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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 29 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 29 year tenure till date Aug 2016, Around 30 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 25 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 13 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 212 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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Tradipitant, традипитант , تراديبيتانت , 曲地匹坦 ,


LY686017.svgTradipitant.png

Tradipitant

VLY-686,  LY686017

традипитант
تراديبيتانت [Arabic]
曲地匹坦 [Chinese]
  • Molecular Formula C28H16ClF6N5O
  • Average mass 587.903 Da
622370-35-8  CAS
Methanone, [2-[1-[[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]methyl]-5-(4-pyridinyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl]-3-pyridinyl](2-chlorophenyl)-
(2-(1-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)benzyl)-5-(pyridin-4-yl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)pyridin-3-yl)(2-chlorophenyl)methanone
[2-[1-[[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]methyl]-5-(4-pyridinyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl]-3-pyridinyl](2-chlorophenyl)methanone

PHASE 2, Gastroparesis; Pruritus

pyridine-containing NK-1 receptor antagonist ie tradipitant, useful for treating anxiety, pruritus and alcoholism.

Vanda Pharmaceuticals, under license from Eli Lilly, was developing tradipitant, a NK1 antagonist, for treating anxiety disorder, pruritus and alcohol dependence. The company was also investigating the drug for treating gastroparesis. In February 2017, tradipitant was reported to be in phase 2 clinical development for treating anxiety and pruritus.

  • Originator Eli Lilly
  • Developer Eli Lilly; National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Vanda Pharmaceuticals
  • Class Antipruritics; Anxiolytics; Chlorobenzenes; Pyridines; Small molecules; Triazoles
  • Mechanism of Action Neurokinin 1 receptor antagonists; Substance P inhibitors

Highest Development Phases

  • Phase II Gastroparesis; Pruritus
  • Discontinued Alcoholism; Social phobia
  • The drug had been in phase II clinical trials at Lilly and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism for the treatment of alcoholism; however, no recent development has been reported for this research.
  • A phase II clinical trial for the treatment of social phobia has been completed by Lilly.

PATENT WO 2003091226

Albert Kudzovi Amegadzie, Kevin Matthew Gardinier, Erik James Hembre, Jian Eric Hong, Louis Nickolaus Jungheim, Brian Stephen Muehl, David Michael Remick, Michael Alan Robertson, Kenneth Allen Savin, Less «
Applicant Eli Lilly And Company

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SYNTHESIS

Condensation of 2-chloropyridine with thiophenol  in the presence of K2CO3 in DMF at 110ºC yields sulfide intermediate,

which is then oxidized by means of NaOCl in AcOH to give 2-(benzenesulfonyl)pyridine.

This is treated with (iPr)2NH and n-BuLi in THF at -60 to -70°C and subsequently couples with 2-chlorobenzaldehyde  in THF at -60 to -70°C to furnish (2-(phenylsulfonyl)pyridin-3-yl)-(2-chlorophenyl)methanone.

Ketone  couples with the enolate of 4-acetylpyridine (formed by treating 4-acetylpyridine (VII) with t-BuOK in DMSO) in the presence of LiOH in DMSO and subsequently is treated with PhCOOH in iPrOAc to give rise to pyridine benzoate derivative.

This finally couples with 1-azidomethyl-3,5-bistrifluoromethylbenzene  (obtained by treating 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)benzylchloride with NaN3 ini DMSO) in the presence of K2CO3 in t-BuOH to afford the title compound Tradipitant.

Tradipitant (VLY-686 or LY686017) is an experimental drug that is a neurokinin 1 antagonist. It works by blocking substance P, a small signaling molecule. Originally, this compound was owned by Eli Lilly and named LY686017. VLY-686 was purchased by Vanda Pharmaceuticals from Eli Lilly and Company in 2012.[1] Vanda Pharmaceuticals is a U.S. pharmaceutical company that as of November 2015 only has 3 drugs in their product pipeline: tasimelteon, VLY-686, and iloperidone.[2]

Tachykinins are a family of peptides that are widely distributed in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. These peptides exert a number of biological effects through actions at tachykinin receptors. To date, three such receptors have been characterized, including the NK-1 , NK-2, and NK-3 subtypes of tachykinin receptor.

The role of the NK-1 receptor subtype in numerous disorders of the central nervous system and the periphery has been thoroughly demonstrated in the art. For instance, NK-1 receptors are believed to play a role in depression, anxiety, and central regulation of various autonomic, as well as cardiovascular and respiratory functions. NK- 1 receptors in the spinal cord are believed to play a role in pain transmission, especially the pain associated with migraine and arthritis. In the periphery, NK-1 receptor activation has been implicated in numerous disorders, including various inflammatory disorders, asthma, and disorders of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract.

There is an increasingly wide recognition that selective NK-1 receptor antagonists would prove useful in the treatment of many diseases of the central nervous system and the periphery. While many of these disorders are being treated by new medicines, there are still many shortcomings associated with existing treatments. For example, the newest class of anti-depressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are increasingly prescribed for the treatment of depression; however, SSRIs have numerous side effects, including nausea, insomnia, anxiety, and sexual dysfunction. This could significantly affect patient compliance rate. As another example, current treatments for chemotherapy- induced nausea and emesis, such as the 5-HT3receptor antagonists, are ineffective in managing delayed emesis. The development of NK-1 receptor antagonists will therefore greatly enhance the ability to treat such disorders more effectively. Thus, the present invention provides a class of potent, non-peptide NK-1 receptor antagonists, compositions comprising these compounds, and methods of using the compounds.

Indications

Pruritus

It is being investigated by Vanda Pharmaceuticals for chronic pruritus (itchiness) in atopic dermatitis. In March 2015, Vanda announced positive results from a Phase II proof of concept study.[3] A proof of concept study is done in early stage clinical trials after there have been promising preclinical results. It provides preliminary evidence that the drug is active in humans and has some efficacy.[4]

Alcoholism

VLY-686 reduced alcohol craving in recently detoxified alcoholic patients as measured by the Alcohol Urge Questionnaire.[5] In a placebo controlled clinical trial of recently detoxified alcoholic patients, VLY-686 significantly reduced alcohol craving as measured by the Alcohol Urge Questionnaire. It also reduced the cortisol increase seen after a stress test compared to placebo. The dose given was 50 mg per day.

Social anxiety disorder

In a 12-week randomized trial of LY68017 in 189 patients with social anxiety disorder, 50 mg of LY68017 did not provide any statistically significant improvement over placebo.[6]

PATENT

WO03091226,

https://www.google.com/patents/WO2003091226A1?cl=en

PATENT

WO2008079600, 

The compound {2-[l-(3,5-bis-trifluoromethyl-benzyl)-5-pyridin-4-yl-lH-[l,2,3]triazol-4-yl]- pyridin-3-yl}-(2-chlorophenyl)-methanone, depicted below as the compound of Formula I, was first described in PCT published application WO2003/091226.

Figure imgf000003_0001

(I)

Because the compound of Formula I is an antagonist of the NK-I subtype of tachykinin receptor, it is useful for the treatment of disorders associated with an excess of tachykinins. Such disorders include depression, including major depressive disorder; anxiety, including generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, and social phobia or social anxiety disorder; schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, including bipolar disorder; neurodegenerative disorders such as dementia, including senile dementia of the Alzheimer’s type or Alzheimer’s disease; disorders of bladder function such as bladder detrusor hyper-reflexia and incontinence, including urge incontinence; emesis, including chemotherapy-induced nausea and acute or delayed emesis; pain or nociception; disorders associated with blood pressure, such as hypertension; disorders of blood flow caused by vasodilation and vasospastic diseases, such as angina, migraine, and Reynaud’s disease; hot flushes; acute and chronic obstructive airway diseases such as adult respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopneumonia, bronchospasm, chronic bronchitis, drivercough, and asthma; inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease; gastrointestinal disorders or diseases associated with the neuronal control of viscera such as ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, functional dyspepsia, and irritable bowel syndrome (including constipation-predominant, diarrhea- -?-

predominant, and mixed irritable bowel syndrome); and cutaneous diseases such as contact dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, urticaria, and other eczematoid dermatitis.

In PCT published application, WO2005/042515, novel crystalline forms of the compound of Formula I, identified as Form IV and Form V, are identified. Also described in WO2005/042515 is a process for preparation of the compound of Formula I, comprising reacting (2-chlorophenyl)-[2-(2- hydroxy-2-pyridin-4-yl-vinyl)pyridin-3-yl]methanone or a phosphate salt thereof with l-azidomethyl-3,5- bistrifluoromethylbenzene in the presence of a suitable base and a solvent. Use of this procedure results in several shortcomings for synthesis on a commercial scale. For example, use of the solvent DMSO, with (2- chlorophenyl)-[2-(2-hydroxy-2-pyridin-4-yl-vinyl)pyridin-3-yl]methanone phosphate, requires a complex work-up that has a propensity to emulsify. This process also requires extraction with CH2CI2, the use of which is discouraged due to its potential as an occupational carcinogen, as well as the use of MgSC>4 and acid-washed carbon, which can generate large volumes of waste on a commercial scale. Conducting the reaction with (2-chlorophenyl)-[2-(2-hydroxy-2-pyridin-4-yl-vinyl)pyridin-3-yl]methanone in isopropyl alcohol, as also described in WO2005/042515, is also undesirable due to the need to incorporate a free base step. Furthermore, variable levels of residual l-azidomethyl-3,5-bistrifluoromethylbenzene, a known mutagen, are obtained from use of the procedures described in WO2005/042515.

An improved process for preparing the compound of Formula I would control the level of 1- azidomethyl-3,5-bistrifluoromethylbenzene impurity, and improve the yield. We have discovered that use of the novel salt, (2-chlorophenyl)-[2-(2-hydroxy-2-pyridin-4-yl-vinyl)pyridin-3-yl]methanone benzoate, as well as use of tert-butanol as the reaction solvent, improves reaction times and final yield, and decreases impurities in the final product. In addition, a novel process for the preparation of (2-chlorophenyl)- [2-(2- hydroxy-2-pyridin-4-yl-vinyl)pyridin-3-yl]methanone benzoate, in which a pre-formed enolate of 4-acetyl pyridine is added to (2-phenylsulfonyl-pyridine-3-yl)-(2-chlorophenyl)methanone, results in an overall improved yield and improved purity, and is useful on a commercial scale.

EXAMPLES

Example 1 {2-[l-(3,5-bistrifluoromethylbenzyl)-5-pyridin-4-yl-lH-[l,2,3]triazol-4-yl]-pyridin-3-yl}-(2-chlorophenyl)- methanone (Form IV)

Figure imgf000005_0001

Suspend (2-chlorophenyl)-[2-(2-hydroxy-2-pyridin-4-yl-vinyl)pyridin-3-yl] methanone benzoate (204.7 g; 1.04 equiv; 445 mmoles) in t-butanol (614 mL) and treat the slurry with potassium carbonate (124.2 g; 898.6 mmoles). Heat to 7O0C with mechanical stirring for 1 hour. Add l-azidomethyl-3,5- bistrifluoromethylbenzene (115.6 g; 1.00 equiv; 429.4 mmoles) in a single portion, then heat the mixture to reflux. A circulating bath is used to maintain a condenser temperature of 3O0C. After 18 hours at reflux, HPLC reveals that the reaction is complete (<2% l-azidomethyl-3,5-bistrifluoromethylbenzene remaining). The mixture is cooled to 7O0C, isopropanol (818 mL) is added, then the mixture is stirred at 7O0C for 1 hour. The mixture is filtered, and the waste filter cake is rinsed with isopropanol (409 mL). The combined filtrate and washes are transferred to a reactor, and the mechanically stirred contents are heated to 7O0C. To the dark purple solution, water (1.84 L) is added slowly over 35 minutes. The solution is cooled to 6O0C, then stirred for 1 hour, during which time a thin precipitate forms. The mixture is slowly cooled to RT, then the solid is filtered, washed with 1 : 1 isopropanol/water (614 mL), subsequently washed with isopropanol (410 mL), then dried in vacuo at 450C to produce 200.3 g of crude {2-[l-(3,5- bistrifluoromethylbenzyl)-5-pyridin-4-yl-lH-[l,2,3]triazol-4-yl]-pyridin-3-yl}-(2-chlorophenyl)-methanone as a white solid. Crude {2-[l-(3,5-bistrifluoromethylbenzyl)-5-pyridin-4-yl-lH-[l,2,3]triazol-4-yl]-pyridin- 3-yl}-(2-chlorophenyl)-methanone (200.3 g) and isopropyl acetate (600 mL) are charged to a 5L 3-neck jacketed flask, then the contents heated to 750C. After dissolution is achieved, the vessel contents are cooled to 550C, then the solution polish filtered through a 5 micron filter, and the filter rinsed with a volume of isopropyl acetate (200 mL). After the polish filtration operation is complete, the filtrates are combined, and the vessel contents are adjusted to 5O0C. After stirring for at least 15 minutes at 5O0C, 0.21 grams of {2-[l-(3,5-bistrifluoromethylbenzyl)-5-pyridin-4-yl-lH-[l,2,3]triazol-4-yl]-pyridin-3-yl}-(2- chlorophenyl)-methanone Form IV seed (d90 = 40 microns) is added, and the mixture stirred at 5O0C for at least 2 h. Heptanes (1.90 L) are then added over at least 2 h. After the heptanes addition is completed, the slurry is stirred for an hour at 5O0C, cooled to 230C at a rate less then 2O0C per hour, then aged at 230C for an hour prior to isolation. The mixture is then filtered in portions through the bottom outlet valve in the reactor into a 600 mL filter. The resulting wetcake is washed portionwise with a solution containing heptanes (420 mL) and isopropyl acetate (180 mL), which is passed directly through the 5L crystallization vessel. The wetcake is blown dry for 5 minutes with nitrogen, then transferred to a 500 mL plastic bottle. The product is dried at 5O0C for 4 h. to produce 190.3g of pure {2-[l-(3,5- bistrifluoromethylbenzyl)-5-pyridin-4-yl-lH-[l,2,3]triazol-4-yl]-pyridin-3-yl}-(2-chlorophenyl)- methanone, Form IV in 75.0% yield with 100% purity, as determined by HPLC analysis. Particle size is reduced via pin or jet mill. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): 5.46 (s, 2H); 7.19 (m, 5H); 7.36 (dd, IH, J = 4.9, 7.8); 7.45 (s, 2H); 7.59 (m, IH); 7.83 (s, IH); 7.93 (dd, IH, J = 1.5, 7.8); 8.56 (dd, IH, J= 1.5, 4.9); 8.70 (d, 2H, J= 5.9).

Preparation 1-A (2-chlorophenyl)-[2-(2-hydroxy-2-pyridin-4-yl-vinyl)pyridin-3-yl]methanone benzoate Charge powdered KOfBu (221.1 g, 1.93 moles, 1.40 eq.) to Reactor A, then charge DMSO (2 L) at

250C over 10 min. The KOfBu/DMSO solution is stirred for 30 min at 230C, then a solution of 4-acetyl pyridine (92 mL, 2.07 moles, 1.50 eq) in DMSO (250 mL) is prepared in reactor B. The contents of reactor B are added to Reactor A over 10 minutes, then the Reactor A enolate solution is stirred at 230C for Ih. In a separate 12-L flask (Reactor C), solid LiOH (84.26 g, 3.45 moles, 2.0 eq) is poured into a mixture of (2- phenylsulfonyl-pyridin-3-yl)-(2-chlorophenyl)methanone (500.0 g, 1.34 moles, 1.0 eq) and DMSO (2L), with stirring, at 230C. The enolate solution in reactor A is then added to Reactor C over a period of at least 15 minutes, and the red suspension warmed to 4O0C. The reaction is stirred for 3h, after which time HPLC analysis reveals less than 2% (2-phenylsulfonyl-pyridin-3-yl)-(2-chlorophenyl)methanone. Toluene (2.5 L) is charged, and the reactor temperature cooled to 3O0C. The mixture is quenched by addition of glacial acetic acid (316 mL, 5.52 moles, 4.0 eq), followed by 10 % NaCl (2.5 L). The biphasic mixture is transferred to a 22-L bottom-outlet Morton flask, and the aqueous layer is removed. The aqueous layer is then extracted with toluene (750 mL). The combined organic layers are washed with 10 % NaCl (750 mL), then concentrated to 4 volumes and transferred to a 12-L Morton flask and rinsed with isopropyl acetate (4 vol, 2 L). The opaque amber solution is warmed to 75 degrees to 750C over 40 min. Benzoic acid (171. Ig, 1.34 moles, 1.0 eq) is dissolved in hot isopropyl acetate (1.5 L), and charged to the crude free base solution over at least 30 min. The crude solution containing benzoate salt is stirred for 0.5 h at 750C then cooled to 23 0C. When solids are first observed, the cooling is stopped and the mixture is aged for an hour at the temperature at which crystals are first observed. Alternatively, if seed crystal is available, the mixture may be seeded with (2-chlorophenyl)-[2-(2-hydroxy-2-pyridin-4-yl-vinyl)pyridin-3-yl]methanone benzoate (2.25g) at 750C, followed by stirring for 0.5 h at 750C, then cooling to 230C over at least 1.5 h. The mixture is then cooled to <5 0C, then filtered through paper on a 24cm single-plate filter. The filtercake is then rinsed with cold z-PrOAc (750 mL) to produce granular crystals of bright orange-red color. The wet solid is dried at 550C to produce 527.3 g (83% yield) with 99.9% purity. (2-chlorophenyl)-[2-(2-hydroxy-2- pyridin-4-yl-vinyl)pyridin-3-yl]methanone benzoate. Anal. Calcd. for C26Hi9N2ClO4: C, 68.05; H, 4.17; N, 7.13. Found: C, 67.89; H, 4.15; N 6.05. HRMS: calcd for C19H13ClN2O2, 336.0666; found 336.0673.

The synthesis of(2-chlorophenyl)-[2-(2-hydroxy-2-pyridin-4-yl-vinyl)pyridin-3-yl]methanone benzoate proceeds optimally when the potassium enolate of 4-acetyl pyridine is pre-formed using KOfBu in DMSO. Pre-formation of the enolate allows the SNAR (nucleophilic aromatic substitution) reaction to be performed between room temperature and 4O0C, which minimizes the amount of degradation. Under these conditions, the SNAR is highly regioselective, resulting in a ratio of approximately 95:5 preferential C – acylation. In all cases, less polar solvents such as THF or toluene, or co-solvents of these solvents mixed with DMSO, results in a substantial increase of acylation at the oxygen in the SNAR, and leads to a lower yield of product. This is a substantial improvement over the procedures described in WO2005/042515 for synthesis of the free base or the phosphate salt, in which the SNAR is performed at 60-700C, resulting in a substantial increase in chemical impurity. Using the conditions described in WO2005/042515, when scaled to 2kg, results in maximum yields of 55%, with sub-optimal potency. In comparison, the improved conditions described herein can be run reproducibly from 0.4 to 2kg scale to give yields of 77-83%, with >99% purity. In addition, the reaction can be held overnight at 4O0C with minimal degradation, whereas holding the reaction for 1 h past completion at 60-70°C results in substantial aromatized impurity. The reaction may also be performed using sodium tert-amylate as the base, in combination with an aprotic solvent, such as DMSO or DMF.

The title compound exists as a mixture of tautomers and geometric isomers. It is understood that each of these forms is encompassed within the scope of the invention.

Figure imgf000008_0001

Preparation 1-B

(2-chlorophenyl)-[2-(2-hydroxy-2-pyridin-4-yl-vinyl)pyridin-3-yl]methanone toluate The procedure described in Preparation 1-A is followed, with the following exception. Solid toluic acid (1.0 eq) is added to the crude free base solution at 550C, then the solution cooled to 45 0C. The solution is stirred for one hour at 45 0C, then slowly cooled to 23 0C. When solids are first observed, the cooling is stopped and the mixture is aged for an hour at the temperature at which crystals are first observed. Alternatively, if seed crystal is available, the mixture may be seeded, aged for 3 h at 450C , then cooled to O0C over 4 h. The isolation slurry is filtered, and the wetcake washed with MeOH (3 volumes). The wetcake is dried at 5O0C to provide 14.0 g (76.4%) of (2-chlorophenyl)-[2-(2-hydroxy-2-pyridin-4-yl- vinyl)pyridin-3-yl]methanone toluate as a light red powder.

As with the benzoate salt, the toluate salt can also exist as a mixture of tautomers and geometric isomers, each of which is encompassed within the scope of the invention. (2-chlorophenyl)-[2-(2-hydroxy- 2-pyridin-4-yl-vinyl)pyridin-3-yl]methanone toluate . 13C NMR (125 MHz,DMS0-d6) δ 194.5, 167.8, 167.4, 155.5, 150.7 (2C), 147.4, 144.0, 143.4, 142.7, 138.6, 133.0, 130.8, 130.7, 130.5, 129.8(2C), 129.5(2C), 128.5, 128.0, 127.9, 119.9 (2C), 118.6, 92.6, 21.5.

Preparation 1-C

(2-phenylsulfonyl-pyridin-3-yl)-(2-chlorophenyl)methanone

A solution of 1.3 eq of diisopropylamine (based on 2-benzenesulfonyl pyridine) in 5 volumes of THF in a mechanically stirred 3 -necked flask is cooled to -70 to -75 0C. To this solution is added 1.05 eq of w-butyllithium (1.6M in hexanes) at such a rate as to maintain the temperature below -6O0C. The light yellow solution is stirred at -60 to -70 0C for 30 minutes. Once the temperature has cooled back down to – 60 to -650C, 1.0 eq of 2-benzene-sulfonyl pyridine, as a solution in 3 volumes of THF, is added at the fastest rate that will maintain the reaction temperature under -6O0C. A yellow suspension forms during the addition that becomes yellow-orange upon longer stirring. This mixture is stirred for 3 hours at -60 to – 750C, and then 1.06 eq of 2-chlorobenzaldehyde, as a solution in 1 volume of THF, is added dropwise at a sufficient rate to keep the temperature under -55 0C. The suspension gradually turns orange-red, thins out, and then becomes a clear red solution. The reaction mixture is allowed to stir at -60 to -7O0C for 1 hour, 3N aqueous HCl (7 volumes) is added over 20-30 minutes, and the temperature is allowed to exotherm to 0-100C. The color largely disappears, leaving a biphasic yellow solution. The solution is warmed to at least 1O0C, the layers are separated, and the aqueous layer is back-extracted with 10 volumes of ethyl acetate. The combined organic layers are washed with 10 volumes of saturated sodium bicarbonate solution and concentrated to about 2 volumes. Ethyl acetate (10 volumes) is added, and the solution is once again concentrated to 2 volumes. The thick solution is allowed to stand overnight and is taken to the next step with no purification of the crude alcohol intermediate. The crude alcohol intermediate is transferred to a 3 -necked flask with enough ethyl acetate to make the total solution about 10 volumes. The yellow solution is treated with 3.2 volumes of 10% aqueous (w/w) potassium bromide, followed by 0.07 eq of 2,2,6,6-Tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxide (TEMPO). The orange mixture is cooled to 0-50C and treated with a solution of 1.25 eq of sodium bicarbonate in 12% w/w sodium hypochlorite (9 volumes) and 5 volumes of water over 30-60 minutes while allowing the temperature to exotherm to a maximum of 2O0C. The mixture turns dark brown during the addition, but becomes yellow, and a thick precipitate forms. The biphasic light yellow mixture is allowed to stir at ambient temperature for 1-3 hours, at which time the reaction is generally completed. The biphasic mixture is cooled to 0-50C and stirred for 3 hours at that temperature. The solid is filtered off, washed with 4 volumes of cold ethyl acetate, followed by 4 volumes of water, and dried in vacuo at 450C to constant weight. Typical yield is 80-83% with a purity of greater than 98%. 1H NMR (600 MHz, CDCl3-^) δ ppm 7.38 (td, ./=7.52, 1.28 Hz, 1 H) 7.47 (dd, ./=7.80, 1.30 Hz, 1 H) 7.51 (td, ./=7.79, 1.60 Hz, 1 H) 7.51 (t, ./=7.89 Hz, 2 H) 7.50 – 7.54 (m, J=7.75, 4.63 Hz, 1 H) 7.60 (t, J=7.43 Hz, 1 H) 7.73 (dd, J=7.75, 1.60 Hz, 1 H) 7.81 (dd, J=7.79, 1.56 Hz, 1 H) 8.00 (dd, ./=8.44, 1.10 Hz, 2 H) 8.76 (dd, ./=4.63, 1.61 Hz, 1 H).

Preparation 1-D 1 -azidomethyl-3,5-bistrifluoromethyl-benzene

Sodium azide (74.3 g, 1.14 mol) is suspended in water (125 mL), then DMSO (625 mL) is added. After stirring for 30 minutes, a solution consisting of 3,5-Bis(trifluoromethyl)benzyl chloride (255.3 g, 0.97 moles) and DMSO (500 mL) is added over 30 minutes. (The 3,5-Bis(trifluoromethyl)benzyl chloride is heated to 350C to liquefy prior to dispensing (MP = 30-320C)). The benzyl chloride feed vessel is rinsed with DMSO (50 mL) into the sodium azide solution, the mixture is heated to 4O0C, and then maintained for an hour at 4O0C, then cooled to 230C.

In Process Analysis: A drop of the reaction mixture is dissolved in d6-DMSO and the relative intensities of the methylene signals are integrated (NMR verified as a 0.35% limit test for 3,5- Bis(trifluoromethyl)benzyl Chloride). Work-up: After the mixture reaches 230C , it is diluted with heptanes (1500 mL), then water (1000 mL) is added, and the mixture exotherms to 350C against a jacket setpoint of 230C. The aqueous layer is removed (-2200 mL), then the organic layer (approximately 1700 mL) is washed with water (2 X 750 mL). The combined aqueous layers (-3700 mL) are analyzed and discarded.

The solvent is then partially removed via vacuum distillation with a jacket set point of 850C, pot temperature of 60-650C and distillate head temperature of 50-550C to produce 485g (94.5% yield) of 51 Wt% solution title compound as a clear liquid. Heptanes can be either further removed by vacuum distillation or wiped film evaporation technology. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): 4.58 (s, 2H); 7.81 (s, 2H); 7.90 (s, IH).

Preparation 1-E 2-benzene-sulfonyl pyridine Charge 2-chloropyridine (75 mL, 790 mmol), thiophenol (90 mL, 852 mmol), and DMF (450 mL) to a 2L flask. Add K2CO3 (134.6 g, 962 mmol), then heat to HO0C and stir for 18 hours. Filter the mixture, then rinse the waste cake with DMF (195 mL). The combined crude sulfide solution and rinses are transferred to a 5-L flask, and the waste filtercake is discarded. Glacial acetic acid (57 mL, 995 mmol) is added to the filtrate, then the solution is heated to 4O0C, and 13 wt % NaOCl solution (850 mL, 1.7 mol) is added over 2 hours. After the reaction is complete, water (150 mL) is added, then the pH of the mixture adjusted to 9 with 20 % (w/v) NaOH solution (250 mL). The resulting slurry is cooled to <5 0C, stirred for 1.5 h, then filtered, and the cake washed with water (3 x 200 mL). The product wetcake is dried in a 550C vacuum oven to provide 2-benzene-sulfonyl pyridine (149 g, 676 mmol) in 86 % yield: 1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) δ 8.66 (d, J = 5.5 Hz, IH), 8.19 (d, J = 1.1 Hz, IH), 8.05 (m, 2H), 7.92 (ddd, J= 9.3, 7.7, 1.6 Hz, IH), 7.60 (m, IH), 7.54 (m, 2H), 7.44 (m, IH); IR (KBr) 788, 984, 1124, 1166, 1306, 1424, 1446, 1575, 3085 cm“1; MS (TOF) mlz 220.0439 (220.0427 calcd for C11H10NO2S, MH); Anal, calcd for C11H9NO2S: C, 60.26; H, 4.14; N, 6.39; S, 14.62. Found: C, 60.40; H, 4.02; N, 6.40; S, 14.76.

As noted above, use of the improved process of the present invention results in an improved habit of the crystalline Form IV compound of Formula I. The improved habit reduces surface area of the crystal, improves the filtration, and washing, and improves the efficiency of azide mutagen rejection. These improvements are described in greater detail below.

In patent application WO2005/042515, the polish filtration is carried out in 7 volumes (L/kg) of isopropanol near its boiling point (65-83 0C), a process that is difficult and hazardous to execute in commercial manufacturing because of the high risk of crystallization on the filter and/or vessel transfer lines due to supersaturation. In the preferred crystallization solvent, isopropyl acetate, the polish filtration is conducted in four volumes of isopropyl acetate at temperatures from 45 to 55 0C. This temperature range is 35 to 45 0C lower than the boiling point of isopropyl acetate, which provides a key safety advantage.

PATENT

WO 2005042515

PATENT

WO 2017031215

EXAMPLES

Example 1: Preparation of Compound (I) via Negishi Coupling Route

Example 1 provides a scheme including preparations 1A-1D, described below, for the synthesis of the compound of Formula (I) and intermediates used in the route. An overview of the scheme is as follows:

80 on ma s ale

Example 1A: Preparation of Compound (I)

Zinc dust (200 mg, 3.06 mmol) combined with 2.0 mL of dimethylformamide was treated with 0.010 mL of 1,2-dibromoethane and heated to 65°C for 3 minutes. The mixture was cooled to ambient temperature and treated with 0.010 mL of trimethylsilyl chloride. After 5 minutes, 1.26 mL of 1M zinc chloride in diethyl ether was added to the mixture followed by Compound (Ila) (600 mg, 1.20 mmol). The mixture was heated to 65°C and further treated with 0.020 mL each of 1,2-dibromoethane and trimethylsilyl chloride. After 2.5 hours, via HPLC chromatogram, the reaction showed some formation of the zincate and was allowed to stir at ambient temperature for 16 hours. At this time

tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0) (70 mg, 0.06 mmol), Compound (Ilia) (357 mg, 1.20 mmol) were added to the reaction and the mixture heated to 65°C. HPLC analysis showed the formation of Compound (I) in the reaction.

IB: Preparation of Comp

To a solution of Compound (IV) (8.00 g, 18 mmol) in 40 mL of 1,2-dichloroethane was added a solution of iodine monochloride (10.7 g, 65.9 mmol) in 40 mL of 1,2-dichloroethane resulting in a slurry. The slurry was heated to 75°C for 4 hours then cooled to ambient temperature. The solids were collected by filtration, washed with heptane, then combined with 90 mL of ethyl acetate and 80 mL of saturated sodium thiosulfate solution. The organic phase was washed with saturated sodium chloride solution and dried with sodium sulfate. The mixture was concentrated to yield 7.80 g (87%) of Compound (Ila) as a yellow solid. The product could be further purified by silica gel chromatography. Thus 2.0 g of yellow solid was dissolved in dichloromethane and charged onto a silica gel column. The product was eluted using tert-butyl methyl ether to provide 1.87 g (93% recovery) of Compound (Ila) as a white powder. Analytical data: Iodine monochloride complex: ¾ NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-de) δ 8.80 (2 H), 8.05 (1 H), 7.77 (2 H), 7.59 (2 H), 5.86 (2 H).

Uncomplexed: ¾ NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-de) δ 8.71 (2 H), 8.03 (1 H), 7.74 (2 H), 7.44 (2 H), 5.86 (2 H).

It was observed that the iodination proceeded smoothly as a suspension in 1,2-dichloroethane with IC1 (4.0 equiv) at 75°C. An ICl-Compound (Ila) complex was initially isolated by filtration. Compound (Ila) was then obtained in approximately 85% yield by treatment of the ICl-Compound (Ila) complex with sodium thiosulfate. This protocol provided a viable means of isolation of Compound (Ila) without the use of DMF.

Example 1C: Preparation of silyl substituted triazole (Compound IV)

A mixture of Compound (V) (8.07 g, 30.0 mmol) and Compound (VI) (5.12 g, 29.2 mmol) was heated to 100°C for 18 hours. To the mixture was added 40 mL of heptane and the reaction was allowed to cool with rapid stirring. After 1 hour the solids were collected by filtration and washed with heptane then dried to 9.30 g (72%) of Compound (IV) as a tan solid. Analytical data: ¾ NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-de) δ 8.66 (2 H), 8.04 (1 H), 7.67 (2 H), 7.32 (2 H), 5.72 (2 H), 0.08 (9 H).

It was further found that combining Compound (V) and Compound (VI) (neat) and heating at 95 – 105°C afforded a 92: 8 mixture of regioisomers as shown below:

Crystallization of the mixture from heptane afforded Compound (IV) in 62-72% yield, thus obviating the need for chromatography to isolate Compound (IV).

Example ID: Preparation of starting material Compound (VI)

Zinc bromide (502 g, 2.23 mole) was added in approximately 100 g portions to 2.0 L of tetrahydrofuran cooled to between 0 and 10°C. To this cooled solution was added 4-bromopyridine hydrochloride (200 g, 1.02 mol), triphenylphosphine (54 g, 0.206 mol), and palladium (II) chloride (9.00 g, 0.0508 mol). Triethylamine (813 g, 8.03 mol) was then added at a rate to maintain the reaction temperature at less than 10°C, and finally

trimethylsilylacetylene (202 g, 2.05 mol) was added. The mixture was heated to 60°C for 4.5 hours. The reaction was cooled to -5°C and combined with 2.0 L of hexanes and treated with 2 L of 7.4 M NH4OH. Some solids were formed and were removed as much as possible with the aqueous phase. The organic phase was again washed with 2.0 L of 7.4 M NH4OH, followed by 2 washes with 500 mL of water, neutralized with 1.7 L of 3 M hydrochloric acid, dried with sodium sulfate, and concentrate to a thick slurry. The slurry was combined with 1.0 L of hexanes to give a precipitate. The precipitate was removed by filtration and the filtrate was concentrated to 209 g of dark oil. The product was purified by distillation (0.2 torr, 68°C) to give 172 g (96%) of Compound (VI) as colorless oil. Analytical data: ¾ NMR (500 MHz, DMDO-de) δ 8.57 (2 H), 7.40 (2 H), 0.23 (9 H).

EXAMPLE 2 – Preparation of Compound (Ilia)

Example 2 provides a morpholine amide route for the synthesis of Compound (Ilia). In this approach, morpholine amide (Compound VII) was prepared from 2-chlorobenzoyl chloride (Preparation 2A). Metallation of 2-bromopyridine with LDA (1.09 equiv.) in THF at -70°C followed by addition of (Compound VII) afforded Compound (Ilia) in 37% yield after crystallization from IP A/heptane (Preparation 2B). This sequence provides a direct route to Compound (Ilia), and a means to isolate Compound (Ilia) without the use of

chromatography. Compound (Ilia) may then be used to form Compound (I) as shown in Example 1A above (Preparation 2C).

Preparation 2A: Preparation of Compound (VII)

Toluene (1.5 L) was added to Compound (IX) (150 g, 0.86 mol) and cooled to 10°C. Morpholine (82 mL, 0.94 mol) was added to the clear solution over 10 minutes. The resulting white slurry was stirred for 20 minutes then pyridine (92 mL, 1.2 mol) was added dropwise over 20 minutes. The cloudy white mixture was stirred in a cold bath for 1 hour. Water (600 mL) was added in a single portion and the cold bath removed. The mixture was stirred for 20 minutes and the layers are separated. The organic layer was washed with a mixture of 1 N HC1 and water (2: 1, 500 mL:250 mL). The pH of the aqueous layer was ~ 2. The organic layer was washed with a mixture of saturated NaHCCb and water (1 : 1, 100 mL: 100 mL). The pH of the aqueous layer was ~ 9. The layers were separated. The organic layer was concentrated in vacuo to an oil. The oil was dissolved in IPA (70 mL) and heated at 60°C for 30 min. The clear solution was allowed to cool to 30°C, then heptane (700 mL, 4.7 v) was added dropwise. The resulting slurry was stirred at RT for 2 hours then cooled to 0°C for 1 hour. The slurry was filtered at RT, washed with heptane then dried under vacuum at 30°C overnight. Compound (VII) (156.2 g, 81%) was obtained as a white solid. Analytical data: ¾ NMR (500 MHz, CDCh) δ 7.42-7.40 (m, 1 H), 7.35-7.29 (m, 3 H), 3.91-3.87 (m, 1 H), 3.80-3.76 (m, 3 H), 3.71 (ddd, J= 11.5, 6.8, 3.3 Hz, 1 H), 3.60 (ddd, J = 11.2, 6.4, 3.4 Hz, 1 H), 3.28 (ddd, J= 13.4, 6.3, 3.2 Hz, 1 H), 3.22 (ddd, J= 13.7, 6.8, 3.3 Hz, 1 H); LRMS (ES+) calcd for CnHi3F6ClN02 (M+H)+ 226.1, found 225.9 m/z.

Preparation 2B: Preparation of Compound (Ilia)

THF (75 mL) was added to diisopropyl amine (4.9 mL, 34.8 mmol) and cooled to a

temperature of -70°C under N2 atmosphere. 2.5 M w-BuLi in hexanes (13.9 mL, 34.8 mmol) was added in a single portion (a 30-40°C exotherm) to the clear solution and cooled back to -70°C. Compound (VIII) (5.0 g, 31.6 mmol) was added neat to the LDA solution (a 2 to 5°C exotherm) followed by a THF (10 mL) rinse, keeping T< -65°C. This clear yellow solution was stirred at -70°C for 15 min. Compound (VII) (7.1 g, 31.6 mmol) in THF (30 mL) was added keeping T< -65°C. The resulting clear orange solution was stirred at -70°C for 3 hours. MeOH (3 mL) was added to quench reaction mixture and the cold bath was removed. 5 N HC1 (25 mL) was added to the reaction solution. MTBE (25 mL) was added, and the layers were separated. The organic layer was washed with water (25 mL X 2). The organic layer was dried over MgS04 and filtered. The organic layer was concentrated in vacuo to an orange oil. The oil was dissolved in IPA (15 mL, 3 vol) at ambient temperature. Heptane (25 mL) was added dropwise and the resulting slurry was stirred at RT for 1 hour. The slurry was cooled to 0°C for 1 hour and filtered. The filter cake was rinsed with chilled heptane (20 mL) and dried under vacuum at 30°C overnight. Compound (Ilia) (4.25 g, 45%) was obtained as a yellow solid.

Several reactions were run at different temperatures and with different addition rates of Compound (VII). If the reaction temperature was maintained below -65°C and Compound (VII) was added in <5 min, it was found that the reaction worked well. If the temperature was increased and/or the addition time of Compound (VII) was increased, then yields suffered, and the work-up was complicated by emulsions.

Preparation 2C: Preparation of Compound (I)

Compound (Ilia) may then reacted with Compound (Ila) to produce Compound (I) as shown in Preparation 1A.

EXAMPLE 3

Example 3 describes a new route for the synthesis of an intermediate free base, which may be used to form Compound (I) as described further below.

Example 3A: Preparation of starting material (Compound X) from 2-Chloronicotinonitrile

A mixture of NaH (40.0 g, 1 mol, 60% dispersion in mineral oil) and 2-chloronicotinonitrile (69.3 g, 500 mmol) in THF (1 L) was heated to reflux. A solution of 4-acetylpyridine (60.6 g, 500 mmol) in THF (400 mL) was added over a period of 40 min. The resulting dark brown mixture was stirred at reflux for ~ 2 h. The heating mantle was then removed, and AcOH (58 mL, 1 mol) was added. EtOAc (1 L) and H2O (1 L) were then added, and the layers were separated. The organic layer was concentrated to afford an oily solid. CH3CN (500 mL) was added, and the mixture was stirred for 30 min. H2O (1 L) was then added. The mixture was stirred for 1 h then filtered. The solid was rinsed with 2: 1

CH3CN-H2O (900 mL) and hexanes (400 mL) then dried under vacuum at 45°C overnight to afford 61.4 g (55% yield) of Compound (X) as yellow solid. Compound (X) exists as an approximate 95:5 enol-ketone mixture in CDCI3. Analytical data for enol: IR (CHCI3): 3024, 2973, 2229, 1631, 1597, 1579, 1550, 1497; ¾ NMR (500 MHz, CDCI3) δ 8.69 (dd, J= 4.4,

1.7 Hz, 2H), 8.55 (dd, J = 5.2, 1.8 Hz, 1H), 7.97 (dd, J= 7.9, 1.8 Hz, 1H), 7.70 (dd, J= 4.6, 1.5 Hz, 2H, 7.17 (dd, J = 7.8, 5.0 Hz, 1H), 6.59 (s, 1H); LRMS (ES+) calcd for C13H10N3O (M+H)+ 224.1, found 224.0 m/z.

Preparation 3B: Preparation of Compound (XI)

Preparation 3B(1):

(X) (XI)

Compound (XI) may be prepared using Compound (X).

Preparation 3B(2):

Alternatively, the following procedure for the conversion of nitrile into an acid which may also yield compound (XI). A mixture of Compound (X) (1 eq) and NaOH (1.5 eq) in 1 : 1 fhO-EtOH (3.5 mL/g of Compound (X)) was heated at 65°C overnight. The reaction mixture was cooled to RT then added to CH2C12 (12.5 mL/g of Compound (X)) and H20 (12.5 mL/g of Compound (X)). Cone. HC1 (2.5 mL/g of Compound (X)) was then added, and the layers were separated. The aqueous layer was extracted with CH2CI2 (10 mL/g of Compound (X)). The combined organic extracts were washed with H2O (12.5 ml/g of Compound (X)), dried (MgS04), filtered and concentrated to afford Compound (XI).

Preparation 3C

Compound Compound (XI) may then be converted into a Stage C intermediate free base, with observed 87% conversion in Grignard reaction as shown above. A complete synthesis route for Com ound (I) starting from compound Compound (XI) is depicted below.

Detailed experimental procedures for the synthesis of benzoate salt and final step are given in

International Patent Application Publication WO 2008/079600 Al .

References

  1.  “Company Overview of Eli Lilly & Co., Worldwide License to Develop and Commercialize VLY-686”. Bloomberg Business. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
  2.  [1]
  3.  “Vanda Pharmaceuticals Announces Tradipitant Phase II Proof of Concept Study Results for Chronic Pruritus in Atopic Dermatitis”. PR Newswire. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
  4.  Schmidt, B (2006). “Proof of principle studies”. Epilepsy Res. 68 (1): 48–52. doi:10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2005.09.019. PMID 16377153.
  5.  George, DT; Gilman, J; Hersh, J; et al. (2008). “Neurokinin 1 receptor antagonism as a possible therapy for alcoholism.”. Science. 6: 1536–1539. doi:10.2147/SAR.S70350. PMC 4567173Freely accessible. PMID 26379454.
  6.  Tauscher, J; Kielbasa, W; Iyengar, S; et al. (2010). “Development of the 2nd generation neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist LY686017 for social anxiety disorder”. European Neuropsychopharmacology. 20 (2): 80–87. doi:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2009.10.005. PMID 20018493.

George, D.T.; Gilman, J.; Hersh, J.; Thorsell, A.; Herion, D.; Geyer, C.; Peng, X.; Kielbasa, W.; Rawlings, R.; Brandt, J.E.; Gehlert, D.R.; Tauscher, J.T.; Hunt, S.P.; Hommer, D.; Heilig, M. Neurokinin 1 receptor antagonism as a possible therapy for alcoholism, Science 2008, 319(5869): 1536

Gackenheimer, S.L.; Gehlert, D.R.In vitro and in vivo autoradiography of the NK-1 antagonist (3H)-LY686017 in guinea pig brain39th Annu Meet Soc Neurosci (October 17-21, Chicago) 2009, Abst 418.16

Tonnoscj, K.; Zopey, R.; Labus, J.S.; Naliboff, B.D.; Mayer, E.A.
The effect of chronic neurokinin-1 receptor antagonism on sympathetic nervous system activity in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) Dig Dis Week (DDW) (May 30-June 4, Chicago) 2009, Abst T1261

Kopach, M.E.; Kobierski, M.E.; Coffey, D.S.; et al.  
Process development and pilot-plant synthesis of (2-chlorophenyl)[2-(phenylsulfonyl)pyridin-3-yl]methanone
Org Process Res Dev 2010, 14(5): 1229

1 to 7 of 7
Patent ID Patent Title Submitted Date Granted Date
US2016060250 NOVEL INTERMEDIATE AND PROCESS USEFUL IN THE PREPARATION OF -(2-CHLOROPHENYL)-METHANONE 2015-11-10 2016-03-03
US2015320866 PHARMACEUTICAL COMPOSITION COMPRISING ANTIEMETIC COMPOUNDS AND POLYORTHOESTER 2013-12-13 2015-11-12
US2014206877 NOVEL INTERMEDIATE AND PROCESS USEFUL IN THE PREPARATION OF -(2-CHLOROPHENYL)-METHANONE 2014-03-27 2014-07-24
US2012225904 New 7-Phenyl-[1, 2, 4]triazolo[4, 3-a]Pyridin-3(2H)-One Derivatives 2010-11-09 2012-09-06
US2010056795 NOVEL INTERMEDIATE AND PROCESS USEFUL IN THE PREPARATION OF -(2-CHLOROPHENYL)-METHANONE 2010-03-04
US7381826 Crystalline forms of {2-[1-(3, 5-bis-trifluoromethyl-benzyl)-5-pyridin-4-yl-1H-[1, 2, 3]triazol-4-yl]-pyridin-3-yl}-(2-chlorophenyl)-methanone 2007-04-05 2008-06-03
US7320994 Triazole derivatives as tachykinin receptor antagonists 2005-10-27 2008-01-22
Tradipitant
LY686017.svg
Legal status
Legal status
  • Investigational
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
ChemSpider
Chemical and physical data
Formula C28H16ClF6N5O
Molar mass 587.90 g/mol
3D model (Jmol)

TRADIPITANT

Overview

Tradipitant

Tradipitant is being evaluated in a Phase II study in treatment resistant pruritus in atopic dermatitis.

Tradipitant is an NK-1 receptor antagonist licensed from Eli Lilly in 2012. Tradipitant has demonstrated proof-of-concept in alcohol dependence in a study published by the NIH1. In that study tradipitant was shown to reduce alcohol cravings and voluntary alcohol consumption among patients with alcohol dependence. NK-1R antagonists have been evaluated in a number of indications including chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV), post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV), alcohol dependence, anxiety, depression, and pruritus.

The NK-1R is expressed throughout different tissues of the body, with major activity found in neuronal tissue. Substance P (SP) and NK-1R interactions in neuronal tissue regulate neurogenic inflammation locally and the pain perception pathway through the central nervous system. Other tissues, including endothelial cells and immune cells, have also exhibited SP and NK-1R activity2. The activation of NK-1R by the natural ligand SP is involved in numerous physiological processes, including the perception of pain, behavioral stressors, cravings, and the processes of nausea and vomiting1,2,3. An inappropriate over-expression of SP either in nervous tissue or peripherally could result in pathological conditions such as substance dependence, anxiety, nausea/vomiting, and pruritus1,2,3,4. An NK-1R antagonist may possess the ability to reduce this over-stimulation of the NK-1R, and as a result address the underlying pathophysiology of the symptoms in these conditions.

References

  1. George DT, Gilman J, Hersh J, Thorsell A, Herion D, Geyer C, Peng X, Keilbasa W, Rawlings R, Brandt JE, Gehlert DR, Tauscher JT, Hunt SP, Hommer D, Heilig M. Neurokinin 1 receptor antagonism as a possible therapy for alcoholism. Science. 2008; 319(5869):1536-9
  2. Almeida TA, Rojo J, Nieto PM, Pinto FM, Hernandez M, et al. Tachykinins and tachykinin receptors: structure and activity relationships. Current Medicinal Chemistry. 2004;11:2045-2081.
  3. Hargreaves R, Ferreira JC, Hughes D, Brands J, Hale J, Mattson B, Mill S. Development of aprepitant, the first neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2011; 1222:40-48.
  4. Stander S, Weisshaar E, Luger A. Neurophysiological and neurochemical basis of modern pruritus treatment. Experimental Dermatology. 2007;17:161-69.

///////////////////tradipitant, PHASE 2, VLY-686,  LY686017, традипитант , تراديبيتانت , 曲地匹坦 , VANDA, ELI LILLY, Gastroparesis Pruritus

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Zydus receives approval from USFDA to initiate Phase II clinical studies of Saroglitazar Magnesium in patients with Primary Biliary Cholangitis (PBC)


Zydus receives approval from USFDA to initiate Phase II clinical studies of Saroglitazar Magnesium in patients with Primary Biliary Cholangitis (PBC) Read more: https://goo.gl/eugRnZ #ZydusAnnouncement

Zydus receives approval from USFDA to initiate Phase II clinical studies of Saroglitazar Magnesium in patients with Primary Biliary Cholangitis (PBC)

Ahmedabad, India, February 23, 2017

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Zydus Cadila, a research-driven, global healthcare provider, today announced that the USFDA has approved the group’s plans to initiate a Phase 2 clinical trial of Saroglitazar Magnesium (Mg) in patients with Primary Biliary Cholangitis (PBC) of the liver. This randomized, double-blind Phase 2 trial will evaluate Saroglitazar Magnesium 2mg and 4 mg Vs. Placebo.

Speaking on the development, Mr. Pankaj R. Patel, Chairman and Managing Director, Zydus Cadila said, “We are very thankful to the USFDA for their timely and useful feedback on the clinical trial designs of Saroglitazar Mg in patients with Primary Biliary Cholangitis (PBC). This development underlines our commitment to bridging unmet healthcare needs with innovative therapies.”

Primary Biliary Cholangitis (PBC) is a liver disease, caused due to progressive destruction of the bile ducts in the liver which leads to reduction of bile flow – a condition referred to as cholestasis. PBC is often discovered incidentally due to abnormal results on routine liver blood tests. Progression of PBC leads to symptoms of cirrhosis like yellowing of the skin, swelling of legs and feet (edema), ascites, internal bleeding (varices) and thinning of the bones (osteoporosis). The buildup of toxic bile in the liver leads to liver inflammation and fibrosis which can progress to cirrhosis. People with cirrhosis are at increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma or liver cancer, which is a leading cause of liver transplants or death.

With an increasing number of people being affected by PBC which can lead to progressive cholestasis and even turn fatal, there is a pressing need to develop therapies which help to achieve an adequate reduction in alkaline phosphotase (ALP) or bilirubin and bring in better tolerance and efficacy.

About Lipaglyn™ Lipaglyn™ is a prescription drug authorized for sale in India only. Lipaglyn™ was launched in India during Sept 2013 for the treatment of Hypertriglyceridemia and Diabetic Dyslipidemia in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes not controlled by statins. Saroglitazar Mg is an investigational new drug with the USFDA, and is currently under clinical investigation for three significant unmet medical needs in the United States – Primary Biliary Cholangitis (PBC), Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) and Severe Hypertriglyceridemia (TG>500).

About Zydus Zydus Cadila is an innovative, global healthcare provider that discovers, develops, manufactures and markets a broad range of healthcare therapies, including small molecule drugs, biologic therapeutics and vaccines. The group employs over 19,500 people worldwide, including 1200 scientists engaged in R & D, and is dedicated to creating healthier communities globally. For more information, please visit http://www.zyduscadila.com

http://zyduscadila.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/USFDA-approval-for-clinical-trial-of-Saro-Mg.pdf

Image result for Saroglitazar Magnesium

Image result for Saroglitazar Magnesium

Saroglitazar magnesium
CAS: 1639792-20-3

Molecular Formula, 2C25-H28-N-O4-S.Mg,

Molecular Weight, 901.4354

Magnesium, bis((alphaS)-alpha-(ethoxy-kappaO)-4-(2-(2-methyl-5-(4-(methylthio)phenyl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)ethoxy)benzenepropanoato-kappaO)-, (T-4)-

(2S)-2-Ethoxy-3-(4-(2-(2-methyl-5-(4-(methylsulfanyl)phenyl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl(ethoxy)phenyl)propanoic acid, magnesium salt (2:1)

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DR RANJIT DESAI

ZYDUS

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//////////Zydus,  USFDA, Phase II,  clinical studies, Saroglitazar Magnesium,  Primary Biliary Cholangitis,  (PBC)

[Mg+2].CCO[C@@H](Cc1ccc(OCCn2c(C)ccc2c3ccc(SC)cc3)cc1)C(=O)[O-].CCO[C@@H](Cc4ccc(OCCn5c(C)ccc5c6ccc(SC)cc6)cc4)C(=O)[O-]

AZD 8931, Sapitinib,


AZD8931 (Sapitinib)Figure imgf000027_0003

AZD 8931, Sapitinib, SAPATINIB

PHASE 2, at AstraZeneca for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer.

CAS 848942-61-0,

MF C23H25ClFN5O3, MW 473.9,

pan-EGFR/pan-erbB inhibitor

4-[[4-[(3-Chloro-2-fluorophenyl)amino]-7-methoxy-6-quinazolinyl]oxy]-N-methyl-1-piperidineacetamide

4-(3-Chloro-2-fluoroanilino)-7-methoxy-6-[[1-(N-methylcarbamoylmethyl)piperidin-4-yl] oxy]quinazoline

4-(3-Chloro-2-fluoroanilino)-7-methoxy-6-[[1-(N-methylcarbamoylmethyl)piperidin-4-yl]oxy]quinazoline

2-[4-[4-(3-Chloro-2-fluoro-anilino)-7-methoxy-quinazolin-6-yl]oxy-1-piperidyl]-N-methyl-acetamide

AZD8931 is an oral, equipotent inhibitor of ErbB1, ErbB2 and ErbB3 receptor signaling.

WO 2005028469

Inventors Robert Hugh Bradbury, Laurent Francois Andre Hennequin, Bernard Christophe Barlaam
Applicant Astrazeneca Ab, Astrazeneca Uk Limited

Image resultDeregulation of the HER receptor family, comprising four related receptor tyrosine kinases (EGFR, HER2, HER3, and HER4), promotes proliferation, invasion, and tumor cell survival.Such deregulation has been observed in many human cancers, including lung, head and neck, and breast. Numerous small molecules have been investigated for inhibition of tyrosine kinases with the aminoquinazoline motif coming to the forefront as a privileged scaffold. Three of the clinically available treatments, gefitinib (1),lapatinib (2), and erlotinib (3),as well as the candidate drug dacomitinib (4), contain this arrangement

Figure

Figure 1. Structure of gefitinib (1), lapatinib (2), erlotinib (3), dacomitinib (4), and AZD8931 (5).

SYNTHESIS

PATENT

https://www.google.com/patents/WO2005028469A1?cl=en

PAPER

The first radiosynthesis of [11C]AZD8931 as a new potential PET agent for imaging of EGFR, HER2 and HER3 signaling
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters (2014), 24, (18), 4455-4459.

Image for unlabelled figure

Synthesis of the reference standard AZD8931 (11a) and its precursor ...

Synthesis of the reference standard AZD8931 (11a)

Reagents and conditions: (a) SnCl2·H2O, concd HCl; (b) formamide, 168–170 °C; (c) l-methionine, methanesulfonic acid, 120 °C; (d) Ac2O, pyridine, DMAP, 100 °C; (e) POCl3, DEA, 100 °C; (f) 3-chloro-2-fluoroaniline, i-PrOH, refluxing; (g) conc. NH3, MeOH; (h) (1) Boc2O, CH2Cl2, dioxane; (2) methanesulfonyl chloride, Et3N, CH2Cl2; (i) Compound 8, CsF, DMA, 85 °C; (j) TFA; (k) Compound 11a: 2-chloro-N-methylacetamide, KI, K2CO3, CH3CN, refluxing; compound

PAPER

Discovery of AZD8931, an Equipotent, Reversible Inhibitor of Signaling by EGFR, HER2, and HER3 Receptors
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters (2013), 4, (8), 742-746.

Discovery of AZD8931, an Equipotent, Reversible Inhibitor of Signaling by EGFR, HER2, and HER3 Receptors

Centre de Recherches, AstraZeneca, Z.I. La Pompelle, B.P. 1050, Chemin de Vrilly, 51689 Reims, Cedex 2, France
Oncology iMed, AstraZeneca, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK10 4TG, United Kingdom
Abstract Image

Deregulation of HER family signaling promotes proliferation and tumor cell survival and has been described in many human cancers. Simultaneous, equipotent inhibition of EGFR-, HER2-, and HER3-mediated signaling may be of clinical utility in cancer settings where the selective EGFR or HER2 therapeutic agents are ineffective or only modestly active. We describe the discovery of AZD8931 (2), an equipotent, reversible inhibitor of EGFR-, HER2-, and HER3-mediated signaling and the structure–activity relationships within this series. Docking studies based on a model of the HER2 kinase domain helped rationalize the increased HER2 activity seen with the methyl acetamide side chain present in AZD8931. AZD8931 exhibited good pharmacokinetics in preclinical species and showed superior activity in the LoVo tumor growth efficacy model compared to close analogues. AZD8931 is currently being evaluated in human clinical trials for the treatment of cancer.

4-(3-Chloro-2-fluoroanilino)-7-methoxy-6-{[1-(N-methylcarbamoylmethyl)piperidin-4-yl]oxy}quinazoline
(2). 2 as a white solid (60%).1H NMR (CDCl3):
δ 1.98 (m, 2H), 2.08 (m, 2H), 2.46 (m, 2H), 2.85 (m, 2H), 2.87 (d, 3H), 3.07 (s, 2H), 4.02 (s, 3H), 4.49 (m, 1H),
7.16 (m, 4H), 7.31 (m, 2H), 8.49 (m, 1H), 8.71 (s, 1H). MS-ESI m/z MH+ 474 [MH]+. Anal.
(C23H25ClFN5O3
.0.21 H2O) C, H, N. Found C, 57.88; H, 5.45; N, 14.67; Requires C, 57.83; H, 5.36; N, 14.66%.

PATENT

WO 2010122340

Compound (I) is disclosed in International Patent Application Publication number WO2005/028469 as Example 1 therein and is of the structure:

Figure imgf000002_0001

Compound (I)

Compound (I) is an erbB receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in particular compound (I) is a potent inhibitor of EGFR and erbB2 receptor tyrosine kinases. Compound (I) also inhibits erbB3 mediated signalling through the inhibition of phosphorylation of erbB3 following ligand stimulated EGFR/erbB3 and/or erbB2/erbB3 heterodimerisation. Compound (I) is expected to be useful in the treatment of hyperproliferative disorders such as cancer.

WO 03/082831 discloses the preparation of various 4-(3-chloro-2- fluoroanilino)quinazo lines. However, compound (I) is not disclosed therein.

WO2005/028469 discloses as Example 1 therein the preparation of compound (I) as follows: 2-Chloro-N-methylacetamide (32 mg, 0.3 mmol) was added to a mixture of

4-(3-chloro-2-fluoroanilino)-7-methoxy-6-[(piperidin-4-yl)oxy]quinazoline (120 mg, 0.3 mmol), potassium iodide (16 mg, 0.1 mmol), and potassium carbonate (50 mg, 0.36 mmol) in acetonitrile (5 ml). The mixture was heated at reflux for one hour. After evaporation of the solvents under vacuum, the residue was taken up in dichloromethane. The organic solution was washed with water and brine, dried over magnesium sulfate. After evaporation of the solvents under vacuum, the residue was purified by chromatography on silica gel (eluant: 1% to 2% 7 N methanolic ammonia in dichloromethane) to give compound (I).

Scheme 1 :

Figure imgf000008_0001

Example 1 : Preparation of 4-(3-Chloro-2-fluoroanilino)-7-methoxy-6-{[l-(N- methylcarbamoylmethyl)piperidin-4-yl]oxy } quinazoline (Compound (I)).

Compound (I) was prepared according to the scheme shown below:

Figure imgf000019_0001

Compound (III) Compound (IV)

Compound (V)

Figure imgf000019_0002

Compound (I)Compound (II)

Step 1. Preparation of tert-butyl 4-(5-cyano-2-methoxyphenoxy)piperidine-l- carboxylate (Intermediate 2). 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzonitrile (Compound (X), 6.00 g, 39.62 mmole), tert-butyl (4-methanesulfonyloxy)piperidine-l-carboxylate (16.6 g, 59.44 mmoles) (Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 2001, 49(7), 822-829); and potassium carbonate (6.71 g, 47.55 mmoles) were suspended in isopropanol (78.98 g) and the mixture was heated at reflux with stirring. Additional tert-butyl (4-methanesulfonyloxy)piperidine-l- carboxylate (2.08 g, 7.43 mmoles) was added to push the reaction to completion. The mixture was then cooled and quenched by the addition of water (100.47 g). Seeding with intermediate 2 followed by cooling to 00C resulted in a crystalline product, which was isolated by filtration. The filter cake was washed with a mixture of water (8.86 g) and isopropanol (6.97 g), followed by water (23.64 g) and then dried to give Intermediate 2 (10.75 g, 80% yield); 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 1.39 (s, 9 H) 1.48 (m, 2 H) 1.88 (m, 2 H) 3.13 (m, 2 H) 3.67 (m, 2 H) 3.83 (s, 3 H) 4.56 (tt, J=8.1, 3.8 Hz, 1 H) 7.13 (d, J=8.4 Hz, 1 H) 7.42 (dd, J=8.4, 1.9 Hz, 1 H) 7.51 (d, J=1.9 Hz, 1 H); Mass Spectrum: m/z (M + H)+ 333.1. Step 2. Preparation of 4-methoxy-3-(piperidin-4-yloxy)benzonitrile (Compound

(VI)). Intermediate 2 (39.31 g, 118.26 mmoles) was suspended in ethanol (155.53 g) and heated to 40 0C. To this slurry was slowly added HCl (46.61 g, 573.04 mmoles). The mixture was heated to 60 0C and held for 3 hours. The reaction mixture was cooled to 200C and seed was charged initiating crystallisation. The resulting solid was isolated by filtration at 00C, washed twice with ethanol (62.21 g) and then dried to give compound (VI) as the hydrochloride salt (29.84 g, 77% yield); 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 1.84 (m, 2 H) 2.09 (m, 2 H) 3.02 (ddd, J=12.7, 8.9, 3.4 Hz, 2 H) 3.20 (m, 2 H) 3.84 (s, 3 H) 4.63 (tt, J=7.7, 3.6 Hz, 1 H) 7.15 (d, J=8.5 Hz, 1 H) 7.45 (dd, J=8.5, 1.9 Hz, 1 H) 7.56 (d, J=1.9 Hz, 1 H) 9.16 (br. s, 2 H); Mass Spectrum: m/z (M + H)+ 233.2. Step 3. Preparation of 2-[4-(5-cyano-2-methoxyphenoxy)piperidin-l-yl]-JV- methylacetamide (Compound (V)). Compound (VI) (28.36 g, 95.82 mmoles), 2-chloro-N- methylacetamide (12.37 g, 114.98 mmoles) and potassium carbonate (33.11 g, 239.55 mmoles) were suspended in acetonitrile (161.36 g). The reaction mixture was heated at reflux for 3 hours. The reaction mixture was cooled to 200C and water (386.26 g) was charged. The reaction was heated to 75°C and the volume reduced by distillation. Upon cooling crystallisation occurred. The resulting solid was isolated by filtration, washed twice with water (77.25 g and 128.75 g) and then dried to give compound (V) (27.95 g, 94% yield); 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-J6) δ ppm 1.68 (m, 2 H) 1.91 (m, 2 H) 2.29 (m, 2 H) 2.61 (d, J=4.7 Hz, 3 H) 2.67 (m, 2 H) 2.88 (s, 2 H) 3.83 (s, 3 H) 4.41 (tt, J=8.3, 4.0 Hz, 1 H) 7.11 (d, J=8.4 Hz, 1 H) 7.40 (dd, J=8.4, 1.9 Hz, 1 H) 7.47 (d, J=I.9 Hz, 1 H) 7.68 (q, J=4.7 Hz, 1 H); Mass Spectrum: m/z (M + H)+ 304.2.

Step 4. Preparation of 2-[4-(5-cyano-2-methoxy-4-nitrophenoxy)piperidin-l-yl]-N- methylacetamide (Compound (IV)). Compound (V) (8.78 g, 26.11 mmoles) was suspended in acetic acid (22.82 g, 364.87 mmoles) and the resulting reaction mixture cooled to 5°C. To this was added sulfuric acid (23.64 g, 234.95 mmoles) maintaining the reaction temperature below 300C. To the resulting solution was added nitric acid (2.40 g, 26.63 mmoles). The reaction mixture was then heated to 35°C and held for 3 hours. Additional nitric acid (117 mg, 1.31 mmoles) and sulphuric acid (1.31 g 13.1 mmoles) were charged and the reaction mixture was heated at 35°C for 30 minutes. The solution was cooled to 200C and quenched with aqueous ammonia (92.45 g 1.36 moles), resulting in an increase in temperature to 500C. To the resulting slurry was added, propionitrile (61.58 g 1.12 moles) and water (19 g). The reaction mixture was heated to 80 0C resulting in a clear solution, which upon settling gave two layers. The bottom layer was removed. The reaction mixture was cooled to 20 0C resulting in a thick slurry. The solid was isolated by filtration, washed with propionitrile (6.16 g 112.0 mmoles) and dried to afford compound (IV) (7.44 g, 82% yield); 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-de) δ ppm 1.72 (m, 2 H) 1.97 (m, 2 H) 2.35 (m, 2 H) 2.61 (d, J=4.7 Hz, 3 H) 2.66 (m, 2 H) 2.90 (s, 2 H) 3.96 (s, 3 H) 4.73 (tt, J=8.4, 4.0 Hz, 1 H) 7.71 (q, J=4.7 Hz, 1 H) 7.82 (s, 1 H) 7.86 (s, 1 H). Mass Spectrum: m/z (M + H)+ 349.2

Step 5. Preparation of 2-[4-(4-amino-5-cyano-2-methoxyphenoxy)piperidin-l-yl]-N- methylacetamide (Compound (III)). Compound (IV) (7.42 g, 19.38 mmoles) was suspended in water (44.52 g) and methanol (5.35 g). To this was added sodium dithionite (11.91 g, 58.15 mmoles) and the resulting reaction mixture was heated to 600C. To the reaction mixture was added hydrochloric acid (46.98 g, 463.89 mmoles)), resulting in a solution, which was held at 60 0C for 3 hours. The reaction mixture was then allowed to cool to 20 0C. Aqueous sodium hydroxide (15.51 g 182.2 mmoles) was charged followed by 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (58.0 g). The reaction mixture was heated to 60 0C, which upon settling gave two layers and the lower aqueous layer was discarded. The volume of the reaction mixture was reduced by vacuum distillation and methyl tert-butyl ether (18.54 g) was added to give a slurry which was cooled to 10 0C. and then the solid was collected by filtration. The solid was washed with 2- methyltetrahydrofuran (5.8 g) and dried to give compound (III) (5.4 g, 78% yield); 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-de) δ ppm 1.62 (m, 2 H) 1.82 (m, 2 H) 2.20 (m, 2 H) 2.60 (d, J=4.7 Hz, 3 H) 2.65 (m, 2 H) 2.86 (s, 2 H) 3.72 (s, 3 H) 4.00 (tt, J=8.3, 4.0 Hz, 1 H) 5.66 (br. s, 2 H) 6.39 (s, 1 H) 6.94 (s, 1 H) 7.65 (q, J=4.7 Hz, 1 H). Mass Spectrum: m/z (M + H)+ 319.2.

Step 6. Preparation of 2-[4-(5-cyano-4-{[(dimethylamino)methylene]amino}-2- methoxyphenoxy)piperidin-l-yl]-Λ/-methylacetamide (Compound (H)). Compound (III) (18.21 g, 52.05 mmoles) was suspended in 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (99.62 g). To this was added acetic acid (162.79 mg), and N,N-dimethylformamide dimethyl acetal (DMA) (8.63 g, 70.27 mmoles) and the resulting reaction mixture was heated at 76 0C for 16 hrs. Additional N,N-dimethylformamide dimethyl acetal (639.41 mg, 5.20 mmoles) was added to the reaction mixture to ensure the reaction completed. The reaction mixture was cooled to 300C during which time crystallisation occurred. The resulting solid was isolated by filtration, washed with 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (14.23 g) and dried to afford compound (II) (19.53 g, 97% yield); 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-J6) δ ppm 1.65 (m, 2 H) 1.86 (m, 2 H) 2.24 (m, 2 H) 2.60 (d, J=4.7 Hz, 3 H) 2.66 (m, 2 H) 2.87 (s, 2 H) 2.95 (s, 3 H) 3.04 (s, 3 H) 3.81 (s, 3 H) 4.19 (tt, J=8.2, 3.8 Hz, 1 H) 6.72 (s, 1 H) 7.15 (s, 1 H) 7.67 (q, J=4.7 Hz, 1 H) 7.90 (s, 1 H); Mass Spectrum: m/z (M + H)+ 374.2.

Step 7. Preparation of compound (I). 2-[4-(5-cyano-4-

{ [(dimethylamino)methylene] amino } -2-methoxyphenoxy)piperidin- 1 -yl] -JV-methylacetamide (compound (II), 7.00 g, 17.71 mmoles), was suspended in methoxybenzene (35.8 g). Acetic acid (16.6 g) was charged and to the resulting solution was added 3-chloro-2-fluoroaniline (2.71 g, 18.07 mmoles). The reaction mixture was heated at 90 0C for 20 hours then cooled to 200C. Water (37.04 g) was charged to the reaction mixture, and the organic layer discarded. To the resulting aqueous mixture was charged isopropanol (39.00 g), followed by aqueous ammonia (20.79 g, 25%). The reaction mixture was heated to 30 0C and seeded with compound (I), which induced crystallisation. The reaction was then cooled to 00C and the product isolated by filtration. The filter cake was washed twice with a mixture of water (7.28 g) and isopropanol (4.68 g), then dried to afford the compound (I) (5.65 g, 55% yield); 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-J6) δ ppm 1.79 (m, 2 H) 2.04 (m, 2 H) 2.38 (m, 2 H) 2.62 (d, J=4.5 Hz, 3 H) 2.74 (m, 2 H) 2.94 (s, 2 H) 3.93 (s, 3 H) 4.56 (tt, J=8.1, 3.8 Hz, 1 H) 7.21 (s, 1 H) 7.28 (m, 1 H) 7.50 (m, 2 H) 7.73 (q, J=4.5 Hz, 1 H) 7.81 (s, 1 H) 8.36 (s, 1 H) 9.56 (br.s, 1 H); Mass Spectrum: m/z (M + H)+ 474.2, 476.2.

Example 2: Preparation of 4-(3-Chloro-2-fluoroanilino)-7-methoxy-6-{[l-(N- methylcarbamoylmethyl)piperidin-4-yl]oxy } quinazoline (Compound (I)). Compound (I) was prepared according to the scheme shown below:

Figure imgf000023_0001

Compound (III) Compound (IV)

Compound (V)

Figure imgf000023_0002

Compound (Xl)

Figure imgf000023_0003

Compound (I)

Steps 1, 2, 3 and 4 as set forth in Example 1.

Step 5, alternate 1. Preparation of compound (III). 2-[4-(5-Cyano-2-methoxy-4- nitrophenoxy)piperidin-l-yl]-N-methylacetamide (compound (IV), 15.00 g, 42.50 mmoles) was suspended in water (90.00 g) and methanol (59.38 g). To this was added sodium dithionite (30.47 g, 148.75 mmoles) and water (90.00 g), the resulting reaction mixture was heated to 30 0C and held for 2 hrs. To the reaction mixture was added hydrochloric acid (27.98 g, 276.25 mmoles)), resulting in a solution, which was held at 600C for 2 hours. Aqueous sodium hydroxide (30.60 g 382.49 mmoles) was added followed by a line wash of water (30.00 g). The reaction mixture was cooled to 25°C to give a slurry which was collected by filtration. The solid was washed with water (30.00 g) and dried to give compound (III) (13.50 g, 82% yield); 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 1.62 (m, 2 H) 1.82 (m, 2 H) 2.20 (m, 2 H) 2.60 (d, J=4.7 Hz, 3 H) 2.65 (m, 2 H) 2.86 (s, 2 H) 3.72 (s, 3 H) 4.00 (tt, J=8.3, 4.0 Hz, 1 H) 5.66 (br. s, 2 H) 6.39 (s, 1 H) 6.94 (s, 1 H) 7.65 (q, J=4.7 Hz, 1 H). Mass Spectrum: m/z (M+H)+ 319.2.

Step 5, alternate 2. Preparation of compound (III). Compound (IV) (8.00 g, 22.67 mmoles) and 1% platinum + 2 % vanadium catalyst on carbon (1.23 g, 0.023 mmoles) were suspended in Acetonitrile (94.00 g). The reaction mixture was hydrogenated at a pressure of 3 Bar G and at a temperature of 35°C for 3 hrs. Once complete, the reaction mixture was filtered to remove the catalyst which is washed with acetonitrile (31.33 g). The volume of the reaction mixture was reduced by vacuum distillation to give a slurry which was cooled to 00C and then the solid was collected by filtration. The solid was washed with acetonitrile (12.53 g) and dried to give compound (III) (5.88 g, 78% yield); 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 1.62 (m, 2 H) 1.82 (m, 2 H) 2.20 (m, 2 H) 2.60 (d, J=4.7 Hz, 3 H) 2.65 (m, 2 H) 2.86 (s, 2 H) 3.72 (s, 3 H) 4.00 (tt, J=8.3, 4.0 Hz, 1 H) 5.66 (br. s, 2 H) 6.39 (s, 1 H) 6.94 (s, 1 H) 7.65 (q, J=4.7 Hz, 1 H). Mass Spectrum: m/z (M+H)+ 319.2.

Step 6. Preparation of N, ΛT-bis(3-chloro-2-fluorophenyl)imidoformamide (compound (XI)). 3-chloro-2-fluroaniline (51.21 g, 341.22 mmoles) was suspended in cyclohexane (87.07 g). To this ethyl orthoformate (22.28 g, 150.32 mmoles) and acetic acid (0.94 g, 15.03 mmoles) were added. The resulting reaction mixture was heated, with stirring, to 48°C for 12 hours. Following this the reaction mixture was cooled to 200C over 12 hours and the solid product was isolated by filtration. The filter cake was washed with cylcohexane (26.12 g) and dried in vacuo at 40 0C to give compound (XI) as a white crystalline product (33.95 g, 93% yield); IH NMR Spectrum (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 7.14 (t, 2 H) 7.22 (m, 2 H) 8.14 (s, 1 H), 9,98 (s, 1 H); Mass Spectrum (by GC-MS EI): m/z (M+) 300.0.

Step 7, alternate 1 : Preparation of compound (I). 2-[4-(4-Amino-5-cyano-2- methoxyphenoxy)piperidin-l-yl]-N-methylacetamide (compound (III)) (10 g, 29.84 mmol) and TV, ΛT-bis(3-chloro-2-fluorophenyl)imidoformamide (compound (XI)) (11.46 g, 37.3 mmol) were suspended in 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (30.4 ml) and heated to 800C. To this yellow suspension was added acetic acid (7.6 ml, 127.33 mmol) and the resulting solution was heated to 92°C for 6 hours. 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (66.5 ml) and water (28.5 ml) were added and mixture was cooled to 550C before adding 50%w/w sodium hydroxide (7 ml, 131.29 mmol) resulting in a temperature rise to 63°C. The temperature was raised further to 69°C and after settling the aqueous phase was discarded. The organic phase was washed with water (3 x 20 ml) and each aqueous phase was discarded after settling. 2- methyltetrahydrofuran (100 ml, 997 mmol) was added and the volume reduced by distillation. Seed was added to induce crystallisation and the resulting mixture was cooled to 15°C. The crystalline form was initially obtained following a spontaneous crystallisation from the experiment as described. The resulting solid was isolated by filtration, washed twice with 2- methyltetrahydrofuran (19 ml) and dried under vacuum at 400C to yield compound (I) as a white solid (12.14 g, 95%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-J6) δ ppm 1.12 (d, J= 6Hz, 1.3H), 1.26 -1.36 (m, 0.4H), 1.75-1.97 (m, 3.3H), 2.02-2.15 (m, 2H), 2.35-2.44 (m, 2H), 2.64 (d, J= 4.7Hz, 3H), 2.72-2.80 (m, 2H), 2.95 (s, 2H), 3.52-3.59 (m, 0.4H), 3.72-3.87 (m, 0.86H), 3.95 (s, 3H), 4.53-4.63 (m, IH), 7.22 (s, IH), 7.29 (dt J= IHz J= 8Hz, IH), 7.51 (dt J= 7.4Hz, J= 18Hz, 2H), 7.71-7.77 (m, IH), 7.82 (s, IH), 8.37 (s, IH), 9.57 (s, IH). Mass Spectrum: m/z (M+H)+ 474.0. The NMR data above includes signals for the 2-methyltetrahydrofuran solvent which is present in a 0.43 molar equivalence. The signals pertaining to the solvent are at δ ppm shifts of 1.12, 1.26-1.36, 3.52-3.59 and 3.72-3.87. The cluster at 1.75-1.93 contains signals for the solvent and the parent compound. The XRPD for this compound is shown in Figure 2.

Step 7, alternate 2. Preparation of compound (I). Compound (III) (15 g, 44.76 mmol) and compound (XI) (17.19 g, 55.95 mmol) were suspended in 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (45.6 ml) and heated to 83°C. To this yellow suspension was added acetic acid (11.4 ml, 190.99 mmol) and the resulting solution was heated to 92°C for 3 Vi hours. 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (105 ml) and water (50 ml) were added and mixture was cooled to 49°C before adding 50%w/w sodium hydroxide (10.74 ml, 201.4 mmol), resulting in a temperature rise to 62°C. The temperature was maintained at 62°C and after settling the aqueous phase was discarded. The organic phase was washed with water (3 x 30 ml) and each aqueous phase was discarded after settling. The mixture was cooled to 15°C and seed was added to induce crystallisation. The crystalline form was initially obtained following a spontaneous crystallisation from the experiment as described. The resulting solid was isolated by filtration, washed twice with 2- methyltetrahydrofuran (21 ml) and dried under vacuum at 400C to yield compound (I) as a white solid (20.12 g, 95%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-J6) δ ppm 1.75-1.86 (m, 2H), 2.02- 2.15 (m, 2H), 2.35-2.44 (m, 2H), 2.64 (d, J= 4.7Hz, 3H), 2.72-2.80 (m, 2H), 2.95 (s, 2H), 3.95 (s, 3H), 4.53-4.63 (m, IH), 7.22 (s, IH), 7.29 (dt J= IHz J= 8Hz, IH), 7.51 (dt J= 7.4Hz, J= 18Hz, 2H), 7.71-7.77 (m, IH), 7.82 (s, IH), 8.37 (s, IH), 9.57 (s, IH). Mass Spectrum: m/z (M+H)+ 474.0. The XRPD for this compound is shown in Figure 3.

Step 7, alternate 3. Preparation of compound (I). Compound (III) (15.1 g, 45.06 mmol) and compound (XI) (17.31 g, 56.32 mmol) were suspended in 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (46 ml) and heated to 800C. To this yellow suspension was added acetic acid (12 ml, 458 mmol) and the resulting solution was heated to 92° C for 7 hours. 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (100 ml) and water (43 ml) were added and mixture was cooled to 59°C before adding 50%w/w sodium hydroxide (11 ml, 207 mmol), resulting in a temperature rise to 71.5°C. The temperature was adjusted to 69°C and the aqueous phase was discarded after settling. The organic phase was washed with water (2 x 43 ml) and each aqueous phase was discarded after settling. 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (72 ml) was removed by distillation at atmospheric pressure and was replaced by addition of isopropyl alcohol (72 ml). A further 72 ml of solvent was removed by distillation at atmospheric pressure and replaced by isopropyl alcohol (72 ml). Seed was added to induce crystallisation and the resulting mixture was cooled to 15°C. The solid was isolated by filtration, washed twice with isopropylalcohol (32 ml) and dried under vacuum at 400C to yield compound (I) as a white solid (20.86 g, 87%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-J6) δ ppm 1.04 (d, J= 6Hz, 6H),1.75-1.88 (m, 2H), 2.02-2.15 (m, 2H), 2.35-2.44 (m, 2H), 2.64 (d, J= 4.7Hz, 3H), 2.72-2.80 (m, 2H), 2.95 (s, 2H), 3.73-3.84 (m, IH), 3.95 (s, 3H), 4.34 (d, J = 4.2Hz, IH), 4.53-4.63 (m, IH), 7.22 (s, IH), 7.29 (dt J= IHz J= 8Hz, IH), 7.51 (dt J= 7Hz, J= 18Hz, 2H), 7.71-7.77 (m, IH), 7.82 (s, IH), 8.37 (s, IH), 9.57 (s, IH). Mass Spectrum: m/z (M+H)+ 474.0. The NMR data include signals for 1 mole equivalent isopropanol present. The XRPD for this compound is shown in Figure 4.

Example 3. Preparation of 4-(3-Chloro-2-fluoroanilino)-7-methoxy-6-{[l-(N- methylcarbamoylmethyl)piperidin-4-yl]oxy } quinazoline di- [(2E)-but-2-enedioate] (compound (I) difumarate salt). Compound (I) difumarate salt was prepared according to the scheme shown below:

Figure imgf000027_0001

Compound (III) Compound (IV) Compound (V)

Figure imgf000027_0002

Compound (Xl)

Figure imgf000027_0003

Difumarate Compound (I)

Steps 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 were performed as set forth in Example 2. Step 7. Preparation of compound (I) difumarate salt. Compound (III) (17.90 mmoles) and N, ΛT-bis(3-chloro-2-fluorophenyl)imidoformamide (compound (XI)) (7.04 g, 23.27 mmoles) were suspended in tert-butyl alcohol (88.95 g). To this suspension fumaric acid (10.39 g, 89.52 mmoles) was added and the mixture was heated to 800C, with stirring, for 2.5 hrs. Water (11.40 g, 632.80 mmoles) was charged and the reaction continued for a further 21.5 hrs. The reaction was cooled to 200C over 12 hours, during which time crystallisation occurred. The resulting solid was isolated by filtration and was washed with a mixture of water (1.00) and tert-butyl alcohol (7.80 g) followed by a wash with a mixture of water (0.50 g) and tert-butyl alcohol (7.30 g). The solid was dried in vacuo at 40 0C to give compound (I) difumarate salt (8.17 g, 61.40%) as a mustard yellow powder; 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO- dβ) δ ppm 1.83 (m, 2 H, broad) 2.07 (m, 2 H, broad) 2.64 (d, J=5.0 Hz, 3 H) 2.80 (m, 2 H, broad) 3.03 (s, 2 H) 3.94 (s, 3 H) 4.58 (m, 1 H) 6.63 (s, 4 H) 7.22 (s, 1 H) 7.29 (td, J=8.5, 1.0 Hz, 1 H) 7.51 (m, 2 H) 7.82 (m, 2 H) 8.37 (s, 1 H); Mass Spectrum: m/z (M+H)+ 474.0. Example 4. Preparation of 4-(3-Chloro-2-fluoroanilino)-7-methoxy-6-{[l-(N- methylcarbamoylmethyl)piperidin-4-yl]oxy}quinazoline (compound (I)).

Compound (I) was prepared according to the scheme shown below:

Figure imgf000029_0001

Compound (III) Compound (IV)

Compound (V)

Figure imgf000029_0002

Compound (XII)

Figure imgf000029_0003

Compound (I)

Steps 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 were performed as set forth in Example 2.

Step 6. Preparation of N’-(3-chloro-2-fluoro-phenyl)-N,N-dimethyl-formamidine (compound (XII)). 3-chloro-2-fluroaniline (5.30 g, 35.29 mmoles) was dissolved in 2- methyltetrahydrofuran (52.94 g). To this N,N-dimethylformamide dimethyl acetal (6.07 g, 49.41 mmoles) and acetic acid (0.11 g, 1.76 mmoles) were added. The resulting reaction mixture was heated, with stirring, to 76 0C for 3 hours. Following this the solvent was removed in vacuo at 400C to give compound (XII) as a yellow oil (6.60 g, 93% yield); IH NMR Spectrum (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 2.74 (s, 0.29H), 2.89 (s, 0.31H), 2.94 (s, 2.75H), 3.03 (s, 2.66H), 3.34 (br s, 0.70H), 5.48 (s, 0.06H) 6.91-7.10 (m, 3H), 7.79 (s, 1 H), 7.96 (s, 1 H). The NMR data above includes signals for N,N-dimethylformamide dimethyl acetal which is present in a 0.06 molar equivalence. The signals pertaining to N5N- dimethylformamide dimethyl acetal are at δ ppm shifts of 3.75, and 6.90-6.95. The signal at δ ppm 3.35 is due to residual water. Mass Spectrum (by LCMS EI): m/z (M+H)+ 201.2. Step 7: Preparation of compound (I). 2-[4-(4-Amino-5-cyano-2- methoxyphenoxy)piperidin-l-yl]-N-methylacetamide (compound (III)) (0.50 g, 1.45 mmol) and N’-(3-chloro-2-fluoro-phenyl)-N,N-dimethyl-formamidine (compound (XII)) (0.32 g, 1.52 mmol) were suspended in methoxybenzene (3.1 ml). To this yellow suspension was added acetic acid (1.52 ml, 25.51 mmol) and the resulting solution was heated to 90 0C for 14 hours. The reaction mixture was cooled to 20 0C and water (2.58 mL) was added. The organic layer was removed and the aqueous layer washed with methoxybenzene (1.4 mL). Ethanol (2.45 mL) and ammonia (1.94 ml, 25.55 mmoles) were added to the aqueous layer. The solution was heated to 900C resulting in the loss of some ethanol by evaporation. The solution was cooled to 40 0C. Seed was added to induce crystallisation and the resulting mixture was cooled to 20 0C. The solid was isolated by filtration to yield compound (I) as a white solid (0.61 g, 73% yield). IH NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 1.75-1.87 (m, 2H), 2.02-2.15 (m, 2H), 2.35-2.44 (m, 2H), 2.64 (d, J= 4.8Hz, 3H), 2.72-2.80 (m, 2H), 2.95 (s, 2H), 3.35 (s, 5.4H), 3.75 (s, 1.3H), 3.95 (s, 3H), 4.58 (hept., J=4.0Hz, IH), 6.90-6.95 (m, 1.3H), 7.23 (s, 1.8H), 7.26-7.34 (m, IH), 7.45-7.58 (m 2H), 7.72-7.78 (m, IH), 7.83 (s, IH), 8.38 (s, IH), 9.58 (s, IH). The NMR data above includes signals for the methoxybenzene solvent which is present in a 0.40 molar equivalence. The signals pertaining to the solvent are at δ ppm shifts of 3.75, and 6.90-6.95. The cluster at 7.26-7.34 contains signals for the solvent and the parent compound. The signal at δ ppm 3.35 is due to residual water. Mass Spectrum: m/z (M + H)+ 474.0, 476.0. Example 5. Preparation of compound (I) difumarate Form A – 2-[4-({4-[(3-Chloro-2- fluorophenyl)amino]-7-methoxyquinazolin-6-yl}oxy)piperidin-l-yl]-N-methylacetamide di- [(2E)-but-2-enedioate] Form A. A solution of fumaric acid (2.7 g, 23.22 mmol) in methanol (95 ml) was added to a mixture of 2-[4-({4-[(3-Chloro-2-fluorophenyl)amino]-7- methoxyquinazolin-6-yl}oxy)piperidin-l-yl]-N-methylacetamide (compound (I)) (5.62 g at 89% w/w, 10.55 mmol) in isopropanol (100 ml) maintaining the temperature >65°C. The mixture was heated at reflux for one hour before clarification. The reaction mixture was cooled to 300C over 90 minutes and held for 30 minutes to establish crystallisation. The reaction was cooled to 00C over 2 hours and held for 1 hour before isolation by filtration. The filter cake was washed twice with cold isopropanol (2 x 10 ml) and dried in vacuo at 500C to give the title compound as a white solid (5.84 g, 78%); 1H NMR Spectrum: (DMSO) 1.85 (m, IH), 2.08 (m, IH), 2.50 (m, IH), 2.66 (d, 3H), 2.83 (m, IH), 3.05 (s, 2H), 3.96 (s, 3H), 4.58 (m, IH), 6.64 (s, 4H), 7.23 (s, IH), 7.28 (m, IH), 7.46 (ddd, IH), 7.55 (m, IH), 7.70 (broad q, IH), 7.85 (s, IH), 8.38 (s, IH).

Example 6. Preparation of compound (I) difumarate Form A: 2-[4-({4-[(3-Chloro-2- fluorophenyl)amino]-7-methoxyquinazolin-6-yl}oxy)piperidin-l-yl]-N-methylacetamide di- [(2E)-but-2-enedioate] Form A. A solution of fumaric acid (1.4 kg, 12.1 mol) in methanol (26.6 kg) was added to a mixture of 2-[4-({4-[(3-chloro-2-fluorophenyl)amino]-7- methoxyquinazolin-6-yl}oxy)piperidin-l-yl]-N-methylacetamide (2.93 kg, 84.8% w/w, 5.24 mol) in isopropanol (39 kg) maintaining the temperature >65°C. A line wash of methanol (3.6 kg) was charged. The mixture was heated at reflux for one hour before clarification, followed by a line wash of methanol (7 kg). The reaction mixture was distilled at atmospheric pressure to remove 47 kg of distillates. Isopropanol (15.8 kg was added and the reaction mixture distilled to remove 15.6 kg of distillates. Crystallisation occurred during the distillation. Isopropanol (21 kg) was added and the reaction cooled to 00C over 8 hours and held for 1 hour before isolation by filtration. The filter cake was washed with cold 50:50 isopropanol:MeOH (4 kg) followed by cold isopropanol (4 kg) and dried in vacuo at 500C to give the title compound as a white solid (3.64 kg, 98%); 1H NMR Spectrum: (DMSO) 1.85 (m, IH), 2.08 (m, IH), 2.50 (m, IH), 2.66 (d, 3H), 2.83 (m, IH), 3.05 (s, 2H), 3.96 (s, 3H), 4.58 (m, IH), 6.64 (s, 4H), 7.23 (s, IH), 7.28 (m, IH), 7.46 (ddd, IH), 7.55 (m, IH), 7.70 (broad q, IH), 7.85 (s, IH), 8.38 (s, IH).

Example 7. Preparation of compound (I) difumarate Form A: 2-[4-({4-[(3-Chloro-2- fluorophenyl)amino]-7-methoxyquinazolin-6-yl}oxy)piperidin-l-yl]-N-methylacetamide di- [(2E)-but-2-enedioate] Form A. 2-[4-({4-[(3-Chloro-2-fluorophenyl)amino]-7- methoxyquinazolin-6-yl}oxy)piperidin-l-yl]-N-methylacetamide (compound (I)) (60.19 g at 88% w/w, 111.8 mmol) was dissolved in ethyl acetate (1550 ml). The solution was clarified by filtration and the filter washed with ethyl acetate (53 ml). The solution was cooled to 400C. A clarified solution of fumaric acid (26.60 g, 257.0 mmol) in isopropanol (408 ml) was then added over 1 hour. The filter used to clarify the fumaric acid solution was then washed with isopropanol (37 ml). After holding for 1 hour at 400C the reaction was cooled to 200C over 1 hour. The reaction mixture was held for 13.5 hours before isolating the product by filtration. The filter cake was washed twice with ethyl acetate (82 ml) : isopropanol (24 ml) and then dried in vacuo at 400C to give the title compound as a white solid (72.32 g, 90%); 1H NMR Spectrum: (DMSO) 1.85 (m, IH), 2.08 (m, IH), 2.50 (m, IH), 2.66 (d, 3H), 2.83 (m, IH), 3.05 (s, 2H), 3.96 (s, 3H), 4.58 (m, IH), 6.64 (s, 4H), 7.23 (s, IH), 7.28 (m, IH), 7.46 (ddd, IH), 7.55 (m, IH), 7.70 (broad q, IH), 7.85 (s, IH), 8.38 (s, IH). Example 8. Preparation of compound (I) difumarate Form A: 2-[4-({4-[(3-Chloro-2- fluorophenyl)amino]-7-methoxyquinazolin-6-yl}oxy)piperidin-l-yl]-N-methylacetamide di- [(2E)-but-2-enedioate] Form A. 2-[4-({4-[(3-Chloro-2-fluorophenyl)amino]-7- methoxyquinazolin-6-yl}oxy)piperidin-l-yl]-N-methylacetamide (compound (I)) (2.75 g at assumed 100% w/w, 5.80 mmol) was dissolved in ethyl acetate (94 ml) and isopropanol (14 ml). The solution was distilled such that 25.2 ml of distillates were collected. The solution was cooled to 400C. A clarified solution of fumaric acid (1.38 g, 11.90 mmol) in isopropanol (21 ml) was then added over 1 hour. Compound (I) difumarate Form A seed was added (3.7 mg, 5.3 μmol). The filter used to clarify the fumaric acid solution was then washed with isopropanol (2 ml). After holding for 1 hour at 400C the reaction was cooled to 200C over 2 hours. The reaction mixture was held for 15 hours before isolating the product by filtration. The filter cake was washed twice with ethyl acetate (4.3 ml): isopropanol (1.2 ml) and then dried in vacuo at 400C to give the title compound as a white solid (72.32 g, 90%); 1H NMR Spectrum: (DMSO) 1.85 (m, IH), 2.08 (m, IH), 2.50 (m, IH), 2.66 (d, 3H), 2.83 (m, IH), 3.05 (s, 2H), 3.96 (s, 3H), 4.58 (m, IH), 6.64 (s, 4H), 7.23 (s, IH), 7.28 (m, IH), 7.46 (ddd, IH), 7.55 (m, IH), 7.70 (broad q, IH), 7.85 (s, IH), 8.38 (s, IH).

Example 9. Preparation of compound (I) difumarate Form A: 2-[4-({4-[(3-Chloro-2- fluorophenyl)amino]-7-methoxyquinazolin-6-yl}oxy)piperidin-l-yl]-N-methylacetamide di- [(2E)-but-2-enedioate] Form A. 2-[4-({4-[(3-Chloro-2-fluorophenyl)amino]-7- methoxyquinazolin-6-yl}oxy)piperidin-l-yl]-N-methylacetamide (compound (I)) (1 g, 1.86 mmoles) and fumaric acid (0.44 g, 3.81 mmoles) were suspended in water (4.4 g) and heated to 85°C. The reaction mixture was cooled to 600C at l°C/minute and compound (I) Form A seed was added when the temperature was 77°C. The resulting solid was isolated by filtration, washed twice with acetone (0.7O g per wash) and dried in a vacuum oven at 400C to afford the title compound (0.89 g, 68% yield), IH NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) d ppm 1.84 (m, 2 H) 2.08 (m, 2 H) 2.55 (m, 2 H) 2.63 (d, J=4.7 Hz, 3 H) 2.86 (m, 2 H) 3.12 (s, 2 H) 3.93 (s, 3 H) 4.59 (tt, J=7.8, 3.7 Hz, 1 H) 6.62 (s, 4 H) 7.21 (s, 1 H) 7.27 (td, J=8.1, 1.3 Hz, 1 H) 7.49 (m, 2 H) 7.86 (m, 2 H) 8.36 (s, 1 H) 9.63 (br. s., 1 H). Compound (I) difumarate Form A is a free flowing powder.

PAPER

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.oprd.6b00412

The Development of a Dimroth Rearrangement Route to AZD8931

The Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, AstraZeneca, Silk Road Business Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK10 2NA, United Kingdom
The Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Development, AstraZeneca, Silk Road Business Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK10 2NA, United Kingdom
Org. Process Res. Dev., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acs.oprd.6b00412

Abstract Image

Recently, the aminoquinazoline motif has been highly prevalent in anticancer pharmaceutical compounds. Synthetic methods are required to make this structure on a multikilo scale and in high purity. The initial route to aminoquinazoline AZD8931 suffered from the formation of late-stage impurities. To avoid these impurities, a new high-yielding Dimroth rearrangement approach to the aminoquinazoline core of AZD8931 was developed. Assessment of route options on a gram scale demonstrated that the Dimroth rearrangement is a viable approach. The processes were then evolved for large-scale production with learning from a kilo campaign and two plant-scale manufactures. Identification of key process impurities offers an insight into the mechanisms of the Dimroth rearrangement as well as the hydrogenation of a key intermediate. The final processes were operated on a 30 kg scale delivering the target AZD8931 in 41% overall yield.

2-[4-[4-(3-chloro-2-fluoro-anilino)-7-methoxy-quinazolin-6-yl]oxy-1-piperidyl]-N-methyl-acetamide IPA solvate (5) as a white solid (38.1 kg, 84.2% yield); 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 1.81 (m, 2 H), 2.06 (m, 2 H), 2.39 (m, 2 H), 2.63 (d, J = 4.7 Hz, 3 H), 2.75 (m, 2 H), 2.95 (s, 2 H), 3.94 (s, 3 H), 4.57 (Dt, J = 8.1, 4.2 Hz, 1 H), 7.22 (s, 1 H), 7.29 (t, J = 8.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.51 (m, 2 H), 7.74 (br d, J = 4.6 Hz, 1 H), 7.83 (s, 1 H), 8.37 (s, 1 H), 9.58 (br.s, 1 H); m/Z ES+ 474.2 [MH]+; HRMS found [MH]+ = 474.1706, C23H25ClFN5O3 requires [MH]+ = 474.1630; Assay (QNMR) 97.5 wt %/wt.

1H NMR PREDICT

13C NMR PREDICT

CHEMICAL & PHARMACEUTICAL BULLETIN, vol. 49, no. 7, 2001, pages 822 – 829
Citing Patent Filing date Publication date Applicant Title
WO2013051883A3 * Oct 5, 2012 Jun 6, 2013 Hanmi Science Co., Ltd. Method for preparing 1-(4-(4-(3,4-dichloro-2-fluorophenylamino)-7-methoxyquinazolin-6-yloxy)piperidin-1-yl)-prop-2-en-1-one hydrochloride and intermediates used therein
US8859767 Oct 5, 2012 Oct 14, 2014 Hanmi Science Co., Ltd Method for preparing 1-(4-(4-(3,4-dichloro-2-fluorophenylamino)-7-methoxyquinazolin-6-yloxy)piperidin-1-yl)-prop-2-en-1-one hydrochloride and intermediates used therein

////////////////AZD 8931, Sapitinib, pan-EGFR, pan-erbB inhibitor, SAPATINIB, PHASE 2, 848942-61-0

CNC(=O)CN1CCC(CC1)OC2=C(C=C3C(=C2)C(=NC=N3)NC4=C(C(=CC=C4)Cl)F)OC

“ALL FOR DRUGS” CATERS TO EDUCATION GLOBALLY, No commercial exploits are done or advertisements added by me. This article is a compilation for educational purposes only.

P.S. : The views expressed are my personal and in no-way suggest the views of the professional body or the company that I represent

Lorlatinib, лорлатиниб , لورلاتينيب , 洛拉替尼 , PF-6463922


Lorlatinib.svgChemSpider 2D Image | lorlatinib | C21H19FN6O2

Lorlatinib, PF-6463922

For Cancer; Non-small-cell lung cancer

  • Molecular Formula C21H19FN6O2
  • Average mass 406.413 Da

Phase 2

WO 2013132376

Andrew James Jensen, Suman Luthra, Paul Francis RICHARDSON
Applicant Pfizer Inc.
Image result for pfizer
(10R)-7-amino-12-fluoro-2,10,16-trimethyl-15-oxo-10,15,16,17-tetrahydro-2H-4,8- methenopyrazolo[4,3-h][2,5,11]benzoxadiazacyclotetradecine-3-carbonitrile
(16R)-19-Amino-13-fluoro-4,8,16-trimethyl-9-oxo-17-oxa-4,5,8,20-tetraazatetracyclo[16.3.1.02,6.010,15]docosa-1(22),2,5,10,12,14,18,20-octaene-3-carbonitrile
(10R)-7-Amino-12-fluoro-2,10,16-trimethyl-15-oxo-10,15,16,17-tetrahydro-2H-8,4-(metheno)pyrazolo[4,3-h][2,5,11]benzoxadiazacyclotetradecine-3-carbonitrile
CAS 1454846-35-5 [RN]
UNII:OSP71S83EU
лорлатиниб [Russian]
لورلاتينيب [Arabic]
洛拉替尼 [Chinese]

Ros1 tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitor; Anaplastic lymphoma kinase receptor inhibitor

useful for treating cancer mediated by anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) or c-ros oncogene 1 (ROS1) receptor tyrosine kinase, particularly NSCLC.  an ATP-competitive inhibitor of ROS1/ALK, for treating NSCLC. In February 2017, lorlatinib was reported to be in phase 2 clinical development.

  • Originator Pfizer
  • Developer Pfizer; The Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia; Yale University
  • Class Antineoplastics; Aza compounds; Benzoxazines; Pyrazoles; Pyrazolones; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action Anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitors; ROS1-protein-inhibitors
  • Orphan Drug Status Yes – Non-small cell lung cancer

Lorlatinib (PF-6463922) is an experimental anti-neoplastic drug in development by Pfizer. It is a orally-administered small molecule inhibitor of ROS1 and ALK.

In 2015, FDA granted Pfizer orphan drug status for lorlatinib for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer.[1]

  • 05 Oct 2016 Massachusetts General Hospital plans a phase II trial for Non-small cell lung cancer (Late-stage disease, Metastatic disease) in USA (PO, unspecified formulation) (NCT02927340)
  • 01 Oct 2016 Pfizer completes a phase I trial in pharmacokinetic trial in Healthy volunteers in USA (NCT02804399)
  • 01 Aug 2016 Pfizer initiates a phase I drug-drug interaction trial in Healthy volunteers in Belgium (PO, unspecified formulation) (NCT02838264)

Figure

Structures of ALK inhibitors marketed or currently in the clinic

Synthesis

NEED COLOUR

Clinical studies

Several clinical trials are ongoing. A phase II trial comparing avelumab alone and in combination with lorlatinib or crizotinib for non-small cell lung cancer is expected to be complete in late 2017. A phase II trial comparing lorlatinib with crizotinib is expected to be complete in mid-2018.[2] A phase II trial for treatment of ALK-positive or ROS1-positive non-small cell lung cancer with CNA metastases is not expected to be complete until 2023.[3] Preclinical studies are investigating lorlatinib for treatment of neuroblastoma.

Lorlatinib is an investigational medicine that inhibits the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and ROS1 proto-oncogene. Due to tumor complexity and development of resistance to treatment, disease progression is a challenge in patients with ALK-positive metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A common site for progression in metastatic NSCLC is the brain. Lorlatinib was specifically designed to inhibit tumor mutations that drive resistance to other ALK inhibitors and to penetrate the blood brain barrier.

ABOUT LORLATINIB

ALK in NSCLC ROS1 in NSCLC PRECLINICAL DATA CLINICAL STUDIES Originally discovered as an oncogenic driver in a type of lymphoma, ALK gene alterations were also found to be among key drivers of tumor development in cancers, such as NSCLC.1 In ALK-positive lung cancer, a normally inactive gene called ALK is fused with another gene. This genetic alteration creates the ALK fusion gene and ultimately, the production of an ALK fusion protein, which is responsible for tumor growth.1,2 This genetic alteration is present in 3-5% of NSCLC patients.3,4,5 Another gene that can fuse with other genes is called ROS1. Sometimes a ROS1 fusion protein can contribute to cancer-cell growth and tumor survival. This genetic alteration is present in approximately 1% of NSCLC patients.5 Preclinical data showed lorlatinib is capable of overcoming resistance to existing ALK inhibitors and penetrated the blood brain barrier in ALK-driven tumor models.2 Specifically, in these preclinical models, lorlatinib had activity against all tested clinical resistance mutations in ALK.

A Phase 1/2 clinical trial of lorlatinib in patients with ALK-positive or ROS1-positive advanced NSCLC is currently ongoing. • The primary objective of the Phase 1 portion was to assess safety and tolerability of single-agent lorlatinib at increasing dose levels in patients with ALK-positive or ROS1-positive advanced NSCLC.6 • Data from the Phase 1 study showed that lorlatinib had promising clinical activity in patients with ALK-positive or ROS1- positive advanced NSCLC. Most of these patients had developed CNS metastases and had received ≥1 prior tyrosine kinase inhibitor.7 o The most common treatment-related adverse events (AEs) were hypercholesterolemia (69%) and peripheral edema (37%). Hypercholesterolemia was the most common (11%) grade 3 or higher treatment-related AE and the most frequent reason for dose delay or reduction. No patients discontinued due to treatment-related AEs. At the recommended Phase 2 dose, 4 out of 17 patients (24%) experienced a treatment-related AE of any grade that led to a dose delay or hold.

PATENT

WO2014207606

This invention relates to crystalline forms of the macrocyclic kinase inhibitor, (10R)-7-amino-12-fluoro-2, 10,16-trimethyl-15-OXO-10,15, 16,17-tetrahydro-2H-8,4-(metheno)pyrazolo[4, 3-?][2,5,1 1 ]benzoxadiazacyclotetradecine-3-carbonitrile, including crystalline solvates thereof, that may be useful in the treatment of abnormal cell growth, such as cancer, in mammals. The invention also relates to compositions including such crystalline forms, and to methods of using such compositions in the treatment of abnormal cell growth in mammals, especially humans.

Background of the Invention

The compound (10R)-7-amino-12-fluoro-2,10,16-trimethyl-15-oxo-10,15,16,17-tetrahydro-2/-/-8,4-(metheno)pyrazolo[4,3- ?][2,5,1 1 ]benzoxadiazacyclotetradecine-3-carbonitrile, represented by the formula (I):

(I)

is a potent, macrocyclic inhibitor of both wild type and resistance mutant forms of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and c-ros oncogene 1 (ROS1) receptor tyrosine kinase. Preparation of the free base compound of formula (I) as an amorphous solid is disclosed in International Patent Publication No. WO 2013/132376 and in United States Patent Publication No. 2013/0252961 , the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.

Human cancers comprise a diverse array of diseases that collectively are one of the leading causes of death in developed countries throughout the world (American Cancer Society, Cancer Facts and Figures 2005. Atlanta: American Cancer Society; 2005). The progression of cancers is caused by a complex series of multiple genetic and molecular events including gene mutations, chromosomal translocations, and karyotypic abnormalities (Hanahan & Weinberg, The hallmarks of cancer. Cell 2000; 100: 57-70). Although the underlying genetic causes of

cancer are both diverse and complex, each cancer type has been observed to exhibit common traits and acquired capabilities that facilitate its progression. These acquired capabilities include dysregulated cell growth, sustained ability to recruit blood vessels (i.e., angiogenesis), and ability of tumor cells to spread locally as well as metastasize to secondary organ sites (Hanahan & Weinberg 2000). Therefore, the ability to identify novel therapeutic agents that inhibit molecular targets that are altered during cancer progression or target multiple processes that are common to cancer progression in a variety of tumors presents a significant unmet need.

Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) play fundamental roles in cellular processes, including cell proliferation, migration, metabolism, differentiation, and survival. RTK activity is tightly controlled in normal cells. The constitutively enhanced RTK activities from point mutation, amplification, and rearrangement of the corresponding genes have been implicated in the development and progression of many types of cancer. (Gschwind et al., The discovery of receptor tyrosine kinases: targets for cancer therapy. Nat. Rev. Cancer 2004; 4, 361-370; Krause & Van Etten, Tyrosine kinases as targets for cancer therapy. N. Engl. J. Med. 2005; 353: 172-187.)

Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a receptor tyrosine kinase, grouped together with leukocyte tyrosine kinase (LTK) to a subfamily within the insulin receptor (IR) superfamily. ALK was first discovered as a fusion protein with nucleophosmin (NPM) in anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) cell lines in 1994. (Morris et al., Fusion of a kinase gene, ALK, to a nucleolar protein gene, NPM, in non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Science 1994; 263:1281-1284.) NPM-ALK, which results from a chromosomal translocation, is implicated in the pathogenesis of human anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) (Pulford et al., Anaplastic lymphoma kinase proteins in growth control and cancer. J. Cell Physiol., 2004; 199: 330-58). The roles of aberrant expression of constitutively active ALK chimeric proteins in the pathogenesis of ALCL have been defined (Wan et. al., Anaplastic lymphoma kinase activity is essential for the proliferation and survival of anaplastic large cell lymphoma cells. Blood, 2006; 107:1617-1623). Other chromosomal rearrangements resulting in ALK fusions have been subsequently detected in ALCL (50-60%), inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (27%), and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (2-7%). (Palmer et al., Anaplastic lymphoma kinase: signaling in development and disease. Biochem. J. 2009; 420:345-361 .)

The EML4-ALK fusion gene, comprising portions of the echinoderm microtubule associated protein-like 4 (EML4) gene and the ALK gene, was first discovered in NSCLC archived clinical specimens and cell lines. (Soda et al., Identification of the transforming EML4-ALK fusion gene in non-small cell lung cancer. Nature 2007; 448:561-566; Rikova et al., Cell 2007; 131 :1 190-1203.) EML4-ALK fusion variants were demonstrated to transform NIH-3T3 fibroblasts and cause lung adenocarcinoma when expressed in transgenic mice, confirming the

potent oncogenic activity of the EML4-ALK fusion kinase. (Soda et al., A mouse model for EML4-ALK-positive lung cancer. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2008; 105:19893-19897.) Oncogenic mutations of ALK in both familial and sporadic cases of neuroblastoma have also been reported. (Caren et al., High incidence of DNA mutations and gene amplifications of the ALK gene in advanced sporadic neuroblastoma tumors. Biochem. J. 2008; 416:153-159.)

ROS1 is a proto-oncogene receptor tyrosine kinase that belongs to the insulin receptor subfamily, and is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation processes. (Nagarajan et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci 1986; 83:6568-6572). ROS is expressed, in humans, in epithelial cells of a variety of different tissues. Defects in ROS expression and/or activation have been found in glioblastoma, as well as tumors of the central nervous system (Charest et al., Genes Chromos. Can. 2003; 37(1): 58-71). Genetic alterations involving ROS that result in aberrant fusion proteins of ROS kinase have been described, including the FIG-ROS deletion translocation in glioblastoma (Charest et al. (2003); Birchmeier et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci 1987; 84:9270-9274; and NSCLC (Rimkunas et al., Analysis of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase ROS1 -Positive Tumors in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Identification of FIG-ROS1 Fusion, Clin Cancer Res 2012; 18:4449-4457), the SLC34A2-ROS translocation in NSCLC (Rikova et al. Cell 2007;131 :1 190-1203), the CD74-ROS translocation in NSCLC (Rikova et al. (2007)) and cholangiocarcinoma (Gu et al. PLoS ONE 201 1 ; 6(1 ): e15640), and a truncated, active form of ROS known to drive tumor growth in mice (Birchmeier et al. Mol. Cell. Bio. 1986; 6(9):3109-31 15). Additional fusions, including TPM3-ROS1 , SDC4-ROS1 , EZR-ROS1 and LRIG3-ROS1 , have been reported in lung cancer patient tumor samples (Takeuchi et al., RET, ROS1 and ALK fusions in lung cancer, Nature Medicine 2012; 18(3):378-381).

The dual ALK/c-MET inhibitor crizotinib was approved in 201 1 for the treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC that is ALK-positive as detected by an FDA-approved test. Crizotinib has also shown efficacy in treatment of NSCLC with ROS1 translocations. (Shaw et al. Clinical activity of crizotinib in advanced rson-smali cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring ROS1 gene rearrangement. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, Chicago, June 1-5, 2012.) As observed clinically for other tyrosine kinase inhibitors, mutations in ALK and ROS1 that confer resistance to ALK inhibitors have been described (Choi et ai., EML4-ALK Mutations in Lung Cancer than Confer Resistance to ALK Inhibitors, N Engl J Med 2010; 363:1734-1739; Awad et ai., Acquired Resistance to Crizotinib from a Mutation in CD74-ROS1, Engl J Med 2013; 368:2395-2401 ).

Thus, ALK and ROS1 are attractive molecular targets for cancer therapeutic intervention. There remains a need to identify compounds having novel activity profiles against wild-type and mutant forms of ALK and ROS1 .

The present invention provides crystalline forms of the free base of (10R)-7-amino-12-fluoro-2, 10,16-trimethyl-15-OXO-10,15, 16,17-tetrahydro-2H-8,4-(metheno)pyrazolo[4,3- ?][2, 5,1 1 ]-benzoxadiazacyclotetradecine-3-carbonitrile having improved properties, such as improved crystallinity, dissolution properties, decreased hygroscopicity, improved mechanical properties, improved purity, and/or improved stability, while maintaining chemical and enantiomeric stability.

Comparative Example 1A

Preparation of (10f?)-7-amino-12-fluoro-2,10,16-trimethyl-15-oxo-10,15,16,17-tetrahydro-2H-8,4-(metheno)pyrazolo[4,3- ?l[2,5,1 Hbenzoxadiazacyclo-tetradecine-3-carbonitrile (amorphous)

Example 1A

Step 1 :

Palladium (II) acetate (53 mg, 0.24 mmol) and cataCXium® A (180 mg, 0.5 mmol) were mixed together in toluene (1 .5 mL, de-gassed) and the resulting solution was added via pipette to a stirred solution of compound 7 (0.9 g, 2.4 mmol), compound 15 (1 .0 g, 3.0 mmol) bis-pinacolato diboron (0.9 g, 3.6 mmol) and CsF (1 .9 g, 12.6 mmol) in MeOH/H20 (9:1 , 12 mL, degassed) at 60 °C. The resulting mixture was then stirred at reflux for 3 hrs. A further portion of Palladium (II) acetate (26 mg, 0.12 mmol) and cataCXium® A (90 mg, 0.25 mmol) in toluene (1 .5 mL, de-gassed) was added, and the yellow reaction mixture stirred at 60 °C overnight. After cooling to room temperature, the mixture was diluted with EtOAc (150 mL) and filtered through CELITE®. The filtrate was washed with water (100 mL), then brine (100 mL), dried (Na2S04) and evaporated. The residue was purified by flash chromatography over silica gel, which was eluted with 1 :1 EtOAc/cyclohexane, to give compound 22 as a yellow oil (570 mg, 43% yield). TLC (Rf = 0.40, 1 :1 EtOAc/cyclohexane). 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) δ 8.03 (m, 1 H), 7.65 (s, 1 H), 7.27 (dd,1 H, J = 9.9, 2.7 Hz), 7.01 (m, 1 H), 6.68 (m, 1 H), 6.40 (m, 1 H), 4.90 (br s, 2 H), 4.20 – 4.30 (m, 2 H), 3.96 (s, 3 H), 3.94 (s, 3 H), 2.55 – 2.85 (m, 3 H), 1 .68 (d, 3 H, J = 6.6 Hz), 1 .24 (s, 9 H). LCMS ES m/z 539 [M+H]+.

Step 2:

To a solution of compound 22 (69% purity, 0.95 g, assumed 1 .05 mmol) in MeOH (20 mL) was added a solution NaOH (1 .0 g, 25 mmol) in water (2 mL). The mixture was stirred at 40 °C for 3.5 hours. The reaction was diluted with water (80 mL), concentrated by 20 mL to remove MeOH on the rotary evaporator, and washed with MTBE (100 mL). The aqueous layer was then acidified carefully with 1 M aq HCI to approx. pH 2 (pH paper). Sodium chloride (15 g) was added to the mixture and the mixture was extracted with EtOAc (100 mL). The organic layer was separated, dried (Na2S04) and evaporated to give compound 23 as a pale yellow solid (480 mg, 87% yield). 1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) δ 8.05 (m, 1 H), 7.45 (s, 1 H), 7.37 (dd,1 H, J = 10.4, 2.8 Hz), 7.10 (dt, 1 H, J = 8.5, 2.4 Hz), 6.50 – 6.60 (m, 2 H), 4.05 – 4.30 (m, 2 H), 3.99 (s, 3 H), 2.60 – 2.80 (m, 3 H), 1 .72 (d, 3 H, J = 6.5 Hz). LCMS ES m/z 525 [M+H]+.

Step 3:

A solution of HCI in dioxane (4 M, 6.0 mL) was added to a solution of compound 23

(480 mg, 0.91 mmol) in MeOH (methanol) (6 mL) and the reaction was stirred at 40 °C for 2.5 hours. The reaction mixture was then concentrated to dryness under reduced pressure. The residue was taken-up in MeOH (50 mL) and acetonitrile (100 mL) was added and the mixture was then again evaporated to dryness, to give compound 24 as an off white solid (400 mg, 87% yield). 1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) δ 8.07 (dd, 1 H, J = 8.9. 5.9 Hz), 7.51 (d, 1 H, J = 1 .7 Hz), 7.42 (dd, 1 H, J = 9.8, 2.6 Hz), 7.23 (d, 1 H, J = 1 .6 Hz), 7.16 (dt, 1 H, J = 8.5, 2.7 Hz), 6.73 (dd, 1 H, J = 1 1 .9, 6.9 Hz), 4.22 (d, 1 H, J = 14.7 Hz), 4.14 (d, 1 H, J = 14.7 Hz), 4.07 (s, 3 H), 2.75 (s, 3 H), 1 .75 (d, 3 H, J = 5.5 Hz). LCMS ES m/z 425 [M+H]+.

Step 4:

A solution of compound 24 (400 mg, assumed 0.91 mmol) as the HCI salt and DIPEA

(diisopropylethylamine) (1 .17 g, 9.1 mmol) in DMF (dimethylformamide) (5.0 mL) and THF (0.5 mL) was added drop-wise to a solution of HATU (2-(1 H-7-azabenzotriazol-1 -yl)-1 ,1 ,3,3-tetramethyl uronium hexafluorophosphate methanaminium) (482 mg, 1 .27 mmol) in DMF (10.0 mL) at 0 °C over 30 minutes. After complete addition, the mixture was stirred at 0 °C for a further 30 mins. Water (70 mL) was added and the mixture was extracted into EtOAc (2 x 60 mL). The combined organics were washed with saturated aqueous NaHC03 (2 x 100 mL), brine (100 mL), dried over Na2S04, and evaporated. The residue was purified by column chromatography over silica gel, which was eluted with 70% EtOAc/cyclohexane giving 205 mg of a pale yellow residue (semi-solid). The solids were dissolved in MTBE (7 mL) and cyclohexane (20 mL) was added slowly with good stirring to precipitate the product. After stirring for 30 minutes, the mixture was filtered, and Example 1A was collected as an

amorphous white solid (1 10 mg, 29% yield). TLC (Rf = 0.40, 70% EtOAc in cyclohexane). 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) δ 7.83 (d, 1 H, J = 2.0 Hz), 7.30 (dd, 1 H, J = 9.6, 2.4 Hz), 7.21 (dd, 1 H, J = 8.4, 5.6 Hz), 6.99 (dt, 1 H, J = 8.0, 2.8 Hz), 6.86 (d, 1 H, J = 1 .2 Hz), 5.75 – 5.71 (m, 1 H), 4.84 (s, 2 H), 4.45 (d, 1 H, J = 14.4 Hz), 4.35 (d ,1 H, J = 14.4 Hz), 4.07 (s, 3 H), 3.13 (s, 3 H), 1 .79 (d, 3 H, J = 6.4Hz). LCMS ES m/z 407 [M+H]+.

Example 1

Preparation of crystalline hydrate of (10 ?)-7-amino-12-fluoro-2,10,16-trimethyl-15-oxo- 10,15,16,17-tetrahvdro-2/-/-8,4-(metheno)pyrazolo[4,3- ?l[2,5,1 Hbenzoxa-diazacyclo-tetradecine-3-carbonitrile (Form 1)

Example 1A Example 1

(amorphous) (Form 1 }

Amorphous (10f?)-7-amino-12-fluoro-2,10,16-trimethyl-15-oxo-10,15,16,17-tetrahydro-2H-8,4-(metheno)pyrazolo[4,3- ?][2,5,11 ]benzoxa-diazacyclo-tetradecine-3-carbonitrile free base, prepared as described in Example 1A (and Example 2 of United States Patent Publication No. 2013/0252961), was dissolved in 1 .0 : 1 .1 (v:v) H20:MeOH at a concentration of 22 mg/mL at 50°C, then allowed to cool to room temperature . This slurry was granulated for approximately 72 hours. The solids were isolated by filtration and vacuum dried overnight at 60°C to produce crystalline hydrate Form 1 of (10R)-7-amino-12-fluoro-2,10,16-trimethyl-15-oxo-10,15,16,17-tetrahydro-2H-8,4-(metheno)pyrazolo[4,3-/?][2,5,1 1 ]benzoxadiazacyclotetradecine-3-carbonitrile.

Example 4

Alternative preparation of crystalline acetic acid solvate of (10 ?)-7-amino-12-fluoro-2, 10,16-trimethyl-15-OXO-10,15, 16,17-tetrahvdro-2H-8,4-(metheno)pyrazolo[4,3- ?U2,5, 1 1 lbenzoxa-diazacyclotetradecine-3-carbonitrile (Form 3)

Step 1 :

To a reaction vessel under N2 were charged compound 9 (9.97 kg, 17.95 mol), compound 21 (3.52 kg, 18.85 mol) and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (97 L). Triethylamine (7.45 kg, 73.6 mol) was added while keeping the internal temperature below 35°C. The reaction mixture was held for 30 min and n-propylphosphonic anhydride (T3P), 50% solution in ethyl acetate (22.85 kg, 35.9 mol) was charged slowly, maintaining the internal temperature below 25°C. The reaction mixture was held at 20°C for at least 2 h until reaction was deemed complete. Ethyl acetate (35 L) and water (66 L) were added followed by 0.5N Hydrochloric acid solution (80 L). The aqueous layer was removed and the organic layer was washed with brine solution (80 L). The organic layer was concentrated and solvent exchanged with 2-methyl-2-butanol (80 L) give compound 25 (23 wt/wt%) solution in 2-methyl-2-butanol . This solution was carried forward to the next step directly in three batches, assuming 12.00 kg (100% yield) from this step.

Step 2:

2-Methyl-2-butanol (100 L) was combined with potassium acetate (1 .8 kg, 18.34 mol), palladium(ll) acetate (0.10 kg, 0.46 mol) and water (0.10 kg, 5.73 mol). The resulting mixture was purged with nitrogen. Di(1 -adamantyl)n-butylphosphine (0.23 kg, 0.43 mol) was added. An amount of 20% of compound 25 (3.97 kg active or 17.3 L of step 1 solution in 2-methyl-2-butanol) was added, and the resulting reaction mixture was heated at reflux for 2 h. The remaining solution of compound 25 in 2-methyl-2-butanol was subsequently added to the reaction over a period of 5 h. The resulting mixture was heated until the reaction was deemed complete (typically 16 – 20 h). This reaction step was processed in three batches, and the isolation was done in one single batch. Thus, the combined three batches were filtered through CELITE® to remove insoluble materials. The filtrate was concentrated to a low volume (approximately 20 L). Acetonitrile (60 L) was added. The resulting mixture was heated to reflux for 2 – 4 h, then cooled to RT for granulation. The resulting slurry was filtered to give compound 26 as a crude product. The crude product was combined with ethyl acetate (80 L) and Silicycle thiol (5 kg). The resulting mixture was heated for 2 h, cooled to RT and filtered. The filtrate was concentrated to approx. 20 L, and the resulting slurry was granulated and filtered. The filter cake was rinsed with ethyl acetate (4 L) and dried in a vacuum oven to give compound 26 as a pure product (4.74 kg, 43.5% overall last two steps). 1H NMR (CDCI3) δ 8.25 – 8.23 (m, 1 H), 7.28 (1 H, dd, 2.76 and 9.79 Hz), 7.22 (1 H, dd, 5.52 and 8.53 Hz), 7.18 (1 H, d, J = 1 .76 Hz), 7.01 (1 H, dt, J = 2.50 and 8.03 Hz), 5.78 – 5.70 (m, 1 H), 4.76 (1 H, d, J = 14.3 Hz), 4.13 (s, 3H), 3.16 (s, 3H), 1 .78 (d, 3H, J = 6.02 Hz), 1 .45 (s, 18H); 13C NMR (CDCI3) δ 167.0, 162.9, 160.4, 148.7, 146.3, 143.0, 140.7, 139.9, 135.5, 129.9, 129.8, 126.1 , 123.8, 123.5, 1 19.7, 1 13.8, 1 13.5, 1 1 1 .6, 108.1 , 81 .1 , 70.1 , 45.5, 37.0, 29.7, 26.0, 20.7; LCMS (M+1)+ 607.3, 507.1 , 451 .2.

Step 3:

To a reactor under N2 was added compound 26 (4.74 kg, 7.82 mol) and ethyl acetate (54 L). Hydrochloric acid 37% (5.19 L, 63.2 mol) was charged slowly while keeping the internal temperature below 25°C. The reaction mixture was stirred for 24 – 48 h until the reaction was complete. Ethyl acetate (54L) and water (54 L) were added. The reaction mixture was then treated with triethylamine until pH 8 – 9 was reached. The aqueous layer was removed and then the organic layer was washed water (2 x 54 L). The organic layer was concentrated under reduced pressure to approx. 54 L to give compound 27 (unisolated).

Step 4:

Acetic acid (1 .0 kg, 16.6 mol) was added to the organic layer containing compound 27. The reaction mixture was concentrated and then held for at least 3 h with stirring at RT. The resulted slurry was filtered. The filter cake was washed with ethyl acetate (2 L) and dried under vacuum to give 3.20 kg (87.8% yield) of Example 4 acetic acid solvate (Form 3). The spectroscopic data of this material was identical to that of an authentic sample of the crystalline acetic acid Form 3 of (10R)-7-amino-12-fluoro-2, 10, 16-trimethyl-15-oxo-10, 15,16, 17-tetrahydro-2/-/-8,4-(metheno)pyrazolo[4,3- ?][2,5,1 1 ]-benzoxadiazacyclo-tetradecine-3-carbonitrile prepared according to Example 3.

Preparation of Synthetic Intermediates

7 6 5

Step 1 :

A solution of (-)-DIPCI ((-)-B-chlorodiisopinocampheylborane) (57.1 g, 178 mmol) in THF

(tetrahydrofuran) (100 ml) was cooled to -20 to -30 °C. A solution of compound 1 (31 .3 g, 1 19 mmol) in THF (100 ml) was then added dropwise, via addition funnel (30 min addition). The reaction was left to warm up to room temperature (RT). After 2 h, the reaction was cooled to -30 °C and another portion of (-)-DIPCI (38.0 g, 1 19 mmol) was added. After 30 min, the reaction was allowed to warm to RT and after 1 h, the solvents were removed in vacuo and the residue re-dissolved in MTBE (methyl tertiary-butyl ether) (200 ml). A solution of diethanolamine (31 g, 296 mmol) in ethanol/THF (15 ml/30 ml) was added via addition funnel, to the reaction mixture under an ice bath. The formation of a white precipitate was observed. The suspension was heated at reflux for 2 hours then cooled to room temperature, filtered and the mother liquids concentrated in vacuo. The residue was suspended in heptane/EtOAc (7:3, 200 ml) and again

filtered. This procedure was repeated until no more solids could be observed after the liquids were concentrated. The final yellow oil was purified by column chromatography (eluent: cyclohexane/EtOAc 99:1 to 96:4). The resulting colorless oil was further purified by recrystallization from heptanes, to give alcohol compound 2 (25 g, 80% yield, 99% purity and 96% ee) as white crystals. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) δ 7.73 (dd, 1 H), 7.32 (dd, 1 H), 6.74 (ddd, 1 H), 4.99 – 5.04 (m, 1 H), 2.01 (d, 1 H), 1 .44 (d, 3 H). LCMS-ES: No ionization, Purity 99%. Chiral GC (column CP-Chirasil-DexnCB): 96% ee; Rt (minor) 17.7 minutes and Rt (major) 19.4 minutes.

Step 2:

A solution of compound 2 (22 g, 83 mmol) in MTBE (350 mL) was cooled under an ice bath and triethylamine (23 mL, 166 mmol) followed by mesyl chloride (9.6 mL, 124 mmol) were added drop-wise. The reaction was then warmed to RT and stirred for 3 h. The reaction mixture was filtered and the solids washed with EtOAc. The mother liquids were concentrated in vacuo to give compound 3 (35 g, 80% yield) as a pale yellow oil. This material was taken into the following step without further purification. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) δ 7.78 (dd, 1 H), 7.24 (dd, 1 H), 6.82 (ddd, 1 H), 2.92 (s, 3 H), 1 .64 (d, 3 H). LCMS-ES no ionization.

Step 3:

A suspension of Cs2C03 (65 g, 201 mmol) and compound 4 (13.3 g, 121 mmol) in 2-CH3-THF (2-methyitetrahydrofuran) (600 mL) and acetone (300 mL) was stirred at RT for 30 minutes then heated at 40 °C before drop-wise addition of a solution of compound 3 (34.4 g, 80 mmol) in 2-CH3-THF (300 mL) via addition funnel. The resulting mixture was left stirring at 75 -80 °C for 24 h. The reaction was then filtered through CELITE® with MTBE, the solvents removed in vacuo and the residue purified by column chromatography over silica gel which was eluted with cyclohexane/EtOAc (9:1 to 1 :1) to give compound 5 (14.3 g, 39 % yield, 90% ee) as a white solid. The solids were then re crystallized from heptane/EtOAc to give compound 5 (10.8 g, 37% yield, 95% ee). 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) 5 7.38 (dd, 1 H), 7.62 (dd, 1 H), 7.10 (dd, 1 H), 6.75 (ddd, 1 H), 6.44 – 6.51 (m, 2 H), 5.34 – 5.39 (m, 1 H), 4.73 (br s, 2 H), 1 .61 (d, 3 H). LCMS-ES m/z 359 [M+H]+. HPLC (Chiralpak IC 4.6 x 250 mm): 95% ee; Rt (minor) 10.4 minutes; Rt (major) 14.7 minutes; eluent: Heptane 80%/IPA 20% with 0.2% DEA, 0.7 mL/min. Step 4:

Compound 5 (20 g, 57 mmol) was dissolved in methanol (300 mL), and sequentially treated with triethylamine (TEA) (15.4 mL, 1 13 mmol) and PdCI2(dppf) (1 ,1 -bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene]dichloropalladium(ll) ) (4.1 g, 5.7 mmol). This mixture was heated at 100 °C for 16 hours, under a 100 psi carbon monoxide atmosphere. LCMS indicated consumption of starting material. The reaction mixture was filtered through a pad of CELITE®, and the filtrate evaporated to a brown oil. The crude product was purified by flash

chromatography over silica gel which was eluted with 50% to 75% ethyl acetate in cyclohexane, affording the pure product 6 as a brick-red solid (13.0 g, 79% yield). 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) δ 1 .65 (d, 3 H), 3.94 (s, 3 H), 4.75 (br s, 2 H), 6.32 (q, 1 H), 6.42 (dd, 1 H), 6.61 (dd, 1 H), 7.00 (ddd, 1 H), 7.28 (dd, 1 H), 7.60 (dd, 1 H), 8.03 (dd, 1 H). LCMS ES m/z 291 for [M+H]+.

Step 5:

Compound 6 (13.0 g, 45 mmol) was dissolved in acetonitrile (195 mL), and cooled to <10 °C in an ice water bath. NBS (N-bromosuccinimide) (7.9 g, 45 mmol) was added drop-wise to the cooled reaction mixture as a solution in acetonitrile (195 mL), monitoring the internal temperature to ensure it did not rise above 10 °C. After addition was complete, the mixture was stirred for 15 minutes. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) (1 :1 cyclohexane/ethyl acetate) showed consumption of starting material. The reaction mixture was evaporated, and the residue redissolved in ethyl acetate (400 mL), and washed with 2M aqueous NaOH (2 x 300 mL), and 10% aqueous sodium thiosulfate solution (300 mL). The organic extracts were dried over MgS04, and evaporated to a red oil (17.6 g). The crude product was purified over silica gel, which was eluted with 10% to 50% ethyl acetate in cyclohexane, which gave compound 7 (12.0 g, 73% yield). 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) δ 1 .65 (d, 3 H), 3.96 (s, 3 H), 4.74 – 4.81 (br s, 2 H), 6.33 (q, 1 H), 6.75 (d, 1 H), 7.03 (ddd, 1 H), 7.25 (dd, 1 H), 7.66 (d, 1 H), 8.06 (dd, 1 H). LCMS ES m/z 369/371 [M+H]+. A Chiralpak AD-H (4.6 x 100 mm, 5 micron) column was eluted with 10% MeOH (0.1 % DEA) in C02 at 120 bar. A flow rate of 5.0 mL/min gave the minor isomer Rt 0.6 minutes and the major isomer Rt 0.8 minutes (99% ee). Optical rotation: [ ]d20 = -92.4 deg (c=1 .5, MeOH).

Preparation of (/?)-methyl 2-(1 -((N,N-di-Boc-2-amino-5-bromopyridin-3-yl)oxy)ethyl)-4-fluorobenzoic acid (9)

7

Step 1 :

To a solution of compound 7 (2000 g, 5.4 mol) in dry DCM (dichloromethane) (32000 mL) was added DIPEA (N.N-dsisopropyleibylamine) (2100 g, 16.28 mol) and DMAP (4-dimethylaminopyridine) (132 g, 1 .08 mol). Then Boc20 (di-tert-butyl-dicarbonate) (3552 g, 16.28 mol) was added to the mixture in portions. The reaction was stirred at RT for overnight. TLC (petroleum ether/EtOAc =5:1) show the reaction was complete, the mixture was washed with sat. NH4CI (15 L) two times, then dried over Na2S04and concentrated to give a crude product which was purified by column (silica gel, petroleum ether/EtOAc from 20:1 to 10:1) to give compound 8 (2300 g, 75%) as a white solid.

Step 2:

Compound 8 (50 g, 87.81 mmol, 100 mass%) was charged to a round bottom flask (RBF) containing tetrahydrofuran (12.25 mol/L) in Water (5 mL/g, 3060 mmol, 12.25 mol/L) and sodium hydroxide (1 mol/L) in Water (1 .5 equiv., 131 .7 mmol, 1 mol/L). The biphasic mixture was stirred at RT for 14 hours. 1 N HCI was added to adjust pH to < 2. THF was then removed by vacuum distillation. The product precipitated out was collected by filtration. The filter cake was rinsed with water, pulled dried then dried in vacuum oven to constant weight (48 h, 55°C, 25 mbar). 48.3g isolated, 99% yield. 1H NMR (CDCI3, 400MHz) δ 8.24 (1 H, dd, 1 H, J = 5.76 and 3.0 Hz), 8.16 (1 H, d, J = 2.0 Hz), 7.37 (1 H, dd, J = 2.5 and 9.8 Hz), 7.19 (1 H, d, J = 2 Hz), 7.14 – 7.06 (1 H, m), 6.50 (1 H, q, J = 6.3 Hz), 1 .67 (3H, d, J = 8.4 Hz), 1 .48 (18H, s). 13C NMR (CDCI3, 100 MHz), δ 170.1 , 169.2, 167.6, 165.1 , 150.6, 149.2, 148.6, 141 .4, 140.7, 135.2, 135.1 , 124.2, 122.2,122.1 , 1 19.9, 1 15.4, 1 15.1 , 1 13.4, 1 13.2, 100.0, 83.4, 73.3, 27.9, 23.9. LCMS (M+ +1) 557.2, 555.3, 457.1 , 455.1 , 401 , 0, 399.0.

Step 1 :

Ethyl 1 ,3-dimethylpyrazole-5-carboxylate (5.0 g, 30 mmol) was dissolved in 1 ,2-dichloroethane (200 mL), followed by addition of NBS (5.3 g, 30 mmol) and dibenzoyi peroxide (727 mg, 3.0 mmol), in small portions and stirred at 85 °C for 2 hours. The mixture was allowed to cool, diluted to 400 mL with dichloromethane, and washed with water (2 x 200 mL). The organic layer was dried over MgS04, and evaporated to give compound 10 (4.1 g, 42% yield). TLC (EtOAc/Cyclohexane; 1 :10; KMn04): Rf~0.3. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) δ 4.47 (s, 2 H), 4.41 (q, 2 H), 4.15 (s, 3 H), 1 .42 (t, 3 H). LCMS ES m/z 324/326/328 [M+H]+.

Step 2:

Compound 10 (3.0 g, 9.2 mmol) was dissolved in methylamine solution (33% solution in ethanol, 70 mL), and stirred at RT for 16 hours. The mixture was evaporated to give compound 11 (1 .8 g, 71 % yield). 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) δ 4.39 (q, 2 H), 4.14 (s, 3 H), 4.05 (s, 2 H), 2.62 (d, 3 H), 1 .41 (t, 3 H). LCMS ES m/z 276/278 [M+H]+.

Step 3:

Compound 11 (1 .8 g, 6.5 mmol) was dissolved in dichloromethane (20 mL), and the mixture cooled to 0 °C. A solution of di(fe/?-butyl) dicarbonate (1 .75 g, 8 mmol) in dichloromethane (17.5 mL) was added dropwise. The ice bath was removed and the mixture stirred for 18 hours at room temperature. The mixture was diluted to 100 mL with dichloromethane, and washed with water (2 x 50 mL). Organic extracts were dried over magnesium sulfate, and evaporated to give compound 12 (1 .8 g, 72% yield). 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) δ 4.48 – 4.44 (m, 2 H), 4.41 (q, 2 H), 4.12 (s, 3 H), 2.82 – 2.79 (m, 3 H), 1 .47 (s, 9 H), 1 .41 (t, 3 H). LCMS ES m/z 376/378 [M+H]+ and 276/278 [M-BOC]+.

Step 4:

Compound 12 (4 g, 1 1 mmol) was dissolved in dioxane (43 mL). Sodium amide (1 g, 27 mmol) was added in one portion. The reaction mixture was stirred at 100 °C for 24 h. After this time, the solvent was removed under reduced pressure to give a white solid. The material was suspended in EtOAc (100 mL) and washed with 5% citric acid solution (100 mL). The organic phase was separated and washed with water (100 mL), dried over MgS04, filtered and the solvent removed in vacuo to give compound 13 as a yellow gum (3.1 g, 84% yield). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-c/6) δ 4.27 (s, 2 H), 3.92 (s, 3 H), 2.70 (s, 3 H), 1 .40 (s, 9 H). LCMS ES m/z 348/350 [M+H]+ and 248/250 [M-BOC]+.

Step 5:

Compound 13 (3 g, 8.6 mmol) was dissolved in DMF (43 mL, 0.2 M). HOBt (1 .2 g, 8.6 mmol) was added, followed by ammonium chloride (0.9 g, 17.2 mmol). EDCI (2.5 g, 13 mmol) was then added, followed by TEA (2.4 mL, 17 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature. After 18h, the solvent was removed under reduced pressure to give a yellow oil

(8.0 g). The residue was dissolved in EtOAc (75ml_). The organic phase was washed with NaHC03 (sat. solution, 70 ml_) and then brine (100 ml_). The combined organic layers were dried over MgS04 and the solvent removed in vacuo to give compound 14 as a dark yellow oil (2.7 g, 91 % yield). This material was used directly in the next step without further purification. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) δ 6.74 (br s, 1 H), 5.95 (br s, 1 H), 4.49 (br s, 2 H), 4.16 (s, 3 H), 2.81 (br s, 3 H), 1 .47 (s, 9 H). LCMS ES m/z 347/349 [M+H]+ and 247/249 [M-BOC]+.

Step 6:

Compound 14 (2.7 g, 7.9 mmol) was dissolved in DCM (80 ml_, 0.1 M). TEA (3.3 ml_, 23.8 mmol) was then added and the reaction mixture cooled down to -5 °C. Trifluoroacetic anhydride (2.2 ml_, 15.8 mmol) in DCM (15 ml_) was added dropwise over 30 min. After addition, the reaction mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 1 h. After this time, the solvents were removed under reduced pressure to give a dark yellow oil. This residue was diluted in DCM (100 ml_), washed with 5% citric acid, sat. NaHC03and brine, dried over MgS04, filtered and the solvents removed in vacuo to give a dark yellow oil (2.6 g). The crude product was purified by reverse phase chromatography to give compound 15 as a yellow oil (2.3 g, 87% yield). 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) δ 4.46 (br s, 2 H), 4.01 (s, 3 H), 2.83 (br s, 3 H), 1 .47 (s, 9 H). LCMS ES m/z 331 /329 [M+H]+ and 229/231 [M-BOC]+ as the base ion.

Preparation o/: 1 -methyl-3-((methylamino)methyl)-1 H-pyrazole-5-carbonitrile (21)

Step 1 :

To /V-benzylmethylamine (2.40 kg, 19.8 mol) and ethyldiisopropylamine (2.61 kg, 20.2 mol) in acetonitrile (6 L) at 16°C was added chloroacetone (1 .96 kg, 21 .2 mol) over 60 mins [exothermic, temp kept <30°C]. The mixture was stirred at 22°C for 18 hours then concentrated to an oily solid. The residue was triturated with MTBE (5 L), and then filtered through a pad of CELITE® (600 g, top) and silica (1 .5 kg, bottom), washing with MTBE (8 L). The filtrate was evaporated to afford compound 16 (3.35 kg, 18.9 mol, 95%) as a brown oil.

Step 2:

Compound 16 (1 .68 kg, 9.45 mol), Boc-anhydride (2.1 kg, 9.6 mol) and 20wt% Pd/C (50% H20, 56 g) in ethanol (5 L) were hydrogenated in an 1 1 -L autoclave at 50 psi [exotherm to 40°C with 20°C jacket]. The atmosphere became saturated with carbon dioxide during the reaction and so needed to be vented and de-gassed twice to ensure sufficient hydrogen uptake and completion of the reaction. The total reaction time was ~1 .5 hours. Two runs (for a total of 18.9 mol) were combined and filtered through a pad of SOLKA-FLOC®, washing with methanol. The filtrate was treated with DMAP (45 g, 0.37 mol) and stirred at room temperature overnight to destroy the excess Boc-anhydride. The mixture was then concentrated to dryness, dissolved in MTBE (6 L) and filtered through a pad of magnesol (1 kg), washing with MTBE (4 L). The filtrate was evaporated to afford compound 17 (3.68 kg, ~95 wt%, 18.7 mol, 99%) as an orange-brown oil.

Step 3:

To compound 17 (3.25 kg, -95 wt%, 16.5 mol) and diethyl oxalate (4.71 kg, 32.2 mol) in methanol (12 L) at 15°C was added 25 wt% sodium methoxide in methanol (6.94 kg, 32.1 mol) over 25 mins [temp kept <25°C]. The mixture was stirred at 20°C for 16 hours then cooled to -37°C and 37% hydrochloric acid (3.1 kg, 31 mol) was added over 5 mins [temp kept <-10°C]. The mixture was cooled to -40°C and methylhydrazine (1 .42 kg, 30.8 mol) was added over 7 mins [temp kept <-17°C]. The mixture was warmed to 5°C over 90 minutes, then re-cooled to 0°C and quenched by addition of 2.4M KHS04 (6.75 L, 16.2 mol) in one portion [exotherm to 27°C]. The mixture was diluted with water (25 L) and MTBE (15 L), and the layers separated. The organic layer was washed with brine (7 L) and the aqueous layers then sequentially re-extracted with MTBE (8 L). The combined organics were evaporated and azeotroped with toluene (2 L) to afford crude compound 18. Chromatography (20 kg silica, 10-40% EtOAc in hexane) afforded compound 18 (3.4 kg, ~95 wt%, 11 .4 mol, 69%) as an orange oil.

Step 4:

Ammonia (3 kg, 167 mol) was bubbled in to cooled methanol (24 L) [temp kept <18°C]. A solution of compound 18 (4.8 kg, ~95 wt%, 16.1 mol) in methanol (1 .5 L) was added over 30 minutes and the mixture stirred at 25°C for 68 hours and then at 30°C for 24 hours. Two runs (from a total of 9.68 kg of ~95 wt% Step 3) were combined and concentrated to ~13 L volume. Water (30 L) was slowly added over 80 minutes, keeping the temperature 30 to 40°C. The resulting slurry was cooled to 20°C, filtered, washed with water (12 L) and pulled dry on the filter overnight. The solids were triturated in MTBE (8 L) and hexane (8 L) at 45°C then re-cooled to 15°C, filtered, washed with hexane (4 L) and dried under vacuum to afford compound 19 (7.95 kg, 29.6 mol, 90%) as an off-white solid.

Step 5:

To compound 19 (7.0 kg, 26.1 mol) in DCM (30 L) at 0°C was added triethylamine (5.85 kg, 57.8 mol). The mixture was further cooled to -6°C then trifluoroacetic anhydride (5.85 kg, 27.8 mol) added over 90 minutes [temp kept 0 to 5°C]. TLC assay showed the reaction was incomplete. Additional triethylamine (4.1 kg, 40.5 mol) and trifluoroacetic acid (4.1 kg, 19.5 mol) were added over 2 hours until TLC showed complete reaction. The reaction mixture was quenched in to water (40 L) [temp to 23°C]. The layers were separated and the aqueous re-extracted with DCM (8 L). The organic layers were sequentially washed with brine (7 L), filtered through a pad of silica (3 kg) and eluted with DCM (10 L). The filtrate was evaporated and chromatographed (9 kg silica, eluent 10-30% EtOAc in hexane). Product fractions were evaporated and azeotroped with IPA to afford compound 20 (6.86 kg, -94 wt%, 25.8 mol, 99%) as an orange oil.

Step 6:

To compound 20 (6.86 kg, -94 wt%, 25.8 mol) in IPA (35 L) at 17°C was added 37% hydrochloric acid (6.4 L, 77.4 mol). The mixture was heated to 35°C overnight then concentrated to a moist solid and residual water azeotroped with additional IPA (8 L). The resulting moist solid was triturated with MTBE (12 L) at 45°C for 30 minutes then cooled to 20°C and filtered, washing with MTBE (5 L). The solids were dried under vacuum at 45°C to afford compound 21 (4.52 kg, 24.2 mol, 94%) as a white solid. 1H-NMR was consistent with desired product; mp 203-205°C; HPLC 99.3%. 1H NMR (CD3OD, 400 MHz) δ 7.12 (1 H, s), 4.28 (2H, s), 4.09 (3H, s), 2.77 (3H, s). 13C NMR (CD3OD, 100 MHz) δ 144.5, 177.8, 1 14.9, 110.9, 45.9, 39.0, 33.2. LCMS (M++1) 151 .1 , 138.0, 120.0.

PATENT

WO2013132376

PATENT

WO 2016089208

PATENT

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2017021823&redirectedID=true

Preparation of the free base of lorlatinib as an amorphous solid is disclosed in

International Patent Publication No. WO 2013/132376 and in United States Patent No. 8,680,1 1 1 . Solvated forms of lorlatinib free base are disclosed in International Patent Publication No. WO 2014/207606.

Example 1

Lab Scale Preparation of Form 7 of (10 ?)-7-amino-12-fluoro-2,10,16-trimethyl-15-oxo-10,15,16,17-tetrahydro-2/-/-8,4-(metheno)pyrazolo[4,3- ?l[2,5,1 l lbenzoxadiazacyclotetra-decine- -carbonitrile (lorlatinib) Free Base

[AcOH solvate]

Form 7 of lorlatinib free base was prepared by de-solvation of the acetic acid solvate of lorlatinib (Form 3), prepared as described in International Patent Publication No. WO 2014/207606, via an intermediate methanol solvate hydrate form of lorlatinib (Form 2).

The acetic acid solvate of lorlatinib (Form 3) (5 g, 10.72 mmol) was slurried in methanol

(10 mL/g, 1235.9 mmol) at room temperature in an Easymax flask with magnetic stirring to which triethylamine (1 .2 equiv., 12.86 mmol) was added over 10 minutes. The resulting solution was heated to 60°C and water (12.5 mL/g, 3469.3 mmol) was added over 10 minutes, while maintaining a temperature of 60°C. Crystallization was initiated by scratching the inside of the glass vessel to form a rapidly precipitating suspension which was triturated to make the system mobile. The suspension was then cooled to 25°C over 1 hour, then cooled to 5°C and granulated for 4 hours. The white slurry was filtered and washed with 1 mL/g chilled

water/methanol (1 :1) then dried under vacuum at 50°C overnight to provide the methanol solvate hydrate Form 2 of lorlatinib.

Form 7 was then prepared via a re-slurry of the methanol solvate hydrate Form 2 of lorlatinib in heptane. 100 mg of lorlatinib Form 2 was weighed into a 4-dram vial and 3 mL of heptane was added. The mixture was slurried at room temperature on a roller mixer for 2 hours. Form conversion was confirmed by PXRD revealing complete form change to Form 7 of lorlatinib free base.

Paper

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jm500261q

*E-mail: ted.w.johnson@pfizer.com. Phone: (858) 526-4683., *E-mail: paul.f.richardson@pfizer.com. Phone: (858) 526-4290.

Abstract Image

Although crizotinib demonstrates robust efficacy in anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive non-small-cell lung carcinoma patients, progression during treatment eventually develops. Resistant patient samples revealed a variety of point mutations in the kinase domain of ALK, including the L1196M gatekeeper mutation. In addition, some patients progress due to cancer metastasis in the brain. Using structure-based drug design, lipophilic efficiency, and physical-property-based optimization, highly potent macrocyclic ALK inhibitors were prepared with good absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME), low propensity for p-glycoprotein 1-mediated efflux, and good passive permeability. These structurally unusual macrocyclic inhibitors were potent against wild-type ALK and clinically reported ALK kinase domain mutations. Significant synthetic challenges were overcome, utilizing novel transformations to enable the use of these macrocycles in drug discovery paradigms. This work led to the discovery of 8k (PF-06463922), combining broad-spectrum potency, central nervous system ADME, and a high degree of kinase selectivity.

Discovery of (10R)-7-Amino-12-fluoro-2,10,16-trimethyl-15-oxo-10,15,16,17-tetrahydro-2H-8,4-(metheno)pyrazolo[4,3-h][2,5,11]-benzoxadiazacyclotetradecine-3-carbonitrile (PF-06463922), a Macrocyclic Inhibitor of Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) and c-ros Oncogene 1 (ROS1) with Preclinical Brain Exposure and Broad-Spectrum Potency against ALK-Resistant Mutations

La Jolla Laboratories, Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, 10770 Science Center Drive, San Diego, California 92121, United States
J. Med. Chem., 2014, 57 (11), pp 4720–4744
DOI: 10.1021/jm500261q
(10R)-7-Amino-12-fluoro-2,10,16-trimethyl-15-oxo-10,15,16,17-tetrahydro-2H-8,4-(metheno)pyrazolo[4,3-h][2,5,11]benzoxadiazacyclotetradecine-3-carbonitrile (8k)
white solid:
TLC Rf = 0.40 (70% EtOAc in cyclohexane);
LC–MS (ESI), m/z 407.1 [M + H]+;
1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.83 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.30 (dd, J = 9.6, 2.4 Hz, 1 H), 7.21 (dd, J = 8.4, 5.6 Hz, 1 H), 6.99 (dt, J = 8.0, 2.8 Hz, 1 H), 6.86 (d, J = 1.2 Hz, 1 H), 5.75–5.71 (m, 1 H), 4.84 (s, 2 H), 4.45 (d, J = 14.4 Hz, 1 H), 4.35 (d, J = 14.4 Hz, 1 H), 4.07 (s, 3 H), 3.13 (s, 3 H), 1.79 (d, J = 6.4 Hz, 3 H).

References

1H NMR PREDICT

13C NMR PREDICT

Lorlatinib
Lorlatinib.svg
Clinical data
Routes of
administration
PO
Legal status
Legal status
  • experimental
Identifiers
CAS Number 1454846-35-5
ChemSpider 32813339
Chemical and physical data
Formula C22H20FN5O2
Molar mass 405.43 g·mol−1
3D model (Jmol) Interactive image

///////////////////Lorlatinib, PF-6463922,  anti-neoplastic,  Pfizer,  ROS1,  ALK, phase 2, UNII:OSP71S83EU, лорлатиниб لورلاتينيب 洛拉替尼 Orphan Drug, PF 6463922

Fc2ccc3C(=O)N(C)Cc1nn(C)c(C#N)c1c4cc(O[C@H](C)c3c2)c(N)nc4

MK 0633, SETILEUTON


SETILEUTON.pngstr1

Figure

MK 0633, SETILEUTON

(-)-enantiomer

910656-27-8 CAS free form

MW 463.3817, C22 H17 F4 N3 O4  FREE FORM

Tosylate cas 1137737-87-1

2H-1-Benzopyran-2-one, 4-(4-fluorophenyl)-7-[[[5-[(1S)-1-hydroxy-1-(trifluoromethyl)propyl]-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl]amino]methyl]-

4-(4-Fluorophenyl)-7-[[[5-[(1S)-1-hydroxy-1-(trifluoromethyl)propyl]-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl]amino]methyl]-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one

Image result for Merck Frosst Canada Ltd.

WO2006099735A1

Inventors Thiadiazole substituted coumarin derivatives and their use as leukotriene biosynthesis inhibitor
WO 2006099735 A1Marc Blouin, Erich L. Grimm, Yves Gareau, Marc Gagnon, Helene Juteau, Sebastien Laliberte, Bruce Mackay, Richard Friesen
Applicant Merck Frosst Canada Ltd.

Image result for Merck Frosst Canada Ltd.

MK-0633 had been in early clinical development for several indications, including the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma and atherosclerosis

Leukotriene metabolism plays a central role in inflammatory diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and atherosclerosis. In particular, the activation of the enzyme 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) and its associated protein, 5-LO activating protein (FLAP), initiates a cascade that transforms arachidonic acid into inflammatory leukotrienes

Inhibition of leukotriene biosynthesis has been an active area of pharmaceutical research for many years. The leukotrienes constitute a group of locally acting hormones, produced in living systems from arachidonic acid. Leukotrienes are potent contractile and inflammatory mediators deπved by enzymatic oxygenation of arachidonic acid by 5-hρoxygenase. One class of leukotriene biosynthesis inhibitors are those known to act through inhibition of 5 -lipoxygenase (5-LO).
The major leukotrienes are Leukotriene B4 (abbreviated as LTB4), LTC4, LTD4 and LTE4. The biosynthesis of these leukotrienes begins with the action of the enzyme 5-lipoxygenases on arachidonic acid to produce the epoxide known as Leukotriene A4 (LT A4), which is converted to the other leukotπenes by subsequent enzymatic steps. Further details of the biosynthesis as well as the metabolism of the leukotπenes are to be found in the book Leukotrienes and Lipoxygenases, ed. J. Rokach, Elsevier, Amsterdam (1989). The actions of the leukotπenes in living systems and their contπbution to various diseases states are also discussed in the book by Rokach.
In general, 5 -LO inhibitors have been sought for the treatment of allergic rhinitis, asthma and inflammatory conditions including arthπtis. One example of a 5-LO inhibitor is the marketed drug zileuton (ZYLOFT®) which is indicated for the treatment of asthma. More recently, it has been reported that 5-LO may be an important contributor to the atherogenic process; see Mehrabian, M. et al., Circulation Research, 2002 JuI 26, 91(2): 120-126.
Despite significant therapeutic advances in the treatment and prevention of conditions affected by 5-LO inhibition, further treatment options are needed. The instant invention addresses that need by providing novel 5-LO inhibitors which are useful for inhibiting leukotriene biosynthesis.

Image result for mk 0633

Synthesis of coumarin intermediate in MK-0633. Reagents and conditions: a) 2.7 M H2SO4 (1 mL/1 mmol), 1.1 equiv. NaNO2, –5 °C, 15 min, 1.5 equiv. KI (1 M H2SO4, 1 mL/0.5 mmol), 0–70 °C, 20 min; b) 1.5 equiv. CuCN, DMF, 110 °C, 24 h, 72 % (over two steps); c) 0.05 equiv. H2SO4, MeOH, 60 °C, 12 h, 81 %; d) 2.5 equiv. 2 M AlMe3, 1.5 equiv. NH(OMe)Me·HCl, THF, room temp., 24 h, 86 %; e) 4.0 equiv. C6H4FMgBr, THF, 0 °C to room temp., 3 h, 74 %; f) toluene, reflux, 24 h, 83 %.

Study of the Chemoselectivity of Grignard Reagent Addition to Substrates Containing Both Nitrile and Weinreb Amide Funct…

Article · Aug 2013 · European Journal of Organic Chemistry
Paper
Synthesis of 4-arylcoumarins via palladium-catalyzed arylation/cyclization of ortho-hydroxylcinnamates with diaryliodonium salts
Tetrahedron Letters (2015), 56, (24), 3809-3812

An efficient method for the palladium-catalyzed arylation/cyclization of ortho-hydroxylcinnamate ester derivatives with diaryliodonium salts is described. A range of 4-arylcoumarins are obtained in good to excellent yield. Furthermore, the route can be applied to the synthesis of versatile building block of 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor.

Image for unlabelled figure

PATENT

WO 2006099735

EXAMPLE 7
(+) and (-)-4-(4-Fluorophenyl)-7-[(|5-[l-hvdroxy-l-(tnfluoromethyl)propyn-K3,4-oxadiazol-2-vUammo)methyl1-2H-chromen-2-one
Step 1: Ethyl 2-hvdroxy-2-(trifluoromethyl)butanoate

To a -78 0C solution of ethyl tπfluoropyruvate (129 0 g 758 mmol) in ether was added dropwise withm 90 mm a solution of EtMgBr 3.0 M m ether (252 mL). The solution was brought over one Ih to ca. -10 0C and poured over 2L of saturated NH4Cl. The layers were separated and the aqueous phase extracted with ether (3 X 500 mL) The organic phases were combined, dried over MgSO4 and the solvent removed. Distillation at 50-65 0C (30 mm Hg) gave the title compound. 1H NMR (400 MHz, acetone- d6): δ 5.4 (s, IH), 4.35 (q, 2H), 2.07 (m, IH), 1.83 (m, IH), 1.3 (t, 3H) and 0.93 (t, 3H).
Step 2: 2-Hvdroxy-2-(tπfluoromethyl)butanohvdrazide

The ethyl ester of step 1 (50.04 g, 250 mmol) and hydrazine hydrate (25.03 g, 50 mmol) were heated at 80 0C for 18 h. The excess hydrazine was removed under vacuum and the crude product was filtered through a pad of silica gel with EtOAc-Hexane (ca. 3L) to furnish the title compound. 1H NMR (400 MHz, acetone-d6): δ 9.7 (s, IH), 6.10 (s, IH), 2.25 (m, IH), 1.85 (m, IH) and 0.95 t, (3H). Step 3: 2-(5-Ammo-l ,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)-l , 1 , l-tπfluorobutan-2-ol

To hydrazide (34.07 g, 183 mmol) of step 2 m 275 mL of water was added KHCO3 (18.33 g, 183 mmol) followed by BrCN (19.39 g, 183 mmol) portionwise. After 3h, the solid was filtered, washed with cold water and dπed to afford the title compound. Additional compound could be recovered from the aqueous phase by extraction (ether-hexane, 1:1). 1H NMR (400 MHz, acetone-d6): δ 6.54 (s, 2H), 6.01 (s, IH), 2.22 (m, IH), 2.08 (m, IH) and 0.99 (m, 3H).
Step 4: 4-(4-Fluorophenyl)-7-|Y { 5-[ 1 -hydroxy- 1 -(tnfluoromethyl)propyll -1,3,4- oxadiazol-2-yl}amino)methyl1-2H-chromen-2-one


A mixture of oxadiazole (14.41 g, 68.2 mmol) of step 3 and 4-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-7-carbaldehyde (14.1 g, 52.5 mmol) in toluene (160 mL) with 10% of PPTS was brought to reflux and let go overnight. The system was equipped with a Dean-Stark trap to collect water. The solvent was removed and the crude oil (1H NMR (400 MHz, acetone-d6): δ 9.33 (IH, s, imme)) obtained was diluted in EtOH (ca. 75 mL) at 0 0C. To this solution was added NaBH4 (1.9 g) portionwise and the reaction was quenched with a solution OfNH4Cl after 45 mm. The mixture was saturated with NaCl and extracted with EtOAc (3 X 200 mL). The organic phases were combined and dried over MgSO4.
Purification over silica gel chromatography using toluene-EtOAc (55.45) gave the title compound . 1H NMR (400 MHz, acetone-d6): δ 7.65 (m, 2H), 7.50 (m, 3H), 7.38 (m, 3H), 6.35 (s, IH), 6.06 (s, IH), 4.70 (m, 2H), 2.21 (m, IH), 2.11 (m, IH) and 0.98 (t, 3H).
Step 5: Separation on chiral HPLC column of (+) and (-) enantiomers of 4-(4-fluorophenyl)-7- [((5-ri-hvdroxy-l-(trifluoromethyl)propyl1-l,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl}amino)methvn-2H- chromen-2-one

A solution of (±)-4-(4-fluorophenyl)-7-[({5-[l-hydroxy-l-(trifluoromethyl)propyl]-l,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl}amino)methyl]-2H-chromen-2-one (0.5-0.6 g) in EtOΗ-Ηexane (30:70, ca. 40 mL) was injected onto a CΗIRALPAK AD® preparative (5cm x 50cm) ΗPLC column (eluting with
EtOΗ/Ηexane, 30/70 with UV detection at 280 nm). The enantiomers were separated with the faster eluting enantiomer having a retention time of – 34 mm for the (-)-enantiomer and the slower eluting enantiomer having a retention time of ~ 49 mm for the (+)-enantiomer.

PAPER

The Discovery of Setileuton, a Potent and Selective 5-Lipoxygenase Inhibitor

Merck Frosst Centre for Therapeutic Research, 16711 Trans Canada Highway, Kirkland, Quebec, Canada H9H 3L1
ACS Med. Chem. Lett., 2010, 1 (4), pp 170–174
DOI: 10.1021/ml100029k
Publication Date (Web): April 13, 2010
Copyright © 2010 American Chemical Society
*To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: yves_ducharme@merck.com.
Abstract Image
The discovery of novel and selective inhibitors of human 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) is described. These compounds are potent, orally bioavailable, and active at inhibiting leukotriene biosynthesis in vivo in a dog PK/PD model. A major focus of the optimization process was to reduce affinity for the human ether-a-go-go gene potassium channel while preserving inhibitory potency on 5-LO. These efforts led to the identification of inhibitor (S)-16 (MK-0633, setileuton), a compound selected for clinical development for the treatment of respiratory diseases.
4-(4-fluorophenyl)-7-[({5-[(2R)-1,1,1-trifluoro-2-hydroxybutan-2-yl]- 1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl}amino)methyl]-2H-chromen-2-one ((R)-16) and 4-(4- fluorophenyl)-7-[({5-[(2S)-1,1,1-trifluoro-2-hydroxybutan-2-yl]-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2- yl}amino)methyl]-2H-chromen-2-one ((S)-16)
str1
A solution of (±)-4-(4-fluorophenyl)-7-[({5-[1-hydroxy-1-(trifluoromethyl)propyl]-1,3,4- oxadiazol-2-yl}amino)methyl]-2H-chromen-2-one (16) (0.5-0.6 g) in EtOH-Hexane (30:70, ca. 40 mL) was injected on a CHIRALPAK AD preparative (5 cm x 50 cm) HPLC column (eluting with EtOH/Hexane, 30/70 with UV detection at 280 nm). The enantiomers were separated with the fast-eluting enantiomer having a retention time of ~ 34 min for the (-) and the slow-eluting enantiomer having a retention time of ~ 49 min for the (+)-enantiomer.
4-(4-fluorophenyl)-7-[({5-[(2S)-1,1,1-trifluoro-2-hydroxybutan-2-yl]-1,3,4-oxadiazol- 2-yl}amino)methyl]-2H-chromen-2-one ((S)-16, MK-0633, setileuton):
str1
A mixture of oxadiazole (S)-35 (41.9 g, 156 mmol) and aldehyde 25 (39.2 g, 186 mmol) in toluene (2 L) with 10% of pyridinium p-toluenesulfonate was refluxed overnight. The system was equipped with a Dean-Stark apparatus to collect water. The solvent was removed and the crude oil [1 H NMR (400 MHz, acetone-d6): δ 9.33 (s, 1H, imine)] obtained was diluted in THF (600 mL) and EtOH (100 mL). To this solution was added at 0 o C NaBH4 (7.2 g) portionwise. After 1 h of stirring, aqueous ammonium acetate was added. The mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate. The combined organic fractions were washed with brine, dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified on silica gel (toluene/EtOAc; 1:1) to give the title compound (39.4 g, 54%).
FREE FORM
1 H NMR (400 MHz, acetone-d6): δ 7.65 (m, 2H), 7.50 (m, 3H), 7.38 (m, 3H), 6.35 (s, 1H), 6.06 (s, 1H), 4.70 (m, 2H), 2.21 (m, 1H), 2.11 (m, 1H), 0.98 (t, 3H);
HRMS calcd for C22H17F4N3O4 [MH+]: 464.1233; found: 464.1228.
PATENT
Image result for mk 0633

CLIP

J. Org. Chem. 2010, 75, 4154−4160

Synthesis of a 5-Lipoxygenase Inhibitor

 Abstract Image

Practical, chromatography-free syntheses of 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor MK-0633 p-toluenesulfonate (1) are described. The first route used an asymmetric zincate addition to ethyl 2,2,2-trifluoropyruvate followed by 1,3,4-oxadiazole formation and reductive amination as key steps. An improved second route features an inexpensive diastereomeric salt resolution of vinyl hydroxy-acid 22 followed by a robust end-game featuring a through-process hydrazide acylation/1,3,4-oxadiazole ring closure/salt formation sequence to afford MK-0633 p-toluenesulfonate (1).


Leukotriene metabolism plays a central role in inflammatory diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and atherosclerosis. In particular, the activation of the enzyme 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) and its associated protein, 5-LO activating protein (FLAP), initiates a cascade that transforms arachidonic acid into inflammatory leukotrienes. Consequently, compounds that can inhibit 5-LO have potential as new treatments for the conditions listed above. Gosselin and co-workers at Merck describe two routes towards one such compound (MK-0633) brought forward as a development candidate at Merck ( J. Org. Chem. 2010, 75, 4154−4160). The first route used an asymmetric zincate addition to ethyl 2,2,2-trifluoropyruvate followed by 1,3,4-oxadiazole formation and reductive amination as key steps. An improved second route (shown here) featured an inexpensive diastereomeric salt resolution of a vinyl hydroxy-acid followed by a through-process hydrazide acylation/1,3,4-oxadiazole ring-closure/salt-formation sequence to afford MK-0633 as the p-toluenesulfonate salt.

A Practical Synthesis of 5-Lipoxygenase Inhibitor MK-0633

Department of Process Research, Merck Frosst Centre for Therapeutic Research, 16711 Route Transcanadienne, Kirkland, Québec, Canada H9H 3L1
Department of Process Research, Merck Research Laboratories, P.O. Box 2000, Rahway, New Jersey 07065
J. Org. Chem., 2010, 75 (12), pp 4154–4160
DOI: 10.1021/jo100561u
MK-0633 tosylate salt (1) was obtained as a white solid (6.64 kg, 91.4% yield): mp 164−165 °C;
[α]20D − 0.86 (c 10.0, EtOH);
1H NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 8.58 (1 H, t, J = 6.2 Hz), 7.62 (2 H, dd, J = 8.3, 5.4 Hz), 7.49 (2 H, d, J = 7.8 Hz), 7.47−7.38 (4 H, m), 7.33 (1 H, d, J = 8.3 Hz), 7.13 (2 H, d, J = 7.7 Hz), 6.44 (1 H, s), 4.53 (2 H, d, J = 5.6 Hz), 2.30 (3 H, s), 2.17−2.05 (1 H, m), 2.03−1.93 (1 H, m), 0.90 (3 H, t, J = 7.37 Hz);
13C NMR (125 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 164.1, 162.9 (d, J = 246.8 Hz), 159.6, 156.1, 153.7, 153.6, 145.5, 143.7, 137.7, 131.1 (d, J = 3.5 Hz), 130.9 (d, J = 8.7 Hz), 128.1, 126.8, 125.4, 124.5 (q, J = 286.6 Hz), 123.5, 117.4, 115.9 (d, J = 22.0 Hz), 115.4, 114.7, 73.7 (q, J = 28.6 Hz), 45.4, 26.1, 20.8, 7.0;
19F NMR (375 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ −79.7, −113.1;
HRMS calcd for C22H18F4N3O4 [M + H] 464.1228, found 464.1246.
IR (cm−1, NaCl thin film) 3324, 3010, 2977, 1735, 1716, 1618, 1510, 1428, 1215, 1178.
HPLC analysis: eclipse XDB-phenyl column 4.6 mm × 15 cm (0.1% aq H3PO4/CH3CN 65:35 to 10:90 over 50 min, 1.0 mL/min, 210 nm, 25 °C); MK-0633 (1) tR = 16.86 min. Chiral HPLC analysis: Chiralpak AD-H column 4.6 mm × 25 cm (EtOH/hexane 60:40, hold 15 min, 0.5 mL/min, 300 nm, 30 °C); (S)-enantiomer tR = 9.5 min; (R)-enantiomer tR = 11.5 min.
1 to 6 of 6
Patent ID Patent Title Submitted Date Granted Date
US2016193168 Treatment of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension with Leukotriene Inhibitors 2015-11-30 2016-07-07
US2013251787 Treatment of Pulmonary Hypertension with Leukotriene Inhibitors 2013-03-15 2013-09-26
US7915298 Compounds and methods for leukotriene biosynthesis inhibition 2009-04-02 2011-03-29
US2009227638 Novel Pharmaceutical Compounds 2009-09-10
US7553973 Pharmaceutical compounds 2007-06-28 2009-06-30
US2009030048 Novel pharmaceutical compounds 2009-01-29
/////////////MK 0633, PHASE 2
CCC(C1=NN=C(O1)NCC2=CC3=C(C=C2)C(=CC(=O)O3)C4=CC=C(C=C4)F)(C(F)(F)F)O

Brigatinib, Бригатиниб, بريغاتينيب , 布格替尼 ,


ChemSpider 2D Image | Brigatinib | C29H39ClN7O2PImage result for BrigatinibFigure imgf000127_0001

Brigatinib, AP26113
Molecular Formula: C29H39ClN7O2P
Molecular Weight: 584.102 g/mol
CAS 1197953-54-0
2,4-Pyrimidinediamine, 5-chloro-N4-[2-(dimethylphosphinyl)phenyl]-N2-[2-methoxy-4-[4-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-1-piperidinyl]phenyl]-
Бригатиниб[Russian][INN]
بريغاتينيب[Arabic][INN]
布格替尼[Chinese][INN]
5-chloro-N4-[2-(dimethylphosphinyl)phenyl]-N2-[2-methoxy-4-[4-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-1-piperidinyl]phenyl]-2,4-pyrimidinediamine
AP-26113
MFCD29472221
UNII:HYW8DB273J
In 2016, orphan drug designation was assigned to the compound in the U.S. for the treatment of ALK, ROS1 or EGFR-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Inventors Yihan Wang, Wei-Sheng Huang, Shuangying Liu, William C. Shakespeare, R. Mathew Thomas, Jiwei Qi, Feng Li, Xiaotian Zhu, Anna Kohlmann, David C. Dalgarno, Jan Antoinette C. Romero, Dong Zou
Applicant Ariad Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Image result for Yihan Wang ARIAD

Yihan Wang

Dr. Wang founded Shenzhen TargetRx, Inc., in Aug 2014 and is now the  President/CEO. He  was the Associate Director of Chemistry at ARIAD  Pharmaceuticals, Inc., until April 2013.  Yihan Wang received his B.Sc. in  chemistry from University of Science and Technology of  China, and Ph.D.  in chemistry from New York University. Yihan’s research has focused    primarily on medicinal chemistry in the area of signal transduction drug  discovery,  integrating structure-based drug design, combinatorial  chemistry, and both biological and  pharmacological assays to identify  small-molecule clinical candidates. His career at ARIAD  includes innovative research in therapeutic areas involving bone diseases and cancer, and has  been a key contributor to the discovery of several clinical drugs, including Ponatinib (iClusigTM) (approved by the FDA for resistant CML in Dec 2012), Brigatinib (AP26113, Phase II for NSCLC), Ridoforolimus (Phase III for Sarcoma and multiple Phase II), and several pre-clinical compounds. Yihan is the primary author of approximately 90 peer-reviewed publications, patents, and invited meeting talks. Yihan is the editor of “Chemical Biology and Drug Design” and a reviewer for many professional journals.

Yihan is one of the co-founders of Chinese-American BioMedical Association (CABA) and currently on the Board of Directors.

EXAMPLE 19:

5-chloro-Λ’4-[4-(dimethylphosphoryl)phenyl]-Λr2-{2-methoxy-4-[4-(4-methylpiperazin-l- yl)piperidin-l-yI]phenyl}pyrimidine-2,4-diamine:

Figure imgf000127_0001

2,5-dichloro-N-[4-(dimethylphosphoryl)plienyl]pyrimiclin-4-amine: To a solution of 2,4,5- trichloropyrimindine (0.15ml, 1.31 mmol) in 1 mL of DMF was added 4- (dimethylphosphoryl)aniline (0.22 Ig, 1.31 mmol) and potassium carbonate (0.217g, 1.57mmol). The mixture was heated at 110 0C for 4h. It was basified with saturated sodium bicarbonate solution. The suspension was filtered and washed with ethyl acetate to give the final product (0.15g, 36% yield). MS/ES+: m/z=316.

l-[l-(3-methoxy-4-nitrophenyl)piperidin-4-yl]-4-methylpiperazine: To a solution of 5- fluoro-2-nitroanisooIe (0.5g, 2.92 mmol) in 3 mL of DMF was added l-methyl-4- (piperidin)piperazine (0.536g, 2.92 mmol) and potassium carbonate (0.808, 5.84 mmol). The mixture was heated at 120 0C for 18h. The mixture was basified with saturated sodium bicarbonate solution and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic layer was purified by chromatography to give final product as yellow solid (0.95g, 95% yield). MS/ES+: m/z=334.

2-methoxy-4-[4-(4-methylpiperazin-l-yl)piperidin-l-yl]aniline: The a solution of 1 -[I -(3- methoxy-4-nitrophenyl)piperidin-4-yl]-4-methylpiperazine (0.3g, 0.90 mmol) in 10 mL of ethanol purged with argon was added 10% Palladium on carbon (0.06Og). The hydrogenation was finished under 30psi after 4h. The mixture was passed through Celite to a flask containing HCl in ethanol. Concentration of the filtrate gave the final product (0.15g, 88% yield). MS/ES+: m/z=334.

S-chloro-JSP-ft-ζdimethylphosphorytyphenyll-rf-ft-methoxy^-ft-ø-methylpiperazin-l- yl)piperidin-l-yl]phenyl}pyrimidine-2,4-diamine: To the compound 2,5-dichloro-N-[4-

(dimethylphosphoryl)phenyl]pyrimidin-4-amine (0.005g, O.lόmmol) in ImL of 2-methoxyethanol was added 2-methoxy-4-[4-(4-methylpiperazin-l-yl)piperidin-l-yl]aniline (0.7 Ig, 0.16 mmol). The mixture was stirred at 1100C for 18h. The mixture was basified with saturated sodium bicarbonate solution and extracted with limited amount of ethyl acetate. The aqueous layer was purified by chromatography to give the final product (0.015g, 20% yield). MS/ES+: m/z=583.

Image result for Brigatinib
SYNTHESIS
WILL BE ADDED WATCH OUT………….
CONTD………..

SOME COLOUR

 
Dual ALK EGFR Inhibitor AP26113 is an orally available inhibitor of receptor tyrosine kinases anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with potential antineoplastic activity. Brigatinib binds to and inhibits ALK kinase and ALK fusion proteins as well as EGFR and mutant forms. This leads to the inhibition of ALK kinase and EGFR kinase, disrupts their signaling pathways and eventually inhibits tumor cell growth in susceptible tumor cells. In addition, AP26113 appears to overcome mutation-based resistance. ALK belongs to the insulin receptor superfamily and plays an important role in nervous system development; ALK dysregulation and gene rearrangements are associated with a series of tumors. EGFR is overexpressed in a variety of cancer cell types.
Figure
Structures of select ALK inhibitors.

Brigatinib (previously known as AP26113) is an investigational small-molecule targeted cancer therapy being developed by ARIAD Pharmaceuticals, Inc.[1] Brigatinib has exhibited activity as a potent dual inhibitor of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR).

ARIAD has begun a Phase 1/2 clinical trial of brigatinib based on cancer patients’ molecular diagnoses in September 2011.

ALK was first identified as a chromosomal rearrangement in anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). Genetic studies indicate that abnormal expression of ALK is a key driver of certain types of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and neuroblastomas, as well as ALCL. Since ALK is generally not expressed in normal adult tissues, it represents a highly promising molecular target for cancer therapy.

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is another validated target in NSCLC. Additionally, the T790M “gatekeeper” mutation is linked in approximately 50 percent of patients who grow resistant to first-generation EGFR inhibitors.[2] While second-generation EGFR inhibitors are in development, clinical efficacy has been limited due to toxicity thought to be associated with inhibiting the native (endogenous or unmutated) EGFR. A therapy designed to target EGFR, the T790M mutation but avoiding inhibition of native EGFR is another promising molecular target for cancer therapy.

Pre-clinical results

In 2010, ARIAD announced results of preclinical studies on brigatinib showing potent inhibition of the target protein and of mutant forms that are resistant to the first-generation ALK inhibitor, which currently is in clinical trials in patients with cancer. ARIAD scientists presented these data at the annual meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) in Washington, D.C. in April.[3]

In 2011, ARIAD announced preclinical studies showing that brigatinib potently inhibited activated EGFR or its T790M mutant, both in cell culture and in mouse tumor models following once daily oral dosing. Importantly, the effective oral doses in these preclinical models were similar to those previously shown to be effective in resistant ALK models. When tested against the native form of EGFR, brigatinib lacked activity, indicating a favorable selectivity for activated EGFR. These data were presented at the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) 14th World Conference on Lung Cancer.[4]

Brigatinib

Phase 3 ALTA 1L trial of brigatinib

In April 2015, ARIAD announced the initiation of a randomized, first-line Phase 3 clinical trial of brigatinib in adult patients with ALK-positive locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who have not previously been treated with an ALK inhibitor. The ALTA 1L (ALK in Lung Cancer Trial of BrigAtinib in 1st Line) trial is designed to assess the efficacy of brigatinib in comparison to crizotinib based on evaluation of the primary endpoint of progression free survival (PFS).  Read Full Press Release

Phase 2 ALTA trial of brigatinib (AP26113)

In March 2014, ARIAD announced the initiation of its global Phase 2 ALTA (ALK in Lung Cancer Trial of brigatinib (AP26113) in patients with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC who test positive for the ALK oncogene and were previously treated with crizotinib. This trial has reached full enrollment of approximately 220 patients and explores two different dose levels. Read Full Press Release

Phase 1/2 study of oral ALK inhibitor brigatinib (AP26113)

The international Phase 1/2 clinical trial of brigatinib (AP26113) is being conducted in patients with advanced malignancies, including anaplastic lymphoma kinase positive (ALK+) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patient enrollment in the trial is complete, with the last patient enrolled in July 2014. The primary endpoint in the Phase 2 portion of the trial is overall response rate. In April 2016, ARIAD announced updated clinical data from the trial. Read Full Press Release

Expanded Access Study of brigatinib

The purpose of this Expanded Access Program (EAP) is to provide brigatinib for those patients with locally advanced and/or metastatic patients with ALK+ NSCLC on an expanded access basis due to their inability to meet eligibility criteria for on-going recruiting trials, inability to participate in other clinical trials (e.g., poor performance status, lack of geographic proximity), or because other medical interventions are not considered appropriate or acceptable.

About Brigatinib

Brigatinib (AP26113) is an investigational, targeted cancer medicine discovered internally at ARIAD Pharmaceuticals, Inc. It is in development for the treatment of patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase positive (ALK+) non-small cell cancer (NSCLC) whose disease is resistant to crizotinib. Brigatinib is currently being evaluated in the global Phase 2 ALTA (ALK in Lung Cancer Trial of AP26113) trial that is anticipated to form the basis for its initial regulatory review. ARIAD has also initiated the Phase 3 ALTA 1L trial to assess the efficacy of brigatinib in comparison to crizotinib. In June 2016, an Expanded Access Study of brigatinib will begin. More information on brigatinib clinical trials, including the expanded access program (EAP) for ALK+ NSCLC can be found here.

Brigatinib was granted orphan drug designation by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in May 2016 for the treatment of certain subtypes of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The designation is for anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive (ALK+), c-ros 1 oncogene positive (ROS1+), or epidermal growth factor receptor positive (EGFR+) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Brigatinib received breakthrough therapy designation from the FDA in October 2014 for the treatment of patients with ALK+ NSCLC whose disease is resistant to crizotinib. Both designations were based on results from an ongoing Phase 1/2 trial that showed anti-tumor activity of brigatinib in patients with ALK+ NSCLC, including patients with active brain metastases.

We are on track to file for approval of brigatinib in the U.S. in the third quarter of 2016.

Brigatinib.png

PATENT

WO 2016065028

https://google.com/patents/WO2016065028A1?cl=ru

Brigatinib has the chemical formula C29H39QN7G2P which, corresponds to a formula weight of 584.09 g/moL Its chemical structure is shown below:

Brigatinib is a multi-targeted tyrosine-kinase inhibitor useful for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and other diseases, it is a potent inhibitor of ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase} and is in clinical development for the treatment of adult patients with ALK-driven NSCLC. Crizotinib (XALKOR!®) is an FDA approved drug for first-line treatment of ALK-positive NSCLC. “Despite initial responses to crizotinib, the majority of patients have a relapse within 12 months, owing to the development of resistance.” Shaw et al., New Eng. J. Med. 370:1 189-97 2014. Thus, a growing population of cancer patients are in need of new and effective therapies for ALK-positive cancers.

Brigatinib is also potentially useful for treating other diseases or conditions in which ALK or other protein kinases inhibited by brigatinib are implicated. Such kinases and their associated disorders or conditions are disclosed in WO 2009/143389, both of which are hereby incorporated herein by reference for all purposes.

FIG. 1 is a synthetic scheme for brigatinib,

FIG. 6 is an 1H-Niv1R spectrum obtained for a sample of brigatinib dissolved in CD3OD. Normalised intensity is shown on the vertical axis and chemical shift (ppm) is shown on the horizontal axis.

FIG. 7 is a 13C-NMR spectrum obtained for a sample of brigatinib dissolved in CDCi3. Normalized intensity is shown on the vertical axis and chemical shift (ppm) is shown on the horizontal axis.

FIG. 8 is a mass spectral fragmentation pattern of a sample of brigatinib Form A. Relative abundance is shown on the vertical axis and atomic weight (m/z) is shown on the horizontal axis.

Table 2 summarizes the relevant chemical shift data of Form A obtained from

the Ή, and 13C-N R experiments. The number of signals and their relative intensity (integrals) confinri the number of protons and carbons in the structure of Form A of brigatinib. The 31P-NMR chemical shift for the single phosphorous atom in brigatinib was 43.6 ppm. These 1H and 13C-NMR chemical shift data are reported according to the atom numbering scheme shown immediately below:

1H-N R Assignments – 13C~N R Assignments

Table 2: 1H and 3C Chemical Shift Data (in ppm) of Form A of Brigatinib

[00118] With reference to Figure 8, mass spectral experiments of Form A were carried out using an Agilsent eiectrospray time of fisght mass spectrometer (Model 6210} operating in positive son mode using flow injection sampie introduction. Samples of Form A were dissolved in methanol/water and were analyzed and the mass observed was m/ 584.263 ( +f-T) with the calculated exact mass being 584.2684 ( +H+). The observed moiecuiar mass is consistent with the elemental composition calculated from the molecular formula of brigatinib.

PAPER

Discovery of Brigatinib (AP26113), a Phosphine Oxide-Containing, Potent, Orally Active Inhibitor of Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase

Abstract

Abstract Image

In the treatment of echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-anaplastic lymphoma kinase positive (ALK+) non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), secondary mutations within the ALK kinase domain have emerged as a major resistance mechanism to both first- and second-generation ALK inhibitors. This report describes the design and synthesis of a series of 2,4-diarylaminopyrimidine-based potent and selective ALK inhibitors culminating in identification of the investigational clinical candidate brigatinib. A unique structural feature of brigatinib is a phosphine oxide, an overlooked but novel hydrogen-bond acceptor that drives potency and selectivity in addition to favorable ADME properties. Brigatinib displayed low nanomolar IC50s against native ALK and all tested clinically relevant ALK mutants in both enzyme-based biochemical and cell-based viability assays and demonstrated efficacy in multiple ALK+ xenografts in mice, including Karpas-299 (anaplastic large-cell lymphomas [ALCL]) and H3122 (NSCLC). Brigatinib represents the most clinically advanced phosphine oxide-containing drug candidate to date and is currently being evaluated in a global phase 2 registration trial.

(2-((5-Chloro-2-((2-methoxy-4-(4-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)piperidin-1-yl)phenyl)amino)-pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)phenyl)dimethylphosphine Oxide (11q)

Mp 215 °C.
1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) δ 8.33 (dd, J = 4.52, 8.03 Hz, 1H), 8.02 (s, 1H), 7.66 (d, J = 8.78 Hz, 1H), 7.59 (ddd, J = 1.51, 7.78, 14.05 Hz, 1H), 7.47–7.54 (m, 1H), 7.25 (ddt, J = 1.00, 2.26, 7.53 Hz, 1H), 6.65 (d, J = 2.51 Hz, 1H), 6.45 (dd, J = 2.51, 8.78 Hz, 1H), 3.84 (s, 3H), 3.69 (d, J = 12.30 Hz, 2H), 2.62–2.86 (m, 6H), 2.43–2.62 (m, 4H), 2.33–2.42 (m, 1H), 2.29 (s, 3H), 1.97–2.08 (m, 2H), 1.83 (d, J = 13.30 Hz, 6H), 1.66 (dq, J = 3.89, 12.09 Hz, 2H).
13C NMR (151 MHz, CDCl3) δ 18.57 (d, J = 71.53 Hz), 28.28 (s), 46.02 (s), 49.01 (s), 50.52 (s), 55.46 (s), 55.65 (s), 61.79 (s), 101.07 (s), 106.01 (s), 108.41 (s), 120.25 (d, J = 95.73 Hz), 120.68 (s), 122.09 (s), 122.41 (d, J = 12.10 Hz), 123.13 (br d, J = 6.60 Hz), 129.48 (d, J = 11.00 Hz), 132.36 (s), 143.91 (d, J = 2.20 Hz), 147.59 (s), 149.38 (s), 154.97 (s), 155.91 (s), 157.82 (s).
31P NMR (162 MHz, CDCl3) δ 43.55.
MS/ES+: m/z = 584.3 [M + H]+.
Anal. Calcd for C29H39ClN7O2P: C, 59.63; H, 6.73; Cl, 6.07; N, 16.79; O, 5.48; P, 5.30. Found: C, 59.26; H, 6.52; Cl, 6.58; N, 16.80.
PATENT
WO 2016089208

str1

New Patent, Suzhou MiracPharma Technology Co Ltd, Brigatinib, WO 2017016410

WO-2017016410

Preparation method for antitumor drug AP26113

Suzhou MiracPharma Technology Co Ltd

SUZHOU MIRACPHARMA TECHNOLOGY CO., LTD [CN/CN]; Room 1305, Building 1,Lianfeng Commercial Plaza, Industrial District Suzhou, Jiangsu 215000 (CN)
XU, Xuenong; (CN)

Improved process for preparing brigatinib, useful for treating cancer eg non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The present filing represents the first PCT patenting to be seen from Suzhou MiracPharma that focuses on brigatinib;  In February 2017, brigatinib was reported to be in pre-registration phase.

Disclosed is a preparation method for an antitumor drug AP26113 (I). The method comprises the following preparation steps: cyclizing N-[2-methoxyl-4-[4-(dimethyl amino)piperid-1-yl]aniline]guanidine and N,N-dimethylamino acrylate, condensing N-[2-methoxyl-4-[4-(dimethyl amino)piperid-1-yl]aniline]guanidine and 4-(dimethyl phosphitylate)aniline, and chlorinating N-[2-methoxyl-4-[4-(dimethyl amino)piperid-1-yl]aniline]guanidine by means of a chlorinating agent, sequentially, so as to prepare AP26113 (I). The preparation method adopts easily-obtained raw materials, causes few side reactions, and is economical, environmentally-friendly, and suitable for industrial production.

front page image

AP26113 is an experimental drug developed by Ariad Pharmaceuticals to target small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive (ALK) metastases resistant to crizotinib Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. The drug was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in August 2014 for breakthrough drug treatment. The current clinical data show that AP26113 on ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer patients, including patients with brain metastases, have a sustained anti-tumor activity. And the inhibitory activity against ALK is about 10 times that of zolotriptan, which can inhibit all 9 kinds of identified mutations of kotatinib resistant ALK.
The chemical name of AP26113 is 5-chloro-N- [4- [4- (dimethylamino) -1-piperidinyl] -2-methoxyphenyl] -N4- [2- Phosphono) phenyl] -2,4-pyrimidinediamine (I) having the structural formula:
Methods for the preparation of AP26113 have been reported. AP26113 and its starting materials A and B are prepared by PCT Patent WO2009143389 of Ariad and U.S. Patent No. 20130225527, US20130225528 and US20140066406 of Ariad. The target compound AP26113 is prepared by substituting 2,4,5-trichloropyrimidine with the pyrimidine ring of starting materials A and B in turn.
Although the synthetic procedure is simple, the nucleophilic activity of the three chlorine atoms on 2,4,5-trichloropyrimidine is limited. When the same or similar aniline group is faced, its position Selectivity will inevitably produce interference, resulting in unnecessary side effects, thus affecting the quality of the product. At the same time, the reaction process for the use of precious metal palladium reagent also increased the cost of production is not conducive to the realization of its industrialization.
Therefore, how to use modern synthesis technology, the use of readily available raw materials, design and development of simple and quick, economical and environmentally friendly and easy to industrialization of the new synthesis route, especially customer service location on the pyrimidine ring side effects of selectivity, for the drug Economic and technological development is of great significance
The synthesis step comprises the following steps: N- [2-methoxy-4- [4- (dimethylamino) piperidin-1-yl] aniline] guanidine (II) and N, N-dimethylaminoacrylates Amino-4 (1H) -pyrimidinone (III) in the presence of a base such as N, N-dimethylformamide, N, N-dimethylformamide, (III) was reacted with 4- (dimethyl (dimethylamino) -1-piperidinyl) -2-methoxyphenyl] (A) is condensed under the action of a condensing agent and a base accelerator to obtain N2- [4- [4- (dimethylamino) -1-piperidinyl] -2-methoxybenzene (IV); the N2- [4- [4- (dimethylamino) -l- (4-fluorophenyl) (IV) with a chlorinating agent in the presence of a base such as sodium hydride, sodium hydride, sodium hydride, potassium hydride, AP26113 (I).
Example 1:
A solution of 2-methoxy-4- [4- (dimethylamino) piperidin-1-yl] aniline (24.9 g, 0.1 mol) and 250 mL of methanol was added to the reaction flask and the temperature was lowered to 0C (15 mL, 0.15 mol) and a 50% solution of cyanamide (10 mL, 0.15 mol) were added successively. The reaction was stirred for 12 to 14 hours and the reaction was complete by TLC. After cooling to 0-5 ° C, 250 mL of methyl tert-butyl ether was added to the reaction mixture. A solid precipitated and was filtered, washed successively with water and cold acetonitrile, and dried to give N- [2-methoxy- 16.3 g, yield 56.0%, FAB-MS m / z: 292 [M + H] + . [4- (Dimethylamino) piperidin-1-yl] aniline] guanidine (II)
Example 2:
A solution of N- [2-methoxy-4- [4- (dimethylamino) piperidin-1-yl] aniline] guanidine (II) (2.9 g, 10 mmol), N, Methyl methacrylate (1.8 g, 13.7 mmol) and toluene (50 mL). The mixture was heated to reflux and stirred for 24-26 hours. The reaction was complete by TLC. After cooling to room temperature, a solid precipitated. The filter cake was washed with cold methanol and dried in vacuo to give an off-white solid of N2- [4- [4- (dimethylamino) -1-piperidinyl] -2-methoxyphenyl] 1H) -pyrimidinone (III), yield 77.3%, FAB-MS m / z: 344 [M + H] + .
Example 3:
A solution of N- [2-methoxy-4- [4- (dimethylamino) piperidin-1-yl] aniline] guanidine (II) (2.9 g, 10 mmol), N, (2.0 g, 14.0 mmol) and N, N-dimethylformamide (30 mL) was added and the temperature was raised to 115-125 ° C. The reaction was stirred for 22-24 hours and the reaction was complete by TLC. The mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure, and 50 mL of ethanol was added to the resulting residue. The mixture was cooled to room temperature while stirring to precipitate a solid. The filter cake was washed with cold ethanol and dried in vacuo to give an off-white solid of N2- [4- [4- (dimethylamino) -1-piperidinyl] -2-methoxyphenyl] 1H) -pyrimidinone (III) in 79.6% yield, FAB-MS m / z: 344 [M + H] + .
Example 4:
A mixture of N2- [4- [4- (dimethylamino) -1-piperidinyl] -2-methoxyphenyl] amino-4 (1H) -pyrimidinone III) (3.43 g, 10 mmol), benzotriazol-1-yloxytris (dimethylamino) phosphonium hexafluorophosphate (6.63 g, 15 mmol) and acetonitrile 100 mL. Diazabicyclo [5.4.0] -undec-7-ene (DBU) (2.28 g, 15 mmol) was added dropwise at room temperature for 12 hours. The temperature was raised to 60 ° C and the reaction was continued for 12 hours. The solvent was evaporated under reduced pressure, 100 mL of ethyl acetate was dissolved, and the mixture was washed with 20 mL of 2M sodium hydroxide and 20 mL of water. The organic layer was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, and 50 mL of tetrahydrofuran-dissolved 4- (dimethylphosphoranylidene) A) (2.2 g, 13 mmol) and sodium hydride (0.31 g, 13 mmol) was added and the temperature was raised to 50-55 ° C. The reaction was stirred for 6-8 hours and monitored by TLC. The reaction was quenched with saturated brine, the organic phase was separated, dried and the solvent was distilled off under reduced pressure. The crude product was recrystallized from ethanol to give an off-white solid of N2- [4- [4- (dimethylamino) -1-piperidine Yl] -2-methoxyphenyl] -N4- [2- (dimethylphosphono) phenyl] -2,4-pyrimidinediamine (IV) in a yield of 83.2%. FAB-MS m / z: 495 [M + H] + .
Example 5:
A mixture of N2- [4- [4- (dimethylamino) -1-piperidinyl] -2-methoxyphenyl] amino-4 (1H) -pyrimidinone (Dimethylamino) phosphonium hexafluorophosphate (BOP) (6.63 g, 15 mmol), 4- (dimethylsulfamoyl) phosphonium hexafluorophosphate Phosphoryl) aniline (A) (2.2 g, 13 mmol) and N, N-dimethylformamide. Diazabicyclo [5.4.0] undec-7-ene (DBU) (2.28 g, 15 mmol) was added dropwise and reacted at room temperature for 12 hours. The temperature was raised to 60 ° C and the reaction was continued for 12 hours. The solvent was distilled off under reduced pressure, 100 mL of ethyl acetate was added to dissolve, and the mixture was washed with 2 M sodium hydroxide 20 mL. The organic phase was separated, dried and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was recrystallized from ethanol to give an off-white solid of N2- [4- [4- (dimethylamino) -1-piperidinyl] -2-methoxyphenyl] -N4- [2- Phenylidene] -2,4-pyrimidinediamine (IV) was obtained in a yield of 48.6%. FAB-MS m / z: 495 [M + H] + .
Example 6:
A solution of N2- [4- [4- (dimethylamino) -1-piperidinyl] -2-methoxyphenyl] -N4- [2- (dimethylphosphono) Phenyl] -2,4-pyrimidinediamine (IV) (4.9 g, 10 mmol) and 100 mL of acetonitrile were added and stirred at room temperature. N-Chlorosuccinimide (1.6 g, 12 mmol) was added in three portions, The reaction was allowed to proceed at room temperature for 4-6 hours, and the reaction was terminated by TLC. The reaction solution was poured into 50 mL of water to quench the reaction. Dichloromethane, and the combined organic layers were washed successively with saturated sodium bicarbonate solution, saturated brine and water. Dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated. The resulting crude oil was recrystallized from ethyl acetate / n-hexane to give 3.5 g of a white solid AP26113 (I) in 66.3% yield, FAB-MS m / z: 529 [M + the H] + , 1 the H NMR (CDCl 3 ) 1.67 (m, 2H), 1.81 (S, 3H), 1.85 (S, 3H), 1.93 (m, 2H), 1.96 (m, 2H), 2.10 (m, 2H), 3.86 (s, 3H), 6.50 (m, 1H), 6.57 (m, 1H), 7.12 (m, 1H) ), 7.31 (m, 1H), 7.50 (m, 1H), 8.13 (m, 2H), 8.64 (m, 1H).

////////////New Patent, Suzhou MiracPharma Technology Co Ltd, Brigatinib, WO 2017016410

References

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US2015225436 PHOSPHOROUS DERIVATIVES AS KINASE INHIBITORS 2015-04-20 2015-08-13
US2014066406 Phosphorus Derivatives as Kinase Inhibitors 2013-03-15 2014-03-06
US2014024620 Methods for Inhibiting Cell Proliferation in EGFR-Driven Cancers 2011-10-14 2014-01-23
US2013225527 Phosphorus Derivatives as Kinase Inhibitors 2013-03-15 2013-08-29
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US2012202776 PHOSPHORUS DERIVATIVES AS KINASE INHIBITORS 2009-05-21 2012-08-09
Brigatinib
Brigatinib.svg
Names
IUPAC name

(2-((5-Chloro-2-((2-methoxy-4-(4-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)piperidin-1-yl)phenyl)amino)pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)phenyl)dimethylphosphine oxide
Other names

AP26113
Identifiers
1197953-54-0
3D model (Jmol) Interactive image
ChemSpider 34982928
PubChem 68165256
Properties
C29H39ClN7O2P
Molar mass 584.10 g·mol−1
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
//////////Бригатиниб, بريغاتينيب  , 布格替尼 , Brigatinib,  AP26113, PHASE 2, ORPHAN DRUG, 1197953-54-0
CN1CCN(CC1)C2CCN(CC2)C3=CC(=C(C=C3)NC4=NC=C(C(=N4)NC5=CC=CC=C5P(=O)(C)C)Cl)OC

PIMODIVIR, VX 787


Pimodivir.pngFigure imgf000331_0001

PIMODIVIR

VX-787, JNJ-63623872, JNJ-872, VRT-0928787, VX-787, VX 787,  VX787,  JNJ-872, JNJ 872, JNJ872, VRT-0928787, VRT 0928787, VRT0928787, pimodivir

(2S,3S)-3-{[5-fluoro-2-(5-fluoro-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-3-yl)pyrimidin-4-yl]amino}bicyclo[2.2.2]octane-2-carboxylic acid

(2S,3S)-3-((2-(5-fluoro-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridm-3-yl)-5- fluoropyrimidin-4-yl)amino)bicyclo[2.2.2]octane-2-carboxylic acid

(2S,3S)-3-((5-Fluoro-2-(5-fluoro-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-3-yl)pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)bicyclo[2.2.2]octane-2-carboxylic Acid

MF C20H19F2N5O2, MW 399.4018

CAS 1629869-44-8

PHASE 2

Originator Vertex Pharmaceuticals
Developer Janssen Pharmaceuticals
Mechanism Of Action Viral polymerase inhibitor, Viral protein inhibitor
Who Atc Codes J05A-X (Other antivirals)
Ephmra Codes J5B4 (Influenza antivirals)
Indication Influenza A
Paul Charifson, Michael P. Clark, Upul K. Bandarage, Randy S. Bethiel, John J. Court,Hongbo Deng, Ioana Drutu, John P. Duffy, Luc Farmer, Huai Gao, Wenxin Gu, Dylan H. Jacobs, Joseph M. Kennedy, Mark W. Ledeboer, Brian Ledford, Francois Maltais,Emanuele Perola, Tiansheng Wang, M. Woods Wannamaker, Less «
INNOVATOR Vertex Pharmaceuticals Incorporated

Pimodivir (also known as VX-787, JNJ-872 and VRT-0928787) is a novel inhibitor of influenza virus replication that blocks the PB2 cap-snatching activity of the influenza viral polymerase complex. VX-787 binds the cap-binding domain of the PB2 subunit with a KD (dissociation constant) of 24 nM as determined by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC).

The cell-based EC50 (the concentration of compound that ensures 50% cell viability of an uninfected control) for VX-787 is 1.6 nM in a cytopathic effect (CPE) assay, with a similar EC50 in a viral RNA replication assay. VX-787 is active against a diverse panel of influenza A virus strains, including H1N1pdm09 and H5N1 strains, as well as strains with reduced susceptibility to neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs).

Image result for PIMODIVIR

Pimodivir hydrochloride hemihydrate
RN: 1777721-70-6
UNII: A256039515, Bicyclo(2.2.2)octane-2-carboxylic acid, 3-((5-fluoro-2-(5-fluoro-1H-pyrrolo(2,3-b)pyridin-3-yl)-4-pyrimidinyl)amino)-, hydrochloride, hydrate (2:2:1), (2S,3S)-

Molecular Formula, 2C20-H19-F2-N5-O2.2Cl-H.H2-O, Molecular Weight, 889.7348

C20 H19 F2 N5 O2 . Cl H . 1/2 H2 O
Bicyclo[2.2.2]octane-2-carboxylic acid, 3-[[5-fluoro-2-(5-fluoro-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-3-yl)-4-pyrimidinyl]amino]-, hydrochloride, hydrate (2:2:1), (2S,3S)-

Janssen Pharmaceuticals, under license from Vertex Pharmaceuticals, was developing pimodivir (first disclosed in WO2010148197), a PB2 inhibitor, for treating influenza A virus infection. In December 2016, pimodivir was reported to be in phase 2 clinical development.

Influenza spreads around the world in seasonal epidemics, resulting in the deaths of hundreds of thousands annually – millions in pandemic years. For example, three influenza pandemics occurred in the 20th century and killed tens of millions of people, with each of these pandemics being caused by the appearance of a new strain of the virus in humans. Often, these new strains result from the spread of an existing influenza virus to humans from other animal species.

Influenza is primarily transmitted from person to person via large virus-laden droplets that are generated when infected persons cough or sneeze; these large droplets can then settle on the mucosal surfaces of the upper respiratory tracts of susceptible individuals who are near (e.g. within about 6 feet) infected persons. Transmission might also occur through direct contact or indirect contact with respiratory secretions, such as touching surfaces contaminated with influenza virus and then touching the eyes, nose or mouth. Adults might be able to spread influenza to others from 1 day before getting symptoms to approximately 5 days after symptoms start. Young children and persons with weakened immune systems might be infectious for 10 or more days after onset of symptoms. [00103] Influenza viruses are RNA viruses of the family Orthomyxoviridae, which comprises five genera: Influenza virus A, Influenza virus B, Influenza virus C, Isavirus and Thogoto virus.

The Influenza virus A genus has one species, influenza A virus. Wild aquatic birds are the natural hosts for a large variety of influenza A. Occasionally, viruses are transmitted to other species and may then cause devastating outbreaks in domestic poultry or give rise to human influenza pandemics. The type A viruses are the most virulent human pathogens among the three influenza types and cause the most severe disease. The influenza A virus can be subdivided into different serotypes based on the antibody response to these viruses. The serotypes that have been confirmed in humans, ordered by the number of known human pandemic deaths, are: HlNl (which caused Spanish influenza in 1918), H2N2 (which caused Asian Influenza in 1957), H3N2 (which caused Hong Kong Flu in 1968), H5N1 (a pandemic threat in the 2007-08 influenza season), H7N7 (which has unusual zoonotic potential), H1N2 (endemic in humans and pigs), H9N2, H7N2 , H7N3 and H10N7. [00105] The Influenza virus B genus has one species, influenza B virus. Influenza B almost exclusively infects humans and is less common than influenza A. The only other animal known to be susceptible to influenza B infection is the seal. This type of influenza mutates at a rate 2-3 times slower than type A and consequently is less genetically diverse, with only one influenza B serotype. As a result of this lack of antigenic diversity, a degree of immunity to influenza B is usually acquired at an early age. However, influenza B mutates enough that lasting immunity is not possible. This reduced rate of antigenic change, combined with its limited host range (inhibiting cross species antigenic shift), ensures that pandemics of influenza B do not occur.

The Influenza virus C genus has one species, influenza C virus, which infects humans and pigs and can cause severe illness and local epidemics. However, influenza C is less common than the other types and usually seems to cause mild disease in children. [00107] Influenza A, B and C viruses are very similar in structure. The virus particle is 80-120 nanometers in diameter and usually roughly spherical, although filamentous forms can occur. Unusually for a virus, its genome is not a single piece of nucleic acid; instead, it contains seven or eight pieces of segmented negative-sense RNA. The Influenza A genome encodes 11 proteins: hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), nucleoprotein (NP), Ml, M2, NSl, NS2(NEP), PA, PBl, PB1-F2 and PB2.

[HA and NA are large glycoproteins on the outside of the viral particles. HA is a lectin that mediates binding of the virus to target cells and entry of the viral genome into the target cell, while NA is involved in the release of progeny virus from infected cells, by cleaving sugars that bind the mature viral particles. Thus, these proteins have been targets for antiviral drugs. Furthermore, they are antigens to which antibodies can be raised. Influenza A viruses are classified into subtypes based on antibody responses to HA and NA, forming the basis of the H and N distinctions (vide supra) in, for example, H5N1. [00109] Influenza produces direct costs due to lost productivity and associated medical treatment, as well as indirect costs of preventative measures. In the United States, influenza is responsible for a total cost of over $10 billion per year, while it has been estimated that a future pandemic could cause hundreds of billions of dollars in direct and indirect costs. Preventative costs are also high. Governments worldwide have spent billions of U.S. dollars preparing and planning for a potential H5N1 avian influenza pandemic, with costs associated with purchasing drugs and vaccines as well as developing disaster drills and strategies for improved border controls.

Current treatment options for influenza include vaccination, and chemotherapy or chemoprophylaxis with anti-viral medications. Vaccination against influenza with an influenza vaccine is often recommended for high-risk groups, such as children and the elderly, or in people that have asthma, diabetes, or heart disease. However, it is possible to get vaccinated and still get influenza. The vaccine is reformulated each season for a few specific influenza strains but cannot possibly include all the strains actively infecting people in the world for that season. It takes about six months for the manufacturers to formulate and produce the millions of doses required to deal with the seasonal epidemics; occasionally, a new or overlooked strain becomes prominent during that time and infects people although they have been vaccinated (as by the H3N2 Fujian flu in the 2003-2004 influenza season). It is also possible to get infected just before vaccination and get sick with the very strain that the vaccine is supposed to prevent, as the vaccine takes about two weeks to become effective. [00111] Further, the effectiveness of these influenza vaccines is variable. Due to the high mutation rate of the virus, a particular influenza vaccine usually confers protection for no more than a few years. A vaccine formulated for one year may be ineffective in the following year, since the influenza virus changes rapidly over time, and different strains become dominant.

Also, because of the absence of RNA proofreading enzymes, the RNA- dependent RNA polymerase of influenza vRNA makes a single nucleotide insertion error roughly every 10 thousand nucleotides, which is the approximate length of the influenza vRNA. Hence, nearly every newly-manufactured influenza virus is a mutant — antigenic drift. The separation of the genome into eight separate segments of vRNA allows mixing or reassortment of vRNAs if more than one viral line has infected a single cell. The resulting rapid change in viral genetics produces antigenic shifts and allows the virus to infect new host species and quickly overcome protective immunity.

Antiviral drugs can also be used to treat influenza, with neuraminidase inhibitors being particularly effective, but viruses can develop resistance to the standard antiviral drugs.

Thus, there is still a need for drugs for treating influenza infections, such as for drugs with expanded treatment window, and/or reduced sensitivity to viral titer

U.S. Patent No. 8,829,007 discloses compounds that inhibit the replication of influenza viruses, including (2S,3S)-3-((5-fluoro-2-(5-fluoro-lH-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-3-yl)pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)bicyclo[2.2.2]octane-2-carboxylic acid (also known as VX-787). Boroylated intermediates are useful for preparing these compounds that inhibit the replication of influenza viruses. M. P. Clark et al., J. Med. Chem., 2014, 57-6668-6678. These borylated intermediates were previously prepared by incorporating a bromine at the position of the molecule to be borylated. For example, Clark reports preparing 5-chloro-3-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-l,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)-l-tosyl-lH-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine from 3-bromo-5-fluoro-lH-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine.

Methods for preparing borylated compounds are described in U.S. Patent Publication Nos. 2008/0146814 and 2008/0167476.

Improved methods for preparing 3-boryl 7-azaindole compounds, such as 3-boryl-5-halo-7-azaindole compounds, in high yield and with no or few impurities are needed

Synthetic Scheme 1

Figure imgf000087_0001

(a) CHC13; (b) NaOMe, MeOH; (c) DPPA, Et3N, BnOH; (d) H2, Pd/C;

Synthetic Scheme 2

Figure imgf000088_0001

(a) Et3N, CH3CN; (b) cone. H2S04; (c) 9M H2S04; (d) Ag2C03, HOAc, DMSO, 100 °C; (e) X- phos, Pd2(dba)3, K3PO4, 2-methyl THF, H20, 120 °C (f) LiOH, THF, MeOH, 70 °C

Synthetic Scheme 3

Figure imgf000091_0001

(a) Et3N, THF; (b) chiral SFC separation; (c) 5-fluoro- l -(p-tolylsulfonyl)-3-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl- l,3,2-dioxaborolan-

SYNTHESIS

PAPER

Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2014), 57(15), 6668-6678

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jm5007275

Discovery of a Novel, First-in-Class, Orally Bioavailable Azaindole Inhibitor (VX-787) of Influenza PB2

Vertex Pharmaceuticals Inc., 50 Northern Ave, Boston, Massachusetts 02210, United States
Vertex Pharmaceuticals (Canada) Inc., 275 Armand-Frappier, Laval, Quebec H7V 4A7, Canada
§ Arrowhead Research Corporation, 465 Science Drive, Suite C, Madison, Wisconsin 53711, United States
Sage Therapeutics, 215 First Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02141, United States
J. Med. Chem., 2014, 57 (15), pp 6668–6678
DOI: 10.1021/jm5007275
Publication Date (Web): July 14, 2014
Copyright © 2014 American Chemical Society
*Phone: 617-961-7727. E-mail: michael_clark@vrtx.com.

Abstract

Abstract Image

In our effort to develop agents for the treatment of influenza, a phenotypic screening approach utilizing a cell protection assay identified a series of azaindole based inhibitors of the cap-snatching function of the PB2 subunit of the influenza A viral polymerase complex. Using a bDNA viral replication assay (Wagaman, P. C., Leong, M. A., and Simmen, K. A.Development of a novel influenza A antiviral assay. J. Virol. Methods 2002, 105, 105−114) in cells as a direct measure of antiviral activity, we discovered a set of cyclohexyl carboxylic acid analogues, highlighted by VX-787 (2). Compound 2 shows strong potency versus multiple influenza A strains, including pandemic 2009 H1N1 and avian H5N1 flu strains, and shows an efficacy profile in a mouse influenza model even when treatment was administered 48 h after infection. Compound 2represents a first-in-class, orally bioavailable, novel compound that offers potential for the treatment of both pandemic and seasonal influenza and has a distinct advantage over the current standard of care treatments including potency, efficacy, and extended treatment window.

Figure

aReagents and conditions: (a) CHCl3, 78%; (b) NaOMe, MeOH, 4 days, 85%; (c) DPPA, Et3N, BnOH, 77%; (d) H2, Pd/C, THF/MeOH, 99%; (e) 2,4-dichloro-5-fluoropyrimidine, iPr2NEt, THF, 77%; (f) SFC chiral separation; (g) 56, Pd2(dba)3, K3PO4, 2-MeTHF, water, 120 °C, 95%; (h) HCl, dioxane, MeCN, 95%; (i) NaOH, THF, MeOH, 95%.

(2S,3S)-3-((5-Fluoro-2-(5-fluoro-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-3-yl)pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)bicyclo[2.2.2]octane-2-carboxylic Acid

1H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 12.71 (br s, 1H), 8.58 (s, 1H), 8.47 (dd, J = 9.6, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 8.41 (d, J = 4.8 Hz, 1H), 8.39–8.34 (m, 1H), 4.89–4.76 (m, 1H), 2.94 (d, J = 6.9 Hz, 1H), 2.05 (br s, 1H), 1.96 (br s, 1H), 1.68 (complex m, 7H); 13C NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 174.96, 157.00, 155.07, 153.34, 152.97, 145.61, 142.67, 140.65, 134.24, 133.00, 118.02, 114.71, 51.62, 46.73, 28.44, 28.00, 24.90, 23.78, 20.88, 18.98; LCMS gradient 10–90%, 0.1% formic acid, 5 min, C18/ACN, tR = 2.24 min, (M + H) 400.14; HRMS (ESI) of C20H20F2N5O2 [M + H] calcd, 400.157 95; found, 400.157 56.

PATENT

WO2010148197

(1070) (2S,3S)-3-((2-(5-fluoro-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridm-3-yl)-5- fluoropyrimidin-4-yl)amino)bicyclo[2.2.2]octane-2-carboxylic acid

Figure imgf000331_0001

Compound 1070 was made in a similar fashion as described above for compounds 946 and 947.

Figure imgf000330_0001

946 (+/-) 947 (+/-)

[001117] (946) (+/-)-2,3-*r«/ts-CTt</ø-3-(2-(5-chloro-1H-pyrrolo [2,3-b] pyridin-3-yl)-5- fluoropyrimidin-4-ylamino)bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2-carboxylic acid & (947) (+/-)-2,3-rr««s-^xo-3-(2-(5-chloro-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-3-yl)-5- fluoropyrimidin-4-ylamino)bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2-carboxylic acid

To a stirred solution of starting methyl esters, 53d, (0.076 g, 0.183 mmol) (84 : 16 = endo : exo) in THF (0.60 mL) and MeOH (0.10 mL), was added NaOH (0.10 mL of 2 M, 0.201 mmol). The reaction progress was monitored by TLC. After 30 min, additional NaOH (0.18 mL of 2 M solution, 0.37 mmol) and MeOH (0.18 mL) was added. The mixture was stirred at room temperature for a further 16 hours. The mixture was neutralized with HCl (IM) and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by preparative HPLC provided 52 mg of the major isomer (946) and 1 lmg of the minor isomer (947) as the hydrochloric acid salts.

(946) major {endo) isomer: 1H NMR (300 MHz, MeOD) δ 8.82 (d, J= 2.2 Hz, 1H), 8.48 (s, 1H), 8.39 (d, J= 2.2 Hz, 1H), 8.31 (d, J= 5.6 Hz, 1H), 5.11 (m, 1H), 2.85 (br s, 1H), 2.68 (br s, 1H), 2.62 (d, J = 4.8 Hz, 1H), 1.92 (d, J = 10.1 Hz, 1H) and 1.77 – 1.51 (m, 5H) ppm; LC/MS R, = 3.51, (M+H) 402.32.

(947) minor (exo) isomer: 1H NMR (300 MHz, MeOD) δ 8.87 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 8.48 (s, 1H), 8.39 (d, J = 1.9 Hz, 1H), 8.30 (d, J = 5.7 Hz, 1H), 4.73 (d, J = 3.3 Hz, 1H), 3.12 (m, 1H), 2.76 (br s, 1H), 2.56 (d, J= 4.2 Hz, 1H), 1.86 (d, J= 9.5 Hz, 2H), 1.79 – 1.49 (complex m, 2H) and 1.51 (embedded d, J= 10.4 Hz, 2H) ppm; LC/MS R, = 3.42, (M+H) 402.32.

[001118] (1184) (2S,3S)-3-((2-(5-chloro-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-3-yl)-5- fluoropyrimidin-4-yl)amino)bicyclo[2.2.2]octane-2-carboxylic acid

Figure imgf000330_0002

Compound 1184 was made in a similar fashion as described above for compounds 946 and 947

PATENT

WO-2016191079

EXPERIMENTAL

Example 1: Synthesis of 3-BPin-5-bromo-7-azaindole

Chemical Formula: C7H5BrN2 Chemical Formula: Ci3H16BBrN202

Molecular Weight: 197.03 Molecular Weight: 322.99

5-fluoro-7-azaindole (1 g) and THF (10 mL) were added to a small screw-top vial fitted with a septum, argon inlet and exit needle. The flask was sparged with argon for -10 minutes. The iridium catalyst [Ir(OMe)COD]2 (0.168 mg) and 2,2′-bipyridyl (0.080 mg) were added as solids and the flask was covered with the septum and sparged with argon again for -10-15 minutes. When the catalyst was added, the reaction turned a dark red/purple. The argon was then turned off, and HBPin (1.5 mL) was added via syringe. The reaction bubbled, releasing hydrogen. The hydrogen was allowed to bubble out through the bubbler outlet and once bubbling stopped, the reaction was capped and placed in an oil bath heated to 80° C.

After approx. 20 hours, the flask was allowed to cool to room temperature and a sample was pulled from the reaction flask for HPLC analysis. The reaction was then quenched with methanol (10 mL) and allowed to stir for -5 minutes before it was concentrated in vacuo to afford a dark residue (2.44 g). The residue was dissolved in methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) (50 mL) and filtered through a silica plug (20 g, 150 mL frit). The cake was washed with MTBE (3 x 20 mL) and the filtrate was collected and concentrated in vacuo to afford 1.5 g of an off-white solid. The solid residue was taken up in 10 mL of isopropanol (IPA) and heated until it dissolved. The flask was allowed to cool to room temperature, at which point some crystals had precipitated out of solution. The flask was placed in the freezer overnight to afford white crystals.

The crystals were filtered in vacuo, washed with cold hexanes, and dried on a rotovap (yield: 0.5 g). The crystals were taken up again in hexanes (10 mL) and heated to reflux, but the crystals would not dissolve in the hexanes. Thus, the hexanes were removed on the rotovap, and the crystals were taken up in IPA (10 mL) and heated to reflux until the crystals dissolved. The flask was allowed to cool to room temperature, and then placed in the freezer overnight to crystallize, affording 300 mg (7.8 %) of product.

Example 2: Synthesis of 3-BPin-5-bromo-N-tosyl-7-azaindole

Chemical Formula: Ci4HiiBrN202S Chemical Formula: C 0H22BBrN2O4S Molecular Weight: 351.22 Molecular Weight: 477.18

A 250 mL 1-neck round bottom flask equipped with a thermocouple and argon inlet was sparged with argon for 15 minutes. 5-bromo-N-tosyl-7-azaindole (4.0 g), B2Pin2 (2.90 g), [Ir(OMe)COD]2 (0.114 g), 2,2’bipyridyl (0.054 g) and hexane (50 mL) were then added. The flask was again inerted with 3 vacuum purges. The resulting brown slurry was then heated to 60° C incrementally (setpoints: 45° C, 55° C, 58° C and 60° C) and stirred overnight.

After 15 hours at 60 ° C, HPLC of the reaction mixture indicated 3.0% starting material remaining and 94% product. After 18 hours at 60 ° C, HPLC of the reaction mixture indicated 2.7% starting material and 5% product.

The slurry was then cooled to room temperature and vacuum filtered. The solids were recombined with the mother liquor and concentrated to afford a solid. The solid was dissolved in dichloromethane (50 mL) and filtered through silica (5 g on a 60 mL frit). The plug was washed with dichloromethane (2 x 50 mL). The filtrate and washes were combined and concentrated by rotovap to approx. 50 mL. Hexane (50 mL) was added and the solution was again concentrated to approx. 50 mL. Hexane (50 mL) was again added and the solution was concentrated. Product that “bumped” was rinsed back into the flask with dichloromethane. The solution was concentrated to approx. 50 mL and hexane (35 mL) was added. The solution was then concentrated to approx. 50 mL. The slurry was vacuum filtered and the solids were washed with cold hexane, then dried by rotovap, to afford 4.7 g (88.7% of product. HPLC indicated approx. 97% purity.

Example 3: Synthesis of 3-BPin-5-fluoro-N-tosyl-7-azaindole

Chemic

Mol
ecular Weight: 290.31

Chemical Formula: C20H22BFN2O4S

Molecular Weight: 416.27

A I L 3 -necked flask equipped with mechanical stirring, argon inlet, thermocouple, and heating mantle was sparged with argon for 15 minutes. 5-fluoro-N-tosyl-7-azaindole (50.0 g), B2Pin2 (43.7 g), [IrClCOD]2 (2.89 g), dppe (3.43 g), and heptane (500 mL) were then added to the flask. The resulting slurry was then heated to 95 C for 53 hours with stirring.

The slurry was then cooled to room temperature and the solids were collected by vacuum filtration, washed with cold hexane, and dissolved in dichloromethane (450 mL). The solution was filtered through silica (100 g on a 600 mL frit) and the plug was washed with 5 x 100 mL dichloromethane. The filtrate and washes were combined and concentrated by rotovap. Hexane (400 mL) was then added and the solution was concentrated to approx 200 mL. The slurry was then filtered and the solids washed with cold hexane, dried by rotovap to afford 56.97 g (79.6 %) of product. HPLC indicated a purity of >99%.

Example 4: Synthesis of N-Boc-3-BPin-5-fluoro-7-azaindole

Mo 204

N-Boc-5-fluoro-7-azaindole (5.0 g), B2Pin2 (5.38 g), and hexane (50 mL) were added to a 250 mL 2-neck round bottom equipped with a condenser, magnetic stirring, heating mantle and nitrogen inlet. A colorless solution resulted with stirring. The flask was sparged with 3 nitrogen/vacuum cycles. The iridium catalyst [Ir(OMe)COD]2(0.21 g) and 2,2′-bipyridyl (0.10 g) were added as solids and another nitrogen/vacuum cycle was used to inert the flask. The resulting black solution was heated to 60° C. After 1 hour, TLC (eluting with DCM) of the reaction solution indicated that no starting material remained. The solution was cooled to room temperature and filtered through silica (10 g on a 60 mL frit). The plug was washed with dichloromethane (4 x 100 mL). The fractions were combined and concentrated by rotovap until a precipitate began to form. Dichloromethane was then added until a solution resulted and hexane (50 mL) was added. The solution was concentrated cold <25° C to approx. 50 mL. Hexane (50 mL) was added and the solution was concentrated to approx. 75 mL. The resulting white solids were collected by vacuum filtration, washed with cold hexane and dried by rotovap, to afford 4.6 g (60.5%) of product.

Example 5: Synthesis of 3-BPin-7-azaindole

Chemical Formula: C7H6N2 Chemical Formula: C13H17BN202

Molecular Weight: 118.14 Molecular Weight: 244.10

7-azaindole (5.0 g) and THF (50 mL) were added to an argon-inert small screw-top vial fitted with a septum, argon inlet and bubbler outlet. The flask was sparged with argon. The iridium catalyst [Ir(OMe)COD]2 (1.4 g) and 2,2’bipyridyl (1.4 g) were then added and the flask was again sparged with argon. The HBPin (12. 3 mL) was added by syringe and gas evolution was observed. The screwtop was sealed and the vial was placed in an oil bath and heated to 80° C for 16 hours.

The vessel was then allowed to cool to room temperature. The cap was removed and sampled while under an argon stream. The reaction appeared to stall at 50% completion. The cap was removed and 20 mL of methanol was added with visible degassing. The combined reaction solution was concentrated to an oil by rotovap (17.28 g). The crude product was dissolved in 50mL of MTBE and filtered through 50g of silica. The plug was washed with 3 x 50 mL of MTBE and the filtrate was concentrated by rotovap (13g of crude product). The crude product was dissolved in 13 mL of refluxing IPA, cooled to room temperature, and placed in the freezer. No crystals were observed.

Example 6: Synthesis of 3-BPin-5-fluoro-7-azaindole

Chemical Formula: C7H5FN2 Chemical Formula: Ci3H-ieBFN202 Molecular Weight: 136.13 Molecular Weight: 262.09

5-fluoro-7-azaindole (1.0 g) and THF (10 mL) were added to an argon-inert small screw-top vial fitted with a septum, argon inlet and bubbler outlet. The flask was sparged with argon. The iridium catalyst [Ir(OMe)COD]2 (0.24 g) and 3,4,7, 8-tetramethyl-l,10-phenanthroline (0.11 g) were then added and the flask was again sparged with argon. HBPin (2.13 mL) was added by syringe and gas evolution was observed. The screwtop was sealed and the vial was placed in an oil bath and heated to 80° C overnight.

The vial was then removed from the oil bath and allowed to cool to room temperature. The reaction was quenched by the addition of methanol (20 mL, very little gas evolution noted). The solution was then concentrated by rotovap to afford a dark oil (3.57 g). The oil was dissolved in MTBE (50 mL) and filtered though silica. The plug was washed with MTBE (4 x 25 mL) and the clear, yellow filtrate was concentrated by rotovap to an oil (2.7 g).

Upon standing overnight, solids precipitated out of the crude oil. The oil was then dissolved in refluxing hexane (3 mL, ~1 mL/g) and the solution was allowed to cool to room temperature then placed in the freezer.

The resulting white solids were collected by vacuum filtration, washed three times with cold hexane, and dried by rotovap (0.58 g crude product). HPLC indicated 92.2% purity. The crude solids were dissolved in refluxing IPA (1.2 mL, ~2 mL/g) and the resulting yellow solution was allowed to cool to room temperature (during which time crystals precipitated) then placed in the freezer. The resulting crystals were collected by vacuum filtration, washed three times with cold hexane (3x), and dried by rotovap to afford 0.33 g (17.1%) of product.

PATENT

WO2015073491

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2015073491&redirectedID=true

Example 2: Preparation of Compound (l)and 2-MeTHF solvate of Compound (1)

Compound (1) can be prepared as described in WO 2010/148197. For example, an amorphous free base Compound (1) was prepared according to WO 2010/148197, followed by usual chiral separation and purification: SCF chiral chromatography with a modifier that included Et2NH (which generated Et2NH salt of Compound (1)) and then ion-exchange resin treatment. Alternatively, Compound (1) can be made by the following procedures as a 2-MeTHF solvate:

Preparation of Compound 2a (2- Amino-3-bromo-5-fluoropyridine)

1a 2a

To a slurry of 2-amino-5-fluoropyridine (6 kg, 53.6 mol) in water (24 L) at 14 °C was added over 10 minutes 48% hydrobromic acid (18.5 kg, 110 mol). The reaction was exothermic and the temperature went up to 24 °C. The mixture was re-cooled to 12 °C then bromine (9 kg, 56.3 mol) was added in nine portions over 50 minutes (exothermic, kept at 20 °C). The mixture was stirred at 22 °C overnight, and monitored by ‘HNMR of a quenched aliquot (quenched 5 drops in to mix of 1 ml 20% K2CO3, 0.3 ml 10% Na2S203 and 0.7 ml DCM. Organic layer evaporated and assayed). The mixture was cooled to 10 °C then quenched by addition of sodium bisulfite (560 g, 5.4 mol) in water (2 L), and further cooled to 0 °C. This mixture was added to a cold (-4 °C) mixture of DCM (18 L) and 5.4M sodium hydroxide (35 L, 189 mol). The bottom -35 L was filtered through a pad of Celite and then the phase break was made. The aqueous layer was re-extracted with DCM (10 L). The organics were filtered through a pad of 3 kg magnesol, washing with DCM (8 L). The filtrate was evaporated, triturated with hexane and filtered.

Despite the in-process assay indicating 97% completion, this initial product from all four runs typically contained -10% SM. These were combined and triturated in hexane (2 L per kg material) at 50 °C, then cooled to 15 °C and filtered to afford Compound 2a (30.0 kg, -95% purity, 149 mol, 67%). Mother liquors from the initial trituration and the re-purification were chromatographed (20 kg silica, eluent 25-50% EtOAc in hexane) to afford additional Compound 2a (4.7 kg, -99% purity, 24.4 mol, 11%).

Preparation of Compound 3a

To an inert 400-L reactor was charged 2a (27.5 kg, 96% purity, 138 mol), Pd(PPh3)4 (1044 g, 0.90 mol) and Cul (165 g, 0.87 mol), followed by toluene (90 kg). The mixture was de-oxygenated with three vacuum-nitrogen cycles, then triethylamine (19.0 kg, 188 mol) was added. The mixture was de-oxygenated with one more vacuum-nitrogen cycle, then

TMS-acetylene (16.5 kg, 168 mol) was added. The mixture was heated to 48 °C for 23 hours (the initial exotherm took the temperature to 53 °C maximum), then cooled to 18 °C. The slurry was filtered through a pad of Celite and washed with toluene (80 kg). The filtrate was washed with 12% Na2HP04 (75 L), then filtered through a pad of silica (25 kg), washing with 1 :1 hexane:MTBE (120 L). This filtrate was evaporated to a brown oil and then dissolved in NMP for the next step. Weight of a solution of Compound 3a – 58 kg, ~50wt%, 138 mol,

100%. 1H NMR (CDCI3, 300 MHz): δ 7.90 (s, 1H); 7.33-7.27 (m, 1H); 4.92 (s, NH2), 0.28 (s, 9H) ppm.

Preparation o Compound 4a

3a 4a

To an inert 400-L reactor was charged potassium t-butoxide (17.5 kg, 156 mol) and NMP (45 kg). The mixture was heated to 54 °C then a solution of Compound 3a (29 kg, 138 mol) in NMP (38 kg) was added over 2.75 hours and rinsed in with NMP (6 kg)

(exothermic, maintained at 70-77 °C) . The reaction was stirred at 74 °C for 2 hours then cooled to 30 °C and a solution of tosyl chloride (28.5 kg, 150 mol) in NMP (30 kg) added over 1.5 hours and rinsed in with NMP (4 kg). The reaction was exothermic and maintained at 30-43 °C. The reaction was stirred for 1 hour while cooling to 20 °C then water (220 L) was added over 35 minutes (exothermic, maintained at 18-23 °C). The mixture was stirred at 20 °C for 30 minutes then filtered and washed with water (100 L). The solids were dissolved off the filter with DCM (250 kg), separated from residual water and the organics filtered through a pad of magnesol (15 kg, top) and silica (15 kg, bottom), washing with extra DCM (280 kg). The filtrate was concentrated to a thick slurry (-50 L volume) then MTBE (30 kg) was added while continuing the distillation at constant volume (final distillate temperature of 51 °C). Additional MTBE (10 kg) was added and the slurry cooled to 15 °C, filtered and washed with MTBE (40 L) to afford Compound 4a (19.13 kg, 95% purity, 62.6 mol, 45%). Partial concentration of the filtrate afforded a second crop (2.55 kg, 91% purity, 8.0 mol, 6%). 1H NMR (CDCI3, 300 MHz): δ 8.28-8.27 (m, 1H); 8.06-8.02 (m, 2H); 7.77 (d, J= 4.0 Hz, 1H); 7.54-7.50 (m, 1H); 7.28-7.26 (m, 2H); 6.56 (d, J= 4.0 Hz, 1H); 2.37 (s, 3H) ppm.

Preparation of Compound 5a

4a 5a

To a slurry of N-bromosuccinimide (14.16 kg, 79.6 mol) in DCM (30 kg) at 15 °C was charged a solution of Compound 4a (19.13 kg, 95% purity, and 2.86 kg, 91% purity, 71.6 mol) in DCM (115 kg), rinsing in with DCM (20 kg). The mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 18 hours, and then cooled to 9 °C and quenched by addition of a solution of sodium

thiosulfate (400 g) and 50% sodium hydroxide (9.1 kg) in water (130 L). The mixture was warmed to 20 °C and the layers were separated and the organics were washed with 12% brine (40 L). The aqueous layers were sequentially re-extracted with DCM (4 x 50 kg). The organics were combined and 40 L distilled to azeotrope water, then the solution was filtered through a pad of silica (15 kg, bottom) and magensol (15 kg, top), washing with DCM (180 kg). The filtrate was concentrated to a thick slurry (-32 L volume) then hexane (15 kg) was added. Additional hexane (15 kg) was added while continuing the distillation at constant volume (final distillate temperature 52 °C). The slurry was cooled to 16 °C, filtered and washed with hexane (25 kg) to afford Compound 5a (25.6 kg, 69.3 mol, 97%). 1H NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz): δ 8.34-8.33 (m, 1H); 8.07 (d, J= 8.2Hz, 2H); 7.85 (s, 1H); 7.52-7.49 (m, 1H); 7.32-7.28 (m, 2H); 2.40 (s, 3H) ppm.

Preparation of Compound 6a: BEFTA1 Reaction

6a

To an inert 400-L reactor was charged Compound 5a (25.6 kg, 69.3 mol), bis(pinacolato)diboron (19 kg, 74.8 mol), potassium acetate (19 kg, 194 mol), palladium acetate (156 g, 0.69 mol) and triphenylphosphine (564 g, 2.15 mol), followed by dioxane (172 kg), that had been separately de-oxygenated using vacuum-nitrogen cycles (x 3). The mixture was stirred and de-oxygenated using vacuum-nitrogen cycles (x 2), then heated to 100 °C for 15 hours. The mixture was cooled to 35 °C then filtered, washing with 30 °C THF (75 kg). The filtrate was evaporated and the residue dissolved in DCM (-90 L). The solution was stirred with 1 kg carbon and 2 kg magnesol for 45 minutes then filtered through a pad of silica (22 kg, bottom) and magensol (10 kg, top), washing with DCM (160 kg). The filtrate was concentrated to a thick slurry (-40 L volume) then triturated at 35 °C and hexane (26 kg) was added. The slurry was cooled to 20 °C, filtered and washed with a mix of DCM (5.3 kg) and hexane (15 kg), then hexane (15 kg) and dried under nitrogen on the filter to afford Compound 6a (23.31 kg, 56.0 mol, 81%) as a white solid. 1H-NMR consistent with desired product, HPLC 99.5%, palladium assay 2 ppm. 1H NMR (CDC13, 300 MHz): δ 8.25 (s, 1H); 8.18 (s, 1H); 8.09-8.02 (m, 2H); 7.91-7.83 (m, 1H); 7.30-7.23 (m, 2H); 2.39 (s, 3H); 1.38 (s, 12H) ppm.

Preparation of Compounds 8a and 9a

9a

[0247] Compound 8a: Anhydride 7a (24.6 kgs, Apex) and quinine (49.2 kgs, Buchler) were added to a reactor followed by the addition of anhydrous PhMe (795.1 kgs). The reactor was then cooled to -16 °C and EtOH (anhydrous, 41.4 kgs) was added at such a rate to maintain the internal reactor temperature < -12 °C. The maximum reaction temp recorded for this experiment was -16 °C. The reaction mixture was then stirred for 16 h at -16 °C. A sample was removed and filtered. The solid was dried and evaluated by 1H-NMR which showed that no anhydride remained. The contents of the reactor were filtered. The reactor and subsequent wet cake were washed with PhMe (anhydrous, 20 kgs). The resulting solid was placed in a tray dryer at < 45 °C with a N2 sweep for at least 48 h. In this experiment, the actual temperature was 44 °C and the vacuum was -30 inHG. Material was sampled after 2.5 d drying and showed 3% PhMe by NMR. After an additional 8 hrs, the amt of PhMe analyzed showed the same 3% PhMe present and the drying was stopped. The weight of the white solid was 57.7 kgs, 76% yield. 1 H-NMR showed consistent with structure and Chiral SFC analysis showed material >99% ee.

Compound 9a: The reactor was charged with quinine salt 8a (57.7 kgs) and PhMe (250.5 kgs, Aldrich ACS grade, >99.5%) and the agitator was started. The contents were cooled to <15 °C and was treated with 6N HCI (18 kgs H20 were treated with 21.4 kgs of cone. HCI) while keeping the temperature <25 °C. The mixture was stirred for 40 min and visually inspected to verify that no solids were present. Stirring was stopped and the phases were allowed to settle and phases were separated. The aqueous phases were extracted again with PhMe (160 kgs; the amount typically used was much less, calc. 43 kgs. However, for efficient stirring due to minimal volume, additional PhMe was added. The organic phases were combined. Sample the organic phase and run HPLC analysis to insure product is present; for information only test.

To the organic phases were cooled to <5 °C (0-5 °C) and was added sodium sulfate (anhydrous, 53.1 kgs) with agitation for 8 hrs (in this instance 12 hrs). The contents of the reactor containing the organic phase were passed through a filter containing sodium sulfate (31 kgs, anhydrous) and into a cleaned and dried reactor. The reactor was rinsed with PhMe (57.4 kgs), passed through the filter into reactor 201. The agitator was started and an additional amount of PhMe (44 kgs) was added and the reaction mixture cooled to -20 °C. At that temperature PhMe solution of potassium tert-pentoxide was added over 2 h while keeping the temperature between -15 and -22 °C. The reaction mixture was held at -20 °C for an additional 30 min before being sampled. Sampling occurred by removing an aliquat with immediate quenching into 6N HC1. The target ratio here is 96:4 (trans is).

Having achieved the target ratio, the reactor was charged with acetic acid (2.8 kgs) over 6 min. The temperature stayed at – 20 °C. The temperature was then adjusted to -5 °C and aqueous 2N HC1 (65.7 kgs water treated with 15.4 kgs of cone HC1) was added. The contents were warmed to 5 °C +/- 5 °C, agitated for 45 min before warming to 20 °C +/- 5 °C with stirring for 15 min. The agitator was stopped and the phases allowed to settle. The aqueous layer was removed (temporary hold). The organic phase was washed with water (48 kgs, potable), agitated for 15 min and phases allowed to settle (at least 15 min) and the aqueous layer was removed and added to the aqueous layer. 1/3 of a buffer solution (50 L) that was prepared (7.9 kgs NaH2P04, 1.3 kgs of Na2HP04 and 143.6 kgs water) was added to the organic phase and stirred for at least 15 min. Agitation was stopped and phases were allowed to separate for at least 15 min. The lower layer was discarded. Another portion of the buffered solution (50 L) was used to wash the organic layer as previously described. The wash was done a third time as described above.

Vacuum distillation of the PhMe phase (150 L) was started at 42 °C/-13.9 psig and distilled to an oil of 20 L volume. After substantial reduction in volume the mixture was transferred to a smaller vessel to complete the distillation. Heptanes (13.7 kgs) was added and the mixture warmed to 40 +/- 5 °C for 30 min then the contents were cooled to 0-5 °C over 1.5 h. The solids were filtered and the reactor washed with approximately 14 kgs of cooled (0-5 °C) heptanes. The solids were allowed to dry under vacuum before placing in the oven at <40 °C under house vac (-28 psig) until LOD is <1%. 15.3 kgs, 64%, 96% HPLC purity. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) δ 11.45 (br. s, 1H), 6.41 (t, J= 7.2 Hz, 1H), 6.25 (t, J=

7.2 Hz, 1H), 4.18 (m, 2H), 3.27 (m, 1H), 3.03 (m, 1H), 2.95 (m, 1H), 2.77 (m, 1H), 1.68 (m,

1H), 1.49 (m, 1H), 1.25 (t, J= 7.2Hz), 1.12 (m, 1H).

Preparation of Compound 10a

9a 10a

A three neck flask equipped with a mechanical stirrer, temperature probe, reflux condenser, addition funnel and nitrogen inlet was charged with Compound 9a (145.0 g, 1 equiv) and anhydrous toluene (Aldrich, cat# 244511) (1408 g, 1655 ml) under an atmosphere of nitrogen. Then triethylamine (Aldrich, cat# 471283) (140 g, 193 ml,

2.14 equiv) was added in portions over 5 minutes to the stirred solution during which an exotherm to a maximum temperature of 27 °C was observed. Data acquisition by ReactIR was started. The reaction mixture was then heated to 95 °C over 70 minutes. Then diphenyl phosphoryl azide (Aldrich, cat# 178756) (176.2 g; 138.0 ml, 0.99 equiv) was added by addition funnel in portions over a total time of 2.25 hours.

Following completion of the addition of diphenyl phosphoryl azide (addition funnel rinsed with a small amount of toluene), the resulting mixture was heated at 96 °C for an additional 50 minutes. A sample of the reaction mixture diluted in toluene was analyzed by GC/MS which indicated consumption of diphenyl phosphoryl azide. Then benzyl alcohol (Aldrich, cat# 108006) (69.9 g, 67.0 ml, 1.0 equiv) was added by addition funnel over 5-10 minutes. The resulting mixture was then heated at 97 °C overnight (for approximately 19 hours). A sample of the reaction mixture diluted in toluene by GC/MS indicated formation of product (m/e =330). The reaction mixture was then cooled to 21 °C after which water (870 g, 870 ml) was added in portions (observed slight exotherm to maximum temperature of 22 °C). The reaction mixture was first quenched by addition of 500 g of water and mechanically stirred for 10 minutes. The mixture was then transferred to the separatory funnel containing the remaining 370 g of water and then manually agitated. After agitation and phase separation, the organic and aqueous layers were separated (aqueous cut at pH of -10). The organic layer was then washed with an additional portion of water (870 g; 1 x 870 ml). The organic and aqueous layers were separated (aqueous cut at pH of ~10). The collected organic phase was then concentrated to dryness under reduced pressure (water bath at 45-50 °C) affording 215 g of crude Compound 10a (approximate volume of 190 ml). The 1H NMR and GC/MS conformed to compound 10a (with residual toluene and benzyl alcohol).

Preparation o Compound 11a

10a 11a

HCI in ethanol preparation: A three neck flask equipped with a temperature probe, nitrogen inlet and magnetic stirrer was charged with ethanol (1000 ml, 773 g) under a

nitrogen atmosphere. The solution was stirred and cooled in a dry ice/acetone bath until an internal temperature of- 12 °C was reached. Then anhydrous HC1 (~ 80 g, 2.19 moles) was slowly bubbled in the cooled solution (observed temperature of -24 to -6 °C during addition) over 2 hours. Following the addition, the solution was transferred to a glass bottle and allowed to warm to ambient temperature. A sample of the solution was submitted for titration giving a concentration of 2.6 M. The solution was then stored in the cold room (approximately 5 °C) overnight.

Hydrogenation/HCl salt formation: A glass insert to a 2 gallon Parr autoclave was charged with palladium on carbon (Pd/C (Aldrich, cat# 330108), 10 % dry basis; (50 % wet), 13.11 g, 0.01 equiv on the basis of Compound 10a) under a nitrogen atmosphere and then moistened with ethanol (93 g; 120 ml). Then a solution of crude Compound 10a (212 g, 1 eq) in ethanol (1246 g; 1600 ml) was added to the glass insert (small rinse with ethanol to aid with transfer). The glass insert was placed in the autoclave after which HC1 in ethanol (prepared as described above; 2.6 M; 1.04 equiv based on Compound 10a; 223 g; 259 ml) was added. The autoclave was sealed and then purged with hydrogen (3 x at 20 psi). The hydrogenation was then started under an applied pressure of hydrogen gas (15 psi) for 3 hours at which time the pressure of hydrogen appeared constant. Analysis of an aliquot of the reaction mixture by 1H NMR and GC/MS indicated consumption of starting

material/formation of product. The resulting mixture was then filtered over a bed of Celite (192 g) after which the Celite bed was washed with additional ethanol (3 x; a total of 1176 g of ethanol was used during the washes). The filtrate (green in color) was then concentrated under reduced pressure (water bath at 45 °C) to ~ 382 g ((-435 ml; 2.9 volumes based on theoretical yield of Compound 11a. Then isopropyl acetate (1539 g; 1813 ml (12 volumes based on theoretical yield of Compound 11a was added to the remainder. The resulting solution was distilled under vacuum with gradual increase in temperature.

The distillation was stopped after which the remaining solution (370 g, -365 ml total volume; brownish in color) was allowed to stand at ambient temperature over the weekend. The mixture was filtered (isopropyl acetate used to aid with filtration) and the collected solids were washed with additional isopropyl acetate (2 x 116 ml; each wash was approximately 100 g). The solid was then dried under vacuum at 40 °C (maximum observed temperature of 42 °C) overnight to afford 1 18 g (78.1 % over two steps) of Compound 11a. The 1H NMR of the material conformed to the structure of Compound 11a, and GC/MS indicated 99% purity.

Preparation of Compound 13a

2a

Procedure A: A mixture of 5-fluoro-2,4-dichloropyrimidine (12a, 39.3 g, 235 mmol, 1.1 equiv), and HCI amine salt (11a, 50 g, 214 mmol) was treated with CH2C12(169 mL) and the mixture was warmed to 30 °C. The mixture was then treated slowly with DIEA (60.8 g, 82 mL, 471 mmol, 2.2 equiv) via syringe pump over 3 h. Peak temp was up to 32 °C. The reaction was stirred for 20 h, the reaction mixture was judged complete by HPLC and cooled to rt. The resulting reaction mixture was washed sequentially with water (21 1 mL, pH = 8-9), 5% NaHS04 (21 1 mL, pH = 1-2) then 5% aq. NaCl (211 mL, pH = 5-6).

The organic phase was then distilled under reduced pressure to 190 mL. PhMe was charged (422 mL) and temperature set at 70 -80 °C and internal temp at 60-65 °C until vol back down to 190 mL. The mixture was allowed to cool to approximately 37 °C with stirring – after approximately 10 min, crystallization began to occur and the temperature was observed to increase to approximately 41 °C. After equilibrating at 37 “C, the suspension was charged with n-heptane (421 mL) over 3.5 h followed by cooling to 22 °C over 1 h. The mixture was allowed to stir overnight at that temperature before filtering. The resulting solid on the filter was washed with a 10% PhMe in n-heptane solution (2 x 210 mL). The solid was then dried in the oven under vacuum with an N2 purge at 50 °C overnight. The resulting solid weighed 62 g (88% yield).

Procedure B: A three neck flask equipped with a mechanical stirrer, temperature probe, reflux condenser, nitrogen inlet and addition funnel was charged with Compound 11a (51.2 g) and Compound 12a (40.2 g) under an atmosphere of nitrogen. Dichloromethane (173 ml, 230 g) was added and the resulting mixture was stirred while warming to an internal temperature of 30 °C. Then N,N-diisopropylethylamine (85 ml, 63.09 g) was slowly added by addition funnel over 2.5-3 hours during which time an exotherm to a maximum observed temperature of 33.5 °C was observed. After complete addition, the resulting solution was stirred at 30-31 °C overnight under a nitrogen atmosphere (for approximately 19 hours).

A 100 μΐ sample of the reaction mixture was diluted with dichloromethane up to a total volume of 10 ml and the solution mixed well. A sample of the diluted aliquot was analyzed by GC/MS which indicated the reaction to be complete by GC/MS; observed

formation of product (m/e = 328)). The reaction mixture was cooled to 26 °C and transferred to a separatory funnel (aided with dichloromethane). The mixture was then sequentially washed with water (211 ml, 211 g; pH of aqueous cut was -8; small rag layer was transferred with aqueous cut), 5 % aqueous NaHS04 ((prepared using 50 g of sodium bisulfate monohydrate (Aldrich cat. # 233714) and 950 g water) 211 ml, 216 g; pH of aqueous cut was ~2) and then 5 % aqueous NaCl ((prepared using 50 g of sodium chloride (Aldrich cat. # S9888) and 950 g water) 211 ml, 215 g; pH of aqueous cut was -4-5). The collected organic phase was then concentrated under reduced pressure (water bath at 35 °C) to -190 ml (2.7 volumes based on theoretical yield of Compound 13a after which toluene (Aldrich cat. # 179418, 422 ml, 361 g) was added. The resulting mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure (water bath at 55-65 °C) to -190 ml (2.7 volumes based on theoretical yield of Compound 13a. Analysis of a sample of the solution at this stage by 1H NMR indicated the absence of dichloromethane. The remaining mixture was allowed to cool to 37 °C (using water bath at 37 °C on rotovap with agitation). During this time pronounced crystallization was observed. The mixture was then mechanically stirred and heated to approximately 37 °C (external heat source set to 38 °C) after which n-heptane (430 ml, 288 g; Aldrich cat# H2198) was slowly added by addition funnel over 3 hours. Following the addition, heating was stopped and the resulting slurry mechanically stirred while cooling to ambient temperature overnight. The resulting mixture was then filtered and the collected solids were washed with 10 % toluene in n-heptane (2 x 210 ml; each wash was prepared by mixing 21 ml (16 g) of toluene and 189 ml (132 g) of n-heptane). Vacuum was applied until very little filtrate was observed. The solids were then further dried under vacuum at 50 °C under a nitrogen bleed to constant weight (3.5 hours) giving 64.7 g (90 %) of Compound 13a. Analysis of a sample of the solid by Ή NMR showed the material to conform to structure and LC analysis indicated 99.8 % purity using the supplied LC method.

Preparation of Compound 14a

The ethyl ester 13a (85 g, 259 mmol) was dissolved in THF (340 mL) and treated with a solution of LiOH (2M, 389 mL, 778 mmol) over 10 min (temp from 21 to 24 °C). The mixture was warmed to 45 °C with stirring for 17 h at which time the reaction was judged complete by HPLC (no SM observed). The reaction mixture was cooled to rt and CH2C12 was added (425 mL). A solution of citric acid (2 M, 400 mL) was then added slowly over 45 min (temp up to 26 °C). It was noted that during the charge some white solids were formed but quickly dissolved with stirring. The reaction mixture was stirred for an additional 15 min before phases were allowed to separate. After the phases were split, the aqueous phase pH was measured pH = 4.0. The organic phase was washed (15 min stir) with water (255 mL) -phases were allowed to separate. The lower layer (organic) containing the desired product was then stored in the fridge overnight.

The organic phase was concentrated under reduced pressure (pot set to 65 °C) to 150 mL (est. 1.76 vol wrt SM). IPA (510 mL) was charged and distilled under reduced pressure (85 °C chiller temp setting) to 255 mL (3 vol). The level of solvent was brought to approximately 553 mL (6.5 vol) by the addition of IPA (298 mL). Water (16 mL) was then added and the reaction mixture warmed to reflux (77 °C) with good agitation which dissolved solids precipitated on the walls of the vessel. Reaction mixture was then cooled slowly to 65 °C (over 60 min) and held there – all material still in solution (sample pulled for residual solvent analysis). The reaction was further cooled to 60 °C and the reaction mixture appeared slightly opaque. After stirring for 15 min further cooled to 55 °C. While more product precipitates, the mixture is still thin and easily stirred. Water (808 mL) was added very slowly (2.5-3 hrs) while maintaining the temperature around 55 C. The mixture was then cooled to 22 °C over 2 h and allowed to stir overnight. Material was then filtered and washed with a mixture of water: IPA (75:25, 2 x 255 mL). The acid was dried in a vac oven at 55 °C overnight. Obtained 69 g of acid 14a, 88% yield of a white solid. The material analyzed >99% purity by HPLC.

Preparation o f Compound 15a: Suzuki Coupling

To 14a (91.4 g, 305 mmol), 6a (158.6 g, 381 mmol, 1.25 equiv.), Pd(OAc)2 (0.34 g, 1.5 mmol, 0.5 mol%), X-Phos (1.45 g, 3.0 mmol, 1.0 mol%), and K2C03 (168.6 g,

1220 mmol, 4 equiv.) was added THF (731 mL, 8 volumes) and water (29 mL, 0.32 vol). The reaction mixture was sparged with N2 for 30 min, then warmed to 65-70 °C and stirred for 5 h. HPLC analysis of the reaction mixture showed 99.3% conversion. The reaction mixture was cooled to 22-25 °C and water was added. The mixture was stirred, the phases

were allowed to separate, and the aqueous phase was decanted. A solution of 18 wt% NaCl in water (half-saturated aqueous NaCl) was added to the organic phase and the pH of the mixture was adjusted to 6.0-6.5 using 2N HC1. The phases were allowed to separate and the aqueous phase was decanted. The organic phase was concentrated to a minimum volume and acetonitrile was added. The process was repeated one more time and acetonitrile was added to bring the final volume to 910 mL (10 vol). The slurry was warmed to 80-85 °C for 6 h, then cooled to 20-25 °C. The slurry was stirred for 2 h, then filtered. The solids were rinsed with acetonitrile to give 15a (161 g, 89% yield).

Preparation of Compound (1): Detosylation Step

To 15a (25 g, 45.2 mmol) was added THF (125 ml, 5 vol), then MP-TMT resin (6.25 g, 25 wt%). The mixture was stirred at 20-25 °C for 16 h and filtered, rinsing with 1 vol THF. The resin treatment process and filtration were repeated. The THF solution was concentrated to 5 vol. To the mixture at 22-25 °C was added an aqueous solution of 2M LiOH (90.3 mL, 4 equiv). The reaction mixture was warmed to 40-45 °C and stirred for 5 h. HPLC analysis showed 99.7% conversion. The reaction mixture was cooled to 22-25 °C and MTBE (50 mL, 2 vol) was added. Phase separation occurred. The lower aqueous phase was collected. The aqueous phase was extracted with MTBE. The lower aqueous phase was collected. To the aqueous phase was added 2-MeTHF and the mixture was stirred. The pH of the mixture was adjusted to 6.0-6.5, and the lower aq. phase was decanted. The organic phase was washed with pH 6.5 buffer. The organic phase was concentrated to 85 mL, diluted with 2-MeTHF (150 mL), and concentrated to a final volume of 180 mL. The resultant slurry was warmed to 70-75 °C and stirred until complete dissolution, then cooled to 45-50 °C to give slurry. The slurry was stirred for 1 h, then heptane (180 mL) was added. The slurry was cooled to 20-25 °C over 1 h and stirred for 16 h. The batch was filtered, rinsing the solids with heptane. The solids were dried to give crude Compound (l)-2-MeTHF solvate, 79% yield.

PATENT

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2015073476

Preparation of Compound (1): Detosylation Step

[0214] To 15a (25 g, 45.2 mmol) was added THF (125 ml, 5 vol), then MP-TMT resin (6.25 g, 25 wt%). The mixture was stirred at 20 °C – 25 °C for 16 h and filtered, rinsing with 1 vol. THF. The resin treatment process and filtration were repeated. The THF solution was concentrated to 5 vol. To the mixture at 22 °C – 25 °C was added an aqueous solution of 2M LiOH (90.3 mL, 4 equiv.). The reaction mixture was warmed to 40 °C – 45 °C and stirred for 5 h. HPLC analysis showed 99.7% conversion. The reaction mixture was cooled to 22 °C -25 °C and MTBE (50 mL, 2 vol) was added. Phase separation occurred. The lower aqueous phase was collected. The aqueous phase was extracted with MTBE. The lower aqueous phase was collected. To the aqueous phase was added 2-MeTHF and the mixture was stirred. The pH of the mixture was adjusted to 6.0 – 6.5, and the lower aq. phase was decanted. The organic phase was washed with pH 6.5 buffer. The organic phase was concentrated to 85 mL, diluted with 2-MeTHF (150 mL), and concentrated to a final volume of 180 mL. The resultant slurry was warmed to 70 °C – 75 °C and stirred until complete dissolution, then cooled to 45 °C – 50 °C to give slurry. The slurry was stirred for 1 h, then heptane (180 mL) was added. The slurry was cooled to 20 °C – 25 °C over 1 h and stirred for 16 h. The batch was filtered, rinsing the solids with heptane. The solids were dried to give crude Compound (l 2-MeTHF solvate, 79% yield.

PAPER

Discovery of a Novel, First-in-Class, Orally Bioavailable Azaindole Inhibitor (VX-787) of Influenza PB2

J. Med. Chem., 2014, 57 (15), pp 6668–6678

DOI: 10.1021/jm5007275

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jm5007275

Vertex Pharmaceuticals Inc51

1H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 12.71 (br s, 1H), 8.58 (s, 1H), 8.47 (dd, J = 9.6, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 8.41 (d, J = 4.8 Hz, 1H), 8.39–8.34 (m, 1H), 4.89–4.76 (m, 1H), 2.94 (d, J = 6.9 Hz, 1H), 2.05 (br s, 1H), 1.96 (br s, 1H), 1.68 (complex m, 7H);
13C NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 174.96, 157.00, 155.07, 153.34, 152.97, 145.61, 142.67, 140.65, 134.24, 133.00, 118.02, 114.71, 51.62, 46.73, 28.44, 28.00, 24.90, 23.78, 20.88, 18.98;
LCMS gradient 10–90%, 0.1% formic acid, 5 min, C18/ACN, tR = 2.24 min, (M + H) 400.14;
HRMS (ESI) of C20H20F2N5O2 [M + H] calcd, 400.157 95; found, 400.157 56.
Article
June 18, 2014

Vertex Licenses VX-787 to Janssen Pharmaceuticals for the Treatment of Influenza

Vertex Pharmaceuticals Incorporated (Nasdaq: VRTX) today announced that it has entered into a licensing agreement with Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc. for the worldwide development and commercialization of VX-787, a novel medicine discovered by Vertex for the treatment of influenza. As part of the agreement, Vertex will receive an up-front payment of $30 million from Janssen and has the potential to receive additional development and commercial milestone payments as well as royalties on future product sales. Vertex completed a Phase 2a study of VX-787 in 2013 that showed statistically significant improvements in viral and clinical measurements of influenza infection. VX-787 is designed to directly inhibit replication of the influenza virus.

“With a deep history in developing new medicines for viral infections and diseases, Janssen is well-positioned to advance the global development of VX-787 for the treatment of influenza,” said Jeffrey Leiden, M.D., Ph.D., Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer of Vertex. “This collaboration provides important support for the continued development of VX-787 in influenza and contributes to our financial strength to enable continued investment in our key development programs for cystic fibrosis and in research aimed at discovering new medicines.”

About the Collaboration

Under the terms of the collaboration, Janssen will have full global development and commercialization rights to VX-787. Vertex will receive a $30 million up-front payment from Janssen and could receive additional development and commercial milestone payments as well as royalties on future product sales. The collaboration, and the related $30 million up-front payment, is subject to the expiration of the waiting period under the Hart-Scott-Rodino Antitrust Improvements Act.

About VX-787

VX-787 is an investigational medicine that is designed to directly inhibit replication of influenza A, including recent H1 (pandemic) and H5 (avian) influenza strains, based on in-vitro data. VX-787’s mechanism represents a new class of potential medicines for the treatment of influenza, distinct from neuraminidase inhibitors, the current standard of care for the treatment of influenza. VX-787 is intended to provide a rapid onset of action and an expanded treatment window.

In a Phase 2a influenza challenge study, statistically significant improvements in viral and clinical measurements of influenza infection were observed after treatment with VX-787. The study met its primary endpoint and showed a statistically significant decrease in the amount of virus in nasal secretions (viral shedding) over the seven-day study period. In addition, at the highest dosing regimen evaluated in the study, there was a statistically significant reduction in the severity and duration of influenza-like symptoms. In this study, VX-787 was generally well-tolerated, with no adverse events leading to discontinuation. Those who took part in the study volunteered to be experimentally exposed to an attenuated form of live H3N2 influenza A virus. H3N2 is a common type of influenza virus and was the most common type observed in the 2012/2013 influenza season in the United States.

VX-787 was discovered by Vertex scientists.

About Influenza

Often called “the flu,” seasonal influenza is caused by influenza viruses, which infect the respiratory tract.1 The flu can result in seasonal epidemics2 and can produce severe disease and high mortality in certain populations, such as the elderly.3 Each year, on average 5 to 20 percent of the U.S. population gets the flu4 resulting in more than 200,000 flu-related hospitalizations and 36,000 deaths.5 The overall national economic burden of influenza-attributable illness for adults is $83.3 billion.5 Direct medical costs for influenza in adults totaled $8.7 billion including $4.5 billion for adult hospitalizations resulting from influenza-attributable illness.5 The treatment of the flu consists of antiviral medications that have been shown in clinical studies to shorten the disease and reduce the severity of symptoms if taken within two days of infection.6 There is a significant need for new medicines targeting flu that provide a wider treatment window, greater efficacy and faster onset of action.

About Vertex

Vertex is a global biotechnology company that aims to discover, develop and commercialize innovative medicines so people with serious diseases can lead better lives. In addition to our clinical development programs focused on cystic fibrosis, Vertex has more than a dozen ongoing research programs aimed at other serious and life-threatening diseases.

Founded in 1989 in Cambridge, Mass., Vertex today has research and development sites and commercial offices in the United States, Europe, Canada and Australia. For four years in a row, Science magazine has named Vertex one of its Top Employers in the life sciences. For additional information and the latest updates from the company, please visit www.vrtx.com.

Vertex’s press releases are available at www.vrtx.com.

WO2002024705A1 13 Sep 2001 28 Mar 2002 Charles Jackson Barnett Stereoselective process for preparing cyclohexyl amine derivatives
WO2003015798A1 13 Aug 2002 27 Feb 2003 Toyama Chemical Co Ltd Novel virus proliferation inhibition/virucidal method and novel pyradine nucleotide/pyradine nucleoside analogue
WO2005095400A1 30 Mar 2005 13 Oct 2005 Vertex Pharma Azaindoles useful as inhibitors of jak and other protein kinases
WO2006069258A1 * 20 Dec 2005 29 Jun 2006 Amgen Inc Substituted heterocyclic compounds and methods of use
WO2007084557A2 17 Jan 2007 26 Jul 2007 Vertex Pharma Azaindoles useful as inhibitors of janus kinases
WO2008079346A1 21 Dec 2007 3 Jul 2008 Vertex Pharma 5-cyan0-4- (pyrrolo [2, 3b] pyridine-3-yl) -pyrimidine derivatives useful as protein kinase inhibitors
WO2009073300A1 31 Oct 2008 11 Jun 2009 Vertex Pharma [1h- pyrazolo [3, 4-b] pyridine-4-yl] -phenyle or -pyridin-2-yle derivatives as protein kinase c-theta
WO2010011756A1 22 Jul 2009 28 Jan 2010 Vertex Pharmaceuticals Incorporated Pyrazolopyridine kinase inhibitors
WO2010011768A1 22 Jul 2009 28 Jan 2010 Vertex Pharmaceuticals Incorporated Tri-cyclic pyrazolopyridine kinase inhibitors
WO2010011772A2 22 Jul 2009 28 Jan 2010 Vertex Pharmaceuticals Incorporated Tri-cyclic pyrazolopyridine kinase inhibitors
WO2010148197A1 * 17 Jun 2010 23 Dec 2010 Vertex Pharmaceuticals Incorporated Inhibitors of influenza viruses replication
WO2011008915A1 * 15 Jul 2010 20 Jan 2011 Abbott Laboratories Pyrrolopyridine inhibitors of kinases
US20100038988 12 Aug 2008 18 Feb 2010 Gannon Ramy Stator and Method of Making the Same
WO2003015798A1 Aug 13, 2002 Feb 27, 2003 Toyama Chemical Co Ltd Novel virus proliferation inhibition/virucidal method and novel pyradine nucleotide/pyradine nucleoside analogue
WO2005095400A1 Mar 30, 2005 Oct 13, 2005 Vertex Pharma Azaindoles useful as inhibitors of jak and other protein kinases
WO2007084557A2 Jan 17, 2007 Jul 26, 2007 Vertex Pharma Azaindoles useful as inhibitors of janus kinases
WO2009073300A1 Oct 31, 2008 Jun 11, 2009 Vertex Pharma [1h- pyrazolo [3, 4-b] pyridine-4-yl] -phenyle or -pyridin-2-yle derivatives as protein kinase c-theta
WO2010011756A1 Jul 22, 2009 Jan 28, 2010 Vertex Pharmaceuticals Incorporated Pyrazolopyridine kinase inhibitors
WO2010011768A1 Jul 22, 2009 Jan 28, 2010 Vertex Pharmaceuticals Incorporated Tri-cyclic pyrazolopyridine kinase inhibitors
WO2010011772A2 Jul 22, 2009 Jan 28, 2010 Vertex Pharmaceuticals Incorporated Tri-cyclic pyrazolopyridine kinase inhibitors
WO2010148197A1 * Jun 17, 2010 Dec 23, 2010 Vertex Pharmaceuticals Incorporated Inhibitors of influenza viruses replication
US20100038988 Aug 12, 2008 Feb 18, 2010 Gannon Ramy Stator and Method of Making the Same

……

.

Vertex Pharmaceuticals’ Boston Campus, United States of America

Lynette Hopkinson VP Commercial Regulatory Affairs, Global Regulatory Affairs Vertex Pharmaceuticals Incorporated, United States

swati Patel, a lead analyst, shared a toast with Mir Hussain, a systems engineer, at Vertex Pharmaceuticals during the Friday beer hour, which features beer and chips for employees.

On Fridays around 5 o’clock, after a hard week of work, Frank Holland likes to unwind with a beer. And he doesn’t have to leave work to get one.

Holland is a research scientist at Vertex Pharmaceuticals, which every Friday rings in “beer hour,” offering free adult beverages and munchies to its 1,300 Boston employees.

For Holland, the weekly ritual is a chance to escape the bubble of his chemistry lab and bump into colleagues from other departments — as well as Vertex’s top executives, who regularly attend. For those who prefer grapes to hops, there is also wine.

“Some of the other companies I worked at, you really had to go out of your way to meet people,” said Holland, 32. “At Vertex all you have to do is show up in the cafeteria on a Friday afternoon.”

Sure, free beer is common at hip tech offices; some even have their own bars. But Vertex, best known for its treatment for cystic fibrosis, was doing this way before it was cool. The beer-hour tradition goes back to the company’s founding days, in 1989. Back then, it was just two dozen people in a small office in Cambridge. Someone went to a corner store, bought a case of beer and some chips, and beer hour was born.

Virginia Carden Carnahan
Vice President, New Product Planning and Strategy, Vertex Pharmaceuticals

A scientist works in the lab at Boston-based Vertex Pharmaceuticals.

Vertex Pharmaceuticals Headquarters Lobby

REFERENCES

1: Boyd MJ, Bandarage UK, Bennett H, Byrn RR, Davies I, Gu W, Jacobs M, Ledeboer
MW, Ledford B, Leeman JR, Perola E, Wang T, Bennani Y, Clark MP, Charifson PS.
Isosteric replacements of the carboxylic acid of drug candidate VX-787: Effect of
charge on antiviral potency and kinase activity of azaindole-based influenza PB2
inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2015 May 1;25(9):1990-4. doi:
10.1016/j.bmcl.2015.03.013. Epub 2015 Mar 14. PubMed PMID: 25827523.

2: Byrn RA, Jones SM, Bennett HB, Bral C, Clark MP, Jacobs MD, Kwong AD, Ledeboer
MW, Leeman JR, McNeil CF, Murcko MA, Nezami A, Perola E, Rijnbrand R, Saxena K,
Tsai AW, Zhou Y, Charifson PS. Preclinical activity of VX-787, a first-in-class,
orally bioavailable inhibitor of the influenza virus polymerase PB2 subunit.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015 Mar;59(3):1569-82. doi: 10.1128/AAC.04623-14.
Epub 2014 Dec 29. PubMed PMID: 25547360; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4325764.

3: Clark MP, Ledeboer MW, Davies I, Byrn RA, Jones SM, Perola E, Tsai A, Jacobs
M, Nti-Addae K, Bandarage UK, Boyd MJ, Bethiel RS, Court JJ, Deng H, Duffy JP,
Dorsch WA, Farmer LJ, Gao H, Gu W, Jackson K, Jacobs DH, Kennedy JM, Ledford B,
Liang J, Maltais F, Murcko M, Wang T, Wannamaker MW, Bennett HB, Leeman JR,
McNeil C, Taylor WP, Memmott C, Jiang M, Rijnbrand R, Bral C, Germann U, Nezami
A, Zhang Y, Salituro FG, Bennani YL, Charifson PS. Discovery of a novel,
first-in-class, orally bioavailable azaindole inhibitor (VX-787) of influenza
PB2. J Med Chem. 2014 Aug 14;57(15):6668-78. doi: 10.1021/jm5007275. Epub 2014
Jul 24. PubMed PMID: 25019388.

/////////PIMODIVIR , VX-787, JNJ-63623872, JNJ-872, VRT-0928787, 1629869-44-8, VX-787, JNJ-63623872, JNJ-872, VRT-0928787, VX-787, VX 787,  VX787,  JNJ-872, JNJ 872, JNJ872, VRT-0928787, VRT 0928787, VRT0928787, pimodivir, PHASE 2

O=C([C@H]1C(CC2)CCC2[C@@H]1NC3=NC(C4=CNC5=NC=C(F)C=C54)=NC=C3F)O

O.Cl.Cl.OC(=O)[C@H]1C2CCC(CC2)[C@@H]1Nc3nc(ncc3F)c4c[nH]c5ncc(F)cc45.OC(=O)[C@H]6C7CCC(CC7)[C@@H]6Nc8nc(ncc8F)c9c[nH]c%10ncc(F)cc9%10

BMS-741672


str1

Figure

SCHEMBL2786493.png

BMS-741672

N-((1R,2S,5R)-5-(Isopropyl(methyl)amino)-2-((S)-2-oxo-3-(6-(trifluoromethyl)quinazolin-4-ylamino)pyrrolidin-1-yl)cyclohexyl)acetamide BMS-741672

N-((lR,2S,5R)-5-(isopropyl(methyl)amino)-2-((S)-2-oxo-3-(6- (trifluoromethyl)quinazolin-4-ylamino)pyrrolidin-l-yl)cyclohexyl)acetamide

N-((1R,2S,5R)-5-(isopropyl(methyl)amino)-2-((S)-2-oxo-3-(6-(trifluoromethyl)quinazolin-4-ylamino)pyrrolidin-1-yl)cyclohexyl)acetamide;

C25 H33 F3 N6 O2, 506.56
Acetamide, N-[(1R,2S,5R)-5-[methyl(1-methylethyl)amino]-2-[(3S)-2-oxo-3-[[6-(trifluoromethyl)-4-quinazolinyl]amino]-1-pyrrolidinyl]cyclohexyl]-

CAS 1004757-96-3

PHASE 2, , Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes, Agents for Neuropathic Pain

Chemokine CCR2 (MCP-1 Receptor) Antagonists

Image result for Bristol-Myers Squibb

Molecular Formula: C25H33F3N6O2
Molecular Weight: 506.574 g/mol

Image result for bristol myers squibb headquarters

Michael G. Yang, Robert J. Cherney
Original Assignee Bristol-Myers Squibb Company
Michael G. Yang, Robert J. Cherney, Martin G. Eastgate, Jale Muslehiddinoglu, Siva Josyula Prasad, Zili Xiao
Bristol-Myers Squibb Company
  • Originator Bristol-Myers Squibb
  • Class Analgesics; Antihyperglycaemics
  • Mechanism of Action CCR2 receptor antagonists
  • Discontinued Diabetic neuropathies; Type 2 diabetes mellitus

Most Recent Events

  • 10 Apr 2007 Preclinical trials in Inflammation in USA (unspecified route)

BMS-741672, 1 , is a highly selective CCR2 antagonist (IC50 = 1.4 nM) featuring a complex array of four stereocenters. The key synthetic challenge was efficient assembly of the densely functionalized 1,2,4-triaminocyclohexane (TACH) core in a minimum number of linear steps.

Figure

N-((1R,2S,5R)-5-(Isopropyl(methyl)amino)-2-((S)-2-oxo-3-(6-(trifluoromethyl)quinazolin-4-ylamino)pyrrolidin-1-yl)cyclohexyl)acetamide BMS-741672

Mp 161.3 °C.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 9.50–9.20 (1H), 9.04 (s, 1H), 8.68 (s, 1H), 8.41 (d, J = 7.1 Hz, 1H), 7.87 (s, 1H), 5.04 (dt, J = 1.3, 7.3 Hz, 1H), 4.9 (m, 1H), 4.07 (dt, J = 3.7, 12.9 Hz, 1H), 3.53 (dt, J = 1.4, 9.9 Hz, 1H), 3.44–3.30 (m, 2H), 2.39 (dq, J = 13.6, 8.4 Hz, 1H), 2.26 (m, 1H), 2.21 (s, 3H), 2.17 (q, J = 2.9 Hz, 1H), 2.03–1.91 (m, 5H), 1.71–1.54 (m, 5H), 1.04 (s, br., 6H).

13C NMR (100 MHz, d6-DMSO) δ 171.46, 169.49, 159.62, 156.92, 151.22, 129.28, 128.27 (q, 4JCF = 3 Hz), 125.78 (q, 2JCF = 32 Hz), 124.11 (q, 1JCF = 272 Hz), 121.57 (q, 3JCF = 4 Hz), 114.33, 54.83, 53.54, 52.36, 47.34, 46.94, 43.13, 30.76, 30.24, 26.94, 26.38, 23.28, 20.87, 17.65 (br.), 16.73 (br.).

13C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3) δ 172.17. 170.73, 159.89, 156.91, 151.16, 128.68, 128.06 (q,4JCF = 3.0 Hz), 127.25 (q, 2JCF = 32 Hz), 123.98 (q, 1JCF = 272 Hz), 121.78 (q, 3JCF = 4 Hz), 115.11, 54.89, 53.21, 52.40, 47.40, 46.98, 43.72, 30.84, 30.70, 29.96, 27.80, 23.55, 19.96, 17.70 (2C).

LCMS (ESI, pos.): 508 (16.8), 507 (66.2), 254 (5.0). HR-ESI(pos)-MS: calcd for C25H34F3N6O2 507.2690 [M + H]+, found 507.2694.

IR (KBr): ν = 3428 (m, br.), 2966 (w), 1686 (s), 1635 (m), 1584 (s), 1540 (m), 1334 (m), 1307 (s), 1164 (m), 1121 (m), 870 (w), 845 (w).

[α]20D−187.9 (c 1.0, CHCl3).

Anal. Calcd for C25H33F3N6O2: C, 59.28; H, 6.57; F, 11.25; N, 16.59. Found: C, 59.21; H, 6.43; F, 11.07; N, 16.53.

Image result for Bristol-Myers Squibb

PATENT

WO 2008014381

http://www.google.ch/patents/WO2008014381A2?cl=en&hl=de

EXAMPLE 1

N-((lR,2S,5R)-5-(isopropyl(methyl)amino)-2-((S)-2-oxo-3-(6- (trifluoromethyl)quinazolin-4-ylamino)pyrrolidin-l-yl)cyclohexyl)acetamide

Figure imgf000072_0001

[00212] Example 1, Step 1: (IR, 2S, 5R)-tert-Butyl 2-benzyloxycarbonylamino- 7-oxo-6-aza-bicyclo[3.2.1]octane-6-carboxylate (89.6 g, 0.24 mol, see: P. H. Carter, et al. PCT application WO 2005/021500) was dissolved in ethyl acetate (1.5 L) and the resulting solution was washed with sat. NaHCCh (2 x 0.45 L) and sat. NaCl (I x 0.45 L). The solution was dried (Na2SO4) and then filtered directly into a 3 -necked 3 L round-bottom flask. The solution was purged with direct nitrogen injection before being charged with 10% Pd/C (13.65 g) under nitrogen atmosphere. The flask was evacuated and back-filled with hydrogen; this was repeated twice more. Hydrogen was bubbled through the solution for 30 min and then the reaction was stirred under 1 atm H2 for 18 h. The flask was evacuated, back-filled with nitrogen, and charged with fresh catalyst (6 g of 10% Pd/C). Hydrogen was bubbled through the solution for 30 min and then the reaction was stirred under 1 atm H2 for 18 h. The flask was evacuated and back-filled with nitrogen. The mixture was filtered through Celite; the filter pad was then washed with ethyl acetate. The filtrate (-1.6 L EtOAc volume) was diluted with acetonitrile (0.3 L) and charged sequentially with Z-N-Cbz- methionine (68 g, 0.24 mol), TBTU (77 g, 0.24 mol), and Ν,Ν-diisopropylethylamine (42 mL, 0.24 mol). The reaction was stirred at room temperature for 4 h, during which time it changed from a suspension to a clear solution. The reaction was quenched with the addition of sat. NH4Cl (0.75 L) and water (0.15 L); the mixture was diluted further with EtOAc (0.75 L). The phases were mixed and separated and the organic phase was washed with sat. Na2Cθ3 (2 x 0.9 L) and sat. NaCl (1 x 0.75 L). The solution was dried (Na2SO4), filtered, and concentrated in vacuo to give (IR,2S,5R)- tert-butyl 2-((5)-2-(benzyloxycarbonylamino)-4-

(methylthio)butanamido)-7-oxo-6-aza-bicyclo[3.2.1]octane-6-carboxylate as an oil, which was taken into the next step without further purification. LC/MS for primary peak: [M-Boc+H]+ = 406.3; [M+Naf = 528.3. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, d4-Me0H): δ 7.36 (m, 5H), 5.11 (s, 2H), 4.32 (m, IH), 4.2 (m, IH), 4.0 (m, IH), 2.5 – 2.7 (m, 3H), 2.25 (m, IH), 2.11 (s, 3H), 2.05 (m, 4H), 1.9 (m, IH), 1.7 (m, 2H), 1.54 (s, 9H). Also present are EtOAc [1.26 (t), 2.03 (s), 4.12 (q)] and N,N,N,N-tetramethylurea [2.83

(S)].

[00213] Example 1, Step 2: A sample of (1^,25,5^)- tert-butyl 2-((5)-2- (benzyloxycarbonylamino)-4-(methylthio)butanamido)-7-oxo-6-aza- bicyclo[3.2. l]octane-6-carboxylate (0.24 mol assumed; see previous procedure) was dissolved in iodomethane (1,250 g) and stirred for 48 h at room temperature. The reaction was concentrated in vacuo. The residue was dissolved in dichloromethane and concentrated in vacuo. This was repeated twice more. The resultant sludge was dissolved in dichloromethane (0.4 L) and poured into a rapidly stirring solution of MTBE (4.0 L). The resultant yellow solids were collected via suction filtration and dried under high vacuum to afford the sulfonium salt (179 g). This material was taken into the next step without further purification. LC/MS for primary peak: [M- Me2S+H]+ = 458.4; [M]+ = 520.4. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, d4-Me0H): δ 7.35 (m, 5H), 5.09 (s, 2H), 4.33 (m, IH), 4.28 (m, IH), 3.98 (m, IH), 3.3 – 3.45 (m, 2H), 2.97 (s, 3H), 2.94 (s, 3H), 2.78 (m, IH), 2.0 – 2.3 (m, 4H), 1.7 (m, 2H), 1.52 (s, 9H). Also present are MTBE [1.18 (s), 3.2 (s)] and traces of N,N,N,N-tetramethylurea [2.81 (s)]. [00214] Example 1, Step 3: All of the sulfonium salt from the previous step (0.24 mol assumed) was dissolved in DMSO (2.0 L). The resultant solution was stirred under nitrogen at room temperature and charged with cesium carbonate (216 g) portionwise. The suspension was stirred at room temperature for 3 h and then filtered to remove the solids. The solution was divided into -0.22 L portions and worked up as follows: the reaction mixture (-0.22 L) was diluted with ethyl acetate (1.5 L) and washed successively with water (3 x 0.5 L) and brine (1 x 0.3 L). The organic phase was dried (Na2SO4), filtered, and concentrated in vacuo. The desired (\R,2S,5R)- tert-bvXyl 2-((S)-3-(benzyloxycarbonylamino)-2-oxopyrrolidin-l-yl)-7-oxo-6- azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane-6-carboxylate (90.8 g, 83%) was obtained as a microcrystalline foam, free from tetramethyl urea impurity. LC/MS for primary peak: [M-Boc+H]+ = 358.4; [M+Na]+ = 480.4. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, d4-MeOH): δ 7.35 (m, 5H), 5.12 (s, 2H), 4.35 (m, 2H), 4.2 (m, IH), 3.6 (m, IH), 3.3 (m, IH), 2.64 (m, IH), 2.28 – 2.42 (m, 2H), 2.15 (m, IH), 1.7 – 2.0 (m, 5H), 1.55 (s, 9H). If desired, this material can be isolated as a solid by dissolving in MTBE (1 volume), adding to heptane (3.3 volumes), and collecting the resultant precipitate.

[00215] Example 1, Step 4: A stirring solution of (\R,2S,5R)- tert-butyl 2-((S>3- (benzyloxycarbonylamino)-2-oxopyrrolidin-l-yl)-7-oxo-6-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane-6- carboxylate (108 g, 0.236 mol) in THF (1 L) was charged with lithium hydroxide monohydrate (21.74 g, 0.519 mol). Water (0.3 L) was added slowly, such that the temperature did not exceed 20 0C. The reaction was stirred at room temperature overnight and the volatiles were removed in vacuo. The pH was adjusted to -4 through the addition of IN HCl (450 mL) and NaH2PO4. The resultant white precipitates were collected by filtration and washed with water (2 x 1 L). The solid was dissolved in dichloromethane (1.5 L) and water (~ 1 L). The organic layer was dried (Na2SO4), filtered, and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was dissolved in EtOAc (0.7 L) and the resultant solution was heated at reflux for 1 h. Solids separated after cooling to RT, and were collected via filtration. These solids were purified by recrystallization in isopropanol to afford the desired (\R,2S,5R)-2-((S)-3- (benzyloxycarbonylamino)-2-oxopyrrolidin-l-yl)-5-(tert- butoxycarbonylamino)cyclohexanecarboxylic acid as a white solid (104.5 g, 93% yield). LC/MS for primary peak: [M-tBu+H]+ = 420.2; [M-Boc+H]+ = 376.2; [M+H]+ = 476.2. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, d4-Me0H): δ 7.35 (m, 5H), 5.11 (s, 2H), 4.35 (m, 2H), 3.71 (m, IH), 3.45 – 3.6 (m, 2H), 2.99 (m, IH), 2.41 (m, IH), 2.15 (m, IH), 2.0 (m, 2H), 1.6 – 1.9 (m, 4H), 1.46 (s, 9H).

[00216] Example 1, Step 5: A 3 L round bottom flask was charged with (lR,25′,5R)-2-((5)-3-(benzyloxycarbonylamino)-2-oxopyrrolidin-l-yl)-5-(tert- butoxycarbonylamino)cyclohexanecarboxylic acid (75.5 g, 0.158 mol), EDOHCl (33.5 g, 0.175 mol), 1 -hydroxybenzotriazole (23.6 g, 0.175 mol), and dichloromethane (1 L). The reaction was stirred at room temperature for 2 h, during which time it changed from a white suspension to a clear solution. Ammonia (gas) was bubbled into the solution until the pH was strongly basic (paper) and the reaction was stirred for 10 min; this ammonia addition was repeated and the reaction was stirred for an additional 10 min. Water was added. The organic phase was washed with sat. NaHCθ3, NaH2PO4, and brine before being concentrated in vacuo. The residue was slurried with acetonitrile (0.5 L) and then concentrated in to give (lR,2S,5R)-2-((5)-3-(benzyloxycarbonylamino)-2-oxopyrrolidin-l-yl)-5-(tert- butoxycarbonylamino)cyclohexanecarboxamide as a white solid (75.9 g, -100%), which was used in the next step without further purification. LC/MS for primary peak: [M-Boc+H]+ = 375.3; [M+H]+ = 475.4; [M-tBu+H]+ = 419.3. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, Cl4-MeOH): δ 7.35 (m, 5H), 5.11 (s, 2H), 4.25 (m, 2H), 3.70 (m, IH), 3.6 (m, IH), 3.45 (m, IH), 2.91 (m, IH), 2.38 (m, IH), 2.12 (m, IH), 1.9 – 2.05 (m, 2H), 1.65 – 1.9 (m, 4H), 1.46 (s, 9H).

[00217] Example 1, Step 6: The reaction was run in three equal portions and combined for aqueous workup. A 5 L, 3-necked round bottom flask was charged with (lR,2S,5R)-2-((5)-3-(benzyloxycarbonylamino)-2-oxopyrrolidin-l-yl)-5-(tert- butoxycarbonylamino)cyclohexanecarboxamide (25.3 g, 53 mmol), acetonitrile (1.9 L), and 2.6 L of water/ice. The mixture was stirred and cooled to 0 0C. Iodobenzene diacetate (25.77 g, 80 mmol) was added and the reaction was stirred for 2 h; another 0.5 eq of iodobenzene diacetate was added. The reaction was stirred for 9 h (reaction temp < 10 0C). The mixture was charged with 8 eq N,N-diisopropylethylamine and 2 eq acetic anhydride. Over the next thirty minutes, 4 eq N,N-diisopropylethylamine and 2 eq acetic anhydride were added every ten minutes, until the reaction had proceeded to completion (HPLC). The acetonitrile was removed in vacuo; some solid separated from the residue, and this was collected by filtration. The remaining residue was extracted with dichloromethane (3 L, then 1 L). The organic phase was washed sequentially with water, sat. NaHCθ3, and brine. The collected solids were added to the organic phase, along with activated carbon (15 g). The mixture was stirred for 30 minutes at 40 0C before being filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was dissolved in EtOAc (1 L), and the resultant solution was stirred at 75 0C for 1 h before being allowed to cool to room temperature. A solid separated and was collected by filtration. This solid was purified further by recrystallization: it was first dissolved in 0.5 L CH2CI2, then concentrated in vacuo, then re-crystallized from 1 L EtOAc; this was repeated three times. The solids obtained from the mother liquors of the above were recrystallized three times using the same method. The combined solids were recrystallized twice more from acetonitrile (0.7 L) to provide 66 g (84%) of tert-bυXyl (lR,3R,45)-3-acetamido-4-((5)-3-(benzyloxycarbonylamino)-2- oxopyrrolidin-l-yl)cyclohexylcarbamate (purity >99.5% by HPLC). LC/MS for primary peak: [M+H]+ = 489.4; [M-tBu+H]+ = 433.3. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, d4– MeOH): δ 7.3 – 7.4 (m, 5H), 5.11 (s, 2H), 4.35 (m, IH), 4.15 (m, IH), 4.04 (m, IH), 3.8 (m, IH), 3.6 (m, 2H), 2.44 (m, IH), 2.12 (m, IH), 1.87 – 2.05 (m, 4H), 1.87 (s, 3H), 1.55 – 1.7 (m, 2H), 1.46 (s, 9H). The stereochemical fidelity of the Hofmann rearrangement was confirmed through X-ray crystal structure analysis of this compound, as shown in Figure 1. [00218] Example 1, Step 7: A stirring solution of tert-butyl (\R,3R,4S)-3- acetamido-4-((5′)-3 -(benzyloxycarbonylamino)-2-oxopyrrolidin- 1 – yl)cyclohexylcarbamate (66 g, 0.135 mol) in dichloromethane (216 mL) was charged with trifluoroacetic acid (216 mL). The reaction was stirred for 2 h at room temperature and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was dissolved in methanol and the resultant solution was concentrated in vacuo; this was repeated once. Benzyl («S)-l-((l«S,2R,4R)-2-acetamido-4-aminocyclohexyl)-2-oxopyrrolidin-3-ylcarbamate was obtained as an oil and used directly in Step 8 below. LC/MS found [M + H]+ = 389.4. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, d4-MeOH): δ 7.3 – 7.4 (m, 5H), 5.12 (s, 2H), 4.41 (br. s, IH), 4.15 (m, IH), 4.00 (t, J= 9.3 Hz, IH), 3.81 (t, J= 9.1 Hz, IH), 3.65 (q, J= 8.4 Hz, IH), 3.3 – 3.4 (m, IH), 2.45 (m, IH), 1.95 – 2.24 (m, 5H), 2.00 (s, 3H), 1.6 – 1.8 (m, 2H). [00219] Example 1, Step 8: A stirring solution of benzyl (S)- 1-(( \S,2R,4R)-2- acetamido-4-aminocyclohexyl)-2-oxopyrrolidin-3-ylcarbamate (-0.135 mol) in methanol (675 mL) was charged sequentially with acetone (37.8 g, 4 eq), sodium acetate (33.2 g, 3 eq), and sodium cyanoborohydride (16.9 g, 2 eq). The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 6 h and filtered. The filtrate was dissolved in dichloromethane (1 L); this solution was washed with IN NaOH (1 L). The solids collected in the filtration were dissolved in IN NaOH (IL) at 0 0C and then extracted with dichloromethane (1 L). The organic extracts were combined and extracted with aqueous HCl (200 mL IN HCl + 800 mL water). The aqueous phase was basified with sat. NaHCO3 (500 mL) and then IN NaOH (100 mL) until pH 11. The aqueous phase was extracted with dichloromethane (2 L). The organic extracts were combined, dried (Na2SO4), filtered, and concentrated in vacuo to give benzyl (S)-I- ((lS,2R,4R)-2-acetamido-4-(isopropylamino)cyclohexyl)-2-oxopyrrolidin-3- ylcarbamate as an oil. LC/MS found [M + H]+ = 431.45. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, d4– MeOH): δ 7.3 – 7.4 (m, 5H), 5.12 (s, 2H), 4.31 (m, IH), 4.24 (t, J= 9.4 Hz, IH), 4.11 (m, IH), 3.61 (t, J= 9.1 Hz, IH), 3.52 (q, J= 8.6 Hz, IH), 3.04 (br. s, IH), 2.96 (sep, J= 6.3 Hz, IH), 2.40 (m, IH), 2.15 (m, IH), 1.92 (s, 3H), 1.7 – 1.9 (m, 5H), 1.65 (m, IH), 1.12 (app. dd, J= 6.3, 1.1 Hz, 6H).

[00220] Example 1, Step 9 (See Alternative Step 9, below): A stirring solution of benzyl (S)-I -((lS’,2R,4R)-2-acetamido-4-(isopropylamino)cyclohexyl)-2- oxopyrrolidin-3-ylcarbamate (-115 mmol) in dichloromethane (600 mL) was cooled to 0 0C and charged sequentially with formaldehyde (18.6 g, 37 wt% solution), triethylamine (23 mL), and sodium triacetoxyborohydride (28.7 g). The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 30 minutes and diluted with dichloromethane (up to 1.2 L). This solution was washed thrice with 500 mL sat. NaHCθ3 + NaOH (sat. NaHCO3, pH to 11 w/ IN NaOH). The organic layer was extracted with aq. HCl (200 mL IN HCl + 600 mL water). The aqueous phase was basified with sat. NaHCO3 (500 mL) and then IN NaOH (100 mL) until pH 11. The aqueous phase was extracted with dichloromethane (1.2 L). The organic extracts were combined, dried (Na2SO4), filtered, and concentrated in vacuo to give benzyl {S)-\-{{\S,2R,AR)-2- acetamido-4-(isopropyl(methyl)amino)cyclohexyl)-2-oxopyrrolidin-3-ylcarbamate as an oil, which was used directly in Step 10 below. LC/MS found [M + H]+ = 445.4. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, d4-MeOH): δ 7.3 – 7.4 (m, 5H), 5.12 (s, 2H), 4.33 (br s, IH), 4.25 (t, J= 9.2 Hz, IH), 4.11 (br s, IH), 3.5 – 3.6 (m, 2H), 2.77 (v br s, 2 H), 2.41 (m, IH), 2.26 (s, 3H), 2.0 – 2.1 (m, 2H), 1.92 (s, 3H), 1.7 – 1.9 (m, 5H), 1.10 (app. dd, J = 17, 6.4 Hz, 6H). [00221] Example 1, Step 10: To a solution of benzyl (S)- 1-(( 15″,2R,4R)-2- acetamido-4-(isopropyl(methyl)amino)-cyclohexyl)-2-oxopyrrolidin-3 -ylcarbamate (-0.115 mol) in methanol (600 mL) was added 10% Pd/C (6 g of 50% wet catalyst). The flask was evacuated and back-filled with hydrogen. The mixture was stirred under 1 atm H2 for 2 h and the catalyst was removed by filtration through Celite. The filtrate was concentrated in vacuo to provide N-((li?,25,5i?)-2-((S)-3-amino-2- oxopyrrolidin-l-yl)-5-(isopropyl(methyl)amino)cyclohexyl)acetamide as an oil, which was taken on to the next step without further purification. LC/MS found [M + H]+ = 311.47. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, (I4-MeOH): δ 4.39 (br s, IH), 4.00 (m, IH), 3.3 –

3.5 (m, 4H), 2.73 (m, IH), 2.38 (m, IH), 2.25 (s, 3H), 2.0 – 2.2 (m, 3H), 1.94 (s, 3H),

1.6 – 1.75 (m, 4H), 1.07 (app. dd, J= 21, 6.4 Hz, 6H). [00222] Example 1, Step 11: To a solution of N-((lR,25′,5R)-2-((S)-3-amino-2- oxopyrrolidin-l-yl)-5-(isopropyl(methyl)amino)cyclohexyl)acetamide (~35 g, 0.115 mol) in isopropanol (600 mL) was added 4-chloro-6-(trifluoromethyl)quinazoline (32 g, 0.138 mol, 1.2 eq, see: P.H. Carter et al, PCT application WO 2005/021500). The mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight before being charged with triethylamine (46 g, 0.46 mol, 4 eq). The mixture was stirred at 60 0C for 10 h. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure to give an oil. Azeotropic distillation with isopropanol was performed twice. The residue was dissolved in dichloromethane (600 mL) and extracted with water (250 mL, containing 4 eq acetic acid). Dichloromethane (600 mL) was added to the combined aqueous washes, and the mixture was cooled to 0 0C. Aqueous NaOH (50% by weight) was added with stirring until the pH reached 11. The water layer was extracted with dichloromethane twice (2 x 600 mL). The combined organic extracts were dried (Na2SO4), filtered, and concentrated in vacuo to give the amorphous free base of the title compound (99% purity by HPLC). LC/MS found [M+H]+ = 507.3. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, U4– MeOH): δ 8.82 (s, IH), 8.59 (s, IH), 8.05 (dd, J= 8.8, 1.8 Hz, IH), 7.9 (d, J= 8.7 Hz, IH), 5.28 (t, J= 8.6 Hz, IH), 4.58 (br s, IH), 4.06 (m, IH), 3.52 – 3.68 (m, 2H), 3.43 (m, IH), 2.76 (br s, IH), 2.55 (m, IH), 2.28 (s, 3H), 2.1 – 2.3 (m, 3H), 2.0 (s, 3H), 2.0 (m, IH), 1.65 – 1.8 (m, 3H), 1.09 (app. dd, J= 24, 6.4 Hz, 6 H).

Example 1, Alternative Step 9

Figure imgf000079_0001

[00223] Example 1, Alternative step 9a1: To a hydrogenator were charged ethyl (7R,SS)-S-((S)- l-phenyl-ethylamino)-l,4-dioxa-spiro[4.5]decane-7-carboxylate A- toluenesulfonate salt I A (1417 g, 2.8 moles, c.f : WO2004098516, prepared analogous to US Pat.6,835,841), ethanol (200 proof, 11.4 L), and 10% Pd/C catalyst (50% wet, 284 g). The mixture was inerted with nitrogen, then pressurized with hydrogen gas (45 psig) and agitated vigorously at approx. 40 0C until starting material was consumed (HPLC). The suspension was cooled, purged with nitrogen gas and the catalyst was removed by filtration while inerted. The spent catalyst was washed with ethanol (4.3 L). The filtrate and washings were combined and concentrated under vacuum to a volume of 2-3 L while maintaining the batch between 40°-60 0C. Isopropyl acetate (5 L) was charged and the mixture was concentrated to a volume of ~2 L until most ethanol was removed (<0.5%) and residual moisture content was <l,000 ppm. Batch volume was adjusted to -7.5 L by the addition of isopropyl acetate. The mixture was heated to 80 0C until clear, then cooled 65°-70 0C. Seed crystals of 1 (5 g) were added and the batch was cooled to 500C over 2 hours, then further cooled to 20 0C over 4 hours and held for ~10 hours. The resulting slurry was filtered and the cake was washed with isopropyl acetate (2 L). The product was dried under vaccum at -35 0C until volatiles were recduced below -1% (LOD). Ethyl (7R,85′)-8-amino-l,4-dioxa-spiro[4.5]decane-7-carboxylate 4-toluenesulfonate salt 1 was obtained as a white, crystalline solid (936 g, 83% yield; HPLC purity: 99.8%). 1H-NMR: (300MHz, CDCl3) 8.14-7.89 (brs, 3H), 7.75 (d, J 9.0Hz, 2H), 7.15 (d, J 8.0Hz, 2H), 4.22-4.04 (m, 2H), 4.01-3.77 (m, 4H), 3.55-3.43 (m, IH,), 3.20-3.13 (m, IH), 2.40-2.27 (m, 4H), 2.21-1.94 (m, 2H), 1.81-1.51 (m, 3H), 1.23 (t, J 7.0Hz, 3H); HPLC: Waters Xterra MS C18 4.6 mm x 150 mm Ld., 3.5μm particle size, 0.05% NH40H (5% ACN, 95% H2O, solvent A), to 0.05% NH4OH (95% ACN, 5% H2O, solvent B), 5% B to 20% B in 10 minutes, changed to 95% B in 25 minutes, and then changed to 5% B in 1 minute; 11.1 minutes (aminoester 1).

Figure imgf000080_0001

Example 1, Alternative Step 9a”: Aminoester 1 (63g, 0.16M, leq.; the product of reductive deprotection of a known compound – (See e.g. R. J. Cherney, WO 2004/098516 and G. V. Delucca & S. S. Ko, WO 2004/110993) was placed in a round bottom flask and MeCN (50OmL) was added. EDAC (33.1g, 0.17M, l. leq), HOBt-H2O (21.2g, 0.16M, l.Oeq) and N-Cbz-Z-methionine (46.7g, 0.17M, 1.05eq) were then added followed by TEA (48.OmL, 0.35M, 2.2eq). An exotherm to 38 0C was observed. The reaction mass was left to stir at RT. After 30mins, HPLC indicated complete conversion. The reaction mass was diluted with EtOAc (2.5L) and washed with KHCO3 (4x500mL, 20wt% aq. solution) and brine (50OmL). The organic phase was separated, dried over MgSO4 and concentrated. The residue was dissolved in TBME and reconcentrated to give ethyl (7R,85)-8- {(2S)-2-benzyloxycarbonylamino- 4-methylsulfanyl-butyr-yl-amino}-l,4-dioxa-spiro[4.5]decane-7-carboxylate 2 as a sticky semi-solid (76.2g, 98% yield, 93AP purity). 1H-NMR: (300MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.36-7.30 (m, 5H), 7.03 (d, J9.0Hz, IH), 5.66 (d, J 8.0Hz, IH), 5.10 (s, 2H), 4.35- 4.25 (m, 2H), 4.19-4.04 (m, 2H,), 3.98-3.86 (m, 4H), 2.87-2.80 (m, IH), 2.55-2.45 (m, 2H), 2.18 (dd, J 14.0Hz, 7.0Hz, IH), 2.08 (s, 3H), 2.05-1.67 (m, 6H), 1.26 (t, J 7.0Hz, 3H). HPLC: YMC-Pack Pro C18 5μm 4.6 x 150 mm, 0.05% TFA (20% MeOH, 80% H2O), to 0.05% TFA (20% MeOH, 80% MeCN), 0-100% lOmin gradient. lO.Olmin (Compound 2, 93.1 AP). HRMS: m/z 495.2166 [CaIc: C24H35N2O7S 495.2165].

Figure imgf000081_0001

2 3 [00224] Example 1, Alternative Step 9b: Methionine amide 2 (75.Og, 0.15M) was dissolved in MeI (225mL, 3mL/g) – some off gassing was noted but no exotherm. The reaction mass was left to stir in the dark for 16.5h. After this time a thick light yellow precipitate had formed. The flask was then evacuated to 200mmHg and some of the MeI removed. The remaining material was slurried in TBME (50OmL), after a 30min stir-out the slurry was filtered, the cake washed with TBME (50OmL). NMR analysis of this material indicated a small amount of MeI remaining. The cake was re-slurried in TBME (50OmL), filtered, washed with TBME (50OmL) and dried under vacuum to give [(35)-3-benzyloxycarbonylamino-3-{(7R,85′)-7- ethoxycarbonyl-l,4-di-oxa-spiro[4.5]dec-8-ylcarbamoyl}-propyl]-dimethylsulfonium iodide 3 as a free flowing off-white solid (93.5g, 97%, 99 area% purity). 1H-NMR: (300MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.75 (d, J 9.0Hz, IH), 7.38-7.27 (m, 5H), 6.40 (d, J 7.0Hz, IH), 5.10 (s, 2H), 4.76-4.65 (m, IH), 4.48-4.39 (m, IH), 4.14-3.85 (m, 6H), 3.84-7.73 (m, IH), 3.68-3.55 (m, IH), 3.21 (s, 3H), 3.12 (s, 3H), 2.90-2.83 (s, IH), 2.52-1.55 (m, 8H), 1.24 (t, J7.0Hz, 3H). HPLC: YMC-Pack Pro C18 5μm 4.6 x 150 mm, 0.05% TFA (20% MeOH, 80% H2O), to 0.05% TFA (20% MeOH, 80% MeCN), 0-100% lOmin gradient. 2.45min (I-), 8.14min (Compound 3, 43.6AP, I 54.6AP). HRMS: m/z 509.2341 [CaIc: C25H37N2O7S 509.2321].

Figure imgf000082_0001

[00225] Example 1, Alternative Step 9c: Cs2CO3 (61.5g, 0.19M, 1.5eq) was placed in an round bottom flask and anhydrous DMSO (2.4L) was added. Sulfonium salt 3 (80.Og, 0.13M, 1.Oeq) was then added portionwise. Once the addition was complete the reaction mass was left to stir in the dark for 2Oh. The reaction mass was then split in half and each half worked up separately: the reaction mass was diluted with EtOAc (2.0L) and washed with brine (2L), the organic phase was washed with brine (50OmL). The combined aq. layers were then washed EtOAc (50OmL). The combined organic phases were then washed with brine (3x750mL). The second half of the reaction mass was treated in an identical manner and the combined organics dried over MgSO4 and concentrated to give ethyl (7R,8S)-8-{(3S>3- Benzyloxycarbonylamino-2-oxo-pyrrolidin-l-yl}-l,4-dioxa-spiro[4.5]decane-7- carboxylate 4 as a light colored oil (56.5g, 0.13M, -100 area-% purity) pure by NMR analysis. 1H-NMR: (300MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.38-7.30 (m, 5H), 5.37 (br d, J4.0Hz, IH), 5.11 (s, 2H), 4.27-4.18 (m, IH), 4.17-3.82 (m, 8H), 3.32 (td, J 10.0Hz, 60.0Hz, IH), 3.23 (q, J5.0Hz, IH), 2.63-2.57 (m, IH), 2.42-2.25 (m, 2H), 1.94-1.68 (m, 5H), 1.25 (t, J 7.0Hz, 3H). HPLC: YMC-Pack Pro Cl 8 5μm 4.6 x 150 mm, 0.05% TFA (20% MeOH, 80% H2O), to 0.05% TFA (20% MeOH, 80% MeCN), 0-100% lOmin gradient. 8.99min (Compound 5, produced on column, 4.2AP), 9.48 (Compound 4, 74.3AP). HRMS: m/z 447.2127 [CaIc: C23H31N2O7 447.2131].

Figure imgf000083_0001

4 5

[00226] Example 1, Alternative Step 9d: Pyrrolidinone 4 (50.Og, 0.1 IM) was dissolved in acetone (50OmL) and IN HCl (50OmL) was added. The reaction mass was then heated to 65°C. After 20mins HPLC indicated complete reaction. The reaction mass was allowed to cool to RT and the acetone was removed on a rotary evaporator. During this distillation the product precipitated from solution as a white solid. This was isolated by filtration and the cake washed with water. The cake was then dried azeotropically with toluene (3x3OOmL) to give ethyl (\R,2S)-2-((3S)-3- Benzyloxycarbonylamino-2-oxo-pyrrolidin-l-yl)-5-oxo-cyclohexanecarboxylate 5 as a white solid (39.8g, 88%, 97 area-% purity). 1H-NMR: (300MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.37- 7.32 (m, 5H), 6.65 (br d, J4.0Hz, IH), 5.12 (s, 2H), 4.54-4.47 (m, IH), 4.34-4.26 (m, IH), 4.18 (dq, J 11.0Hz, 7.0Hz, IH), 4.09 (dq, J 11.0Hz, , 7.0Hz, IH), 3.36-3.20 (m, 3H), 2.70-2.35 (m, 6H), 2.05-1.96 (m, IH), 1.81 (quin., J l l.OHz, IH), 1.24 (t, J 7.0Hz, 3H). HPLC: YMC-Pack Pro C18 5μm 4.6 x 150 mm, 0.05% TFA (20% MeOH, 80% H2O), to 0.05% TFA (20% MeOH, 80% MeCN), 0-100% lOmin gradient. 8.95min (Compound 5). HRMS: m/z 403.1864 [CaIc: C2iH27N2O6403.1869].

Figure imgf000083_0002

[00227] Example 1, Alternative Step 9e: Cyclohexanone 5 (22.5g, 0.06M, leq), DMSO (3OmL) and Ti(O-ZPr)4 (33.7mL, 0.1 IM, 2.04eq) were placed in a round bottom flask. N-isopropyl-N-methylamine (11.6mL, 0.1 IM, 2.0eq) was then added in one portion. The mixture was left to stir for 30mins at room temperature before being cooled to <3°C in ice/water. MeOH (3OmL) was then added followed by the portionwise addition OfNaBH4 (4.33g, 0.1 IM, 2.04eq) – temperature kept <8°C. 30mins after the addition was completed the reaction mass was diluted with methylene chloride (30OmL) and then NaOH (IN, 4OmL). The resulting slurry was filtered through Celite, and the cake washed with methylene chloride (10OmL). The resulting liquor was concentrated under reduced pressure and the residue dissolved in EtOAc (50OmL). This solution was extracted with IN HCl (2x400mL), the combined aqueous layers were then basified with Na2CO3. Extraction with EtOAc (4x250mL) provided a clear and colorless organic phase which was dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated to give a white powder (24.6g, 96%, 7: 1 d.r.). This material was then slurried overnight in hexane (67OmL). The solid was isolated by filtration and dried under reduced pressure to give ethyl (lR,25′,5R)-2-((3S)-3-benzyloxycarbonylamino- 2-oxo-pyrrolidin-l-yl)-5-(isopropyl-methyl-amino)-cyclohexanecarboxylate 6 as a while solid (20.9g, 81%, 24: 1 d.r.). 1H-NMR: (300MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.37-7.28 (m, 5H), 5.55 (d, J4.5, IH), 5.10 (s, 2H), 4.42 (q, J4.5, IH), 4.23-4.12 (m, IH), 4.08 (dq, J 10.5, 7.0, IH), 4.02 (dq, J 10.5, 7.0, IH), 3.84 (t, J9.0, IH), 3.46-3.36 (m, IH), 3.04 (septet, J6.5, IH), 2.86-2.80 (m, IH), 2.63-2.48 (m, 2H), 2.17 (s, 3H, Me), 2.10-1.63 (m, 7H), 1.22 (t, J 7.0, 3H), 1.00 (d, J 6.5, 3H), 0.97 (d, J 6.5, 3H). HPLC: YMC- Pack Pro C18 5μm 4.6 x 150 mm, 0.01M NH4OAc (MeOH:water 20:80) to 0.01M NH4OAc (MeOH:water:MeCN 20:5:75) 10 to 100% 15min gradient. 8.23 (Compound 6), 8.88 (5-e/«-Compound 6). HRMS: 460.2798 [CaIc: C25H38N3O5 460.2811].

Figure imgf000084_0001

[00228] Example 1, Alternative Step 9f: The aminoester 6 (9.76 g, 2.12 mmol) was dissolved in 2N HCl (80 mL), then heated to -55 0C under inert atmosphere. The reaction was stirred for 20 h, then cooled to room temperature. The reaction solution was washed twice with toluene (25 mL portions), neutralized to pH 6 – 7 by the addition of KOH pellets, then extracted eight times with methylene chloride (100 mL portions). The combined extracts were dried (Na2SO4), filtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure to 50 mL total volume. The concentrated solution was then slowly added to methyl tert-butyl ether (300 mL) over 15 min in an addition funnel with vigorous stirring. The resulting white slurry was stirred at ambient temperature for Ih, then cooled to 0 0C and stirred for Ih. The product was filtered, and washed twice with methyl tert-butyl ether (25 mL portions). Water from the wet cake was removed by azeotropic distillation with acetonitrile (300 mL). The product was dried under reduced pressure to provide (li?,25r,5R)-2-((35′)-3-Benzyloxycarbonylamino-2- oxo-pyrrolidin-l-yl)-5-(isopropyl-methyl-amino)-cyclohexanecarboxylic acid 7, (7.69 g, 84% yield) as a white foam. 1H-NMR: (400 MHz, 500C, CDCl3) δ 7.44-7.32 (m, 5H), 6.10 (broad s, IH), 5.19 (app s, 2H), 4.42 (dd, J= 15.6, 7.8 Hz, IH), 4.29-4.23 (m, IH), 3.68-3.60 (m, 2H), 3.33-3.27 (m, 2H), 3.20 (broad s, IH), 2.99 (broad s, IH), 2.51 (s, 3H), 2.49-2.45 (m, 3H), 2.33-2.31 (m, IH), 2.00 (ddd, J= 9.0, 8.6, 3.9 IH), 1.95-1.78 (m, 2H), 1.36-1.21 (m, 6H). LCMS: m/z 432.20 [CaIc: C23H34N3O5 432.25].

NHCbz

Figure imgf000085_0001
Figure imgf000085_0002
Figure imgf000085_0003

[00229] Example 1, Alternative Step 9g: Amino acid 7 (6.3g, 14.7mmol, l.Oeq) was dissolved in THF (8OmL) under N2 and NaH (584mg, 14.7mmol, l.Oeq, 60wt% dispersion in mineral oil) was added portionwise. When the addition was complete, and the evolution of gas had ceased, the reaction mass was concentrated under reduced pressure and the resulting solid azeotroped with toluene (50 mL) to give a white solid (KF 0.59wt%). This solid was slurried in toluene (100 mL) under N2and heated to 900C. DPPA (3.32 mL, 15.3 mmol, 1.05 eq) was added dropwise over ~2min. After ~5min all the solids had dissolved, after lOmins precipitation of a white solid was observed. After 30mins HPLC analysis indicated complete reaction. The reaction mass was allowed to cool to RT before being filtered, the cake was washed with toluene. The liquors where then slowly added into ACOH/AC2O (80/20, 168mL) solution at 900C. After 45mins HPLC still indicated some isocyanate. At 1.15h , the reaction mass was cooled to RT and diluted with toluene (10OmL) and water (10OmL). The organic layer was removed and the toluene washed with IN HCl

(10OmL). The combined aq. phases were then basified with K2Cθ3(s) and brought to pH 12 with NaOH (10N), keeping the temperature below 200C. The aq layer was then extracted with methylene chloride (4xl50mL), the combined organic layers dried over K2CO3 and concentrated to give benzyl (S)-l-((lS,2R,4R)-2-acetamido-4- (isopropyl(methyl)amino)cyclohexyl)-2-oxopyrrolidin-3-ylcarbamate 8 as a white foam (4.5g, 70%, 94AP purity). The 1H-NMR was identical to material obtained from the route described above (Example 1, Step 9). HPLC: YMC-Pack Pro Cl 8 5μm 4.6 x 150 mm, 0.05% TFA (20% MeOH, 80% H2O), to 0.05% TFA (20% MeOH, 80% MeCN), 0-100% lOmin gradient. 7.20min (Compound 8), 7.85min (urea dimer). HRMS: 445.2809 [CaIc: C24H37N4O4 445.2815].

Alternative Preparation of Example 1

Figure imgf000086_0001

2 3

[00230] Example 1, Alternative Preparation, Step 1: Ethyl (7R,85)-8-amino- l,4-dioxa-spiro[4.5]decane-7-carboxylate 4-toluenesulfonate salt 1 (450. Ig), was combined with l-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl-amino-propyl)carbo-diimide hydrochloride (236.3g), 1-hydroxy benzotriazole hydrate (171.9g), N-carbobenzyloxy-Z -methionine (333.4g) and acetonitrile (3.1 L). To the stirred mixture was added triethylamine (249.5g) below 30 0C. Upon reaction completion (HPLC), the mixture was diluted with ethyl acetate (8.2 L) and washed with aqueous 25% potassium bicarbonate solution (2×4.5 L) followed by water (4.5 L). The organic phase was separated and concentrated under reduced pressure to obtain a solution of ethyl (7R,85)-8-((5)-2- benzyloxycarbonylamino-4-methylsulfanyl-butyrylamino)-l,4-dioxa- spiro[4.5]decane-7-carboxylate 2 (1.4 L). Methyl iodide (2.39 kg) was added, the vessel was shielded from light and the mixture was held under slow agitation for approx. 24 h. To the thick yellow precipitate was added methyl tert-butyl ether (2.7 L) and the mixture was held for approx. 1 h. The product was isolated by filtration and the cake was washed with methyl tert-butyl ether (2×1.4 L), then dried under vacuum, yielding [(5)-3-benzyloxy-carbonylamino-3-((7R,8«S’)-7-ethoxycarbonyl-l,4- dioxa-spiro[4.5]dec-8-ylcarbamoyl)-propyl]-dimethylsulfonium iodide 3 (671.4 g, -94% yield) as an off-white solid (HPLC purity 99.9%).

Figure imgf000087_0001

[00231] Example 1, Alternative Preparation, Step 2: Sulfonium salt 3 (619.4 g), and cesium carbonate (416.8 g) and anhydrous dimethyl sulfoxide (6.2 L) were combined in a reactor equipped with a scrubber to neutralize volatile sulfides.

Vigorous agitation was maintained until complete conversion was obtained (HPLC). Ethyl acetate (12.4 L) was added, followed by 20 % brine (3 L). The organic phase was separated, washed twice with brine (2×3 L) and evaporated to obtain a solution of ethyl (7R,8«S)-8-((«S)-3-benzyloxycarbonylamino-2-oxo-pyrrolidin-l-yl)-l,4-dioxa- spiro[4.5]decane-7-carboxylate 4 in ethyl acetate (~0.8 L). Acetone (2.55 L) was added, followed by aqueous 0.5 M hydrochloric acid solution (2.3 L). With good mixing, the solution was heated to 50 to 60 0C until conversion of 4 to ethyl (IR,2S)- 2-((5)-3-benzyloxycarbonylamino-2-oxo-pyrrolidin-l-yl)-5-oxo- cyclohexanecarboxylate 5 was complete (HPLC). The mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure while below 40 0C, cooled to -30 0C, and water (4.1 L) was added. The resulting slurry was cooled to 5 to 10 0C and agitated for ~1 hour. The product was filtered and the cake was washed with water (2×2.5 L). Upon deliquoring, the cake was dried to a constant weight below 40 0C in a vacuum oven. Cyclohexanone 5 (272g, 70% yield) was obtained (HPLC purity 98.7%).

Figure imgf000088_0001

[00232] Example 1, Alternative Preparation, Step 3: Cyclohexanone 5 (206 g) was dissolved in dichloromethane (1.1 L) and charged to a hydrogenator. Titanium tetraisopropoxide (218.2 g) and N-isopropyl N-methylamine (63.64 g) were added and the mixture was stirred at ambient temperature (23 to 25 0C) for at least 5 h. Platinum catalyst (5% Pt/S/C, 15 g, approx. 7.5 % relative to 5) was added and hydrogenation was performed at -30 psig for at least 6 h, yielding a mixture of ethyl (lR,25′,5R)-2-((5)-3-benzyloxycarbonylamino-2-oxo-pyrrolidin-l-yl)-5-(isopropyl- methyl-amino)-cyclohexanecarboxylate 6 and its 5-epz-isomer (-7%). The catalyst was removed by filtration and the filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure to approx. -600 mL. Wet ethyl acetate (-3% water, 2.0 L) was added with vigorous agitation over a period of at least 1.5 h. Stirring was continued for at least an additional 6 h. The slurry was filtered. Filter cake was washed with ethyl acetate (1.0 L) and discarded. The combined filtrate and washings were concentrated to -400 mL. Toluene (2.0 L) was added and the solution was washed with 2M aqueous hydrochloric acid (2 x 400 mL). The aqueous layer was warmed to 50° to 60 0C for approx. 20 h or hydrolysis of 6 was deemed complete (HPLC). Aqueous sodium hydroxide solution was added to adjust to pH -10, and mixture was extracted with toluene (3×600 mL). The organic phase was discarded and pH was readjusted to ~6 by addition of aqueous hydrochloric acid. The aqueous phase was concentrated to -600 mL under reduced pressure and extracted with methylene chloride (at least 3×2.0 L). The combined methylene chloride layers were evaporated under reduced pressure and continuously replaced with THF to obtain a solution of (\R,2S,5R)-2- ((5*)-3-benzyloxycarbonylamino-2-oxo-pyrrolidin-l-yl)-5-(isopropyl-methyl-amino)- cyclohexane carboxylic acid 7 (-148 g) in THF (-4 L). Seed crystals of 8 were added, followed by 25 % solution of sodium methoxide in methanol (81.24 g) below 25 0C. The slurry was held for at least additional 16h with agitation. The product was isolated by filtration and the cake was washed with THF (4×200 mL) and dried to a constant weight in vacuo below 30 0C. Dry (lR,25′,5R)-2-((5)-3-benzyloxycarbonyl- amino-2-oxo-pyrrolidin-l-yl)-5-(isopropyl-methyl-amino)-cyclohexane-carboxylate sodium salt 8 was obtained (139g, -60% yield from 5).

Figure imgf000089_0001

[00233] Example 1, Alternative Preparation, Step 4: Aminoester sodium salt 8 (10Og), diphenyl phosphate (3.86g), tert-BuOH (1275 mL) and toluene (225 mL) were combined and heated to reflux under reduced pressure. Approx. 500 mL of distillate were collected and discarded while being continuously replaced with a solution of toluene in tert-BuOH. Vacuum was removed and distillate was switched to percolate through a column filled with molecular sieves and allowed to return to the vessel. After drying was complete, DPPA (52.4mL; dissolved in 60 mL toluene) was added slowly to the slurry at 80 0C. Upon complete conversion (HPLC), tert- BuOH was removed by vacuum distillation and continuously replaced with toluene. The mixture was cooled to room temperature and washed twice with 10% aqueous K2HPO4 (lx800mL, 1×400 mL) and water (40OmL). The organic phase was heated and concentrated in vacuo to approx. 27OmL. Vacuum was removed and heptane (1.1 L) was added slowly at approx. 80 0C, followed by seeds of 9 (~lg). The slurry was slowly cooled to room temperature and benzyl {(S)-l-[(lS,2R,4R)-2- tert- butoxycarbonylamino-4-(isopropyl-methyl-amino)-cyclo-hexyl]-2-oxo-pyrrolidin-3- yl} -carbamate 9 was isolated by filtration as a white solid (86.76g, 78% yield).

Figure imgf000090_0001

[00234] Example 1, Alternative Preparation, Step 5: The tert-Butyl carbamate 9 (5Og) was dissolved in Toluene (50OmL) and /-PrOH (15OmL). The resulting solution was then heated to 6O0C. Methanesulfonic acid (19.6mL) was added below 65°C. Upon reaction completion (HPLC), the mixture was cooled to RT and triethylamine (69.4mL) added slowly below 25°C. Acetic anhydride was then added below 25°C. After Ih acetic acid (25OmL) was added below 25°C. The toluene phase was discarded and 2-methyl-THF (50OmL) was added to the aqueous phase. The mixture was stirred vigorously and basified with NaOH (25% aqueous solution) to pH 12. The aqueous phase was discarded and the organic layer was washed with brine (25OmL). The organic layer was concentrated under reduced pressure and continuously replaced with /-PrOH. The solution was cooled and filtered to provide benzyl {(5′)-l-[(15r,2R,4R)-2-acetylamino-4-(isopropyl-methyl-amino)-cyclohexyl]-2- oxo-pyrrolidin-3-yl} -carbamate 10 in /-PrOH solution which was used directly in the hydrogenation.

[00235] Example 1, Alternative Preparation, Step 6: To a solution containing acetamide 10 (~61g) in /-PrOH (-625 mL) was added 10% Pd/C wet catalyst (2.5 g) and the suspension was hydrogenated at 30 psig and approx. 25 0C for at least 2 h. Upon completion (HPLC), the catalyst was removed by filtration and the filtrate was concentrated to approx. 550 mL. Water (8.8 mL) was added, followed by 5.6 N hydrochloric acid in /-PrOH solution (69.5 mL). The resulting slurry was held at room temperature overnight. The product was isolated by filtration and the cake was rinsed with /-PrOH (2×100 mL) and dried in vacuo to constant weight at -50 0C to give N-[(li?,25r,5R)-2-((5′)-3-amino-2-oxo-pyrrolidin-l-yl)-5-(isopropyl-methyl- amino)-cyclohexyl]-acetamide 11 (55.6 g, 97% yield) as its hydrochloric acid salt (73.6% free base assay, HPLC).

NH,

CL,

Example 1

Figure imgf000091_0001

[00236] Example 1, Alternative Preparation, Step 7: To 6-trifluoromethyl- quinazolin-4-ol 12 (20.1 g) in MeCN (400 mL) was added 5.5 M solution of sodium methoxide in methanol (17.0 mL). The resulting suspension was distilled under reduced pressure and continuously replaced by MeCN to remove methanol. To the slurry was added DMF (1.4 g), followed by oxalyl chloride (13.0 mL) below 50 0C. Upon reaction completion (HPLC), excess reagent was removed under reduced pressure to give -400 mL of slurry. The mixture was cooled to room temperature and washed with 10 % aqueous K2HPO4 (lxl.O L, 1×0.5 L) to afford 4-chloro-6- trifluoromethyl-quinazoline 13 (-21.2 g) in approx. 450 mL of wet MeCN solution, which was used directly in the subsequent coupling reaction (HPLC purity 99.8 %). [00237] Example 1, Alternative Preparation, Step 8: To a mixture of acetamide 11 (28.5 g, HCl salt, 73.6% free base assay), acetonitrile (100 mL), N,N,-di-isopropyl- N-ethylamine (61 mL) at room temperature was added a solution of 13 (-21.2 g) in MeCN (-450 mL). The homogeneous mixture was held overnight. Upon reaction completion (HPLC), the mixture was concentrated in vacuo to approx. 125 mL. A 9.5% aqueous solution of acetic acid (240 mL) was added and the aqueous phase was extracted with methylene chloride. The aqueous phase was separated and methyl tert- butyl ether (450 mL) was added, followed by 2N aqueous lithium hydroxide solution to adjust to pH >11.5. The organic layer was separated, washed with water and filtered. Approx. half of the ether phase was diluted with methyl tert-bvAyl ether (-250 mL) and concentrated in vacuo. Heptane (45 mL) was added slowly below 60 0C, followed by seed crystals of Example 1 (0.4 g). Additional heptane (125 mL) was added and the mixture was slowly cooled to room temperature and the resulting slurry was held overnight. The product was isolated by filtration, the cake was washed with heptane and dried in vacuo to constant weight to give N-((lR,25′,5R)-5- (isopropylamino)-2-((5′)-2-oxo-3-(6-(trifluoromethyl)-quin-azolin-4- ylamino)pyrrolidin-l-yl)cyclohexyl)acetamide 14 (15.0 g, 85% yield).

Crystallization Procedures for Example 1

[00238] Example 1, Production of bis-BSA salt and purification: The entirety of the amorphous free base from Example 1, Step 11 was dissolved in methanol (600 mL). The resultant solution was heated at 60 0C and charged with benzenesulfonic acid (2.5 eq). The mixture was cooled to room temperature and the resultant white solid was collected by filtration to yield the bis-benzene sulfonic acid salt of the title compound (95 g, 86%). This material was >99% pure by HPLC. This material was further purified by re-crystallization from 80/20 EtOH/H2θ, which provided the salt free from any residual methanol. HPLC purity = 99.8%. 1H ΝMR (500 MHz, D2O) δ ppm 8.75 (1 H, s), 8.66 (1 H, s), 8.25 (1 H, d, J=8.80 Hz), 7.90 (1 H, d, J=8.80 Hz), 7.75 (4 H, d, J=8.25 Hz), 7.43 – 7.57 (6 H, m), 5.42 (1 H, t), 4.33 – 4.44 (1 H, m), 4.09 – 4.19 (1 H, m), 3.83 – 3.91 (1 H, m), 3.74 – 3.83 (2 H, m), 3.61 (1 H, t, J=I 1.55 Hz), 2.75 (3 H, d, J=6.60 Hz), 2.61 – 2.70 (1 H, m), 2.31 – 2.44 (1 H, m), 2.20 – 2.27 (1 H, m), 2.17 (2 H, d, J=12.10 Hz), 1.94 – 2.04 (1 H, m, J=12.65 Hz), 1.90 – 1.95 (3 H, m), 1.72 – 1.91 (2 H, m), 1.37 (3 H, d, J=6.05 Hz), 1.29 (3 H, d, J=6.60 Hz). Differential scanning calorimetry utilized a heating rate of 10 °C/min and revealed a melting / decomposition endotherm with an onset temperature of 297.6 0C and a peak temperature at 299.1 0C. [00239] Example 1, Crystallization of the Free Base: A sample of the amorphous free base of N-((lR,25r,5R)-5-(isopropyl(methyl)amino)-2-((5′)-2-oxo-3- (6-(trifluoromethyl)quinazolin-4-ylamino)pyrrolidin- 1 -yl)cyclohexyl)acetamide ( 1 g) was dissolved in dichloromethane (5 mL). The solution was charged with heptane (30 mL) and then warmed to distill the dichloromethane. The solution was cooled to 40 0C; a white solid precipitated. The suspension was heated to 90 0C and stirred for 2 h. The suspension was cooled to room temperature and filtered to provide the pure free base of the title compound. No residual solvent was apparent by 1H-NMR.

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PATENT

US 7671062

http://google.com/patents/US7671062

The present invention provides a novel antagonist or partial agonists/antagonists of MCP-1 receptor activity: N-((1R,2S,5R)-5-(isopropyl(methyl)amino)-2-((S)-2-oxo-3-(6-(trifluoromethyl)quinazolin-4-ylamino)pyrrolidin-1-yl)cyclohexyl)acetamide,
Figure US07671062-20100302-C00001

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate or prodrug, thereof, having an unexpected combination of desirable pharmacological characteristics. Crystalline forms of the present invention are also provided. Pharmaceutical compositions containing the same and methods of using the same as agents for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, allergic, autoimmune, metabolic, cancer and/or cardiovascular diseases is also an objective of this invention. The present disclosure also provides a process for preparing compounds of Formula (I), including N-((1R,2S,5R)-5-(isopropyl(methyl)amino)-2-((S)-2-oxo-3-(6-(trifluoromethyl)quinazolin-4-ylamino)pyrrolidin-1-yl)cyclohexyl)acetamide:

Figure US07671062-20100302-C00002

wherein R1, R8, R9, R10, and

Figure US07671062-20100302-C00003

are as described herein. Compounds that are useful intermediates of the process are also provided herein.

1st embodiment, the disclosure provides a process for preparing a compound of formula IV, or a salt thereof:

Figure US07671062-20100302-C00010

Example 1 N-((1R,2S,5R)-5-(isopropyl(methyl)amino)-2-((S)-2-oxo-3-(6-(trifluoromethyl)quinazolin-4-ylamino)pyrrolidin-1-yl)cyclohexyl)acetamide

Figure US07671062-20100302-C00060

Example 1, Step 1: (1R,2S,5R)-tert-Butyl 2-benzyloxycarbonylamino-7-oxo-6-aza-bicyclo[3.2.1]octane-6-carboxylate (89.6 g, 0.24 mol, see: P. H. Carter, et al. PCT application WO 2005/021500) was dissolved in ethyl acetate (1.5 L) and the resulting solution was washed with sat. NaHCO3 (2×0.45 L) and sat. NaCl (1×0.45 L). The solution was dried (Na2SO4) and then filtered directly into a 3-necked 3 L round-bottom flask. The solution was purged with direct nitrogen injection before being charged with 10% Pd/C (13.65 g) under nitrogen atmosphere. The flask was evacuated and back-filled with hydrogen; this was repeated twice more. Hydrogen was bubbled through the solution for 30 min and then the reaction was stirred under 1 atm H2 for 18 h. The flask was evacuated, back-filled with nitrogen, and charged with fresh catalyst (6 g of 10% Pd/C). Hydrogen was bubbled through the solution for 30 min and then the reaction was stirred under 1 atm H2 for 18 h. The flask was evacuated and back-filled with nitrogen. The mixture was filtered through Celite; the filter pad was then washed with ethyl acetate. The filtrate (˜1.6 L EtOAc volume) was diluted with acetonitrile (0.3 L) and charged sequentially with L-N-Cbz-methionine (68 g, 0.24 mol), TBTU (77 g, 0.24 mol), and N,N-diisopropylethylamine (42 mL, 0.24 mol). The reaction was stirred at room temperature for 4 h, during which time it changed from a suspension to a clear solution. The reaction was quenched with the addition of sat. NH4Cl (0.75 L) and water (0.15 L); the mixture was diluted further with EtOAc (0.75 L). The phases were mixed and separated and the organic phase was washed with sat. Na2CO3 (2×0.9 L) and sat. NaCl (1×0.75 L). The solution was dried (Na2SO4), filtered, and concentrated in vacuo to give (1R,2S,5R)-tert-butyl 2-((S)-2-(benzyloxycarbonylamino)-4-(methylthio)butanamido)-7-oxo-6-aza-bicyclo[3.2.1]octane-6-carboxylate as an oil, which was taken into the next step without further purification. LC/MS for primary peak: [M-Boc+H]+=406.3; [M+Na]+=528.3. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, d4-MeOH): δ 7.36 (m, 5H), 5.11 (s, 2H), 4.32 (m, 1H), 4.2 (m, 1H), 4.0 (m, 1H), 2.5-2.7 (m, 3H), 2.25 (m, 1H), 2.11 (s, 3H), 2.05 (m, 4H), 1.9 (m, 1H), 1.7 (m, 2H), 1.54 (s, 9H). Also present are EtOAc [1.26 (t), 2.03 (s), 4.12 (q)] and N,N,N,N-tetramethylurea [2.83 (s)].

Example 1, Step 2: A sample of (1R,2S,5R)-tert-butyl 2-((S)-2-(benzyloxycarbonylamino)-4-(methylthio)butanamido)-7-oxo-6-aza-bicyclo[3.2.1]octane-6-carboxylate (0.24 mol assumed; see previous procedure) was dissolved in iodomethane (1,250 g) and stirred for 48 h at room temperature. The reaction was concentrated in vacuo. The residue was dissolved in dichloromethane and concentrated in vacuo. This was repeated twice more. The resultant sludge was dissolved in dichloromethane (0.4 L) and poured into a rapidly stirring solution of MTBE (4.0 L). The resultant yellow solids were collected via suction filtration and dried under high vacuum to afford the sulfonium salt (179 g). This material was taken into the next step without further purification. LC/MS for primary peak: [M-Me2S+H]+=458.4; [M]+=520.4. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, d4-MeOH): δ 7.35 (m, 5H), 5.09 (s, 2H), 4.33 (m, 1H), 4.28 (m, 1H), 3.98 (m, 1H), 3.3-3.45 (m, 2H), 2.97 (s, 3H), 2.94 (s, 3H), 2.78 (m, 1H), 2.0-2.3 (m, 4H), 1.7 (m, 2H), 1.52 (s, 9H). Also present are MTBE [1.18 (s), 3.2 (s)] and traces of N,N,N,N-tetramethylurea [2.81 (s)].

Example 1, Step 3: All of the sulfonium salt from the previous step (0.24 mol assumed) was dissolved in DMSO (2.0 L). The resultant solution was stirred under nitrogen at room temperature and charged with cesium carbonate (216 g) portionwise. The suspension was stirred at room temperature for 3 h and then filtered to remove the solids. The solution was divided into ˜0.22 L portions and worked up as follows: the reaction mixture (˜0.22 L) was diluted with ethyl acetate (1.5 L) and washed successively with water (3×0.5 L) and brine (1×0.3 L). The organic phase was dried (Na2SO4), filtered, and concentrated in vacuo. The desired (1R,2S,5R)-tert-butyl 2-((S)-3-(benzyloxycarbonylamino)-2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)-7-oxo-6-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane-6-carboxylate (90.8 g, 83%) was obtained as a microcrystalline foam, free from tetramethyl urea impurity. LC/MS for primary peak: [M-Boc+H]+=358.4; [M+Na]+=480.4. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, d4-MeOH): δ 7.35 (m, 5H), 5.12 (s, 2H), 4.35 (m, 2H), 4.2 (m, 1H), 3.6 (m, 1H), 3.3 (m, 1H), 2.64 (m, 1H), 2.28-2.42 (m, 2H), 2.15 (m, 1H), 1.7-2.0 (m, 5H), 1.55 (s, 9H). If desired, this material can be isolated as a solid by dissolving in MTBE (1 volume), adding to heptane (3.3 volumes), and collecting the resultant precipitate.

Example 1, Step 4: A stirring solution of (1R,2S,5R)-tert-butyl 2-((S)-3-(benzyloxycarbonylamino)-2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)-7-oxo-6-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane-6-carboxylate (108 g, 0.236 mol) in THF (1 L) was charged with lithium hydroxide monohydrate (21.74 g, 0.519 mol). Water (0.3 L) was added slowly, such that the temperature did not exceed 20° C. The reaction was stirred at room temperature overnight and the volatiles were removed in vacuo. The pH was adjusted to ˜4 through the addition of 1N HCl (450 mL) and NaH2PO4. The resultant white precipitates were collected by filtration and washed with water (2×1 L). The solid was dissolved in dichloromethane (1.5 L) and water (˜1 L). The organic layer was dried (Na2SO4), filtered, and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was dissolved in EtOAc (0.7 L) and the resultant solution was heated at reflux for 1 h. Solids separated after cooling to RT, and were collected via filtration. These solids were purified by recrystallization in isopropanol to afford the desired (1R,2S,5R)-2-((S)-3-(benzyloxycarbonylamino)-2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)-5-(tert-butoxycarbonylamino)cyclohexanecarboxylic acid as a white solid (104.5 g, 93% yield). LC/MS for primary peak: [M-tBu+H]+=420.2; [M-Boc+H]+=376.2; [M+H]+=476.2. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, d4-MeOH): δ 7.35 (m, 5H), 5.11 (s, 2H), 4.35 (m, 2H), 3.71 (m, 1H), 3.45-3.6 (m, 2H), 2.99 (m, 1H), 2.41 (m, 1H), 2.15 (m, 1H), 2.0 (m, 2H), 1.6-1.9 (m, 4H), 1.46 (s, 9H).

Example 1, Step 5: A 3 L round bottom flask was charged with (1R,2S,5R)-2-((S)-3-(benzyloxycarbonylamino)-2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)-5-(tert-butoxycarbonylamino)cyclohexanecarboxylic acid (75.5 g, 0.158 mol), EDC.HCl (33.5 g, 0.175 mol), 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (23.6 g, 0.175 mol), and dichloromethane (1 L). The reaction was stirred at room temperature for 2 h, during which time it changed from a white suspension to a clear solution. Ammonia (gas) was bubbled into the solution until the pH was strongly basic (paper) and the reaction was stirred for 10 min; this ammonia addition was repeated and the reaction was stirred for an additional 10 min. Water was added. The organic phase was washed with sat. NaHCO3, NaH2PO4, and brine before being concentrated in vacuo. The residue was slurried with acetonitrile (0.5 L) and then concentrated in to give (1R,2S,5R)-2-((S)-3-(benzyloxycarbonylamino)-2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)-5-(tert-butoxycarbonylamino)cyclohexanecarboxamide as a white solid (75.9 g, ˜100%), which was used in the next step without further purification. LC/MS for primary peak: [M-Boc+H]+=375.3; [M+H]+=475.4; [M-tBu+H]+=419.3. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, d4-MeOH): δ 7.35 (m, 5H), 5.11 (s, 2H), 4.25 (m, 2H), 3.70 (m, 1H), 3.6 (m, 1H), 3.45 (m, 1H), 2.91 (m, 1H), 2.38 (m, 1H), 2.12 (m, 1H), 1.9-2.05 (m, 2H), 1.65-1.9 (m, 4H), 1.46 (s, 9H).

Example 1, Step 6: The reaction was run in three equal portions and combined for aqueous workup. A 5 L, 3-necked round bottom flask was charged with (1R,2S,5R)-2-((S)-3-(benzyloxycarbonylamino)-2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)-5-(tert-butoxycarbonylamino)cyclohexanecarboxamide (25.3 g, 53 mmol), acetonitrile (1.9 L), and 2.6 L of water/ice. The mixture was stirred and cooled to 0° C. Iodobenzene diacetate (25.77 g, 80 mmol) was added and the reaction was stirred for 2 h; another 0.5 eq of iodobenzene diacetate was added. The reaction was stirred for 9 h (reaction temp<10° C.). The mixture was charged with 8 eq N,N-diisopropylethylamine and 2 eq acetic anhydride. Over the next thirty minutes, 4 eq N,N-diisopropylethylamine and 2 eq acetic anhydride were added every ten minutes, until the reaction had proceeded to completion (HPLC). The acetonitrile was removed in vacuo; some solid separated from the residue, and this was collected by filtration. The remaining residue was extracted with dichloromethane (3 L, then 1 L). The organic phase was washed sequentially with water, sat. NaHCO3, and brine. The collected solids were added to the organic phase, along with activated carbon (15 g). The mixture was stirred for 30 minutes at 40° C. before being filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was dissolved in EtOAc (1 L), and the resultant solution was stirred at 75° C. for 1 h before being allowed to cool to room temperature. A solid separated and was collected by filtration. This solid was purified further by recrystallization: it was first dissolved in 0.5 L CH2Cl2, then concentrated in vacuo, then re-crystallized from 1 L EtOAc; this was repeated three times. The solids obtained from the mother liquors of the above were recrystallized three times using the same method. The combined solids were recrystallized twice more from acetonitrile (0.7 L) to provide 66 g (84%) of tert-butyl (1R,3R,4S)-3-acetamido-4-((S)-3-(benzyloxycarbonylamino)-2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)cyclohexylcarbamate (purity>99.5% by HPLC). LC/MS for primary peak: [M+H]+=489.4; [M-tBu+H]+=433.3. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, d4-MeOH): δ 7.3-7.4 (m, 5H), 5.11 (s, 2H), 4.35 (m, 1H), 4.15 (m, 1H), 4.04 (m, 1H), 3.8 (m, 1H), 3.6 (m, 2H), 2.44 (m, 1H), 2.12 (m, 1H), 1.87-2.05 (m, 4H), 1.87 (s, 3H), 1.55-1.7 (m, 2H), 1.46 (s, 9H). The stereochemical fidelity of the Hofmann rearrangement was confirmed through X-ray crystal structure analysis of this compound, as shown in FIG. 1.

Example 1, Step 7: A stirring solution of tert-butyl (1R,3R,4S)-3-acetamido-4-((S)-3-(benzyloxycarbonylamino)-2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)cyclohexylcarbamate (66 g, 0.135 mol) in dichloromethane (216 mL) was charged with trifluoroacetic acid (216 mL). The reaction was stirred for 2 h at room temperature and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was dissolved in methanol and the resultant solution was concentrated in vacuo; this was repeated once. Benzyl (S)-1-((1S,2R,4R)-2-acetamido-4-aminocyclohexyl)-2-oxopyrrolidin-3-ylcarbamate was obtained as an oil and used directly in Step 8 below. LC/MS found [M+H]+=389.4. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, d4-MeOH): δ 7.3-7.4 (m, 5H), 5.12 (s, 2H), 4.41 (br. s, 1H), 4.15 (m, 1H), 4.00 (t, J=9.3 Hz, 1H), 3.81 (t, J=9.1 Hz, 1H), 3.65 (q, J=8.4 Hz, 1H), 3.3-3.4 (m, 1H), 2.45 (m, 1H), 1.95-2.24 (m, 5H), 2.00 (s, 3H), 1.6-1.8 (m, 2H).

Example 1, Step 8: A stirring solution of benzyl (S)-1-((1S,2R,4R)-2-acetamido-4-aminocyclohexyl)-2-oxopyrrolidin-3-ylcarbamate (˜0.135 mol) in methanol (675 mL) was charged sequentially with acetone (37.8 g, 4 eq), sodium acetate (33.2 g, 3 eq), and sodium cyanoborohydride (16.9 g, 2 eq). The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 6 h and filtered. The filtrate was dissolved in dichloromethane (1 L); this solution was washed with 1N NaOH (1 L). The solids collected in the filtration were dissolved in 1N NaOH (1 L) at 0° C. and then extracted with dichloromethane (1 L). The organic extracts were combined and extracted with aqueous HCl (200 mL 1N HCl+800 mL water). The aqueous phase was basified with sat. NaHCO3 (500 mL) and then 1N NaOH (100 mL) until pH 11. The aqueous phase was extracted with dichloromethane (2 L). The organic extracts were combined, dried (Na2SO4), filtered, and concentrated in vacuo to give benzyl (S)-1-((1S,2R,4R)-2-acetamido-4-(isopropylamino)cyclohexyl)-2-oxopyrrolidin-3-ylcarbamate as an oil. LC/MS found [M+H]+=431.45. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, d4-MeOH): δ 7.3-7.4 (m, 5H), 5.12 (s, 2H), 4.31 (m, 1H), 4.24 (t, J=9.4 Hz, 1H), 4.11 (m, 1H), 3.61 (t, J=9.1 Hz, 1H), 3.52 (q, J=8.6 Hz, 1H), 3.04 (br. s, 1H), 2.96 (sep, J=6.3 Hz, 1H), 2.40 (m, 1H), 2.15 (m, 1H), 1.92 (s, 3H), 1.7-1.9 (m, 5H), 1.65 (m, 1H), 1.12 (app. dd, J=6.3, 1.1 Hz, 6H).

Example 1, Step 9 (See Alternative Step 9, below): A stirring solution of benzyl (S)-1-((1S,2R,4R)-2-acetamido-4-(isopropylamino)cyclohexyl)-2-oxopyrrolidin-3-ylcarbamate (˜115 mmol) in dichloromethane (600 mL) was cooled to 0° C. and charged sequentially with formaldehyde (18.6 g, 37 wt % solution), triethylamine (23 mL), and sodium triacetoxyborohydride (28.7 g). The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 30 minutes and diluted with dichloromethane (up to 1.2 L). This solution was washed thrice with 500 mL sat. NaHCO3+NaOH (sat. NaHCO3, pH to 11 w/1N NaOH). The organic layer was extracted with aq. HCl (200 mL 1N HCl+600 mL water). The aqueous phase was basified with sat. NaHCO3 (500 mL) and then 1N NaOH (100 mL) until pH 11. The aqueous phase was extracted with dichloromethane (1.2 L). The organic extracts were combined, dried (Na2SO4), filtered, and concentrated in vacuo to give benzyl (S)-1-((1S,2R,4R)-2-acetamido-4-(isopropyl(methyl)amino)cyclohexyl)-2-oxopyrrolidin-3-ylcarbamate as an oil, which was used directly in Step 10 below. LC/MS found [M+H]+=445.4. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, d4-MeOH): δ 7.3-7.4 (m, 5H), 5.12 (s, 2H), 4.33 (br s, 1H), 4.25 (t, J=9.2 Hz, 1H), 4.11 (br s, 1H), 3.5-3.6 (m, 2H), 2.77 (v br s, 2H), 2.41 (m, 1H), 2.26 (s, 3H), 2.0-2.1 (m, 2H), 1.92 (s, 3H), 1.7-1.9 (m, 5H), 1.10 (app. dd, J=17, 6.4 Hz, 6H).

Example 1, Step 10: To a solution of benzyl (S)-1-((1S,2R,4R)-2-acetamido-4-(isopropyl(methyl)amino)-cyclohexyl)-2-oxopyrrolidin-3-ylcarbamate (0.115 mol) in methanol (600 mL) was added 10% Pd/C (6 g of 50% wet catalyst). The flask was evacuated and back-filled with hydrogen. The mixture was stirred under 1 atm H2 for 2 h and the catalyst was removed by filtration through Celite. The filtrate was concentrated in vacuo to provide N-((1R,2S,5R)-2-((S)-3-amino-2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)-5-(isopropyl(methyl)amino)cyclohexyl)acetamide as an oil, which was taken on to the next step without further purification. LC/MS found [M+H]+=311.47. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, d4-MeOH): δ 4.39 (br s, 1H), 4.00 (m, 1H), 3.3-3.5 (m, 4H), 2.73 (m, 1H), 2.38 (m, 1H), 2.25 (s, 3H), 2.0-2.2 (m, 3H), 1.94 (s, 3H), 1.6-1.75 (m, 4H), 1.07 (app. dd, J=21, 6.4 Hz, 6H).

Example 1, Step 11: To a solution of N-((1R,2S,5R)-2-((S)-3-amino-2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)-5-(isopropyl(methyl)amino)cyclohexyl)acetamide (˜35 g, 0.115 mol) in isopropanol (600 mL) was added 4-chloro-6-(trifluoromethyl)quinazoline (32 g, 0.138 mol, 1.2 eq, see: P. H. Carter et al., PCT application WO 2005/021500). The mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight before being charged with triethylamine (46 g, 0.46 mol, 4 eq). The mixture was stirred at 60° C. for 10 h. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure to give an oil. Azeotropic distillation with isopropanol was performed twice. The residue was dissolved in dichloromethane (600 mL) and extracted with water (250 mL, containing 4 eq acetic acid). Dichloromethane (600 mL) was added to the combined aqueous washes, and the mixture was cooled to 0° C. Aqueous NaOH (50% by weight) was added with stirring until the pH reached 11. The water layer was extracted with dichloromethane twice (2×600 mL). The combined organic extracts were dried (Na2SO4), filtered, and concentrated in vacuo to give the amorphous free base of the title compound (99% purity by HPLC). LC/MS found [M+H]+=507.3. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, d4-MeOH): δ 8.82 (s, 1H), 8.59 (s, 1H), 8.05 (dd, J=8.8, 1.8 Hz, 1H), 7.9 (d, J=8.7 Hz, 1H), 5.28 (t, J=8.6 Hz, 1H), 4.58 (br s, 1H), 4.06 (m, 1H), 3.52-3.68 (m, 2H), 3.43 (m, 1H), 2.76 (br s, 1H), 2.55 (m, 1H), 2.28 (s, 3H), 2.1-2.3 (m, 3H), 2.0 (s, 3H), 2.0 (m, 1H), 1.65-1.8 (m, 3H), 1.09 (app. dd, J=24, 6.4 Hz, 6 H).

Example 1 Alternative Step 9

Figure US07671062-20100302-C00061

Example 1, Alternative step 9ai: To a hydrogenator were charged ethyl (7R,8S)-8-((S)-1-phenyl-ethylamino)-1,4-dioxa-spiro[4.5]decane-7-carboxylate 4-toluenesulfonate salt 1A (1417 g, 2.8 moles, c.f.: WO2004098516, prepared analogous to U.S. Pat. No. 6,835,841), ethanol (200 proof, 11.4 L), and 10% Pd/C catalyst (50% wet, 284 g). The mixture was inerted with nitrogen, then pressurized with hydrogen gas (45 psig) and agitated vigorously at approx. 40° C. until starting material was consumed (HPLC). The suspension was cooled, purged with nitrogen gas and the catalyst was removed by filtration while inerted. The spent catalyst was washed with ethanol (4.3 L). The filtrate and washings were combined and concentrated under vacuum to a volume of 2-3 L while maintaining the batch between 40°-60° C. Isopropyl acetate (5 L) was charged and the mixture was concentrated to a volume of ˜2 L until most ethanol was removed (<0.5%) and residual moisture content was <1,000 ppm. Batch volume was adjusted to ˜7.5 L by the addition of isopropyl acetate. The mixture was heated to 80° C. until clear, then cooled 65°-70° C. Seed crystals of 1 (5 g) were added and the batch was cooled to 50° C. over 2 hours, then further cooled to 20° C. over 4 hours and held for ˜10 hours. The resulting slurry was filtered and the cake was washed with isopropyl acetate (2 L). The product was dried under vaccum at ˜35° C. until volatiles were reduced below ˜1% (LOD). Ethyl (7R,8S)-8-amino-1,4-dioxa-spiro[4.5]decane-7-carboxylate 4-toluenesulfonate salt 1 was obtained as a white, crystalline solid (936 g, 83% yield; HPLC purity: 99.8%). 1H-NMR: (300 MHz, CDCl3) 8.14-7.89 (brs, 3H), 7.75 (d, J 9.0 Hz, 2H), 7.15 (d, J 8.0 Hz, 2H), 4.22-4.04 (m, 2H), 4.01-3.77 (m, 4H), 3.55-3.43 (m, 1H,), 3.20-3.13 (m, 1H), 2.40-2.27 (m, 4H), 2.21-1.94 (m, 2H), 1.81-1.51 (m, 3H), 1.23 (t, J 7.0 Hz, 3H); HPLC: Waters Xterra MS C18 4.6 mm×150 mm i.d., 3.5 μm particle size, 0.05% NH4OH (5% ACN, 95% H2O, solvent A), to 0.05% NH4OH (95% ACN, 5% H2O, solvent B), 5% B to 20% B in 10 minutes, changed to 95% B in 25 minutes, and then changed to 5% B in 1 minute; 11.1 minutes (aminoester 1).

Figure US07671062-20100302-C00062

Example 1, Alternative Step 9aii: Aminoester 1 (63 g, 0.16M, 1 eq.; the product of reductive deprotection of a known compound—(See e.g. R. J. Cherney, WO 2004/098516 and G. V. Delucca & S. S. Ko, WO 2004/110993) was placed in a round bottom flask and MeCN (500 mL) was added. EDAC (33.1 g, 0.17M, 1.1 eq), HOBt.H2O (21.2 g, 0.16M, 1.0 eq) and N-Cbz-L-methionine (46.7 g, 0.17M, 1.05 eq) were then added followed by TEA (48.0 mL, 0.35M, 2.2 eq). An exotherm to 38° C. was observed. The reaction mass was left to stir at RT. After 30 mins, HPLC indicated complete conversion. The reaction mass was diluted with EtOAc (2.5 L) and washed with KHCO3 (4×500 mL, 20 wt % aq. solution) and brine (500 mL). The organic phase was separated, dried over MgSO4 and concentrated. The residue was dissolved in TBME and reconcentrated to give ethyl (7R,8S)-8-{(2S)-2-benzyloxycarbonylamino-4-methylsulfanyl-butyr-yl-amino}-1,4-dioxa-spiro[4.5]decane-7-carboxylate 2 as a sticky semi-solid (76.2 g, 98% yield, 93 AP purity). 1H-NMR: (300 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.36-7.30 (m, 5H), 7.03 (d, J 9.0 Hz, 1H), 5.66 (d, J 8.0 Hz, 1H), 5.10 (s, 2H), 4.35-4.25 (m, 2H), 4.19-4.04 (m, 2H,), 3.98-3.86 (m, 4H), 2.87-2.80 (m, 1H), 2.55-2.45 (m, 2H), 2.18 (dd, J 14.0 Hz, 7.0 Hz, 1H), 2.08 (s, 3H), 2.05-1.67 (m, 6H), 1.26 (t, J 7.0 Hz, 3H). HPLC: YMC-Pack Pro C18 5 μm 4.6×150 mm, 0.05% TFA (20% MeOH, 80% H2O), to 0.05% TFA (20% MeOH, 80% MeCN), 0-100% 10 min gradient. 10.01 min (Compound 2, 93.1 AP). HRMS: m/z 495.2166 [Calc: C24H35N2O7S 495.2165].

Figure US07671062-20100302-C00063

Example 1, Alternative Step 9b: Methionine amide 2 (75.0 g, 0.15M) was dissolved in MeI (225 mL, 3 mL/g)—some off gassing was noted but no exotherm. The reaction mass was left to stir in the dark for 16.5 h. After this time a thick light yellow precipitate had formed. The flask was then evacuated to 200 mmHg and some of the MeI removed. The remaining material was slurried in TBMF (500 mL), after a 30 min stir-out the slurry was filtered, the cake washed with TBMF (500 mL). NMR analysis of this material indicated a small amount of MeI remaining. The cake was re-slurried in TBMF (500 mL), filtered, washed with TBMF (500 mL) and dried under vacuum to give [(3S)-3-benzyloxycarbonylamino-3-{(7R,8S)-7-ethoxycarbonyl-1,4-di-oxa-spiro[4.5]dec-8-ylcarbamoyl}-propyl]-dimethylsulfonium iodide 3 as a free flowing off-white solid (93.5 g, 97%, 99 area % purity). 1H-NMR: (300 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.75 (d, J 9.0 Hz, 1H), 7.38-7.27 (m, 5H), 6.40 (d, J 7.0 Hz, 1H), 5.10 (s, 2H), 4.76-4.65 (m, 1H), 4.48-4.39 (m, 1H), 4.14-3.85 (m, 6H), 3.84-7.73 (m, 1H), 3.68-3.55 (m, 1H), 3.21 (s, 3H), 3.12 (s, 3H), 2.90-2.83 (s, 1H), 2.52-1.55 (m, 8H), 1.24 (t, J 7.0 Hz, 3H). HPLC: YMC-Pack Pro C18 5 μm 4.6×150 mm, 0.05% TFA (20% MeOH, 80% H2O), to 0.05% TFA (20% MeOH, 80% MeCN), 0-100% 10 min gradient. 2.45 min (I−), 8.14 min (Compound 3, 43.6 AP, I54.6 AP). HRMS: m/z 509.2341 [Calc: C25H37N2O7S 509.2321].

Figure US07671062-20100302-C00064

Example 1, Alternative Step 9c: Cs2CO3 (61.5 g, 0.19M, 1.5 eq) was placed in an round bottom flask and anhydrous DMSO (2.4 L) was added. Sulfonium salt 3 (80.0 g, 0.13M, 1.0 eq) was then added portionwise. Once the addition was complete the reaction mass was left to stir in the dark for 20 h. The reaction mass was then split in half and each half worked up separately: the reaction mass was diluted with EtOAc (2.0 L) and washed with brine (2 L), the organic phase was washed with brine (500 mL). The combined aq. layers were then washed EtOAc (500 mL). The combined organic phases were then washed with brine (3×750 mL). The second half of the reaction mass was treated in an identical manner and the combined organics dried over MgSO4 and concentrated to give ethyl (7R,8S)-8-{(3S)-3-Benzyloxycarbonylamino-2-oxo-pyrrolidin-1-yl}-1,4-dioxa-spiro[4.5]decane-7-carboxylate 4 as a light colored oil (56.5 g, 0.13M, ˜100 area-% purity) pure by NMR analysis. 1H-NMR: (300 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.38-7.30 (m, 5H), 5.37 (br d, J 4.0 Hz, 1H), 5.11 (s, 2H), 4.27-4.18 (m, 1H), 4.17-3.82 (m, 8H), 3.32 (td, J 10.0Hz, 60.0 Hz, 1H), 3.23 (q, J 5.0 Hz, 1H), 2.63-2.57 (m, 1H), 2.42-2.25 (m, 2H), 1.94-1.68 (m, 5H), 1.25 (t, J 7.0 Hz, 3H). HPLC: YMC-Pack Pro C18 5 μm 4.6×150 mm, 0.05% TFA (20% MeOH, 80% H2O), to 0.05% TFA (20% MeOH, 80% MeCN), 0-100% 10 min gradient. 8.99 min (Compound 5, produced on column, 4.2 AP), 9.48 (Compound 4, 74.3 AP). HRMS: m/z 447.2127 [Calc: C23H31N2O7 447.2131].

Figure US07671062-20100302-C00065

Example 1, Alternative Step 9d: Pyrrolidinone 4 (50.0 g, 0.11M) was dissolved in acetone (500 mL) and 1N HCl (500 mL) was added. The reaction mass was then heated to 65° C. After 20 mins HPLC indicated complete reaction. The reaction mass was allowed to cool to RT and the acetone was removed on a rotary evaporator. During this distillation the product precipitated from solution as a white solid. This was isolated by filtration and the cake washed with water. The cake was then dried azeotropically with toluene (3×300 mL) to give ethyl (1R,2S)-2-((3S)-3-Benzyloxycarbonylamino-2-oxo-pyrrolidin-1-yl)-5-oxo-cyclohexanecarboxylate 5 as a white solid (39.8 g, 88%, 97 area-% purity). 1H-NMR: (300 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.37-7.32 (m, 5H), 6.65 (br d, J 4.0 Hz, 1H), 5.12 (s, 2H), 4.54-4.47 (m, 1H), 4.34-4.26 (m, 1H), 4.18 (dq, J 11.0 Hz, 7.0 Hz, 1H), 4.09 (dq, J 11.0 Hz, 7.0 Hz, 1H), 3.36-3.20 (m, 3H), 2.70-2.35 (m, 6H), 2.05-1.96 (m, 1H), 1.81 (quin., J 11.0 Hz, 1H), 1.24 (t, J 7.0 Hz, 3H). HPLC: YMC-Pack Pro C18 5 μm 4.6×150 mm, 0.05% TFA (20% MeOH, 80% H2O), to 0.05% TFA (20% MeOH, 80% MeCN), 0-100% 10 min gradient. 8.95 min (Compound 5). HRMS: m/z 403.1864 [Calc: C21H27N2O6403.1869].

Figure US07671062-20100302-C00066

Example 1, Alternative Step 9e: Cyclohexanone 5 (22.5 g, 0.06M, 1 eq), DMSO (30 mL) and Ti(O-iPr)4 (33.7 mL, 0.11M, 2.04 eq) were placed in a round bottom flask. N-isopropyl-N-methylamine (11.6 mL, 0.11M, 2.0 eq) was then added in one portion. The mixture was left to stir for 30 mins at room temperature before being cooled to <3° C. in ice/water. MeOH (30 mL) was then added followed by the portionwise addition of NaBH4 (4.33 g, 0.11M, 2.04 eq)—temperature kept <8° C. 30 mins after the addition was completed the reaction mass was diluted with methylene chloride (300 mL) and then NaOH (1N, 40 mL). The resulting slurry was filtered through Celite, and the cake washed with methylene chloride (100 mL). The resulting liquor was concentrated under reduced pressure and the residue dissolved in EtOAc (500 mL). This solution was extracted with 1N HCl (2×400 mL), the combined aqueous layers were then basified with Na2CO3. Extraction with EtOAc (4×250 mL) provided a clear and colorless organic phase which was dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated to give a white powder (24.6 g, 96%, 7:1 d.r.). This material was then slurried overnight in hexane (670 mL). The solid was isolated by filtration and dried under reduced pressure to give ethyl (1R,2S,5R)-2-((3S)-3-benzyloxycarbonylamino-2-oxo-pyrrolidin-1-yl)-5-(isopropyl-methyl-amino)-cyclohexanecarboxylate 6 as a while solid (20.9 g, 81%, 24:1 d.r.). 1H-NMR: (300 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.37-7.28 (m, 5H), 5.55 (d, J 4.5, 1H), 5.10 (s, 2H), 4.42 (q, J 4.5, 1H), 4.23-4.12 (m, 1H), 4.08 (dq, J 10.5, 7.0, 1H), 4.02 (dq, J 10.5, 7.0, 1H), 3.84 (t, J 9.0, 1H), 3.46-3.36 (m, 1H), 3.04 (septet, J 6.5, 1H), 2.86-2.80 (m, 1H), 2.63-2.48 (m, 2H), 2.17 (s, 3H, Me), 2.10-1.63 (m, 7H), 1.22 (t, J 7.0, 3H), 1.00 (d, J 6.5, 3H), 0.97 (d, J 6.5, 3H). HPLC: YMC-Pack Pro C18 5 μm 4.6×150 mm, 0.01M NH4OAc (MeOH:water 20:80) to 0.01M NH4OAc (MeOH:water:MeCN 20:5:75) 10 to 100% 15 min gradient. 8.23 (Compound 6), 8.88 (5-epi-Compound 6). HRMS: 460.2798 [Calc: C25H38N3O5 460.2811].

Figure US07671062-20100302-C00067

Example 1, Alternative Step 9f: The aminoester 6 (9.76 g, 2.12 mmol) was dissolved in 2N HCl (80 mL), then heated to ˜55° C. under inert atmosphere. The reaction was stirred for 20 h, then cooled to room temperature. The reaction solution was washed twice with toluene (25 mL portions), neutralized to pH 6-7 by the addition of KOH pellets, then extracted eight times with methylene chloride (100 mL portions). The combined extracts were dried (Na2SO4), filtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure to 50 mL total volume. The concentrated solution was then slowly added to methyl tert-butyl ether (300 mL) over 15 min in an addition funnel with vigorous stirring. The resulting white slurry was stirred at ambient temperature for Ih, then cooled to 0° C. and stirred for 1 h. The product was filtered, and washed twice with methyl tert-butyl ether (25 mL portions). Water from the wet cake was removed by azeotropic distillation with acetonitrile (300 mL). The product was dried under reduced pressure to provide (1R,2S,5R)-2-((3S)-3-Benzyloxycarbonylamino-2-oxo-pyrrolidin-1-yl)-5-(isopropyl-methyl-amino)-cyclohexanecarboxylic acid 7, (7.69 g, 84% yield) as a white foam. 1H-NMR: (400 MHz, 50° C., CDCl3) δ 7.44-7.32 (m, 5H), 6.10 (broad s, 1H), 5.19 (app s, 2H), 4.42 (dd, J=15.6, 7.8 Hz, 1H), 4.29-4.23 (m, 1H), 3.68-3.60 (m, 2H), 3.33-3.27 (m, 2H), 3.20 (broad s, 1H), 2.99 (broad s, 1H), 2.51 (s, 3H), 2.49-2.45 (m, 3H), 2.33-2.31 (m, 1H), 2.00 (ddd, J=9.0, 8.6, 3.9 1H), 1.95-1.78 (m, 2H), 1.36-1.21 (m, 6H). LCMS: m/z 432.20 [Calc: C23H34N3O5 432.25].

Figure US07671062-20100302-C00068

Example 1, Alternative Step 9g: Amino acid 7 (6.3 g, 14.7 mmol, 1.0 eq) was dissolved in THF (80 mL) under N2 and NaH (584 mg, 14.7 mmol, 1.0 eq, 60 wt % dispersion in mineral oil) was added portionwise. When the addition was complete, and the evolution of gas had ceased, the reaction mass was concentrated under reduced pressure and the resulting solid azeotroped with toluene (50 mL) to give a white solid (KF 0.59 wt %). This solid was slurried in toluene (100 mL) under N2and heated to 90° C. DPPA (3.32 mL, 15.3 mmol, 1.05 eq) was added dropwise over ˜2 min. After ˜5 min all the solids had dissolved, after 10 mins precipitation of a white solid was observed. After 30 mins HPLC analysis indicated complete reaction. The reaction mass was allowed to cool to RT before being filtered, the cake was washed with toluene. The liquors where then slowly added into AcOH/Ac2O (80/20, 168 mL) solution at 90° C. After 45 mins HPLC still indicated some isocyanate. At 1.15 h, the reaction mass was cooled to RT and diluted with toluene (100 mL) and water (100 mL). The organic layer was removed and the toluene washed with 1N HCl (100 mL). The combined aq. phases were then basified with K2CO3(s) and brought to pH 12 with NaOH (10N), keeping the temperature below 20° C. The aq layer was then extracted with methylene chloride (4×150 mL), the combined organic layers dried over K2CO3 and concentrated to give benzyl (S)-1-((1S,2R,4R)-2-acetamido-4-(isopropyl(methyl)amino)cyclohexyl)-2-oxopyrrolidin-3-ylcarbamate 8 as a white foam (4.5 g, 70%, 94AP purity). The 1H-NMR was identical to material obtained from the route described above (Example 1, Step 9). HPLC: YMC-Pack Pro C18 5 μm 4.6×150 mm, 0.05% TFA (20% MeOH, 80% H2O), to 0.05% TFA (20% MeOH, 80% MeCN), 0-100% 10 min gradient. 7.20 min (Compound 8), 7.85 min (urea dimer). HRMS: 445.2809 [Calc: C24H37N4O4445.2815].

Alternative Preparation of Example 1

Figure US07671062-20100302-C00069

Example 1, Alternative Preparation, Step 1: Ethyl (7R,8S)-8-amino-1,4-dioxa-spiro[4.5]decane-7-carboxylate 4-toluenesulfonate salt 1 (450.1 g), was combined with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl-amino-propyl)carbo-diimide hydrochloride (236.3 g), 1-hydroxy benzotriazole hydrate (171.9 g), N-carbobenzyloxy-L-methionine (333.4 g) and acetonitrile (3.1 L). To the stirred mixture was added triethylamine (249.5 g) below 30° C. Upon reaction completion (HPLC), the mixture was diluted with ethyl acetate (8.2 L) and washed with aqueous 25% potassium bicarbonate solution (2×4.5 L) followed by water (4.5 L). The organic phase was separated and concentrated under reduced pressure to obtain a solution of ethyl (7R,8S)-8-((S)-2-benzyloxycarbonylamino-4-methylsulfanyl-butyrylamino)-1,4-dioxa-spiro[4.5]decane-7-carboxylate 2 (1.4 L). Methyl iodide (2.39 kg) was added, the vessel was shielded from light and the mixture was held under slow agitation for approx. 24 h. To the thick yellow precipitate was added methyl tert-butyl ether (2.7 L) and the mixture was held for approx. 1 h. The product was isolated by filtration and the cake was washed with methyl tert-butyl ether (2×1.4 L), then dried under vacuum, yielding [(S)-3-benzyloxy-carbonylamino-3-((7R,8S)-7-ethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dioxa-spiro[4.5]dec-8-ylcarbamoyl)-propyl]-dimethylsulfonium iodide 3 (671.4 g, ˜94% yield) as an off-white solid (HPLC purity 99.9%).

Figure US07671062-20100302-C00070

Example 1, Alternative Preparation, Step 2: Sulfonium salt 3 (619.4 g), and cesium carbonate (416.8 g) and anhydrous dimethyl sulfoxide (6.2 L) were combined in a reactor equipped with a scrubber to neutralize volatile sulfides. Vigorous agitation was maintained until complete conversion was obtained (HPLC). Ethyl acetate (12.4 L) was added, followed by 20% brine (3 L). The organic phase was separated, washed twice with brine (2×3 L) and evaporated to obtain a solution of ethyl (7R,8S)-8-((S)-3-benzyloxycarbonylamino-2-oxo-pyrrolidin-1-yl)-1,4-dioxa-spiro[4.5]decane-7-carboxylate 4 in ethyl acetate (˜0.8 L). Acetone (2.55 L) was added, followed by aqueous 0.5 M hydrochloric acid solution (2.3 L). With good mixing, the solution was heated to 50 to 60° C. until conversion of 4 to ethyl (1R,2S)-2-((S)-3-benzyloxycarbonylamino-2-oxo-pyrrolidin-1-yl)-5-oxo-cyclohexanecarboxylate 5 was complete (HPLC). The mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure while below 40° C., cooled to ˜30° C., and water (4.1 L) was added. The resulting slurry was cooled to 5 to 10° C. and agitated for ˜1 hour. The product was filtered and the cake was washed with water (2×2.5 L). Upon deliquoring, the cake was dried to a constant weight below 40° C. in a vacuum oven. Cyclohexanone 5 (272 g, 70% yield) was obtained (HPLC purity 98.7%).

Figure US07671062-20100302-C00071

Example 1, Alternative Preparation, Step 3: Cyclohexanone 5 (206 g) was dissolved in dichloromethane (1.1 L) and charged to a hydrogenator. Titanium tetraisopropoxide (218.2 g) and N-isopropyl N-methylamine (63.64 g) were added and the mixture was stirred at ambient temperature (23 to 25° C.) for at least 5 h. Platinum catalyst (5% Pt/S/C, 15 g, approx. 7.5% relative to 5) was added and hydrogenation was performed at ˜30 psig for at least 6 h, yielding a mixture of ethyl (1R,2S,5R)-2-((S)-3-benzyloxycarbonylamino-2-oxo-pyrrolidin-1-yl)-5-(isopropyl-methyl-amino)-cyclohexanecarboxylate 6 and its 5-epi-isomer (˜7%). The catalyst was removed by filtration and the filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure to approx. ˜600 mL. Wet ethyl acetate (˜3% water, 2.0 L) was added with vigorous agitation over a period of at least 1.5 h. Stirring was continued for at least an additional 6 h. The slurry was filtered. Filter cake was washed with ethyl acetate (1.0 L) and discarded. The combined filtrate and washings were concentrated to ˜400 mL. Toluene (2.0 L) was added and the solution was washed with 2M aqueous hydrochloric acid (2×400 mL). The aqueous layer was warmed to 50° to 60° C. for approx. 20 h or hydrolysis of 6 was deemed complete (HPLC). Aqueous sodium hydroxide solution was added to adjust to pH ˜10, and mixture was extracted with toluene (3×600 mL). The organic phase was discarded and pH was readjusted to ˜6 by addition of aqueous hydrochloric acid. The aqueous phase was concentrated to ˜600 mL under reduced pressure and extracted with methylene chloride (at least 3×2.0 L). The combined methylene chloride layers were evaporated under reduced pressure and continuously replaced with THF to obtain a solution of (1R,2S,5R)-2-((S)-3-benzyloxycarbonylamino-2-oxo-pyrrolidin-1-yl)-5-(isopropyl-methyl-amino)-cyclohexane carboxylic acid 7 (˜148 g) in THF (˜4 L). Seed crystals of 8 were added, followed by 25% solution of sodium methoxide in methanol (81.24 g) below 25° C. The slurry was held for at least additional 16 h with agitation. The product was isolated by filtration and the cake was washed with THF (4×200 mL) and dried to a constant weight in vacuo below 30° C. Dry (1R,2S,5R)-2-((S)-3-benzyloxycarbonyl-amino-2-oxo-pyrrolidin-1-yl)-5-(isopropyl-methyl-amino)-cyclohexane-carboxylate sodium salt 8 was obtained (139 g, ˜60% yield from 5).

Figure US07671062-20100302-C00072

Example 1, Alternative Preparation, Step 4: Aminoester sodium salt 8 (100 g), diphenyl phosphate (3.86 g), tert-BuOH (1275 mL) and toluene (225 mL) were combined and heated to reflux under reduced pressure. Approx. 500 mL of distillate were collected and discarded while being continuously replaced with a solution of toluene in tert-BuOH. Vacuum was removed and distillate was switched to percolate through a column filled with molecular sieves and allowed to return to the vessel. After drying was complete, DPPA (52.4 mL; dissolved in 60 mL toluene) was added slowly to the slurry at 80° C. Upon complete conversion (HPLC), tert-BuOH was removed by vacuum distillation and continuously replaced with toluene. The mixture was cooled to room temperature and washed twice with 10% aqueous K2HPO4 (1×800 mL, 1×400 mL) and water (400 mL). The organic phase was heated and concentrated in vacuo to approx. 270 mL. Vacuum was removed and heptane (1.1 L) was added slowly at approx. 80° C., followed by seeds of 9 (˜1 g). The slurry was slowly cooled to room temperature and benzyl {(S)-1-[(1S,2R,4R)-2-tert-butoxycarbonylamino-4-(isopropyl-methyl-amino)-cyclo-hexyl]-2-oxo-pyrrolidin-3-yl}-carbamate 9 was isolated by filtration as a white solid (86.76 g, 78% yield).

Figure US07671062-20100302-C00073

Example 1, Alternative Preparation, Step 5: The tert-Butyl carbamate 9 (50 g) was dissolved in Toluene (500 mL) and i-PrOH (150 mL). The resulting solution was then heated to 60° C. Methanesulfonic acid (19.6 mL) was added below 65° C. Upon reaction completion (HPLC), the mixture was cooled to RT and triethylamine (69.4 mL) added slowly below 25° C. Acetic anhydride was then added below 25° C. After 1 h acetic acid (250 mL) was added below 25° C. The toluene phase was discarded and 2-methyl-THF (500 mL) was added to the aqueous phase. The mixture was stirred vigorously and basified with NaOH (25% aqueous solution) to pH 12. The aqueous phase was discarded and the organic layer was washed with brine (250 mL). The organic layer was concentrated under reduced pressure and continuously replaced with i-PrOH. The solution was cooled and filtered to provide benzyl {(S)-1-[(1S,2R,4R)-2-acetylamino-4-(isopropyl-methyl-amino)-cyclohexyl]-2-oxo-pyrrolidin-3-yl}-carbamate 10 in i-PrOH solution which was used directly in the hydrogenation.

Example 1, Alternative Preparation, Step 6: To a solution containing acetamide 10 (˜61 g) in i-PrOH (˜625 mL) was added 10% Pd/C wet catalyst (2.5 g) and the suspension was hydrogenated at 30 psig and approx. 25° C. for at least 2 h. Upon completion (HPLC), the catalyst was removed by filtration and the filtrate was concentrated to approx. 550 mL. Water (8.8 mL) was added, followed by 5.6 N hydrochloric acid in i-PrOH solution (69.5 mL). The resulting slurry was held at room temperature overnight. The product was isolated by filtration and the cake was rinsed with i-PrOH (2×100 mL) and dried in vacuo to constant weight at ˜50° C. to give N-[(1R,2S,5R)-2-((S)-3-amino-2-oxo-pyrrolidin-1-yl)-5-(isopropyl-methyl-amino)-cyclohexyl]-acetamide 11 (55.6 g, 97% yield) as its hydrochloric acid salt (73.6% free base assay, HPLC).

Figure US07671062-20100302-C00074

Example 1, Alternative Preparation, Step 7: To 6-trifluoromethyl-quinazolin-4-ol 12 (20.1 g) in MeCN (400 mL) was added 5.5 M solution of sodium methoxide in methanol (17.0 mL). The resulting suspension was distilled under reduced pressure and continuously replaced by MeCN to remove methanol. To the slurry was added DMF (1.4 g), followed by oxalyl chloride (13.0 mL) below 50° C. Upon reaction completion (HPLC), excess reagent was removed under reduced pressure to give ˜400 mL of slurry. The mixture was cooled to room temperature and washed with 10% aqueous K2HPO4 (1×1.0 L, 1×0.5 L) to afford 4-chloro-6-trifluoromethyl-quinazoline 13 (˜21.2 g) in approx. 450 mL of wet MeCN solution, which was used directly in the subsequent coupling reaction (HPLC purity 99.8%).

Example 1, Alternative Preparation, Step 8: To a mixture of acetamide 11 (28.5 g, HCl salt, 73.6% free base assay), acetonitrile (100 mL), N,N,-di-isopropyl-N-ethylamine (61 mL) at room temperature was added a solution of 13 (˜21.2 g) in MeCN (˜450 mL). The homogeneous mixture was held overnight. Upon reaction completion (HPLC), the mixture was concentrated in vacuo to approx. 125 mL. A 9.5% aqueous solution of acetic acid (240 mL) was added and the aqueous phase was extracted with methylene chloride. The aqueous phase was separated and methyl tert-butyl ether (450 mL) was added, followed by 2N aqueous lithium hydroxide solution to adjust to pH>11.5. The organic layer was separated, washed with water and filtered. Approx. half of the ether phase was diluted with methyl tert-butyl ether (˜250 mL) and concentrated in vacuo. Heptane (45 mL) was added slowly below 60° C., followed by seed crystals of Example 1 (0.4 g). Additional heptane (125 mL) was added and the mixture was slowly cooled to room temperature and the resulting slurry was held overnight. The product was isolated by filtration, the cake was washed with heptane and dried in vacuo to constant weight to give N-((1R,2S,5R)-5-(isopropylamino)-2-((S)-2-oxo-3-(6-(trifluoromethyl)-quin-azolin-4-ylamino)pyrrolidin-1-yl)cyclohexyl)acetamide 14 (15.0 g, 85% yield).

Crystallization Procedures for Example 1Example 1, Production of bis-BSA salt and purification: The entirety of the amorphous free base from Example 1, Step 11 was dissolved in methanol (600 mL). The resultant solution was heated at 60° C. and charged with benzenesulfonic acid (2.5 eq). The mixture was cooled to room temperature and the resultant white solid was collected by filtration to yield the bis-benzene sulfonic acid salt of the title compound (95 g, 86%). This material was >99% pure by HPLC. This material was further purified by re-crystallization from 80/20 EtOH/H2O, which provided the salt free from any residual methanol. HPLC purity=99.8%. 1H NMR (500 MHz, D2O) δ ppm 8.75 (1H, s), 8.66 (1H, s), 8.25 (1H, d, J=8.80 Hz), 7.90 (1H, d, J=8.80 Hz), 7.75 (4H, d, J=8.25 Hz), 7.43-7.57 (6H, m), 5.42 (1H, t), 4.33-4.44 (1H, m), 4.09-4.19 (1H, m), 3.83-3.91 (1H, m), 3.74-3.83 (2H, m), 3.61 (1H, t, J=11.55 Hz), 2.75 (3H, d, J=6.60 Hz), 2.61-2.70 (1H, m), 2.31-2.44 (1H, m), 2.20-2.27 (1H, m), 2.17 (2H, d, J=12.10 Hz), 1.94-2.04 (1H, m, J=12.65 Hz), 1.90-1.95 (3H, m), 1.72-1.91 (2H, m), 1.37 (3H, d, J=6.05 Hz), 1.29 (3H, d, J=6.60 Hz). Differential scanning calorimetry utilized a heating rate of 10° C./min and revealed a melting/decomposition endotherm with an onset temperature of 297.6° C. and a peak temperature at 299.1° C.

Example 1, Crystallization of the Free Base: A sample of the amorphous free base of N-((1R,2S,5R)-5-(isopropyl(methyl)amino)-2-((S)-2-oxo-3-(6-(trifluoromethyl)quinazolin-4-ylamino)pyrrolidin-1-yl)cyclohexyl)acetamide (1 g) was dissolved in dichloromethane (5 mL). The solution was charged with heptane (30 mL) and then warmed to distill the dichloromethane. The solution was cooled to 40° C.; a white solid precipitated. The suspension was heated to 90° C. and stirred for 2 h. The suspension was cooled to room temperature and filtered to provide the pure free base of the title compound. No residual solvent was apparent by 1H-NMR.

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PAPER

Abstract Image

A concise bulk synthesis of stereochemically complex CCR2 antagonist BMS-741672 is reported. A distinct structural feature is the chiral all-cis 1,2,4-triaminocyclohexane (TACH) core, which was assembled through consecutive stereocontrolled heterogeneous hydrogenations: efficient Pt-catalyzed reduction of a β-enaminoester, directed by (S)-α-methylbenzylamine as a low-cost chiral template, and reductive amination of a 3,4-cis-disubstituted cyclohexanone over sulfided Pt/C introduced a tert-amine, setting the third stereocenter in the all-cis cyclohexane core. The heterogeneous catalysts were recycled. Ester hydrolysis produced a γ-amino acid, isolated as its Na salt. A challenging Curtius reaction to introduce the remaining C–N bond at C-2 was strongly influenced by the presence of the basic tert-amine, providing a stereoelectronically highly activated isocyanate. Detailed mechanistic and process knowledge was required to enable clean trapping with an alcohol (t-BuOH) while avoiding formation of side products, particularly an unusual carbamoyl phosphate. Deprotection, N-acetylation, and uncatalyzed SNAr coupling with known 4-chloroquinazoline provided the final product. The resulting 12-step synthesis was used to prepare 50 kg of the target compound in an average yield of 82% per step.

Stereoselective Bulk Synthesis of CCR2 Antagonist BMS-741672: Assembly of an All-cis (S,R,R)-1,2,4-Triaminocyclohexane (TACH) Core via Sequential Heterogeneous Asymmetric Hydrogenations

Chemical and Synthetic Development, Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, One Squibb Drive, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08901, United States
Org. Process Res. Dev., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acs.oprd.6b00282
*Phone: 732-227-6917. Fax: 732-227-3001. E-mail: joerg.deerberg@bms.com.

Patents

Patent ID Date Patent Title
US7687508 2010-03-30 CYCLIC DERIVATIVES AS MODULATORS OF CHEMOKINE RECEPTOR ACTIVITY
US7671062 2010-03-02 N-((IR, 2S, 5R)-5-(ISOPROPYL(METHYL)AMINO)-2-((S)-2-0XO-3-(6-TRIFLUOROMETHYL)QUINAZOLIN-4-YLAMINO)PYRROLIDIN-1-YL)CYCLOHEXYL)ACETAMIDE AND OTHER MODULATORS OF CHEMOKINE RECEPTOR ACTIVITY, CRYSTALLINE FORMS AND PROCESS.

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Bristol-Myers Squibb, Paul Biondi Senior Vice President, Head of Business Development

About Bristol-Myers Squibb

Bristol-Myers Squibb is a global biopharmaceutical company whose mission is to discover, develop and deliver innovative medicines that help patients prevail over serious diseases. For more information, please visit www.bms.com or follow us on Twitter at http://twitter.com/bmsnews.

//////////   ////////////////BMS-741672, BMS 741672, BRISTOL MEYER SQUIB, PHASE 2,  type 2 Diabetes, Neuropathic Pain, Bristol-Myers Squibb
CC(C)N(C)[C@H]1C[C@@H](NC(C)=O)[C@H](CC1)N4CC[C@H](Nc3ncnc2ccc(cc23)C(F)(F)F)C4=O

BMS 986001, Censavudine, Festinavir


BMS 986001

Censavudine, Festinavir

Has anti-HIV activity. IN PHASE 2

CAS: 634907-30-5, UNII: 6IE83O6NGA, OBP 601, 4′-Ethynyl D4T, 4′-Ed4T, TDK-4-114

Molecular Formula, C12-H12-N2-O4, Molecular Weight, 248.2368

2′,3′-Didehydro-3′-deoxy-4′-ethynylthymidine, 

1-((2R,5R)-5-Ethynyl-5-(hydroxymethyl)-2H-furan-2-yl)-5-methyl-pyrimidine-2,4-dione, 

2′,3′-Didehydro-3′-deoxy-4′-ethynylthymidine

INNOVATOR= YALE UNIVERSITY

634907-30-5.pngChemSpider 2D Image | Censavudine | C12H12N2O4

Festinavir is a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor

(NRTI) which is being developed for the treatment of HIV infection. The drug has shown considerable efficacy in early development, and with perhaps less toxicity than some other NRTIs, such as the drug stavudine (marketed under the trade name ZERIT®).

Festinavir has the chemical form and the structural formula:

Festinavir was developed by Yale University in conjunction with two Japanese research scientists, and is protected by U.S. Patent No. 7,589,078, the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference. The ‘078 patent sets forth the synthesis of the primary compound, and other structural analogs. In addition, Oncolys BioPharma, Inc. of Japan has now published US 2010/0280235 for the production of 4′ ethynyl D4T. As starting raw material, the Oncolys method utilizes a substituted furan compound, furfuryl alcohol. In another publication by Nissan Chemical Industries of Japan, and set forth in WO 201 1/099443, there is disclosed a method for producing a beta-dihydrofuran deriving compound or a beta-tetrahydrofuran deriving compound. In this process, a diol compound is used as the starting material. Nissan has also published WO 2011/09442

directed to a process for the preparation of a β-glycoside compound. Two further publications, each to Hamari Chemicals of Japan, WO 2009/1 19785 and

WO 2009/125841, set forth methods for producing and purifying ethynyl thymide compounds. Pharmaset, Inc. of the U.S. has also published US 2009/0318380,

WO 2009/005674 and WO 2007/038507 for the production of 4’ -nucleoside analogs for treating HIV infection. Reference is also made to the BMS application entitled

“Sulfilimine and Sulphoxide Methods for Producing Festinavir” filed as a PCT application, PCT/US2013/042150 on May 22, 2013 (now WO2013/177243).

PAPER

Haraguchi, Kazuhiro; Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 2003, V 13(21), PG 3775-3777 

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2003.07.009

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960894X0300831X

Compounds having methyl, vinyl, and ethynyl groups at the 4′-position of stavudine (d4T: 2′,3′-didehydro-3′-deoxythymidine) were synthesized. The compounds were assayed for their ability to inhibit the replication of HIV in cell culture. The 4′-ethynyl analogue (15) was found to be more potent and less toxic than the parent compound stavudine.


Graphic

Image for unlabelled figure
Image for figure 3
Physical data for 15 are as follows: solid (mp 207–209 °C);
UV (MeOH) λmax 264 nm (ε 10800), λmin 235 nm (ε 4800);
1H NMR (CDCl3) δ 1.83 (3H, s, Me), 2.63 (1H, s, C≡CH), 3.47 (1H, br, OH), 3.88 (1H, d,Jgem=12.5 Hz, H-5′a), 3.96 (1H, d, Jgem=12.5 Hz, H-5′b), 5.91 (1H, dd, J1′,2′=1.1 Hz and J2′,3′=5.9 Hz, H-2′), 6.30 (1H, dd, J1′,3′=2.0 Hz and J2′,3′=5.9 Hz, H-3′), 7.16–7.17 (1H, m, H-1′), 7.44 (1H, d, J6,Me=1.1 Hz, H-6), 9.06 (1H, br, NH);
FAB-MS m/z 249 (M++H). Anal. calcd for C12H12N2O4·1/6H2O: C, 57.37; H, 4.95; N, 11.15. Found: C, 57.36; H, 4.69; N, 10.98.
PAPER
Scalable Synthesis of the Potent HIV Inhibitor BMS-986001 by Non-Enzymatic Dynamic Kinetic Asymmetric Transformation (DYKAT)
Angewandte Chemie, International Edition (2015), 54, (24), 7185-7188.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/anie.201502290/abstract
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/store/10.1002/anie.201502290/asset/supinfo/anie_201502290_sm_miscellaneous_information.pdf?v=1&s=9c516d28bb61a8b090de88c2a75f5f50f060aaa9

Scalable Synthesis of the Potent HIV Inhibitor BMS-986001 by Non-Enzymatic Dynamic Kinetic Asymmetric Transformation (DYKAT)

  1. Chemical Development, Bristol-Myers Squibb, 1 Squibb Drive, New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (USA)
  • Chemical Development, Bristol-Myers Squibb, 1 Squibb Drive, New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (USA)

Described herein is the synthesis of BMS-986001 by employing two novel organocatalytic transformations: 1) a highly selective pyranose to furanose ring tautomerization to access an advanced intermediate, and 2) an unprecedented small-molecule-mediated dynamic kinetic resolution to access a variety of enantiopure pyranones, one of which served as a versatile building block for the multigram, stereoselective, and chromatography-free synthesis of BMS-986001. The synthesis required five chemical transformations and resulted in a 44 % overall yield.

white crystalline solid. 1: Rf = 0.8 (silica, MeOH:CH2Cl2,1:4);

M.P. = 196-207°C;

1 H NMR (d6-DMSO, 500 MHz): δ = 11.34 (s, 1 H), 6.88 (s, 1 H), 6.35 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 6.05 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 1 H), 5.45 (t, J = 5.5 Hz, 1 H), 3.69 (dd, J = 12.0, 1.5 Hz, 1 H), 3.64 (s, 1 H), 3.59 (dd, J = 12.0, 1.5 Hz, 1 H) 1.70 (s, 3 H) ppm;

13C NMR (d6-DMSO, 125 MHz): δ = 163.85, 150.82, 136.81, 135.54, 127.13, 109.04, 88.94, 86.60, 81.45, 77.39, 65.76, 12.23 ppm;

HRMS calcd for C12H12N2O4H+ [M + H+] 249.09 found 249.08.

PATENT

WO 2014172264

https://www.google.ch/patents/WO2014172264A1?cl=en

invention:

Step#l: Acetal Formation

Compound 1

85% yield

The starting material is 5-methylurdine, which is commercially available. The first step of the process is an acetal formation. 5-methyluridine is utilized and is treated with H2SO4 and acetaldehyde. Other acids available to the scientist, such as perchloric acid, will also work for this transformation. The solvent utilized for this step is acetonitrile (ACN), and other solvents may also be utilized as well. Once the starting material is consumed, a slurry is obtained and the product can be simply filtered off and dried to provide Compound 1 as a solid.

Acetal formation

Preparation of l-((3aR,4R,6R,6aR)-6-(hydroxymethyl)-2-methyltetrahydrofuro [3,4-d] [1,3] dioxol-4-yl)-5-methylpyrimidine-2,4(lH,3H)-dione

The following were added to a flask: 5-methyluridine (10 g, 38.70 mmol), acetonitrile (20 mL) and 70% perchloric acid (4.01 mL, 47.63 mmol). A solution of acetaldehyde (3.26 mL, 58.10 mmol) in acetonitrile (20 mL) was added dropwise over 1 h. The resulting solution was allowed to stir at 20 °C for 18 h. The resulting slurry was filtered and dried (50 °C, 25 mmHg) to afford Acetal (9.30 g, 84% yield) as white solid

XH NMR (400MHz, DMSO-d6) δ = 11.39 (s, 1H), 7.72 – 7.63 (m, 1H), 5.82 (d, J=3.0 Hz, 1H), 5.21 – 5.07 (m, 2H), 4.84 (dd, J=6.6, 2.5 Hz, 1H), 4.68 (dd, J=6.6, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 4.12 – 4.05 (m, 1H), 3.65 – 3.51 (m, 2H), 3.36 (s, 2H), 1.77 (s, 3H), 1.37 (d, J=5.1 Hz, 3H) 13C NMR (101MHz, DMSO-d6) δ = 163.77, 150.32, 137.64, 109.39, 104.50, 90.79, 86.16, 83.83, 81.37, 61.25, 19.76, 12.06

Step #2: Acetate protection

Compound 2

85% yield

The next step of the sequence is installation of a 4-biphenylacetate. Without being bound by any particular theory, this protecting step may be chosen for two reasons:

1) To provide a solid intermediate that can be easily isolated, and

2) Act as a directing group in the next step (set forth later on).

This reaction consists of reacting Compound 1 with 4-biphenyl acid chloride and pyridine in acetonitrile. In this reaction, pyridine is preferred as it allows the reaction to occur only at the -OH moiety of the molecule. It should also be noted that other polar solvents could be used, but acetonitrile allowed the desired product Compound 2 to be isolated as s solid.

Ac lation

Preparation of ((3aR,4R,6R,6aR)-2-methyl-6-(5-methyl-2,4-dioxo-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-l(2H)-yl)tetrahydrofuro[3,4-d] [l,3]dioxol-4-yl)methyl [1,1′-biphenyl]-4-carboxylate.

Acetal (9.30 g, 32 mmol) was dissolved into acetonitrile (100 mL). Pyridine (1.3 eq) was added followed by the addition of 4-biphenylcarbonyl chloride (1.05 eq). The solution was heated to 50 °C and held for 2 h. The slurry was cooled to 20 °C and held for 2 h. The slurry was filtered and washed with acetonitrile (100 mL). The solids were dried (50 °C, 25 mmHg) to Compound 2 (85% yield).

XH NMR (400MHz, CHLOROFORM-d) δ = 8.10 (d, J=8.1 Hz, 2H), 7.62 (d, J=7.6 Hz, 2H), 7.67 (d, J=8.1 Hz, 2H), 7.55 – 7.36 (m, 3H), 7.09 (s, 1H), 5.71 (s, 1H), 5.26 (q, J=4.7 Hz, 1H), 5.03 (dd, J=6.6, 2.0 Hz, 1H), 4.91 (dd, J=6.7, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.73 – 4.63 (m, 1H), 4.61 – 4.50 (m, 2H), 2.02 (s, 3H), 1.85 – 1.76 (m, 3H), 1.52 (d, J=4.8 Hz, 3H)

1JC MR (101MHz, CHLOROFORM-d) δ = 164.02, 161.94, 148.20, 144.18, 137.85, 135.89, 128.20, 127.05, 126.36, 126.30, 125.35, 125.26, 1 14.49, 109.20, 103.88, 92.51, 83.36, 83.29, 79.87, 75.45, 75.13, 74.81, 62.54, 17.92, 10.32, -0.01

With the acetal and 4-biphenylacetate groups in place, the next reaction is a regioselective acetal opening utilizing TMSOTf (Trimethylsilyl trifluoromethane sulfonate, or other available Lewis acids)/Et3N to afford the corresponding silyl ether, which is cleaved in situ, to afford the 2-vinyloxy compound as Compound 3. Compound 3 may be prepared in a step-wise fashion (shown below), but in order to reduce the number of steps, it is possible to take Compound 3 and selectively form the desired 2-vinyl oxy regioisomer Compound 3. Those skilled in the art may recognize that the 4-biphenylacetate can be important to obtain high selectivity for this transformation.

Although a variety of Lewis acids may be utilized, TMSOTf is generally found to be more effective. Et3 is also a preferred reactant, as other amine bases are generally less effective. The ratio of TMSOTf to Ets is preferably within the range of about 1 : 1.3; if the reaction medium became acidic, Compound 3 would revert back to Compound 2. In terms of solvents, DCM (Dichloromethane) may be particularly effective, but toluene, CF3-PI1, sulfolane, and DCE (Dichloroethene) are also effective. The reaction can be worked up using aqueous acid, preferably K2HP04, or methanolic NH4F to quench the reaction, as well as remove the TMS-ether in situ.

TMSOTf-opening

Preparation of ((2R,3R,4R,5R)-3-hydroxy-5-(5-methyl-2,4-dioxo-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-l(2H)-yl)-4-(vinyloxy)tetrahydrofuran-2-yl)methyl [1,1′-biphenyl]-4-carboxylate

Compound 2 (20 g, 43.06 mmol) was dissolved into DCM (160 mL). Triethylamine (78 mL, 560 mmol) was added followed by the addition of TMSOTf (80.30 mL, 431 mmol). This solution was heated to 45 °C and held there until complete by HPLC analysis (6 h). Once complete, this solution was added to ammonium acetate (66.40 g, 861 mmol) in water (200 mL). After stirring for 20 min, the layers were separated. The organics were concentrated and the resulting residue was dissolved into EtOAc (200 mL). The organics were washed with the following solution (potassium phosphate monobasic (118 g, 861 mmol) in water (400 mL). The organics were then dried ( a2S04), filtered and concentrated. The resulting residue was purified by column chromatography [Silica gel; 20% to 90% EtOAc in Hexanes] to afford Compound 3 (15.8 g, 79% yield) as a solid.

XH NMR (400MHz, CHLOROFORM-d) 6 = 9.18 (br. s., IH), 8.18 – 8.06 (m, 2H), 7.73 -7.56 (m, 4H), 7.55 – 7.38 (m, 3H), 7.24 (d, J=1.3 Hz, IH), 6.59 (dd, J=14.0, 6.4 Hz, IH), 5.81 (d, J=2.0 Hz, IH), 4.84 (dd, J=12.6, 2.5 Hz, IH), 4.63 (dd, J=12.5, 4.2 Hz, IH), 4.59 – 4.44 (m, 3H), 4.40 – 4.26 (m, 2H), 1.70 (d, J=1.0 Hz, 3H)

13C MR (101MHz, CHLOROFORM-d) δ = 166.13, 163.65, 150.00, 149.67, 146.39, 139.66, 135.67, 130.16, 129.01, 128.40, 128.06, 127.32, 127.28, 111.43, 91.93, 89.44, 81.60, 80.19, 69.32, 63.06, 12.32

Step #4: Iodiiiation

Compound 4

Compound 3 75% yie|d

Next, Compound 3 is transformed into the iodide compound which is Compound 4. This can be accomplished by treating Compound 3 with (2.0 eq), PPI13 (2.0 eq.) and imidazole (4.0 eq). Other methods to install the iodide may also be utilized, such as mesylation/Nal, etc., but these may be less preferred. In addition, other halogen-bearing compounds such as Br2 and CI2 may be considered by the skilled scientist. Premixing imidazole, , and PPh3, followed by addition of Compound 3 in THF and heating at 60 °C allows smooth conversion to Compound 4. It is highly preferred to add all reagents prior to the addition of Compound 3; if not, the vinyloxy group will be cleaved. Other solvents, such as 2-MeTHF and PhMe may be utilized, but THF often provides the best yield.

Iodiiiation

Preparation of ((2R,3S,4S,5R)-3-iodo-5-(5-methyl-2,4-dioxo-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-l(2H)-yl)-4-(vinyloxy)tetrahydrofuran-2-yl)methyl [l,l’-biphenyl]-4-carboxylate

The following were added to a flask: imidazole (8.79 g, 129 mmol),

triphenylphosphine (16.94 g, 65 mmol), iodine 16.39 g, 65 mmol) and THF (525 mL). A solution of Compound 3 (15 g, 32 mmol) in THF (375 mL) was added. The solution was heated to 60 °C and was held at 60 °C for 4 h. Once complete by HPLC analysis (4 h), the solution was concentrated and the residue was purified by column chromatography [Silica gel; 10% to 60% EtOAc in Hexanes] to afford Compound 4 (17.0 g, 92% yield) as a solid.

XH NMR (400MHz, CHLOROFORM-d) δ = 9.25 (br. s., IH), 8.16 (d, J=8.3 Hz, 2H), 7.75 – 7.61 (m, 5H), 7.54 – 7.40 (m, 3H), 7.32 – 7.24 (m, 2H), 7.23 – 7.16 (m, 2H), 6.56 -6.45 (m, IH), 6.06 (d, J=1.5 Hz, IH), 4.89 (s, IH), 4.66 (dd, J=12.0, 6.9 Hz, IH), 4.56 (dd, J=12.0, 3.9 Hz, IH), 4.46 (d, J=4.0 Hz, IH), 4.39 – 4.26 (m, 2H), 4.13 (dt, J=7.1, 3.8 Hz, 1H), 2.06 – 1.97 (m, 3H)

1JC MR (101MHz, CHLOROFORM-d) δ = 165.96, 163.94, 150.27, 149.29, 146.28, 139.81, 137.88, 135.84, 130.37, 129.06, 129.01, 128.34, 128.25, 127.94, 127.31, 127.22, 125.32, 1 11.07, 91.37, 90.32, 89.18, 78.43, 69.15, 25.81, 21.49, 12.71

Step #5: Iodide Elimination

Compound 4

The next step of the sequence is to install the allyic moiety. Heating a solution of Compound 4 in toluene in the presence of DABCO (l,4-Diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane) allows for elimination of the iodide. Other solvents, such as THF and DCE may be utilized, but toluene often provides the best conversion and yield. Other amine bases may be used in this transformation, but generally DABCO is preferred.

Elimination

Preparation of ((4R,5R)-5-(5-methyl-2,4-dioxo-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-l (2H)-yl)-4-(vinyloxy)-4,5-dihydrofuran-2-yl)methyl [l,l’-biphenyl]-4-carboxylate

Compound 4 (17 g, 30 mmol) was dissolved into toluene (255 niL), and DABCO (10 g, 89 mmol) was added. The solution was heated to 90 °C and held there for 2 h. Once complete, the organics were washed with sat. aq. a2S203 (200 mL). The organics were then dried ( a2S04), filtered, and concentrated. The resulting residue was purified by column chromatography [Silica gel; 5% to 60% EtOAc in Hexanes] to yield

Compound 5 (10.9, 85% yield) as a foam.

XH NMR (400MHz, CHLOROFORM-d) δ = 8.93 (br. s., IH), 8.18 – 8.11 (m, 2H), 7.75 -7.61 (m, 5H), 7.55 – 7.39 (m, 4H), 6.95 (d, J=1.0 Hz, IH), 6.54 (d, J=2.0 Hz, IH), 6.46 (dd, J=14.3, 6.7 Hz, IH), 5.53 (d, J=2.5 Hz, IH), 5.09 (d, J=2.8 Hz, IH), 5.04 (d, J=6.6 Hz, 2H), 4.29 (dd, J=14.3, 2.4 Hz, IH), 4.23 (dd, J=6.7, 2.4 Hz, IH), 1.88 (d, J=1.0 Hz, 3H)

1JC MR (101MHz, CHLOROFORM-d) δ = 165.73, 159.58, 149.10, 146.49, 139.70, 134.51, 132.17, 132.07, 131.94, 131.92, 130.30, 129.01, 128.56, 128.44, 128.40, 127.73, 127.30, 127.28, 112.50, 99.16, 90.57, 90.23, 84.81, 58.68, 12.44

Step #6: Claisen Rearrangement

An important reaction in the sequence is the Claisen rearrangement. This reaction is utilized to install the quaternary stereocenter and the olefin geometry in the ring. Heating Compound 5 in benzonitrile at 190 °C for 2-3 hours allows for smooth conversion to Compound 6, and after chromatography, a 90% yield can be achieved.

Toluene (110 °C, 8 h) also works to provide the desired Compound 6 as a solid by simply cooling the reaction to 20 °C (no chromatography). Other solvents with boiling points over about 100°C may also be utilized.

Claisen Rearrangement

Preparation of ((2S,5R)-5-(5-methyl-2,4-dioxo-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-l(2H)-yl)-2-(2-oxoethyl)-2,5-dihydrofuran-2-yl)methyl [l,l’-biphenyl]-4-carboxylate

Compound 5 (1 mmol) was dissolved into benzonitrile (10 mL). The solution was heated to 190 °C for 3 h. After cooling to 20 °C, the solution was purified by column chromatography [silica gel, 50:50 Hexanes:EtOAc] to afford Compound 6 (1 mmol).

Alternatively, Compound 5 (1 mmol) was dissolved into toluene (10 mL). The solution was heated to 110 °C and held for 12 h. Upon cooling to 20 °C, a slurry formed. The solids were filtered, washed (PhMe) and dried (50 °C, 25 mmHg) to afford

Compound 6 (1 mmol) as a white solid.

XH NMR (400MHz, CHLOROFORM-d) δ = 9.84 (t, J=1.8 Hz, 1H), 8.53 (br. s., 1H), 8.13 – 8.03 (m, J=8.3 Hz, 2H), 7.73 – 7.67 (m, 2H), 7.67 – 7.60 (m, 2H), 7.56 – 7.38 (m, 3H), 7.14 (d, J=1.3 Hz, 1H), 7.04 (t, J=1.5 Hz, 1H), 6.57 (dd, J=6.1, 2.0 Hz, 1H), 6.02 (dd, J=5.9, 1.1 Hz, 1H), 4.68 – 4.52 (m, 2H), 3.06 – 2.89 (m, 2H), 1.59 (d, J=1.0 Hz, 3H)

13C MR (101MHz, CHLOROFORM-d) δ = 198.33, 165.83, 163.35, 150.65, 146.56, 139.63, 136.24, 135.02, 130.21, 129.04, 128.44, 127.86, 127.49, 127.41, 127.28, 111.59, 90.03, 89.61, 67.33, 50.06, 12.06

ne Formation via elimination of Enol Nonaflate

The alkyne formation is performed by first treating Compound 6 with TMSCl (Trimethylsilyl chloride)/Et3N. NfF (Nonafluoro- 1 -butanesulfonyl fluoride) and P-base () are then added at -20 °C. After warming to 20 °C, the desired alkyne Compound 7 can be isolated in about 80 % yield. Initially, TMSCl is presumed to react at the NH moiety. NfF/P-base then reacts with the aldehyde to form the enol Nonaflate. Upon warming to 20 °C in the presence of P-base, the enol Nonaflate eliminates smoothly to the alkyne Compound 7. Without the TMSCl/Et3N, the yields are only -25%.

Alkyne formation

Preparation of ((2R,5R)-2-ethynyl-5-(5-methyl-2,4-dioxo-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-l(2H)-yl)-2,5-dihydrofuran-2-yl)methyl [l,l’-biphenyl]-4-carboxylate

Compound 6 (1 g, 2.24 mmol) was dissolved into DMF (Dimethylformamide) (5 mL). (Other polar solvents could also have been used.) Triethylamine (406 uL, 2.91 mmol) was added and the solution was cooled to 0 °C. TMSCl (314 uL, 2.46 mmol) was added and the solution was allowed to stir at 0 °C for 30 min. The solution was then cooled to -20 °C, and NfF (484 uL, 2.69 mmol) was added and the solution was allowed to stir at -20 °C for 5 min. Phosphazane P l-base (1.54 mL, 4.93 mmol) was added

dropwise over 20 min. The solution was then allowed to warm to 20 °C and held for 20 h. The solution was then poured into water (50 mL) and extracted with DCM (100 mL). The organics were concentrated and the resulting residue was purified by column chromatography [Silica gel; 10% to 60% EtOAc in Hexanes] to afford Compound 7 (816 mg, 85% yield) as a solid.

XH NMR (400MHz, DMSO-d6) δ = 11.46 (s, 1H), 8.08 – 7.97 (m, J=8.6 Hz, 2H), 7.92 -7.80 (m, 2H), 7.73 (d, J=7.1 Hz, 2H), 7.59 – 7.39 (m, 3H), 7.06 (d, J=1.0 Hz, 1H), 6.89 (d, J=1.5 Hz, 1H), 6.61 (dd, J=5.6, 2.0 Hz, 1H), 6.23 (dd, J=5.6, 1.0 Hz, 1H), 4.66 (d, J=12.1 Hz, lH), 4.57 (d, J=11.6 Hz, 1H), 3.87 (s, 1H), 1.37 (s, 3H)

13C MR (101MHz, DMSO-d6) δ = 164.89, 163.57, 150.61, 145.13, 138.73, 135.30, 134.40, 129.94, 129.12, 128.49, 127.84, 127.78, 127.18, 126.98, 110.01, 89.37, 83.69, 80.01, 78.23, 66.89, 11.46

90% yield

The final step of the sequence is to remove the aromatic ester protecting group. This consists of hydrolysis by NaOH in aq. THF solution. The API is extracted into THF and then crystallized from THF/PhMe.

Deprotection

Preparation of l-((2R,5R)-5-ethynyl-5-(hydroxymethyl)-2,5-dihydrofuran-2-yl)-5-methylpyrimidine-2,4(lH,3H)-dione (Ed4T)

Compound 7 (10 g, 23.40 mmol) was dissolved into THF (100 mL). 3N NaOH (10 mL) was added. The solution was allowed to stir at 20 °C for 12 h. The layers were split and the organics were kept. The organics were concentrated to reach a KF <1 wt%. Toluene (100 mL) was added, and solids crashed out of solution. The solids were filtered and washed with Toluene (100 mL). The solids were then dried (50 °C, 25 mmHg) to afford Festinavir (5.21 g, 90% yield) as a white solid.

XH NMR (400MHz, DMSO-d6) δ = 1 1.36 (s, 1H), 7.58 (s, 1H), 6.89 (s, 1H), 6.36 (d, J=6.1 Hz, 1H), 6.05 (d, J=6.1 Hz, 1H), 5.48 (t, J=5.6 Hz, 1H), 3.78 – 3.49 (m, 3H), 3.46 3.31 (m, 1H), 1.71 (s, 3H)

1JC MR (101MHz, DMSO-d6) δ = 163.80, 150.76, 136.75, 135.47, 127.06, 108.98, 88.87, 86.52, 81.37, 77.33, 65.68, 12.17.

PAPER

Tetrahedron (2009), 65(36), 7630-7636.

Volume 65, Issue 36, 5 September 2009, Pages 7630–7636

Synthesis of (±)-4′-ethynyl-5′,5′-difluoro-2′,3′-dehydro-3′-deoxy- carbocyclic thymidine: a difluoromethylidene analogue of promising anti-HIV agent Ed4T

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tet.2009.06.095

PAPER

Nucleophilic Substitution at the 4‘-Position of Nucleosides: New Access to a Promising Anti-HIV Agent 2‘,3‘-Didehydro-3‘-deoxy-4‘-ethynylthymidine

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Showa University, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 142-8555, Japan
J. Org. Chem., 2006, 71 (12), pp 4433–4438
DOI: 10.1021/jo060194m

Journal of Organic Chemistry (2006), 71(12), 4433-4438.

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jo060194m

Abstract Image

For the synthesis of 2‘,3‘-didehydro-3‘-deoxy-4‘-ethynylthymidine (8:  4‘-Ed4T), a recently reported promising anti-HIV agent, a new approach was developed. Since treatment of 1-(2,5-dideoxy-β-lglycero-pent-4-enofuranosyl)thymine with Pb(OBz)4 allowed the introduction of the 4‘-benzoyloxy leaving group, nucleophilic substitution at the 4‘-position became feasible for the first time. Thus, reaction between the 4‘-benzoyloxy derivative (14) and Me3SiC⋮CAl(Et)Cl as a nucleophile led to the isolation of the desired 4‘-“down”-ethynyl derivative (18) stereoselectively in 62% yield. As an application of this approach, other 4‘-substituted nucleosides, such as the 4‘-allyl (24a) and 4‘-cyano (26a) derivatives, were synthesized using organosilicon reagents. In these instances, pretreatment of 14 with MeAlCl2 was necessary.

figure

PATENTS

US75890782009-09-15Anti-viral nucleoside analogs and methods for treating viral infections, especially HIV infections

Patent ID Date Patent Title
US2016060252 2016-03-03 5-METHYLURIDINE METHOD FOR PRODUCING FESTINAVIR
US2015140610 2015-05-21 SULFILIMINE AND SULPHOXIDE METHODS FOR PRODUCING FESTINAVIR
US2015104511 2015-04-16 Pharmaceutical Antiretroviral Combinations Comprising Lamivudine, Festinavir and Nevirapine
US8927237 2015-01-06 Method for producing acyloxypyranone compound, method for producing alkyne compound, and method for producing dihydrofuran compound
US2012322995 2012-12-20 beta-DIHYDROFURAN DERIVING COMPOUND, METHOD FOR PRODUCING beta-DIHYDROFURAN DERIVING COMPOUND OR beta-TETRAHYDROFURAN DERIVING COMPOUND, beta-GLYCOSIDE COMPOUND, METHOD FOR PRODUCING beta GLYCOSIDE COMPOUND, AND METHOD FOR PRODUCING 4′-ETHYNYL D4T AND ANALOGUE COMPOUNDS THEREOF
US2012252751 2012-10-04 ANTI-VIRAL NUCLEOSIDE ANALOGS AND METHODS FOR TREATING VIRAL INFECTIONS, ESPECIALLY HIV INFECTIONS
US8193165 2012-06-05 Anti-viral nucleoside analogs and methods for treating viral infections, especially HIV infections
US2011312880 2011-12-22 POTENT CHIMERIC NRTI-NNRTI BIFUNCTIONAL INHIBITORS OF HIV-1 REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE
US2011054164 2011-03-03 PRODUCTION PROCESS OF ETHYNYLTHYMIDINE COMPOUNDS FROM 5-METHYLURIDINE AS A STARTING MATERIAL
US2010280235 2010-11-04 METHOD FOR PRODUCING 4’ETHYNYL d4T

/////////BMS 986001, 634907-30-5, UNII: 6IE83O6NGA, OBP 601, 4′-Ethynyl D4T, 4′-Ed4T, TDK-4-114, PHASE 2

Cc1cn(c(=O)[nH]c1=O)[C@H]2C=C[C@](O2)(CO)C#C

Glecaprevir (ABT-493)


Image result for Glecaprevir

2D chemical structure of 1365970-03-1

ChemSpider 2D Image | Glecaprevir | C38H46F4N6O9S

str1

Glecaprevir (ABT-493), A-1282576.0

(3aR,7S,10S,12R,21E,24aR)-7-tert-butyl-N-((1R,2R)-2-(difluoromethyl)-1-((1-methylcyclopropane-1-sulfonyl)carbamoyl)cyclopropyl)-20,20-difluoro-5,8-dioxo-2,3,3a,5,6,7,8,11,12,20,23,24a-dodecahydro-1H,10H-9,12-methanocyclopenta(18,19)(1,10,17,3,6)trioxadiazacyclononadecino(11,12-b)quinoxaline-10-carboxamide

Cyclopropanecarboxamide, N-((((1R,2R)-2-((4,4-difluoro-4-(3-hydroxy-2-quinoxalinyl)-2-buten-1-yl)oxy)cyclopentyl)oxy)carbonyl)-3-methyl-L-valyl-(4R)-4-hydroxy-L-prolyl-1-amino-2-(difluoromethyl)-N-((1-methylcyclopropyl)sulfonyl)-, cyclic (1-&gt;2)-ether, (1R,2R)-
CAS RN: 1365970-03-1
UNII: K6BUU8J72P

Molecular Formula, C38-H46-F4-N6-O9-S

Molecular Weight, 838.8724

Classification Code, Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis C Infection

(1R,14E,18R,22R,26S,29S)-N-[(1R,2R)-2-(Difluormethyl)-1-{[(1-methylcyclopropyl)sulfonyl]carbamoyl}cyclopropyl]-13,13-difluor-26-(2-methyl-2-propanyl)-24,27-dioxo-2,17,23-trioxa-4,11,25,28-tetraazapent ;acyclo[26.2.1.03,12.05,10.018,22]hentriaconta-3,5(10),6,8,11,14-hexaen-29-carboxamid
(1R,14E,18R,22R,26S,29S)-N-[(1R,2R)-2-(Difluoromethyl)-1-{[(1-methylcyclopropyl)sulfonyl]carbamoyl}cyclopropyl]-13,13-difluoro-26-(2-methyl-2-propanyl)-24,27-dioxo-2,17,23-trioxa-4,11,25,28-tetraazape ;ntacyclo[26.2.1.03,12.05,10.018,22]hentriaconta-3,5(10),6,8,11,14-hexaene-29-carboxamide
Class Antivirals (small molecules)
Mechanism Of Action Hepatitis C virus NS3 protein inhibitors
Who Atc Codes J05A-E (Protease inhibitors)
Ephmra Codes J5B1 (Viral hepatitis products)
Indication Hepatitis C, Renal Impairment, Hepatic impairment
  • Originator AbbVie; Enanta Pharmaceuticals
  • Developer AbbVie
  • Class Antivirals; Aza compounds; Cyclic ethers; Cyclopentanes; Cyclopropanes; Quinoxalines; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action Hepatitis C virus NS3 protein inhibitors
  • Phase II Hepatitis C

Most Recent Events

  • 18 Apr 2016 Pooled efficacy and adverse event data from the phase II SURVEYOR-I and SURVEYOR-2 trials for Hepatitis C presented at The International Liver Congress™ 2016 (ILC-2016)
  • 15 Apr 2016 Updated efficacy data from a phase II MAGELLAN 1 study were reported by Enanta Pharmaceuticals
  • 15 Apr 2016 Updated safety and efficacy data from a phase II MAGELLAN 1 study were presented at the International Liver Congress™ (ILC-2016)
  • OCT 2016, US FDA grants breakthrough therapy designation to AbbVie’s G/P to treat HCV 

AbbVie’s investigational, pan-genotypic regimen of glecaprevir (ABT-493) / pibrentasvir (ABT-530) (G/P) has received breakthrough therapy designation from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV).

Image result for Glecaprevir

str1

HCV is the principal cause of non-A, non-B hepatitis and is an increasingly severe public health problem both in the developed and developing world. It is estimated that the virus infects over 200 million people worldwide, surpassing the number of individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by nearly five fold. HCV infected patients, due to the high percentage of individuals inflicted with chronic infections, are at an elevated risk of developing cirrhosis of the liver, subsequent hepatocellular carcinoma and terminal liver disease. HCV is the most prevalent cause of hepatocellular cancer and cause of patients requiring liver transplantations in the western world.

There are considerable barriers to the development of anti-HCV therapeutics, which include, but are not limited to, the persistence of the virus, the genetic diversity of the virus during replication in the host, the high incident rate of the virus developing drug-resistant mutants, and the lack of reproducible infectious culture systems and small-animal models for HCV replication and pathogenesis. In a majority of cases, given the mild course of the infection and the complex biology of the liver, careful consideration must be given to antiviral drugs, which are likely to have significant side effects.

Only two approved therapies for HCV infection are currently available. The original treatment regimen generally involves a 3-12 month course of intravenous interferon-α (IFN-α), while a new approved second-generation treatment involves co-treatment with IFN-α and the general antiviral nucleoside mimics like ribavirin. Both of these treatments suffer from interferon related side effects as well as low efficacy against HCV infections. There exists a need for the development of effective antiviral agents for treatment of HCV infection due to the poor tolerability and disappointing efficacy of existing therapies.

In a patient population where the majority of individuals are chronically infected and asymptomatic and the prognoses are unknown, an effective drug would desirably possess significantly fewer side effects than the currently available treatments. The hepatitis C non-structural protein-3 (NS3) is a proteolytic enzyme required for processing of the viral polyprotein and consequently viral replication. Despite the huge number of viral variants associated with HCV infection, the active site of the NS3 protease remains highly conserved thus making its inhibition an attractive mode of intervention. Recent success in the treatment of HIV with protease inhibitors supports the concept that the inhibition of NS3 is a key target in the battle against HCV.

HCV is a flaviridae type RNA virus. The HCV genome is enveloped and contains a single strand RNA molecule composed of circa 9600 base pairs. It encodes a polypeptide comprised of approximately 3010 amino acids.

The HCV polyprotein is processed by viral and host peptidase into 10 discreet peptides which serve a variety of functions. There are three structural proteins, C, E1 and E2. The P7 protein is of unknown function and is comprised of a highly variable sequence. There are six non-structural proteins. NS2 is a zinc-dependent metalloproteinase that functions in conjunction with a portion of the NS3 protein. NS3 incorporates two catalytic functions (separate from its association with NS2): a serine protease at the N-terminal end, which requires NS4A as a cofactor, and an ATP-ase-dependent helicase function at the carboxyl terminus. NS4A is a tightly associated but non-covalent cofactor of the serine protease.

The NS3/4A protease is responsible for cleaving four sites on the viral polyprotein. The NS3-NS4A cleavage is autocatalytic, occurring in cis. The remaining three hydrolyses, NS4A-NS4B, NS4B-NS5A and NS5A-NS5B all occur in trans. NS3 is a serine protease which is structurally classified as a chymotrypsin-like protease. While the NS serine protease possesses proteolytic activity by itself, the HCV protease enzyme is not an efficient enzyme in terms of catalyzing polyprotein cleavage. It has been shown that a central hydrophobic region of the NS4A protein is required for this enhancement. The complex formation of the NS3 protein with NS4A seems necessary to the processing events, enhancing the proteolytic efficacy at all of the sites.

A general strategy for the development of antiviral agents is to inactivate virally encoded enzymes, including NS3, that are essential for the replication of the virus. Current efforts directed toward the discovery of NS3 protease inhibitors were reviewed by S. Tan, A. Pause, Y. Shi, N. Sonenberg, Hepatitis C Therapeutics: Current Status and Emerging Strategies, Nature Rev. Drug Discov. 1, 867-881 (2002).

PATENT

US 20120070416

Yat Sun Or, Jun Ma, Guoqiang Wang, Jiang Long, Bin Wang 

Enanta Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Example 6Compound of Formula VIII, Wherein

Figure US20120070416A1-20120322-C01583

Step 6a

Figure US20120070416A1-20120322-C01584

The acid 1-6a (21 mg, 0.0356 mmol) was dissolved in DCM (1.5 ml), and to this solution was added sulfonamide 1-7e (13.0 mg, 0.0463 mmol), HATU (17.6 mg, 0.0462 mmol) and DIPEA (12.4 ul, 0.0712 mmol). The mixture was stirred for 3 h, and then diluted with DCM. The organic layer was washed with 1 N HCl, water, brine, dried and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified by HPLC to afford the title compound. MS-ESI m/z 839.41 (M+H)+.

REFERENCES

http://aac.asm.org/content/60/3/1546.full

////////////glecaprevir, ABT-493, US FDA, breakthrough therapy designation,  AbbVie’s G/P,  treat HCV , PHASE 2, A-1282576.0, 1365970-03-1, US 20120070416

CC1(CC1)S(=O)(=O)NC(=O)[C@]2(C[C@H]2C(F)F)NC(=O)[C@@H]3C[C@@H]4CN3C(=O)[C@@H](NC(=O)O[C@@H]5CCC[C@H]5OC/C=C/C(c6c(nc7ccccc7n6)O4)(F)F)C(C)(C)C

Image result for Glecaprevir

US FDA grants breakthrough therapy designation to AbbVie’s G/P to treat HCV

Image result for Glecaprevir

4 October 2016

AbbVie’s investigational, pan-genotypic regimen of glecaprevir (ABT-493) / pibrentasvir (ABT-530) (G/P) has received breakthrough therapy designation from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV).

The HCV is a bloodborne virus commonly transmitted through injecting drug use due to the sharing of injection equipment, reuse or inadequate sterilisation of medical equipment, and the transfusion of unscreened blood and blood products.

The designation facilitates the use of AbbVie’s G/P to treat chronic HCV patients who failed previous therapy with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) in genotype 1 (GT1), including therapy with an NS5A inhibitor and / or protease inhibitor.

AbbVie research and development executive vice-president Michael Severino said: “AbbVie is committed to advancing HCV care and addressing areas of continued unmet need for people living with chronic HCV.

“AbbVie is committed to advancing HCV care and addressing areas of continued unmet need for people living with chronic HCV.”

“The FDA’s breakthrough therapy designation is an important step in our effort to bring our pan-genotypic regimen to market, which we are also investigating as an eight-week path to virologic cure for the majority of patients.”

AbbVie said that G/P is currently in Phase III trials evaluating the safety and efficacy of the regimen across all major HCV genotypes (genotypes 1-6).

Figures released by the World Health Organisation revealed that an estimated 700,000 people die each year from hepatitis C-related liver diseases.

There is currently no vaccine for hepatitis C, although research in this area is underway at present.

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