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ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY

Read all about Organic Spectroscopy on ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY INTERNATIONAL 

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK LIFE SCIENCES LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 PLUS year tenure till date June 2021, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 90 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, 233 countries, 7 continents, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 33 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 233 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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Rabeximod, ROB 803, 


Rabeximod.png
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ChemSpider 2D Image | rabeximod | C22H24ClN5O

Rabeximod, ROB 803

C22H24ClN5O,  409.92

2-(9-chloro-2,3-dimethylindolo[3,2-b]quinoxalin-6-yl)-N-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]acetamide

CAS 872178-65-9UNII-J4D3K58W3Z, рабексимод , رابيكسيمود 雷贝莫德 
6H-Indolo[2,3-b]quinoxaline-6-acetamide, 9-chloro-N-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-2,3-dimethyl-
872178-65-9[RN]8866, J4D3K58W3Z

  • OriginatorOxyPharma
  • DeveloperCyxone; University of California
  • ClassAcetamides; Anti-inflammatories; Disease-modifying antirheumatics; Heterocyclic compounds with 4 or more rings; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of ActionCell differentiation modulators; Macrophage inhibitors
  • Phase IICOVID 2019 infections; Rheumatoid arthritis
  • 12 Oct 2021Cyxone terminates a phase-II trial in COVID-2019 infections in Slovakia (PO) (EudraCT2020-004571-41)
  • 10 Aug 2021Cyxone completes a phase-II trial in COVID-2019 infections in Slovakia (PO) (EudraCT2020-004571-41)
  • 23 Feb 2021Phase-II clinical trials in COVID-2019 infections in Slovakia (PO) (EudraCT2020-004571-41)

SYN

US 20050288296

https://patents.google.com/patent/US20050288296

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AS ON DEC2021 3,491,869 VIEWS ON BLOG WORLDREACH AVAILABLEFOR YOUR ADVERTISEMENT

SYN

 WO 2014140321 

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2014140321A1/en Example 29-chloro-7V- [2-(dimethylamino)ethyl] -2,3-dimethyl-6H-Indolo [2,3-6] quinoxaline-6- acetamide

Figure imgf000025_0001

This compound was prepared as described in PCT/SE2005/000718 (WO 2005/123741), cf. “Compound E” at page 12 of said WO pamphlet.SYNWO 2005/123741https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2005123741

Compound E

9-Chloro-2,3-dimerthyl-6-(N,N-dimethylaminoethylamino-2-oxoethyl)-6H-indolo- [2,3-b]quinoxaline (R1=Cl, R2=CH3, X=CO, Y=NH-CH2-CH2-R3; R3=NR5R6;

R5=R6=CH3)

Yield: 58%; 1H-NMR δ: 8.29 (d, 1H), 8.23 (t, 1H), 7.98 (s, 1H), 7.82 (s, 1H), 7.71

(dd, 1H), 7.61 (d, 1H), 5.09 (s, 2H), 3,16 (q, 2H), 2.47 (s, 6H), 2.28 (t, 2H), 2,12

(s, 6H);

SYN

Rabeximod is an orally administered compound for treatment of moderate or severe active rheumatoid arthritis that is currently undergoing phase II clinical testing in eight European countries.

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////////////////////////////////////////

PATENT

The compound rabeximod has been described in European patent application publication EP1756111A1 later granted as EP1756111 B1. The preparation of rabex imod, as compound E, is specifically described in EP1756111A1 as a small-scale process without any description on how to develop a process that can be used for GMP and upscaled. Rabeximod was made in a 58% yield in a small-scale lab pro cess, but no parameters for scaling up have been disclosed.

The objective of the present invention is to provide a process that is suitable for large scale synthesis in good yield, with stable process parameters, and suitable for GMP production.

Experimental

The current process to manufacture Rabeximod involves several process steps as illustrated in below reaction scheme and as described in detail hereunder.

Manufacturing Process OXY001-01 Intermediate

Starting materials: 5-Chloroisatin (CIDO) and 4,5-Dimethyl-1 ,2-phenylenediamine (DAX)

Table 1: Overview Required Raw Materials and Quantities Step 1 

Table 2: Raw Materials Specifications Step 1

Resulting Product (Intermediate): OXY001-01

Batch size: 13.03 kg of OXY001-01

Process description: 4,5-Dimethyl-1 ,2-phenylenediamine (1.1 equivalent) was added to acetic acid (4.7 volumes) in reactor (reactor was running under nitrogen at atmospheric pressure) and stirred up to 3 hours at moderate rate at +20 to +25 °C until clear dark brown solution was formed. 4, 5-Dimethyl-1 ,2-phenylenediamine so lution in acetic acid solution was transferred to intermediate feeding vessel. 5-chloro-isatin (1 .0 equivalent) was added to acetic acid (14.3 volumes) in reactor and stirred while jacket temperature of reactor was adjusted to approximately +150 °C to achieve a reflux temperature for active reflux of solvents. When reflux temperature was reached the 4, 5-Dimethyl-1 ,2-phenylenediamine solution in acetic acid was slowly added over 2-3 hours while distilling acetic acid (4.7 volumes) from the reaction mix ture. A fresh portion of acetic acid (4.7 volumes) was added to the reactor at about the same rate as distillation (4.7 volumes) occurred. After distillation the reaction mixture was stirred at reflux temperature for at least another 2 hours. The expected appearance of content in the reactor was a dark yellow to orange slurry. The reaction mixture was cooled to +65 to +70 °C and filtered using a Nutsche filter using Polyes ter filter cloth (27 pm) or similar as filter media. The filter cake was washed 3 times with fresh ethanol (3 x 4.2 volumes) and 1 time with water (1 x 4.2 volume). After washing the filter cake was dried at +40 to +45 °C for 12 hours and additionally in a vacuum tray dryer for 12 hours at +40 °C resulting in a yellow to orange/brown solid. An in-process control sample was taken and analysed for loss on drying (LOD). LOD should be < 2% (w/w). If the LOD is > 2%, the vacuum tray dryer step was repeated.

Theoretical yield: 18.62 kg

Yield: 70±5% (13.03±0.96kg)

Maximum volume: 216 L

Manufacturing Process OXY001-03 HCI Intermediate

CAC DMEN OXY001-03 HCI

Starting materials: Chloroacetyl chloride (CAC) and N,N-Dimethylethylene diamine (DMEN)

Table 3: Overview Required Raw Materials and Quantities Step 2

a) mol//mol of DMEN; b) kg/kg of DMEN; c) L/kg of DMEN

Table 4: Raw Materials Specifications Step 2

Resulting Product (Intermediate): OXY001-03 HCI

Batch size: 22.6 kg of OXY001 -03 HCI

Process description: Chloroacetyl chloride (1.03 equivalents) was dissolved in ethyl acetate (15 volumes) in reactor (reactor was running under nitrogen at atmos pheric pressure) at +20 °C. The solution was stirred and cooled down to +10 °C.

N,N-dimethylethylene diamine (1.00 equivalent) solution in ethyl acetate (1.0 volume) was slowly charged to the reactor when the temperature reached a range from +10 to +25 °C and at such a rate over 1-2 hours that the internal temperature did not exceed +25 °C. The slurry was stirred for 5 to 30 minutes at +20 to +25 °C and filtered using a Nutch filter using Polyamide filter cloth (25 pm) or similar as filter media. The product was washed 3 times on the filter with ethyl acetate (3 x 5 volumes) and dried on the filter for at least 16 hours and additionally in a vacuum tray dryer for 12 hours at +40 °C resulting in an off-white to beige solid.

Theoretical yield: 25.09 kg

Yield: 90±5% (22.6±1 .25 kg)

Maximum volume: 202 L

Manufacturing Process OXY001 Crude


– OXY001 Crude Starting materials: OXY001-01 and OXY001-03 HCI

Table 5: Overview Required Raw Materials and Quantities Step 3

Table 6: Raw/Intermediate Materials Specifications Step 3

Resulting Product: OXY001 Crude (crude rabeximod) Batch size: 11.38 kg of OXY001 Crude

Process description: OXY001-01 (1.0 equivalent) was dissolved in tetrahydrofuran (15.4 volumes) and 50% NaOH aqueous solution (8.0 equivalents in relation to OXY001 -01 ) in reactor (reactor was running under nitrogen at atmospheric pressure) and mixed at +55 to +60 °C up to approximately 1 hour until clear dark red solution was formed. Potassium iodide (0.81 equivalents) was added under vigorous stirring and mixed for 10 to 30 minutes at +55 to +60 °C. OXY001-03 HCI (2.0 equivalents) was added to the solution and mixed for at least 2 hours at +55 to +60 °C. Following completion of the reaction, the mixture was quenched with water (15.4 volumes) and tetrahydrofuran removed (15.4 volumes) by evaporation under reduced pressure. The slurry was cooled to +20 to +25 °C and stirred for 1 hour and filtered with a Nutch filter using Polyamide filter cloth (25 pm) or similar as filter media. Resulting cake was washed 3 times with water (3 x 5 volumes) until the pH of the filtrate was between 8-7 and dried on the filter at +40 to +45 °C for at least 12 hours by air suction and additionally in a vacuum tray dryer for 12 hours at +40 °C. Afterwards resulting ma terial was suspended in in tetrahydrofuran (25 volumes) at +45 to +50 °C for at least 1 hour. OXY001 Crude was isolated by filtration with a Nutch filter using Polyamide filter cloth (25 pm) or similar as filter media and washed 2 times on the filter with tetrahydrofuran (2 x 7 volumes). Resulting cake was dried on the filter at +40 to +45 °C for at least 12 hours and additionally in a vacuum tray dryer for 12 hours at +40 °C.

Theoretical yield: 18.96 kg

Yield: 60±5% (11 38±0.95 kg)

Maximum volume: 500 L

Purification of crude Rabeximod:

OXY001 crude (1 .0 equivalent) was dissolved in tetrahydrofuran (10 volumes), water (3 volume), and 2M HCI (1.4 volumes) mixture. The solution was clear filtered and heated to +50 °C. pH of mixture was adjusted to 10-12 by addition of 2M NaOH (1.3 volume). The formed slurry was cooled to +20 to +25 °C and diluted with water (12 volumes).

After stirring for at least 12 hours the slurry was filtered at +20 to +25 °C and washed on the filter with tetrahydrofuran:water (5:2) mixture (2×3 volumes). Rabeximod has a molecular weight of 409.92 g/mol and is isolated as a crystalline free base having a melting point of 259-261 °C.

Batch release results of batches used in Phase 2 and Phase 1 clinical studies are provided in Table 7.

Purity is equal to or above 98% as measured by HPLC.

Table 7: Batch release results of Rabeximod drug substance batches used in Phase 1 and phase 2 clinical studies

/////////////////Rabeximod, ROB 803, UNII-J4D3K58W3Z, рабексимод , رابيكسيمود 雷贝莫德 ,OXYPHARMA, PHASE 2, CYXONE

CC1=CC2=C(C=C1C)N=C3C(=N2)C4=C(N3CC(=O)NCCN(C)C)C=CC(=C4)Cl

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AUPM 170, CA 170, PD-1-IN-1


str1
 https://www.nature.com/articles/s42003-021-02191-1
str1
str1

(2S,3R)-2-(3-((S)-3-amino-1-(3-((R)-1-amino-2-hydroxyethyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl)-3-oxopropyl)ureido)-3-hydroxybutanoic acid

CA-170
GLXC-15291
str1
PD-1-IN-1 Chemical Structure
Molecular Weight (MW) 360.33
Formula C12H20N6O7
CAS No. 1673534-76-3

N-[[[(1S)-3-Amino-1-[3-[(1R)-1-amino-2-hydroxyethyl]-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]-3-oxopropyl]amino]carbonyl]-L-threonine

L-Threonine, N-[[[(1S)-3-amino-1-[3-[(1R)-1-amino-2-hydroxyethyl]-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]-3-oxopropyl]amino]carbonyl]-

 AUPM 170, CA 170, AUPM-170, CA-170, PD-1-IN-1

Novel inhibitor of programmed cell dealth-1 (PD-1)

CA-170 (also known as AUPM170 or PD-1-IN-1) is a first-in-class, potent and orally available small molecule inhibitor of the immune checkpoint regulatory proteins PD-L1 (programmed cell death ligand-1), PD-L2 and VISTA (V-domain immunoglobulin (Ig) suppressor of T-cell activation (programmed death 1 homolog; PD-1H). CA-170 was discovered by Curis Inc. and has potential antineoplastic activities. CA-170 selectively targets PD-L1 and VISTA, both of which function as negative checkpoint regulators of immune activation. Curis is currently investigating CA-170 for the treatment of advanced solid tumours and lymphomas in patients in a Phase 1 trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02812875).

References: www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02812875); WO 2015033299 A1 20150312.

Aurigene Discovery Technologies Limited INNOVATOR

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CURIS AND AURIGENE ANNOUNCE AMENDMENT OF COLLABORATION FOR THE DEVELOPMENT AND COMMERCIALIZATION OF CA-170

PRESS RELEASE

https://www.aurigene.com/curis-and-aurigene-announce-amendment-of-collaboration-for-the-development-and-commercialization-of-ca-170/

Curis and Aurigene Announce Amendment of Collaboration for the Development and Commercialization of CA-170

– Aurigene to fund and conduct a Phase 2b/3 randomized study of CA-170 in patients with non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (nsNSCLC) –

– Aurigene to receive Asia rights for CA-170; Curis entitled to royalty payments in Asia –

LEXINGTON, Mass., February 5, 2020 /PRNewswire/ — Curis, Inc. (NASDAQ: CRIS), a biotechnology company focused on the development of innovative therapeutics for the treatment of cancer, today announced that it has entered into an amendment of its collaboration, license and option agreement with Aurigene Discovery Technologies, Ltd. (Aurigene). Under the terms of the amended agreement, Aurigene will fund and conduct a Phase 2b/3 randomized study evaluating CA-170, an orally available, dual
inhibitor of VISTA and PDL1, in combination with chemoradiation, in approximately 240 patients with nonsquamous
non-small cell lung cancer (nsNSCLC). In turn, Aurigene receives rights to develop and commercialize CA-170 in Asia, in addition to its existing rights in India and Russia, based on the terms of the original agreement. Curis retains U.S., E.U., and rest of world rights to CA-170, and is entitled to receive royalty payments on potential future sales of CA-170 in Asia.

In 2019, Aurigene presented clinical data from a Phase 2a basket study of CA-170 in patients with multiple tumor types, including those with nsNSCLC. In the study, CA-170 demonstrated promising signs of safety and efficacy in nsNSCLC patients compared to various anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies.

“We are pleased to announce this amendment which leverages our partner Aurigene’s expertise and resources to support the clinical advancement of CA-170, as well as maintain our rights to CA-170 outside of Asia,” said James Dentzer, President and Chief Executive Officer of Curis. “Phase 2a data presented at the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) conference last fall supported the potential for CA-170 to serve as a therapeutic option for patients with nsNSCLC. We look forward to working with our partner Aurigene to further explore this opportunity.”

“Despite recent advancements, patients with localized unresectable NSCLC struggle with high rates of recurrence and need for expensive intravenous biologics. The CA-170 data presented at ESMO 2019 from Aurigene’s Phase 2 ASIAD trial showed encouraging results in Clinical Benefit Rate and Prolonged PFS and support its potential to provide clinically meaningful benefit to Stage III and IVa nsNSCLC patients, in combination with chemoradiation and as oral maintenance” said Kumar Prabhash, MD, Professor of Medical Oncology at Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, India.

Murali Ramachandra, PhD, Chief Executive Officer of Aurigene, commented, “Development of CA-170, with its unique dual inhibition of PD-L1 and VISTA, is the result of years of hard-work and commitment by many people, including the patients who participated in the trials, caregivers and physicians, along with the talented teams at Aurigene and Curis. We look forward to further developing CA-170 in nsNSCLC.”

About Curis, Inc.

Curis is a biotechnology company focused on the development of innovative therapeutics for the treatment of cancer, including fimepinostat, which is being investigated in combination with venetoclax in a Phase 1 clinical study in patients with DLBCL. In 2015, Curis entered into a collaboration with Aurigene in the areas of immuno-oncology and precision oncology. As part of this collaboration, Curis has exclusive licenses to oral small molecule antagonists of immune checkpoints including, the VISTA/PDL1 antagonist CA-170, and the TIM3/PDL1 antagonist CA-327, as well as the IRAK4 kinase inhibitor, CA- 4948. CA-4948 is currently undergoing testing in a Phase 1 trial in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
In addition, Curis is engaged in a collaboration with ImmuNext for development of CI-8993, a monoclonal anti-VISTA antibody. Curis is also party to a collaboration with Genentech, a member of the Roche Group, under which Genentech and Roche are commercializing Erivedge® for the treatment of advanced basal cell carcinoma. For more information, visit Curis’ website at http://www.curis.com.

About Aurigene

Aurigene is a development stage biotech company engaged in discovery and clinical development of novel and best-in-class therapies to treat cancer and inflammatory diseases and a wholly owned subsidiary of Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories Ltd. (BSE: 500124, NSE: DRREDDY, NYSE: RDY). Aurigene is focused on precision- oncology, oral immune checkpoint inhibitors, and the Th-17 pathway. Aurigene currently has several programs from its pipeline in clinical development. Aurigene’s ROR-gamma inverse agonist AUR-101 is currently in phase 2 clinical development under a US FDA IND. Additionally, Aurigene has multiple compounds at different stages of pre-clinical development. Aurigene has partnered with many large and mid-pharma companies in the United States and Europe and has 15 programs  currently in clinical development. For more information, please visit Aurigene’s website at https://www.aurigene.com/

Curis with the option to exclusively license Aurigene’s orally-available small molecule antagonist of programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) in the immuno-oncology field

Addressing immune checkpoint pathways is a well validated strategy to treat human cancers and the ability to target PD-1/PD-L1 and other immune checkpoints with orally available small molecule drugs has the potential to be a distinct and major advancement for patients.

Through its collaboration with Aurigene, Curis is now engaged in the discovery and development of the first ever orally bioavailable, small molecule antagonists that target immune checkpoint receptor-ligand interactions, including PD-1/PD-L1 interactions.  In the first half of 2016, Curis expects to file an IND application with the U.S. FDA to initiate clinical testing of CA-170, the first small molecule immune checkpoint antagonist targeting PD-L1 and VISTA.  The multi-year collaboration with Aurigene is focused on generation of small molecule antagonists targeting additional checkpoint receptor-ligand interactions and Curis expects to advance additional drug candidates for clinical testing in the coming years. The next immuno-oncology program in the collaboration is currently targeting the immune checkpoints PD-L1 and TIM3.

In November 2015, preclinical data were reported. Data demonstrated tha the drug rescued and sustained activation of T cells functions in culture. CA-170 resulted in anti-tumor activity in multiple syngeneic tumor models including melanoma and colon cancer. Similar data were presented at the 2015 AACR-NCI-EORTC Molecular Targets and Cancer Therapeutics Conference in Boston, MA

By August 2015, preclinical data had been reported. Preliminary data demonstrated that in in vitro studies, small molecule PD-L1 antagonists induced effective T cell proliferation and IFN-gamma production by T cells that were specifically suppressed by PD-L1 in culture. The compounds were found to have effects similar to anti-PD1 antibodies in in vivo tumor models

 (Oral Small Molecule PD-L1/VISTAAntagonist)

Certain human cancers express a ligand on their cell surface referred to as Programmed-death Ligand 1, or PD-L1, which binds to its cognate receptor, Programmed-death 1, or PD-1, present on the surface of the immune system’s T cells.  Cell surface interactions between tumor cells and T cells through PD-L1/PD-1 molecules result in T cell inactivation and hence the inability of the body to mount an effective immune response against the tumor.  It has been previously shown that modulation of the PD-1 mediated inhibition of T cells by either anti-PD1 antibodies or anti-PD-L1 antibodies can lead to activation of T cells that result in the observed anti-tumor effects in the tumor tissues.  Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 interactions have now been approved by the U.S. FDA for the treatment of certain cancers, and multiple therapeutic monoclonal antibodies targeting PD-1 or PD-L1 are currently in development.

In addition to PD-1/PD-L1 immune regulators, there are several other checkpoint molecules that are involved in the modulation of immune responses to tumor cells1.  One such regulator is V-domain Ig suppressor of T-cell activation or VISTA that shares structural homology with PD-L1 and is also a potent suppressor of T cell functions.  However, the expression of VISTA is different from that of PD-L1, and appears to be limited to the hematopoietic compartment in tissues such as spleen, lymph nodes and blood as well as in myeloid hematopoietic cells within the tumor microenvironment.  Recent animal studies have demonstrated that combined targeting/ blockade of PD-1/PD-L1 interactions and VISTA result in improved anti-tumor responses in certain tumor models, highlighting their distinct and non-redundant functions in regulating the immune response to tumors2.

As part of the collaboration with Aurigene, in October 2015 Curis licensed a first-in-class oral, small molecule antagonist designated as CA-170 that selectively targets PD-L1 and VISTA, both of which function as negative checkpoint regulators of immune activation.  CA-170 was selected from the broad PD-1 pathway antagonist program that the companies have been engaged in since the collaboration was established in January 2015.  Preclinical data demonstrate that CA-170 can induce effective proliferation and IFN-γ (Interferon-gamma) production (a cytokine that is produced by activated T cells and is a marker of T cell activation) by T cells that are specifically suppressed by PD-L1 or VISTA in culture.  In addition, CA-170 also appears to have anti-tumor effects similar to anti-PD-1 or anti-VISTA antibodies in multiple in vivo tumor models and appears to have a good in vivo safety profile.  Curis expects to file an IND and initiate clinical testing of CA-170 in patients with advanced tumors during the first half of 2016.

Jan 21, 2015

Curis and Aurigene Announce Collaboration, License and Option Agreement to Discover, Develop and Commercialize Small Molecule Antagonists for Immuno-Oncology and Precision Oncology Targets

— Agreement Provides Curis with Option to Exclusively License Aurigene’s Antagonists for Immuno-Oncology, Including an Antagonist of PD-L1 and Selected Precision Oncology Targets, Including an IRAK4 Kinase Inhibitor —

— Investigational New Drug (IND) Application Filings for Both Initial Collaboration Programs Expected this Year —

— Curis to issue 17.1M shares of its Common Stock as Up-front Consideration —

— Management to Host Conference Call Today at 8:00 a.m. EST —

LEXINGTON, Mass. and BANGALORE, India, Jan. 21, 2015 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) — Curis, Inc. (Nasdaq:CRIS), a biotechnology company focused on the development and commercialization of innovative drug candidates for the treatment of human cancers, and Aurigene Discovery Technologies Limited, a specialized, discovery stage biotechnology company developing novel therapies to treat cancer and inflammatory diseases, today announced that they have entered into an exclusive collaboration agreement focused on immuno-oncology and selected precision oncology targets. The collaboration provides for inclusion of multiple programs, with Curis having the option to exclusively license compounds once a development candidate is nominated within each respective program. The partnership draws from each company’s respective areas of expertise, with Aurigene having the responsibility for conducting all discovery and preclinical activities, including IND-enabling studies and providing Phase 1 clinical trial supply, and Curis having responsibility for all clinical development, regulatory and commercialization efforts worldwide, excluding India and Russia, for each program for which it exercises an option to obtain a license.

The first two programs under the collaboration are an orally-available small molecule antagonist of programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) in the immuno-oncology field and an orally-available small molecule inhibitor of Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK4) in the precision oncology field. Curis expects to exercise its option to obtain exclusive licenses to both programs and file IND applications for a development candidate from each in 2015.

“We are thrilled to partner with Aurigene in seeking to discover, develop and commercialize small molecule drug candidates generated from Aurigene’s novel technology and we believe that this collaboration represents a true transformation for Curis that positions the company for continued growth in the development and eventual commercialization of cancer drugs,” said Ali Fattaey, Ph.D., President and Chief Executive Officer of Curis. “The multi-year nature of our collaboration means that the parties have the potential to generate a steady pipeline of novel drug candidates in the coming years. Addressing immune checkpoint pathways is now a well validated strategy to treat human cancers and the ability to target PD-1/PD-L1 and other immune checkpoints with orally available small molecule drugs has the potential to be a distinct and major advancement for patients. Recent studies have also shown that alterations of the MYD88 gene lead to dysregulation of its downstream target IRAK4 in a number of hematologic malignancies, including Waldenström’s Macroglobulinemia and a subset of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, making IRAK4 an attractive target for the treatment of these cancers. We look forward to advancing these programs into clinical development later this year.”

Dr. Fattaey continued, “Aurigene has a long and well-established track record of generating targeted small molecule drug candidates with bio-pharmaceutical collaborators and we have significantly expanded our drug development capabilities as we advance our proprietary drug candidates in currently ongoing clinical studies. We believe that we are well-positioned to advance compounds from this collaboration into clinical development.”

CSN Murthy, Chief Executive Officer of Aurigene, said, “We are excited to enter into this exclusive collaboration with Curis under which we intend to discover and develop a number of drug candidates from our chemistry innovations in the most exciting fields of cancer therapy. This unique collaboration is an opportunity for Aurigene to participate in advancing our discoveries into clinical development and beyond, and mutually align interests as provided for in our agreement.  Our scientists at Aurigene have established a novel strategy to address immune checkpoint targets using small molecule chemical approaches, and have discovered a number of candidates that modulate these checkpoint pathways, including PD-1/PD-L1. We have established a large panel of preclinical tumor models in immunocompetent mice and can show significant in vivo anti-tumor activity using our small molecule PD-L1 antagonists.  We are also in the late stages of selecting a candidate that is a potent and selective inhibitor of the IRAK4 kinase, demonstrating excellent in vivo activity in preclinical tumor models.”

In connection with the transaction, Curis has issued to Aurigene approximately 17.1 million shares of its common stock, or 19.9% of its outstanding common stock immediately prior to the transaction, in partial consideration for the rights granted to Curis under the collaboration agreement. The shares issued to Aurigene are subject to a lock-up agreement until January 18, 2017, with a portion of the shares being released from the lock-up in four equal bi-annual installments between now and that date.

The agreement provides that the parties will collaborate exclusively in immuno-oncology for an initial period of approximately two years, with the option for Curis to extend the broad immuno-oncology exclusivity.

In addition Curis has agreed to make payments to Aurigene as follows:

  • for the first two programs: up to $52.5 million per program, including $42.5 million per program for approval and commercial milestones, plus specified approval milestone payments for additional indications, if any;
  • for the third and fourth programs: up to $50 million per program, including $42.5 million per program for  approval and commercial milestones, plus specified approval milestone payments for additional indications, if any; and
  • for any program thereafter: up to $140.5 million per program, including $87.5 million per program in approval and commercial milestones, plus specified approval milestone payments for additional indications, if any.

Curis has agreed to pay Aurigene royalties on any net sales ranging from high single digits to 10% in territories where it successfully commercializes products and will also share in amounts that it receives from sublicensees depending upon the stage of development of the respective molecule.
About Immune Checkpoint  Modulation and Programmed Death 1 Pathway

Modulation of immune checkpoint pathways has emerged as a highly promising therapeutic approach in a wide range of human cancers. Immune checkpoints are critical for the maintenance of self-tolerance as well as for the protection of tissues from excessive immune response generated during infections. However, cancer cells have the ability to modulate certain immune checkpoint pathways as a mechanism to evade the immune system. Certain immune checkpoint receptors or ligands are expressed by various cancer cells, targeting of which may be an effective strategy for generating anti-tumor activity. Some immune-checkpoint modulators, such as programmed death 1 (PD-1) protein, specifically regulate immune cell effector functions within tissues. One of the mechanisms by which tumor cells block anti-tumor immune responses in the tumor microenvironment is by upregulating ligands for PD-1, such as PD-L1. Hence, targeting of PD-1 and/or PD-L1 has been shown to lead to the generation of effective anti-tumor responses.
About Curis, Inc.

Curis is a biotechnology company focused on the development and commercialization of novel drug candidates for the treatment of human cancers. Curis’ pipeline of drug candidates includes CUDC-907, a dual HDAC and PI3K inhibitor, CUDC-427, a small molecule antagonist of IAP proteins, and Debio 0932, an oral HSP90 inhibitor. Curis is also engaged in a collaboration with Genentech, a member of the Roche Group, under which Genentech and Roche are developing and commercializing Erivedge®, the first and only FDA-approved medicine for the treatment of advanced basal cell carcinoma. For more information, visit Curis’ website at www.curis.com.

About Aurigene

Aurigene is a specialized, discovery stage biotechnology company, developing novel and best-in-class therapies to treat cancer and inflammatory diseases. Aurigene’s Programmed Death pathway program is the first of several immune checkpoint programs that are at different stages of discovery and preclinical development. Aurigene has partnered with several large- and mid-pharma companies in the United States and Europe and has delivered multiple clinical compounds through these partnerships. With over 500 scientists, Aurigene has collaborated with 6 of the top 10 pharma companies. Aurigene is an independent, wholly owned subsidiary of Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories Ltd. (NYSE:RDY). For more information, please visit Aurigene’s website at http://aurigene.com/.

POSTER

STR3
STR3
STR3

WO2011161699, WO2012/168944, WO2013144704 and WO2013132317 report peptides or peptidomimetic compounds which are capable of suppressing and/or inhibiting the programmed cell death 1 (PD1) signaling pathway.

PATENT

WO 2015033299

Inventors

  • SASIKUMAR, Pottayil Govindan Nair
  • RAMACHANDRA, Muralidhara
  • NAREMADDEPALLI, Seetharamaiah Setty Sudarshan

Priority Data

4011/CHE/2013 06.09.2013 IN

Example 4: Synthesis of Co

str1

The compound was synthesised using similar procedure as depicted in Example 2 for synthesising compound 2 using 
instead of H-Ser(‘Bu)-0’Bu (in synthesis of compound 2b) to yield 0.35 g crude material of the title compound. The crude solid material was purified using preparative HPLC described under experimental conditions. LCMS: 361.2 (M+H)+, HPLC: tR = 12.19 min.

Pottayil Sasikumar

Pottayil Sasikumar

Murali Ramachandra

Murali Ramachandra

REFERENCES

US20150073024

WO2011161699A227 Jun 201129 Dec 2011Aurigene Discovery Technologies LimitedImmunosuppression modulating compounds
WO2012168944A121 Dec 201113 Dec 2012Aurigene Discovery Technologies LimitedTherapeutic compounds for immunomodulation
WO2013132317A14 Mar 201312 Sep 2013Aurigene Discovery Technologies LimitedPeptidomimetic compounds as immunomodulators
WO2013144704A128 Mar 20133 Oct 2013Aurigene Discovery Technologies LimitedImmunomodulating cyclic compounds from the bc loop of human pd1

http://www.curis.com/pipeline/immuno-oncology/pd-l1-antagonist

http://www.curis.com/images/stories/pdfs/posters/Aurigene_PD-L1_VISTA_AACR-NCI-EORTC_2015.pdf

References:

1) https://bmcimmunol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12865-021-00446-4

2) https://www.nature.com/articles/s42003-021-02191-1

3) https://www.esmoopen.com/article/S2059-7029(20)30108-3/fulltext

4) https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/24/15/2804

////////Curis, Aurigene,  AUPM 170, CA 170, AUPM-170, CA-170, PD-L1, VISTA antagonist, PD-1-IN-1, phase 2, CANCER

N[C@@H](CO)c1nc(on1)[C@@H](NC(=O)N[C@H](C(=O)O)[C@@H](C)O)CC(N)=O

NEW DRUG APPROVALS

ONE TIME

$9.00

Pralnacasan


Pralnacasan.png

Pralnacasan

VX 740

cas 192755-52-5

(4S,7S)-N-[(2R,3S)-2-ethoxy-5-oxooxolan-3-yl]-7-(isoquinoline-1-carbonylamino)-6,10-dioxo-2,3,4,7,8,9-hexahydro-1H-pyridazino[1,2-a]diazepine-4-carboxamide

N-[(4S,7S)-4-{[(2R,3S)-2-ethoxy-5-oxooxolan-3-yl]carbamoyl}-6,10-dioxo-octahydro-1H-pyridazino[1,2-a][1,2]diazepin-7-yl]isoquinoline-1-carboxamide

 (1S,9S)-N-((2R,3S)-2-Ethoxy-5-oxotetrahydrofuran-3-yl)-9-((isoquinolin-1-ylcarbonyl)amino)-6,10-dioxooctahydro-6-H-pyridazino(1,2-a)(1,2)diazepine-1-carboxamide

6H-Pyridazino(1,2-a)(1,2)diazepine-1-carboxamide, N-((2R,3S)-2-ethoxytetrahydro-5-oxo-3-furanyl)octahydro-9-((1-isoquinolinylcarbonyl)amino)-6,10-dioxo-, (1S,9S)-

  • HMR 3480
  • HMR3480
  • HMR3480/VX-740
  • Pralnacasan
  • UNII-N986NI319S
  • VX 470
  • VX-740

C26H29N5O7, 523.543

NSAID, ICE inhibitor & metastasis inhibitor.пралнаказан [Russian] [INN]برالناكاسان [Arabic] [INN]普那卡生 [Chinese] [INN]

Structure of PRALNACASAN

Pralnacasan is an orally bioavailable pro-drug of a potent, non-peptide inhibitor of interleukin-1beta converting enzyme (ICE).Pralnacasan is a potent, non-peptide inhibitor of interleukin-1beta converting enzyme (ICE, aka Caspase-1). It was originally discovered by Vertex Pharmaceuticals and licensed for development to Aventis Pharma. In 2003 Aventis and Vertex Pharmaceuticals agreed to voluntarily discontinue development based on results from a 9-month animal toxicity trial that showed liver abnormalities due to chronic high doses of pralnacasan. Pralnacasan has also been investigated for the treatment of Partial Epilepsy; advancing to Phase II clinical trials.Pralnacasan is a potent, non-peptide inhibitor of interleukin-1beta converting enzyme (ICE). Pralnacasan is an oral, anti-cytokine drug candidate licensed for development by Aventis Pharma from Vertex Pharmaceuticals. In November 2003, Aventis and Vertex Pharmaceuticals announced that they had voluntarily suspended the phase II clinical trials of pralnacasan due to results from an animal toxicity study that demonstrated liver abnormalities after a nine-month exposure to pralnacasan at high doses. While no similar liver toxicity has been seen to date in human trials, the companies will evaluate the animal toxicity results before proceeding with the phase II clinical program.Pralnacasan inhibits interleukin-1beta converting enzyme (ICE), an enzyme that regulates the production of IL-1 and IFN gamma – intercellular mediators that initiate and sustain the process of inflammation. Inhibiting ICE may be an effective strategy for curtailing damaging inflammatory processes common to a number of acute and chronic conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis. 
PAPERhttps://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2017/ob/c7ob01403a/unauth
IDrugs (2003), 6(2), 154-158. 
Chemistry (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany) (2017), 23(2), 360-369PAPER 
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters (2006), 16(16), 4233-4236.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0960894X06006184?

Abstract

Novel 1-(2-acylhydrazinocarbonyl)cycloalkyl carboxamides were designed as peptidomimetic inhibitors of interleukin-1β converting enzyme (ICE). A short synthesis was developed and moderately potent ICE inhibitors were identified (IC50 values <100 nM). Most of the synthesized examples were selective for ICE versus the related cysteine proteases caspase-3 and caspase-8, although several dual-acting inhibitors of ICE and caspase-8 were identified. Several of the more potent ICE inhibitors were also shown to inhibit IL-1β production in a whole cell assay (IC50 < 500 nM).

Graphical abstract

Novel 1-(2-acylhydrazinocarbonyl)cycloalkyl carboxamides were designed and synthesized as selective peptidomimetic inhibitors of interleukin-1β converting enzyme (ICE IC50 values <100 nM).

PAPEROrganic letters (2014), 16(13), 3488-91.https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/ol501425b

Abstract

Abstract Image

Peptides containing N2-acyl piperazic or 1,6-dehydropiperazic acids can be formed efficiently via a novel multicomponent reaction of 1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyridazines, isocyanides, and carboxylic acids. Remarkably, the reaction’s induced intramolecularity can enable the regiospecific formation of products with N2-acyl piperazic acid, which counters the intrinsic and troublesome propensity for piperazic acids to react at N1 in acylations. The utility of the methodology is demonstrated in the synthesis of the bicyclic core of the interleukin-1β converting enzyme inhibitor, Pralnacasan.
PatentWO 9722619WO 9903852WO 9952935
PATENTWO 2000042061https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2000042061A1/enThe invention particularly relates to the process as defined above in which the compound of formula (I) is 9- (1, 3-dihydro-1,3, dioxo-2H-isoindol-2-yl) -3 ,, 7, 8, 9, 10-hexahydro-6, 10-dioxo-6H-pyridazino- [1,2- a] [1, 2] ethyl diazepine-1-carboxylate:

Figure imgf000010_0001

The invention particularly relates to the process as defined above in which the compound of formula (Iopt) is- (lS-cis) -9- (1, 3-dihydro-l, 3-dioxo-2H-isoindol-2-yl) – 3,4,7,8,9, 10-hexahydro-β, 10-dioxo -6H-pyridazino- [1,2- a] [1, 2] ethyl diazeρine-1-carboxylate:

Figure imgf000010_0002

The compounds of formula (I) can be generally used for the synthesis of medicaments as indicated in patent EP 94095. The compounds of formulas (II) and (III) and (F) are known and can be prepared according to the experimental method described below.The invention also relates to the application of the process as defined above as an intermediate step for the preparation of a compound of formula (V)

Figure imgf000011_0001

via the compound of formula (Iopt) as defined above, characterized in that this process comprises the steps of the process for the preparation of the compounds of formula (Iopt) from the compounds of formula (II) as defined above.The subject of the invention is also the application as defined above, characterized in that the compound of formula (Iopt) is (lS-cis) -9- (1, 3-dihydro-l, 3-dioxo -2H- isoindol-2-yl) -3,4,7,8,9, 10-hexahydro-6, 10-dioxo-6H- pyridazino- [1,2-a] [1, 2] diazepine-1- ethyl carboxylate

Figure imgf000011_0002

The subject of the invention is also the application of the process as defined above as an intermediate step in the overall process for preparing the compounds of formula (I) and (Iopt) as defined above. Finally, the subject of the invention is, as intermediate compound, the compound of formula (IA) as defined above.Preparation 1 Preparation of bis (phenylmethyl) 1,2-hydrazinecarboxylate1.5 liters of methanol and 25 g of 80% hydrazine monohydrate are placed under nitrogen. Cooled to 0 ° C and then introduced 75 g of benzyl chloroformate and a solution of 93 g of sodium carbonate in 1100 ml of demineralized water. Maintaining the reaction mixture for 1 hour at 0 ° C, drained and washed by displacement with a mixture of 100 ml of methanol and 100 ml of water, then washed by displacement with 500 ml of water at 0 C °. Dried and obtained 107.6 g of the desired product. Preparation 2Preparation of N-phthaloyl-L-glutamic anhydride D (+) 2-tetrahydro-2,6,6-dioxo-2H-pyran-3-yl-1H-isoindole-1,3 (2H) – dione (R)Stage a: N-phthaloyl-L-glutamic acid2- (1, 3-dihydro-1,3, dioxo-2H-isoindole-2-yl) acid – pentanedioic (2S)To a solution of 14.4 g of sodium carbonate in 180 ml of water is added 10 g of L-glutamic acid then 16 g of N-carbethoxyphthalimide (nefkens reagent, commercial). The mixture is stirred at ambient temperature for 2 hours and then extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phase is evaporated under reduced pressure until a dry extract is obtained and 2.74 g of crude product is obtained. Washing is carried out with sodium bicarbonate, then after return to the acid and extraction with ethyl acetate, 370 mg of expected product and H 2 N-C0 2 Et are isolated. Furthermore, the aqueous phase is brought to pH = 2 with 36% hydrochloric acid at a temperature below 5 ° C and then extracted with ethyl acetate, washed with a saturated chloride solution. sodium, dry, filter and concentrate under reduced pressure until 22.7 g of expected product is obtained in the form of an oil.Mass spectrum (MH)  = 276  Infrared (Nujol):1775 cm “1 (m), 1720 cm ” 1 (F, complex): CO 1611 cm “1 : Aromatic Stage b:To the product obtained in stage a), 160 ml of tetrahydrofuran are added and 18.6 g of DCC (1, 3-Dicyclohexyl-carbodiimide) dissolved in 55 ml of tetrahydrofuran are added dropwise over 30 minutes. Stirred for 1 hour at 15-17 ° C, then filtered, rinsed with tetrahydrofuran, evaporated under reduced pressure until a dry extract is obtained which is taken up in isopropyl ether. After 30 minutes of stirring, the filter is washed and dried. 14.98 g of expected product are obtained. α D = -52.63 λ H NMR (DMSO) 2.12 (m, 1H); 2.61 (m, 1H); 2.98 (dm, 1H); 3.16 (ddd, 1H); 5.48 (dd, 1H); 7.82 (m,> 4H)Example 1: (IS-cis) -9- (1, 3-dihydro-1,3, dioxo-2H-isoindol-2-yl) -3,4,7,8,9,10-hexahydro-6,10 -dioxo-6H-pyridazino- [1,2- a] [1,2] diazepine-1-ethyl carboxylate. Stage a: Preparation of 2,5-dibromopentanoic acid 39 ml of bromine are added to a mixture of 106 g of 5-bromopentanoic acid and 1 ml of phosphorus tribromide. The reaction mixture is brought to 70-80 ° C for 16 h 30. The reaction medium is brought to 100 ° C for 15 minutes and allowed to return to room temperature. 147 g of sought product is obtained.Stage b: Preparation of ethyl 2,5-dibromopentanoate24.37 g of oxalyl chloride are added to a mixture containing 50 g of the acid prepared in the preceding stage, 15 drops of dimethylformamide and 300 ml of dichloromethane. The reaction mixture is kept under stirring at at room temperature, until the reaction is complete. The reaction mixture is cooled to 10 ° C and 50 ml of ethyl alcohol are added. Stirred for 30 minutes at 10 ° C, allowed to return to room temperature and stirred for 3 hours at room temperature. It is brought to dryness and the desired product is obtained. Stage c: CyclizationPreparation of (S) -tetrahydro-1,2,3-pyridazinetricarboxylate of 3-ethyl-1,2-bis (phenylmethyl) and (R) -tetrahydro-1,2,3-pyridazinetricarboxylate of 1,2 -bis (phenylmethyl). A suspension of 12.1 g of ethyl 2,5-dibromopentanoate (stage b) in 50 ml of diglyme is introduced at 20-25 ° C. in a suspension containing 10.42 g of 1,2-hydrazine carboxylate of bis (phenylmethyl) (preparation 1), 65 ml of diglyme and 8.26 g of potassium carbonate. The suspension obtained is heated to 90 ° C. and stirring is continued for 48 hours. Cooled to 20 ° C, poured into a solution containing 50 ml of 2N hydrochloric acid and 150 ml of a mixture of water and ice. Extraction is carried out with ethyl acetate, washing with water and drying. It is filtered, rinsed with ethyl acetate and dried. Finally, the crude product is purified by chromatography on silica, eluting with a heptane / ethyl acetate mixture 40/20 and 10.71 g of sought product is obtained. Stage d: Acylation and hydrogenolysisPreparation of α, (IS) – [3-oxo-3- (tetrahydro-3-ethoxycarbonyl-1 (2H) -pyridazinyl) propyl] -1,3-dihydro-1,3-dioxo-2H-isoindole acid -2-aceticThe mixture consisting of 15g of tetrahydro-1,2,3-pyridazinetricarboxylate of 3-ethyl-1,2-bis (phenylmethyl) is placed under hydrogen pressure (1.3 bar) for 24 hours. R + S mixture as prepared in stage c 150 ml of tetrahydrofuran, 2.5 g of palladium on carbon (10%) and 9.08 g of phthaloylglutamic acid anhydride as prepared according to preparation 2. After filtration, we evaporated under reduced pressure until a dry extract is obtained which is taken up in 100 ml of ethyl acetate and 150 ml of a saturated solution of sodium bicarbonate. It is extracted 3 times and the bicarbonate solution is acidified to pH = 3 with 36% hydrochloric acid. It is extracted 3 times with dichloromethane and washed with water. 13.16 g of crude product are obtained, which product is purified by chromatography on silica, eluting with a toluene / ethyl acetate / acetic acid 20/80 / 1.5 mixture to obtain 12.7 g of the expected product.NMR (250MHz, CDC1 3 ): 1.24 (d, 3H, OCH 2 CH 3 ); 4.12 (q, 2H, OCH 2 CH 3 ); 4.36-4.40 (m, 1H, Hl in alpha or beta position); 4.69-4.92 (m, 1H, H9 in the alpha position); 7.70 – 7.86 H aromatic. Stage el: cyclization with POCl 3– (lS-cis) -9- (1, 3-dihydro-l, 3-dioxo-2H-isoindol-2-yl) – 3,4,7,8,9, 10-hexahydro-6, 10-dioxo -6H-pyridazino- [1,2- a] [1, 2] ethyl diazepine-1-carboxylate. – (lR-trans) -9- (1, 3-dihydro-1,3, dioxo-2H-isoindol-2-yl) – 3,4,7,8, 9, 10-hexahydro-6,10-dioxo -6H-pyridazino- [1,2-a] [1,2] diazepine-1-ethyl carboxylate.To a solution of 20 ml of dichloroethane heated beforehand to 75 ° C., the following solutions A and B are added over 3 hours: A: 417 mg of the ester prepared in stage d in 4 ml of dichloroethane to which 1 ml of a solution of 1.2 ml of 2,6-lutidine in 5 ml of dichloroethane. B: 1 ml of a solution of 1.9 ml of P0Cl 3 in 10 ml of dichloroethane, then the mixture is stirred for 1 hour at this temperature. Cool to 10 ° C., add demineralized water, extract with dichloromethane and evaporate under reduced pressure to obtain a crude product (0.415 g) which is purified by chromatography on silica eluting with the heptane / dichloromethane mixture. / ethyl acetate 1/1/1. 161.8 mg of the SS diastereoisomer, 126.7 mg of the SR diastereoisomer and 5.8 mg of the SS + SR mixture are isolated. Stage e2: cyclization with POBr 3– (lS-cis) -9- (1, 3-dihydro-l, 3-dioxo-2H-isoindol-2-yl) – 3,4,7, 8, 9, 10-hexahydro-6, 10-dioxo -6H-pyridazino- [1, 2- a] [1, 2] ethyl diazepine-1-carboxylate. – (lR-trans) -9- (1, 3-dihydro-l, 3-dioxo-2H-isoindol-2-yl) – 3,4,7, 8, 9, 10-hexahydro-6, 10-dioxo -6H-pyridazino- [1, 2- a] [1, 2] ethyl diazepine-1-carboxylate.To a solution of 20 ml of dichloroethane heated beforehand to 80 ° C., the following solutions A and B are added over 3 hours:A: 417 mg of the ester prepared in stage d in 4 ml of dichloroethane to which 1 ml of a solution of 2.4 ml of 2,6-lutidine in 10 ml of dichloroethane was added. B: 1 ml of a solution of 5.85 g of POBr 3 in 10 ml of dichloroethane, then the mixture is stirred for 1 hour at this temperature. Cool to 10 ° C, add demineralized water, extract with dichloromethane and evaporate under reduced pressure to obtain a crude product (0.419 g) which is purified by chromatography on silica eluting with the heptane / dichloromethane / mixture 1/1/1 ethyl acetate. 163 mg of the SS diastereoisomer, 143 mg of the SR diastereoisomer and 6.2 mg of the SS + SR mixture are isolated.Stage f: deracemization / epimerization – (lS-cis) -9- (1, 3-dihydro-l, 3-dioxo-2H-isoindol-2-yl) – 3,4,7,8, 9, 10-hexahydro -6,10-dioxo-6H-pyridazino- [1, 2- a] [1, 2] ethyl diazepine-1-carboxylate.Is introduced at a temperature of -45 / -48 ° C in one hour 30 minutes, a solution containing 0.029 g of potassium terbutylate and 0.3 ml of dimethylformamide in a mixture containing 0.194 g of the mixture SS + SR prepared in stage d , 1.5 ml of dimethylformamide and 0.75 ml of terbutanol. The mixture is kept stirring for 1 hour and, after cooling to -50 ° C., 0.4 g of powdered ammonium chloride is introduced. Stirred 10 minutes at -45 ° C, add 1 ml of ammonium chloride at 20 ° C and stirred again 10 minutes. 2 ml of water are added after 5 minutes demineralized. Extracted with ethyl acetate, washed with demineralized water, decanted, concentrated and dried. 0.166 g of expected SS diastereoisomer is obtained. ” D = -75.3 ° (1% in methanol) NMR (250MHz, CDC1 3 ): 1.73 (m, 3H, H-2alpha H-3alpha H-3beta; 1.24 (d, 3H, OCH 2 CH 3 ); 2.38 (m, 3H, H2beta, H7alpha, H8 alpha); 2.92 (m, 1H, H4alpha); 3.39 – 3.44 (m, 1H, H8beta); 3.62 (m, 1H, H7beta); 4.23 (m, 2H, OCH 2 CH 3 ); 4.66-4.71 (m, 1H, H4 in beta position); 5.26-5.41 (m, 2H, Hl and H9 in the alpha position); 7.72 – 7.88 H aromatics. 
PATENT 
WO 2000010979https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2000010979A1/en

Figure imgf000020_0002

 formula II, said compound has the structure:

Figure imgf000020_0002

In the synthesis of these inhibitors, the terminal carbon of Ri adjacent the -COOH moiety contains a protecting substituent. Preferably that protecting

substituent is

Figure imgf000020_0003

The synthesis steps from compound H to the inhibitors set forth above involve removal of the protecting substituent on Rx; coupling of the R5-NH- or R5′-NH- moiety in its place; hydrolysis of the R2 group;N .(CJ2)m.—Tand coupling of the amine ( (Ch,2)Rs or -NH-Z)in its place. The removal of the protecting substituent on Ri is typically carried out with hydrazine. The subsequent coupling of the R5-NH- or R5′-NH- moiety is achieved with standard coupling reagents, such as EDC, DCC or acid chloride . Depending upon the nature of R2, its hydrolysis may be achieved with an acid (when R2 is t-butyl), a hydroxide (when R2 is any other alkyl, alkenyl or alkynyl or Ar) or hydrogenolysis (when R2 is an Ar-substituted alkyl, alkenyl or alkynyl) . This produces the corresponding acid from the ester.The acid is then coupled to the amine with standard coupling reagents, such as EDC, DCC or acid chloride .In order that this invention be more fully understood, the following examples are set forth. These examples are for the purpose of illustration only and are not to be construed as limiting the scope of the invention in any way. EXAMPLE 1Synthesis of a 7,6 Scaffold for a Caspase InhibitorA.

Figure imgf000022_0001

Compound A’ was dissolved m 5 equivalents of S0C12 and then heated to 80°C for 1 hour. The solution was then cooled to 50°C and 2 equivalents of bromine were added. The solution was incubated at 50°C for an additional 12 hours until the red color disappeared. We then cooled the solution to 10°C and added 4 volumes of water. The solution was then re-heated to 50°C for another hour. We then separated the organic and aqueous layer, washed the organic layer consecutively with water, Na2S0 and then brme, removing the aqueous layer after each washing. The final organic layer was then isolated, dried over Na2S0 and concentrated to produce compound B’ as an amber oil.B.

Figure imgf000022_0002

Compound B’ was treated with 1 equivalent of tert-butanol and 0.1 equivalents of 4- (dimethylammo) – pyπdme a solution of and the resulting solution cooled to 7°C. We then added a solution of 1 equivalent of DCC m toluene while maintaining reaction temperature at less than 22°C. The cooling bath was removed and the reaction was stirred at ambient temperature under a nitrogen atmosphere for 16 hours. The reaction mixture was then diluted with hexane and cooled to 9°C . The resulting solids were removed by filtration. The filtrate was washed consecutively with 0. IN HC1, water, and then sodium bicarbonate. The filtrate was then dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated in vacuo to afford compound C as a yellow oil.C.

Figure imgf000023_0001

Compound D’ was combined with 1.2 equivalents of compound C and dissolved in DMF at ambient temperature under nitrogen atmosphere. We then added granular sodium sulfate, 2.5 equivalents of LiOH monohydrate, and then 0.1 equivalents Bu4NI to the resulting solution. The reaction temperature was maintained at between 20°C and 30°C and allowed to stir for 16 hours. The reaction mixture was then diluted with ethyl acetate and water and the layers separated. The organic layer was washed with water and then brine, dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated in vacuo to produce an amber oil. This oil was then dissolved in 5 volumes of ethanol at ambient temperature. We then added 2.5 volumes of water. The resulting mixture was allowed to stir until a white solid formed (approximately 5 hours) . The crystallized product was isolated via filtration then dried in vacuo to afford compound E’ as a white solid.D.

Figure imgf000024_0001

We dissolved compound E’ in THF. We then added, at ambient temperature under a nitrogen atmosphere, 0.02 equivalents of triethylamine and 0.01 equivalents of Pd(OAc)2. A solution of 2.5 equivalents of triethylsilane (Et3SiH) in THF was then added and the resulting black solution was allowed to stir for 16 hours to complete the reaction. We then added a saturated, aqueous solution of sodium bicarbonate followed by a solution of compound F’ in THF. After 30 minutes, the layers were separated and the aqueous layer acidified to pH 4.5 with aqueous citric acid. The product in the aqueous layer was then extracted into ethyl acetate. The organic layer was isolated, washed with brine, dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated in vacuo to produce a white foam. This crude product was then recrystallized from MTBE to afford compound G’ as a white powder. E.

Figure imgf000025_0001

Method #1:To a suspension of compound G’ and 0.1 equivalents of DMF m dichloroethane, at 70°C we added 5 equivalents of 2, 6-lutιdme simultaneously with 2.5 equivalents of S0C12 over a period of 3 hours. The reaction was then diluted with toluene and washed consecutively with NaHC03 and br e. The solution was then dried over Na2S04 and concentrated in vacuo to afford compound H’ as a yellow solid.Method #2:To a suspension of compound G’ m dichloroethane, at 70°C, we added 4 equivalents of 2,6- lutid e followed by 2 equivalents of methanesulfonyl chloride. The resulting solution was stirred at 70°C for 12 hours. The reaction was then diluted with toluene and washed consecutively with NaHC03 and brme. The solution was then dried over Na2S04 and concentrated in vacuo to afford compound H’ as a white solid. Method #2 produced a significantly higher yield of H’ as compared to Method #1. EXAMPLE 2 Use of Intermediate H’ to Produce an Inhibitor of ICE A.

Figure imgf000026_0001

t-Butyl-9-amino-6 , 10-dioxo-l ,2,3,4,7,8,9, 10-octahydro-6- H-pyridazino [1 ,2-a] [1 ,2] diazepine-1-carboxylate (GB2,128,984) To a suspension of H’ (107 g, 0.25 mol) in ethanol (900 iriL) was added hydrazine (27 L, 0.55 mol) and the resulting mixture was allowed to stir at ambient temperature. After 4 hours, the reaction was concentrated in vacuo and the resulting white solid was suspended in acetic acid (IL of 2N) and allowed to stir at ambient temperature for 16 hours. The resulting white solid was filtered off and washed with water. The filtrate was made basic by the addition of solid sodium carbonate and the product extracted with dichloromethane. The organic layer was washed with brine, dried over magnesium sulfate and concentrated in vacuo to afford 79 mg of compound I’ as a yellow viscous oil.B.

Figure imgf000026_0002

t-Butyl-9- (isoquinolin-1-oylamino) -6, 10-dioxo- 1,2,3,4,7,8,9, 10-octahydro-6-H-pyridazino [ 1 , 2-a] [1,2] diazepine-1-carboxylate To a solution of the amine I’ (79 g, 0.265 mol) and isoquinolin-1-carboxylic acid (56g, 0.32 mol) in dichloromethane : DMF (400mL: 400mL) was added hydroxybenztriazole (54 g, 0.4 mol) and l-(3- dimethylaminopropyl) -3-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (74 g, 0.39 mol) and the resulting mixture was allowed to stir at ambient temperature for 16 hours. The reaction mixture was poured into water and extracted with ethyl acetate. The ethyl acetate layer was washed with 0.5N sodium bisulfate, water, sodium bicarbonate, brine, dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated in vacuo to afford 122 g of compound J’ as an orange solid-foam.C.

Figure imgf000027_0001

9- (isoquinolin-1-oylamino) -6, 10-dioxo-l ,2 ,3 ,4 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10- octahydro-6-H-pyridazino [1 ,2-a] [1,2] diazepine-1- carboxylate A solution of the ester J’ (122 g) in dichloromethane and trifluoroacetic acid (200 mL) was allowed to stir at ambient temperature for 16 hours. The reaction mixture was concentrated to a black oil which was then triturated with acetonitrile and ether to afford 98 g of compound K’ as a pale yellow solid. D .

Figure imgf000028_0001

K'[IS, 9S (2RS, 3S) ] N-(2-benzyloxγ-5-oxotetrahydrofuran-3- yl) -6 , 10-dιoxo-9- (ιsoquιnolιn-1-oγlamιno) -1,2,3,4,7,8,9, 10-octahydro-6-H-pyrιdazιno [ 1 , 2-a] [1,2] dιazepιne-l-carboxamιde To a solution of (3S, 2RS) 3- allyloxycarbonylammo-2- (4-chlorobenzyl) oxy-5- oxotetrahydrofuran [Bioorg. & Med. Chem. Lett., 2, pp. 615-618 (1992)] (4.4 g, 15.1 mmol) in dichloromethane was added N, N-dimethylbarbituric acid (5.9g, 3.8 mmol) then tetrakispalladium ( 0) tπphenyl phosphme (1.7 g, 1.5 mmol) and the resulting mixture was allowed to stir at ambient temperature for 15 minutes. To the resulting mixture was added the acid, compound K’ (5.0 g, 12.6 mmol), hydroxybenztπazole (2.0 g, 14.8 mmol) then and 1- (3-dιmethylammopropyl) -3-ethylcarbodιιmιde hydrochloride (2.7g, 14 mmol) and the reaction was allowed to stir for 3 hours at ambient temperature. The reaction mixture was then poured into water and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organics were washed with 0.5M sodium bisulfate, water, sodium bicarbonate, br e, dried over magnesium sulfate and concentrated m vacuo to afford 2.6 g of the crude product as a yellow foam. The crude material was purified by column chromatography (Sι02, dichloromethane : acetone 9:1 – 3:1) to afford 1.2 g of the compound L’ . Compound L’ and related compounds that may be synthesized using the method of this invention as an intermediate step are described in WO 97/22619, the disclosure of which is herein incorporated by reference. Those related compounds may be synthesized from the product of the method of this invention, H or H’ , through modifications of the procedure set forth in Example 2. Such modifications are well known in the art. 
PATENTWO 2001083458https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2001083458A2/enScheme IV

Figure imgf000028_0001

C 2 5,> R’==OH (S)-VI-a ** 6 6., R R”==<CI

Figure imgf000028_0002

Example 1

Figure imgf000030_0001

(S) -t-butyl- bis- (1,2-benzyloxycarbonyl) – hexahydropyridazine-3-carboxylate (>90% ee) : To a solution of bis-Cbz hydrazine and (R) -t-butyl-2, 5- dimesylvalerate (from the diol prepared by the method of Schmidt et al., Synthesis, p. 223 (1996)) in DMF was added Na2S04 then TBAF (2.5 equivalents). The resulting reaction mixture was allowed to stir at room temperature for 24 hrs. The reaction was then diluted with ethyl acetate. The organic layer was washed sequentially with 10% citric acid and brine, dried over anhydrous Na2S04 and concentrated in vacuo to afford the title compound. The optical purity of the title compound was greater than 90% ee as determined by HPLC using a ChiralPak® AD column and eluting with ethanol at 0.7 ml per minute.Example 2

Figure imgf000030_0002

(S) -t-butyl-bis- (1 ,2-benzyloxycarbonyl) – hexahydropyridazine-3-carboxylate (40% ee) : To a solution of bis-Cbz hydrazine and (R) -t-butyl-2, 5-dimesylvalerate(96.5% ee) in DMF was added Na2S04 then K2C03 (5 equivalents) and TBAI (0.1 equivalents). The resulting reaction mixture was heated at 80°C for 24 hrs. The reaction was allowed to cool and diluted with ethyl acetate. The organic layer was washed sequentially with 10% citric acid and brine, dried over anhydrous Na2S04 and concentrated in vacuo to afford the title compound as a 70:30 mixture of the S:R enantiomers (40% ee, as determined by HPLC using a ChiralPak® AD column, eluting with ethanol at 0.7 ml/min) .Example 3

Figure imgf000031_0001

Racemic t-butyl- bis- (1 ,2-benzyloxycarbonyl) – hexahydropyridazine-3-carboxylate: To a solution of bis- Cbz hydrazine and (R) -t-butyl-2, 5-dimesylvalerate (96.5% ee) in THF was added NaH (2 equivalents) . The resulting reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature. The reaction was quenched then diluted with ethyl acetate. The organic layer was washed sequentially with 10% citric acid and brine, dried over anhydrous Na2S04 and concentrated in vacuo to afford the title compound as a racemic mixture.Example 4 A. Deprotection and salt formation

Figure imgf000031_0002

Hexahydro-pyridazine-3-carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester , L-tartaric acid salt (B) : Compound A was combined with 10% Pd/C (10% w/w) in tetrahydrofuran. The resulting suspension was stirred at 60 °C under a hydrogen atmosphere until deprotection complete. The catalyst was removed via filtration, to the filtrate was added L- tartaric acid (1 equivalent) and the resulting solution concentrated in vacuo.B. Enantiomeric Enrichment

Figure imgf000032_0001

The concentrate (B) was taken up in n-butanol(10 volumes), heated to reflux, then allowed to slowly cool to ambient temperature while stirring. The resulting solids were collected via filtration to afford(S) -piperazic acid, t-butyl ester as the tartrate salt (C) in 33% yield.C. Chiral AnalysisCompound (C) was suspended in water and DCM and cooled. We then added NaOH to basify the aqueous layer. The layers were then separated and to the organic layer we added two equivalents of benzyl chloroformate andNaOH. After stirring for 1 hour, the layers were again separated and the organic layer was washed with water.The organic layer was then dried over MgS04 and then concentrated in vacuo to produce the bis-Cbz piperazic acid, t-butyl ester for chiral HPLC analysis. The bis-Cbz piperazic acid, t-butyl ester was applied to a Chiralpak AD HPLC column (Chiral Technologies, Exton, PA) and eluted with ethanol at 0.8 ml/minute. Fractions from the column were quantitate by absorption at 210 nm. The results demonstrated that (S)- piperazic acid, t-butyl ester accounted for 94.5% of the piperazic acid, t-butyl ester present in the preparation.

Example 5 Conversion of Intermediate IV to Intermediate Vl-a Cbzy

Figure imgf000033_0001
Figure imgf000033_0002

IV’ C02t-Bu yi-a C02t-Bu Tetrahydro-pyridazine-l,3-dicarboxylic acid 1-benzyl ester 3-tert-butyl ester (Vl-a) : Compound IV (1 mmol) is combined with toluene and sodium hydroxide (aqueous, 2M, 3 equivalents) and the resulting mixture cooled to 1 °C. A solution of benzylchloroformate (1.05 equivalents) in toluene is added while maintaining the reaction pH at 10 or higher by the addition of sodium hydroxide, as needed. After stirring an additional 1 hour, allow the mixture to warm to room temperature then extract with ethyl acetate. The organic layer is washed with brine, dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated to afford Vl-a.Example 6 Conversion of Intermediate X to an Inhibitor of ICE

A. Phthalimide removal to form IX-b

Figure imgf000034_0001

X IX-b t-Butyl-9-amino-6 , 10-dioxo-l ,2,3,4,7,8,9, 10-octa ydro-6-H-pyridazino[l,2-a] [1,2] diazepine-1-carboxylate (GB 2,128,984): To a suspension of X (107 g, 0.25 mol) in ethanol (900 mL) was added hydrazine (27 mL, 0.55 mol) and the resulting mixture was allowed to stir at ambient temperature. After 4 hours, the reaction was concentrated in va cuo and the resulting white solid was suspended in acetic acid (1L of 2N) and allowed to stir at ambient temperature for 16 hours. The resulting white solid was filtered off and washed with water. The filtrate was made basic by the addition of solid sodium carbonate and the product extracted with dichloromethane. The organic layer was washed with brine, dried over magnesium sulfate and concentrated in va cuo to afford 79g of compound IX-b as a yellow viscous oil.B. Formation of compound XII

Figure imgf000034_0002

IX-b XII t-Butyl-9- (isoquinolin-1-oylamino) -6 , 10-dioxo- 1,2,3,4,7,8,9, 10-octahydro-6-H-pyridazino [1 , 2-a] [1,2] diazepine-1-carboxylate (XII) : To a solution of IX-b (79 g, 0.265 mol) and isoquinolin-1-carboxylic acid (56g, 0.32 mol) in dichloromethane and DMF (400mL: 00mL) was added hydroxybenzotriazole (54 g, 0.4 mol) and l-(3- dimethylaminopropyl) -3-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (74 g, 0.39 mol) and the resulting mixture was allowed to stir at ambient temperature for 16 hours. The reaction mixture was poured into water and extracted with ethyl acetate. The ethyl acetate layer was washed with 0.5N sodium bisulfate, water, sodium bicarbonate, brine, dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated in vacuo to afford 122 g of compound XII as an orange solid-foam.t-Butyl ester hydrolysis to form compound XIII

Figure imgf000035_0001

XIII 9- (isoquinolin-1-oylamino) -6 , 10-dioxo-l ,2,3,4,7,8,9, 10- octahydro-6-H-pyridazino [1 , 2-a] [1 , 2] diazepine-1- carboxylate (XIII) : A solution of the ester XII (from step B) (122 g) in dichloromethane and trifluoroacetic acid (200 mL) was allowed to stir at ambient temperature for 16 hours. The reaction mixture was concentrated to a black oil which was then triturated with acetonitrile and ether to afford 98 g of compound XIII as a pale yellow solid.D. Formation of compound 4-b

Figure imgf000035_0002

[1S, 9S (2RS,3S) ]N- (2-benzyloxy-5-oxotetrahydrofuran-3- yl) -6,10-dioxo-9- (isoquinolin-1-oylamino) – 1,2,3,4,7,8,9, 10-octahydro-6-H-pyridazino [1 , 2-a] [1,2] diazepine-1-carboxamide (4-b) : To a solution of (3S, 2RS) 3-allyloxycarbonylamino-2-benzyloxy-5-oxotetrahydrofuran [Bioorq. & Med. Chem. Lett., 2, pp. 615-618 (1992)] (4.4 g, 15.1 mmol) in dichloromethane was added N,N- dimethylbarbituric acid (5.9g, 3.8 mmol) then tetrakispalladium(O) triphenyl phosphine (1.7 g, 1.5 mmol) and the resulting mixture was allowed to stir at ambient temperature for 15 minutes. To the resulting mixture was added the acid, compound XIII (from step C) (5.0 g, 12.6 mmol), hydroxybenzotriazole (2.0 g, 14.8 mmol), then 1- (3-dimethylaminopropyl) -3-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (2.7g, 14 mmol) and the reaction was allowed to stir for 3 hours at ambient temperature. The reaction mixture was then poured into water and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organics were washed with 0.5M sodium bisulfate, water, sodium bicarbonate, brine, dried over magnesium sulfate and concentrated in vacuo to afford 2.6 g of the crude product as a yellow foam. The crude material was purified by column chromatography (Si02, dichloromethane: acetone 9:1 – 3:1) to afford 1.2 g of the compound 4-b. Compounds of formulae VII and VIII, and related compounds, that may be synthesized using the method of this invention as an intermediate step are described in WO 97/22619 and United States Patent 6,204,261 the disclosure of which is herein incorporated by reference. Those related compounds may be synthesized from the product of the method of this invention, I, IV, or V, through modifications of the procedure set forth in Examples 4 through 6. Such modifications are well known in the art.PATENTUS 6559304https://patents.google.com/patent/US6559304B1PATENTWO 2008074816https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2008074816A1/en

Patent 

Publication numberPriority datePublication dateAssigneeTitleEP0094095A2 *1982-05-121983-11-16F. Hoffmann-La Roche AgBicyclic carboxylic acids and their alkyl and aralkyl estersUS4692438A *1984-08-241987-09-08Hoffmann-La Roche Inc.Pyridazo-diazepines, diazocines, and -triazepines having anti-hypertensive activityWO1993023403A1 *1992-05-151993-11-25Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals Inc.NOVEL MERCAPTOACETYLAMIDO PYRIDAZO[1,2]PYRIDAZINE, PYRAZOLO[1,2]PYRIDAZINE, PYRIDAZO[1,2-a][1,2]DIAZEPINE AND PYRAZOLO[1,2-a][1,2]DIAZEPINE DERIVATIVES USEFUL AS INHIBITORS OF ENKEPHALINASE AND ACEWO1994011353A1 *1992-11-121994-05-26University College LondonProcess for the preparation of (3r)- and (3s)-piperazic acid derivativesWO1995035308A1 *1994-06-171995-12-28Vertex Pharmaceuticals IncorporatedINHIBITORS OF INTERLEUKIN-1β CONVERTING ENZYMEFamily To Family CitationsUS6204261B11995-12-202001-03-20Vertex Pharmaceuticals IncorporatedInhibitors of interleukin-1β Converting enzyme inhibitorsFR2777888B11998-04-272004-07-16Hoechst Marion Roussel IncNOVEL DERIVATIVES OF ACID (3,4,7,8,9,10-HEXAHYDRO-6,10- DIOXO-6H-PYRIDAZINO [1,2-A] [1,2] DIAZEPINE-1-CARBOXYLIC, THEIR PROCESS OF PREPARATION AND THEIR APPLICATION TO THE PREPARATION OF MEDICINESFR2777889B11998-04-272004-07-09Hoechst Marion Roussel IncNOVEL DERIVATIVES OF OCTAHYDRO-6,10-DIOXO-6H- PYRIDAZINO [1,2-A] [1,2] DIAZEPINE-1-CARBOXYLIC, THEIR PREPARATION PROCESS AND THEIR APPLICATION TO THE PREPARATION OF THERAPEUTICALLY ACTIVE COMPOUNDS 

////////////////Pralnacasan, VX 740, VX 470, HMR 3480, пралнаказан , برالناكاسان , 普那卡生 , 

CCOC1C(CC(=O)O1)NC(=O)C2CCCN3N2C(=O)C(CCC3=O)NC(=O)C4=NC=CC5=CC=CC=C54

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VX 148


img

VX 148

297730-05-3

Name: VX-148
CAS#: 297730-05-3
Chemical Formula: C23H25N5O4
Exact Mass: 435.19065
Molecular Weight: 435.48
Elemental Analysis: C, 63.44; H, 5.79; N, 16.08; O, 14.70

Molecular Weight435.48
FormulaC23H25N5O4
CAS No.297730-05-3 (VX 148);
Chemical NameCarbamic acid, N-[(1S)-1-[3-[[[(4-cyano-3-methoxyphenyl)amino]carbonyl]amino]phenyl]ethyl]-, (1R)-1-(cyanomethyl)propyl ester
  • OriginatorVertex Pharmaceuticals
  • ClassAntipsoriatics
  • Mechanism of ActionInosine monophosphate dehydrogenase inhibitors
  • DiscontinuedPsoriasis; Transplant rejection; Viral infections
  • 13 Nov 2003Interim data from a media release have been added to the adverse events and Skin Disorders therapeutic trials sections
  • 23 May 2003Vertex Pharmaceuticals has completed enrolment in a phase IIa trial for Psoriasis in Iceland
  • 24 Dec 2002Phase-II clinical trials in Psoriasis in Iceland (unspecified route)

VX-148 is a second-generation, orally administered inhibitor of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH). The IMPDH enzyme plays a key role in regulating immune response and proliferation of specific cell types, including lymphocytes. VX-148 is a developed for the treatment of autoimmune diseases.

Investigated for use/treatment in autoimmune diseases, psoriasis and psoriatic disorders, and viral infection.

VX-148 is a novel, uncompetitive IMPDH inhibitor with a K(i) value of 6 nM against IMPDH type II enzyme. VX-148 is slightly more potent than mycophenolic acid and VX-497 in inhibiting the proliferation of mitogen-stimulated primary human lymphocytes (IC(50) value of ~80 nM). The inhibitory activity of VX-148 is alleviated in the presence of exogenous guanosine. VX-148 does not inhibit proliferation of nonlymphoid cell types such as fibroblasts, indicating selectivity for inhibition of IMPDH activity. VX-148 is orally bioavailable in rats and mice; oral administration of VX-148 inhibits primary antibody response in mice in a dose-dependent manner with an ED(50) value of 38 mg/kg b.i.d. VX-148 significantly prolongs skin graft survival at 100 mg/kg b.i.d. in mice.

SYN

WO 0056331

The intermediate carbamate (V) has been obtained as follows. The reaction of 4-bromo-3-methoxynitrobenzene (I) with CuCN in NMP at 150 C gives 2-methoxy-4-nitrobenzonitrile (II), which is reduced with H2 over Pd/C in ethyl acetate to yield 4-amino-2-methoxybenzonitrile (III). Finally, this compound is condensed with phenyl carbamate (IV) by means of NaHCO3 in ethyl acetate to afford the desired carbamate intermediate (V).

SYN

The reduction of 3-nitroacetophenone (VI) by means of NaBH4 in ethanol gives 1-(3-nitrophenyl)ethanol (VII), which is treated with DPPA and DBU in hot toluene to yield the azido derivative (VIII). The reduction of (VIII) with PPh3 in THF/water affords 1-(3-nitrophenyl)ethylamine (IX) as a racemic mixture that is submitted to optical resolution with L-(+)-tartaric acid to provide the desired (S)-isomer (X). The reduction of the nitro group of (X) by means of H2 over Pd/C in methanol gives 1(S)-(3-aminophenyl)ethylamine (XI), which is condensed with 2(R)-hydroxypentanenitrile (XII) and CDI to yield the carbamate (XIII). Finally, this compound is condensed with intermediate carbamate (V) by means of TEA in hot ethyl acetate to afford the target urea.

  1. Jain J, Almquist SJ, Heiser AD, Shlyakhter D, Leon E, Memmott C, Moody CS, Nimmesgern E, Decker C: Characterization of pharmacological efficacy of VX-148, a new, potent immunosuppressive inosine 5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase inhibitor. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Sep;302(3):1272-7. [Article]

////////////VX 148, phase 2

O=C(O[C@H](CC)CC#N)N[C@H](C1=CC=CC(NC(NC2=CC=C(C#N)C(OC)=C2)=O)=C1)C

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VX- ? (3-[2-(4-fluorophenyl)-lH-indol-3-yl]-N-[(3S,4R)-4-hydroxy-2- oxo-pyrrolidin-3-yl ] propanamide)


Schembl22118316.png

VX- ?

CAS  2446817-72-5

HYDRATE 2446818-26-2

Acetic acid, 1-​methylethyl ester 2446818-27-3

C21 H20 F N3 O3, 381.4

1H-Indole-3-propanamide, 2-(4-fluorophenyl)-N-[(3S,4R)-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-3-pyrrolidinyl]-

3-[2-(4-fluorophenyl)-lH-indol-3-yl]-N-[(3S,4R)-4-hydroxy-2- oxo-pyrrolidin-3-yl ] propanamide

use in treating focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and/or non-diabetic kidney disease (NDKD).

front page image
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PATENT

WO/2021/158666

SOLID FORMS OF APOL1 INHIBITOR AND METHODS OF USING SAME

Compound I is disclosed as Compound 87 in U.S. Provisional Application No.62/780,667 filed on December 17, 2018, U.S. Application No. 16/717,099 filed onDecember 17, 2019, and PCT International Application No. PCT/US2019/066746 filed on December 17, 2019, the entire contents of each of which are incorporated herein by reference.

Compound I, which can be employed in the treatment of diseases mediated by APOLl, such as FSGS and NDKD

Example 1. Synthesis of Compound

Preparation of Compound I and Forms Thereof

Compound I Compound I /– PrOAc solvate Form A

n-pentanol/

n-heptane

Compound I

Form B

Step 1. Synthesis of 3-[2-(4-fluorophenyl)-lH-indol-3-yl]propanoic acid (C101)

[00156] To a mixture of C104 (100.0 g, 1.0 equiv) and phenyl hydrazine hydrochloride (72.2 g, 1.05 eqiv) was charged AcOH (800 mL, 8 vol). The mixture was agitated and heated to 85 °C for 16 hours. The batch was cooled to 22 °C. A vacuum was applied and the batch distill at <70 °C to ~3 total volumes. The batch was cooled to 19- 25 °C. The reactor was charged with iPrOAc (800 mL, 8 vol) and then charged with water (800 mL, 8 vol). The internal temperature was adjusted to 20 – 25 °C and the biphasic mixture was stirred for no less than 0.5 h. Stirring was stopped and the phases allowed to separate for no less than 0.5 h. The lower aqueous layer was removed. 1 N HC1 (500 mL, 5 vol) was charged to the reactor. The internal temperature was adjusted to 20 – 25 °C, and the

biphasic mixture was stirred for no less than 0.5 h. Stirring was stopped and phases were allowed to separate for no less than 0.5 h. The lower aqueous layer was removed. The reactor was charged with 1 N HC1 (500 mL, 5 vol). The internal temperature was adjusted to 20 – 25 °C, and the biphasic mixture was stirred for no less than 0.5 h. Stirring was stopped and phases were allowed to separate for no less than 0.5 h. The lower aqueous layer was removed. Water (500 mL, 5 vol) was charged to the reactor. The internal temperature was adjusted to 20 – 25 °C, and the biphasic mixture was stirred for no less than 0.5 h. Stirring was stopped and phases were allowed to separate for no less than 0.5 h. The lower aqueous layer was removed. Water (500 mL, 5 vol) was charged to the reactor. The internal temperature was adjusted to 20 – 25 °C, and the biphasic mixture was stirred for no less than 0.5 h. Stirring was stopped and phases were allowed to separate for no less than 0.5 h. The lower aqueous layer was removed. The organic phase was distilled under vacuum at <75 °C to 3 total volumes. The reactor was charged with toluene (1000 mL, 10 vol). The organic phase was distilled under vacuum at <75 °C to 5 total volumes. The reactor was charged with toluene (1000 mL, 10 vol). The organic phase was distilled under vacuum at <75 °C to 5 total volumes. The resulting slurry was heated to an internal temperature of 85 °C until complete dissolution of solids was achieved. The mixture was allowed to stir for 0.5 h at 85 °C and then cooled to an internal temperature of 19 – 25 °C over 5 h. The mixture was allowed to stir at 25 °C for no less than 2 h. The slurry was filtered. The filter cake was washed with toluene (1 x 2 vol (200 mL) and 1 x 1.5 vol (150 mL)). The solids were dried under vacuum with nitrogen bleed at 60 °C to afford product C101 (95.03 g, 70%).

Step 2. Synthesis of Compound I

[00157] A mixture of 3-[2-(4-fluorophenyl)-lH-indol-3-yl]propanoic acid C101 (50 g, 1.0 equiv), S2 hydrochloride (28.3 g, 1.05 equiv), and CDMT (34.1 g, 1.1 equiv) was charged with 2-MeTHF (200 mL, 4 vol) and DMF (50 mL, 1 vol) and the mixture was agitated. The internal temperature adjusted to <13 °C. The reactor was charged with NMM (64.5 g, 3.5 equiv) over 1 h, while maintaining internal temperature <20 °C. The internal temperature was adjusted to 25 °C and the batch was stirred at that temperature for 14 h. The batch was cooled to 10 °C and charged with water (250 mL, 5 vol) while keeping the internal temperature <20 °C. The batch was then warmed to 20 – 25 °C. Stirring was stopped, and the phases allowed to separate for 10 min. The lower aqueous phase was removed. The aqueous layer was back extracted with 2-MeTHF (2 x 200 mL, 2 x 4 vol) at

20 – 25 °C. The combined organic phases were washed with 1 N HC1 (500 mL, 10 vol) at 20 – 25 °C by mixing for 10 min and settling for 10 min. The lower aqueous phase was removed. The organic phases were washed with 0.25 N HC1 (2 x 250 mL, 2 x 5 vol) at 20 – 25 °C by mixing for 10 min and settling for 10 min for each wash. Lower aqueous phases were removed after each wash. The organic phase was washed with water (250 mL, 5 vol) at 20 – 25 °C by mixing for 10 min and settling for 10 min. The reactor was charged with 20 wt % Nuchar RGC® and stirred for 4 h. The reaction mixture was filtered through a pad of celite®. The reactor and celite® pad were rinsed with 2-MeTHF. The combined organics were distilled under vacuum at <50 °C to 5 total volumes. The reactor was charged with iPrOAc (500 mL, 10 vol). The organic phase was distilled under vacuum at <50 °C to 5 total volumes. The mixture was charged with additional iPrOAc (400 mL, 8 vol) and distillation under vacuum was repeated. The mixture was charged with additional iPrOAc (250 mL, 5 vol), heated to an internal temperature of 75 °C and stirred for 5 h. The slurry was cooled to 25 °C, over 5 h and stirred for no less than 12 h. The slurry was filtered and the filter cake washed with iPrOAc (2 x 50 mL, 2 x 1 vol). The solids were dried under vacuum with nitrogen bleed at 55 – 60 °C to afford Compound I as an iPrOAc solvate (60.38 g including 9.9% w/w iPrOAc, 80.8% yield).

Recrystallization to Form A of Compound I

[00158] Compound I as an iPrOAc solvate (17.16 g after correction for iPrOAc content, 1.0 equiv) was charged to a reactor. A mixture of IP A (77 mL, 4.5 vol) and water (137 mL, 8 vol) were charged to the reactor. The slurry was heated to an internal temperature of 75 °C. The batch was cooled to an internal temperature of 25 °C over 10 h and then stirred at 25 °C for at least 12 h. The slurry was filtered. The filter cake was washed with 36/64 IP A/water (2 x 52 mL, 2 x 3 vol). The solids were dried under vacuum with nitrogen bleed at 60 °C to afford Compound I as a neat, crystalline form (Form A, 15.35 g, 89%).

[00159] The X-ray powder diffractogram of Compound I Form A (FIG. 50) was acquired at room temperature using a PANalytical Empyrean diffractometer equipped with PIXcel ID detector. The peaks are listed in Table A below.

Table A. XRPD of Form A of Compound I

|

I

PATENT

  • WO2020131807

Alternative Preparation I of Compound 87 (Indole preparation route C)

Step 1. Synthesis of 2-(4-fluorophenyl)-lH-indole (C98)

[00401] To a stirred suspension of indole (5 g, 42.7 mmol) and (4- fluorophenyl)boronic acid (8.96 g, 64.0 mmol) in AcOH (200 mL) was

added Pd(OAc)2.Trimer (1.44 g, 6.4 mmol) and the mixture stirred at room temperature for 16 h under 02-balloon pressure. Then the reaction mixture was filtered through a Celite® pad, washed with EtOAc (500 mL). The filtrates were washed with water, sat. NaHC03 solution, brine solution, then dried over Na2S04 and concentrated under reduced pressure. Purification by silica gel chromatography (Gradient: 0-10 % EtOAc in heptane) yielded the product afforded 2-(4-fluorophenyl)-lH-indole (5.5 g, 61 %). ‘H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-de) 5 11.51 (s, 1H), 7.9 (t, J = 5.4 Hz, 2H), 7.52 (d, J = 7.8 Hz, 1H), 7.39 (d, J = 8.1 Hz, 1H), 7.30 (t, J = 8.7 Hz, 2H), 7.09 (t, J = 12 Hz, 1H), 6.99 (t, J = 7.5 Hz, 1H), 6.86 (s, 1H). LCMS m/z 212.4 [M+H]+.

Step 2. Synthesis of methyl (E)-3-[2-(4-fluorophenyl)-lH-indol-3-yl]prop-2-enoate (C99)

[00402] 2-(4-fluorophenyl)-lH-indole (1.0 g, 4.76 mmol) and methyl 3,3-dimethoxypropanoate (0.81 mL, 5.7 mmol) were suspended in dichloromethane (15 mL). Trifluoroacetic acid (2.00 mL, 26 mmol) was added rapidly via syringe, resulting in a clear brown solution. The reaction mixture was heated to 40 °C for three hours. The reaction was diluted with dichloromethane (15 mL) to give an amber solution which was washed with saturated aqueous NaHCCh (25 mL) to yield a bright yellow/light amber biphasic mixture. The phases were separated and the organic layer was washed with saturated NaHCCh (30 mL), then dried (MgSCh) and filtered. The mixture was concentrated under a nitrogen stream overnight. The crude product was obtained as a yellow powder. The product was dissolved in minimum 2-MeTHF and pentane added until the suspension became lightly cloudy. The suspension was allowed to stand overnight, and the precipitate was filtered off. The filter cake was washed with heptane (2 x 15 mL), and dried in vacuo at 40 °C to afford the product as a yellow powder. Methyl (E)-3-[2-(4-fluorophenyl)-lH-indol-3-yl]prop-2-enoate (1.30 g, 86 %). ¾ NMR (300 MHz, Chloroform -if) d 8.41 (s, 1H), 8.01 – 7.95 (m, 1H), 7.92 (d, J = 16.0 Hz,

1H), 7.58 – 7.50 (m, 2H), 7.46 – 7.41 (m, 1H), 7.33 – 7.27 (m, 2H), 7.22 (t, J = 8.6 Hz, 2H), 6.59 (d, J = 16.0 Hz, 1H), 3.79 (s, 3H). LCMS m/z 295.97 [M+H]+.

Step 3. Synthesis of methyl 3-[2-(4-fluorophenyl)-lH-indol-3-yl]propanoate (CIOO)

[00403] To a solution of methyl (E)-3-[2-(4-fluorophenyl)-lH-indol-3-yl]prop-2-enoate (7 g, 0.02 mol) in EtOAc (350 mL) was added Palladium on carbon (4 g, 10 %w/w, 0.004 mol) and stirred at room temperature for 2 h under an atmosphere of H2 (bladder pressure). The reaction mixture was filtered through a pad of Celite® and washed with EtOAc (400 mL). The filtrates was concentrated to afford methyl 3-[2-(4-fluorophenyl)-lH-indol-3-yl]propanoate (7.1 g, 100 %). 1H MR (300 MHz, DMSO-<fc) 5 11.2 (s, 1H), 7.65 (q, J = 5.4 Hz, 2H), 7.54 (d, J = 8.1 Hz, 1H), 7.36 (t, J = 9.0 Hz, 3H), 7.10 (t, J = 8.1 Hz, 1H), 7.02 (t, J = 7.8 Hz, 1H), 3.53 (s, 3H), 3.10 (t, J = 15.9 Hz, 2H), 2.63 (t, J = 15.9 Hz, 2H). LCMS m/z 298.21 [M+H]+. The product was used directly in the subsequent step without further purification.

Step 4. Synthesis of 3-[2-(4-fluorophenyl)-lH-indol-3-yl]propanoic acid (C101)

[00404] To stirred solution of methyl 3-[2-(4-fluorophenyl)-lH-indol-3-yl]propanoate (14.4 g, 0.05mol) in THF (300 mL), MeOH (300 mL) and H2O (250 mL) was cooled to -10°C. LiOH.H20 (10.1 g, 0.24 mol) was slowly added in a portion-wise manner. The reaction mixture was allowed to stir at room temperature for 16 h. The mixture was

evaporated and ice cold water (200 mL) was added, pH was adjusted to pH- 2 with 1M HC1 (400 mL, Cold solution). The mixture was stirred for 10 minutes, filtered and dried to afford 3-[2-(4-fhiorophenyl)-lH-indol-3-yl]propanoic acid (12.9 g, 94 %). ‘H NMR (400 MHz, DMSCMJ) 5 12.11 (s, 1H), 11.18 (s, 1H), 7.65 (q, J = 5.2 Hz, 2H), 7.56 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1H), 7.36 (t, J = 8.8 Hz, 3H), 7.10 (t, J = 8 Hz, 1H), 7.01 (t, J = 8 Hz, 1H), 3.06 (t, J = 16.4 Hz, 2H), 2.55 (t, J = 16 Hz, 2H). LCMS m/z 284.21 [M+H]+.

Step 5. Synthesis of 3-[2-(4-fluorophenyl)-lH-indol-3-yl]-N-[(3S,4R)-4-hydroxy-2- oxo-pyrrolidin-3-yl ] propanamide (87)

[00405] A mixture of 3-[2-(4-fluorophenyl)-lH-indol-3-yl]propanoic acid C101 (40 g, 120.0 mmol) and (3S,4R)-3-amino-4-hydroxy-pyrrolidin-2-one (Hydrochloride salt) S2 (23.8 g, 156.0 mmol) in DMF (270 mL) was stirred at room temperature for 5 minutes. CDMT (27.2 g, 154.9 mmol) and NMM (53 mL, 482.1 mmol) were added and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 2 h. The mixture was poured into water (140 mL) and then stirred for 1 h at room temperature, then filtered and washing the solids with water (50 mL). The solids were dissolved in 1 : 1 IP A/water (-400 mL, until all solids dissolved) with heating (reflux) and stirring. The mixture was allowed to cool slowly to room temperature overnight. The mixture was cooled to 0 oC and stirred to break up crystals for filtration. The crystals were then filtered off, rinsed with cold 1 : 1 IP A/water to afford a tan solid (45 g). The solid was dissolved in IPA (200 mL) and heated to 80 °C to dissolve the solid. Activated charcoal (10 g) was added and the mixture was heated with stirring for 30 minutes. The mixture was filtered through Celite ® and solvent removed under reduced pressure. A mixture of 40:60 IP A/water (350 mL) was added to the solid and the mixture was heated until all solids dissolved. The mixture was cooled to room temperature over 5 h. Solids precipitated within the mixture. The mixture was then cooled to 0 °C and stirred for 1 h. The solids were filtered off and air dried on funnel for 1 h, then in a vacuum at 55 °C overnight to afford the product. 3-[2-(4-fluorophenyl)-lH-indol-3-yl]-N-[(3S,4R)-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-pyrrolidin-3-yl]propanamide (36.6 g, 79 %). ¾ NMR (300 MHz, Methanol-i¾) d 7.63 (ddt, J= 8.6, 5.1, 2.7 Hz, 3H), 7.35 (dt, J= 8.1, 1.0 Hz, 1H), 7.25 – 7.16 (m, 2H), 7.11 (ddd, J= 8.1, 7.0, 1.3 Hz, 1H), 7.03 (ddd, J = 8.0, 7.0, 1.2 Hz, 1H), 4.34 (td, J= 7.6, 6.8 Hz, 1H), 4.22 (d, J= 7.7 Hz, 1H), 3.55 (dd, J= 9.9, 7.5 Hz, 1H), 3.26 – 3.18 (m, 2H), 3.10 (dd, J= 9.9, 6.8 Hz, 1H), 2.69 – 2.59 (m, 2H). LCMS m/z 382.05 [M+H]+. The

product contained 0.23 % IPA by weight by NMR (1439 ppm IPA by residual solvent analysis). Purity is 99.5 % by (qNMR).

Alternative Preparation II of Compound 87 ( Indole Preparation route D)

Step 1. Synthesis of 5-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-oxo-pentanoic acid (Cl 04)

[00406] To a stirred suspension of AlCb(13.9 g, 0.10 mol) in dichloromethane (50 mL) was added a solution of tetrahydropyran-2,6-dione (5.93 g, 0.05

mol) in dichloromethane (100 mL) at 0 °C over a period of 15 minutes and stirred for 30 min. Then to the reaction mixture was added fluorobenzene (5 g, 0.05 mol) at 0 °C over a period of 15 min, gradually allowed to room temperature and stirred for 16 h. Then the reaction mixture was added to ice water (50 mL) under stirring. The resulting solid was filtered to afford a light yellow solid. The solid was diluted with 3 % NaOH solution (50 mL) and dichloromethane (50 mL). The aqueous layer was separated and acidified with IN HC1 at 0 °C. The mixture was then extracted with EtOAc (100 mL), dried over Na2SC>4, and concentrated under reduced pressure. The solid was then washed with pentane and dried to afford 5-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-oxo-pentanoic acid as an off white solid. (6 g, 53 %). ¾ NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-^) d 12.07 (s, 1H), 8.06 (d, J = 6 Hz, 1H), 8.02 (d, J = 5.4 Hz, 1H), 7.36 (t, J = 8.7 Hz, 2H), 3.06 (t, J = 12 Hz,

2H), 2.31 (t, J = 7.2 Hz, 2H), 1.86-1.78 (m, 2H). LCMS m/z 211.18 [M+H]+.

Step 2. Synthesis of 3-[2-(4-fluorophenyl)-lH-indol-3-yl]propanoic acid (Cl 01) [00407] Phenylhydrazine (Hydrochloride salt) (375.7 g, 2.6 mol) was combined with the 5-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-oxo-pentanoic acid (507.7 g, 2.4 mol) in a 12 L three-necked round-bottomed flask equipped with an overhead stirrer, temperature probe, and reflux condenser. AcOH (5 L) was added. The stirring was initiated and ZnCk (605 g, 4.44 mol) was added. The white suspension rapidly thickened after a few minutes (due to formation of the hydrazine intermediate). Approx. 500 mL of extra AcOH was added to aid stirring. The reaction was then heated to 100 °C for three hours. The reaction was cooled to room temperature and poured into water (approx. 6 L). The mixture was extracted with EtOAc (approx 8 L). The extract was washed with water, dried

(MgS04), filtered, and evaporated in vacuo to afford a golden yellow solid. The solid was triturated with approx. 4 L of 10 % EtOAc/DCM and filtered. The filter cake was washed with 50 % dichloromethane/heptane (approx 1 L). The filter cake was dissolved in 40 % EtOAc/dichloromethane (approx. 2L) and filtered over a plug of silica gel. The plug was eluted with 40 % EtOAc/ dichloromethane until the product had been eluted (checked by TLC (25 % EtOAc/ dichloromethane)). The filtrate was evaporated in vacuo to afford 382.6 g of an off-white solid (Crop 1). All filtrates were combined and evaporated in vacuo. The remaining solid was dissolved in 10 %

EtOAc/dichloromethane (approx. 1 L) and chromatographed on a 3 kg silica gel cartridge on the ISCO Torrent (isocratic gradient of 10 % EtOAc/dichloromethane). Product fractions were combined and evaporated in vacuo to afford a yellow solid that was slurried with dichloromethane, cooled under a stream of nitrogen, and filtered. The filter cake was washed with 50 % dichloromethane/heptane and dried in vacuo to afford 244.2 g of product (Crop 2). Altogether, both crops afforded 3-[2-(4-fluorophenyl)-lH-indol-3-yl]propanoic acid (626.8 g, 93 %). ¾ NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-i/e) d 12.15 (s, 1H), 11.20 (s, 1H), 7.74 – 7.62 (m, 2H), 7.57 (d, J = 7.8 Hz, 1H), 7.47 – 7.28 (m, 3H), 7.11 (ddd, J = 8.1, 7.0, 1.2 Hz, 1H), 7.02 (ddd, J = 7.9, 7.0, 1.1 Hz, 1H), 3.17 – 2.85 (m, 2H), 2.61 – 2.52 (m, 2H) ppm. 19F NMR (282 MHz, DMSO-i/e) d -114.53 ppm. LCMS m/z 284.15 [M+H]+.

Step 3. Synthesis of 3-[2-(4-fluorophenyl)-lH-indol-3-yl]-N-[(3S,4R)-4-hydroxy-2- oxo-pyrrolidin-3-yl ] propanamide (87)

[00408] A 3-L three neck RBF under nitrogen was equipped with a 150 mL addition funnel and thermocouple, then loaded with 3-[2-(4-fluorophenyl)-lH-indol-3-yl]propanoic acid (77.2 g, 228.6 mmol), (3S,4R)-3-amino-4-hydroxy-pyrrolidin-2-one

(Hydrochloride salt) (36.6 g, 239.9 mmol) and CDMT (44.2 g, 251.7 mmol). DMF (320 mL) was added and the orange slurry was cooled to -5 °C (acetone/brine/dry ice). NMM (88 mL, 800.4 mmol) was added via a funnel over 75 minutes to keep the internal temp <0 °C. The slurry was stirred at between -10 and 0 °C for 1 hour, then allowed to warm to ambient temperature progressively over 2 hours. Additional reagents were added (10 % of the initial quantities), and the mixture was stirred overnight at ambient temperature. Water (850 mL) was added over 60 minutes, maintaining the internal temperature at <25 °C (ice bath). This slow water addition allows for complete dissolution of any visible salt before precipitation of the product. The resulting thick slurry was stirred at ambient temperature overnight. The solid was recovered by filtration and washed with water (3 x 500 mL). The solid was dried under a stream of air at ambient temperature, then purified by crystallization.

Crystallization of 3- [2-( 4-fluorophenyl)-lH-indol-3-yl ]-N-[ ( 3S, 4R)-4-hydroxy-2-oxo- pyrrolidin-3-yl ] propanamide (87)

[00409] Under nitrogen atmosphere, a 2-L, 3 -neck flask equipped with addition funnel and thermocouple was charged with a light brown suspension of the crude 3-[2-(4-fluorophenyl)-lH-indol-3-yl]-N-[(3S,4R)-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-pyrrolidin-3-yljpropanamide (89.5 g) in IPA (225 mL, 2.5 vol). The slurry was heated to 50 °C and water (675 mL, 7.5 vol) was added until near-complete dissolution of solid was observed. The temperature was adjusted to 70 °C-to achieve full dissolution, yielding a clear amber solution. After 30 minutes, the heat source was removed and the mixture was cooled to ambient temperature over the weekend, stirring gently while maintaining the nitrogen atmosphere. The solid was recovered by filtration, washed with IPA:H20 = 1 :2 (2 x 300 mL, 2 x 3.3 vol) dried under a stream of air overnight to afford the product. 3-[2-(4-fluorophenyl)-lH-indol-3-yl]-N-[(3S,4R)-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-pyrrolidin-3-yl]propanamide (84.8 g, 92 %). ¾ NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-^) d 11.19 (s, 1H), 8.23 (d, J= 7.5 Hz, 1H), 7.77 (s, 1H), 7.72 – 7.63 (m, 2H), 7.60 (d, J= 7.8 Hz, 1H), 7.41 -7.31 (m, 3H), 7.12 (ddd, J= 8.1, 7.0, 1.2 Hz, 1H), 7.03 (ddd, J= 8.0, 7.0, 1.1 Hz, 1H), 5.49 (d, J= 5.0 Hz, 1H), 4.20 – 4.06 (m, 2H), 3.38 (s, 1H), 3.11 – 3.00 (m, 2H), 2.92 (dd, J= 9.4, 6.6 Hz, 1H). LCMS m/z 382.15 [M+H]+.

Crystallization of 3- [2-( 4-fluorophenyl)-lH-indol-3-yl J-N-[ ( 3S, 4R)-4-hydroxy-2-oxo- pyrrolidin-3-yl ] propanamide (87)

[00410] A 2-L, 3-neck flask equipped with addition funnel and thermocouple was charged with a light brown suspension of the crude 3-[2-(4-fluorophenyl)-lH-indol-3- yl]-N-[(3S,4R)-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-pyrrolidin-3-yl]propanamide in IPA (225 mL, 1 vol). The slurry was heated to 50 °C and water (675 mL, 3 vol) was added until near- complete dissolution of solid observed (mL). Temperature was increased to 70 °C under nitrogen (full dissolution, yielding a clear amber solution). After 30 minutes, the heat was removed and the mixture cooled to ambient temperature over the weekend, stirring gently under nitrogen atmosphere. The solid was recovered by filtration and washed with IPAiLLO = 1 :2 (2 x 300 mL).The solid was dried under a stream of air overnight to afford the product. 3-[2-(4-fluorophenyl)-lH-indol-3-yl]-N-[(3S,4R)-4-hydroxy-2-oxo- pyrrolidin-3-yl]propanamide (84.8 g, 92 %). ¾ NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-i/e) d 11.19 (s, 1H), 8.23 (d, J= 7.5 Hz, 1H), 7.77 (s, 1H), 7.72 – 7.63 (m, 2H), 7.60 (d, J= 7.8 Hz,

1H), 7.41 – 7.31 (m, 3H), 7.12 (ddd, J= 8.1, 7.0, 1.2 Hz, 1H), 7.03 (ddd, 7= 8.0, 7.0,

1.1 Hz, 1H), 5.49 (d, J= 5.0 Hz, 1H), 4.20 – 4.06 (m, 2H), 3.38 (s, 1H), 3.11 – 3.00 (m, 2H), 2.92 (dd, J= 9.4, 6.6 Hz, 1H). LCMS m/z 382.15 [M+H]+.

Large Scale Preparation of Compound 87

/- PrOAc solvate Form A

Step 1. Synthesis of 3-[2-(4-fluorophenyl)-lH-indol-3-yl]propanoic acid (C101)

[00411] To a mixture of C104 (100.0 g, 1.0 equiv) and phenyl hydrazine hydrochloride (72.2 g, 1.05 eqiv) was charged AcOH (800 mL, 8 vol). The mixture was agitated and heated to 85 °C for 16 hours. The batch was cooled to 22 °C. A vacuum was applied and the batch distill at <70°C to ~3 total volumes. The batch was cooled to 19- 25 °C. The reactor was charged with iPrOAc (800 mL, 8 vol) and then charged with water (800 mL, 8 vol). The internal temperature was adjusted to 20 – 25 °C and the biphasic mixture was stirred for no less than 0.5 h. Stirring was stopped and the phases allowed to separate for no less than 0.5 h. The lower aqueous layer was removed. 1 N HC1 (500 mL, 5 vol) was charged to the reactor. The internal temperature was adjusted to 20 – 25 °C, and the biphasic mixture was stirred for no less than 0.5 h. Stirring was stopped and phases were allowed to separate for no less than 0.5 h. The lower aqueous layer was removed. The reactor was charged with 1 N HC1 (500 mL, 5 vol). The internal temperature was adjusted to 20 – 25 °C, and the biphasic mixture was stirred for no less than 0.5 h.

Stirring was stopped and phases were allowed to separate for no less than 0.5 h. The lower aqueous layer was removed. Water (500 mL, 5 vol) was charged to the reactor.

The internal temperature was adjusted to 20 – 25 °C, and the biphasic mixture was stirred for no less than 0.5 h. Stirring was stopped and phases were allowed to separate for no less than 0.5 h. The lower aqueous layer was removed. Water (500 mL, 5 vol) was charged to the reactor. The internal temperature was adjusted to 20 – 25 °C, and the biphasic mixture was stirred for no less than 0.5 h. Stirring was stopped and phases were allowed to separate for no less than 0.5 h. The lower aqueous layer was removed. The organic phase was distilled under vacuum at <75 °C to 3 total volumes. The reactor was charged with toluene (1000 mL, 10 vol). The organic phase was distilled under vacuum at <75 °C to 5 total volumes. The reactor was charged with toluene (1000 mL, 10 vol). The organic phase was distilled under vacuum at <75 °C to 5 total volumes. The resulting slurry was heated to an internal temperature of 85 °C until complete dissolution of solids was achieved. The mixture was allowed to stir for 0.5 h at 85 °C and then cooled to an internal temperature of 19 – 25 °C over 5 h. The mixture was allowed to stir at 25 °C for no less than 2 h. The slurry was filtered. The filter cake was washed with toluene (1 x 2 vol (200 mL) and 1 x 1.5 vol (150 mL)). The solids were dried under vacuum with nitrogen bleed at 60 °C to afford product C101 (95.03 g, 70%).

Purification of Compound 87 by Recrystallization to Form A

[00412] Compound 87 as an iPrOAc solvate (17.16 g after correction for iPrOAc content, 1.0 equiv) was charged to a reactor. A mixture of IP A (77 mL, 4.5 vol) and water (137 mL, 8 vol) were charged to the reactor. The slurry was heated to an internal temperature of 75 °C. The batch was cooled to an internal temperature of 25 °C over 10 h and then stirred at 25 °C for at least 12 h. The slurry was filtered. The filter cake was washed with 36/64 IP A/water (2 x 52 mL, 2 x 3 vol). The solids were dried under vacuum with nitrogen bleed at 60 °C to afford Compound 87 as a neat, crystalline form (Form A, 15.35 g, 89%).

Synthetic Procedure

[00413] A mixture of 3-[2-(4-fluorophenyl)-lH-indol-3-yl]propanoic acid C101 (50 g, 1.0 equiv), S2 hydrochloride (28.3 g, 1.05 equiv), and CDMT (34.1 g, 1.1 equiv) was charged with 2-MeTHF (200 mL, 4 vol) and DMF (50 mL, 1 vol) and the mixture was agitated. The internal temperature adjusted to <13 °C. The reactor was charged with NMM (64.5 g, 3.5 equiv) over 1 h, while maintaining internal temperature <20 °C. The internal temperature was adjusted to 25 °C and the batch was stirred at that temperature for 14 h. The batch was cooled to 10 °C and charged with water (250 mL, 5 vol) while keeping the internal temperature <20 °C. The batch was then warmed to 20 – 25 °C. Stirring was stopped, and the phases allowed to separate for 10 min. The lower aqueous phase was removed. The aqueous layer was back extracted with 2-MeTHF (2 x 200 mL, 2 x 4 vol) at 20 – 25 °C. The combined organic phases were washed with 1 N HC1 (500 mL, 10 vol) at 20 – 25 °C by mixing for 10 min and settling for 10 min. The lower aqueous phase was removed. The organic phases were washed with 0.25 N HC1 (2 x 250 mL, 2 x 5 vol) at 20 – 25 °C by mixing for 10 min and settling for 10 min for each wash. Lower aqueous phases were removed after each wash. The organic phase was washed with water (250 mL, 5 vol) at 20 – 25 °C by mixing for 10 min and settling for 10 min. The reactor was charged with 20 wt % Nuchar RGC® and stirred for 4 h. The reaction mixture was filtered through a pad of celite®. The reactor and celite® pad were rinsed with 2-MeTHF. The combined organics were distilled under vacuum at <50 °C to 5 total volumes. The reactor was charged with iPrOAc (500 mL, 10 vol). The organic phase was distilled under vacuum at <50 °C to 5 total volumes. The mixture was charged with additional iPrOAc (400 mL, 8 vol) and distillation under vacuum was repeated. The mixture was charged with additional iPrOAc (250 mL, 5 vol), heated to an internal

temperature of 75 °C and stirred for 5 h. The slurry was cooled to 25 °C, over 5 h and stirred for no less than 12 h. The slurry was filtered and the filter cake washed with iPrOAc (2 x 50 mL, 2 x 1 vol). The solids were dried under vacuum with nitrogen bleed at 55 – 60 °C to afford Compound 87 as an iPrOAc solvate (60.38 g including 9.9% w/w iPrOAc, 80.8% yield).

Form A of Compound 87

[00414] Compound 87 hydrate form was converted to the dehydrated, neat crystalline form (Form A) after drying.

Hydrate Form A of Compound 87

[00415] A mixture of IP A (4.5 vol) and water (8 vol) was added to compound 87

(iPrOAc solvate containing ~2.5 – 11 wt% iPrOAc, 1.0 equiv). The slurry was heated to an internal temperature of 75 °C and filtered hot. The filtrate was cooled to 25 °C for at least 12 h. The slurry was filtered. The filter cake was washed with 36/64 IP A/water (2 x 3 vol). The solids were dried under vacuum with nitrogen bleed at 55 – 60 °C. The product was isolated as Hydrate form.

IPAC Solvate of Compound 87:

[00416] The large scale synthesis described above provided an iPrOAc solvate containing ~2.5 – 11 wt% iPrOAc after drying.

Amorphous Form of Compound 87

[00417] ~lg of compound 87 was dissolved in 22mL of acetone. The solution was evaporated using a Genevac. The resulted solid was dried at 60C under vacuum overnight. The dried solid was amorphous form.

Publication Number TitlePriority Date Grant Date
WO-2020131807-A1Inhibitors of apol1 and methods of using same2018-12-17 
US-2020377479-A1Inhibitors of apol1 and methods of using same2018-12-17

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O=C(N[C@@H]1C(=O)NC[C@H]1O)CCc1c2ccccc2[NH]c1c1ccc(F)cc1

SIMILAR

https://d4crq6wjnrm5a.cloudfront.net/drugs/720/5842720.png?Expires=1629119288&Policy=eyJTdGF0ZW1lbnQiOlt7IlJlc291cmNlIjoiaHR0cHM6Ly9kNGNycTZ3am5ybTVhLmNsb3VkZnJvbnQubmV0L2RydWdzLzcyMC81ODQyNzIwLnBuZyIsIkNvbmRpdGlvbiI6eyJEYXRlTGVzc1RoYW4iOnsiQVdTOkVwb2NoVGltZSI6MTYyOTExOTI4OH19fV19&Signature=cF-TptDVLQjX2ZetNPD5u1xkA-2MNWfoDI-idPuhS-blf-hpPJxOxXvstTNlxr0CfZBAGZwTR0LgoB5iSQzJJyu2NJXiXipepG0~Svx6zY6NdmxVK37PO7nzv61f9zTO-vjTUW4g0oiXzENMdRkJsansf2XgskWiwa-9piD0gV02R9jO2E9mmjtLygU5JlbJsfui91rsPYVHkW7qJQLVliePDWNXO4ykZpeGwy0N2UXxfphEgm3WsBDE1TomCJDgMZBY37ewn3Bk83lH2DBBb~EhC80sRaJr4mEcOkbdVI3hWISDfz-14L-A2tY0JQ8JOdpth31dNVYZIQZcsI-qZA__&Key-Pair-Id=APKAJYXZOHSJHO6RX3UQ

predicted

VX 147

cas 2446816-88-0 predicted

O=C(N[C@@H]1C(=O)NC[C@H]1O)CCc1c2cc(F)cc(F)c2[NH]c1c1ccc(F)cc1

  • OriginatorVertex Pharmaceuticals
  • ClassSmall molecules; Urologics
  • Mechanism of ActionApolipoprotein L1 inhibitors
  • Orphan Drug StatusNo
  • New Molecular EntityYes

Highest Development Phases

  • Phase IIFocal segmental glomerulosclerosis
  • Phase IKidney disorders

Most Recent Events

  • 14 Apr 2020Phase-II clinical trials in Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in USA (PO) (EudraCT2020-000185-42) (NCT04340362)
  • 31 Dec 2019Vertex Pharmaceuticals completes phase I clinical trial in Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and Kidney disorders (In volunteers) in USA (PO)
  • 05 Aug 2019Vertex Pharmaceuticals plans a phase II proof-of-concept trial for focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in 2020
NCT Number  ICMJENCT04340362
Other Study ID Numbers  ICMJEVX19-147-101
2020-000185-42 ( EudraCT Number )

ONO-2910


Figure JPOXMLDOC01-appb-C000058
Schembl21647748.png

ONO-2910

CAS 2410177-35-2

3- [2-[(E) -5- [3- (benzenesulfonamide) phenyl] penta-4-enoxy] phenyl] propanoic acid

3- [2-[(E) -5- [3- (benzenesulfonamido) phenyl] penta-4-enoxy] phenyl] propanoic acidC26 H27 N O5 S465.56Benzenepropanoic acid, 2-[[(4E)-5-[3-[(phenylsulfonyl)amino]phenyl]-4-penten-1-yl]oxy]-

ONO Pharmaceuticals is developing ONO-2910 , the lead from a program of novel transient receptor potential cation channel 4/5 inhibitors, for treating peripheral neuropathy. In April 2021, a phase II trial in patients with diabetic polyneuropathy was initiated.

PATENT

CN112513011-BENZENE DERIVATIVE

Example 84: 3-[2-[(E)-5-[3-(Benzenesulfonamido)phenyl]pent-4-enyloxy]phenyl]propionic acid
        [Chemical formula 52]
         
        To a solution of the compound (146 mg) produced in Example 83 in THF (0.5 mL) and methanol (0.1 mL), 1M aqueous lithium hydroxide solution (0.5 mL) was added, and the mixture was stirred at 50°C for 8 hours. 1M hydrochloric acid was added to make it acidic, and it was extracted with ethyl acetate. After drying the organic layer over sodium sulfate, it was concentrated under reduced pressure to obtain the title compound (105 mg) having the following physical properties.
        HPLC retention time (min): 1.10
         1 H-NMR(CD 3 OD): δ 1.95-2.03, 2.41-2.46, 2.57-2.61,2.92-2.95, 4.03-4.06, 6.24, 6.36, 6.86, 6.90-6.95, 7.06-7.08, 7.11-7.19, 7.45-7.49, 7.55, 7.75 -7.78.
wdt-5

NEW DRUG APPROVALS

ONE TIME

$10.00

PATENT

WO-2021153690

Novel crystalline forms of 3-[2-[(E)-5-[3-(benzenesulfonamide) phenyl] penta-4-enoxy] phenyl] propanoic acid act as neuroprotective, useful for treating neurological disorders eg chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuritis, Guillain-Barre syndrome and allergic angiitis.Example 1:
Sulfuric acid (0.26 mL) is added to a solution of isopropyl 3- (2-hydroxyphenyl) propanoate 3,4-dihydrocoumarin (50.0 g) in isopropyl alcohol (500 mL), and the reaction mixture is mixed at room temperature for 2 hours. Stirred. The reaction mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure, and the obtained residue was diluted with ethyl acetate. The mixture was washed with saturated aqueous sodium hydrogen carbonate solution, water and saturated brine, dried over sodium sulfate, and concentrated under reduced pressure to give the title compound (73.2 g) having the following physical properties.
1 1 H-NMR (CDCl 3 ): δ 1.20, 2.66-2.70, 2.87-2.91, 4.95-5.08, 6.86-6.91, 7.06-7.15, 7.35.

Example 2: Isopropyl 3- (2- (pent-4-in-1-yloxy) phenyl) propanoate In a solution of the compound (3.00 g) prepared in Example 1 in N, N-dimethylacetamide (25 mL) at room temperature. Cesium carbonate (9.39 g) was added at the same temperature, and the mixture was stirred at the same temperature for 15 minutes. 5-Chloro-1-pentyne (CAS Registry Number: 14267-92-6) (1.63 g) was added to the reaction solution at room temperature, and the mixture was stirred at 60 ° C. for 3 hours. Water was added to the reaction solution, and the mixture was extracted with diethyl ether. The organic layer was dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated under reduced pressure. The obtained residue was purified by silica gel column chromatography (hexane: ethyl acetate = 1: 0 → 5: 1) to give the title compound (2.40 g) having the following physical property values.
HPLC retention time (minutes): 1.13.Example 3: Isopropyl (E) -3- (2-((5- (4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl) penta-4-en-1-yl) Il) Oxy) Phenyl) Propanoate In
a heptane (2 mL) solution of the compound (1.00 g) prepared in Example 2, 4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolane (1. 17 g) and 4-dimethylaminobenzoic acid (60.2 mg) were added, and the mixture was stirred at 100 ° C. for 4 hours. The reaction solution was cooled to room temperature and then concentrated. The obtained residue was purified by silica gel column chromatography (hexane: ethyl acetate = 20: 1 → 4: 1) to give the title compound (503 mg) having the following physical characteristics.
HPLC retention time (minutes): 1.38.Example 3 (1):
Pyridine (0.95 mL), N, N-dimethyl in a solution of N- (3-bromophenyl) benzenesulfonamide 3-bromoaniline (1.02 g) in dichloromethane (20 mL) at 0 ° C. Aminopyridine (hereinafter abbreviated as DMAP) (72.4 mg) and benzenesulfonyl chloride (1.10 g) were added, and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 2 hours. After concentrating the reaction solution, the obtained residue is purified by silica gel column chromatography (hexane: ethyl acetate = 9: 1 → 2: 1) to give the title compound (1.96 g) having the following physical properties. rice field.
HPLC retention time (minutes): 0.98.
Example 4: Isopropyl (E) -3-(2-((5- (3- (phenylsulfonamide) phenyl) penta-4-en-1-yl) oxy) phenyl) propanoate The
compound prepared in Example 3. In a solution of (180 mg) in THF (3 mL), the compound (168 mg) prepared in Example 3 (1), chloro (2-dicyclohexylphosphino-2′, 4′, 6′-triisopropyl-1,1′- Biphenyl) [2- (2′-amino-1,1′-biphenyl)] palladium (II) (0.035 g) and a 2M tripotassium phosphate aqueous solution (0.67 mL) were added, and the mixture was stirred at 60 ° C. for 1 hour. .. The reaction solution was cooled to room temperature, water was added, and the mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic layer was dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated under reduced pressure. The obtained residue was purified by silica gel column chromatography (hexane: ethyl acetate = 7: 1 → 2: 1) to give the title compound (113 mg) having the following physical characteristics.
HPLC retention time (minutes): 1.24 
Example 5: 3- [2-[(E) -5- [3- (benzenesulfonamide) phenyl] penta-4-enoxy] phenyl] propanoic acid 
[Chemical 2]

 A 1 M aqueous lithium hydroxide solution (0.5 mL) was added to a solution of the compound (146 mg) prepared in Example 4 in THF (0.5 mL) and methanol (0.1 mL), and the mixture was stirred at 50 ° C. for 8 hours. It was acidified by adding 1M hydrochloric acid and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic layer was dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated under reduced pressure to give the title compound (105 mg) having the following physical characteristics.
Form: Amorphous
HPLC retention time (minutes): 1.101
1 H-NMR (CD 3 OD): δ 1.95-2.03, 2.41-2.46, 2.57-2.61, 2.92-2.95, 4.03-4.06, 6.24, 6.36, 6.86, 6.90-6.95, 7.06-7.08, 7.11-7.19, 7.45-7.49, 7.55, 7.75-7.78.

PATENT

WO2020027150

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2020027150A1/en

Example 83: Isopropyl (E) -3- (2-((5- (3- (phenylsulfonamido) phenyl) penta-4-en-1-yl) oxy) phenyl) propanoate The compound prepared in Example 82 Compound (168 mg) prepared in Example 9 and chloro (2-dicyclohexylphosphino-2 ′, 4 ′, 6′-triisopropyl-1,1′-biphenyl) [180 mg) in THF (3 mL) solution were added. 2- (2′-Amino-1,1′-biphenyl)] palladium (II) (0.035 g) and a 2M aqueous solution of tripotassium phosphate (0.67 mL) were added, and the mixture was stirred at 60 ° C. for 1 hour. After cooling the reaction solution to room temperature, water was added, and the mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic layer was dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated under reduced pressure. The obtained residue was purified by silica gel column chromatography (hexane: ethyl acetate = 7: 1 → 2: 1) to give the title compound (113 mg) having the following physical data.
HPLC retention time (min): 1.24.Example 84: 3- [2-[(E) -5- [3- (benzenesulfonamido) phenyl] penta-4-enoxy] phenyl] propanoic acid

Figure JPOXMLDOC01-appb-C000058

To a solution of the compound prepared in Example 83 (146 mg) in THF (0.5 mL) and methanol (0.1 mL) was added a 1 M aqueous lithium hydroxide solution (0.5 mL), and the mixture was stirred at 50 ° C. for 8 hours. The mixture was acidified with 1M hydrochloric acid and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic layer was dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated under reduced pressure to give the title compound (105 mg) having the following physical data.
HPLC retention time (min): 1.10
1 H-NMR (CD 3 OD): δ 1.95-2.03, 2.41-2.46, 2.57-2.61, 2.92-2.95, 4.03-4.06, 6.24, 6.36, 6.86, 6.90-6.95, 7.06-7.08, 7.11-7.19, 7.45 -7.49, 7.55, 7.75-7.78.

///////////ONO-2910, ONO 2910, PHASE 2,

O=S(=O)(Nc1cc(\C=C\CCCOc2ccccc2CCC(=O)O)ccc1)c1ccccc1

MIRDAMETINIB


img
2D chemical structure of 391210-10-9

MIRDAMETINIB

391210-10-9
Chemical Formula: C16H14F3IN2O4
Molecular Weight: 482.19

PD0325901; PD 0325901; PD-325901; mirdametinib

IUPAC/Chemical Name: (R)-N-(2,3-dihydroxypropoxy)-3,4-difluoro-2-((2-fluoro-4-iodophenyl)amino)benzamide

SpringWorks Therapeutics (a spin out of Pfizer ) is developing mirdametinib, a second-generation, non-ATP competitive, allosteric MEK1 and MEK2 inhibitor derived from CI-1040, for treating type 1 neurofibromatosis (NF1) and advanced solid tumors. In June 2021, a phase I/II trial was initiated in patients with low grade glioma.

  • OriginatorPfizer
  • DeveloperAstraZeneca; BeiGene; BIOENSIS; Pfizer; SpringWorks Therapeutics; St. Jude Childrens Research Hospital; University of Oxford
  • ClassAniline compounds; Anti-inflammatories; Antineoplastics; Benzamides; Immunotherapies; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of ActionMAP kinase kinase 1 inhibitors; MAP kinase kinase 2 inhibitors
  • Orphan Drug StatusYes – Neurofibromatosis 1
  • Phase IINeurofibromatosis 1
  • Phase I/IIGlioma
  • Phase ISolid tumours
  • PreclinicalChronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  • No development reportedCervical cancer
  • DiscontinuedBreast cancer; Cancer; Colorectal cancer; Malignant melanoma; Non-small cell lung cancer
  • 22 Jul 2021SpringWorks Therapeutics receives patent allowance for mirdametinib from the US Patent and Trademark Office for the treatment of Neurofibromatosis type 1-associated plexiform neurofibromas
  • 16 Jun 2021SpringWorks Therapeutics and St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital agree to develop mirdametinib in USA for glioma
  • 15 Jun 2021Efficacy and safety data from the phase IIb RENEU trial for Neurofibromatosis type 1-associated plexiform neurofibromas released by SpringWorks Therapeutics

PATENT

US-11066358

On July 20, 2021, SpringWorks Therapeutics announced that the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) has issued US11066358 , directed to mirdametinib , the Company’s product candidate in development for several oncology indications, including as a monotherapy for patients with neurofibromatosis type 1-associated plexiform neurofibromas (NF1-PN) and was assigned to Warner-Lambert Company (a subsidiary of Pfizer ).This patent was granted on July 20, 2021, and expires on Feb 17, 2041. Novel crystalline forms of mirdametinib and compositions comprising them are claimed.

N—((R)-2,3-dihydroxypropoxy)-3,4-difluoro-2-(2-fluoro-4-iodo-phenylamino)-benzamide (“mirdametinib”, or “PD-0325901”) is a small molecule drug which has been designed to inhibit mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (“MEK1”) and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 (“MEK2”). MEK1 and MEK2 are proteins that play key roles in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (“MAPK”) signaling pathway. The MAPK pathway is critical for cell survival and proliferation, and overactivation of this pathway has been shown to lead to tumor development and growth. Mirdametinib is a highly potent and specific allosteric non-ATP-competitive inhibitor of MEK1 and MEK2. By virtue of its mechanism of action, mirdametinib leads to significantly inhibited phosphorylation of the extracellular regulated MAP kinases ERK1 and ERK2, thereby leading to impaired growth of tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, evidence indicates that inflammatory cytokine-induced increases in MEK/ERK activity contribute to the inflammation, pain, and tissue destruction associated with rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory diseases.
      Crystal forms of N—((R)-2,3-dihydroxypropoxy)-3,4-difluoro-2-(2-fluoro-4-iodo-phenylamino)-benzamide have been described previously. WO2002/006213 describes crystalline Forms I and II. U.S. Pat. No. 7,060,856 (“the ‘856 patent”) describes a method of producing Form IV. The ‘856 patent indicates that the material produced by this method was greater than 90% Form IV (The ‘856 patent, Example 1). The ‘856 patent also states that the differential scanning calorimetry (“DSC”) of the material produced shows an onset of melting at 110° C., as well as a small peak with an onset at 117° C., consistent with the material being a mixture of two forms.
      WO 2006/134469 (“the ‘469 PCT publication”) also describes a method of synthesizing N—((R)-2,3-dihydroxypropoxy)-3,4-difluoro-2-(2-fluoro-4-iodo-phenylamino)-benzamide. The ‘469 PCT publication reports the method yields a product conforming to the polymorphic Form IV disclosed in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/969,681 which issued as the ‘856 patent.
      Compositions containing more than one polymorphic form are generally undesirable because of the potential of interconversion of one polymorphic form to another. Polymorphic interconversion can lead to differences in the effective dose or physical properties affecting processability of a drug, caused by differences in solubility or bioavailability. Thus, there is a need for a composition containing essentially pure Form IV of N—((R)-2,3-dihydroxypropoxy)-3,4-difluoro-2-(2-fluoro-4-iodo-phenylamino)-benzamide, for use in treatment of a tumor, a cancer, or a Rasopathy disorder.

Example 1: Production of Essentially Pure Form IV

Lab Scale Production of Essentially Pure Form IV

      2 kg PD-0325901 has been prepared using the below convergent synthesis scheme starting from commercially available 2,3,4-Trifluorobenzoic Acid (TFBA), 2-Fluoro-4-Iodoaniline (FIA) and chiral S-Glycerol Acetonide (SGA)

 (MOL) (CDX)
 (MOL) (CDX)
Step 1: Preparation of “Side Chain”, PD-0337792
      All reactions were performed in toluene other than otherwise stated. Triflic anhydride gave the best yield.

[TABLE-US-00002]TABLE 1 Coupling Agents for Step 1Entry   No.Coupling AgentYieldNotes 1Mesyl Chloridedid not   react 2Benzyl chloride27Had to heat 70° C.   for 166 hr34-fluorobenzensulfonylchloride27Ran 93 hrs. at 70° C.44-chlorobenzensulfonylchloride35Complete after 68 hrs.   50° C.5Tosyl Chloride36Had to heat to 70° C.   for 164 hrs6Benzyl chloride52study solvent effects:   DMF, DMSO, NMP –   all similar DMSO   fastest all complete   after 110 hrs., heated   to 70° C. after 66 hrs.7Triflic anhydride91Cooled to −74° C. 
      Recognizing that triflate gave the highest yield, the possibility of eliminating the cryogenic conditions was investigated, set possibly due to stability concerns of the “methanesulfonate” intermediate. The following experiments suggest no significant yield loss for experiments run at −20° C.
[TABLE-US-00003]TABLE 2 Yield of Coupling ReactionExperimentalHold time afterYield (Alcohol toDescription*TFMSA addn.IPGAP) 1.07 equiv. NHP15min.85%1.07 equiv. NHP2hours86%1.77 equiv. NHP2hours72%1.07 equiv. NHP (reverse1hours91%addition) * 2 g (1 eq.) SGA in 16 ml toluene was treated with triflic anhydride, trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (TFMSA) (4.2 g, 1.002 equiv.) at −20° C. and then stirred for a prescribed time prior to solid N-hydroxyphthalimide (NIP) addition or transfer to a flask containing solid NHP.
      The data presented above suggest no detrimental effect was observed after prolonged stirring of the “trifluoromethane sulfonate” intermediate prior to the N-hydroxyphthalimide addition. Reverse addition of intermediate mixture to solid NHP appears to give the highest yield.
      An additional advantage of the triflate usage was easy removal of the Et 3N triflate salts side product simply by water wash. This resulted in highly pure N-hydroxyphthalimide-protected alcohol, IPGAP (PD-0333760) in Toluene, which can be isolated as crystals or carried through to the final deprotection reaction.
      Both aqueous and anhydrous ammonia base were examined as deprotecting agents. The results were both successful. The phthalimide side product was simply filtered out from solution of product (PD-0337792) in toluene when anhydrous ammonia was used. Similarly, it was filtered out from the solution after performing azeotropic water removal from toluene when aqueous ammonia (28% solution) was used. Anhydrous ammonia however, requires the reaction to be performed at high-pressure containment. Experiments conducted by sparging the ammonia gas gave acceptable yields; however, they required large volumes and use of a cryogenic condenser (to avoid gas from escaping the reactor headspace).
[TABLE-US-00004]TABLE 3 Yields for base deprotection ReagentYield*   Methyl hydrazine85-95% Anhydrous NH(sparged)78-90% Anhydrous NH(50 psi)80-92% Aqueous NH390-97%   *from PD-0333760

Step 2: Fluoride Displacement

      Examination of the reaction in an automated reactor reveals that the reaction is essentially dosed-controlled after the initiation period. Increasing the amount of lithium amide and increased agitation rate appear to shorten the induction time. The addition of water was shown to prolong the induction time. However, it is not clear whether it is due to lithium hydroxide formation.
      Induction time is increased when 0.1 equivalent H 2O was added. The trend was reversed however when 0.1 equivalent lithium hydroxide was added. Induction times were decreased upon increasing lithium amide equivalents and agitation.

 (MOL) (CDX)
      CDI-assisted coupling of PD-0315209 acid and sidechain reagent followed by the acid (with aqueous HCl) hydrolysis consistently yielded good results in the laboratory. The development focus of this step was to ensure that impurity levels are within the specification limit. The known impurities in the final isolated diol product are excess PD-0315209 acid, dimeric impurities and chiral impurities. The chiral impurities are controlled by limiting the R-enantiomer in the starting s-glycerol acetonide. Elevated levels of dimeric impurity (d) has been known to cause difficulties in the polymorph transformation step. The dimeric impurity is formed initially by the reaction of imidazole (CDI-activated acid) in the presence of excess acid PD-0315209 forming dimer (a) and possibly (b) which are then carried through in the subsequent IPGA coupling and acid hydrolysis steps forming dimer (c) and (d), respectively. Impurity d is referred to as PF-00191189.

 (MOL) (CDX)
 (MOL) (CDX)
      The reaction can be easily carried out in the laboratory either by charging both solids, FIPFA and CDI, followed by solvent (acetonitrile) or charging solids CDI into a slurry of FIPFA in acetonitrile. None of the solids is initially soluble in acetonitrile. The acid activation reaction was fast (almost instantaneous), forming highly soluble imidazolide product that turned the slurry into a clear homogenous solution while CO gas evolution occurs.
      Lab experiments generally resulted in impurity levels under 3%, which can be completely removed by the subsequent recrystallization from a 3-5% ethanol-toluene system. An additional recrystallization was performed in the few instances where the impurity level was above 0.3%. Table 4 shows selected results of lab experiments where elevated levels of impurities were observed and how they were removed in the subsequent recrystallization. The crude PD-0325901 was obtained using the acetonitrile/toluene system and the purified product was recrystallized from a 5% ethanol/toluene system. Entries no. 4 and 5 used additional solvent to ensure impurity removal with entry 5 requiring two recrystallizations in order to achieve a level of “ND” in the polymorph transformation. The 8-10 ml/g crude crystallization volume was chosen to limit product loss while maintaining a filterable slurry and ensuring removal of impurities.
[TABLE-US-00005]TABLE 4 Purification of PD-0325901  Tot.     Imp. In  Final Tot.isolated Tot. Imp.assay (after Imp. InCrude PurifiedpolymorphEntryreactionPD-RecrystallizationPD-trans-Nomixture0325901Vol (ml/g crude)0325901formation) 1 2.4%ND8ND99.8%210.5% 2%8ND99.6%3   6% 1%8ND99.4%4  10%3.2%15ND98.6%5  20%12%130.6%98.4%* 
      A scale up procedure that would give tolerable levels of impurities prior to the polymorph transformation (<0.3%), without losing too much product in the recrystallization was developed considering the solid CDI addition rate. Fast addition is preferred to minimize impurity formation; however, the addition needs to be performed at a rate that ensures safely venting of the evolved CO 2.
      A half portion of solid CDI was initially added to the PD-0325901 acid, followed by solvent addition. The remaining CDI was added then through a hopper in less than 30 minutes to ensure that the impurity levels were below 3%.

Pilot Plant Preparation of Essentially Pure Form IV

Step 1: Preparation of “Side Chain”, PD-0337792

      14.4 kg alcohol (chemical purity 99.4%, optical purity 99.6% enantiomeric excess) was converted to 97.5 kg 9.7% w/w PD-0337792 (IPGA) solution in toluene (overall yield ˜60%). The triflate activation was performed in the 200 L reactor by maintaining temperatures under −20° C. during triflic anhydride addition. The resulting activated alcohol was then transferred to a 400 L reactor containing solid N-hydroxypthalimide (NHP) and the reaction was allowed to occur at ambient temperature to completion. The final base de-protection was performed by adding aqueous ammonia (˜28% soln, 5 equiv., 34 kg). After reaction completion, water was removed by distillation from toluene, and the resulting solid side product was filtered out to yield the product solution.

Step 2: Preparation of PD-0315209

      The process yielded 21.4 kg (99.4% w/w assay), which is 80% of theoretical from starting materials 2,3,4-trifluorobenzoic acid (12 kg, 1 eq.) and 2-fluoro-4-iodoaniline (16.4 kg, 1.02 eq.) with lithium amide base (5 kg, 3.2 eq.). The reaction was initiated by adding 5% of total solution of TFBA and FIA into lithium amide slurry at 50° C. This reaction demonstrated a minimal initiation period of ˜10 minutes, which was observed by color change and slight exotherm. The remaining TFBA/FIA solution in THE was slowly added through a pressure can in an hour while maintaining the reaction temperatures within 45-55° C. There was no appreciable pressure rise (due to ammonia gas release) observed during the entire operation.

Step 3: Preparation of PD-0325901

      A modification was made to the CDI charging to mitigate potential gas generation. Two equal portions of CDI were added into solid FIPFA before and after solvent addition (through a shot loader). The timing between the two solid CDI additions (4.6 kg each) should not exceed 30 minutes. Then two intermediate filter cakes were dissolved with ethanol. The excess ethanol was distilled and replaced with toluene to approximately 5% v/v ethanol prior to PD-0325901 recrystallization. Lab studies suggested that the crystallization from toluene and acetonitrile and recrystallization from ethanol in toluene would not be able to reduce impurities which is essential for the polymorph transformation. The presence of a dimeric impurity (PF-00191189) at a level greater than 0.2% has been known to result in the formation of undesired polymorph.

 (MOL) (CDX)
      The crude crystallization from the final reaction mixture reduced dimeric impurity PF-00191189 to approximately 1.9% and the subsequent recrystallization further reduced it to approximately 0.4%. As a consequence, undesired polymorphs were produced. The DSC patterns indicated two different melting points ˜80° C. (low melt Form II) and ˜117° C. (Form I). Also during the processing, the solids crystallized at a much lower temperature than expected (actual ˜10° C., expected ˜40° C.). It is suspected that the unsuccessful recrystallization is due to a change in the solvent composition as a result of incomplete drying of the crude. Drying of the crude wet cake prior to ethanol dissolution was stopped after about 36 hours when the crude product was ˜28 kg (26 kg theoretical).

Polymorph Transformation

      Approximately 7.4 kg of PD-0325901 (mixed polymorphs) from the final EtOH/Water crystallization and precipitated materials from the earlier EtOH/Toluene filtrate were taken forward to the polymorph transformation. Both crops were separately dried in the filter until constant weights and each was dissolved in EtOH. The combined EtOH solution was analyzed by HPLC and resulted in an estimated amount of 16.4 kg PD-0325901. The recrystallization was started after removing EtOH via vacuum distillation and adjusting the solvent composition to about 5% EtOH in Toluene at 65° C. (i.e., EtOH is added dropwise at 65° C. until complete solids dissolution).
      A slow 4-hour cooling ramp to 5° C. followed by 12 h stirring was performed to ensure satisfactory results. The resulting slurry was filtered and again it was completely dried in the filter until constant weight (approximately 3 days). The purified solid showed 99.8% pure PD-0325901 with not detected level of dimeric impurity PF-00191189.
      The dried solid (15.4 kg) was re-dissolved in exactly 4 volumes of EtOH (62 L) off of the filter, transferred to the reactor and precipitated by a slow (˜3 h) water addition (308 L) at 30-35° C., cooled to 20° C. and stirred for 12 h. The DSC analysis of a slurry sample taken at 2 h shows the solids to be completely Form IV (desired polymorph).
      21.4 kg PD-0315209, 9.7 kg CDI (1.05 equiv.), 91 kg solution of 9.7% PD-0337792 in Toluene (1.1 equiv.) were used and resulted in 12.74 kg of PD-0325901 (assay 99.4%, 100% Form IV, Yield 48%).

PATENT

WO2006134469 , claiming methods of preparing MEK inhibitor, assigned to Warner-Lambert Co .

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2006134469A1/enThe compound Λ/-[(R)-2,3-dihydroxy-propoxy]-3,4-difluoro-2-(2-fluoro-4-iodo-phenylamino)- benzamide represented by formula 1

Figure imgf000002_0001

i is a highly specific non-ATP-competitive inhibitor of MEK1 and MEK2. The compound of formula ± (Compound I) is also known as the compound PD 0325901. Compound I is disclosed in WO 02/06213; WO 04/045617; WO 2005/040098; EP 1262176; U.S. Patent Application Pub. No. 2003/0055095 A1 ; U.S. Patent Application Pub. No. 2004/0054172 A1; U.S. Patent Application Pub. No. 2004/0147478 A1 ; and U.S. Patent Application No. 10/969,681, the disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entireties.Numerous mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades are involved in controlling cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and stress responses. Each MAPK module consists of 3 cytoplasmic kinases: a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK), and a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK). MEK occupies a strategic downstream position in this intracellular signaling cascade catalyzing the phosphorylation of its MAP kinase substrates, ERK1 and ERK2. Anderson et al. “Requirement for integration of signals from two distinct phosphorylation pathways for activation of MAP kinase.” Nature 1990, v.343, pp. 651-653. In the ERK pathway, MAPKK corresponds with MEK (MAP kinase ERK Kinase) and the MAPK corresponds with ERK (Extracellular Regulated Kinase). No substrates for MEK have been identified other than ERK1 and ERK2. Seger et al. “Purification and characterization of mitogen-activated protein kinase activator(s) from epidermal growth factor-stimulated A431 cells.” J. Biol. Chem., 1992, v. 267, pp. 14373-14381. This tight selectivity in addition to the unique ability to act as a dual-specificity kinase is consistent with MEK’s central role in integration of signals into the MAPK pathway. The RAF-MEK-ERK pathway mediates proliferative and anti-apoptotic signaling from growth factors and oncogenic factors such as Ras and Raf mutant phenotypes that promote tumor growth, progression, and metastasis. By virtue of its central role in mediating the transmission of growth- promoting signals from multiple growth factor receptors, the Ras-MAP kinase cascade provides molecular targets with potentially broad therapeutic applications.One method of synthesizing Compound I is disclosed in the above-referenced WO 02/06213 andU.S. Patent Application Pub. No. 2004/0054172 A1. This method begins with the reaction of 2-fluoro-4- iodo-phenylamine and 2,3,4-trifluoro-benzoic acid in the presence of an organic base, such as lithium diisopropylamide, to form 3,4-difluoro-2-(2-fluoro-4-iodo-phenylamino)-benzoic acid, which is then reacted with (R)-0-(2,2-dimethyl-[1,3]dioxolan-4-ylmethyl)-hydroxylamine in the presence of a peptide coupling agent (e.g., diphenylphosphinic chloride) and a tertiary amine base (e.g., diisopropylethylamine). The resulting product is hydrolyzed under standard acidic hydrolysis conditions (e.g., p-TsOH in MeOH) to provide Compound 1. (R)-O-(2,2-dimethyl-[1,3]dioxolan-4-ylmethyl)-hydroxylamine is prepared by reaction of [(4S)-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl]methanol with N-hydroxyphthalimide in the presence of Ph3P and diethyl azodicarboxylate.Another method of synthesizing Compound I, which is disclosed in the above-referenced U.S.Patent Application No. 10/969,681, comprises reaction of 3,4-difluoro-2-(2-fluoro-4-iodo-phenylamino)- benzoic acid with (R)-O-(2,2-dimethyl-[1,3]dioxolan-4-ylmethyl)-hydroxylamine in the presence of N1N1– carbonyldiimidazole. The resulting product is hydrolyzed with aqueous acid and crystallized to provide polymorphic form IV of Compound I.Although the described methods are effective synthetic routes for small-scale synthesis of Compound I, there remains a need in the art for new synthetic routes that are safe, efficient and cost effective when carried out on a commercial scale.The present invention provides a new synthetic route including Steps I through Step III to the MEK inhibitor Λ/-[(R)-2,3-dihydroxy-propoxy]-3,4-difluoro-2-(2-fluoro-4-iodo-phenylamino)-benzamide (Compound I).Step I: Preparation of 0-{r(4RV2.2-dimethyl-1.3-dioxolan-4-ynmethyl}hydroxylanπine (6) The method of the present invention comprises a novel Step I of preparing of 0-{[(4R)-2,2- dimethyl-1 ,3-dioxolan-4-yl]methyl}hydroxylamine (6) from [(4S)-2,2-dimethyl-1 ,3-dioxoIan-4-yl]methanol (1) through the formation of [(4R)-2,2-dimethyl-1 ,3-dioxolan-4-yl]methyl trifluoromethanesulfonate (3) and its coupling with N-hydroxyphthalimide (4) to afford 2-{[(4R)-2,2-dimethyl-1 ,3-dioxolan-4-yl]methoxy}-1 H- isoindole-1 ,3(2H)-dione (5), which is subsequently de-protected to give 6 as shown in Scheme 1.Scheme 1

Figure imgf000009_0001
Figure imgf000009_0002
Figure imgf000009_0003

The reaction of compound (1) with trifluoromethanesulfonic anhydride (2) is carried out in the presence of a non-nucleophilic base, such as, for example, a tertiary organic amine, in an aprotic solvent at a temperature of from -5O0C to 50C, preferably, at a temperature less than -150C, to form triflate (3). A preferred tertiary organic amine is triethylamine, and a preferred solvent is toluene. Treatment of triflate (3) with N-hydroxyphthalimide (4) furnishes phthalimide (5), which can be isolated if desired. However, in order to minimize processing time and increase overall yield, 0-{[(4R)- 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl]methyl}hydroxylamine (6) can be prepared in a one-pot process with no phthalimide (S) isolation. Cleavage of the phthalimide function could be achieved by methods known in the art, for example, by hydrazinolysis. However, the use of less hazardous aqueous or anhydrous ammonia instead of methyl hydrazine (CH3NHNH2) is preferred.Step II: Preparation of 3.4-difluoro-2-(2-fluoro-4-iodophenylamino)-benzoic acid (9) As shown in Scheme 2, Step Il of the method of the present invention provides 3,4-difluoro-2-(2- fluoro-4-iodophenylamino)-benzoic acid (9).Scheme 2

Figure imgf000010_0001

Preparation of compound (9) can be carried out by reacting compound (7), wherein X is halogen, or O-SC^R^ or 0-P(3O)(OR^, wherein R^ is alkyl or aryl, with compound (8) optionally in a solvent, and in the presence of from about 1 mol equivalent to about 10 mol equivalents of at least one base, wherein the base is selected from: a Group I metal cation hydride or a Group 2 metal cation hydride, including lithium hydride, sodium hydride, potassium hydride, and calcium hydride, a Group I metal cation dialkylamide or a Group 2 metal cation dialkylamide, including lithium diisopropylamide, a Group I metal cation amide or a Group 2 metal cation amide, including lithium amide, sodium amide, potassium amide, a Group I metal cation alkoxide or a Group 2 metal cation alkoxide, including sodium ethoxide, potassium terf-butoxide, and magnesium ethoxide, and a Group I metal cation hexamethyldisilazide, including lithium hexamethyldisilazide; for a time, and at a temperature, sufficient to yield compound (9).Preferably, preparation of compound (9) is carried out by reacting compound (7), wherein X is halogen, more preferably, X is fluorine, in an aprotic solvent with compound (8) in the presence of from about 3 mol equivalents to about 5 mol equivalents of a Group I metal cation amide at a temperature of from 2O C to 55°C, more preferably, at a temperature from 45°C to 55°C. A catalytic amount of Group I metal cation dialkylamide can be added if necessary. A preferred Group I metal cation amide is lithium amide, a preferred Group I metal cation dialkylamide is lithium diisopropylamide, and a preferred solvent is tetrahydrofuran. Preferably, the reaction is performed by adding a small amount of compound (7) and compound (8) to lithium amide in tetrahydrofuran followed by slow continuous addition of the remaining portion. This procedure minimizes the risk of reactor over-pressurization due to gas side product (ammonia) generation.Step III: Preparation of N-((RV2.3-dihydroxypropoxy)-3.4-difluoro-2-(2-fluoro-4-iodo-phenylamino)- benzamide (Compound I)Compound I can be obtained by coupling 0-{[(4R)-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4- yl]methyl}hydroxylamine (6) with 3,4-difluoro-2-(2-fluoro-4-iodophenylamino)-benzoic acid (9) using a carboxylic acid activating reagent such as, for example, COCI2, S(O)C^, S(O)2Cl2, P(O)Cl3, triphenylphosphine/diethylazodicarboxylate, diphenylphosphinic chloride, N, N’-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, (benzotriazol-1 -yloxy)tripyrolidinophosphonium hexafluorophosphate, (benzotriazol-1 – yloxy)tris(dimethylamino)phosphonium hexafluorophosphate, N-ethyl-N’-(3- dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride, or 1,1′-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI).A preferred carboxylic acid activating reagent is 1,1′-carbonyldimidazole (CDI) shown in Scheme 3. Preparation of the desirable polymorphic Form IV of Compound I using CDI is described in the above- referenced U.S. Patent Application No. 10/969,681.Scheme 3

Figure imgf000011_0001

10

Figure imgf000011_0002

10 11 Compound IIn according to the present invention, the method was modified to include the advantageous procedure for product purification and isolation, which procedure is performed in single-phase systems such as, for example, toluene/acetonitrile for the first isolation/crystallization and ethanol/toluene for the second recrystallization. Water addition, implemented in the previous procedure, was omitted to avoid the two-phase crystallization from the immiscible water-toluene system that caused inconsistent product purity. The one-phase procedure of the present invention provides consistent control and removal of un- reacted starting material and side products. Alternatively, Compound I can be obtained by coupling 0-{[(4R)-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4- yl]methyl}hydroxylamine (6) with 3,4-difluoro-2-(2-fluoro-4-iodophenylamino)-benzoic acid (9) using thionyl chloride (SOCI2) as shown in Scheme 4.Scheme 4

Figure imgf000012_0002
Figure imgf000012_0001

Compound IExamplesThe reagents and conditions of the reactions described herein are merely illustrative of the wide variety of starting materials, their amounts and conditions which may be suitably employed in the present invention as would be appreciated by those skilled in the art, and are not intended to be limiting in any way.HPLC (Conditions A): 10 μL injection volume onto Agilent Zorbax RX-C18 150 mm x 4.6 mm x 3.5 μm column at 30°C column temperature, 1.0 mL/min flow rate and detection at 246 nm. Mobile phase A (v/v): 25 mM Acetate Buffer, pH 6.0; Mobile phase B (v/v): Acetonitrile, and Linear Gradient Table:

Figure imgf000012_0003

Sample Preparation: Dilute 100 μL reaction mixture to 10 mL with acetonitrile. Mix in a vial 200 μL of this sample solution with 300 μL carbonate buffer pH 10.0 and 300 μL solution of 2-mercaptopyridine in acetonitrile (18 mM), heat the vial for 10 minutes at 500C and dilute to 1:1 ratio in mobile phase A.GC (Conditions B): 1 μL injection onto an RTX-5 column (30 m x 0.25 mm x 0.25 μm) with initial oven temperature of 120°C for 2 min. to final temperature of 250°C in 15°C/minute ramping and a final time of 2.33 min; Flow rate: 1 mL/min.HPLC (Conditions C): 5 μL injection onto Phenomenex Luna C18(2) 150 mm x 4.6 mm x 3μm column ; flow rate : 1.0 mL/min; detection at 225 nm; mobile phase A: 95/5 v/v Water/Acetonitrile with 0.1% Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), mobile phase B: 5/95 v/v Water/Acetonitriie with 0.1% TFA; Linear Gradient Table:

Figure imgf000013_0001

Sample preparation: Dilute 1 ml_ reaction mixture to 100 mL with acetonitrile and dilute 1 mL of this solution to 10 mL with 50:50 Water/Acetonitrile.HPLC (Conditions D): 5 μL injection onto Waters SymmetryShield RP 18, 150 mm x 4.6 mm x 3.5 μm column; flow rate: 1.0 mL/min; detection at 235 nm; mobile phase A: 25 mM Acetate Buffer adjusted to pH 5.5, mobile phase B: Acetonitrile; Linear Gradient Table:

Figure imgf000013_0002

Sample preparation: Dilute 40 μL of reaction mixture in 20 mL acetonitrile.HPLC (Conditions E): 10 μL sample injection onto YMC ODS-AQ 5 μm, 250 mm x 4.6 mm column; flow rate: 1.0 ml_/min; detection at 280 nm; temperature 30°C; mobile phase : 75/25 v/v Acetonitrile/Water with 0.1% Formic acid.Sample preparation: Quench reaction mixture sample with dipropylamine and stir for about 5 minutes before further dilution with mobile phase.DSC measurement was performed using a Mettler-Toledo DSC 822, temperature range 25° to 150°C with 5°C/min heating rate in a 40 μL aluminum pan. Experimental Conditions for Powder X-Rav Diffraction (XRD):A Rigaku Miniflex+ X-ray diffractometer was used for the acquisition of the powder XRD patterns. The instrument operates using the Cu Ka1 emission with a nickel filter at 1.50451 units. The major instrumental parameters are set or fixed at:X-ray: Cu / 30 kV (fixed) / 15 mA (fixed)Divergence Slit: Variable Scattering Slit: 4.2° (fixed) Receiving Slit: 0.3 mm (fixed) Scan Mode: FT Preset Time: 2.0 s Scan Width: 0.050° Scan Axis: 2Theta/Theta Scan Range: 3.000° to 40.000°Jade Software Version: 5.0.36(SP1) 01/05/01 (Materials Data, Inc.) Rigaku Software: Rigaku Standard Measurement for Windows 3.1 Version 3.6(1994-1995) Example 1. Preparation of 0-ffl4R)-2.2-dimethyl-1.3-dioxolan-4-vπmethyl}hvdroxylamine (6)A solution containing [(4S)-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl]methanol (1) (13.54 ml_, 0.109 mol) (DAISO Co., Ltd., CAS# 22323-82-6) and triethylamine (18.2 ml_, 0.131 mol) in 115 mL toluene was cooled to -15 C, then trifluoromethanesulfonic anhydride (2) (18.34 mL, 30.75 g, 0.109 mol) (Aldrich, Catalog # 17,617-6 ) was added drop wise while maintaining the temperature at less than -15°C. The mixture was then stirred for 2 hours, and transferred to a separate flask containing a mixture (slurry) of N- hydroxyphthalimide (4) (18.99 g, 0.116 mol) (Aldrich, Catalog # H5.370-4) and 18.2 mL (0.13 mol) triethylamine in 95 mL toluene. The resulting mixture was warmed to 20-25°C and stirred for at least 5 hours or until reaction completion (determined by HPLC (Conditions A)). Water (93 mL) was then added to quench the reaction mixture, the phases were separated, and the bottom aqueous layer was discarded. The water quench was repeated two more times resulting in a pale yellow organic layer. The organic layer was heated to 35 C and treated with 36.7 mL ammonium hydroxide solution (contains about 28-29% wt/wt ammonia). The mixture was stirred for at least 12 hours or until the reaction was deemed complete as determined by GC (Conditions B). The water was then removed under reduced pressure by co- distilling it with toluene to about half of the original volume at temperatures around 35-45 C. Toluene (170 mL) was added to the concentrated solution and the distillation was repeated. A sample was drawn for water content determination by Karl Fisher method (using EM Science Aquastar AQV-2000 Titrator with a sample injected to a pot containing methanol and salicylic acid). The distillation was repeated ifl water content was more than 0.1%. The concentrated solution was filtered to remove the white solid side product, and the filtrate was stored as 112mL (98 g) product solution containing 9.7% w/w compound 6 in toluene. This solution was ready for use in the final coupling step (Example 3). Overall chemical yield was 59%. A small sample was evaporated to yield a sample for NMR identification.1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3): δ 5.5 (bs, 2H), 4.35 (m, 1H), 4.07 (dd, 1H), 3.77 (m, 2H), 3.69 (dd, 1H), 1.44 (s, 3H), 1.37 (s, 3H).Example 2. Preparation of 3.4-difluoro-2-(2-fluoro-4-iodophenylamino)-benzoic acid (9)A solution of 2-fluoro-4-iodoaniline (8) (16.4 g, 0.069 mol) (Aldrich, Catalog # 30,660-6) and 2,3,4- trifluorobenzoic acid (7) (11.98 g, 0.068 mol) (Aldrich, Cat # 33,382-4) in 38 mL tetrahydrofuran (THF) was prepared and a portion (about 5%) of this solution was added to a stirring slurry of lithium amide (5 g, 0.22 mol) in 40 mL THF at 50-55 C. After about 15-30 min. an exotherm followed by gas release and color change are observed. The remaining portion of the (8) and (7) solution was added slowly over 1-2 hr while maintaining temperatures within 45-55°C. The mixture was stirred until the reaction was deemed complete (by HPLC (Conditions C). The final mixture was then cooled to 20-25°C and transferred to another reactor containing 6 N hydrochloric acid (47 mL) followed by 25 mL acetonitrile, stirred, and the bottom aqueous phase was discarded after treatment with 40 mL 50% sodium hydroxide solution. The organic phase was concentrated under reduced pressure and 57 mL acetone was added. The mixture was heated to 50°C, stirred, and added with 25 mL warm (40-50°C) water and cooled to 25-30°C to allow crystallization to occur (within 1-4 hours). Once the crystallization occurred, the mixture was further cooled to 0 to -5°C and stirred for about 2 hours. The solid product was filtered and the wet cake was dried in vacuum oven at about 55°C. Overall chemical yield was 21.4 g, 80%. 1H NMR (400 MHz, (CD3)2SO): δ 13.74 (bs, 1H), 9.15 (m, 1 H), 7.80 (dd, 1H), 7.62 (d, 1H), 7.41 (d, 1H), 7.10 (q, 1H), 6.81 (m, 1H).Example 2B. Preparation of 3.4-difluoro-2-(2-fluoro-4-iodophenylamino)-benzoic acid (9) by the solid addition of lithium amide methodTo a stirring solution of 2,3,4-trifluorobenzoic acid (13) (5.0 g, 28.4 mmol) and 2-fluoro-4- iodoaniline (14) (6.73 g, 28.4 mmol) in MeCN (100 mL), under N2 atmosphere was added lithium amide (2.61 g, 113.6 mmol) in small portions. The reaction mixture was heated to reflux for 45 minutes, cooled to ambient temperature and quenched with 1 N HCI and then water. The yellowish white precipitate was filtered, washed with water. The solid was triturated in CH2CI2 (30 mL) for 1h, filtered and dried in a vacuum oven at 45°C for 14 hours to give 8.Og (72%) of compound (9) as an off-white solid, mp 201.5-203 °C.Example 3. Preparation of N-((R)-2.3-dihvdroxypropoxy)-3.4-difluoro-2-(2-fluoro-4-iodo-phenylamino)- benzamide (Compound \)3,4-Difluoro-2-(2-fluoro-4-iodophenylamino)-benzoic acid (9) (20 g, 0.051 mol) in 100 mL acetonitrile was treated with 1,1′-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) (8.66 g, 0.053 mol) (Aldrich, Cat # 11,553-3) and stirred for about 2 hours at 20-25°C until the reaction was deemed complete by HPLC (Conditions D). 94 mL (84.9 g) of 9.7% w/w solution of O-{[(4R)-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl]methyl}hydroxylamine (6) in toluene was then added and stirred for about 4 hours or until the reaction was deemed complete by HPLC (Conditions D). To this mixture was added 66 mL of 5.6 % hydrochloric acid solution, and after stirring, the bottom aqueous phase was discarded. Again 66 mL of 5.6 % hydrochloric acid solution was added to the organic phase and stirred at 20-25°C for 12-18 hours or until the reaction was deemed complete by HPLC (Conditions D). The bottom layer was then discarded and the remaining organic layer was concentrated under reduced pressure to remove about 10-20% solvent, and the volume was adjusted to about 9-11 mL/g with toluene (80 mL). Crude product was then crystallized at 10-15°C. The slurry was allowed to stir for about 2 hours and the crude solid product was filtered, and dried. The dried crude product was recharged to the reactor and dissolved into 150 mL of 5% v/v ethanol/toluene mixture at 55- 67°C. The solution was then clarified at this temperature through filter (line filter) to remove any remaining particulate matter. The solution was then cooled slowly to 5°C to crystallize and stirred for at least 2 h, filtered and dried. The dried solid product was redissolved in EtOH (60 mL) at 35°C, and product was precipitated out by adding water (300 mL) at 35°C followed by cooling to 200C. The slurry was stirred for at least 2 hours to transform the crystals to the desired polymorphic Form IV as determined by DSC and Powder X-ray Diffraction pattern (PXRD). The slurry was filtered and dried under vacuum oven at 70- 90°C to yield the final N-((R)-2,3-dihydroxypropoxy)-3,4-difluoro-2-(2-fluoro-4-iodo-phenylamino)- benzamide (Compound I) product. Overall chemical yield was 13 g, 53%. Melting point (DSC): 112+1° C. Appearance: White to off-white crystals.Shown in Figure 1, PXRD conforms to polymorphic crystal Form IV disclosed in the above mentioned U.S. Patent Application No. 10/969,681 1H NMR (400 MHz, (CD3)2SO): δ 11.89 (bs, 1H), 8.71 (bs, 1H), 7.57 (d, 1H), 7.37 (m, 2H), 7.20 (q, 1H), 6.67 (m, 1H), 4.84 (bs, 1H), 4.60 (m, 1H), 3.87 (m, 1 H), 3.7 (m, 2H), 3.34 (m, 2H).Example 4. Preparation of N-((R)-2.3-dihydroxypropoxyV3.4-difluoro-2-(2-fluoro-4-iodo-phenylanrιinoV benzamide (Compound \)To a stirring solution of 3,4-difluoro-2-(2-fluoro-4-iodophenylamino)-benzoic acid (9) (120 g, 0.30 mol) in a mixture of 1 mL N,N-dimethylformamide and 1000 mL toluene was added thionyl chloride (55 g, 0.462 mol). The mixture was heated to 50-65 C and stirred for 2 hours or until reaction completion as determined by HPLC (Conditions E). The final reaction mixture was then cooled and concentrated under reduced pressure to a slurry keeping the temperature below 35°C. Toluene (600 mL) was added to dissolve the slurry and vacuum distillation was repeated. Additional toluene (600 mL) was added to the slurry dissolving all solids and the solution was then cooled to 5° -10°C. The solution was then treated with O-{[(4R)-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl]methyl}hydroxylamine (6) (63 g, 0.43 mol) solution in 207 mL toluene followed by potassium carbonate (65 g) and water (200 mL), stirred for at least 2 hours at 20- 25°C. The stirring was stopped to allow phase separation and the bottom phase was discarded. The remaining organic layer was treated with hydrochloric acid solution (7.4%, 240 mL) until pH was less than 1 and stirred for 2 hours. The final reaction mixture was slightly concentrated under vacuum collecting about 100 mL distillate and the resulting organic solution was cooled to 5°C to crystallize the product and filtered. The filter cake was washed with toluene (1000 mL) followed by water (100 mL) and the wet cake (crude product Compound I) was charged back to the flask. Toluene (100 mL), ethanol (100 mL) and water (100 mL) are then added, stirred at 30-35°C for about 15 min, and the bottom aqueous phase was discarded. Water (200 mL) was then added to the organic solution and the mixture was stirred at about 3O C to allow for crystallization. The stirring was continued for 2 hours after product crystallized, then it was further cooled to about 0°C and stirred for at least 2 hours. The slurry was filtered and wet cake was dried under reduced pressure at 55-85°C to yield the final product N-((R)-2,3-dihydroxypropoxy)-3,4- difluoro-2-(2-fluoro-4-iodo-phenylamino)-benzamide (Compound I) product. Overall chemical yield was 86 g, 58%.

PATENT

WO2002/006213 describes crystalline Forms I and II. U.S. Pat. No. 7,060,856 (“the ‘856 patent”)

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2002006213

////////MIRDAMETINIB, Orphan Drug Status, Neurofibromatosis 1, PHASE 2, PD0325901, PD 0325901, PD-325901, 

O=C(NOC[C@H](O)CO)C1=CC=C(F)C(F)=C1NC2=CC=C(I)C=C2F

Rilzabrutinib


Click here for structure editor
(R)-2-(3-(4-Amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxyphenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]-pyrimidin-1-yl)piperidine-1-carbonyl)-4-methyl-4-(4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin-1-yl)pent-2-enenitrile.png
20200818lnp2-rilza.jpg

PRN 1008, Rilzabrutinib

CAS 1575591-66-0

リルザブルチニブ;

C36H40FN9O3,

MW 665.7597

2-[(3R)-3-[4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxyphenyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-1-yl]piperidine-1-carbonyl]-4-methyl-4-[4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin-1-yl]pent-2-enenitrile

Anti-inflammatory disease, Autoimmune disease treatment

  • OriginatorPrincipia Biopharma
  • Class2 ring heterocyclic compounds; Amines; Anti-inflammatories; Fluorobenzenes; Nitriles; Phenyl ethers; Piperazines; Piperidines; Pyrazoles; Pyrimidines; Skin disorder therapies; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of ActionAgammaglobulinaemia tyrosine kinase inhibitors
  • Orphan Drug StatusYes – Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura; Pemphigus vulgaris
  • Phase IIIIdiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura; Pemphigus vulgaris
  • Phase IIAutoimmune disorders
  • 02 Jun 2021Efficacy data from a phase IIa trial in Ankylosing spondylitis presented at the 22nd Annual Congress of the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR-2021)
  • 07 Apr 2021Sanofi initiates enrollment in a phase I pharmacokinetics trial in healthy volunteers in Australia (PO, Tablet, Capsule) (NCT04748926)
  • 31 Mar 2021Sanofi announces intention to seek regulatory approval for Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura in 2023 (Sanofi pipeline, May 2021)

CLIP

https://cen.acs.org/pharmaceuticals/drug-development/Sanofi-acquire-BTK-inhibitor-firm/98/web/2020/08

Sanofi to acquire BTK inhibitor firm Principia for $3.7 billion

Principia is testing its small-molecule compounds in multiple sclerosis and immune system diseases

Sanofi will pay $3.7 billion to acquire Principia Biopharma, a San Francisco-based biotech firm developing small molecules that inhibit Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK). The price represents about a 75% premium over Principia’s stock market value in early July, before reports surfaced that Sanofi was interested in buying the firm.

BTK is a protein important for both normal B cell development and the proliferation of lymphomas, which are B cell cancers. AbbVie, AstraZeneca, and BeiGene all market BTK inhibitors for treating specific kinds of lymphomas. Sales of AbbVie’s inhibitor, Imbruvica, approached $4.7 billion in 2019.

Other drug firms have been eager to get in on the action as well. In January, Merck & Co. spent $2.7 billion to acquire ArQule, whose experimental noncovalent BTK inhibitor is designed to overcome resistance that some cancers develop after treatment with current covalent BTK inhibitors. Eli Lilly and Company’s $8 billion acquisition of Loxo Oncology in 2019 also included a noncovalent BTK inhibitor.

BTK is also linked to inflammation, and Principia focuses on developing BTK inhibitors for immune system diseases and multiple sclerosis. Its compound rilzabrutinib is currently in clinical trials for pemphigus and immune thrombocytopenia. In 2017, Sanofi struck a deal to develop Principia’s brain-penetrant BTK inhibitor, SAR442168, for multiple sclerosis.

Sanofi announced in April of this year that the inhibitor reduced formation of new lesions—the scarred nervous tissue that gives multiple sclerosis its name—by 85% in a Phase II clinical trial. A Phase III trial of the compound began in June.

Upon announcing its deal to acquire Principia, Sanofi said that both rilzabrutinib and SAR442168 have the potential to become a “pipeline in a product,” indicating they can be used for many immune-related and neurological diseases, respectively.

The anti-inflammatory effects of BTK inhibitors have raised interest in the drugs as treatments for people hospitalized with COVID-19. Notably, the US National Cancer Institute conducted a small study suggesting acalabrutinib may help reduce the respiratory distress and inflammation in people with COVID-19. Based on that preliminary study, AstraZeneca—which markets acalabrutinib as Calquence—is conducting a 60-person randomized trial of the drug for COVID-19.

Sanofi has not indicated interest in investigating Principia’s BTK inhibitors as COVID-19 treatments.Chemical & Engineering NewsISSN 0009-2347 
PATENTWO 2021127231https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2021127231&tab=PCTDESCRIPTION&_cid=P20-KRA0I9-18818-1

SOLID FORMS OF 2-[3-[4-AMTNO-3-(2-FT,TTORO-4-PHENOXY- PHEN¥L)PYRAZOLO[3,4 D]PYRIMIDIN l~YL]PIPERIDINE~l~CARBON¥L] 4~

METHYL-4-[4-(OXETAN-3-YL)PIPERAZIN-l-YLjPENT-2-ENENITRILE

[11 This application claims the benefit of priority to U.S. Provisional Application

No 62/951,958, filed December 20, 2019, and U.S Provisional Application No. 63/122,309, filed December 7, 2020, the contents of each of which are incorporated by reference herein in their entirety.

[2] Disclosed herein are solid forms of 2-[3-[4~amino-3~(2~fluoro-4-phenoxy-plienyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-l-yl]piperidine-l Carbonyl]~4-nietliyl-4~[4-(oxetaii~3-yl)piperazin-!~yi]pent-2~enenitriie (Compound (I)), methods of using the same, and processes for making Compound (I), including its solid forms. The solid forms of Compound (I) may be inhibitors of Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) comprising low residual solvent content.

[3| The enzyme BTK is a member of the Tec family non-receptor tyrosine kinases.

BTK is expressed in most hematopoietic cells, including B cells, mast cells, and macrophages BTK plays a role in the development and activation of B cells. BTK activity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several disorders and conditions, such as B cell-related hematological cancers (e.g., non-Hodgkin lymphoma and B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia) and autoimmune diseases (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren’s syndrome, pemphigus, IBD, lupus, and asthma).

[4] Compound (I), pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof, and solid forms of any of the foregoing may inhibit BTK and be useful in the treatment of disorders and conditions mediated by BTK activity. Compound (I) is disclosed in Example 31 of WO 2014/039899 and has the following structure:

where *C is a stereochemical center. An alternative procedure for producing Compound (!) is described in Example 1 of WO 2015/127310.

[5] Compound (I) obtained by the procedures described in WO 2014/039899 and WO 2015/127310 comprises residual solvent levels well above the limits described in the International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (“ICH”) guidelines. In general, manufacturing processes producing residual solvent levels near or above the ICH limits are not desirable for preparing active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs).

Example 1: Spray Drying Process A

[311] A solution of Compound (I) in dichloromethane (prepared according to Example 31 on pages 86-87 of WO 2014/039899) was washed with pH 3 phosphate buffer to remove basic impurities that are more soluble than Compound (I) in the aqueous layer. The dichloromethane solution was then washed with pH 7 buffer and solvent exchanged into isopropyl acetate. The isopropyl acetate solution was then washed with pH 3 phosphate buffer, bringing Compound (I) into the aqueous layer and removing non-basic impurities. The pH of the aqueous layer was adjusted to pH 9 with 10% sodium hydroxide, and the aqueous layer was extracted with isopropyl acetate. Upon concentration under vacuum, Compound (I) was precipitated from heptane at 0 °C, filtered and dried to give a white amorphous solid as a mixture of the (E) and (Z) isomers, as wet Compound (I). Wet Compound (I) was dissolved in methanol and spray dried at dryer inlet temperature of 125 °C to 155 °C and dryer outlet temperature of 48 to 58 °C to obtain the stable amorphous Compound (I) free base with levels of isopropyl acetate and heptane below 0.5% and 0.05%, respectively.

Example 2: Spray Drying Process B


intermediate A

Compound (!)

[241] A jacketed reactor with overhead stirrer, condenser, nitrogen line, temperature probe, and recirculating fluid chiller/heater was charged with Intermediate A (20.2 kg) and Intermediate B (13.6 kg, 1.5 equiv). DCM (361.3 kg, 14.5 vol) was charged to the reactor. The mixture was agitated, and the batch cooled to 0 °C to 5 °C. The reactor was charged with pyrrolidine (18.3 kg, 6 equiv) and then charged with TMSC1 (18.6 kg, 4 eq). Stirring was continued at 0 °C to 5 °C for 0.5 to 1 hour

[242] At 0 °C to 5 °C, acetic acid (2.0 equiv) was charged to the reactor followed by water (5 equiv). Stirring was continued at 0 °C to 5 °C for 1 to 1.5 hours. Water (10 equiv) was charged to the reactor, and the solution was adjusted to 20 °C to 25 °C. The internal temperature was adjusted to 20 °C to 25 °C and the biphasic mixture was stirred for 15 to 20 mins. Stirring was stopped and phases allowed to separate for at least 0.5 h. The lower aqueous layer was removed.

[243] Water (7 vol) was charged to the reactor. The pH was adjusted to 2.8-3.3 with a 10 wt. % solution of citric acid. Stirring was continued at 0 to 5 °C for 1 to 1.5 hours. Stirring was stopped and phases allowed to separate for at least 0.5 h. The lower aqueous layer was removed.

[244] A jacketed reactor with overhead stirrer, condenser, nitrogen line, temperature probe, and recirculating fluid chiller/heater was charged with an approximately 9% solution of NaHCCri (1 vol) and the organic layer. The internal temperature was adjusted to 20 °C to 25 °C, and the biphasic mixture was stirred for 15 to 20 mins. Stirring was stopped and phases allowed to separate for at least 0.5 h. The lower aqueous layer was removed. The aqueous layer was measured to have a pH greater than 7.

[245] A jacketed reactor with overhead stirrer, condenser, nitrogen line, temperature probe and recirculating fluid chiller/heater was charged with the organic layer. The organic phase ¾s distilled under vacuum at less than 25 °C to 4 total volumes. IP AC (15 vol) was charged to the reactor. The organic phase was distilled under vacuum at less than 25 °C to 10 total volumes. Water (15 vol) followed by pH 2.3 phosphate buffer were charged to the reactor at an internal temperature of 20 °C to 25 °C. The pH adjusted to 3 Stirring was stopped and phases allowed to separate for at least 0.5 h. The organic phase was removed.

[246] The following steps were repeated twice: IP AC (5 vol) was charged to the reactor containing the aqueous layer. Stirring was continued for 0.25 to 0.5 hours. Stirring was stopped and phases allowed to separate for at least 0.5 h. The organic phase was removed. [247] IP AC (15 vol) was charged to the reactor containing the aqueous layer. A pH 10 phosphate buffer was charged to the reactor and the pH adjusted to 10 with 14% NaOH solution. Stirring was continued for 1.5 to 2 hours. Stirring was stopped and phases allowed to separate for at. least 0.5 h. The aqueous layer was discarded. The organic layer was dried over brine.

[248] The organic solution was distilled under vacuum at less than 25 °C to 5 total volumes.

[249] A jacketed reactor with overhead stirrer, condenser, nitrogen line, temperature probe and recirculating fluid chiller/heater was charged with n-heptane (20 vol). The internal temperature was adjusted to 0 to 5 °C, and the IP AC solution was added.

[250] The suspension was filtered. The filter cake was washed with n-heptane and the tray was dried at 35 °C. Compound (I) (24.6 kg) was isolated in 86% yield.

[251] Compound (1) was dissolved in methanol (6 kg) and spray dried to remove residual IP AC and n-heptane.

Example 3: Precipitation Process A

[252] A solution of Compound (I) in dichloromethane (prepared according to Example 31 on pages 86-87 of WO 2014/039899) was quenched with acetic acid and water, followed by washing with pH 3 aqueous solution to remove basic impurities that are more soluble than Compound (1) in the aqueous layer. Washing was repeated as needed to reduce impurities. Methanesulfonic acid was added to the dichloromethane solution, and the dichloromethane solution was concentrated by distillation under reduced pressure, followed by addition of 1% NaCi aqueous solution and isopropyl acetate before adjustment of pH to approximately 3 with potassium hydroxide. The isopropyl acetate layer was removed and discarded. The aqueous layer containing Compound (I) was washed with isopropyl acetate to remove hydrophobic impurities. Washing was repeated as needed to reduce related substance impurities. Residual isopropyl acetate was removed by distillation under reduced pressure. The aqueous solution containing Compound (I) was cooled to 0 to 5°C before adjusting the pH to approximately 9 with potassium hydroxide. The free base of Compound (I) was allowed to precipitate and maturate at 20 °C for 20 hours. The mixture temperature was then adjusted to 20 °C to 25 °C, and the hydrate impurity was verified to be less than 0.3% (< 0.3%). The cake of the free base of Compound (I) was filtered and washed as needed to reduce conductivity. The cake was then allowed to dry on the filter under vacuum and nitrogen swept to reduce water content by Karl-Fischer (KF < 50%) before transferring to the oven for drying. The wet cake of the free base of Compound (1) was dried under vacuum at 25 °C until water content by Karl -Fischer was less than 1.5% (KF < 1.5%), and then dehmiped by milling to yield a uniform white amorphous solid as a mixture of the (E) and (Z) isomers, with no detectible levels of isopropyl acetate or heptane.

Example 4: Precipitation Process 3B

[253] A solution of Compound (I) in dichloromethane (prepared according to Example 31 on pages 86-87 of WO 2014/039899) was quenched with acetic acid and water, followed by washing with pH 3 aqueous solution to remove basic impurities that are more soluble than Compound (I) in the aqueous layer. The washing was repeated as needed to reduce residual solvents and impurities. The dichloromethane solution was then washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate (pH > 7). Dichloromethane was removed by distillation under reduced pressure, followed by addition of water and isopropyl acetate. The pH of the aqueous layer was adjusted to pH to 2.8 – 3.3 with 2 M aqueous sulfuric acid (H2SQ4) at 0 – 5 °C, and the mixture rvas stirred and settled. After phase separation removal of the organic layer, the aqueous layer was washed with isopropyl acetate three times and the residual isopropyl acetate in aqueous layer was distilled out under vacuum at a temperature below 25 °C and the solution was basitied with 5% aqueous KOFI to pH 9 – 10 to a slurry . The resulting suspension was stirred and warmed up to 20 °C to 25 °C and aged for 20 h. The product was filtered and washed with water and dried to give white solid in 86% yield.

Example 5: Precipitation Process C

[254] A solution of Compound (I) in dichloromethane (prepared according to Example 31 on pages 86-87 of WO 2014/039899) was quenched with acetic acid and water, followed by washing to remove basic impurities that are more soluble than Compound (I) in the aqueous layer. Washing was repeated as needed to reduce impurities. Methanesulfonic acid was added to the d chloromethane solution, and the dichloromethane solution was concentrated under reduced pressure to obtain a thin oil. The concentrated oil was cooled to approximately 5°C before washing with an aqueous solution of sodium chloride. The organic phase was discarded. Washing of the aqueous layer was repeated as needed with dichloromethane to remove low level impurities. The pH of the aqueous solution was adjusted to approximately 3 with an aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide. Residual dichloromethane was removed

under reduced pressure. The level of residual acetic acid was determined by, for example, titration. The aqueous solution containing Compound (I) was cooled to a temperature between 0°C and 5°C. Acetic acid was present at 0 wt % to 8 wt. %. Acetic acid level was 0 wt % if the aqueous acid solution was washed with aqueous sodium bicarbonate or another aqueous inorganic base. Optionally, additional acetic acid was added to achieve a 0 wt.% to 8 wt. % acetic acid level. An aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide was constantly charged to the aqueous solution to obtain a pH to approximately 9.5. The free base of Compound (I) was allowed to precipitate and maturate at approximately 20 °C for least 3 hours. The cake (wet solid) of the free base of Compound (I) was filtered and washed with water. The wet cake was then dried under reduced vacuum with slight heat. Alternatively, instead of washing the wet cake with water, the wet cake was reslurried with water at approximately 15 °C for at least 1 hour before filtering. The free base of Compound (I) in the fomi of a wet cake was dried under vacuum with slight heat at 25°C.

[255] FIGs. 12-15 are example SEM images showing the variable morphologies of particles of Compound (I) during the filtration step to isolate Compound (I) based on the amount acetic acid added during the initial step in the precipitation of Compound (Ϊ) (FIG. 12: at 0 wt. % acetic acid; FIG 13: at 3 wt. % acetic acid; FIG. 14: at 5 wt. % acetic acid; FIG 15: at 8 wt. % acetic acid). Filtration speed depended on the morphology and was the fastest for 0 wt. % acetic acid. At 1 wt. % acetic acid, the filtration speed diminished considerably, improving at 2 wt. % to 3 wt. % acetic acid. Morphologies with more open holes (such as, e.g., more porous particles) resulted in improved filtration speeds, whereas more compact particles resulted in decreased filtration speed.

Example 6: Conversion of a Crystalline Form of Compound (Ϊ) to an Amorphous Form

[256] 9.8 grams of a crystalline form of Compound (I) were dissolved in approximately 20 mL of dichloromethane and approximately 120 ml. of brine solution. Then, approximately 1 equivalent of methanesulfonic acid was added. The pH w¾s approximately 2. The layers were separated. The aqueous layer was concentrated at a temperature between 0°C and 5°C to remove residual dichloromethane before slowly adding aqueous KOI I solution (approximately 5%) to adjust the pH to a value between 9 and 10. During aqueous KOH addition, an amorphous form of Compound (I) precipitated out. The slurry was slowly warmed to room temperature and then was stirred for approximately 24 hours before filtering and rinsing the wet cake with water. The wet cake was dried under vacuum with slight heat at approximately 30°C to provide 7 grams of a white to an off-white solid (87% yield and 98 4% purity). XRPD showed that the product was an amorphous solid form of Compound (I).

Example 7: Micronization of Compound (I) Particles Obtained by Precipitation Processes

[257] A fluid jet mill equipment was used during lab scale jet milling trials. The fluid jet mill equipment includes a flat cylindrical chamber with 1.5” diameter, fitted with four symmetric jet nozzles winch are tangentially positioned in the inner wall. Prior to feeding material to the fluid jet mill in each trial, the material was sieved in a 355 iim screen to remove any agglomerates and avoid blocking of the nozzles during the feed of material to the micronization chamber. The material to be processed was drawn into the grinding chamber through a vacuum created by the venturi (P vent ~ 0 5 – 1 0 bar above P grind). The feed flow rate of solids (F_feed) was controlled by a manual valve and an infinite screw volumetric feeder. Compressed nitrogen was used to inject the feed material; compressed nitrogen was also used for the jet nozzles in the walls of the milling chamber. Compressed fluid issuing from the nozzles expands from P grind and imparts very’ high rotational speeds in the chamber. Accordingly, material is accelerated by rotating and expanding gases and subjected to centrifugal forces. Particles move outward and are impacted by high velocity jets, directing the particles radially inward at very high speeds. Rapidly moving particles impact the slower moving path of particles circulating near the periphery of the chamber. Attrition takes place due to the violent impacts of particles against each other. Particles with reduced size resulting from this sequence of impacts are entrained in the circulating stream of gas and swept against the action of centrifugal force toward the outlet at the center. Larger particles in the gas stream are subjected to a centrifugal force and returned to the grinding zone. Fine particles are carried by the exhaust gas to the outlet and pass from the grinding chamber into a collector.

[258] The feeder has continuous feed rate control; however, to more precisely control the feed rate, the full scale of feed rates was arbitrary divided in 10 positions. To calibrate F feed, the feeder was disconnected from milling chamber and 10 g of Compound (I) powder was fed through the feeder operating at various feed rate positions. The mass of powder flowing through the feeder over 6 minutes was marked. The resulting feed rate was directly proportional to feeder position. After processing each of the four trials, the jet mill was stopped, micronized product removed from the container, and the milling chamber checked for any powder accumulation.

Variables/Parameters

F_feed Feed flow rate of solids [kg/h]

P grind Grinding pressure inside the

drying chamber [bar]

P vent Feed pressure in the venturi [bar]

Example 8: Residual Solvent Levels

[251] Retention of process solvents (/.<?., res dual solvents) depends on van der Waal s’ forces that are unique to and an inherent property of each molecule. Additionally, solvent retention depends how the API solid is formed, isolated, washed, and dried (i.e., during the manufacturing process). Because residual solvents may pose safety risks, pharmaceutical processes should be designed to minimize residual solvent levels (e.g , to result in residual solvent levels below the limits established in the ICH guidelines).

[252] Residual solvent analysis was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The residual solvent levels in solid forms of Compound (I) prepared by spray drying processes described herein and precipitation processes described herein are provided in Table 2. The residual solvent levels in crude Compound (I) listed in Table 2 are comparable to the residual solvent levels in crude Compound (I) prepared according to the procedures detailed in Example 31 of WO 2014/039899 and Example 1 of WO 2015/127310.

Table 2: Residual solvent levels in solid forms of Compound (I)

PATENTWO 2015127310https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2015127310A1/enExample 1Synthesis of 2-[(3R)-3-[4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxy-phenyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-l- yl]-piperidine-l-carbonyl]-4-m iperazin-l-yl]pent-2-enenitrile

Figure imgf000045_0001

Step 1To a solution of 3-[(3R)-3-[4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxy-phenyl)pyrazolo[3,4- d]pyrimidin-l -yl]-l-piperidyl]-3-oxo-propanenitrile (15 g, 3.12mmol), 2-methyl-2-[4- (oxetan-3-yl)piperazin-l-yl]propanal (794.25mg, 3.74mmol) in DCM (40mL), pyrrolidine (1.54mL,18.71mmol) at 0-5 °C was added, which is followed by TMS-Cl (1.58mL,12.47mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at 0-5 °C for 3 h and was quenched with 1 M potassium phosphate buffer (pH 3). Layers were separated and the organic layer was washed once more with 1 M potassium phosphate buffer (pH 3). The organic layer was extracted withl M potassium Phosphate buffer at pH 1.5. Layers were separated. The aqueous phase contained the desired product while the impurities stayed in the organic phase. The aqueous phase was neutralized with 1 M potassium phosphate (pH 7) and was extracted with isopropylacetate (10 volumes). Upon concentration 2-[(3R)-3-[4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4- phenoxy-phenyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-l-yl]piperidine-l-carbonyl]-4-methyl-4-[4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin-l-yl]pent-2-enenitrile was obtained as a foam having >99% HPLC purity. MS (pos. ion) m/z: 666 (M+l ).The foam containing high levels of residual solvent was dissolved in 2 M HC1 and the resulting solution was placed under vacuum to remove residual organic solvents. pH of the solution was then adjusted to ~ 7 and the resulting paste was filtered and dried in vacuum without heat. This resulted in isolation of 2-[(3R)-3-[4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxy- phenyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-l-yl]piperidine-l-carbonyl]-4-methyl-4-[4-(oxetan-3- yl)piperazin- l-yl]pent-2-enenitrile containing residual water up to 10%. Drying under vacuum without heat reduces the water level but lead to generation of impurities.Step 1AAlternatively, the isopropylacetate solution of 2-[(3R)-3-[4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4- phenoxy-phenyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin- 1 -yl]piperidine- 1 -carbonyl]-4-methyl-4-[4- (oxetan-3-yl)piperazin-l -yl]pent-2-enenitrile can be concentrated to 4 vol and added to heptane (20 volume) at 0 °C. The resulting suspension was stirred at 0 °C overnight and the product was filtered, washed twice with heptane and dried at 45 °C for 2 days under vacuum to give 2-[(3R)-3-[4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxy-phenyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-l – yl]piperidine-l-carbonyl]-4-methyl-4-[4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin-l-yl]pent-2-enenitrile in 85 – 90 % yield as a free flowing solid. However, the solids obtained by this method contained high residual solvents (3.9 wt% isopropylacetate and 1.7 wt% heptane). In addition, the free base form was not very stable as degradation products were observed during the drying process at less than 45 °C.Salt formationExample 2Preparation of 2-[(3R)-3-[4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxy-phenyl)-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin- l-yl]-piperidine-l-carbonyl]-4-methyl-4-[4-(oxetan-3-yl)-piperazin-l-yl]pent-2-enenitrile hemisulfate and sulfate saltHemisulfate: To the solution of 2-[(3R)-3-[4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxy-phenyl)-pyrazolo[3,4- d]pyrimidin-l-yl]-piperidine -carbonyl]-4-methyl-4-[4-(oxetan-3-yl)-piperazin-l-yl]pent-2- enenitrile (4.2 g) in EtOAc (60 mL, 15 vol) was added sulfuric acid (0.31 g, 0.17 mL, 0.5 eq) in EtOAc (20 mL, 5 vol) at ambient temperature. The suspension was stirred at ambient temperature for ~ 2 hr and then 40 °C for 4 hr and then at ambient temperature for at least 1 hr. After filtration and drying at ambient temperature under vacuum, 1.5 g of white powder was obtained. Solubility of the hemi-sulfate at ambient temperature was > 100 mg/mL in water.Sulfate saltTo the solution of 2-[(3R)-3-[4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxy-phenyl)-pyrazolo[3,4- d]pyrimidin-l-yl]-piperidine-l-carbonyl]-4-methyl-4-[4-(oxetan-3-yl)-piperazin-l-yl]pent-2- enenitrile (810 mg) in EtOAc (8 mL, 10 vol) was added sulfuric acid (0.06 mL, 1.0 equiv.) in EtOAc (2.5 mL, 5 vol) at ambient temperature. The resulting suspension was stirred at 40 °C for 2 hr and then cooled to ambient temperature for at least 1 hr. After filtration, solids were dried by suction under Argon for 1 h to give a white powder (0.68 g) in 69% yield.

Figure imgf000047_0001

Example 3Preparation of 2-[(3R)-3-[4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxy-phenyl)-pyrazolo[3,4- d]pyrimidin- 1 -yl]-piperidine- 1 -carbonyl] -4-methyl-4-[4-(oxetan-3-yl)-piperazin- 1 -yl]pent-2- enenitrile hydrochlorideTo a solution of 2-[(3R)-3-[4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxy-phenyl)pyrazolo[3,4- d]pyrimidin- 1 -yl]piperidine- 1 -carbonyl]-4-methyl-4-[4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin- 1 -yl]pent-2- enenitrile (100 mg, 0.15 mmol) in CH2CI2 (1ml) at ambient temperature was added 2 equivalent of HC1 (0.3 mmol, 0.15 ml of 2M HC1 in 1 : 1 dioaxane:CH2Cl2). The resulting homogeneous solution was stirred at ambient temperature for 1 h and was added dropwise to 15 volumes of ethylacetate (as compared to CH2C12) resulting in formation of a white solid. The mixtures was aged at ambient temperature for lh and placed at 2-8 C for 19 h. Upon filtration and washing of the filter cake with ethylacetate and drying a white solid was obtained. Analysis by XRPD indicated formation of an amorphous solid. Both Ή-NMR and IC analysis indicated formation of the salt. IC indicated formation mono-HCl salt.

Figure imgf000048_0001

Example 4General procedure for preparation of 2-[(3R)-3-[4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxy- phenyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-l-yl]-piperidine-l-carbonyl]-4-methyl-4-[4-(oxetan-3-yl)- piperazin-l-yl]pent-2-enenitrile mono- and di-mesylate saltsTo a solution of 2-[(3R)-3-[4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxy-phenyl)pyrazolo[3,4- d]pyrimidin-l-yl]piperidine-l-carbonyl]-4-methyl-4-[4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin-l-yl]pent-2- enenitrile (100 mg, 0.15 mmol) in CH2C12 (1 ml) at ambient temperature was added either 1 equivalent of methanesulfonic acid (0.15 mmol, 0.2 ml of 74 mg/ml solution in CH2C12) or 2 equivalent of methanesulfonic acid (0.3 mmol, 0.4 ml of 74 mg/ml solution in CH2C12). The resulting homogeneous solution was stirred at ambient temperature for 1 h and was added dropwise to 10 volumes of antisolvents (ethylacetate, methyl tert-butylether (MTBE), or cyclohexane) (10 ml as compared to CH2C12) resulting in formation of a white solid. The mixture was aged at ambient temperature for lh and placed at 2-8 °C for 19 h. Upon filtration and washing of the filter cake with the antisolvent and drying, a white solid was obtained. Analysis by XRPD indicated formation of an amorphous solid. Both Ή-NMR and IC analysis indicated formation of the salt as well as counterion ratio.Alternatively 2-[(3R)-3-[4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxy-phenyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]- pyrimidin- 1 -yl]piperidine- 1 -carbonyl]-4-methyl-4-[4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin- 1 -yl]pent-2- enenitrile can be dissolved in 4 volumes of isopropylacetate and added to 2 equivalent of methanesulfonic acid in 6 volumes of isopropylacetate at 0 °C to generate the dimesylate salt.

Figure imgf000049_0001

1. Theoretical mesylate content, monomesylate=12.6% and dimesylate=22.4%, NO- not determinedExample 5 General procedure for the preparation of carboxylate salt Approximately 20 mg of the compound (I) was dissolved in minimum amount of the allocated solvent system. These were then mixed with the appropriate number of equivalents of counterion dissolved or slurried in the allocated solvent.If compound (I) was insoluble in the selected solvent, slurry of the sample was used after adding 300 μί.If the acid was insoluble in the selected solvent, slurry of the acid was used after adding 300 xL.If the acid was a liquid, the acid was added to the dissolved/slurried compound (I) from a stock solution in the allocated solvent.The suspensions/ precipitates resulting from the mixtures of compound (I) were temperature cycled between ambient (ca. 22°C) and 40°C in 4 hour cycles for ca. 48 hrs (the cooling/heating rate after each 4 hour period was ca. 1 °C/min). The mixtures were visually checked and any solids present were isolated and allowed to dry at ambient conditions prior to analysis. Where no solid was present, samples were allowed to evaporate at ambient. Samples which produced amorphous material, after the treatment outlined above, were re- dissolved and precipitated using anti-solvent (ter/-butylmethylether) addition methods at ambient conditions (ca. 22°C). i.e. the selected anti-solvent was added to each solution, until no further precipitation could be observed visually or until no more anti-solvent could be added. The solvents used in this preparation were acetonitrile, acetone, isopropyl acetate, THF and MTBE. The acid used were oxalic acid, L-aspartic acid, maleic acid, malonic acid, L-tartaric acid, and fumaric acid.Example 6General procedure for preparation of 2-[(3R)-3-[4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxy- phenyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-l-yl]-piperidine-l-carbonyl]-4-methyl-4-[4-(oxetan-3-yl)- piperazin-l-yl]pent-2-enenitrile hemicitrate saltTo a solution 2-[(3R)-3-[4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxy-phenyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]- pyrimidin- 1 -yl]piperidine- 1 -carbonyl]-4-methyl-4-[4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin- 1 -yl]pent-2- enenitrile (5 g, 7.5 mmol) in ethanol (50 ml) was added citric acid (720.5 mg, 3.76 mmol) dissolved in 2 ml of water. Mixture was stirred at ambient temperature for 15 min, additional 0.5 ml of water was added and the mixture was stirred for 1 h, concentrated in vacuo to a gum. Ethanol was added and the mixture was concentrated. This process was repeated twice more and then CH2CI2 was added to the mixture. Upon concentration a white solid was obtained which was tumble dried under reduced pressure at 40 C for 4 h, then in a vacuum oven for 19h to give 5.4 g of a solid. Analysis by XRD indicated formation of an amorphous solid 

PATENT

WO2014039899, Example 31

Rilzabrutinib (PRN1008) is an oral, reversible covalent inhibitor of Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) [1].

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2014039899A1/enExample 31Synthesis of (R)-2-(3-(4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxyphenyl)- 1 H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin- 1 -yl)piperidine- 1 -carbonyl)-4-methyl-4-(4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin- 1 -yl)pent-2-enenitrile

Figure imgf000087_0002

Step 1A solution of 2-bromo-2-methyl-propanal (696.6 mg, 4.61 mmol) in DCM (10 mL) was cooled with an ice bath and l -(oxetan-3-yl)piperazine (328 mg, 2.31 mmol), diluted with 5-10 mL of DCM, was slowly added via addition funnel over a 15 min period. Next, Hunig’s base (0.4 mL, 2.31 mmol) was added and then the cooling bath was removed. The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight and the DCM layer was washed three times with 0.5N HC1. The combined aqueous layer was neutralized with NaOH to pH 10-11 and extracted with DCM. The combined organic layer was washed with brine and dried over Na?S04. Filtration and removal of solvent afforded 2-methyl-2-[4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin-l- yl]propanal as a light yellow liquid, which was used directly in the next step without further purification.Step 2To a cooled (0 °C) solution of 3-[(3R)-3-[4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxy-phenyl)- pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-l-yl]-l-piperidyl]-3-oxo-propanenitrile (80 mg, 0.17 mmol), was added 2-methyl-2-[4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin-l-yl]propanal (-108 mg, 0.51 mmol) in DCM (10 mL) followed by pyrrolidine (0.08 mL, 1.02 mmol) and TMS-C1 (0.09 raL, 0.68 mmol.) The ice bath was removed, and the reaction stirred 1 hour. Most of the solvent was removed and the residues were purified by chromatography, using 95:5 CH2Cl2:MeOH to obtain 79 mg of (R)-2-(3-(4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxyphenyl)-lH-pyrazolo[3,4-d]-pyrimidin-l- yl)piperidine- 1 -carbonyl)-4-methyl-4-(4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin- 1 -yl)pent-2-enenitrile as a white solid. MS (pos. ion) m/z: 666 (M+l).

PAPER

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0223523421001781?dgcid=rss_sd_all

Therapy based on Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitors one of the major treatment options currently recommended for lymphoma patients. The first generation of BTK inhibitor, Ibrutinib, achieved remarkable progress in the treatment of B-cell malignancies, but still has problems with drug-resistance or off-target induced serious side effects. Therefore, numerous new BTK inhibitors were developed to address this unmet medical need. In parallel, the effect of BTK inhibitors against immune-related diseases has been evaluated in clinical trials. This review summarizes recent progress in the research and development of BTK inhibitors, with a focus on structural characteristics and structure-activity relationships. The structure-refinement process of representative pharmacophores as well as their effects on binding affinity, biological activity and pharmacokinetics profiles were analyzed. The advantages and disadvantages of reversible/irreversible BTK inhibitors and their potential implications were discussed to provide a reference for the rational design and development of novel potent BTK inhibitors.

Image 17

///////////////PRN-1008,  PRN 1008, Rilzabrutinib, リルザブルチニブ,
N#CC(=CC(N(C1COC1)C)(C)C)C(=O)N1CCCC1Cn1nc(c2c1ncnc2N)c1ccc(cc1F)Oc1ccccc1

Nanatinostat


Nanatinostat Chemical Structure
ChemSpider 2D Image | CHR-3996 | C20H19FN6O2
Hdac inhibitor CHR-3996.png

Nanatinostat

Tractinostat

CHR-3996, CHR 3996, VRx 3996,

C20H19FN6O2, 394.41

CAS 1256448-47-1

2-[(1α,5α,6α)-6-[[(6-Fluoro-2-q

2-[(1R,5S,6R)-6-{[(6-fluoroquinolin-2-yl)methyl]amino}-3-azabicyclo[3.1.0]hexan-3-yl]-N-hydroxypyrimidine-5-carboxamide2-[(1R,5S,6s)-6-{[(6-Fluoro-2-quinolinyl)methyl]amino}-3-azabicyclo[3.1.0]hex-3-yl]-N-hydroxy-5-pyrimidinecarboxamide5-Pyrimidinecarboxamide, 2-[(1R,5S)-6-[[(6-fluoro-2-quinolinyl)methyl]amino]-3-azabicyclo[3.1.0]hex-3-yl]-N-hydroxy-Chroma Therapeutics Ltd. (Originator)

  • OriginatorChroma Therapeutics
  • DeveloperChroma Therapeutics; Viracta Therapeutics
  • ClassAmides; Antineoplastics; Pyrimidines; Quinolines; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of ActionHistone deacetylase inhibitors
  • Orphan Drug StatusYes – Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder; Plasmablastic lymphoma; T-cell lymphoma
  • Phase IILymphoma
  • Phase I/IIMultiple myeloma
  • Phase ISolid tumours
  • No development reportedGastric cancer; Nasopharyngeal cancer; Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder
  • 01 Jun 2021Phase-II clinical trials in Lymphoma (Combination therapy, Second-line therapy or greater) in North America, Europe, Asia (PO)
  • 18 May 2021Ninatinostat is still in phase I trials for Solid tumour in United Kingdom and Netherlands (Viracta Therapeutics pipeline, May 2021)
  • 18 May 2021Virata Therapeutics has patent protection for dose regimen in NAVAL-1 trial in USA

Nanatinostat is under investigation in clinical trial NCT00697879 (Safety Study of the Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, CHR-3996, in Patients With Advanced Solid Tumours).

Nanatinostat is an orally bioavailable, second-generation hydroxamic acid-based inhibitor of histone deacetylase (HDAC), with potential antineoplastic activity. Nanatinostat targets and inhibits HDAC, resulting in an accumulation of highly acetylated histones, the induction of chromatin remodeling, and the selective transcription of tumor suppressor genes; these events result in the inhibition of tumor cell division and the induction of tumor cell apoptosis. This agent may upregulate HSP70 and downregulate anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins more substantially than some first-generation HDAC inhibitors. HDACs, upregulated in many tumor cell types, are a family of metalloenzymes responsible for the deacetylation of chromatin histone proteins.

Patent

WO2006123121

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2006123121

Example 44: N-Hvdroxy 2-(6-fr(6-fluoroαuinolin-2-yl)methvnamino)-3-azabicvclorS.I.OIhex-S-vDpyrimidine-δ-carboxamide

LCMS purity >98%, m/z 395 [M+H]+1H NMR (300 MHz, c/6-DMSO) δ: 2.30 (2H, s), 2.75 (1 H, s), 3.60 (2H, dm, J = 11.7 Hz), 3.88 (2H, d, J = 11.7 Hz), 4.69 (2H, br s), 7.66 (1 H, d, J = 8.4 Hz), 7.75 (1 H, td, J = 8.7, 3.0 Hz), 7.88 (1 H, dd, J = 9.3, 2.7 Hz), 8.48 (1 H, d, J = 8.4 Hz), 8.67 (2H, s), 9.01 (1 H, br s), 9.61 (1 H, br s), 11.09 (1 H, br s).

PATENT

WO-2021113694

Crystalline hydrate form A of N-hydroxy 2-{6-[(6-fluoro-quinolin-2-ylmethyl)-amino]-3-aza-bicyclo[3.1.0]hex-3-yl}pyrimidine-5-carboxamide ( nanatinostat ) .

Compound 1 is also known as nanatinostat, VRx-3996, or CHR-3996. It has been previously described in patents and patent applications, e.g. US patent 7,932,246 and US patent application 15/959,482, each of which is incorporated by reference in their entirety.

Compound 1

PATENT

WO2021071809 , claiming dosages for HDAC treatment with reduced side effects.

/////////Nanatinostat, CHR-3996, CHR 3996, VRx 3996, CHROMA, ORPHAN DRUG, Tractinostat, PHASE 2

FC1=CC=C2N=C(CN[C@H]3[C@]4([H])CN(C5=NC=CC(C(NO)=O)=N5)C[C@]34[H])C=CC2=C1
wdt-13

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TROPIFEXOR


Tropifexor (USAN).png
Tropifexor.svg
Tropifexor CAS 1383816-29-2

TROPIFEXOR

トロピフェクサー;

 PHASE 2, NASH, PBC, liver fibrosis, bile acid diarrhea, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

FormulaC29H25F4N3O5S
CAS1383816-29-2
Mol weight603.5845

TROPIFEXORLJN 452;LJN-452;LJN452;CS-2712;CPD1549;Tropifexor;Tropifexor (LJN452);LJN452;LJN452,Tropifexor;2-[(1R,3r,5S)-3-({5-cyclopropyl-3-[2-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl]-1,2-oxazol-4-yl}methoxy)-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-8-yl]-4-fluoro-1,3-benzothiazole-6-carboxylic acidтропифексор [Russian] [INN]
تروبيفيكسور [Arabic] [INN]
曲匹法索 [Chinese] [INN]2-[(3-endo)-3-({5-Cyclopropyl-3-[2-(trifluormethoxy)phenyl]-1,2-oxazol-4-yl}methoxy)-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-8-yl]-4-fluor-1,3-benzothiazol-6-carbonsäure [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
2-[(3-endo)-3-({5-Cyclopropyl-3-[2-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl]-1,2-oxazol-4-yl}methoxy)-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-8-yl]-4-fluoro-1,3-benzothiazole-6-carboxylic acid [ACD/IUPAC Name]
6-Benzothiazolecarboxylic acid, 2-[(3-endo)-3-[[5-cyclopropyl-3-[2-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl]-4-isoxazolyl]methoxy]-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-8-yl]-4-fluoro- [ACD/Index Name]
Acide 2-[(3-endo)-3-({5-cyclopropyl-3-[2-(trifluorométhoxy)phényl]-1,2-oxazol-4-yl}méthoxy)-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-8-yl]-4-fluoro-1,3-benzothiazole-6-carboxylique [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
NMZ08KM76Z

Tropifexor fast facts

CAS Reg. No.1383816-29-2
Molar mass603.58 g/mol
Empirical formulaC29H25F4N3O5S
AppearanceWhite crystals
Melting point221 ºC
Water solubility6 mg/L
EfficacyAnti-inflammatory, Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonist
CommentTreatment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

Novartis is developing tropifexor, a non-bile acid farnesoid X receptor agonist, and its analog LJP-305, for treating NASH, PBC, liver fibrosis, bile acid diarrhea and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. In June 2021, this drug was reported to be in phase 2 clinical development.

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a liver disease that is becoming more prevalent as worldwide obesity and type 2 diabetes increase. It is characterized by accumulation of fat in the liver, inflammation, hepatocyte ballooning, and fibrosis.

Another liver disease, primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), is a cholestatic condition in which bile flow from the liver to the intestine is reduced or interrupted. It is thought to be autoimmune.

PBC is associated with decreased expression of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a ligand-activated nuclear receptor that is highly expressed in the liver and other organs. FXR is a key regulator of bile acid production, conjugation, and transport. FXR activation also suppresses lipogenesis; thus, it has been proposed as a treatment for NASH.

Recently, David C. Tully and colleagues at the Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation (San Diego) and the Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research (Emeryville, CA) discovered tropifexor, a highly potent FXR agonist. They began by replacing an indole group in an existing partial FXR agonist with a 2-substituted benzothiazole-6-carboxylic acid, a change that resulted in a dramatic increase in potency. Further changes, including optimization of the benzothiazole substituent, resulted in more potent, orally bioavailable tropifexor.

Tropifexor is an investigational drug which acts as an agonist of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR). It was discovered by researchers from Novartis and Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation. Its synthesis and pharmacological properties were published in 2017.[1] It was developed for the treatment of cholestatic liver diseases and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In combination with cenicriviroc, a CCR2 and CCR5 receptor inhibitor, it is undergoing a phase II clinical trial for NASH and liver fibrosis.[2]

Rats treated orally with tropifexor (0.03 to 1 mg/kg) showed an upregulation of the FXR target genes, BSEP and SHP, and a down-regulation of CYP8B1. Its EC50 for FXR is between 0.2 and 0.26 nM depending on the biochemical assay.

The patent which covers tropifexor and related compounds was published in 2010.[3]

PATENT

WO-2021104022

Novel, stable crystalline polymorphic form II of tropifexor , useful for treating non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fatty liver and primary biliary cholangitis (PBC).Tropifexor was originally developed by Novartis and then licensed to Pfizer for cooperative development. It is a non-steroidal FXR (farnesoid receptor) agonist, currently in clinical phase II of indications for NASH (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis), fatty liver and primary biliary cholangitis. 
The structure of Tropifexor is shown in the following formula (1): 

Drug polymorphism is a common phenomenon in drug development and an important factor affecting drug quality. Different crystal forms of the same drug may have significant differences in physical and chemical properties such as appearance, fluidity, solubility, storage stability, bioavailability, etc., and there may be great differences, which will affect the storage transfer, application, stability, and efficacy of the drug In order to obtain an effective crystal form that is conducive to production or pharmaceutical preparations, it is necessary to conduct a comprehensive investigation of the crystallization behavior of the drug to obtain a crystal form that meets the production requirements. 
At present, there is no literature that discloses the crystal form of Tropifexor, and there is no related literature report. 
The present invention obtains a new crystal form of the compound through a large number of experimental studies on the Tropifexor compound. The new crystal form has the advantages of high solubility, good stability, low moisture absorption, simple preparation process and easy operation, etc., and has excellent properties in industrial production. Superiority.Example 1 Preparation method of Tropifexor crystal form II[0049]After mixing 60.3 mg of Tropifexor and p-aminobenzoic acid (13.7 mg), they were added to ethanol (3.0 ml), stirred at 27° C. to obtain a clear solution, and then allowed to stand at room temperature for about 2 days to precipitate a solid product. It was filtered with suction and placed in a drying box at 50°C and vacuum dried to constant weight to obtain 51.3 mg of solid powder. The obtained crystal was detected by XPRD and confirmed to be Tropifexor crystal form II; its X-ray powder diffraction pattern was basically consistent with Fig. 1, its DSC pattern was basically the same as Fig. 2, and its TGA pattern was basically the same as Fig. 3.[0050]Example 2 Preparation method of Tropifexor crystal form II[0051]After mixing 60.3 mg of Tropifexor and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (13.8 mg), they were added to ethanol (3.0 ml), stirred at 27° C. to obtain a clear solution, and then allowed to stand at room temperature for about 2 days to precipitate a solid product. It was filtered with suction and placed in a drying box at 50°C and vacuum dried to constant weight to obtain 48.5 mg of solid powder. The obtained crystal was detected by XPRD and confirmed to be Tropifexor crystal form II; its X-ray powder diffraction pattern was basically consistent with Fig. 1, its DSC pattern was basically the same as Fig. 2, and its TGA pattern was basically the same as Fig. 3.[0052]Example 3 Preparation method of Tropifexor crystal form II[0053]After mixing 60.3 mg of Tropifexor and salicylic acid (13.8 mg), they were added to ethanol (3.0 ml), stirred at 27°C to obtain a clear solution, and then allowed to stand at room temperature for about 2 days to precipitate a solid product. Filter with suction and place in a drying box at 50°C and vacuum dry to constant weight to obtain 50.0 mg of solid powder. The obtained crystal was detected by XPRD and confirmed to be Tropifexor crystal form II; its X-ray powder diffraction pattern was basically consistent with Fig. 1, its DSC pattern was basically the same as Fig. 2, and its TGA pattern was basically the same as Fig. 3.[0054]Example 4 Preparation method of Tropifexor crystal form II[0055]After mixing 60.3 mg of Tropifexor and 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (15.4 mg), they were added to ethanol (3.0 ml), stirred at 27°C to obtain a clear solution, and then allowed to stand at room temperature for about 2 days to precipitate a solid product. It was filtered with suction and placed in a drying box at 50°C and vacuum dried to constant weight to obtain 49.5 mg of solid powder. The obtained crystal was detected by XPRD and confirmed to be Tropifexor crystal form II; its X-ray powder diffraction pattern was basically consistent with Fig. 1, its DSC pattern was basically the same as Fig. 2, and its TGA pattern was basically the same as Fig. 3.

PATENT

WO2021104021 ,

claiming crystalline polymorphic form I of tropifexor,Example 1 Preparation method of Tropifexor crystal form I 
50.0 mg of Tropifexor was added to ethanol (1.0 ml), heated to 60° C. and stirred to obtain a clear solution, and then water (3 ml) was added dropwise to the Tropifexor solution. Stir and precipitate solid product. It was filtered with suction and placed in a drying box at 50°C and vacuum dried to constant weight to obtain 38.5 mg of solid powder. The obtained crystal was detected by XPRD and confirmed to be Tropifexor crystal form I; its X-ray powder diffraction pattern was basically consistent with Figure 1, its DSC pattern was basically consistent with Figure 2, and its TGA pattern was basically consistent with Figure 3

PATENT

product pat, WO2012087519 , https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2012087519A1/en

has protection in the EU  until November 2031, and expire in  US in February 2032 with US154 extension.

PATENT

WO 2016097933

Example 1

2-r(1 R,3r,5S)-3-(f5-cvclopropyl-3-r2-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyll-1 ,2-oxazol-4-yl)methoxy)-8- azabicvcloi3.2.1 loctan-8-yll-4-fluoro-1 ,3-benzothiazole-6-carboxylic acid (1 -1 B) and

-r(1 R,3r,5S)-3-(f5-cvclopropyl-3-r2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyll-1 ,2-oxazol-4-yl)methoxy)-8-

R1a = OCF3 (1 -1A, 1 -1 B)

a = CF3 (1-2A, 1-2B)

Methyl 2-[(1 R,3r,5S)-3-(i5-cvclopropyl-3-r2-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyll-1 ,2-oxazol-4- yl}methoxy)-8-azabicvcloi3.2.1 loctan-8-yll-4-fluoro-1 ,3-benzothiazole-6-carboxylate (1 -1 A). Into a 25-mL round-bottom flask equipped with a stir bar was added sequentially 4-(((1 R,3r,5S)- 8-azabicyclo[3.2.1 ]octan-3-yloxy)methyl)-5-cyclopropyl-3-(2-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)isoxazole (1 .29 mmol), N,N-dimethylacetamide (3.6 mL), cesium carbonate (3.31 mmol), and methyl 2- bromo-4-fluorobenzo[d]thiazole-6-carboxylate (3.87 mmol). After stirring the resulting slurry at room temperature for 10 minutes, the mixture was then warmed to 60 °C and stirred for 1 h. The reaction slurry was allowed to cool to room temperature, and was diluted with 200 mL of ethyl acetate and washed with water (3 χ 30 mL). The organic extracts were concentrated under vacuum and directly purified using normal phase silica gel chromatography (40 g silica column) with a 15 min gradient of 10 % to 60 % ethyl acetate/hexanes. Desired fractions were concentrated in vacuo, and the resulting residue crystallized upon standing to give methyl 2- [(1 R,3r,5S)-3-({5-cyclopropyl-3-[2-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl]-1 ,2-oxazol-4-yl}methoxy)-8- azabicyclo[3.2.1 ]octan-8-yl]-4-fluoro-1 ,3-benzothiazole-6-carboxylate (1-1 A) as a white crystalline solid. MS (m/z) : 618.2 (M+1 ).

2-r(1 R,3r,5S)-3-(i5-cvclopropyl-3-r2-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyll-1 ,2-oxazol-4-yl}methoxy)- 8-azabicvcloi3.2.1 loctan-8-yll-4-fluoro-1 ,3-benzothiazole-6-carboxylic acid (1 -1 B). To a 25-mL round-bottom flask equipped with a stir bar was added the ester (0.89 mmol), THF (4 mL),

MeOH (2 mL), and 3 N aqueous KOH solution (1 mL, 3 mmol). The resulting homogenous solution was stirred for 1 hour at 70 °C, cooled to room temperature, and then quenched with AcOH (roughly 0.2 mL of glacial acetic, 3 mmol) until pH=6 was achieved (Whatman class pH strip paper). At this time the reaction was diluted with ethyl acetate (40 mL) and washed with water (3 5 mL). The ethyl acetate fraction was concentrated under vacuum to give to an oily residue. To the resulting oil was then added MeOH (6 mL). The oil quickly dissolved, then immediately began to crystallize. Upon standing for 2.5 hrs, the mother liquor was withdrawn and crystals washed (3 x 2 mL of ice cold MeOH). The crystals were dried via vacuum (10 mm Hg pressure at 45 °C overnight) and then recrystallized from acetonitrile, filtered, and dried under vacuum to give 2-[(1 R,3r,5S)-3-({5-cyclopropyl-3-[2-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl]-1 ,2-oxazol-4-yl}methoxy)-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1 ]octan-8-yl]-4-fluoro-1 ,3-benzothiazole-6-carboxylic acid (1 -1 B). 2-[(1 R,3r,5S)-3-({5-cyclopropyl-3-[2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-1 ,2-oxazol-4-yl}methoxy)-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1 ]octan-8-yl]-4-fluoro-1 ,3-benzothiazole-6-carboxylic acid (1 -2B).

Examples 1 -2A and the corresponding acid 1 -2B can be prepared following the same procedures, from the reaction of intermediate 4-((8-azabicyclo[3.2.1 ]octan-3-yloxy)methyl)-5-cyclopropyl-3-(2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)isoxazole.

PAPER

 European journal of medicinal chemistry (2021), 209, 112910

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0223523420308825

Image 1

Abstract

Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonists are emerging as potential therapeutics for the treatment of various metabolic diseases, as they display multiple effects on bile acid, lipid, and glucose homeostasis. Although the steroidal obeticholic acid, a full FXR agonist, was recently approved, several side effects probably due to insufficient pharmacological selectivity impede its further clinical application. Activating FXR in a partial manner is therefore crucial in the development of novel FXR modulators. Our efforts focusing on isoxazole-type FXR agonists, common nonsteroidal agonists for FXR, led to the discovery a series of novel FXR agonists bearing aryl urea moieties through structural simplification of LJN452 (phase 2). Encouragingly, compound 11k was discovered as a potent FXR agonist which exhibited similar FXR agonism potency but lower maximum efficacy compared to full agonists GW4064 and LJN452 in cell-based FXR transactivation assay. Extensive in vitro evaluation further confirmed partial efficacy of 11k in cellular FXR-dependent gene modulation, and revealed its lipid-reducing activity. More importantly, orally administration of 11k in mice exhibited desirable pharmacokinetic characters resulting in promising in vivo FXR agonistic activity.

References

  1. ^ Tully DC, Rucker PV, Chianelli D, Williams J, Vidal A, Alper PB, et al. (December 2017). “Discovery of Tropifexor (LJN452), a Highly Potent Non-bile Acid FXR Agonist for the Treatment of Cholestatic Liver Diseases and Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH)”Journal of Medicinal Chemistry60 (24): 9960–9973. doi:10.1021/acs.jmedchem.7b00907PMID 29148806.
  2. ^ Clinical trial number NCT03517540 for “Safety, Tolerability, and Efficacy of a Combination Treatment of Tropifexor (LJN452) and Cenicriviroc (CVC) in Adult Patients With Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) and Liver Fibrosis. (TANDEM)” at ClinicalTrials.gov
  3. ^ WO Application Filing 2012087519, Alper PB, Chianelli D, Mutnick D, Vincent P, Tully DC, “Compositions and methods for modulating fxr”, published 2012-06-28, assigned to Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation. Retrieved 17 May 2019.
 
Clinical data
ATC codeNone
Identifiers
showIUPAC name
CAS Number1383816-29-2
PubChem CID121418176
UNIINMZ08KM76Z
KEGGD11548
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC29H25F4N3O5S
Molar mass603.59 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)Interactive image
showSMILES
show 

///////////TROPIFEXOR, トロピフェクサー, NOVARTIS, PHASE 2, тропифексор , تروبيفيكسور , 曲匹法索 , LJN 452, LJN-452, LJN452, CS-2712, CPD1549, Tropifexor, Tropifexor (LJN452), LJN452, LJN452, PHASE 2, NASH, PBC, liver fibrosis, bile acid diarrhea, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

1ccc(c(c1)c2c(c(on2)C3CC3)CO[C@H]4C[C@H]5CC[C@@H](C4)N5c6nc7c(cc(cc7s6)C(=O)O)F)OC(F)(F)F

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