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ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with AFRICURE PHARMA as ADVISOR, earlier assignment was with GLENMARK LIFE SCIENCES LTD, as CONSUlTANT, Retired from GLENMARK in Jan2022 Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 32 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 32 PLUS year tenure till date Feb 2023, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 100 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 100 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, 227 countries, 7 continents, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 38 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 227 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc He has total of 32 International and Indian awards

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MILADEMETAN


Milademetan Chemical Structure
Structure of MILADEMETAN
Milademetan.png

Milademetan

Molecular Weight618.53
FormulaC30H34Cl2FN5O4
CAS No.1398568-47-2
img

Milademetan. hcl

Chemical Formula: C30H35Cl3FN5O4
Exact Mass: 617.1972
Molecular Weight: 654.99
Elemental Analysis: C, 55.01; H, 5.39; Cl, 16.24; F, 2.90; N, 10.69; O, 9.77

1398568-47-2 (free base)   1398569-75-9 (tosylate)   2095625-97-9 (tosylate hydrate)   Milademetan HCl 

DS3032b; DS-3032b; DS 3032b; DS3032; DS-3032; DS 3032; DS-3032b tosylate; Milademetan tosylate; Milademetan HCl

 (3’R,4’S,5’R)-N-[(3R,6S)-6-carbamoyloxan-3-yl]-6”-chloro-4′-(2-chloro-3-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-4,4-dimethyl-2”-oxo-1”,2”-dihydrodispiro[cyclohexane-1,2′-pyrrolidine-3′,3”-indole]-5′-carboxamide hydrochloride

orphan drug, UNII:R3I80TLN7S, миладеметан , ميلاديميتان , 米拉美坦

(3’R,4’S,5’R)-N-((3R,6S)-6-Carbamoyltetrahydro-2H-pyran-3-yl)-6”-chloro-4′-(2-chloro-3-fluoro-4-pyridinyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2”-oxo-1”,2”-dihydrodispiro(cyclohexane-1,2′-pyrrolidine-3′,3”-indole)-5′-carboxamide

milademetan

rolontis

SPI-2012

 Milademetan, also known as DS-3032b or DS-3032, is a potent and selective MDM2 inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, MDM2 inhibitor DS-3032b binds to, and prevents the binding of MDM2 protein to the transcriptional activation domain of the tumor suppressor protein p53. By preventing this MDM2-p53 interaction, the proteosome-mediated enzymatic degradation of p53 is inhibited and the transcriptional activity of p53 is restored. This results in the restoration of p53 signaling and leads to the p53-mediated induction of tumor cell apoptosis.

DS-3032 (Milademetan) is an orally available, potent and selective inhibitor of the p53-MDM2 (murine double minute 2) interaction. Milademetan binds to, and prevents the binding of MDM2 protein to the transcriptional activation domain of the tumor suppressor protein p53. Milademetan is 10-fold more potent than the first-generation inhibitor nutlin-3a. By preventing this MDM2-p53 interaction, the proteasome-mediated enzymatic degradation of p53 is inhibited and the transcriptional activity of p53 is restored. This results in the restoration of p53 signaling and leads to the p53-mediated induction of tumor cell apoptosis. DS-3032 is currently being evaluated in three phase 1 clinical trials for solid and hematological malignancies, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in blast phase, lymphoma and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS).

  • OriginatorRigel Pharmaceuticals
  • DeveloperDaiichi Sankyo Inc; National Cancer Center Hospital East; Rain Therapeutics; University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center
  • ClassAntineoplastics; Cyclohexanes; Indoles; Pyrrolidines; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of ActionProto-oncogene protein c mdm2 inhibitors
  • Orphan Drug StatusYes – Liposarcoma
  • Phase IIILiposarcoma
  • Phase IISarcoma; Solid tumours
  • Phase I/IIAcute myeloid leukaemia
  • Phase ILymphoma; Myelodysplastic syndromes
  • PreclinicalMesothelioma
  • No development reportedMultiple myeloma
  • 10 Aug 2022Rain Therapeutics completes enrolment in phase-III clinical trials in Liposarcoma in (Inoperable/Unresectable, Metastatic disease, Second-line therapy or greater) in United Kingdom, Taiwan, Spain, Poland, South Korea, Italy, Hong Kong, Germany, Georgia, France, Canada, Belgium, Austria (PO) (NCT04979442)
  • 09 Jun 2022Efficacy, adverse events and pharmacodynamics data from phase I/II trial in Acute myeloid leukemia presented at the 27th Congress of the European Haematology Association(EHA-2022)
  • 04 May 2022Rain Therapeutics plans a phase I/II MANTRA-4 trial in Solid tumours (Combination therapy, Late-stage disease) in Second half of 2022

PATENT

WO2015033974

[Example 2]
Ethyl (3’R,4’S,5’R)-6”-chloro-4′-(3-chloro-2-fluorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2”-oxo 1″,2″-dihydrodispiro[cyclohexane-1,2′-pyrrolidine-3′,3″-indole]-5′-carboxylate

[0202]

[Chem. 58]

[0203]

(3E/Z)-6-chloro-3-(3-chloro-2-fluorobenzylidene)-1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-one ( WO 2006/091646) (98.7) under nitrogen atmosphere mg), (R)-BINAP (12.1 mg, 0.019 mmol), CuOAc (2.0 mg, 0.016 mmol), 4,4-dimethylcyclohexanone (61.4 mg, 0.48 mmol), glycine ethyl ester. (39.5 μL, 0.39 mmol) and a solution of triethylamine (6.8 μL, 0.049 mmol) in N,N-dimethylacetamide (2.0 mL) were added and stirred at room temperature for 22 hours. Ethyl acetate (2 mL), water (1 mL), and 20% aqueous ammonium chloride solution (1 mL) were added to the reaction mixture, and the mixture was vigorously stirred to separate the organic layer. The aqueous layer was extracted twice with ethyl acetate (2 mL each) and all the organic layers were combined and then washed with water three times (5 mL each). The obtained organic layer was concentrated under reduced pressure, ethyl acetate (6 mL) and silica gel (500 mg) were added to the residue, and the silica gel was separated by filtration. The filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure, ethanol (1.0 mL) was added to the residue, water (1 mL) was added dropwise, and the mixture was stirred overnight at room temperature. The precipitated solid was filtered and dried under reduced pressure at 40° C. to obtain the title compound (137 mg, yield 82%, 94% ee) as a solid.
1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3): δ = 0.67 (s, 3H), 0.91 (s, 3H), 1.10-1.19 (m, 2H), 1.17 (t, J=7.3 Hz, 3H), 1.25-1.33 (m, 1H), 1.44- 1.72 (m, 3H), 1.87-2.01 (m, 1H), 3.16 (s, 1H), 4.07-4.21 (m, 2H), 4.52 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 1H), 4.83 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 1H), 6.74 (d, J = 1.5Hz, 1H), 6.81-6.86 (m, 1H), 7.06 (dd, J = 8.3, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 7.10-7.16 (m, 1H), 7.37 (dd, J = 8.3, 1.8 Hz, 1H), 7.48-7.54 (m, 1H), 7.81 (s, 1H).
(HPLC conditions for optical purity determination)
カラム: CHIRALPAK OD-3R 4.6 × 150 mm, 3μm
Moving layer: 10mM Rinic acid buffer: MeCN = 40:60
Flow rate: 1.0 min/min
カラム Temperature: 40°C
Exhaust wavelength: 254 nm
Injection volume: 5 μL
Hold time: Labeling compound = 13.8 min, エナンチオマー= 12.9 min

[Example 11]
11-1) Effects of various asymmetric catalysts

[0230]

[Chem. 67]

[0231]

(3E/Z)-6-chloro-3-[(2-chloro-3-fluoropyridin-4-yl)methylene]-1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-one ( WO 2012 / 121361), 4,4-dimethylcyclohexanone (1.5 eq.), glycine ethyl ester (1.2 eq.), triethylamine (15 mol%) in THF solution (10 times the volume), separately, Lewis acid (5 mol%) , an asymmetric ligand (6 mol %) and THF (10 times the amount) were stirred for 1 hour under a nitrogen atmosphere, a catalyst solution prepared was added, and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 12 to 16 hours. After that, the resulting trans1 compound ((ethyl (3′S,4′R,5′S)-6″-chloro-4′-(2-chloro-3-fluoropyridin-4-yl) -4,4-dimethyl-2”-oxo-1”,2”-dihydrodispiro[cyclohexane-1,2′-pyrrolidine-3′,3”-indole]-5′-carboxylate) Optical purity and HPLC yield were measured.
(HPLC conditions for measuring optical purity)
Column: CHIRALPAK OD-3R 4.6 × 150 mm, 3 µm
Mobile phase: 10 mM phosphoric acid buffer: MeCN = 40:60
Flow rate: 1.0 min/min
column Temperature: 40°C
Detection wavelength: 254 nm
Injection volume: 5 µL
Retention time: Title compound = 13.8 min, enantiomer = 12.9 min
Main results are shown in Table 1.

[0232]

[Table 1-1]

[Table 1-2]

[0233]

11-2) Effects of various solvents

[0234]

[Chem. 68]

[0235]

(3E/Z)-6-chloro-3-[(2-chloro-3-fluoropyridin-4-yl)methylene]-1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-one ( WO 2012 / 121361), 4,4-dimethylcyclohexanone (1.5 eq.), glycine ethyl ester (1.2 eq.), triethylamine (15 mol%), a solvent (10 times the amount), CuOAc (5 mol%), ( A catalyst solution prepared by stirring S)-BINAP (6 mol %) and a solvent (10 times the amount) under a nitrogen atmosphere for 1 hour was added, followed by stirring at room temperature for 21.5 hours. After that, by HPLC, the resulting trans2 compound (ethyl (3’S,4’R,5’S)-6”-chloro-4′-(2-chloro-3-fluoropyridin-4-yl)- HPLC of 4,4-dimethyl-2″-oxo-1″,2″-dihydrodispiro[cyclohexane-1,2′-pyrrolidine-3′,3″-indole]-5′-carboxylate) Yields and optical purities were determined.
Table 2 shows the main results.

[0236]

[Table 2]

11-3) Examination of Cu(I) Lewis acid

PATENT

WO2014038606

WO2014038606 CLICK HERE

Example 1

[0062]

[Chem.3]

[0063]

(3′R,4′S,5′R)-N-[(3R,6S)-6-carbamoyltetrahydro-2H-pyran-3-yl]-6″-chloro-4′-(2-chloro- 3-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-4,4-dimethyl-2″-oxo-1″,2″-dihydrodispiro[cyclohexane-1,2′-pyrrolidine-3′,3″-indole]-5 ‘
-Carboxamide The compound (35 mg, 0.24 mmol) obtained in Reference Example 2, Step 3 was added to a solution of the compound (100 mg, 0.20 mmol) obtained in Step 3 of Reference Example 1 in N,N-dimethylformamide (4 ml). , triethylamine (0.04 ml, 0.30 mmol), 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (27 mg, 0.20 mmol) and 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (46 mg, 0.24 mmol) were added. , and stirred for 1 hour at 50° C. After allowing to cool, the reaction solution was diluted with ethyl acetate, washed successively with water, saturated aqueous sodium hydrogencarbonate solution and saturated brine, and dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate. After evaporating the solvent under reduced pressure, the residue was purified by NH-silica gel column chromatography [chloroform:methanol=50:1 (v/v)]. After stirring for 24 hours at rt, the solvent was distilled off under reduced pressure to obtain 94 mg (76%) of the title compound as a solid.1H
 NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3 ) .) δ: 0.68 (3H, s), 0.95 (3H, s), 1.11-1.27 (2H, m), 1.35-1.81 (8H, m), 2.10-2.17 (1H, m), 2.25-2.32 (1H, m), 3.15(1H,t,J=10.5Hz), 3.27(1H,br s), 3.80(1H,dd,J=11.0,2.3Hz), 3.85-3.95(1H,m), 4.13(1H, ddd,J=10.8,4.5,1.3Hz),4.44(1H,d,J=9.2Hz),4.64(1H,d,J=9.2Hz),5.46(1H,d,J=3.7Hz),6.49( 1H,d,J=3.7Hz), 6.74(1H,d,J=1.8Hz), 7.07(1H,dd,J=8.2,1.8Hz), 7.31(1H,dd,J=8.2,2.3Hz), 7.48-7.52(2H,m),7.62(1H,s),8.05(1H,d,J=5.5Hz).MS
(ESI)m/z:618(M+H) +

Reference example 1

[0087]

[Chem.4]

[0088]

[Step 1] (3E/Z)-6-chloro-3-[(2-chloro-3-fluoropyridin-4-yl)methylene]-1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-one
6-chloro -1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-one (2.20 g, 13.11 mmol) and 2-chloro-3-fluoroisonicotinaldehyde (2.20 g, 13.8 mmol) in methanol (130 ml). , N,N-diisopropylethylamine (0.46 ml, 2.63 mmol) was added, and the mixture was heated under reflux for 16 hours. After standing to cool, the precipitate was collected by filtration, washed with cold methanol and dried to obtain 3.37 g (83%) of the title compound as a solid.
MS(APCI) m/z: 309(M+H) + .

[0089]

[Step 2] (3′S,4′R,7′S,8′S,8a′R)-6″-chloro-8′-(2-chloro-3-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-4 ,4-dimethyl-3′,4′-diphenyl-3′,4′,8′,8a′-tetrahydro-1′H-dispiro[cyclohexane-1,6′-pyrrolo[2,1-c][1 ,4]oxazine-7′,3″-indole]-1′,2″(1″H)
-dione Under a nitrogen atmosphere, the compound obtained in Step 1 (1.86 g, 6.00 mmol), (5R,6S )-5,6-diphenylmorpholin-2-one (1.67 g, 6.60 mmol) and 4,4-dimethylcyclohexanone (0.83 g, 6.60 mmol) in tetrahydrofuran (30 ml) was added with diethyl boron trifluoride. An ether complex (0.15 ml, 1.20 mmol) and molecular sieve 4A (powder) (3 g) were added, and the mixture was heated and stirred at 70° C. for 7 days. After allowing to cool, insoluble matter was removed by filtration through celite, and the filtrate was washed with saturated brine and dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate. The solvent was distilled off under reduced pressure and purified by silica gel column chromatography [n-hexane:ethyl acetate=4:1→1:1 (v/v)] to obtain 3.39 g (84%) of the title compound as a solid. rice field.
1 H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ: 0.21 (3H, s), 0.53 (3H, s), 0.89-1.08 (3H, m), 1.28-1.43 (3H, m), 1.73-1.81 (1H, m), 2.23-2.33 (1H, m), 4.58 (1H, d, J = 11.0Hz), 4.86 (1H, d, J = 3.2Hz), 5.31 (1H, d, J = 11.0Hz), 6.25 (1H, d, J = 8.3Hz) ,6.67(1H,dd,J=8.3,1.8Hz),6.72-6.77(2H,m),6.93(1H,d,J=1.8Hz),7.04-7.17(6H,m),7.18-7.25(3H ,m),7.79(1H,t,J=4.6Hz),7.99(1H,s),8.29(1H,d,J=5.0Hz).MS
(APCI)m/z:670(M+H) + .

[0090]

[Step 3] (4′S,5′R)-6″-chloro-4′-(2-chloro-3-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-4,4-dimethyl-2″-oxo-1″ ,2″-dihydrodispiro[cyclohexane-1,2′-pyrrolidine-3′,3″-indole]-5′-carboxylic acid
The compound obtained in step 2 (630 mg, 0.94 mmol) was treated with acetonitrile (10 ml). Dissolve in water (4 ml), add potassium carbonate (130 mg, 0.94 mmol) and heat under reflux for 16 hours at 85° C. After allowing to cool, add anhydrous magnesium sulfate (113 mg, 0.94 mmol) and stir at room temperature for 15 minutes. After extraction with ethyl acetate, the organic layer was washed with saturated brine and dried over anhydrous magnesium sulfate. (2-chloro-3-fluoropyridin-4-yl)-1′-[(1R,2S)-2-hydroxy-1,2-diphenylethyl]-4,4-dimethyl-2″-oxo-1″ ,2″-dihydrodispiro[cyclohexane-1,2′-pyrrolidine-3′,3″-indole]-5′-carboxylic acid (650 mg, 100%) was obtained as a solid [MS (ESI) m/z :688(M+H) +]. The resulting carboxylic acid (650 mg, 0.94 mmol) was dissolved in methanol (30 ml) and water (8 ml), and diammonium cerium (IV) nitrate (1.55 g, 2.82 mmol) was added under ice-cooling. Stir at room temperature for 30 minutes. Potassium carbonate (780 mg, 5.64 mmol) was added under ice-cooling, and the mixture was stirred at the same temperature for 1 hour. After removing the insoluble matter by filtration through celite, the filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure, water was added to the resulting residue, and the mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic layer was washed with saturated brine and dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate. The solvent was distilled off under reduced pressure, and the resulting residue was purified by silica gel column chromatography [chloroform:methanol=20:1→4:1 (v/v)] to obtain 152 mg (33%) of the title compound as a solid. .
1 H-NMR (500 MHz, CD 3 OD) δ: 0.74 (3H, s), 0.9 (3H, s), 1.29-1.44 (2H, m), 1.48-1.58 (2H, m), 1.64-1.76 (1H ,m),1.94-2.02(1H,m),2.11(1H,ddd,J=14.0,14.0,4.0Hz),2.43-2.53(1H,m),5.07(1H,d,J=10.3Hz), 5.32(1H,d,J=10.3Hz),6.84(1H,d,J=1.7Hz),7.16(1H,dd,J=8.3,2.0Hz),7.63(1H,dd,J=8.0,2.3Hz) ),7.75(1H,t,J=5.2Hz),8.15(1H,d,J=5.2Hz).
MS(ESI)m/z:492(M+H) + .

[0091]

Reference example 2

[0092]

[Chem.5]

[0093]

[Step 1] Methyl 2,6-anhydro-3,4,5-trideoxy-5-(dibenzylamino)-L-erythro
-hexonate 2,6-anhydro-3,4,5-trideoxy-5-( dibenzylamino)-L-erythro-hexonate methyl 2,6-anhydro-3,4,5-trideoxy-5-(dibenzylamino)-L-erythro-hexonate (1.60 g, 4.70 mmol) was The mixture was dissolved in methanol (30 ml), 1N aqueous sodium hydroxide solution (10 ml) was gradually added under ice-cooling, and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 3 hours. Dowex 50W-X8 was added to the reaction mixture to adjust the pH to 5 to 6, insoluble materials were removed by filtration, and the filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure to obtain 1.7 g (100%) of the title compound as a solid.
1 H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ: 1.18-1.26(1H,m), 1.36-1.48(1H,m), 1.79-1.97(2H,m), 2.62(1H,t,J=11.0Hz) ,3.18(1H,t,J=10.4Hz),3.40(1H,d,J=11.5Hz),3.51-3.61(4H,m),3.90-3.99(1H,m),7.12-7.38(10H,m ).
MS(ESI)m/z:326(M+H) + .

[0094]

[Step 2] (2S,5R)-5-(dibenzylamino)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-carboxamide
The compound (870 mg, 2.67 mmol) obtained in Step 1 above was dissolved in N,N-dimethylformamide (30 ml). 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (361 mg, 2.67 mmol) and 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (614 mg, 3.20 mmol) were added and stirred at room temperature for 15 minutes. Ammonium chloride (285 mg, 5.44 mmol) and N,N-diisopropylethylamine (1.86 ml, 10.7 mmol) were added and stirred at room temperature for 8 hours. After diluting with ethyl acetate, the organic layer was washed with saturated aqueous sodium hydrogencarbonate solution and saturated brine in that order, and dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure to give 495 mg (57%) of the title compound as a solid.
1 H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) δ: 1.35-1.45 (1H, m), 1.60-1.70 (1 H, m), 2.10-2.18 (1 H, m), 2.21-2.28 (1 H, m), 2.76 ( 1H,tt,J=11.4,4.0Hz),3.44(1H,t,J=10.9Hz),3.67(4H,q,J=14.2Hz),3.71-3.73(1H,m),4.04(1H,dq ,J=11.0,2.1Hz),5.35(1H,s),6.40(1H,s),7.21-7.36(10H,m).MS
(ESI)m/z:325(M+H) + .

[0095]

[Step 3] (2S,5R)-5-aminotetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-carboxamide
The compound (490 mg, 1.51 mmol) obtained in Step 2 above was dissolved in ethanol (10 ml) and treated with 20% palladium hydroxide. (100 mg) was added, and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 16 hours under a hydrogen atmosphere. After removing the catalyst by filtration through celite, the filtrate was distilled off under reduced pressure and dried to obtain 215 mg (99%) of the title compound as a solid.
1 H-NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d 6 ) δ: 1.11-1.22(1H,m), 1.25-1.35(1H,m), 1.83-1.91(2H,m), 2.51-2.60(1H,m), 2.90(1H,t,J=10.5Hz),3.52(1H,d,J=11.9Hz),
3.78-3.84 (1H,m),6.99(1H,br s),7.09(1H,br s). (ESI) m/z: 145(M+H) + .

PATENT

WO2012121361

PATENT

WO2015033974

PAPER

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.oprd.2c00192

Abstract

Herein, we report the structure and synthesis of the potent MDM2-p53 inhibitor BI-0282. The complex spirooxindole scaffold bearing four stereocenters embedded in a rigid polycyclic ring-system was effectively prepared on a multi-gram scale in only five synthesis steps employing a three-component 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition and a late-stage Davis–Beirut reaction as key steps.

Compound 1

Intermediate 10 (28.8 g, 44.8 mmol) is dissolved in isopropanol (300 mL) and a solution of potassium hydroxide (39.0 g, 694.9 mmol) in water (95 mL) is slowly added. After stirring for 16 h at ambient temperature, the solvents are partially removed under reduced pressure. The residue is diluted with ethyl acetate and treated with a diluted aqueous solution of citric acid. After extraction of the aqueous layer with ethyl acetate, the organic layers are combined, dried with sodium sulfate, and the solvent is removed under reduced pressure. Purification by normal phase column chromatography using dichloromethane and methanol as solvents yields rac-1 (25.8 g, 43.5 mmol) in 70% yield as an amorphous white solid.

Chiral SFC and subsequent purification by reversed phase column chromatography using acetonitrile and methanol as solvents furnishes 1 (BI-0282).

Rac-1 (60 g, 93,3 mmol) was separated by chiral SFC and reversed phase column chromatography to obtain 1 (24.4 g, 40,0 mmol, 43%) as an amorphous white solid.

Chiral HPLC (CHIRALPAK, heptane/isopropanol/trifluoroacetic acid = 70/30/0.1, flow rate 1.0 mL/min, I = 240 mM) tR = 7.8 min (1), and 11.1 min (ent-1). Preparative SFC (CHIRALPAK, carbon dioxide/(isopropanol + 1% diethylamine) = 70/30, flow rate 300 g/min, I = 290 nM).

1H NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 12.64 (br s, 1H), 10.29 (s, 1H), 7.67 (s, 1H), 7.47 (d, J = 8.83 Hz, 2H), 7.29–7.36 (m, 1H), 7.26 (d, J = 7.88 Hz, 1H), 7.21 (dd, J = 1.26, 8.83 Hz, 1H), 7.12 (t, J = 8.04 Hz, 1H), 6.92 (dd, J = 1.89, 7.88 Hz, 1H), 6.48 (d, J = 1.89 Hz, 1H), 5.86 (t, J = 9.14 Hz, 1H), 4.59–4.68 (m, 1H), 4.52 (dd, J = 7.88, 11.35 Hz, 1H), 4.23–4.32 (m, 1H), 4.20 (d, J = 10.09 Hz, 1H), 2.27 (dd, J = 7.57, 13.08 Hz, 1H), 2.13 (dd, J = 5.83, 13.08 Hz, 1H), 0.47–0.62 (m, 1H), 0.26–0.37 (m, 1H), 0.11–0.20 (m, 1H), −0.04 to 0.04 (m, 1H), −0.25 (s, 1H).

13C{1H} NMR (125 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 177.5, 168.1, 156.1 (d, 1JC,F = 248.7 Hz), 146.3, 145.3, 144.0, 134.1, 130.3, 129.7, 129.5, 126.8, 126.7, 125.4 (d, 3JC,F = 4.4 Hz), 123.5 (d, 2JC,F = 13.2 Hz), 122.5, 120.0, 119.9, 119.7 (d, 2JC,F = 18.3 Hz), 118.7, 110.0, 107.3, 76.4, 69.2, 57.5, 56.8, 54.2, 51.2, 11.6, 5.5, 4.1.

HRMS (ESI) m/z: [M + H]+ calcd for C30H24Cl2FN4O4, 593.1153; found, 593.1165.

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Milademetan is under investigation in clinical trial NCT02319369 (Safety, Tolerability and Pharmacokinetics of Milademetan Alone and With 5-Azacitidine (AZA) in Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML) or High-Risk Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS)).

/////////Milademetan, DS3032b, DS-3032b, DS 3032b, DS3032, DS-3032, DS 3032, DS-3032b tosylate, Milademetan tosylate, Milademetan HCl, orphan drug, UNII:R3I80TLN7S, миладеметан , ميلاديميتان , 米拉美坦

CC1(C)CCC2(CC1)N[C@H]([C@H](C1=C(F)C(Cl)=NC=C1)[C@]21C(=O)NC2=CC(Cl)=CC=C12)C(=O)N[C@@H]1CC[C@H](OC1)C(N)=O

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Daxibotulinumtoxin A


FDA Approves Botox Challenger Daxxify for Frown Lines

Daxibotulinumtoxin A

FDA APPROVED 2022 2022/9/7, Daxxify

FormulaC6708H10359N1729O1995S32
CAS93384-43-1
Mol weight148171.4934

Daxibotulinumtoxin A-lanm

Treatment of galbellar lines, cervical dystonia, lateral canthal lines, migraine headaches and hyperhidrosis

  • DeveloperRevance Therapeutics; Shanghai Fosun Pharmaceutical
  • ClassAnalgesics; Anti-inflammatories; Antiarrhythmics; Antidepressants; Antimigraines; Antipruritics; Antispasmodics; Bacterial proteins; Bacterial toxins; Botulinum toxins; Eye disorder therapies; Foot disorder therapies; Muscle relaxants; Skin disorder therapies; Urologics; Vascular disorder therapies
  • Mechanism of ActionAcetylcholine inhibitors; Glutamate antagonists; Membrane transport protein modulators; Neuromuscular blocking agents
  • Orphan Drug StatusYes – Torticollis
  • RegisteredGlabellar lines
  • Phase IIITorticollis
  • Phase IIMuscle spasticity
  • No development reportedSkin disorders
  • DiscontinuedPlantar fasciitis
  • 19 Sep 2022Efficacy data from a phase IIa FHL trials in Glabellar-lines (crow’s feet) released by Revance
  • 19 Sep 2022Updated efficacy and safety data from the phase III SAKURA 1, SAKURA 2 and SAKURA 3 trials in Glabellar lines released by Revance Therapeutics
  • 18 Sep 2022Updated efficacy and safety data from the phase III SAKURA 1, SAKURA 2 and SAKURA 3 trials in Glabellar lines released by Revance Therapeutics

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DAXI Impresses; Approaches FDA Approval

March 2, 2021

Lisette Hilton

Dermatology Times, Dermatology Times, February 2021 (Vol. 42, No. 2), Volume 42, Issue 2

The investigational neuromodulator, evaluated in clinical trials as a treatment for glabellar lines and as a combined therapy for glabellar, dynamic forehead, and lateral canthal lines, is quickly nearing an approval by the FDA.

The long-awaited, longer-lasting neuromodulator drug candidate DaxibotulinumtoxinA for Injection (DAXI), a botulinum toxin type A formulated with a novel peptide excipient, may be nearing FDA approval.

In mid-December 2020, Revance Therapeutics shared results from its phase 2 upper facial lines study (NCT04259086),1 in which investigators looked at DAXI for combined treatment of glabellar, dynamic forehead, and lateral canthal lines.

The authors reported on a multicenter study of 48 patients enrolled to receive 40, 32, and 48 U of DAXI for injection in the glabellar complex, forehead, and lateral canthal areas, respectively. At week 4, nearly 92% of patients achieved an Investigator Global Assessment (IGA) score indicating no or mild wrinkle severity with maximum contraction on their lateral canthal lines. Nearly 96% achieved similar results on their forehead and glabellar lines at week 4.

Wrinkle severity returned to baseline at a median of 7.6 months post treatment, according to the phase 2 study findings.

The treatment was well tolerated in all upper facial regions. The most common adverse event (AE) was injection site erythema, which occurred in 6.3% of patients. The authors reported no eyelid or brow ptosis.

This was Revance’s first DAXI study on not just glabellar lines but also on forehead and periocular lines, or crow’s-feet, according to Jeffrey S. Dover, MD, FRCPC, a phase 2 study investigator and a dermatologist at SkinCare Physicians in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts. “I think this is yet more evidence that the Revance neuromodulator produces an impressive effect on lines of negative facial expression and lasts longer than any of the other neuromodulators approved by the FDA thus far,” said Dover.

Dermatologic Surgery published 2 papers on the investigational neuromodulator in January 2021. In one study,2 investigators evaluated the use of up to 3 DAXI treatments for moderate or severe glabellar lines. They focused on data from SAKURA 1 and 2 (NCT03014622 and NCT03014635), two identical phase 3, open label, multicenter studies in which investigators evaluated single and repeat treatment of the glabellar lines with 40 U of DAXI.

The authors reported on safety results for nearly 2700 patients, including 882 who received a second treatment and 568 who got DAXI a third time. Treatment-related AEs, which were generally mild and resolved, occurred in 17.8% of patients. Eyelid ptosis occurred in 0.9% of treatments.

Investigators of 2 other studies3,4 focused on DAXI efficacy among nearly 2700 subjects enrolled in Revance’s preceding pivotal trials. Participants received repeat treatments when they returned to baseline on the IGA–Frown Wrinkle Severity (FWS) and IGA–Patient Frown Winkle Severity (PFWS) scales at 12 weeks and up to 36 weeks after treatment.

More than 96% of patients achieved no or mild severity in glabellar wrinkles on the IGA- FWS scale after each of the 3 treatments, with peak responses between weeks 2 to 4, and about one-third or more saw no or mild severity at week 24. Response rates reached highs of 92% or more at weeks 2 to 4 on the IGA-PFWS scale.

“The median duration for return to moderate or severe severity was 24 weeks,” the authors said. “If approved, I believe daxibotulinumtoxinA will change the landscape of neuromodulators significantly. The approved ones all last 3 months. They all give nice results and have few adverse effects,” Dover said.

He and other investigators have seen no rise in AEs, and those that did occur lasted no longer than those of Botox, he said.

Revance appears to be preparing for approval. The company announced on December 22, 2020, that it has a strategic commercial manufacturing agreement with Ajinomoto Bio- Pharma Services for the supply of DAXI.5

As of November 24, 2020, the FDA had deferred a decision on the neuromodulator because the required factory inspection could not be conducted due to travel restrictions related to coronavirus disease 2019.6 The FDA did not indicate any other issues.

References:

  1. Green JB, Mariwalla K, Coleman K, et al. A large, open-label, phase 3 safety study of DaxibotulinumtoxinA for Injection in glabellar lines: a focus on safety from the SAKURA 3 study. Derm Surg. 2021;47(1):42-46. doi:10.1097/DSS.0000000000002463
  2. Carruthers JD, Jean D, Fagien S, et al; SAKURA 1 and SAKURA 2 Investigator Group. DaxibotulinumtoxinA for Injection for the treatment of glabellar lines: results from each of two multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 studies (SAKURA 1 and SAKURA 2).Plast Reconstr Surg. 2020;1(145):45-58.doi: 10.1097/PRS.0000000000006327
  3. Fabi SG, Cohen JL, Green LJ, et al. DaxibotulinumtoxinA for Injection for the treatment of glabellar lines: efficacy results from SAKURA 3, a large, open-label, phase 3 safety study. Derm Surg. 2021;47(1):48-54. doi:10.1097/DSS.0000000000002531
  4. https://investors.revance.com/news-releases/news-release-details/ajinomoto-bio-pharma-services-and-revance-therapeutics-announce. December 22, 2020. Accessed January 15, 2021.
  5. FDA defers approval of DaxibotulinumtoxinA for Injection in glabellar lines due to COVID-19 related travel restrictions impacting manufacturing site inspection. News release. Revance Therapeutics, Inc. November 25, 2020. Accessed January 13, 2021. https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20201125005462/en/FDA-Defers-Approval-DaxibotulinumtoxinA-Injection-Glabellar-Lines

///////////Daxibotulinumtoxin A, FDA 2022, APPROVALS 2022, DAXI, Daxibotulinumtoxin-A, DaxibotulinumtoxinA for Injection, daxibotulinumtoxinA-lanm, DAXXIFY, RT-002, Orphan Drug

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ELRAGLUSIB


STR1
3-(5-fluorobenzofuran-3-yl)-4-(5-methyl-5H-[1,3]dioxolo[4,5-f]indol-7-yl)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione.png

ELRAGLUSIB

RN: 1034895-42-5
UNII: ND1SOF0DLU, WHO 11553,  9-ING-41

  • 1H-Pyrrole-2,5-dione, 3-(5-fluoro-3-benzofuranyl)-4-(5-methyl-5H-1,3-dioxolo(4,5-F)indol-7-yl)-
  • 3-(5-Fluoro-benzofuran-3-yl)-4-(5-methyl-5H-(1,3)dioxolo(4,5-F)indol-7-yl)-pyrrole-2,5-dioneAntineoplastic

Molecular Formula

  • C22-H13-F-N2-O5

Molecular Weight

  • 404.3517
  • OriginatorNorthwestern University; University of Illinois at Chicago
  • DeveloperActuate Therapeutics; Incyte Corporation; Levine Cancer Institute; University of Kansas Medical Center
  • ClassAntineoplastics; Benzofurans; Dioxolanes; Indoles; Pyrroles; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of ActionGlycogen synthase kinase 3 beta inhibitors
  • Orphan Drug StatusYes – Glioblastoma; Neuroblastoma
  • Phase IIAdenoid cystic carcinoma; Myelofibrosis; Neuroblastoma; Pancreatic cancer; Salivary gland cancer
  • Phase I/IICancer
  • PreclinicalBrain cancer; Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia; Colorectal cancer
  • 20 Sep 2022Elraglusib – Actuate Therapeutics receives Fast Track designation for Pancreatic cancer [IV] (Combination therapy, First-line therapy, Late-stage disease, Metastatic disease, Recurrent) in USA
  • 03 Jun 2022Efficacy and safety data from a phase I trial in cancer presented at the 58th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO-2022)
  • 08 Apr 2022Preclinical trials in Brain cancer in USA (unspecified route)

9-ING-41 is under investigation in clinical trial NCT04218071 (Actuate 1901: 9-ING-41 in Myelofibrosis).

STR1

SYN

WO2019079299

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2019079299

3-(5-Fluorobenzofuran-3-yl)-4-(5-methyl-5H-[l,3]dioxolo[4,5-f]indol-7-yl)pyrrole-2,5-dione (“9-ING-41”) has the following chemical structure:

[0004] 9-ING-41 has been reported as being useful for the treatment of cancers, including brain, lung, breast, ovarian, bladder, neuroblastoma, renal, and pancreatic cancers, as well as for treatment of traumatic brain injury.

[0005] The structure, properties, and/or biological activity of 9-ING-41 are set forth in U.S. Patent Number 8,207,216; Gaisina et al., From a Natural Product Lead to the Identification of Potent and Selective Benzofuran-3-yl-(indol-3-yl)maleimides as Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β Inhibitors That Suppress Proliferation and Survival of Pancreatic Cancer Cells, J. Med. Chem. 2009, 52, 1853-1863; and Hilliard, et al., Glycogen synthase kinase 3β inhibitors induce apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells and inhibit in-vivo tumor growth, Anti-Cancer Drugs 2011, 22:978-985.

Example 1: Preparation of 9-ING-41

[0056] Crude 9-ING-41 can be obtained by the general methods described in U.S. Patent Number 8,207,216, and in Gaisina et al., From a Natural Product Lead to the

Identification of Potent and Selective Benzofuran-3-yl-(indol-3-yl)maleimides as Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β Inhibitors That Suppress Proliferation and Survival of Pancreatic Cancer Cells, J. Med. Chem. 2009, 52, 1853-1863.

Example 2: Preparation of 9-ING-41 Crystalline Form I

[0057] Crystalline Form I of 9-ING-41 may also be prepared as follows.

Synthesis of Intermediate 1

[0058] Into a 3-L 4-necked round-bottom flask, purged and maintained with an inert atmosphere of nitrogen, was placed 6-nitro-2H-l,3-benzodioxole-5-carbaldehyde (200 g, 1.02 mol, 1.00 equiv), ammonium acetate (200 g, 2.59 mol, 2.53 equiv), acetic acid (2 L), and nitromethane (313 g, 5.13 mol, 5.00 equiv). The solution was stirred for 12 h at lOOoC. The reaction repeated three times. The solutions were combined and diluted with 20 L of water. The resulting solution was extracted with 3×10 L of ethyl acetate and the organic layers were combined. The mixture was washed with 3×10 L of brine, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated under vacuum. This resulted in 450 g (crude) of 5-nitro-6-[(E)-2-nitroethenyl]-2H-l,3-benzodioxole (1) as a dark green solid.

Synthesis of Intermediate 2

[0059] Fe (120 g, 2.14 mol, 17.01 equiv) was slowly added in portions into a suspension of 5-nitro-6-[(Z)-2-nitroethenyl]-2H-l,3-benzodioxole (30 g, 125.97 mmol, 1.00 equiv), silica gel (120 g) in acetic acid (300 mL), toluene (200 mL), and cyclohexane (400 mL) at 80oC under nitrogen. The resulting black mixture was stirred for 8h at 80oC.The reaction repeated ten times. The reaction mixtures were combined. The solids were filtrated out. The filtrate was concentrated under vacuum and the residue was applied onto a silica gel column with ethyl acetate/petroleum ether (1/5). The collected fractions were combined and concentrated under vacuum to give 67.3 g (33%) of 2H, 5H-[1, 3] dioxolo [4, 5-f] indole (2) as an off-white solid.

Synthesis of Intermediate 3

[0060] Sodium hydride (19.9 g, 497.50 mmol, 1.18 equiv, 60%) was added in portions into a solution of 2H,3H,5H-furo[2,3-f]indole (67.3 g, 422.78 mmol, 1.00 equiv) in N,N-

dimethylformamide (1.3 L) at 0°C under nitrogen. The mixture was stirred for lh at 0°C and CH3I (70.9 g, 499.51 mmol, 1.18 equiv) was added dropwise. The resulting solution was stirred for 3 h at room temperature. The solution was quenched by added 1 L of ice water. The resulting solution was extracted with 3×1 L of ethyl acetate and the organic layers were combined. The mixture was washed with 3×1 L of brine, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated under vacuum. The residue was applied onto a silica gel column with ethyl acetate/petroleum ether (1/10). The collected fractions were combined and concentrated under vacuum to give 71 g (97%) of 5-methyl-2H,3H,5H-furo[2,3-f]indole (3) as a light yellow solid.

Synthesis of Int rmediate 4

[0061] Ethyl 2-chloro-2-oxoacetate (220 g, 1.61 mol, 3.96 equiv) was added dropwise into a solution of 5-methyl-2H,3H,5H-furo[2,3-f]indole (70.4 g, 406.44 mmol, 1.00 equiv) in ethyl ether (1.6 L) at OoC under nitrogen. The resulting solution was warmed to room temperature and stirred for 4 h. The reaction was quenched slowly by the addition of 2 L of ice water and the pH value of the resulting solution was adjusted to 9 by Na2C03. The resulted mixture was extracted with 3×1.5 L of ethyl acetate. The organic layers were combined and dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated under vacuum to give 92.8 g (84%) of ethyl 2-[5-methyl-2H,3H,5H-furo[2,3-f]indol-7-yl]-2-oxoacetate (4) as a light yellow solid.

[0062] 1H MR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 8.28 (s, 4H), 7.56 (s, 4H), 7.27 (s, 4H), 6.17 (s, 1H), 6.08 (s, 8H), 4.35 (q, J = 7.1 Hz, 7H), 3.85 (s, 11H), 3.35 (s, 2H), 1.35 (t, J = 7.1 Hz, 11H), 1.25 (s, 2H).

Synthesis of Intermediate 5

5

[0063] Into a 10-L 4-necked round-bottom flask was placed 2-bromo-4-fluorophenol (500 g, 2.62 mol, 1.00 equiv), N,N-dimethylformamide (5 L), potassium carbonate (1253 g, 9.07 mol, 3.46 equiv), and ethyl (2E)-4-bromobut-2-enoate (1010 g, 5.23 mol, 2.00 equiv). The resulting solution was stirred for 12 h at room temperature. The solids were collected by filtration. The reaction was then quenched by the addition of 15 L of water and extracted with 3×10 L of ethyl acetate. The organic layers were combined and washed with 4×20 L of brine. The mixture was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated under vacuum. The residue was applied onto a silica gel column with ethyl acetate/petroleum ether (1/20). The collected fractions were combined and concentrated under vacuum to give 500 g (63%) of ethyl (2E)-4-(2-bromo-4-fluorophenoxy)but-2-enoate (5) as a white solid.

Synthesis of Intermediate 6

[0064] Into a 2-L 3 -necked round-bottom flask, purged and maintained with an inert atmosphere of nitrogen, was placed ethyl (2E)-4-(2-bromo-4-fluorophenoxy)but-2-enoate (125 g, 412.37 mmol, 1.00 equiv), benzyltri ethyl azanium chloride (99 g, 434.64 mmol, 1.05 equiv), sodium formate dihydrate (45.1 g), Pd(OAc)2 (2.9 g, 12.92 mmol, 0.03 equiv), sodium carbonate (92 g, 868.01 mmol, 2.10 equiv), and N,N-dimethylformamide (1.25 L). The resulting solution was stirred for 12 h at 80°C. The reaction repeated four times. The reaction mixtures were combined and the solids were filtrated out. The filtrate was diluted with 10 L of brine and extracted with 3×5 L of ethyl acetate. The organic layers were combined and washed with 4×6 L of brine. The mixture was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated under vacuum. The residue was applied onto a silica gel column with ethyl acetate/petroleum ether (1/20). The collected fractions were combined and concentrated under vacuum. This resulted in 258 g (crude) of ethyl 2-(5-fluoro-l-benzofuran-3-yl)acetate (6) as light yellow oil.

Synthesis of Intermediate 7

7

[0065] Into a 5-L round-bottom flask was placed ethyl 2-(5-fluoro-l-benzofuran-3-yl)acetate (147 g, 661.53 mmol, 1.00 equiv), methanol (1 L), tetrahydrofuran (1 L), water (1 L), and Li OH (47.7 g, 1.99 mol, 3.01 equiv). The resulting solution was stirred for 3 h at room temperature. The reaction repeated twice. The mixture was concentrated under vacuum and then extracted with 1 L of dichloromethane. The aqueous layer was collected and the pH of the layer was adjust to 1-3 by hydrogen chloride (1 mol/L). The resulting solution was extracted with 3×1 L of ethyl acetate and the combined organic layers were dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated under vacuum. This resulted in 160 g (62%) of 2-(5-fluoro-l-benzofuran-3-yl)acetic acid (7) as a white solid.

Synthesis of Intermediate 8

[0066] Into a 10-L round-bottom flask was placed 2-(5-fluoro-l-benzofuran-3-yl) acetic acid (160 g, 824.1 mmol, 1.00 equiv), H4C1 (436 g, 8.16 mol, 9.89 equiv), N,N-dimethylformamide (6L), DIEA (1064 g, 8.24 mol, 9.99 equiv), and HATU (376 g, 988.88 mmol, 1.20 equiv). The resulting solution was stirred for 12 h at room temperature. The resulting solution was diluted with 10 L of water. The solids were collected by filtration to give in 126 g (78%) of 2-(5-fluoro-l-benzofuran-3-yl) acetamide (8) as a white solid.

Synthesis of 9-ING-41 in cr stalline Form I

8 9-ING-41

[0067] t-BuOK (1200 mL, 1 mol/L in THF) was added dropwise into a solution of ethyl 2-[5-methyl-2H,3H,5H-furo[2,3-f]indol-7-yl]-2-oxoacetate (100 g, 365.9 mmol, 1.00 equiv), 2-(5-fluoro-l-benzofuran-3-yl)acetamide (72 g, 372.7 mmol, 1.02 equiv) in tetrahydrofuran (3 L) at 0°C under nitrogen. The reaction was stirred for 2h at room temperature. The reaction was cooled to 0°C and poured into of 2 L of H4C1 (saturated solution in water) and extracted with 4×2 L of dichloromethane. The organic layers were combined, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated under vacuum. The residue was applied onto a silica gel column with ethyl acetate/dichloromethane/petroleum ether (1/1/5). The collected fractions were combined and concentrated under vacuum to give 107.9 g (74%) of 3-(5-fluoro-l-benzofuran-3-yl)-4-[5-methyl-2H,5H-[l,3]dioxolo[4,5-f]indol-7-yl]-2,5-dihydro-lH-pyrrole-2,5-dione as a red solid. This red solid is 9-ING-41 crystalline Form I. MS-ESI: [M+H]+ = 405.

PATENT

WO2019032958

PATENT

US20100004308

REF

Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2009), 52(7), 1853-1863

PATENT

WO2008077138

////////

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Elraglusib is a maleimide-based, small molecule inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3; serine/threonine-protein kinase GSK3) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration, elraglusib binds to and competitively inhibits GSK-3, which may lead to downregulation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) and decreased expression of NF-kappaB target genes including cyclin D1, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), anti-apoptotic protein XIAP, and B-cell lymphoma extra-large (Bcl-XL). This may inhibit NF-kappaB-mediated survival and chemoresistance in certain tumor types. GSK-3, a constitutively active serine/threonine kinase that plays a role in numerous pathways involved in protein synthesis, cellular proliferation, differentiation, and metabolism, is aberrantly overexpressed in certain tumor types and may promote tumor cell survival and resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

Actuate Therapeutics Announces Initiation of a Multicenter Randomized Trial of Elraglusib Plus FOLFIRINOX As First Line Therapy for Advanced Pancreatic Cancer

https://www.biospace.com/article/releases/actuate-therapeutics-announces-initiation-of-a-multicenter-randomized-trial-of-elraglusib-plus-folfirinox-as-first-line-therapy-for-advanced-pancreatic-cancer/

Published: Feb 07, 2022

CHICAGO and FORT WORTH, Texas, Feb. 07, 2022 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) — Actuate Therapeutics (Actuate), a clinical stage biopharmaceutical company, today announced the opening of a randomized study of elraglusib (9-ING-41) plus FOLFIRINOX alone or with Losartan for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer in the first-line setting (NCT05077800). Elraglusib is Actuate’s proprietary small molecule glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3β) inhibitor which is being developed for adults and children with advanced refractory cancers. This multicenter investigator-initiated study, which is receiving substantial support from the Lustgarten Foundation for Pancreatic Cancer Research, is being led by Colin D. Weekes MD at the Massachusetts General Hospital and will also enroll patients at the University of Washington, University of Colorado Denver, and Johns Hopkins University.

“Novel approaches for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer are urgently required,” said Dr Weekes. “The pre-clinical and clinical data being generated with elraglusib in a spectrum of cancers, including pancreatic cancer, is extremely encouraging and we are delighted to have initiated this study with elraglusib. Elraglusib is the first clinically relevant specific GSK-3β inhibitor that we can thoroughly investigate. In preclinical models, elraglusib has multiple biologic effects relevant to targeting pancreatic cancer including direct cytotoxicity, reversal of chemoresistance, reversal of pathologic fibrosis, and there is increasing evidence of its immune-modulatory activity. In our study, we are particularly focused on elraglusib’s potential to synergize with TGF-β suppression mediated by Losartan. This study builds on the work of our investigative teams demonstrating the roles of TGF-β and GSK-3β in acquired chemotherapy resistance. This study uniquely attempts to harness the mechanisms that pancreatic cancer utilizes to combat the effects of chemotherapy as an Achilles heel for therapeutic intent. We believe that a multi-pronged attack as represented by elraglusib plus Losartan is a potentially sophisticated approach to a complex, often lethal, situation. It is an honour to lead this multicenter collaboration with my clinical and pre-clinical colleagues across the US and Europe. We are very grateful for the critical support of this program by the Lustgarten Foundation.”

“At the Lustgarten Foundation, we understand time is everything for patients and their families,” said Andrew Rakeman, PhD, VP of Research. “Dr. Weekes’ study will help us understand and address a critical issue in pancreatic cancer treatment—acquired chemotherapy resistance. This trial builds on exciting observations from previous preclinical and clinical research. The Foundation established the Clinical Accelerator Initiative for projects like this; bringing more trials based on the best science to the clinic and expanding our understanding of pancreatic cancer biology and treatment. We believe Dr. Weekes’ trial and others like it have the potential to change the way we think about treating pancreatic cancer, ultimately transforming it into a curable disease.”

“We are honored and excited to collaborate with Dr. Weekes, his colleagues at world-leading cancer research centers, and the Lustgarten Foundation on this important trial, which will advance the development of elraglusib for treating patients with one of the most challenging types of cancer,” said Daniel Schmitt, Actuate’s President & CEO. “The results we have seen to date with elraglusib combined with chemotherapy in pancreatic cancer are very promising, and this Phase 2 trial in combination with FOLFIRINOX leverages significant positive preclinical and clinical experience for potentially better outcomes for patients.”

Based on positive data from a prior Phase 2 open-label single arm study of elraglusib plus gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel, Actuate has also recently initiated an international randomized controlled study of elraglusib in combination with gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel, in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer in the first-line setting (NCT03678883, EudraCT#:2018-003739-32). Actuate is also conducting studies in pediatric patients with refractory tumors in preparation for a neuroblastoma-specific clinical program (NCT04239092). Actuate is also collaborating with investigators at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women’s Hospital on a Phase 2 study focused on elraglusib combined with cytotoxic therapy for patients with advanced salivary gland carcinomas (NCT05010629).

About Actuate Therapeutics, Inc.
Actuate is a clinical stage pharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of novel therapeutics for cancers and inflammatory diseases. For additional information, please visit the Company’s website at http://www.actuatetherapeutics.com.

///////////ELRAGLUSIB, WHO 11553, 9-ING-41, Orphan Drug

Cn1cc(C2=C(C(=O)NC2=O)c3coc4ccc(F)cc34)c5cc6OCOc6cc15

wdt-7

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Valemetostat tosilate


Valemetostat tosilate (JAN).png
2D chemical structure of 1809336-93-3

Valemetostat tosilate

バレメトスタットトシル酸塩

FormulaC26H34ClN3O4. C7H8O3S
CAS1809336-93-3
Mol weight660.2205

PMDA JAPAN approved 2022/9/26, Ezharmia

  • 1,3-Benzodioxole-5-carboxamide, 7-chloro-N-((1,2-dihydro-4,6-dimethyl-2-oxo-3-pyridinyl)methyl)-2-(trans-4-(dimethylamino)cyclohexyl)-2,4-dimethyl-, (2R)-, compd. with 4-methylbenzenesulfonate (1:1)

Antineoplastic, histone methyltransferase inhibitor

1809336-39-7 (free base). 1809336-93-3 (tosylate)   1809336-92-2 (mesylate)   1809336-94-4 (fumarate)   1809336-95-5 (tarate)

Synonym: Valemetostat; DS-3201; DS 3201; DS3201; DS-3201b

日本医薬品一般的名称(JAN)データベース

(2R)-7-Chloro-2-[trans-4-(dimethylamino)cyclohexyl]-N-[(4,6-dimethyl-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridin-3-yl)methyl]-2,4-dimethyl-1,3-benzodioxole-5-carboxamide mono(4-methylbenzenesulfonate)

C26H34ClN3O4▪C7H8O3S : 660.22
[1809336-93-3]

STR1
img

1809336-39-7 (free base)
Chemical Formula: C26H34ClN3O4
Exact Mass: 487.2238
Molecular Weight: 488.02

(2R)-7-chloro-2-[trans-4-(dimethylamino)cyclohexyl]-N-[(4,6-dimethyl-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridin-3-yl)methyl]-2,4-dimethyl-1,3-benzodioxole-5-carboxamide

 Valemetostat, also known as DS-3201 is a potent, selective and orally active EZH1/2 inhibitor. DS-3201 selectively inhibits the activity of both wild-type and mutated forms of EZH1 and EZH2. Inhibition of EZH1/2 specifically prevents the methylation of lysine 27 on histone H3 (H3K27). This decrease in histone methylation alters gene expression patterns associated with cancer pathways, enhances transcription of certain target genes, and results in decreased proliferation of EZH1/2-expressing cancer cells.

  • OriginatorDaiichi Sankyo Inc
  • DeveloperCALYM Carnot Institute; Daiichi Sankyo Inc; Lymphoma Academic Research Organisation; Lymphoma Study Association; University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center
  • ClassAmides; Amines; Antineoplastics; Benzodioxoles; Chlorinated hydrocarbons; Cyclohexanes; Pyridones; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of ActionEnhancer of zeste homolog 1 protein inhibitors; Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 protein inhibitors
  • Orphan Drug StatusYes – Adult T-cell leukaemia-lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell lymphoma
  • New Molecular EntityYes
  • RegisteredAdult T-cell leukaemia-lymphoma
  • Phase IIB-cell lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell lymphoma
  • Phase I/IISmall cell lung cancer
  • Phase INon-Hodgkin’s lymphoma; Prostate cancer; Renal cell carcinoma; Urogenital cancer
  • PreclinicalDiffuse large B cell lymphoma
  • No development reportedAcute myeloid leukaemia; Precursor cell lymphoblastic leukaemia-lymphoma
  • 26 Sep 2022First global approval – Registered for Adult T-cell leukaemia-lymphoma (Monotherapy, Second-line therapy or greater) in Japan (PO)
  • 26 Sep 2022Updated efficacy and adverse events data from a phase II trial in Adult T-cell leukaemia-lymphoma released by Daiichi Sankyo
  • 28 Dec 2021Preregistration for Adult T-cell leukaemia-lymphoma (Monotherapy, Second-line therapy or greater) in Japan (PO
Targeting Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 for the Treatment of Hematological Malignancies and Solid Tumors: Candidate Structure–Activity Relationships Insights and Evolution Prospects | Journal of Medicinal Chemistry

PATENT

WO 2015141616

 Watson, W. D. J. Org. Chem. 1985, 50, 2145.
 Lengyel, I. ; Cesare, V. ; Stephani, R. Synth. Common. 1998, 28, 1891.

PATENT

WO2022009911

The equipment and measurement conditions for the powder X-ray diffraction measurement in the examples are as follows.
Model: Rigaku Rint TTR-III
Specimen: Appropriate
X-ray generation conditions: 50 kV, 300 mA
Wavelength: 1.54 Å (Copper Kα ray)
Measurement temperature: Room temperature
Scanning speed: 20°/min
Scanning range: 2 to 40°
Sampling width: 0.02°

[0043]

(Reference Example 1) Production of ethyl trans-4-[(tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino]cyclohexanecarboxylate

[0044]

[hua 6]

[0045]

 Under a nitrogen atmosphere, ethanol (624 L) and ethyl trans-4-aminocyclohexanecarboxylate monohydrochloride (138.7 kg, 667.8 mol) were added to a reaction vessel and cooled. Triethylamine (151.2 kg, 1495 .5 mol) and di-tert-butyl dicarbonate (160.9 kg, 737.2 mol) were added dropwise while maintaining the temperature below 20°C. After stirring at 20-25°C for 4 hours, water (1526 kg) was added dropwise at 25°C or lower, and the mixture was further stirred for 2 hours. The precipitated solid was collected by filtration, washed with a mixture of ethanol:water 1:4 (500 L), and dried under reduced pressure at 40°C to obtain 169.2 kg of the title compound (yield 93.4%). .
1 H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl 3 ): δ 4.37 (br, 1H), 4.11 (q, J = 2.8 Hz, 2H), 3.41 (br, 1H), 2.20 (tt, J = 4.8, 1.4 Hz, 1H),2.07(m,2H),2.00(m,2H),1.52(dq,J=4.6,1.4Hz,2H),1.44(s,9H),1.24(t,J=2.8Hz,3H), 1.11(dq,J=4.6,1.4Hz,2H)

[0046]

(Reference Example 2) Production of tert-butyl = [trans-4-(hydroxymethyl)cyclohexyl]carbamate

[0047]

[hua 7]

[0048]

 Under a nitrogen atmosphere, tetrahydrofuran (968 kg), ethyl = trans-4-[(tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino]cyclohexanecarboxylate (110 kg, 405.4 mol), lithium chloride (27.5 kg, 648 kg) were placed in a reaction vessel. .6 mol), potassium borohydride (32.8 kg, 608.1 mol), and water (2.9 L, 162.2 mol) were added, the temperature was slowly raised to 50°C, and the mixture was further stirred for 6 hours. Cooled to 0-5°C. Acetone (66 L) and 9 wt % ammonium chloride aqueous solution (1210 kg) were added dropwise while maintaining the temperature at 20° C. or lower, and the mixture was stirred at 20-25° C. for 1 hour. Additional ethyl acetate (550 L) was added, the aqueous layer was discarded and the organic layer was concentrated to 550 L. Ethyl acetate (1650 L) and 9 wt% aqueous ammonium chloride solution (605 kg) were added to the residue, and the aqueous layer was discarded after stirring. Washed sequentially with water (550 L). The organic layer was concentrated to 880 L, ethyl acetate (660 L) was added to the residue, and the mixture was concentrated to 880 L while maintaining the internal temperature at 40-50°C. The residue was cooled to 0-5° C. and stirred for 1 hour, petroleum ether (1760 L) was added dropwise over 30 minutes, and the mixture was stirred at the same temperature for 2 hours. The precipitated solid was collected by filtration, washed with a petroleum ether:ethyl acetate 3:1 mixture (220 L) cooled to 0-5°C, and dried at 40°C under reduced pressure to give 86.0 kg of the title compound (yield: obtained at a rate of 92.3%).
1 H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl 3 ): δ 4.37 (br, 1H), 3.45 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 2H), 3.38 (br, 1H), 2.04 (m, 2H),
1.84(m,2H),1.44(m,10H),1.28-1.31(m,1H),1.00-1.13(m,4H)

[0049]

(Reference Example 3) Production of tert-butyl = [trans-4-(2,2-dibromoethenyl)cyclohexyl]carbamate

[0050]

[hua 8]

[0051]

(Step 1)
 Under a nitrogen atmosphere, ethyl acetate (50 L), tert-butyl = [trans-4-(hydroxymethyl)cyclohexyl]carbamate (2.5 kg, 10.90 mol), potassium bromide ( 39.3 g, 0.33 mol), 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl (51.1 g, 0.33 mol), 4.8% aqueous sodium hydrogen carbonate solution (26.25 kg ) was added and cooled to 0-5°C, 9.9% sodium hypochlorite (8.62 kg, 11.45 mol) was added at 5°C or lower, and the mixture was further stirred at 0°C for 4 hours. Sodium sulfite (250 g) was added to the mixture and stirred at 0-5°C for 30 minutes before warming to 20-25°C. Thereafter, the aqueous layer was discarded and washed with a 20% aqueous sodium chloride solution (12.5 kg), then the organic layer was dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated to 7.5 L. Ethyl acetate (12.5 L) was added to the residue, the mixture was concentrated again to 7.5 L, and used in the next reaction as a tert-butyl=(trans-4-formylcyclohexyl)carbamate solution.

[0052]

(Step 2)
Under a nitrogen atmosphere, tetrahydrofuran (30 L) and triphenylphosphine (5.72 kg, 21.8 mol) were added to a reaction vessel, heated to 40°C, and stirred for 5 minutes. Carbon tetrabromide (3.61 kg, 10.9 mol) was added over 30 minutes and stirred at 40-45° C. for another 30 minutes. A mixture of tert-butyl (trans-4-formylcyclohexyl)carbamate solution and triethylamine (2.54 kg, 25.1 mol) was added below 45°C over 20 minutes and stirred at 40°C for an additional 15 hours. After cooling the reaction solution to 0° C., water (0.2 L) was added at 10° C. or lower, and water (25 L) was added. After heating to 20-25° C., the aqueous layer was discarded, ethyl acetate (4.5 kg) and 10% aqueous sodium chloride solution (25 kg) were added, and after stirring, the aqueous layer was discarded again. After the obtained organic layer was concentrated to 15 L, 2-propanol (19.65 kg) was added and concentrated to 17.5 L. 2-Propanol (11.78 kg) and 5 mol/L hydrochloric acid (151.6 g) were added to the residue, and the mixture was stirred at 25-35°C for 2.5 hours. Water (16.8 L) was added dropwise to the resulting solution, and the mixture was stirred at 20-25°C for 30 minutes and then stirred at 0°C for 2 hours. The precipitated solid was collected by filtration, washed with a mixture (11 kg) of acetonitrile:water 60:40 cooled to 0-5°C, and dried at 40°C under reduced pressure to give 3.05 kg of the title compound (yield 73%). .0%).
1 H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3):δ6.20(d,J=3.6Hz,1H),4.37(br,1H),3.38(br,1H),2.21(dtt,J=3.6,4.6,1.4Hz,1H),2.05-2.00(m,2H),1.80-1.83(m,2H),1.44(s,9H),1.23(ddd,J=9.9,5.3,1.2 Hz,2H), 1.13(ddt,J=4.6,1.4,5.2 Hz,2H)

[0053]

(Reference Example 4) Production of tert-butyl = (trans-4-ethynylcyclohexyl) carbamate

[0054]

[Chemical 9]

[0055]

Under a nitrogen atmosphere, toluene (1436 kg), tert-butyl = [trans-4-(2,2-dibromoethenyl)cyclohexyl]carbamate (110 kg, 287.1 mol), and N,N,N ‘,N’-Tetramethylethane-1,2-diamine (106.7 kg, 918.8 mol) was added and cooled to -10°C. An isopropylmagnesium chloride-tetrahydrofuran solution (2.0 mol/L, 418 kg, 863 mol) was added dropwise at -5°C or lower, and stirred at -10°C for 30 minutes. After the reaction, 5 mol/L hydrochloric acid (465 kg) was added at 5°C or lower, heated to 20-25°C, and further 5 mol/L hydrochloric acid (41.8 kg) was used to adjust the pH to 5.0-. adjusted to 6.0. After discarding the aqueous layer, the organic layer was washed twice with water (550 L) and concentrated to 550 L. 2-Propanol (1296 kg) was added to the concentrate and concentrated to 550 L again. Further, 2-propanol (1296 kg) was added to the residue, and after concentrating to 550 L, water (770 L) was added dropwise in 4 portions. At that time, it was stirred for 30 minutes after each addition. After the addition, the mixture was stirred for 1 hour and further stirred at 0° C. for 1 hour. The precipitated solid was collected by filtration, washed with a 5:7 mixture of 2-propanol:water (550 L) cooled to 0-5°C, and dried at 40°C under reduced pressure to yield 57.8 kg of the title compound. obtained at a rate of 90.2%).
1 H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl 3 ): δ 4.36 (br, 1H), 3.43 (br, 1H), 2.18-2.23 (m, 1H), 1.97-2.04 (m, 5H), 1.44-1.56 (m, 11H ),1.06-1.14(m,2H)

[0056]

(Reference Example 5) Production of 4,6-dimethyl-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridine-3-carbonitrile

[0057]

[Chemical 10]

[0058]

Under a nitrogen atmosphere, water (300 L), 2-cyanoacetamide (20 kg, 238 mol), 1-pentane-2-4-dione (26.2 kg, 262 mol), potassium carbonate (3.29 mol) were added to a reaction vessel. kg, 23.8 mol) was added and stirred at room temperature for 6 hours or longer. After the reaction, the precipitated solid was collected by filtration, washed with water (60 L), further washed with a mixture of methanol (40 L) and water (40 L), and dried under reduced pressure at 40°C to give the title compound as 34 Obtained in .3 kg (97.3% yield).
1 H NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-d 6 ): δ 2.22 (s, 3H), 2.30 (s, 3H), 6.16 (s, 1H), 12.3 (brs, 1H)

[0059]

(Reference Example 6) Production of 3-(aminomethyl)-4,6-dimethylpyridin-2(1H)-one monohydrochloride

[0060]

[Chemical 11]

[0061]

 Under a nitrogen atmosphere, water (171 L), methanol (171 L), 4,6-dimethyl-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridine-3-carbonitrile (17.1 kg, 116 mol), concentrated After adding hydrochloric acid (15.8 kg, 152 mol) and 5% palladium carbon (55% wet) (3.82 kg), the inside of the reaction vessel was replaced with hydrogen. Then, the mixture was pressurized with hydrogen and stirred overnight at 30°C. After the reaction, the reaction vessel was purged with nitrogen, the palladium on carbon was removed by filtration, and the palladium on carbon was washed with a 70% aqueous solution of 2-propanol (51 L). Activated carbon (0.86 kg) was added to the filtrate and stirred for 30 minutes. Activated carbon was removed by filtration and washed with 70% aqueous 2-propanol solution (51 L). The filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure until the liquid volume became 103 L, and 2-propanol (171 L) was added. The mixture was again concentrated under reduced pressure until the liquid volume reached 103 L, then 2-propanol (171 L) was added, and the mixture was stirred for 1 hour or longer. Precipitation of a solid was confirmed, and the solution was concentrated to a volume of 103 L. Further, 2-propanol (51 L) was added, and after concentration under reduced pressure until the liquid volume reached 103 L, the mixture was stirred at 50° C. for 30 minutes. After adding acetone (171 L) over 1 hour while keeping the internal temperature at 40° C. or higher, the mixture was stirred at 40 to 45° C. for 30 minutes. The solution was cooled to 25°C and stirred for 2 hours or longer, and the precipitated solid was collected by filtration, washed with acetone (86 L) and dried under reduced pressure at 40°C to give 19.7 kg of the title compound (yield 90.4%). ).
1 H NMR (500 MHz, methanol-d 4 ): δ 2.27 (s, 3H), 2.30 (s, 3H), 4.02 (s, 2H), 6.16 (s, 1H)

[0062]

(Example 1-1) Production of methyl 5-chloro-3,4-dihydroxy-2-methylbenzoate

[0063]

[Chemical 12]

[0064]

 Under a nitrogen atmosphere, water (420 L), toluene (420 L), acetonitrile (420 L), and methyl 3,4-dihydroxy-2-methylbenzoate (1) (60 kg, 329 mol) were added to the reactor and cooled. After that, sulfuryl chloride (133.4 kg, 988 mol) was added dropwise while maintaining the temperature at 20°C or lower. After the reaction, the mixture was separated into an organic layer 1 and an aqueous layer, acetonitrile (60 L) and toluene (120 L) were added to the aqueous layer, and the mixture was stirred. Water (420 L) and acetonitrile (210 L) were added to the organic layer 1, and after cooling, sulfuryl chloride (88.9 kg, 659 mol) was added dropwise at 20°C or lower, and sulfuryl chloride (53.2 kg, 394 mol) was added. ) was added in portions. After the reaction, the mixture was separated into an organic layer 3 and an aqueous layer, and the organic layer 2 was added to the aqueous layer and stirred. Water (420 L), acetonitrile (210 L) were added to the combined organic layer, sulfuryl chloride (44.5 kg, 329 mol) was added dropwise below 20°C, and sulfuryl chloride (106.4 kg, 788 mol) was added. ) was added in portions. After the reaction, the organic layer 4 and the aqueous layer were separated, acetonitrile (60 L) and toluene (120 L) were added to the aqueous layer, and the mixture was stirred. The combined organic layers were washed three times with 20 wt % aqueous sodium chloride solution (300 L) and then concentrated under reduced pressure to 600 L. After repeating the operation of adding toluene (300 L) and concentrating under reduced pressure to 600 L again twice, the mixture was heated and stirred at 60° C. for 1 hour. After cooling to room temperature, the precipitated solid was collected by filtration, washed with toluene (120 L), and dried under reduced pressure at 40°C to give 52.1 kg of the crude title compound (2) (yield: 73.0%). ).

[0065]

 Under a nitrogen atmosphere, toluene (782 L) and crude title compound (52.1 kg, 241 mol) were added to a reactor and heated to 80°C. After confirming that the crystals were completely dissolved, they were filtered and washed with heated toluene (261 L). The mixture was cooled to 60° C. and stirred for 0.5 hours after crystallization. After cooling to 10°C, the precipitated solid was collected by filtration, washed with toluene (156 L), and dried under reduced pressure at 40°C to give 47.9 kg of the title compound (2) (yield 91.9%). Acquired.
1 H NMR (500 MHz, methanol-d 4 ): δ 2.41 (s, 3H), 3.82 (s, 3H), 7.41 (s, 1H)

[0066]

(Example 1-2) Examination of chlorination conditions 1 Since
it is difficult to remove compound (1), which is the starting material, and compound (4), which is a by-product of the reaction, even in subsequent steps, need to control. Therefore, chlorination was investigated in the same manner as in Example 1-1 using compound (1) as a starting material. Table 1 shows the results.

[0067]

[Chemical 13]

[0068]

[Table 1]

[0069]

HPLC condition
detection: 220 nm
column: ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 (2.1 mm ID x 50 mm, 1.7 μm, Waters)
column temperature: 40 ° C
 mobile phase: A: 0.1 vol% trifluoroacetic acid aqueous solution, B: acetonitrile
Gradient conditions:

[0070]

[Table 2]

[0071]

Flow rate: 1.0 mL/min
Injection volume: 1 μL
Sample solution: acetonitrile/water (1:1)
wash solution: acetonitrile/water (1:1)
purge solution: acetonitrile/water (1:1)
seal wash solution : Acetonitrile/water (1:1)
Sample cooler temperature: None
Measurement time: 5 minutes
Area measurement time: about 0.5 minutes – 4.0 minutes
Comp. 1: 1.11 min, Comp. 2: 1.55 min,
Comp. 3: 1.44 min, Comp. 4: 1.70 min

[0072]

(Example 1-3) Examination of chlorination conditions 2
Compound (1) was used as a starting material, sulfuryl chloride was used as a chlorination reagent, and chlorination in various solvents was examined. Table 3 shows the results.

[0073]

[table 3]

[0074]

(Example 2) Methyl (2RS)-2-{trans-4-[(tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino]cyclohexyl}-7-chloro-2,4-dimethyl-1,3-benzodioxole-5- Manufacture of carboxylates

[0075]

[Chemical 14]

[0076]

 Toluene (9.0 L), tert-butyl = (trans-4-ethynylcyclohexyl) carbamate (2.23 kg, 9.99 mol), methyl = 5-chloro-3,4- were added to a reaction vessel under a nitrogen atmosphere. Dihydroxy-2-methylbenzoate (1.80 kg, 8.31 mol), tri(o-tolyl)phosphine (76.0 g, 250 mmol), triruthenium dodecacarbonyl (53.0 g, 82.9 mmol) ) was added, and the mixture was heated and stirred at 80 to 90° C. for 7 hours under an oxygen-containing nitrogen stream. The reaction solution was cooled to room temperature to obtain a toluene solution of the title compound.

[0077]

(Example 3) (2RS)-2-{trans-4-[(tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino]cyclohexyl}-7-chloro-2,4-dimethyl-1,3-benzodioxole-5-carvone acid production

[0078]

[Chemical 15]

[0079]

Methyl = (2RS)-2-{trans-4-[(tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino]cyclohexyl}-7-chloro-2,4-dimethyl-1,3-benzodioxole obtained in Example 2 -5-carboxylate toluene solution (13 L, equivalent to 7.83 mol), methanol (9.0 L), 1,2-dimethoxyethane (3.6 L), 5 mol / L sodium hydroxide aqueous solution ( 2.50 L, 12.5 mol) was added and stirred at 55-65° C. for 3 hours. After adding water (5.4 L), the mixture was allowed to stand and separated into an organic layer and an aqueous layer. After cooling to room temperature, 1,2-dimethoxyethane (16.2 L) was added to the aqueous layer, and after adjusting the pH to 4.0 to 4.5 with 3 mol/L hydrochloric acid, toluene (5.4 L) was added. added. After heating to 50-60° C., the organic layer and aqueous layer were separated, and the organic layer was washed with a 20 wt % sodium chloride aqueous solution (7.2 L). Then, 1,2-dimethoxyethane (21.6 L) was added to the organic layer, and after concentration under reduced pressure to 9 L, 1,2-dimethoxyethane (21.6 L) was added and heated to 50-60°C. After that, filtration was performed to remove inorganic substances. Then, after washing with 1,2-dimethoxyethane (1.8 L), the 1,2-dimethoxyethane solution of the title compound (quantitative value 89.6% (Example 2 total yield from ), corresponding to 7.45 mol).

[0080]

(Example 4) (1S)-1-phenylethanaminium (2R)-2-{trans-4-[(tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino]cyclohexyl}-7-chloro-2,4-dimethyl-1, Preparation of 3-benzodioxole-5-carboxylate

[0081]

[Chemical 16]

[0082]

(2RS)-2-{trans-4-[(tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino]cyclohexyl}-7-chloro-2,4-dimethyl-1,3-benzodioxole-5 obtained in Example 3 – A solution of carboxylic acid in dimethoxyethane (21.6 L, corresponding to 7.45 mol) was heated to 75-80°C, and then (1S)-1-phenylethanamine (1.02 kg, 8.42 mmol). was added and stirred for 4 hours. A mixture of 1,2-dimethoxyethane (9.2 L) and water (3.4 L) heated to 50-60° C. was added, stirred, and then cooled to room temperature. The precipitated solid was collected by filtration and washed with 1,2-dimethoxyethane (9 L) to give a crude title compound (1.75 kg (converted to dry matter), yield 38.5% (Example 2 total yield from ) and an optical purity of 93.8% ee).

[0083]

 Under a nitrogen atmosphere, a 1,2-dimethoxyethane aqueous solution (13.6 L) was placed in a reaction vessel, and (1S)-1-phenylethanaminium obtained in step 1 (2R)-2-{trans-4-[(tert -Butoxycarbonyl)amino]cyclohexyl}-7-chloro-2,4-dimethyl-1,3-benzodioxole-5-carboxylate crude (1.70 kg equivalent, 3.11 mol) was added. After that, 5 mol/L hydrochloric acid (0.56 L, 2.8 mol) was added dropwise. After stirring at room temperature for 10 minutes or longer, the mixture was heated to 75° C. or higher, and (1S)-1-phenylethanamine (360 g, 2.97 mmol) was dissolved in 1,2-dimethoxyethane (2.6 L). The solution was added dropwise over 1 hour. It was then washed with 1,2-dimethoxyethane (0.9 L), stirred for 2 hours and cooled to 0-5°C. The slurry was collected by filtration and washed with 1,2-dimethoxyethane (5.1 L) cooled to 0-5° C. to give the title compound (1.56 kg, yield 91.9%, obtained with an optical purity of 99.5% ee).
1 H NMR (500 MHz, methanol-d 4 ): δ 1.15-1.23(m,2H), 1.28-1.35(m,2H), 1.42(s,9H),
1.59(s,3H), 1.60-1.61(d ,3H,J=7.0Hz,3H),1.80-1.86(dt,J=12.0,3.0Hz,1H),1.95-1.96(m,4H),2.27(s,3H),3.24-3.28(m,1H ),4.39-4.43(q,J=7.0Hz,1H),7.07(s,1H),7.37-7.45(m,5H)

[0084]

(Example 5) (2R)-7-chloro-2-[trans-4-(dimethylamino)cyclohexyl]-2,4-dimethyl-1,3-benzodioxole-5-carboxylic acid monohydrochloride Manufacturing A

[0085]

[Chemical 17]

[0086]

(Step 1)
Under a nitrogen atmosphere, 1,2-dimethoxyethane (200 L) and (1S)-1-phenylethanaminium (2R)-2-{trans-4-[(tert-butoxycarbonyl) were placed in a reaction vessel. Amino]cyclohexyl}-7-chloro-2,4-dimethyl-1,3-benzodioxole-5-carboxylate (equivalent to 87.64 kg, 160 mol), 35% hydrochloric acid (16.7 kg, 160 mol) was added and heated to 45-55° C., 35% hydrochloric acid (36.7 kg, 352 mol) was added dropwise in 7 portions and stirred for 3 hours after dropping. After cooling to room temperature, the reaction solution was added to a mixture of water (982 L) and 5 mol/L sodium hydroxide (166.34 kg, 702 mol). 3 mol/L hydrochloric acid (22.4 kg) was added dropwise to the resulting solution at 30°C, crystal precipitation was confirmed, and the mixture was stirred for 30 minutes or more, cooled to 10°C, and further stirred for 2 hours. After stirring, 3 mol/L hydrochloric acid (95.1 kg) was added dropwise at 10°C to adjust the pH to 7.0. The slurry liquid was collected by filtration, washed with water (293 L) cooled to 10° C., and (2R)-2-(trans-4-aminocyclohexyl)-7-chloro-2,4-dimethyl-1,3- Benzodioxol-5-carboxylic acid trihydrate was obtained (57.63 kg (converted to dry matter), yield 94.7%).
1 H NMR (500 MHz, methanol- d4 + D2O): 1.32-1.44 ( m, 4H), 1.61 (s, 3H), 1.89-1.94 (m, 1H), 2.01-2.13 (m, 4H) ,2.27(s,3H),2.99-3.07(m,1H),7.06(s,3H)

[0087]

(Step 2)
Under nitrogen atmosphere, 1,2-dimethoxyethane (115 L), (2R)-2-(trans-4-aminocyclohexyl)-7-chloro-2,4-dimethyl-1,3 -benzodioxole-5-carboxylic acid trihydrate (57.63 kg equivalent, 152 mmol), formic acid (34.92 kg, 759 mol), 37% formaldehyde aqueous solution (93.59 kg, 1153 mol) was added and stirred at 55-65°C for 2 hours. Cool to room temperature, add 2-propanol (864 L) and concentrate to 576 L under reduced pressure. 2-Propanol (231 L) was added thereto and concentrated under reduced pressure to 576 L. Further, 2-propanol (231 L) was added and concentrated under reduced pressure to 576 L. After concentration, 35% hydrochloric acid (20.40 kg, 196 mol) was added dropwise over 2 hours and stirred at room temperature for 30 minutes. Ethyl acetate (576 L) was added to the resulting slurry over 30 minutes and concentrated to 692 L. Ethyl acetate (461 L) was added followed by further concentration to 519 L. Ethyl acetate (634 L) was added to the residue and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 2 hours. The precipitated solid was collected by filtration, washed with ethyl acetate (491 L) and dried under reduced pressure at 40°C to give the title compound (51. 56 kg, 87.1% yield).
1 H NMR (500 MHz, methanol-d 4 ): δ 1.38-1.47 (m, 2H), 1.53-1.61 (m, 2H), 1.67 (s, 3H), 1.99-2.05 (m, 1H), 2.13 -2.18(m,4H),2.38(s,3H),2.84(s,6H),3.19-3.25(dt,J=12.5,3.5Hz,1H),
7.53(s,1H)

[0088]

(Example 6) (2R)-7-chloro-2-[trans-4-(dimethylamino)cyclohexyl]-2,4-dimethyl-1,3-benzodioxole-5-carboxylic acid monohydrochloride Manufacturing B

[0089]

[Chemical 18]

[0090]

 Under a nitrogen atmosphere, formic acid (20 mL), 37% formaldehyde aqueous solution (15 mL), dimethoxyethane (10 mL), (1S)-1-phenylethanaminium (2R)-2-{trans-4- [(tert-Butoxycarbonyl)amino]cyclohexyl}-7-chloro-2,4-dimethyl-1,3-benzodioxole-5-carboxylate (10 g, 18.3 mmol) was added and Stirred for 10 hours. After cooling to room temperature and filtering the insolubles, 2-propanol (100 mL) was added and the mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure until the liquid volume became 30 mL. While stirring at room temperature, ethyl acetate (120 mL) and concentrated hydrochloric acid (6.1 mL) were added to form a slurry. This was concentrated under reduced pressure to 30 mL, ethyl acetate (120 mL) was added, and then concentrated under reduced pressure to 30 mL again. After adding ethyl acetate (120 mL), the precipitated solid was collected by filtration, washed with ethyl acetate (50 mL) and dried under reduced pressure at 40°C to give 6.56 g of the title compound (yield 92.0%). Acquired.

[0091]

(Example 7) (2R)-7-chloro-2-[trans-4-(dimethylamino)cyclohexyl]-N-[(4,6-dimethyl-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridin-3-yl ) Preparation of methyl]-2,4-dimethyl-1,3-benzodioxole-5-carboxamide p-toluenesulfonate

[0092]

[Chemical 19]

[0093]

 Under nitrogen atmosphere, acetone (6.5 L), purified water (1.3 L), (2R)-7-chloro-2-[trans-4-(dimethylamino)cyclohexyl]-2,4- Dimethyl-1,3-benzodioxole-5-carboxylic acid monohydrochloride (650.4 g, 1.67 mol), 3-(aminomethyl)-4,6-dimethylpyridin-2(1H)-one Monohydrochloride (330.1 g, 1.75 mol) and triethylamine (337 g, 3.33 mol) were added and stirred at room temperature for 30 minutes. After that, 1-hydroxybenzotriazole monohydrate (255 g, 1.67 mol), 1-ethyl-3-(dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (383 g, 2.00 mmol) were added, and the mixture was stirred overnight at room temperature. Stirred. After adjusting the pH to 11 with 5 mol/L sodium hydroxide, toluene (9.8 L) was added, and after stirring, the mixture was separated into an organic layer 1 and an aqueous layer. Toluene (3.3 L) was added to the aqueous layer, and after stirring, the aqueous layer was discarded, and the obtained organic layer was combined with the previous organic layer 1. The combined organic layers were concentrated under reduced pressure to 9.75 L, toluene (6.5 L) was added and washed twice with purified water (3.25 L). The resulting organic layer was concentrated under reduced pressure to 4.875 L and 2-propanol (1.625 L) was added. A solution of p-toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate (0.12 kg, 0.631 mol) dissolved in 4-methyl-2-pentanone (1.14 L) was added to the organic layer heated to 68°C. The mixture was added dropwise over 5 hours and stirred at 68°C for 30 minutes. Furthermore, a solution of p-toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate (0.215 kg, 1.13 mol) dissolved in 4-methyl-2-pentanone (2.11 L) was added dropwise over 3.5 hours, Stirred at 68° C. for 30 minutes. After that, 4-methyl-2-pentanone (6.5 L) was added dropwise over 1 hour. After cooling to room temperature, the precipitated solid was collected by filtration, washed with 4-methyl-2-pentanone (3.25 L) and dried under reduced pressure at 40°C to give 1.035 kg of the crude title compound (yield 94%). .2%).

[0094]

Under a nitrogen atmosphere, 2-propanol (6.65 L) and the obtained crude title compound (950 g) were added to the reactor and stirred. Purified water (0.23 L) was added to completely dissolve the solid at 68° C., filtered, and washed with warm 2-propanol (0.95 L). After confirming that the solid was completely dissolved at an internal temperature of 68°C, the solution was cooled to 50°C. After cooling, seed crystals* (9.5 g, 0.01 wt) were added and stirred at 50° C. overnight. tert-Butyl methyl ether (11.4 L) was added dropwise thereto in 4 portions over 30 minutes each. At that time, it was stirred for 30 minutes after each addition. After cooling to room temperature, the precipitated solid was collected by filtration, washed with a mixture of 2-propanol (0.38 L) and tert-butyl methyl ether (3.42 L), and further treated with tert-butyl methyl ether (4.75 L). ) and dried under reduced pressure at 40° C. to obtain the title compound (915.6 g, yield 96.4%).
1 H NMR (500 MHz, methanol-d 4 ): δ 1.35-1.43 (m, 2H), 1.49-1.57 (m, 2H), 1.62 (s, 3H),
1.94-2.00 (dt, J = 12.5, 3.0Hz ,1H),2.09-2.13(m,4H),2.17(s,3H),2.24(s,3H),2.35(s,3H),2.36(s,3H),2.82(s,6H),3.16- 3.22(dt,J=12.0,3.5Hz,1H),4.42(s,2H),
6.10(s,1H),6.89(s,1H),7.22-7.24(d,J=8.0Hz,2H),7.69 -7.71(dt,J=8.0,1.5 Hz,2H)
*Seed crystal preparation method
Under a nitrogen atmosphere, 2-propanol (79.0 L) and the obtained crude title compound (7.90 kg) were added to a reactor and stirred. Purified water (7.9 L) was added to completely dissolve the solid, and activated carbon (0.40 kg) was added and stirred. After filtering the activated carbon, it was washed with 2-propanol (79.0 L) and concentrated to 58 L. 2-Propanol (5 L) was added to the residue, and after heating to 64° C., tert-butyl methyl ether (19.8 L) was added, and after crystal precipitation was confirmed, tert-butyl methyl ether (75. 1 L) was added in three portions. At that time, it was stirred for 30 minutes after each addition. After cooling to room temperature, the precipitated solid was collected by filtration, washed with a mixture of 2-propanol (7.9 L) and tert-butyl methyl ether (15.8 L), and dried under reduced pressure at 40°C to obtain seed crystals. The title compound was obtained (7.08 kg, 89.6% yield).

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///////Valemetostat tosilate, japan 2022, approvals 2022, Ezharmia, バレメトスタットトシル酸塩 , DS-3201, DS 3201, DS3201, DS-3201b, Orphan Drug

CN(C)[C@@H]1CC[C@H](CC1)[C@]2(C)Oc3c(C)c(cc(Cl)c3O2)C(=O)NCC4=C(C)C=C(C)NC4=O

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Danavorexton, TAK 925


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Danavorexton Structure.svg

Danavorexton,  TAK 925

2114324-48-8

  • Molecular FormulaC21H32N2O5S
  • Average mass424.554 Da

1-Piperidinecarboxylic acid, 3-[(methylsulfonyl)amino]-2-[[(cis-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy]methyl]-, methyl ester, (2R,3S)-

Methyl (2R,3S)-3-[(methylsulfonyl)amino]-2-[[(cis-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy]methyl]-1-piperidinecarboxylate

  • OriginatorTakeda
  • ClassCyclohexanes; Esters; Ethers; Piperidines; Sleep disorder therapies; Small molecules; Sulfonamides
  • Mechanism of ActionOrexin receptor type 2 agonists
  • Orphan Drug StatusYes – Narcolepsy
  • Phase IHypersomnia; Narcolepsy; Respiration disorders; Sleep apnoea syndrome
  • 01 Jun 2022Takeda Pharmaceuticals completes a phase I clinical trials in Respiratory disorder (In adults) in Netherlands (IV) (ISRCTN63027076)
  • 02 Apr 2022Efficacy and safety data from phase a Ib trial in Hypersomnia presented at the 74th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Neurology 2022 (AAN-2022)
  • 10 Mar 2022Phase-I clinical trials in Sleep apnoea syndrome in Australia (IV) (NCT05180890)

Danavorexton (developmental code name TAK-925) is a selective orexin 2 receptor agonist.[1] It is a small-molecule compound and is administered intravenously.[1][2] The compound was found to dose-dependently produce wakefulness to a similar degree as modafinil in a phase 1 clinical trial.[1][3] As of March 2021, danavorexton is under development for the treatment of narcolepsyidiopathic hypersomnia, and sleep apnea.[2][1][4] It is related to another orexin receptor agonist known as TAK-994, the development of which was discontinued for safety reasons in October 2021.[1][5]

PAPER

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsmedchemlett.1c00626

TAK-925, a potent, selective, and brain-penetrant orexin 2 receptor (OX2R) agonist, [methyl (2R,3S)-3-((methylsulfonyl)amino)-2-(((cis-4-phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)piperidine-1-carboxylate, 16], was identified through the optimization of compound 2, which was discovered by a high throughput screening (HTS) campaign. Subcutaneous administration of compound 16 produced wake-promoting effects in mice during the sleep phase. Compound 16 (TAK-925) is being developed for the treatment of narcolepsy and other related disorders.

aReagents and conditions: (a) chiral column separation; (b) RCOCl, Et3N, THF, rt (for 15 and 16); (c) ethyl chlorocarbonate, DIEA, THF, rt (for 17); (d) isocyanatoethane, Et3N, THF, 0 °C−rt (for 18).

Methyl (2R,3S)-3-((methylsulfonyl)amino)-2-(((cis-4- phenylcyclohexyl)oxy)methyl)piperidine-1-carboxylate (16) To a mixture of 14 (58 mg, 0.16 mmol) and Et3N (0.044 mL, 0.32 mmol) in THF (3 mL) was added methyl chlorocarbonate (0.024 mL, 0.32 mmol) at rt. The mixture was stirred at rt overnight. The mixture was quenched with water and extracted with EtOAc. The organic layer was separated, washed with saturated aqueous NaCl, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified by column chromatography (silica gel, hexane/EtOAc, 1:1 to 0:100) to give 16 (64 mg, 0.15 mmol, 95%) as a colorless oil. Crystallization of 16 (1.8 g, 4.1 mmol) from EtOH-H2O gave 16 (1.7 g, 3.9 mmol, 95%) as a white solid. 1H NMR (600 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 1.40−1.55 (5H, m), 1.56−1.73 (5H, m), 1.87 (1H, brd, J = 13.2 Hz), 1.96 (1H, brd, J = 13.6 Hz), 2.44−2.57 (1H, m), 2.83 (1H, brs), 2.95 (3H, s), 3.40 (1H, brs), 3.53−3.62 (5H, m), 3.73 (1H, brt, J = 9.7 Hz), 3.84 (1H, brs), 4.47 (1H, brs), 7.15 (1H, brt, J = 7.2 Hz), 7.18 (1H, brs), 7.19 (2H, brd, J = 8.1 Hz), 7.27 (2H, brt, J = 7.4 Hz). 13C NMR (151 MHz, DMSO-d6, the minor rotamer’s signals are marked with an asterisk) δ24.05, 24.39*, 26.00, 26.17*, 27.60*, 27.79, 28.68, 30.15*, 37.54, 38.13*, 39.91, 42.99, 51.01, 52.07, 53.90*, 54.49, 61.48, 61.89*, 71.68, 125.68, 126.51, 128.14, 147.34, 155.27*, 156.08. MS (ESI/APCI) mass calculated for [M + H]+ (C21H33N2O5S) requires m/z 424.6, found m/z 425.2. mp 113 °C. Anal. Calcd for C21H32N2O5S: C, 59.41; H, 7.60; N, 6.60. Found: C, 59.45; H, 7.59; N, 6.55. [α] 20 D +16.3 (c 0.1, CHCl3

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Clinical data
Other namesTAK-925
Routes of
administration
Intravenous[1][2]
Drug classOrexin receptor agonist
Identifiers
showIUPAC name
CAS Number2114324-48-8
PubChem CID130310079
ChemSpider68011464
UNII1QMD83K4YN
ChEMBLChEMBL4650341
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC21H32N2O5S
Molar mass424.56 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)Interactive image
showSMILES
showInChI

References

  1. Jump up to:a b c d e f Jacobson LH, Hoyer D, de Lecea L (January 2022). “Hypocretins (orexins): The ultimate translational neuropeptides”. J Intern Meddoi:10.1111/joim.13406PMID 35043499.
  2. Jump up to:a b c “Danavorexton – Takeda”Adis Insight. Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Retrieved 7 March 2021.
  3. ^ Evans, R., Hazel, J., Faessel, H., Wu, J., Hang, Y., Alexander, R., … & Hartman, D. (2019). Results of a phase 1, 4-period crossover, placebo-controlled, randomized, single dose study to evaluate the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of TAK-925, a novel orexin 2 receptor agonist, in sleep-deprived healthy adults, utilizing modafinil as an active comparator. Sleep Medicine, 64, S106. https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cluster=10933819770107034612
  4. ^ Evans R, Tanaka S, Tanaka S, Touno S, Shimizu K, Sakui S, et al. (December 2019). “A Phase 1 single ascending dose study of a novel orexin 2 receptor agonist, TAK-925, in healthy volunteers (HV) and subjects with narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) to assess safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamic outcomes”. Sleep Medicine64: S105–S106. doi:10.1016/j.sleep.2019.11.290.
  5. ^ Tong A (6 October 2021). “Takeda flashes red light on ‘breakthrough’ narcolepsy drug after PhII trials turned up mysterious safety signal”Endpoints News.

External links

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Darinaparsin


69819-86-9.png
img
2D chemical structure of 69819-86-9
SVG Image
IUPAC CondensedH-gGlu-Cys(Unk)-Gly-OH
SequenceXXG

Darinaparsin

ダリナパルシン , Darvias

JAPAN 2022 APPROVED, PMDA 2022/6/20

(2S)-2-amino-5-[[(2R)-1-(carboxymethylamino)-3-dimethylarsanylsulfanyl-1-oxopropan-2-yl]amino]-5-oxopentanoic acid

(S)-2-amino-5-(((R)-1-((carboxymethyl)amino)-3-((dimethylarsino)thio)-1-oxopropan-2-yl)amino)-5-oxopentanoic acid

Glycine, L-gamma-glutaMyl-S-(diMethylarsino)-L-cysteinyl-

FormulaC12H22AsN3O6S
CAS69819-86-9
Mol weight411.3062
EfficacyAntineoplastic
Commentorganic arsenical

Zinapar, ZIO-101, DMAs(III)G, clarinaparsinUNII-9XX54M675GSP-02L

  • OriginatorTexas A&M University; University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center
  • DeveloperSolasia Pharma; ZIOPHARM Oncology
  • ClassAmines; Antineoplastics; Arsenicals; Oligopeptides; Pentanoic acids; Small molecules; Sulfides
  • Mechanism of ActionApoptosis stimulants; Cell cycle inhibitors; Reactive oxygen species stimulants
  • Orphan Drug StatusYes – Peripheral T-cell lymphoma
  • PreregistrationPeripheral T-cell lymphoma
  • DiscontinuedLiver cancer; Lymphoma; Multiple myeloma; Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma; Solid tumours
  • 28 Mar 2022No recent reports of development identified for phase-I development in Peripheral-T-cell-lymphoma in China (IV, Injection)
  • 26 Jan 2022ZIOPHARM Oncology is now called Alaunos Therapeutics
  • 11 Dec 2021Safety and efficacy data from a phase II trial in Peripheral T-cell lymphoma presented at the 63rd American Society of Hematology Annual Meeting and Exposition (ASH-2021)

Darinaparsin is a small-molecule organic arsenical with potential antineoplastic activity. Although the exact mechanism of action is unclear, darinaparsin, a highly toxic metabolic intermediate of inorganic arsenicals (iAs) that occurs in vivo, appears to generate volatile cytotoxic arsenic compounds when glutathione (GSH) concentrations are low. The arsenic compounds generated from darinaparsin disrupt mitochondrial bioenergetics, producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inducing ROS-mediated tumor cell apoptosis; in addition, this agent or its byproducts may initiate cell death by interrupting the G2/M phase of the cell cycle and may exhibit antiangiogenic effects. Compared to inorganic arsenic compounds such as arsenic trioxide (As2O3), darinaparsin appears to exhibit a wide therapeutic window.

Darinaparsin, also know as ZIO-101 and SP-02, is a small-molecule organic arsenical with potential antineoplastic activity. Although the exact mechanism of action is unclear, darinaparsin, a highly toxic metabolic intermediate of inorganic arsenicals (iAs) that occurs in vivo, appears to generate volatile cytotoxic arsenic compounds when glutathione (GSH) concentrations are low. The arsenic compounds generated from darinaparsin disrupt mitochondrial bioenergetics, producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inducing ROS-mediated tumor cell apoptosis; in addition, this agent or its byproducts may initiate cell death by interrupting the G2/M phase of the cell cycle and may exhibit antiangiogenic effects.

Darinaparsin is an organic arsenical composed of dimethylated arsenic linked to glutathione, and is being investigated for antitumor properties in vitro and in vivo. While other arsenicals, including arsenic trioxide, have been used clinically, none have shown significant activity in malignancies outside of acute promyelocytic leukemia. Darinaparsin has significant activity in a broad spectrum of hematologic and solid tumors in preclinical models. Here, we review the literature describing the signaling pathways and mechanisms of action of darinaparsin and compare them to mechanisms of cell death induced by arsenic trioxide. Darinaparsin has overlapping, but distinct, signaling mechanisms. We also review the current results of clinical trials with darinaparsin (both intravenous and oral formulations) that demonstrate significant antitumor activity.

PAPER

 Biochemical Pharmacology (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 126, 79-86; 2017

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PATENT

WO 2015085208

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2015085208

Preparation of Darinaparsin

[0071] Sterile water (15.5 L) and ethyl alcohol (200 proof, 15.5 L) were charged in a reaction flask prior to the addition of L-glutathione (3.10 kg). While being stirred, the reaction mixture was cooled to 0-5 °C prior to the addition of triethylamine (1.71 L). Stirring was continued until most of the solids were dissolved and the solution was filtered. After filtration, the reaction mixture was cooled to 0-5 °C prior to the addition of chlorodimethylarsine (1.89 kg) over 115 minutes while maintaining the temperature at 0-5 °C. Stirring continued at 0-5 °C for 4 hours before acetone (30.6 L) was added over 54 minutes while maintaining the temperature at 0-5 °C. The suspension was stored at 0-5°C overnight prior to filtration. The solid was collected in a filter funnel, washed successively with ethyl alcohol (200 proof, 13.5 L) and acetone (13.5 L) and dried in suction for 23 minutes. A second similar run was performed and the collected solids from both runs were combined. Ethyl alcohol (200 proof, 124 L) and the combined solids (11.08 kg) were charged in a vessel. The slurry was stirred at ambient temperature for 2 hours before filtration, washing successively with ethyl alcohol (200 proof, 27 L) and acetone (27 L) and dried in suction for 60 minutes. The resulting solid was transferred to drying trays and dried in a vacuum oven at ambient temperature for 66 hours to provide darinaparsin as a solid with the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermogram of Figure 1, with an extrapolated onset temperature at about 191.36° C and a peak temperature at about 195.65° C.

PATENT

WO 2010021928

Step 1

Dimethylchloroarsine. Dimethylarsinic acid, (CH3)2As(O)OH was supplied by the Luxembourg Chemical Co., Tel Aviv, Israel. The product was accompanied by a statement of its purity and was supplied as 99.7% pure. The dimethylarsinic acid was dissolved in water-hydrochloric acid to pH 3. A stream of sulfur dioxide was passed through this solution for about one hour. Dimethylchloroarsine separated as a heavy, colorless oil. The two liquid phases, water/(CH3)2AsCl were separated using a separatory funnel. The chlorodimethylarsine was extracted into diethylether and the ether solution was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate. The dried solution was transferred to a distillation flask which was heated slowly to evaporate the ether. The remaining liquid, dimethylchloroarsine was purified by distillation. The fraction boiling at 106-109°C was collected. The product, a colorless oil. 1H NMR resonance at 1.65 ppm.

Step 2

SGLU-1: Glutathione (14.0 g, 45.6 mmol) was stirred rapidly in glyme while dimethylchoroarsine (6.5 g, 45.6 mmol) was added dropwise. Pyridine (6.9 g, 91.2 mmol) was then added to the slurry and the mixture was subsequently heated to reflux. The heat was removed immediately and the mixture stirred at room temperature for 4 h. Isolation of the resultant insoluble solid and recrystallization from ethanol afforded 4 as the pyridine hydrochloride complex (75% yield). mp 115-118°C; NMR (D20) δ1.35 (s, 6H), 1.9-4.1 (m’s, 10H), 7.8-9.0 (m, 5H); mass spectrum (m/e) 140, 125, 110, 105, 79, 52, 45, 36.

PATENT

WO 2009075870

Step 1

Example 1. Preparation of Dimethylchloroarsine (DMCA). A 3-neck round-bottom flask (500 mL) equipped with mechanical stirrer, inlet for nitrogen, thermometer, and an ice bath was charged with cacodylic acid (33 g, 0.23 mol) and cone. hydrochloric acid (67 mL). In a separate flask, a solution of SnCl2·2H2O (54 g, 0.239 mol) in cone. hydrochloric acid (10 mL) was prepared. The SnCl2·2 H2O solution was added to the cacodylic acid in HCl solution under nitrogen while maintaining the temperature between 5 °C and 10 °C. After the addition was complete, the ice bath was removed and the reaction mixture was stirred at ambient temperature for 1 h. The reaction mixture was transferred to a separatory funnel and the upper layer (organic) collected. The bottom layer was extracted with dichloromethane (DCM) (2 × 25 mL). The combined organic extract was washed with 1 N HCl (2 × 10 mL) and water (2 × 20 mL). The organic extract was dried over MgSO4 and DCM was removed by rotary evaporation (bath temperature 80 °C, under nitrogen, atmospheric pressure). The residue was further distilled under nitrogen. Two tractions of DMCA were collected. The first fraction contained some DCM and the second fraction was of suitable quality (8.5 g, 26% yield). The GC analysis confirmed the identity and purity of the product.

Step 2

Example 3. Preparation of S-Dimethylarsinoglutathione (SGLU-1). In a 3 L three-neck flask equipped with a mechanic stirrer, dropping funnel and thermometer under an inert atmosphere was prepared a suspension of glutathione (114.5 g, 0.37 mol) in a 1:1 (v/v) mixture of water/ethanol (1140 mL) and cooled to below 5 °C. The mixture was treated slowly (over 15 min) with triethylamine (63.6 mL, 0.46 mol) while maintaining the temperature below 20 °C. The mixture was cooled to 4 °C and stirred for 15 min and then the traces of undissolved material removed by filtration. The filtrate was transferred in a clean 3 L three-neck flask equipped with a mechanic stirrer, dropping funnel, nitrogen inlet, and thermometer and DMCA (70 g, 0.49 mol) (lot # 543-07-01-44) was added slowly while maintaining the temperature at 3-4°C. The reaction mixture was stirred at 1-4°C for 4 h, and acetone (1.2 L) was added over a period of 1 h. The mixture was stirred for 90 min between 2 and 3°C and the resulting solid was isolated by filtration. The product was washed with ethanol (2 × 250 mL) and acetone (2 × 250 mL) and the wet solids were suspended in ethanol 200 Proof (2000 mL). The product was isolated by filtration, washed with ethanol (2 × 250 mL) and acetone (2 × 250 mL) and dried in vacuum for 2 days at RT to give 115 g (75%) of SGLU-1, HPLC purity > 99.5% (in process testing).

PATENT

WO 2007027344

Example 2 Preparation of S-Dimethylarsinoglutathione A 5 L, three necked round bottom flask was equipped with a mechanical stirrer assembly, thermometer, addition funnel, nitrogen inlet, and a drying tube was placed in a cooling bath. A polyethylene crock was charged with glutathione-reduced (200 g) and deionized water (2 L) and stirred under a nitrogen atmosphere to dissolve all solids. The mixture was filtered to remove any insoluble material and the filtrate was transferred to the 5 L flask. While stirring, ethanol, 200 proof (2 L) was added and the clear solution was cooled to 0-5° C. using an ice/methanol bath. Pyridine (120 g) was added followed by a dropwise addition of Me2AsCl (120 g) over a minimum of 1 hour. The reaction mixture was stirred at 0-5° C. for a minimum of 2 hours prior to removal of the cooling bath and allowing the mixture to warm to room temperature under a nitrogen atmosphere with stirring. The reaction mixture was stirred overnight (>15 hrs) at room temperature under a nitrogen atmosphere at which time a white solid may precipitate. The reaction mixture was concentrated to a slurry (liquid and solid) at 35-45° C. using oil pump vacuum to provide a white solid residue. As much water as possible is removed, followed by two coevaporations with ethanol to azeotrope the last traces of water. The white solid residue was slurried in ethanol, 200 pf. (5 L) under a nitrogen atmosphere at room temperature overnight. The white solid was filtered and washed with ethanol, 200 pf. (2×500 mL) followed by acetone, ACS (2×500 mL). The resulting solid was transferred to drying trays and vacuum oven dried overnight at 25-35° C. using oil pump vacuum to provide pyridinium hydrochloride-free S-dimethylarsinoglutathione as a white solid. melting point of 189-190° C.

PATENT

WO 20060128682

Step 1

Dimethylchloroarsine. Dimethylarsinic acid, (CH3)2As(O)OH was supplied by the Luxembourg Chemical Co., Tel Aviv, Israel. The product was accompanied by a statement of its purity and was supplied as 99.7% pure. The dimethylarsinic acid was dissolved in water-hydrochloric acid to pH 3. A stream of sulfur dioxide was passed through this solution for about one hour. Dimethylchloroarsine separated as a heavy, colorless oil. The two liquid phases, water/(CH3)2AsCl were separated using a separatory funnel. The chlorodimethylarsine was extracted into diethylether and the ether solution was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate. The dried solution was transferred to a distillation flask which was heated slowly to evaporate the ether. The remaining liquid, dimethylchloroarsine was purified by distillation. The fraction boiling at 106-109° C. was collected. The product, a colorless oil. 1H NMR resonance at 1.65 ppm.

Step 2

Pyridine Hydrochloride Free Synthesis of S-Dimethylarsinoglutathione (GLU) Dimethylarsinoglutathione is made using an adapted of Chen (Chen, G. C., et al. Carbohydrate Res. (1976) 50: 53-62) the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. Briefly, dithiobis(dimethylarsinoglutamine) is dissolved in dichloromethane under nitrogen. Tetramethyldiarsine is added dropwise to the solution and the reaction is stirred overnight at room temperature under nitrogen and then exposed to air for 1 h. The mixture is then evaporated to dryness and the residue is washed with water and dried to give a crude solid that is recrystallized from methanol to give S-dimethylarsinoglutathione.

//////////

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Solasia Announces Submission of New Drug Application for Anti-cancer Drug DARINAPARSIN for Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma in Japan

Solasia Pharma K.K. (TSE: 4597, Headquarters: Tokyo, Japan, President & CEO: Yoshihiro Arai, hereinafter “Solasia”) today announced submission of a New Drug Application (NDA) for its new anti-cancer drug darinaparsin (generic name, development code: SP-02) as a treatment for relapsed or refractory peripheral T-cell lymphoma to the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW). Based on positive results of R&D on darinaparsin, centered primarily on the results of the Asian Multinational Phase 2 Study (study results released in June 2020), Solasia filed an NDA for the drug with the regulatory authority in Japan ahead of anywhere else in the world.

Solasia expects to obtain regulatory approval in 2022 and to also launch in the same year. If approved and launched, darinaparsin would be the third drug Solasia successfully developed and brought to market since its founding and is expected to contribute to the treatment of PTCL.

Mr. Yoshihiro Arai, President and CEO of Solasia, commented as follows:
“No standard treatment has been established for relapsed or refractory PTCL as of yet. I firmly believe that darinaparsin, with its novel mechanism of action that differs from those of already approved drugs, will contribute to patients and healthcare providers at clinical sites as a new treatment option for relapsed or refractory PTCL. Since founding, Solasia has conducted R&D on five pipeline drugs. Of the five, we have successfully developed and brought to market two drugs, i.e., began providing them to patients, and today, we submitted an NDA for our first anti-cancer drug. Under our mission to provide patients with ‘Better Medicine for a Brighter Tomorrow’, we will continue aiming to contribute to patients’ treatment and enhanced quality of life. ”

About darinaparsin (SP-02)
Darinaparsin, an organoarsenic compound with anticancer activity, is a novel mitochondrial-targeted agent being developed for the treatment of various hematologic and solid tumors. The proposed mechanism of action of the drug involves the disruption of mitochondrial function, increased production of reactive oxygen species, and modulation of intracellular signal transduction pathways. Darinaparsin is believed to exert anticancer effect by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Darinaparsin has been granted orphan drug designation in the US and EU.
For more information, please visit at https://solasia.co.jp/en/pipeline/sp-02.html

About Asian Multinational Phase 2 Study
The Asian Multinational Phase 2 Study was a multinational, multicenter, single-arm, open-label, non-randomized study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of darinaparsin monotherapy in patients with relapsed or refractory PTCL conducted in Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and Hong Kong. (CT.gov Identifier: NCT02653976).
Solasia plans to present the results of the study at an international academic conference to be held in the near future.

About peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL)
Please visit at https://solasia.co.jp/en/pipeline/sp-02.html

About Solasia
Please visit at https://solasia.co.jp/en/

/////////////Darinaparsin, Darvias, JAPAN 2022,  APPROVALS 2022, PMDA, ダリナパルシン  , Zinapar, ZIO-101, DMAs(III)G, clarinaparsinUNII-9XX54M675GSP-02LOrphan Drug

C[As](C)SCC(C(=O)NCC(=O)O)NC(=O)CCC(C(=O)O)N

Efgartigimod alfa-fcab


DKTHTCPPCP APELLGGPSV FLFPPKPKDT LYITREPEVT CVVVDVSHED PEVKFNWYVD
GVEVHNAKTK PREEQYNSTY RVVSVLTVLH QDWLNGKEYK CKVSNKALPA PIEKTISKAK
GQPREPQVYT LPPSRDELTK NQVSLTCLVK GFYPSDIAVE WESNGQPENN YKTTPPVLDS
DGSFFLYSKL TVDKSRWQQG NVFSCSVMHE ALKFHYTQKS LSLSPGK
(Disulfide bridge: 6-6′, 9-9′, 41-101, 147-205, 41′-101′, 147′-205′)

Efgartigimod alfa-fcab

FormulaC2310H3554N602O692S14
CAS1821402-21-4
Mol weight51279.464

US FDA APPROVED 12/17/2021, To treat generalized myasthenia gravis
Press ReleaseVyvgart BLA 761195

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PEPTIDE

Treatment of IgG-driven autoimmune diseases

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https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-approves-new-treatment-myasthenia-gravis

FDA Approves New Treatment for Myasthenia Gravis

Approval is the First of a New Class of Medication for this Rare, Chronic, Autoimmune, Neuromuscular DiseaseFor Immediate Release:December 17, 2021

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Vyvgart (efgartigimod) for the treatment of generalized myasthenia gravis (gMG) in adults who test positive for the anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibody.

Myasthenia gravis is a chronic autoimmune, neuromuscular disease that causes weakness in the skeletal muscles (also called voluntary muscles) that worsens after periods of activity and improves after periods of rest. Myasthenia gravis affects voluntary muscles, especially those that are responsible for controlling the eyes, face, mouth, throat, and limbs. In myasthenia gravis, the immune system produces AChR antibodies that interfere with communication between nerves and muscles, resulting in weakness. Severe attacks of weakness can cause breathing and swallowing problems that can be life-threatening.

“There are significant unmet medical needs for people living with myasthenia gravis, as with many other rare diseases,” said Billy Dunn, M.D., director of the Office of Neuroscience in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “Today’s approval is an important step in providing a novel therapy option for patients and underscores the agency’s commitment to help make new treatment options available for people living with rare diseases.”

Vyvgart is the first approval of a new class of medication. It is an antibody fragment that binds to the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), preventing FcRn from recycling immunoglobulin G (IgG) back into the blood. The medication causes a reduction in overall levels of IgG, including the abnormal AChR antibodies that are present in myasthenia gravis.

The safety and efficacy of Vyvgart were evaluated in a 26-week clinical study of 167 patients with myasthenia gravis who were randomized to receive either Vyvgart or placebo. The study showed that more patients with myasthenia gravis with antibodies responded to treatment during the first cycle of Vyvgart (68%) compared to those who received placebo (30%) on a measure that assesses the impact of myasthenia gravis on daily function. More patients receiving Vyvgart also demonstrated response on a measure of muscle weakness compared to placebo.

The most common side effects associated with the use of Vyvgart include respiratory tract infections, headache, and urinary tract infections. As Vyvgart causes a reduction in IgG levels, the risk of infections may increase. Hypersensitivity reactions such as eyelid swelling, shortness of breath, and rash have occurred. If a hypersensitivity reaction occurs, discontinue the infusion and institute appropriate therapy. Patients using Vyvgart should monitor for signs and symptoms of infections during treatment. Health care professionals should administer appropriate treatment and consider delaying administration of Vyvgart to patients with an active infection until the infection is resolved.

The FDA granted this application Fast Track and Orphan Drug designations. The FDA granted the approval of Vyvgart to argenx BV.

///////////efgartigimod alfa-fcab, Vyvgart, FDA 2021,APPROVALS 2021, myasthenia gravis, argenx BV, Fast Track,  Orphan Drug, PEPTIDE,

エフガルチギモドアルファ (遺伝子組換え)
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ZY 19489, MMV 253


str1

2-N-(4-cyclopropyl-5-fluoro-6-methylpyridin-2-yl)-5-[(3R)-3,4-dimethylpiperazin-1-yl]-4-N-(1,5-dimethylpyrazol-3-yl)pyrimidine-2,4-diamine.png

ZY 19489, MMV 253

C24 H32 FN9, 465.5

CAS 1821293-40-6

MMV253, GTPL10024, MMV674253

N-(4-cyclopropyl-5-fluoro-6-methylpyridin-2-yl)-5-((3R)-2-((1,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)amino)-3,4-dimethylpiperazin-1-yl)pyrimidin-2-amine

2-N-(4-cyclopropyl-5-fluoro-6-methylpyridin-2-yl)-5-[(3R)-3,4-dimethylpiperazin-1-yl]-4-N-(1,5-dimethylpyrazol-3-yl)pyrimidine-2,4-diamine

  • N2-(4-Cyclopropyl-5-fluoro-6-methyl-2-pyridinyl)-5-[(3R)-3,4-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl]-N4-(1,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)-2,4-pyrimidinediamine
  • (R)-N2-(4-Cyclopropyl-5-fluoro-6-methylpyridin-2-yl)-N4-(1,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)-5-(3,4-dimethylpiperazin-1-yl)pyrimidine-2,4-diamine

Key biological and physical properties of MMV253. logD and in vivo ED90 kindly provided by V. Sambandamurthy, S. Hameed P. and S. Kavanagh, personal communication, 2018

SYN

IN 201721031453

The invention relates to triaminopyrimidine compd. of formula I, pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof, hydrates, solvates, polymorphs, optically active forms thereof, in solid state forms useful for preventing or treating malaria.  The invention also relates to a process for prepn. of triaminopyrimidine compd. and intermediates thereof.  Compd. I was prepd. by condensation of 5-bromouracil with tert-Bu (R)-2-methylpiperazine-1-carboxylate to give tert-Bu (R)-4-(2,4-dichloropyrimidin-5-yl)-2-methylpiperazine-1-carboxylate, which underwent chlorination followed by condensation with 1,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-3-amine followed by condensation with 4-cyclopropyl-5-fluoro-6-methylpyridin-2-amine hydrochloride to give (R)-N2-(4-cyclopropyl-5-fluoro-6-methylpyridin-2-yl)-N4-(1,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)-5-(3-methylpiperazin-1-yl)pyrimidine-2,4-diamine, which underwent Boc-deprotection followed by methylation to give I.

SYN

WO 2019049021

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2019049021

Malaria is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium that infect and destroy red blood cells, leading to fever, severe anemia, cerebral malaria and, if untreated, death.

International (PCT) Publication No. WO 2015/165660 (the WO ‘660) discloses triaminopyrimidine compounds, intermediates, pharmaceutical compositions and methods for use for preventing or treating malaria. The WO ‘660 discloses a process for preparation of 4-cyclopropyl-5-fluoro-6-methylpyridin-2-amine (compound 5) as depicted in scheme-1.

Scheme 1

WO ‘660 discloses a process for preparation of triaminopyrimidine compounds depicted in scheme-2.

WO ‘660 discloses the preparation of compounds 8 and 4 by using microwave technique using Biotage microwave vial. WO ‘660 in example- 13, discloses the isolation of compound 1 by concentration of reaction mixture to obtain crude product, which was purified through reverse phase HPLC GILSON instrument to obtain pure solid compound 1 in 40.8% yield, without providing the purity of the solid compound 1. The process disclosed in WO ‘660 is not industrially advantageous as it requires microwave conditions as well as chromatographic purification and provides compound 1 with lower yields. The compound 1 prepared may not be suitable for pharmaceutical preparations based on various regulatory requirements.

Polymorphism, the occurrence of different crystalline forms, is a property of some molecules. A single molecule can exist in different crystalline forms having distinct physical properties like melting point, thermal behaviors (e.g. measured by thermogravimetric analysis – TGA, or different scanning calorimetry – DSC, Powder x-ray diffraction pattern – PXRD, infrared absorption – IR). One or more these techniques may be used to distinguish different polymorphic forms of a compound.

Different salts and solid states (e.g. solvates, hydrates) of an active pharmaceutical ingredient may possess different physio-chemical properties. Such variation in the properties of different salts and solid states forms may provide a basis for improving formulation, for example, by facilitating better processing or handling characteristics, changing the dissolution profile in a favorable direction, or improving stability (both chemical and polymorph) and shelf-life. These variations in the properties of different salts and solid states forms may offer improvements to the final dosage form for example, to improve bioavailability. Different salts and solid state forms of an active pharmaceutical ingredient may also give rise to a variety of polymorphs or crystalline forms or amorphous form, which may in turn provide additional opportunities to assess variations in the properties and characteristics of an active pharmaceutical ingredient.

In view of the above, the present invention provides a process for the preparation of triaminopyrimidine compound 1 or pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof or hydrates or solvates or polymorphs or optically active forms thereof, which is industrially scalable, environment friendly and efficient so as to obtain compounds of the invention in higher yields and purity.

The process for the preparation of triaminopyrimidine compound 1 or intermediates thereof of the present invention, takes the advantage by using appropriate solvent systems and isolation techniques as well as purification techniques, thereby to overcome problems of lower yields, chromatography purifications and microwave reactions of the prior art.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention provides solid state forms of triaminopyrimidine compound

1,

1

Examples: Preparation of Intermediates

Example-1: Preparation of 6-chloro-4-cyclopropyl-3-fluoro-2-methylpyridine

In a 250 mL 4N round bottom flask, process water (30 ml) and cyclopropanecarboxylic acid (14.19 g, 164.88 mmol) were added at 25 to 35°C and started stirring. Sulphuric acid (4.4 ml, 82.44 mmol) was charged to the reaction mixture. Silver nitrate (4.18 g, 24.73 mmol), 6-Chloro-3-fluoro-2-methylpyridine (6 g, 41.22 mmol) were charged to the reaction mixture. Aqueous solution of ammonium persulphate (65.85 g, 288.54 mmol in 90 mL water) was added to the reaction mixture in 30 to 60 min at temperature NMT 60 °C. After the completion of the reaction as monitored by HPLC, toluene (30 ml) was added to the reaction mixture and stirred for 15 min. The reaction mixture filtered, separated layers from filtrate and extracted aqueous layer using toluene (30 mL). The organic layer was washed with aqueous sodium carbonate solution (30 mL) and water. The organic layer was distilled completely under vacuum at 60 °C to obtain 3.37 g syrupy mass as titled compound.

Example-2: Preparation of 6-chloro-4-cyclopropyl-3-fluoro-2-methylpyridine

In a suitable glass assembly, process water (7.5 L) and cyclopropanecarboxylic acid (3.55 Kg, 41.24 mol) were added at 25 to 35 °C and stirred. Sulphuric acid (2.02 Kg, 20.59 mol), silver nitrate (1.05 Kg, 6.21 mol), 6-chloro-3-fluoro-2-methylpyridine (1.5 Kg, 10.3 mol) were added to the reaction mixture. Aqueous solution of ammonium persulphate (16.46 g, 72.13 mmol in 22.5 L water) was added to the reaction mixture at 55 to 60 °C and maintained. After the completion of the reaction as monitored by HPLC, toluene (7.5 L) was added to the reaction mixture and stirred for 15 min. The reaction mixture was filtered, organic layer was separated and aqueous layer was extracted using toluene (6 L), filtered the reaction mixture and washed the solid with toluene (1.5 L). The combined organic layer was washed with 20% sodium carbonate solution (9 L) and water. The organic layer was concentrated completely under vacuum at 60 °C to obtain 880 g (86.50%) syrupy mass of titled compound.

Example-3: Preparation of N-(4-cyclopropyl-5-fluoro-6-methylpyridin-2-yl)-l,l-diphenyl-methanimine

In a 100 mL 3N round bottom flask, 6-chloro-4-cyclopropyl-3-fluoro-2-methylpyridine (2.69 g, 14.48 mmol) and toluene (30 mL) were added at 25 to 35 °C. Diphenylmethanimine (3.15 g, 17.38 mmol) was charged to the reaction mixture and stirred for 5-10 min under nitrogen purging. Racemic BINAP (270 mg, 0.43 mmol) and palladium acetate (98 mg, 0.43 mmol) were added to the reaction mixture. Sodium-ie/ -butoxide (2.78 g, 28.96 mmol) was added to the reaction mixture and heated to 100 to 110° C under nitrogen. After the completion of the reaction as monitored by HPLC, the reaction mixture was cooled to 25 to 35 °C and filtered over hyflo bed and washed with toluene. The filtrate containing titled compound was preserved for next stage of reaction.

Example-4: Preparation of N-(4-cyclopropyl-5-fluoro-6-methylpyridin-2-yl)-l,l-diphenyl-methanimine

In a suitable assembly, 6-chloro-4-cyclopropyl-3-fluoro-2-methylpyridine (880) and toluene (7.5 L) were added at 25 to 35 °C. Diphenylmethanimine (787 g, 4.34 mmol) and BOC anhydride (237 g, 1.086 mol) was added to the reaction mixture and stirred for 5-10 min under nitrogen purging. Racemic BINAP (67.6 g, 0.108 mmol) and palladium acetate (24.4 g, 0.108 mol) were added to the reaction mixture. S odium- ieri-butoxide (870 g, 9.05 mol) was added to the reaction mixture and heated to 100 to 110 °C under nitrogen. After the completion of the reaction as monitored by HPLC, the reaction mixture was cooled to 25 to 35 °C, water (6 L) was added. The reaction mixture was filtered over hyflo bed and washed with toluene. The filtrate containing titled compound was preserved for next stage of reaction.

Example-5: Preparation of 4-cyclopropyl-5-fluoro-6-methylpyridin-2-amine hydrochloride monohydrate

In a 100 mL 3N round bottom flask, N-(4-cyclopropyl-5-fluoro-6-methylpyridin-2-yl)-l,l-diphenylmethanimine in toluene as obtained in example-3 was added water (25 mL) at 25 to 35° C. The cone. HCl (3 mL) was charged to the reaction mixture and heated to 40 to 50 °C. After the completion of the reaction as monitored by HPLC, the reaction mixture was cooled to 25 to 35 °C. Layers were separated. The aqueous layer was treated with methylene dichloride and pH was adjusted to 7.5 to 8.5 using sodium carbonate solution, stirred for 15 min and layers were separated. Aqueous layer was extracted with methylene dichloride, charcoaled and acidified to pH 3 to 4 with aqueous HCl. The solvent was distilled completely and acetonitrile (9 mL) and ethyl acetate (9 mL) was added. The reaction mixture was stirred for 1 hour at 25 to 35° C. The product was filtered and washed with ethyl acetate. The product was dried at 50° C for 4 hours under vacuum to obtain 1.62 g title compound as monohydrate yellow crystalline solid having 99.51% HPLC purity.

Example-6: Preparation of 4-cyclopropyl-5-fluoro-6-methylpyridin-2-amine hydrochloride monohydrate

In a suitable glass assembly, N-(4-cyclopropyl-5-fluoro-6-methylpyridin-2-yl)-l,l-diphenylmethanimine in toluene as obtained in example-4 was added water (6 L) at 25 to 35° C. The cone. HCl (750 mL) was charged to the reaction mixture and heated to 40 to 50 °C. After the completion of the reaction as monitored by HPLC, the reaction mixture was cooled to 25 to 35 °C. Layers were separated. The aqueous layer was treated with methylene dichloride (3 L) and pH was adjusted to 7.5 to 8.5 using sodium carbonate solution, stirred for 15 min and layers were separated. Aqueous layer was extracted with methylene dichloride (3 L), charcoaled and acidified to pH 3 to 4 with aqueous HCl. The solvent was distilled completely and acetonitrile (1.5 L) and ethyl acetate (1.5 L) were added. The reaction mixture was stirred for 1 hour at 25 to 35° C. The product was filtered and washed with ethyl acetate. The product was dried at 50° C for 4 hours under vacuum to obtain 489 g (96.80%) title compound as monohydrate yellow crystalline solid having 99.51% HPLC purity. The crystalline compound is characterized by Powder x-ray diffraction pattern (FIG.5), Differential scanning calorimetry (FIG.6) and Thermogravimetric analysis (FIG.7).

Example 7: Preparation of 2,3-dibromobutanenitrile

In a 2 L round bottom flask, dichloromethane (550 mL) and 2-butenenitrile 110 g

(1.64 mol) were cooled to 20 to 25 °C. A solution of bromine 275 g (1.72 mol) in dichloromethane (220 mL) was dropwise added at 20 to 25 °C. Hydrobromic acid 1.43 ml (0.0082 mol) in acetic acid (33%) solution was added into the reaction mixture and stirred for 4 hours. After the completion of reaction, Na2S203 (550 mL) 4% aqueous solution was added and the reaction mixture was stirred for 15 min. The separated organic layer was distilled under vacuum completely to obtain 364.2 g (97.9%) of title compound as an oil.

Example 8: Preparation of l,5-dimethyl-lH-pyrazol-3-amine

In a 5 L round bottom flask, water (1. 36 L), sodium hydroxide 340 g (8.99 mol) were added and the reaction mixture was cooled to 0 to 5°C. A solution of methyl hydrazine sulphate 237.8 g (1.65 mol) in 680 mL water was added dropwise to the reaction mixture and stirred below 10 °C. 2,3-dibromobutanenitrile 340 g (1.5 mol) prepared in example-7 was added and the reaction mixture was stirred below 10 °C for 2 hours. After the completion of reaction, toluene (630 mL) was added and the reaction mixture was stirred for 15 min. The aqueous layer was separated and the organic layer was removed. The aqueous layer was extracted with dichloromethane (5.1 L). The combined organic layer was distilled completely under vacuum to obtain residue. Diisopropyl ether (680 mL) was added and the reaction mixture was stirred at 0 to 5 °C for 1 hour. The reaction mixture was filtered, washed with diisopropyl ether and dried to obtained 121.5 g (72.93%) of title compound having 95.63% purity.

Examples: Preparation of triaminopyrimidine compounds

Example-9: Preparation of tert-butyl (R)-4-(2,4-dioxo-l,2,3,4-tetrahydro- pyrimidin-5-yl)-2-methylpiperazine-l-carboxylate

In 2 L four neck round bottom flask, 1.25 Kg (6.545 mol) 5-bromouracil, 1.87 Kg (9.360 mol) tert-butyl (R)-2-methylpiperazine-l-carboxylate and 5L pyridine were added at 25 to 35° C. The reaction mass was stirred for 15 hours at 115 to 120°C. After completion, the reaction mass was cooled to 25 to 35°C. 12.5 L water was added and stirred for 1 hour. The reaction mass was filtered, washed with 2.5 L water and dried to obtain 1.37 Kg (67.4%) of title compound.

Example-10: Preparation of tert-butyl (R)-4-(2,4-dichloropyrimidin-5-yl)-2-methylpiperazine- 1 -carboxylate

In 20 L four neck round bottom flask, 1.36 Kg (4.382 mmol) tert-butyl (R)-4-(2,4-dioxo-1, 2,3, 4-tetrahydropyrimidin-5-yl)-2-methylpiperazine-l -carboxylate and 6.8 L phosphorus oxychloride were added at 25 to 35° C. 26.5 mL pyridine (0.329 mol) was added and the reaction mass was heated to 105 to 110 °C and stirred for 4 hours. After the completion of the reaction, phosphorus oxychloride was distilled completely at atmospheric pressure. 2.72 L acetone was added and the reaction mixture was quenched into 4.08 L water. Acetone was removed by distillation under vacuum. 20% sodium carbonate solution was added to adjust pH 7.5-8.5 of the reaction mixture. 1.14 Kg (5.258 mol) di-tert-butyl dicarbonate and 9.52 L ethyl acetate were added and stirred for 2 hours at 25 to 35 °C. After the completion of the reaction, the organic layer was separated and aqueous layer was extracted with 6.8 L ethyl acetate. The combined ethyl layers were distilled to remove ethyl acetate completely under vacuum to obtain residue. 1.36 L isopropyl alcohol was added to the residue and isopropyl alcohol was removed completely. 4.08 L isopropyl alcohol and 6.8 L water were added to the residue and stirred for 1 hour. The reaction mass was filtered, washed with water and dried to obtain 1.25 Kg of title compound.

Example-11: Preparation of tert-butyl (R)-4-(2-chloro-4-[(l,5-dimethyl-lH-pyrazol-3-yl)amino)pyrimidin-5-yl]-2-methylpiperazine-l-carboxylate

In 20 L round bottom flask, 640 g (1.843 mol) tert-butyl (R)-4-(2, 4-dichloropyrimidin-5-yl)-2-methylpiperazine-l -carboxylate, 225.3 g (2.027 g) 1,5-dimethyl-lH-pyrazol-3-amine and 9.6L toluene were added at 25 to 35°C. 1.2 Kg (3.686 mol) cesium carbonate was added. The reaction mixture was purged for 15 min under nitrogen. 12.41 g (0.0553 mol) palladium acetate and 34.43 g (0.0553 mol) racemic 2,2′-bis(diphenylphosphino)-l,l’-binaphthyl were added and the reaction mass was maintained for 16 hours at 110 to 115 °C under nitrogen. After the completion of the reaction, the reaction mixture was filtered through a celite bed and washed the bed with 1.28 L toluene. Toluene was distilled completely and 2.56 L dichlromethane was added. The compound was adsorbed by 1.92 Kg silica gel (60-120 mesh). The dichloromethane was distilled completely under vacuum and 12.8 L mixture of ethyl acetate and hexane was added to the residue and stirred for 2 hours. The silica gel was filtered and the filtrate was distilled completely under vacuum to obtain 595 g title compound.

Example-12: Preparation of tert-butyl (R)-4-(2-((4-cyclopropyl-5-fluoro-6-methylpyridin-2-yl)amino)-4-((l,5-dimethyl-lH-pyrazol-3-yl)amino) pyrimidin-5-yl)-2-methylpiperazine-l-carboxylate

In 20 L round bottom flask, 595 g (1.40 mol) tert-butyl (R)- 4-(2-chloro-4-[(l,5-dimethyl-lH-pyrazol-3-yl)amino)pyrimidin-5-yl]-2-methylpiperazine-l-carboxylate, 305 g (1.38 mol) 4-cyclopropyl-5-fluoro-6-methylpyridin-2-amine hydrochloride and 11.5 L toluene were added at 25 to 35°C. 1.08 Kg (3.32 mol) cesium carbonate was added. The reaction mixture was purged for 15 min under nitrogen. 17.21 g (27.6 mmol) palladium acetate and 6.21 g (27.6 mmol) racemic 2,2′-bis(diphenylphosphino)-l, -binaphthyl were added. The reaction mass was stirred for 6 hours at 110 tol l5 °C under nitrogen. After the completion of the reaction, the reaction mixture was filtered through a celite bed and washed with toluene. The filtrate was used as such in the next step without further treatment.

Example-13: Preparation of tert-butyl (R)-4-(2-((4-cyclopropyl-5-fluoro-6-methylpyridin-2-yl)amino)-4-((l,5-dimethyl-lH-pyrazol-3-yl)amino) pyrimidin-5-yl)-2-methylpiperazine-l-carboxylate

In 500 mL four neck round bottom flask, 7.5 g (17.77 mmol) (R)-tert-butyl 4-(2-chloro-4-[(l,5-dimethyl-lH-pyrazol-3-yl)amino)pyrimidin-5-yl]-2-methylpiperazine-l-carboxylate, 3.92 g (17.77 mmol) 4-cyclopropyl-5-fluoro-6-methylpyridin-2-amine hydrochloride compound and 150 mL toluene were added at 25 to 35 °C. 20 g (61.3 mmol) cesium carbonate was added. The reaction mixture was purged for 15 min under nitrogen. Then, 130 mg (0.58 mmol) palladium acetate and 360 mg (0.58 mmol) racemic 2,2′-bis(diphenylphosphino)-l,l’-binaphthyl were added. The reaction mass was stirred for 18 hours at 110 to 115° C under nitrogen. After completion, the reaction mixture was filtered through a celite bed and washed with toluene. The filtrate was used as such in the next step without further treatment.

2 4

Example-14: (R)-N -(4-cyclopropyl-5-fluoro-6-methylpyridin-2-yl)-N -(1, 5-dimethyl-lH-pyrazol-3-yl)-5-(3-methylpiperazin-l-yl)pyrimidine-2,4-diamine

In 50 L glass assembly, the filtrate containing tert-butyl (R)-4-(2-((4-cyclopropyl-5-fluoro-6-methylpyridin-2-yl)amino)-4-((l,5-dimethyl-lH-pyrazol-3-yl)amino) pyrimidin-5-yl)-2-methylpiperazine-l-carboxylate from example 13 was taken. 11.5 L water and 1.28 L Cone. HC1 were added at 25 to 35 °C. The reaction mass was stirred for 2 hours at 50 to 55 °C. After the completion of the reaction, reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature and filtered over celite bed and washed with water. The separated the aqueous layer from filtrate was basified by using 20% sodium carbonate solution and extracted with 12.8 L methylene dichloride. The organic layer was distilled completely under vacuum to obtain residue. 9.6 L acetonitrile was added to the residue and heated to reflux for 30 min. The reaction mixture was cooled and stirred at 25 to 35 °C for 1 hour. The reaction mixture was filtered, washed with 640 mL acetonitrile and dried to obtain 360 g titled compound.

2 4

Example-15: (R)-N -(4-cyclopropyl-5-fluoro-6-methylpyridin-2-yl)-N -(1,5-dimethyl-lH-pyrazol-3-yl)-5-(3,4-dimethylpiperazin-l-yl)pyrimidine-2,4-diamine

In 250 mL four neck round bottom flask, 4.7 g (10.4 mmol) (R)-N -(4-cyclopropyl-5-fluoro-6-methylpyridin-2-yl)-N4-(l,5-dimethyl-lH-pyrazol-3-yl)-5-(3,4-dimethylpiperazin-l-yl)pyrimidine-2,4-diamine was dissolved in 56 mL ethanol. 1.89 g (23.32 mmol) formaldehyde and 1.44 g (22.90 mmol) sodium cyanoborohydride were added. Adjusted pH 5-6 using acetic acid and stirred the reaction mass at 25 to 35 °C for 2 hours. After completion, ethanol was distilled completely under vacuum. 47 mL water was added to the residue. The reaction mass was basified by 20% sodium carbonate solution and extracted with methylene dichloride. Both the organic layers were combined and distilled completely under vacuum. 94 mL acetonitrile was added to the residue and heated to reflux for 15 min. The reaction mass was cooled to 25 to 35° C and stirred for 1 hour. The reaction mass was filtered, washed with 5 mL acetonitrile and dried to obtain 3.7 g title compound as crystalline solid, having HPLC purity of about 99.61%.

2 4

Example-16: (R)-N -(4-cyclopropyl-5-fluoro-6-methylpyridin-2-yl)-N -(1,5-dimethyl-lH-pyrazol-3-yl)-5-(3,4-dimethylpiperazin-l-yl)pyrimidine-2,4-diamine

In 20 L round bottom flask, 725 g (1.60 mol) (R)-N2-(4-cyclopropyl-5-fluoro-6-methylpyridin-2-yl)-N4-(l,5-dimethyl-lH-pyrazol-3-yl)-5-(3,4-dimethylpiperazine-l-yl)pyrimidine-2,4-diamine was dissolved in 6.52 L dichloromethane. 261.5 g (3.2 mol) formaldehyde and 510.4 g (2.4 mol) sodium triacetoxyborohydride were added and stirred the reaction mixture at 25 to 35 °C for 2 hours. After the completion of the reaction, 3.63 L water was added into the reaction mixture. The reaction mixture was basified by 20% sodium carbonate solution and the organic layer was separated. The aqueous layer was extracted with 1.45 L methylene dichloride. The combined organic layers were distilled completely under vacuum. 14.5 L acetonitrile was added to the residue and heated to reflux for 15 min. The reaction mixture was cooled to 25 to 35° C and stirred for 1 hour. The reaction mass was filtered, washed with 1.45 L acetonitrile and dried to obtain 632 g of title compound as crystalline solid having 99.01% HPLC purity. The crystalline compound is characterized by Powder x-ray diffraction pattern (FIG.l) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (FIG.2).

2 4

Example-17: Preparation of (R)-N -(4-cyclopropyl-5-fluoro-6-methylpyridin-2-yl)-N -(l,5-dimethyl-lH-pyrazol-3-yl)-5-(3,4-dimethylpiperazin-l-yl)pyrimidine-2,4-diamine In a 10 mL round bottom flask, 300 mg (0.644 mmol) (R)-N2-(4-cyclopropyl-5-fluoro-6-methylpyridin-2-yl)-N4-(l,5-dimethyl-lH-pyrazol-3-yl)-5-(3,4-dimethylpiperazin-l-yl)pyrimidine-2,4-diamine, 2.7 mL acetonitrile and 0.3 mL water were added and the reaction mixture was heated to reflux for 15 min. The reaction mixture was cooled to 25 to 35 °C and stirred for 1 hour. The reaction mass was filtered, washed with acetonitrile and dried to obtain 201 mg (67%) title compound as crystalline solid. The crystalline compound is characterized by Powder x-ray diffraction pattern (FIG.3) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (FIG.4).

SYN

WO 2015165660

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2015165660

Example 13

Synthetic scheme 1

Synthetic scheme 2

(R)-N2-(4-cyclopropyl-5-fluoro-6-methylpyridin-2-yl)-N4-(1,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)-5-(3,4-dimethylpiperazin-1-yl)pyrimidine-2,4-diamine

In a 50 mL round-bottomed flask (R)-N2-(4-cyclopropyl-5-fluoro-6-methylpyridin-2-yl)-N4-(1,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)-5-(3-methylpiperazin-1-yl)pyrimidine-2,4-diamine hydrochloride (190 mg, 0.42 mmol, Example 2) was taken in DCM (2 mL) to give a yellow suspension. To this Hunig’s Base (0.184 mL, 1.05 mmol) was added and the suspension turned clear. After 10 minutes, it turned into a white suspension. After another 10 minutes, the mixture was concentrated to dryness. Resultant residue was dissolved in ethanol (absolute, 99.5%) (3 mL) and formaldehyde (0.042 mL, 0.63 mmol) was added and stirred for 10 minutes. White suspension slowly cleared to yellow solution. To this clear solution sodium cyanoborohydride (26.4 mg, 0.42 mmol) was added in one portion to get white suspension. After 30 minutes LCMS showed completion of reaction. The reaction mixture was concentrated and the crude was purified through reverse phase HPLC GILSON instrument to get the pure solid of (R)-N2-(4-cyclopropyl-5-fluoro-6-methylpyridin-2-yl)-N4-(1,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)-5-(3,4-dimethylpiperazin-1-yl)pyrimidine-2,4-diamine (80 mg, 40.8 %).1H NMR (300

MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 0.67 – 0.78 (m, 2 H) 1.00 (d, J=6.22 Hz, 3 H) 1.02 – 1.08 (m, 2 H) 1.96 – 2.10 (m, 1 H) 2.23 (s, 7 H) 2.30 – 2.38 (m, 4 H) 2.73 – 2.96 (m, 4 H) 3.33 (s, 3 H) 6.83 (s, 1 H) 7.67 (d, J=5.09 Hz, 1 H) 8.00 (s, 1 H) 8.03 (s, 1 H) 9.26 (s,1 H) MS (ES+), (M+H)+ = 466.45 for C21H32FN9.

SYN

Nature Communications (2015), 6, 6715.

https://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms7715

Hameed P., S., Solapure, S., Patil, V. et al. Triaminopyrimidine is a fast-killing and long-acting antimalarial clinical candidate. Nat Commun 6, 6715 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms7715

The widespread emergence of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) strains resistant to frontline agents has fuelled the search for fast-acting agents with novel mechanism of action. Here, we report the discovery and optimization of novel antimalarial compounds, the triaminopyrimidines (TAPs), which emerged from a phenotypic screen against the blood stages of Pf. The clinical candidate (compound 12) is efficacious in a mouse model of Pf malaria with an ED99 <30 mg kg−1 and displays good in vivo safety margins in guinea pigs and rats. With a predicted half-life of 36 h in humans, a single dose of 260 mg might be sufficient to maintain therapeutic blood concentration for 4–5 days. Whole-genome sequencing of resistant mutants implicates the vacuolar ATP synthase as a genetic determinant of resistance to TAPs. Our studies highlight the potential of TAPs for single-dose treatment of Pf malaria in combination with other agents in clinical development.

figure1

(A) Pyridine, microwave, 150 °C, 45 min. (B) (i) POCl3, reflux, 6 h (ii) sodium carbonate, di-tert-butyl dicarbonate, room temperature, 16 h. (C) N,N-Diisopropylethylamine (DIPEA), ethanol, microwave, 110 °C, 1 h. (D) (i) Potassium tert-butoxide, 2,2′-bis(diphenylphosphino)-1,1′-binaphthyl (BINAP), pd2(dba)3, toluene, reflux, 12 h. (E) HCl (4 N) in dioxane, 15–30 min. (F) Compound 9, DIPEA, dichloromethane, formaldehyde (HCHO), sodium cyanoborohydride, 15 min.

Synthesis of (R)-N2-(4-cyclopropyl-5-fluoro-6-methylpyridin-2-yl)-N4-(1, 5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)-5-(3, 4-dimethylpiperazin-1-yl)pyrimidine-2,4-diamine (12). (R)-N2-(4-cyclopropyl-5-fluoro-6-methylpyridin-2-yl)-N4-(1,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)-5-(3-methylpiperazin-1-yl)pyrimidine-2,4-diamine hydrochloride (compound 9, 190 mg, 0.42 mmol) was taken in dichloromethane (2 ml) to give a yellow suspension. To this Hunig’s Base (0.184 ml, 1.05 mmol) was added and the suspension turned clear. After 10 min of stirring, reaction mixture turned into a white suspension and then it was concentrated to dryness. Resultant residue was dissolved in ethanol (absolute, 99.5%) (3 ml), and formaldehyde (0.042 ml, 0.63 mmol) was added and stirred for 10 min. To this clear solution, sodium cyanoborohydride (26.4 mg, 0.42 mmol) was added in one portion to get a white suspension. The reaction mixture was concentrated and the crude product was purified through reverse-phase chromatography to get the pure off-white solid of (R)-N2-(4-cyclopropyl-5-fluoro-6-methylpyridin-2-yl)-N4-(1, 5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)-5-(3,4-dimethylpiperazin-1-yl)pyrimidine-2,4-diamine (80 mg, 40.8%). Yield: 40.8%, purity: >95% by HPLC (ultraviolet at 220 and 254 nm). 1H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6δ 9.26 (s,1H), 8.03 (s, 1H) 8.00 (s, 1H) 7.67 (d, J=5.1 Hz, 1H) 6.83 (s, 1H) 3.33 (s, 3H) 2.96–2.73 (m, 4H) 2.75–2.50 (m, 1H) 2.38–2.30 (m, 4H) 2.23 (s, 7H) 2.10–1.96 (m, 1H),1.08–1.02 (m, 2H) 1.00 (d, J=6.2 Hz, 3H) 0.78–0.67 (m, 2H). 13C-NMR (126 MHz, DMO-d6δ 155.30, 154.67, 152.10, 150.93, 148.98, 146.81. 145.29, 141.95, 140.31, 138.81, 124.91, 106.20, 97.07, 58.78, 51.87, 42.16, 35.28, 17.23. 10.99 and 8.77, HRMS (ESI): m/z calculated for C24H32FN9+H [M+H]: 466.2765. Found: 466. 2838. Traces of LC-MS, HRMS, 1H NMR and 13C-NMR of compound 12 are shown in Supplementary Figs 1–3.

Product vision
  • Uncomplicated malaria treatment and resistance management
MoA
  • Unknown

Key features
  • Predicted human dose 900mg for a 9-log parasite killing
  • Low resistance potential from in vitro studies
Challenges
  • Synthesis and cost of goods
Status
  • First-in-human study started in February 2019
Next milestone
  • Initiate phase IIb study of ZY19489 with FQ
Previously
  • Discovery partnership between MMV and AstraZeneca, Bangalore
  • Name AZ13721412; full reference name is MMV674253

Zydus receives Orphan Drug Designation from USFDA for ZY-19489, a novel compound to treat malaria;

https://www.indiainfoline.com/article/news-top-story/zydus-receives-orphan-drug-designation-from-usfda-for-zy-19489-a-novel-compound-to-treat-malaria-stock-down-1-121121600282_1.html

ZY19489 is a novel antimalarial compound active against all current clinical strains of P. falciparum and P. vivax, including drug-resistant strains.

December 16, 2021 11:38 IST | India Infoline News Service

Zydus Cadila listed as Cadila Healthcare Limited announced that its antimalarial compound ZY19489 (MMV253), currently in development together with Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV), a leading product development partnership (PDP) in antimalarial drug research, has received Orphan Drug Designation from the USFDA.

Orphan drug designation provides eligibility for certain development incentives, including tax credits for qualified clinical testing, prescription drug user fee exemptions, and seven-year marketing exclusivity upon FDA approval.

The company said that the Phase I study of ZY19489 has demonstrated a long half-life and potential for a single-dose cure for malaria. In a separate malaria challenge trial, potent antimalarial activity has been demonstrated following single-dose oral administration of ZY19489.

“As a global community facing threats from rapidly mutating malaria strains and the rise in artemisinin resistance cases, we have to be prepared with novel therapeutic drugs. ZY-19489 is a potential single dose radical cure for P. falciparum and P. vivax malaria which is a major global health risk today,” Pankaj R. Patel, Chairman, Zydus Group, said.

“ZY19489 is a potent, first in class molecule, originally discovered and elaborated in India” said Dr. Timothy Wells, Chief Scientific Officer, MMV. “It has tremendous potential as part of a new generation of treatments and is fully active against drug resistant strains of malaria which are increasingly a concern.”

Artemisinin resistance is seen as a mounting challenge to the global fight against malaria. ZY19489 is being developed to provide an effective alternative to the current front-line antimalarial drugs for the treatment of P. falciparum and P. vivax malaria, as artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are under threat of resistance.

As per the World Malaria Report 2021, there were an estimated 241 million cases of malaria worldwide and the estimated number of malaria deaths stood at 627,000 in 2020. A major health concern, it is estimated that a child dies from malaria every minute. About 96% of malaria deaths globally were in 29 countries. India accounted for about 82% of all malaria deaths in the WHO South-East Asia Region.

 
CLIP
 
Identified by AstraZeneca in 2015, MMV253  is a novel triaminopyrimidine (TAP) that has shown good
invitro potency and in vivo efficacy, and acts through another novel MoA [81].
High-throughput screening of 500,000 compounds from AstraZeneca’s library against blood stage P. falci
parum resulted in the identification of a promising series of TAPs. e initial hit (M’1, Fig.9) suffered from hERG
inhibition and poor solubility which, through lead optimization, was improved upon to give a compound that
possessed high potency and desirable pharmacokinetic properties (MMV253).
When screened against numerous mutant resistant strains with various mechanisms of resistance,
MMV253 showed no spontaneous reduction in potency which can be attributed to its novel MoA (PfATP4 inhi
bition, vide infra). Good in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) was shown with a predicted human half-life
of ∼36 h (which is long compared to another fast-killing drug, artemisinin, which has a human half-life of 1
hour).
As of late 2016, the pharmaceutical company CadilaHealthcare owns the license for the compound series and
is now doing further lead development in order to progress the drug through preclinical trials [82
81. Hameed PS, Solapure S, Patil V, Henrich PP, Magistrado PA, Bharath S, et al. Triaminopyrimidine is a fast-killing and long-acting antimalarial clinical candidate. Nat Commun. 2015;6:6715.
82. MMV and Zydus join forces to develop new antimalarial 2017. https ://http://www.mmv.org/newsr oom/press -relea ses/mmv-and-zydus -join-forces-devel op-new-antim alari al. Accessed 17 June 2018

////////////ZY 19489, MMV 253, Orphan Drug Designation, PHASE 1, ZYDUS CADILA, ANTIMALARIAL

Cn1nc(Nc2nc(Nc3cc(C4CC4)c(F)c(C)n3)ncc2N2C[C@@H](C)N(C)CC2)cc1C

CC1CN(CCN1C)C2=CN=C(N=C2NC3=NN(C(=C3)C)C)NC4=NC(=C(C(=C4)C5CC5)F)C

Maribavir


Maribavir.svg
ChemSpider 2D Image | Maribavir | C15H19Cl2N3O4

Maribavir

  • Molecular FormulaC15H19Cl2N3O4
  • Average mass376.235 Da

FDA APROVED 11/23/2021, Livtencity1263 W94, 1263W94
176161-24-3[RN]
1H-Benzimidazol-2-amine, 5,6-dichloro-N-(1-methylethyl)-1-β-L-ribofuranosyl-
UNII-PTB4X93HE1, марибавир , ماريبافير  ,马立巴韦 , BW-1263W94 
Camvia, D04859, G1263, GW257406X 
1263W94; BW-1263W94; GW-1263; GW-257406X; SHP-620; VP-41263 
Company:GlaxoSmithKline (Originator) , Shire 
MOA:UL97 kinase inhibitorIndication:CMV prophylaxis

To treat post-transplant cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection/disease that does not respond (with or without genetic mutations that cause resistance) to available antiviral treatment for CMV
Press Release

SYNRoute 1

Reference:1. WO9601833A1.

Syn

US 6204249

File:Maribavir synthesis.svg

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2001077083A1/enExample 7: 5,6-Dichloro-2-(isoproylamino)-1-(β-L-ribofuranosyl)-1 H-benzimidazolesoprylamino (10 mL) and 2-bromo-5,6-dichloro-1-(2,3,5-tri-0-acetyl-β-L- ribofuranosyl)-1 H-benzimidazole (1.0 g, 1.9 mmol) were combined with absolute ethanol (20 mL) and stirred at 75°C for 48 h. The reaction mixture was concentrated and purified on a silica gel column (2.5 vm x 16 cm, 230-400 mesh) with 1 :20 methanol: dichloromethane to give product contaminated with a small amount of higher Rf material. This was repurified on a chromatotron, fitted with a 2 mm silica gel rotor, with 1 :25 methanol.dichloromethane to give a white solid (0.43 g, 1.15 mmol, 60o/o); [a]20D=(-)22.4 (c=0.5 DMF); UVλ™* (E): pH 7.0:304 nm (95,00), 275 (1 ,800) 260 (8,300); 0.1 NaOH: 304 nm (9,900), 275 (19,00), 260 (8,100); MS (Cl): m/z (re/, intensity) 376 (100, M+1); ‘H NMR (DMSO-de) d 7.59 (s, 1 H, Ar-H), 7.35 (s, 1 H, Ar- H), 6.90 (d, 1 H, NH, J=7.8 Hz), 5.73 (d, 1 H, H-1′, J=6.5 Hz), 5.62 (t, 1 H, OH, J=4.2 Hz), 5.27-5.23 (m, 2H, OH), 4.27 (apparent dd, 1 H, J=13.4 Hz, J=7.6 Hz), 4.11 -3.99 (m, 2H), 3.97 (br. s, 1 H), 3.72-3.61 (m, 2H, H-5’), 1.18 (d, 6H, CH(CH3)2, J=6.6 Hz).Anal. Calcd. for

Figure imgf000030_0001

H2O: C, 45.70; H, 5.37; N, 10.66. Found: C, 45.75; H, 4.98; N, 10.50.

Maribavir was in phase II clinical trials for the treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. It was granted orphan drug designation by the FDA for the indication.

The drug was originally developed by the University of Michigan and was licensed to GlaxoSmithKline. ViroPharma (now subsidiary of Shire) acquired worldwide rights to the drug from GlaxoSmithKline in 2003.

Maribavir, sold under the brand name Livtencity, is an antiviral medication that is used to treat post-transplant cytomegalovirus (CMV).[1][2]

The most common side effects include taste disturbance, nausea, diarrhea, vomiting and fatigue.[2]

Maribavir is a cytomegalovirus pUL97 kinase inhibitor that works by preventing the activity of human cytomegalovirus enzyme pUL97, thus blocking virus replication.[2]

Maribavir was approved for medical use in the United States in November 2021.[2][3]

Medical uses

Maribavir is indicated to treat people twelve years of age and older and weighing at least 35 kilograms (77 lb) with post-transplant cytomegalovirus infection/disease that does not respond (with or without genetic mutations that cause resistance) to available antiviral treatment for cytomegalovirus.[2]

Contraindications

Maribavir may reduce the antiviral activity of ganciclovir and valganciclovir, so coadministration with these medications is not recommended.[2]

History

Maribavir is licensed by ViroPharma from GlaxoSmithKline in 2003, for the prevention and treatment of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) disease in hematopoietic stem cell/bone marrow transplant patients. The mechanism by which maribavir inhibits HCMV replication is by inhibition of an HCMV encoded protein kinase enzyme called UL97 or pUL97.[4] Maribavir showed promise in Phase II clinical trials and was granted fast track status, but failed to meet study goals in a Phase III trial.[5] However, the dosage used in the Phase III trial may have been too low to be efficacious.[6]

A Phase II study with maribavir demonstrated that prophylaxis with maribavir displayed strong antiviral activity, as measured by statistically significant reduction in the rate of reactivation of CMV in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell/bone marrow transplants.[7] In an intent-to-treat analysis of the first 100 days after the transplant, the number of subjects who required pre-emptive anti-CMV therapy was statistically significantly reduced with maribavir compared to placebo.

ViroPharma conducted a Phase III clinical study to evaluate the prophylactic use for the prevention of cytomegalovirus disease in recipients of allogeneic stem cell transplant patients. In February 2009, ViroPharma announced that the Phase III study failed to achieve its goal, showing no significant difference between maribavir and a placebo at reducing the rate at which CMV DNA levels were detected in patients.[8]

The safety and efficacy of maribavir were evaluated in a Phase III, multicenter, open-label, active-controlled trial that compared maribavir with a treatment assigned by a researcher running the study, which could include one or two of the following antivirals used to treat cytomegalovirus: ganciclovirvalganciclovirfoscarnet, or cidofovir.[2] In the study, 352 transplant recipients with cytomegalovirus infections who did not respond (with or without resistance) to treatment randomly received maribavir or treatment assigned by a researcher for up to eight weeks.[2] The study compared the two groups’ plasma cytomegalovirus DNA concentration levels at the end of the study’s eighth week, with efficacy defined as having a level below what is measurable.[2] Of the 235 participants who received maribavir, 56% had levels of cytomegalovirus DNA below what was measurable versus 24% of the 117 participants who received an investigator-assigned treatment.[2]

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted the application for maribavir orphan drugbreakthrough therapy and priority review designations.[2][3][9][10] The FDA granted the approval of Livtencity to Takeda Pharmaceuticals Company Limited.[2][3]

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FDA Approves First Treatment for Common Type of Post-Transplant Infection that is Resistant to Other Drugs

Approval is for Cytomegalovirus, a Type of Herpes Virus

https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-approves-first-treatment-common-type-post-transplant-infection-resistant-other-drugsFor Immediate Release:November 23, 2021

Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Livtencity (maribavir) as the first drug for treating adults and pediatric patients (12 years of age and older and weighing at least 35 kilograms) with post-transplant cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection/disease that does not respond (with or without genetic mutations that cause resistance) to available antiviral treatment for CMV. Livtencity works by preventing the activity of human cytomegalovirus enzyme pUL97, thus blocking virus replication.

“Transplant recipients are at a much greater risk for complications and death when faced with a cytomegalovirus infection,” said John Farley, M.D., M.P.H., director of the Office of Infectious Diseases in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “Cytomegalovirus infections that are resistant or do not respond to available drugs are of even greater concern. Today’s approval helps meet a significant unmet medical need by providing a treatment option for this patient population.” 

CMV is a type of herpes virus that commonly causes infection in patients after a stem cell or organ transplant. CMV infection can lead to CMV disease and have a major negative impact on transplant recipients, including loss of the transplanted organ and death.

Livtencity’s safety and efficacy were evaluated in a Phase 3, multicenter, open-label, active-controlled trial that compared Livtencity with a treatment assigned by a researcher running the study, which could include one or two of the following antivirals used to treat CMV: ganciclovir, valganciclovir, foscarnet or cidofovir. In the study, 352 transplant recipients with CMV infections who did not respond (with or without resistance) to treatment randomly received Livtencity or treatment assigned by a researcher for up to eight weeks.

The study compared the two groups’ plasma CMV DNA concentration levels at the end of the study’s eighth week, with efficacy defined as having a level below what is measurable. Of the 235 patients who received Livtencity, 56% had levels of CMV DNA below what was measurable versus 24% of the 117 patients who received an investigator-assigned treatment.

The most common side effects of Livtencity include taste disturbance, nausea, diarrhea, vomiting and fatigue. Livtencity may reduce the antiviral activity of ganciclovir and valganciclovir, so coadministration with these drugs is not recommended. Virologic failure due to resistance can occur during and after treatment with Livtencity, therefore CMV DNA levels should be monitored and Livtencity resistance should be checked if the patient is not responding to treatment or relapses.

Livtencity received Breakthrough Therapy and Priority Review designations for this indication. Breakthrough Therapy designation is a process designed to expedite the development and review of drugs that are intended to treat a serious condition and preliminary clinical evidence indicates that the drug may demonstrate substantial improvement over available therapy on a clinically significant endpoint(s). Priority Review designation directs overall attention and resources to the evaluation of applications for drugs that, if approved, would be significant improvements in the safety or effectiveness of the treatment, diagnosis or prevention of serious conditions when compared to standard applications.

The FDA granted the approval of Livtencity to Takeda Pharmaceuticals Company Limited.
Related Information

References

  1. Jump up to:a b https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2021/215596lbl.pdf
  2. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m “FDA Approves First Treatment for Common Type of Post-Transplant Infection that is Resistant to Other Drugs”U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Press release). 23 November 2021. Retrieved 23 November 2021. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  3. Jump up to:a b c “Takeda’s Livtencity (maribavir) Approved by U.S. FDA as the First and Only Treatment for People Ages 12 and Older with Post-Transplant Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Refractory (With or Without Genotypic Resistance) to Conventional Antiviral Therapies”Takeda (Press release). 23 November 2021. Retrieved 26 November 2021.
  4. ^ Biron KK, Harvey RJ, Chamberlain SC, Good SS, Smith AA, Davis MG, et al. (August 2002). “Potent and selective inhibition of human cytomegalovirus replication by 1263W94, a benzimidazole L-riboside with a unique mode of action”Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy46 (8): 2365–72. doi:10.1128/aac.46.8.2365-2372.2002PMC 127361PMID 12121906.
  5. ^ Marty FM, Ljungman P, Papanicolaou GA, Winston DJ, Chemaly RF, Strasfeld L, et al. (April 2011). “Maribavir prophylaxis for prevention of cytomegalovirus disease in recipients of allogeneic stem-cell transplants: a phase 3, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial”. The Lancet. Infectious Diseases11 (4): 284–92. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(11)70024-XPMID 21414843.
  6. ^ Snydman DR (April 2011). “Why did maribavir fail in stem-cell transplants?”. The Lancet. Infectious Diseases11 (4): 255–7. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(11)70033-0PMID 21414844.
  7. ^ Phase 2 Data Shows Maribavir Markedly Reduced Rate Of Cytomegalovirus Infection And Disease In Bone Marrow Transplant PatientsMedical News Today, Jun 2, 2008
  8. ^ ViroPharma:Maribavir Phase III Study Missed Goal;Shares Plunge, CNN Money, February 09, 2009
  9. ^ “Maribavir Orphan Drug Designations and Approvals”U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 1 February 2007. Retrieved 26 November 2021.
  10. ^ “Maribavir Orphan Drug Designations and Approvals”U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 7 June 2011. Retrieved 26 November 2021.
  • “Maribavir”Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Clinical trial number NCT02931539 for “Efficacy and Safety Study of Maribavir Treatment Compared to Investigator-assigned Treatment in Transplant Recipients With Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Infections That Are Refractory or Resistant to Treatment With Ganciclovir, Valganciclovir, Foscarnet, or Cidofovir” at ClinicalTrials.gov
Clinical data
Trade namesLivtencity
Other names1263W94
License dataUSDailyMedMaribavir
Routes of
administration
By mouth
ATC codeJ05AX10 (WHO)
Legal status
Legal statusUS:℞-only[1][2]
Identifiers
showIUPAC name
CAS Number176161-24-3 
PubChemCID471161
DrugBankDB06234 
ChemSpider413807 
UNIIPTB4X93HE1
ChEMBLChEMBL515408
NIAID ChemDB070966
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)DTXSID60170091 
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC15H19Cl2N3O4
Molar mass376.23 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)Interactive image
showSMILES
showInChI
  (what is this?)  (verify)

/////////Maribavir, APPROVALS 2021, FDA 2021, Livtencity,  Takeda,  Breakthrough Therapy,  Priority Review , ORPHAN, UNII-PTB4X93HE1, марибавир , ماريبافير  ,马立巴韦 , BW-1263W94, Camvia, D04859, G1263, GW257406X, 1263W94, BW-1263W94, GW-1263, GW-257406X, SHP-620, VP-41263,

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Pafolacianine


Pafolacianine skeletal.svg
ChemSpider 2D Image | OTL-38 | C61H67N9O17S4
2D chemical structure of 1628858-03-6
img

Pafolacianine

OTL-38

  • Molecular FormulaC61H67N9O17S4
  • Average mass1326.495 Da

FDA APPROVED NOV 2021

2-{(E)-2-[(3E)-2-(4-{2-[(4-{[(2-Amino-4-oxo-3,4-dihydro-6-pteridinyl)methyl]amino}benzoyl)amino]-2-carboxyethyl}phenoxy)-3-{(2E)-2-[3,3-dimethyl-5-sulfo-1-(4-sulfobutyl)-1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-ylidene ]ethylidene}-1-cyclohexen-1-yl]vinyl}-3,3-dimethyl-1-(4-sulfobutyl)-3H-indolium-5-sulfonate OTL-38Tyrosine, N-[4-[[(2-amino-3,4-dihydro-4-oxo-6-pteridinyl)methyl]amino]benzoyl]-O-[(6E)-6-[(2E)-2-[1,3-dihydro-3,3-dimethyl-5-sulfo-1-(4-sulfobutyl)-2H-indol-2-ylidene]ethylidene]-2-[(E)-2-[3,3-dimethy l-5-sulfo-1-(4-sulfobutyl)-3H-indolium-2-yl]ethenyl]-1-cyclohexen-1-yl]-, inner salt

 2-(2-(2-(4-((2S)-2-(4-(((2-amino-4-oxo-3,4-dihydropteridin-6-yl)methyl)amino)benzamido)-2-carboxyethyl)phenoxy)-3-(2-(3,3-dimethyl-5-sulfo-1-(4-sulfobutyl)-1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-ylidene)ethylidene)cyclohex-1-en-1-yl)ethenyl)-3,3-dimethyl-5-sulfo-1-(4-sulfobutyl)-3H-indolium inner salt,sodium salt (1:4)

  • 3H-Indolium, 2-(2-(2-(4-((2S)-2-((4-(((2-amino-3,4-dihydro-4-oxo-6-pteridinyl)methyl)amino)benzoyl)amino)-2-carboxyethyl)phenoxy)-3-(2-(1,3-dihydro-3,3-dimethyl-5-sulfo-1-(4-sulfobutyl)-2H-indol-2-ylidene)ethylidene)-1-cyclohexen-1-yl)ethenyl)-3,3-dimethyl-5-sulfo-1 (4-sulfobutyl)-, inner salt,sodium salt (1:4)

1628423-76-6 [RN]

Pafolacianine sodium.png

Pafolacianine sodium [USAN]
RN: 1628858-03-6
UNII: 4HUF3V875C

C61H68N9Na4O17S4+5

  • Intraoperative Imaging and Detection of Folate Receptor Positive Malignant Lesions

Pafolacianine, sold under the brand name Cytalux, is an optical imaging agent.[1][2]

The most common side effects of pafolacianine include infusion-related reactions, including nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, flushing, dyspepsia, chest discomfort, itching and hypersensitivity.[2]

It was approved for medical use in the United States in November 2021.[2][3]

Pafolacianine is a fluorescent drug that targets folate receptor (FR).[1]

Medical uses

Pafolacianine is indicated as an adjunct for intraoperative identification of malignant lesions in people with ovarian cancer.[1][2]

History

The safety and effectiveness of pafolacianine was evaluated in a randomized, multi-center, open-label study of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer or with high clinical suspicion of ovarian cancer who were scheduled to undergo surgery.[2] Of the 134 women (ages 33 to 81 years) who received a dose of pafolacianine and were evaluated under both normal and fluorescent light during surgery, 26.9% had at least one cancerous lesion detected that was not observed by standard visual or tactile inspection.[2]

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted the application for pafolacianine orphan drugpriority review, and fast track designations.[2][4] The FDA granted the approval of Cytalux to On Target Laboratories, LLC.[2]

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SYN

WO 2014149073

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2014149073

In another aspect of the invention, this disclosure provides a method of synthesizing a compound having the formula

[0029] In a fourth embodiment of the invention, this disclosure provides a method of synthesizing a compound having the formula

[0030] 

 [0032] wherein C is any carbon isotope. In this embodiment, the amino acid linker is selected from a group consisting of methyl 2-di-tert-butyl dicarbonate-amino-3-(4-phenyl)propanoate, 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-(di-tert-butyl-dicarbonate methylamino)propanoic acid, 2-amino-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)butanoic acid, and Tert-butyl (2-di-tert-butyl dicarbonate- amino)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propanoate . In a particular embodiment, the aqueous base is potassium hydroxide (KOH). The method of this embodiment may also further include purifying the compound by preparatory HPLC.

EXAMPLE 1 : General synthesis of Pte – L Tyrosine – S0456 (OTL-0038)

[0088] Scheme:

C33H37CIF3N

Reactants for Step I:

[0089] A 500 mL round bottom flask was charged with a stirring bar, pteroic acid

(12.0 g, 29.40 mmol, 1 equiv), (L)-Tyr(-OfBu)-OfBu- HCI (1 1 .63 g, 35.28 mmol, 1 .2

equiv) and HATU (13.45 g, 35.28 mmol, 1 .2 equiv) then DMF (147 mL) was added to give a brown suspension [suspension A]. DIPEA (20.48 mL, 1 17.62 mmol, 4.0 equiv) was added slowly to suspension A at 23 °C, over 5 minutes. The suspension turned in to a clear brown solution within 10 minutes of addition of DIPEA. The reaction was stirred at 23 °C for 2.5 h. Reaction was essentially complete in 30 minutes as judged by LC/MS but was stirred further for 2.5 h. The formation of Pte_N10(TFA)_L_Tyr(-OfBu)-OfBu HCI (Figure 12) was confirmed by LC/MS showing m/z 409→m/z 684. LC/MS method: 0-50% acetonitrile in 20 mM aqueous NH4OAc for 5 min using Aquity UPLC-BEH C18, 1 .7μιη 2.1 * 50 mm column . The reaction mixture was cannulated as a steady stream to a stirred solution of aq. HCI (2.0 L, 0.28 M) over the period of 30 minutes to give light yellow precipitate of Pte_N10(TFA)_L_Tyr(-OfBu)-OfBu HCI. The precipitated Pte_N 10(TFA)_L_Tyr(- OfBu)-OfBu HCI was filtered using sintered funnel under aspirator vacuum, washed with water (8 * 300 mL) until the pH of the filtrate is between 3 and 4. The wet solid was allowed to dry under high vacuum for 12 hours on the sintered funnel. In a separate batch, where this wet solid (3) was dried under vacuum for 48 hours and then this solid was stored at -20 0 C for 48 h. However, this brief storage led to partial decomposition of 3. The wet cake (58 g) was transferred to a 500 mL round bottom flask and was submitted to the next step without further drying or purification.

Reactants for Step II:

The wet solid (58 g) was assumed to contain 29.40 mmol of the desired compound (3) (i. e. quantitative yield for the step I ).

[0090] A 500 mL round bottom flask was charged with a stirring bar, Pte_N10(TFA)_L_Tyr(-OfBu)-OfBu HCI as a wet cake (58 g, 29.40 mmol, 1 equiv). A solution of TFA:TIPS:H20 (95:2.5:2.5, 200 mL) was added at once to give a light brown suspension. The reaction content was stirred at 23°C for 1 .5 hours and was monitored by LC/MS. The suspension became clear dull brown solution after stirring for 5 minutes. LC/MS method: 0-50% acetonitrile in 20 mM aqueous NH4OAc for 5 min using Aquity UPLC-BEH C18, 1 .7μιη 2.1 * 50 mm column. The formation of Pte_TFA_L_Tyr (Figure 12) was confirmed by showing m/z 684→m/z 572. Reaction time varies from 30 min to 1 .5 hours depending on the water content of Pte_N10(TFA)_L_Tyr(-OfBu)-OfBu HCI. The reaction mixture was cannulated as a steady stream to a stirred MTBE (1 .8 L) at 23 °C or 100 °C to give light yellow precipitate of Pte_TFA_L_Tyr. The precipitated Pte_TFA_L_Tyr was filtered using sintered funnel under aspirator vacuum, washed with MTBE (6 * 300 mL) and dried under high vacuum for 8 hours to obtain Pte_TFA_L_Tyr (14.98 g, 83.98% over two steps) as a pale yellow solid. The MTBE washing was tested for absence of residual TFA utilizing wet pH paper (pH between 3-4). The yield of the reaction was between 80-85% in different batches. The deacylated side product was detected in 3.6% as judged by LC/MS. For the different batches this impurity was never more than 5%.

Reactants for Step III:

[0091] A 200 mL round bottom flask was charged with a stirring bar and Pte_TFA_L_Tyr (13.85 g, 22.78 mmol, 1 equiv), then water (95 mL) was added to give a yellow suspension [suspension B]. A freshly prepared solution of aqueous 3.75 M NaOH (26.12 mL, 97.96 mmol, 4.30 equiv), or an equivalent base at a corresponding temperature using dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as a solvent (as shown in Table 1 ), was added dropwise to suspension B at 23 °C, giving a clear dull yellow solution over 15 minutes [solution B]. The equivalence of NaOH varied from 3.3 to 5.0 depending on the source of 4 (solid or liquid phase synthesis) and the residual TFA. Trianion 5 (Figure 12) formation was confirmed by LC/MS showing m/z 572→m/z 476 while the solution pH was 9-10 utilizing wet pH paper. The pH of the reaction mixture was in the range of 9-10. This pH is crucial for the overall reaction completion. Notably, pH more than 10 leads to hydrolysis of S0456. Excess base will efficiently drive reaction forward with potential hydrolysis of S0456. The presence of hydrolysis by product can be visibly detected by the persistent opaque purple/blue to red/brown color.

TABLE 1 : Separate TFA deprotection via trianion formation; S0456

[0092] The precipitated OTL-0038 product could also be crashed out by adding the reaction solution steady dropwise to acetone, acetonitrile, isopropanol or ethyl acetate/acetone mixture. Acetone yields optimal results. However, viscous reactions could be slower due to partial insolubility and/or crashing out of S0456. In this reaction, the equivalence of the aqueous base is significant. Excess base will efficiently drive reaction forward with potential hydrolysis of S0456. This solution phase synthesis provides Pte_N10(TFA)_Tyr-OH »HCI salt and desires approximately 4.1 to approximately 4.8 equiv base as a source to hydrolyze the product. Particularly, precipitation of Pte_Tyr_S0456 was best achieved when 1 mL of reaction mixture is added dropwise to the stirred acetone (20 mL). Filtration of the precipitate and washing with acetone (3 x10 mL) gave the highest purity as judged from LC/MS chromatogram.

[0093] During experimentation of this solution-phase synthesis of Pte – L Tyrosine -S0456 (OTL-0038) at different stages, some optimized conditions were observed:

Mode of addition: Separate TFA deprotection via trianion formation; S0456 @ 23 °C; reflux.

Stability data of Pte – L Tyrosine – S0456 (OTL-0038):

Liquid analysis: At 40 °C the liquid lost 8.6% at 270 nm and 1 % at 774 nm. At room temperature the liquid lost about 1 .4% at 270 nm and .5% at 774 nm. At 5 °C the

270 nm seems stable and the 774 nm reasonably stable with a small degradation purity.

Source Purity Linker S0456 Base Solvent Duration % Conversion

4.3-4.6

Solution 0.95

95% 1 equiv equiv H20 15 min 100% phase equiv

K2C03

PATENT

 US 20140271482

FDA approves pafolacianine for identifying malignant ovarian cancer lesions

https://www.fda.gov/drugs/resources-information-approved-drugs/fda-approves-pafolacianine-identifying-malignant-ovarian-cancer-lesions

On November 29, 2021, the Food and Drug Administration approved pafolacianine (Cytalux, On Target Laboratories, LLC), an optical imaging agent, for adult patients with ovarian cancer as an adjunct for interoperative identification of malignant lesions. Pafolacianine is a fluorescent drug that targets folate receptor which may be overexpressed in ovarian cancer. It is used with a Near-Infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging system cleared by the FDA for specific use with pafolacianine.

Efficacy was evaluated in a single arm, multicenter, open-label study (NCT03180307) of 178 women diagnosed with ovarian cancer or with high clinical suspicion of ovarian cancer scheduled to undergo primary surgical cytoreduction, interval debulking, or recurrent ovarian cancer surgery. All patients received pafolacianine. One hundred and thirty-four patients received fluorescence imaging evaluation in addition to standard of care evaluation which includes pre-surgical imaging, intraoperative palpation and normal light evaluation of lesions. Among these patients, 36 (26.9%) had at least one evaluable ovarian cancer lesion detected with pafolacianine that was not observed by standard visual or tactile inspection. The patient-level false positive rate of pafolacianine with NIR fluorescent light with respect to the detection of ovarian cancer lesions confirmed by central pathology was 20.2% (95% CI 13.7%, 28.0%).

The most common adverse reactions (≥1%) occurring in patients were nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, flushing, dyspepsia, chest discomfort, pruritus, and hypersensitivity.

The recommended pafolacianine dose is 0.025 mg/kg administered intravenously over 60 minutes, 1 to 9 hours before surgery. The use of folate, folic acid, or folate-containing supplements should be avoided within 48 hours before administration of pafolacianine.

View full prescribing information for Cytalux.

This application was granted priority review, fast track designation, and orphan drug designation. A description of FDA expedited programs is in the Guidance for Industry: Expedited Programs for Serious Conditions-Drugs and Biologics.

USFDA approves new drug to help identify cancer lesions

This drug is indicated for use in adult patients with ovarian cancer to help identify cancerous lesions during surgery.By The Health Master -December 2, 2021

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) has approved Cytalux (pafolacianine), an imaging drug intended to assist surgeons in identifying ovarian cancer lesions. The drug is designed to improve the ability to locate additional ovarian cancerous tissue that is normally difficult to detect during surgery.

Cytalux is indicated for use in adult patients with ovarian cancer to help identify cancerous lesions during surgery. The drug is a diagnostic agent that is administered in the form of an intravenous injection prior to surgery.

Alex Gorovets, M.D., deputy director of the Office of Specialty Medicine in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research said, “The FDA’s approval of Cytalux can help enhance the ability of surgeons to identify deadly ovarian tumors that may otherwise go undetected.

By supplementing current methods of detecting ovarian cancer during surgery, Cytalux offers health care professionals an additional imaging approach for patients with ovarian cancer.”

The American Cancer Society estimates there will be more than 21,000 new cases of ovarian cancer and more than 13,000 deaths from this disease in 2021, making it the deadliest of all female reproductive system cancers.

Conventional treatment for ovarian cancer includes surgery to remove as many of the tumors as possible, chemotherapy to stop the growth of malignant cells or other targeted therapy to identify and attack specific cancer cells.

Ovarian cancer often causes the body to overproduce a specific protein in cell membranes called a folate receptor. Following administration via injection, Cytalux binds to these proteins and illuminates under fluorescent light, boosting surgeons’ ability to identify the cancerous tissue.

Currently, surgeons rely on preoperative imaging, visual inspection of tumors under normal light or examination by touch to identify cancer lesions. Cytalux is used with a Near-Infrared fluorescence imaging system cleared by the FDA for specific use with pafolacianine.

The safety and effectiveness of Cytalux was evaluated in a randomized, multi-center, open-label study of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer or with high clinical suspicion of ovarian cancer who were scheduled to undergo surgery.

Of the 134 women (ages 33 to 81 years) who received a dose of Cytalux and were evaluated under both normal and fluorescent light during surgery, 26.9% had at least one cancerous lesion detected that was not observed by standard visual or tactile inspection.

The most common side effects of Cytalux were infusion-related reactions, including nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, flushing, dyspepsia, chest discomfort, itching and hypersensitivity. Cytalux may cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman.

The use of folate, folic acid, or folate-containing supplements should be avoided within 48 hours before administration of Cytalux. There is a risk of image interpretation errors with the use of Cytalux to detect ovarian cancer during surgery, including false negatives and false positives.

References

  1. Jump up to:a b c d https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2020/214907s000lbl.pdf
  2. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i “FDA Approves New Imaging Drug to Help Identify Ovarian Cancer Lesions”U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Press release). 29 November 2021. Retrieved 30 November 2021. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  3. ^ “On Target Laboratories Announces FDA Approval of Cytalux (pafolacianine) injection for Identification of Ovarian Cancer During Surgery”. On Target Laboratories. 29 November 2021. Retrieved 30 November 2021 – via PR Newswire.
  4. ^ “Pafolacianine Orphan Drug Designations and Approvals”U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 23 December 2014. Retrieved 30 November 2021.
Clinical data
Trade namesCytalux
Other namesOTL-0038
License dataUS DailyMedPafolacianine
Pregnancy
category
Not recommended
Routes of
administration
Intravenous
ATC codeNone
Legal status
Legal statusUS: ℞-only [1][2]
Identifiers
showIUPAC name
CAS Number1628423-76-6
PubChem CID135565623
DrugBankDB15413
ChemSpider64880249
UNIIF7BD3Z4X8L
ChEMBLChEMBL4297412
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC61H67N9O17S4
Molar mass1326.49 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)Interactive image
showSMILES
showInChI

////////////Pafolacianine, FDA 2021, APPROVALS 2021,  Cytalux, OVARIAN CANCER, OTL 38, 

[Na+].[Na+].[Na+].[Na+].CC1(C)\C(=C/C=C/2\CCCC(=C2Oc3ccc(C[C@H](NC(=O)c4ccc(NCc5cnc6N=C(N)NC(=O)c6n5)cc4)C(=O)O)cc3)\C=C\C7=[N](CCCCS(=O)(=O)O)c8ccc(cc8C7(C)C)S(=O)(=O)O)\N(CCCCS(=O)(=O)O)c9ccc(cc19)S(=O)(=O)O

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