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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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Tasimelteon, タシメルテオン


ChemSpider 2D Image | Tasimelteon | C15H19NO2

Tasimelteon.png

Tasimelteon

N-([(1R,2R)-2-(2,3-Dihydro-1-benzofuran-4-yl)cyclopropyl]methyl)propanamide,

609799-22-6 [RN]
8985
Hetlioz [Trade name]
N-{[(1R,2R)-2-(2,3-Dihydro-1-benzofuran-4-yl)cyclopropyl]methyl}propanamide [ACD/IUPAC Name]
Propanamide, N-[[(1R,2R)-2-(2,3-dihydro-4-benzofuranyl)cyclopropyl]methyl]- [ACD/Index Name]
SHS4PU80D9

609799-22-6 cas, BMS-214778; VEC-162, ATC:N05CH03

  • Use:Treatment of sleep disorder; Melatonin receptor agonist
  • (1R,2R)-N-[2-(2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)cyclopropylmethyl]propanamide
  • Formula:C15H19NO2, MW:245.3 g/mol
  • Hetlioz Vanda Pharmaceuticals, 2014

Approved fda 2014

EMA

Tasimelteon is a white to off-white crystalline powder, it is non hygroscopic, soluble in water across relevant pH values and freely soluble in alcohols, cyclohexane, and acetonitrile. Conducted in vivo studies demonstrate that tasimelteon is highly permeable substance. Photostability testing and testing on stress conditions demonstrated that the active substance degrades in light.

Tasimelteon exhibits stereoisomerism due to the presence of two chiral centres. Active substance is manufactured as a single, trans-1R,2R isomer. Enantiomeric purity is controlled routinely during manufacture of active substance intermediates by chiral HPLC/specific optical rotation and additionally controlled in the active substance. Stability data indicates tasimelteon is isomerically stable.

Polymorphism has been observed in polymorphic screening studies for tasimelteon and two forms have been identified. The thermodynamically more stable form has been chosen for development and the manufacturing process consistently yields active substance of single, desired polymorphic form. It was demonstrated that milling of the active substance does not affect polymorphic form. Polymorphism is additionally controlled in active substance release and shelf-life specifications using X-ray powder diffraction analysis.

Tasimelteon is synthesized in nine main steps using linear synthesis and using commercially available well-defined starting materials with acceptable specifications. Three intermediates are isolated for control of active substance quality including stereochemical control. The active substance is isolated by slow recrystallisation or precipitation of tasimelteon from an ethanol/water mixture which ensures the formation of desired polymorphic form. Up to two additional, optional recrystallisations may be performed for unmilled tasimelteon to ensure that milled tasimelteon active substance is of high purity. Seed crystals complying with active substance specifications can be used optionally. Active substance is jet milled (micronised) to reduce and control particle size, which is critical in finished product performance with regards to content uniformity and dissolution…….http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/EPAR_-_Public_assessment_report/human/003870/WC500190309.pdf

launched in 2014 in the U.S. by Vanda Pharmaceuticals for the treatment of non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder in totally blind subjects. In 2015, the European Committee for Medicinal Products of the European Medicines Agency granted approval for the same indication.  In 2010 and 2011, orphan drug designations were assigned for the treatment of non-24 hour sleep/wake disorder in blind individuals without light perception in the U.S. and the E.U., respectively.

Tasimelteon (trade name Hetlioz) is a drug approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)[2] in January 2014 for the treatment of non-24-hour sleep–wake disorder (also called Non-24, N24 and N24HSWD).[3] In June 2014, the European Medicines Agency accepted an EU filing application for tasimelteon[4] and in July 2015, the drug was approved in Europe for the treatment of non-24-hour sleep-wake rhythm disorder in totally blind adults,[5] but not in the rarer case of non-24 in sighted people.

Tasimelteon is a selective agonist for the melatonin receptors MT1 and MT2, similar to other members of the melatonin receptor agonistclass of which ramelteon (2005) and agomelatine (2009) were the first approved.[6] As a treatment for N24HSWD, as with melatonin or other melatonin derivatives, the patient may experience improved sleep timing while taking the drug. Reversion to baseline sleep performance occurs within a month of discontinuation.[7]

Image result for TASIMELTEON DRUG FUTURE

Development

Tasimelteon (previously known as BMS-214,778) was developed for the treatment of insomnia and other sleep disorders. A phase II trial on circadian rhythm sleep disorders was concluded in March 2005.[8] A phase III insomnia trial was conducted in 2006.[9] A second phase III trial on insomnia, this time concerning primary insomnia, was completed in June 2008.[10] In 2010, the FDA granted orphan drug status to tasimelteon, then regarded as an investigational medication, for use in totally blind adults with N24HSWD.[11] (Through mechanisms such as easing the approval process and extending exclusivity periods, orphan drug status encourages development of drugs for rare conditions that otherwise might lack sufficient commercial incentive.)

On completion of Phase III trials, interpretations of the clinical trials by the research team concluded that the drug may have therapeutic potential for transient insomnia in circadian rhythm sleep disorders.[12] A year-long (2011–2012) study at Harvard tested the use of tasimelteon in blind subjects with non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder. The drug has not been tested in children nor in any non-blind people.

FDA approval

In May 2013 Vanda Pharmaceuticals submitted a New Drug Application to the Food and Drug Administration for tasimelteon for the treatment of non-24-hour sleep–wake disorder in totally blind people. It was approved by the FDA on January 31, 2014 under the brand name Hetlioz.[3] In the opinion of Public Citizen, an advocacy group, the FDA erroneously allowed it to be labelled without stating that it is only approved for use by totally blind people.[13] However, FDA updated its press release on Oct. 2, 2014 to clarify the approved use of Hetlioz, which includes both sighted and blind individuals. The update did not change the drug labeling (prescribing information).[14]

Toxicity

Experiments with rodents revealed fertility impairments, an increase in certain cancers, and serious adverse events during pregnancy at dosages in excess of what is considered the “human dose”.[15][16]

As expected, advisors to the US Food and Drug Administration have recommended approval of Vanda Pharmaceuticals’ tasimelteon, to be sold as Hetlioz, for the treatment of non-24-hour disorder in the totally blind.http://www.pharmatimes.com/Article/13-11-14/FDA_panel_backs_Vanda_body_clock_drug_for_blind.aspx

The master body clock controls the timing of many aspects of physiology, behavior and metabolism that show daily rhythms, including the sleep-wake cycles, body temperature, alertness and performance, metabolic rhythms and certain hormones which exhibit circadian variation. Outputs from the

suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) control many endocrine rhythms including those of melatonin secretion by the pineal gland as well as the control of Cortisol secretion via effects on the hypothalamus, the pituitary and the adrenal glands. This master body clock, located in the SCN, spontaneously generates rhythms of approximately 24.5 hours. These non-24-hour rhythms are synchronized each day to the 24-hour day-night cycle by light, the primary environmental time cue which is detected by specialized cells in the retina and transmitted to the SCN via the retino-hypothalamic tract. Inability to detect this light signal, as occurs in most totally blind individuals, leads to the inability of the master body clock to be reset daily and maintain entrainment to a 24-hour day.

Non-24-Hour Disorder, Non-24, also referred to as Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder, (N24HSWD) or Non-24-Hour Disorder, is an orphan indication affecting approximately 65,000 to 95,000 people in the U.S. and 140,000 in Europe. Non- 24 occurs when individuals, primarily blind with no light perception, are unable to synchronize their endogenous circadian pacemaker to the 24-hour light/dark cycle. Without light as a synchronizer, and because the period of the internal clock is typically a little longer than 24 hours, individuals with Non-24 experience their circadian drive to initiate sleep drifting later and later each day. Individuals with Non-24 have abnormal night sleep patterns, accompanied by difficulty staying awake during the day. Non-24 leads to significant impairment, with chronic effects impacting the social and occupational functioning of these individuals.

In addition to problems sleeping at the desired time, individuals with Non-24 experience excessive daytime sleepiness that often results in daytime napping.

The severity of nighttime sleep complaints and/or daytime sleepiness complaints varies depending on where in the cycle the individual’s body clock is with respect to their social, work, or sleep schedule. The “free running” of the clock results in approximately a 1-4 month repeating cycle, the circadian cycle, where the circadian drive to initiate sleep continually shifts a little each day (about 15 minutes on average) until the cycle repeats itself. Initially, when the circadian cycle becomes desynchronous with the 24h day-night cycle, individuals with Non-24 have difficulty initiating sleep. As time progresses, the internal circadian rhythms of these individuals becomes 180 degrees out of synchrony with the 24h day-night cycle, which gradually makes sleeping at night virtually impossible, and leads to extreme sleepiness during daytime hours.

Eventually, the individual’s sleep-wake cycle becomes aligned with the night, and “free-running” individuals are able to sleep well during a conventional or socially acceptable time. However, the alignment between the internal circadian rhythm and the 24-hour day-night cycle is only temporary.

In addition to cyclical nighttime sleep and daytime sleepiness problems, this condition can cause deleterious daily shifts in body temperature and hormone secretion, may cause metabolic disruption and is sometimes associated with depressive symptoms and mood disorders.

It is estimated that 50-75% of totally blind people in the United States (approximately 65,000 to 95,000) have Non-24. This condition can also affect sighted people. However, cases are rarely reported in this population, and the true rate of Non-24 in the general population is not known.

The ultimate treatment goal for individuals with Non-24 is to entrain or synchronize their circadian rhythms into an appropriate phase relationship with the 24-hour day so that they will have increased sleepiness during the night and increased wakefulness during the daytime. Tasimelteon

Tasimelteon is a circadian regulator which binds specifically to two high affinity melatonin receptors, Mella (MT1R) and Mellb (MT2R). These receptors are found in high density in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the brain (SCN), which is responsible for synchronizing our sleep/wake cycle. Tasimelteon has been shown to improve sleep parameters in prior clinical studies, which simulated a desynchronization of the circadian clock. Tasimelteon has so far been studied in hundreds of individuals and has shown a good tolerability profile.

Tasimelteon has the chemical name: tr ns-N-[[2-(2,3-dihydrobenzofuran- 4-yl)cycloprop-lyl] methyl] propanamide, has the structure of Formula I:

Figure imgf000008_0001

Formula I

and is disclosed in US 5856529 and in US 20090105333, both of which are incorporated herein by reference as though fully set forth.

Tasimelteon is a white to off-white powder with a melting point of about 78°C (DSC) and is very soluble or freely soluble in 95% ethanol, methanol, acetonitrile, ethyl acetate, isopropanol, polyethylene glycols (PEG-300 and PEG- 400), and only slightly soluble in water. The native pH of a saturated solution of tasimelteon in water is 8.5 and its aqueous solubility is practically unaffected by pH. Tasimelteon has 2-4 times greater affinity for MT2R relative to MTIR. It’s affinity (¾) for MTIR is 0.3 to 0.4 and for MT2R, 0.1 to 0.2. Tasimelteon is useful in the practice of this invention because it is a melatonin agonist that has been demonstrated, among other activities, to entrain patients suffering from Non-24.

Metabolites of tasimelteon include, for example, those described in “Preclinical Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism of BMS-214778, a Novel

Melatonin Receptor Agonist” by Vachharajani et al., J. Pharmaceutical Sci., 92(4):760-772, which is hereby incorporated herein by reference. The active metabolites of tasimelteon can also be used in the method of this invention, as can pharmaceutically acceptable salts of tasimelteon or of its active metabolites. For example, in addition to metabolites of Formula II and III, above, metabolites of tasimelteon also include the monohydroxylated analogs M13 of Formula IV, M12 of Formula V, and M14 of Formula VI.

Formula IV

Figure imgf000010_0001

Formula V

MO

Figure imgf000010_0002

Formula VI

Thus, it is apparent that this invention contemplates entrainment of patients suffering free running circadian rhythm to a 24 hour circadian rhythm by administration of a circadian rhythm regulator (i.e., circadian rhythm modifier) capable of phase advancing and/or entraining circadian rhythms, such as a melatonin agonist like tasimelteon or an active metabolite oftasimelteon or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. Other MT1R and MT2R agonists, i.e., melatonin agonists, can have similar effects on the master body clock. So, for example, this invention further contemplates the use of melatonin agonists such as but not limited to melatonin, N-[l-(2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-4- yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl]-N-ethylurea and structurally related compounds as disclosed in US 6,211,225, LY-156735 ((R)-N-(2-(6-chloro-5-methoxy-lH-indol- 3yl) propyl) acetamide) (disclosed in U.S. Patent No. 4,997,845), agomelatine (N- [2-(7-methoxy-l-naphthyl)ethyl]acetamide) (disclosed in U.S. Patent No.

5,225,442), ramelteon ((S)-N-[2-(l,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2H-indeno- [5,4-b] furan-8- yl)ethyl]propionamide), 2-phenylmelatonin, 8-M-PDOT, 2-iodomelatonin, and 6- chloromelatonin.

Additional melatonin agonists include, without limitation, those listed in U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 20050164987, which is incorporated herein by reference, specifically: TAK-375 (see Kato, K. et al. Int. J.

Neuropsychopharmacol. 2000, 3 (Suppl. 1): Abst P.03.130; see also abstracts P.03.125 and P.03.127), CGP 52608 (l-(3-allyl-4-oxothiazolidine-2-ylidene)-4- met- hylthiosemicarbazone) (See Missbach et al., J. Biol. Chem. 1996, 271, 13515-22), GR196429 (N-[2-[2,3,7,8-tetrahydro-lH-fur-o(2,3-g)indol-l- yl] ethyl] acetamide) (see Beresford et al., J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 1998, 285, 1239-1245), S20242 (N-[2-(7-methoxy napth-l-yl) ethyl] propionamide) (see Depres-Brummer et al., Eur. J. Pharmacol. 1998, 347, 57-66), S-23478 (see Neuropharmacology July 2000), S24268 (see Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. June 2003), S25150 (see Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. June 2003), GW-290569, luzindole (2-benzyl-N-acetyltryptamine) (see U.S. Patent No. 5,093,352), GR135531 (5-methoxycarbonylamino-N-acetyltrypt- amine) (see U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 20010047016), Melatonin Research Compound A, Melatonin Agonist A (see IMSWorld R&D Focus August 2002), Melatonin

Analogue B (see Pharmaprojects August 1998), Melatonin Agonist C (see Chem. Pharm. Bull. (Tokyo) January 2002), Melatonin Agonist D (see J. Pineal Research November 2000), Melatonin Agonist E (see Chem. Pharm. Bull. (Tokyo) Febrary 2002), Melatonin Agonist F (see Reprod. Nutr. Dev. May 1999), Melatonin Agonist G (see J. Med. Chem. October 1993), Melatonin Agonist H (see Famaco March 2000), Melatonin Agonist I (see J. Med. Chem. March 2000), Melatonin Analog J (see Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. March 2003), Melatonin Analog K (see MedAd News September 2001), Melatonin Analog L, AH-001 (2-acetamido-8- methoxytetralin) (see U.S. Patent No. 5,151,446), GG-012 (4-methoxy-2- (methylene propylamide)indan) (see Drijfhout et al., Eur. J. Pharmacol. 1999, 382, 157-66), Enol-3-IPA, ML-23 (N-2,4-dinitrophenyl-5-methoxy-tryptamine ) (see U.S. Patent No. 4,880,826), SL-18.1616, IP-100-9 (US 5580878), Sleep Inducing Peptide A, AH-017 (see U.S. Patent No. 5,151,446), AH-002 (8-methoxy- 2-propionamido-tetralin) (see U.S. Patent No. 5,151,446), and IP-101.

Metabolites, prodrugs, stereoisomers, polymorphs, hydrates, solvates, and salts of the above compounds that are directly or indirectly active can, of course, also be used in the practice of this invention.

Melatonin agonists with a MT1R and MT2R binding profile similar to that of tasimelteon, which has 2 to 4 time greater specificity for MT2R, are preferred.

Tasimelteon can be synthesized by procedures known in the art. The preparation of a 4-vinyl-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran cyclopropyl intermediate can be carried out as described in US7754902, which is incorporated herein by reference as though fully set forth.

Pro-drugs, e.g., esters, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts can be prepared by exercise of routine skill in the art.

In patients suffering a Non-24, the melatonin and Cortisol circadian rhythms and the natural day/night cycle become desynchronized. For example, in patients suffering from a free-running circadian rhythm, melatonin and Cortisol acrophases occur more than 24 hours, e.g., >24.1 hours, prior to each previous day’s melatonin and Cortisol acrophase, respectively, resulting in desynchronization for days, weeks, or even months, depending upon the length of a patient’s circadian rhythm, before the melatonin, Cortisol, and day /night cycles are again temporarily synchronized.

Chronic misalignment of Cortisol has been associated with metabolic, cardiac, cognitive, neurologic, neoplastic, and hormonal disorders. Such disorders include, e.g., obesity, depression, neurological impairments.

Structure-activity relationship
SAR
Figure : Melatonin receptor agonists. The applied colors indicate the mutual properties with the general melatonin receptor agonists pharmacophore.

INTRODUCTION

Tasimelteon has the chemical name: trans-N-[[2-(2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)cycloprop-1yl]methyl]propanamide, has the structure of Formula I:

Figure US20130197076A1-20130801-C00001

and is disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,856,529 and in US 20090105333, both of which are incorporated herein by reference as though fully set forth.

Tasimelteon is a white to off-white powder with a melting point of about 78° C. (DSC) and is very soluble or freely soluble in 95% ethanol, methanol, acetonitrile, ethyl acetate, isopropanol, polyethylene glycols (PEG-300 and PEG-400), and only slightly soluble in water. The native pH of a saturated solution of tasimelteon in water is 8.5 and its aqueous solubility is practically unaffected by pH. Tasimelteon has 2-4 times greater affinity for MT2R relative to MT1R. It’s affinity (Ki) for MT1R is 0.3 to 0.4 and for MT2R, 0.1 to 0.2. Tasimelteon is useful in the practice of this invention because it is a melatonin agonist that has been demonstrated, among other activities, to entrain patients suffering from Non-24.

SYNTHESIS

(1R-trans)-N-[[2 – (2,3-dihydro-4 benzofuranyl) cyclopropyl] methyl] propanamide PATENT: BRISTOL-MYERS SQUIBB PRIORITY DATE: 1996 HYPNOTIC

Synthesis Tasimelteon

PREPARATION OF XV

XXIV D-camphorsulfonic acid IS REACTED WITH THIONYL CHLORIDE TO GIVE

…………XXV (1S, 4R) -7,7-dimethyl-2-oxo-bicyclo [2.2.1] heptane-1-methanesulfonyl chloride

TREATED WITH

XXVI ammonium hydroxide

TO GIVE

XXVII (1S, 4R) -7,7-dimethyl-2-oxo-bicyclo [2.2.1] heptane-1-methanesulfonamide

TREATED WITH AMBERLYST15

….XXVIII (3aS, 6R) -4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-8 ,8-dimethyl-3H-3a ,6-methano-2 ,1-benzisothiazole-2 ,2-dioxide

TREATED WITH LAH, ie double bond is reduced to get

…..XV (3aS, 6R, 7aR)-hexahydro-8 ,8-dimethyl-3H-3a ,6-methano-2 ,1-benzisothiazole-2 ,2-dioxide

Intermediate

I 3-hydroxybenzoic acid methyl ester

II 3-bromo-1-propene

III 3 – (2-propenyloxy) benzoic acid methyl ester

IV 3-hydroxy-2-(2-propenyl) benzoic acid methyl ester

V 2,3-dihydro-4-hydroxy-2-benzofurancarboxylic acid methyl ester

VI benzofuran-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester

VII benzofuran-4-carboxylic acid

VIII 2,3-dihydro-4-benzofurancarboxylic acid

IX 2,3-dihydro-4-benzofuranmethanol

X 2,3-dihydro-4-benzofurancarboxaldehyde

XI Propanedioic acid

XII (E) -3 – (2,3-dihydro-4-benzofuranyl) propenoic acid

XIII thionyl chloride

XIV (E) -3 – (2,3-dihydro-4-benzofuranyl) propenoyl chloride

XV (3aS, 6R, 7aR)-hexahydro-8 ,8-dimethyl-3H-3a ,6-methano-2 ,1-benzisothiazole-2 ,2-dioxide

XVI (3aS,6R,7aR)-1-[(E)-3-(2,3-dihydro-4-benzofuranyl)-1-oxo-2-propenyl]hexahydro-8,8-dimethyl-3H-3a,6-methano-2,1-benzisothiazole-2,2-dioxide

XVII (3aS,6R,7aR)-1-[[(1R,2R)-2-(2,3-dihydro-4-benzofuranyl)cyclopropyl]carbonyl]hexahydro-8,8-dimethyl-3H-3a,6-methano-2,1-benzisothiazole-2,2-dioxide

XVIII [R-(R *, R *)] -2 – (2,3-dihydro-4-benzofuranyl) cyclopropanemethanol

XIX [R-(R *, R *)] -2 – (2,3-dihydro-4-benzofuranyl) cyclopropanecarboxaldehyde

XX hydroxylamine hydrochloride

XXI [R-(R *, R *)] -2 – (2,3-dihydro-4-benzofuranyl) cyclopropanecarbaldehyde oxime

XXII [R-(R *, R *)] -2 – (2,3-dihydro-4-benzofuranyl) cyclopropanemethanamine

XXIII propanoyl chloride

XXIV D-camphorsulfonic acid

XXV (1S, 4R) -7,7-dimethyl-2-oxo-bicyclo [2.2.1] heptane-1-methanesulfonyl chloride

XXVI ammonium hydroxide

XXVII (1S, 4R) -7,7-dimethyl-2-oxo-bicyclo [2.2.1] heptane-1-methanesulfonamide

XXVIII (3aS, 6R) -4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-8 ,8-dimethyl-3H-3a ,6-methano-2 ,1-benzisothiazole-2 ,2-dioxide

Bibliography

– Patents: Benzofuran and dihydrobenzofuran melatonergic agents: US5856529 (1999)

Priority: US19960032689P, 10 Dec. 1996 (Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, U.S.)

– Preparation III (quinazolines): US2004044015 (2004) Priority: EP20000402845, 13 Oct. 2000

– Preparation of VII (aminoalkylindols): Structure-Activity Relationships of Novel Cannabinoid Mimetics Eissenstat et al, J.. Med. Chem. 1995, 38, 3094-3105

– Preparation XXVIII: Towson et al. Organic Syntheses, Coll. Vol. 8, p.104 (1993) Vol. 69, p.158 (1990)

– Preparation XV: Weismiller et al. Organic Syntheses, Coll. Vol. 8, p.110 (1993) Vol. 69, p.154 (1990).

– G. Birznieks et al. Melatonin agonist VEC-162 Improves sleep onset and maintenance in a model of transient insomnia. Sleep 2007, 30, 0773 Abstract.

-. Rajaratnam SM et al, The melatonin agonist VEC-162 Phase time immediately advances the human circadian system, Sleep 2006, 29, 0159 Abstract.

-. AK Singh et al, Evolution of a manufacturing route for a highly potent drug candidate, 229th ACS Natl Meet, March 13-17, 2005, San Diego, Abstract MEDI 576.

– Vachharajani NN et al, Preclinical pharmacokinetics and metabolism of BMS-214778, a novel melatonin receptor agonist, J Pharm Sci. 2003 Apr; 92 (4) :760-72.

. – JW Scott et al, Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of a melotonin antagonist; synthesis and process optimization. 223rd ACS Natl Meet, April 7-11, Orlando, 2002, Abstract ORGN 186.

SYNTHESIS CONSTRUCTION AS IN PATENT

WO1998025606A1

GENERAL SCHEMES

Reaction Scheme 1

Figure imgf000020_0001

The syntheses of the 4-aryl-propenoic acid derivatives, 2 and 3, are shown in Reaction Scheme 1. The starting aldehydes, 1 , can be prepared by methods well known to those skilled in the art. Condensation of malonic acid with the aldehydes, 1, in solvents such as pyridine with catalysts such as piperidine or pyrrolidine, gives the 4-aryl- propenoic acid, 2. Subsequent conversion of the acid to the acid chloride using reagents such as thionyl chloride, phosphoryl chloride, or the like, followed by reaction with N,0-dimethyl hydroxylamine gives the amide intermediate 3 in good yields. Alternatively, aldehyde 1 can be converted directly to amide 3 using reagents such as diethyl (N-methoxy- N-methyl-carbamoylmethyl)phosphonate with a strong base such as sodium hydride.

Reaction Scheme 2

Figure imgf000020_0002

The conversion of the amide intermediate 3 to the racemic, trans- cyclopropane carboxaldehyde intermediate, 4, is shown in Reaction Scheme 2. Intermediate 3 was allowed to react with cyclopropanating reagents such as trimethylsulfoxonium iodide and sodium hydride in solvents such as DMF, THF, or the like. Subsequent reduction using reagents such as LAH in solvents such as THF, ethyl ether, or the like, gives the racemic, trans-cyclopropane carboxaldehyde intermediates, 4.

Reaction Scheme 3

Figure imgf000021_0001

Racemic cyclopropane intermediate 5 (R = halogen) can be prepared from intermediate 2 as shown in Reaction Scheme 3. Intermediate 2 was converted to the corresponding allylic alcohol by treatment with reducing agents such as sodium borohydride plus iodine in solvents such as THF. Subsequent acylation using reagents such as acetic anhydride in pyridine or acetyl chloride gave the allylic acetate which was allowed to react with cyclopropanating reagents such as sodium chloro-difluoroacetate in diglyme to provide the racemic, trans- cyclopropane acetate intermediates, 5. Reaction Scheme 4

Figure imgf000022_0001

The conversion of the acid 2 to the chiral cyclopropane carboxaldehyde intermediate, (-)-(trans)-4, is shown in Reaction Scheme 4. Intermediate 2 is condensed with (-)-2,10-camphorsultam under standard conditions, and then cyclopropanated in the presence of catalysts such as palladium acetate using diazomethane generated from reagents such as 1-methyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine. Subsequent reduction using reagents such as LAH in solvents such as THF, followed by oxidation of the alcohol intermediates using reagents such as DMSO/oxalyl chloride, or PCC, gives the cyclopropane carboxaldehyde intermediate, (-)-(trans)-4, in good yields. The enantiomer, (+)-(trans)-4, can also be obtained employing a similar procedure using (+)-2,10- camphorsultam in place of (-)-2,10-camphorsultam.

When it is desired to prepare compounds of Formula I wherein m = 2, the alcohol intermediate may be activated in the conventional manner such as with mesyl chloride and treated with sodium cyanide followed by reduction of the nitrile group with a reducing agent such as LAH to produce the amine intermediate 6.

Reaction Scheme 5

Figure imgf000023_0001
Figure imgf000023_0002

Reaction Scheme 5 shows the conversion of intermediates 4 and 5 to the amine intermediate, 7, and the subsequent conversion of 6. or 7 to compounds of Formula I. The carboxaldehyde intermediate, 4, is condensed with hydroxylamine and then reduced with reagents such as LAH to give the amine intermediate, 7. The acetate intermediate 5 is hydrolyzed with potassium hydroxide to the alcohol, converted to the mesylate with methane sulfonyl chloride and triethyl amine in CH2CI2and then converted to the azide by treatment with sodium azide in solvents such as DMF. Subsequent reduction of the azide group with a reducing agent such as LAH produced the amine intermediate 7. Further reaction of 6 or 7 with acylating reagents gives compounds of Formula I. Suitable acylating agents include carboxylic acid halides, anhydrides, acyl imidazoles, alkyl isocyanates, alkyl isothiocyanates, and carboxylic acids in the presence of condensing agents, such as carbonyl imidazole, carbodiimides, and the like. Reaction Scheme 6

Figure imgf000024_0001

Reaction Scheme 6 shows the alkylation of secondary amides of Formula I (R2 = H) to give tertiary amides of Formula I (R2 = alkyl). The secondary amide is reacted with a base such as sodium hydride, potassium tert-butoxide, or the like, and then reacted with an alkylating reagent such as alkyl halides, alkyl sulfonate esters, or the like to produce tertiary amides of Formula I.

Reaction Scheme 7

Figure imgf000024_0002

Reaction Scheme 7 shows the halogenation of compounds of Formula I. The carboxamides, i (Q1 = Q2 = H), are reacted with excess amounts of halogenating agents such as iodine, N-bromosuccinimide, or the like to give the dihalo-compounds of Formula I (Q1 = Q2 = halogen). Alternatively, a stoichiometric amount of these halogenating agents can be used to give the monohalo-compounds of Formula I (Q1 = H, Q2 = halogen; or Q1 = halogen, Q2 = H). In both cases, additives such as lead IV tetraacetate can be used to facilitate the reaction. Biological Activity of the Compounds

The compounds of the invention are melatonergic agents. They have been found to bind human melatonergic receptors expressed in a stable cell line with good affinity. Further, the compounds are agonists as determined by their ability, like melatonin, to block the forskolin- stimulated accumulation of cAMP in certain cells. Due to these properties, the compounds and compositions of the invention should be useful as sedatives, chronobiotic agents, anxiolytics, antipsychotics, analgesics, and the like. Specifically, these agents should find use in the treatment of stress, sleep disorders, seasonal depression, appetite regulation, shifts in circadian cycles, melancholia, benign prostatic hyperplasia and related conditions

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES

SEE ORIGINAL PATENT FOR CORECTIONS

Preparation 1

Benzofuran-4-carboxaldehyde

Step 1 : N-Methoxy-N-methyl-benzofuran-4-carboxamide

A mixture of benzofuran-4-carboxylic acid [Eissenstat, et al.. J. Medicinal Chemistry, 38 (16) 3094-3105 (1995)] (2.8 g, 17.4 mmol) and thionyl chloride (25 mL) was heated to reflux for 2 h and then concentrated in vacuo. The solid residue was dissolved in ethyl acetate (50 mL) and a solution of N,O-dimethylhydroxylamine hydrochloride (2.8 g) in saturated NaHC03(60 mL) was added with stirring. After stirring for 1.5 h, the ethyl acetate layer was separated. The aqueous layer was extracted with ethyl acetate. The ethyl acetate extracts were combined, washed with saturated NaHCO3 and concentrated in vacuo to give an oil (3.2 g, 95.4%).

Step 2: Benzofuran-4-carboxaldehyde

A solution of N-methoxy-N-methyl-benzofuran-4-carboxamide (3.2 g, 16.6 mmol) in THF (100 mL) was cooled to -45°C and then LAH (0.7 g, 18.7 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred for 15 min, allowed to warm to -5°C, and then recooled to -45°C. Saturated KHS04 (25 mL) was added with vigorous stirring, and the mixture was allowed to warm to room temperature. The precipitate was filtered and washed with acetone. The filtrate was concentrated in vacuo to give an oil (2.3 g, 94%). Preparation 2

2,3-Dihydrobenzofuran-4-carboxaldehyde

Step 1 : 2,3-Dihydrobenzofuran-4-carboxylic acid

Benzofuran-4-carboxylic acid (10.0 g, 61 .7 mmol) was hydrogenated (60 psi) in acetic acid (100 mL) over 10% Pd/C (2 g) for 12 hr. The mixture was filtered and the filtrate was diluted with water (500 mL) to give 2,3- dihydrobenzofuran-4-carboxylic acid as a white powder (8.4 g, 83%). A sample was recrystallized from isopropanol to give fine white needles (mp: 185.5-187.5°C).

Step 2: (2,3-Dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)methanol

A solution of 2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-4-carboxylic acid (10 g, 61 mmol) in THF (100 mL) was stirred as LAH (4.64 g, 122 mmol) was slowly added. The mixture was heated to reflux for 30 min. The mixture was cooled and quenched cautiously with ethyl acetate and then with 1 N HCI (150 mL). The mixture was then made acidic with 12 N HCI until all the inorganic precipitate dissolved. The organic layer was separated, and the inorganic layer was extracted twice with ethyl acetate. The organic layers were combined, washed twice with brine, and then concentrated in vacuo. This oil was Kϋgelrohr distilled to a clear oil that crystallized upon cooling (8.53 g, 87.6%).

Step 3: 2.3-Dihydrobenzofuran-4-carboxaldehyde

DMSO (8.10 mL, 1 14 mmol) was added at -78°C to a stirred solution of oxalyl chloride in CH2CI2 (40 mL of a 2M solution). A solution of (2,3- dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)methanol (8.53 g, 56.9 mmol) in CH2CI2 (35 mL) was added dropwise, and the solution stirred at -78°C for 30 min. Triethyl amine (33 mL, 228 mmol) was added cautiously to quench the reaction. The resulting suspension was stirred at room temperature for 30 min and diluted with CH2CI2 (100 mL). The organic layer was washed three times with water, and twice with brine, and then concentrated in vacuo to an oil (8.42 g, 100%) that was used without purification.

Preparation 16

(±)-(trans)-2-(2,3-Dihyd robenzofuran-4-yl)cyclopropane- carboxaldehyde

Step 1 : (±Htrans)-N-Methoxy-N-methyl-2-(2.3-dihydrobenzofuran-4- yhcyclopropanecarboxamide

Trimethylsulfoxonium iodide (9.9 g, 45 mmol) was added in small portions to a suspension of sodium hydride (1 .8 g, 45 mmol) in DMF (120 mL). After the foaming had subsided (10 min), a solution of (trans)- N-methoxy-N-methyl-3-(2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)propenamide (3.5 g, 15 mmol) in DMF (60 mL) was added dropwise, with the temperature maintained between 35-40°C. The mixture was stirred for 3 h at room temperature. Saturated NH4CI (50 mL) was added dropwise and the mixture was extracted three times with ethyl acetate. The organic extracts were combined, washed with H2O and brine, dried over K2CO3, and concentrated in vacuo to give a white wax (3.7 g, 100%).

Step 2: (±)-(trans)- 2-(2.3-Dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)cyclopropane- carboxaldehyde

A solution of (±)-(trans)-N-methoxy-N-methyl-2-(2,3-dihydrobenzofuran- 4-yl)cyclopropanecarboxamide (3.7 g, 15 mmol) in THF (10 mL) was added dropwise to a rapidly stirred suspension of LAH (683 mg, 18 mmol) in THF (50 mL) at -45°C, maintaining the temperature below -40°C throughout. The cooling bath was removed, the reaction was allowed to warm to 5°C, and then the reaction was immediately recooled to -45°C. Potassium hydrogen sulfate (3.4 g, 25.5 mmol) in H20 (50 mL) was cautiously added dropwise, the temperature maintained below – 30°C throughout. The cooling bath was removed and the suspension was stirred at room temperature for 30 min. The mixture was filtered through Celite and the filter cake was washed with ether. The combined filtrates were then washed with cold 1 N HCI, 1 N NaOH, and brine. The filtrates were dried over MgSO4, and concentrated in vacuo to give a clear oil (2.6 g, 99%).

Preparation 18

(-)-(trans)-2-(2.3-Dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)cyclopropane-carboxaldehyde

Step 1 : (-Htrans)-N-[3-(2.3-Dihvdrobenzofuran-4-yl)-propenoyll-2.10- camphorsultam

To a solution of (-)-2,10-camphorsultam (8.15 g, 37.9 mmol) in 50 mL toluene at 0°C was added sodium hydride (1.67 g, 41.7 mmol). After stirring for 0.33 h at 0°C and 0.5 h at 20°C and recooling to 0°C, a solution of 3-(2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)-2-propenoyl chloride
(37.9 mmol), prepared in situ from the corresponding acid and thionyl chloride (75 mL), in toluene (50 mL), was added dropwise. After stirring for 18 h at 20°C, the mixture was diluted with ethyl acetate and washed with water, 1 N HCI, and 1 N NaOH. The organic solution was dried and concentrated in vacuo to give 15.8 g of crude product. Recrystallization form ethanol-methanol (600 mL, 1 :1) gave the product (13.5 g, 92%, mp 199.5-200°C).

Step 2: (-)-N-[[(trans)-2-(2,3-Dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)-cyclopropylj- carbonylj-2, 10-camphorsultam

1 -Methyl-3-nitro-1 -nitrosoguanidine (23.88g 163 mmol) was added in portions to a mixture of 10 N sodium hydroxide (60 mL) and ether (200 mL) at 0°C. The mixture was shaken vigorously for 0.25 h and the ether layer carefully decanted into a solution of (-)-N-[3-(2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)-2-propenoyl]-2,10-camphorsultam (9.67 g, 25 mmol) and palladium acetate (35 mg) in methylene chloride (200 mL). After stirring for 18 h, acetic acid (5 mL) was added to the reaction and the mixture stirred for 0.5 h. The mixture was washed with 1 N HCI, 1 N NaOH and brine. The solution was dried, concentrated in vacuo and the residue crystallized twice from ethanol to give the product (6.67 g, 66.5%, mp 157-159°C).

Step 3: (-)-(trans)-2-(2,3-Dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)cyclopropane- methanol

A solution of (-)-N-[(trans)-2-(2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)cyclo-propanecarbonylj-2,10-camphorsultam (4.3 g, 10.7 mmol) in THF (50 mL) was added dropwise to a mixture of LAH (0.81 g, 21.4 mmol) in THF (50 mL) at -45°C. The mixture was stirred for 2 hr while it warmed to 10°C. The mixture was recooled to -40°C and hydrolyzed by the addition of saturated KHS0 (20 mL). The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 30 minutes and filtered. The precipitate was washed twice with acetone. The combined filtrate and acetone washes were concentrated in vacuo. The gummy residue was dissolved in ether, washed with 1 N NaOH and 1 N HCI, and then dried in vacuo to give the product (2.0 g, 98.4%).

Step 4: (-)-(trans)-2-(2.3-Dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)cyclopropane- carboxaldehyde DMSO (1.6 g, 21 mmol) was added to oxalyl chloride in CH2CI2(7.4 mL of 2 M solution, 14.8 mmole) at -78°C. The (-)-(trans)-2-(2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)-cyclopropylmethanol (2.0 g, 10.5 mmol) in CH2CI2(15 mL) was added. The mixture was stirred for 20 min and then triethylamine (4.24 g, 42 mmol) was added. The mixture was warmed to room temperature and stirred for 30 min. The mixture was diluted with CH2CI2 and washed with water, 1 N HCI, and then 1 N NaOH. The organic layer was dried and concentrated iι> vacuo to give the aldehyde product (1.98 g, 100%).

Preparation 24

(-)-(trans)-2-(2.3-Dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)cyclopropane-methanamine A mixture of (-)-(trans)-2-(2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)cyclopropane-carboxaldehyde (1.98 g, 10.5 mmol), hydroxylamine hydrochloride (2.29 g, 33 mmol), and 30% NaOH (3.5 mL, 35 mmol), in 5:1
ethanol/water (50 mL) was heated on a steam bath for 2 h. The solution was concentrated in vacuo. and the residue mixed with water. The mixture was extracted with CH2CI2. The organic extracts were dried and concentrated in vacuo to give a solid which NMR analysis showed to be a mixture of the cis and trans oximes. This material was dissolved in THF (20 mL) and added to solution of alane in THF [prepared from LAH (1.14 g, 30 mmol) and H2S04 (1.47 g, 15 mmol) at 0°Cj. The reaction was stirred for 18 h, and quenched successively with water (1.15 mL), 15% NaOH (1.15 mL), and then water (3.45 mL). The mixture was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated in vacuo. The residue was mixed with ether and washed with water and then 1 N HCI. The acid washes were made basic and extracted with CH2CI . The extracts were dried and concentrated in vacuo to give the amine product (1.4 g, 70.5%). The amine was converted to the fumarate salt in ethanol (mp: 197-198°C).
Anal. Calc’d for C12H15NO • C4H404: C, 62.94; H, 6.27; N, 4.59.
Found: C, 62.87; H, 6.31 ; N, 4.52.

FINAL PRODUCT TASIMELTEON

Example 2

(-)-(trans)-N-[[2-(2,3-Dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)cycloprop-1-yl]methyl]propanamide

This compound was prepared similar to the above procedure using propionyl chloride and (-)-(trans)-2-(2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)- cyclopropanemethanamine to give an oil that solidified upon standing to an off-white solid (61 %, mp: 71-72°C). IR (NaCI Film): 3298, 1645, 1548, 1459, 1235 cm“1.

Mo5 : -17.3°

Anal. Calc’d for C15H19N02: C, 73.44; H, 7.87; N, 5.71 . Found: C, 73.28; H, 7.68; N, 5.58

SYNTHESIS

Synthesis Path

SYN

Tasimelteon (Hetlioz)Tasimelteon, which is marketed by Vanda Pharmaceuticals as Hetlioz and developed in partnership with Bristol-Myers Squibb,is a drug that was approved by the US FDA in January 2014 for the treatment of non-24-hour sleep–wake disorder (also called Non-24, N24 and N24HSWD).234 Tasimelteon is a melatonin MT1
and MT2 receptor agonist; because it exhibits a greater affinity to the MT2 receptor than MT1, is also known as Dual Melatonin
Receptor Agonist.234 Two randomized controlled trials (phases II
and III) demonstrated that tasimelteon improved sleep latency
and maintenance of sleep with a shift in circadian rhythms, and
therefore has the potential to treat patients with transient insomnia
associated with circadian rhythm sleep disorders.235 Preclinical
studies showed that the drug has similar phase-shifting properties
to melatonin, but with less vasoconstrictive effects.236 The most
likely scale preparation of the drug, much of which has been published
in the chemical literature, is described below in Scheme 44.
Activation of commercial bis-ethanol 250 with 2.5 equivalents
of the Vilsmeier salt 251 followed by treatment with base resulted
an intramolecular cyclization reaction with the proximal phenol
and concomitant elimination of the remaining imidate to deliver
the vinylated dihydrobenzofuran 252 in 76% yield.237 Interestingly,
this reaction could be performed on multi-kilogram scale, required
no chromatographic purification, and generated environmentallyfriendly
DMF and HCl as byproducts.237 Sharpless asymmetric
dihydroxylation of olefin 252 delivered diol 253 in 86% yield and
impressive enantioselectivity (>99% ee). This diol was then activated
with trimethylsilyl chloride and then treated with base to generate epoxide 254.238 Next, a modified Horner–Wadsworth–
Emmons reaction involving triethylphosphonoacetate (TEPA, 255)
was employed to convert epoxide 254 to cyclopropane 256.239
The reaction presumably proceeds through removal of the acidic
TEPA proton followed by nucleophilic attack at the terminal epoxide
carbon. The resulting alkoxide undergoes an intramolecular
phosphoryl transfer reaction resulting in an enolate, which then attacked the newly formed phosphonate ester in an SN2 fashion
resulting in the trans-cyclopropane ester, which was ultimately
saponified and re-acidified to furnish cyclopropane acid 256.239
Conversion of this acid to the corresponding primary amide preceded
carbonyl reduction with sodium borohydride. The resulting
amine was acylated with propionyl chloride to furnish tasimelteon
(XXXI) as the final product in 86% yield across the four-step
sequence.

PATENTS

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extra info

Org. Synth.199069, 154
(−)-D-2,10-CAMPHORSULTAM
[3H-3a,6-Methano-2,1-benzisothiazole, 4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-8,8-dimethyl-2,2-dioxide, (3aS)-]
Submitted by Michael C. Weismiller, James C. Towson, and Franklin A. Davis1.
Checked by David I. Magee and Robert K. Boeckman, Jr..
1. Procedure
(−)-2,10-Camphorsultam. A dry, 2-L, three-necked, round-bottomed flask is equipped with a 1.5-in egg-shaped Teflon stirring bar, a 250-mL addition funnel, and a 300-mL Soxhlet extraction apparatus equipped with a mineral oil bubbler connected to an inert-gas source. The flask is charged with 600 mL of dry tetrahydrofuran (THF) (Note 1) and6.2 g (0.16 mol) of lithium aluminum hydride (Note 2). Into the 50-mL Soxhlet extraction thimble is placed 35.0 g (0.16 mol) of (−)-(camphorsulfonyl)imine (Note 3) and the reaction mixture is stirred and heated at reflux. After all of the(camphorsulfonyl)imine has been siphoned into the reaction flask (3–4 hr), the mixture is allowed to cool to room temperature. The unreacted lithium aluminum hydride is cautiously hydrolyzed by dropwise addition of 200 mL of 1 Nhydrochloric acid via the addition funnel (Note 4). After the hydrolysis is complete the contents of the flask are transferred to a 1-L separatory funnel, the lower, silver-colored aqueous layer is separated, and the upper layer placed in a 1-L Erlenmeyer flask. The aqueous phase is returned to the separatory funnel and washed with methylene chloride (3 × 100 mL). After the reaction flask is rinsed with methylene chloride (50 mL), the organic washings are combined with the THF phase and dried over anhydrous magnesium sulfate for 10–15 min. Filtration through a 300-mL sintered-glass funnel of coarse porosity into a 1-L round-bottomed flask followed by removal of the solvent on arotary evaporator gives 33.5 g (95%) of the crude (−)-2,10-camphorsultam. The crude sultam is placed in a 250-mL Erlenmeyer flask and crystallized from approximately 60 mL of absolute ethanol. The product is collected on a 150-mL sintered-glass funnel of coarse porosity and dried in a vacuum desiccator to give 31.1 g (88%) of the pure sultam. A second crop of crystals can be gained by evaporating approximately half the filtrate; the residue is crystallized as above to give 1.4 g (4%). The combined yield of white crystalline solid, mp 183–184°C, [α]D −30.7° (CHCl3, c 2.3) is92% (Note 5) and (Note 6).
2. Notes
1. Tetrahydrofuran (Aldrich Chemical Company, Inc.) was distilled from sodium benzophenone.
2. Lithium aluminum hydride was purchased from Aldrich Chemical Company, Inc.
3. (−)-(Camphorsulfonyl)imine, [(7S)-(−)-10,10-dimethyl-5-thia-4-azatricyclo[5.2.1.03,7]dec-3-ene 5,5-dioxide] was prepared by the procedure of Towson, Weismiller, Lal, Sheppard, and Davis, Org. Synth., Coll. Vol. VIII1993, 104.
4. The addition must be very slow at first (1 drop/5 sec) until the vigorous reaction has subsided.
5. The NMR spectrum of (−)-2,10-camphorsultam is as follows: 1H NMR (CDCl3) δ: 0.94 (s, 3 H, CH3), 1.14 (s, 3 H, CH3), 1.33 (m, 1 H), 1.47 (m,, 1 H), 1.80–2.05 (5 H), 3.09 (d, 1 H, J = 14), 3.14 (d, 1 H, J = 14), 3.43 (m, 1 H), 4.05 (br s, 1 H, NH); 13C NMR (CDCl3) δ: 20.17 (q, CH3), 26.51 (t), 31.55 (t), 35.72 (t), 44.44 (d), 47.15 (s), 50.08 (t), 54.46 (s), 62.48 (d).
6. Checkers obtained material having the same mp (183–184°C) and [α]D − 31.8° (CHCl3c 2.3).
3. Discussion
(−)-2,10-Camphorsultam was first prepared by the catalytic hydrogenation of (−)-(camphorsulfonyl)imine overRaney nickel.2 Lithium aluminum hydride reduction was used by Oppolzer and co-workers in their synthesis of the sultam.3,4 However, because of the low solubility of the sultam in tetrahydrofuran, a large amount of solvent was required.4 In the procedure described here the amount of solvent is significantly reduced by using a Soxhlet extractor to convey the imine slowly into the reducing medium.5
Oppolzer’s chiral auxiliary,6 (−)-2,10-camphorsultam, is useful in the asymmetric Diels–Alder reaction,3,4 and for the preparation of enantiomerically pure β-substituted carboxylic acids7 and diols,8 in the stereoselective synthesis of Δ2-isoxazolines,9 and in the preparation of N-fluoro-(−)-2,10-camphorsultam, an enantioselective fluorinating reagent.10

References and Notes
  1. Department of Chemistry, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104.
  2. Shriner, R. L.; Shotton, J. A.; Sutherland, H. J. Am. Chem. Soc.193860, 2794.
  3. Oppolzer, W.; Chapuis, C.; Bernardinelli, G. Helv. Chim. Acta198467, 1397.
  4. Vandewalle, M.; Van der Eycken, J.; Oppolzer, W.; Vullioud, C. Tetrahedron198642, 4035.
  5. Davis, F. A.; Towson, J. C.; Weismiller, M. C.; Lal, G.; Carroll,, P. J. J. Am. Chem. Soc.1988110, 8477.
  6. Oppolzer, W. Tetrahedron198743, 1969.
  7. Oppolzer, W.; Mills, R. J.; Pachinger, W.; Stevenson, T. Helv. Chim. Acta198669, 1542; Oppolzer, W.; Schneider, P. Helv. Chim. Acta198669, 1817; Oppolzer, W.; Mills, R. J.; Réglier, M. Tetrahedron Lett.198627, 183; Oppolzer, W.; Poli. G.Tetrahedron Lett.198627, 4717; Oppolzer, W.; Poli, G.; Starkemann, C.; Bernardinelli, G. Tetrahedron Lett.198829, 3559.
  8. Oppolzer, W.; Barras, J-P. Helv. Chim. Acta198770, 1666.
  9. Curran, D. P.; Kim, B. H.; Daugherty, J.; Heffner, T. A. Tetrahedron Lett.198829, 3555.
  10. Differding, E.; Lang, R. W. Tetrahedron Lett.198829, 6087.

Org. Synth.199069, 158
(+)-(2R,8aS)-10-(CAMPHORYLSULFONYL)OXAZIRIDINE
[4H-4A,7-Methanooxazirino[3,2-i][2,1]benzisothiazole, tetrahydro-9,9-dimethyl-, 3,3-dioxide, [4aS-(4aα,7α,8aR*)]]
Submitted by James C. Towson, Michael C. Weismiller, G. Sankar Lal, Aurelia C. Sheppard, Anil Kumar, and Franklin A. Davis1.
Checked by David I. Magee and Robert K. Boeckman, Jr..
1. Procedure
A. (+)-(1S)-10-Camphorsulfonamide. Into a 2-L, two-necked, round-bottomed flask, equipped with a 250-mL dropping funnel, a magnetic stirring bar, and a reflux condenser fitted with an outlet connected to a disposable pipettedipped in 2 mL of chloroform in a test tube for monitoring gas evolution, were placed 116 g (0.5 mol) ofcamphorsulfonic acid (Note 1) and 750 mL of reagent-grade chloroform. The suspension of camphorsulfonic acid was heated to reflux and 71.4 g (43.77 mL, 0.6 mol, 1.2 equiv) of freshly distilled thionyl chloride was added dropwise over a 1-hr period. Heating was continued until gas evolution (sulfur dioxide and hydrogen chloride) had ceased (approximately 9–10 hr). The resultant solution of camphorsulfonyl chloride in chloroform was converted tocamphorsulfonamide without further purification.
In a 5-L, two-necked, round-bottomed flask fitted with a 250-mL dropping funnel and a mechanical stirrer was placed a solution of 1.6 L of reagent-grade ammonium hydroxide solution and the flask was cooled to 0°C in an ice bath. The solution of the crude camphorsulfonyl chloride, prepared in the preceding section, was added dropwise to the ammonium hydroxide solution at 0–10°C over a period of 1 hr. The reaction mixture was warmed to room temperature, stirred for 4 hr, the organic layer separated, and the aqueous layer was extracted with methylene chloride (3 × 250 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine (250 mL) and dried over anhydrousmagnesium sulfate. Removal of the solvent on the rotary evaporator gave 104.0 g (90%) of the crudecamphorsulfonamide (Note 2) and (Note 3).
B. (−)-(Camphorsulfonyl)imine. A 1-L, round-bottomed flask is equipped with a 2-in. egg-shaped magnetic stirring bar, a Dean–Stark water separator, and a double-walled condenser containing a mineral oil bubbler connected to an inert gas source. Into the flask are placed 5 g of Amberlyst 15 ion-exchange resin (Note 4) and 41.5 g of the crude(+)-(1S)-camphorsulfonamide in 500 mL of toluene. The reaction mixture is heated at reflux for 4 hr. After the reaction flask is cooled, but while it is still warm (40–50°C), 200 mL of methylene chloride is slowly added to dissolve any(camphorsulfonyl)imine that crystallizes. The solution is filtered through a 150-mL sintered glass funnel of coarse porosity an the reaction flask and filter funnel are washed with an additional 75 mL of methylene chloride.
Isolation of the (−)-(camphorsulfonyl)imine is accomplished by removal of the toluene on the rotary evaporator. The resulting solid is recrystallized from absolute ethanol (750 mL) to give white crystals, 34.5–36.4 g (90–95%), mp225–228°C; [α]D −32.7° (CHCl3, c 1.9) (Note 5).
C. (+)-(2R, 8aS)-10-Camphorylsulfonyloxaziridine. A 5-L, three-necked, round-bottomed Morton flask is equipped with an efficient mechanical stirrer, a 125-mm Teflon stirring blade, a Safe Lab stirring bearing (Note 6), and a 500-mL addition funnel. Into the flask are placed the toluene solution of (−)-(camphorsulfonyl)imine (39.9 g, 0.187 mol)prepared in Step B and a room-temperature solution of 543 g (3.93 mol, 7 equiv based on oxone) of anhydrouspotassium carbonate dissolved in 750 mL of water. The reaction mixture is stirred vigorously and a solution of 345 g (0.56 mol, 6 equiv of KHSO5) of oxone dissolved in 1250 mL of water is added dropwise in three portions over 45 min(Note 7) and (Note 8). Completion of the oxidation is determined by TLC (Note 9) and the reaction mixture is filtered through a 150-mL sintered-glass funnel of coarse porosity to remove solids. The filtrate is transferred to a 3-L separatory funnel, the toluene phase is separated and the aqueous phase is washed with methylene chloride (3 × 100 mL). The filtered solids and any solids remaining in the Morton flask are washed with an additional 200 mL of methylene chloride. The organic extracts are combined and washed with 100 mL of saturated sodium sulfite, dried over anhydrousmagnesium sulfate for 15–20 min, filtered, and concentrated on the rotary evaporator. The resulting white solid is crystallized from approximately 500 mL of hot 2-propanol to afford, after drying under vacuum in a desiccator, 35.9 g(84%) of white needles, mp 165–167°C, [α]D +44.6° (CHCl3, c 2.2) (Note 10) and (Note 11).
(−)-(2S,8aR)-10-(camphorylsulfonyl)oxaziridine is prepared in a similar manner starting from (−)-10-camphorsulfonic acid; mp 166–167°C, [α]D +43.6° (CHCl3, c 2.2).
2. Notes
1. (1S)-(+)-10-Camphorsulfonic acid was purchased from Aldrich Chemical Company, Inc.
2. The crude sulfonamide is contaminated with 5–10% of the (camphorsulfonyl)imine, the yield of which increases on standing.
3. The 1H NMR spectrum of (+)-(1S)-10-camphorsulfonamide is as follows: (CDCl3) δ: 0.93 (s, 3 H, CH3), 1.07 (s, 3 H, CH3), 1.40–2.50 (m, 7 H), 3.14 and 3.53 (AB quartet, 2 H, CH2-SO2J = 15.1), 5.54 (br s, 2 H, NH2).
4. Amberlyst 15 ion-exchange resin is a strongly acidic, macroreticular resin purchased from Aldrich Chemical Company, Inc.
5. The spectral properties of (−)-(camphorsulfonyl)imine are as follows: 1H NMR (CDCl3) δ: 1.03 (s, 3 H, CH3), 1.18 (s, 3 H, CH3), 1.45–2.18 (m, 6 H), 2.65 (m, 1 H), 3.10 and 3.28 (AB quartet, 2 H, CH2-SO2J = 14.0); 13C NMR (CDCl3) δ: 19.01 (q, CH3), 19.45 (q, CH3), 26.64 (t), 28.44 (t), 35.92 (t), 44.64 (d), 48.00 (s), 49.46 (t), 64.52 (s), 195.52 (s); IR (CHCl3) cm−1: 3030, 2967, 1366. Checkers obtained material having identical melting point and [α]D−32.3° (CHCl3, c 1.8).
6. The SafeLab Teflon bearing can be purchased from Aldrich Chemical Company, Inc. A glass stirring bearing lubricated with silicone grease is unsatisfactory because the dissolved salts solidify in the shaft, causing freezing.
7. Efficient stirring is important and indicated by a milky white appearance of the solution.
8. Occasionally batches of oxone purchased from Aldrich Chemical Company, Inc., have exhibited reduced reactivity in this oxidation. Oxone exposed to moisture prior to use also gives reduced reactivity in this oxidation. If this occurs, oxone is added until oxidation is complete as determined by TLC (Note 9). Potassium carbonate is added as needed to maintain the pH at approximately 9.0. Oxone stored in the refrigerator under an inert atmosphere has shown no loss in reactivity for up to 6 months.
9. Oxidation is generally complete after addition of the oxone solution. The oxidation is monitored by TLC as follows. Remove approximately 0.5 mL of the toluene solution from the nonstirring solution, spot a 250-μm TLC silica gel plate, elute with methylene chloride, and develop with 10% molybdophosphoric acid in ethanol and heating(camphorsulfonyl)imine Rf = 0.28 and (camphorylsulfonyl)oxaziridine Rf = 0.62. If (camphorsulfonyl)imine is detected, stirring is continued at room temperature until the reaction is complete (see (Note 8)). If the reaction mixture takes on a brownish color after addition of oxone and has not gone to completion after 30 min, the reaction mixture is filtered through a 150-mL sintered-glass funnel of coarse porosity, and the solids are washed with 50 mL of methylene chloride. The aqueous/organic extracts are returned to the 5-L Morton flask and stirred vigorously and 52 g (0.08 mol, 1 equiv KHSO5) of oxone is added over 5 min and stirring continued until oxidation is complete (approximately 10–15 min).
10. The submitters employed a toluene solution of crude imine prepared in Part B and obtained somewhat higher yields (90–95%). However, the checkers obtained yields in this range on one half the scale using isolatedsulfonylimine.
11. The spectral properties of (+)-(camphorsulfonyl)oxaziridine are as follows: 1H NMR (CDCl3) δ: 1.03 (s, 3 H, CH3), 1.18 (s, 3 H, CH3), 1.45–2.18 (m, 6 H), 2.65 (d, 1 H), 3.10 and 3.28 (AB quartet, 2 H, CH2-SO2J = 14.0); 13C NMR (CDCl3) δ: 19.45 (q, CH3), 20.42 (q, CH3), 26.55 (t), 28.39 (t), 33.64 (t), 45.78 (d), 48.16 (s), 48.32 (t), 54.07 (s), 98.76 (s). The checkers obtained material (mp 165–167°C) having [α]D +44.7° (CHCl3, c 2.2).
3. Discussion
Camphorsulfonamide, required for the preparation of the (camphorsulfonyl)imine, was previously prepared in two steps. The first step involved conversion of camphorsulfonic acid to the sulfonyl chloride with PCl5 or SOCl2. The isolated sulfonyl chloride was converted in a second step to the sulfonamide by reaction with ammonium hydroxide. This modified procedure is more efficient because it transforms camphorsulfonic acid directly to camphorsulfonamide, avoiding isolation of the camphorsulfonyl chloride.
(Camphorsulfonyl)imine has been reported as a by-product of reactions involving the camphorsulfonamide.2,3,4,5Reychler in 1898 isolated two isomeric camphorsulfonamides,2 one of which was shown to be the(camphorsulfonyl)imine by Armstrong and Lowry in 1902.3 Vandewalle, Van der Eycken, Oppolzer, and Vullioud described the preparation of (camphorsulfonyl)imine in 74% overall yield from 0.42 mol of the camphorsulfonyl chloride.6 The advantage of the procedure described here is that, by using ammonium hydroxide, the camphorsulfonyl chloride is converted to the sulfonamide in >95% yield.7 The sulfonamide is of sufficient purity that it can be used directly in the cyclization step, which, under acidic conditions, is quantitative in less than 4 hr. These modifications result in production of the (camphorsulfonyl)imine in 86% overall yield from the sulfonyl chloride.
In addition to the synthesis of enantiomerically pure (camphorylsulfonyl)oxaziridine7 and its derivatives,8 the(camphorsulfonyl)imine has been used in the preparation of (−)-2,10-camphorsultam (Oppolzers’ auxiliary),6,9 (+)-(3-oxocamphorysulfonyl) oxaziridine,10 and the N-fluoro-2,10-camphorsultam, an enantioselective fluorinating reagent.11
The N-sulfonyloxaziridines are an important class of selective, aprotic oxidizing reagents.121314 Enantiomerically pure N-sulfonyloxaziridines have been used in the asymmetric oxidation of sulfides to sulfoxides (30–91% ee),15selenides to selenoxides (8–9% ee).16 disulfides to thiosulfinates (2–13% ee),5 and in the asymmetric epoxidation of alkenes (19–65% ee).17,18 Oxidation of optically active sulfonimines (R*SO2N=CHAr) affords mixtures of N-sulfonyloxaziridine diastereoisomers requiring separation by crystallization and/or chromatography.3
(+)-(Camphorylsulfonyl)oxaziridine described here is prepared in four steps from inexpensive (1S)-(+)- or (1R)-(+)-10-camphorsulfonic acid in 77% overall yield.7 Separation of the oxaziridine diastereoisomers is not required because oxidation is sterically blocked from the exo face of the C-N double bond in the (camphorsulfonyl)imine. In general, (camphorsulfonyl)oxaziridine exhibits reduced reactivity compared to other N-sulfonyloxaziridines. For example, while sulfides are asymmetrically oxidized to sulfoxides (3–77% ee), this oxaziridine does not react with amines or alkenes.7 However, this oxaziridine is the reagent of choice for the hydroxylation of lithium and Grignard reagents to give alcohols and phenols because yields are good to excellent and side reactions are minimized.19 This reagent has also been used for the stereoselective oxidation of vinyllithiums to enolates.20
The most important synthetic application of the (camphorylsulfonyl)oxaziridines is the asymmetric oxidation of enolates to optically active α-hydroxy carbonyl compounds.14,21,22,23,24 Chiral, nonracemic α-hydroxy carbonylcompounds have been used extensively in asymmetric synthesis, for example, as chiral synthons, chiral auxiliaries, and chiral ligands. This structural array is also featured in many biologically active natural products. This oxidizing reagent gives uniformly high chemical yields regardless of the counterion, and stereoselectivities are good to excellent (50–95% ee).9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24 Since the configuration of the oxaziridine three-membered ring controls the stereochemistry, both α-hydroxy carbonyl optical isomers are readily available. Representative examples of the asymmetric oxidation of prochiral enolates by (+)-(2R,8aS)-camphorylsulfonyl)oxaziridine are given in Tables I and II.

This preparation is referenced from:

  • Org. Syn. Coll. Vol. 8, 110
  • Org. Syn. Coll. Vol. 9, 212
  • References and Notes
    1. Department of Chemistry, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104.
    2. Reychler, M. A. Bull. Soc. Chim. III188919, 120.
    3. Armstrong, H. E.; Lowry, T. M. J. Chem. Soc., Trans.190281, 1441.
    4. Dauphin, G.; Kergomard, A.; Scarset, A. Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr.1976, 862.
    5. Davis, F. A.; Jenkins, Jr., R. H.; Awad, S. B.; Stringer, O. D.; Watson, W. H.; Galloy, J. J. Am. Chem. Soc.1982104, 5412.
    6. Vandewalle, M.; Van der Eycken, J.; Oppolzer, W.; Vullioud, C. Tetrahedron198642, 4035.
    7. Davis, F. A.; Towson, J. C.; Weismiller, M. C.; Lal, S.; Carroll, P. J. J. Am. Chem. Soc.1988110, 8477.
    8. Davis, F. A.; Weismiller, M. C.; Lal, G. S.; Chen, B. C.; Przeslawski, R. M. Tetrahedron Lett.198930, 1613.
    9. Oppolzer, W. Tetrahedron198743, 1969.
    10. Glahsl, G.; Herrmann, R. J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. I1988, 1753.
    11. Differding, E.; Lang, R. W. Tetrahedron Lett.198829, 6087.
    12. For recent reviews on the chemistry of N-sulfonyloxaziridines, see: (a) Davis, F. A.; Jenkins, Jr., R. H. in “Asymmetric Synthesis,” Morrison, J. D., Ed.; Academic Press: Orlando, FL, 1984, Vol. 4, Chapter 4;
    13. Davis, F. A.; Haque, S. M. in “Advances in Oxygenated Processes,” Baumstark, A. L., Ed.; JAI Press: London, Vol. 2;
    14. Davis, F. A.; Sheppard, A. C. Tetrahedron198945, 5703.
    15. Davis, F. A.; McCauley, Jr., J. P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Harakal, M. E.; Towson, J. C.; Watson, W. H.; Tavanaiepour, I. J. Am. Chem. Soc.1987109, 3370.
    16. Davis, F. A.; Stringer, O. D.; McCauley, Jr., J. M. Tetrahedron198541, 4747.
    17. Davis, F. A.; Chattopadhyay, S. Tetrahedron Lett.198627, 5079.
    18. Davis, F. A.; Harakal, M. E.; Awad, S. B. J. Am. Chem. Soc.1983105, 3123.
    19. Davis, F. A.; Wei, J.; Sheppard, A. C.; Gubernick S. Tetrahedron Lett.198728, 5115.
    20. Davis, F. A.; Lal, G. S.; Wei, J. Tetrahedron Lett.198829, 4269.
    21. Davis, F. A.; Haque, M. S.; Ulatowski, T. G.; Towson, J. C. J. Org. Chem.198651, 2402.
    22. Davis, F. A.; Haque, M. S. J. Org. Chem.198651, 4083; Davis, F. A.; Haque, M. S.; Przeslawski, R. M. J. Org. Chem.198954, 2021.
    23. Davis, F. A.; Ulatowski, T. G.; Haque, M. S. J. Org. Chem.198752, 5288.
    24. Davis, F. A.; Sheppard, A. C., Lal, G. S. Tetrahedron Lett.198930, 779.
    25. Davis, F. A.; Sheppard, A. C.; Chen, B. C.; Haque, M. S. J. Am. Chem. Soc.1990112, 6679.

a US 5 856 529 (Bristol-Myers Squibb; 5.1.1999; appl. 9.12.1997; USA-prior. 10.12.1996).

    • b US 7 754 902 (Vanda Pharms.; 13.7.2010; appl. 18.5.2006).
  • treatment of circadian rhythm disorders:

    • US 8 785 492 (Vanda Pharms.; 22.7.2014; appl. 25.1.2013; USA-prior. 26.1.2012).
  • synthesis cis-isomer:

    • US 6 214 869 (Bristol-Myers Squibb; 10.4.2001; appl. 25.5.1999; USA-prior. 5.6.1998).

Patents

  1. USUS5856529 A
  2. USUS8785492 B2
  3. US5856529
  4. US8785492
  5. US9060995
  6. US9549913
  7. US9539234
  8. US9730910
  9. USRE46604
  10. US9855241

References

  1. Jump up^ “Tasimelteon Advisory Committee Meeting Briefing Materials”(PDF). Vanda Pharmaceuticals Inc. November 2013.
  2. Jump up^ “FDA transcript approval minutes” (PDF). FDA. November 14, 2013.
  3. Jump up to:a b Food and Drug Administration (January 31, 2014). “FDA approves Hetlioz: first treatment for non-24 hour sleep-wake disorder”. FDA.
  4. Jump up^ “tasimelteon (Hetlioz) UKMi New Drugs Online Database”. Retrieved August 6, 2014.
  5. Jump up^ “HETLIOZ® Receives European Commission Approval for the Treatment of Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder in the Totally Blind”MarketWatch. PR Newswire. 7 July 2015. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
  6. Jump up^ Vachharajani, Nimish N.; Yeleswaram, Krishnaswamy; Boulton, David W. (April 2003). “Preclinical pharmacokinetics and metabolism of BMS-214778, a novel melatonin receptor agonist”. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences92 (4): 760–72. doi:10.1002/jps.10348PMID 12661062.
  7. Jump up^ Sack, R. L.; Brandes, R. W.; Kendall, A. R.; Lewy, A. J. (2000). “Entrainment of Free-Running Circadian Rhythms by Melatonin in Blind People”. New England Journal of Medicine343 (15): 1070–7. doi:10.1056/NEJM200010123431503PMID 11027741.
  8. Jump up^ “Safety and Efficacy of VEC-162 on Circadian Rhythm in Healthy Adult Volunteers”. ClinicalTrials.gov. |accessdate=May 15, 2014
  9. Jump up^ “VEC-162 Study in Healthy Adult Volunteers in a Model of Insomnia”. ClinicalTrials.gov. Retrieved May 15, 2014.
  10. Jump up^ “VEC-162 Study in Adult Patients With Primary Insomnia”. ClinicalTrials.gov. Retrieved May 15, 2014.
  11. Jump up^ Lynne Lamberg. “Improving Sleep and Alertness in the Blind (Part 5)”Matilda Ziegler Magazine for the Blind. Retrieved May 15, 2014.
  12. Jump up^ Shantha MW Rajaratnam; Mihael H Polymeropoulos; Dennis M Fisher; Thomas Roth; Christin Scott; Gunther Birznieks; Elizabeth B Klerman (2009-02-07). “Melatonin agonist tasimelteon (VEC-162) for transient insomnia after sleep-time shift: two randomised controlled multicentre trials”The Lancet373 (9662): 482–491. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61812-7PMID 19054552. Retrieved 2010-02-23.
  13. Jump up^ Carome, Michael (1 July 2015). “Outrage of the Month: FDA Makes Major Blunder After Approving Drug for Rare Sleep Disorder”Huffington Post. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
  14. Jump up^ Food and Drug Administration (January 31, 2014). “FDA NEWS RELEASE: FDA approves Hetlioz: first treatment for non-24 hour sleep–wake disorder in blind individuals”. FDA.
  15. Jump up^ “Side Effects Drug Center: Hetlioz Clinical Pharmacology”. RxList. February 10, 2014.
  16. Jump up^ “Side Effects Drug Center: Hetlioz Warnings and Precautions”. RxList. February 10, 2014. In animal studies, administration of tasimelteon during pregnancy resulted in developmental toxicity (embryofetal mortality, neurobehavioral impairment, and decreased growth and development in offspring) at doses greater than those used clinically.
Tasimelteon
Tasimelteon 2.svg
Tasimelteon ball-and-stick model.png
Clinical data
Trade names Hetlioz
License data
Pregnancy
category
  • US:C (Risk not ruled out)
Routes of
administration
Oral
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability not determined in humans[1]
Protein binding 89–90%
Metabolism extensive hepatic, primarily CYP1A2 and CYP3A4-mediated
Elimination half-life 0.9–1.7 h / 0.8–5.9 h (terminal)
Excretion 80% in urine, 4% in feces
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChemCID
IUPHAR/BPS
ChemSpider
UNII
ChEBI
ECHA InfoCard 100.114.889Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
Formula C15H19NO2
Molar mass 245.32 g/mol
3D model (JSmol)

ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

amcrasto@gmail.com

MOBILE-+91 9323115463

GLENMARK SCIENTIST , NAVIMUMBAI, INDIA

//////////////BMS-214778, VEC-162, Tasimelteon, Hetlioz, FDA 2014, 609799-22-6 , BMS-214778, VEC-162, ATC N05CH03, タシメルテオン , EU 2015, VANDA, BMS, orphan drug designations
CCC(=O)NCC1CC1C2=C3CCOC3=CC=C2

Chemical and physical properties 

Tasimelteon has two stereogenic centers. Besides the medically used trans-1 R , 2 R isomer (in the picture above left), there are thus three further stereoisomers that do not arise in the synthesis.

Tasimelteon stereoisomerism.svg

Tasimelteon is a white to off-white crystalline non-hygroscopic substance, soluble in water at physiologically relevant pH levels and readily soluble in alcohols, cyclohexane and acetonitrile. The compound occurs in two crystal forms. It is an anhydrate melting at 74 ° C and a hemihydrate . [4] The hemihydrate is from about 35 ° C the water of hydration and converts thereby in the anhydrate form to. [4] The anhydrate crystallizes in a monoclinic lattice with the space group P 2 1 , and the hemihydrate crystallizes in a tetragonal lattice with the space group P 4 3 21 2. [4]

4  Kaihang Liu, Zhou Xinbo, Zhejing Xu, Bai Hongzhen, Jianrong Zhu Jianming Gu, Guping Tang, Liu Xingang, Hu Xiurong: anhydrate and hemihydrate of Tasimelteon: Synthesis, structure, and pharmacokinetic study in J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 151 (2018) 235-243, doi : 10.1016 / j.jpba.2017.12.035 .

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FDA approves new kind of treatment Lumoxiti (moxetumomab pasudotox-tdfk) for hairy cell leukemia


The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Lumoxiti (moxetumomab pasudotox-tdfk) injection for intravenous use for the treatment of adult patients with relapsed or refractory hairy cell leukemia (HCL) who have received at least two prior systemic therapies, including treatment with a purine nucleoside analog. Lumoxiti is a CD22-directed cytotoxin and is the first of this type of treatment for patients with HCL.

September 13, 2018

Release

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Lumoxiti (moxetumomab pasudotox-tdfk) injection for intravenous use for the treatment of adult patients with relapsed or refractory hairy cell leukemia (HCL) who have received at least two prior systemic therapies, including treatment with a purine nucleoside analog. Lumoxiti is a CD22-directed cytotoxin and is the first of this type of treatment for patients with HCL.

“Lumoxiti fills an unmet need for patients with hairy cell leukemia whose disease has progressed after trying other FDA-approved therapies,” said Richard Pazdur, M.D., director of the FDA’s Oncology Center of Excellence and acting director of the Office of Hematology and Oncology Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “This therapy is the result of important research conducted by the National Cancer Institute that led to the development and clinical trials of this new type of treatment for patients with this rare blood cancer.”

HCL is a rare, slow-growing cancer of the blood in which the bone marrow makes too many B cells (lymphocytes), a type of white blood cell that fights infection. HCL is named after these extra B cells which look “hairy” when viewed under a microscope. As the number of leukemia cells increases, fewer healthy white blood cells, red blood cells and platelets are produced.

The efficacy of Lumoxiti was studied in a single-arm, open-label clinical trial of 80 patients who had received prior treatment for HCL with at least two systemic therapies, including a purine nucleoside analog. The trial measured durable complete response (CR), defined as maintenance of hematologic remission for more than 180 days after achievement of CR. Thirty percent of patients in the trial achieved durable CR, and the overall response rate (number of patients with partial or complete response to therapy) was 75 percent.

Common side effects of Lumoxiti include infusion-related reactions, swelling caused by excess fluid in body tissue (edema), nausea, fatigue, headache, fever (pyrexia), constipation, anemia and diarrhea.

The prescribing information for Lumoxiti includes a Boxed Warning to advise health care professionals and patients about the risk of developing capillary leak syndrome, a condition in which fluid and proteins leak out of tiny blood vessels into surrounding tissues. Symptoms of capillary leak syndrome include difficulty breathing, weight gain, hypotension, or swelling of arms, legs and/or face. The Boxed Warning also notes the risk of hemolytic uremic syndrome, a condition caused by the abnormal destruction of red blood cells. Patients should be made aware of the importance of maintaining adequate fluid intake, and blood chemistry values should be monitored frequently. Other serious warnings include: decreased renal function, infusion-related reactions and electrolyte abnormalities. Women who are breastfeeding should not be given Lumoxiti.

The FDA granted this application Fast Track and Priority Review designations. Lumoxiti also received Orphan Drug designation, which provides incentives to assist and encourage the development of drugs for rare diseases.

The FDA granted the approval of Lumoxiti to AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals.

///////////// Lumoxiti, moxetumomab pasudotox-tdfk, fda 2018, Fast Track, Priority Review designations,  Orphan Drug designation,

Cenegermin


Image result for cenegermin
Active Substance General information The active substance in Oxervate, cenegermin, is a recombinant human Nerve Growth factor (rhNGF) produced in E. coli strain HMS174. The molecule is identical to human Nerve Growth factor (NGF), a naturally occurring human protein. In humans, NGF is naturally produced as pre-pro-peptide, secreted into the endoplasmic reticulum and cleaved by furin protease. The pro-sequence is further cleaved during the production process by enzymatic hydrolysis. Therefore these two amino acid changes have no influence on the final active ingredient (rhNGF), which is identical to the naturally secreted human protein. The 3D structure of rhNGF is a non-covalent dimer with three intra-molecular disulphide bridges. Cenegermin contains 118 amino acids and has a relative molecular mass of 13,266 Daltons and the following molecular formula: C583H908N166O173S8. Figure 1 shows the protein sequence of recombinant human ProNGFrh ProNGF (Figure 1A), and a map of the disulphide bridges (Figure IB):
Cenegermin sequence:
SSSHPIFHRGEFSVCDSVSVWVGDKTTATDIKGKEVMVLGEVNIN
NSVFKQYFFETKCRDPNPVDSGCRGIDSKHWNSYCTTTHTFVKAL
TMDGKQAAWRFIRIDTACVCVLSRKAVR
CAS 1772578-74-1
rhNGF, Nerve growth factor – Anabasis/Dompe; Oxervate; Sentinel
  • OriginatorAnabasis Pharma
  • DeveloperDompe Farmaceutici; Ospedale San Raffaele
  • ClassEye disorder therapies; Nerve growth factors; Neuroprotectants; Proteins
  • Mechanism of ActionNerve growth factor receptor agonists; Neuron stimulants
  • Orphan Drug StatusYes – Keratitis; Retinitis pigmentosa
  • Highest Development Phases
  • RegisteredKeratitis
  • Phase II Dry eyes; Glaucoma; Retinitis pigmentosa
  • APPROVED FDA AUG  2018

Most Recent Events

  • 28 Jul 2018No recent reports of development identified for phase-I development in Glaucoma in Italy (Ophthalmic, Drops)
  • 29 May 2018Phase-II clinical trials in Glaucoma (Ophthalmic) (http://www.dompe.com/RnD-Pipeline/)
  • 01 May 2018Dompé Farmaceutici completes a phase I trial in Glaucoma in USA (Ophthalmic) (NCT02855450)
  • Image result for cenegermin
Cenegermin (planned brand names OxervateSentinel), also known as recombinant human nerve growth factor (rhNGF), is a recombinant form of human nerve growth factor (NGF). It was approved in the European Union as an eye drop formulation for the treatment of moderate or severe neurotrophic keratitis in adults on 6 July 2017.[2][3][1] As a recombinant form of NGF, cenegermin is a peripherally selective agonist of the TrkA and LNGFR (p75NTR) which must be administered parenterally.[3] In addition to neurotrophic keratitis, cenegermin is also under development for the treatment of dry eyesretinitis pigmentosa, and glaucoma.[3] It was developed by Anabasis Pharma, Dompé Farmaceutici, and Ospedale San Raffaele.[3]
Cenegermin is a human beta-nerve growth factor (beta-ngf)-(1-118)- peptide (non-covalent dimer) produced in escherichia coli. It received European Union Approval in July, 2017 for the treatment of moderate to severe neurotrophic keratitis.
In 2013, orphan drug designations in the E.U. and in the U.S. were assigned to the candidate for the treatment of retinitis pigmentosa. The product was granted additional orphan drug designation for the treatment of neurotrophic keratitis in the U.S. and the E.U. in 2014 and 2015, respectively.
Cenegermin, a recombinant human nerve growth factor developed by Dompé was first approved in July 2017 in the E.U. for the treatment of moderate to severe neurotrophic keratitis (NK) in adults
Clip
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved the first drug, Oxervate (cenegermin), for the treatment of neurotrophic keratitis, a rare disease affecting the cornea (the clear layer that covers the colored portion of the front of the eye).
“While the prevalence of neurotrophic keratitis is low, the impact of this serious condition on an individual patient can be devastating,” said Wiley Chambers, M.D., an ophthalmologist in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “In the past, it has often been necessary to turn to surgical interventions; these treatments are usually only palliative in this disease. Today’s approval provides a novel topical treatment and a major advance that offers complete corneal healing for many of these patients.”

August 22, 2018

Release

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved the first drug, Oxervate (cenegermin), for the treatment of neurotrophic keratitis, a rare disease affecting the cornea (the clear layer that covers the colored portion of the front of the eye).

“While the prevalence of neurotrophic keratitis is low, the impact of this serious condition on an individual patient can be devastating,” said Wiley Chambers, M.D., an ophthalmologist in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “In the past, it has often been necessary to turn to surgical interventions; these treatments are usually only palliative in this disease. Today’s approval provides a novel topical treatment and a major advance that offers complete corneal healing for many of these patients.”

Neurotrophic keratitis is a degenerative disease resulting from a loss of corneal sensation. The loss of corneal sensation impairs corneal health causing progressive damage to the top layer of the cornea, including corneal thinning, ulceration, and perforation in severe cases. The prevalence of neurotrophic keratitis has been estimated to be less than five in 10,000 individuals.

The safety and efficacy of Oxervate, a topical eye drop containing cenegermin, was studied in a total of 151 patients with neurotrophic keratitis in two, eight-week, randomized controlled multi-center, double-masked studies. In the first study, patients were randomized into three different groups. One group received Oxervate, a second group received an eye drop with a different concentration of cenegermin, and the third group received an eye drop without cenegermin. In the second study, patients were randomized into two groups. One group was treated with Oxervate eye drops and the other group was treated with an eye drop without cenegermin. All eye drops in both studies were given six times daily in the affected eye(s) for eight weeks. In the first study, only patients with the disease in one eye were enrolled, while in the second study, patients with the disease in both eyes were treated in both eyes (bilaterally). Across both studies, complete corneal healing in eight weeks was demonstrated in 70 percent of patients treated with Oxervate compared to 28 percent of patients treated without cenegermin (the active ingredient in Oxervate).

The most common adverse reactions in patients taking Oxervate are eye pain, ocular hyperemia (enlarged blood vessels in the white of the eyes), eye inflammation and increased lacrimation (watery eyes).

Oxervate was granted Priority Review designation, under which the FDA’s goal is to take action on an application within six months of application filing where the agency determines that the drug, if approved, would provide a significant improvement in the safety or effectiveness of the treatment, diagnosis or prevention of a serious condition. Oxervate also received Orphan Drug designation, which provides incentives to assist and encourage the development of drugs for rare diseases.

The FDA granted approval of Oxervate to Dompé farmaceutici SpA.

Cenegermin
Clinical data
Trade names Oxervate, Sentinel
Synonyms Recombinant human nerve growth factor; rhNGF; human beta-nerve growth factor (beta-NGF)-(1-118) peptide (non-covalent dimer) produced in Escherichia coli[1]
Routes of
administration
Eye drops
ATC code
Identifiers
CAS Number
DrugBank
ChemSpider
  • None
UNII
KEGG
Chemical and physical data
Formula C583H908N166O173S8
Molar mass 13266.94 g/mol

References

External links

////////////fda 2018, Oxervate, cenegermin, orphan drug, priority review, EU 2017, DOMPE, neurotrophic keratitis

FDA approves first drug Oxervate (cenegermin) for neurotrophic keratitis, a rare eye disease


The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved the first drug, Oxervate (cenegermin), for the treatment of neurotrophic keratitis, a rare disease affecting the cornea (the clear layer that covers the colored portion of the front of the eye).
“While the prevalence of neurotrophic keratitis is low, the impact of this serious condition on an individual patient can be devastating,” said Wiley Chambers, M.D., an ophthalmologist in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “In the past, it has often been necessary to turn to surgical interventions; these treatments are usually only palliative in this disease. Today’s approval provides a novel topical treatment and a major advance that offers complete corneal healing for many of these patients.”

August 22, 2018

Release

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved the first drug, Oxervate (cenegermin), for the treatment of neurotrophic keratitis, a rare disease affecting the cornea (the clear layer that covers the colored portion of the front of the eye).

“While the prevalence of neurotrophic keratitis is low, the impact of this serious condition on an individual patient can be devastating,” said Wiley Chambers, M.D., an ophthalmologist in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “In the past, it has often been necessary to turn to surgical interventions; these treatments are usually only palliative in this disease. Today’s approval provides a novel topical treatment and a major advance that offers complete corneal healing for many of these patients.”

Neurotrophic keratitis is a degenerative disease resulting from a loss of corneal sensation. The loss of corneal sensation impairs corneal health causing progressive damage to the top layer of the cornea, including corneal thinning, ulceration, and perforation in severe cases. The prevalence of neurotrophic keratitis has been estimated to be less than five in 10,000 individuals.

The safety and efficacy of Oxervate, a topical eye drop containing cenegermin, was studied in a total of 151 patients with neurotrophic keratitis in two, eight-week, randomized controlled multi-center, double-masked studies. In the first study, patients were randomized into three different groups. One group received Oxervate, a second group received an eye drop with a different concentration of cenegermin, and the third group received an eye drop without cenegermin. In the second study, patients were randomized into two groups. One group was treated with Oxervate eye drops and the other group was treated with an eye drop without cenegermin. All eye drops in both studies were given six times daily in the affected eye(s) for eight weeks. In the first study, only patients with the disease in one eye were enrolled, while in the second study, patients with the disease in both eyes were treated in both eyes (bilaterally). Across both studies, complete corneal healing in eight weeks was demonstrated in 70 percent of patients treated with Oxervate compared to 28 percent of patients treated without cenegermin (the active ingredient in Oxervate).

The most common adverse reactions in patients taking Oxervate are eye pain, ocular hyperemia (enlarged blood vessels in the white of the eyes), eye inflammation and increased lacrimation (watery eyes).

Oxervate was granted Priority Review designation, under which the FDA’s goal is to take action on an application within six months of application filing where the agency determines that the drug, if approved, would provide a significant improvement in the safety or effectiveness of the treatment, diagnosis or prevention of a serious condition. Oxervate also received Orphan Drug designation, which provides incentives to assist and encourage the development of drugs for rare diseases.

The FDA granted approval of Oxervate to Dompé farmaceutici SpA.

/////////////fda 2018, Oxervate, cenegermin, orphan drug, priority review

Patisiran


Patisiran

Sense strand:
GUAACCAAGAGUAUUCCAUdTdT
Anti-sense strand:
AUGGAAUACUCUUGGUUACdTdT
RNA, (A-U-G-G-A-A-Um-A-C-U-C-U-U-G-G-U-Um-A-C-dT-dT), complex with RNA (G-Um-A-A-Cm-Cm-A-A-G-A-G-Um-A-Um-Um-Cm-Cm-A-Um-dT-dT) (1:1),
ALN-18328, 6024128  , ALN-TTR02  , GENZ-438027  , SAR-438037  , 50FKX8CB2Y (UNII code)

 for RNA, (A-U-G-G-A-A-Um-A-C-U-C-U-U-G-G-U-Um-A-C-dT-dT), complex with RNA(G-Um-A-A-Cm-Cm-A-A-G-A-G-Um-A-Um-Um-Cm-Cm-A-Um-dT-dT) (1:1)

Nucleic Acid Sequence

Sequence Length: 42, 21, 2112 a 7 c 7 g 4 t 12 umultistranded (2); modified

CAS 1420706-45-1

Treatment of Amyloidosis,

SEE…..https://endpts.com/gung-ho-alnylam-lands-historic-fda-ok-on-patisiran-revving-up-the-first-global-rollout-for-an-rnai-breakthrough/

Lipid-nanoparticle-encapsulated double-stranded siRNA targeting a 3 untranslated region of mutant and wild-type transthyretin mRNA

Patisiran (trade name Onpattro®) is a medication for the treatment of polyneuropathy in people with hereditary transthyretin-mediated amyloidosis. It is the first small interfering RNA-based drug approved by the FDA. Through this mechanism, it is a gene silencing drug that interferes with the production of an abnormal form of transthyretin.

Chemical structure of Patisiran.

During its development, patisiran was granted orphan drug statusfast track designationpriority review and breakthrough therapy designation due to its novel mechanism and the rarity of the condition it is designed to treat.[1][2] It was approved by the FDA in August 2018 and is expected to cost around $345,000 to $450,000 per year.[3]

Patisiran was granted orphan drug designation in the U.S. and Japan for the treatment of familial amyloid polyneuropathy. Fast track designation was also granted in the U.S. for this indication. In the E.U., orphan drug designation was assigned to the compound for the treatment of transthyretin-mediated amyloidosis (initially for the treatment of familial amyloid polyneuropathy)

Hereditary transthyretin-mediated amyloidosis is a fatal rare disease that is estimated to affect 50,000 people worldwide. Patisiran is the first drug approved by the FDA to treat this condition.[4]

Patisiran is a second-generation siRNA therapy targeting mutant transthyretin (TTR) developed by Alnylam for the treatment of familial amyloid polyneuropathy. The product is delivered by means of Arbutus Biopharma’s (formerly Tekmira Pharmaceuticals) lipid nanoparticle technology

“A lot of peo­ple think it’s win­ter out there for RNAi. But I think it’s spring­time.” — Al­ny­lam CEO John Maraganore, NYT, Feb­ru­ary 7, 2011.

Patisiran — designed to silence messenger RNA and block the production of TTR protein before it is made — is number 6 on Clarivate’s list of blockbusters set to launch this year, with a 2022 sales forecast of $1.22 billion. Some of the peak sales estimates range significantly higher as analysts crunch the numbers on a disease that afflicts only about 30,000 people worldwide.

PATENT

WO 2016033326

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2016033326A2

Transthyretin (TTR) is a tetrameric protein produced primarily in the liver.

Mutations in the TTR gene destabilize the protein tetramer, leading to misfolding of monomers and aggregation into TTR amyloid fibrils (ATTR). Tissue deposition results in systemic ATTR amyloidosis (Coutinho et al, Forty years of experience with type I amyloid neuropathy. Review of 483 cases. In: Glenner et al, Amyloid and Amyloidosis, Amsterdam: Excerpta Media, 1980 pg. 88-93; Hou et al., Transthyretin and familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy. Recent progress in understanding the molecular mechanism of

neurodegeneration. FEBS J 2007, 274: 1637-1650; Westermark et al, Fibril in senile systemic amyloidosis is derived from normal transthyretin. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1990, 87: 2843-2845). Over 100 reported TTR mutations exhibit a spectrum of disease symptoms.

[0004] TTR amyloidosis manifests in various forms. When the peripheral nervous system is affected more prominently, the disease is termed familial amyloidotic

polyneuropathy (FAP). When the heart is primarily involved but the nervous system is not, the disease is called familial amyloidotic cardiomyopathy (FAC). A third major type of TTR amyloidosis is called leptomeningeal/CNS (Central Nervous System) amyloidosis.

[0005] The most common mutations associated with familial amyloid polyneuropathy

(FAP) and ATTR-associated cardiomyopathy, respectively, are Val30Met (Coelho et al, Tafamidis for transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy: a randomized, controlled trial. Neurology 2012, 79: 785-792) and Vall22Ile (Connors et al, Cardiac amyloidosis in African Americans: comparison of clinical and laboratory features of transthyretin VI 221 amyloidosis and immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis. Am Heart J 2009, 158: 607-614). [0006] Current treatment options for FAP focus on stabilizing or decreasing the amount of circulating amyloidogenic protein. Orthotopic liver transplantation reduces mutant TTR levels (Holmgren et al, Biochemical effect of liver transplantation in two Swedish patients with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP-met30). Clin Genet 1991, 40: 242-246), with improved survival reported in patients with early-stage FAP, although deposition of wild-type TTR may continue (Yazaki et al, Progressive wild-type transthyretin deposition after liver transplantation preferentially occurs into myocardium in FAP patients. Am J Transplant 2007, 7:235-242; Adams et al, Rapid progression of familial amyloid polyneuropathy: a multinational natural history study Neurology 2015 Aug 25; 85(8) 675-82; Yamashita et al, Long-term survival after liver transplantation in patients with familial amyloid polyneuropathy. Neurology 2012, 78: 637-643; Okamoto et al., Liver

transplantation for familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy: impact on Swedish patients’ survival. Liver Transpl 2009, 15: 1229-1235; Stangou et al, Progressive cardiac amyloidosis following liver transplantation for familial amyloid polyneuropathy: implications for amyloid fibrillogenesis. Transplantation 1998, 66:229-233; Fosby et al, Liver transplantation in the Nordic countries – An intention to treat and post-transplant analysis from The Nordic Liver Transplant Registry 1982-2013. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2015 Jun; 50(6):797-808.

Transplantation, in press).

[0007] Tafamidis and diflunisal stabilize circulating TTR tetramers, which can slow the rate of disease progression (Berk et al, Repurposing diflunisal for familial amyloid polyneuropathy: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA 2013, 310: 2658-2667; Coelho et al., 2012; Coelho et al, Long-term effects of tafamidis for the treatment of transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy. J Neurol 2013, 260: 2802-2814; Lozeron et al, Effect on disability and safety of Tafamidis in late onset of Met30 transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy. Eur J Neurol 2013, 20: 1539-1545). However, symptoms continue to worsen on treatment in a large proportion of patients, highlighting the need for new, disease-modifying treatment options for FAP.

[0008] Description of dsRNA targeting TTR can be found in, for example,

International patent application no. PCT/US2009/061381 (WO2010/048228) and

International patent application no. PCT/US2010/05531 1 (WO201 1/056883). Summary

[0009] Described herein are methods for reducing or arresting an increase in a

Neuropathy Impairment Score (NIS) or a modified NIS (mNIS+7) in a human subject by administering an effective amount of a transthyretin (TTR)-inhibiting composition, wherein the effective amount reduces a concentration of TTR protein in serum of the human subject to below 50 μg/ml or by at least 80%. Also described herein are methods for adjusting a dosage of a TTR- inhibiting composition for treatment of increasing NIS or Familial Amyloidotic Polyneuropathy (FAP) by administering the TTR- inhibiting composition to a subject having the increasing NIS or FAP, and determining a level of TTR protein in the subject having the increasing NIS or FAP. In some embodiments, the amount of the TTR- inhibiting composition subsequently administered to the subject is increased if the level of TTR protein is greater than 50 μg/ml, and the amount of the TTR- inhibiting composition subsequently administered to the subject is decreased if the level of TTR protein is below 50 μg/ml. Also described herein are formulated versions of a TTR inhibiting siRNA.

Image result for Alnylam

PATENT

WO 2016203402

PAPERS

Annals of Medicine (Abingdon, United Kingdom) (2015), 47(8), 625-638.

Pharmaceutical Research (2017), 34(7), 1339-1363

Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology (2017), 57, 81-105

CLIP

Image result for Alnylam

Alnylam Announces First-Ever FDA Approval of an RNAi Therapeutic, ONPATTRO™ (patisiran) for the Treatment of the Polyneuropathy of Hereditary Transthyretin-Mediated Amyloidosis in Adults
Aug 10,2018

− First and Only FDA-approved Treatment Available in the United States for this Indication –

− ONPATTRO Shown to Improve Polyneuropathy Relative to Placebo, with Reversal of Neuropathy Impairment Compared to Baseline in Majority of Patients –

− Improvement in Specified Measures of Quality of Life and Disease Burden Demonstrated Across Diverse, Global Patient Population –

− Alnylam to Host Conference Call Today at 3:00 p.m. ET. −

CAMBRIDGE, Mass.–(BUSINESS WIRE)–Aug. 10, 2018– Alnylam Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Nasdaq: ALNY), the leading RNAi therapeutics company, announced today that the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved ONPATTRO™ (patisiran) lipid complex injection, a first-of-its-kind RNA interference (RNAi) therapeutic, for the treatment of the polyneuropathy of hereditary transthyretin-mediated (hATTR) amyloidosis in adults. ONPATTRO is the first and onlyFDA-approved treatment for this indication. hATTR amyloidosis is a rare, inherited, rapidly progressive and life-threatening disease with a constellation of manifestations. In addition to polyneuropathy, hATTR amyloidosis can lead to other significant disabilities including decreased ambulation with the loss of the ability to walk unaided, a reduced quality of life, and a decline in cardiac functioning. In the largest controlled study of hATTR amyloidosis, ONPATTRO was shown to improve polyneuropathy – with reversal of neuropathy impairment in a majority of patients – and to improve a composite quality of life measure, reduce autonomic symptoms, and improve activities of daily living.

Image result for Alnylam

This press release features multimedia. View the full release here:https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20180810005398/en/

ONPATTRO™ (patisiran) packaging and product vial (Photo: Business Wire)ONPATTRO™ (patisiran) packaging and product vial (Photo: Business Wire)

“Alnylam was founded on the vision of harnessing the potential of RNAi therapeutics to treat human disease, and this approval heralds the arrival of an entirely new class of medicines. We believe today draws us ever-closer to achieving our Alnylam 2020 goals of becoming a fully integrated, multi-product biopharmaceutical company with a sustainable pipeline,” said John Maraganore, Ph.D., Chief Executive Officer of Alnylam. “With the potential for the sequential launches of several new medicines in the coming years, we believe we have the opportunity to meaningfully impact the lives of people around the world in need of new approaches to address serious diseases with significant unmet medical needs.”

“Today’s historic approval marks the arrival of a first-of-its kind treatment option for a rare and devastating condition with limited treatment options,” said Akshay Vaishnaw, M.D., Ph.D., President of R&D at Alnylam. “We extend our deepest gratitude to the patients who participated in the ONPATTRO clinical trials and their families and caregivers who supported them. We are also grateful for the tireless efforts of the investigators and study staff, without whom this important milestone would not have been possible. We also look forward to working with the FDA to potentially expand the ONPATTRO indication in the future.”

The FDA approval of ONPATTRO was based on positive results from the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, global Phase 3 APOLLO study, the largest-ever study in hATTR amyloidosis patients with polyneuropathy. Results from the APOLLO study were published in the July 5, 2018, issue of The New England Journal of Medicine.

In APOLLO, the safety and efficacy of ONPATTRO were evaluated in a diverse, global population of hATTR amyloidosis patients in 19 countries, with a total of 39 TTR mutations. Patients were randomized in a 2:1 ratio to receive intravenous ONPATTRO (0.3 mg per kg of body weight) or placebo once every 3 weeks for 18 months. The study showed that ONPATTRO improved measures of polyneuropathy, quality of life, activities of daily living, ambulation, nutritional status and autonomic symptoms relative to placebo in adult patients with hATTR amyloidosis with polyneuropathy. The primary endpoint of the APOLLO study was the modified Neuropathy Impairment Score +7 (mNIS+7), which assesses motor strength, reflexes, sensation, nerve conduction and postural blood pressure.

  • Patients treated with ONPATTRO had a mean 6.0-point decrease (improvement) in mNIS+7 score from baseline compared to a mean 28.0-point increase (worsening) for patients in the placebo group, resulting in a mean 34.0-point difference relative to placebo, after 18 months of treatment.
  • While nearly all ONPATTRO-treated patients experienced a treatment benefit relative to placebo, 56 percent of ONPATTRO-treated patients at 18 months of treatment experienced reversal of neuropathy impairment (as assessed by mNIS+7 score) relative to their own baseline, compared to four percent of patients who received placebo.
  • Patients treated with ONPATTRO had a mean 6.7-point decrease (improvement) in Norfolk Quality of Life Diabetic Neuropathy (QoL-DN) score from baseline compared to a mean 14.4-point increase (worsening) for patients in the placebo group, resulting in a mean 21.1-point difference relative to placebo, after 18 months of treatment.
  • As measured by Norfolk QoL-DN, 51 percent of patients treated with ONPATTRO experienced improvement in quality of life at 18 months relative to their own baseline, compared to 10 percent of the placebo-treated patients.
  • Over 18 months of treatment, patients treated with ONPATTRO experienced significant benefit vs. placebo for all other secondary efficacy endpoints, including measures of activities of daily living, walking ability, nutritional status, and autonomic symptoms.
  • The most common adverse events that occurred more frequently with ONPATTRO than with placebo were upper respiratory tract infections and infusion-related reactions. To reduce the risk of infusion-related reactions, patients received premedications prior to infusion.

“FDA approval of ONPATTRO represents an entirely new approach to treating patients with polyneuropathy in hATTR amyloidosis and shows promise as a new era in patient care,” said John Berk, M.D., Associate Professor of Medicine at Boston University School of Medicine and assistant director of the Amyloidosis Center at Boston University School of Medicine. “Given the strength of the APOLLO data, including data showing the possibility of halting or improving disease progression in many patients, ONPATTRO holds tremendous promise for people living with this disease.”

“For years I have witnessed the tragic impact of hATTR amyloidosis on generations of families. Today, we celebrate the FDA approval of ONPATTRO,” said Muriel Finkel, President of Amyloidosis Support Groups. “It’s extremely gratifying to see promising science translate into a treatment option that will allow patients to potentially experience an improvement in their disease and an improvement in their overall quality of life.”

“Today’s approval is significant in so many respects. It means the hATTR amyloidosis community of patients, families, caregivers and healthcare professionals in the United States now has a treatment option that offers renewed hope,” said Isabelle Lousada, Founder and Chief Executive Officer of the Amyloidosis Research Consortium. “With an FDA-approved treatment now available, I am more optimistic than ever that we can increase awareness of this rare disease and encourage more people to get tested and receive the proper diagnosis.”

ONPATTRO is expected to be available for shipment to healthcare providers in the U.S. within 48 hours.

Alnylam is committed to helping people access the medicines they are prescribed and will be offering comprehensive support services for people prescribed ONPATTRO through Alnylam Assist™. Visit AlnylamAssist.com for more information or call 1-833-256-2748.

ONPATTRO was reviewed by the FDA under Priority Review and had previously been granted Breakthrough Therapy and Orphan Drug Designations. On July 27, patisiran received a positive opinion from the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) for the treatment of hereditary transthyretin-mediated amyloidosis in adults with stage 1 or stage 2 polyneuropathy under accelerated assessment by the European Medicines Agency. The recommended Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC) for the European Union (EU) includes data on secondary and exploratory endpoints. Expected in September, the European Commission will review the CHMP recommendation to make a final decision on marketing authorization, applicable to all 28 EU member states, plus Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway. Regulatory filings in other markets, including Japan, are planned beginning in mid-2018.

Visit ONPATTRO.com for more information,

About ONPATTRO™ (patisiran) lipid complex injection
ONPATTRO was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of the polyneuropathy of hereditary transthyretin-mediated (hATTR) amyloidosis in adults. ONPATTRO is the first and only RNA interference (RNAi) therapeutic approved by the FDA for this indication. ONPATTRO utilizes a novel approach to target and reduce production of the TTR protein in the liver via the RNAi pathway. Reducing the TTR protein leads to a reduction in the amyloid deposits that accumulate in tissues. ONPATTRO is administered through intravenous (IV) infusion once every 3 weeks following required premedication and the dose is based on actual body weight. Home infusion may be an option for some patients after an evaluation and recommendation by the treating physician, and may not be covered by all insurance plans. Regardless of the setting, ONPATTRO infusions should be performed by a healthcare professional. For more information about ONPATTRO, visit ONPATTRO.com.

About hATTR Amyloidosis
Hereditary transthyretin (TTR)-mediated amyloidosis (hATTR) is an inherited, progressively debilitating, and often fatal disease caused by mutations in the TTR gene. TTR protein is primarily produced in the liver and is normally a carrier of vitamin A. Mutations in the TTR gene cause abnormal amyloid proteins to accumulate and damage body organs and tissue, such as the peripheral nerves and heart, resulting in intractable peripheral sensory neuropathy, autonomic neuropathy, and/or cardiomyopathy, as well as other disease manifestations. hATTR amyloidosis represents a major unmet medical need with significant morbidity and mortality. The median survival is 4.7 years following diagnosis. Until now, people living with hATTR amyloidosis in the U.S. had no FDA-approved treatment options.

Alnylam Assist™
As part of Alnylam’s commitment to making therapies available to those who may benefit from them, Alnylam Assist will offer a wide range of services to guide patients through treatment with ONPATTRO, including financial assistance options for eligible patients, benefit verification and claims support, and ordering assistance and facilitation of delivery via specialty distributor or specialty pharmacy. Patients will have access to dedicated Case Managers who can provide personalized support throughout the treatment process and Patient Education Liaisons to help patients gain a better understanding of the disease. Visit AlnylamAssist.com for more information.

About RNAi
RNAi (RNA interference) is a natural cellular process of gene silencing that represents one of the most promising and rapidly advancing frontiers in biology and drug development today. Its discovery has been heralded as “a major scientific breakthrough that happens once every decade or so,” and was recognized with the award of the 2006 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. RNAi therapeutics are a new class of medicines that harness the natural biological process of RNAi. Small interfering RNA (siRNA), the molecules that mediate RNAi and comprise Alnylam’s RNAi therapeutic platform, function upstream of today’s medicines by potently silencing messenger RNA (mRNA) – the genetic precursors – that encode for disease-causing proteins, thus preventing them from being made. This is a revolutionary approach in developing medicines to improve the care of patients with genetic and other diseases.

About Alnylam
Alnylam (Nasdaq: ALNY) is leading the translation of RNA interference (RNAi) into a whole new class of innovative medicines with the potential to improve the lives of people afflicted with rare genetic, cardio-metabolic, and hepatic infectious diseases. Based on Nobel Prize-winning science, RNAi therapeutics represent a powerful, clinically validated approach for the treatment of a wide range of severe and debilitating diseases. Founded in 2002, Alnylam is delivering on a bold vision to turn scientific possibility into reality, with a robust discovery platform. ONPATTRO, available in the U.S. for the treatment of the polyneuropathy of hereditary transthyretin-mediated (hATTR) amyloidosis in adults, is Alnylam’s first U.S. FDA-approved RNAi therapeutic. Alnylam has a deep pipeline of investigational medicines, including three product candidates that are in late-stage development. Looking forward, Alnylam will continue to execute on its “Alnylam 2020” strategy of building a multi-product, commercial-stage biopharmaceutical company with a sustainable pipeline of RNAi-based medicines to address the needs of patients who have limited or inadequate treatment options. Alnylam employs over 800 people worldwide and is headquartered in Cambridge, MA. For more information about our people, science and pipeline, please visit www.alnylam.com and engage with us on Twitter at @Alnylam or on LinkedIn.

Image result for patisiran

FDA approves first-of-its kind targeted RNA-based therapy to treat a rare disease

First treatment for the polyneuropathy of hereditary transthyretin-mediated amyloidosis in adult patients

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Onpattro (patisiran) infusion for the treatment of peripheral nerve disease (polyneuropathy) caused by hereditary transthyretin-mediated amyloidosis (hATTR) in adult patients. This is the first FDA-approved treatment for patients with polyneuropathy caused by hATTR, a rare, debilitating and often fatal genetic disease characterized by the buildup of abnormal amyloid protein in peripheral nerves, the heart and other organs. It is also the first FDA approval of a new class of drugs called small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) treatment

Continue reading…

https://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/UCM616518.htm?utm_campaign=08102018_PR_FDA%20approves%20new%20drug%20for%20rare%20disease%2C%20hATTR&utm_medium=email&utm_source=Eloqua

August 10, 2018

Release

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Onpattro (patisiran) infusion for the treatment of peripheral nerve disease (polyneuropathy) caused by hereditary transthyretin-mediated amyloidosis (hATTR) in adult patients. This is the first FDA-approved treatment for patients with polyneuropathy caused by hATTR, a rare, debilitating and often fatal genetic disease characterized by the buildup of abnormal amyloid protein in peripheral nerves, the heart and other organs. It is also the first FDA approval of a new class of drugs called small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) treatment.

“This approval is part of a broader wave of advances that allow us to treat disease by actually targeting the root cause, enabling us to arrest or reverse a condition, rather than only being able to slow its progression or treat its symptoms. In this case, the effects of the disease cause a degeneration of the nerves, which can manifest in pain, weakness and loss of mobility,” said FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb, M.D. “New technologies like RNA inhibitors, that alter the genetic drivers of a disease, have the potential to transform medicine, so we can better confront and even cure debilitating illnesses. We’re committed to advancing scientific principles that enable the efficient development and review of safe, effective and groundbreaking treatments that have the potential to change patients’ lives.”

RNA acts as a messenger within the body’s cells, carrying instructions from DNA for controlling the synthesis of proteins. RNA interference is a process that occurs naturally within our cells to block how certain genes are expressed. Since its discovery in 1998, scientists have used RNA interference as a tool to investigate gene function and its involvement in health and disease. Researchers at the National Institutes of Health, for example, have used robotic technologies to introduce siRNAs into human cells to individually turn off nearly 22,000 genes.

This new class of drugs, called siRNAs, work by silencing a portion of RNA involved in causing the disease. More specifically, Onpattro encases the siRNA into a lipid nanoparticle to deliver the drug directly into the liver, in an infusion treatment, to alter or halt the production of disease-causing proteins.

Affecting about 50,000 people worldwide, hATTR is a rare condition. It is characterized by the buildup of abnormal deposits of protein fibers called amyloid in the body’s organs and tissues, interfering with their normal functioning. These protein deposits most frequently occur in the peripheral nervous system, which can result in a loss of sensation, pain, or immobility in the arms, legs, hands and feet. Amyloid deposits can also affect the functioning of the heart, kidneys, eyes and gastrointestinal tract. Treatment options have generally focused on symptom management.

Onpattro is designed to interfere with RNA production of an abnormal form of the protein transthyretin (TTR). By preventing the production of TTR, the drug can help reduce the accumulation of amyloid deposits in peripheral nerves, improving symptoms and helping patients better manage the condition.

“There has been a long-standing need for a treatment for hereditary transthyretin-mediated amyloidosis polyneuropathy. This unique targeted therapy offers these patients an innovative treatment for their symptoms that directly affects the underlying basis of this disease,” said Billy Dunn, M.D., director of the Division of Neurology Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research.

The efficacy of Onpattro was shown in a clinical trial involving 225 patients, 148 of whom were randomly assigned to receive an Onpattro infusion once every three weeks for 18 months, and 77 of whom were randomly assigned to receive a placebo infusion at the same frequency. The patients who received Onpattro had better outcomes on measures of polyneuropathy including muscle strength, sensation (pain, temperature, numbness), reflexes and autonomic symptoms (blood pressure, heart rate, digestion) compared to those receiving the placebo infusions. Onpattro-treated patients also scored better on assessments of walking, nutritional status and the ability to perform activities of daily living.

The most common adverse reactions reported by patients treated with Onpattro are infusion-related reactions including flushing, back pain, nausea, abdominal pain, dyspnea (difficulty breathing) and headache. All patients who participated in the clinical trials received premedication with a corticosteroid, acetaminophen, and antihistamines (H1 and H2 blockers) to reduce the occurrence of infusion-related reactions. Patients may also experience vision problems including dry eyes, blurred vision and eye floaters (vitreous floaters). Onpattro leads to a decrease in serum vitamin A levels, so patients should take a daily Vitamin A supplement at the recommended daily allowance.

The FDA granted this application Fast TrackPriority Review and Breakthrough Therapy designations. Onpattro also received Orphan Drug designation, which provides incentives to assist and encourage the development of drugs for rare diseases.

Approval of Onpattro was granted to Alnylam Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

References

  1. Jump up^ “FDA approves first-of-its kind targeted RNA-based therapy to treat a rare disease” (Press release). U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 10 August 2018. Retrieved 11 August 2018.
  2. Jump up^ Brooks, Megan (10 August 2018). “FDA OKs Patisiran (Onpattro) for Polyneuropathy in hAATR”Medscape. WebMD. Retrieved 10 August 2018.
  3. Jump up^ Lipschultz, Bailey; Cortez, Michelle (10 August 2018). “Rare-Disease Treatment From Alnylam to Cost $450,000 a Year”Bloomberg. Retrieved 11 August 2018.
  4. Jump up^ Loftus, Peter (10 August 2018). “New Kind of Drug, Silencing Genes, Gets FDA Approval”Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 10 August 2018.

////////////// Onpattro, patisiran, fda 2018, Fast TrackPriority Review, Breakthrough Therapy,  Orphan Drug designation, Alnylam Pharmaceuticals, ALN-18328,  6024128  , ALN-TTR02  , GENZ-438027  , SAR-438037  , 50FKX8CB2Y

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FDA approves first-of-its kind targeted RNA-based therapy Onpattro (patisiran) to treat a rare disease


Image result for patisiran

FDA approves first-of-its kind targeted RNA-based therapy to treat a rare disease

First treatment for the polyneuropathy of hereditary transthyretin-mediated amyloidosis in adult patients

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Onpattro (patisiran) infusion for the treatment of peripheral nerve disease (polyneuropathy) caused by hereditary transthyretin-mediated amyloidosis (hATTR) in adult patients. This is the first FDA-approved treatment for patients with polyneuropathy caused by hATTR, a rare, debilitating and often fatal genetic disease characterized by the buildup of abnormal amyloid protein in peripheral nerves, the heart and other organs. It is also the first FDA approval of a new class of drugs called small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) treatment

Continue reading…

https://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/UCM616518.htm?utm_campaign=08102018_PR_FDA%20approves%20new%20drug%20for%20rare%20disease%2C%20hATTR&utm_medium=email&utm_source=Eloqua

August 10, 2018

Release

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Onpattro (patisiran) infusion for the treatment of peripheral nerve disease (polyneuropathy) caused by hereditary transthyretin-mediated amyloidosis (hATTR) in adult patients. This is the first FDA-approved treatment for patients with polyneuropathy caused by hATTR, a rare, debilitating and often fatal genetic disease characterized by the buildup of abnormal amyloid protein in peripheral nerves, the heart and other organs. It is also the first FDA approval of a new class of drugs called small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) treatment.

“This approval is part of a broader wave of advances that allow us to treat disease by actually targeting the root cause, enabling us to arrest or reverse a condition, rather than only being able to slow its progression or treat its symptoms. In this case, the effects of the disease cause a degeneration of the nerves, which can manifest in pain, weakness and loss of mobility,” said FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb, M.D. “New technologies like RNA inhibitors, that alter the genetic drivers of a disease, have the potential to transform medicine, so we can better confront and even cure debilitating illnesses. We’re committed to advancing scientific principles that enable the efficient development and review of safe, effective and groundbreaking treatments that have the potential to change patients’ lives.”

RNA acts as a messenger within the body’s cells, carrying instructions from DNA for controlling the synthesis of proteins. RNA interference is a process that occurs naturally within our cells to block how certain genes are expressed. Since its discovery in 1998, scientists have used RNA interference as a tool to investigate gene function and its involvement in health and disease. Researchers at the National Institutes of Health, for example, have used robotic technologies to introduce siRNAs into human cells to individually turn off nearly 22,000 genes.

This new class of drugs, called siRNAs, work by silencing a portion of RNA involved in causing the disease. More specifically, Onpattro encases the siRNA into a lipid nanoparticle to deliver the drug directly into the liver, in an infusion treatment, to alter or halt the production of disease-causing proteins.

Affecting about 50,000 people worldwide, hATTR is a rare condition. It is characterized by the buildup of abnormal deposits of protein fibers called amyloid in the body’s organs and tissues, interfering with their normal functioning. These protein deposits most frequently occur in the peripheral nervous system, which can result in a loss of sensation, pain, or immobility in the arms, legs, hands and feet. Amyloid deposits can also affect the functioning of the heart, kidneys, eyes and gastrointestinal tract. Treatment options have generally focused on symptom management.

Onpattro is designed to interfere with RNA production of an abnormal form of the protein transthyretin (TTR). By preventing the production of TTR, the drug can help reduce the accumulation of amyloid deposits in peripheral nerves, improving symptoms and helping patients better manage the condition.

“There has been a long-standing need for a treatment for hereditary transthyretin-mediated amyloidosis polyneuropathy. This unique targeted therapy offers these patients an innovative treatment for their symptoms that directly affects the underlying basis of this disease,” said Billy Dunn, M.D., director of the Division of Neurology Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research.

The efficacy of Onpattro was shown in a clinical trial involving 225 patients, 148 of whom were randomly assigned to receive an Onpattro infusion once every three weeks for 18 months, and 77 of whom were randomly assigned to receive a placebo infusion at the same frequency. The patients who received Onpattro had better outcomes on measures of polyneuropathy including muscle strength, sensation (pain, temperature, numbness), reflexes and autonomic symptoms (blood pressure, heart rate, digestion) compared to those receiving the placebo infusions. Onpattro-treated patients also scored better on assessments of walking, nutritional status and the ability to perform activities of daily living.

The most common adverse reactions reported by patients treated with Onpattro are infusion-related reactions including flushing, back pain, nausea, abdominal pain, dyspnea (difficulty breathing) and headache. All patients who participated in the clinical trials received premedication with a corticosteroid, acetaminophen, and antihistamines (H1 and H2 blockers) to reduce the occurrence of infusion-related reactions. Patients may also experience vision problems including dry eyes, blurred vision and eye floaters (vitreous floaters). Onpattro leads to a decrease in serum vitamin A levels, so patients should take a daily Vitamin A supplement at the recommended daily allowance.

The FDA granted this application Fast TrackPriority Review and Breakthrough Therapy designations. Onpattro also received Orphan Drug designation, which provides incentives to assist and encourage the development of drugs for rare diseases.

Approval of Onpattro was granted to Alnylam Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

////////////// Onpattro, patisiran, fda 2018, Fast TrackPriority Review, Breakthrough Therapy,  Orphan Drug designation

FDA approves treatment Poteligeo (mogamulizumab-kpkc) for two rare types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma


 

FDA approves treatment for two rare types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Poteligeo (mogamulizumab-kpkc) injection for intravenous use for the treatment of adult patients with relapsed or refractory mycosis fungoides (MF) or Sézary syndrome (SS) after at least one prior systemic therapy. This approval provides a new treatment option for patients with MF and is the first FDA approval of a drug specifically for SS.

August 8, 2018

Release

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Poteligeo (mogamulizumab-kpkc) injection for intravenous use for the treatment of adult patients with relapsed or refractory mycosis fungoides (MF) or Sézary syndrome (SS) after at least one prior systemic therapy. This approval provides a new treatment option for patients with MF and is the first FDA approval of a drug specifically for SS.

“Mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome are rare, hard-to-treat types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and this approval fills an unmet medical need for these patients,” said Richard Pazdur, M.D., director of the FDA’s Oncology Center of Excellence and acting director of the Office of Hematology and Oncology Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “We are committed to continuing to expedite the development and review of this type of targeted therapy that offers meaningful treatments for patients.”

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a cancer that starts in white blood cells called lymphocytes, which are part of the body’s immune system. MF and SS are types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in which lymphocytes become cancerous and affect the skin. MF accounts for about half of all lymphomas arising from the skin. It causes itchy red rashes and skin lesions and can spread to other parts of the body. SS is a rare form of skin lymphoma that affects the blood and lymph nodes.

Poteligeo is a monoclonal antibody that binds to a protein (called CC chemokine receptor type 4 or CCR4) found on some cancer cells.

The approval was based on a clinical trial of 372 patients with relapsed MF or SS who received either Poteligeo or a type of chemotherapy called vorinostat. Progression-free survival (the amount of time a patient stays alive without the cancer growing) was longer for patients taking Poteligeo (median 7.6 months) compared to patients taking vorinostat (median 3.1 months).

The most common side effects of treatment with Poteligeo included rash, infusion-related reactions, fatigue, diarrhea, musculoskeletal pain and upper respiratory tract infection.

Serious warnings of treatment with Poteligeo include the risk of dermatologic toxicity, infusion reactions, infections, autoimmune problems (a condition where the immune cells in the body attack other cells or organs in the body), and complications of stem cell transplantation that uses donor stem cells (allogeneic) after treatment with the drug.

The FDA granted this application Priority Review and Breakthrough Therapydesignation. Poteligeo also received Orphan Drug designation, which provides incentives to assist and encourage the development of drugs for rare diseases.

The FDA granted this approval to Kyowa Kirin, Inc.

///////////////// Poteligeo, mogamulizumab-kpkc, fda 2018, Kyowa Kirin, Priority Review, Breakthrough Therapy designation,  Orphan Drug designation

Iobenguane I 131


Iobenguane I-131.png

Iobenguane I 131

FDA approves first treatment for rare adrenal tumors

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Azedra (iobenguane I 131) injection for intravenous use for the treatment of adults and adolescents age 12 and older with rare tumors of the adrenal gland (pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma) that cannot be surgically removed (unresectable), have spread beyond the original tumor site and require systemic anticancer therapy. This is the first FDA-approved drug for this use.

July 30, 2018

Release

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Azedra (iobenguane I 131) injection for intravenous use for the treatment of adults and adolescents age 12 and older with rare tumors of the adrenal gland (pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma) that cannot be surgically removed (unresectable), have spread beyond the original tumor site and require systemic anticancer therapy. This is the first FDA-approved drug for this use.

“Many patients with these ultra-rare cancers can be treated with surgery or local therapies, but there are no effective systemic treatments for patients who experience tumor-related symptoms such as high blood pressure,” said Richard Pazdur, M.D., director of the FDA’s Oncology Center of Excellence and acting director of the Office of Hematology and Oncology Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “Patients will now have an approved therapy that has been shown to decrease the need for blood pressure medication and reduce tumor size in some patients.”

Pheochromocytomas are rare tumors of the adrenal glands. These glands are located right above the kidneys and make hormones including stress hormones called epinephrines and norepinephrines. Pheochromocytomas increase the production of these hormones, leading to hypertension (high blood pressure) and symptoms such as headaches, irritability, sweating, rapid heart rate, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, weakness, chest pain or anxiety. When this type of tumor occurs outside the adrenal gland, it is called a paraganglioma.

The efficacy of Azedra was shown in a single-arm, open-label, clinical trial in 68 patients that measured the number of patients who experienced a 50 percent or greater reduction of all antihypertensive medications lasting for at least six months. This endpoint was supported by the secondary endpoint, overall tumor response measured by traditional imaging criteria. The study met the primary endpoint, with 17 (25 percent) of the 68 evaluable patients experiencing a 50 percent or greater reduction of all antihypertensive medication for at least six months. Overall tumor response was achieved in 15 (22 percent) of the patients studied.

The most common severe side effects reported by patients receiving Azedra in clinical trials included low levels of white blood cells (lymphopenia), abnormally low count of a type of white blood cells (neutropenia), low blood platelet count (thrombocytopenia), fatigue, anemia, increased international normalized ratio (a laboratory test which measures blood clotting), nausea, dizziness, hypertension and vomiting.

As it is a radioactive therapeutic agent, Azedra includes a warning about radiation exposure to patients and family members, which should be minimized while the patient is receiving Azedra. The risk of radiation exposure is greater in pediatric patients. Other warnings and precautions include a risk of lower levels of blood cells (myelosuppression), underactive thyroid, elevations in blood pressure, renal failure or kidney injury and inflammation of lung tissue (pneumonitis). Myelodysplastic syndrome and acute leukemias, which are cancers of the blood and bone marrow, were observed in patients who received Azedra, and the magnitude of this risk will continue to be studied. Azedra can cause harm to a developing fetus; women should be advised of the potential risk to the fetus and to use effective contraception after receiving Azedra. Radiation exposure associated with Azedra may cause infertility in males and females.

The FDA granted this application Fast TrackBreakthrough Therapy and Priority Review designations. Azedra also received Orphan Drug designation, which provides incentives to assist and encourage the development of drugs for rare diseases.

The FDA granted the approval of Azedra to Progenics Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

https://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm615155.htm?utm_campaign=07302018_PR_treatment%20for%20rare%20adrenal%20tumors&utm_medium=email&utm_source=Eloqua

Iobenguane I-131.png

Iobenguane (131I); Iobenguane I 131; Iobeguane I 131; 3-Iodobenzylguanidine; 131I-MIBG; Azedra

77679-27-7 CAS NUMBER

PATENT US 4584187

Guanidine, [[3-(iodo-131I)phenyl]methyl]-

  • [[3-(Iodo-131I)phenyl]methyl]guanidine
  • 131I-MIBG
  • Azedra
  • Iobenguane (131I)
  • Iobenguane I 131
  • Ultratrace Iobenguane 131I
  • [131I]-m-Iodobenzylguanidine
  • [131I]-m-Iodobenzylguanidine
  • m-Iodobenzylguanidine-131I
  • m-[131I]Iodobenzylguanidine
Molecular Formula: C8H10IN3
Molecular Weight: 279.095 g/mol
Image result for Iobenguane I 131Image result for Iobenguane I 131
(I 131-meta-iodobenzylguanidine sulfate)
Iobenguane sulfate; M-Iodobenzylguanidine hemisulfate; MIBG; 87862-25-7; 3-Iodobenzylguanidine hemisulfate; 3-Iodobenzyl-guanidine hemisulfate
Molecular Formula: C16H22I2N6O4S
Molecular Weight: 648.259 g/mol

AdreView
(iobenguane I 123) Injection for Intravenous Use

SYN

CN 106187824

DESCRIPTION

AdreView (iobenguane I 123 Injection) is a sterile, pyrogen-free radiopharmaceutical for intravenous injection. Each mL contains 0.08 mg iobenguane sulfate, 74 MBq (2 mCi) of I 123 (as iobenguane sulfate I 123) at calibration date and time on the label, 23 mg sodium dihydrogen phosphate dihydrate, 2.8 mg disodium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate and 10.3 mg (1% v/v) benzyl alcohol with a pH of 5.0 – 6.5. Iobenguane sulfate I 123 is also known as I 123 meta-iodobenzlyguanidine sulfate and has the following structural formula:

AdreView (iobenguane I 123) Structural Formula Illustration

Physical Characteristics

Iodine 123 is a cyclotron-produced radionuclide that decays to Te 123 by electron capture and has a physical half-life of 13.2 hours.

Iobenguane I-131 is a guanidine analog with specific affinity for tissues of the sympathetic nervous system and related tumors. The radiolabeled forms are used as antineoplastic agents and radioactive imaging agents. (Merck Index, 12th ed) MIBG serves as a neuron-blocking agent which has a strong affinity for, and retention in, the adrenal medulla and also inhibits ADP-ribosyltransferase.

Iobenguane i-131 is a Radioactive Diagnostic Agent. The mechanism of action of iobenguane i-131 is as a Radiopharmaceutical Activity.

Iobenguane I-131 is an I 131 radioiodinated synthetic analogue of the neurotransmitter norepinephrineIobenguane localizes to adrenergic tissue and, in radioiodinated forms, may be used to image or eradicate tumor cells that take up and metabolize norepinephrine.

Iobenguane, also known as metaiodobenzylguanidine or mIBG, or MIBG (tradename Adreview) is a radiopharmaceutical,[1] used in a scintigraphy method called MIBG scan. Iobenguane is a radiolabeled molecule similar to noradrenaline.

The radioisotope of iodine used for the label can be iodine-123 (for imaging purposes only) or iodine-131 (which must be used when tissue destruction is desired, but is sometimes used for imaging also).

Pheochromocytoma seen as dark sphere in center of the body (it is in the left adrenal gland). Image is by MIBG scintigraphy, with radiation from radioiodine in the MIBG. Two images are seen of the same patient from front and back. Note dark image of the thyroid due to unwanted uptake of iodide radioiodine from breakdown of the pharmaceutical, by the thyroid gland in the neck. Uptake at the side of the head are from the salivary glands. Radioactivity is also seen in the bladder, from normal renal excretion of iodide.

It localizes to adrenergic tissue and thus can be used to identify the location of tumors[2] such as pheochromocytomas and neuroblastomas. With I-131 it can also be used to eradicate tumor cells that take up and metabolize norepinephrine.

Thyroid precautions

Thyroid blockade with (nonradioactive) potassium iodide is indicated for nuclear medicine scintigraphy with iobenguane/mIBG. This competitively inhibits radioiodine uptake, preventing excessive radioiodine levels in the thyroid and minimizing the risk of thyroid ablation ( in the case of I-131). The minimal risk of thyroid carcinogenesis is also reduced as a result.

The FDA-approved dosing of potassium iodide for this purpose are as follows: infants less than 1 month old, 16 mg; children 1 month to 3 years, 32 mg; children 3 years to 18 years, 65 mg; adults 130 mg.[3] However, some sources recommend alternative dosing regimens.[4]

Not all sources are in agreement on the necessary duration of thyroid blockade, although agreement appears to have been reached about the necessity of blockade for both scintigraphic and therapeutic applications of iobenguane. Commercially available iobenguane is labeled with iodine-123, and product labeling recommends administration of potassium iodide 1 hour prior to administration of the radiopharmaceutical for all age groups,[5] while the European Associated of Nuclear Medicine recommends (for iobenguane labeled with either I-131 or I-123,) that potassium iodide administration begin one day prior to radiopharmaceutical administration, and continue until the day following the injection, with the exception of newborns, who do not require potassium iodide doses following radiopharmaceutical injection.[4]

Product labeling for diagnostic iodine-131 iobenguane recommends potassium iodide administration one day before injection and continuing 5 to 7 days following.[6] Iodine-131 iobenguane used for therapeutic purposes requires a different pre-medication duration, beginning 24–48 hours prior to iobenguane injection and continuing 10–15 days following injection.[7]

Alternative imaging modality for pheochromocytoma

The FDOPA PET/CT scan has proven to be nearly 100% sensitive for detection of pheochromocytomas, vs. 90% for MIBG scans.[8][9][10] Centers which offer FDOPA PET/CT, however, are rare.

Clinical trials

Iobenguane I 131 for cancers

Iobenguane I 131 (as Azedra) has had a clinical trial as a treatment for malignant, recurrent or unresectable pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma, and the US FDA has granted it a Priority Review.[11]

PATENTS
Patent ID

Title

Submitted Date

Granted Date

US7658910 PREPARATION OF RADIOLABELLED HALOAROMATICS VIA POLYMER-BOUND INTERMEDIATES
2008-04-10
2010-02-09
US2008241063 Combination set of Meta-Iodobenzyl guanidine freezing crystal and making method thereof and method for making a radioactive iodine marker
2007-03-29
2008-10-02
US7273601 Preparation of radiolabelled haloaromatics via polymer-bound intermediates
2003-01-16
2007-09-25
US6461585 Preparation of radiolabelled haloaromatics via polymer-bound intermediates
2002-10-08
US2010274052 PREPARATION OF RADIOLABELLED HALOAROMATICS VIA POLYMER-BOUND INTERMEDIATES
2010-10-28
/////////////// Azedra, iobenguane I 131, fda 2018, Progenics Pharmaceuticals, Fast TrackBreakthrough Therapy,  Priority Review, orphan drug, Iobenguane (131I), Iobenguane I 131, Iobeguane I 131, 3-Iodobenzylguanidine, 131I-MIBG, Azedra
C1=CC(=CC(=C1)I)CN=C(N)N

FDA approves first treatment Azedra (iobenguane I 131) for rare adrenal tumors


FDA approves first treatment for rare adrenal tumors

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Azedra (iobenguane I 131) injection for intravenous use for the treatment of adults and adolescents age 12 and older with rare tumors of the adrenal gland (pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma) that cannot be surgically removed (unresectable), have spread beyond the original tumor site and require systemic anticancer therapy. This is the first FDA-approved drug for this use.

July 30, 2018

Release

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Azedra (iobenguane I 131) injection for intravenous use for the treatment of adults and adolescents age 12 and older with rare tumors of the adrenal gland (pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma) that cannot be surgically removed (unresectable), have spread beyond the original tumor site and require systemic anticancer therapy. This is the first FDA-approved drug for this use.

“Many patients with these ultra-rare cancers can be treated with surgery or local therapies, but there are no effective systemic treatments for patients who experience tumor-related symptoms such as high blood pressure,” said Richard Pazdur, M.D., director of the FDA’s Oncology Center of Excellence and acting director of the Office of Hematology and Oncology Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “Patients will now have an approved therapy that has been shown to decrease the need for blood pressure medication and reduce tumor size in some patients.”

Pheochromocytomas are rare tumors of the adrenal glands. These glands are located right above the kidneys and make hormones including stress hormones called epinephrines and norepinephrines. Pheochromocytomas increase the production of these hormones, leading to hypertension (high blood pressure) and symptoms such as headaches, irritability, sweating, rapid heart rate, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, weakness, chest pain or anxiety. When this type of tumor occurs outside the adrenal gland, it is called a paraganglioma.

The efficacy of Azedra was shown in a single-arm, open-label, clinical trial in 68 patients that measured the number of patients who experienced a 50 percent or greater reduction of all antihypertensive medications lasting for at least six months. This endpoint was supported by the secondary endpoint, overall tumor response measured by traditional imaging criteria. The study met the primary endpoint, with 17 (25 percent) of the 68 evaluable patients experiencing a 50 percent or greater reduction of all antihypertensive medication for at least six months. Overall tumor response was achieved in 15 (22 percent) of the patients studied.

The most common severe side effects reported by patients receiving Azedra in clinical trials included low levels of white blood cells (lymphopenia), abnormally low count of a type of white blood cells (neutropenia), low blood platelet count (thrombocytopenia), fatigue, anemia, increased international normalized ratio (a laboratory test which measures blood clotting), nausea, dizziness, hypertension and vomiting.

As it is a radioactive therapeutic agent, Azedra includes a warning about radiation exposure to patients and family members, which should be minimized while the patient is receiving Azedra. The risk of radiation exposure is greater in pediatric patients. Other warnings and precautions include a risk of lower levels of blood cells (myelosuppression), underactive thyroid, elevations in blood pressure, renal failure or kidney injury and inflammation of lung tissue (pneumonitis). Myelodysplastic syndrome and acute leukemias, which are cancers of the blood and bone marrow, were observed in patients who received Azedra, and the magnitude of this risk will continue to be studied. Azedra can cause harm to a developing fetus; women should be advised of the potential risk to the fetus and to use effective contraception after receiving Azedra. Radiation exposure associated with Azedra may cause infertility in males and females.

The FDA granted this application Fast TrackBreakthrough Therapy and Priority Review designations. Azedra also received Orphan Drug designation, which provides incentives to assist and encourage the development of drugs for rare diseases.

The FDA granted the approval of Azedra to Progenics Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

https://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm615155.htm?utm_campaign=07302018_PR_treatment%20for%20rare%20adrenal%20tumors&utm_medium=email&utm_source=Eloqua

/////////////// Azedra, iobenguane I 131, fda 2018, Progenics Pharmaceuticals, Fast TrackBreakthrough Therapy,  Priority Review, orphan drug,

TAFENOQUINE タフェノキン


Tafenoquine(RS)-Tafenoquin Structural Formula V1.svg

ChemSpider 2D Image | Tafenoquine | C24H28F3N3O3

Tafenoquine

タフェノキン

N-[2,6-dimethoxy-4-methyl-5-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]quinolin-8-yl]pentane-1,4-diamine

1,4-Pentanediamine, N4-[2,6-dimethoxy-4-methyl-5-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-8-quinolinyl]-
106635-80-7 [RN]
262P8GS9L9
7835
N4-{2,6-Dimethoxy-4-methyl-5-[3-(trifluormethyl)phenoxy]-8-chinolinyl}-1,4-pentandiamin
WR-238605, WR 238605, cas no 106635-80-7, Tafenoquine succinate, Etaquine, SB-252263, WR-238605
N(4)-(2,6-Dimethoxy-4-methyl-5-((3-trifluoromethyl)phenoxy)-8-quinolinyl)-1,4-pentanediamine
Molecular Formula: C24H28F3N3O3
Molecular Weight: 463.49263

Medicines for Malaria Venture
Walter Reed Army Institute (Originator)

PATENT  US 4617394

Synonyms

  • Etaquine[5]
  • WR 238605 [5]
  • SB-252263

New Drug Application (NDA): 210795
Company: GLAXOSMITHKLINE

FDA approved on July 20, 2018

FDA

Orphan

This new drug application provides for the use of KRINTAFEL (tafenoquine) tablets for the radical cure (prevention of relapse) of Plasmodium vivax malaria in patients aged 16 years and older who are receiving appropriate antimalarial therapy for acute P. vivax infection….https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/appletter/2018/210795Orig1s000Ltr.pdf

Tafenoquine under the commercial name of Krintafel is an 8-aminoquinoline drug manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline that is being investigated as a potential treatment for malaria, as well as for malaria prevention.[2][3]

The proposed indication for tafenoquine is for treatment of the hypnozoite stages of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale that are responsible for relapse of these malaria species even when the blood stages are successfully cleared. This is only now achieved by administration of daily primaquine for 14 days. The main advantage of tafenoquine is that it has a long half-life (2–3 weeks) and therefore a single treatment may be sufficient to clear hypnozoites. The shorter regimen has been described as an advantage.[4]

Like primaquine, tafenoquine causes hemolysis in people with G6PD deficiency.[2] Indeed, the long half-life of tafenoquine suggests that particular care should be taken to ensure that individuals with severe G6PD deficiency do not receive the drug.

The dose of tafenoquine has not been firmly established, but for the treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria, a dose of 800 mg over three days has been used.[5]

Image result for TAFENOQUINE IR

In 2018 United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved single dose tafenoquine for the radical cure (prevention of relapse) of Plasmodium vivax malaria[6].

Tafenoquine is used for the treatment and prevention of relapse of Vivax malaria in patients 16 years and older. Tafenoquine is not indicated to treat acute vivax malaria.[1]

Malaria is a disease that remains to occur in many tropical countries. Vivax malaria, caused by Plasmodium vivax, is known to be less virulent and seldom causes death. However, it causes a substantive illness-related burden in endemic areas and it is known to present dormant forms in the hepatocytes named hypnozoites which can remain dormant for weeks or even months. This dormant form produces ongoing relapses

FDA Approves Tafenoquine, First New P VivaxMalaria Treatment in 60 Years

JUL 23, 2018

The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved, under Priority Review, GlaxoSmithKline (GSK)’s tafenoquine (Krintafel), which is the first single-dose medicine for the prevention of  Plasmodium vivax (P vivax) malaria relapse in patients over the age of 16 years who are receiving antimalarial therapy. This is the first drug to be approved for the treatment of P vivax in over 60 years.

“[The] approval of Krintafel, the first new treatment for Plasmodium vivax malaria in over 60 years, is a significant milestone for people living with this type of relapsing malaria.” Hal Barron, MD, chief scientific officer and president of research and development of  GSK, said in the announcement, “Together with our partner, Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV), we believe Krintafel will be an important medicine for patients with malaria and contribute to the ongoing effort to eradicate this disease.”

Tafenoquine is an 8-aminoquinoline derivative with activity against all stages of the P vivax lifecycle, including hypnozoites. It was first synthesized by scientists at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research in 1978, and in 2008, GSK entered into a collaboration with MMV, to develop tafenoquine as an anti-relapse medicine.

After an infected mosquito bite, the P vivax parasite infects the blood and causes an acute malaria episode and can also lie dormant in the liver (in a form known as hypnozoite) from where it periodically reactivates to cause relapses, which can occur weeks, months, or years after the onset of the initial infection. The dormant liver forms cannot be readily treated with most anti-malarial treatments. Primaquine, an 8-aminoquinolone, has been the only FDA-approved medicine that targeted the dormant liver stage to prevent relapse; however, effectiveness only occurs after 14 days and the treatment has shown to have poor compliance.

“The US FDA’s approval of Krintafel is a major milestone and a significant contribution towards global efforts to eradicate malaria,” commented David Reddy, PhD, chief executive officer of MMV in a recent statement, “The world has waited decades for a new medicine to counter P vivax malaria relapse. Today, we can say the wait is over. Moreover, as the first ever single-dose for this indication, Krintafel will help improve patient compliance.”

Approval for tafenoquine was granted based on the efficacy and safety data gleaned from a comprehensive global clinical development program for P vivaxprevention of relapse which has been designed by GSK and MMV in agreement with the FDA. The program consisted of 13 studies assessing the safety of a 300 mg single-dose of tafenoquine, including 3 double-blind studies referred to as DETECTIVE Parts 1 and 2 and GATHER.

With the approval of tafenoquine, GSK has also been awarded a tropical disease priority review voucher by the FDA. Additionally, GSK is waiting for a decision from Australian Therapeutics Good Administration regarding the regulatory submission for the drug.

P vivax malaria has caused around 8.5 million clinical infections each year, primarily in South Asia, South-East Asia, Latin America, and the Horn of Africa, a peninsula in East Africa. Symptoms include fever, chills, vomiting, malaise, headache and muscle pain, and can lead to death in severe cases.

Tafenoquine should not be administered to: patients who have glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency or have not been tested for G6PD deficiency, patients who are breastfeeding a child known to have G6PD deficiency or one that has not been tested for G6PD deficiency, or patients who are allergic to tafenoquine or any of the ingredients in tafenoquine or who have had an allergic reaction to similar medicines containing 8-aminoquinolines

Stereochemistry

Tafenoquine contains a stereocenter and consists of two enantiomers. This is a mixture of (R) – and the (S) – Form:

Enantiomers of tafenoquine
(R)-Tafenoquin Structural Formula V1.svg
(R)-Form
(S)-Tafenoquin Structural Formula V1.svg
(S)-Form

CLIP

US 4431807

Nitration of 1,2-dimethoxybenzene (XXIX) with HNO3/AcOH gives 4,5-dimethoxy-1,2-dinitrobenzene (XXX), which is treated with ammonia in hot methanol to yield 4,5-dimethoxy-2-nitroaniline (XXXI). Cyclization of compound (XXXI) with buten-2-one (XXXII) by means of H3PO4 and H3AsO4 affords 5,6-dimethoxy-4-methyl-8-nitroquinoline (XXXIII), which is selectively mono-demethylated by means of HCl in ethanol to provide 5-hydroxy-6-methoxy-4-methyl-8-nitroquinoline (XXXIV). Reaction of quinoline (XXXIV) with POCl3 gives the corresponding 5-chloro derivative (XXXV), which is condensed with 3-(trifluoromethyl)phenol (IV) by means of KOH to yield the diaryl ether (XXXVI). Finally, the nitro group of (XXXVI) is reduced by means of H2 over PtO2 in THF or H2 over Raney nickel.

Nitration of 2-fluoroanisole (XXXVII) with HNO3/Ac2O gives 3-fluoro-4-methoxynitrobenzene (XXXVIII), which is reduced to the corresponding aniline (XXXIX) with SnCl2/HCl. Reaction of compound (XXXIX) with Ac2O yields the acetanilide (XL), which is nitrated with HNO3 to afford 5-fluoro-4-methoxy-2-nitroacetanilide (XLI). Hydrolysis of (XLI) with NaOH provides 5-fluoro-4-methoxy-2-nitroaniline (XLII), which is cyclized with buten-2-one (XXXII) by means of As2O5 and H3PO4 to furnish 5-fluoro-6-methoxy-4-methyl-8-nitroquinoline (XLIII). Condensation of quinoline (XLIII) with 3-(trifluoromethyl)phenol (IV) by means of K2CO3 gives the diaryl ether (XXXIV), which is finally reduced by means of H2 over PtO2 in THF.

CLIP

US 4617394

Reaction of 8-amino-6-methoxy-4-methyl-5-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]quinoline (XIV) with phthalic anhydride (XV) affords the phthalimido derivative (XVI), which is oxidized with MCPBA to yield the quinoline N-oxide (XVII). Treatment of compound (XVII) with neutral alumina gives the quinolone derivative (XVIII), which by reaction with POCl3 in refluxing CHCl3 provides the 2-chloroquinoline derivative (XIX). Alternatively, reaction of the quinoline N-oxide (XVII) with POCl3 as before also gives the 2-chloroquinoline derivative (XIX) The removal of the phthalimido group of compound (XIX) by means of hydrazine in refluxing ethanol gives the chlorinated aminoquinoline (XX), which is finally treated with MeONa in hot DMF.

CLIP

US 6479660; WO 9713753

Chlorination of 6-methoxy-4-methylquinolin-2(1H)-one (I) with SO2Cl2 in hot acetic acid gives the 5-chloro derivative (II), which is nitrated with HNO3 in H2SO4 to yield the 8-nitroquinolinone (III). Condensation of compound (III) with 3-(trifluoromethyl)phenol (IV) by means of KOH in NMP provides the diaryl ether (V), which is treated with refluxing POCl3 to afford the 2-chloroquinoline (VI). Reaction of compound (VI) with MeONa in refluxing methanol results in the 2,6-dimethoxyquinoline derivative (VII), which is reduced with hydrazine over Pd/C to give the 8-aminoquinoline derivative (VIII). Condensation of aminoquinoline (VIII) with N-(4-iodopentyl)phthalimide (IX) by means of diisopropylamine in hot NMP yields the phthalimido precursor (X), which is finally cleaved with hydrazine in refluxing ethanol.

Reaction of 1,4-dibromopentane (XI) with potassium phthalimide (XII) gives N-(4-bromopentyl)phthalimide (XIII), which is then treated with NaI in refluxing acetone.

Reaction of 4-methoxyaniline (XXI) with ethyl acetoacetate (XXII) by means of triethanolamine in refluxing xylene gives the acetoacetanilide (XXIII), which is cyclized by means of hot triethanolamine and H2SO4 to yield 6-methoxy-4-methylquinolin-2(1H)-one (I), which is treated with refluxing POCl3 to provide 2-chloro-6-methoxy-4-methylquinoline (XXIV). Reaction of compound (XXIV) with SO2Cl2 in hot AcOH affords 2,5-dichloro-6-methoxy-4-methylquinoline (XXV), which is treated with MeONa in refluxing methanol to furnish 5-chloro-2,6-dimethoxy-4-methylquinoline (XXVI). Alternatively, the reaction of compound (XXIV) with MeONa as before gives 2,6-dimethoxy-4-methylquinoline (XXVII), which is treated with SO2Cl2 in hot AcOH to give the already described 5-chloro-2,6-dimethoxy-4-methylquinoline (XXVI). Nitration of compound (XXVI) with KNO3 and P2O5 gives the 8-nitroquinoline derivative (XXVIII), which is condensed with 3-(trifluoromethyl)phenol (IV) by means of KOH in hot NMP to yield the diaryl ether (VII). Finally, the nitro group of compound (VII) is reduced with hydrazine over Pd/C.

PAPER

http://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/ArticleLanding/2017/RA/C7RA04867J#!divAbstract

An antimalarial drug, tafenoquine, as a fluorescent receptor for ratiometric detection of hypochlorite

 Author affiliations

Abstract

Tafenoquine (TQ), a fluorescent antimalarial drug, was used as a receptor for the fluorometric detection of hypochlorite (OCl). TQ itself exhibits a strong fluorescence at 476 nm, but OCl-selective cyclization of its pentan-1,4-diamine moiety creates a blue-shifted fluorescence at 361 nm. This ratiometric response facilitates rapid, selective, and sensitive detection of OCl in aqueous media with physiological pH. This response is also applicable to a simple test kit analysis and allows fluorometric OCl imaging in living cells.

Graphical abstract: An antimalarial drug, tafenoquine, as a fluorescent receptor for ratiometric detection of hypochlorite

1 H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3, TMS) d (ppm): 7.32 (q, 1H, J ¼ 18 Hz), 7.21 (d, 1H, J ¼ 6 Hz), 7.07 (s, 1H), 6.94 (d, 1H, J ¼ 6 Hz), 6.64 (s, 1H), 6.50 (s, 1H), 5.84 (d, 1H, J ¼ 6 Hz), 4.00 (s, 3H), 3.79 (s, 3H), 3.66 (s, 1H), 2.78 (d, 2H, J ¼ 6 Hz), 2.55 (s, 3H), 1.69 (dd, 6H, J ¼ 6 Hz, J ¼ 9 Hz), 1.35 (d, 3H, J ¼ 6 Hz).

13C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3, TMS) d (ppm): 159.64, 148.961, 146.339, 142.010, 132.085, 131.760, 131.007, 129.968, 126.917, 125.344, 122.636, 120.681, 118.006, 115.256, 112.052, 94.996, 56.989, 52.870, 48.446, 42.248, 34.439, 30.130, 23.103, 20.833.

MS (m/z): M+ calcd for C24H28F3N3O3: 463.2083; found (ESI): 464.17 (M + H)+ .

PAPER

J Med Chem 1989,32(8),1728-32

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/jm00128a010

Synthesis of the intermediate diazepinone (IV) is accomplished by a one-pot synthesis. Condensation of 2-chloro-3-aminopyridine (I) with the anthranilic ester (II) is effected in the presence of potassium tert-butoxide as a catalyst. The resulting anthranilic amide (III) is cyclized under the influence of catalytic amounts of sulfuric acid. Treatment of (IV) with chloroacetylchloride in toluene yields the corresponding choroacetamide (V). The side chain of AQ-RA 741 is prepared starting from 4-picoline, which is alkylated by reaction with 3-(diethylamino)propylchloride in the presence of n-butyllithium. Hydrogenation of (VIII) using platinum dioxide as a catalyst furnishes the diamine (IX), which is coupled with (V) in the presence of catalytic amounts of sodium iodide in acetone leading to AQ-RA 741 as its free base.

Image result for tafenoquine DRUG FUTURE

Image result for tafenoquine DRUG FUTURE

CLIP

Image result for TAFENOQUINE IR

Image result for TAFENOQUINE IR

References

  1. Jump up to:a b Peters W (1999). “The evolution of tafenoquine–antimalarial for a new millennium?”J R Soc Med92 (7): 345–352. PMC 1297286Freely accessiblePMID 10615272.
  2. Jump up to:a b Shanks GD, Oloo AJ, Aleman GM, et al. (2001). “A New Primaquine Analogue, Tafenoquine (WR 238605), for prophylaxis against Plasmodium falciparum malaria”. Clin Infect Dis33 (12): 1968–74. doi:10.1086/324081JSTOR 4482936PMID 11700577.
  3. Jump up^ Lell B, Faucher JF, Missinou MA, et al. (2000). “Malaria chemoprophylaxis with tafenoquine: a randomised study”. Lancet355 (9220): 2041–5. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(00)02352-7PMID 10885356.
  4. Jump up^ Elmes NJ, Nasveld PE, Kitchener SJ, Kocisko DA, Edstein MD (November 2008). “The efficacy and tolerability of three different regimens of tafenoquine versus primaquine for post-exposure prophylaxis of Plasmodium vivax malaria in the Southwest Pacific”Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene102 (11): 1095–101. doi:10.1016/j.trstmh.2008.04.024PMID 18541280.
  5. Jump up^ Nasveld P, Kitchener S (2005). “Treatment of acute vivax malaria with tafenoquine”. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg99 (1): 2–5. doi:10.1016/j.trstmh.2004.01.013PMID 15550254.
  6. Jump up^ “Drugs@FDA: FDA Approved Drug Products”http://www.accessdata.fda.gov. Retrieved 2018-07-23.
  1.  Shanks GD, Oloo AJ, Aleman GM et al. (2001). “A New Primaquine Analogue, Tafenoquine (WR 238605), for prophylaxis against Plasmodium falciparum malaria”. Clin Infect Dis 33 (12): 1968–74. doi:10.1086/324081JSTOR 4482936.PMID 11700577.
  2. Lell B, Faucher JF, Missinou MA et al. (2000). “Malaria chemoprophylaxis with tafenoquine: a randomised study”.Lancet 355 (9220): 2041–5. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(00)02352-7PMID 10885356.
  3.  Elmes NJ, Nasveld PE, Kitchener SJ, Kocisko DA, Edstein MD (November 2008). “The efficacy and tolerability of three different regimens of tafenoquine versus primaquine for post-exposure prophylaxis of Plasmodium vivax malaria in the Southwest Pacific”Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 102 (11): 1095–101.doi:10.1016/j.trstmh.2008.04.024PMID 18541280.
  4.  Nasvelda P, Kitchener S. (2005). “Treatment of acute vivax malaria with tafenoquine”. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 99 (1): 2–5. doi:10.1016/j.trstmh.2004.01.013PMID 15550254.
  5.  Peters W (1999). “The evolution of tafenoquine–antimalarial for a new millennium?”. J R Soc Med 92 (7): 345–352.PMID 10615272.
  6. J Med Chem 1982,25(9),1094
8-3-2007
Methods and compositions for treating diseases associated with pathogenic proteins
12-6-2006
Process for the preparation of quinoline derivatives
3-14-2002
PROCESS FOR THE PREPARATION OF ANTI-MALARIAL DRUGS
4-2-1998
MULTIDENTATE METAL COMPLEXES AND METHODS OF MAKING AND USING THEREOF
4-18-1997
PROCESS FOR THE PREPARATION OF ANTI-MALARIAL DRUGS
12-20-1996
MULTIDENTATE METAL COMPLEXES AND METHODS OF MAKING AND USING THEREOF
12-15-1993
Use of interferon and a substance with an antimalarial activity for the treatment of malaria infections
10-15-1986
4-methyl-5-(unsubstituted and substituted phenoxy)-2,6-dimethoxy-8-(aminoalkylamino) quinolines
Title: Tafenoquine
CAS Registry Number: 106635-80-7
CAS Name: N4[2,6-Dimethoxy-4-methyl-5-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-8-quinolinyl]-1,4-pentanediamine
Additional Names: 8-[(4-amino-1-methylbutyl)amino]-2,6-dimethoxy-4-methyl-5-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]quinoline
Manufacturers’ Codes: WR-238605
Molecular Formula: C24H28F3N3O3
Molecular Weight: 463.49
Percent Composition: C 62.19%, H 6.09%, F 12.30%, N 9.07%, O 10.36%
Literature References: Analog of primaquine, q.v. Prepn: P. Blumbergs, M. P. LaMontagne, US 4617394 (1986 to U.S. Sec. Army); M. P. LaMontagne et al., J. Med. Chem. 32, 1728 (1989). HPLC determn in blood and plasma: D. A. Kocisko et al., Ther. Drug Monit. 22, 184 (2000). Metabolism: O. R. Idowu et al., Drug Metab. Dispos. 23, 1 (1995). Clinical pharmacokinetics: M. D. Edstein et al., Br. J. Pharmacol. 52, 663 (2001). Clinical evaluation in prevention of malaria relapse: D. S. Walsh et al., J. Infect. Dis. 180, 1282 (1999); in malaria prophylaxis: B. Lell et al., Lancet 355, 2041 (2000); B. R. Hale et al., Clin. Infect. Dis. 36, 541 (2003).
Derivative Type: Succinate
CAS Registry Number: 106635-81-8
Trademarks: Etaquine (GSK)
Molecular Formula: C24H28F3N3O3.C4H6O4
Molecular Weight: 581.58
Percent Composition: C 57.83%, H 5.89%, F 9.80%, N 7.23%, O 19.26%
Properties: Crystals from acetonitrile, mp 146-149°. LD50 in male, female rats (mg/kg): 102, 71 i.p.; 429, 416 orally (LaMontagne).
Melting point: mp 146-149°
Toxicity data: LD50 in male, female rats (mg/kg): 102, 71 i.p.; 429, 416 orally (LaMontagne)
Therap-Cat: Antimalarial.
Keywords: Antimalarial.
Tafenoquine
(RS)-Tafenoquin Structural Formula V1.svg
Clinical data
Synonyms Etaquine,[1] WR 238605,[1] SB-252263
ATC code
  • none
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
ChEMBL
NIAID ChemDB
Chemical and physical data
Formula C24H28F3N3O3
Molar mass 463.493 g/mol
3D model (JSmol)

OLD CLIP

April 28, 2014
GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) and Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) announced the start of a Phase 3 global program to evaluate the efficacy and safety of tafenoquine, an investigational medicine which is being developed for the treatment and relapse prevention (radical cure) of Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax) malaria.

P. vivax malaria, a form of the disease caused by one of several species of Plasmodium parasites known to infect humans, occurs primarily in South and South East Asia, Latin America and the horn of Africa. Severe anemia, malnutrition and respiratory distress are among the most serious consequences described to be caused by the infection.

The Phase 3 program includes two randomized, double-blind treatment studies to investigate tafenoquine in adult patients with P. vivax malaria. The DETECTIVE study (TAF112582) aims to evaluate the efficacy, safety and tolerability of tafenoquine as a radical cure for P. vivax malaria, co-administered with chloroquine, a blood stage anti-malarial treatment. The GATHER study (TAF116564) aims to assess the incidence of hemolysis and safety and efficacy of tafenoquine compared to primaquine, the only approved treatment currently available for the radical cure of P. vivax malaria.

Tafenoquine is not yet approved or licensed for use anywhere in the world.

“P. vivax malaria can affect people of all ages and is particularly insidious because it has the potential to remain dormant within the body in excess of a year, and causes some patients to experience repeated episodes of illness after the first mosquito bite,” said Nicholas Cammack, head, Tres Cantos Medicines Development Center for Diseases of the Developing World.  “Our investigation of tafenoquine for the treatment of P. vivax malaria is part of GSK’s efforts to tackle the global burden of malaria. Working with our partners, including MMV, we are determined to stop malaria in all its forms.”

“One of the big challenges we face in tackling malaria is to have new medicines to prevent relapse, caused by dormant forms of P. vivax,” said Dr. Timothy Wells, MMV’s chief scientific officer. “The Phase 3 program is designed to build upon the promising results of the Phase 2b study which showed that treatment with tafenoquine prevented relapses. If successful, tafenoquine has the potential to become a major contributor to malaria elimination. It’s a great privilege to be working with GSK on this project; they have a clear commitment to changing the face of public health in the countries in which we are working.”

/////////////Tafenoquine, タフェノキン , Orphan, FDA 2018,  KRINTAFEL, Priority Review, GlaxoSmithKline
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