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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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Reldesemtiv


Reldesemtiv.png

Image result for Reldesemtiv

Reldesemtiv

CK-2127107

CAS 1345410-31-2

UNII-4S0HBYW6QE, 4S0HBYW6QE

MW 384.4 g/mol, MF C19H18F2N6O

1-[2-({[trans-3-fluoro-1-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutyl]methyl}amino)pyrimidin-5-yl]-1H-pyrrole-3- carboxamide

1-[2-[[3-fluoro-1-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutyl]methylamino]pyrimidin-5-yl]pyrrole-3-carboxamide

Reldesemtiv, also known as CK-2127107, is a skeletal muscle troponin activator (FSTA) and is a potential treatment for people living with debilitating diseases and conditions associated with neuromuscular or non-neuromuscular dysfunction, muscular weakness, and/or muscle fatigue such as SMA, COPD, and ALS.

Cytokinetics , in collaboration with  Astellas , is developing reldesemtiv, the lead from a program of selective fast skeletal muscle troponin activators, in an oral suspension formulation, for the treatment of indications associated with neuromuscular dysfunction, including spinal muscular atrophy and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  • Originator Cytokinetics
  • Developer Astellas Pharma; Cytokinetics
  • Class Pyridines; Pyrimidines; Pyrroles; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action Troponin stimulants
  • Orphan Drug Status Yes – Spinal muscular atrophy
  • Phase II Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; Spinal muscular atrophy
  • Suspended Muscle fatigue
  • No development reported Muscular atrophy
  • 05 May 2019 Safety and efficacy data from the phase II FORTITUDE-ALS trial in Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis presented at the American Academy of Neurology Annual Meeting (AAN-2019)
  • 07 Mar 2019 Cytokinetics completes the phase III FORTITUDE-ALS trial for Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in USA, Australia, Canada, Spain, Ireland and Netherlands (PO) (NCT03160898)
  • 22 Jan 2019 Cytokinetics plans a phase I trial in Healthy volunteers in the first quarter of 2019

Reldesemtiv, a next-generation, orally-available, highly specific small-molecule is being developed by Cytokinetics, in collaboration with Astellas Pharma, for the improvement of skeletal muscle function associated with neuromuscular dysfunction, muscle weakness and/or muscle fatigue in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The drug candidate is a fast skeletal muscle troponin activator (FSTA) or troponin stimulant intended to slow the rate of calcium release from the regulatory troponin complex of fast skeletal muscle fibers. Clinical development for ALS, COPD and SMA is underway in the US, Australia, Canada, Ireland, Netherlands and Spain. No recent reports of development had been identified for phase I development for muscular atrophy in the US. Due to lack of of efficacy determined at interim analysis Cytokinetics suspended phase I trial in muscle fatigue in the elderly.

The cytoskeleton of skeletal and cardiac muscle cells is unique compared to that of all other cells. It consists of a nearly crystalline array of closely packed cytoskeletal proteins called the sarcomere. The sarcomere is elegantly organized as an interdigitating array of thin and thick filaments. The thick filaments are composed of myosin, the motor protein responsible for transducing the chemical energy of ATP hydrolysis into force and directed movement. The thin filaments are composed of actin monomers arranged in a helical array. There are four regulatory proteins bound to the actin filaments, which allows the contraction to be modulated by calcium ions. An influx of intracellular calcium initiates muscle contraction; thick and thin filaments slide past each other driven by repetitive interactions of the myosin motor domains with the thin actin filaments.

[0003] Of the thirteen distinct classes of myosin in human cells, the myosin-II class is responsible for contraction of skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle. This class of myosin is significantly different in amino acid composition and in overall structure from myosin in the other twelve distinct classes. Myosin-II forms homo-dimers resulting in two globular head domains linked together by a long alpha-helical coiled-coiled tail to form the core of the sarcomere’s thick filament. The globular heads have a catalytic domain where the actin binding and ATPase functions of myosin take place. Once bound to an actin filament, the release of phosphate (cf. ADP-Pi to ADP) signals a change in structural conformation of the catalytic domain that in turn alters the orientation of the light-chain binding lever arm domain that extends from the globular head; this movement is termed the powerstroke. This change in orientation of the myosin head in relationship to actin causes the thick filament of which it is a part to move with respect to the thin actin filament to which it is bound. Un-binding of the globular head from the actin filament (Ca2+ regulated) coupled with return of the catalytic domain and light chain to their starting conformation/orientation completes the catalytic cycle, responsible for intracellular movement and muscle contraction.

Tropomyosin and troponin mediate the calcium effect on the interaction on actin and myosin. The troponin complex is comprised of three polypeptide chains: troponin C, which binds calcium ions; troponin I, which binds to actin; and troponin T, which binds to tropomyosin. The skeletal troponin-tropomyosin complex regulates the myosin binding sites extending over several actin units at once.

Troponin, a complex of the three polypeptides described above, is an accessory protein that is closely associated with actin filaments in vertebrate muscle. The troponin complex acts in conjunction with the muscle form of tropomyosin to mediate the

Ca2+ dependency of myosin ATPase activity and thereby regulate muscle contraction. The troponin polypeptides T, I, and C, are named for their tropomyosin binding, inhibitory, and calcium binding activities, respectively. Troponin T binds to tropomyosin and is believed to be responsible for positioning the troponin complex on the muscle thin filament. Troponin I binds to actin, and the complex formed by troponins I and T, and tropomyosin inhibits the interaction of actin and myosin. Skeletal troponin C is capable of binding up to four calcium molecules. Studies suggest that when the level of calcium in the muscle is raised, troponin C exposes a binding site for troponin I, recruiting it away from actin. This causes the tropomyosin molecule to shift its position as well, thereby exposing the myosin binding sites on actin and stimulating myosin ATPase activity.

U.S. Patent No. 8962632 discloses l-(2-((((trans)-3-fluoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutyl)methyl)amino)pyrimidin-5-yl)-lH-pyrrole-3-carboxamide, a next-generation fast skeletal muscle troponin activator (FSTA) as a potential treatment for people living with debilitating diseases and conditions associated with neuromuscular or non-neuromuscular dysfunction, muscular weakness, and/or muscle fatigue.

PATENT

WO 2011133888

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2011133888&recNum=202&docAn=US2011033614&queryString=&maxRec=57668

PATENT

WO2016039367 ,

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2016039367&tab=FULLTEXT

claiming the use of a similar compound for treating stress urinary incontinence.

Compound A is 1- [2-({[trans-3-fluoro-1- (3-fluoropyridin-2-yl) cyclobutyl] methyl} amino) pyrimidin-5-yl] -1H Pyrrole-3-carboxamide, which is the compound described in Example 14 of the aforementioned US Pat. The chemical structure is as shown below.
[Chemical formula 1]

PATENT

WO-2019133605

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2019133605&tab=PCTDESCRIPTION&_cid=P11-JXY4C3-99085-1

Process for preparing reldesemtiv , a myosin, actin, tropomyosin, troponin C, troponin I, troponin T modulator, useful for treating neuromuscular disorders, muscle wasting, claudication and metabolic syndrome.

Scheme 1

[0091] Scheme 1 illustrates a scheme of synthesizing the compound of Formula (1C).

Scheme 2

[0092] Scheme 2 illustrates an alternative scheme of synthesizing the compound of Formula (1C).

M

TFAA DS, toluene

Et

to


HCI, H20

50°C

Scheme 3

[0093] Scheme 3 illustrates a scheme of converting the compound of Formula (1C) to the compound of Formula (II).

H2

Ni Raney

NH3

Scheme 4

[0094] Scheme 4 illustrates a scheme of converting the compound of Formula (II) to the compound of Formula (1).

Examples

[0095] To a flask was added N-methylpyrrolidone (30 mL), tert-butyl cyanoacetate (8.08 g) at room temperature. To a resulting solution was added potassium tert-butoxide (7.71 g), l,3-dibromo-2,2-dimethoxy propane (5.00 g) at 0 °C. To another flask, potassium iodide (158 mg), 2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol (42 mg), N-methylpyrrolidone (25 mL) were added at room temperature and then resulting solution was heated to 165 °C. To this solution, previously prepared mixture was added dropwise at 140-165 °C, then stirred for 2 hours at 165 °C. To the reaction mixture, water (65 mL) was added. A resulting solution was extracted with toluene (40 mL, three times) and then combined organic layer was washed with water (20 mL, three times) and 1N NaOH aq. (20 mL). A resulting organic layer was concentrated below 50 °C under reduced pressure to give 3, 3 -dimethoxy cyclobutane- l-carbonitrile (66% yield,

GC assay) as toluene solution. 1H MR (CDCl3, 400 MHz) d 3.17 (s, 3H), 3.15 (s, 3H), 2.93-2.84 (m, 1H), 2.63-2.57 (m, 2H), 2.52-2.45 (m, 2H).

Example 2 Synthesis of methyl 3,3-dimethoxycyclobutane-l-carboxylate

[0096] A reactor was vacuumed to 0.02 MPa and less and then inerted with nitrogen to atmosphere for three times. MeOH (339.00 kg), 3-oxocyclobutanecarboxylic acid (85.19 kg, 746.6 mol, 1.0 eq.), Amberlyst-l5 ion exchange resin (8.90 kg, 10% w/w), and

trimethoxymethane (196.00 kg, 1847.3 mol, 2.5 eq.) were charged into the reactor and the resulting mixture was heated to 55±5°C and reacted for 6 hours to give methyl 3,3-dimethoxycyclobutane-l-carboxylate solution in MeOH. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz) d 3.70 (s, 3H), 3.17 (s, 3H), 3.15 (s, 3H), 2.94-2.85 (m, 1H), 2.47-2.36 (m, 4H).

Example 3 Synthesis of 3, 3-dimethoxycyclobutane-l -carboxamide

[0097] The methyl 3, 3 -dimethoxy cyclobutane- l-carboxylate solution in MeOH prepared as described in Example 2 was cooled to below 25°C and centrifuged. The filter cake was washed with MeOH(7.00 kg) and the filtrate was pumped to the reactor. The solution was concentrated under vacuum below 55°C until the system had no more than 2 volumes. MeOH

(139.40 kg) was charged to the reactor and the solution was concentrated under vacuum below 55°C until the system had no more than 2 volumes. MeOH (130.00 kg) was charged to the reactor and the solution was concentrated under vacuum below 55°C until the system had no more than 2 volumes. Half of the resulting solution was diluted with MeOH (435.00 kg) and cooled to below 30°C. NH3 gas (133.80 kg) was injected into the reactor below 35°C for

24 hours. The mixture was stirred at 40±5°C for 72 hours. The resulting solution was

concentrated under vacuum below 50°C until the system had no more than 2 volumes.

MTBE(l8l.OO kg) was charged into the reactor. The resulting solution was concentrated under vacuum below 50°C until the system had no more than 2 volumes. PE (318.00 kg) was charged into the reactor. The resulting mixture was cooled to 5±5°C, stirred for 4 hours at 5±5°C, and centrifuged. The filter cake was washed with PE (42.00 kg) and the wet filter cake was put into a vacuum oven. The filter cake was dried at 30±5°C for at least 8 hours to give 3,3-dimethoxycyclobutane-l-carboxamide as off-white solid (112.63 kg, 94.7% yield). 1H NMR (CDCf, 400 MHz) d 5.76 (bs, 1H), 5.64 (bs, 1H), 3.18 (s, 3H), 3.17 (s, 3H), 2.84-2.76 (m, 1H), 2.45-2.38 (m, 4H).

[0098] A reactor was vacuumed to 0.02 MPa and less and then inerted with nitrogen to atmosphere for three times. Toluene (500.00 kg), 3,3-dimethoxycyclobutane-l-carboxamide (112.54kg, 706.9 mol, 1.0 eq.), and TEA (158.00 kg, 1561.3 mol, 2.20 eq) were charged into the reactor and the resulting mixture was cooled to 0+ 5°C. TFAA (164.00 kg, 781 mol, 1.10 eq.) was added dropwise at 0±5°C. The resulting mixture was stirred for 10 hours at 20±5°C and cooled below 5±5°C. H20 (110.00 kg) was charged into the reactor at below 15 °C. The resulting mixture was stirred for 30 minutes and the water phase was separated. The aqueous phase was extracted with toluene (190.00 kg) twice. The organic phases were combined and washed with H20 (111.00 kg). H20 was removed by azeotrope until the water content was no more than 0.03%. The resulting solution was cooled to below 20°C to give 3,3-dimethoxycyclobutane-l-carbonitrile solution in toluene (492.00 kg with 17.83% assay content, 87.9% yield).

Example 5 Synthesis of l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)-3,3-dimethoxycyclobutane-l-carbonitrile

[0099] A reactor was vacuumed to 0.02 MPa and less and then inerted with nitrogen to atmosphere for three times. The 3,3-dimethoxycyclobutane-l-carbonitrile solution in toluene prepared as described in Example 4 (246.00 kg of a 17.8% solution of 3,3-dimethoxycyclobutane-l-carbonitrile in toluene, 1.05 eq.) and 2-chloro-3-fluoropyridine (39.17 kg, 297.9 mol, 1.00 eq.) were charged into the reactor. The reactor was vacuumed to 0.02 MPa and less and then inerted with nitrogen to atmosphere for three times. The mixture was slowly cooled to -20±5°C. NaHDMS (2M in THF) (165.71 kg, 1.20 eq) was added

dropwise at -20±5°C. The resulting mixture was stirred at -l5±5°C for 1 hour. The mixture was stirred until the content of 2-chloro-3-fluoropyridine is no more than 2% as measured by HPLC. Soft water (16.00 kg) was added dropwise at below 0°C while maintaining the reactor temperature. The resulting solution was transferred to another reactor. Aq. NH4Cl (10% w/w, 88.60 Kg) was added dropwise at below 0°C while maintaining the reactor temperature. Soft water (112.00 kg) was charged into the reactor and the aqueous phase was separated and collected. The aqueous phase was extracted with ethyl acetate (70.00 kg) and an organic phase was collected. The organic phase was washed with sat. NaCl (106.00 kg) and collected. The above steps were repeated to obtain another batch of organic phase. The two batches of organic phase were concentrated under vacuum below 70°C until the system had no more than 2 volumes. The resulting solution was cooled to below 30°C to give a l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)-3, 3 -dimethoxy cyclobutane- l-carbonitrile solution. 1H NMR (CDC13, 400 MHz) d 8.42-8.38 (m, 1H), 7.50-7.45 (m, 1H), 7.38-7.33 (m, 1H), 3.28 (s, 3 H), 3.13 (s, 3H), 3.09-3.05 (m, 4H).

Example 6 Synthesis of I-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)-3-oxocyclohutanecarhonitrile

[0100] A reactor was vacuumed to 0.02 MPa and less and then inerted with nitrogen to atmosphere for three times. Water (603.00 kg) was added to the reactor and was stirred.

Concentrated HC1 (157.30 kg) was charged into the reactor at below 35°C. The l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)-3, 3 -dimethoxy cyclobutane- l-carbonitrile solution prepared as described in Example 5 (206.00 kg) was charged into the reactor and the resulting mixture was heated to 50±5°C and reacted for 3 hours at 50±5°C. The mixture was reacted until the content of 1-(3 -fluoropyridin-2-yl)-3, 3 -dimethoxycyclobutane- l-carbonitrile was no more than 2.0% as measured by HPLC. The reaction mixture was cooled to below 30°C and extracted with ethyl acetate (771.00 kg). An aqueous phase was collected and extracted with ethyl acetate (770.00 kg). The organic phases were combined and the combined organic phase was washed with soft water (290.00 kg) and brine (385.30 kg). The organic phase was concentrated under vacuum at below 60°C until the system had no more than 2 volumes. Propan-2-ol (218.00 kg) was charged into the reactor. The organic phase was concentrated under vacuum at below

60°C until the system had no more than 1 volume. PE (191.00 kg) was charged into the reactor at 40±5 °C and the resulting mixture was heated to 60±5 °C and stirred for 1 hour at 60±5 °C. The mixture was then slowly cooled to 5±5 °C and stirred for 5 hours at 5±5 °C. The mixture was centrifuged and the filter cake was washed with PE (48.00 kg) and the wet filter cake was collected. Water (80.00 kg), concentrated HC1 (2.20 kg), propan-2-ol (65.00 kg), and the wet filter cake were charged in this order into a drum. The resulting mixture was stirred for 10 minutes at 20±5 °C. The mixture was centrifuged and the filter cake was washed with a mixture solution containing 18.00 kg of propan-2-ol, 22.50 kg of soft water, and 0.60 kg of concentrated HC1. The filter cake was put into a vacuum oven and dried at 30±5°C for at least 10 hours. The filter cake was dried until the weight did not change to give l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)-3-oxocyclobutanecarbonitrile as off-white solid (77.15 kg, 68.0% yield). 1H NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz) d 8.45-8.42 (m, 1H), 7.60-7.54 (m, 1H), 7.47-7.41 (m, 1H), 4.18-4.09 (m, 2H), 4.02-3.94 (m, 2H).

Example 7 Synthesis of I-(3-fhtoropyridin-2-yl)-3-hydroxycyclobulanecarbonilrile

[0101] To a solution of l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)-3-oxocyclobutanecarbonitrile (231 g,

1.22 mol) in a mixture ofDCM (2 L) and MeOH (200 mL) was added NaBH4 portionwise at -78° C. The reaction mixture was stirred at -78°C. for 1 hour and quenched with a mixture of methanol and water (1 : 1). The organic layer was washed with water (500 mL><3), dried over Na2S04, and concentrated. The residue was purified on silica gel (50% EtO Ac/hexanes) to provide the title compound as an amber oil (185.8 g, 77.5%). Low Resolution Mass

Spectrometry (LRMS) (M+H) m/z 193.2.

Example 8 Synthesis of (ls,3s)-3-fluoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutane-l-carbonitrile

[0102] To a solution of 1 -(3 -fluoropyridin-2-yl)-3 -hydroxy cyclobutanecarbonitrile (185 g, 0.96 mol) in DCM (1 L) was added DAST portionwise at 0-10 °C. Upon the completion of addition, the reaction was refluxed for 6 hours. The reaction was cooled to rt and poured onto sat. NaHCCf solution. The mixture was separated and the organic layer was washed with water, dried over Na2S04, and concentrated. The residue was purified on silica gel (100% DCM) to provide the title compound as a brown oil (116g) in a 8: 1 transxis mixture. The above brown oil (107 g) was dissolved in toluene (110 mL) and hexanes (330mL) at 70 °C. The solution was cooled to 0 °C and stirred at 0 °C overnight. The precipitate was filtered and washed with hexanes to provide the trans isomer as a white solid (87.3 g). LRMS (M+H) m/z 195.1.

Example 9 Synthesis of ((lr,3r)-3-fluoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutyl)methanamine

[0103] A mixture of ( 1.v,3.v)-3-fluoro- 1 -(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutane- 1 -carbonitrile (71 g, 0.37 mol) and Raney nickel (~7 g) in 7N ammonia in methanol (700 mL) was charged with hydrogen (60 psi) for 2 days. The reaction was filtered through a celite pad and washed with methanol. The filtrate was concentrated under high vacuum to provide the title compound as a light green oil (70 g, 97.6%). LRMS (M+H) m/z 199.2.

Example 10 Synthesis of t-butyl 5-bromopyrimidin-2-yl((trans-3-fluoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutyl)methyl) carbamate

[0104] A mixture of ((lr,3r)-3-fluoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutyl)methanamine (37.6 g, 190 mmol), 5-bromo-2-fluoropyrimidine (32.0 g, 181 mmol), DIPEA (71 mL, 407 mmol), and NMP (200 mL) was stirred at rt overnight. The reaction mixture was then diluted with EtOAc (1500 mL) and washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate (500 mL). The

organic layer was separated, dried over Na2S04, and concentrated. The resultant solid was dissolved in THF (600 mL), followed by the slow addition of DMAP (14 g, 90 mmol) and Boc20 (117.3 g, 542 mmol). The reaction was heated to 60° C. and stirred for 3 h. The reaction mixture was then concentrated and purified by silica gel chromatography

(EtO Ac/hex) to give 59.7 g oft-butyl 5-bromopyrimidin-2-yl((trans-3-fluoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutyl)methyl)carbamate as a white solid.

Example 11 Synthesis of t-butyl 5-(3-cyano- 1 H -pyrrol- 1 -yl)pyrimidin-2-yl(((lrans)-3-fhtoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclohutyl)methyl)carhamate

[0105] To a solution oft-butyl 5-bromopyrimidin-2-yl((trans-3-fluoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutyl)methyl) carbamate (1.0 g, 2.8 mmol) in 15 mL of toluene (degassed with nitrogen) was added copper iodide (100 mg, 0.6 mmol), potassium phosphate (1.31 g, 6.2 mmol), trans-N,N’-dimethylcyclohexane-l, 2-diamine (320 mg, 2.2 mmol), and 3-cyanopyrrole (310 mg, 3.6 mmol). The reaction was heated to 100 °C and stirred for 2 h. The reaction was then concentrated and purified by silica gel chromatography (EtOAc/hexanes) to afford 1.1 g of t-butyl 5-(3-cyano-lH-pyrrol-l-yl)pyrimidin-2-yl(((trans)-3-fluoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutyl)methyl)carbamate as a clear oil.

Example 12 Synthesis of l-(2-((((trans)-3-fluoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutyl)methyl)amino)pyrimidin-5-yl)-lH-pyrrole-3-carboxamide

[0106] To a solution oft-butyl 5-(3-cyano-lH-pyrrol-l-yl)pyrimidin-2-yl(((trans)-3-fluoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutyl)methyl)carbamate (1.1 g, 3.1 mmol) in DMSO (10 mL) was added potassium carbonate (1.3 g, 9.3 mmol). The mixture was cooled to 0 °C and hydrogen peroxide (3 mL) was slowly added. The reaction was warmed to rt and stirred for 90 min. The reaction was diluted with EtO Ac (75 mL) and washed three times with brine (50 mL). The organic layer was then dried over Na2S04, filtered, and concentrated to give a crude solid that was purified by silica gel chromatography (10% MeOH/CH2Cl2) to afford 1.07 g of a white solid compound. This compound was dissolved in 25% TFA/CH2CI2 and stirred for 1 hour. The reaction was then concentrated, dissolved in ethyl acetate (75 mL), and washed three times with saturated potassium carbonate solution. The organic layer was then dried over Na2S04, filtered, and concentrated to give a crude solid that was triturated with 75% ethyl acetate/hexanes. The resultant slurry was sonicated and filtered to give 500 mg of l-(2-((((trans)-3-fluoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutyl)methyl)amino)pyrimidin-5-yl)-lH-pyrrole-3 -carboxamide as a white solid. LRMS (M+H=385).

REFERENCES

1: Andrews JA, Miller TM, Vijayakumar V, Stoltz R, James JK, Meng L, Wolff AA, Malik FI. CK-2127107 amplifies skeletal muscle response to nerve activation in humans. Muscle Nerve. 2018 May;57(5):729-734. doi: 10.1002/mus.26017. Epub 2017 Dec 11. PubMed PMID: 29150952.

2: Gross N. The COPD Pipeline XXXII. Chronic Obstr Pulm Dis. 2016 Jul 14;3(3):688-692. doi: 10.15326/jcopdf.3.3.2016.0150. PubMed PMID: 28848893; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5556764.

//////////////CK-2127107, CK 2127107, CK2127107, Reldesemtiv, Cytokinetics,   Astellas, neuromuscular disorders, muscle wasting, claudication, metabolic syndrome, spinal muscular atrophy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Orphan Drug Status, Spinal muscular atrophy, Phase II

C1C(CC1(CNC2=NC=C(C=N2)N3C=CC(=C3)C(=O)N)C4=C(C=CC=N4)F)F

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SELPERCATINIB


img

Selpercatinib.png

SELPERCATINIB

LOXO 292

CAS: 2152628-33-4
Chemical Formula: C29H31N7O3
Molecular Weight: 525.613

CEGM9YBNGD

UNII-CEGM9YBNGD

 6-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropoxy)-4-(6-{6-[(6-methoxypyridin- 3-yl)methyl]-3,6-diazabicyclo[3.1.1]heptan-3-yl}pyridin-3- yl)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine-3-carbonitrile

Selpercatinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor with antineoplastic properties.

A phase I/II trial is also under way in pediatric patients and young adults with activating RET alterations and advanced solid or primary CNS tumors.

Loxo Oncology (a wholly-owned subsidiary of Eli Lilly ), under license from Array , is developing selpercatinib, a lead from a program of RET kinase inhibitors, for treating cancer, including non-small-cell lung cancer, medullary thyroid cancer, colon cancer, breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, papillary thyroid cancer, other solid tumors, infantile myofibromatosis, infantile fibrosarcoma and soft tissue sarcoma

In 2018, the compound was granted orphan drug designation in the U.S. for the treatment of pancreatic cancer and in the E.U. for the treatment of medullary thyroid carcinoma.

Trk is a high affinity receptor tyrosine kinase activated by a group of soluble growth factors called neurotrophic factor (NT). The Trk receptor family has three members, namely TrkA, TrkB and TrkC. Among the neurotrophic factors are (1) nerve growth factor (NGF) which activates TrkA, (2) brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and NT4/5 which activate TrkB, and (3) NT3 which activates TrkC. Trk is widely expressed in neuronal tissues and is involved in the maintenance, signaling and survival of neuronal cells.
The literature also shows that Trk overexpression, activation, amplification and/or mutations are associated with many cancers including neuroblastoma, ovarian cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, multiple myeloma, astrocytoma. And medulloblastoma, glioma, melanoma, thyroid cancer, pancreatic cancer, large cell neuroendocrine tumor and colorectal cancer. In addition, inhibitors of the Trk/neurotrophin pathway have been shown to be effective in a variety of preclinical animal models for the treatment of pain and inflammatory diseases.
The neurotrophin/Trk pathway, particularly the BDNF/TrkB pathway, has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, and Alzheimer’s disease. The modulating neurotrophic factor/Trk pathway can be used to treat these and related diseases.
It is believed that the TrkA receptor is critical for the disease process in the parasitic infection of Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease) in human hosts. Therefore, TrkA inhibitors can be used to treat Chagas disease and related protozoal infections.
Trk inhibitors can also be used to treat diseases associated with imbalances in bone remodeling, such as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and bone metastasis. Bone metastases are a common complication of cancer, up to 70% in patients with advanced breast or prostate cancer and about 15 in patients with lung, colon, stomach, bladder, uterine, rectal, thyroid or kidney cancer Up to 30%. Osteolytic metastases can cause severe pain, pathological fractures, life-threatening hypercalcemia, spinal cord compression, and other neurostress syndromes. For these reasons, bone metastases are a serious cancer complication that is costly. Therefore, an agent that can induce apoptosis of proliferating bone cells is very advantageous. Expression of the TrkA receptor and TrkC receptor has been observed in the osteogenic region of the fractured mouse model. In addition, almost all osteoblast apoptosis agents are very advantageous. Expression of the TrkA receptor and TrkC receptor has been observed in the osteogenic region of the fractured mouse model. In addition, localization of NGF was observed in almost all osteoblasts. Recently, it was demonstrated that pan-Trk inhibitors in human hFOB osteoblasts inhibit tyrosine signaling activated by neurotrophic factors that bind to all three Trk receptors. This data supports the theory of using Trk inhibitors to treat bone remodeling diseases, such as bone metastases in cancer patients.
Developed by Loxo Oncology, Larotrectinib (LOXO-101) is a broad-spectrum antineoplastic agent for all tumor patients expressing Trk, rather than tumors at an anatomical location. LOXO-101 chemical name is (S)-N-(5-((R)-2-(2,5-difluorophenyl)-pyrrolidin-1-yl)pyrazolo[1,5-a] Pyrimidin-3-yl)-3-hydroxypyrrolidine-1-carboxamide, the structural formula is as follows. LOXO-101 began treatment of the first patient in March 2015; on July 13, 2016, the FDA granted a breakthrough drug qualification for the inoperable removal or metastatic solid tumor of adults and children with positive Trk fusion gene mutations; Key entry was completed in February 2017; in November 2018, the FDA approved the listing under the trade name Vitrakvi.
Poor absorption, distribution, metabolism, and/or excretion (ADME) properties are known to be the primary cause of clinical trial failure in many drug candidates. Many of the drugs currently on the market also limit their range of applications due to poor ADME properties. The rapid metabolism of drugs can lead to the inability of many drugs that could be effectively treated to treat diseases because they are too quickly removed from the body. Frequent or high-dose medications may solve the problem of rapid drug clearance, but this approach can lead to problems such as poor patient compliance, side effects caused by high-dose medications, and increased treatment costs. In addition, rapidly metabolizing drugs may also expose patients to undesirable toxic or reactive metabolites.
Although LOXO-101 is effective as a Trk inhibitor in the treatment of a variety of cancers and the like, it has been found that a novel compound having a good oral bioavailability and a drug-forming property for treating a cancer or the like is a challenging task. Thus, there remains a need in the art to develop compounds having selective inhibitory activity or better pharmacodynamics/pharmacokinetics for Trk kinase mediated diseases useful as therapeutic agents, and the present invention provides such compounds.
SYN
WO 2018071447

PATENT

WO2018071447

PATENT

US 20190106438

PATENT

WO 2019075108

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2019075108&tab=PCTDESCRIPTION

Compounds of Formula I-IV, 4-(6-(4-((6-methoxypyridin-3-yl)methyl)piperazin-1-yl)pyridin-3-yl)-6-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine-3-carbonitrile (Formula I); 6-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropoxy)-4-(6-(6-((6-methoxypyridin-3-yl)methyl)-3,6-diazabicyclo[3.1.1]heptan-3-yl)pyridin-3-yl)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine-3-carbonitrile (Formula II); 6-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropoxy)-4-(6-(6-(6-methoxynicotinoyl)-3,6-diazabicyclo[3.1.1]heptan-3-yl)pyridin-3-yl)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine-3-carbonitrile (Formula III); and 6-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropoxy)-4-(6-(4-hydroxy-4-(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)piperidin-1-yl)pyridin-3-yl)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine-3-carbonitrile (Formula IV) are inhibitors of RET kinase, and are useful for treating diseases such as proliferative diseases, including cancers.

[0007] Accordingly, provided herein is a compound of Formula I-IV:

and pharmaceutically acceptable salts, amorphous, and polymorph forms thereof.

PATENT

WO 2019075114

PATENT

WO-2019120194

Novel deuterated analogs of pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine compounds, particularly selpercatinib , processes for their preparation and compositions comprising them are claimed. Also claims are their use for treating pain, inflammation, cancer and certain infectious diseases.

Example 2(S)-N-(5-((R)-2-(2,5-difluorophenyl)pyrrolidin-1-yl-2,3,3-d 3)-pyrazolo[ 1,5-a] pyrimidin-3-yl) -3-hydroxypyrazole prepared pyrrolidine-1-carboxamide (compound L-2) a.

[0163]

[0164]
Use the following route for synthesis:

[0165]
Patent ID Title Submitted Date Granted Date
US10137124 Substituted pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine compounds as RET kinase inhibitors 2018-01-03
US10172851 Substituted pyrazolo[1,5-A]pyridine compounds as RET kinase inhibitors 2018-01-03
US10112942 Substituted pyrazolo[1,5-A]pyridine compounds as RET kinase inhibitors 2017-12-29

/////////////SELPERCATINIB, non-small-cell lung cancer, medullary thyroid cancer, colon cancer, breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, papillary thyroid cancer, other solid tumors, infantile myofibromatosis, infantile fibrosarcoma, soft tissue sarcoma, LOXO, ELI LILY,  ARRAY, LOXO 292, orphan drug designation

N#CC1=C2C(C3=CC=C(N4CC(C5)N(CC6=CC=C(OC)N=C6)C5C4)N=C3)=CC(OCC(C)(O)C)=CN2N=C1

FDA approves first treatment Soliris (eculizumab) for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder, a rare autoimmune disease of the central nervous system


The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Soliris (eculizumab) injection for intravenous use for the treatment of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) in adult patients who are anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody positive. NMOSD is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that mainly affects the optic nerves and spinal cord.

“Soliris provides the first FDA-approved treatment for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder, a debilitating disease that profoundly impacts patients’ lives,” said Billy Dunn, M.D., director of the Division of Neurology Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “This approval changes the landscape of therapy for patients with NMOSD. Having an approved therapy for this condition is the culmination of extensive work we have engaged in with drug companies to …

June 27, 2019

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Soliris (eculizumab) injection for intravenous use for the treatment of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) in adult patients who are anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody positive. NMOSD is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that mainly affects the optic nerves and spinal cord.

“Soliris provides the first FDA-approved treatment for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder, a debilitating disease that profoundly impacts patients’ lives,” said Billy Dunn, M.D., director of the Division of Neurology Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “This approval changes the landscape of therapy for patients with NMOSD. Having an approved therapy for this condition is the culmination of extensive work we have engaged in with drug companies to expedite the development and approval of safe and effective treatments for patients with NMOSD, and we remain committed to these efforts for other rare diseases.”

In patients with NMOSD, the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks healthy cells and proteins in the body, most often in the optic nerves and spinal cord. Individuals with NMOSD typically have attacks of optic neuritis, which causes eye pain and vision loss. Individuals also can have attacks resulting in transverse myelitis, which often causes numbness, weakness, or paralysis of the arms and legs, along with loss of bladder and bowel control. Most attacks occur in clusters, days to months to years apart, followed by partial recovery during periods of remission. Approximately 50% of patients with NMOSD have permanent visual impairment and paralysis caused by NMOSD attacks. According to the National Institutes of Health, women are more often affected by NMOSD than men and African Americans are at greater risk of the disease than Caucasians. Estimates vary, but NMOSD is thought to impact approximately 4,000 to 8,000 patients in the United States.

NMOSD can be associated with antibodies that bind to a protein called aquaporin-4 (AQP4). Binding of the anti-AQP4 antibody appears to activate other components of the immune system, causing inflammation and damage to the central nervous system.

The effectiveness of Soliris for the treatment of NMOSD was demonstrated in a clinical study of 143 patients with NMOSD who had antibodies against AQP4 (anti-AQP4 positive) who were randomized to receive either Soliris treatment or placebo. Compared to treatment with placebo, the study showed that treatment with Soliris reduced the number of NMOSD relapses by 94 percent over the 48-week course of the trial. Soliris also reduced the need for hospitalizations and the need for treatment of acute attacks with corticosteroids and plasma exchange.

Soliris has a boxed warning to alert health care professionals and patients that life-threatening and fatal meningococcal infections have occurred in patients treated with Soliris, and that such infections may become rapidly life-threatening or fatal if not recognized and treated early. Patients should be monitored for early signs of meningococcal infections and evaluated immediately if infection is suspected. Use should be discontinued in patients who are being treated for serious meningococcal infections. Health care professionals should use caution when administering Soliris to patients with any other infection. In the NMOSD clinical trial, no cases of meningococcal infection were observed.

Soliris is available only through a restricted program under a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS). Prescribers must enroll in the REMS program. Prescribers must counsel patients about the risk of meningococcal infection, provide the patients with the REMS educational materials and ensure patients are vaccinated with meningococcal vaccine(s). The drug must be dispensed with the FDA-approved patient Medication Guide that provides important information about the drug’s uses and risks.

The most frequently reported adverse reactions reported by patients in the NMOSD clinical trial were: upper respiratory infection, common cold (nasopharyngitis), diarrhea, back pain, dizziness, influenza, joint pain (arthralgia), sore throat (pharyngitis) and contusion.

The FDA granted the approval of Soliris to Alexion Pharmaceuticals.

Soliris was first approved by the FDA in 2007. The drug is approved to reduce destruction of red blood cells in adults with a rare blood disease called paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, for the treatment of adults and children with a rare disease that causes abnormal blood clots to form in small blood vessels in the kidneys (atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome to inhibit complement-mediated thrombotic microangiopathy), and for the treatment of adults with Myasthenia Gravis who are anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody positive.

The FDA granted this application Priority Review. The use for NMOSD received Orphan Drug designation, which provides incentives to assist and encourage the development of drugs for rare diseases.

https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-approves-first-treatment-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-rare-autoimmune-disease-central?utm_campaign=062719_PR_FDA%20approves%20first%20treatment%20for%20NMOSD&utm_medium=email&utm_source=Eloqua

///////////////fda 2019, Soliris, eculizumab, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder, Orphan DrugPriority Review

MITAPIVAT


Structure of MITAPIVAT

Mitapivat

MITAPIVAT

CAS 1260075-17-9

MF C24H26N4O3S
MW 450.55

8-Quinolinesulfonamide, N-[4-[[4-(cyclopropylmethyl)-1-piperazinyl]carbonyl]phenyl]-

N-[4-[[4-(Cyclopropylmethyl)-1-piperazinyl]carbonyl]phenyl]-8-quinolinesulfonamide

  • Originator Agios Pharmaceuticals
  • Class Antianaemics; Piperazines; Quinolines; Small molecules; Sulfonamides
  • Mechanism of Action Pyruvate kinase stimulants
  • Orphan Drug Status Yes – Inborn error metabolic disorders
  • New Molecular Entity Yes
  • Phase III Inborn error metabolic disorders
  • Phase II  Thalassaemia
  • 27 Feb 2019 Agios Pharmaceuticals plans a phase III trial for Inborn error metabolic disorders (Pyruvate kinase deficiency) (Treatment-experienced) in the US, Brazil, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, Thailand, Turkey and United Kingdom in March 2019 (NCT03853798) (EudraCT2018-003459-39)
  • 11 Dec 2018 Phase-II clinical trials in Thalassaemia in Canada (PO) (NCT03692052)
  • 29 Aug 2018 Chemical structure information added

Activator of pyruvate kinase isoenzyme M2 (PKM2), an enzyme involved in glycolysis. Since all tumor cells exclusively express the embryonic M2 isoform of PK, it is hypothesized that PKM2 is a potential target for cancer therapy. Modulation of PKM2 might also be effective in the treatment of obesity, diabetes, autoimmune conditions, and antiproliferation-dependent diseases.

Agios Pharmaceuticals is developing AG-348 (in phase 3 , in June 2019), an oral small-molecule allosteric activator of the red blood cell-specific form of pyruvate kinase (PK-R), for treating PK deficiency and non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia.

SYN

WO 20100331307

str1

CAS 59878-57-8 TO CAS 57184-25-5

Eisai Co., Ltd., EP1508570,  Lithium aluminium hydride (770 mg, 20.3 mmol) was suspended in tetrahydrofuran (150 mL), 1-(cyclopropylcarbonyl)piperazine (1.56 g, 10.1 mmol) was gradually added thereto, and the reaction mixture was heated under reflux for 30 minutes. The reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature, and 0.8 mL of water, 0.8 mL of a 15percent aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide and 2.3 mL of water were seque ntially gradually added thereto. The precipitated insoluble matter was removed by filtration through Celite, and the filtrate was evaporated to give the title compound (1.40g) as a colorless oil. The product was used for the synthesis of (8E,12E,14E)-7-((4-cyclopropylmethylpiperazin-1-yl)carbonyl)oxy-3,6,16,21-tetrahydroxy-6,10,12,16,20-pentamethyl-18,19-epoxytricosa-8,12,14-trien-11-olide (the co mpound of Example 27) without further purification.1H-NMR Spectrum (CDCl3,400MHz) delta(ppm): 0.09-0.15(2H,m), 0.48-0.56(2H,m),0.82-0.93(1H,m),2.25(2H,d,J=7.2Hz) 2.48-2.65(4H,m),2.90-2.99(4H,m).

str1

CAS 91-22-5 TO CAD 18704-37-5

chlorosulfonic acid;

Russian Journal of Organic Chemistry, vol. 36, 6, (2000), p. 851 – 853

Yield : 52%1-Step Reaction

NMR

US2010/331307

dimethylsulfoxide-d6, 1H

1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ: 1.2 (t, 2H), 1.3 (t, 2H), 1.31-1.35 (m, 1H), 2.40 (s, 2H), 3.68 (br s, 4H), 3.4-3.6 (m, 4H), 7.06 (m, 6H), 7.25-7.42 (m, 3H), 9.18 (s, 1H) 10.4 (s, 1H)

1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ: 0.04-0.45 (m, 2H), 0.61-0.66 (m, 2H), 1.4-1.6 (m, 1H), 2.21-2.38 (m, 4H), 2.61 (d, 2H), 3.31-3.61 (br s, 4H), 6.94-7.06 (m, 4H), 7.40 (d, 2H), 7.56-7.63 (m, 2H), 8.28 (d, 1H), 9.18 (s, 1H), 10.4 (s, 1H)

Development Overview

Introduction

Mitapivat (designated AG 348), an orally available, first-in-class, small molecule stimulator of pyruvate kinase (PK), is being developed by Agios Pharmaceuticals for the treatment of pyruvate kinase deficiency (Inborn error metabolic disorders in development table) and thalassemia. Mitapivat is designed to activate the wild-type (normal) and mutated PK-R (the isoform of pyruvate kinase that is present in erythrocytes), in order to correct the defects in red cell glycolysis found within mutant cells. Clinical development is underway for inborn error metabolic disorders in the US, Spain and Denmark and for Thalassaemia in Canada.

Mitapivat emerged from Agios’ research programme focussed on the discovery of small molecule therapeutics for inborn metabolic disorders [see Adis Insight Drug Profile 800036791].

Key Development Milestones

In April 2017, the US FDA granted fast track designation to mitapivat for the treatment of pyruvate kinase deficiency 

In June 2018, Agios Pharmaceuticals initiated the phase III ACTIVATE trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of orally administered mitapivat as compared with placebo in participants with pyruvate kinase deficiency (PKD), who are not regularly receiving blood transfusions (NCT03548220; AG348-C-006). The randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled global trial intends to enrol 80 patients in the US, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, Thailand and United Kingdom. The study design has two parts. Part 1 is a dose optimisation period where patients start at 5mg of mitapivat or placebo twice daily, with the flexibility to titrate up to 20mg or 50mg twice daily over a three month period to establish their individual optimal dose, as measured by maximum increase in hemoglobin levels. After the dose optimisation period, patients will receive their optimal dose for an additional three months in part 2. The primary endpoint of the study is the proportion of patients who achieve at least a 1.5 g/dL increase in haemoglobin sustained over multiple visits in part 2 of the trial 

In February 2018, Agios Pharmaceuticals initiated the phase III ACTIVATE-T trial to assess the efficacy and safety of mitapivat in regularly transfused adult subjects with pyruvate kinase deficiency (Inborn error metabolism disorders in development table) (EudraCT2017-003803-22; AG348-C-007). The open label trial will enrol approximately 20 patients in Denmark and Spain and will expand to Canada, France, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, the UK and the US 

In December 2018, Agios Pharmaceuticals initiated a phase II study to assess the safety, efficacy, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of mitapivat (50mg and 100mg) for the treatment of patients with non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia (AG348-C-010; EudraCT2018-002217-35; NCT03692052). This study will include a 24-week core period followed by a 2-year extension period for eligible participants. The open-label trial intends to enrol approximately 17 patients. Enrolment has been initiated in Canada and may expand to the US and the UK 

Agios Pharmaceuticals, in June 2015 initiated the phase II DRIVE PK trial to evaluate the safety, efficacy, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of mitapivat in adult transfusion-independent patients with pyruvate kinase deficiency (Inborn error metabolism disorders in development table) (AG348-C-003; NCT02476916). The trial will include two arms with 25 patients each. The patients in the first arm will receive 50mg twice daily, and the patients in the second arm will receive 300mg twice daily. The study will include a six-month dosing period with the opportunity for continued treatment beyond six months based on safety and clinical activity. The open-label, randomised trial completed enrolment of targeted 52 patients in the US, in November 2016. Preliminary data from the trial was presented at the 21st Congress of the European Haematology Association (EHA-2016). Updated results were presented by Agios at the 58th Annual Meeting and Exposition of the American Society of Haematology in December 2016. Based on results of the DRIVE PK trial, Agios plans to develop a registration path for mitapivat. Updated data from the trial was presented at the 22nd Congress of the European Haematology Association (EHA-2017) 

In December 2017, Agios pharmaceuticals presented updated safety and efficacy data from this trial at the 59th Annual Meeting and Exposition of the American Society of Hematology (ASH- Hem 2017). Results showed that chronic daily dosing with mitapivat has been well tolerated and has resulted in clinically relevant, durable increases in Hb and reductions in markers of haemolysis across a range of doses 

In June 2018, Agios Pharmaceuticals completed a phase I trial in healthy male volunteers to assess the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and absolute bioavailability of AG 348 (AG348-C-009; NCT03703505). Radiolabelled analytes of AG 348 ([14C]AG 348 and [13C6]AG 348) were administered in a single oral and intravenous dose on day 1. The open label trial was initiated in May 2018 and enrolled 8 volunteers in the US 

In November 2017, Agios Pharmaceuticals completed a phase I trial that evaluated the relative bioavailability and safety of the mitapivat tablet and capsule formulations after single-dose administration in healthy adults (AG348-C-005; NCT03397329). The open-label trial enrolled 26 subjects in the US and was initiated in October 2017 

In October 2017, Agios Pharmaceuticals completed a phase I trial that evaluated the pharmacokinetics, safety and effect on QTc interval of mitapivat in healthy volunteers (AG348-C-004; NCT03250598). This single-dose, open-label trial was initiated in August 2017 and enrolled 60 volunteers in the US

In November 2014, Agios completed a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase I trial that assessed the safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of multiple escalating doses of mitapivat in healthy volunteers (MAD; AG-348MAD; AG348-C-002; NCT02149966). Mitapivat was dosed daily for 14 days. The trial recruited 48 subjects in the US. In June 2015, positive results from the trial were presented at the 20th congress of the European Haematology Association (EHA-2015). Mitapivat showed a favourable pharmacokinetic profile with rapid absorption, low to moderate variability and a dose-proportional increase in exposure following multiple doses and serum hormone changes consistent with reversible aromatase inhibition were also observed 

Agios Pharmaceuticals completed a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase I clinical trial of mitapivat in August 2014 (AG-348 SAD; AG348-C-001; NCT02108106). The study evaluated the safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of single escalating doses of the agent in healthy volunteers. Potential metabolic biomarkers were also explored. The trial enrolled 48 participants in the US 

IND-enabling studies were conducted in 2013 In December 2013, Agios presented data from in vitro studies at the 55th Annual Meeting and Exposition of the American Society of Hematology (ASH-Hem-2013), showing that mitapivat activates a range of pyruvate kinase mutant proteins in blood samples taken from patients with pyruvate kinase deficiency. The company hypothesised that mitapivat may restore the glycolytic pathway activity and normalise erythrocyte metabolism in vivo The US FDA granted orphan designation for mitapivat for the treatment of pyruvate kinase deficiency. The designation was granted to Agios Pharmaceuticals, in March 2015.

Patent Information

As of January 2018, Agios Pharmaceuticals owned approximately six issued US patents, 65 issued foreign patents, five pending US patent applications and 55 pending foreign patent applications in a number of jurisdictions directed to PK deficiency programme, including mitapivat (AG 348). The patents are valid till at least 2030 

Patents

US 20100331307 A1
WO 2011002817 A1
WO 2012151451 A1
WO 2013056153 A1
WO 2014018851 A1
WO 2016201227 A1

WO2011002817

Mitapivat, also known as PKM2 activator 1020, is an activator of a pyruvate kinase PKM2, an enzyme involved in glycolysis. It was disclosed in a patent publication WO 2011002817 A1 as compound 78.

WO2019099651 ,

PATENT

WO-2019104134

Novel crystalline and amorphous forms of N-(4-(4-(cyclopropylmethyl)piperazine-1-carbonyl)phenyl)quinoline-8-sulfonamide (also known as mitapivat ) and their hemi-sulfate, solvates, hydrates, sesquihydrate, anhydrous and ethanol solvate (designated as Form A-J), processes for their preparation and compositions comprising them are claimed. Also claims are their use for treating pyruvate kinase deficiency, such as sickle cell disease, thalassemia and hemolytic anemia.

Pyruvate kinase deficiency (PKD) is a disease of the red blood cells caused by a deficiency of the pyruvate kinase R (PKR) enzyme due to recessive mutations of PKLR gene (Wijk et al. Human Mutation, 2008, 30 (3) 446-453). PKR activators can be beneficial to treat PKD, thalassemia (e.g., beta-thalessemia), abetalipoproteinemia or Bassen-Kornzweig syndrome, sickle cell disease, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, anemia (e.g., congenital anemias (e.g., enzymopathies), hemolytic anemia (e.g. hereditary and/or congenital hemolytic anemia, acquired hemolytic anemia, chronic hemolytic anemia caused by phosphoglycerate kinase deficiency, anemia of chronic diseases, non- spherocytic hemolytic anemia or hereditary spherocytosis). Treatment of PKD is supportive, including blood transfusions, splenectomy, chelation therapy to address iron overload, and/or interventions for other disease-related morbidity. Currently, however, there is no approved medicine that treats the underlying cause of PKD, and thus the etiology of life-long hemolytic anemia.

[0003] N-(4-(4-(cyclopropylmethyl)piperazine-l-carbonyl)phenyl)quinoline-8-sulfonamide, herein referred to as Compound 1, is an allosteric activator of red cell isoform of pyruvate kinase (PKR). See e.g., WO 2011/002817 and WO 2016/201227, the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference.


(Compound 1)

[0004] Compound 1 was developed to treat PKD and is currently being investigated in phase 2 clinical trials. See e.g., U.S. clinical trials identifier NCT02476916. Given its therapeutic benefits, there is a need to develo

Compound 1, i.e., the non-crystalline free base, can be prepared following the procedures described below.

Preparation of ethyl -4-(quinoline-8-sulfonamido) benzoate

EtO TV 

[00170] A solution containing ethyl-4-aminobenzoate (16. Og, 97mmol) and pyridine (l4.0g, l77mmol) in acetonitrile (55mL) was added over 1.2 hours to a stirred suspension of quinoline- 8 -sulfonyl chloride (20.0g, 88mmol) in anhydrous acetonitrile (100 mL) at 65°C. The mixture was stirred for 3.5 hours at 65 °C, cooled to 20°C over 1.5 hours and held until water (140 mL) was added over 1 hour. Solids were recovered by filtration, washed 2 times (lOOmL each) with acetonitrile/water (40/60 wt./wt.) and dried to constant weight in a vacuum oven at 85°C. Analyses of the white solid (30.8g, 87mmol) found (A) HPLC purity = 99.4% ethyl -4-(quinoline-8-sulfonamido) benzoate, (B) LC-MS consistent with structure, (M+l)= 357 (C18 column eluting 95-5, CH3CN/water, modified with formic acid, over 2 minutes), and (C) 1H NMR consistent with structure (400 MHz, DMSO-i 6) = d 10.71 (s, 1H), 9.09 (dd, 7 = 4.3, 1.6 Hz, 1H), 8.46 (ddt, 7 = 15.1, 7.3, 1.5 Hz, 2H), 8.26 (dd, 7 = 8.3, 1.4 Hz, 1H), 7.84 – 7.54 (m, 4H), 7.18 (dd, 7 = 8.6, 1.3 Hz, 2H), 4.26 – 4.07 (m, 2H), 1.19 (td, 7 = 7.1, 1.2 Hz, 3H).

Preparation of 4-(quinoline-8-sulfonamide) benzoic acid

Step 2

[00171] A NaOH solution (16.2g, l22mmol) was added over 30 minutes to a stirred suspension of ethyl -4-(quinoline-8-sulfonamido) benzoate (20. Og, 56.2mmol) in water (125 mL) at 75°C. The mixture was stirred at 75°-80°C for 3 hours, cooled 20°C and held until THF (150 mL) was added. Hydrochloric acid (11% HCL, 8lmL, l32mmol) was added over >1 hour to the pH of 3.0. The solids were recovered by filtration at 5°C, washed with water (2X lOOmL) and dried to constant weight in a vacuum oven at 85°C. Analysis of the white solid (16.7g, 51 mmol) found (A) HPLC puurity = >99.9% 4-(quinoline-8-sulfonamide)benzoic acid, LC-MS consistent with structure (M+l) = 329 (Cl 8 column eluting 95-5 CH3CN/water, modified with formic acid, over 2 minutes.) and 1H NMR consistent with structure (400 MHz, DMSO-76) = d 12.60 (s, 1H), 10.67 (s, 1H), 9.09 (dd, 7 = 4.2, 1.7 Hz, 1H), 8.46 (ddt, 7 = 13.1, 7.3, 1.5 Hz, 2H), 8.26 (dd, 7 = 8.2, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 7.77 -7.62 (m, 3H), 7.64 (d, 7 = 1.3 Hz, 1H), 7.16 (dd, 7 = 8.7, 1.4 Hz, 2H).

Preparation of l-(cyclopropylmethyl)piperazine dihydrochloride (4)

1 ) NaBH(OAc)3

2 3 acetone 4

[00172] To a 1 L reactor under N2 was charged tert-butyl piperazine- l-carboxylate (2) (100.0 g, 536.9 mmol), cyclopropanecarbaldehyde (3) (41.4 g, 590.7 mmol ), toluene (500.0 mL) and 2-propanol (50.0 mL). To the obtained solution was added NaBH(OAc)3 (136.6 g, 644.5 mmol) in portions at 25-35 °C and the mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 2 h. Water (300.0 mL) was added followed by NaOH solution (30%, 225.0 mL) to the pH of 12. The layers were separated and the organic layer was washed with water (100.0 mLx2). To the organic layer was added hydrochloric acid (37%, 135.0 mL, 1.62 mol) and the mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 6 h. The layers were separated and the aqueous layer was added to acetone (2.0 L) at 25 °C in lh. The resulted suspension was cooled to 0 °C. The solid was filtered at 0 °C, washed with acetone (100.0 mLx2) and dried to afford 4 (105.0 g) in 92% isolated yield. LC-MS (C18 column eluting 90-10 CH3CN/water over 2 minutes) found (M+l) =141. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-76) d 11.93 (br.s, 1H), 10.08 (br., 2H), 3.65 (br.s, 2H), 3.46 (br.s, 6H), 3.04 (d, / = 7.3 Hz, 2H), 1.14 – 1.04 (m, 1H), 0.65 – 0.54 (m, 2H), 0.45 – 0.34 (m, 2H) ppm.

Preparation of N-(4-(4-(cyclopropylmethyl)piperazine-l-carbonyl)phenyl)quinoline-8- sulfonamide (1)

[00173] To a 2 L reactor under N2 was charged 4-(quinoline-8-sulfonamido) benzoic acid (5) (100.0 g, 304.5 mmol) and DMA (500.0 mL). To the resulted suspension was added CDI (74.0 g, 456.4 mmol) in portions at 25 °C and the mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 2 h. To the resulted suspension was added l-(cyclopropylmethyl)piperazine dihydrochloride (4) (97.4 g, 457.0 mmol) in one portion at 25 °C and the mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 4 h. Water (1.0 L) was added in 2 h. The solid was filtered at 25 °C, washed with water and dried under vacuum at 65 °C to afford 1 (124.0 g) in 90 % isolated yield. LC-MS (C18 column eluting 90-10 CH3CN/water over 2 minutes) found (M+l) =451. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-76) d

10.40 (br.s, 1H), 9.11 (dd, 7 = 4.3, 1.6 Hz, 1H), 8.48 (dd, / = 8.4, 1.7 Hz, 1H), 8.40 (dt, /

7.4, 1.1 Hz, 1H), 8.25 (dd, 7 = 8.3, 1.3 Hz, 1H), 7.76 – 7.63 (m, 2H), 7.17 – 7.05 (m, 4H), 3.57 – 3.06 (m, 4H), 2.44 – 2.23 (m, 4H), 2.13 (d, J = 6.6 Hz, 2H), 0.79 – 0.72 (m, 1H), 0.45 – 0.34 (m, 2H), 0.07 – 0.01 (m, 2H) ppm.

[00174] Two impurities are also identified from this step of synthesis. The first impurity is Compound IM- 1 (about 0.11% area percent based on representative HPLC) with the following structure:


Compound IM-l)

Compound IM-l was generated due to the presence of N-methyl piperazine, an impurity in compound 2, and was carried along to react with compound 5. LC-MS found (M+l) =411.2;

(M-l)= 409.2. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-76) d 10.43 (brs, 1H) 9.13-9.12 (m, 1H), 8.52-8.50 (m, 1H), 8.43-8.41 (m, 1H), 8.26 (d, 7=4.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.73-7.70 (m, 2H), 7.15-7.097.69 (m, 4H), 3.60-3.25 (brs, 4H), 2.21 (brs, 4H), 2.13 (s, 3H).

[00175] The second impurity is Compound IM-2 (about 0.07% area percent based on the representative HPLC) with the following structure:


(Compound IM-2)

Compound IM-2 was due to the presence of piperazine, an impurity generated by

deprotection of compound 2. The piperazine residue was carried along to react with two molecules of compound 5 to give Compound IM-2. LC-MS found (M+l) =707. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CF3COOD) d 9.30-9.23 (m, 4H), 8.51 (s, 4H), 8.20-8.00 (m, 4H), 7.38-7.28 (m, 8H), 4.02-3.54 (m, 8H).

Solubility Experiments

[00176] Solubility measurements were done by gravimetric method in 20 different solvents at two temperatures (23 °C and 50 °C). About 20-30 mg of Form A, the synthesis of which is described below, was weighed and 0.75 mL solvent was added to form a slurry. The slurry was then stirred for two days at the specified temperature. The vial was centrifuged and the supernatant was collected for solubility measurement through gravimetric method. The saturated supernatant was transferred into pre- weighed 2 mL HPLC vials and weighed again (vial + liquid). The uncapped vial was then left on a 50 °C hot plate to slowly evaporate the solvent overnight. The vials were then left in the oven at 50 °C and under vacuum to remove the residual solvent so that only the dissolved solid remained. The vial was then weighed (vial + solid). From these three weights; vial, vial+liquid and vial+solid; the weight of dissolved solid and the solvent were calculated. Then using solvent density the solubility was calculated as mg solid/mL of solvent. Solubility data are summarized in Table 1.

Table 1

Optimized Crystalline Form A Hemisulfate Salt Scale-up Procedure

[00202] An optimized preparation of Form A as a hemisulfate sesquihydrate salt with and without seeding is provided below.

Preparation of l-(cyclopropylmethyl)-4-(4-(quinoline-8-sulfonamido)benzoyl)piperazin- 1-ium sulfate trihydrate (Form A) with seeding

[00203] To a 2 L reactor under N2 was charged N-(4-(4-(cyclopropylmethyl)piperazine-l-carbonyl)phenyl)quinoline-8-sulfonamide (5) (111.0 g, 246.4 mmol), and a pre-mixed process solvent of ethanol (638.6 g), toluene (266.1 g) and water (159.6 g). The suspension was stirred and heated above 60°C to dissolve the solids, and then the resulting solution was cooled to 50°C. To the solution was added an aqueous solution of H2S04 (2.4 M, 14.1 mL, 33.8 mmol), followed by l-(cyclopropylmethyl)-4-(4-(quinoline-8-sulfonamido)benzoyl)piperazin-l-ium sulfate trihydrate (6) (1.1 g, 2.1 mmol). After 1 h stirring, to the suspension was added an aqueous solution of H2S04 (2.4 M, 42.3 mL, 101.5 mmol) over 5 h. The suspension was cooled to 22°C and stirred for 8 h. The solids were filtered at 22°C, washed with fresh process solvent (2 x 175 g) and dried to give the product (121.6 g) in 94% isolated yield. LC-MS (C18 column eluting 90-10 CH3CN/water over 2 minutes) found (M+l) = 451. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-76) d 10.45 (s, 1H), 9.11 (dd, J =

4.2, 1.7 Hz, 1H), 8.50 (dd, 7 = 8.4, 1.7 Hz, 1H), 8.41 (dd, 7 = 7.3, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 8.27 (dd, 7 8.2, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 7.79 – 7.60 (m, 2H), 7.17 (d, / = 8.4 Hz, 2H), 7.11 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 2H), 3.44 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 5H), 3.03 – 2.50 (m, 6H), 0.88 (p, J = 6.3 Hz, 1H), 0.50 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 2H), 0.17 (d, 7 = 4.9 Hz, 2H).

Preparation of l-(cyclopropylmethyl)-4-(4-(quinoline-8-sulfonamido)benzoyl)piperazin- 1-ium sulfate trihydrate (Form A) without seeding

[00204] To a 50 L reactor was charged N-(4-(4-(cyclopropylmethyl)piperazine-l-carbonyl)phenyl)quinoline-8-sulfonamide (5) (1.20 kg, 2.66 mol) and water (23.23 L) at 28°C. While stirring the suspension, an aqueous solution of H2S04 (1.0 M, 261 g) was added dropwise over 2 h. The reaction was stirred at 25 – 30°C for 24 h. The solids were filtered and dried under vacuum below 30°C for 96 h to give the product (1.26 kg) in 90% isolated yield.

11. Reproduction and Preparation of Various Patterns

[00205] The patterns observed during the previous experiments were reproduced for characterization. Patterns B, D, E, F were reproducible. Pattern G was reproduced at lower crystallinity. Pattern I was reproduced, although, it was missing a few peaks. Refer to Table 20.

Table 20

Crystalline Free Base Form of Compound 1

[00215] The crystalline free-base form of Compound 1 can be prepared via the following method.

[00216] 14.8 kg S-l and 120 kg DMAc are charged into a round bottom under N2 protection and the reaction is stirred at 30 °C under N2 protection for 40min, to obtain a clear yellow solution. 7.5 kg CDI (1.02 eq.) is added and the reaction is stirred at 30 °C for 2.5h under N2 protection. 0.6 kg of CDI (0.08 eq.) at 30 °C was added and the mixture was stirred at 30 °C for 2h under N2 protection. The reaction was tested again for material consumption. 11.0 kg (1.14 eq.) l-(cyclopropylmethyl)piperazine chloride was charged in the round bottom at 30 °C and the reaction was stirred under N2 protection for 6h (clear solution). 7.5 X H20 was added dropwise over 2h, some solid formed and the reaction was stirred for lh at 30 °C. 16.8 X H20 was added over 2.5h and the reaction was stirred stir for 2.5h. 3.8 kg (0.25 X) NaOH (30%, w / w, 0.6 eq.) was added and the reaction was stirred for 3h at 30 °C. The reaction was filtered and the wet cake was rinsed with H20 / DMAc=44 kg / 15 kg. 23.35 kg wet cake was obtained (KF: 4%). The sample was re-crystallized by adding 10.0 X DMAc and stirred for lh at 70 °C, clear solution; 4.7 X H20 was added over 2h at 70 °C and the reaction was stirred 2h at 70 °C; 12.8 X H20 was added dropwise over 3h and stirred for 2h at 70 °C; the reaction was adjusted to 30 °C over 5h and stirred for 2h at 30 °C; the reaction was filtered and the wet cake was rinsed with DMAc / H20=l5 kg / 29 kg and 150 kg H20. 19.2 kg wet cake was obtained. The material was recrystallized again as follows. To the wet cake was added 10.0 X DMAc and the reaction was stirred for lh at 70 °C, clear solution.

16.4 X H20 was added dropwise at 70 °C and the reaction was stirred for 2h at 70 °C. The reaction was adjusted to 30 °C over 5.5h and stirred for 2h at 30 °C. The reaction was centrifuged and 21.75 kg wet cake was obtained. The material was dried under vacuum at 70°C for 25h. 16.55 kg of the crystalline free base form of compound 1 was obtained. Purity of 99.6%.

C Kung. Activators of pyruvate kinase M2 and methods of treating disease. PCT Int. Appl. WO 2013056153 A1. 
FG Salituro et al. Preparation of aroylpiperazines and related compounds as pyruvate kinase M2 modulators useful in treatment of cancer. U.S. Pat. Appl. US 20100331307 A1. 

Drug Properties & Chemical Synopsis

  • Route of administrationPO
  • FormulationTablet, unspecified
  • ClassAntianaemics, Piperazines, Quinolines, Small molecules, Sulfonamides
  • Mechanism of ActionPyruvate kinase stimulants
  • WHO ATC codeA16A-X (Various alimentary tract and metabolism products)B03 (Antianemic Preparations)B06A (Other Hematological Agents)
  • EPhMRA codeA16A (Other Alimentary Tract and Metabolism Products)B3 (Anti-Anaemic Preparations)B6 (All Other Haematological Agents)
  • Chemical nameN-[4-[4-(cyclopropylmethyl)piperazine-1-carbonyl]phenyl]quinoline-8-sulfonamide
  • Molecular formulaC24 H26 N4 O3 S

References

  1. Agios Reports First Quarter 2017 Financial Results.

    Media Release 

  2. Agios Announces Initiation of Global Phase 3 Trial (ACTIVATE) of AG-348 in Adults with Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency Who Are Not Regularly Transfused.

    Media Release 

  3. A Phase 3, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of AG-348 in Not Regularly Transfused Adult Subjects With Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency

    ctiprofile 

  4. Agios Provides Business Update on Discovery Research Strategy and Pipeline, Progress on Clinical Programs, Commercial Launch Preparations and Reports First Quarter 2018 Financial Results at Investor Day.

    Media Release 

  5. An Open-Label Study To Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of AG-348 in Regularly Transfused Adult Subjects With Pyruvate Kinase (PK) Deficiency

    ctiprofile 

  6. A Phase 2, Open-label, Multicenter Study to Determine the Efficacy, Safety, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacodynamics of AG-348 in Adult Subjects With Non-transfusion-dependent Thalassemia

    ctiprofile 

  7. Agios Announces Key Upcoming Milestones to Support Evolution to a Commercial Stage Biopharmaceutical Company in 2017.

    Media Release 

  8. Agios to Present Clinical and Preclinical Data at the 20th Congress of the European Hematology Association.

    Media Release 

  9. Agios Announces Updated Data from Fully Enrolled DRIVE PK Study Demonstrating AG-348s Potential as the First Disease-modifying Treatment for Patients with Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency.

    Media Release 

  10. Agios Announces New Data from AG-348 and AG-519 Demonstrating Potential for First Disease-modifying Treatment for Patients with PK Deficiency.

    Media Release 

  11. Agios Provides Update on PKR Program.

    Media Release 

  12. AG-348 Achieves Proof-of-Concept in Ongoing Phase 2 DRIVE-PK Study and Demonstrates Rapid and Sustained Hemoglobin Increases in Adults with Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency.

    Media Release 

  13. Agios Reports New, Final Data from Phase 1 Multiple Ascending Dose (MAD) Study in Healthy Volunteers for AG-348, an Investigational Medicine for Pyruvate Kinase (PK) Deficiency.

    Media Release 

  14. Grace RF, Layton DM, Galacteros F, Rose C, Barcellini W, Morton DH, et al. Results Update from the DRIVE PK Study: Effects of AG-348, a Pyruvate Kinase Activator, in Patients with Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency. ASH-Hem-2017 2017; abstr. 2194.

    Available from: URL: https://ash.confex.com/ash/2017/webprogram/Paper102236.html

  15. A Phase 2, Open Label, Randomized, Dose Ranging, Safety, Efficacy, Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Study of AG-348 in Adult Patients With Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency

    ctiprofile 

  16. A Phase I, Open-label Study to Evaluate the Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion and to Assess the Absolute Bioavailability of AG-348 in Healthy Male Subjects Following Administration of a Single Oral Dose of [14C]AG-348 and Concomitant Single Intravenous Microdose of [13C6]AG-348

    ctiprofile 

  17. A Phase 1, Randomized, Open-Label, Two-Period Crossover Study Evaluating the Relative Bioavailability and Safety of the AG-348 Tablet and Capsule Formulations After Single-Dose Administration in Healthy Adults

    ctiprofile 

  18. A Phase 1, Single-Dose, Open-Label Study to Characterize and Compare the Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Effect on QTc Interval of AG-348 in Healthy Subjects of Japanese Origin and Healthy Subjects of Non-Asian Origin

    ctiprofile 

  19. Agios Pharmaceuticals Initiates Multiple Ascending Dose Trial in Healthy Volunteers of AG-348 for the Potential Treatment of PK Deficiency, a Rare, Hemolytic Anemia.

    Media Release 

  20. A Phase 1, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Multiple Ascending Dose, Safety, Pharmacokinetic, and Pharmacodynamic Study of Orally Administered AG-348 in Healthy Volunteers

    ctiprofile 

  21. Agios Initiates Phase 1 Study of AG-348, a First-in-class PKR Activator, for Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency.

    Media Release 

  22. A Phase I, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Single Ascending Dose, Safety, Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Study of Orally Administered AG-348 in Healthy Volunteers

    ctiprofile 

  23. Agios Pharmaceuticals Reports First Quarter 2014 Financial Results.

    Media Release 

  24. Agios Pharmaceuticals Reports Third Quarter 2013 Financial Results.

    Media Release 

  25. Agios Pharmaceuticals to Present Preclinical Research at the 2013 American Society of Hematology Annual Meeting.

    Media Release 

  26. Agios Presents Preclinical Data from Lead Programs at American Society of Hematology Annual Meeting.

    Media Release 

  27. Agios Pharmaceuticals Form 10-K, February 2018. Internet-Doc 2018;.

    Available from: URL: https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/1439222/000143922218000004/agio-123117x10k.htm

  28. Agios Outlines Key 2018 Priorities Expanding Clinical and Research Programs to Drive Long Term Value.

    Media Release 

  29. Grace RF, Layton DM, Galacteros F, Rose C, Barcellini W, Morton DH, et al. Effects of Ag-348, a Pyruvate Kinase Activator, in Patients with Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency: Updated Results from the Drive Pk Study. EHA-2017 2017; abstr. S451.

    Available from: URL: https://learningcenter.ehaweb.org/eha/2017/22nd/181738/rachael.f.grace.effects.of.ag-348.a.pyruvate.kinase.activator.in.patients.with.html?f=m3e1181l15534

  30. Agios Presents Updated Data from DRIVE PK Study Demonstrating AG-348 is Well-Tolerated and Results in Clinically Relevant, Rapid and Sustained Hemoglobin Increases in Patients with Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency.

    Media Release 

////////////MITAPIVAT, PHASE 3, Orphan Drug Status, Inborn error metabolic disorders, AGIOS

FDA approves first treatment Ruzurgi (amifampridine) for children with Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome, a rare autoimmune disorder


Diaminopyridine.png

FDA approves first treatment Ruzurgi (amifampridine)  for children with Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome, a rare autoimmune disorder

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Ruzurgi (amifampridine) tablets for the treatment of Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) in patients 6 to less than 17 years of age. This is the first FDA approval of a treatment specifically for pediatric patients with LEMS. The only other treatment approved for LEMS is only approved for use in adults.

“We continue to be committed to facilitating the development and approval of treatments for rare diseases, particularly those in children,” said Billy Dunn, M.D., director of the Division of Neurology Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “This approval will provide a much-needed treatment option for pediatric patients with LEMS who have significant weakness and fatigue that can often cause great difficulties with daily activities.”

LEMS is a rare autoimmune disorder that affects the connection between nerves and muscles and causes weakness and other symptoms in affected patients. In people with LEMS, the body’s own immune system attacks the neuromuscular junction (the connection between nerves and muscles) and disrupts the ability of nerve cells to send signals to muscle cells. LEMS may be associated with …

May 06, 2019

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Ruzurgi (amifampridine) tablets for the treatment of Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) in patients 6 to less than 17 years of age. This is the first FDA approval of a treatment specifically for pediatric patients with LEMS. The only other treatment approved for LEMS is only approved for use in adults.

“We continue to be committed to facilitating the development and approval of treatments for rare diseases, particularly those in children,” said Billy Dunn, M.D., director of the Division of Neurology Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “This approval will provide a much-needed treatment option for pediatric patients with LEMS who have significant weakness and fatigue that can often cause great difficulties with daily activities.”

LEMS is a rare autoimmune disorder that affects the connection between nerves and muscles and causes weakness and other symptoms in affected patients. In people with LEMS, the body’s own immune system attacks the neuromuscular junction (the connection between nerves and muscles) and disrupts the ability of nerve cells to send signals to muscle cells. LEMS may be associated with other autoimmune diseases, but more commonly occurs in patients with cancer such as small cell lung cancer, where its onset precedes or coincides with the diagnosis of cancer. LEMS can occur at any age. The prevalence of LEMS specifically in pediatric patients is not known, but the overall prevalence of LEMS is estimated to be three per million individuals worldwide.

Use of Ruzurgi in patients 6 to less than 17 years of age is supported by evidence from adequate and well-controlled studies of the drug in adults with LEMS, pharmacokinetic data in adult patients, pharmacokinetic modeling and simulation to identify the dosing regimen in pediatric patients and safety data from pediatric patients 6 to less than 17 years of age.

The effectiveness of Ruzurgi for the treatment of LEMS was established by a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled withdrawal study of 32 adult patients in which patients were taking Ruzurgi for at least three months prior to entering the study. The study compared patients continuing on Ruzurgi to patients switched to placebo. Effectiveness was measured by the degree of change in a test that assessed the time it took the patient to rise from a chair, walk three meters, and return to the chair for three consecutive laps without pause. The patients that continued on Ruzurgi experienced less impairment than those on placebo. Effectiveness was also measured with a self-assessment scale for LEMS-related weakness that evaluated the feeling of weakening or strengthening. The scores indicated greater perceived weakening in the patients switched to placebo.

The most common side effects experienced by pediatric and adult patients taking Ruzurgi were burning or prickling sensation (paresthesia), abdominal pain, indigestion, dizziness and nausea. Side effects reported in pediatric patients were similar to those seen in adult patients. Seizures have been observed in patients without a history of seizures. Patients should inform their health care professional immediately if they have signs of hypersensitivity reactions such as rash, hives, itching, fever, swelling or trouble breathing.

The FDA granted this application Priority Review and Fast Track designations. Ruzurgi also received Orphan Drug designation, which provides incentives to assist and encourage the development of drugs for rare diseases.

The FDA granted the approval of Ruzurgi to Jacobus Pharmaceutical Company, Inc.

https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-approves-first-treatment-children-lambert-eaton-myasthenic-syndrome-rare-autoimmune-disorder?utm_campaign=050619_PR_FDA%20approves%20first%20treatment%20for%20children%20with%20LEMS&utm_medium=email&utm_source=Eloqua

/////////////////FDA 2019, Ruzurgi, amifampridine,  Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome, LEMS,  RARE DISEASES, CHILDREN, Jacobus Pharmaceutical Company, Priority Review,  Fast Track designations, Orphan Drug designation

Cavosonstat (N-91115)


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Cavosonstat (N-91115)

CAS 1371587-51-7

C16H10ClNO3, 299.71 g/mol

UNII-O2Z8Q22ZE4, O2Z8Q22ZE4, NCT02589236; N91115-2CF-05; SNO-6

3-chloro-4-(6-hydroxyquinolin-2-yl)benzoic acid

Treatment of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD), AND Cystic fibrosis,  Nivalis Therapeutics, phase 2

The product was originated at Nivalis Therapeutics, which was acquired by Alpine Immune Sciences in 2017. In 2018, Alpine announced the sale and transfer of global rights to Laurel Venture Capital for further product development.

In 2016, orphan drug and fast track designations were granted to the compound in the U.S. for the treatment of cystic fibrosis.

  • Originator N30 Pharma
  • Developer Nivalis Therapeutics
  • Class Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator modulators; Glutathione-independent formaldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitors; Nitric oxide stimulants
  • Orphan Drug Status Yes – Cystic fibrosis
  • 20 Jul 2018 Laurel Venture Capital acquires global rights for cavosonstat from Alpine Immune Sciences
  • 20 Jul 2018 Laurel Venture Capital plans a phase II trial for Asthma
  • 24 Jun 2018 Biomarkers information updated

 Cavosonstat, alos known as N91115) an orally bioavailable inhibitor of S-nitrosoglutathione reductase, promotes cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) maturation and plasma membrane stability, with a mechanism of action complementary to CFTR correctors and potentiators.

cavosonstat-n91115Cavosonstat (N91115) was an experimental therapy being developed by Nivalis Therapeutics. Its primary mechanism of action was to inhibit the S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) enzyme and to stabilize cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) protein activity. A press release published in February announced the end of research for this therapy in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with F508del mutations. The drug, which did not meet primary endpoints in a Phase 2 trial, had been referred to as the first of a new class of compounds that stabilizes the CFTR activity.

History of cavosonstat

During preclinical studies, N91115 (later named cavosonstat) demonstrated an improvement in cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) stability.

Phase 1 study was initiated in 2014 to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics (how a drug is processed in the body) of the drug in healthy volunteers. Later that year, the pharmacokinetics of the drug were assessed in another Phase 1 trial involving CF patients with F508del mutation suffering from pancreatic insufficiency. Results were presented a year later by Nivalis, revealing good tolerance and safety in study participants.

A second, much smaller Phase 2 study (NCT02724527) assessed cavosonstat as an add-on therapy to ivacaftor (Kalydeco). This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study included 19 participants who received treatment with cavosonstat (400 mg) added to Kalydeco or with placebo added to Kalydeco. The primary objective was change in lung function from the study’s start to week 8. However, the treatment did not demonstrate a benefit in lung function measures or in sweat chloride reduction at eight weeks (primary objective). As a result, Nivalis decided not to continue development of cavosonstat for CF treatment.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) had granted cavosonstat both fast track and orphan drug designations in 2016.

How cavosonstat works

The S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) is a signaling molecule that is present in high concentrations in the fluids of the lungs or muscle tissues, playing an important role in the dilatation of the airways. GSNO levels are regulated by the GSNO reductase (GSNOR) enzyme, altering CFTR activity in the membrane. In CF patients, GSNO levels are low, causing a loss of the airway function.

Cavosonstat’s mechanism of action is achieved through GSNOR inhibition, which was presumed to control the deficient CFTR protein. Preclinical studies showed that cavosonstat restored GSNO levels.

PATENT
WO 2012083165

The chemical compound nitric oxide is a gas with chemical formula NO. NO is one of the few gaseous signaling molecules known in biological systems, and plays an important role in controlling various biological events. For example, the endothelium uses NO to signal surrounding smooth muscle in the walls of arterioles to relax, resulting in vasodilation and increased blood flow to hypoxic tissues. NO is also involved in regulating smooth muscle proliferation, platelet function, and neurotransmission, and plays a role in host defense. Although NO is highly reactive and has a lifetime of a few seconds, it can both diffuse freely across membranes and bind to many molecular targets. These attributes make NO an ideal signaling molecule capable of controlling biological events between adjacent cells and within cells.

[0003] NO is a free radical gas, which makes it reactive and unstable, thus NO is short lived in vivo, having a half life of 3-5 seconds under physiologic conditions. In the presence of oxygen, NO can combine with thiols to generate a biologically important class of stable NO adducts called S-nitrosothiols (SNO’s). This stable pool of NO has been postulated to act as a source of bioactive NO and as such appears to be critically important in health and disease, given the centrality of NO in cellular homeostasis (Stamler et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 89:7674-7677 (1992)). Protein SNO’s play broad roles in the function of cardiovascular, respiratory, metabolic, gastrointestinal, immune, and central nervous system (Foster et al., Trends in Molecular Medicine, 9 (4): 160-168, (2003)). One of the most studied SNO’s in biological systems is S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) (Gaston et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90: 10957-10961 (1993)), an emerging key regulator in NO signaling since it is an efficient trans-nitrosating agent and appears to maintain an equilibrium with other S-nitrosated proteins (Liu et al., Nature, 410:490-494 (2001)) within cells. Given this pivotal position in the NO-SNO continuum, GSNO provides a therapeutically promising target to consider when NO modulation is pharmacologically warranted.

[0004] In light of this understanding of GSNO as a key regulator of NO homeostasis and cellular SNO levels, studies have focused on examining endogenous production of GSNO and SNO proteins, which occurs downstream from the production of the NO radical by the nitric oxide synthetase (NOS) enzymes. More recently there has been an increasing understanding of enzymatic catabolism of GSNO which has an important role in governing available concentrations of GSNO and consequently available NO and SNO’s.

[0005] Central to this understanding of GSNO catabolism, researchers have recently identified a highly conserved S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) (Jensen et al., Biochem J., 331 :659-668 (1998); Liu et al., (2001)). GSNOR is also known as glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase (GSH-FDH), alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (ADH-3) (Uotila and Koivusalo, Coenzymes and Coƒactors., D. Dolphin, ed. pp. 517-551 (New York, John Wiley & Sons, (1989)), and alcohol dehydrogenase 5 (ADH-5). Importantly GSNOR shows greater activity toward GSNO than other substrates (Jensen et al., (1998); Liu et al., (2001)) and appears to mediate important protein and peptide denitrosating activity in bacteria, plants, and animals. GSNOR appears to be the major GSNO-metabolizing enzyme in eukaryotes (Liu et al., (2001)). Thus, GSNO can accumulate in biological compartments where GSNOR activity is low or absent (e.g. , airway lining fluid) (Gaston et al., (1993)).

[0006] Yeast deficient in GSNOR accumulate S-nitrosylated proteins which are not substrates of the enzyme, which is strongly suggestive that GSNO exists in equilibrium with SNO-proteins (Liu et al., (2001)). Precise enzymatic control over ambient levels of GSNO and thus SNO-proteins raises the possibility that GSNO/GSNOR may play roles across a host of physiological and pathological functions including protection against nitrosative stress wherein NO is produced in excess of physiologic needs. Indeed, GSNO specifically has been implicated in physiologic processes ranging from the drive to breathe (Lipton et al., Nature, 413: 171-174 (2001)) to regulation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (Zaman et al., Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 284:65-70 (2001)), to regulation of vascular tone, thrombosis, and platelet function (de Belder et al., Cardiovasc Res.; 28(5):691-4 (1994)), Z. Kaposzta, et al., Circulation; 106(24): 3057 – 3062, (2002)) as well as host defense (de Jesus-Berrios et al., Curr. Biol., 13: 1963-1968 (2003)). Other studies have found that GSNOR protects yeast cells against nitrosative stress both in vitro (Liu et al., (2001)) and in vivo (de Jesus-Berrios et al., (2003)).

[0007] Collectively, data suggest GSNO as a primary physiological ligand for the enzyme S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR), which catabolizes GSNO and

consequently reduces available SNO’s and NO in biological systems (Liu et al., (2001)), (Liu et al., Cell, 116(4), 617-628 (2004)), and (Que et al., Science, 308, (5728): 1618-1621 (2005)). As such, this enzyme plays a central role in regulating local and systemic bioactive NO. Since perturbations in NO bioavailability has been linked to the pathogenesis of numerous disease states, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, thrombosis, asthma, gastrointestinal disorders, inflammation, and cancer, agents that regulate GSNOR activity are candidate therapeutic agents for treating diseases associated with NO imbalance.

[0008] Nitric oxide (NO), S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), and S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) regulate normal lung physiology and contribute to lung pathophysiology. Under normal conditions, NO and GSNO maintain normal lung physiology and function via their anti-inflammatory and bronchodilatory actions. Lowered levels of these mediators in pulmonary diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may occur via up-regulation of GSNOR enzyme activity. These lowered levels of NO and GSNO, and thus lowered anti-inflammatory capabilities, are key events that contribute to pulmonary diseases and which can potentially be reversed via GSNOR inhibition.

[0009] S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) has been shown to promote repair and/or regeneration of mammalian organs, such as the heart (Lima et al., 2010), blood vessels (Lima et al., 2010) skin (Georgii et al., 2010), eye or ocular structures (Haq et al., 2007) and liver (Prince et al., 2010). S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) is the major catabolic enzyme of GSNO. Inhibition of GSNOR is thought to increase endogenous GSNO.

[0010] Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD’s), including Crohn’s and ulcerative colitis, are chronic inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, in which NO, GSNO, and GSNOR can exert influences. Under normal conditions, NO and GSNO function to maintain normal intestinal physiology via anti-inflammatory actions and maintenance of the intestinal epithelial cell barrier. In IBD, reduced levels of GSNO and NO are evident and likely occur via up-regulation of GSNOR activity. The lowered levels of these mediators contribute to the pathophysiology of IBD via disruption of the epithelial barrier via dysregulation of proteins involved in maintaining epithelial tight junctions. This epithelial barrier dysfunction, with the ensuing entry of micro-organisms from the lumen, and the overall lowered anti-inflammatory capabilities in the presence of lowered NO and GSNO, are key events in IBD progression that can be potentially influenced by targeting GSNOR.

[0011] Cell death is the crucial event leading to clinical manifestation of

hepatotoxicity from drugs, viruses and alcohol. Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant redox molecule in cells and thus the most important determinant of cellular redox status. Thiols in proteins undergo a wide range of reversible redox modifications during times of exposure to reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species, which can affect protein activity. The maintenance of hepatic GSH is a dynamic process achieved by a balance between rates of GSH synthesis, GSH and GSSG efflux, GSH reactions with reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species and utilization by GSH peroxidase. Both GSNO and GSNOR play roles in the regulation of protein redox status by GSH.

[0012] Acetaminophen overdoses are the leading cause of acute liver failure (ALF) in the United States, Great Britain and most of Europe. More than 100,000 calls to the U.S. Poison Control Centers, 56,000 emergency room visits, 2600 hospitalizations, nearly 500 deaths are attributed to acetaminophen in this country annually. Approximately, 60% recover without needing a liver transplant, 9% are transplanted and 30% of patients succumb to the illness. The acetaminophen-related death rate exceeds by at least three-fold the number of deaths due to all other idiosyncratic drug reactions combined (Lee, Hepatol Res 2008; 38 (Suppl. 1):S3-S8).

[0013] Liver transplantation has become the primary treatment for patients with fulminant hepatic failure and end-stage chronic liver disease, as well as certain metabolic liver diseases. Thus, the demand for transplantation now greatly exceeds the availability of donor organs, it has been estimated that more than 18 000 patients are currently registered with the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) and that an additional 9000 patients are added to the liver transplant waiting list each year, yet less than 5000 cadaveric donors are available for transplantation.

[0014] Currently, there is a great need in the art for diagnostics, prophylaxis, ameliorations, and treatments for medical conditions relating to increased NO synthesis and/or increased NO bioactivity. In addition, there is a significant need for novel compounds, compositions, and methods for preventing, ameliorating, or reversing other NO-associated disorders. The present invention satisfies these needs.

Schemes 1-6 below illustrate general methods for preparing analogs.

[00174] For a detailed example of General Scheme 1 see Compound IV-1 in Example 1.

[00175] For a detailed example of Scheme 2, A conditions, see Compound IV-2 in Example 2.

[00176] For a detailed example of Scheme 2, B conditions, see Compound IV-8 in Example 8.

[00177] For a detailed example of Scheme 3, see Compound IV-9 in Example 9.

[00178] For a detailed example of Scheme 4, Route A, see Compound IV-11 in Example 11.

[00179] For a detailed example of Scheme 4, Route B, see Compound IV-12 in Example 12.

[00180] For a detailed example of Scheme 5, Compound A, see Compound IV-33 in Example 33.

[00181] For a detailed example of Scheme 5, Compound B, see Compound IV-24 in Example 24.

[00182] For a detailed example of Scheme 5, Compound C, see Compound IV-23 in Example 23.

Example 8: Compound IV-8: 3-chloro-4-(6-hydroxyquinolin-2-yl)benzoic acid

[00209] Followed Scheme 2, B conditions:

[00210] Step 1: Synthesis of 3-chloro-4-(6-methoxyquinolin-2-yl)benzoic acid:

[00211] A mixture of 2-chloro-6-methoxyquinoline (Intermediate 1) (200 mg, 1.04 mmol), 4-carboxy-2-chlorophenylboronic acid (247 mg, 1.24 mmol) and K2CO3(369 mg, 2.70 mmol) in DEGME / H2O (7.0 mL / 2.0 mL) was degassed three times under N2 atmosphere. Then PdCl2(dppf) (75 mg, 0.104 mmol) was added and the mixture was heated to 110 °C for 3 hours under N2 atmosphere. The reaction mixture was diluted with EtOAc (100 mL) and filtered. The filtrate was washed with brine (20 mL), dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated to give 3-chloro-4-(6-methoxyquinolin-2-yl)benzoic acid (150 mg, yield 46%) as a yellow solid, which was used for the next step without further purification.

[00212] Step 2: Synthesis of Compound IV-8: To a suspension of 3-chloro-4-(6-methoxyquinolin-2-yl)benzoic acid (150 mg, 0.479 mmol) in anhydrous CH2Cl2 (5 mL) was added AlCl3 (320 mg, 2.40 mmol). The reaction mixture was refluxed overnight. The mixture was quenched with saturated NH4Cl (10 mL) and the aqueous layer was extracted with CH2Cl2 / MeOH (v/v=10: l, 30 mL x3). The combined organic layer was washed with brine, dried over Na2SO4, filtered, and concentrated to give the crude product, which was purified by prep-HPLC (0.1% TFA as additive) to give 3-chloro-4-(6-hydroxyquinolin-2-yl)benzoic acid (25 mg, yield 18%). 1H NMR (DMSO, 400 MHz): δ 10.20 (brs, 1H), 8.30 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 8.10-8.00 (m, 2H), 7.95 (d, J = 9.2 Hz, 1H), 7.80 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 7.72 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 7.38 (dd, J = 6.4, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 7.22 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), MS (ESI): m/z 299.9 [M+H]+.

PATENT
WO 2012048181
PATENT
WO 2012170371

REFERENCES

1: Donaldson SH, Solomon GM, Zeitlin PL, Flume PA, Casey A, McCoy K, Zemanick ET,
Mandagere A, Troha JM, Shoemaker SA, Chmiel JF, Taylor-Cousar JL.
Pharmacokinetics and safety of cavosonstat (N91115) in healthy and cystic
fibrosis adults homozygous for F508DEL-CFTR. J Cyst Fibros. 2017 Feb 13. pii:
S1569-1993(17)30016-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jcf.2017.01.009. [Epub ahead of print]
PubMed PMID: 28209466.

//////////Cavosonstat, N-91115, Orphan Drug Status, NCT02589236, N91115-2CF-05,  SNO-6, PHASE 2, N30 Pharma, Nivalis Therapeutics, CYSTIC FIBROSIS, FAST TRACK

O=C(O)C1=CC=C(C2=NC3=CC=C(O)C=C3C=C2)C(Cl)=C1

Deutivacaftor


2D chemical structure of 1413431-07-8

Ivacaftor D9.png

Structure of DEUTIVACAFTOR

Deutivacaftor

RN: 1413431-07-8
UNII: SHA6U5FJZL

N-[2-tert-butyl-4-[1,1,1,3,3,3-hexadeuterio-2-(trideuteriomethyl)propan-2-yl]-5-hydroxyphenyl]-4-oxo-1H-quinoline-3-carboxamide

Molecular Formula, C24-H28-N2-O3, Molecular Weight, 401.552

Synonyms

  • CTP-656
  • D9-ivacaftor
  • Deutivacaftor
  • Ivacaftor D9
  • UNII-SHA6U5FJZL
  • VX-561
  • WHO 10704

Treatment of Cystic Fibrosis

  • Originator Concert Pharmaceuticals
  • Class Amides; Aminophenols; Antifibrotics; Organic deuterium compounds; Quinolones; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator stimulants
  • Orphan Drug Status Yes – Cystic fibrosis
  • Phase II Cystic fibrosis
  • 15 Apr 2019 Vertex Pharmaceuticals plans a phase II trial for Cystic fibrosis in April 2019 , (EudraCT2018-003970-28), (NCT03911713)
  • 11 Apr 2019 Vertex Pharmaceuticals plans a phase II trial for Cystic Fibrosis (Combination therapy) in May 2019 (NCT03912233)
  • 24 Oct 2018 Vertex Pharmaceuticals plans a phase II trial for Cystic fibrosis (with gating mutation) in the US in the first half of 2019

Patent

WO 2012158885

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf;jsessionid=A7EFB561D919F34531D65DF294F8D74C.wapp1nB?docId=WO2012158885&tab=PCTDESCRIPTION&queryString=%28+&recNum=99&maxRec=1000

Many current medicines suffer from poor absorption, distribution, metabolism and/or excretion (ADME) properties that prevent their wider use or limit their use in certain indications. Poor ADME properties are also a major reason for the failure of drug candidates in clinical trials. While formulation technologies and prodrug strategies can be employed in some cases to improve certain ADME properties, these approaches often fail to address the underlying ADME problems that exist for many drugs and drug candidates. One such problem is rapid metabolism that causes a number of drugs, which otherwise would be highly effective in treating a disease, to be cleared too rapidly from the body. A possible solution to rapid drug clearance is frequent or high dosing to attain a sufficiently high plasma level of drug. This, however, introduces a number of potential treatment problems such as poor patient compliance with the dosing regimen, side effects that become more acute with higher doses, and increased cost of treatment. A rapidly metabolized drug may also expose patients to undesirable toxic or reactive metabolites.

[3] Another ADME limitation that affects many medicines is the formation of toxic or biologically reactive metabolites. As a result, some patients receiving the drug may experience toxicities, or the safe dosing of such drugs may be limited such that patients receive a suboptimal amount of the active agent. In certain cases, modifying dosing intervals or formulation approaches can help to reduce clinical adverse effects, but often the formation of such undesirable metabolites is intrinsic to the metabolism of the compound.

[4] In some select cases, a metabolic inhibitor will be co-administered with a drug that is cleared too rapidly. Such is the case with the protease inhibitor class of drugs that are used to treat HIV infection. The FDA recommends that these drugs be co-dosed with ritonavir, an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 enzyme 3A4 (CYP3A4), the enzyme typically responsible for their metabolism (see Kempf, D.J. et al., Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 1997, 41(3): 654-60). Ritonavir, however, causes adverse effects and adds to the pill burden for HIV patients who must already take a combination of different drugs. Similarly, the CYP2D6 inhibitor quinidine has been added to dextromethorphan for the purpose of reducing rapid CYP2D6 metabolism of dextromethorphan in a treatment of pseudobulbar affect. Quinidine, however, has unwanted side effects that greatly limit its use in potential combination therapy (see Wang, L et al., Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 1994, 56(6 Pt 1): 659-67; and FDA label for quinidine at http://www.accessdata.fda.gov).

[5] In general, combining drugs with cytochrome P450 inhibitors is not a satisfactory strategy for decreasing drug clearance. The inhibition of a CYP enzyme’s activity can affect the metabolism and clearance of other drugs metabolized by that same enzyme. CYP inhibition can cause other drugs to accumulate in the body to toxic levels.

[6] A potentially attractive strategy for improving a drug’s metabolic properties is deuterium modification. In this approach, one attempts to slow the CYP-mediated metabolism of a drug or to reduce the formation of undesirable metabolites by replacing one or more hydrogen atoms with deuterium atoms. Deuterium is a safe, stable, nonradioactive isotope of hydrogen. Compared to hydrogen, deuterium forms stronger bonds with carbon. In select cases, the increased bond strength imparted by deuterium can positively impact the ADME properties of a drug, creating the potential for improved drug efficacy, safety, and/or tolerability. At the same time, because the size and shape of deuterium are essentially identical to those of hydrogen, replacement of hydrogen by deuterium would not be expected to affect the biochemical potency and selectivity of the drug as compared to the original chemical entity that contains only hydrogen.

[7] Over the past 35 years, the effects of deuterium substitution on the rate of metabolism have been reported for a very small percentage of approved drugs (see, e.g., Blake, MI et al, J Pharm Sci, 1975, 64:367-91; Foster, AB, Adv Drug Res, 1985, 14: 1-40 (“Foster”); Kushner, DJ et al, Can J Physiol Pharmacol, 1999, 79-88; Fisher, MB et al, Curr Opin Drug Discov Devel, 2006, 9: 101-09 (“Fisher”)). The results have been variable and unpredictable. For some compounds deuteration caused decreased metabolic clearance in vivo. For others, there was no change in metabolism. Still others demonstrated increased metabolic clearance. The variability in deuterium effects has also led experts to question or dismiss deuterium modification as a viable drug design strategy for inhibiting adverse metabolism (see Foster at p. 35 and Fisher at p. 101).

[8] The effects of deuterium modification on a drug’s metabolic properties are not predictable even when deuterium atoms are incorporated at known sites of metabolism. Only by actually preparing and testing a deuterated drug can one determine if and how the rate of metabolism will differ from that of its non-deuterated counterpart. See, for example, Fukuto et al. (J. Med. Chem., 1991, 34, 2871-76). Many drugs have multiple sites where metabolism is possible. The site(s) where deuterium substitution is required and the extent of deuteration necessary to see an effect on metabolism, if any, will be different for each drug.

[9] This invention relates to novel derivatives of ivacaftor, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof. This invention also provides compositions comprising a compound of this invention and the use of such compositions in methods of treating diseases and conditions that are beneficially treated by administering a CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) potentiator.

[10] Ivacaftor, also known as VX-770 and by the chemical name, N-(2,4-di-tert-butyl-5-hydroxyphenyl)-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxamide, acts as a CFTR potentiator. Results from phase III trials of VX-770 in patients with cystic fibrosis carrying at least one copy of the G551D-CFTR mutation demonstrated marked levels of improvement in lung function and other key indicators of the disease including sweat chloride levels, likelihood of pulmonary exacerbations and body weight. VX-770 is also currently in phase II clinical trials in combination with VX-809 (a CFTR corrector) for the oral treatment of cystic fibrosis patients who carry the more common AF508-CFTR mutation. VX-770 was granted fast track designation and orphan drug designation by the FDA in 2006 and 2007, respectively.

[11] Despite the beneficial activities of VX-770, there is a continuing need for new compounds to treat the aforementioned diseases and conditions.

Patent

US 20140073667

Patent

JP 2014097964

PATENT

WO 2018183367

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/zh/detail.jsf?docId=WO2018183367&tab=PCTDESCRIPTION&office=&prevFilter=%26fq%3DOF%3AWO%26fq%3DICF_M%3A%22A61K%22&sortOption=%E5%85%AC%E5%B8%83%E6%97%A5%E9%99%8D%E5%BA%8F&queryString=&recNum=555&maxRec=186391

The use according to embodiment 1, comprising administering to the patient an effect amount of (N-(2-(tert-butyl)-5-hydroxy-4-(2-(methyl-d3)propan-2-yl-l, 1, 1,3, 3,3-d6)phenyl)-4-oxo-l,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxamide (Compound Il-d):

Il-d

PATENT

WO 2019018395,

CONTD…………………………..

//////////////////deutivacaftor, Orphan Drug Status, Cystic fibrosis, CTP-656, D9-ivacaftor, Deutivacaftor, Ivacaftor D9, UNII-SHA6U5FJZL, VX-561, WHO 10704, PHASE 2

[2H]C([2H])([2H])C(c1cc(c(NC(=O)C2=CNc3ccccc3C2=O)cc1O)C(C)(C)C)(C([2H])([2H])[2H])C([2H])([2H])[2H]

Solriamfetol hydrochloride, ソルリアムフェトル塩酸塩 , солриамфетол , سولريامفيتول , 索安非托 ,


2D chemical structure of 178429-65-7

Solriamfetol hydrochloride

FDA APPROVED 2019/3/20, Sunosi

ソルリアムフェトル塩酸塩; R228060, R 228060

Formula
C10H14N2O2. HCl
CAS
178429-65-7 HCL
Mol weight
230.6913
(2R)-2-Amino-3-phenylpropyl carbamate
(2R)-2-Amino-3-phenylpropylcarbamat
10117
178429-62-4 [RN] FREE FORM
Benzenepropanol, β-amino-, carbamate (ester), (βR)- [
солриамфетол [Russian] [INN]
سولريامفيتول [Arabic] [INN]
索安非托 [Chinese] [INN]
JZP-110
Originator SK Holdings
  • Developer Jazz Pharmaceuticals plc; SK biopharmaceuticals
  • Class Carbamates; Sleep disorder therapies; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action Adrenergic uptake inhibitors; Dopamine uptake inhibitors
  • Orphan Drug Status Yes – Narcolepsy
  • Registered Hypersomnia
  • Discontinued Depressive disorders
  • 26 Mar 2019 Discontinued – Phase-I for Depressive disorders (Adjunctive treatment) in USA (PO) (Jazz Pharmaceuticals pipeline, March 2019)
  • 20 Mar 2019 Registered for Hypersomnia (excessive daytime sleepiness) in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea and narcolepsy in USA (PO) – First global approval
  • 20 Mar 2019 US FDA approves solriamfetol to improve wakefulness in adult patients with excessive daytime sleepiness associated with narcolepsy or obstructive sleep apnoea(OSA)
  • New Drug Application (NDA): 211230
    Company: JAZZ PHARMA IRELAND LTD

Solriamfetol, sold under the brand name Sunosi, is a medication used for the treatment of excessive sleepiness associated with narcolepsy and sleep apnea.[1]

Common side effects include headache, nausea, anxiety, and trouble sleeping.[1] It is a norepinephrine–dopamine reuptake inhibitor(NDRI). It is derived from phenylalanine and its chemical name is (R)-2-amino-3-phenylpropylcarbamate hydrochloride.[2]

The drug was discovered by a subsidiary of SK Group, which licensed rights outside of 11 countries in Asia to Aerial Pharma in 2011.[3]

History

The drug was discovered by a subsidiary of SK Group, which licensed rights outside of 11 countries in Asia to Aerial Pharma in 2011.[3]Aerial ran two Phase II trials of the drug in narcolepsy[4] before selling the license to solriamfetol to Jazz in 2014; Jazz Pharmaceuticalspaid Aerial $125 million up front and will pay Aerial and SK up to $272 million in milestone payments, and will pay double digit royalties to SK.[3][5]

In March 2019 the FDA accepted SK’s and Jazz’ NDA for use of solriamfetol to treat excessive sleepiness in people with narcolepsy or obstructuve sleep apnea; the drug has an orphan designation for narcolepsy.[3][6]

Names

During development it has been called SKL-N05, ADX-N05, ARL-N05, and JZP-110.[6]

Research

Solriamfetol had also been tested in animal models of depression, but as of 2017 that work had not been advanced to clinical trials.[7]

PATENT

WO 9607637

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO1996007637A1/e

Organic alkyl carbamates have been effectively used for controlling various central nervous system (CNS) disorders. For example, U.S. Pat. Nos . 2,884,444, 2,937,119 and 3,313,697 disclose function of carbamate in CNS disorders, especially as antiepileptic and centrally acting muscle relaxant.
Phenylethylamine derivatives, one important class of therapeutical medicines useful for managing CNS diseases, have been used mainly to treat obesity, narcolepsy, minimal brain dysfunction and mild depression.
Recent design of pharmacologically useful compounds has been based on amino acids or the derivatives thereof, which is mainly attributable to the fact that many of the compounds found in biological systems come from amino acids or the derivatives thereof. In addition, in most cases, the function of a pharmaceutically useful compound is effected after it binds to an enzyme or receptor, which may trigger the regulatory mechanisms of the enzyme or receptor.

REACTION SCHEME I

REACTION SCHEME II

REACTION SCHEME III

EXAMPLE I
Preparation of N-Benzyloxycarbonyl-D-phenylalaninol

In a 500 mL RB flask equipped with a mechanical stirrer and a dropping funnel, D-phenylalaninol (45.4 g, 300 mmol) was dissolved in 220 mL of distilled water, and cooled in an ice-bath. The pH of the solution was adjusted with 50 % sodium hydroxide to 14. Benzyl chloroformate (49.3 mL, 345 mmol) was charged into the dropping funnel and added slowly to the well stirred solution over 0.5 hr. After the completion of the addition, the reaction mixture was stirred for 1 hr. at 0 *C. The product precipitated from the reaction mixture as a white solid. It was collected by filtration and washed completely with distilled water. After being dried in vacuo, the solid thus obtained weighed 104 grams without any further purification: 99.8% Yield.
Melting point = 90 – 92 *C
[α]D20 = + 43.4 (c = 1.0, EtOH)
Analysis calc: C, 71.56; H, 6.71; N,4.91
Found: C, 71.35; H, 6.71; N,4.91

EXAMPLE II
Preparation of N-Benzyloxycarbonyl-D-phenylalaninol
carbamate

In a 500 mL RB flask, N-benzyloxycarbonyl-D- phenylalaninol (13.56 g, 50 mmol) was charged with antipyrine (11.29 g, 60 mmol) in 250 mL of dry THF under a nitrogen atmosphere. The reaction mixture was cooled in an ice-bath and phosgene (30.3 mL of 1.93 M solution in toluene, 58.5 mmol) was added quickly while vigorously stirring. After stirring for 1 hr. , the formation of a corresponding chloroformate from the starting material was monitored by TLC. The chloroformate solution thus prepared, was slowly added to a well stirred and ice-chilled aqueous ammonium hydroxide solution (75 mL, 28-30 %, 1,190 mmol) via cannula over 0.5 hr. The resulting reaction mixture was stirred for an extra 0.5 hr. The organic phase separated was collected. The aqueous phase was extracted twice with methylene chloride (100 mL). The combined organic phase was washed with brine (50 mL), dried over sodium sulfate, and concentrated to yield 17.8 g (113%) of foamy solid. It was purified a flash column chromatography to give 14.8 g of the title compound, white solid: 94% Yield.
Melting point = 121 – 125 *C
[α]D20 = + 28.6 (c = 2.0, EtOH)
Analysis calc. : C, 65.84; H, 6.14; N, 8.53
Found: C, 66.68; H, 6.21; N, 7.80

EXAMPLE III
Preparation of D-Phenylalaninol carbamate hydrochloric
acid salt In a 160 mL Parr reactor, N-benzyloxycarbonyl-D-phenylalaninol carbamate (9.43 g) was added with 75 mL of anhydrous methanol and 10 % palladium on charcoal (0.32 g). Then, the reactor was closed and purged with hydrogen for 1 in. The reaction was completed in 2 hrs . under 40 psi pressure of hydrogen at 45 #C. The catalyst was filtered off. Thereafter, the organic layer was concentrated into 5.97 g (102 %) of pale yellow thick liquid. The liquid was poured in 50 mL of anhydrous THF and cooled to 0 “C. Anhydrous hydrogen chloride gas was then purged through the solution with slowly stirring for

0.5 hr. 50 mL of anhydrous ether was added, to give a precipitate. Filtration with THF-ether (1:1) mixture provided 6.1 g of the title compound as a white solid: 88 % Yield.
Melting point = 172 – 174 “C
[α]D20 = – 12.9 (c = 2.0, H20)
Analysis calc. : C, 52.60; H, 6.55; N, 12.14; Cl, 15.37
Found: C, 51.90; H, 6.60; N, 12.15; Cl ,

15.52

EXAMPLE IV
Preparation of N-benzyloxγcarbonyl-L-Phenγlalaninol

The title compound was prepared in the same manner as that of Example I, except that (L)-phenylalaninol was used as the starting material.
Melting point = 90 – 92 *C
[α]D20 = – 42.0 (c = 1.0, EtOH)
Analysis calc. : C, 71.56; H, 6.71; N,4.91
Found: C, 70.98; H, 6.67; N,4.95

EXAMPLE V
Preparation of -N-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-Phenylalaninol
carbamate

The title compound was prepared in the same manner as that of Example II, except that N-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-phenylalaninol was used as the starting material.
Melting point = 121 – 128 ‘C
[α]D20 = – 28.9 (c = 2.0, EtOH)
Analysis calc: C, 65.84; H, 6.14; N, 8.53
Found: C, 65.45; H, 6.15; N, 8.32

EXAMPLE VI
Preparation of L-Phenylalaninol carbamate hydrochloric
acid salt

The title compound was prepared in the same manner as that of Example III, except that N-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-phenylalaninol carbamate was used as the starting material.
Melting point = 175 – 177 *C [α]D20 = + 13.1 (c = 1.0, H20)
Analysis calc : C, 52.60; H, 6.55; N, 12.14; Cl, 15.37
Found: C, 51.95; H, 6.58; N, 12.09; Cl , 15.37

EXAMPLE VII
Preparation of N-benzyloxycarbonyl-D,L-Phenylalaninol

The title compound was prepared in the same manner as that of Example I, except that (D,L)-phenylalaninol was used as the starting material.
Melting point = 72 – 75 #C
Analysis calc: C, 71.56; H, 6.71; N,4.91
Found: C, 71.37; H, 6.74; N,4.84

EXAMPLE VIII
Preparation of N-benzyloxycarbonyl-D,L-Phenylalaninol
carbamate

The title compound was prepared in the same manner as that of Example II, except that N-benzyloxycarbonyl-D,L-phenylalaninol was used as the starting material.
Melting point = 130 – 133 *C
Analysis calc: C, 65.84; H, 6.14; N, 8.53
Found: C, 65.85; H, 6.14; N, 8.49 EXAMPLE IX
Preparation of D,L-Phenylalaninol carbamate hydrochloric
acid salt

The title compound was prepared in the same manner as that of Example III, except that N-benzyloxycarbonyl-D,L-phenylalaninol carbamate was used as the starting material.
Melting point = 163 – 165 *C
Analysis calc: C, 52.60; H, 6.55; N, 12.14; Cl, 15.37
Found: C, 51.92; H, 6.56; N, 11.95; Cl , 15.82

PATENT

US 20050080268

PATENT

WO 2018133703

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2018133703A1/en

Excessive daytime sleepiness (Excessive Daytime Sleepiness, EDS) or pathological somnolence refers to excessive daytime sleep and wakefulness associated with various sleep disorders. These disorders can be the basis for a sleep disorder or sleep have side effects caused by some other medical conditions. Excessive daytime sleep, also known as narcolepsy, sleep clinics is seen mainly in patients with disease that affects 12% of the general population. EDS patients may be manifested as mental distress, poor work or school performance, increasing the risk of accidents, the impact of EDS can debilitating, even life-threatening.

R228060, also known JZP-110, is a selective dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, originally developed by R & D, SK biopharmaceutical, 2014 Sir ownership of the pharmaceutical compound. R228060 has the potential to treat narcolepsy and sleep apnea syndrome, in three multi-center study in two global reached the primary endpoint, and achieved positive results, significantly improved adult obstructive sleep apnea patients excessive sleepiness in patients with narcolepsy and excessive sleep problems.

R228060 chemical name is O- carbamoyl – (D) – phenylalaninol, as shown in the structural formula of formula (I):

Figure PCTCN2018071889-appb-000001

Solid Form different chemicals, can cause varying their solubility and stability, and thus affects the absorption and bioavailability of the drug, and can lead to differences in clinical efficacy. Improve the candidate compound has a solubility by salt way become an important means of drug development. Compared to the free form of the drug, suitable pharmaceutically acceptable salts can improve the solubility of the drug type, increased physical and chemical stability, and also to improve the drug-salt having a melting point, hygroscopicity, crystal type and other physical properties, further development of the pharmaceutical dosage form It plays an important role. Patent Document WO1996007637A1 discloses R228060 hydrochloride and its preparation method, and other characteristics of the obtained having a melting point of 172-174 deg.] C as a white solid, the solid was not given in the text data. Further, the present inventors found no other relevant R228060 hydrochloride polymorph or patent literature. Accordingly, the present need in the art to develop a comprehensive system R228060 hydrochloride polymorph, found to be suitable to the development of crystalline form. The present inventors after many experiments, found that polymorph CS1 R228060 hydrochloride CS2 and a melting point polymorph, Form CS1 and CS2 is Form 183 ℃, much higher than the melting point disclosed in prior art solid. It provides a better alternative preparation of pharmaceutical preparations containing R228060 is, has very important implications for drug development.

PATENT

WO 2019027941

https://patentscope2.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf;jsessionid=15B8F200BCC820C3761C600EA64A2018?docId=WO2019027941&recNum=4220&office=&queryString=&prevFilter=%26fq%3DOF%3AWO&sortOption=Pub+Date+Desc&maxRec=3471866

(i?)-2-amino-3-phenylpropyl carbamate (APC) is a phenylalanine analog that has been demonstrated to be useful in the treatment of a variety of disorders, including excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, narcolepsy, fatigue, depression, bipolar disorder, fibromyalgia, and others. See, for example, US Patent Nos. 8,232,315; 8,440,715; 8,552,060; 8,623,913; 8,729,120; 8,741,950; 8,895,609; 8,927,602; 9,226,910; and 9,359,290; and U.S. Publication Nos. 2012/0004300 and 2015/0018414. Methods for producing APC (which also has other names) and related compounds can be found in US Patent Nos. 5,955,499; 5,705,640; 6,140,532 and 5,756,817. All of the above patents and applications are hereby incorporated by reference in their entireties for all purposes.

EXAMPLE 1

Synthesis of Compounds

Compound 8 (110CR002)

1 B 110CR002

[0083] tert- utyl (if)-(l-(Carbamothioyloxy)-3-phenylpropan-2-yl)carbamate (IB): A

60% dispersion of sodium hydride (0.36 g, 4.78 mmol, 1.2 equiv) in mineral oil was added in portions to compound 1A (1.0 g. 3.98 mmol, 1 equiv) in THF (20 mL) at 0 °C. After stirring for 1 hour, carbon disulfide (0.191 g, 4.78 mmol, 1.2 equiv) was added at 0 °C. After an additional hour of stirring, methyl iodide (0.3 mL, 4.78 mmol, 1.2 equiv) was added and the reaction was warmed to room temperature. After stirring two additional hours, concentrated ammonium hydroxide (1.6 mL, 7.98 mmol, 2 equiv) was added and the reaction was stirred overnight at room temperature. The reaction was diluted with water (50 mL) and extracted with dichloromethane (3 x 50 mL). The combined organic layers were dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated under reduced pressure to give crude compound IB. The solid was triturated in diethyl ether (20 mL) to give compound IB (0.17 g, 14% yield) as a light yellow solid.

[0084] (R)-0-(2-Amino-3-phenylpropyl) carbamothioate dihydrochloride (110CR002):

4M HCI in dioxane (0.68 mL, 2.74 mmol, 5 equiv) was added to neat compound IB (0.17 g, 0.548 mmol, 1 equiv) and the reaction was stirred overnight. The solution was diluted with diethyl ether (20 mL) and the resulting suspension was filtered. The solid was triturated in diethyl ether (20 mL) and the filtered solid was dried under vacuum at room temperature for two hours to give compound 110CR003 (140 mg, 93% yield, 96.9% purity) as a white solid.

Compound 9 (110CR003)

Scheme 2

2A 2B 110CR003

[0085] (R)-2-((ter^Butoxycarbonyl)amino)-3-phenylpropyl sulfamate (2B): A solution of sulfamoyl chloride (1.15 g, 9.95 mmol, 2.5 equiv) in acetonitrile (2 mL) was added dropwise to a solution of compound 2 A (1.0 g, 3.98 mmol, 1 equiv) and triethylamine (2.1 mL, 14.95 mmol, 3.75 equiv) in N,N-dimethylacetamide (20 mL) at 0 °C. After stirring at room temperature for 4 hours, additional triethylamine (2.1 mL, 14.95 mmol, 3.75 equiv) and sulfamoyl chloride (1.15 g, 9.95 mmol, 2.5 equiv) in acetonitrile (2 mL) was added at 0 °C. The reaction was stirred at room temperature overnight, at which point LCMS indicated a 3 :2 mixture of product to starting material. Additional triethylamine (2.1 mL, 14.95 mmol, 3.75 equiv) and sulfamoyl chloride (1.15 g, 9.95 mmol, 2.5 equiv) in acetonitrile (2 mL) was added at 0 °C and the reaction was stirred at room temperature for an additional 6 hours. LCMS indicated a 4: 1 mixture of product to starting material. The reaction was quenched with saturated sodium bicarbonate (5 mL) and stirred for an additional hour at room temperature. The reaction was diluted with saturated sodium bicarbonate (25 mL) and extracted with ethyl acetate (3 x 50 mL). The combined organic layers were dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated under reduced pressure. The product still contained unreacted starting material which could not be easily separated. Sulfamoyl chloride (1.15 g, 9.95 mmol, 2.5 equiv) in acetonitrile (2 mL) was added dropwise to a solution of crude compound 2B (0.9 g) and triethylamine (2.1 mL, 14.95 mmol, 3.75 equiv) in N,N-dimethylacetamide (20 mL) at 0 °C. After stirring at room temperature for two hours, the reaction was quenched with saturated sodium bicarbonate (5 mL) and the reaction was stirred for an additional hour at room temperature. The reaction was diluted with saturated sodium bicarbonate (25 mL) and extracted with ethyl acetate (3 x 50 mL). The combined organic layers were dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified on an AnaLogix automated system (Redisep 24 g silica gel column), eluting with a gradient of 25 to 50% ethyl acetate in heptanes, to give compound 2B (0.37 g, 28% yield) as a white solid.

[0086] (R)-2-Amino-3-phenylpropyl sulfamate hydrochloride (110CR003): 4M HC1 in dioxane (1.4 mL, 5.6 mmol, 5 equiv) was added to neat compound 2B (0.37 g, 1.12 mmol, 1 equiv) and the reaction was stirred overnight. The solution was diluted with diethyl ether (20 mL) and the resulting suspension was filtered. The solid was triturated in diethyl ether (20 mL) and the filtered solid was dried under a vacuum at room temperature for two hours to give compound 110CR003 (250 mg, 84% yield, 97.8% purity) as a white solid.

Com ound 3 (110CR007)

[0087] (Benzyl (R)-(l-phenyl-3-ureidopropan-2-yl)carbamate) (3B): Concentrated hydrochloric acid (0.06 mL, 0.68 mmol, 0.12 equiv) was added to a solution of benzyl (ft)-(l -amino-3-phenylpropan-2-yl)carbamate ( 1.5 g, 5.28 mmol, 1 equiv) and urea (1.26 g, 21.21 mmol, 4 equiv) in toluene (150 mL) under nitrogen. After refluxing overnight, LCMS indicated the reaction was complete. The reaction was concentrated under reduced pressure, diluted with water (150 mL) and stirred for 30 minutes. The resulting solid was filtered and washed with water (25 mL) to give crude compound 3B (1.4 g, 4.27 mmol, 80% yield) as a white solid, which was used sequentially.

[0088] ((R)-l-(2-mino-3-phenylpropyl)urea) (3C): Compound 3B (0.5 g, 1.5 mmol, 1 equiv) and 10% palladium on carbon (0.09 g) in methanol (60 mL) was hydrogenated at 30 psi for 1 hour at which time LC-MS determined that the reaction was incomplete. The solution was filtered and fresh catalyst (0.09 g) was added. The solution was hydrogenated at 30 psi for an additional 45 minutes resulting in complete conversion. Two identical scale reactions were run for 105 minutes each, both resulting in complete conversion. The three runs were combined and filtered through celite, which was washed with methanol (50 mL). The filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure to give crude compound 3C (0.9 g), which was used sequentially.

[0089] (R)-l-(2-Amino-3-phenylpropyI)urea hydrochloride (110CR007): Compound 3C (0.88 g, 4.58 mmol, 1 equiv) was dissolved diethyl ether (10 mL) and 4 N HCl in dioxane (2.31 mL, 9.27 mmol, 2 equiv) was added. The reaction was stirred overnight and then concentrated under reduced pressure to give crude 110CR007 as a white solid. The material was twice recrystallized from 10% methanol in ethanol (30 mL) to give 110CR007 (0.163 g, 16 % yield, 93.7 % purity) as a white solid.

Compound 4 (110CR009)

Scheme 4

[0090] Ethyl (R^)-4-((tert-butoxycarbonyI)amino)-5-phenylpent-2-enoate (4B): A solution of compound 4A (4.0 g, 16.1 mmol, 1 equiv) and ethyl (triphenylphos-phoranylidene)acetate (5.6 g, 16.1 mmol, 1 equiv) in dichloromethane (40 mL) was stirred at room temperature overnight. The reaction was concentrated under reduce pressure to remove the organic solvent and the resulting residue was purified on an AnaLogix automated system (40 g Sorbtech silica gel column), eluting with gradient of 50 to 100% ethyl acetate in heptanes, to give compound 4B (4.8 g, 94% yield) as a white solid.

[0091] (R^E)-4-((te *i-ButoxycarbonyI)amino)-5-phenylpent-2-enoic acid (4C): Lithium hydroxide (1.4 g, 60 mmol, 4 equiv) in water (15 mL) was added to compound 4B (4.8 g, 15 mmol, 1 equiv) in THF (60 mL) at room temperature and the reaction was stirred overnight. After 16 hours, the reaction was adjusted to pH 4 with IN hydrochloric acid. The organic layer was removed and the aqueous layer was extracted with ethyl acetate (2 x 50 mL). The combined organic layers was washed with saturated brine (50 mL), dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated under reduced pressure to give compound 4C (4.2 g, 97% yield) as a light cream solid, which was used subsequently.

[0092] Methyl (R E)-4-((½ -i-butoxycarbonyl)amino)-5-phenylpent-2-enoate (4D1):

Isobutyl chloro formate (1.3 mL, 10 mmol, 1 equiv) in THF (4 mL) was added dropwise to a solution of compound 4C (3.0 g, 10 mmol, 1 equiv) and N-methyl-morpholine (1.1 mL, 10 mmol, 1 equiv) in THF (12 mL) at -15 °C. After 30 minutes of stirring, LCMS indicated complete conversion to the anhydride intermediate. 2M Ammonia in methanol (5 mL, 10 mmol, 1 equiv) was added dropwise over 20 minutes, keeping the internal temperature between -25 to -15 °C. After 30 minutes of stirring, the reaction was warmed to room

temperature and stirred overnight. The reaction mixture was concentrated at reduced pressure to remove the organic solvent. The resulting residue was dissolved in ethyl acetate (50 mL) and washed with water (100 mL). The aqueous layer was extracted with ethyl acetate (2 x 50 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with saturated brine (50 mL), dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified on an AnaLogix automated system (80 g Sorbtech silica gel column), eluting with a gradient of 25 to 50% ethyl acetate in heptanes, to give compound 4D1 (1.1 g, 35 % yield) as a white solid.

[0093] Methyl (S)-4-((te^-butoxycarbonyl)amino)-5-phenylpentanoate (4D2): A mixture of compound 4D1 (1.1 g, 3.6 mmol, 1 equiv) and 10% palladium on carbon (0.33 g, 50% wet) in methanol (40 mL) was hydrogenated at 40 psi at room temperature for 4 hours. The mixture was filtered through celite, which was washed with methanol (100 mL). The filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure to give compound 4D2 (1.1 g, 99% yield) as a white solid.

[0094] (S)-4-((ii? i-Butoxycarbonyl)amino)-5-phenylpentanoic acid (4D3): Lithium hydroxide (73 mg, 3 mmol, 1.5 equiv) in water (1 mL) was added to compound 4B (0.6 g, 2 mmol, 1 equiv) in THF (9 mL) at room temperature. After stirring overnight, the reaction was adjusted to pH 4 with IN hydrochloric acid. The organic layer was removed and the aqueous layer was extracted with ethyl acetate (3 x 25 mL). The combined organic layers was washed with saturated brine (25 mL), dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated under reduced pressure to give compound 4D3 (0.56 g, 98% yield) as a white solid, which was used subsequently.

[0095] tert-Butyl (S)-(5-amino-5-oxo-l-phenylpentan-2-yl)carbamate (4E): Isobutyl chloroformate (0.23 mL, 1.8 mmol, 1 equiv) in THF (0.5 mL) was added drop-wise to a solution of compound 4C (0.54 g, 1.8 mmol, 1 equiv) and N-methylmorpholine (0.2 mL, 1.8 mmol, 1 equiv) in THF (1 mL) at -15 °C. After 20 minutes of stirring, LCMS indicated complete conversion to the anhydride intermediate. 0.4M Ammonia in THF (9 mL, 3.6 mmol, 2 equiv) was added drop-wise over 20 minutes, keeping the internal temperature between -25 to -15 °C. After 30 minutes of stirring the reaction was warmed to room temperature and stirred overnight. The reaction mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure to remove the organic solvent. The resulting residue was dissolved in ethyl acetate (25 mL) and washed with water (25 mL). The organic layer was separated and the aqueous layer was extracted with ethyl acetate (2 x 25 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with saturated brine (50 mL), dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated under

reduced pressure to give compound 4E (0.5 g, 93% yield) as a white solid, which was used subsequently.

[0096] (S)-4-Amino-5-phenylpentanamide hydrochloride (110CR009): 4M HC1 in dioxane (6 mL, 25 mmol, 10 equiv) was added to compound 4E (0.73 g, 1.12 mmol, 1 equiv) After stirring overnight at room temperature, the reaction was diluted with diethyl ether (20 mL) and stirred for 6 hours. The resulting suspension was filtered and the solid was washed with diethyl ether (20 mL). The filtered solid was dried under vacuum at room temperature for two hours to give compound 110CR009 (340 mg, 60% yield, 97.9 % purity) as a white solid.

Compound 10 (110CR012)

[0097] tert-Butyl (R)-(l-(carbamoylthio)-3-phenyIpropan-2-yI)carbamate (5B):

Compound 5 A (0.15 g, 0.56 mmol, 1 equiv) was dissolved in THF (8 mL) and sparged with nitrogen for 15 minutes. Trichloroacetyl isocyanate (0.1 mL, 0.84 mmol, 1.5 equiv) was added and the solution stirred for 3 hours, at which point TLC (30% ethyl acetate in heptane) indicated absence of starting material. The reaction was cooled to 0°C and concentrated ammonium hydroxide (0.15 mL) was added. After stirring overnight at room temperature, TLC indicated that the reaction was complete. The reaction was washed with a 10% ammonium hydroxide (10 mL). The organic layer was concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified on an AnaLogix automated system (12 g silica gel column), eluting with a gradient of 0 to 30% ethyl acetate in heptane, to give compound 5B. This reaction was repeated an additional two times 0.15 g and 0.18 g). The products were to give compound 5B (0.35 g, 1.12 mmol, 62.2% yield) as a white solid.

[0098] (R)-S-(2-Amino-3-phenylpropyl) carbamothioate hydrochloride (110CR012):

Compound 5B (0.35 g, 1.12 mmol, 1 equiv) was dissolved in 4N HCI in dioxane (2 mL). The reaction was stirred for two hours and then concentrated under reduced pressure to give crude 110CR012 as a white solid. The material was triturated in diethyl ether (15 mL) to give 110CR012 (0.215 g, 78 % yield, 98.0 % purity) as a white solid.

References

  1. Jump up to:a b “SUNOSI™ (solriamfetol) Tablets, for Oral Use. Full Prescribing Information” (PDF). Jazz Pharmaceuticals. 2019. Retrieved 21 March2019.
  2. ^ Abad, VC; Guilleminault, C (2017). “New developments in the management of narcolepsy”Nature and Science of Sleep9: 39–57. doi:10.2147/NSS.S103467PMC 5344488PMID 28424564.
  3. Jump up to:a b c d Ji-young, Sohn (5 March 2018). “SK Biopharmaceuticals’ narcolepsy drug on track to hitting US market”The Korea Herald.
  4. ^ Sullivan, SS; Guilleminault, C (2015). “Emerging drugs for common conditions of sleepiness: obstructive sleep apnea and narcolepsy”. Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs20 (4): 571–82. doi:10.1517/14728214.2015.1115480PMID 26558298.
  5. ^ Garde, Damian (January 14, 2014). “Jazz bets up to $397M on Aerial’s narcolepsy drug”FierceBiotech.
  6. Jump up to:a b “Solriamfetol – Jazz Pharmaceuticals/SK Biopharmaceuticals”. AdisInsight. Retrieved 15 April 2018.
  7. ^ de Biase, S; Nilo, A; Gigli, GL; Valente, M (August 2017). “Investigational therapies for the treatment of narcolepsy”. Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs26 (8): 953–963. doi:10.1080/13543784.2017.1356819PMID 28726523.
Solriamfetol
Solriamfetol.svg
Clinical data
Trade names Sunosi
Synonyms SKL-N05, ADX-N05, ARL-N05, and JZP-110; (R)-2-amino-3-phenylpropylcarbamate hydrochloride
Routes of
administration
By mouth
ATC code
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability ~95%
Protein binding 13.3–19.4%
Metabolism negligible
Elimination half-life ~7.1 h
Excretion urine (95% unchanged)
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
Chemical and physical data
Formula C10H14N2O2
Molar mass 194.234 g/mol g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)

///////////Solriamfetol hydrochloride, Solriamfetol, ソルリアムフェトル塩酸塩; солриамфетол , سولريامفيتول 索安非托 JZP-110, Orphan Drug, fda 2019, R228060, R 228060

RISDIPLAM , リスジプラム


Risdiplam.svg

Image result for RISDIPLAM

RISDIPLAM

RG-7916, RO-7034067, リスジプラム

Formula
C22H23N7O
Cas
1825352-65-5
Mol weight
401.4643
US9969754

7-(4,7-diazaspiro[2.5]octan-7-yl)-2-(2,8-dimethylimidazo[1,2-b]pyridazin-6-yl)pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-4-one

WHO 10614

RG-7916

HY-109101

RO7034067

CS-0039501

EX-A2074

RG7916

The compound was originally claimed in WO2015173181 , for treating spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Roche , under license from PTC Therapeutics , and Chugai , are developing risdiplam (RO-7034067; RG-7916), a small-molecule survival motor neuron (SMN)2 gene splicing modulator and a lead from an SMN2 gene modulator program initiated by PTC Therapeutics in collaboration with the SMA Foundation , for the oral treatment of spinal muscular atrophy

The product was granted orphan drug designation in the U.S., E.U. and in Japan for the treatment of spinal muscular atrophy. In 2018, it also received PRIME designation in the E.U. for the same indication.

Risdiplam (RG7916RO7034067) is a highly potent, selective and orally active small molecule experimental drug being developed by F. Hoffmann-La RochePTC Therapeutics and SMA Foundation to treat spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). It is a pyridazine derivative that works by increasing the amount of functional survival of motor neuron protein produced by the SMN2 gene through modifying its splicing pattern.[1][2]

As of September 2018, risdiplam is undergoing late-stage clinical trials across the spectrum of spinal muscular atrophy[3][4][5] where it has shown promising preliminary results.[6][7]

PATENT

WO2015173181

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf;jsessionid=B8D897794EC02E2BBFD5D2280B3E1883.wapp1nC?docId=WO2015173181&recNum=9&office=&queryString=&prevFilter=%26fq%3DOF%3AKR%26fq%3DICF_M%3A%22C07D%22%26fq%3DPAF_M%3A%22F.+HOFFMANN-LA+ROCHE+AG%22&sortOption=Pub+Date+Desc&maxRec=912

Example 20

7-(4,7-diazaspiro[2.5]octan-7-yl)-2-(2,8-dimethylimidazo[l,2-b]pyridazin-6- yl)pyrido[l,2-a]pyrimidin-4-one

In a sealed tube, 2-(2,8-dimethylimidazo[l,2-b]pyridazin-6-yl)-7-fluoro-pyrido[l,2-a]pyrimidin-4-one (Intermediate 2; 50 mg, 0.162 mmol), DIPEA (0.22 mL, 1.29 mmol, 4 eq.) and 4,7-diazaspiro[2.5]octane dihydrochloride (32 mg, 0.320 mmol, 3.0 eq.) were stirred in

DMSO (2 mL) at 130°C for 48 hours. The solvent was removed under high vacuum. The residue was taken up in CH2CI2 and washed with an aqueous saturated solution of NaHC03. The organic layer was separated and dried over Na2S04 and concentrated in vacuo. The crude was purified by column chromatography (Si02, CH2Cl2/MeOH=98/2 to 95/5) to afford the title product (12 mg, 18%) as a light yellow solid. MS m/z 402.3 [M+H+].

PATENT

WO-2019057740

Process for the preparation of risdiplam and its derivatives.

Scheme 1:

Scheme 3:

Scheme 4:

xample 1: tert-Butyl 7-(6-chloro-3-pyridyl)-4,7-diazaspiro[2.5]octane-4-carboxylate

5-Bromo-2-chloropyridine (85.0 g, 442 mmol), tert-butyl 4,7-diazaspiro[2.5]octane-4-carboxylate (102 g, 442 mmol) and Me-THF (722 g) were charged into a reaction vessel. After 10 minutes stirring, most of the solids were dissolved and [Pd(Xantphos)Cl2] (3.34 g) was added followed after 5 minutes by a solution of sodium tert-butanolate (56.3 g, 574 mmol) in Me-THF (173 g). The reaction mixture was stirred at 70 °C for 1.25 hours, cooled to room temperature and water (595 g) and 1-propylacetate (378 g) were added. After vigorous stirring, the phases were separated, the organic phase was washed with a second portion of water (425 g) and with a mixture of water (425 g) and brine (25 mL). The organic phase was treated with active charcoal (6.8 g), filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure to afford a brown oil, which was dissolved in tert-amyl-methyl-ether (347 g) at reflux. The solution was cooled slowly to room temperature. After stirring 18 hours at room temperature, n-heptane (205 g) was added and the suspension was further cooled to -10 °C. The precipitate was filtered off and dried under high vacuum to afford tert-butyl 7-(6-chloro-3-pyridyl)-4,7-diazaspiro[2.5]octane-4-carboxylate (110.9 g, 77.5%) as a beige solid.

Ή-ΝΜΡν (CDC13, 600 MHz): 7.95 (d, 1H); 7.18 – 7.14 (m, 1H); 7.13 – 7.09 (m, 1H); 3.79 – 3.63 (m, 2H); 3.24 – 3.12 (m, 2H); 2.96 (s, 2H); 1.47 (s, 9H); 1.11 – 1.04 (m, 2H); 0.90 -0.79 (m, 2H); LCMS: 324.15, 326.15 (M+H+)

Example 2: tert-butyl 7-(6-amino-3-pyridyl)-4,7-diazaspiro[2.5]octane-4-carboxylate

An autoclave equipped with an ascending pipe was filled with ammonia (78.7 g, 15 eq; 10 eq are sufficient) at -70 °C. Another autoclave was charged with tert-butyl 7-(6-chloro-3-pyridyl)-4,7-diazaspiro[2.5]octane-4-carboxylate (100 g, 309 mmol), sodium tert-butanolate (32.6 g, 340 mmol) and dioxane (800 mL). After 10 minutes stirring at room temperature under Ar, a solution of Pd2(dba)3 (1.41 g, 1.54 mmol) and tBuBrettPhos (1.50 g, 3.09 mmol) in dioxane (180 mL) was added. Thereafter, the connected ammonia vessel was warmed with a warm water bath and the connecting valve was opened. The autoclave was warmed to 30 °C and the reaction mixture stirred 5 hours at this temperature. The ammonia vessel was closed and disconnected. The excess ammonia was washed out of the autoclave with Argon. The reaction solution was poured into a separating funnel, the autoclave washed with ethyl acetate (300 mL) and water (100 mL) and these two solvent portions were added to the separating funnel. The biphasic mixture was further diluted with ethyl acetate (900 mL) and water (1000 mL). After vigorous stirring, the phases were separated. The organic phase was washed with a mixture of water (500 mL) and brine (10 mL). The combined aqueous phases were extracted twice with ethyl acetate (500 mL). The combined organic phases were treated with active charcoal (3.70 g, 309 mmol), filtered and the filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure to afford a thick brown oil. This oil was dissolved in 1 -propyl acetate (160 mL) at 45-50°C and n-heptane (940 mL) was added drop wise within 1.5 hours. The suspension was cooled slowly to -5°C, stirred 4 hours at -5 °C and filtered. The precipitate was washed with cold n-heptane and dried under high vacuum at 50°C to afford tert-butyl 7-(6-amino-3-pyridyl)-4,7-diazaspiro[2.5]octane-4-carboxylate (81.4 g, 86.5%) as a beige solid.

Ή-ΝΜΡν (CDCb, 600 MHz): 7.71 (d, 1H); 7.12 (dd, 1H); 6.47 (d, 1H); 4.18 (br s, 2H); 3.74 – 3.58 (m, 2H); 3.09 – 2.94 (m, 2H); 2.81 (s, 2H); 1.52 – 1.39 (m, 9H); 1.17 – 0.98 (m, 2H); 0.92 – 0.75 (m, 2H); LCMS: 305.20 (M+H+)

Example 3: tert-butyl 7-(6-amino-3-pyridyl)-4,7-diazaspiro[2.5]octane-4-carboxylate

An autoclave was charged with tert-butyl 7-(6-chloro-3-pyridyl)-4,7-diazaspiro[2.5]octane-4-carboxylate (339 mg, 1 mmol), sodium tert-butanolate (109 mg, 1.1 mmol) and dioxane (5 mL). After 5 minutes stirring at room temperature under Argon [Pd(allyl)(tBuBrettPhos)]OTf (4 mg, 5 μιηοΐ) was added. Thereafter, the autoclave was closed and connected to an ammonia tank, the valve was open and ammonia (230 mg, 13.5 mmol) was introduced into the autoclave. The valve was closed and the autoclave disconnected. The autoclave was warmed to 30 °C and the reaction mixture stirred 4 hours at this temperature. Then the autoclave was opened and the excess ammonia was washed out of the autoclave with Argon. The reaction solution was poured into a flask and taken to dryness under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by chromatography over silica gel (eluent: dichloromethane/ethyl acetate to dichloromethane/methanol). After evaporation of the solvents tert-butyl 7-(6-amino-3-pyridyl)-4,7-diazaspiro[2.5]octane-4-carboxylate (283 mg, 93%) was isolated as a brown oil containing 4% dichloromethane and 3% ethyl acetate.

Example 4: tert-butyl 7-(6-nitro-3-pyridyl)-4,7-diazaspiro[2.5]octane-4-carboxylate

tert-Butyl 4,7-diazaspiro[2.5]octane-4-carboxylate oxalate salt (2.46 kg, 8.13 mol), 5-bromo-2-nitro-pyridine (1.50 kg, 7.39 mol) and dimethyl sulfoxide (7.80 L) were char; into a reaction vessel pre-heated to 35 °C. With stirring, and keeping the temperature below 40°C, lithium chloride (1.25 kg, 25.6 mol) was added portion- wise followed by tetramethylguanidine (2.98 kg, 25.9 mol). Dimethyl sulfoxide (450 mL) was used to rinse the feed line. The reaction mixture was stirred at 79 °C for 8 hours, cooled to 70°C and water (2.48 L) was added within 2 hours. After stirring at 70 °C for an additional 1 hour, the precipitate was filtered off and washed with water (4.5 L) three times. The precipitate was dissolved in ethyl acetate (15 L) and water (7.5 L) at reflux temperature. The phases were separated at 60°C and n-heptane (7.5 L) was added to the organic layer at 60°C within 30 minutes. The solution was cooled to 0°C in 2 hours and further stirred at 0°C for 1 hour. The precipitate was filtered off, washed with a mixture of ethyl acetate (750 mL)/n-heptane (375 mL) twice and dried under reduced pressure to afford 1.89 kg (76.4%) of tert-butyl 7-(6-nitro-3-pyridyl)-4,7-diazaspiro[2.5]octane-4-carboxylate as a yellow to light brown solid.

!H-NMR (CDCls, 600 MHz): 8.16 (d, 1H); 8.07 (d, 1H); 7.15 (dd, 1H); 3.80 – 3.72 (m, 2H); 3.49 – 3.41 (m, 2H); 3.23 (s, 2H); 1.48 (s, 9H); 1.16 – 1.08 (m, 2H); 0.92 – 0.85 (m, 2H); LCMS: 335.17 (M+H+)

Example 5: tert-butyl 7-(2-hydroxy-4-oxo-pyrido[l,2-a]pyrimidin-7-yl)-4,7-diazaspiro[2.5]octane-4-carboxylate

tert-Butyl 7-(6-amino-3-pyridyl)-4,7-diazaspiro[2.5]octane-4-carboxylate (80.0 g, 263 mmol) was dissolved in anisole (800 mL) and di-tert-butyl malonate (71.1 g, 315 mmol) was added. The solution was stirred 3.5 hours at 145 °C then cooled to room temperature. The precipitate was filtered off, washed with toluene (in portions, 320 mL in total) and dried under high vacuum at 50°C to afford tert-butyl 7-(2-hydroxy-4-oxo-pyrido[l,2-a]pyrimidin-7-yl)-4,7-diazaspiro[2.5]octane-4-carboxylate (65.6 g, 67%) as a light pink powder.

Ή-ΝΜΡν (CDCI3, 600 MHz): 8.46 (d, 1H); 7.74 (dd, 1H); 7.52 (d, 1H); 5.37 (s, 2H); 3.83 – 3.69 (m, 2H); 3.23 (t, 2H); 3.01 (s, 2H); 1.48 (s, 9H); 1.17 – 1.03 (m, 2H); 0.95 – 0.75 (m, 2H); LCMS: 373.19 (M+H+)

Example 6: tert-butyl 7-(2-hydroxy-4-oxo-pyrido[l,2-a]pyrimidin-7-yl)-4,7-diazaspiro[2.5]octane-4-carboxylate

tert-Butyl 7-(6-nitro-3-pyridyl)-4,7-diazaspiro[2.5]octane-4-carboxylate (950 g, 2.84 mol), Pt 1%, V 2% on active charcoal (95.1 g, 2 mmol) and ethyl acetate (9.5 L) were charged into an autoclave that was pressurized with hydrogen gas to 3 bar. The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 6 hours. The excess hydrogen was vented. The reaction mixture was filtered, the catalyst was washed with ethyl acetate (0.95 L) three times. The filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure and the solvent exchanged to anisole (add two portions of 2.85 L and 5.18 L) by distillation. Di tert-butyl malonate (921.7 g, 4.26 mol) was added and the charging line was rinsed with anisole (618 mL) and the reaction mixture was stirred at 125-135 °C for 8 hours. It may be necessary to distill off the by-product tert-butanol to reach this temperature. The progress of the reaction was followed eg.by HPLC. If the reaction stalls, the temperature is increased to 135-145°C and checked for progress after 1 hour. When the reaction was complete, the batch was cooled to room temperature and stirred at room temperature for 4 hours. The precipitate was filtered off, washed with toluene (3.55 L) and dried under vacuum at 60°C to afford tert-butyl 7-(2-hydroxy-4-oxo-pyrido[l,2-a]pyrimidin-7-yl)-4,7-diazaspiro[2.5]octane-4-carboxylate (861.0 g, 81.4%) as a yellow to light brown solid.

Example 7: tert-butyl 7-[4-oxo-2-(p-tolylsulfonyloxy)pyrido[l,2-a]pyrimidin-7-yl]-4,7-diazaspiro[2.5]octane-4-carboxylate

A reactor was charged with tert-butyl 7-(2-hydroxy-4-oxo-pyrido[l,2-a]pyrimidin-7-yl)-4,7-diazaspiro[2.5]octane-4-carboxylate (920 g, 2.47 mol) and then triethylamine (325 g, 3.21 mol), followed by tosyl chloride (527.1 g, 2.77 mol) and dichloromethane (4.6 L). The reaction mixture was stirred at 20-25 °C for at least three hours. Upon complete reaction, the organic solution was washed with a prepared solution of HC1 (32%, 247.8 mL) and water (4.6 L), followed by a prepared solution of sodium hydroxide (432.3 mL of a 30% stock solution) and water (3.9 L) in that order. The organic phase was finally washed with water (4.8 L) and then dichloromethane was nearly completely distilled off under reduced pressure at 50-55°C. Ethyl acetate (920 mL) was added and distilled twice at this temperature under reduced pressure, and then ethyl acetate (4.8 L) was added and the suspension cooled to 20-25 °C over two hours. n-Heptane (944.4 mL) was added and the mixture was cooled to 0-5 °C and then stirred for an additional 3 hours. The precipitate was filtered off, washed with a prepared solution of ethyl acetate (772.8 mL) and n-heptane (147.2 mL), and then twice with n-heptane (2.6 L). The solid was dried under vacuum at 45-50°C to afford 1122.6 g (86.3%) tert-butyl 7-[4-oxo-2-(p-tolylsulfonyloxy)pyrido[l,2-a]pyrimidin-7-yl]-4,7-diazaspiro[2.5]octane-4-carboxylate as yellow crystals.

!H-NMR (CDCls, 600 MHz): 8.32 (d, 1H); 8.00 – 7.89 (m, 2H); 7.66 (dd, 1H); 7.50 (d, 1H); 7.36 (d, 2H); 6.04 (s, 1H); 3.80 – 3.68 (m, 2H); 3.23 (t, 2H); 3.01 (s, 2H); 1.48 (s, 9H); 1.15 – 1.04 (m, 2H); 0.92 – 0.82 (m, 2H); LCMS: 527.20 (M+H+)

Example 8: 2,8-dimethyl-6-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-l,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)imidazo[l,2-b]pyridazine

6-Chloro-2,8-dimethylimidazo[l,2-b]pyridazine (40.0 g, 220 mmol), bis pinacol diborane (69.9 g, 275 mmol) and potassium acetate (43.2 g, 440 mmol) were suspended in acetonitrile (440 mL). The suspension was heated to reflux and stirred 30 minutes at reflux, then a suspension of PdCl2(dppf) (4.03 g, 5.51 mmol) and dppf (610 mg, 1.1 mmol) in acetonitrile (40 mL) was added. The vessel was rinsed with acetonitrile (20 mL), which were also poured into the reaction mixture. The orange suspension was further stirred at reflux, whereby acetonitrile (50 mL) were distilled off. After 4 hours, the reaction mixture was filtered off, the filter was washed with several portions of acetonitrile (in total 150 mL). The filtrate was diluted to obtain a volume of 700 mL. The 314 mmolar solution of 2,8-dimethyl-6-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-l,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)imidazo[l,2-b]pyridazine in acetonitrile was used as such in the next step.

Example 9: 2,8-dimethyl-6-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-l,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)imidazo[l,2-b]pyridazine

6-chloro-2,8-dimethylimidazo[l,2-b]pyridazine (29.0 g, 22.8 mmol), bis pinacol diborane (44.6, 25.1 mmol) and potassium acetate (31.3 g, 45.6 mmol) were suspended in 1-propyl acetate (365 mL). The suspension was heated to 80°C and a solution of

tricyclohexylphosphine (448 mg, 0.23 mmol) and Pd(OAc)2 (179 mg, 0.11 mmol) in 1-propyl acetate (37 mL) was added within 20 minutes. After 2.5 hours further stirring at 80°C, the suspension was cooled to 40°C and filtered at this temperature. The precipitate was washed with 1-propyl acetate (200 mL). The filtrate corresponds to 516.4 g of a 8.5% solution of 2,8-dimethyl-6-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-l,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)imidazo[l,2-b]pyridazine in 1 -propyl acetate.

Example 10: Isolation of 2,8-dimethyl-6-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-l,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)imidazo[ 1 ,2-b]pyridazine

In another experiment, the above solution obtained was cooled to 0-5 °C within 3 hours. The precipitate was filtered off, washed with cold 1 -propyl acetate and dried under high vacuum at 60°C to afford 2,8-dimethyl-6-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-l,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)imidazo[l,2-b]pyridazine (24. Og, 55%) as a colourless solid.

lH NMR (CDCls, 600 MHz, ) δ ppm 7.86 (d, J=0.7 Hz, 1 H), 7.20 (d, J=1.0 Hz, 1 H), 2.63 (d, J=1.0 Hz, 3 H), 2.51 (d, J=0.7 Hz, 3 H), 1.33 – 1.49 (m, 12 H)

Example 11: (step 6) tert-butyl 7-[2-(2,8-dimethylimidazo[l,2-b]pyridazin-6-yl)-4-oxo-pyrido[l,2-a]pyrimidin-7-yl]-4,7-diazaspiro[2.5]octane-4-carboxylate

tert-Butyl 7-[4-oxo-2-(p-tolylsulfonyloxy)pyrido[l,2-a]pyrimidin-7-yl]-4,7-diazaspiro[2.5] octane-4-carboxylate (25 g, 47.5 mmol), 2,8-dimethyl-6-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl- 1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)imidazo[l,2-b]pyridazine (314 mM in acetonitrile, 191 mL, 59.8 mmol), PdCi2(dppf) (868 mg, 1.19 mmol) and aqueous potassium carbonate 4.07 M (17.1 mL, 69.8 mmol) were charged into a reaction vessel. The reaction mixture was stirred at reflux for 3 hours, cooled overnight to room temperature and filtered. The precipitate was washed with several portions of acetonitrile (146 mL in total), then suspended in methyl-THF (750 mL) and methanol (75 mL). Aqueous sodium hydrogen carbonate 5% (250 mL) was added, the mixture was vigorously stirred at 35°C. The phases were separated, the organic phase was washed again with aqueous sodium hydrogen carbonate 5% (250 mL). The organic phase was treated with active charcoal for 1 hour at room temperature, filtered and the filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure at 60 °C to a volume of 225 mL, heated to reflux then cooled to room temperature, stirred at room temperature for 16 hours, then cooled to 0°C and stirred at 0°C for 3 hours. The precipitate was filtered off, washed with n-heptane (60 mL) and dried under high vacuum at 55°C to afford tert-butyl 7-[2-(2,8-dimethylimidazo[l,2-b]pyridazin-6-yl)-4-oxo-pyrido[l,2-a]pyrimidin-7-yl]-4,7-diazaspiro[2.5]octane-4-carboxylate (20.13 g, 84.5%) as a yellow solid.

This solid could be recrystallized in the following manner: 15 g of the above solid was dissolved at reflux in toluene (135 mL) and ethanol (15 mL). The solution was slowly cooled to room temperature, stirred 16 hours at room temperature, then cooled to 0°C and stirred at 0°C for 4 hours. The precipitate was filtered off, washed with cold toluene and dried under high vacuum at 55°C to afford tert-butyl 7-[2-(2,8-dimethylimidazo[l,2-b]pyridazin-6-yl)-4-oxo-pyrido[l,2-a]pyrimidin-7-yl]-4,7-diazaspiro[2.5]octane-4-carboxylate (11.92 g, 79.5%) as a yellow-green solid.

!H-NMR (CDCls, 600 MHz): 8.44 (d, 1H); 7.93 (d, 1H); 7.96 – 7.89 (m, 1H); 7.80 (d, 1H); 7.76 – 7.72 (m, 1H); 7.70 – 7.63 (m, 1H); 7.38 (s, 1H); 3.85 – 3.69 (m, 2H); 3.28 (t, 2H); 3.07 (s, 2H); 2.74 (d, 3H); 2.55 (s, 3H); 1.49 (s, 9H); 1.16 – 1.09 (m, 2H); 0.93 – 0.86 (m, 2H); LCMS: 502.26 (M+H+)

Example 12: tert-butyl 7-[2-(2,8-dimethylimidazo[l,2-b]pyridazin-6-yl)-4-oxo-pyrido[l,2-a]pyrimidin-7-yl]-4,7-diazaspiro[2.5]octane-4-carboxylate

6-chloro-2,8-dimethylimidazo[l,2-b]pyridazine (4.14 g, 22.8 mmol), bis pinacol diborane (6.37g, 25.1 mmol) and potassium acetate (4.47 g, 45.6 mmol) were suspended in 1-propyl acetate (59 mL). The suspension was heated to 80°C and a solution of

tricyclohexylphosphine (63.9 mg, 0.23 mmol) and Pd(OAc)2 (25.6 mg, 0.11 mmol) in 1-propyl acetate (6 mL) was added within 20 minutes. After 2.5 hours further stirring at 80°C, the suspension was cooled to 40°C and filtered at this temperature. The precipitate was washed with 1-propyl acetate (32 mL). The filtrate corresponds to 74.6 g of a 8.5% solution of 2,8-dimethyl-6-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-l,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)imidazo[l,2-b]pyridazine in 1-propyl acetate.

A reaction vessel was charged with tert-butyl 7-[4-oxo-2-(p-tolylsulfonyloxy)pyrido[l,2-a]pyrimidin-7-yl]-4,7-diazaspiro[2.5]octane-4-carboxylate (10.0 g, 19.0 mmol), tricyclohexylphosphine (58.6 mg, 0.21 mmol) and Pd(OAc)2 (21.3 mg, 0.10 mmol) and 1-propyl acetate (42 mL) and a solution of potassium carbonate (5.25 g, 38.0 mmol) in water (19.0 mL) was added. The suspension was heated to 70°C and the solution of 2,8-dimethyl-6-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-l,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)imidazo[l,2-b]pyridazine in 1-propyl acetate was added within 30 minutes. The mixture was stirred for 2 hours at 70-75°C. The suspension was cooled to 40°C, water (10 mL) was added. The suspension was aged for 30 minutes. The crude product was filtered off and rinsed with 1-propyl acetate (41 mL). The crude product was taken up in toluene (100 mL), 5% aqueous NaHC03-solution (30 mL) and 1-propanol (20.0 mL). The mixture was heated to 60-65 °C, the phases were separated and the organic phase was washed with 2 more portions of water (30.0 mL). The organic phase was filtered on active charcoal, the filter washed with toluene (60.0 mL). The filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure to a volume of ca. 120 mL, heated to reflux and 1-propanol (0.8 mL) was added to obtain a solution. The solution was cooled to 0-5°C within 4-6 hours, stirred at 0-5°C for 1 hour. The precipitate was filtered off, washed with toluene (30 mL) and dried under reduced pressure at 70-80°C to afford tert-butyl 7-[2-(2,8-dimethylimidazo[l,2-b]pyridazin-6-yl)-4-oxo-pyrido[l,2-a]pyrimidin-7-yl]-4,7-diazaspiro[2.5]octane-4-carboxylate (7.7 g, 80.8%) as a yellowish solid.

Example 13: 7-(4,7-diazaspiro[2.5]octan-7-yl)-2-(2,8-dimethylimidazo[l,2-b]pyridazin-6-yl)pyrido[l,2-a]pyrimidin-4-one di-hydrochloride salt

To prepare a solution of HC1 in in 1-propyl acetate/ 1-propanol, acetyl chloride (15.8 g, 199 mmol) was slowly added to a mixture of 1-propyl acetate (60 mL) and 1-propanol (30 mL) at 0°C, and stirring was pursued for an additional 2 hours at room temperature.

tert-Butyl 7-[2-(2,8-dimethylimidazo[ 1 ,2-b]pyridazin-6-yl)-4-oxo-pyrido[ 1 ,2-a]pyrimidin-7-yl]-4,7-diazaspiro[2.5]octane-4-carboxylate (20 g, 39.9 mmol) was suspended in 1-propyl acetate (60 mL) and 1-propanol (30 mL) at room temperature and the HC1 solution in 1-propyl acetate and 1-propanol was added. The reaction mixture was heated within 3 hours to 70°C and stirred 16 hours at this temperature, then cooled to 20°C. The precipitate was filtered off, washed with 1-propyl acetate (50 mL) in several portions and dried under vacuum at 55 °C to afford 7-(4,7-diazaspiro[2.5]octan-7-yl)-2-(2,8-dimethylimidazo[l,2-b]pyridazin-6-yl)pyrido[l,2-a]pyrimidin-4-one hydrochloride salt (18.8 g, 99%) as yellow crystals.

^-NMR (CDCls, 600 MHz): 8.34 (s, 1H); 8.22(s, 1H); 8.05 (s, 1H); 8.01 (dd, 1H); 7.80 (d, 1H); 7.16 (s, 1H); 3.71 – 3.67 (m, 2H); 3.64 – 3.59 (m, 2H); 3.52 (s, 2H); 2.69 (s, 3H); 2.54 (s, 3H); 1.23- 1.20 (m, 2H); 1.14 – 1.08 (m, 2H); LCMS: 402.20 (M+H+)

Example 14: 7-(4,7-diazaspiro[2.5]octan-7-yl)-2-(2,8-dimethylimidazo[l,2-b]pyridazin-6-yl)pyrido[ 1 ,2-a]pyrimidin-4-one

To a suspension of tert-butyl 7-[2-(2,8-dimethylimidazo[l,2-b]pyridazin-6-yl)-4-oxo-pyrido[l,2-a]pyrimidin-7-yl]-4,7-diazaspiro[2.5]octane-4-carboxylate (25 g, 50 mmol) in 1-propyl acetate (375 mL) was added a solution of HC1 in 1-propanol (prepared by adding slowly at 5°C acetyl chloride (18.0 mL) to 1-propanol (37.6 mL) and stirring 1 hour at room temperature). The stirred suspension was heated to 75°C within 10 hours and stirred a further 5 hours at 75 °C. Water (160.0 mL) was added and the phases were separated at 75°C. Aqueous sodium hydroxide 32% (27.8 mL) was added to the aqueous phase. The suspension obtained was cooled to room temperature within 5 hours and stirred one hour at room temperature. The precipitate was filtered off, washed with water (100.0 mL) and dried under reduced pressure at 50°C for 18 hours to afford 7-(4,7-diazaspiro[2.5]octan-7-yl)-2-(2,8-dimethylimidazo[l,2-b]pyridazin-6-yl)pyrido[l,2-a]pyrimidin-4-one (19.7 g, 98.3%) as yellow crystals.

!H-NMR (CDCb, 600 MHz): 8. 45 (d, 1H); 7.92 (d, 1H); 7.80 (s, 1H); 7.75 – 7.71 (m, 1H); 7.71 – 7.67 (m, 1H); 7.37 (s, 1H); 3.31 – 3.24 (m, 2H); 3.22 – 3.16 (m, 2H); 3.09 (s, 2H); 2.73 (s, 3H); 2.55 (s, 3H); 0.82- 0.76 (m, 2H); 0.71 – 0.63 (m, 2H); LCMS: 402.20

(M+H+)

Example 15: 7-(4,7-diazaspiro[2.5]octan-7-yl)-2-(2,8-dimethylimidazo[l,2-b]pyridazin-6-yl)pyrido[ 1 ,2-a]pyrimidin-4-one

A suspension of tert-butyl 7-[2-(2,8-dimethylimidazo[l,2-b]pyridazin-6-yl)-4-oxo-pyrido[l,2-a]pyrimidin-7-yl]-4,7-diazaspiro[2.5]octane-4-carboxylate (13.5 g, 26.9

in toluene (237.0 g) was stirred at 75°C and a 21.9% solution of HCl in 1-propanol (21.4 g, 134.5 mmol) was added within 2.5 hours. The reaction mixture was stirred further at 75 °C until complete conversion. The reaction mixture was cooled to 20-25°C. Water (70 g) was added. The biphasic mixture was stirred another 10 minutes at 20-25 °C and the phases were separated. The organic phase was extracted with water (17 g) twice and the combined aqueous phases were added into mixture of aqueous sodium hydroxide 28% (15.0 g) and water (45.0 g). The suspension obtained was cooled to 20°C. The precipitate was filtered off , washed with water (25 g) three times and dried under reduced pressure at 60°C to afford 7-(4,7-diazaspiro[2.5]octan-7-yl)-2-(2,8-dimethylimidazo[l,2-b]pyridazin-6-yl)pyrido[l,2-a]pyrimidin-4-one (9.5 g, 95.1%) as yellow crystals.

Example 16: 4-bromo-6-chloro-pyridazin-3-amine

3-amino-6-chloropyridazine (20 g, 154 mmol), sodium bicarbonate (25.9 g, 309 mmol) and methanol (158 g) were charged in a reaction vessel and cooled to 0-10°C. Bromine (34.5 g, 216 mmol) was added drop wise and the reaction mixture was stirred 3 days at room temperature. 10% Aqueous sodium sulfate was added. The suspension was filtered off. The filtrate was washed with ethyl acetate (300 mL) twice. The combined organic layers were dried and evaporated. A suspension of the residue in methanol (50 mL) was heated to reflux, water (120 mL) was added and the suspension was stirred 16 hours at room temperature. The precipitate was filtered off and dried. The residue was suspended in n-heptane (50 mL), stirred 2 hours at room temperature, filtered off and dried to afford 4-bromo-6-chloro-pyridazin-3-amine (14.5 g, 46.2%) as a light brown solid.

!H-NMR (CDCls, 600 MHz): 7.55 (s, 1H); 5.83-4.89 (m, 2H); LCMS: 209.93 (M+H+)

Example 17: 4-bromo-6-chloro-pyridazin-3-amine

3-amino-6-chloropyridazine (50 g, 360 mmol), acetic acid (5.8 g, 96.5 mmol), sodium acetate (28.7 g, 289.5 mmol) and methanol (395 g) were charged in a reaction vessel and heated to 25-35°C. Dibromodimethylhydatoin (66.0 g, 231.6 mmol) was added in several portions and the reaction mixture was stirred 3 hours at 30°C. Completion is checked by IPC and if the conversion is incomplete, dibromodimethylhydantoin is added (5.5g). At reaction completion, 38% aqueous sodium sulfate (77.2 mmol NaHS03) was added slowly. The suspension was concentrated under reduced pressure and water (500 g) was added slowly at 45°C, then 30% aqueous sodium hydroxide (31.5 g, 231.6 mmol NaOH) was added at 20°C to adjust pH to 7-8. The precipitate was filtered off, washed with water and dried under reduced pressure to afford 4-bromo-6-chloro-pyridazin-3-amine (50.2 g, 62.5%) as a grey solid.

Example 18: 6-chloro-4-methyl-pyridazin-3-amine

4-bromo-6-chloro-pyridazin-3-amine (3.0 g, 14.4 mmol) and

tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium (1666 mg, 144 μιηοΐ) were suspended in THF (13.2 g) and a solution of zinc chloride in Me-THF (2.0 M, 9 mL, 18 mmol) was added. The reaction mixture was cooled to -5°C and methyllithium in diethoxymethane (3.1 M, 11.6 mL, 36 mmol) was added. The reaction mixture was stirred at 45°C for 4 hours. Sodium sulfate decahydrate (11.7 g, 36 mmol) was added at room temperature, the mixture was stirred 1.5 hours at 60°C, diluted with water (100 mL) and after 30 minutes the precipitate was filtered off. The precipitate was dissolved in aqueous HC1 2M (100 mL) and ethyl acetate (140 mL). The biphasic system was filtered, the phases were separated and the pH of the water layer adjusted to 7 with aqueous NaOH 32% (18 mL). The precipitate was filtered and dried. The solid obtained was digested twice in methanol (20 mL) at room temperature. The two filtrates were combined, evaporated and dried under high vacuum to afford 6-chloro-4-methyl-pyridazin-3-amine (1.2 g, 58.1%) as a red solid.

Ή-ΝΜΡν (CDCb, 600 MHz): 7.09 (d, 1H); 4.90 (br s, 2H), 2.17 (d, 3H)

Example 19: 6-chloro-4-methyl-pyridazin-3-amine

4-bromo-6-chloro-pyridazin-3-amine (30.02 g, 143 mmol) and THF (180 mL) were charged into a reaction vessel. Methylmagnesium chloride (22% in THF, 50.0 mL, 1.03 eq.) was added at 20°C over 60 minutes, followed by zinc chloride in Me-THF (25%, 37 mL, 0.50 eq.) and palladium tetrakis(triphenyphosphine) (1.66 g, lmol%). The reaction mixture was heated to 50°C and methylmagnesium chloride (22% in THF, 81 mL, 1.7 eq.) was added slowly. The reaction mixture was stirred at 50°C until complete conversion, then at 10°C for 14.5 hours and poured into a mixture of water (90 g), aqueous HCl 33% (52.5 g) and toluene (150 mL) maintained at 20-30°C. The aqueous phase was separated and the organic phase was extracted with a solution of aqueous HCl 33% (2.0 g) and water (45 g). The aqueous layers were combined and washed with toluene (30 mL) twice and the pH was adjusted by addition of 25% aqueous ammonia solution. When a pH of 2.4 was reached, seeding crystals were added, the mixture was stirred further for 15 minutes and thereafter the pH was brought to 4.0. The suspension was stirred at 20°C for 2 hours, the precipitate was filtered off, washed with water (20 mL) three times to afford crude 6-chloro-4-methyl-pyridazin-3-amine (29 g) as a brown solid.

29 g crude product was transferred to a reaction vessel and methanol (20 mL) was added. The mixture was refluxed for 30 minutes and 12 g water was added. The solution was cooled to 0°C and stirred for 2 hours at this temperature. The precipitate was filtered off, washed with water three times and dried under reduced pressure at 40°C to afford purified 6-chloro-4-methyl-pyridazin-3-amine (13.8 g, 66%) as a light brown solid.

Alternative purification:

50 g crude 6-chloro-4-methyl-pyridazin-3-amine were dissolved in methanol (250 mL) and active charcoal (4.0 g) and diatomaceous earth (2.5 g) were added. The suspension was stirred at 45°C for 1 hour, cooled to 30°C and potassium hydrogenophosphate (2.1 g) was added. The suspension was stirred at 30°C for another 90 minutes, filtered and the precipitate washed with methanol (100 mL). The filtrate was concentrated to a residual volume of 175 mL and water (120 mL) was added. The resulting suspension was heated

to reflux affording a solution which was cooled to 20°C resulting in a suspension. The precipitate was filtered off, washed with water (90 mL) and dried under reduced pressure to afford pure 6-chloro-4-methyl-pyridazin-3-amine (38 g, 76%) as a light yellow solid.

Example 20: 6-chloro-2,8-dimethyl-imidazo[l,2-b]pyridazine

6-chloro-4-methyl-pyridazin-3-amine (70.95 kg, 494.2 mol), sodium bromide (35 kg, 345.9 mol), isopropyl acetate (611 kg), isopropanol (28 kg and water (35 kg) were charged into a reaction vessel. The reaction mixture was stirred at 80-85 °C for 8 hours. Isopropyl acetate (310 kg) and water (420 kg) were added. 30% Aqueous NaOH was added at 45-55 °C and the system was stirred for 2 hours. The phases were separated at 25-35 °C. The organic layer was washed with water (370 kg), filtered on diatomite (7 kg) and the filter washed with isopropyl acetate (35 kg). The organic phase was extracted with two portions of 5.4% aqueous sulfuric acid (910 kg followed by 579 kg). The combined aqueous phases were basified with 30% aqueous NaOH (158 kg). The suspension was stirred 2 hours at 15-25 °C. The precipitate was isolated by centrifugation in three portions, each washed with water (31 kg). The wet solid was dissolved in isopropyl acetate (980 kg) at 25-35 °C, the solution washed with water (210 kg), three times. The organic phase was treated with active charcoal for 12 hours at 45-50 °C, concentrated to ca. 300 kg and heated to 70-80 °C to obtain a clear solution. This solution was cooled to 50-60 °C, stirred at this temperature for 1 hour, n-heptane (378 kg) was added and stirring was pursued for 1 hour. The mixture was cooled to -10- -5°C and stirred for another 3 hours. The precipitate was isolated by centrifuging, washed with n-heptane (33 kg) and dried under reduced pressure at 30-50 °C for 15 hours to afford 67.4 kg (76%) 6-chloro-2,8-dimethyl-imidazo[l,2-b]pyridazine as an off-white solid.

XH-NMR (CDCls, 600 MHz): 7.67 (s, 1H); 6.86 (s, 1H); 2.65 (s, 3H), 2.50 (s, 3H)

Paper

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.8b00741

Abstract Image

SMA is an inherited disease that leads to loss of motor function and ambulation and a reduced life expectancy. We have been working to develop orally administrated, systemically distributed small molecules to increase levels of functional SMN protein. Compound 2 was the first SMN2 splicing modifier tested in clinical trials in healthy volunteers and SMA patients. It was safe and well tolerated and increased SMN protein levels up to 2-fold in patients. Nevertheless, its development was stopped as a precautionary measure because retinal toxicity was observed in cynomolgus monkeys after chronic daily oral dosing (39 weeks) at exposures in excess of those investigated in patients. Herein, we describe the discovery of 1 (risdiplam, RG7916, RO7034067) that focused on thorough pharmacology, DMPK and safety characterization and optimization. This compound is undergoing pivotal clinical trials and is a promising medicine for the treatment of patients in all ages and stages with SMA.

 7-(4,7-diazaspiro[2.5]octan-7-yl)-2-(2,8-dimethylimidazo[1,2-b]pyridazin-6-yl)pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-4-one 1 (12 mg, 18%) as a pale yellow solid. 1H NMR (600 MHz,CDCl3) δ ppm 8.45 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 7.92 (d, J = 1.0 Hz, 1H), 7.73 (d, J = 9.6 Hz, 1H) 7.80 (s, 1H), 7.70 (dd, J = 9.7, 2.5 Hz, 1H), 7.38 (s, 1H), 3.31–3.22 (m, 2H), 3.20–3.16 (m, 2H), 3.08 (s, 2H), 2.74 (d, J = 0.9 Hz, 3H) 2.55 (s, 3H), 1.68 (br s, 1H), 0.77–0.75 (m, 2H), 0.67–0.64 (m, 2 H);

13C NMR (151 MHz,CDCl3) δ ppm 158.2, 156.3, 148.5, 147.2, 144.1, 142.2, 140.0, 135.6, 131.2, 126.7, 114.9, 114.7, 110.1, 99.3, 56.7, 49.9, 44.5, 36.5, 16.9, 15.0, 13.0. LC–HRMS: m/z = 402.2051 [(M + H)+ calcd for C22H24N7O, 402.2042; Diff 0.9 mDa].

References

  1. ^ Maria Joao Almeida (2016-09-08). “RG7916”. BioNews Services. Retrieved 2017-10-08.
  2. ^ Zhao, Xin; Feng, Zhihua; Ling, Karen K. Y; Mollin, Anna; Sheedy, Josephine; Yeh, Shirley; Petruska, Janet; Narasimhan, Jana; Dakka, Amal; Welch, Ellen M; Karp, Gary; Chen, Karen S; Metzger, Friedrich; Ratni, Hasane; Lotti, Francesco; Tisdale, Sarah; Naryshkin, Nikolai A; Pellizzoni, Livio; Paushkin, Sergey; Ko, Chien-Ping; Weetall, Marla (2016). “Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and efficacy of a small-molecule SMN2 splicing modifier in mouse models of spinal muscular atrophy”Human Molecular Genetics25 (10): 1885. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddw062PMC 5062580PMID 26931466.
  3. ^ “Genentech/Roche Releases Clinical Trial Update for RG7916”. CureSMA. 2017-09-15. Retrieved 2017-10-08.
  4. ^ “A Study to Investigate the Safety, Tolerability, Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics and Efficacy of RO7034067 in Infants With Type1 Spinal Muscular Atrophy (Firefish)”.
  5. ^ “A Study to Investigate the Safety, Tolerability, Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics and Efficacy of RO7034067 in Type 2 and 3 Spinal Muscular Atrophy Participants (Sunfish)”.
  6. ^ “Updated Preliminary Data from SMA FIREFISH Program in Type 1 Babies Presented at the CureSMA Conference”http://www.prnewswire.com. Retrieved 2018-09-11.
Risdiplam
Risdiplam.svg
Clinical data
Synonyms RG7916; RO7034067
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
UNII
KEGG
Chemical and physical data
Formula C22H23N7O
Molar mass 401.474 g/mol g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)

///////////RISDIPLAM, RG-7916, RO-7034067, リスジプラム , PHASE 3, PRIME designation, ORPHAN DRUG

76RS4S2ET1 (UNII code)

CC1=CC(=NN2C1=NC(=C2)C)C3=CC(=O)N4C=C(C=CC4=N3)N5CCNC6(C5)CC6

Cladribine, クラドリビン


Cladribine.svgChemSpider 2D Image | Cladribine | C10H12ClN5O3

Cladribine

クラドリビン

Leustatin

クラドリビン

RWJ 26251 / RWJ-26251

  • Molecular FormulaC10H12ClN5O3
  • Average mass285.687 Da
2-chloro-6-amino-9-(2-deoxy-β-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)purine
2-Chlorodeoxyadenosine
4291-63-8 [RN]
6997
adenosine, 2-chloro-2′-deoxy- [ACD/Index Name]
AU7357560
CDA
(2R,3S,5R)-5-(6-Amino-2-chlor-9H-purin-9-yl)-2-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydrofuran-3-ol
Leustatin (Trade name)
Litak (Trade name)
MLS000759397
Movectro (Trade name)
Mylinax
QA-1968
LAUNCHED, 1993, USA Ortho Biotech, Janssen Biotech

Cladribine, sold under the brand name Leustatin and Mavenclad among others, is a medication used to treat hairy cell leukemia(HCL, leukemic reticuloendotheliosis), B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia and relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.[4][5] Its chemical name is 2-chloro-2′-deoxyadenosine (2CdA).

Cladribine, a deoxyadenosine derivative developed by Ortho Biotech (currently Janssen), was first launched in the U.S. in 1993 as an intravenous treatment for hairy cell leukemia

Cladribine has been granted orphan drug designation in the U.S. in 1990 for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and hairy cell leukemia

As a purine analog, it is a synthetic chemotherapy agent that targets lymphocytes and selectively suppresses the immune system. Chemically, it mimics the nucleoside adenosine. However, unlike adenosine it is relatively resistant to breakdown by the enzyme adenosine deaminase, which causes it to accumulate in cells and interfere with the cell’s ability to process DNA. Cladribine is taken up cells via a transporter. Once inside a cell cladribine is activated mostly in lymphocytes, when it is triphosphorylated by the enzyme deoxyadenosine kinase (dCK). Various phosphatases dephosphorylate cladribine. Activated, triphosphorylated, cladribine is incorporated into mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, which triggers apoptosis. Non-activated cladribine is removed quickly from all other cells. This means that there is very little non-target cell loss.[4][6]

Medical uses

Cladribine is used for as a first and second-line treatment for symptomatic hairy cell leukemia and for B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia and is administered by intravenous or subcutaneous infusion.[5][7]

Since 2017, cladribine is approved as an oral formulation (10 mg tablet) for the treatment of RRMS in Europe, UAE, Argentina, Chile, Canada and Australia. Marketing authorization in the US was obtained in March 2019[8].

Some investigators have used the parenteral formulation orally to treat patients with HCL. It is important to note that approximately 40% of oral cladribine in bioavailable orally. It used, often in combination with other cytotoxic agents, to treat various kinds of histiocytosis, including Erdheim–Chester disease[9] and Langerhans cell histiocytosis,[10]

Cladribine can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman and is listed by the FDA as Pregnancy Category D; safety and efficacy in children has not been established.[7]

Adverse effects

Injectable cladribine suppresses the body’s ability to make new lymphocytesnatural killer cells and neutrophils (called myelosuppression); data from HCL studies showed that about 70% of people taking the drug had fewer white blood cells and about 30% developed infections and some of those progressed to septic shock; about 40% of people taking the drug had fewer red blood cells and became severely anemic; and about 10% of people had too few platelets.[7]

At the dosage used to treat HCL in two clinical trials, 16% of people had rashes and 22% had nausea, the nausea generally did not lead to vomiting.[7]

In comparison, in MS, cladribine is associated with a 6% rate of severe lymphocyte suppression (lymphopenia) (levels lower than 50% of normal). Other common side effects include headache (75%), sore throat (56%), common cold-like illness (42%) and nausea (39%)[11]

Mechanism of Action

As a purine analogue, it is taken up into rapidly proliferating cells like lymphocytes to be incorporated into DNA synthesis. Unlike adenosine, cladribine has a chlorine molecule at position 2, which renders it partially resistant to breakdown by adenosine deaminase (ADA). In cells it is phosphorylated into its toxic form, deoxyadenosine triphosphate, by the enzyme deoxycytidine kinase (DCK). This molecule is then incorporated into the DNA synthesis pathway, where it causes strand breakage. This is followed by the activation of transcription factor p53, the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and eventual programmed cell death (apoptosis).[12] This process occurs over approximately 2 months, with a peak level of cell depletion 4–8 weeks after treatment[13]

Within the lymphocyte pool, cladribine targets B cells more than T cells. Both HCL and B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia are types of B cell blood cancers. In MS, its effectiveness may be due to its ability to effectively deplete B cells, in particular memory B cells[14] In the pivotal phase 3 clinical trial of oral cladribine in MS, CLARITY, cladribine selectively depleted 80% of peripheral B cells, compared to only 40-50% of total T cells.[15] More recently, cladribine has been shown to induce long term, selective suppression of certain subtypes of B cells, especially memory B cells.[16]

Another family of enzymes, the 5´nucleotidase (5NCT) family, is also capable of dephosphorylating cladribine, making it inactive. The most important subtype of this group appears to be 5NCT1A, which is cytosolically active and specific for purine analogues. When DCK gene expression is expressed as a ratio with 5NCT1A, the cells with the highest ratios are B cells, especially germinal centre and naive B cells.[16] This again helps to explain which B cells are more vulnerable to cladribine-mediated apoptosis.

Although cladribine is selective for B cells, the long term suppression of memory B cells, which may contribute to its effect in MS, is not explained by gene or protein expression. Instead, cladribine appears to deplete the entire B cell department. However, while naive B cells rapidly move from lymphoid organs, the memory B cell pool repopulates very slowly from the bone marrow.

History

Ernest Beutler and Dennis A. Carson had studied adenosine deaminase deficiency and recognized that because the lack of adenosine deaminase led to the destruction of B cell lymphocytes, a drug designed to inhibit adenosine deaminase might be useful in lymphomas. Carson then synthesized cladribine, and through clinical research at Scripps starting in the 1980s, Beutler tested it as intravenous infusion and found it was especially useful to treat hairy cell leukemia (HCL). No pharmaceutical companies were interested in selling the drug because HCL was an orphan disease, so Beutler’s lab synthesized and packaged it and supplied it to the hospital pharmacy; the lab also developed a test to monitor blood levels. This was the first treatment that led to prolonged remission of HCL, which was previously untreatable.[17]:14–15

In February 1991 Scripps began a collaboration with Johnson & Johnson to bring intravenous cladribine to market and by December of that year J&J had filed an NDA; cladrabine was approved by the FDA in 1993 for HCL as an orphan drug,[18] and was approved in Europe later that year.[19]:2

The subcutaneous formulation was developed in Switzerland in the early 1990s and it was commercialized by Lipomed GmbH in the 2000s.[19]:2[20]

Multiple sclerosis

In the mid-1990s Beutler, in collaboration with Jack Sipe, a neurologist at Scripps, ran several clinical trials exploring the utility of cladribine in multiple sclerosis, based on the drug’s immunosuppressive effects. Sipe’s insight into MS, and Beutler’s interest in MS due to his sister’s having had it, led a very productive collaboration.[17]:17[21] Ortho-Clinical, a subsidiary of J&J, filed an NDA for cladribine for MS in 1997 but withdrew it in the late 1990s after discussion with the FDA proved that more clinical data would be needed.[22][23]

Ivax acquired the rights for oral administration of cladribine to treat MS from Scripps in 2000,[24] and partnered with Serono in 2002.[23] Ivax was acquired by Teva in 2006,[25][26] and Merck KGaA acquired control of Serono’s drug business in 2006.[27]

An oral formulation of the drug with cyclodextrin was developed[28]:16 and Ivax and Serono, and then Merck KGaA conducted several clinical studies. Merck KGaA submitted an application to the European Medicines Agency in 2009, which was rejected in 2010, and an appeal was denied in 2011.[28]:4–5 Likewise Merck KGaA’s NDA with the FDA rejected in 2011.[29] The concerns were that several cases of cancer had arisen, and the ratio of benefit to harm was not clear to regulators.[28]:54–55 The failures with the FDA and the EMA were a blow to Merck KGaA and were one of a series of events that led to a reorganization, layoffs, and closing the Swiss facility where Serono had arisen.[30][31] However, several MS clinical trials were still ongoing at the time of the rejections, and Merck KGaA committed to completing them.[29] A meta-analysis of data from clinical trials showed that cladiribine did not increase the risk of cancer at the doses used in the clinical trials.[32]

In 2015 Merck KGaA announced it would again seek regulatory approval with data from the completed clinical trials in hand,[30] and in 2016 the EMA accepted its application for review.[33] On June 22, 2017, the EMA’s Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) adopted a positive opinion, recommending the granting of a marketing authorisation for the treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis.[34]

Finally, after all these problems it was approved in Europe on August 2017 for highly active RRMS.[35]

Efficacy

Cladribine is an effective treatment for relapsing remitting MS, with a reduction in the annual rate of relapses of 54.5%.[11] These effects may be sustained up to 4 years after initial treatment, even if no further doses are given.[36] Thus, cladribine is considered to be a highly effective immune reconstitution therapy in MS. Similar to alemtuzumab, cladribine is given as two courses approximately one year apart. Each course consists of 4-5 tablets given over a week in the first month, followed by a second dosing of another 4-5 tablets the following month[37] During this time and after the final dose patients are monitored for adverse effects and signs of relapse.

https://www.merckneurology.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/mavenclad-table-1.jpg

Safety

Compared to alemtuzumab, cladribine is associated with a lower rate of severe lymphopenia. It also appears to have a lower rate of common adverse events, especially mild to moderate infections[11][36] As cladribine is not a recombinant biological therapy, it is not associated with the development of antibodies against the drug, which might reduce the effectiveness of future doses. Also, unlike alemtuzumab, cladribine is not associated with secondary autoimmunity.[38]

This is probably due to the fact cladribine more selectively targets B cells. Unlike alemtuzumab, cladribine is not associated with a rapid repopulation of the peripheral blood B cell pool, which then ´overshoots´ the original number by up to 30%.[39] Instead, B cells repopulate more slowly, reaching near normal total B cells numbers at 1 year. This phenomenon and the relative sparing of T cells, some of which might be important in regulating the system against other autoimmune reactions, is thought to explain the lack of secondary autoimmunity.

Use in clinical practice

The decision to start cladribine in MS depends on the degree of disease activity (as measured by number of relapses in the past year and T1 gadolinium-enhancing lesions on MRI), the failure of previous disease-modifying therapies, the potential risks and benefits and patient choice.

In the UK, the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) recommends cladribine for treating highly active RRMS in adults if the persons has:

rapidly evolving severe relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis, that is, at least 2 relapses in the previous year and at least 1 T1 gadolinium-enhancing lesion at baseline MRI or

relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis that has responded inadequately to treatment with disease-modifying therapy, defined as 1 relapse in the previous year and MRI evidence of disease activity.[40]

People with MS require counselling on the intended benefits of cladribine in reducing the risk of relapse and disease progression, versus the risk of adverse effects such as headaches, nausea and mild to moderate infections. Women of childbearing age also require counselling that they should not conceive while taking cladribine, due to the risk of harm to the fetus.

Cladribine, as the 10 mg oral preparation Mavenclad, is administered as two courses of tablets approximately one year apart. Each course consists of four to five treatment days in the first month, followed by an additional four to five treatment days in the second month. The recommended dose of Mavenclad is 3.5 mg/kg over 2 years, given in two treatment courses of 1.75 mg/kg/year. Therefore, the number of tablets administered on each treatment day depends on the person’s weight. A full guide to the dosing strategy can be found below:

https://www.merckneurology.co.uk/mavenclad/mavenclad-efficacy/

After treatment, people with MS are monitored with regular blood tests, looking specifically at the white cell count and liver function. Patients should be followed up regularly by their treating neurologist to assess efficacy, and should be able to contact their MS service in the case of adverse effects or relapse. After the first two years of active treatment no further therapy may need to be given, as cladribine has been shown to be efficacious for up to last least four years after treatment. However, if patients fail to respond, options include switching to other highly effective disease-modifying therapies such as alemtuzumab, fingolimod or natalizumab.

Research directions

Cladribine has been studied as part of a multi-drug chemotherapy regimen for drug-resistant T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia.[41]

REF

A universal biocatalyst for the preparation of base- and sugar-modified nucleosides via an enzymatic transglycosylation
Helv Chim Acta 2002, 85(7): 1901

Synthesis of 2-chloro-2′-deoxyadenosine by microbiological transglycosylation
Nucleosides Nucleotides 1993, 12(3-4): 417

Synthesis of 2-chloro-2′-deoxyadenosine by washed cells of E. coli
Biotechnol Lett 1992, 14(8): 669

Efficient syntheses of 2-chloro-2′-deoxyadenosine (cladribine) from 2′-deoxyguanosine
J Org Chem 2003, 68(3): 989

WO 2004028462

Synthesis of 2′-deoxytubercidin, 2′-deoxyadenosine, and related 2′-deoxynucleosides via a novel direct stereospecific sodium salt glycosylation procedure
J Am Chem Soc 1984, 106(21): 6379

WO 2011113476

A stereoselective process for the manufacture of a 2′-deoxy-beta-D-ribonucleoside using the vorbruggen glycosylation
Org Process Res Dev 2013, 17(11): 1419

A new synthesis of 2-chloro-2′-deoxyadenosine (Cladribine), CdA)
Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 2011, 30(5): 353

A dramatic concentration effect on the stereoselectivity of N-glycosylation for the synthesis of 2′-deoxy-beta-ribonucleosides
Chem Commun (London) 2012, 48(56): 7097

CN 105367616

PATENT

https://patents.google.com/patent/EP2891660A1/en

Previously Robins and Robins (Robins, M. J. and Robins, R. K., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1965, 87, 4934-4940) reported that acid-catalyzed fusion of 1,3,5-tri-O-acety-2-deoxy-D-ribofuranose and 2,6-dichloropurine gave a 65% yield of an anomeric mixture 2,6-dichloro-9-(3′,5′-di-O-acetyl-2′-deoxy-α-,β-D-ribofuranosyl)-purines from which the α-anomer was obtained as a pure crystalline product by fractional crystallization from ethanol in 32% yield and the equivalent β-anomer remained in the mother liquor (see Scheme 1). The β-anomer, which could have been used to synthesize cladribine, wasn’t isolated further. The α-anomer was treated with methanolic ammonia which resulted in simultaneous deacetylation and amination to give 6-amino-2-chloro-9-(2′-deoxy-α-D-ribofuranosyl)-purine, which is a diastereomer of cladribine.

Figure imgb0001

[0004]

Broom et al. (Christensen, L. F., Broom, A. D., Robins, M. J., and Bloch, A., J. Med. Chem. 1972, 15, 735-739) adapted Robins et al.’s method by treating the acetylated mixture (viz., 2,6-dichloro-9-(3′,5′-di-O-acety-2′-deoxy-α,β-D-ribofuranosyl)-purine) with liquid ammonia and reacylating the resulting 2′-deoxy-α-and –β-adenosines with p-toluoyl chloride (see Scheme 2). The desired 2-chloro-9-(3′,5′-di-Op-toluoyl-2′-deoxy-β-D-ribofuranosyl)-adenine was then separated by chromatography and removal of the p-toluoyl group resulted in cladribine in 9% overall yield based on the fusion of 1,3,5-tri-O-acety-2-deoxy-D-ribofuranose and 2,6-dichloropurine.

Figure imgb0002
[0005]

To increase the stereoselectivity in favour of the β-anomer, Robins et al.(Robins, R. L. et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1984, 106, 6379-6382US4760137 EP0173059 ) provided an improved method in which the sodium salt of 2,6-dichloropurine was coupled with 1-chloro-2-deoxy-3,5-di-Op-toluoyl-α-D-ribofuranose in acetonitrile (MeCN) to give the protected β-nucleoside in 59% isolated yield, following chromatography and crystallisation, in addition to 13% of the undesired N-7 regioisomer (see Scheme 3). The apparently higher selectivity in this coupling reaction is attributed to it being a direct SN2 displacement of the chloride ion by the purine sodium salt. The protected N-9 2′-deoxy-β-nucleoside was treated with methanolic ammonia at 100°C to give cladribine in an overall 42% yield. The drawback of this process is that the nucleophilic 7- position nitrogen competes in the SN2 reaction against the nucleophilic 9- position, leading to a mixture of the N-7 and N-9 glycosyl isomers as well as the need for chromatography and crystallisation to obtain the pure desired isomer.

Figure imgb0003
[0006]

Gerszberg and Alonso (Gerszberg S. and Alonso, D. WO0064918 , and US20020052491 ) also utilised an SN2 approach with 1-chloro-2-deoxy-3,5-di-Op-toluoyl-α-D-ribofuranose but instead coupled it with the sodium salt of 2-chloroadenine in acetone giving the desired β-anomer of the protected cladribine in 60% yield following crystallisation from ethanol (see Scheme 4). After the deprotection step using ammonia in methanol (MeOH), the β-anomer of cladribine was isolated in an overall 42% yield based on the 1-chlorosugar, and 30% if calculated based on the sodium salt since this was used in a 2.3 molar excess.

Figure imgb0004
[0007]

To increase the regioselectivity towards glycosylation of the N-9 position, Gupta and Munk recently ( Gupta, P. K. and Munk, S. A., US20040039190 WO2004018490 and CA2493724 ) conducted an SN2 reaction using the anomerically pure α-anomer, 1-chloro-2-deoxy-3,5-di-Op-toluoyl-α-D-ribofuranose but coupling it with the potassium salt of a 6-heptanoylamido modified purine (see Scheme 5). The bulky alkyl group probably imparted steric hindrance around the N-7 position, resulting in the reported improved regioselectivity. Despite this, following deprotection, the overall yield of cladribine based on the 1-chlorosugar was 43%, showing no large improvement in overall yield on related methods. Moreover 2-chloroadenine required prior acylation with heptanoic anhydride at high temperature (130°C) in 72% yield, and the coupling required cryogenic cooling (-30°C) and the use of the strong base potassium hexamethyldisilazide and was followed by column chromatography to purify the product protected cladribine.

Figure imgb0005
[0008]

More recently Robins et al. (Robins, M. J. et al., J. Org. Chem. 2006, 71, 7773-7779US20080207891 ) published a procedure for synthesis of cladribine that purports to achieve almost quantitative yields in the N-9-regioselective glycosylation of 6-(substituted-imidazol-1-yl)-purine sodium salts with 1-chloro-2-deoxy-3,5-di-Op-toluoyl-α-D-ribofuranose in MeCN/dichloromethane (DCM) mixtures to give small or no detectable amounts of the undesired α-anomer (see Scheme 6). In actuality this was only demonstrated on the multi-milligram to several grams scale, and whilst the actual coupling yield following chromatography of the desired N-9-β-anomer was high (83% to quantitative), the protected 6-(substituted-imidazol-1-yl)-products were obtained in 55% to 76% yield after recrystallisation. Following this, toxic benzyl iodide was used to activate the 6-(imidazole-1-yl) groups which were then subsequently displaced by ammonia at 60-80°C in methanolic ammonia to give cladribine in 59-70% yield following ion exchange chromatography and multiple crystallisations, or following extraction with DCM and crystallisation. Although high anomeric and regioselective glycosylation was demonstrated the procedure is longer than the prior arts, atom uneconomic and not readily applicable to industrial synthesis of cladribine such as due to the reliance on chromatography and the requirement for a pressure vessel in the substitution of the 6-(substituted-imidazole-1-yl) groups.

Figure imgb0006
[0009]
Therefore, there is a need for a more direct, less laborious process, which will produce cladribine in good yield and high purity that is applicable to industrial scales.

EXAMPLE 1 Preparation of 2-chloro-6-trimethylsilylamino-9-[3,5-di-O-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-2-deoxy-β-D-ribofuranosyl]-purine

  • [0052]
    2-Chloroadenine (75 g, 0.44 mol, 1.0 eq.), MeCN (900 mL, 12 P), and BSTFA (343.5 g, 1.33 mol, 3.0 eq.) were stirred and heated under reflux until the mixture was almost turned clear. The mixture was cooled to 60°C and TfOH (7.9 mL, 0.089 mol, 0.2 eq.) and then 1-O-acetyl-3,5-di-O-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-2-deoxy-D-ribofuranose (III; 200.6 g, 1.0 eq.) were added into the mixture, and then the mixture was stirred at 60°C. After 1 hour, some solid precipitated from the solution and the mixture was heated for at least a further 10 hours. The mixture was cooled to r.t. and stirred for 2 hours. The solid was filtered and dried in vacuo at 60°C to give 180.6 g in 64% yield of a mixture of 2-chloro-6-trimethylsilylamino-9-[3,5-di-O-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-2-deoxy-β-D-ribofurano syl]-purine (IVa) with 95.4% HPLC purity and its non-silylated derivative 2-chloro-6-amino-9-[3,5-di-O-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-2′-deoxy-β-D-ribofuranosyl]-purine (IVb) with 1.1 % HPLC purity.

EXAMPLE 2 Preparation of 2-chloro-6-trimethylsilylamino-9-[3,5-di-O-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-2-deoxy-β-D-ribofuranosyl]-purine by isomerisation of a mixture of 2-chloro-6-amino-9-[3,5-di-O-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-2-deoxy-α,β-D-ribofuranosyl]-purine mixture

  • [0053]
    50.0 g of 2-chloro-6-amino-9-[3,5-di-O-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-2-deoxy-α,β-D-ribofuranosyl]-purine as a 0.6:1.0 mixture of the β-anomer IVb and α-anomer Vb(83.16 mmol, assay of α-anomer was 58.6% (52.06 mmol) and β-anomer was 34.3% (31.10 mmol, 17.15 g)), 68.6 g BSTFA (266.5 mmol) and 180 mL of MeCN (3.6 P) were charged into a dried 4-necked flask. The mixture was heated to 60°C under N2 for about 3 h and then 2.67 g of TfOH (17.8 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred at 60°C for 15 h and was then cooled to about 25°C and stirred for a further 2 h, and then filtered. The filter cake was washed twice with MeCN (20 mL each) and dried at 60°C in vacuo for 6 h to give 24 g of off-white solid (the assay of 2-chloro-6-amino-9-[3,5-di-O-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-2-deoxy-α-D-ribofuranosyl]-purine was 1.4% (0.60 mmol, 0.34 g),
    2-chloro-6-amino-9-[3,5-di-O-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-2-deoxy-β-D-ribofuranosyl]-purine was 8.4% (3.18 mmol, 2.02 g) and
    2-chloro-6-trimethylsilylamino-9-[3,5-di-O-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-2-deoxy-β-D-ribofuranosyl]-purine was 86.6% (32.73 mmol, 20.78 g)).
    Analysis of the 274.8 g of the mother liquor by assay showed that it in addition to the α-anomer it contained 0.5% (1.37 g, 2.43 mmol) of
    2-chloro-6-amino-9-[3,5-di-O-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-2-deoxy-β-D-ribofuranosyl]-purine and 0.01% (0.027 g, 0.05 mmol) of
    2-chloro-6-trimethylsilylamino-9-[3,5-di-O-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-2-deoxy-β-D-ribofuranosyl]-purine.

EXAMPLE 3 Preparation of 2-chloro-2′-deoxy-adenosine (cladribine)

  • [0054]
    To the above prepared mixture of 2-chloro-6-trimethylsilylamino-9-[3,5-di-O-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-2-deoxy-β-D-ribofurano syl]- purine (IVa) and 2-chloro-6-amino-9-[3,5-di-O-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-2′-deoxy-β-D-ribofuranosyl]-purine (IVb) (179 g, >95.4% HPLC purity) in MeOH (895 mL, 5 P) was added 29% MeONa/MeOH solution (5.25 g, 0.1 eq.) at 20-30°C. The mixture was stirred at 20-30°C for 6 hours, the solid was filtered, washed with MeOH (60 mL, 0.34 P) and then dried in vacuo at 50°C for 6 hour to give 72 g white to off-white crude cladribine with 98.9% HPLC purity in ca. 93% yield.

EXAMPLE 4 Recrystallisation

  • [0055]
    Crude cladribine (70 g), H2O (350 mL, 5 P), MeOH (350 mL, 5 P) and 29% MeONa/MeOH solution (0.17 g) were stirred and heated under reflux until the mixture turned clear. The mixture was stirred for 3 hour and was then filtered to remove the precipitates at 74-78°C. The mixture was stirred and heated under reflux until the mixture turned clear and was then cooled. Crystals started to form at ca. 45°C. The slurry was stirred for 2 hour at the cloudy point. The slurry was cooled slowly at a rate of 5°C/0.5 hour. The slurry was stirred at 10-20°C for 4-8 hours and then filtered. The filter cake was washed three times with MeOH (50 mL each) and dried at 50°C in vacuo for 6 hours to give 62.7 g of 99.9% HPLC pure cladribine in ca. 90% yield.

EXAMPLE 5 Preparation of 2-chloro-6-trimethylsilylamino-9-[3,5-di-O-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-2-deoxy-β-D-ribofuranosyl]-purine

  • [0056]
    2-Chloroadenine (2.2 Kg, 13.0 mol, 1.0 eq.), MeCN (20.7 Kg, 12 P), and BSTFA (10.0 Kg, 38.9 mol, 3.0 eq.) were stirred and heated under reflux for 3 hours and then filtered through celite and was cooled to about 60°C. TfOH (0.40 Kg, 2.6 mol, 0.2 eq.) and 1-O-acetyl-3,5-di-O-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-2-deoxy-D-ribofuranose (III; 5.87 Kg, 13.0 mol, 1.0 eq.) were added into the filtrate and the mixture was stirred at about 60°C for 29.5 hours. The slurry was cooled to about 20°C and stirred for 2 hours. The solids were filtered and washed with MeCN (2.8 Kg) twice and dried in vacuo at 60°C to give 5.17 Kg with a 96.5% HPLC purity in 62% yield of a mixture of 2-chloro-6-trimethylsilylamino-9-[3,5-di-O-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-2-deoxy-β-D-ribofurano syl]-purine (IVa), and non-silylated derivative 2-chloro-6-amino-9-[3,5-di-O-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-2′-deoxy-β-D-ribofuranosyl]-purine (IVb).

EXAMPLE 6 Preparation of 2-chloro-2′-deoxy-adenosine (cladribine)

  • [0057]
    To a mixture of 25% sodium methoxide in MeOH (0.11 Kg, 0.5 mol, 0.1 eq.) and MeOH (14.8 Kg, 5 P) at about at 25°C was added 2-chloro-6-trimethylsilylamino-9-[3,5-di-O-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-2-deoxy-β-D-ribofurano syl]-purine (IVa) and non-silylated derivative 2-chloro-6-amino-9-[3,5-di-O-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-2′-deoxy-β-D-ribofuranosyl]-purine (IVb) (3.70 Kg, combined HPLC purity of >96.3%) and the mixture was agitated at about 25°C for 2 hours. The solids were filtered, washed with MeOH (1.11 Kg, 0.4 P) and then dried in vacuo at 60°C for 4 hours to give 1.43 Kg of a crude cladribine with 97.8% HPLC purity in ca. 87% yield.

EXAMPLE 7 Recrystallisation of crude cladribine

  • [0058]
    A mixture of crude cladribine (1.94 Kg, >96.0% HPLC purity), MeOH (7.77 Kg, 5 P), process purified water (9.67 Kg, 5 P) and 25% sodium methoxide in MeOH (32 g, 0.15 mol) were stirred and heated under reflux until the solids dissolved. The solution was cooled to about 70°C and treated with activated carbon (0.16 Kg) and celite for 1 hour at about 70°C, rinsed with a mixture of preheated MeOH and process purified water (W/W = 1:1.25, 1.75 Kg). The filtrate was cooled to about 45°C and maintained at this temperature for 1 hours, and then cooled to about 15°C and agitated at this temperature for 2 hours. The solids were filtered and washed with MeOH (1.0 Kg, 0.7 P) three times and were then dried in vacuo at 60°C for 4 hours giving API grade cladribine (1.5 Kg, 5.2 mol) in 80% yield with 99.84% HPLC purity.

EXAMPLE 8 Recrystallisation of crude cladribine

  • [0059]
    A mixture of crude cladribine (1.92 Kg, >95.7% HPLC purity), MeOH (7.76 Kg, 5 P), process purified water (9.67 Kg, 5 P) and 25% sodium methoxide in MeOH (36 g, 0.17 mol) were stirred and heated under reflux until the solids dissolved. The solution was cooled to about 70°C and treated with activated carbon (0.15 Kg) and celite for 1 hour at about 70°C, rinsed with a mixture of preheated MeOH and process purified water (1:1.25, 1.74 Kg). The filtrate was cooled to about 45°C and maintained at this temperature for 1 hour, and then cooled to about 15°C and agitated at this temperature for 2 hours. The solids were filtered and washed with MeOH (1.0 Kg, 0.7 P) three times and were giving damp cladribine (1.83 Kg). A mixture of this cladribine (1.83 Kg), MeOH (7.33 Kg, 5 P) and process purified water (9.11 Kg, 5 P) were stirred and heated under reflux until the solids dissolved and was then cooled to about 45°C and maintained at this temperature for 1 hours. The slurry was further cooled to about 15°C and agitated at this temperature for 2 hours. The solids were filtered and washed with MeOH (0.9 Kg, 0.7 P) three times and were then dried in vacuo at 60°C for 4 hours giving API grade cladribine (1.38 Kg, 4.8 mol) in 75% yield with 99.86% HPLC purity.

SYN

Image result for cladribine

Cladribine can be got from 2-Deoxy-D-ribose. The detail is as follows:

Production of Cladribine

SYN

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15257770.2015.1071848?journalCode=lncn20

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FDA approves new oral treatment for multiple sclerosis, Mavenclad (cladribine)
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Mavenclad (cladribine) tablets to treat
relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) in adults, to include relapsing-remitting disease and active secondary progressive disease. Mavenclad is not recommended for MS patients with clinically isolated syndrome. Because of its safety profile, the use of Mavenclad is generally recommended for patients who have had an inadequate response to…

March 29, 2019

Release

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Mavenclad (cladribine) tablets to treat relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) in adults, to include relapsing-remitting disease and active secondary progressive disease. Mavenclad is not recommended for MS patients with clinically isolated syndrome. Because of its safety profile, the use of Mavenclad is generally recommended for patients who have had an inadequate response to, or are unable to tolerate, an alternate drug indicated for the treatment of MS.

“We are committed to supporting the development of safe and effective treatments for patients with multiple sclerosis,” said Billy Dunn, M.D., director of the Division of Neurology Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “The approval of Mavenclad represents an additional option for patients who have tried another treatment without success.”

MS is a chronic, inflammatory, autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that disrupts communications between the brain and other parts of the body. Most people experience their first symptoms of MS between the ages of 20 and 40. MS is among the most common causes of neurological disability in young adults and occurs more frequently in women than in men.

For most people, MS starts with a relapsing-remitting course, in which episodes of worsening function (relapses) are followed by recovery periods (remissions). These remissions may not be complete and may leave patients with some degree of residual disability. Many, but not all, patients with MS experience some degree of persistent disability that gradually worsens over time. In some patients, disability may progress independent of relapses, a process termed secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS). In the first few years of this process, many patients continue to experience relapses, a phase of the disease described as active SPMS. Active SPMS is one of the relapsing forms of MS, and drugs approved for the treatment of relapsing forms of MS can be used to treat active SPMS.

The efficacy of Mavenclad was shown in a clinical trial in 1,326 patients with relapsing forms of MS who had least one relapse in the previous 12 months. Mavenclad significantly decreased the number of relapses experienced by these patients compared to placebo. Mavenclad also reduced the progression of disability compared to placebo.

Mavenclad must be dispensed with a patient Medication Guide that describes important information about the drug’s uses and risks. Mavenclad has a Boxed Warning for an increased risk of malignancy and fetal harm. Mavenclad is not to be used in patients with current malignancy. In patients with prior malignancy or with increased risk of malignancy, health care professionals should evaluate the benefits and risks of the use of Mavenclad on an individual patient basis. Health care professionals should follow standard cancer screening guidelines in patients treated with Mavenclad. The drug should not be used in pregnant women and in women and men of reproductive potential who do not plan to use effective contraception during treatment and for six months after the course of therapy because of the potential for fetal harm. Mavenclad should be stopped if the patient becomes pregnant.

Other warnings include the risk of decreased lymphocyte (white blood cell) counts; lymphocyte counts should be monitored before, during and after treatment. Mavenclad may increase the risk of infections; health care professionals should screen patients for infections and treatment with Mavenclad should be delayed if necessary. Mavenclad may cause hematologic toxicity and bone marrow suppression so health care professionals should measure a patient’s complete blood counts before, during and after therapy. The drug has been associated with graft-versus-host-disease following blood transfusions with non-irradiated blood. Mavenclad may cause liver injury and treatment should be interrupted or discontinued, as appropriate, if clinically significant liver injury is suspected.

The most common adverse reactions reported by patients receiving Mavenclad in the clinical trials include upper respiratory tract infections, headache and decreased lymphocyte counts.

The FDA granted approval of Mavenclad to EMD Serono, Inc.

References

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  3. ^ Liliemark, Jan (1997). “The Clinical Pharmacokinetics of Cladribine”. Clinical Pharmacokinetics32 (2): 120–131. doi:10.2165/00003088-199732020-00003PMID 9068927.
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  15. ^ Baker, D; Herrod, SS; Alvarez-Gonzalez, C; Zalewski, L; Albor, C; Schmierer, K (July 2017). “Both cladribine and alemtuzumab may effect MS via B-cell depletion”Neurology: Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation4 (4): e360. doi:10.1212/NXI.0000000000000360PMC 5459792PMID 28626781.
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  17. Jump up to:a b Marshall A. Lichtman Biographical Memoir: Ernest Beutler 1928–2008 National Academy of Sciences, 2012
  18. ^ Staff, The Pink Sheet Mar 8, 1993 Ortho Biotech’s Leustatin For Hairy Cell Leukemia
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Cladribine
Cladribine.svg
Clinical data
Trade names Leustatin, others[1]
AHFS/Drugs.com Monograph
MedlinePlus a693015
License data
Pregnancy
category
  • AU:D
  • US:D (Evidence of risk)
Routes of
administration
Intravenoussubcutaneous(liquid)
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
  • AU:S4 (Prescription only)
  • CA℞-only
  • UK:POM (Prescription only)
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 100% (i.v.); 37 to 51% (orally)[3]
Protein binding 25% (range 5-50%)[2]
Metabolism Mostly via intracellularkinases; 15-18% is excreted unchanged[2]
Elimination half-life Terminal elimination half-life: Approximately 10 hours after both intravenous infusion an subcutaneous bolus injection[2]
Excretion Urinary[2]
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChemCID
IUPHAR/BPS
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
ChEMBL
ECHA InfoCard 100.164.726Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
Formula C10H12ClN5O3
Molar mass 285.687 g/mol g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
Cladribine
CAS Registry Number: 4291-63-8
CAS Name: 2-Chloro-2¢-deoxyadenosine
Additional Names: 2-chloro-6-amino-9-(2-deoxy-b-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)purine; 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine; 2-CdA; CldAdo
Manufacturers’ Codes: NSC-105014-F
Trademarks: Leustatin (Ortho Biotech)
Molecular Formula: C10H12ClN5O3
Molecular Weight: 285.69
Percent Composition: C 42.04%, H 4.23%, Cl 12.41%, N 24.51%, O 16.80%
Literature References: Substituted purine nucleoside with antileukemic activity. Prepn as intermediate in synthesis of 2-deoxynucleosides: H. Venner, Ber. 93, 140 (1960); M. Ikehara, H. Tada, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 85, 2344 (1963); eidem, ibid. 87, 606 (1965). Synthesis and biological activity: L. F. Christensen et al., J. Med. Chem. 15, 735 (1972). Stereospecific synthesis: Z. Kazimierczuk et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 106, 6379 (1984); R. K. Robins, G. R. Revankar, EP 173059eidem, US 4760137 (1986, 1988 both to Brigham Young Univ.). Specific toxicity to lymphocytes: D. A. Carson et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6865 (1980); eidem, Blood 62, 737 (1983). Mechanism of action: S. Seto et al., J. Clin. Invest. 75, 377 (1985). Clinical evaluation in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: L. D. Piro et al., Blood 72, 1069 (1988); in hairy cell leukemia: eidem, N. Engl. J. Med. 322, 1117 (1990).
Properties: Crystals from water, softens at 210-215°, solidifies and turns brown (Christensen). Also reported as crystals from ethanol, mp 220° (softens), resolidifies, turns brown and does not melt below 300° (Kazimierczuk). [a]D25 -18.8° (c = 1 in DMF). uv max in 0.1N NaOH: 265 nm; in 0.1N HCl: 265 nm.
Melting point: mp 220° (softens), resolidifies, turns brown and does not melt below 300°
Optical Rotation: [a]D25 -18.8° (c = 1 in DMF)
Absorption maximum: uv max in 0.1N NaOH: 265 nm; in 0.1N HCl: 265 nm
Therap-Cat: Antineoplastic.
Keywords: Antineoplastic; Antimetabolites; Purine Analogs.
////////////fda 2019, Mavenclad, cladribine, multiple sclerosis, EMD Serono, クラドリビン , Leustatin, クラドリビン , orphan drug designation
NC1=C2N=CN([C@H]3C[C@H](O)[C@@H](CO)O3)C2=NC(Cl)=N1
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