New Drug Approvals

Home » 2018 » December

Monthly Archives: December 2018

Advertisements
DRUG APPROVALS BY DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO .....FOR BLOG HOME CLICK HERE

Blog Stats

  • 2,308,791 hits

Flag and hits

Flag Counter

Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

Join 2,309 other followers

Follow New Drug Approvals on WordPress.com

Categories

Flag Counter

ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY

Read all about Organic Spectroscopy on ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY INTERNATIONAL 

Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

Join 2,309 other followers

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

Personal Links

Verified Services

View Full Profile →

Categories

Flag Counter
Advertisements

SELETALISIB, селеталисиб , سيلستاليسيب , 司来利塞 ,


Image result for SELETALISIB

Thumb

ChemSpider 2D Image | Seletalisib | C23H14ClF3N6O

DB12706.png

SELETALISIB

CAS 1362850-20-1

UCB-5857 , Plaque psoriasis,Sjoegren’s syndrome,Immunodeficiency disorders

PHASE 3 UCB

23H14ClF3N6O , 482.85

Phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase delta (PI3Kδ) inhibitors

10023
1362850-20-1 [RN]
N-{(1R)-1-[8-Chlor-2-(1-oxido-3-pyridinyl)-3-chinolinyl]-2,2,2-trifluorethyl}pyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-amine
N—{(R)-1-[8-Chloro-2-(pyridin-3-yl)quinolin-3-yl]-2,2,2-trifluoroethyl}N-(1-oxypyrido-[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)amine
Pyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-amine, N-[(1R)-1-[8-chloro-2-(1-oxido-3-pyridinyl)-3-quinolinyl]-2,2,2-trifluoroethyl]-

3-{8-chloro-3-[(1R)-2,2,2-trifluoro-1-({pyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-yl}amino)ethyl]quinolin-2-yl}pyridin-1-ium-1-olate

селеталисиб [Russian] [INN]
سيلستاليسيب [Arabic] [INN]
司来利塞 [Chinese] [INN]
N-[(1R)-1-[8-chloro-2-(1-oxidopyridin-1-ium-3-yl)quinolin-3-yl]-2,2,2-trifluoroethyl]pyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-amine

Seletalisib has been used in trials studying the treatment and basic science of Primary Sjogren’s Syndrome.

  • Originator UCB
  • Class Anti-inflammatories; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action Immunomodulators; Phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase delta inhibitors
  • Phase III Immunodeficiency disorders
  • Phase II Sjogren’s syndrome
  • No development reported Plaque psoriasis
  • 05 Dec 2017 UCB Celltech terminates a phase II trial in Sjogren’s syndrome in France, Spain, United Kingdom, Greece, Sweden, Italy, due to enrolment challenges (PO) (NCT02610543) (EudraCT2014-004523-51)
  • 04 Nov 2017 No recent reports of development identified for phase-I development in Plaque-psoriasis in United Kingdom (PO, Capsule)
  • 14 Jun 2017 Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics data from Preclinical and Clinical studies in Immunodeficiency disorders presented at the 18th Annual Congress of the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR-2017)

SYN

US 9029392

https://patents.google.com/patent/US9029392B2/en

Example 27 N—{(R)-1-[8-Chloro-2-(pyridin-3-yl)quinolin-3-yl]-2,2,2-trifluoroethyl}N-(1-oxypyrido-[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)amine

A stirred solution of Example 1 (955 mg, 2.05 mmol) in DCM (40 mL) was cooled to 0° C. MCPBA (410 mg, 1.84 mmol) was added and the mixture was allowed to warm slowly to r.t. over 3 h. The reaction mixture was partitioned between DCM and saturated aqueous NaHCOsolution. The aqueous phase was extracted with further DCM and the combined organic fractions were washed with brine, dried Na2SO4) and evaporated in vacuo. The residue was purified by column chromatography (SiO2, 3-60% MeOH in EtOAc) to give the title compound (39 mg, 4%) as a yellow solid. δ(DMSO-d6) 9.64-9.52 (m, 1H), 9.30 (s, 1H), 9.06 (dd, J 4.2, 1.3 Hz, 1H), 8.78-8.71 (m, 2H), 8.67 (dd, J 4.9, 1.6 Hz, 1H), 8.64 (s, 1H), 8.16-8.01 (m, 4H), 7.75-7.69 (m, 1H), 7.52 (ddd, J 7.8, 4.9, 0.7 Hz, 1H), 6.65-6.52 (m, 1H). LCMS (ES+) 483 (M+H)+, RT 1.87 minutes.

AND

PATENT

WO 2012032334

PATENT

WO 2015181053

WO 2015181055

WO 2016170014

PATENT

WO 2017198590

A SPECIFIC TRIFLUOROETHYL QUINOLINE ANALOGUE FOR USE IN THE TREATMENT OF APDS

The present invention relates to the new therapeutic use of a known chemical compound. More particularly, the present invention concerns the use of a specific substituted quinoline derivative comprising a fluorinated ethyl side-chain in the treatment of activated phosphoinositide 3 -kinase delta syndrome (APDS).

N- {(R)- 1 -[8-Chloro-2-(l -oxypyridin-3-yl)quinolin-3-yl]-2,2,2-trifiuoroethyl} -pyrido[3,2-JJpyrimidin-4-ylamine is specifically disclosed in WO 2012/032334. The compounds described in that publication are stated to be of benefit as pharmaceutical agents, especially in the treatment of adverse inflammatory, autoimmune, cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, metabolic, oncological, nociceptive and ophthalmic conditions.

There is no specific disclosure or suggestion in WO 2012/032334, however, that the compounds described therein might be beneficial in the treatment of APDS.

Activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta syndrome (APDS), also known as

PASLI (pi ΙΟδ-activating mutation causing senescent T cells, lymphadenopathy and immunodeficiency), is a serious medical condition that impairs the immune system.

APDS patients generally have reduced numbers of white blood cells (lymphopenia), especially B cells and T cells, compromising their propensity to recognise and attack invading microorganisms, such as viruses and bacteria, and thereby prevent infection. Individuals affected with APDS develop recurrent infections, particularly in the lungs, sinuses and ears. Recurrent respiratory tract infections may gradually lead to bronchiectasis, a condition which damages the passages leading from the windpipe to the lungs (bronchi) and can cause breathing problems. APDS patients may also suffer from chronic active viral infections, including Epstein-Barr virus infections and cytomegalovirus infections.

APDS has also been associated with abnormal clumping of white blood cells, which can lead to enlarged lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy). Alternatively, the white blood cells can build up to form solid masses (nodular lymphoid hyperplasia), usually in the moist lining of the airways or intestines. Whilst lymphadenopathy and nodular lymphoid hyperplasia are benign (noncancerous), APDS also increases the risk of developing a form of cancer called B cell lymphoma.

APDS is a disorder of childhood, typically arising soon after birth. However, the precise prevalence of APDS is currently unknown.

Phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta (ΡΒΚδ) is a lipid kinase which catalyses the generation of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) from phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). PI3K5 activates signalling pathways within cells, and is specifically found in white blood cells, including B cells and T cells. PI3K5 signalling is involved in the growth and division (proliferation) of white blood cells, and it helps direct B cells and T cells to mature (differentiate) into different types, each of which has a distinct function in the immune system.

APDS is known to occur in two variants, categorised as APDSl and APDS2.

APDSl is associated with a heterozygous gain-of- function mutation in the PIK3CD gene encoding the PI3K5 protein; whereas APDS2 is associated with loss-of-function frameshift mutations in the regulatory PIK3R1 gene encoding the p85a regulatory subunit of class I phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) peptides. Both mutations lead to hyperactivated PI3K signalling. See I. Angulo et ah, Science, 2013, 342, 866-871; C.L. Lucas et ah, Nature Immunol, 2014, 15, 88-97; and M-C. Deau et al, J. Clin. Invest., 2014, 124, 3923-3928.

There is currently no effective treatment available for APDS. Because of the seriousness of the condition, and the fact that it arises in infancy, the provision of an effective treatment for APDS would plainly be a highly desirable objective.

It has now been found that N-{(R)-l-[8-chloro-2-(l-oxypyridin-3-yl)quinolin-3-yl]- 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl}pyrido[3,2-(i]pyrimidin-4-ylamine is capable of inhibiting the elevation of PI3K signalling in T cells (lymphocytes) from both APDSl and APDS2 patients in the presence or absence of T cell receptor activation.

The present invention accordingly provides N-{(R)-l-[8-chloro-2-(l-oxypyridin-3-yl)quinolinB-yl]-2,2,2-trifluoroethyl}pyrido[3,2-JJpyrimidin-4-ylamine of formula (A):

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, for use in the treatment and/or prevention of APDS.

The present invention also provides a method for the treatment and/or prevention of APDS, which method comprises administering to a patient in need of such treatment an effective amount of N-{(R)-l-[8-chloro-2-(l-oxypyridin-3-yl)quinolin-3-yl]-2,2,2-trifluoro-ethyl}pyrido[3,2-(i]pyrimidin-4-ylamine of formula (A) as depicted above, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. The present invention also provides the use of N-{(R)-l-[8-chloro-2-(l-oxypyridin-3-yl)quinolin-3-yl]-2,2,2-trifluoroethyl}pyrido[3,2-JJpyrimidin-4-ylamine of formula (A) as depicted above, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, for the manufacture of a medicament for the treatment and/or prevention of APDS.

PAPER

Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics (2017), 361(3), 429-440.

http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/361/3/429

///////////////SELETALISIB, PHASE 3, UCB, селеталисиб سيلستاليسيب 司来利塞 

[O-][N+]1=CC(=CC=C1)C1=NC2=C(Cl)C=CC=C2C=C1[C@@H](NC1=NC=NC2=CC=CN=C12)C(F)(F)F

Advertisements

Omadacycline tosylate


1075240-43-5.pngChemSpider 2D Image | Omadacycline tosylate | C36H48N4O10S

Image result for Omadacycline tosylate

Omadacycline tosylate

728.8521, C29H40N4O7. C7H8O3S

CAS: 1075240-43-5

389139-89-3 FREE FORM

FDA 2018/10/3, Nuzyra

オマダサイクリントシル酸塩;

UNII-5658Y89YCD

(4S,4aS,5aR,12aS)-4,7-Bis(dimethylamino)-9-{[(2,2-dimethylpropyl)amino]methyl}-3,10,12,12a-tetrahydroxy-1,11-dioxo-1,4,4a,5,5a,6,11,12a-octahydro-2-tetracenecarboxamide 4-methylbenzenesulfonate (1:1)
1075240-43-5 [RN]
2-Naphthacenecarboxamide, 4,7-bis(dimethylamino)-9-[[(2,2-dimethylpropyl)amino]methyl]-1,4,4a,5,5a,6,11,12a-octahydro-3,10,12,12a-tetrahydroxy-1,11-dioxo-, (4S,4aS,5aR,12aS)-, 4-methylbenzenesulfonate (1:1) (salt)
5658Y89YCD
Amadacycline tosylate
PTK 0796 / PTK-0796
Omadacycline.svg
Omadacycline
FREE FORM, 389139-89-3 FREE FORM

Omadacycline has been used in trials studying the treatment of Bacterial Pneumonia, Bacterial Infections, Community-Acquired Infections, and Skin Structures and Soft Tissue Infections. Omadacycline represents a significant advance over the well-known tetracycline family, and has been shown to be highly effective in animal models at treating increasingly problematic, clinically prevalent infections caused by gram-positive bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and by gram-negative, atypical and anaerobic bacteria, including those resistant to currently available classes of antibiotics and known to cause diseases such as pneumonias, urinary tract infections, skin diseases and blood-borne infections in both the hospital and community settings.

Omadacycline (formerly known as PTK-0796)[1] is a broad spectrum antibiotic belonging to the aminomethylcycline subclass[2] of tetracycline antibiotics. In the United States, it was approved in October 2018 for the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia and acute skin and skin structure infections.

In vitro studies

In vitro studies have shown that omadacycline has activity against a broad range of Gram-positive and select Gram-negativepathogens.[3] Omadacycline has potent in vitro activity against Gram-positive aerobic bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), pencillin-resistant and multi-drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus. Omadacycline also has antimicrobial activity against common Gram-negative aerobes, some anaerobes, and atypical bacteria such as Legionella and Chlamydia.[4] This activity translated to potent efficacy for omadacycline in an in vivo systemic infection model in mice.[5]

Additional in vitro and in vivo studies of omadacycline metabolism, disposition, and drug interactions show that omadacycline is metabolically stable (i.e., it does not undergo significant biotransformation) and neither inhibits nor interacts with metabolizing enzymes or transporters.[6]

Mechanism of action

The mechanism of action of omadacycline is similar to that of other tetracyclines – inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis. Omadacycline has activity against bacterial strains expressing the two main forms of tetracycline resistance (efflux and ribosomal protection).[7]

Clinical trials

phase 2 study was conducted comparing the safety and efficacy of omadacycline to linezolid for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections. Patients were randomized at 11 sites in the US to receive either omadacycline 100 mg intravenously once daily with an option to transition to 200 mg orally once daily or linezolid 600 mg intravenously twice daily with an option to transition to 600 mg orally twice daily. The results indicated that omadacycline is well-tolerated and has the potential to be an effective treatment in patients with complicated skin and skin structure infections.[8]

In June 2013, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) designated the intravenous and oral formulations of omadacycline as a qualified infectious disease product in the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections and community-acquired bacterial pneumonia.[9]

A 650 patient phase 3 registration study comparing omadacycline to linezolid for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections began in June 2015.[10][11]Omadacycline met the primary efficacy endpoint of early clinical response with statistical non-inferiority (10% margin) compared to linezolid, and was generally safe and well-tolerated. The most common treatment-emergent adverse events were gastrointestinal side effects (18.0% for omadacycline vs. 15.8% for linezolid).[12]

A 750 patient phase 3 study comparing omadacycline to moxifloxacin for the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia began in November 2015.[13] Omadacycline was statistically non-inferior to moxifloxacin at the early clinical response, 72 to 120 hours after therapy was initiated.[14]

In May 2016, a phase 1b study of omadacycline in urinary tract infection was initiated.[15]

In August 2016, a second phase 3 study of omadacycline was initiated in patients with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections, comparing the efficacy and safety of once-daily, oral omadacycline to that of twice-daily, oral linezolid.[16] In July 2017, analysis of the data showed that all of the primary and secondary endpoints required for submission to the FDA and EMA were met. This was the third phase 3 registration study of omadacycline with favorable results.[17]

Discovery

Omadacycline was invented at Tufts University School of Medicine by a research team led by Mark L. Nelson with Mohamed Ismail while at Tufts and Kwasi Ohemeng and Laura Honeyman at Paratek Pharmaceuticals, Boston. The team applying their chemistry methods to the tetracycline scaffolds created over 3000 new derivatives, leading to the novel third generation compounds omadacycline and sarecycline18[18]

PAPERS

Tetrahedron Letters (2008), 49(42), 6095-6100

str1

PATENTS

WO 2009120389

WO 2009111064

WO 2017165729

WO 2018026987

WO 2018085216

SYNTHESIS BY PHARMACODIA WEBSITE

Omadacyclinewww.pharmacodia.com

Image result for Omadacycline tosylate

Image result for Omadacycline tosylate

Image result for Omadacycline tosylate

REF Omadacyclinewww.pharmacodia.com

Route 3

References

  1. Jump up^ Boggs, Jennifer. “Antibiotic Firm Paratek Joins IPO Queue; Aiming for $92M”bioworld.com. Clarivate Analytics. Retrieved October 17, 2017.
  2. Jump up^ Honeyman, Laura; Ismail, Mohamed; Nelson, Mark L.; Bhatia, Beena; Bowser, Todd E.; Chen, Jackson; Mechiche, Rachid; Ohemeng, Kwasi; Verma, Atul K.; Cannon, E. Pat; MacOne, Ann; Tanaka, S. Ken; Levy, Stuart (2015). “Structure-Activity Relationship of the Aminomethylcyclines and the Discovery of Omadacycline”Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy59 (11): 7044–7053. doi:10.1128/AAC.01536-15PMC 4604364PMID 26349824.
  3. Jump up^ Tanaka, S. Ken (20 June 2016). “In Vitro and In Vivo Assessment of Cardiovascular Effects with Omadacycline”Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy60 (9): 5247–53. doi:10.1128/AAC.00320-16PMC 4997885PMID 27324778.
  4. Jump up^ Villano, Stephen (19 August 2016). “Omadacycline: development of a novel aminomethylcycline antibiotic for treating drug-resistant bacterial infections”Future Microbiology11: 1421–1434. doi:10.2217/fmb-2016-0100. Retrieved 24 August 2016.
  5. Jump up^ MacOne, A. B.; Caruso, B. K.; Leahy, R. G.; Donatelli, J.; Weir, S.; Draper, M. P.; Tanaka, S. K.; Levy, S. B. (February 2014). “In Vitro and in Vivo Antibacterial Activities of Omadacycline, a Novel Aminomethylcycline”Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy58 (2): 1127–1135. doi:10.1128/AAC.01242-13PMC 3910882PMID 24295985.
  6. Jump up^ Flarakos, Jimmy (8 August 2016). “Clinical disposition, metabolism and in vitro drug–drug interaction properties of omadacycline”Xenobiotica: 1–15. doi:10.1080/00498254.2016.1213465.
  7. Jump up^ Draper, M. P.; Weir, S.; MacOne, A.; Donatelli, J.; Trieber, C. A.; Tanaka, S. K.; Levy, S. B. (March 2014). “Mechanism of Action of the Novel Aminomethylcycline Antibiotic Omadacycline”Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy58 (3): 1279–1283. doi:10.1128/AAC.01066-13PMC 3957880PMID 24041885.
  8. Jump up^ Noel, G. J.; Draper, M. P.; Hait, H.; Tanaka, S. K.; Arbeit, R. D. (November 2012). “A Randomized, Evaluator-Blind, Phase 2 Study Comparing the Safety and Efficacy of Omadacycline to Those of Linezolid for Treatment of Complicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections”Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy56 (11): 5650–5654. doi:10.1128/AAC.00948-12PMC 3486554PMID 22908151.
  9. Jump up^ “Paratek Pharmaceuticals Announces FDA Grant of Qualified Infectious Disease Product (QIDP) Designation for Its Lead Product Candidate, Omadacycline”prnewsire.com. PR Newswire. January 3, 2013. Retrieved October 17, 2017.
  10. Jump up^ Seiffert, Don (2015). “Paratek presents new trial data for antibiotic as late-stage trials continue”bizjournals.com. American City Business Journals. Retrieved October 17,2017.
  11. Jump up^ “Omadacycline Versus Linezolid for the Treatment of ABSSSI (EudraCT #2013-003644-23)”clinicaltrials.gov. Retrieved 2015-10-13.
  12. Jump up^ “Paratek Announces that Omadacycline Met All Primary and Secondary Efficacy Outcomes Designated by FDA and EMA in a Phase 3 Study in Acute Bacterial Skin Infections; Omadacycline was Generally Safe and Well-Tolerated”finance.yahoo.com. Retrieved 3 July 2016.
  13. Jump up^ “Omadacycline vs Moxifloxacin for the Treatment of CABP (EudraCT #2013-004071-13)”clinicaltrials.gov. Retrieved 2015-10-13.
  14. Jump up^ “Paratek Announces Positive Phase 3 Study of Omadacycline in Community-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia”http://www.globenewswire.com. April 3, 2017. Retrieved 16 May 2017.
  15. Jump up^ “Paratek Initiates Phase 1b Study of Omadacycline in Urinary Tract Infection”globenewswire.com. May 2, 2016. Retrieved 3 July 2016.
  16. Jump up^ “Paratek Initiates Phase 3 Study of Oral-only Omadacycline in ABSSSI”globenewswire.com. August 15, 2016. Retrieved 15 August 2016.
  17. Jump up^ “Paratek Announces Phase 3 Study of Oral-Only Dosing of Omadacycline Met All Primary and Secondary FDA and EMA Efficacy Endpoints in Acute Bacterial Skin Infections”http://www.globenewswire.com. July 17, 2017. Retrieved 19 July 2017.
  18. Jump up^ Ref: Mark L. Nelson and Kwasi Ohemeng: 4-dedimethylamino tetracycline compounds, United States (US) patent number 7,056,902 (2006)
Omadacycline
Omadacycline.svg
Clinical data
Trade names Nuzyra
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
Chemical and physical data
Formula C29H40N4O7
Molar mass 556.66 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)

/////////////FDA 2018, Nuzyra, Omadacycline tosylate, Omadacycline, オマダサイクリントシル酸塩 ,PTK-0796, PTK 0796

CC1=CC=C(C=C1)S(O)(=O)=O.[H][C@@]12CC3=C(C=C(CNCC(C)(C)C)C(O)=C3C(=O)C1=C(O)[C@]1(O)C(=O)C(C(N)=O)=C(O)[C@@H](N(C)C)[C@]1([H])C2)N(C)C

Golvatinib, ゴルバチニブ


Golvatinib.png

ChemSpider 2D Image | Golvatinib | C33H37F2N7O4

Golvatinib

E-7050, cas 928037-13-2

1-N’-[2-fluoro-4-[2-[[4-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)piperidine-1-carbonyl]amino]pyridin-4-yl]oxyphenyl]-1-N-(4-fluorophenyl)cyclopropane-1,1-dicarboxamide

1,1-Cyclopropanedicarboxamide, N-[2-fluoro-4-[[2-[[[4-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-1-piperidinyl]carbonyl]amino]-4-pyridinyl]oxy]phenyl]-N’-(4-fluorophenyl)- [ACD/Index Name]
516Z3YP58E
928037-13-2 [RN]
9565
E7050, ゴルバチニブ
Molecular Formula: C33H37F2N7O4
Molecular Weight: 633.701 g/mol
  • N’-[2-fluoro-4-[2-[[4-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)piperidine-1-carbonyl]amino]pyridin-4-yl]oxyphenyl]-N-(4-fluorophenyl)cyclopropane-1,1-dicarboxamide
    UNII:516Z3YP58E
  • Originator Eisai Co Ltd

  • Class Amides; Antineoplastics; Cyclopropanes; Fluorobenzenes; Piperazines; Piperidines; Pyridines; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action Angiogenesis inhibitors; Proto oncogene protein c met inhibitors; Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 antagonists
  • Discontinued Gastric cancer; Glioblastoma; Head and neck cancer; Liver cancer; Malignant melanoma; Solid tumours
  • 15 Nov 2013Eisai completes enrolment in its phase Ib/II trial for Head and neck cancer (second-line combination therapy, late-stage disease) in USA, United Kingdom, South Korea & Ukraine (NCT01332266)
  • 14 Nov 2013Phase-I/II clinical trials in liver cancer (first-line combination therapy, late-stage disease) in Italy & Ukraine (PO)
  • 01 Jul 2013Eisai completes a phase I trial in Solid tumours in Japan (NCT01428141)

Golvatinib is an orally bioavailable dual kinase inhibitor of c-Met (hepatocyte growth factor receptor) and VEGFR-2 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2) tyrosinekinases with potential antineoplastic activity. c-Met/VEGFR kinase inhibitor E7050 binds to and inhibits the activities of both c-Met and VEGFR-2, which may inhibit tumor cell growth and survival of tumor cells that overexpress these receptor tyrosine kinases. c-Met and VEGFR-2 are upregulated in a variety of tumor cell types and play important roles in tumor cell growth, migration and angiogenesis.

Golvatinib has been investigated for the treatment of Platinum-Resistant Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck.
PATENT
WO 2007023768
WO 2008023698
WO 2008102870
PATENT
WO 2012133416

Method for producing a phenoxy pyridine derivative (3)

The present invention, hepatocyte growth factor receptor (Hepatocyte growth factor receptor; hereinafter, abbreviated as “HGFR”) inhibitory action, antitumor action, anti-tumor agents with such angiogenesis inhibitory activity and cancer metastasis inhibitory action, a cancer metastasis suppressing the method for producing a useful phenoxy pyridine derivatives as agents.

Patent Document 1 has a HGFR inhibitory activity, anti-tumor agents, useful phenoxy pyridine derivative as an angiogenesis inhibitor or cancer metastasis inhibitor has been disclosed.

Figure JPOXMLDOC01-appb-C000004


(In the formula, R 1, .R 2 and R 3 means such as 3-10 membered non-aromatic heterocyclic group, .R 4, R 5, R 6 and R 7 which represents a hydrogen atom, same or different, a hydrogen atom, a halogen atom, .R 8 to mean a C 1-6 alkyl group, .R 9 to mean a hydrogen atom or the like is and 3-10 membered non-aromatic heterocyclic group meaning .n is .X to mean 1 to 2 integer, it refers to a group or a nitrogen atom represented by the formula -CH =.)

As a method for producing the phenoxy pyridine derivative, to the Example 48 of Patent Document 1, N, N-dimethylformamide, triethylamine and benzotriazol-1-yloxytris (dimethylamino) or lower in the presence of a phosphonium hexafluorophosphate discloses that perform the reaction.

Figure JPOXMLDOC01-appb-C000005

Patent Document 2, as a manufacturing method suitable for industrial mass synthesis of the phenoxy pyridine derivative in the presence a condensing agent, production method of reacting an aniline derivative with a carboxylic acid derivative.

Figure JPOXMLDOC01-appb-C000006


(In the formula, R 1, is .R 2, R 3, R 4 and R 5, which means such good azetidin-1-yl group which may have a substituent, the same or different and each represents a hydrogen atom or fluorine It refers to an atom .R 6 means a hydrogen atom or a fluorine atom.)

Patent Document 3, another manufacturing method of the phenoxy pyridine derivative, there is disclosed the manufacturing method shown in the following scheme.

Figure JPOXMLDOC01-appb-C000007


(In the formula, R 1 means a 4- (4-methylpiperazin-1-yl) piperidin-1-yl group or a 3-hydroxy-1-yl group .R 2, R 3, R 4 and R 5 are the same or different, represents a hydrogen atom or a fluorine atom. However, among R 2, R 3, R 4 and R 5, 2 or 3 is a hydrogen atom .R 6 is a hydrogen atom or .R 7 to mean a fluorine atom, .Ar which means a protecting group for the amino group means a phenyl group.)

International Publication No. WO 2007/023768 International Publication No. WO 2008/026577 International Publication No. WO 2009/104520

PATENT
WO 2009104520
Example A-5: Preparation of N- (2-fluoro-4 – {[2 – ({[4- (4-methylpiperazin- 1 –yl) piperidin- 1 – yl] carbonyl} amino) pyridin- oxy} phenyl) -N ‘- (4-fluorophenyl) cyclopropane-1,1 dicarboxamide
[Formula
17] 4- (4-methylpiperazin-1-yl) piperidine-1-carboxylic acid [4- ( To a solution of N, N-dimethylformamide (1 ml) of 4-amino-3-fluorophenoxy) pyridin-2-yl] amide (100 mg) and 1- (4-fluorophenylcarbamoyl) cyclopropanecarboxylic acid (78 mg) Triethylamine (71 mg) and O- (7-Azabenzotriazol-1-yl) -N, N, N ‘, N’- tetramethyluronium hexafluorophosphate (HATU) (222 mg) were added and stirred at room temperature for 21 hours. A 1 N sodium hydroxide aqueous solution (2 ml) was added to the reaction solution, and the mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate (15 ml). After separation, the organic layer was washed with 5% brine, dried over anhydrous magnesium sulfate, and the solvent was distilled off to obtain a residue. The residue was dissolved in ethyl acetate (3 ml) and extracted with 2 N hydrochloric acid (3 ml × 1, 2 ml × 1). The aqueous layer was rendered alkaline with 5 N aqueous sodium hydroxide solution (5.5 ml). After extraction with ethyl acetate and drying over anhydrous magnesium sulfate, the solvent was distilled off to give the title compound (87 mg).
1 H-NMR Spectrum (DMSO-d 6) .Delta. (Ppm): 1.22-1.33 (2H, m), 1.54-1.63 (4H, m), 1.68-1.78 (2H, m), 2.12 (3H , S), 2.12-2.40 (5H, m), 2.40-2.60 (4H, m), 2.68-2.78 (2H, m), 4.06-4.14 (2H, t, J = 8 Hz), 7.22 (2H, m), 6.60 (1H, dd, J = 2.4 Hz, 5.6 Hz), 7.00 (1 H, dd, J = 2.4 Hz, 11.2 Hz), 7.40 (1 H, s), 7.61 (2 H, dd, J = 5.2 Hz, 8 Hz), 7.93 J = 8.8 Hz), 8.13 (1 H, d, J = 5.6 Hz), 9.21 (1 H, s), 9.90 (1 H, brs), 10.55 (1 H, brs).

PAPER
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2017), 60(7), 2973-2982
Patent ID

Title

Submitted Date

Granted Date

US2015218130 CYCLOPROPYL DICARBOXAMIDES AND ANALOGS EXHIBITING ANTI-CANCER AND ANTI-PROLIFERATIVE ACTIVITIES
2015-01-22
2015-08-06
US9702878 METHOD FOR THE PROGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF CANCER METASTASIS
2013-03-15
2015-10-15
US2016032400 METHOD FOR THE PROGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF CANCER METASTASIS
2014-03-14
2016-02-04
US2016032399 Method for the Prognosis and Treatment of Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastasis
2014-03-13
2016-02-04
US2017369589 BINDING MEMBERS FOR HUMAN C-MAF
2015-12-11
Patent ID

Title

Submitted Date

Granted Date

US8759530 Method for producing phenoxypyridine derivative
2012-03-27
2014-06-24
US2010311972 METHOD FOR PRODUCING PHENOXYPYRIDINE DERIVATIVE
2010-12-09
US7855290 Pyridine derivatives and pyrimidine derivatives (3)
2008-12-25
2010-12-21
US7790885 Process for preparing phenoxypyridine derivatives
2008-09-04
2010-09-07
US2015362495 METHOD FOR THE DIAGNOSIS, PROGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF PROSTATE CANCER METASTASIS
2013-10-09
2015-12-17
Patent ID

Title

Submitted Date

Granted Date

US9012458 Antitumor Agent Using Compounds Having Kinase Inhibitory Effect in Combination
2011-06-23
2013-05-16
US2009227556 RECEPTOR TYROSINE KINASE INHIBITORS COMPRISING PYRIDINE AND PYRIMIDINE DERIVATIVES
2009-09-10
US7998948 PHARMACEUTICAL COMPOSITION FOR TREATING ESOPHAGEAL CANCER
2009-07-09
2011-08-16
US2017101683 Method for the Prognosis and Treatment of Cancer Metastasis
2014-10-07
US2014194405 CYCLOPROPYL DICARBOXAMIDES AND ANALOGS EXHIBITING ANTI-CANCER AND ANTI-PROLIFERATIVE ACTIVITIES
2013-12-20
2014-07-10
Patent ID

Title

Submitted Date

Granted Date

US2016151406 COMBINATION CANCER THERAPY WITH C-MET INHIBITORS AND SYNTHETIC OLIGONUCLEOTIDES
2015-11-19
2016-06-02
US2014275183 AGENT FOR REDUCING SIDE EFFECTS OF KINASE INHIBITOR
2014-05-29
2014-09-18
US2016058751 COMPOSITION AND METHOD FOR TREATING CANCER
2014-03-25
2016-03-03
US2015297604 Combination Products with Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors and their Use
2013-04-03
2015-10-22
US2015051210 Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Combinations and their Use
2013-04-01
2015-02-19
Patent ID

Title

Submitted Date

Granted Date

US8481739 NOVEL 3, 5-DISUBSTITUTED-3H-IMIDAZO[4, 5-B]PYRIDINE AND 3, 5- DISUBSTITUTED -3H-[1, 2, 3]TRIAZOLO[4, 5-B] PYRIDINE COMPOUNDS AS MODULATORS OF PROTEIN KINASES
2011-11-17
US8288538 NOVEL PYRIDINE DERIVATIVES AND PYRIMIDINE DERIVATIVES (3)
2010-03-25
US8377938 PHENOXYPYRIDINE DERIVATIVE SALTS AND CRYSTALS THEREOF, AND PROCESS FOR PREPARING THE SAME
2008-12-25
US2012232049 PYRIDINE OR PYRIMIDINE DERIVATIVE HAVING EXCELLENT CELL GROWTH INHIBITION EFFECT AND EXCELLENT ANTI-TUMOR EFFECT ON CELL STRAIN HAVING AMPLIFICATION OF HGFR GENE
2008-02-22
2012-09-13
US2012058985 CYCLOPROPYL DICARBOXAMIDES AND ANALOGS EXHIBITING ANTI-CANCER AND ANTI-PROLIFERATIVE ACTIVITIES
2011-04-29
2012-03-08
Patent ID

Title

Submitted Date

Granted Date

US2017240542 NOVEL 3, 5-DISUBSTITUTED-3H-IMIDAZO[4, 5-B]PYRIDINE AND 3, 5-DISUBSTITUTED-3H-[1, 2, 3]TRIAZOLO[4, 5-B] PYRIDINE COMPOUNDS AS MODULATORS OF PROTEIN KINASES
2017-03-09
US2015133449 NOVEL 3, 5-DISUBSTITUTED-3H-IMIDAZO[4, 5-B]PYRIDINE AND 3, 5-DISUBSTITUTED -3H-[1, 2, 3]TRIAZOLO[4, 5-B] PYRIDINE COMPOUNDS AS MODULATORS OF PROTEIN KINASES
2014-11-06
2015-05-14
US9815831 NOVEL 3, 5-DISUBSTITUTED-3H-IMIDAZO[4, 5-B]PYRIDINE AND 3, 5- DISUBSTITUTED -3H-[1, 2, 3]TRIAZOLO[4, 5-B] PYRIDINE COMPOUNDS AS MODULATORS OF C-MET PROTEIN, ETC
2013-02-27
2015-02-26
US8637672 Cyclopropyl dicarboxamides and analogs exhibiting anti-cancer and anti-proliferative activities
2012-07-26
2014-01-28
US2012252849 CYCLOPROPYL DICARBOXAMIDES AND ANALOGS EXHIBITING ANTI-CANCER AND ANTI-PROLIFERATIVE ACTIVITIES
2012-05-24
2012-10-04

///////////////Golvatinib, phase 2, ゴルバチニブ  ,

CN1CCN(CC1)C2CCN(CC2)C(=O)NC3=NC=CC(=C3)OC4=CC(=C(C=C4)NC(=O)C5(CC5)C(=O)NC6=CC=C(C=C6)F)F

Savolitinib


ChemSpider 2D Image | Savolitinib | C17H15N9

Savolitinib

CAS 1313725-88-0, Molecular Formula, C17-H15-N9, Molecular Weight, 345.3685

1H-1,2,3-Triazolo(4,5-b)pyrazine, 1-((1S)-1-imidazo(1,2-a)pyridin-6-ylethyl)-6-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-

  • AZD-6094
  • AZD6094
  • HMPL-504
  • HMPL504
  • Savolitinib
  • Savolitinib [INN]
  • UNII-2A2DA6857R
  • Volitinib
  • HM 5016504
1H-1,2,3-Triazolo[4,5-b]pyrazine, 1-[(1S)-1-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-6-ylethyl]-6-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-
1-[(1S)-1-(Imidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-6-yl)ethyl]-6-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-1H-[1,2,3]triazolo[4,5-b]pyrazine [
2A2DA6857R
9935
Phase III, AstraZeneca
Hutchison China MediTech (Chi-Med), Cancer, kidney (renal cell carcinoma, papillary)

A c-Met kinase inhibitor with antineoplastic activity.

NCI: volitinib. An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the c-Met receptor tyrosine kinase with potential antineoplastic activity. Volitinib selectively binds to and inhibits the activation of c-Met in an ATP-competitive manner, and disrupts c-Met signal transduction pathways. This may result in cell growth inhibition in tumors that overexpress the c-Met protein. C-Met encodes the hepatocyte growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase and plays an important role in tumor cell proliferation, survival, invasion, and metastasis, and tumor angiogenesis; this protein is overexpressed or mutated in a variety of cancers.(NCI Thesaurus)

Savolitinib is an experimental small molecule inhibitor of c-Met. It is being investigated for the treatment of cancer by AstraZeneca.[1] It is in phase II clinical trials for adenocarcinomanon-small cell lung cancer, and renal cell carcinoma.[2]

Savolitinib is a first-in-class inhibitor of c-Met in phase III clinical development at at Hutchison China MediTech (Chi-Med) and AstraZeneca for the treatment of patients with MET-driven, unresectable and locally advanced or metastatic papillary renal cell carcinoma. Phase II trials are also under way for the oral treatment of locally advanced or metastatic pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma. AstraZeneca is conducting phase II clinical trials for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. Phase I/II trials are ongoing at Samsung Medical Center for the second-line treatment of advanced gastric adenocarcinoma patients with MET amplification.

In 2011, the drug was licensed to AstraZeneca by at Hutchison China MediTech (Chi-Med) for worldwide codevelopment and marketing rights for the treatment of cancer.

Image result for EPITINIB

SYNTHESIS

PAPER

Journal of Organic Chemistry (2018),

Abstract Image

A multidisciplinary approach covering synthetic, physical, and analytical chemistry, high-throughput experimentation and experimental design, process engineering, and solid-state chemistry is used to develop a large-scale (kilomole) Suzuki–Miyaura process. Working against clear criteria and targets, a full process investigation and optimization package is described highlighting how and why key decisions are made in the development of large-scale pharmaceutical processes.

Process Design and Optimization in the Pharmaceutical Industry: A Suzuki–Miyaura Procedure for the Synthesis of Savolitinib

AstraZeneca Pharmaceutical Technology and Development, Macclesfield SK10 2NA, United Kingdom
J. Org. Chem., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acs.joc.8b02351
Publication Date (Web): October 23, 2018
Copyright © 2018 American Chemical Society
This article is part of the Excellence in Industrial Organic Synthesis 2019 special issue.
Savolitinib (1) were added, and the resulting suspension was cooled to 0 °C over 8 h. After stirring for a further 4 h at 0 °C, the solid was collected via filtration, washed twice with cold s-BuOH (150 kg, 186 L), and dried in vacuo at 40 °C to give Savolitinib (1) as a white crystalline solid (105 kg, 304 mol, 76%): mp 205.9–208.8 °C; 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 9.19 (s, 1H), 8.83 (s, 1H), 8.64 (s, 1H), 8.31 (s, 1H), 8.01 (s, 1H), 7.62–7.55 (m, 2H), 7.42 (dd, J = 1.7, 9.4 Hz, 1H), 6.45 (q, J= 7.1 Hz, 1H), 3.98 (s, 3H), 2.22 (d, J = 7.1 Hz, 3H); 13C {1H} NMR (DMSO-d6, 101 MHz) δ 147.9, 147.2, 143.9, 141.9, 138.5, 137.4, 133.7, 131.6, 125.4, 124.3, 123.9, 119.4, 117.1, 113.8, 55.5, 40.1, 39.1, 19.6 ppm; HRMS (ESI/Q-ToF) m/z [M + H – N2]+ calcd for C17H16N7 318.1462, found 318.1486.
NMR Summary S6 1H‐NMR
S7 13C‐NMR
S8 HSQC‐DEPT‐NMR
S9 COSY‐NMR
S10 HMBC‐13C/1H‐NMR
S11 NOESY‐NMR
S12 HRMS

PAPER

Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2014), 57(18), 7577-7589

Abstract Image

HGF/c-Met signaling has been implicated in human cancers. Herein we describe the invention of a series of novel triazolopyrazine c-Met inhibitors. The structure–activity relationship of these compounds was investigated, leading to the identification of compound 28, which demonstrated favorable pharmacokinetic properties in mice and good antitumor activities in the human glioma xenograft model in athymic nude mice.

Discovery of (S)-1-(1-(Imidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-6-yl)ethyl)-6-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-1H-[1,2,3]triazolo[4,5-b]pyrazine (Volitinib) as a Highly Potent and Selective Mesenchymal–Epithelial Transition Factor (c-Met) Inhibitor in Clinical Development for Treatment of Cancer

Hutchison MediPharma Limited, Building 4, 720 Cai Lun Road, Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park, 201203, Shanghai, China
J. Med. Chem.201457 (18), pp 7577–7589
DOI: 10.1021/jm500510f
Publication Date (Web): August 22, 2014
Copyright © 2014 American Chemical Society
*E-mail: weiguos@hmplglobal.com. Phone: (+86)-21-20673002.

Preparation of (S)-2-(4-(1-(1-(pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridin-5-yl)ethyl)-1H-[1,2,3]triazolo[4,5-b]pyrazin-6-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)ethanol (30) and (R)-2-(4-(1-(1-(pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridin-5-yl)ethyl)-1H-[1,2,3]triazolo[4,5-b]pyrazin-6-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)ethanol (31)

The racemic compound 44 (prepared by a procedure similar to that described for the synthesis of compound 2 using the corresponding 1-(pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridin-5-yl)ethanamine instead of quinolin-6-ylmethanamine) (5 mg) was resolved by chiral HPLC to produce optically pure enantiomers 30 (1.0 mg) and 31 (1.9 mg). HPLC resolution conditions: Gilson system, Column: Dicel IA 20 × 250 mm; Mobile phase: n-Hexane/i-PrOH/DEA = 6/4/0.1; Flow rate: 8 mL/min; Detector: 254 nm). Compound 44: Purity: 95.8%, RT 9.28. MS (m/z): 376 (M + 1)+1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) δ 9.07 (s, 1H), 8.49–8.47 (m, 2H), 8.26 (s, 1H), 7.93 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 7.78 (s, 1H), 7.01 (dd, J = 7.2, 2.0 Hz, 1H), 6.62 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 6.47 (q, J = 6.8 Hz, 1H), 4.33 (t, J = 4.2 Hz, 2H), 3.95 (t, J = 4.2 Hz, 2H), 2.25 (d, J = 6.8 Hz, 3H). Compound 30: MS (m/z): 376 (M + 1)+1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) δ 9.08 (s, 1H), 8.50 (s,1 H), 8.50 (d, J = 7.2 Hz, 1H), 8.27 (s, 1H), 7.94 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 7.79 (s, 1H), 7.01(dd, J = 7.2, 2.0 Hz, 1H), 6.62 (d, J = 1.6 Hz, 1H), 6.48 (q, J = 6.8 Hz, 1H), 4.33 (t, J = 4.2 Hz, 2H), 3.95(t, J = 4.2 Hz, 2H), 2.26 (d, J = 6.8 Hz, 3H). Purity: 98.1%, RT 18.44, ee: 96%. Compound 31: MS (m/z): 376 (M + 1)+1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) δ 9.08 (s, 1H), 8.51 (s, 1H), 8.49 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1H), 8.27 (s, 1H), 7.94 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 7.79 (s, 1H), 7.01 (dd, J = 7.2, 2.0 Hz,1H), 6.62 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 6.48 (q, J = 6.8 Hz, 1H), 4.33 (t, J = 4.2 Hz, 2H), 3.95 (t, J = 4.2 Hz, 2H), 2.26 (d, J = 6.8 Hz, 3H). Purity: 90.7%, RT 24.22, ee: 81%. HPLC analysis conditions: Gilson system, Column: Chiralpak Ia 4.6 mm I.D. × 25 cm L; Mobile phase: n-Hexane/i-PrOH/DEA = 6/4/0.1; Flow rate: 1 mL/min; Detector: 254 nm.

PATENT

WO 2018175251

WO 2018055029

WO 2018024608

WO 2016087680

WO 2016081773

PATENT

JP 2016069348

PATENT

CN 105503906

The present invention provides a triazolopyrazine derivatives, the chemical name (S) -1- (l_ (imidazo [l, 2_a] pyrazin-6-yl) ethane-yl) -6-α _ -1H- pyrazol-4-yl-methyl) -1Η- [1,2,3] triazolo [4,5-b] pyrazine, of formula (I), the

Figure CN105503906AD00041

[0005] This compound is an inhibitor of the activity c -Me t, may be used for treatment or prevention of inhibition of c -Me t sensitive cancers. In the Chinese patent CN 102906092A (W02011 / 079804), discloses the synthesis and use triazolopyrazine derivatives. Prepared by repeating the above patent, the compound powder obtained by detecting an amorphous state. As those skilled in the art, although amorphous higher solubility and dissolution rate than polymorph in most cases, but it is unstable, hygroscopic, readily converted to stable crystalline form.Thus, without the presence of processing stability and poor storage stability shaped, and in the production process, the smaller the bulk density of the particles of amorphous, high surface free energy, are likely to cause aggregation, poor flowability, and a series of powerful elastic deformation of the formulation problem seriously affecting the clinical value of amorphous Drug triazolopyrazine derivatives.

PATENT

CN 105503905

PATENT

WO 2014174478

CN 102127096

PATENT

WO 2011079804

References

Savolitinib
Savolitinib.svg
Clinical data
Synonyms Volitinib
Identifiers
CAS Number
ChemSpider
KEGG
Chemical and physical data
Formula C17H15N9
Molar mass 345.37 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)

///////////////Savolitinib, Phase III, AZD-6094, AZD6094, HMPL-504, HMPL504, UNII-2A2DA6857R, Volitinib, HM 5016504

C[C@@H](c1ccc2nccn2c1)n3c4c(ncc(n4)c5cnn(c5)C)nn3

In some embodiments, the c-Met inhibitor is ARQ197 (Tivantinib). Tivantinib has the IUPAC name (3R,4R)-3-(5,6-Dihydro-4H-pyrrolo[3,2,1-ij]quinolin-1-yl)-4-(1H-indol-3-yl)-2,5-pyrrolidinedione and the following chemical structure:

[0058] In some embodiments, the c-Met inhibitor is EMD1214063 (MSC2156119J; Tepotinib).

Tepotinib has the IUPAC name 3-(1-(3-(5-((1-methylpiperidin-4-yl)methoxy)pyrimidin-2-yl)benzyl)-1,6-dihydro-6-oxopyridazin-3-yl)benzonitrile and the following chemical structure:

[0059] In some embodiments, the c-Met inhibitor is GSK/1363089/XL880 (Foretinib). Foretinib has the IUPAC name N1’-[3-fluoro-4-[[6-methoxy-7-(3-morpholinopropoxy)-4-quinolyl]oxy]phenyl]-N1-(4-fluorophenyl)cyclopropane-1,1-dicarboxamide and the following chemical structure:

[0060] In some embodiments, the c-Met inhibitor is XL184 (Cabozantinib). Cabozantinib has the IUPAC name N-(4-((6,7-Dimethoxyquinolin-4-yl)oxy)phenyl)-N-(4-fluorophenyl)cyclopropane-1,1-dicarboxamide and the following chemical structure:

[0061] In some embodiments, the c-Met inhibitor is HMPL-504/AZD6094/volitinib (Savolitinib). Volitinib has the IUPAC name (S)-1-(1-(imidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-6-yl)ethyl)-6-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-1H-[1,2,3]triazolo[4,5-b]pyrazine and the following chemical structure:

[0062] In some embodiments, the c-Met inhibitor is MSC2156119J (EMD 1214063, Tepotinib).

Tepotinib has the IUPAC name Benzonitrile, 3-[1,6-dihydro-1-[[3-[5-[(1-methyl-4-piperidinyl)methoxy]-2-pyrimidinyl]phenyl]methyl]-6-oxo-3-pyridazinyl]- and the following chemical structure:

[0063] In some embodiments, the c-Met inhibitor is LY2801653 (Merestinib). Merestinib has the IUPAC name N-(3-fluoro-4-{[1-methyl-6-(1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-1H-indazol-5 yl]oxy}phenyl)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-6-methyl-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridine-3-carboxamide and the following chemical structure:

[0064] In some embodiments, the c-Met inhibitor is AMG 337. AMG 337 has the IUPAC name 7-methoxy-N-((6-(3-methylisothiazol-5-yl)-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazin-3-yl)methyl)-1,5-naphthyridin-4-amine and the following chemical structure:

[0065] In some embodiments, the c-Met inhibitor is INCB28060 (Capmatinib). Capmatinib has the IUPAC name 2-fluoro-N-methyl-4-[7-(quinolin-6-ylmethyl)imidazo[1,2-b][1,2,4]triazin-2-yl]benzamide and the following chemical structure:

[0066] In some embodiments, the c-Met inhibitor is AMG 458. AMG 458 has the IUPAC name 1-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-N-(5-((7-methoxyquinolin-4-yl)oxy)pyridin-2-yl)-5-methyl-3-oxo-2-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxamide and the following chemical structure:

[0067] In some embodiments, the c-Met inhibitor is PF-04217903. PF-04217903 has the IUPAC name 2-(4-(1-(quinolin-6-ylmethyl)-1H-[1,2,3]triazolo[4,5-b]pyrazin-6-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)ethanol and the following chemical structure:

[0068] In some embodiments, the c-Met inhibitor is PF-02341066 (Crizotinib). Crizotinib has the IUPAC name (R)-3-(1-(2,6-dichloro-3-fluorophenyl)ethoxy)-5-(1-(piperidin-4-yl)-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)pyridin-2-amine and the following chemical structure:

[0069] In some embodiments, the c-Met inhibitor is E7050 (Golvatinib). Golvatinib has the IUPAC name N-(2-fluoro-4-((2-(4-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)piperidine-1-carboxamido)pyridin-4-yl)oxy)phenyl)-N-(4-fluorophenyl)cyclopropane-1,1-dicarboxamide and the following chemical structure:

[0070] In some embodiments, the c-Met inhibitor is MK-2461. MK-2461 has the IUPAC name N-((2R)-1,4-Dioxan-2-ylmethyl)-N-methyl-N’-[3-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-5-oxo-5H-benzo[4,5]cyclohepta[1,2-b]pyridin-7-yl]sulfamide and the following chemical structure:

[0071] In some embodiments, the c-Met inhibitor is BMS-777607. BMS-777607 has the IUPAC name N-(4-((2-amino-3-chloropyridin-4-yl)oxy)-3-fluorophenyl)-4-ethoxy-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridine-3-carboxamide and the following chemical structure:

[0072] In some embodiments, the c-Met inhibitor is JNJ-38877605. JNJ-38877605 has the IUPAC name 6-(difluoro(6-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazin-3-yl)methyl)quinoline and the following chemical structure:

Epitinib


str1

Epitinib succinate; HMPL-813; Huposuan yipitini

1203902-67-3, 430.50, C24 H26 N6 O2

1-Piperazinecarboxamide, 4-ethyl-N-[4-[(3-ethynylphenyl)amino]-7-methoxy-6-quinazolinyl]-

4-Ethyl-N-[4-[(3-ethynylphenyl)amino]-7-methoxy-6-quinazolinyl]-1-piperazinecarboxamide

Cancer; Glioblastoma; Non-small-cell lung cancer

Epitinib is in phase I clinical trials by Hutchison MediPharma for the treatment of solid tumours.

Epitinib succinate is an oral EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor in early clinical development at Hutchison China MediTech (Chi-Med) for the treatment of solid tumors and the treatment of glioblastoma patients with EGFR gene amplification.

  • Originator Hutchison MediPharma
  • Class Antineoplastics; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action Epidermal growth factor receptor antagonists
  • Phase I/II Glioblastoma; Non-small cell lung cancer
  • No development reported Oesophageal cancer; Solid tumours
  • 28 May 2018 No recent reports of development identified for preclinical development in Oesophageal-cancer in China (PO)
  • 06 Mar 2018 Hutchison Medipharma plans a phase III pivotal study for Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with brain metastasis in China in 2018
  • 06 Mar 2018 Phase-I/II clinical trials in Glioblastoma (Second-line therapy or greater) in China (PO)

Image result for EPITINIB

PATENT

WO2018210255

https://patentscope2.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf;jsessionid=42BB6AE0DA712D6A9C7C741E97BDE64C?docId=WO2018210255&tab=FULLTEXT&office=&prevFilter=&sortOption=Pub+Date+Desc&queryString=&recNum=889&maxRec=71731866

Binding of epidermal growth factor (EGF) to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activates tyrosine kinase activity and thereby triggers reactions that lead to cellular proliferation. Overexpression and/or overactivity of EGFR could result in uncontrolled cell division which may be a predisposition for cancer. Compounds that inhibit the overexpression and/or overactivity of EGFR are therefore candidates for treating cancer.
The relevant compound 4-ethyl-N- (4- ( (3-ethynylphenyl) amino) -7-methoxyquinazolin-6-yl) piperazine-1-carboxamide of the present invention has the effect of effectively inhibiting the overexpression and/or overactivity of EGFR. Thus, it is useful in treating diseases associated with overexpression and/or overactivity of EGFR, such as the treatment of cancer.
The phenomenon that a compound could exist in two or more crystal structures is known as polymorphism. Many compounds may exist as various polymorph crystals and also in a solid amorphous form. Until polymorphism of a compound is discovered, it is highly unpredictable (1) whether a particular compound will exhibit polymorphism, (2) how to prepare any such unknown polymorphs, and (3) how are the properties, such as stability, of any such unknown polymorphs. See, e.g., J. Bernstein “Polymorphism in Molecular Crystals” , Oxford University Press, (2002)
Since the properties of a solid material depend on the structure as well as on the nature of the compound itself, different solid forms of a compound can and often do exhibit different physical and chemical properties as well as different biopharmaceutical properties. Differences in chemical properties can be determined, analyzed and compared through a variety of analytical techniques. Those differences may ultimately be used to differentiate among different solid forms. Furthermore, differences in physical properties, such as solubility, and biopharmaceutical properties, such as bioavailability, are also of importance when describing the solid state of a pharmaceutical compound. Similarly, in the development of a pharmaceutical compound, e.g., 4-ethyl-N- (4- ( (3-ethynylphenyl) amino) -7-methoxyquinazolin-6-yl) piperazine-1-carboxamide, the new crystalline and amorphous forms of the pharmaceutical compound are also of importance.
The compound 4-ethyl-N- (4- ( (3-ethynylphenyl) amino) -7-methoxyquinazolin-6-yl) piperazine-1-carboxamide as well as the preparation thereof was described in patent CN101619043A.
pon extensive explorations and researchs, we have found that compound 4-ethyl-N- (4- ( (3-ethynylphenyl) amino) -7-methoxyquinazolin-6-yl) piperazine-1-carboxamide can be prepared into succinate salts, the chemical structure of its semisuccinate and monosuccinate being shown by Formula A. Studies have shown that, compared with its free base, the solubility of compound of Formula A is significantly increased, which is beneficial for improving the pharmacokinetic characteristics and in vivo bioavailability of the compound. We have also found that compound of Formula A can exist in different crystalline forms, and can form solvates with certain solvents. We have made extensive studies on the polymorphic forms of compound of Formula A and have finally prepared and determined the polymorphic forms which meet the requirement of pharmaceutical use. Based on these studies, the present invention provides the compound 4-ethyl-N- (4- ( (3-ethynylphenyl) amino) -7-methoxyquinazolin -6-yl) piperazine-1-carboxamide succinate and the various crystalline forms thereof, solvates and the crystalline forms thereof, which are designated as Form I, Form IV and Form V respectively.
The compound 4-ethyl-N- (4- ( (3-ethynylphenyl) amino) -7-methoxyquinazolin-6-yl) piperazine-1-carboxamide raw material used in the examples were prepared according to CN101619043A.
Example 1 Preparation of Form I of compound of Formula A
The 4-ethyl-N- (4- ( (3-ethynylphenyl) amino) -7-methoxyquinazolin-6-yl) piperazine-1-carboxamide (60g, 0.139mol) was dissolved in 150 times (volume/weight ratio) of tetrahydrofuran (9L) under refluxing. Then the obtained solution was cooled to 50℃, and succinic acid (65.8g, 0.557mol, 4 equivalents) was added in one portion. Then the obtained mixed solution was cooled naturally under stirring. The white precipitate was appeared at about 28℃. After further stirring for 18 hours, the white solid was collected by filtration, and dried at 40℃ under vacuum. A powder sample of 56.7g was obtained (yield 83%) .
1H NMR (400 MHz, cd3od) δ 8.52 (s, 1H) , 8.45 (s, 1H) , 7.93 –7.89 (m, 1H) , 7.77 –7.73 (m, 1H) , 7.35 (t, J = 7.9 Hz, 1H) , 7.24 (dd, J = 5.2, 3.8 Hz, 1H) , 7.19 (s, 1H) , 4.05 (s, 3H) , 3.69 –3.61 (m, 4H) , 3.49 (s, 1H) , 2.71 –2.64 (m, 4H) , 2.60 (q, J = 7.2 Hz, 2H) , 2.53 (s, 2H) , 1.18 (t, J = 7.2 Hz, 3H) .
The obtained powder sample is Form I of compound of Formula A, the X-ray powder diffractogram of which is shown in Figure 1. Peaks (2θ) chosen from the figure has the following values: 6.1, 7.9, 10.2, 11.6, 12.2, 13.6, 15.3, 15.9, 16.6, 17.8, 19.6, 20.4, 21.4, 21.7, 22.3, 23.5, 24.3, and 25.1 degrees, the measured 2θ values each having an error of about ± 0.2 degrees (2θ) , wherein characteristic peaks (2θ) are at 6.1, 7.9, 12.2, 15.3, 15.9, 16.6, and 20.4 degrees. DSC result is given in Figure 2, showing that the melting point range of Form I is about 193.4-197.3℃.
PATENT
PATENT
CN 108863951
PATENT
US 20100009958
PATENT
WO 2010002845

////////////Epitinib , PHASE 1, PHASE 2, Epitinib succinate, HMPL-813,  Huposuan yipitini, 1203902-67-3,

Eluxadoline, エルクサドリン ,элуксадолин ,إيلوكسادولين ,艾沙多林 ,


Eluxadoline.svg

Eluxadoline

  • Molecular FormulaC32H35N5O5
  • Average mass569.651 Da

5-({[(2S)-2-amino-3-(4-carbamoyl-2,6-dimethylphenyl)propanoyl][(1S)-1-(4-phenyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)ethyl]amino}methyl)-2-methoxybenzoic acid

5-({[2-Amino-3-(4-carbamoyl-2,6-dimethyl-phenyl)-propionyl]-[1-(4-phenyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-ethyl]-amino}-methyl)-2-methoxy-benzoic acid

864821-90-9 CAS

JNJ-27018966

Molecular Formula: C32H35N5O5

Molecular Weight: 569.6508

Agents for Irritable Bowel Syndrome, mu-Opioid Agonists, delta-Opioid Antagonists

Eluxadoline

Trade Name: Viberzi®

Research Code: JNJ-27018966, JNJ27018966, JNJ 27018966

Chemical Name: 5 – [[[(2S) -2-amino-3- [4- (aminocarbonyl) -2,6-dimethylphenyl ] -1- oxopropyl] [(1S) -1- (4-phenyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl) ethyl] amino] methyl] -2-methoxybenzoic acid

MOA: mu opioid receptor agonist, Indication: Irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D)

Approval Date: May 27, 2015 (US)

Originator: Furiex Pharmaceuticals Inc ( Furiex acquired Eluxadoline from Janssen in 2011 )

Developer: Forest Laboratories Inc. (acquired by Actavis PLC in 2014 )

Eluxadoline, sold under the brand names Viberzi (/vˈbɜːrzi/ vy-BUR-zee) in the US and Truberzi in Europe,[2] is a medication taken by mouth for the treatment of diarrhea and abdominal pain in individuals with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D).[3]It was approved for use in the United States in 2015.[4] The drug originated from Janssen Pharmaceutica and was developed by Actavis.

Contraindications

This drug is contraindicated in case of having:

Adverse effects

Common adverse effects are constipation and nausea, but rates of discontinuation due to constipation were low for both eluxadoline and placebo. Rare adverse effects: fatigue, bronchitis, viral gastroenteritis. Rare serious adverse effects include pancreatitis with a general incidence of 0.3% – higher incidence with 100 mg dose (0.3%) than with 75 mg dose (0.2%).[6] The risk is even greater in those who do not have a gall bladder and the medication is not recommended in this group.[7]

In March 2017, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration issued a safety alert for eluxadoline concerning an increased risk of serious pancreatitis in patients without a gallbladder.[8] An FDA review found that in such patients, spasm of the sphincter of Oddi may lead to severe pancreatitis.[9] The FDA reported that in some cases symptoms have occurred with just one or two doses at the recommended dosage for patients without a gallbladder (75 mg).[9] Of two deaths associated with eluxadoline reported up to February 2017, both occurred in patients without a gallbladder.[8]

Interactions

Elevated concentrations of eluxadoline were observed with co-administration of inhibitors of the transporter protein OATP1B1, such as:

Also, concurrent use of other drugs that cause constipation is not preferred, such as:

Eluxadoline increases the concentrations of drugs which are OATP1B1 and BCRP substrates. Also, co-administration of eluxadoline with rosuvastatin may increase the risk of rhabdomyolysis.[1]

Pharmacology

Mechanism of action

Eluxadoline is a μ- and κ-opioid receptor agonist and δ-opioid receptor antagonist [11] that acts locally in the enteric nervous system, possibly decreasing adverse effects on the central nervous system.[12][13]

Pharmacokinetics

In the in vitro studies, eluxadoline was found to be transported by OAT3 (SLC22A8), OATP1B1 (SLCO1B1) and BSEP (ABCB11) at the highest concentrations tested (400 ng/ml which is 162-fold larger than the observed Cmax of the highest therapeutic dose of 100 mg). However, it was not to be transported by OCT1 POU2F1, OAT1 Organic anion transporter 1, OCT2, OATP1B3 (SLCO1B3), P-gp (P-glycoprotein), or BCRP (ABCG2).

Multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2)-vesicular accumulation of eluxadoline was observed, indicating that the drug is a substrate of MRP2. Eluxadoline was not found to inhibit BCRP-, BSEP-, MRP2-, OCT1-, OCT2-, OAT1-, OAT3-, or OATP1B3-mediated transport of probe substrates but inhibited the transport of probe substrates of OATP1B1 and P-gp. Also in the in vitro studies, it was observed that eluxadoline is an in vivo substrate of OATP1B1, OAT3, and MRP2. Finally, no inhibition or induction of cytochrome P450enzymes was observed.[14]

Following a 100 mg dose of eluxadoline, the Cmax was about 2 to 4 ng/ml and AUC was 12-22 ng.h/ml. Eluxadoline has linear pharmacokinetics with no accumulation upon repeated twice daily dosing. Taking eluxadoline with high fat meal decreased the Cmax by 50% and AUC by 60%.[1]

Chemistry

Synthesis

The synthesis of eluxadoline was extensively discussed in the patent No. WO2006099060 A2, with the title : “Process for the preparation of opioid modulators” which was published in Sept. 2006[15]

A CLIP

5 JAN 2014

Furiex Pharmaceuticals Inc.  more than doubled in its best day of trading after its experimental drug alleviated diarrhea and abdominal pain caused by irritable bowel syndrome in two studies.

The drug eluxadoline met targets for improvements in stool consistency and abdominal pain that were developed in conjunction with U.S. and European regulators, the company said today. Furiex will apply for approval in June, Chairman Fred Eshelman said in an investor call today. He estimated annual sales of $750 million to $1 billion.

“By our math, it looks like a pretty doggone good market,” Eshelman said on the call, noting that there is only one currently approved drug available in the U.S. for the condition.

Diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome is a chronic disorder that affects about 28 million patients in the U.S. and Europe, Furiex said in the statement.Furiex said it would apply by mid-year for U.S. approval of the drug, eluxadoline, to treat diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-d), a debilitating bowel disorder that affects about 28 million people in the United States and major European markets.

Furiex said it expected to seek European approval in early 2015.

“We believe that there are a lot of patients out there who need this drug. There is a huge unmet need,” Furiex Chief Medical Officer June Almenoff said in a telephone interview.

Currently approved drugs for IBS address constipation associated with the disorder, but there are few options for diarrhea predominant IBS.

Furiex founder and chairman Fred Eshelman said he believes the drug has the potential for blockbuster sales, which he defined as annual sales of between $750 million and $1 billion.

Eluxadoline was tested at two doses against a placebo over the course of 12 weeks to meet requirements by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, and for 26 weeks for European health regulators, in Phase III studies involving 2,428 patients, Furiex said.

For the combined goal of improvement in abdominal pain and stool consistency for at least half the days in the study, eluxadoline achieved a statistically significant improvement at the 100 milligram and 75 mg doses through 12 weeks in both studies.

On the 26-week measure, the higher dose succeeded in both studies but the lower dose missed statistical significance in one of the two trials, according to initial results released by the company.

The success appeared to be driven by the percentage of patients reporting improvements in diarrhea, which ranged from 30 percent to 37 percent versus 22 percent and 20.9 percent for the placebo groups.

When the composite goal was broken into its two components, researchers found a numerical improvement in pain response rates that did not achieve statistical significance.

The drug appeared to be safe and well-tolerated in both studies, Furiex said. The most commonly reported side effects were constipation and nausea.

The company plans to present a far more detailed analysis of the late stage studies at an upcoming medical meeting.

“We’re very excited about the path ahead and about how this can transform patients’ lives,” Almenoff said.

Mu Delta is a locally active mu opioid receptor agonist and delta opioid receptor antagonist in phase III clinical evaluation at Furiex Pharmaceuticals for the oral treatment of diarrheal predominant irritable bowel syndrome (d-IBS).

The product candidate holds an advantage over currently marketed products for this indication because it acts locally on the enteric nervous system, possibly decreasing adverse effects on the central nervous system. In 2011, fast track designation was assigned in the U.S. for the treatment of d-IBS. In 2011, Mu Delta was licensed to Furiex Pharmaceuticals by Janssen for the treatment of d-IBS, granting an option to Furiex to continue development and commercialization following phase II proof of concept studies.

The opioid receptors were identified in the mid-1970’s, and were quickly categorized into three sub-sets of receptors (mu, delta and kappa). More recently the original three types of receptors have been further divided into sub-types. Also known is that the family of opioid receptors are members of the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) super-family. More physiologically pertinent are the well established facts that opioid receptors are found throughout the central and peripheral nervous system of many mammalian species, including humans, and that modulation of the respective receptors can elicit numerous, albeit different, biological effects, both desirable and undesirable (D. S. Fries, “Analgesics”, inPrinciples of Medicinal Chemistry, 4th ed.; W. O. Foye, T. L. Lemke, and D. A. Williams, Eds.; Williams and Wilkins: Baltimore, Md., 1995; pp. 247-269; J. V. Aldrich, “Analgesics”, Burger’s Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Discovery, 5thEdition, Volume 3: Therapeutic Agents, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1996, pp. 321-441). In the most current literature, the likelihood of heterodimerization of the sub-classes of opioid receptors has been reported, with respective physiological responses yet undetermined (Pierre J. M. Riviere and Jean-Louis Junien, “Opioid receptors: Targets for new gastrointestinal drug development”, Drug Development 2000, pp. 203-238).

A couple biological effects identified for opioid modulators have led to many useful medicinal agents. Most significant are the many centrally acting mu opioid agonist modulators marketed as analgesic agents to attenuate pain (e.g., morphine), as well as peripherally acting mu agonists to regulate motility (e.g., loperamide). Currently, clinical studies are continuing to evaluate medicinal utility of selective delta, mu, and kappa modulators, as well as compounds possessing combined sub-type modulation. It is envisioned such explorations may lead to agents with new utilities, or agents with minimized adverse side effects relative to currently available agents (examples of side effects for morphine includes constipation, respiratory depression, and addiction potential). Some new GI areas where selective or mixed opioid modulators are currently being evaluated includes potential treatment for various diarrheic syndromes, motility disorders (post-operative ileus, constipation), and visceral pain (post operative pain, irritable bowel syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disorders) (Pierre J. M. Riviere and Jean-Louis Junien, “Opioid receptors: Targets for new gastrointestinal drug development” Drug Development, 2000, pp. 203-238).

Around the same time the opioid receptors were identified, the enkephalins were identified as a set of endogenous opioid ligands (D. S. Fries, “Analgesics”, inPrinciples of Medicinal Chemistry, 4th ed.; W. O. Foye; T. L. Lemke, and D. A. Williams, Eds.; Williams and Wilkins: Baltimore, Md., 1995; pp. 247-269). Schiller discovered that truncating the original pentapeptide enkephalins to simplified dipeptides yielded a series of compounds that maintained opioid activity (Schiller, P. WO 96/06855). However one potential drawback cited for such compounds is the likelihood of their inherent instability (P. W. Schiller et al., Int. J. Pept. Protein Res. 1993, 41 (3), pp. 313-316).

More recently, a series of opioid pseudopeptides containing heteroaromatic or heteroaliphatic nuclei were disclosed, however this series is reported showing a different functional profile than that described in the Schiller works. (L. H. Lazarus et al., Peptides 2000, 21, pp. 1663-1671).

Most recently, works around morphine related structures were reported by Wentland, et al, where carboxamido morphine derivatives and it’s analogs were prepared (M. P. Wentland et al., Biorg. Med. Chem. Letters 2001, 11, pp. 1717-1721; M. P. Wentland et al., Biorg. Med. Chem. Letters 2001, 11, pp. 623-626). Wentland found that substitution for the phenol moiety of the morphine related structures with a primary carboxamide led anywhere from equal activities up to 40 fold reduced activities, depending on the opioid receptor and the carboxamide. It was also revealed that any additional N-substitutions on the carboxamide significantly diminished the desired binding activity.

Compounds of the present invention have not been previously disclosed and are believed to provide advantages over related compounds by providing improved pharmacological profiles.

Opioid receptor modulators, agonists or antagonists are useful in the treatment and prevention of various mammalian disease states, for example pain and gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrheic syndromes, motility disorders including post-operative ileus and constipation, and visceral pain including post-operative pain, irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disorders.

It is an object of the present invention to provide opioid receptor modulators. It is a further object of the invention to provide opioid receptor agonists and opioid receptor antagonists. It is an object of the present invention to provide opioid receptor ligands that are selective for each type of opioid receptor, mu, delta and kappa. It is a further object of the present invention to provide opioid receptor ligands that modulate two or three opioid receptor types, mu, delta and kappa, simultaneously.

It is an object of the invention to provide certain instant compounds that are also useful as intermediates in preparing new opioid receptor modulators. It is also an object of the invention to provide a method of treating or ameliorating a condition mediated by an opioid receptor. And, it is an object of the invention to provide a useful pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of the present invention useful as an opioid receptor modulator.

5-({[2-Amino-3-(4-carbamoyl-2,6-dimethyl-phenyl)-propionyl]-[1-(4-phenyl-1 h-imidazol-2-yl)-ethyl]-amino}-methyl)-2-methoxy-benzoic acid is an opoid receptor modulator (mu receptor agonist and delta receptor antagonist) and may be useful for treating irritable bowel syndrome, pain or other opioid receptor disorders.

5-({[2-Amino-3-(4-carbamoyl-2,6-dimethyl-phenyl)-propionyl]-[1-(4-phenyl-1h-imidazol-2-yl)-ethyl]-amino}-methyl)-2-methoxy-benzoic acid and methods of making this molecule are disclosed in

US application 2005/02033143. Example 9 of US application 2005/02033143 makes the hydrochloride salt of 5-({[2-amino-3-(4-carbamoyl-2,6-dimethyl-phenyl)-propionyl]-[1-(4-phenyl-1h-imidazol-2-yl)-ethyl]-amino}-methyl)-2-methoxy-benzoic acid.

Applicants have discovered a process of making the zwitterion of 5-({[2-amino-3-(4-carbamoyl-2,6-dimethyl-phenyl)-propionyl]-[1-(4-phenyl-1h-imidazol-2-yl)-ethyl]-amino}-methyl)-2-methoxy-benzoic acid and two novel crystals of this zwitterion. In Applicant’s hands, these novel crystals provide improved properties and can be purified at higher purity. Applicant’s new process results in improved and less costly process manufacturing conditions than the procedure disclosed in US application 2005/02033143.

FIG. 6 is the molecular structure of the zwitterion 5-({[2-amino-3-(4-carbamoyl-2,6-dimethyl-phenyl)-propionyl]-[1-(4-phenyl-1h-imidazol-2-yl)-ethyl]-amino}-methyl)-2-methoxy-benzoic acid.

US7994206

SYNTHESIS OF 5-formyl-2- methoxy-benzoic acid methyl ester

WO2002022612A1

Example 8: 2-Methoxy-5-formylbenzoic acid

Figure imgf000023_0001

Lithium hydroxide (1.04g, 0.043mol, 3eq) in water (lOmL) was added to a stirred solution of methyl 2-methoxy-5-formylbenzoate (2.8g, 0.014mol, leq) in a mixture of tetrahydrofuran (30mL) and methanol (20mL). The solution was stirred overnight, acidified to pH 1 with 10% HCl and the organic solvents removed in vacuo. The aqueous solution was extracted with ethyl acetate (lOOmL) and the organic solution washed with brine (lOOmL), then extracted with saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate (3 x lOOmL). The basic solution was washed with ethyl acetate (lOOmL), then acidified to pH 1 with 10% HCl and back extracted with dichloromethane (3 x lOOmL). The organic solution was dried over sodium sulfate and evaporated in vacuo to give a cream coloured powder (2.01g, 77%). 1H NMR (CDC13) δ 9.99 (s, IH, O=C- H), 4.14 (s, 3H, CH3).

ANALOGOUS METHOD TO PREPARE..2-methoxy-5-{[1 -(4-phenyl-1 H-imidazol-2-yl)- ethylamino]-methyl}-benzoic acid methyl ester

USE 5-formyl-2- methoxy-benzoic acid methyl ester  for 3,4- dimethoxybenzaldehyde, TO GET 2-methoxy-5-{[1 -(4-phenyl-1 H-imidazol-2-yl)- ethylamino]-methyl}-benzoic acid methyl ester 

Example 4

(3,4-Dimethoxy-benzyl)-[1-(4-phenyl-1 H-imidazol-2-yl)-ethyl]-amine

Figure imgf000076_0001
NOTE THIS IS NOT THE COMPD….IT IS REF FOR AN ANALOGOUS PROCEDURE

A solution of 1-(4-phenyl-1 W-imidazol-2-yl)-ethylamine (0.061 g, 0.33 mmol) of Example 3, and 0.55 g (0.33 mmol) of 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde in 5 ml_ of anhydrous methanol was stirred at room temperature for 1 h and then cooled to about 0-100C in an ice bath for 1 h. The reaction was treated carefully with 0.019 g (0.49 mmol) of sodium borohydride in one portion and maintained at about 0-100C for 21 h. Cold 2M aqueous HCI was added dropwise (30 drops), the mixture was stirred for 5 min, and then partially concentrated in vacuo unheated. The residual material was taken up in EtOAc to yield a suspension that was treated with 5 ml_ of cold 3M aqueous NaOH and stirred vigorously until clear. The phases were separated and the aqueous layer was extracted three times additional with EtOAc. The combined extracts were dried over MgSO4, filtered, and concentrated to yield (3,4-dimethoxy- benzyl)-[1-(4-phenyl-1 H-imidazol-2-yl)-ethyl]-amine as a light yellow oil (HPLC: 87% @ 254nm and 66% @ 214 nm).

MS (ES+) (relative intensity): 338.1 (100) (M+1)

This sample was of sufficient quality to use in the next reaction without further purification.

SYNTHESIS

WO2006099060A2

In an embodiment, the present invention is directed to processes for the preparation of the compound of formula (IV)

Figure imgf000016_0001

also known as, 5-({[2-amino-3-(4-carbamoyl-2,5-dimethyl-phenyl)- propionyl]-[1 -(4-phenyl-1 H-imidazol-2-yl)-ethyl]-amino}-methyl)-2-methoxy- benzoic acid

Example 1

(S)-2-ferf-Butoxycarbonylamino-3-(4-carbamoyl-2.6-dimethyl-phenyl)- propionic acid

Figure imgf000067_0001
Figure imgf000068_0001

STEP A: Trifluoromethanesulfonic acid 4-bromo-3,5-dimethyl-phenyl ester

To a cooled (0°C) solution of 4-bromo-3,5-dimethylphenol (3.05 g, 15.2 mmol) in pyridine (8 ml_) was added trifluoromethanesulfonic anhydride (5.0 g, 17.7 mmol) dropwise. After completion of addition, the resulting mixture was stirred at 0°C for 15 min, and then at room temperature overnight. The reaction was quenched by addition of water, and then extracted with EtOAc. The organic extracts were washed sequentially with water, 2N HCI (2x ), brine, and then dried over MgSO4. Filtration and evaporation to dryness yielded compound 1 b as a colorless oil.

1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCI3): δ 2.45 (6H, s), 7.00 (2H, s).

Step B: 4-Bromo-3,5-dimethylbenzoic acid

Into a solution of compound 1 b (6.57 g, 19.7 mmol) in DMF (65 ml_) were added K2CO3 (13.1 g, 94.7 mmol), Pd(OAc)2 (0.44 g, 1.97 mmol) and 1 ,1′-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene (2.29 g, 4.14 mmol). The resulting mixture was bubbled in gaseous CO for 10 min and was heated to 60°C for 7.5h with a CO(9) balloon. The cooled mixture was partitioned between aqueous NaHCO3 and EtOAc, and filtered. The aqueous phase was separated, acidified with aqueous 6N HCI, extracted with EtOAc, and then dried over Na2SO4. Filtration and concentration of the filtrate yielded crude compound 1c as a brown residue, which was used in the next step without further purification. STEP C: Method A: 4-Bromo-3,5-dimethyl-benzamide

Into a suspension of compound 1c in DCM (40 ml_) was added SOCI2 (3.1 rnL, 42 mmol) and the mixture was heated at reflux for 2 h. Upon removal of the solvent by evaporation, the residue was dissolved in DCM (40 ml_) and then ammonium hydroxide (28% NH3 in water, 2.8 ml_) was added. The reaction mixture was heated at 5O0C for 2 h and concentrated. The residue was diluted with H2O, extracted with EtOAc, and the organic portion was dried over Na2SO4. After filtration and evaporation, the residue was purified by flash column chramotagraphy (eluent: EtOAc) to yield compound 1 d as an off-white solid.

1H NMR (300 MHz, CD3CN): δ 2.45 (6H, s), 5.94 (1 H, br s), 6.71 (1 H, br s), 7.57 (2H, s)

MS(ES+)(relative intensity): 228.0 (100%) (M+1).

Step C: Method B: 4-Bromo-3,5-dimethyl-benzamide

A mixture of compound 1 b (3.33 g, 10 mmol), PdCI2 (0.053 g, 0.3 mmol), hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS, 8.4 ml_, 40 mmol), and DPPP (0.12 g, 0.3 mmol) was bubbled with a gaseous CO for 5 min and then stirred in a CO balloon at 80°C for 4 h. To the reaction mixture was added MeOH (5 ml_). The reaction mixture was stirred for 10 min, diluted with 2N H2SO4 (200 ml_), and then extracted with EtOAc. The EtOAc extract was washed with saturated aqueous NaHCO3, brine, and then dried over Na2SO4. Filtration and evaporation of the resultant filtrate yielded a residue, which was purified by flash column chromatography (eluent: EtOAc) to yield compound 1d as a white solid.

Step D: 2-terf-Butoxycarbonylaminoacrylic acid methyl ester

To a suspension of /V-Boc-serine methyl ester (Compound 1e, 2.19 g, 10 mmol) and EDCI (2.01 g, 10.5 mmol) in DCM (70 ml_) was added CuCI (1.04 g, 10.5 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 72 h. Upon removal of the solvent, the residue was diluted with EtOAc, washed sequentially with water and brine and then dried over MgSO4. The crude product was purified by flash column chromatography (eluent: EtOAc:hexane ~1 :4) to yield compound 1f as a colorless oil.

1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCI3): δ 1.49 (9H, s), 3.83 (3H, s), 5.73 (1 H, d, J = 1.5 Hz), 6.16 (1 H1 S), 7.02 (1 H, s).

STEP E: (2)-2-fert-Butoxycarbonylamino-3-(4-carbamoyl-2,6-dimethyl- phenyl)acrylic acid methyl ester

A flask charged with compound 1d (0.46 g, 2.0 mmol), compound 1f (0.80 g, 4.0 mmol), tri-o-tolylphosphine (0.098 g, 0.32 mmol) and DMF (8 ml_) was purged with N2(g) 3 times. After the addition of tris(dibenzylideneacetone)dipalladium (0) (0.074 g, 0.08 mmol) and TEA (0.31 ml_, 2.2 mol), the reaction mixture was heated at 110°C for 24 h. At that time, the reaction was quenched by addition of water, and then extracted with EtOAc. The organic phase was washed with 1 N HCI, saturated aqueous NaHCO3, brine, and dried over MgSO4. The mixture was concentrated to a residue, which was purified by flash column chromatography (eluent: EtOAc:hexane~1 :1 to EtOAc only) to yield compound 1g as a white solid.

1H NMR (300 MHz, CD3OD): δ 1.36 (9H, s), 2.26 (6H, s), 3.83 (3H, s), 7.10 (1 H, s), 7.56 (2H, s); 13C NMR (75 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 17.6, 25.7, 50.2, 78.7, 124.9, 126.4,

128.3, 131.2, 135.2, 135.5, 152.8, 164.3, 169.6;

MS (ES+) (relative intensity): 349.1 (38%)(M+1).

STEP F: (S)-2-ferf-Butoxycarbonylamino-3-(4-carbamoyl-2,6-dimethyl- phenyl)propionic acid methyl ester

Into a reactor charged with a solution of compound 1g (0.56 g, 1.6 mmol) in degassed MeOH (80 mL) was added [Rh(COd)(H1R-DIPAMP)J+BF4  under a stream of argon. The reactor was sealed and flushed with H2, stirred at 6O0C under 1000 psi of H2 for 14 days. The crude product was purified by flash column chromatography (eluent: EtOAc:hexane ~1 :1) to yield compound 1 h as a white solid. ee: >99%; 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCI3): δ 1.36 (9H, s), 2.39 (6H, s), 3.11 (2H, J = 7.2 Hz), 3.65 (3H, s), 4.53-4.56 (1 H, m), 5.12 (1 H, d, J = 8.7 Hz), 5.65 (1 H, br s), 6.09 (1 H, br s), 7.46 (2H, s);

MS(ES+) (relative intensity): 250.9 (100) (M-BoC)+.

STEP G: (S)-2-tert-Butoxycarbonylamino-3-(4-carbamoyl-2,6-dimethyl- phenyl)propionic acid

Into an ice-cooled solution of compound “I h (0.22 g, 0.63 mmol) in THF (3.5 ml_) was added an aqueous LiOH solution (1 N, 3.5 ml_) and the reaction mixture stirred at 0°C. Upon completion of the reaction, the reaction mixture was concentrated and the aqueous phase was neutralized with cooled aqueous 1 N HCI at 0°C, and then extracted with EtOAc. The combined extracts were dried over Na2SO4 overnight. Filtration and evaporation of the filtrate to dryness yielded compound 1j as a white solid. 1H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-cfe): δ 1.30 (9H, s), 2.32 (6H, s), 2.95(1 H, dd,

J= 8.8, 13.9 Hz), 3.10 (1 H, dd, J= 6.2, 14.0 Hz), 4.02-4.12 (1 H, m), 7.18-7.23 (2H, m), 7.48 (2H1 s), 7.80 (1 H, s);

MS(ES+) (relative intensity): 236.9 (6) (M-BoC)+.

Example 5

5-((r2-Amino-3-(4-carbamoyl-2.6-dimethyl-phenyl)-propionvn-n-(4-phenyl- 1 H-imidazol-2-yl)-ethvπ-aminol-methyl)-2-methoxy-benzoic acid

Figure imgf000076_0002
Figure imgf000077_0001

STEP A. 2-Methoxy-5-{[1-(4-phenyl-1 W-imidazol-2-yl)-ethylamino]-methyl}- benzoic acid methyl ester

Using the procedures described for Example 4, substituting 5-formyl-2- methoxy-benzoic acid methyl ester (WO 02/22612) for 3,4- dimethoxybenzaldehyde, 2-methoxy-5-{[1 -(4-phenyl-1 H-imidazol-2-yl)- ethylamino]-methyl}-benzoic acid methyl ester was prepared.

STEP B. 5-({[2-ferf-ButoxycarbonylmethyI-3-(4-carbamoyl-2,6-dimethyl- phenyl)-propionyl]-[1 -(4-phenyl-1 H-imidazoI-2-yl)-ethyl]-amino}-methyl)-2- methoxy-benzoic acid methyl ester

Using the procedure of Example 3 for the conversion of Cpd 3d to Cpd 3e, substituting 2-methoxy-5-{[1-(4-phenyl-1 /-/-imidazol-2-yl)-ethylamino]- methylj-benzoic acid methyl ester for Cpd 3d and substituting 2-tert- Butoxycarbonylamino-3-(4-carbamoyl-2,6-dimethyl-phenyl)-propionic acid for 2- tø/t-Butoxycarbonylamino-3-(4-hydroxy-2,6-dimethyl-phenyl)-propionic acid, Cpd 5a was prepared.

STEP C. 5-({[2-tert-butoxycarbonylamino-3-(4-carbamoyl-2,6-dimethyl- phenyl)-propionyl]-[1 -(4-phenyl-1 W-imidazol-2-yl)-ethyl]-amino}-methyl)-2- methoxy-benzoic acid

5-({[2-tørf-Butoxycarbonylmethyl-3-(4-carbamoyl-2,6-dimethyl-phenyl)- propionyl]-[1-(4-phenyl-1 H-imidazol-2-yl)-ethyl]-amino}-methyl)-2-methoxy- benzoic acid methyl ester was dissolved in an ice-chilled (0-10°C), mixed solvent system of THF (10 ml_) and MeOH (5 ml_). A LiOH H2O/water suspension (2.48 M; 3.77 ml_) was added dropwise, then the reaction was allowed to warm to room temperature and stirred overnight. The resulting mixture was cooled in an ice bath and the basic solution was neutralized with 2N citric acid until slightly acidic. The mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure to remove the volatile materials, after which time the remaining aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 26 ml_). These combined organic phases were dried over MgSO4, filtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure to yield a pale yellowish white solid. This crude material was dissolved in a 10% MeOH/CH2CI2 solution and adsorbed onto 30 g of silica. The adsorbed material was divided and chromatographed on an ISCO normal phase column over two runs, using a 40 g Redi-Sep column for both runs. The solvent system was a gradient MeOHZCH2CI2 system as follows: Initial 100% CH2CI2, 98%-92% over 40 min; 90% over 12 min, and then 88% over 13 min. The desired product eluted cleanly between 44-61 min. The desired fractions were combined and concentrated under reduced pressure to yield 5-({[2-terf- butoxycarbonylamino-3-(4-carbamoyl-2,6-dimethyl-phenyl)-propionyl]-[1-(4- phenyl-1 /-/-imidazol-2-yl)-ethyl]-amino}-methyl)-2-methoxy-benzoic acid, Cpd 5b, as a white solid.

STEP D. 5-({[2-Amino-3-(4-carbamoyl-2,6-dimethyl-phenyl)-propionyl]-[1 – (4-phenyl-1 W-imidazol-2-yl)-ethyl]-amino}-methyl)-2-methoxy-benzoic acid

A portion of Cpd 5b (0.27g, 0.41 mmol) was dissolved in EtOAc (39 ml_)/THF (5 ml_), filtered, and subsequently treated with gaseous HCI for 15 min. After completion of the HCI addition, the reaction was slowly warmed to room temperature and a solid precipitate formed. After 5 h the reaction appeared >97% complete by LC (@214nm; 2.56 min.). The stirring was continued over 3 d, then the solid was collected and rinsed with a small amount of EtOAc. The resulting solid was dried under high vacuum under refluxing toluene for 2.5 h to yield Cpd 5c as a white solid di-HCI salt.

Example 2

Racemic 2-terf-Butoxycarbonylamino-3-(4-carbamoyl-2,6-dimethvl- phenvD-propionic acid

Figure imgf000071_0001

STEP A: Racemic 2-tert-butoxycarbonylamino-3-(4-carbamoyl-2,6- dimethyl-phenyl)propionic acid methyl ester

To a reactor charged with a solution of compound 1g (0.68 g, 1.95 mmol) in MeOH (80 mL) was added 10% Pd-C (0.5 g). The reactor was connected to a hydrogenator and shaken under 51 psi of H2 overnight. The mixture was filtered through a pad of Celite and the filtrate was concentrated to dryness to yield compound 2a as a white solid.

The 1H NMR spectrum was identical to that of (S)-2-tert- butoxycarbonylamino-3-(4-carbamoyl-2,6-dimethyl-phenyl)propionic acid methyl ester, compound 1 h.

STEP B: Racemic 2-terf-butoxycarbonylamino-3-(4-carbamoyl-2,6- dimethyl-phenyl)propionic acid

Following the procedure described for Example 1 , STEP G (preparation of (S)-2-teAt-Butoxycarbonylamino-3-(4-carbamoyl-2,6-dimethyl- phenyl)propionic acid), compound 2b – racemic 2-te/?-butoxycarbonylamino-3- (4-carbamoyl-2,6-dimethyl-phenyl)propionic acid – was prepared.

POLYMORPHS

US8609865

Example 1 Preparation of the zwitterion of 5-({[2-Amino-3-(4-carbamoyl-2,6-dimethyl-phenyl)-propionyl]-[1-(4-phenyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-ethyl]-amino}-methyl)-2-methoxy-benzoic acid

A 1 L three-necked round-bottomed flask equipped with a mechanical stirrer, addition funnel and a thermocouple was charged without agitation. 34.2 g of 5-({[2-tert-butoxycarbonylamino-3-(4-carbamoyl-2,6-dimethyl-phenyl)-propionyl]-[1-(4-phenyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-ethyl]-amino}-methyl)-2-methoxy-benzoic acid (see Example 9 of US 2005/0203143), 340 ml of acetone, and 17 ml of 204 mmolar concentrated HCl were combined in the flask. The stirring was started and the resulting slurry formed a clear solution. This solution was heated to 45° C. under vigorous stirring and aged at this temperature for a period of two hours. After the completion, the reaction mass was cooled to ambient temperature and the supernatant was removed by suction. The vessel along with the residue was rinsed with 20 ml of acetone and then removed as previously. 170 ml of water was added and the reaction mass and was aged under stirring until a homogeneus solution resulted. This solution was then added over a period of ˜½ hr to a solution of 90 ml of 1N NaOH and water. The pH was adjusted to 6.5-7.0 accordingly. The resulting slurry was aged for about 2 hrs at ambient temperature, cooled to 10-15° C., aged at that temperature for about 1 hr, and then filtered. The solid was washed with 10 ml water, air-dried for a period of 4 to 5 hrs, and then placed in a vacuum oven at 50-55° C. until the water content was less than 3%.

Example 2 Preparation of the Form α Crystal

The Form α crystal can be prepared by storing the zwitterion of 5-({[2-amino-3-(4-carbamoyl-2,6-dimethyl-phenyl)-propionyl]-[1-(4-phenyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-ethyl]-amino}-methyl)-2-methoxy-benzoic acid at 0-25% relative humidity for 3 days. Representative PXRD, TGA, and DSC data are shown in FIGS. 1-3 respectively.

Example 3 Preparation of the Form β crystal

The Form β crystal can be prepared by storing the zwitterion of 5-({[2-amino-3-(4-carbamoyl-2,6-dimethyl-phenyl)-propionyl]-[1-(4-phenyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-ethyl]-amino}-methyl)-2-methoxy-benzoic acid at greater than 60% relative humidity for 3 days. Representative PXRD, TGA, and DSC data are shown in FIGS. 1, 4, and 5 respectively.

SYNTHESIS

US20050203143

Example 9 5-({[2-Amino-3-(4-carbamoyl-2,6-dimethyl-phenyl)-propionyl]-[1-(4-phenyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-ethyl]-amino}-methyl)-2-methoxy-benzoic acid

Figure US20050203143A1-20050915-C00035

A. 2-Methoxy-5{[1-(4-phenyl-1 H-imidazol-2-yl)-ethylamino]-methyl}-benzoic acid methyl ester.

Using the procedures described for Example 3, substituting 5-formyl-2-methoxy-benzoic acid methyl ester (WO 02/22612) for 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde, 2-methoxy-5-{[1-(4-phenyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-ethylamino]-methyl}-benzoic acid methyl ester was prepared.

B. 5-({[2-tert-Butoxycarbonyl methyl-3-(4-carbamoyl-2,6-dimethyl-phenyl)-propionyl]-[1-(4-phenyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-ethyl]-amino}-methyl)-2-methoxy-benzoic acid methyl ester.

Using the procedure of Example 1 for the conversion of Cpd 1d to Cpd 1e, substituting 2-methoxy-5-{[1-(4-phenyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-ethylamino]-methyl}-benzoic acid methyl ester for Cpd 1 d and substituting 2-tert-Butoxycarbonylamino-3-(4-carbamoyl-2,6-dimethyl-phenyl-propionic acid of Example 8 for 2-tert-Butoxycarbonylamino-3-(4-hydroxy-2,6-dimethyl-phenyl)-propionic acid, Cpd 9a was prepared.

C. 5-({[2-tert-butoxycarbonylamino-3-(4-carbamoyl-2,6-dimethyl-phenyl)-propionyl]-[11-(4-phenyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-ethyl]-amino}-methyl)-2-methoxy-benzoic acid.

5-({[2-tert-Butoxycarbonyl methyl-3-(4-carbamoyl-2,6-dimethyl-phenyl)-propionyl]-[1-(4-phenyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-ethyl]-amino}-methyl)-2-methoxy-benzoic acid methyl ester was dissolved in an ice-chilled (0-10° C.), mixed solvent system of THF (10 mL) and MeOH (5 mL). A LiOH.H2O/water suspension (2.48 M; 3.77 mL) was added dropwise, then the reaction was allowed to warm to room temperature and stirred overnight. The resulting mixture was cooled in an ice bath and the basic solution was neutralized with 2N citric acid until slightly acidic. The mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure to remove the volatile materials, after which time the remaining aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc (3×26 mL). These combined organic phases were dried over MgSO4, filtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure to give 2.26 g (146% of theory) of pale yellowish white solid. This crude material was dissolved in a 10% MeOH/CH2Clsolution and adsorbed onto 30 g of silica. The adsorbed material was divided and chromatographed on an ISCO normal phase column over two runs, using a 40 g Redi-Sep column for both runs. The solvent system was a gradient MeOH/CH2Clsystem as follows: Initial 100% CH2Cl2, 98%-92% over 40 min; 90% over 12 min, and then 88% over 13 min. The desired product eluted cleanly between 44-61 min. The desired fractions were combined and concentrated under reduced pressure to yield 1.74 g (113% of theory) of 5-({[2-tert-butoxycarbonylamino-3-(4-carbamoyl-2,6-dimethyl-phenyl)-propionyl]-[1-(4-phenyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-ethyl]-amino}-methyl)-2-methoxy-benzoic acid, Cpd 9b, as a white solid.

D. 5-({[2-Amino-3-(4-carbamoyl-2,6-dimethyl-phenyl)-propionyl]-[1-(4-phenyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-ethyl]-amino}-methyl)-2-methoxy-benzoic acid.

A portion of Cpd 9b (0.27g, 0.41 mmol) was dissolved in EtOAc (39 mL)/THF (5 mL), filtered, and subsequently treated with gaseous HCl for 15 min. After completion of the HCl addition, the reaction was slowly warmed to room temperature and a solid precipitate formed. After 5 h the reaction appeared >97% complete by LC (@214 nm; 2.56 min.). The stirring was continued over 3 d, then the solid was collected and rinsed with a small amount of EtOAc. The resulting solid was dried under high vacuum under refluxing toluene for 2.5 h to yield 0.19 g (71%) of desired Cpd 9c as a white solid di-HCl salt.

Example 8 (S)-2-tert-Butoxycarbonylamino-3-(2,6-dimethyl-4-trifluoromethanesulfonylphenyl)-propionic acid methyl ester

Figure US20050203143A1-20050915-C00034

A. (S)-2-tert-Butoxycarbonylamino-3-(2,6-dimethyl-4-trifluoromethanesulfonylphenyl)-propionic acid methyl ester. Into a cool solution of Boc-L-(2,6-diMe)Tyr-OMe (7.0 g, 21.6 mmol; Sources: Chiramer or RSP AminoAcidAnalogues) and N-phenyltrifluoromethanesulfonimide (7.9 g, 22.0 mmol) in dichloromethane (60 mL) was added triethylamine (3.25 mL, 23.3 mmol). The resulting solution was stirred at 0° C. for 1 h and slowly warmed to rt. Upon completion, the reaction was quenched by addition of water. The separated organic phase was washed with 1 N NaOH aqueous solution, water and dried over Na2SOovernight. After filtration and evaporation, the residue was purified by flash column chromatography (eluent: EtOAc-hexane: 3:7) to give the desired product (9.74 g, 99%) as a clear oil; 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3): δ 1.36 (9H, s), 2.39 (6H, s), 3.06 (2H, d, J=7.7 Hz), 3.64 (3H, s), 4.51-4.59 (1H, m), 5.12 (1H, d, J=8.5 Hz), 6.92 (2H, s); MS (ES+) (relative intensity): 355.8 (100) (M−Boc)+.

B. (S)4-(2-tert-Butoxycarbonylamino-2-methoxycarbonylethyl)-3,5-dimethylbenzoic acid. To a suspension of (S)-2-tert-butoxycarbonylamino-3-(2,6-dimethyl-4-trifluoromethanesulfonylphenyl)-propionic acid methyl ester (9.68 g, 21.3 mmol), K2CO(14.1 g, 0.102 mol), Pd(OAc)(0.48 g, 2.13 mmol) and 1,1′-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene (2.56 g, 4.47 mmol) in DMF (48 mL) was bubbled in gaseous CO for 15 min. The mixture was heated to 60° C. for 8 h with a CO balloon. The cool mixture was partitioned between NaHCOand EtOAc, and filtered. The aqueous layer was separated, acidified with 10% citric acid aqueous solution, extracted with EtOAc, and finally dried over Na2SO4. Filtration and concentration of the filtrate resulted in a residue. The residue was recrystallized from EtOAc-hexanes to afford the desired product (7.05 g, 94%); 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3): δ 1.36 (9H, s), 2.42 (6H, s), 3.14 (2H, J=7.4 Hz), 3.65 (3H, s), 4.57-4.59 (1H, m), 5.14 (1H, d, J=8.6 Hz), 7.75 (2H, s); MS(ES+) (relative intensity): 251.9 (100) (M−Boc)+.

C. (S)-2-tert-Butoxycarbonylamino-3-(4-carbamoyl-2,6-dimethylphenyl)propionic acid methyl ester. Into a stirring solution of (S)-4-(2-tert-butoxycarbonylamino-2-methoxycarbonylethyl)-3,5-dimethyl benzoic acid (3.00 g, 8.54 mmol), PyBOP (6.68 g, 12.8 mmol) and HOBt (1.74 g, 12.8 mmol) in DMF (36 mL) was added DIPEA (5.96 mL, 34.2 mmol) and NH4Cl (0.92 g, 17.1 mmol). The resulting mixture was stirred at rt for 40 min before being partitioned between aqueous NH4Cl solution and EtOAc. The separated organic phase was washed sequentially with 2N citric acid aqueous solution, saturated aqueous NaHCOsolution, and brine, then dried over Na2SOovernight. After filtration and concentration, the residue was purified by flash column chromatography (eluent: EtOAc) to give the product. (3.00 g, 100%); 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3): δ 1.36 (9H, s), 2.39 (6H, s), 3.11 (2H, J=7.2 Hz), 3.65 (3H, s), 4.53-4.56 (1H, m), 5.12 (1H, d, J=8.7 Hz), 5.65 (1H, brs), 6.09 (1H, br s), 7.46 (2H, s); MS(ES+) (relative intensity): 250.9 (100) (M−Boc)+.

D. (S)-2-tert-Butoxycarbonylamino-3-(4-carbamoyl-2,6-dimethylphenyl)propionic acid. Into an ice-cooled solution of methyl ester from Step C (2.99 g, 8.54 mmol) in THF (50 mL) was added an aqueous LiOH solution (1N, 50 mL) and stirred at 0° C. Upon consumption of the starting materials, the organic solvents were removed and the aqueous phase was neutralized with cooled 1N HCl at 0° C., and extracted with EtOAc, and dried over Na2SOovernight. Filtration and evaporation to dryness led to the title acid (S)-2-tert-butoxycarbonylamino-3-(4-carbamoyl-2,6-dimethylphenyl)propionic acid (2.51 g, 87%); 1H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 1.30 (9H, s), 2.32 (6H, s), 2.95 (1H, dd, J=8.8, 13.9 Hz), 3.10 (1H, dd, J=6.2, 14.0 Hz), 4.02-4.12 (1H, m), 7.18-7.23 (2H, m), 7.48 (2H, s), 7.80 (1H, s); MS(ES+) (relative intensity): 236.9 (6) (M−Boc)+.

PAPER

Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2012 Jul 15;22(14):4869-72.

PATENTS

1.WO 2005090315

2..WO 2006099060

3.WO 2009009480

4. WO 2010062590

5.US 2011263868 *

Patent

https://patentscope2.wipo.int/search/de/detail.jsf;jsessionid=17DB1184234A30C42C287EBFB95A7EF3?docId=WO2018198101&tab=PCTDESCRIPTION&office=&prevFilter=%26fq%3DOF%3AWO&sortOption=Ver%C3%83%C2%B6ffentlichungsdatum+ab&queryString=&recNum=9351&maxRec=3410922

Eluxadoline chemically is 5-[[[(25)-2-amino-3-[4-(aminocarbonyl)-2, 6-dimethylphenyl] – 1 -oxopropyl] [( 15)- 1 -(4-phenyl- lH-imidazol-2-yl)ethyl] amino] methyl] -2-methoxybenzoic acid, represented by Formula I.

Formula I

Eluxadoline is a mu-opioid receptor agonist, indicated in adults for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D).

U.S. Patent No. 7,741 ,356 describes a process for the preparation of eluxadoline. U.S. Patent Nos. 7,629,488 and 8,710,256 describe processes for the preparation of intermediates of eluxadoline.

PCT Publication No. WO2009/009480 purportedly discloses forms alpha and beta crystals of eluxadoline and processes thereof. PCT Publication No. WO2009/009480 discloses that form alpha crystals can be prepared by storing the zwitterion of eluxadoline at 0-25% relative humidity (RH) for 3 days and form beta crystals can be prepared by storing the zwitterion of eluxadoline at greater than 60% RH for 3 days.

PCT Publication No. WO2017/015606 purportedly discloses amorphous form, crystalline forms I, II, III and IV, and processes for their preparation and a process for the preparation of form alpha crystal of eluxadoline

PATENT

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2018138274

Eluxadoline is the INN denomination assigned to the compound having lUPAC name 5-({[(2S)-2-amino-3-(4-carbamoyl-2,6-dimethylphenyl)propanoyl][(1 S)-1 -(4-phenyl-1 /-/-imidazol-2-yl)ethyl]amino}methyl)-2-methoxybenzoic acid and the formula reported below:

Eluxadoline is a μ- and κ-opioid receptor agonist and δ-opioid receptor antagonist that acts locally in the enteric nervous system. The drug, administered orally, is active locally in the intestine and is able to control gastrointestinal function (Gl) and at the same time to reduce the pain and mitigate the effect of constipation. Its use has been approved for the treatment of diarrhea and abdominal pain in individuals with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D).

The family of compounds to which eluxadoline belongs is disclosed in patent application WO 2005/090315 A1 , while patent application WO 2006/099060 A2 is directed to processes for the preparation of these compounds.

As generally known, any active principle may exist under amorphous or different crystalline forms (polymorphs), either as pure compound or in forms in which, in the structure of the crystal, are present molecules of water (hydrates) or of another solvent (solvates); besides, in case of hydrates and solvates, the ratio between the number of molecules of active principle and molecules of water or solvent may vary, giving rise to different solid forms of the compound.

Different salts and solid-state forms of an active pharmaceutical ingredient may possess different properties. Such variations in the properties of different salts and solid-state forms may provide a basis for improving formulation, for example, by facilitating better processing or handling characteristics, changing the dissolution profile in a favourable direction, or improving stability (polymorphic and/or chemical) and shelf-life. These variations in the properties of different salts and solid-state forms may also offer improvements to the final dosage form, for instance, if they serve to improve bioavailability. Different salts, solid-state forms and solvates of an active pharmaceutical ingredient may also give rise to a variety of polymorphs or crystalline forms, which, in turn, may provide additional opportunities to assess variations in the properties and characteristics of a solid active pharmaceutical ingredient.

While not intending to be bound by any theory, certain solid forms are characterized by physical properties, e.g., stability, solubility and dissolution rate, appropriate for pharmaceutical and therapeutic dosage forms. Moreover, while not wishing to be bound by any theory, certain solid forms are characterized by physical properties (e.g., density, compressibility, hardness, morphology, cleavage, stickiness, solubility, water uptake, electrical properties, thermal behaviour, solid-state reactivity, physical stability, and chemical stability) affecting particular processes (e.g., yield, filtration, washing, drying, milling, mixing, tableting, flowability, dissolution, formulation, and lyophilization) which make certain solid forms suitable for the manufacture of a solid dosage form. Such properties can be determined using analytical chemical techniques, including solid-state analytical techniques (e.g., X-ray diffraction, microscopy, spectroscopy and thermal analysis), as described herein and known in the art.

For these reasons, chemical compounds useful in the pharmaceutical field are systematically screened looking for the physical form(s) that present an improved set of production, storage and handling properties, and which result in an improved administration to the patients.

Patent application WO 2009/009480 A2 discloses two crystalline forms of eluxadoline, referred to in the document respectively as Form a and Form β. Form a is characterized by an X-ray powder diffraction pattern having the main peaks at about 10.2°, 1 1.3°, 1 1.8°, 14.0°, 14.3°, 14.7°, 16.1 ° and 18.3° 2Θ, while Form β is characterized by an X-ray powder diffraction pattern having the main peaks at about 1 1.0°, 12.4°, 14.9°, 15.2°, 22.1 °, 25.6°, 27.4°, and 30.4° 2Θ.

Patent application WO 2017/015606 A1 discloses several crystalline forms of eluxadoline, referred to therein as Form I, Form II, Form III, and Form IV. Form I is characterized by an X-ray powder diffraction pattern having peaks at about 6.4°, 7.5°, 9.1 °, 10.0°, and 13.0° 2Θ. Form II is characterized by an X-ray powder diffraction profile having peaks at about 7.2°, 1 1 .6°, 12.1 °, 12.7° and 16.9° 2Θ. Form III is characterized by an X-ray powder diffraction pattern having peaks at about 9.3°, 10.2°, 1 1 .5°, 13.3° and 21.8° 2Θ. Form IV is characterized by an X-ray powder diffraction profile having peaks at about 9.3°, 10.2°, 1 1.5°, 13.3° and 21 .8° 2Θ.

However, no information is provided in any of these documents about any useful

properties from the standpoint of the pharmaceutical industry, neither regarding ease of handling of the forms in the production of formulations nor regarding the storage stability (polymorphic and/or chemical) of eluxadoline when prepared in one of these crystalline forms.

An object of the present invention is the provision of a novel process for the preparation of a polymorphic form a’ of eluxadoline (as defined hereinbelow) which, surprisingly, is polymorphically and chemically stable. Since this polymorphic form represents a valuable product, it is an object that upscaling of this process, in order to meet the needs of industrial-scale production, should be easily accomplishable. It is a further object of the present invention that said novel process should produce high-purity products which must contain as low an amount of possibly harmful compounds as possible.

Surprisingly, it was found that new solvate forms ε of eluxadoline allow for the realization of this process and, thus, of the new polymorphically and chemically stable crystalline form α’. It was found that in terms of the starting material from which the solvate forms ε of eluxadoline can be produced, they are extremely flexible.

Further, it was found that the reaction conditions necessary to produce these solvate forms are highly advantageous in terms of energy consumption in combination with the chemical nature of the solvents used

High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Ultraviolet Detection (HPLC-UV):

Chemical stability tests were performed using the following HPLC method

Column: XBridge C8 150 X 4.6 mm, 3.5 μηι

Mobile Phase A: 0.1 % (V/V) phosphoric acid aqueous solution

Mobile Phase B: Acetonitrile

Diluent: 1 :1 (V/V) Mixture of Mobile Phases A and B

Flow Rate: 1.3 mL/min

Runtime: 35 min

Column Temperature 30 °C

Autosampler Temperature: Ambient

Injection Volume: 5 μΙ_

Detection: 210 nm

Sample concentration: 0.4 mg/mL

Gradient Program:

PATENT

WO 2018020450

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2018020450A2/en

Example 1

Preparation of Eluxadoline

Step 1- Preparation of 5-({[2-amino-3-(4-carbamoyl-2,6-dimethyl-phenyl)-propionyl]-[l- (4-phenyl- lH-imidazol-2-yl)-ethyl]-amino} -methyl)-2-methoxy-benzoic acid

Figure imgf000023_0001

To a stirred solution of 1 -(4-phenyl- lH-imidazole-2-yl)-ethyl amine (20 gm) and 5-formyl-2-methoxy-benzoic acid methyl ester (20 gm) in methanol was added catalytic amount of acetic acid (3 ml). The reaction mixture was cooled at 5°C-10°C and sodium borohydride (4 gm) was added. The reaction mixture was further stirred for 2-3 hours at room temperature. The resultant mixture was diluted with water and then partially concentrated. To this mixture was added 2N HCl solution followed by addition of dichloromethane. The phases were separated and the pH (9-1 1) of aqueous layer was adjusted using 2N NaOH solution; which was further extracted with dichloromethane. The combined organic layers were concentrated under vacuum to afford titled compound as oil (yield: 40 gm).

Step 2- Preparation of 5-({[2-tert-butoxycarbonylmethyl-3-(4-carbamoyl-2,6-dimethyl- phenyl)-propionyl] – [ 1 -(4-phenyl- 1 H-imidazol-2-yl)-ethyl] -amino} -methyl)-2-methoxy- benzoic acid methyl ester

Figure imgf000023_0002

To a stirring mixture of 2-tert-butoxycarbonylamino-3-(4-carbamoyl-2,6- dimethyl-phenyl-propionic acid (100 gm), l-ethyl-3-(3- dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (159.4 gm) and 1- hydroxybenzotriazole (45.4 gm) in dimethylformamide (80 ml) & dichloromethane (1920 ml) was added 5-({[2-amino-3-(4-carbamoyl-2,6-dimethyl-phenyl)-propionyl]-[l-(4- phenyl-lH-imidazol-2-yl)-ethyl] -amino }-methyl)-2-methoxy-benzoic acid (step 1 product, 146.6 gm). The resulting mixture was stirred at room temperature for overnight and further diluted with water. The separated organic phase was washed sequentially with aqueous Na2C03 solution, IN HCl solution, water and brine. After concentration, the residue was further dissolved in DCM. The resultant solution was washed sequentially with water & IN HCl solution and then concentrated under vacuum to afford titled compound (yield: 145 gm).

Step 3- Preparation of methyl 5-((2-amino-3-(4-carbamoyl-2,6-dimethylphenyl)-N-(l-(4- phenyl- 1 H-imidazol-2-yl)ethyl) enzoate

Figure imgf000024_0001

To a stirred solution of 5-({[2-tert-butoxycarbonylmethyl-3-(4-carbamoyl-2,6- dimethyl-phenyl)-propionyl] – [ 1 -(4-phenyl- 1 H-imidazol-2-yl)-ethyl] -amino } -methyl)-2- methoxy-benzoic acid methyl ester (step -2 product, 20 gm) in THF (80 ml) was added Cone. HCl solution (30 ml). The reaction mixture was heated at 40°C-45°C. After completion of reaction, the mixture was concentrated and resultant residue was diluted with water. The pH (9-10) was adjusted using 3N NaOH solution; and resultant stick mass was dissolved in methanol. The resultant solution was concentrated under vacuum to afford titled compound (yield: 18.1 gm).

Step 4- Preparation of Eluxadoline

Figure imgf000025_0001

Into an ice cooled solution of methyl 5-((2-amino-3-(4-carbamoyl-2,6- dimethylphenyl)-N-( 1 -(4-phenyl- 1 H-imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)propanamido)methyl)-2- methoxybenzoate (step 3 product, 15 gm) in methanol was added an aqueous lithium hydroxide (3.23 gm in 30 ml water) and resultant mixture was heated at 40°C-45°C. After completion of reaction, mixture was concentrated and further diluted with water. The pH (6-7) was adjusted using 2N citric acid and resultant residue was dissolved in methanol. The resultant solution was added slowly to the acetone and stirring was continued for overnight. The solid precipitated was filtered, washed with acetone and dried to obtain an amorphous form of titled compound (Yield: 3.50 gm).

Example 2

Preparation of Eluxadoline

Step 1 : Preparation of 5-( {[2-tert-butoxycarbonylamino-3-(4-carbamoyl-2,6-dimethyl- phenyl)-propionyl] – [ 1 -(4-phenyl- 1 W-imidazol-2-yl)-ethyl] -amino } -methyl)-2-methoxy- benzoic acid

Figure imgf000025_0002

Into an ice cooled solution of 5-({[2-tert-butoxycarbonylmethyl-3-(4-carbamoyl- 2,6-dimethyl-phenyl)-propionyl] – [ 1 -(4-phenyl- 1 H-imidazol-2-yl)-ethyl] -amino } -methyl)- 2-methoxy-benzoic acid methyl ester (160 gm) in methanol (800 ml) was added an aqueous solution of lithium hydroxide (29.46 gm in 350 ml water) and resultant mixture was stirred at room temperature for overnight. After completion of reaction, mixture was partially concentrated and further diluted with water. The pH (4-5) was adjusted using 2N citric acid and further stirred for 60 min. The solid precipitated was filtered, washed with water and dried to obtain titled compound (yield: 140 gm). Step 2: Preparation of Eluxadoline

To a stirred solution of 5-( {[2-tert-butoxycarbonylamino-3-(4-carbamoyl-2,6- dimethyl-phenyl)-propionyl] – [ 1 -(4-phenyl- 1 H-imidazol-2-yl)-ethyl] -amino } -methyl)-2- methoxy-benzoic acid (step-1 product, 100 gm) in acetone (1200 ml) was added Cone. HC1 solution (50 ml). The reaction mixture was heated at 40°C-45°C. After completion of reaction, the supernatant solution was decanted; resultant residue was rinsed with acetone and further dissolved in water. The pH (6-7) was adjusted using IN NaOH solution and the precipitated was filtered, washed with water and dried to obtain an amorphous form of eluxadoline (yield: 72 gm).

Example 3

Preparation of Eluxadoline

To a stirred solution of 5-( {[2-tert-butoxycarbonylamino-3-(4-carbamoyl-2,6- dimethyl-phenyl)-propionyl] – [ 1 -(4-phenyl- 1 -imidazol-2-yl)-ethyl] -amino } -methyl)-2- methoxy-benzoic acid (50 gm) in dichloromethane (250 ml) were added solution of Cone. HC1 (50 ml) and water (50 ml). The reaction mixture was heated at 35°C-40°C and further stirred for 10-20 minutes. Tetrahydrofuran (50 ml) & Cone. HC1 (20 ml) were added to the sticky mass and reaction mixture was heated at 40°C for 2 hours. After completion of reaction, the mixture was diluted with water. The pH (6-7) was adjusted using 4N NaOH solution and the obtained sticky mass was dissolved in methanol. The resultant solution was concentrated under vacuum to afford eluxadoline (yield: 16 gm).

Example 4

Preparation of amorphous form of eluxadoline Eluxadoline (1 gm) was dissolved in methanol (20 ml) at 25-30°C. Water (60 ml) was added to the resultant solution and stirred for 15-20 minutes. The resultant slurry was filtered, washed with water and further dried to obtain amorphous form of eluxadoline (Yield: 0.80 gm).

Example 5

Preparation of amorphous form of eluxadoline

Eluxadoline (1 gm) was dissolved in methanol (20 ml) at 25-30°C. Acetone (80 ml) was added to the resultant solution and stirred for 15-20 minutes. The resultant slurry was filtered, washed with acetone and further dried to obtain amorphous form of eluxadoline (Yield: 0.80 gm).

Example 6

Preparation of Form L of eluxadoline

Eluxadoline (1 gm) was charged into flask containing acetonitrile (60 ml) and slurried for 24 hours to 25 hours at 50°C. The resultant solid was filtered, and dried to obtain titled compound (Yield: 0.80 gm).

clip

Eluxadoline (Viberzi)

Eluxadoline, originally developed by Janssen and currently marketed by Allergan (formerly Actavis), was approved in May 2015 by the FDA for the treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D).(60)
Eluxadoline, an orally dosed agent, employs a unique mechanism for IBS-D treatment, as it functions simultaneously as a μ- and κ-opioid receptor agonist and a δ-opioid receptor antagonist,(61) leading to a first-in-class therapy for treatment of IBS-D. Specifically, in animal studies, eluxadoline was found to interact with opioid receptors in the gut, inhibiting neurogenically mediated secretion and reducing intestinal contractility.(62)
Additionally, the treatment led to a decrease in stress-induced acceleration of upper GI transit without causing rebound constipation,(60-62) earning its mark as a first-line therapeutic treatment for IBS-D. In two phase III clinical trials of over 2400 patients with IBS-D, patients taking eluxadoline showed a greater improvement toward the end point (≥30% improvement from their baseline IBS-D score on at least 50% of days treated with eluxadoline) compared to patients treated with placebo.(63)
The synthesis of eluxadoline begins with preparation of advanced coupling component 85, which could be completed via a four-step route from commercially available N-Boc-protected aminoester 83 (Scheme 15).(64) Triflate formation using N-phenyltrifluoromethanesulfinimide in DCM under basic conditions led to nearly quantitative yield of the desired triflate, which was subjected to a carbonylation reaction to yield aryl acid 84 in 94% yield. Employing NH4Cl as a source of ammonia, amidation of 84 took place in the presence of PyBOP/HOBt and DIPEA in DMF. Finally, acid 85 was revealed upon methyl ester saponification with aqueous LiOH in THF. This sequence provided 85 without purification ,and this acid could be used directly as applied in Scheme 16.(64)
Scheme 15. Synthesis of Eluxadoline Intermediate 85
Scheme 16. Synthesis of Eluxadoline (XII)
With coupling component 85 in hand, the synthesis of eluxadoline proceeds as described in Scheme 16 and initiated from a HOBt and EDC·HCl-mediated coupling of commercial N-Cbz-l-alanine (86) with commercial 2-amino acetophenone hydrochloride (87) to provide intermediate 88in 83% yield.(64, 65) Addition of NH4OAc and AcOH to a suspension of 88 in refluxing xylenes furnished the desired imidazole in excellent yield (95%). Submission of this N-Cbz-imidazole to hydrogenation conditions (H2, Pd/C, MeOH) enabled liberation of the free amine to access 89 in quantitative yield following filtration and concentration. From intermediate 89, reductive amination with commercially available aryl aldehyde 90 under standard conditions (NaBH4, MeOH) followed by subsequent coupling of the corresponding crude amine with acid 85 using HOBt/EDC·HCl enabled formation of the carbon framework of eluxadoline (91). Saponification of the ester within 91 with LiOH in MeOH/THF yielded the corresponding acid in quantitative yield. Immediate subjection of this intermediate to acidic conditions (HCl in EtOAc/THF) led to N-Boc cleavage and isolation of eluxadoline (XII) as the bis-HCl salt in 71% yield, requiring no further purification.(64, 65) It should be noted that since this initial report, additional details for the isolation of eluxadoline in high purity in various crystal forms and as a zwitterion have been reported,(66) although most reported routes described isolation of this drug in its HCl salt form.(64, 65)
  1. 60.Garnock-JonesK. P. Eluxadoline: First Global Approval Drugs 2015751305– 1310 DOI: 10.1007/s40265-015-0436-4

  2. 61.DavenportJ. M.CovingtonP.BonifacioL.McIntyreG.VenitzJ. Effect of Uptake Transporters OAT3 and OATP1B1 and Efflux Transporter MRP2 on the Pharmacokinetics of Eluxadoline J. Clin. Pharmacol.201555534– 542 DOI: 10.1002/jcph.442

  3. 62.WadeP. R.PalmerJ. M.McKenneyS.KenigsV.ChevalierK.MooreB. A.MabusJ. R.;SaundersP. R.WallaceN. H.SchneiderC. R.KimballE. S.BreslinH. J.HeW.HornbyP. J.Modulation of Gastrointestinal Function by MuDelta, a Mixed μ Opioid Receptor Agonist/δ Opioid Receptor Antagonist Br. J. Pharmacol. 20121671111– 1125 DOI: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2012.02068.x

  4. 63.LemboA. J.LacyB. E.ZuckermanM. J.ScheyR.DoveL. S.AndraeD. A.DavenportJ. M.;McIntyreG.LopezR.TurnerL.CovingtonP. S. Eluxadoline for Irritable Bowel Syndrome with DiarrheaN. Engl. J. Med. 2016374242– 253 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1505180

  5. 64.BreslinH. J.CaiC.HeW.KavashR. W. Preparation of Imidazole Derivatives as Opioid Receptor Modulators. WO 20050203143A1, 2005.

  6. 65.caiC.HeW. Process for the Preparation of Amino Acid Derivatives as Opioid Modulators. WO 2006099060A1, 2006.
                   12-24-2010
                          NOVEL COMPOUNDS AS OPIOID RECEPTOR MODULATORS
                    8-32-2010
                          Compounds as opioid receptor modulators
                   6-23-2010
                          Compounds as opioid receptor modulators
                   2-12-2010
                          PROCESS FOR THE PREPARATION OF OPIOD MODULATORS
                   12-9-2009
                          Process for the preparation of opioid modulators
US7629488 * Mar 6, 2006 Dec 8, 2009 Janssen Pharmaceutica N.V. Process for the preparation of opioid modulators
US7741356 * Mar 14, 2005 Jun 22, 2010 Janssen Pharmaceutica N.V. Compounds as opioid receptor modulators
US7786158 * Oct 24, 2007 Aug 31, 2010 Janssen Pharmaceutica N.V. Compounds as opioid receptor modulators
US7994206 Jul 7, 2008 Aug 9, 2011 Janssen Pharmaceutica, N.V. Crystals and process of making 5-({[2-amino-3-(4-carbamoyl-2,6-dimethyl-phenyl)-propionyl]-[1-(4-phenyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-ethyl]-amino}-methyl)-2-methoxy-benzoic acid
CN1950342A Mar 14, 2005 Apr 18, 2007 詹森药业有限公司 Novel compounds as opioid receptor modulators

References

  1. Jump up to:a b c “Viberzi (eluxadoline) Tablets, for Oral Use, CIV. Full Prescribing Information”. Actavis Pharma, Inc. Parsippany, NJ 07054 USA. Retrieved 26 December 2015.
  2. ^ “Truberzi”European Medicines Agency. 29 September 2016.
  3. ^ Fragkos, Konstantinos C (2017-09-25). “Spotlight on eluxadoline for the treatment of patients with irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea”Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology10: 229–240. doi:10.2147/ceg.s123621.
  4. ^ “FDA approves two therapies to treat IBS-D”http://www.fda.gov. Retrieved 2015-06-01.
  5. ^ “Viberzi Information from Drugs.com”http://www.drugs.com. Retrieved 2015-06-01.
  6. ^ Limbo AJ, et al. Eluxadoline in Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Diarrhea. NEJM 2016;374:242-53
  7. ^ Commissioner, Office of the (15 March 2017). “Safety Alerts for Human Medical Products – Viberzi (eluxadoline): Drug Safety Communication – Increased Risk of Serious Pancreatitis In Patients Without A Gallbladder”http://www.fda.gov. Retrieved 19 March 2017.
  8. Jump up to:a b Brooks, Megan (March 2017). “FDA: Avoid IBS Drug Viberzi in Patients With No Gallbladder”http://www.medscape.com. Retrieved 2017-09-18.
  9. Jump up to:a b Commissioner, Office of the. “Safety Alerts for Human Medical Products – Viberzi (eluxadoline): Drug Safety Communication – Increased Risk of Serious Pancreatitis In Patients Without A Gallbladder”http://www.fda.gov. Retrieved 2017-09-18.
  10. ^ “bismuth subsalicylate”reference.medscape.com. Retrieved 2016-05-10.
  11. ^ Levy-Cooperman, N; McIntyre, G; Bonifacio, L; McDonnell, M; Davenport, JM; Covington, PS; Dove, LS; Sellers, EM (December 2016). “Abuse Potential and Pharmacodynamic Characteristics of Oral and Intranasal Eluxadoline, a Mixed μ- and κ-Opioid Receptor Agonist and δ-Opioid Receptor Antagonist”The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics359 (3): 471–481. doi:10.1124/jpet.116.236547PMC 5118645PMID 27647873.
  12. ^ “Actavis Announces FDA Acceptance for Filing of NDA for Eluxadoline”http://www.drugs.com. Retrieved 2015-06-01.
  13. ^ “FDA Approves Viberzi (eluxadoline) for Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Diarrhea (IBS-D) in Adults”http://www.drugs.com. Retrieved 2015-06-01.
  14. ^ Davenport, J. Michael; Covington, Paul; Bonifacio, Laura; McIntyre, Gail; Venitz, Jürgen (2015). “Effect of uptake transporters OAT3 and OATP1B1 and efflux transporter MRP2 on the pharmacokinetics of eluxadoline”The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology55 (5): 534–542. doi:10.1002/jcph.442ISSN 0091-2700PMC 4402028.
  15. ^ [1], Process of the Preparation of Opioid modulators.

The active ingredient in VIBERZI is eluxadoline, a mu-opioid receptor agonist.

The full chemical name is 5-[[[(2S)-2-amino-3-[4-(aminocarbonyl)-2,6-dimethylphenyl]-1- oxopropyl][(1S)-1-(4-phenyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)ethyl]amino]methyl]-2-methoxybenzoic acid.

Eluxadoline has a molecular weight of 569.65 and a molecular formula of C32H35N5O5. The chemical structure of eluxadoline is:

VIBERZI (eluxadoline) Structural Formula Illustration

VIBERZI is available as 75 mg and 100 mg tablets for oral administration. In addition to the active ingredient, eluxadoline, each tablet contains the following inactive ingredients: silicified microcrystalline cellulose, colloidal silica, crospovidone, mannitol, magnesium stearate, and Opadry II (partially hydrolyzed polyvinyl alcohol, titanium dioxide, polyethylene glycol, talc, iron oxide yellow, and iron oxide red).

Eluxadoline
Eluxadoline.svg
Eluxadoline ball-and-stick model.png
Clinical data
Trade names Viberzi (US), Truberzi (Europe)
Synonyms JNJ-27018966
License data
Routes of
administration
Oral
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Protein binding 81%
Elimination half-life 3.7–6 hours
Excretion 82.2% (feces), <1% (urine)[1]
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
IUPHAR/BPS
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
Chemical and physical data
Formula C32H35N5O5
Molar mass 569.6508 g/mol
3D model (JSmol)
Patent ID

Title

Submitted Date

Granted Date

US2017304268 OPIOID RECEPTOR MODULATOR DOSAGE FORMULATIONS
2017-05-05
US7629488 Process for the preparation of opioid modulators
2006-09-21
2009-12-08
Patent ID

Title

Submitted Date

Granted Date

US9789125 NOVEL CRYSTALS AND PROCESS OF MAKING 5-(-METHYL)-2-METHOXY-BENZOIC ACID
2016-06-02
US9364489 NOVEL CRYSTALS AND PROCESS OF MAKING 5-(-METHYL)-2-METHOXY-BENZOIC ACID
2015-07-22
2016-01-21
US9701647 Tetrazolones as a carboxylic acid bioisosteres
2016-08-10
2017-07-11
US9439888 Tetrazolones as a carboxylic acid bioisosteres
2016-01-25
2016-09-13
US2010036132 PROCESS FOR THE PREPARATION OF OPIOD MODULATORS
2010-02-11
Patent ID

Title

Submitted Date

Granted Date

US9700542 NOVEL COMPOUNDS AS OPIOID RECEPTOR MODULATORS
2015-10-12
2016-02-04
US9675587 OPIOID RECEPTOR MODULATOR DOSAGE FORMULATIONS
2013-03-14
2014-09-18
US9205076 NOVEL COMPOUNDS AS OPIOID RECEPTOR MODULATORS
2014-05-20
2014-09-11
US9115091 Crystals and process of making 5-({[2-amino-3-(4-carbamoyl-2, 6-dimethyl-phenyl)-propionyl]-[1-(4-phenyl—1H-imidazol-2-yl)-ethyl]-amino}-methyl)-2-methoxy-benzoic acid
2014-08-14
2015-08-25
US8691860 Crystals and process of making 5-({(2-amino-3-(4-carbamoyl-2, 6-dimethyl-phenyl)-propionyl]-[1-(-4-phenyl-1h-imidazol-2-yl)-ethyl]-amino}-methyl)-2-methoxy-benzoic acid
2013-06-24
2014-04-08
Patent ID

Title

Submitted Date

Granted Date

US8772325 Compounds as opioid receptor modulators
2013-10-03
2014-07-08
US8609709 Compounds as opioid receptor modulators
2012-11-30
2013-12-17
US8344011 NOVEL COMPOUNDS AS OPIOID RECEPTOR MODULATORS
2010-12-23
US7786158 Compounds as opioid receptor modulators
2008-04-24
2010-08-31
US7741356 Compounds as opioid receptor modulators
2005-09-15
2010-06-22

//////////////////JNJ-27018966, iberzi, элуксадолин ,إيلوكسادولين ,艾沙多林 ,ELUXADOLINE, FDA 2015, エルクサドリン,

CC1=CC(=CC(=C1CC(C(=O)N(CC2=CC(=C(C=C2)OC)C(=O)O)C(C)C3=NC=C(N3)C4=CC=CC=C4)N)C)C(=O)N

ROLAPITANT, ロラピタント


ROLAPITANT HYDROCHLORIDE

  • Rolapitant HCl
  • Rolapitant hydrochloride
  • Sch 619734
  • SCH619734
  • UNII-57O5S1QSAQ

(5S ,8S)-8-[[(1R)-1-[3 ,5-
Bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl] ethoxy] methyl]-8-phenyl-1,7-
diazaspiro[4.5]decan-2-one hydrochloride monohydrate.

CAS 914462-92-3

Empirical Formula: C25H26F6N2O2 · HCl · H2O, Molecular Weight:  555

USAN Name: Rolapitant hydrochloride, INN Name:  rolapitantum or rolapitant

CAS Number: 552292-08-7 (rolapitant free base); 914462-92-3 (rolapitant HCl monohydrdate).

ChemSpider 2D Image | rolapitant | C25H26F6N2O2

Rolapitant

  • Molecular FormulaC25H26F6N2O2
  • Average mass500.477 Da
(5S,8S)-8-({(1R)-1-[3,5-Bis(trifluorométhyl)phényl]éthoxy}méthyl)-8-phényl-1,7-diazaspiro[4.5]décan-2-one
1,7-Diazaspiro[4.5]decan-2-one, 8-[[(1R)-1-[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]ethoxy]methyl]-8-phenyl-, (5S,8S)-
552292-08-7 [RN]
8882
NLE429IZUC
SCH 619734
SCH-619734
Varubi®
UNII-NLE429IZUC
(5S,8S)-8-(((R)-1-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)ethoxy)methyl)-8-phenyl-1,7-diazaspiro[4.5]decan-2-one
Rolapitant Hydrochloride Hydrate was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on Sep 1, 2015. It was developed by Tesaro, then marketed as Varubi® by Tesaro in US.
Rolapitant Hydrochloride Hydrate is a selective and competitive antagonist of human substance P/NK1 receptors used to treat chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.
Varubi® is available as tablet for oral use, containing 90 mg of free Rolapitant. The recommended dose is 180 mg approximately 1 to 2 hours prior to the start of chemotherapy.
Rolapitant hydrochloride hydrate, originally discovered by Schering-Plough and later developed by TESARO, Inc., was approved by the FDA in September 2015 for the prevention of delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in combination with other antiemetic agents. Rolapitant is a highly selective NK-1 receptor antagonist, exhibiting >1000-fold selectivity for NK-1 over human NK-2 and NK-3 receptors in vitro.
In contrast to other NK-1 inhibitors that play an essential role in delayed CINV therapy, rolapitant shows no inhibition of CYP3A4, eliminating the need for concern when coadministering with CYP34A substrates. Additionally, rolapitant is an orally active agent with a relatively long half-life (180 h), providing potential opportunities for single- and prechemotherapy-based treatments.
In three large clinical trials involving patients receiving moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC) and highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC), subjects using rolapitant as a cotherapy with granisetron and dexamethasone showed a significant improvement in complete response compared to those receiving treatments of granisetron and dexamethasone.

It is in late-stage trials of its drug rolapitant, which showed promising mid-stage results in reducing nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing chemotherapy

Rolapitant hydrochloride is a tachykinin neurokinin 1 (NK1) antagonist in phase III clinical trials at Tesaro for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). Phase II clinical trials are also under way at OPKO for this indication. At Merck & Co., phase II clinical studies were also under way for the treatment of chronic idiopathic cough and for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea; however, no recent developments have been reported for these indications.

NK1 is a G-protein coupled receptor found in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Substance P is the endogenous ligand for this receptor, whose activation leads to the production of inositol triphosphate. NK1 is believed to be involved in the emetic response.

The drug candidate was originally developed by Schering-Plough (now Merck & Co.), and in 2009 it was licensed to OPKO for the prevention of nausea and vomiting related to cancer chemotherapy and surgery. In 2010, rolapitant was licensed by OPKO to Tesaro on a worldwide basis for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

Rolapitant is a selective, bioavailable, CNS penetrant neurokinin NK1 receptor antagonist that shows behavioral effects in animals models of emesis. In vitro studies indicate that rolapitant has a high affinity for the human NK1 receptor of 0.66 nM and high selectivity over the human NK2 and NK3 subtypes of >1000-fold. Rolapitant is a functionally competitive antagonist, as measured by calcium efflux, with a calculated Kb of 0.17 nM.  (source: Pharmacol Biochem Behav.2012 Mar 31.

Rolapitant is a potent, selective NK1 receptor antagonist that is rapidly absorbed, has a remarkably long half-life (up to180 hours), and appears to have a low potential for drug-drug interactions.  A randomized, multicenter, double-blind, dose-ranging study of rolapitant was conducted with placebo and active control groups. Six hundred nineteen adult women undergoing open abdominal surgery were randomly assigned in equal ratios to 1 of 6 study arms: oral rolapitant in 5-mg, 20-mg, 70-mg, or 200-mg doses; IV ondansetron 4 mg; or placebo, stratified by history of PONV or motion sickness. The primary study endpoint was absence of emetic episodes, regardless of use of rescue medication, at 24 hours after extubation.RESULTS: Groups assigned to rolapitant 20-mg, 70-mg, and 200-mg had a higher incidence of no emesis in comparison with placebo at 24 hours after surgery. A linear relationship between rolapitant dose and primary outcome was seen. The probability of an emetic episode was significantly lower in the rolapitant 70-mg and 200-mg groups in comparison with placebo (P ≤ 0.001 based on the log-rank test). No significant differences were noted between rolapitant and the active control (ondansetron) at 24 hours after surgery, but there was a higher incidence of no emesis (regardless of rescue medication use) in the rolapitant 200- and 70-mg groups at 72 and 120 hours, respectively. CONCLUSION: Rolapitant is superior to placebo in reducing emetic episodes after surgery and reduces the incidence of vomiting in a dose-dependent manner. No differences in side effect profile were observed between rolapitant and placebo.

Rolapitant (INN,[2] trade name Varubi /vəˈrbi/ və-ROO-bee in the US and Varuby in Europe) is a drug originally developed by Schering-Plough and licensed for clinical development by Tesaro, which acts as a selective NK1 receptor antagonist (antagonist for the NK1 receptor).[3] It has been approved as a medication for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) after clinical trials showed it to have similar or improved efficacy and some improvement in safety over existing drugs for this application.[4][5][6][7

Medical uses

Rolapitant is used in combination with other antiemetic (anti-vomiting) agents in adults for the prevention of delayed nausea and vomiting associated with initial and repeat courses of emetogenic cancer chemotherapy, including, but not limited to, highly emetogenic chemotherapy.[1] The approved antiemetic combination consists of rolapitant plus dexamethasone and a 5-HT3 antagonist.[8]

Contraindications

Under the US approval, rolapitant is contraindicated in combination with thioridazine, whose inactivation could be inhibited by rolapitant.[9] Under the European approval, it is contraindicated in combination with St. John’s Wort, which is expected to accelerate inactivation of rolapitant.[8]

Side effects

In studies comparing chemotherapy plus rolapitant, dexamethasone and a 5-HT3 antagonist to chemotherapy plus placebo, dexamethasone and a 5-HT3 antagonist, most side effects had comparable frequencies in both groups, and differed more between chemotherapy regimens than between rolapitant and placebo groups. Common side effects included decreased appetite (9% under rolapitant vs. 7% under placebo), neutropenia (9% vs. 8% or 7% vs. 6%, depending on the kind of chemotherapy), dizziness (6% vs. 4%), indigestion and stomatitis (both 4% vs. 2%).[9]

Overdose

Up to eightfold therapeutic doses have been given in studies without problems.[8]

Interactions

Rolapitant moderately inhibits the liver enzyme CYP2D6. Blood plasma concentrations of the CYP2D6 substrate dextromethorphanhave increased threefold when combined with rolapitant; and increased concentrations of other substrates are expected. The drug also inhibits the transporter proteins ABCG2 (breast cancer resistance protein, BCRP) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which has been shown to increase plasma concentrations of the ABCG2 substrate sulfasalazine twofold and the P-gp substrate digoxin by 70%.[8]

Strong inducers of the liver enzyme CYP3A4 decrease the area under the curve of rolapitant and its active metabolite (called M19); for rifampicin, this effect was almost 90% in a study. Inhibitors of CYP3A4 have no relevant effect on rolapitant concentrations.[8]

Pharmacology

Pharmacodynamics

Both rolapitant and its active metabolite M19 block the NK1 receptor with high affinity and selectivity: to block the closely related receptor NK2 or any other of 115 tested receptors and enzymes, more than 1000-fold therapeutic concentrations are necessary.[10]

Pharmacokinetics

The major active metabolite, M19 (C4-pyrrolidine-hydroxylated rolapitant).[8] The stereochemistry of the hydroxyl group is unknown.

Rolapitant is practically completely absorbed from the gut, independently of food intake. It undergoes no measurable first-pass effect in the liver. Highest blood plasma concentrations are reached after about four hours. When in the bloodstream, 99.8% of the substance are bound to plasma proteins.[8]

It is metabolized by the liver enzyme CYP3A4, resulting in the major active metabolite M19 (C4-pyrrolidine-hydroxylated rolapitant) and a number of inactive metabolites. Rolapitant is mainly excreted via the feces (52–89%) in unchanged form, and to a lesser extent via the urine (9–20%) in form of its inactive metabolites. Elimination half-life is about seven days (169 to 183 hours) over a wide dosing range.[8]

Chemistry

The drug is used in form of rolapitant hydrochloride monohydrate, a white to off-white, slightly hygroscopic crystalline powder. Its maximum solubility in aqueous solutions is at pH 2–4.[10]

Patents

WO 2003051840

PATENT

WO 2008118328

The preparation of diazaspirodecan-2-ones for example, 8-[{1-(3,5-Bis-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-ethoxy}-methyl]-8-phenyl-1,7-diaza-spiro[4.5]decan-2-one, for example, (5S,8S)-8-[{(1R)-1-(3,5-Bis-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-ethoxy}-methyl]-8-phenyl-1,7-diazaspiro[4.5]decan-2-one (the compound of Formula I) has been described in U.S. Pat. No. 7,049,320 (the ‘320 patent), issued May 23, 2006, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein in its entirety by reference.

Figure US08552191-20131008-C00001

The compounds described in the ‘320 patent are classified as tachykinin compounds, and are antagonists of neuropeptide neurokinin-1 receptors (herein, “NK-1” receptor antagonists). Other NKreceptor antagonists and their synthesis have been described, for example, those described in Wu et al, Tetrahedron 56, 3043-3051 (2000); Rombouts et al, Tetrahedron Letters 42, 7397-7399 (2001); and Rogiers et al, Tetrahedron 57, 8971-8981 (2001) and in published international application no. WO05/100358, each of which are incorporated herein in their entirety by reference.

“NK-1” receptor antagonists have been shown to be useful therapeutic agents, for example, in the treatment of pain, inflammation, migraine, emesis (vomiting), and nociception. Among many compounds disclosed in the above-mentioned ‘320 patent are several novel diazaspirodecan-2-ones, including the compound of Formula I, which are useful in the treatment of nausea and emesis associated with chemotherapy treatments (Chemotherapy-induced nausea and emesis, CINE).

The synthesis method for preparing the compound of Formula I described in the ‘320 patent generally follows Scheme I in the provision of 8-[{1-(3,5-Bis-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-ethoxyl}-methyl]-8-phenyl-1,7-diaza-spiro[4.5]decan-2-one compounds.

Figure US08552191-20131008-C00002
Figure US08552191-20131008-C00003
Figure US08552191-20131008-C00004

The process for the preparation of the compound of Formula I described in the ‘320 patent is carried out in 18 individual steps from commercially available starting materials (see the ‘320 patent at col. 43, line 55 to col. 45, line 20; col. 75. line 55 to col. 80, line 21; col. 90 lines 35 to 63; and col. 98, line 1 to col. 99. line 24). In many steps of the process described in the ‘320 patent, intermediate compounds must be isolated or isolated and purified before use in a subsequent step, often utilizing column chromatography for this purpose.

PATENT

US7049320

Examples 72a and 72b

Figure US07049320-20060523-C00153

Step 1:

Figure US07049320-20060523-C00154

To a solution of crude Compound 53 (19 g) in CH2Cl(300 ml) at RT, DIEA (15 ml, 0.087 mol) was added, followed by triphosgene (4.34 g, 0.015 mol). The mixture was stirred at RT for 18 h and was filtered through a pad of silica. Solvents were removed in vacuum to give crude Compound 60 as yellow oil which was used in the next reaction without further purifications.

Step 2:

Figure US07049320-20060523-C00155

To the crude Compound 60 in THF (200 ml) at 0° C., LiBH(1.26 g, 0.058 mol) was added in small portions. The mixture was stirred at RT for 18 h before quenching with saturated NH4Cl solution. Water and EtOAc were added to the mixture. Layers were separated and the aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (100×2). The combined organic layers were dried (MgSO4) and filtered. Solvents were removed in vacuum and purification by column chromatography [hexane-EtOAc, 4:1 (v/v)] gave Compound 61 (12.9 g, 62% overall) as white foam.

Step 3:

Oxalyl chloride (4.2 ml, 0.048 mol) was added to a solution of DMSO (6.8 m[, 0.096) in CH2Cl(300 ml) at −78° C. under N2. The mixture was stirred at −78° C. for 15 min before a solution of Compound 61 (8.5 g, 0.012 mol) in CH2Cl(100 ml) was added. The mixture was stirred at −78° C. for a further 1 h and Et3N (23.5 ml) was added. The cooling bath was removed and the mixture was warmed to RT before it was quenched with saturated NaHCOsolution. Layers were separated and the aqueous was extracted with CH2Cl(150 ml×2). The combined organic layers were dried (MgSO4) and filtered. Removal of solvents in vacuum gave an aldehyde as yellow oil. To a mixture of NaH (1.44 g, 0.036 mol) in THF at 0° C., methyl diethylphosphonoacetate (6.6 ml, 0.036 mol) was added. The mixture was stirred at 0° C. for 15 min and a solution of aldehyde in THF (100 ml) was added. The cooling bath was removed and the mixture was stirred at RT for 1 h. The reaction was quenched with saturated NH4Cl solution. Water and EtOAc were added to the mixture. Layers were separated and the aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (200 ml×2). The combined organic layers were dried (MgSO4) and filtered. Solvents were removed in vacuum and purification by column chromatography [hexane-EtOAc, 4:1 (v/v)] gave an ester as white foam. The ester was dissolved in EtOH (100 ml) and a catalytic amount of palladium (1.28 g, 10% on carbon) was added. The mixture was shaken under H(50 psi) for 2 days. Catalytic amount of Pd(OH)(20% on carbon) was then added to the mixture and the mixture was again shaken under H(50 psi) for 5 h. The mixture was filtered through a pad of Celite and solvents were removed in vacuum to give a white foam. The foam was then dissolved in CH2Cl(200 ml) and TFA (8.9 ml, 0.12 mol) was added. The mixture was stirred at RT for 18 h and was cooled at 0° C. before it was neutralized with saturated NaHCOsolution. Water and EtOAc were added to the mixture. Layers were separated and the aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (200 ml×2). The combined organic layers were dried (MgSO4) and filtered. Solvents were removed in vacuum to give a yellow oil. The oil was dissolved in CH3OH (50 ml) and a catalytic amount of K2CO(166 mg, 0.0012 mol) was added. The mixture was heated at 60° C. for 2 h. After being cooled to RT, the mixture was filtered through a pad of silica and solvents were removed in vacuum. Purification by column chromatography (EtOAc) gave the mixture of two isomers Example 72a and 72b (2.3 g, 38% overall) as white foam. Separation by HPLC using Chiralcel OD [hexane-isopropanol, 95:5 (v/v)] gave the less polar major isomer Example 72a as white foam. Electrospray MS [M+1]+=501.1. Continuous elution with the same solvent system gave the more polar minor isomer Example 72b as colorless oil.

Electrospray MS [M+1]+=501.1.

PATENT

US8552191

Figure US08552191-20131008-C00028

Figure US08552191-20131008-C00029

Figure US08552191-20131008-C00030

Figure US08552191-20131008-C00031

Figure US08552191-20131008-C00032

Example 6 Preparation of Formula I Compound Salt: (5S,8S)-8-({(1R)-1-[3,5-Bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]ethoxy}methyl)-8-phenyl-1,7-diazaspiro[4.5]decan-2-one hydrochloride monohydrate

Figure US08552191-20131008-C00033

…………………

Figure US08552191-20131008-C00016

Figure US08552191-20131008-C00017

https://www.google.it/patents/US8552191?hl=it&dq=WO+2008118328&ei=alDCUs-_KYiIrQeg3oCwDw&cl=en

……………

update added

By RTT News,  May 12, 2014,

(RTTNews.com) – TESARO Inc. ( TSRO ) announced positive top-line results from the third and final Phase 3 trial of rolapitant, an investigational neurokinin-1 or NK-1 receptor antagonist in development for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV).

The rolapitant arm in this trial, which enrolled patients receiving cisplatin-based, highly emetogenic chemotherapy or HEC, successfully achieved statistical significance over the standard therapy arm for the primary and all secondary endpoints. The adverse event profile for rolapitant remains consistent with that seen in previous clinical studies.

The third Phase 3 study of rolapitant was an international, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled study that enrolled 532 cancer patients receiving cisplatin-based chemotherapy regimens at a dose equal to or greater than 60 mg/m2. Patients were randomized to receive either control, which consisted of a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist plus dexamethasone, or 200 milligrams of oral rolapitant plus control. The rolapitant arm in this study successfully achieved statistical significance over the control arm for the primary endpoint of complete response (CR) in the delayed phase of CINV.

In addition, the rolapitant arm also successfully achieved statistical significance over the control arm for the key secondary endpoints of CR in the acute (0 to 24 hour) and overall (0 to 120 hour) phases of CINV, for the secondary endpoint of no significant nausea, and for all other secondary endpoints.

Safety and tolerability data for patients who received rolapitant were similar to the results for those who received control, and were consistent with earlier clinical studies. The most frequently observed adverse events were balanced across treatment arms and included fatigue, constipation and loss of appetite.

The company noted that preparations continue in support of a submission of a New Drug Application (NDA) to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in mid-2014.

The oral rolapitant NDA will include data from one Phase 3 study in patients receiving moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC), in addition to one Phase 2 and two Phase 3 trials in patients receiving cisplatin-based, highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC), including the trial announced today.

The top-line results of the Phase 3 trial in MEC and the prior Phase 3 trial in HEC were previously announced by TESARO in December 2013.

Rolapitant is an investigational agent and, as such, has not been approved by the U.S. FDA or any regulatory agencies.

CLIP

Rolapitant Hydrochloride Hydrate (Varubi)

Rolapitant hydrochloride hydrate, originally discovered by Schering-Plough and later developed by TESARO, Inc., was approved by the FDA in September 2015 for the prevention of delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in combination with other antiemetic agents.(67) Rolapitant is a highly selective NK-1 receptor antagonist, exhibiting >1000-fold selectivity for NK-1 over human NK-2 and NK-3 receptors in vitro.(68) In contrast to other NK-1 inhibitors that play an essential role in delayed CINV therapy,(69) rolapitant shows no inhibition of CYP3A4,(68)eliminating the need for concern when coadministering with CYP34A substrates. Additionally, rolapitant is an orally active agent with a relatively long half-life (180 h),(68, 70) providing potential opportunities for single- and prechemotherapy-based treatments.(71)
In three large clinical trials involving patients receiving moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC) and highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC), subjects using rolapitant as a cotherapy with granisetron and dexamethasone showed a significant improvement in complete response compared to those receiving treatments of granisetron and dexamethasone.(70, 72)
Rolapitant features a fascinating molecular architecture consisting of two tetrasubstituted stereogenic carbon centers situated at the 2- and 5-carbons within a central piperidine ring and a spirocyclic array residing at the 5-position and a phenyl ring and ethereal linkage branching from the 2-position (Scheme 17). The overall synthetic strategy to secure rolapitant hydrochloride hydrate relies upon the union of two advanced chiral building blocks that contain functional groups capable of securing the central piperidine ring. These two key intermediates, pyroglutamate derivative 93 and allylic amine 94, each bear one of the essential stereocenters embedded within the structure of the active pharmaceutical ingredient.(73) The first of these advanced intermediates, amidoaldehyde 93, is generated directly by base-mediated decomposition of pyroglutamic aminal 92, which was prepared according to the route shown in Scheme 18. Subjection of 92 to triethylamine in EtOH/H2O at ambient temperatures led to generation of chiral allyl aldehyde 93, which was not isolated but condensed immediately with amine 94 (Scheme 19) in the presence of refluxing toluene to provide divinyl imine 95, which underwent immediate reduction using NaBH(OAc)3 in AcOH/toluene to furnish the free amine.
The free amine was converted to the corresponding tosylate monohydrate salt and triturated, providing 96 as a white crystalline powder after subjection to TsOH·H2O in i-PrOH/H2O. Divinyl amine 96 could then be reacted with a solution of TsOH in toluene, distilled, and directly combined with a toluene solution of Hoveyda–Grubbs second-generation catalyst (HG-II) under heating conditions, leading to the desired ring-closing metathesis product 97 as the HCl salt (85% yield over two steps) after filtration, distillation, and workup with 12N HCl. Washing of a toluene solution of 97 with aqueous NaOH and subsequent treatment of the resulting organic solution with H2, wet Pd/C, and additional granular activated carbon (Nuchar Aquaguard) led to the fully reduced piperidine product in high yield (95%). Rolapitant hydrochloride hydrate XIII was accessed thereafter by precipitation from a solution of EtOH/i-PrOH/H2O/HCl, providing the product as a white solid (91% yield).(73)
 Figure
Scheme 17. Synthesis of Rolapitant Hydrochloride Hydrate (XIII)
Figure
Scheme 18. Synthesis of Fragment 92 of Rolapitant Hydrochloride Hydrate (XIII)
Figure
Scheme 19. Synthesis of Fragment 94 of Rolapitant Hydrochloride Hydrate (XIII)
Aldehyde precursor 92 was accessed in a four-step sequence starting from commercially available l-pyroglutamic acid 98 (Scheme 18).(73, 74) Condensation of 98 with trimethylacetaldehyde at elevated temperatures in the presence of methanesulfonic acid and NMP prior to careful addition of TFAA led to formation of pyrrolo-oxazolidone 99 in 72% yield. Deprotonation (LHMDS) and stereoselective alkylation of 99 with methyl formate, assisted by addition of copper chloride as a Lewis acid, provided access to carbaldehyde 100 in moderate yield (61%) as a single diastereomer(74) after aqueous workup and crystallization from MTBE.
Wittig olefination of aldehyde 100 (Ph3PCH3Br/LHMDS) followed by aqueous workup and precipitation of triphenylphosphine oxide via addition of MgCl2 constructed an allyl lactone intermediate in 63% yield as an off-white solid, which then immediately underwent partial reduction with LiAlH(Ot-Bu)3to smoothly deliver the key aldehyde precursor 92 in 83% yield as an inconsequential mixture of diastereomers (the stereocenter of consequence arose from the naturally occurring l-pyroglutamic acid 98), which could be employed directly in Scheme 17.(73)
Generation of 94 began with commercially available N-Cbz-(S)-phenylglycine 101 based on reports by O’Donnell and co-workers (Scheme 19).(75) Reaction of 101 with benzaldehyde dimethylacetal under Lewis acid conditions (BF3·Et2O) in diethyl ether led to high yield, diastereoselectivity, and enantioselectivity of trans-disubstituted oxazolidinone 102. In this case, selection of diethyl ether as a solvent was essential, as the use of DCM under similar reaction conditions favored formation of the undesired cis-product. Removal of the most acidic proton within 102 by means of KHMDS in toluene/THF, followed by alkylation with commercially available bromomethyl ether (103) in THF, led to 68% yield of 104 as a single diastereomer.(73, 76)
Reduction of 104 to the corresponding lactol (LiAlH4/Et2O) and subsequent ring opening with KHCO3/H2O in NMP yielded the intermediate aldehyde, which was readily converted to 105 via addition of the crude aldehyde solution to a mixture of Ph3PCH3Br and NaHMDS in toluene.
As described in Scheme 15, triphenylphosphine oxide scavenge by way of MgCl2 enabled generation of crude product in good purity after a simple filtration. TMSI-mediated Cbz removal converted 105to the resulting free amine. Formation of the maleic acid salt enabled the product to be isolated as a crystalline solid in high purity without chromatography. Treatment of the maleate salt with NaOH in toluene provided the free base 94, which was incorporated as previously described in Scheme 17 without the need for additional purification.(73)
  1. 67 . SyedY. Y. Rolapitant: First Global Approval Drugs 2015751941– 1945 DOI: 10.1007/s40265-015-0485-8

  2. 68.DuffyR. A.MorganC.NaylorR.HigginsG. A.VartyG. B.LachowiczJ. E.ParkerE. M. Rolapitant (SCH 619734): A Potent, Selective and Orally Active Neurokinin NK1 Receptor Antagonist with Centrally-mediated Antiemetic Effects in Ferrets Pharmacol., Biochem. Behav. 201210295– 100 DOI: 10.1016/j.pbb.2012.03.021

  3. 69.JanelsinsM. C.TejaniM. A.KamenC.PeoplesA. R.MustianK. M.MorrowG. R. Current Pharmacotherapy for Chemotherapy-induced Nausea and Vomiting in Cancer Patients Expert Opin. Pharmacother. 201314757– 766 DOI: 10.1517/14656566.2013.776541

  4. 70.NavariR. M. Rolapitant for the Treatment of Chemotherapy-induced Nausea and Vomiting Expert Rev. Anticancer Ther. 2015151127– 1133 DOI: 10.1586/14737140.2015.1088787

  5. 71.RomeroD. Chemotherapy Rolapitant – a New and Safer Antiemetic Agent Nat. Rev. Clin. Oncol. 201512,562 DOI: 10.1038/nrclinonc.2015.144

  6. 72.(a) SchwartzbergL. S.ModianoM. R.RapoportB. L.ChasenM. R.GridelliC.UrbanL.PomaA.;AroraS.NavariR. M.SchnadigI. D. Safety and Efficacy of Rolapitant for Prevention of Chemotherapy-induced Nausea and Vomiting after Administration of Moderately Emetogenic Chemotherapy or Anthracycline and Cyclophosphamide Regimens in Patients with Cancer: a Randomised, Active-controlled, Double-blind, Phase 3 Trial Lancet Oncol. 2015161071– 1078 DOI: 10.1016/S1470-2045(15)00034-0

    (b) RapoportB.SchwartzbergL.ChasenM.PowersD.AroraS.;NavariR.SchnadigI. Efficacy and Safety of Rolapitant for Prevention of Chemotherapy-induced Nausea and Vomiting Over Multiple Cycles of Moderately or Highly Emetogenic Chemotherapy Eur. J. Cancer 2016,5723– 30 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejca.2015.12.023

  7. 73.WuG. G.WerneG.FuX.OrrR. K.ChenF. X.CuiJ.SpragueV. M.ZhangF.XieJ.ZengL.;CastellanosL. P.ChenY.PoirierM.MergelsbergI. Process and Intermediates for the Synthesis of 8-[[1-[3,5-bis-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]ethoxy]methyl]-8-phenyl-1,7-diazaspiro[4.5]decan-2-one Compounds. WO 2010028232A1, 2010.

  8. 74.DikshitD. K.MaheshwariA.PandayS. K. Self Reproduction of Chirality in Pyroglutamates: Reactions at α-Position with Electrophiles Tetrahedron Lett. 1995366131– 6134 DOI: 10.1016/0040-4039(95)01160-J

  9. 75.O’DonnellM. J.FangZ.MaX.HuffmanJ. C. New Methodology for the Synthesis of α,α-Dialkylamino Acids Using the ″Self-regeneration of Stereocenters″ Method: α-Ethyl-α-phenylglycine Heterocycles 1997,46617– 630 DOI: 10.3987/COM-97-S83

  10. 76.PaliwalS.ReichardG. A.WangC.XiaoD.TsuiH.-C.ShihN.-Y.ArredondoJ. D.WrobleskiM. L.;PalaniA. Preparation of Pyrrolidine and Piperidine Derivatives for Therapeutic Use as Neurokinin 1 (NK1) Receptor Antagonists. WO 2003051840A1, 2003.

REF

HETEROCYCLES 1997 46  PG 617 630

Paper | Special issue | Vol 46, No. 1, 1997, pp.617-630
Published online, 1st January, 1970

DOI: 10.3987/COM-97-S83
■ New Methodology for the Synthesis of α,α-Dialkylamino Acids Using the “Self-Regeneration of Stereocenters” Method: α-Ethyl-α-phenylglycine

Martin J. O’Donnell,* Zhiqiang Fang, Xiaojun Ma, and John C. Huffman

*Department of Chemistry, Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN 46202, U.S.A.

Abstract

The stereoselective room temperature ethylations of protected oxazolidinones from phenylglycine by phase-transfer catalysis or with KOtBu as base are used to prepare optically active α-ethyl-α-phenylglycine.

PATENT

https://patents.google.com/patent/CN106866669A/en

⑴ Route A:

Figure CN106866669AD00041

[0005] ⑵ Route B:

Figure CN106866669AD00051

[0007] (3) Route C:

Figure CN106866669AD00052

[0009] Scheme C, wherein the method further comprises synthesizing Via, namely:

Figure CN106866669AD00061

Won] now, with respect to the other two routes, from the reaction step, time costs, material costs, product yield and product purity of view, comparing the current line C is respected, it is more suitable for production. But even so, there are still a number of route C the following questions:

[0012] [1], the synthesis of compound V, there is a slow reaction, and the reaction was not complete and so on;

[0013] [2], when Via a salt, the desired product is low chiral purity and yield to be improved;

[0014] [3], when VIII recrystallized grain size to be improved.

CLIP

Image result for rolapitant synthesis

References

1: Gan TJ, Gu J, Singla N, Chung F, Pearman MH, Bergese SD, Habib AS, Candiotti KA, Mo Y, Huyck S, Creed MR, Cantillon M; Rolapitant Investigation Group. Rolapitant for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting: a prospective, double-blinded, placebo-controlled randomized trial. Anesth Analg.
2011 Apr;112(4):804-12. Epub 2011 Mar 8. PubMed PMID: 21385988.

2.  Reddy GK, Gralla RJ, Hesketh PJ. Novel neurokinin-1 antagonists as antiemetics for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced emesis. Support Cancer Ther. 2006 Apr 1;3(3):140-2. PubMed PMID: 18632487.

3. Drug Data Rep 2003, 25(8): 703

4. A multicenter, randomized, double blind, active-controlled study of the safety and efficacy of rolapitant for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in subjects receiving moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (NCT01500226)
ClinicalTrials.gov Web Site 2012, February 06

5. Efficacy and safety of rolapitant, a novel NK-1 receptor antagonist, for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in subjects receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy
48th Annu Meet Am Soc Clin Oncol (ASCO) (June 1-5, Chicago) 2012, Abst 9077

6. Proposed international nonproprietary names (Prop. INN): List 97
WHO Drug Inf 2007, 21(2): 160

References

  1. Jump up to:a b “Varubi (rolapitant) Tablets, for Oral Use. Full Prescribing Information” (PDF). TESARO, Inc. 1000 Winter St., #3300, Waltham, MA 02451.
  2. ^ “International Nonproprietary Names for Pharmaceutical Substances (INN). Recommended International Nonproprietary Names (Rec. INN): List 59” (PDF). World Health Organization. p. 64. Retrieved 5 October 2016.
  3. ^ Duffy, R. A; Morgan, C; Naylor, R; Higgins, G. A; Varty, G. B; Lachowicz, J. E; Parker, E. M (2012). “Rolapitant (SCH 619734): a potent, selective and orally active neurokinin NK1 receptor antagonist with centrally-mediated antiemetic effects in ferrets”. Pharmacol Biochem Behav102 (1): 95–100. doi:10.1016/j.pbb.2012.03.021PMID 22497992.
  4. ^ Jordan, K; Jahn, F; Aapro, M (2015). “Recent developments in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV): a comprehensive review”. Ann Oncol26 (6): 1081–90. doi:10.1093/annonc/mdv138PMID 25755107.
  5. ^ Nasir, S. S; Schwartzberg, L. S (2016). “Recent Advances in Preventing Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting”. Oncology30 (8): 750–62. PMID 27539626.
  6. ^ Rapoport, B; Schwartzberg, L; Chasen, M; Powers, D; Arora, S; Navari, R; Schnadig, I (2016). “Efficacy and safety of rolapitant for prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting over multiple cycles of moderately or highly emetogenic chemotherapy”. Eur J Cancer57: 23–30. doi:10.1016/j.ejca.2015.12.023PMID 26851398.
  7. ^ Chasen, M. R; Rapoport, B. L (2016). “Rolapitant for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: a review of the clinical evidence”. Future Oncol12 (6): 763–78. doi:10.2217/fon.16.11PMID 26842387.
  8. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h “Varuby: EPAR – Product Information” (PDF)European Medicines Agency. 2017-05-31.
  9. Jump up to:a b FDA Professional Drug Information on Varubi. Accessed 2017-10-11.
  10. Jump up to:a b “Varuby: EPAR – Public assessment report” (PDF)European Medicines Agency. 2017-05-31.
Rolapitant
Rolapitant.svg
Clinical data
Pronunciation /rˈlæpɪtænt/ roh-LAP-i-tant
Trade names Varubi (US), Varuby (EU)
Synonyms SCH 619734
AHFS/Drugs.com varubi
License data
Routes of
administration
By mouth (tablets)
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability nearly 100%
Protein binding 99.8%
Metabolism CYP3A4
Metabolites C4-pyrrolidine-hydroxylated rolapitant (major)
Elimination half-life 169–183 hours
Excretion Feces (52–89%), urine (9–20%)[1]
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
IUPHAR/BPS
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
Chemical and physical data
Formula C25H26F6N2O2
Molar mass 500.476 g/mol
3D model (JSmol)
/////////////ROLAPITANT, ロラピタント, FDA 2015, Schering-Plough, TESARO,
%d bloggers like this: