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ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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Bulevirtide acetate


Bulevirtide acetate

(N-Myristoyl-glycyl-L-threonyl-L-asparaginyl-L-leucyl-L-seryl-L-valyl-Lprolyl-L-asparaginyl-L-prolyl-L-leucyl-glycyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-prolyl-L-aspartyl-L-histidyl-Lglutaminyl-L-leucyl-L-aspartyl-L-prolyl-L-alanyl-L-phenylalanyl-glycyl-L-alanyl-L-asparaginyl-L-seryl-Lasparaginyl-L-asparaginyl-Lprolyl-L-aspartyl-L-tryptophanyl-L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-asparaginyl-L-prolylL-asparaginyl-L-lysyl-L-aspartyl-L-histidyl-L-tryptophanyl-L-prolyl-L-glutamyl-L-alanyl-L-asparaginyl-L-lysylL-valylglycinamide, acetate salt.

molecular formula C248H355N65O72,

molecular mass is 5398.9 g/mol

ブレビルチド酢酸塩;

APROVED 2020/7/31, EU, Hepcludex

MYR GmbH

Antiviral, Entry inhibitor
  Disease
Hepatitis delta virus infection

Bulevirtide is a 47-amino acid peptide with a fatty acid, a myristoyl residue, at the N-terminus and an amidated C-terminus. The active substance is available as acetate salt. The counter ion acetate is bound in ionic form to basic groups of the peptide molecule and is present in a non-stoichiometric ratio. The chemical name of bulevirtide is (N-Myristoyl-glycyl-L-threonyl-L-asparaginyl-L-leucyl-L-seryl-L-valyl-Lprolyl-L-asparaginyl-L-prolyl-L-leucyl-glycyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-prolyl-L-aspartyl-L-histidyl-Lglutaminyl-L-leucyl-L-aspartyl-L-prolyl-L-alanyl-L-phenylalanyl-glycyl-L-alanyl-L-asparaginyl-L-seryl-Lasparaginyl-L-asparaginyl-Lprolyl-L-aspartyl-L-tryptophanyl-L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-asparaginyl-L-prolylL-asparaginyl-L-lysyl-L-aspartyl-L-histidyl-L-tryptophanyl-L-prolyl-L-glutamyl-L-alanyl-L-asparaginyl-L-lysylL-valylglycinamide, acetate salt. It corresponds to the molecular formula C248H355N65O72, its relative molecular mass is 5398.9 g/mol

Bulevirtide appears as a white or off-white hygroscopic powder. It is practically insoluble in water and soluble at concentrations of 1 mg/ml in 50% acetic acid and about 7 mg/ml in carbonate buffer solution at pH 8.8, respectively. The structure of the active substance (AS) was elucidated by a combination of infrared spectroscopy (IR), mass spectrometry (MS), amino acid analysis and sequence analysis Other characteristics studied included ultraviolet (UV) spectrum, higher order structure (1D- and 2D- nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR)) and aggregation (Dynamic Light Scattering). Neither tertiary structure nor aggregation states of bulevirtide have been identified. With regard to enantiomeric purity, all amino acids are used in L-configuration except glycine, which is achiral by nature. Two batches of bulevirtide acetate were evaluated for enanatiomeric purity and no relevant change in configuration during synthesis was detected.

Bulevirtide is manufactured by a single manufacturer. It is a chemically synthesised linear peptide containing only naturally occurring amino acids. The manufacturing of this peptide is achieved using standard solidphase peptide synthesis (SPPS) on a 4-methylbenzhydrylamine resin (MBHA resin) derivatised with Rink amide linker in order to obtain a crude peptide mixture. This crude mixture is purified through a series of washing and preparative chromatography steps. Finally, the purified peptide is freeze-dried prior to final packaging and storage. The process involves further four main steps: synthesis of the protected peptide on the resin while side-chain functional groups are protected as applicable; cleavage of the peptide from the resin, together with the removal of the side chain protecting groups to obtain the crude peptide; purification; and lyophilisation. Two chromatographic systems are used for purification. No design space is claimed. Resin, Linker Fmoc protected amino acids and myristic acid are starting materials in line with ICH Q11. Sufficient information is provided on the source and the synthetic route of the starting materials. The active substance is obtained as a nonsterile, lyophilised powder. All critical steps and parameters were presented and clearly indicated in the description of the manufacturing process. The process description includes also sufficient information on the type of equipment for the SPPS, in-process controls (IPCs). The circumstances under which reprocessing might be performed were clearly presented. No holding times are proposed. Overall the process is sufficiently described.

The finished product is a white to off white lyophilised powder for solution for injection supplied in single-use vials. Each vial contains bulevirtide acetate equivalent to 2 mg bulevirtide. The composition of the finished product was presented. The powder is intended to be dissolved in 1 ml of water for injection per vial. After reconstitution the concentration of bulevirtide net peptide solution in the vial is 2 mg/ml. The components of the formulation were selected by literature review and knowledge of compositions of similar products available on the market at that time, containing HCl, water, mannitol, sodium carbonate, sodium hydrogen carbonate and sodium hydroxide. All excipients are normally used in the manufacture of lyophilisates. The quality of the excipients complies with their respective Ph. Eur monographs. The intrinsic properties of the active substance and the compounding formulation do not support microbiological growth as demonstrated by the stability data. No additional preservatives are therefore needed.

https://www.ema.europa.eu/en/documents/assessment-report/hepcludex-epar-public-assessment-report_en.pdf

Hepcludex is an antiviral medicine used to treat chronic (long-term) hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection in adults with compensated liver disease (when the liver is damaged but is still able to work), when the presence of viral RNA (genetic material) has been confirmed by blood tests.

HDV is an ‘incomplete’ virus, because it cannot replicate in cells without the help of another virus, the hepatitis B virus. Because of this, patients infected with the virus always also have hepatitis B.

HDV infection is rare, and Hepcludex was designated an ‘orphan medicine’ (a medicine used in rare diseases) on 19 June 2015. For further information on the orphan designation, see EU/3/15/1500.

Hepcludex contains the active substance bulevirtide.

Bulevirtide, sold under the brand name Hepcludex, is an antiviral medication for the treatment of chronic hepatitis D (in the presence of hepatitis B).[2]

The most common side effects include raised levels of bile salts in the blood and reactions at the site of injection.[2]

Bulevirtide works by attaching to and blocking a receptor (target) through which the hepatitis delta and hepatitis B viruses enter liver cells.[2] By blocking the entry of the virus into the cells, it limits the ability of HDV to replicate and its effects in the body, reducing symptoms of the disease.[2]

Bulevirtide was approved for medical use in the European Union in July 2020.[2]

Medical uses

Bulevirtide is indicated for the treatment of chronic hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection in plasma (or serum) HDV-RNA positive adult patients with compensated liver disease.[2][3]

Pharmacology

Mechanism of action

Bulevirtide binds and inactivates the sodium/bile acid cotransporter, blocking both viruses from entering hepatocytes.[4]

The hepatitis B virus uses its surface lipopeptide pre-S1 for docking to mature liver cells via their sodium/bile acid cotransporter (NTCP) and subsequently entering the cells. Myrcludex B is a synthetic N-acylated pre-S1[5][6] that can also dock to NTCP, blocking the virus’s entry mechanism.[7]

The drug is also effective against hepatitis D because the hepatitis D virus is only infective in the presence of a hepatitis B virus infection.[7]

References

  1. ^ Deterding, K.; Wedemeyer, H. (2019). “Beyond Pegylated Interferon-Alpha: New Treatments for Hepatitis Delta”. Aids Reviews21 (3): 126–134. doi:10.24875/AIDSRev.19000080PMID 31532397.
  2. Jump up to:a b c d e f g “Hepcludex EPAR”European Medicines Agency (EMA). 26 May 2020. Retrieved 12 August 2020. Text was copied from this source which is © European Medicines Agency. Reproduction is authorized provided the source is acknowledged.
  3. ^ “Summary of opinion: Hepcludex” (PDF)European Medicines Agency. 28 May 2020.
  4. ^ Francisco, Estela Miranda (29 May 2020). “Hepcludex”European Medicines Agency. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  5. ^ Volz T, Allweiss L, Ben MBarek M, Warlich M, Lohse AW, Pollok JM, et al. (May 2013). “The entry inhibitor Myrcludex-B efficiently blocks intrahepatic virus spreading in humanized mice previously infected with hepatitis B virus”. Journal of Hepatology58 (5): 861–7. doi:10.1016/j.jhep.2012.12.008PMID 23246506.
  6. ^ Abbas Z, Abbas M (August 2015). “Management of hepatitis delta: Need for novel therapeutic options”World Journal of Gastroenterology21 (32): 9461–5. doi:10.3748/wjg.v21.i32.9461PMC 4548107PMID 26327754.
  7. Jump up to:a b Spreitzer H (14 September 2015). “Neue Wirkstoffe – Myrcludex B”. Österreichische Apothekerzeitung (in German) (19/2015): 12.

External links

Bulevirtide
Clinical data
Trade names Hepcludex
Other names MyrB, Myrcludex-B[1]
License data
Routes of
administration
Subcutaneous injection
ATC code
  • None
Legal status
Legal status
  • EU: Rx-only [2]
Identifiers
CAS Number
DrugBank
UNII
KEGG
ChEMBL

/////////Bulevirtide acetate, ブレビルチド酢酸塩 , orphan designation, MYR GmbH, PEPTIDE, EU 2020, 2020 APPROVALS

Teprotumumab-trbw


Image result for teprotumumab-trbw

Tepezza (teprotumumab-trbw)

Company: Horizon Therapeutics plc
Date of Approval: January 21, 2020
Treatment for: Thyroid Eye Disease

UNIIY64GQ0KC0A

CAS number1036734-93-6

R-1507 / R1507 / RG-1507 / RG1507 / RO-4858696 / RO-4858696-000 / RO-4858696000 / RO4858696 / RO4858696-000 / RV-001 / RV001

Tepezza (teprotumumab-trbw) is a fully human monoclonal antibody (mAb) and a targeted inhibitor of the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) for the treatment of active thyroid eye disease (TED).

FDA Approves Tepezza (teprotumumab-trbw) for the Treatment of Thyroid Eye Disease (TED) – January 21, 2020

Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Tepezza (teprotumumab-trbw) for the treatment of adults with thyroid eye disease, a rare condition where the muscles and fatty tissues behind the eye become inflamed, causing the eyes to be pushed forward and bulge outwards (proptosis). Today’s approval represents the first drug approved for the treatment of thyroid eye disease.

“Today’s approval marks an important milestone for the treatment of thyroid eye disease. Currently, there are very limited treatment options for this potentially debilitating disease. This treatment has the potential to alter the course of the disease, potentially sparing patients from needing multiple invasive surgeries by providing an alternative, non surgical treatment option,” said Wiley Chambers, M.D., deputy director of the Division of Transplant and Ophthalmology Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “Additionally, thyroid eye disease is a rare disease that impacts a small percentage of the population, and for a variety of reasons, treatments for rare diseases are often unavailable. This approval represents important progress in the approval of effective treatments for rare diseases, such as thyroid eye disease.”

Thyroid eye disease is associated with the outward bulging of the eye that can cause a variety of symptoms such as eye pain, double vision, light sensitivity or difficulty closing the eye. This disease impacts a relatively small number of Americans, with more women than men affected. Although this condition impacts relatively few individuals, thyroid eye disease can be incapacitating. For example, the troubling ocular symptoms can lead to the progressive inability of people with thyroid eye disease to perform important daily activities, such as driving or working.

Tepezza was approved based on the results of two studies (Study 1 and 2) consisting of a total of 170 patients with active thyroid eye disease who were randomized to either receive Tepezza or a placebo. Of the patients who were administered Tepezza, 71% in Study 1 and 83% in Study 2 demonstrated a greater than 2 millimeter reduction in proptosis (eye protrusion) as compared to 20% and 10% of subjects who received placebo, respectively.

The most common adverse reactions observed in patients treated with Tepezza are muscle spasm, nausea, alopecia (hair loss), diarrhea, fatigue, hyperglycemia (high blood sugar), hearing loss, dry skin, dysgeusia (altered sense of taste) and headache. Tepezza should not be used if pregnant, and women of child-bearing potential should have their pregnancy status verified prior to beginning treatment and should be counseled on pregnancy prevention during treatment and for 6 months following the last dose of Tepezza.

The FDA granted this application Priority Review, in addition to Fast Track and Breakthrough Therapy Designation. Additionally, Tepezza received Orphan Drug designation, which provides incentives to assist and encourage the development of drugs for rare diseases or conditions. Development of this product was also in part supported by the FDA Orphan Products Grants Program, which provides grants for clinical studies on safety and efficacy of products for use in rare diseases or conditions.

The FDA granted the approval of Tepezza to Horizon Therapeutics Ireland DAC.

Teprotumumab (RG-1507), sold under the brand name Tepezza, is a medication used for the treatment of adults with thyroid eye disease, a rare condition where the muscles and fatty tissues behind the eye become inflamed, causing the eyes to be pushed forward and bulge outwards (proptosis).[1]

The most common adverse reactions observed in people treated with teprotumumab-trbw are muscle spasm, nausea, alopecia (hair loss), diarrhea, fatigue, hyperglycemia (high blood sugar), hearing loss, dry skin, dysgeusia (altered sense of taste) and headache.[1] Teprotumumab-trbw should not be used if pregnant, and women of child-bearing potential should have their pregnancy status verified prior to beginning treatment and should be counseled on pregnancy prevention during treatment and for six months following the last dose of teprotumumab-trbw.[1]

It is a human monoclonal antibody developed by Genmab and Roche. It binds to IGF-1R.

Teprotumumab was first investigated for the treatment of solid and hematologic tumors, including breast cancer, Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin’s lymphomanon-small cell lung cancer and sarcoma.[2][3] Although results of phase I and early phase II trials showed promise, research for these indications were discontinued in 2009 by Roche. Phase II trials still in progress were allowed to complete, as the development was halted due to business prioritization rather than safety concerns.

Teprotumumab was subsequently licensed to River Vision Development Corporation in 2012 for research in the treatment of ophthalmic conditions. Horizon Pharma (now Horizon Therapeutics, from hereon Horizon) acquired RVDC in 2017, and will continue clinical trials.[4] It is in phase III trials for Graves’ ophthalmopathy (also known as thyroid eye disease (TED)) and phase I for diabetic macular edema.[5] It was granted Breakthrough TherapyOrphan Drug Status and Fast Track designations by the FDA for Graves’ ophthalmopathy.[6]

In a multicenter randomized trial in patients with active Graves’ ophthalmopathy Teprotumumab was more effective than placebo in reducing the clinical activity score and proptosis.[7] In February 2019 Horizon announced results from a phase 3 confirmatory trial evaluating teprotumumab for the treatment of active thyroid eye disease (TED). The study met its primary endpoint, showing more patients treated with teprotumumab compared with placebo had a meaningful improvement in proptosis, or bulging of the eye: 82.9 percent of teprotumumab patients compared to 9.5 percent of placebo patients achieved the primary endpoint of a 2 mm or more reduction in proptosis (p<0.001). Proptosis is the main cause of morbidity in TED. All secondary endpoints were also met and the safety profile was consistent with the phase 2 study of teprotumumab in TED.[8] On 10th of July 2019 Horizon submitted a Biologics License Application (BLA) to the FDA for teprotumumab for the Treatment of Active Thyroid Eye Disease (TED). Horizon requested priority review for the application – if so granted (FDA has a 60-day review period to decide) it would result in a max. 6 month review process.[9]

History[edit]

Teprotumumab-trbw was approved for use in the United States in January 2020, for the treatment of adults with thyroid eye disease.[1]

Teprotumumab-trbw was approved based on the results of two studies (Study 1 and 2) consisting of a total of 170 patients with active thyroid eye disease who were randomized to either receive teprotumumab-trbw or a placebo.[1] Of the subjects who were administered Tepezza, 71% in Study 1 and 83% in Study 2 demonstrated a greater than two millimeter reduction in proptosis (eye protrusion) as compared to 20% and 10% of subjects who received placebo, respectively.[1]

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted the application for teprotumumab-trbw fast track designation, breakthrough therapy designation, priority review designation, and orphan drug designation.[1] The FDA granted the approval of Tepezza to Horizon Therapeutics Ireland DAC.[1]

References

  1. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h “FDA approves first treatment for thyroid eye disease”U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Press release). 21 January 2020. Retrieved 21 January 2020.  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  2. ^ https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01868997
  3. ^ http://adisinsight.springer.com/drugs/800015801
  4. ^ http://www.genmab.com/product-pipeline/products-in-development/teprotumumab
  5. ^ http://adisinsight.springer.com/drugs/800015801
  6. ^ http://www.genmab.com/product-pipeline/products-in-development/teprotumumab
  7. ^ Smith, TJ; Kahaly, GJ; Ezra, DG; Fleming, JC; Dailey, RA; Tang, RA; Harris, GJ; Antonelli, A; Salvi, M; Goldberg, RA; Gigantelli, JW; Couch, SM; Shriver, EM; Hayek, BR; Hink, EM; Woodward, RM; Gabriel, K; Magni, G; Douglas, RS (4 May 2017). “Teprotumumab for Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy”The New England Journal of Medicine376 (18): 1748–1761. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1614949PMC 5718164PMID 28467880.
  8. ^ “Horizon Pharma plc Announces Phase 3 Confirmatory Trial Evaluating Teprotumumab (OPTIC) for the Treatment of Active Thyroid Eye Disease (TED) Met Primary and All Secondary Endpoints”Horizon Pharma plc. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
  9. ^ “Horizon Therapeutics plc Submits Teprotumumab Biologics License Application (BLA) for the Treatment of Active Thyroid Eye Disease (TED)”Horizon Therapeutics plc. Retrieved 27 August 2019.

External links

Teprotumumab
Monoclonal antibody
Type Whole antibody
Source Human
Target IGF-1R
Clinical data
Other names teprotumumab-trbw, RG-1507
ATC code
  • none
Legal status
Legal status
Identifiers
CAS Number
DrugBank
ChemSpider
  • none
UNII
KEGG
ChEMBL
ECHA InfoCard 100.081.384 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
Formula C6476H10012N1748O2000S40
Molar mass 145.6 kg/mol g·mol−1

/////////Teprotumumab-trbw, APPROVALS 2020, FDA 2020, ORPHAN, BLA, fast track designation, breakthrough therapy designation, priority review designation, and orphan drug designation, Tepezza,  Horizon Therapeutics, MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY, 2020 APPROVALS,  active thyroid eye disease, Teprotumumab

https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-approves-first-treatment-thyroid-eye-disease

Brilliant blue G , ブリリアントブルーG ,


Brilliant Blue G.png

2D chemical structure of 6104-58-1

Brilliant blue G

FDA 2019, 12/20/2019, TISSUEBLUE, New Drug Application (NDA): 209569
Company: DUTCH OPHTHALMIC, PRIORITY; Orphan

OPQ recommends APPROVAL of NDA 209569 for commercialization of TissueBlue (Brilliant Blue G Ophthalmic Solution), 0.025%

Neuroprotectant

sodium;3-[[4-[[4-(4-ethoxyanilino)phenyl]-[4-[ethyl-[(3-sulfonatophenyl)methyl]azaniumylidene]-2-methylcyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-ylidene]methyl]-N-ethyl-3-methylanilino]methyl]benzenesulfonate

Formula
C47H48N3O7S2. Na
CAS
6104-58-1
Mol weight
854.0197

ブリリアントブルーG, C.I. Acid Blue 90

UNII-M1ZRX790SI

M1ZRX790SI

6104-58-1

Brilliant Blue G

Derma Cyanine G

SYN

////////////Brilliant blue G , ブリリアントブルーG , C.I. Acid Blue 90, FDA 2019, PRIORITY,  Orphan

CCN(CC1=CC(=CC=C1)S(=O)(=O)[O-])C2=CC(=C(C=C2)C(=C3C=CC(=[N+](CC)CC4=CC(=CC=C4)S(=O)(=O)[O-])C=C3C)C5=CC=C(C=C5)NC6=CC=C(C=C6)OCC)C.[Na+]

  • Benzenemethanaminium, N-[4-[[4-[(4-ethoxyphenyl)amino]phenyl][4-[ethyl[(3-sulfophenyl)methyl]amino]-2-methylphenyl]methylene]-3-methyl-2,5-cyclohexadien-1-ylidene]-N-ethyl-3-sulfo-, hydroxide, inner salt, monosodium salt
  • Benzenemethanaminium, N-[4-[[4-[(4-ethoxyphenyl)amino]phenyl][4-[ethyl[(3-sulfophenyl)methyl]amino]-2-methylphenyl]methylene]-3-methyl-2,5-cyclohexadien-1-ylidene]-N-ethyl-3-sulfo-, inner salt, monosodium salt (9CI)
  • Brilliant Indocyanine G (6CI)
  • C.I. Acid Blue 90 (7CI)
  • C.I. Acid Blue 90, monosodium salt (8CI)
  • Acid Blue 90
  • Acid Blue G 4061
  • Acid Blue PG
  • Acid Bright Blue G
  • Acid Brilliant Blue G
  • Acid Brilliant Cyanine G
  • Acidine Sky Blue G
  • Amacid Brilliant Cyanine G
  • Anadurm Cyanine A-G
  • BBG
  • Benzyl Cyanine G
  • Biosafe Coomassie Stain
  • Boomassie blue silver
  • Brilliant Acid Blue G
  • Brilliant Acid Blue GI
  • Brilliant Acid Blue J
  • Brilliant Acid Cyanine G
  • Brilliant Blue G
  • Brilliant Blue G 250
  • Brilliant Blue J
  • Brilliant Indocyanine GA-CF
  • Bucacid Brilliant Indocyanine G
  • C.I. 42655
  • CBB-G 250
  • Colocid Brilliant Blue EG
  • Coomassie Blue G
  • Coomassie Blue G 250
  • Coomassie Brilliant Blue G
  • Coomassie Brilliant Blue G 250
  • Coomassie G 250
  • Cyanine G
  • Daiwa Acid Blue 300
  • Derma Cyanine G
  • Derma Cyanine GN 360
  • Dycosweak Acid Brilliant Blue G
  • Eriosin Brilliant Cyanine G
  • Fenazo Blue XXFG
  • Impero Azure G
  • Kayanol Cyanine G
  • Lerui Acid Brilliant Blue G
  • Milling Brilliant Blue 2J
  • NSC 328382
  • Optanol Cyanine G
  • Orient Water Blue 105
  • Orient Water Blue 105S
  • Polar Blue G
  • Polar Blue G 01
  • Polycor Blue G
  • Sandolan Cyanine N-G
  • Sellaset Blue B
  • Serva Blue G
  • Serva Blue G 250
  • Silk Fast Cyanine G
  • Simacid Blue G 350
  • Sumitomo Brilliant Indocyanine G
  • Supranol Cyanin G
  • Supranol Cyanine G
  • TissueBlue
  • Triacid Fast Cyanine G
  • Water Blue 105
  • Water Blue 105S
  • Water Blue 150
  • Xylene Brilliant Cyanine G

Avapritinib, アバプリチニブ , авапритиниб , أفابريتينيب ,


Image result for Avapritinib

Avapritinib.png

ChemSpider 2D Image | avapritinib | C26H27FN10

Avapritinib

BLU-285, BLU285

Antineoplastic, Tyrosine kinase inhibitor

アバプリチニブ

авапритиниб [Russian] [INN]
أفابريتينيب [Arabic] [INN]

(1S)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-[2-[4-[6-(1-methylpyrazol-4-yl)pyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazin-4-yl]piperazin-1-yl]pyrimidin-5-yl]ethanamine

(1S)-1-(4-Fluorophenyl)-1-(2-{4-[6-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)pyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazin-4-yl]-1-piperazinyl}-5-pyrimidinyl)ethanamine
10613
1703793-34-3 [RN]
513P80B4YJ
5-Pyrimidinemethanamine, α-(4-fluorophenyl)-α-methyl-2-[4-[6-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)pyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazin-4-yl]-1-piperazinyl]-, (αS)-
(S)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(2-(4-(6-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)pyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazin-4-yl)piperazin-1-yl)pyrimidin-5-yl)ethan-1-amine
(αS)-(4-fluorophenyl)-α-methyl-2-[4-[6-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)pyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazin-4-yl]-1-piperazinyl]-5-pyrimidinemethanamine
Formula
C26H27FN10
CAS
1703793-34-3
Mol weight
498.558
No. Drug Name Active Ingredient Approval Date FDA-approved use on approval date*
1. Ayvakit avapritinib 1/9/2020 To treat adults with unresectable or metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST)

PRIORITY; Orphan, 

Avapritinib, sold under the brand name Ayvakit, is a medication used for the treatment of tumors due to one specific rare mutation: It is specifically intended for adults with unresectable or metastatic ( y) gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) that harbor a platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) exon 18 mutation.[1]

Common side effects are edema (swelling), nauseafatigue/asthenia (abnormal physical weakness or lack of energy), cognitive impairmentvomitingdecreased appetitediarrhea, hair color changes, increased lacrimation (secretion of tears), abdominal painconstipationrash. and dizziness.[1]

Ayvakit is a kinase inhibitor.[1]

History

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved avapritinib in January 2020.[1] The application for avapritinib was granted fast track designation, breakthrough therapy designation, and orphan drug designation.[1] The FDA granted approval of Ayvakit to Blueprint Medicines Corporation.[1]

Avapritinib was approved based on the results from the Phase I NAVIGATOR[2][3] clinical trial involving 43 patients with GIST harboring a PDGFRA exon 18 mutation, including 38 subjects with PDGFRA D842V mutation.[1] Subjects received avapritinib 300 mg or 400 mg orally once daily until disease progression or they experienced unacceptable toxicity.[1] The recommended dose was determined to be 300 mg once daily.[1] The trial measured how many subjects experienced complete or partial shrinkage (by a certain amount) of their tumors during treatment (overall response rate).[1] For subjects harboring a PDGFRA exon 18 mutation, the overall response rate was 84%, with 7% having a complete response and 77% having a partial response.[1] For the subgroup of subjects with PDGFRA D842V mutations, the overall response rate was 89%, with 8% having a complete response and 82% having a partial response.[1] While the median duration of response was not reached, 61% of the responding subjects with exon 18 mutations had a response lasting six months or longer (31% of subjects with an ongoing response were followed for less than six months).[1]

PATENT

WO 2015057873

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2015057873A1/en

Example 7: Synthesis of (R)-l-(4-fluorophenyl)- l-(2-(4-(6-(l-methyl-lH-pyrazol-4- yl)pyrrolo[2, 1 -f\ [ 1 ,2,4] triazin-4-yl)piperazin- 1 -yl)pyrimidin-5-yl)ethanamine and (S)- 1 – (4- fluorophenyl)- l-(2-(4-(6-(l-methyl-lH-pyrazol-4-yl)pyrrolo[2, l-/] [l,2,4]triazin-4-yl)piperazin- l-yl)pyrimidin-5-yl)ethanamine (Compounds 43 and 44)

Figure imgf000080_0001
Figure imgf000080_0002

Step 1 : Synthesis of (4-fluorophenyl)(2-(4-(6-(l-methyl- lH-pyrazol-4-yl)pyrrolo[2,l- f] [ 1 ,2,4] triazin-4-yl)piperazin- 1 -yl)pyrimidin-5-yl)methanone:

Figure imgf000081_0001

4-Chloro-6-(l-methyl- lH-pyrazol-4-yl)pyrrolo[2,l-/] [l,2,4]triazine (180 mg, 0.770 mmol), (4-fluorophenyl)(2-(piperazin-l-yl)pyrimidin-5-yl)methanone, HC1 (265 mg, 0.821 mmol) and DIPEA (0.40 mL, 2.290 mmol) were stirred in 1,4-dioxane (4 mL) at room temperature for 18 hours. Saturated ammonium chloride was added and the products extracted into DCM (x2). The combined organic extracts were dried over Na2S04, filtered through Celite eluting with DCM, and the filtrate concentrated in vacuo. Purification of the residue by MPLC (25- 100% EtOAc-DCM) gave (4-fluorophenyl)(2-(4-(6-(l-methyl-lH-pyrazol-4-yl)pyrrolo[2,l- ] [l,2,4]triazin-4-yl)piperazin- l-yl)pyrimidin-5-yl)methanone (160 mg, 0.331 mmol, 43 % yield) as an off-white solid. MS (ES+) C25H22FN90 requires: 483, found: 484 [M + H]+.

Step 2: Synthesis of (5,Z)-N-((4-fluorophenyl)(2-(4-(6-(l-methyl- lH-p razol-4-yl)p rrolo[2, l- ] [l,2,4]triazin-4- l)piperazin- l-yl)pyrimidin-5-yl)methylene)-2-methylpropane-2-sulfinamide:

Figure imgf000081_0002

(S)-2-Methylpropane-2-sulfinamide (110 mg, 0.908 mmol), (4-fluorophenyl)(2-(4-(6-(l- methyl- lH-pyrazol-4-yl)pyrrolo[2,l-/][l,2,4]triazin-4-yl)piperazin- l-yl)pyrimidin-5- yl)methanone (158 mg, 0.327 mmol) and ethyl orthotitanate (0.15 mL, 0.715 mmol) were stirred in THF (3.2 mL) at 70 °C for 18 hours. Room temperature was attained, water was added, and the products extracted into EtOAc (x2). The combined organic extracts were washed with brine, dried over Na2S04, filtered, and concentrated in vacuo while loading onto Celite. Purification of the residue by MPLC (0- 10% MeOH-EtOAc) gave (5,Z)-N-((4-fluorophenyl)(2-(4-(6-(l-methyl- lH-pyrazol-4-yl)pyrrolo[2, l-/] [l,2,4]triazin-4-yl)piperazin-l-yl)pyrimidin-5-yl)methylene)-2- methylpropane-2-sulfinamide (192 mg, 0.327 mmol, 100 % yield) as an orange solid. MS (ES+) C29H3iFN10OS requires: 586, found: 587 [M + H]+.

Step 3: Synthesis of (lS’)-N-(l-(4-fluorophenyl)- l-(2-(4-(6-(l-methyl- lH-pyrazol-4- l)pyrrolo[2, l-/] [l,2,4]triazin-4-yl)piperazin-l-yl)pyrimidin-5-yl)ethyl)-2-methylpropane-2-

Figure imgf000082_0001

(lS’,Z)-N-((4-Fluorophenyl)(2-(4-(6-(l-methyl-lH-pyrazol-4-yl)pyrrolo[2,l- ] [l,2,4]triazin-4-yl)piperazin- l-yl)pyrimidin-5-yl)methylene)-2-methylpropane-2-sulfinamide (190 mg, 0.324 mmol) was taken up in THF (3 mL) and cooled to 0 °C. Methylmagnesium bromide (3 M solution in diethyl ether, 0.50 mL, 1.500 mmol) was added and the resulting mixture stirred at 0 °C for 45 minutes. Additional methylmagnesium bromide (3 M solution in diethyl ether, 0.10 mL, 0.300 mmol) was added and stirring at 0 °C continued for 20 minutes. Saturated ammonium chloride was added and the products extracted into EtOAc (x2). The combined organic extracts were washed with brine, dried over Na2S04, filtered, and concentrated in vacuo while loading onto Celite. Purification of the residue by MPLC (0-10% MeOH-EtOAc) gave (lS’)-N-(l-(4-fluorophenyl)-l-(2-(4-(6-(l-methyl- lH-pyrazol-4-yl)pyrrolo[2, l- ] [l,2,4]triazin-4-yl)piperazin- l-yl)pyrimidin-5-yl)ethyl)-2-methylpropane-2-sulfinamide (120 mg, 0.199 mmol, 61.5 % yield) as a yellow solid (mixture of diastereoisomers). MS (ES+) C3oH35FN10OS requires: 602, found: 603 [M + H]+. Step 4: Synthesis of l-(4-fluorophenyl)- l-(2-(4-(6-(l-methyl- lH-pyrazol-4-yl)pyrrolo[2,l- f\ [ 1 ,2,4] triazin-4- l)piperazin- 1 -yl)pyrimidin-5-yl)ethanamine:

Figure imgf000083_0001

(S)-N- ( 1 – (4-Fluorophenyl)- 1 -(2- (4- (6-( 1 -methyl- 1 H-pyrazol-4-yl)pyrrolo [2,1- /] [l,2,4]triazin-4-yl)piperazin- l-yl)pyrimidin-5-yl)ethyl)-2-methylpropane-2-sulfinamide (120 mg, 0.199 mmol) was stirred in 4 M HCl in 1,4-dioxane (1.5 mL)/MeOH (1.5 mL) at room temperature for 1 hour. The solvent was removed in vacuo and the residue triturated in EtOAc to give l-(4-fluorophenyl)- l-(2-(4-(6-(l -methyl- lH-pyrazol-4-yl)pyrrolo[2, l-/][l,2,4]triazin-4- yl)piperazin- l-yl)pyrimidin-5-yl)ethanamine, HCl (110 mg, 0.206 mmol, 103 % yield) as a pale yellow solid. MS (ES+) C26H27FN10requires: 498, found: 482 [M- 17 + H]+, 499 [M + H]+.

Step 5: Chiral separation of (R)-l-(4-fluorophenyl)- l-(2-(4-(6-(l-methyl- lH-pyrazol-4- yl)pyrrolo[2, l-/] [l,2,4]triazin-4-yl)piperazin-l-yl)pyrimidin-5-yl)ethanamine and (5)-1-(4- fluorophenyl)- l-(2-(4-(6-(l-methyl-lH-pyrazol-4-yl)pyrrolo[2, l-/] [l,2,4]triazin-4-yl)piperazin- 1 -yl)pyrimidin- -yl)ethanamine:

Figure imgf000083_0002

The enantiomers of racemic l-(4-fluorophenyl)- l-(2-(4-(6-(l-methyl- lH-pyrazol-4- yl)pyrrolo[2, l-/] [l,2,4]triazin-4-yl)piperazin-l-yl)pyrimidin-5-yl)ethanamine (94 mg, 0.189 mmol) were separated by chiral SFC to give (R)-l-(4-fluorophenyl)- l-(2-(4-(6-(l-methyl-lH- pyrazol-4-yl)pyrrolo[2, l-/][l,2,4]triazin-4-yl)piperazin- l-yl)pyrimidin-5-yl)ethanamine (34.4 mg, 0.069 mmol, 73.2 % yield) and (lS,)-l-(4-fluorophenyl)- l-(2-(4-(6-(l-methyl-lH-pyrazol-4- yl)pyrrolo[2, l-/] [l,2,4]triazin-4-yl)piperazin-l-yl)pyrimidin-5-yl)ethanamine (32.1 mg, 0.064 mmol, 68.3 % yield). The absolute stereochemistry was assigned randomly. MS (ES+)

C26H27FN10 requires: 498, found: 499 [M + H]+.

References

  1. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m “FDA approves the first targeted therapy to treat a rare mutation in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors”U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Press release). 9 January 2020. Archived from the original on 11 January 2020. Retrieved 9 January 2020.  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  2. ^ “Blueprint Medicines Announces FDA Approval of AYVAKIT (avapritinib) for the Treatment of Adults with Unresectable or Metastatic PDGFRA Exon 18 Mutant Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor”Blueprint Medicines Corporation (Press release). 9 January 2020. Archived from the original on 11 January 2020. Retrieved 9 January 2020.
  3. ^ “Blueprint Medicines Announces Updated NAVIGATOR Trial Results in Patients with Advanced Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors Supporting Development of Avapritinib Across All Lines of Therapy”Blueprint Medicines Corporation (Press release). 15 November 2018. Archived from the original on 10 January 2020. Retrieved 9 January 2020.

Further reading

  • Wu CP, Lusvarghi S, Wang JC, et al. (July 2019). “Avapritinib: A Selective Inhibitor of KIT and PDGFRα that Reverses ABCB1 and ABCG2-Mediated Multidrug Resistance in Cancer Cell Lines”. Mol. Pharm16 (7): 3040–3052. doi:10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.9b00274PMID 31117741.
  • Gebreyohannes YK, Wozniak A, Zhai ME, et al. (January 2019). “Robust Activity of Avapritinib, Potent and Highly Selective Inhibitor of Mutated KIT, in Patient-derived Xenograft Models of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors”. Clin. Cancer Res25 (2): 609–618. doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-18-1858PMID 30274985.

External links

Avapritinib
Clinical data
Trade names Ayvakit
Other names BLU-285, BLU285
License data
Routes of
administration
By mouth
Drug class Antineoplastic agents
ATC code
  • none
Legal status
Legal status
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
Chemical and physical data
Formula C26H27FN10
Molar mass 498.570 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)

///////Avapritinib, 2020 APPROVALS, PRIORITY, Orphan, BLU-285, BLU285, FDA 2020,  Ayvakit, アバプリチニブ  , авапритиниб أفابريتينيب 

FDA approves novel treatment Oxbryta (voxelotor) to target abnormality in sickle cell disease


Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration granted accelerated approval to Oxbryta (voxelotor) for the treatment of sickle cell disease (SCD) in adults and pediatric patients 12 years of age and older.
“Today’s approval provides additional hope to the 100,000 people in the U.S., and the more than 20 million globally, who live with this debilitating blood disorder,” said Acting FDA Commissioner Adm. Brett P. Giroir, M.D. “Our scientific investments have brought us to a point where we have many more tools available in the battle against sickle cell disease, which presents daily challenges for those living with it. We remain committed to raising the profile of this disease as a public health priority and to approving new therapies that are proven to be safe and effective. Together with improved provider education, patient empowerment, and improved care delivery systems, these newly approved drugs have the potential to immediately impact people living with SCD.”

Sickle cell disease is a lifelong, inherited blood disorder in which red blood cells are abnormally shaped (in a crescent, or “sickle” shape), which restricts the flow in blood vessels and limits oxygen delivery to the body’s tissues, leading to severe pain and organ damage. It is also characterized by severe and chronic inflammation that worsens vaso-occlusive crises during which patients experience episodes of extreme pain and organ damage. Nonclinical studies have demonstrated that Oxbryta inhibits red blood cell sickling, improves red blood cell deformability (ability of a red blood cell to change shape) and improves the blood’s ability to flow.

“Oxbryta is an inhibitor of deoxygenated sickle hemoglobin polymerization, which is the central abnormality in sickle cell disease,” said Richard Pazdur, M.D., director of the FDA’s Oncology Center of Excellence and acting director of the Office of Oncologic Diseases in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “With Oxbryta, sickle cells are less likely to bind together and form the sickle shape, which can cause low hemoglobin levels due to red blood cell destruction. This therapy provides a new treatment option for patients with this serious and life-threatening condition.”

Oxbryta’s approval was based on the results of a clinical trial with 274 patients with sickle cell disease. In the study, 90 patients received 1500 mg of Oxbryta, 92 patients received 900 mg of Oxbryta and 92 patients received a placebo. Effectiveness was based on an increase in hemoglobin response rate in patients who received 1500 mg of Oxbryta, which was 51.1% for these patients compared to 6.5% in the placebo group.

Common side effects for patients taking Oxbryta were headache, diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, fatigue, rash and pyrexia (fever).
Oxbryta was granted Accelerated Approval, which enables the FDA to approve drugs for serious conditions to fill an unmet medical need based on a result that is reasonably likely to predict a clinical benefit to patients. Further clinical trials are required to verify and describe Oxbryta’s clinical benefit.
The FDA granted this application Fast Track designation. Oxbryta also received Orphan Drug designation, which provides incentives to assist and encourage the development of drugs for rare diseases. The FDA granted the approval of Oxbryta to Global Blood Therapeutics.

/////////fda 2019, Fast Track designation,  Oxbryta, Orphan Drug designation, voxelotor, Global Blood Therapeutics, sickle cell disease

http://s2027422842.t.en25.com/e/es?s=2027422842&e=279688&elqTrackId=376c7bc788024cd5a73d955f2e3dcbdc&elq=28d3a5d8573843f29b6ae4275802f1c8&elqaid=10429&elqat=1

FDA approves first treatment Givlaari (givosiran) for inherited rare disease


Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration granted approval to Givlaari (givosiran) for the treatment of adult patients with acute hepatic porphyria, a genetic disorder resulting in the buildup of toxic porphyrin molecules which are formed during the production of heme (which helps bind oxygen in the blood).
“This buildup can cause acute attacks, known as porphyria attacks, which can lead to severe pain and paralysis, respiratory failure, seizures and mental status changes. These attacks occur suddenly and can produce permanent neurological damage and death,” said Richard Pazdur, M.D., director of the FDA’s Oncology Center of Excellence and acting director of the Office of Oncologic Diseases in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “Prior to today’s approval, treatment options have only provided partial relief from the intense unremitting pain that characterizes these attacks. The drug approved today can treat this disease by helping to reduce the number of attacks that disrupt the lives of patients.”
The approval of Givlaari was based on the results of a clinical trial of 94 patients with acute hepatic porphyria. Patients received a placebo or Givlaari. Givlaari’s performance was measured by the rate of porphyria attacks that required hospitalizations, urgent health care visits or intravenous infusion of hemin at home. Patients who received Givlaari experienced 70% fewer porphyria attacks compared to patients receiving a placebo.
Common side effects for patients taking Givlaari were nausea and injection site reactions. Health care professionals are advised to monitor patients for anaphylactic (allergic) reaction and renal (kidney) function. Patients should have their liver function tested before and periodically during treatment.
The FDA granted this application Breakthrough Therapy designation and Priority Review designation. Givlaari also received Orphan Drug designation, which provides incentives to assist and encourage the development of drugs for rare diseases. The FDA granted the approval of Givlaari to Alnylam Pharmaceuticals.

http://s2027422842.t.en25.com/e/es?s=2027422842&e=277662&elqTrackId=376c7bc788024cd5a73d955f2e3dcbdc&elq=d02d631b3809408d94ccf3f5bec31dbd&elqaid=10358&elqat=1

///////////Givlaari, givosiran, fda 2019, Breakthrough Therapy designation,  Priority ReviewOrphan Drug

Blarcamesine, ブラルカメシン ,


Thumb

Anavex-2-73.png

Blarcamesine

ブラルカメシン;

[(2,2-diphenyloxolan-3-yl)methyl]dimethylamine

  • Anavex 2-73
  • Tetrahydro-N,N-dimethyl-2,2-diphenyl-3-furanemethanamine
  • THD-DP-FM
  • AE-37 / AE37 / ANAVEX 2-73 FREE BASE
  • UNII 9T210MMZ3F
Formula
C19H23NO
Cas
195615-83-9
195615-84-0 HCL
Mol weight
281.392

Treatment of Rett syndrome, Investigated for use/treatment in breast cancer.

Anti-amnesic, Muscarinic/sigma receptor agonist

  • Originator Anavex Life Sciences
  • Developer ABX-CRO; Anavex Life Sciences; The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinsons Research
  • Class Antidementias; Antidepressants; Antiepileptic drugs; Antiparkinsonians; Anxiolytics; Behavioural disorder therapies; Dimethylamines; Furans; Neuroprotectants; Neuropsychotherapeutics; Nootropics; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action Muscarinic receptor modulators; Sigma-1 receptor agonists
  • Orphan Drug Status Yes – Epilepsy; Rett syndrome
  • Phase II/III Alzheimer’s disease
  • Phase II Parkinson’s disease; Rett syndrome
  • Preclinical Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; Angelman syndrome; Anxiety disorders; Autistic disorder; Fragile X syndrome; Multiple sclerosis
  • No development reported Cognition disorders; Epilepsy; Stroke
  • 28 Oct 2019 No recent reports of development identified for phase-I development in Cognition-disorders in USA
  • 09 Oct 2019 Anavex Life Sciences initiates enrolment in the long term extension ATTENTION-AD trial for Alzheimer’s disease in (country/ies)
  • 02 Oct 2019 Anavex Life Sciences has patent protection covering compositions of matter and methods of treating Alzheimer’s disease for blarcamesine in USA
  • Anavex Life Sciences is developing ANAVEX-2-73 and its active metabolite ANAVEX-19-144, for treating Alzheimer’s disease, epilepsy, stroke and Rett syndrome.

ANAVEX2-73 is an experimental drug is in Phase II trials for Alzheimer’s diseasephase I trials for epilepsy, and in preclinical trials for amyotrophic lateral sclerosisParkinson’s diseaseRett syndrome, stroke.[1][2] ANAVEX2-73 acts as a muscarinic receptor and a moderate sigma1 receptor agonist.[1] ANAVEX2-73 may function as a pro-drug for ANAVEX19-144 as well as a drug itself. ANAVEX19-144 is the active metabolite of ANAVEX 1-41, which is similar to ANAVEX2-73 but it is not as selective for sigma receptor.[2]

Properties and uses

ANAVEX2-73 has an inhibitory constant (ki) lower than 500 nM for all M1–M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes, demonstrating that it acts as a powerful antimuscarinic compound.[2] ANAVEX2-73 was originally tested in mice against the effect of the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine, which induces learning impairment.[1] M1 receptor agonists are known to reverse the amnesia caused by scopolamine.[3] Scopolamine is used in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease and motion sickness by reducing the secretions of the stomach and intestines and can also decreases nerve signals to the stomach.[3] This is via competitive inhibition of muscarinic receptors.[3] Muscarinic receptors are involved in the formation of both short term and long term memories.[1] Experiments in mice have found that M1 and M3 receptor agonists inhibit the formation of amyloid-beta and target GSK-3B.[clarification needed]Furthermore, stimulation of the M1 receptor activates AF267B, which in turn blocks β-secretase, which cleaves the amyloid precursor protein to produce the amyloid-beta peptide. These amyloid-beta peptides aggregate together to form plaques. This enzyme[clarification needed] is involved in the formation of Tau plaques, which are common in Alzheimer’s disease.[clarification needed][4]Therefore. M1 receptor activation appears to decreases tau hyperphosphorylation and amyloid-beta accumulation.[4]

Sigma1 activation appears to be only involved in long-term memory processes. This partly explains why ANAVEX2-73 seems to be more effective in reversing scopolamine-induced long-term memory problems compared to short-term memory deficits.[1] The sigma-1 receptor is located on mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membranes and modulates the ER stress response and local calcium exchanges with the mitochondria. ANAVEX2-73 prevented Aβ25-35-induced increases in lipid peroxidation levels, Bax/Bcl-2ratio and cytochrome c release into the cytosol, which are indicative of elevated toxicity.[clarification needed] ANAVEX2-73 inhibits mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction and therefore prevents against oxidative stress and apoptosis. This drug prevented the appearance of oxidative stress. ANAVEX2-73 also exhibits anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidant activity. This is due in part because sigma-1 agonists stimulate the anti-apoptoic factor Bcl-2 due to reactive oxygen species dependent transcriptional activation of nuclear factor kB.[5] Results from Marice (2016) demonstrate that sigma1 compounds offer a protective potential, both alone and possibly with other agents like donepezil, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, or the memantine, a NMDA receptor antagonist.[6]

PATENT

WO9730983

PATENT

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2019200345&tab=PCTDESCRIPTION&_cid=P10-K2E5QZ-30663-1

Novel crystalline forms of A2-73 (blarcamesine hydrochloride, ANAVEX2-73, AV2-73), a mixed muscarinic receptor ligand and Sig-1 R agonist useful for treating Alzheimer’s disease.

PATENT

WO2017013498

SYN

By Foscolos, George B. et alFrom Farmaco, 51(1), 19-26; 1996

References

  1. Jump up to:a b c d e “Anti-amnesic and neuroprotective potentials of the mixed muscarinic receptor/sigma” (PDF)Journal of Psychopharmacology. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-11-12. Retrieved 2016-05-25.
  2. Jump up to:a b c “ANAVEX 2-73 – AdisInsight”Adisinsight.springer.com. Retrieved 2016-05-25.
  3. Jump up to:a b c Malviya, M; Kumar, YC; Asha, D; Chandra, JN; Subhash, MN; Rangappa, KS (2008). “Muscarinic receptor 1 agonist activity of novel N-arylthioureas substituted 3-morpholino arecoline derivatives in Alzheimer’s presenile dementia models”. Bioorg Med Chem16: 7095–7101. doi:10.1016/j.bmc.2008.06.053.
  4. Jump up to:a b Leal, NS; Schreiner, B; Pinho, CM; Filadi, R; Wiehager, B; Karlström, H; Pizzo, P; Ankarcrona, M (2016). “Mitofusin-2 knockdown increases ER-mitochondria contact and decreases amyloid β-peptide production”J Cell Mol Med20: 1686–1695. doi:10.1111/jcmm.12863PMC 4988279PMID 27203684.
  5. ^ Lahmy, V; Long, R; Morin, D; Villard, V; Maurice, T (2015-09-28). “Mitochondrial protection by the mixed muscarinic/σ1 ligand ANAVEX2-73, a tetrahydrofuran derivative, in Aβ25-35 peptide-injected mice, a nontransgenic Alzheimer’s disease model”Front Cell Neurosci8: 463. doi:10.3389/fncel.2014.00463PMC 4299448PMID 25653589.
  6. ^ Maurice, T (2015-09-28). “Protection by sigma-1 receptor agonists is synergic with donepezil, but not with memantine, in a mouse model of amyloid-induced memory impairments”. Behav. Brain Res296: 270–8. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2015.09.020PMID 26386305.

//////////Blarcamesine, ブラルカメシン , Orphan Drug Status, PHASE 2

CN(C)CC1CCOC1(C1=CC=CC=C1)C1=CC=CC=C1

FDA approves treatment Inrebic (fedratinib) for patients with rare bone marrow disorder


FDA approves treatment Inrebic (fedratinib) for patients with rare bone marrow disorder

Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Inrebic (fedratinib) capsules to treat adult patients with certain types of myelofibrosis.

“Prior to today, there was one FDA-approved drug to treat patients with myelofibrosis, a rare bone marrow disorder. Our approval today provides another option for patients,” said Richard Pazdur, M.D., director of the FDA’s Oncology Center of Excellence and acting director of the Office of Hematology and Oncology Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “The FDA is committed to encouraging the development of treatments for patients with rare diseases and providing alternative options, as not all patients respond in the same way.”

Myelofibrosis is a chronic disorder where scar tissue forms in the bone marrow and the production of the blood cells moves from the bone marrow to the spleen and liver, causing organ enlargement. It can cause extreme fatigue, shortness of breath, pain below the ribs, fever, night sweats, itching and bone pain. When myelofibrosis occurs on its own, it is called primary myelofibrosis. Secondary myelofibrosis occurs when there is excessive red blood cell production (polycythemia vera) or excessive platelet production (essential thrombocythemia) that evolves into myelofibrosis.

Jakafi (ruxolitinib) was approved by the FDA in 2011. The approval of Inrebic for intermediate-2 or high-risk primary or secondary (post-polycythemia vera or post-essential thrombocythemia) myelofibrosis was based on the results of a clinical trial where 289 patients with myelofibrosis were randomized to receive two different doses (400 mg or 500 mg daily by mouth) of fedratinib or placebo. The clinical trial showed that 35 of 96 patients treated with the fedratinib 400 mg daily dose (the dose recommended in the approved label) experienced a significant therapeutic effect (measured by greater than or equal to a 35% reduction from baseline in spleen volume at the end of cycle 6 (week 24) as measured by an MRI or CT scan with a follow-up scan four weeks later). As a result of treatment with Inrebic, 36 patients experienced greater than or equal to a 50% reduction in myelofibrosis-related symptoms, such as night sweats, itching, abdominal discomfort, feeling full sooner than normal, pain under ribs on left side, and bone or muscle pain.

The prescribing information for Inrebic includes a Boxed Warning to advise health care professionals and patients about the risk of serious and fatal encephalopathy (brain damage or malfunction), including Wernicke’s, which is a neurologic emergency related to a deficiency in thiamine. Health care professionals are advised to assess thiamine levels in all patients prior to starting Inrebic, during treatment and as clinically indicated. If encephalopathy is suspected, Inrebic should be immediately discontinued.

Common side effects for patients taking Inrebic are diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, fatigue and muscle spasms. Health care professionals are cautioned that patients may experience severe anemia (low iron levels) and thrombocytopenia (low level of platelets in the blood). Patients should be monitored for gastrointestinal toxicity and for hepatic toxicity (liver damage). The dose should be reduced or stopped if a patient develops severe diarrhea, nausea or vomiting. Treatment with anti-diarrhea medications may be recommended. Patients may develop high levels of amylase and lipase in their blood and should be managed by dose reduction or stopping the mediation. Inrebic must be dispensed with a patient Medication Guide that describes important information about the drug’s uses and risks.

The FDA granted this application Priority Review designation. Inrebic also received Orphan Drug designation, which provides incentives to assist and encourage the development of drugs for rare diseases. The FDA granted the approval of Inrebic to Impact Biomedicines, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Celgene Corporation.

LINK

http://s2027422842.t.en25.com/e/es?s=2027422842&e=245172&elqTrackId=376c7bc788024cd5a73d955f2e3dcbdc&elq=2a5deafa24e642ce8b78e60dd7bc7120&elqaid=9163&elqat=1

///////Inrebic , fedratinib, FDA 2019, Priority Review , Orphan Drug, Biomedicines, Celgene , bone marrow disorder

FDA approves third oncology drug Rozlytrek (entrectinib) that targets a key genetic driver of cancer, rather than a specific type of tumor


FDA approves third oncology drug Rozlytrek (entrectinib) that targets a key genetic driver of cancer, rather than a specific type of tumor 

FDA also approves drug for second indication in a type of lung cancer

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today granted accelerated approval to Rozlytrek (entrectinib), a treatment for adult and adolescent patients whose cancers have the specific genetic defect, NTRK (neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase) gene fusion and for whom there are no effective treatments.

“We are in an exciting era of innovation in cancer treatment as we continue to see development in tissue agnostic therapies, which have the potential to transform cancer treatment. We’re seeing continued advances in the use of biomarkers to guide drug development and the more targeted delivery of medicine,” said FDA Acting Commissioner Ned Sharpless, M.D. “Using the FDA’s expedited review pathways, including breakthrough therapy designation and accelerated approval process, we’re supporting this innovation in precision oncology drug development and the evolution of more targeted and effective treatments for cancer patients. We remain committed to encouraging the advancement of more targeted innovations in oncology treatment and across disease types based on our growing understanding of the underlying biology of diseases.”

This is the third time the agency has approved a cancer treatment based on a common biomarker across different types of tumors rather than the location in the body where the tumor originated. The approval marks a new paradigm in the development of cancer drugs that are “tissue agnostic.” It follows the policies that the FDA developed in a guidance document released in 2018. The previous tissue agnostic indications approved by the FDA were pembrolizumab for tumors with microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) or mismatch repair deficient (dMMR) tumors in 2017 and larotrectinib for NTRK gene fusion tumors in 2018.

“Today’s approval includes an indication for pediatric patients, 12 years of age and older, who have NTRK-fusion-positive tumors by relying on efficacy information obtained primarily in adults. The FDA continues to encourage the inclusion of adolescents in clinical trials. Traditionally, clinical development of new cancer drugs in pediatric populations is not started until development is well underway in adults, and often not until after approval of an adult indication,” said Richard Pazdur, M.D., director of the FDA’s Oncology Center of Excellence and acting director of the Office of Hematology and Oncology Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “Efficacy in adolescents was derived from adult data and safety was demonstrated in 30 pediatric patients.”

The ability of Rozlytrek to shrink tumors was evaluated in four clinical trials studying 54 adults with NTRK fusion-positive tumors. The proportion of patients with substantial tumor shrinkage (overall response rate) was 57%, with 7.4% of patients having complete disappearance of the tumor. Among the 31 patients with tumor shrinkage, 61% had tumor shrinkage persist for nine months or longer. The most common cancer locations were the lung, salivary gland, breast, thyroid and colon/rectum.

Rozlytrek was also approved today for the treatment of adults with non-small cell lung cancer whose tumors are ROS1-positive (mutation of the ROS1 gene) and has spread to other parts of the body (metastatic). Clinical studies evaluated 51 adults with ROS1-positive lung cancer. The overall response rate was 78%, with 5.9% of patients having complete disappearance of their cancer. Among the 40 patients with tumor shrinkage, 55% had tumor shrinkage persist for 12 months or longer.

Rozlytrek’s common side effects are fatigue, constipation, dysgeusia (distorted sense of taste), edema (swelling), dizziness, diarrhea, nausea, dysesthesia (distorted sense of touch), dyspnea (shortness of breath), myalgia (painful or aching muscles), cognitive impairment (confusion, problems with memory or attention, difficulty speaking, or hallucinations), weight gain, cough, vomiting, fever, arthralgia and vision disorders (blurred vision, sensitivity to light, double vision, worsening of vision, cataracts, or floaters). The most serious side effects of Rozlytrek are congestive heart failure (weakening or damage to the heart muscle), central nervous system effects (cognitive impairment, anxiety, depression including suicidal thinking, dizziness or loss of balance, and change in sleep pattern, including insomnia and excessive sleepiness), skeletal fractures, hepatotoxicity (damage to the liver), hyperuricemia (elevated uric acid), QT prolongation (abnormal heart rhythm) and vision disorders. Health care professionals should inform females of reproductive age and males with a female partner of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with Rozlytrek. Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding should not take Rozlytrek because it may cause harm to a developing fetus or newborn baby.

Rozlytrek was granted accelerated approval. This approval commits the sponsor to provide additional data to the FDA. Rozlytrek also received Priority ReviewBreakthrough Therapy and Orphan Drug designation. The approval of Rozlytrek was granted to Genentech, Inc.

link http://s2027422842.t.en25.com/e/es?s=2027422842&e=244904&elqTrackId=376c7bc788024cd5a73d955f2e3dcbdc&elq=46563b1749694ceb96d9f79a6d5cd8a7&elqaid=9150&elqat=1

///////////////Rozlytrek, entrectinib, accelerated approval, priority ReviewBreakthrough Therapy,  Orphan Drug designation, fda 2019, Genentech, cancer

Tanzisertib


Tanzisertib.png

ChemSpider 2D Image | Tanzisertib | C21H23F3N6O2

Tanzisertib

CAS 899805-25-5

trans-4-((9-((3S)-Tetrahydrofuran-3-yl)-8-((2,4,6-trifluorophenyl)amino)-9H-purin-2-yl)amino)cyclohexanol

4-[[9-[(3S)-oxolan-3-yl]-8-(2,4,6-trifluoroanilino)purin-2-yl]amino]cyclohexan-1-ol

C21-H23-F3-N6-O2, 448.4467

9557
Cyclohexanol, 4-[[9-[(3S)-tetrahydro-3-furanyl]-8-[(2,4,6-trifluorophenyl)amino]-9H-purin-2-yl]amino]-, trans-
  • CC 930
  • CC-930
  • Tanzisertib
  • UNII-M5O06306UO
  • A c-Jun amino-terminal kinase inhibitor.UNII, M5O06306UO

Treatment of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF)

  • Originator Celgene Corporation
  • Class Antifibrotics; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of ActionJ NK mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors
  • Orphan Drug Status Yes – Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
  • Discontinued Discoid lupus erythematosus; Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
  • 16 Jul 2012 Celgene Corporation terminates a phase II trial in Discoid lupus erythematosus in USA (NCT01466725)
  • 23 Feb 2012 Celgene initiates enrolment in a phase II trial for Discoid lupus erythematosus in the USA (NCT01466725)
  • 08 Nov 2011The Committee for Orphan Medicinal Products (COMP) recommends orphan drug designation for tanzisertib in European Union for Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

Tanzisertib has been granted orphan drug status by the FDA for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. A positive opinion has been received from the EU Committee for Orphan Medicinal Products (COMP

Tanzisertib has been used in trials studying the treatment of Fibrosis, Discoid Lupus, Pulmonary Fibrosis, Interstitial Lung Disease, and Lung Diseases, Interstitial, among others.

PATENT

https://patents.google.com/patent/US20090048275A1/de

Image result for US 20090048275

Image result for US 20090048275

PATENT

WO 2006076595

US 20070060598

WO 2008057252

US 20080021048

US 20140094456

WO 2014055548

PATENT

WO 2015153683

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2015153683

/////////Tanzisertib, CC 930,  Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis, Orphan Drug, phase II, CELGENE

c1c(c(c(cc1F)F)Nc2n(c3nc(ncc3n2)N[C@H]4CC[C@@H](CC4)O)[C@@H]5COCC5)F

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