S)-N-(5-((R)-2-(2,5-difluorophenyl)pyrrolidin-1-yl-2,3,3-d 3)-pyrazolo[ 1,5-a] pyrimidin-3-yl) -3-hydroxypyrazole prepared pyrrolidine-1-carboxamide (compound L-2) a.


Use the following route for synthesis:

Patent ID Title Submitted Date Granted Date
US10137124 Substituted pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine compounds as RET kinase inhibitors 2018-01-03
US10172851 Substituted pyrazolo[1,5-A]pyridine compounds as RET kinase inhibitors 2018-01-03
US10112942 Substituted pyrazolo[1,5-A]pyridine compounds as RET kinase inhibitors 2017-12-29

/////////////SELPERCATINIB, non-small-cell lung cancer, medullary thyroid cancer, colon cancer, breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, papillary thyroid cancer, other solid tumors, infantile myofibromatosis, infantile fibrosarcoma, soft tissue sarcoma, LOXO, ELI LILY,  ARRAY, LOXO 292, orphan drug designation


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