New Drug Approvals

Home » 0rphan drug status

Category Archives: 0rphan drug status

DRUG APPROVALS BY DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO .....FOR BLOG HOME CLICK HERE

Paypal donate

Blog Stats

  • 1,348,704 hits

Flag and hits

Flag Counter

Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

Join 1,822 other followers

Follow New Drug Approvals on WordPress.com

Categories

Flag Counter

ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY

Read all about Organic Spectroscopy on ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY INTERNATIONAL 

Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

Join 1,822 other followers

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 29 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 29 year tenure till date Aug 2016, Around 30 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 25 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 13 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 212 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

Personal Links

Verified Services

View Full Profile →

Categories

Flag Counter

CPP 115


str0

(+)-(1S,4S)-4-Amino-3-(difluoromethylene)-1-cyclopentanecarboxylic acid

640897-20-7 CAS

PHASE 1

NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY .INNOVATORS

Sponsor:
CPP-115 free base; UNII-5TD9324Z2U; CHEMBL146927; 640897-20-7; (1S,3S)-3-Amino-4-difluoromethylenyl-1-cyclopentanoic acid; (+)-(1S,4S)-4-Amino-3-(difluoromethylene)-1-cyclopentanecarboxylic acid
Molecular Formula: C7H9F2NO2
Molecular Weight: 177.151 g/mol

Catalyst Pharmaceutical Partners

  • Originator Northwestern University
  • Developer Catalyst Pharmaceutical Partners
  • Class Aminobutyric acids; Antiepileptic drugs; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action 4-aminobutyrate transaminase inhibitors
  • Orphan Drug Status Yes – Infantile spasms
  • On Fast track Drug abuse
  • Cocaine Dependency

Highest Development Phases

  • Phase I Gilles de la Tourette’s syndrome; Infantile spasms; Partial epilepsies
  • Preclinical Drug abuse

Most Recent Events

  • 19 Sep 2016 Efficacy data from a phase I trial in Infantile spasms released by Catalyst Pharmaceuticals
  • 16 Dec 2015 Top-line adverse events and pharmacodynamics data from a phase Ib trial in Healthy volunteers released by Catalyst Pharmaceuticals
  • 13 Oct 2015Catalyst Pharmaceuticals receives patent allowance for CPP 115 in USA

Image result for SILVERMAN, Richard, BRichard B. Silverman, Ph.D.,
John Evans Professor of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, USA.

Click here for structure editor

UNII-0285I2MVUA.png

CPP 115 HCl salt, cas 760947-97-5

UNII-0285I2MVUA; CPP-115; 760947-97-5; (1S,3S)-3-Amino-4-difluoromethylenyl-1-cyclopentanoic acid hydrochloride; Cyclopentanecarboxylic acid, 3-amino-4-(difluoromethylene)-, hydrochloride, (1S,3S)-; 0285I2MVUA
Molecular Formula: C7H10ClF2NO2
Molecular Weight: 213.609 g/mol

Responsible Party:Catalyst Pharmaceuticals, Inc.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:NCT01493596     History of ChangesOther Study ID Numbers:CPP-115-0001 Study First Received:November 28, 2011Last Updated:May 10, 2012Health Authority:United States: Food and Drug Administration

Cpp-115: An Investigational Drug For Epilepsy

The fact that 1 in 12 people will have a seizure in their lifetime raises alarming signals to mitigate, prevent and cure epilepsy. The etiology is still unclear, but one of the pharmaceutical strategies to treat seizures is to replenish the local concentrations of GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid, an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the human brain) that is degraded by an enzyme called GABA aminotransferase (GABA-AT). Mere consumption of GABA capsules is not effective, due to its inability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Therefore, an alternative strategy that involved stopping the function of GABA-AT was envisioned. Sabril is a first-in-class, FDA-approved antiepileptic drug; however, its daily dosage limit (1g – 3g) and adverse side effects, which include vision defects, call for further innovation.

Prof. Richard Silverman and his lab members at Northwestern University embarked on a scientific journey to identify BBB-penetrating antiepileptic compounds that would not cause visual defects. Through computational modeling and several cycles of optimization they discovered CPP-115 (chemical name: (1S,3S)-3-amino-4-difluoromethylene-1-cyclopentanoic acid; kinact/KI = 52 mM.min-1.)1 Mechanistically, CPP-115 binds to GABA-AT, undergoing product transformation that kills GABA-AT’s function. In rat studies, CPP-115 suppressed spasms at a much lower dose (0.1 mg/kg) than Sabril (>200 mg/kg) and exhibited better tolerance without visual defects.

CPP-115 (licensed to Catalyst Pharmaceuticals) elicited no cross-inhibition. It is metabolically more stable, with favorable PK characteristics (including rapid absorption and clearance). In a randomized, double-blind, single ascending dose phase I(a) study, CPP-115 was very well tolerated in all six doses (n=55 patients; maximum dose 500 mg, therapeutic dose 80 mg/day).2 Phase I(b) studies conducted in double-blind, placebo-controlled conditions demonstrated the safety and tolerability of CPP-115 in healthy volunteers. Intriguingly, an increase in brain GABA levels (150% to over 200%) was detected, accentuating CPP-115’s antiepileptic potential.2 Further clinical trials are currently in progress. CPP-115, with 12 years of unexpired patent life, has been granted orphan-drug designation in both the U.S. and EU for treating infantile spasms.

CPP-115 is one of a group of novel GABA-aminotransferase inhibitors discovered by scientists at Northwestern University. In 2009 Catalyst entered into a strategic collaboration with Northwestern University and in-licensed the worldwide rights to these inhibitors.

CPP-115 binds to GABA-AT (GABA-aminotransferase, also known as GABA transaminase or GABA-T), causing increased levels of GABA, gamma-aminobutyric acid, the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in humans. It plays a role in regulating neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system. In humans, GABA is also directly responsible for the regulation of muscle tone.

In preclinical studies CPP-115 has been shown to have potentially significant advantages compared to the only approved and marketed current GABA-AT inhibitor (vigabatrin). CPP-115 may not cause the visual field defects associated with chronic administration of vigabatrin and it has been shown to be at least 200 times more potent in both in-vitro and animal model studies. The increased potency could enable the development of superior or alternative dosage forms and routes of administration. Catalyst hopes these important benefits will allow it to develop CPP-115 for a broad range of other central nervous system indications, such as infantile spasms, epilepsy, Tourette Syndrome and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Additionally, Catalyst is exploring other selected diseases in which modulation of GABA levels might be beneficial. Catalyst believes that it controls all current intellectual property for GABA-aminotransferase inhibitors.

CPP-115 has received orphan drug designation in both the US and the EU for infantile spasms. Catalyst has begun the clinical development of CPP-115 by completing a randomized, double-blind, single ascending dose Phase I(a) study in normal healthy volunteers to evaluate the human safety characteristics of CPP-115, including CNS side effects and respiratory and cardiovascular safety. The Company reported results which indicated that CPP-115 was well tolerated at all six doses administered up to 500 mg, well above the anticipated therapeutic dose of up to 80 mg/day.

The hydrochloride salt of CPP-115 (PubChem CID 71252718) has been granted orphan drug designation by the EMA for the treatment of West syndrome, an epileptic disorder of young children which causes developmental problems. West syndrome is a long-term debilitating disease which may be life threatening as it can lead to severe damage to motor and cognitive functions. CPP-115 may have additional therapeutic applications for treating other neurological disorders, including drug addiction [4]. A single Phase I clinical trial has assessed CPP-115 as a treatment for cocaine addiction [3], but development has not progressed further.

Image result for CPP 115

Patent

WO 2016073983

NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY [–/US]; 633 Clark Street Evanston, IL 60208 (US)
Inventors: SILVERMAN, Richard, B.; (US).
ILAN, Yaron; (IL)

Example 8

[0067] (IS, 4S)-6-Difluoromethylenyl-2-(4′-methoxybenzyl)-2- azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-3-one (13). At -78 °C, T uLi (1.7 M in pentane, 1.73 mL, 2.94 mmol) was slowly added to a stirred solution of diethyl (difluoromethyl)phosphonate (0.48 mL, 2.94 mmol) in anhydrous THF (15 mL). After being stirred for 0.5 h at -78 °C, 12 (0.60g, 2.45 mmol) in anhydrous THF (20 mL) was slowly added via syringe. Stirring continued for 1 h at – 78 °C , then the solution was allowed to warm to room temperature and heated to reflux for 24 h. Compound 12 is known and available in the art, and can be prepared as described in Qiu, J.; Silverman, R.B. A New Class of Conformationally Rigid Analogues of 4-Amino-5- halopentanoic Acids, Potent Inactivators of γ-Aminobutyric Acid Aminotransferase. J. Med. Chem. 2000, 43, 706-720. After the reaction had cooled down, THF was evaporated, and saturated NH4C1 solution (20 mL) was added to the residue, which was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 20 mL). The organic layer was washed with brine (2 x 20 mL), dried over anhydrous Na2S04, and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by flash column

chromatography, eluting with hexanes/ethyl acetate (2: 1) to give 13 (0.47 g, 68%) as a colorless oil: 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) δ 7.18 (d, J 8.4 Hz, 2H), 6.07 (d, J 8.4 Hz, 2H), 4.63 (d, J 14.8 Hz, 1H), 4.14 (s, 1H), 3.80 (s, 3H), 3.78 (d, J 14.8 Hz, 1H), 3.00 (s, 1H), 2.50 (dt, J 15.2, 3.6 Hz, 1H), 2.27 (dd, J 15.2, 2.4 Hz, 1H), 2.00 (d, J 9.2 Hz, 1H), 1.53 (d, 9.6 Hz, 1H); 13C NMR (100 MHz, CDC13) δ 177.37, 159.13, 152.19 (dd, J 285.7, 281.2 Hz), 129.59, 128.47, 1 14.13, 88.95 (dd, J 25.6, 22.2 Hz), 58.38 (d, J 5.3 Hz), 55.50, 45.60, 44.59, 40.96, 27.43; 19F NMR (376 MHz, CDC13) δ 42.64 and 41.01 (2 dd, J 60.2, 2.3 Hz, 2F). HRMS (EI) Ci5Hi5N02F2 calcd M

279.1071 , found M 279.10701.

Example 10

 (IS, 3S)-3-Amino-4-difluoromethylenyl-l-cyclopentanoic acid (15) (i.e., compound 10, CPP-115, Figure 2). To lactam 14 (20.0 mg, 0.13 mmol) was added 4 mL of 4 N HCl. The solution was stirred at 70 °C for 10 h. After being washed with ethyl acetate (3 x 4 mL), the water layer was evaporated under reduced pressure to give a yellow solid. Recrystallization with ethanol/ether gave a white solid, which was then loaded on a cation- exchange column (AG50W-X8) and eluted with 0.2 N ammonium hydroxide to give the free amino acid 15 as a white solid (16 mg, 72%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, D20) δ 4.44 (s, 1H), 2.92 (m, 1H), 2.74 (m, 1H), 2.57 (dd, J 16.4, 3.6 Hz, 1H), 2.34 (m, 1H), 2.02 (d, J 14.8 Hz, 1H); 13C NMR (126 MHz, D20) δ 186.08, 155.30 (t, J 288.7 Hz), 92.19 (m), 53.16 (d, J 3.8 Hz), 48.01, 37.89, 32.45; 19F NMR (376 MHz, D20) δ -8.43 and -9.02 (2d, J 46.3 Hz, 2F); MS (ESI) C7H9N02F2 calcd M+H 178, found M+H 178.

PATENT

US 6794413

https://www.google.com/patents/US6794413

C7H11O2N, H% 7.85 C% 59.56 N% 9.92, found H% 7.88 C% 59.23 N% 9.62.

Example 5

(1S, 4S)-6-Difluoromethylenyl-2-(4′-methoxybenzyl)-2-azabicyclo [2.2.1]heptan-3-one (13). At −78° C., tBuLi (1.7 M in pentane, 1.73 mL, 2.94 mmol) was slowly added to a stirred solution of diethyl (difluoromethyl)phosphonate (0.48 mL, 2.94 mmol) in anhydrous THF (15 mL). After being stirred for 0.5 h at −78° C., 12 (0.60 g, 2.45 mmol) in anhydrous THF (20 mL) was slowly added via syringe. Stirring continued for 1 h at −78° C., then the solution was allowed to warm to room temperature and heated to reflux for 24 h. Compound 12 is known and available in the, art, and can be prepared as described in Qiu, J.; Silverman, R. B. A New Class of. Conformationally Rigid Analogues of 4-Amino-5-halopentanoic Acids, Potent Inactivators of γ-Aminobutyric Acid Aminotransferase. J. Med. Chem. 2000, 43, 706-720. After the reaction had cooled down, THF was evaporated, and saturated NH4Cl solution (20 mL) was added to the residue, which was extracted with EtOAc (3×20 mL). The organic layer was washed with brine (2×20 mL), dried4over anhydrous Na2SO4, and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by flash column chromatography, eluting with hexanes/ethyl acetate (2:1) to give 13 (0.47 g, 68%) as a colorless oil: 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.18 (d, J 8.4 Hz, 2H), 6.07 (d, J 8.4 Hz, 2H), 4.63 (d, J 14.8 Hz, 1H), 4.14 (s. 1H), 3.80 (s, 3H), 3.78 (d, J 14.8 Hz, 1H), 3.00 (s, 1H), 2.50 (dt, J 15.2, 3.6 Hz, 1H), 2.27 (dd, J 15.2, 2.4 Hz, 1H), 2.00 (d, J 9.2 Hz, 1H) 1.53 (d, 9.6 Hz, 1H); 13C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3) δ 177.37, 159.13, 152.19 (dd, J 285.7, 281.2 Hz), 129.59, 128.47, 114.13, 88.95 (dd, J 25.6, 22.2 Hz), 58.38 (d, J 5.3 Hz), 55.50, 45.60, 44.59, 40.96, 27.43; 19F NMR (376 MHz, CDCl3) δ 42.64 and 41.01 (2 dd, J 60.2, 2.3 Hz, 2F). HRMS (EI) C15H15NO2F2 calcd M 279.1071, found M 279.10701.

Example 6

(1S, 4S)-6-Difluoromethylenyl-2-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-3-one (14). Compound 13 (86.9 mg, 0.31 mmol) was dissolved in CH3CN (1.75 mL). A solution of ceric ammonium nitrate (512 mg, 0.93 mmol) in water (0.87 mL) was slowly added. The resulting solution was stirred at room temperature for 4 h. The reaction mixture was then diluted with ethyl acetate (20 mL), washed with brine (2×10 mL), and dried over anhydrous Na2SO4. After being concentrated under reduced pressure, the residue was purified by flash column chromatography, eluting with hexanes/ethyl acetate (1:1) to give the desired product as a colorless oil (33.6 mg, 68%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 5.48 (br s, 1H), 4.40 (s, 1H), 2.93 (s, 1H), 2.54 (dd, J 15.2, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 2.32 (d, J 15.2 Hz, 1H), 2.15 (d, J 9.6 Hz, 1H), 1.64 (d, J 10.0 Hz, 1H); 19F NMR (376 MHz, CDCl3) δ 42.85 and 40.00 (2d, J 60.2 Hz, 2F); HRMS (EI) C7H7NOF2 calcd M 159.0496, found M 159.04673.

Example 7

(1S, 3S)3-Amino-4-difluoromethylenyl-1-cyclopentanoic acid (15). To lactam 14 (20.0 mg, 0.13 mmol) was added 4 mL of 4 N HCl. The solution was stirred at 70° C. for 10 h. After being washed with ethyl acetate (3×4 mL), the water layer was evaporated under reduced pressure to give a yellow solid. Recrystallization with ethanol/ether gave a white solid, which was then loaded on a cation-exchange column (AG50W-X8) and eluted with 0.2 N ammonium hydroxide to give the free amino acid 15 as a white solid (16 mg, 72%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, D2O) δ 4.44 (s, 1H), 2.92 (m, 1H), 2.74 (m, 1H), 2.57 (dd, J 16.4, 3.6 Hz, 1H), 2.34 (m 1H), 2.02 (d, J 14.8 Hz, 1H); 13C NMR (126 MHz, D2O) δ 186.08, 155.30 (t, J 288.7 Hz), 92.19 (m), 53.16 (d, J 3.8 Hz), 48.01, 37.89, 32.45; 19F NMR (376 MHz, D2O) δ −8.43 and −9.02 (2d, J 46.3 Hz, 2F); MS (ESI) C7H9NO2F2 calcd M+H 178, found M+H 178.

paper

Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2003), 46(25), 5292-5293

Design, Synthesis, and Biological Activity of a Difluoro-Substituted, Conformationally Rigid Vigabatrin Analogue as a Potent γ-Aminobutyric Acid Aminotransferase Inhibitor

Department of Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Cell Biology, and Drug Discovery Program, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208-3113
J. Med. Chem., 2003, 46 (25), pp 5292–5293
DOI: 10.1021/jm034162s
Publication Date (Web): November 11, 2003
Copyright © 2003 American Chemical Society

Abstract

Abstract Image

Previously it was found that a conformationally rigid analogue (2) of the epilepsy drug vigabatrin (1) did not inactivate γ-aminobutyric acid aminotransferase (GABA-AT). A cyclic compound with an exocyclic double bond (6) was synthesized and was found to inactivate GABA-AT, but only in the absence of 2-mercaptoethanol. The corresponding difluoro-substituted analogue (14) was synthesized and was shown to be a very potent time-dependent inhibitor, even in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol.

1 to 6 of 6
Patent ID Patent Title Submitted Date Granted Date
US2015196522 METHODS OF USING (1S, 3S)-3-AMINO-4-DIFLUOROMETHYLENYL-1-CYCLOPENTANOIC ACID 2015-03-02 2015-07-16
US8969413 Methods of using (1S, 3S)-3-amino-4-difluoromethylenyl-1-cyclopentanoic acid 2011-02-25 2015-03-03
US2014336256 METHOD OF TREATING TOURETTE’S DISORDER WITH GABA-AMINOTRANSFERASE INACTIVATORS 2014-07-25 2014-11-13
US2011237554 Combination therapies: inhibitors of GABA transaminase and NKCC1 2011-09-29
US7381748 Compounds and related methods for inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid aminotransferase 2008-06-03
US6794413 Compounds and related methods for inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid aminotransferase 2004-09-21

RICHARD B. SILVERMAN

PROFESSOR

Research Statement

The research in my group can be summarized as investigations of the molecular mechanisms of action, rational design, and syntheses of potential medicinal agents, particularly for neurodegenerative diseases. Numerous drugs are known to function as specific inhibitors of particular enzymes. When little is known about the enzyme’s molecular mechanism of action, chemical model studies are designed to determine reasonable nonenzymatic pathways applicable to the enzyme. Based on the proposed mechanism of enzyme action, inhibitors are designed and synthesized. Organic synthesis is a primary tool for this work. The enzymes are isolated from either mammalian tissue or from overexpressed cells containing recombinant enzymes. Active site labeling studies utilize MALDI TOF and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry as well as radiolabeled inactivators and peptide mapping. We also are synthesizing compounds to act as receptor antagonists for important receptors related to neurodegenerative diseases.

Recent Publications

Lee, H.; Doud, E. H.; Wu, R.; Sanishvili, R.; Juncosa, J. I.; Liu, D.; Kelleher, N. L.; Silverman, R. B. Mechanism of inactivation of gamma-aminobutyric acid aminotransferase by (1S,3S)-3-amino-4-difluoromethylenyl-1-cyclopentanoic acid (CPP-115). J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2015, 137, 2628-2640.

Zigmond, E.; Ya’acov, A. B.; Lee, H.; Lichtenstein, Y.; Shalev, Z.; Smith, Y.; Zolotarov, L.; Ziv, E.; Kalman, R.; Le, H. V.; Lu, H.; Silverman, R. B.; Ilan, Y. Suppression of hepatocellular carcinoma by inhibition of overexpressed ornithine aminotransferase. ACS Med. Chem. Lett. 2015, 6, 840-844.

Tang, W.; Li, H.; Doud, E. H.; Chen, Y.; Choing, S.; Plaza, C.; Kelleher, N. L.; Poulos, T. L.; Silverman, R. B. Mechanism of inactivation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase by (S)-2-amino-5-(2-(methylthio)acetimidamido)pentanoic acid. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2015, 137, 5980-5989.

Le, H. V.; Hawker, D. D.; Wu, R.; Doud, E.; Widom, J.; Sanishvili, R.; Liu, D.; Kelleher, N. L.; Silverman, R. B. Design and mechanism of tetrahydrothiophene-based GABA aminotransferase inactivators. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2015, 137, 4525-4533.

Huang, H.; Li, H.; Yang, S.; Chreifi, G.; Martásek, P.; Roman, L. J.; Meyskens, F. L.; Poulos, T. L.; Silverman, R. B. Potent and Selective Double-headed Thiophene-2-carboximidamide Inhibitors of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase for the Treatment of Melanoma. J. Med. Chem. 2014, 57, 686-700.

Trippier, P. C.; Zhao, K. T.; Fox, S. G.; Schiefer, I. T.; Benmohamed, R.; Moran, J.; Kirsch, D. R.; Morimoto, R. I.; Silverman, R. B. Proteasome Activation is a Mechanism for Pyrazolone Small Molecules Displaying Therapeutic Potential in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. ACS Chem. Neurosci. 2014, 5, 823-829.

Holden, J. K.; Li, H.; Jing, Q.; Kang, S.; Richo, J.; Silverman, R. B.; Poulos, T. L. Structural and biological studies on bacterial nitric oxide synthase inhibitors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2013, 110, 18127-18131.

Kang, S.; Cooper, G.; Dunne, S. F.; Dusel, B.; Luan, C.-H.; Surmeier, D. J.; Silverman, R. B. CaV1.3-selective L-type calcium channel antagonists as potential new therapeutics for Parkinson’s disease. Nature Commun 2012, 3, 1146.

Silverman, R. B. The 2011 E. B. Hershberg Award for Important Discoveries in Medicinally Active Substances: (1S,3S)-3-Amino-4-difluoromethylenyl-1-cyclopentanoic acid (CPP-115), a GABA Aminotransferase Inactivator and New Treatment for Drug Addiction and Infantile Spasms. J. Med. Chem. 2012, 55, 567-575.

Chen, T.; Benmohamed, R.; Kim, J.; Smith, K.; Amante, D.; Morimoto, R. I.; Kirsch, D. R.; Ferrante, R. J.; Silverman, R. B. ADME-Guided Design and Synthesis of Aryloxanyl Pyrazolone Derivatives to Block Mutant SOD1 Cytotoxicity and Protein Aggregation: Potential Application for the Treatment of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. J. Med. Chem. 2012, 55, 515-527.

Selected Honors/Awards

  • 2014 Fellow of the National Academy of Inventors
  • 2014 Northwestern University Trustee Medal for Faculty Innovation and Entrepreneurship
  • 2014 iCON Innovator Award (iBIO Institute)
  • 2014 Elected to American Academy of Arts & Sciences
  • 2014 Excellence in Medicinal Chemistry Prize of the Israel Chemical Society
  • 2013 Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry (UK)
  • 2013 Centenary Prize of the Royal Society of Chemistry
  • 2013 Bristol-Myers Squibb-Edward E. Smissman Award of the American Chemical Society (ACS)
  • 2013 Roland T. Lakey Award from Wayne State University
  • 2012 Sato Memorial International Award of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
  • 2011 Fellow of the ACS
  • 2011 E. B. Hershberg Award for Important Discoveries in Medicinally Active Substances of the ACS
  • 2011 Alumni Hall of Fame, Central High School of Central High School of Philadelphia
  • 2009 Medicinal Chemistry Hall of Fame of the American Chemical Society
  • 2009 Perkin Medal, Society of Chemical Industry
  • 2008 Alumni Fellow Award, Pennsylvania State University
  • 2003 Arthur C. Cope Senior Scholar Award of the American Chemical Society
  • 2000 Northwestern University Alumni Association Excellence in Teaching Award
  • 1999 E. LeRoy Hall Award for Teaching Excellence
  • 1999 Excellence in Chemistry Education Award from the Northwestern University Chapter of Alpha Chi Sigma Chemistry Fraternity
  • 1990 Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science
  • 1985 Fellow of the American Institute of Chemists
  • 1982 NIH Research Career Development Awardee
  • 1981 Alfred P. Sloan Research Fellow
  • 1976 Du Pont Young Faculty Fellow
  • Silverman describes the structure of pregabalin.
    Silverman describes the structure of pregabalin.

In recognition of his outstanding work in applied chemistry, the Society of Chemical Industry 2009 Perkin Medal has been awarded to Richard B. (Rick) Silverman, the John Evans Professor of Chemistry at Northwestern University. The Perkin Medal, which was first awarded just over one century ago, is recognized as one of the chemical industry’s most prestigious awards.

Silverman’s research primarily focuses on medicinal chemistry: studying the molecular basis of drug action, reaction mechanisms of enzymes, and design and synthesis of pharmaceutical agents. He has worked to deepen understanding of several diseases, including epilepsy, cancer, Parkinson’s, and cerebral palsy.

Among Silverman’s many scientific accomplishments, designing pregabalin and discovering the medicinal properties of that compound stand out for catapulting him and Northwestern to pharmaceutical fame and fortune. Pregabalin, a γ-aminobutyric acid analog, is the active substance in Lyrica, a pain and epilepsy medication commercialized by drug giant Pfizer.

In 2007, after Northwestern collected more than $70 million in royalties for the drug, the university sold a portion of its royalty rights for an additional $700 million (C&EN, March 10, 2008, page 56). Around the same time, Silverman and his family donated a portion of their earnings from the drug to fund construction of a new Northwestern science building. The facility, which is scheduled to open this fall, will house chemistry, biology, and engineering research groups devoted to biomedical science.

Silverman has published more than 250 papers in organic chemistry, medicinal chemistry, and enzymology. He is also the author of three books, including “The Organic Chemistry of Drug Design and Drug Action,” and holds 40 patents.

The Perkin Medal is named for Sir William Henry Perkin (1838–1907), who was honored by SCI in 1906 for developing the first synthetic dye, Perkin mauve. This year’s medal will be presented at SCI’s Perkin Medal banquet in Philadelphia in September.

The Legacy Of Lyrica

November 18, 2013

Northwestern’s Richard Silverman, professor of chemistry, developed pregabalin, the chemical that Pfizer now markets as Lyrica.  The drug is one of the two approved treatments for fibromyalgia, epilepsy, and the most effective treatment for seizures as well.

In his laboratory, Silverman’s research team studied chemicals made in the brain. Of particular interest was GABA, a neurotransmitter that inhibits certain brain functions. When GABA levels fall too low in some people, it can trigger epileptic seizures. His group studied enzymes that affect GABA levels, looking for ways to keep GABA elevated.  In 1989, the Parke-Davis unit of Warner-Lambert was interested in the research findings. Among the 17 chemical analogs that Silverman sent to Parke-Davis, only pregabalin showed effects in mice.

Serendipity played a huge part in shaping this success story, as most chemicals that affect cells in lab experiments do not survive inside an animal. Another outcome of the research was that the compound was effective for a reason entirely different from Silverman’s initial goal of producing more GABA. In another stroke of luck, the molecule happened to be of the right shape to be transported directly into the brain with nearly 90 percent efficacy.

Lyrica has been a tremendous medical and commercial success that has validated the nearly 15 year process from invention to market launch in 2005. In 2004 Lyrica was approved for use in adults for the treatment of various peripheral neuropathic pain indications as well as therapy for partial epilepsy in more than 60 countries outside of the United States. In 2006 Lyrica was also approved for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder in Europe. The drug brought in $1.2 billion in sales in 2006 and in 2010 was approved in Europe to treat central neuropathic (nerve) pain. This is expected to push profits from the blockbuster drug to climb even higher.

Northwestern sold a sizeable amount of royalty interest in 2007 to Royalty Pharma, a company that specializes in acquiring cash-generating intellectual property, for $700 million to help the university’s endowment. This deal has been termed the largest sale ever of a royalty stream for a pharmaceutical product.

To learn more about Lyrica visit the product website at www.lyrica.com.

Originally Appeared:

////////Cocaine Dependency, CPP 115, PHASE 1, CATALYST, NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY, ORPHAN DRUG, 640897-20-7, 760947-97-5

C1C(CC(=C(F)F)C1N)C(=O)O

VT 1129


str1

Image result for VT1129

str1

VT 1129

1340593-70-5 CAS
MF C22 H14 F7 N5 O2, MW 513.37
2-Pyridineethanol, α-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-β,β-difluoro-α-(1H-tetrazol-1-ylmethyl)-5-[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl]-, (αR)-
R ISOMER
ROTATION +
  • Originator Viamet Pharmaceuticals
  • Class Antifungals; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action 14-alpha demethylase inhibitors
  • Orphan Drug Status Yes – Cryptococcosis
  • On Fast track Cryptococcosis
  • Phase I Cryptococcosis
  • Most Recent Events

    • 01 Jun 2016 VT 1129 receives Fast Track designation for Cryptococcosis [PO] (In volunteers) in USA
    • 30 May 2016 Viamet Pharmaceuticals plans a phase II trial for Cryptococcal meningitis in USA (Viamet Pharmaceuticals pipeline; May 2016)
    • 27 May 2016 Phase-I clinical trials in Cryptococcosis (In volunteers) in USA (PO) before May 2016 (Viamet Pharmaceuticals pipeline; May 2016)

Image result for Viamet Pharmaceuticals Holdings LLC

William J. Hoekstra, Stephen William Rafferty,Robert J. Schotzinger
Applicant Viamet Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Image result for VT1129

Viamet, in collaboration with Therapeutics for Rare and Neglected diseases, is investigating VT-1129, a small-molecule lanosterol demethylase inhibitor, developed using the company’s Metallophile technology, for treating fungal infections, including Cryptococcus neoformans meningitis.

VT-1129 is a novel oral agent that we are developing for the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis, a life-threatening fungal infection of the brain and the spinal cord that occurs most frequently in patients with HIV infection, transplant recipients and oncology patients. Without treatment, the disease is almost always fatal.

VT-1129VT-1129 has shown high potency and selectivity in in vitro studies and is an orally administered inhibitor of fungal CYP51, ametalloenzyme important in fungal cell wall synthesis. In preclinical studies, VT-1129 has demonstrated substantial potency against Cryptococcus species, the fungal pathogens that cause cryptoccocal meningitis, and has also been shown to accumulate to high concentrations within the central nervous system, the primary site of infection.

In in vitro studies, VT-1129 was significantly more potent against Cryptococcus isolates than fluconazole, which is commonly used for maintenance therapy of cryptococcal meningitis in the United States and as a primary therapy in the developing world. Oral VT-1129 has also been studied in a preclinical model of cryptococcal meningitis, where it was compared to fluconazole.  At the conclusion of the study, there was no detectable evidence of Cryptococcus in the brain tissue of the high dose VT-1129 treated groups, in contrast to those groups treated with fluconazole. To our knowledge, this ability to reduce the Cryptococcus pathogen in the central nervous system to undetectable levels in this preclinical model is unique to VT-1129.

Opportunity

An estimated 3,400 hospitalizations related to cryptococcal meningitis occur annually in the United States and the FDA has granted orphan drug designation to VT-1129 for the treatment of this life-threatening disease. In addition, the FDA has granted Qualified Infectious Disease Product designation to VT-1129 for the treatment of Cryptococcus infections, which further underscores the unmet medical need. In developing regions such as Africa, cryptococcal meningitis is a major public health problem, with approximately one million cases and mortality rates estimated to be as high as 55-70%.

Current Status

VT-1129 has received orphan drug and Fast Track designations for the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis and has been designated a Qualified Infectious Disease Product (QIDP) by the U.S. Fod and Drug Administration.  We are currently conducting a Phase 1 single-ascending dose study of VT-1129 in healthy volunteers.

str1 str2

Conclusions

• VT-1129 has robust activity against Cryptococcus isolates with elevated fluconazole MICs and may be a viable option in persons infected with such strains.

• A Phase 1 study of VT-1129 in healthy volunteers is scheduled to begin by the end of 2015. Phase 2 trials in persons with cryptococcal meningitis are targeted to begin by the end of 2016.

Image result for VT 1129

Living organisms have developed tightly regulated processes that specifically import metals, transport them to intracellular storage sites and ultimately transport them to sites of use. One of the most important functions of metals such as zinc and iron in biological systems is to enable the activity of metalloenzymes. Metalloenzymes are enzymes that incorporate metal ions into the enzyme active site and utilize the metal as a part of the catalytic process. More than one-third of all characterized enzymes are metalloenzymes.

The function of metalloenzymes is highly dependent on the presence of the metal ion in the active site of the enzyme. It is well recognized that agents which bind to and inactivate the active site metal ion dramatically decrease the activity of the enzyme. Nature employs this same strategy to decrease the activity of certain metalloenzymes during periods in which the enzymatic activity is undesirable. For example, the protein TIMP (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteases) binds to the zinc ion in the active site of various matrix metalloprotease enzymes and thereby arrests the enzymatic activity. The pharmaceutical industry has used the same strategy in the design of therapeutic agents. For example, the azole antifungal agents fluconazole and voriconazole contain a l-(l,2,4-triazole) group that binds to the heme iron present in the active site of the target enzyme lanosterol demethylase and thereby inactivates the enzyme.

In the design of clinically safe and effective metalloenzyme inhibitors, use of the most appropriate metal-binding group for the particular target and clinical indication is critical. If a weakly binding metal-binding group is utilized, potency may be suboptimal. On the other

hand, if a very tightly binding metal-binding group is utilized, selectivity for the target enzyme versus related metalloenzymes may be suboptimal. The lack of optimal selectivity can be a cause for clinical toxicity due to unintended inhibition of these off-target metalloenzymes. One example of such clinical toxicity is the unintended inhibition of human drug metabolizing enzymes such as CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 by the currently- available azole antifungal agents such as fluconazole and voriconazole. It is believed that this off-target inhibition is caused primarily by the indiscriminate binding of the currently utilized l-(l,2,4-triazole) to iron in the active site of CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. Another example of this is the joint pain that has been observed in many clinical trials of matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors. This toxicity is considered to be related to inhibition of off-target metalloenzymes due to indiscriminate binding of the hydroxamic acid group to zinc in the off-target active sites.

Therefore, the search for metal-binding groups that can achieve a better balance of potency and selectivity remains an important goal and would be significant in the realization of therapeutic agents and methods to address currently unmet needs in treating and preventing diseases, disorders and symptoms thereof. Similarly, methods of synthesizing such therapeutic agents on the laboratory and, ultimately, commercial scale is needed. Addition of metal-based nucleophiles (Zn, Zr, Ce, Ti, Mg, Mn, Li) to azole-methyl substituted ketones have been effected in the synthesis of voriconazole (M. Butters, Org. Process Res. Dev.2001, 5, 28-36). The nucleophile in these examples was an ethyl-pyrimidine substrate. Similarly, optically active azole-methyl epoxide has been prepared as precursor electrophile toward the synthesis of ravuconazole (A. Tsuruoka, Chem. Pharm. Bull.1998, 46, 623-630). Despite this, the development of methodology with improved efficiency and selectivity is desirable.

PATENT

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2011133875

Scheme 1

EXAMPLE 7

2-(2, 4-Difluorophenyl)-l, l-difluoro-3-(lH-tetrazol-l-yl)-l-(5-(4- (trifluoromethoxy) phenyl) pyridin-2-yl) propan-2-ol (7)

To a stirred solution of bromo epoxide C (0.5 g, 1.38 mmol) in THF (30 mL) and water (14 mL) were added 4-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylboronic acid (0.22 g, 1.1 mmol), Na2C03 (0.32 g, 3.1 mmol) and Pd(dppf)2Cl2 (0.28 g, 0.34 mmol) at RT under inert atmosphere. After purged with argon for a period of 30 min, the reaction mixture was heated to 75°C and stirring was continued for 4 h. Progress of the reaction was monitored by TLC. The reaction mixture was cooled to RT and filtered through a pad of celite. The filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure; obtained residue was dissolved in ethyl acetate (30 mL). The organic layer was washed with water, brine and dried over anhydrous Na2S04 and concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude compound was purified by column chromatography to afford the coupled product (0.45 g, 1.0 mmol, 73%) as solid. 1H NMR (200 MHz, CDC13): δ 8.87 (s, 1 H), 7.90 (dd, / = 8.2, 2.2 Hz, 1 H), 7.66-7.54 (m, 3 H), 7.49-7.34 (m, 3 H), 6.90-6.70 (m, 2 H), 3.49 (d, / = 5.0 Hz, 1 H), 3.02-2.95 (m, 1 H). Mass: m/z 444 [M++l].

To a stirred solution of the coupled product (0.45 g, 1.0 mmol) in DMF (10 mL) was added K2C03 (70 mg, 0.5 mmol) followed by IH-tetrazole (70 mg, 1.0 mmol) at RT under inert atmosphere. The reaction mixture was stirred for 4 h at 80 °C. The volatiles were removed under reduced pressure and obtained residue was dissolved in water (15 mL) and extracted with ethyl acetate (2 x 20 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with water, brine and dried over anhydrous Na2S04 and concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude compound was purified by column chromatography to afford 7 (0.19 g, 0.37 mmol, 36 %) as white solid. 1H NMR (500 MHz, CDC13): δ 8.76 (s, 1 H), 8.70 (s, 1 H), 7.97 (dd, / = 8.0, 2.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.68 (d, / = 8.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.60-7.56 (m, 3 H), 7.43-7.36 (m, 3 H), 6.80-6.76 (m, 1 H), 6.70-6.67 (m, 1 H), 5.57 (d, / = 14.5 Hz, 1 H), 5.17 (d, / = 14.5 Hz, 1 H). HPLC: 98.3%. Mass: m/z 513.9 [M++l].

Chiral preparative HPLC of enantiomers:

The enantiomers of 7 (17.8 g, 34.6 mmol) were separated by normal-phase preparative high performance liquid chromatography (Chiralpak AD-H, 250 x 21.2 mm, 5μ; using (A) n-hexane – (B) IPA (A:B : 70:30) as a mobile phase; Flow rate: 15 mL/min) to obtain 7(+) (6.0 g) and 7(-) (5.8 g).

Analytical data for 7 (+):

HPLC: 99.8%.

Chiral HPLC: Rt = 9.88 min (Chiralpak AD-H, 250 x 4.6mm, 5μ; mobile phase (A) n-Hexane (B) IPA (7/3): A: B (70:30); flow Rate: 1.00 mL/min)

Optical rotation [a]D25: + 19° (C = 0.1 % in MeOH).

Patent

WO2015143137,

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/ko/detail.jsf;jsessionid=61AAA66F887FDBB9CFC3F752AFF04016.wapp2nC?docId=WO2015143137&recNum=303&office=&queryString=&prevFilter=%26fq%3DICF_M%3A%22C07D%22&sortOption=%EA%B3%B5%EA%B0%9C%EC%9D%BC(%EB%82%B4%EB%A6%BC%EC%B0%A8%EC%88%9C)&maxRec=58609

Examples

The present invention will now be demonstrated using specific examples that are not to be construed as limiting.

General Experimental Procedures

Definitions of variables in the structures in schemes herein are commensurate with those of corresponding positions in the formulae delineated herein.

Synthesis of 1 or la

A process to prepare enantiopure compound 1 or la is disclosed. Syntheses of 1 or la may be accomplished using the example syntheses that are shown below (Schemes 1-9). The preparation of precursor ketone 8 is performed starting with reaction of dibromo-pyridine 2-Br with ethyl 2-bromo-difluoroacetate to produce ester 3-Br. This ester is reacted with tetrazole reagent 4 via Claisen reaction to furnish 5-Br. Decarboxylation of 5-Br via a two-step process produces compound 6-Br. Suzukin coupling of 6-Br with boronate 7 furnishes 8.

Scheme 1. Synthesis of ketone 8

Ketone 8 may be prepared in an analogous fashion as described in Scheme 1 starting from corresponding substituted 2-bromo-pyridines, which can be prepared using according to synthetic transformations known in the art and contained in the references cited herein (Scheme 2).

Scheme 2. Synthesis of ketone 8

= halo, -0(C=0)-alkyl, -0(C=0)-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-aryl, -0(C=0)-substituted aryl, -0(C=0)-0-alkyl, – 0(C=0)-0-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-aryl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted aryl, -0(S02)-alkyl, -0(S02)-substituted alkyl, – 0(S02)-aryl, or -0(S02)-substituted aryl.

Compounds 6 or 8 may be reacted with a series of metallated derivatives of 2,4-difluoro-bromobenzene and chiral catalysts/reagents (e.g. BINOL) to effect enantiofacial-selective addition to the carbonyl group of 6 or 8 (Scheme 3). These additions can be performed on 6 or 8 to furnish 9 (or 9a, the enantiomer of 9, or mixtures thereof) or 1 (or la, the enantiomer of 1, or mixtures thereof), respectively.

Scheme 3. Synthesis of 1 or la

R-i = halo, -0(C=0)-alkyl, -0(C=0)-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-aryl, -0(C=0)-substituted aryl, -0(C=0)-0-alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-aryl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted aryl, -0(S02)-alkyl, -0(S02)-substituted alkyl, -0(S02)-aryl, or -0(S02)-substituted aryl.

Alternatively, ketone 8 can be synthesized from aldehyde 10 (Scheme 4). Aldehyde 10 is coupled with 7 to produce 11. Compound 11 is then converted to 12 via treatment with diethylaminosulfurtrifluoride (DAST).

Scheme 4. Alternate synthesis of ketone 8

Scheme 5 outlines the synthesis of precursor ketone 15-Br. The ketone is prepared by conversion of 2-Br to 3-Br as described above. Next, ester 3-Br is converted to 15-Br by treatment via lithiation of 2,4-difluoro-bromobenzene.

Scheme 5. Synthesis of ketone 15-Br

Ketone 15 may be prepared in an analogous fashion as described for 15-Br in Scheme 5 starting from corresponding substituted 2-bromo-pyridines, which can be prepared using according to synthetic transformations known in the art and contained in the references cited herein (Scheme 6).

Scheme 6. Synthesis of ketone 15

F = halo, -0(C=0)-alkyl, -0(C=0)-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-aryl, -0(C=0)-substituted aryl, -0(C=0)-0-alkyl, – 0(C=0)-0-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-aryl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted aryl, -0(S02)-alkyl, -0(S02)-substituted alkyl, – 0(S02)-aryl, or -0(S02)-substituted aryl.

Ketone 15 may be used to prepare 9 (or 9a, the enantiomer of 9, or mixtures thereof) or 1 (or la, the enantiomer of 1, or mixtures thereof) by the following three-step process (Scheme 7). In the presence of a chiral catalyst/reagent (e.g. proline derivatives), base-treated nitromethane is added to 15 or 16 to furnish 17 (or 17a, the enantiomer of 17, or mixtures thereof) or 18 (or 18a, the enantiomer of 18, or mixtures thereof), respectively. Reduction of 17 (or 17a, the enantiomer of 17, or mixtures thereof) or 18 (or 18a, the enantiomer of 18, or mixtures thereof) (e.g. lithium aluminum hydride) produces 19 (or 19a, the enantiomer of 19, or mixtures thereof) or 20 (or 20a, the enantiomer of 20, or mixtures thereof). Annulation of 19 (or 19a, the enantiomer of 19, or mixtures thereof) or 20 (or 20a, the enantiomer of 20, or mixtures thereof) by treatment with sodium azide/triethylorthoformate furnishes tetrazoles 9 (or 9a, the enantiomer of 9, or mixtures thereof) or 1 (or la, the enantiomer of 1, or mixtures thereof). Suzuki coupling of 9 (or 9a, the enantiomer of 9, or mixtures thereof) with 4-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-boronic acid produces 1 (or la, the enantiomer of 1, or mixtures thereof).

Scheme 7. Asymmetric Henry reaction

R-ι = halo, -0(C=0)-alkyl, -0(C=0)-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-aryl, -0(C=0)-substituted aryl, -0(C=0)-0-alkyl, 0(C=0)-0-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-aryl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted aryl, -0(S02)-alkyl, -0(S02)-substituted a 0(S02)-aryl, or -0(S02)-substituted aryl.

Ketone 21 may be employed to prepare optically-active epoxides via Horner-Emmons reaction of a difluoromethyl substrate to produce 22 or 22a. Ketones related to 21 have been prepared (M. Butters, Org. Process Res. Dev. 2001, 5, 28-36). Nucleophilic addition of metalated 5-(4-trifluoromethoxy)phenyl-2-pyridine (M = metal) to epoxide 22 or 22a may furnish compound

1 or la.

Scheme 8. Enantioselective epoxidation strategy

Ketone 15 or 16 may be used to prepare 9 (or 9a, the enantiomer of 9, or mixtures thereof) or 1 (or la, the enantiomer of 1, or mixtures thereof) by an alternative three-step process to Scheme 7 (Scheme 9). In the presence of a chiral catalyst/reagent, trimethylsilyl-cyanide is added to 15 or 16 to furnish 23 (or 23a, the enantiomer of 23, or mixtures thereof) or 24 (or 24a, the enantiomer of 24, or mixtures thereof), respectively (S.M. Dankwardt, Tetrahedron Lett. 1998, 39, 4971-4974). Reduction of 23 (or 23a, the enantiomer of 23, or mixtures thereof) or 24 (or 24a, the enantiomer of 24, or mixtures thereof) (e.g. lithium aluminum hydride) produces 19 (or 19a, the enantiomer of 19, or mixtures thereof) or 20 (or 20a, the enantiomer of 20, or mixtures thereof). Annulation of 19 (or 19a, the enantiomer of 19, or mixtures thereof) or 20 (or 20a, the enantiomer of 20, or mixtures thereof) by treatment with sodium azide/triethylorthoformate furnishes tetrazoles 9 (or 9a, the enantiomer of 9, or mixtures thereof) or 1 (or la, the enantiomer of 1, or mixtures thereof). Suzuki coupling of 9 (or 9a, the enantiomer of 9, or mixtures thereof) with 4-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-boronic acid produces 1 (or la, the enantiomer of 1, or mixtures thereof).

Scheme 9. Asymmetric cyanohydrin strategy

R’ = H or trimethylsilyl

Suzuki

R-i = halo, -0(C=0)-alkyl, -0(C=0)-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-aryl, -0(C=0)-substituted aryl, -0(C=0)-0-alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-aryl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted aryl, -0(S02)-alkyl, -0(S02)-substituted alkyl, -0(S02)-aryl, or -0(S02)-substituted aryl.

1

2-(2, 4-Difluorophenyl)-l, l-difluoro-3-(lH-tetrazol-l-yl)-l-(5-(4-(trifluoromethoxy) phenyl) pyridin-2-yl) propan-2-ol (1 or la)

White powder: *H NMR (500 MHz, CDC13): δ 8.76 (s, 1 H), 8.70 (s, 1 H), 7.97 (dd, J = 8.0, 2.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.68 (d, / = 8.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.60-7.56 (m, 3 H), 7.43-7.36 (m, 3 H), 6.80-6.76 (m, 1 H), 6.70-6.67 (m, 1 H), 5.57 (d, J = 14.5 Hz, 1 H), 5.17 (d, J = 14.5 Hz, 1 H). HPLC: 98.3%. Mass: m/z 513.9 [M++l]. HPLC: 99.8%. Optical rotation [a]D25: + 19° (C = 0.1 % in MeOH).

INTERMEDIATE 3-Br Ri = Br)

To a clean and dry 100 L jacketed reactor was added copper powder (1375 g, 2.05 equiv, 10 micron, sphereoidal, SAFC Cat # 326453) and DMSO (17.5 L, 7 vol). Next, ethyl bromodifluoroacetate (2.25 kg, 1.05 equiv, Apollo lot # 102956) was added and the resulting slurry stirred at 20-25 °C for 1-2 hours. Then 2,5-dibromopyridine (2-Br, 2.5 kg, 1.0 equiv, Alfa Aesar lot # F14P38) was added to the batch and the mixture was immediately heated (using the glycol jacket) to 35 °C. After 70 hours at 35 °C, the mixture was sampled for CG/MS analysis. A sample of the reaction slurry was diluted with 1/1 CH3CN/water, filtered (0.45 micron), and the filtrate analyzed directly. Ideally, the reaction is deemed complete if <5% (AUC) of 2,5-dibromopyridine remains. In this particular batch, 10% (AUC) of 2,5-dibromopyridine remained. However due to the already lengthy reaction time, we felt that prolonging the batch would not help the conversion any further. The reaction was then deemed complete and diluted with EtOAc (35 L). The reaction mixture was stirred at 20-35 °C for 1 hour and then the solids (copper salts) were removed by filtration through a pad of Celite. The residual solids inside the reactor were rinsed forward using EtOAc (2 x 10 L) and then this was filtered through the Celite. The filter cake was washed with additional EtOAc (3 x 10 L) and the EtOAc filtrates were combined. A buffer solution was prepared by dissolving NH4CI (10 kg) in DI water (100 L), followed by the addition of aqueous 28% NH4OH (2.0 L) to reach pH = 9. Then the combined EtOAc filtrates were added slowly to a pre-cooled (0 to 15 °C) solution of NH4C1 and NH4OH (35 L, pH = 9) buffer while maintaining T<30 °C. The mixture was then stirred for 15-30 minutes and the phases were allowed to separate. The aqueous layer (blue in color) was removed and the organic layer was washed with the buffer solution until no blue color was discernable in the aqueous layer. This experiment required 3 x 17.5 L washes. The organic layer was then washed with a 1/1 mixture of Brine (12.5 L) and the pH = 9 NH4C1 buffer solution (12.5 L), dried over MgS04, filtered, and concentrated to dryness. This provided crude compound 3-Br [2.29 kg, 77% yield, 88% (AUC) by GC/MS] as a yellow oil. The major impurity present in crude 3-Br was unreacted 2,5-dibromopyridine [10% (AUC) by GC/MS]. ‘ll NMR (CDC13) was consistent with previous lots of crude compound 3-Br. Crude compound 3-Br was then combined with similar purity lots and purified by column chromatography (5/95 EtO Ac/heptane on S1O2 gel).

INTERMEDIATE 15-Br (R, = Br)

To a clean and dry 72 L round bottom flask was added l-bromo-2,4-difluorobenzene (1586 g,

1.15 equiv, Oakwood lot # H4460) and MTBE (20 L, 12.6 vol). This solution was cooled to -70 to -75 °C and treated with n-BuLi (3286 mL, 1.15 equiv, 2.5 M in hexanes, SAFC lot # 32799MJ), added as rapidly as possible while maintaining -75 to -55 °C. This addition typically required 35-45 minutes to complete. (NOTE: If the n-BuLi is added slowly, an white slurry will form and this typically gives poor results). After stirring at -70 to -65 °C for 45 minutes, a solution of compound 3-Br (2000 g, 1.0 equiv, AMRI lot # 15CL049A) in MTBE (3 vol) was added rapidly (20-30 min) by addition funnel to the aryl lithium solution while maintaining -75 to -55 °C. After stirring for 30-60 minutes at -75 to -55 °C, the reaction was analyzed by GC/MS and showed only trace (0.5% AUC) l-bromo-2,4-difluorobenzene present. The reaction was slowly quenched with aqueous 2 M HC1 (3.6 L) and allowed to warm to room temperature. The mixture was adjusted to pH = 6.5 to 8.5 using NaHCC>3 (4 L), and the organic layer was separated. The MTBE layer was washed with brine (5% NaCl in water, 4 L), dried over MgS04, filtered, and concentrated. In order to convert the intermediate hemi-acetal to 4-Br, the crude mixture was heated inside the 20 L rotovap flask at 60-65 °C for 3 hours (under vacuum), at this point all the hemi-acetal was converted to the desired ketone 4 by !Η NMR (CDC13). This provided crude compound 4-Br [2.36 kg, 75% (AUC) by HPLC] as a brown oil that solidified upon standing. This material can then be used “as-is” in the next step without further purification.

Image result for VT1129

PATENT FOR VT1161    SIMILAR TO VT 1129

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2016149486&recNum=1&maxRec=&office=&prevFilter=&sortOption=&queryString=&tab=PCTDescription

Synthesis of 1 or la

EXAMPLE 1

Preparation of Compound 1 X-Hydrate

Compound 1 and its preparation are described in the art, including in US Patent 8,236,962 (incorporated by reference herein). Compound 1 can then be partitioned between ethanol and water to afford Compound 1 X-hydrate.

EXAMPLE 2

Compound 1 Anhydrous Form Recrystallization

Compound 1 X-hydrate (29.1 g, 28.0 g contained 1) was suspended in 2-propanol (150 ml) and heated to 56 °C. The solution was filtered through a 0.45 μιη Nylon membrane with 2-propanol rinses. The combined filtrate was concentrated to 96.5 g of a light amber solution. The solution was transferred to a 1-L flask equipped with overhead stirring, thermocouple and addition funnel, using 2-propanol (30 ml total) to complete the transfer. The combined solution contained about 116 ml 2-propanol.

The solution was heated to 50 °C and n-heptane (234 ml) was added over 22 minutes. The resulting hazy mixture was seeded with 1 anhydrous form. After about 1 hour a good

suspension had formed. Additional n-heptane (230 ml) was added over 48 minutes. Some granular material separated but most of the suspension was a finely divided pale beige solid. After about ½ hour at 50 °C the suspension was cooled at 10 °C/h to room temperature and stirred overnight. The product was collected at 22 °C on a vacuum filter and washed with 1:4 (v/v) 2-PrOH/ n-heptane (2 x 50 ml). After drying on the filter for 1-2 hours the weight of product was 25.5 g. The material was homogenized in a stainless steel blender to pulverize and blend the more granular solid component. The resulting pale beige powder (25.37 g) was dried in a vacuum oven at 50 °C. The dry weight was 25.34 g. The residual 2-propanol and n- heptane were estimated at <0.05 wt% each by 1H NMR analysis. The yield was 90.5% after correcting the X-hydrate for solvent and water content. Residual Pd was 21 ppm. The water content was 209 ppm by KF titration. The melting point was 100.7 °C by DSC analysis.

Table 1: Data for the isolated and dried Compound 1 – X-hydrate and anhydrous forms

M.P. by DSC; Pd by ICP; Purity by the API HPLC method; Chiral purity by HPLC; water content by KF titration; residual solvent estimated from :H NMR.

Table 2: Characterisation Data for Compounds 1 (X-hydrate) and 1 (anhydrous)

Needle like crystals Needle like crystals and agglomerates

PLM

particle size >100μιη particle size range from 5μπι-100μιη

0.59%w/w water uptake at 90%RH. 0.14%w/w water uptake at 90%RH.

GVS

No sample hysteresis No sample hysteresis

XRPD

No form change after GVS experiment No form change after GVS experiment post GVS

KF 2.4%w/w H20 Not obtained

<0.001mg/ml <0.001mg/ml

Solubility

pH of saturated solution = 8.6 pH of saturated solution = 8.7

Spectral Pattern 1 Spectral Pattern 2

Charcteristic bands/ cm“1: Charcteristic bands/ cm 1:

FT-IR 3499, 3378, 3213, 3172 3162

1612, 1598, 1588, 1522, 1502 1610, 1518, 1501 931, 903, 875, 855, 828, 816 927, 858, 841, 829, 812

The structure solution of Compound 1 anhydrous form was obtained by direct methods, full-matrix least-squares refinement on F 2 with weighting w‘1 = <52{F02) + (0.0474P)2 + (0.3258P), where P = (F02+2F 2)/3, anisotropic displacement parameters, empirical absorption correction using spherical harmonics, implemented in SCALE3 ABSPACK scaling algorithm. Final wR2

= {∑[w(F02-Fc2)2]/∑[w(F02)2]m} = 0.0877 for all data, conventional Ri = 0.0343 on F values of 8390 reflections with F0 > 4a( F0), S = 1.051 for all data and 675 parameters. Final Δ/a (max) 0.001, A/a(mean), 0.000. Final difference map between +0.311 and -0.344 e A“3.

Below shows a view of two molecules of Compound 1 in the asymmetric unit of the anhydrous form showing the numbering scheme employed. Anisotropic atomic displacement ellipsoids for the non-hydrogen atoms are shown at the 50% probability level. Hydrogen atoms are displayed with an arbitrarily small radius. The absolute configuration of the molecules has been determined to be R.

EXAMPLE 3

Compound 1 Ethanol Solvate Recrystallization

Compound 1 X-hydrate (50 mg) was suspended in -40 volumes of 15% H20/EtOH. The suspension was then placed in an incubation chamber for maturation. The maturation protocol involved treating the suspension to a two-temperature cycle of 50 °C/ ambient temperature at 8 hours per cycle for 3 days with constant agitation. After maturation, the suspension was cooled in a fridge at 4°C for up to 2 days to encourage the formation of crystals. Then, the solvent was removed at RT and the sample was vacuum dried at 30°C -35°C for up to 1 day. Suitable crystals formed on cooling were harvested and characterized.

Table 4: Single Crystal Structure of 1 Ethanol solvate

Molecular formula C25H22F7N5O3

The structure solution of Compound 1 ethanol solvate was obtained by direct methods, full-matrix least-squares refinement on F 2 with weighting w‘1 = σ2^2) + (0.0450P)2 + (0.5000P), where P = (F02+2F 2)/3, anisotropic displacement parameters, empirical absorption correction using spherical harmonics, implemented in SCALE3 ABSPACK scaling algorithm. Final wR2 = {∑[w(F02-F 2)2]/∑[w(F02)2]m} = 0.0777 for all data, conventional Ri = 0.0272 on F values of 4591 reflections with F0 > 4σ( F0), S = 1.006 for all data and 370 parameters. Final Δ/σ (max) 0.000, A/a(mean), 0.000. Final difference map between +0.217 and -0.199 e A“3.

Below shows a view of the asymmetric unit of the ethanol solvate from the crystal structure showing the numbering scheme employed. Anisotropic atomic displacement ellipsoids for the non-hydrogen atoms are shown at the 50% probability level. Hydrogen atoms are displayed with an arbitrarily small radius. The asymmetric unit shows stoichiometry of 1 : 1 for solvent of crystallisation to Compound 1.

EXAMPLE 4

Compound 1 1.5 Hydrate Recrystallization

Compound 1 X-hydrate (50 mg) was suspended in -40 volumes of 15% Η20/ΙΡΑ. The suspension was then placed in an incubation chamber for maturation. The maturation protocol involved treating the suspension to a two-temperature cycle of 50 °C/ ambient temperature at 8 hours per cycle for 3 days with constant agitation. After maturation, the suspension was cooled in a fridge at 4°C for up to 2 days to encourage the formation of crystals. Then, the solvent was removed at RT and the sample was vacuum dried at 30°C -35°C for up to 1 day. Suitable crystals formed on cooling were harvested and characterized.

Table 5: Single Crystal Structure of 1 1.5 Hydrate

The structure solution of Compound 1 1.5 hydrate was obtained by direct methods, full-matrix least-squares refinement on F 2 with weighting w‘1 = ^(F 2) + (0.1269P)2 + (0.0000P), where P = (F02+2F 2)/3, anisotropic displacement parameters, empirical absorption correction using spherical harmonics, implemented in SCALE3 ABSPACK scaling algorithm. Final wR2 = {∑[w(F 2-F 2)2]/∑[w(F 2)2] m} = 0.1574 for all data, conventional Ri = 0.0668 on F values of 2106 reflections with F0 > 4σ( F0), S = 1.106 for all data and 361 parameters. Final Δ/σ (max) 0.000, A/a(mean), 0.000. Final difference map between +0.439 and -0.598 e A“3.

Below shows a view of the asymmetric unit of the 1.5 hydrate from the crystal structure showing the numbering scheme employed. Anisotropic atomic displacement ellipsoids for the non-hydrogen atoms are shown at the 50% probability level. Hydrogen atoms are displayed with an arbitrarily small radius. The asymmetric unit shows stoichiometry of 1.5: 1 for water to Compound 1.

EXAMPLE 5

Human Pharmacokinetic Comparison of Compound 1 X-Hydrate and Compound 1 Anhydrous Form

Table 6 compares human multiple-dose pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters between dosing with Compound 1 X-hydrate and Compound 1 Anhydrous form. Compound 1 X-hydrate was dosed at 600 mg twice daily (bid) for three days followed by dosing at 300 mg once daily (qd) for 10 days. Compound 1 Anhydrous form was dosed at 300 mg qd for 14 days. Despite the higher initial dosing amount and frequency (i.e., 600 mg bid) of Compound 1 X-hydrate, Compound 1 Anhydrous form surprisingly displayed higher maximal concentration (Cmax) and higher area-under-the-curve (AUC) than Compound 1 X-hydrate.

Table 6. Comparison of Multiple Dose PK between Compound 1 X-Hydrate and Compound 1

Anhydrous Polymorph

Further characterization of the various polymorph forms of compound 1 are detailed in the accompanying figures.

PATENT

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2015143154

Examples

General Experimental Procedures

Definitions of variables in the structures in schemes herein are commensurate with those of corresponding positions in the formulae delineated herein.

Synthesis of 1 or la

la

A process to prepare enantiopure compound 1 or la is disclosed. Syntheses of lor la may be accomplished using the example syntheses that are shown below (Schemes 1-4). The preparation of precursor ketone 3-Br is performed starting with reaction of 2,5-dibromo-pyridine with ethyl 2-bromo-difluoroacetate to produce ester 2-Br. This ester is reacted with morpholine to furnish morpholine amide 2b-Br, followed by arylation to provide ketone 3-Br.

Scheme 1. Synthesis of ketone 3-Br

Ketone 3 may be prepared in an analogous fashion as described in Scheme 1 starting from corresponding substituted 2-bromo-pyridines, which can be prepared using according to synthetic transformations known in the art and contained in the references cited herein (Scheme 2).

Scheme 2. Synthesis of ketone 3

R1 = halo, -0(C=0)-alkyl, -0(C=0)-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-aryl, -0(C=0)-substituted aryl, -0(C=0)-0-alkyl, – 0(C=0)-0-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-aryl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted aryl, -0(S02)-alkyl, -0(S02)-substituted alkyl, 0(S02)-aryl, or -0(S02)-substituted aryl.

Alternatively, compound 1 (or la, the enantiomer of 1, or mixtures thereof) can be prepared according to Scheme 3 utilizing amino-alcohols ±4b or ±1-6. Epoxides 4 and 5 can be prepared by reacting ketones 3 and 1-4 with trimethylsulfoxonium iodide (TMSI) in the presence of a base (e.g., potassium i-butoxide) in a suitable solvent or a mixture of solvents (e.g., DMSO or THF). Also, as indicated in Scheme 3, any of pyridine compounds, 3, 4, ±4b, 4b, or 6, can be converted to the corresponding 4-CF3O-PI1 analogs (e.g., 1-4, 5, ±1-6, 1-6*, or 1 or the corresponding enantiomers, or mixtures thereof) by cross-coupling with (4-trifluoromethoxyphenyl)boronic acid (or the corresponding alkyl boronates or pinnacol boronates or the like), in a suitable solvent system (e.g., an organic-aqueous solvent mixture), in the presence of a transition metal catalyst (e.g., (dppf)PdCl2; dppf = 1,1′-(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene), and in the presence of a base (e.g., KHCO3, K2CO3, CS2CO3, or Na2CC>3, or the like). Epoxides 4 and 5 can then be converted into amino-alcohols ±4b and ±1-6 through ammonia-mediated epoxide opening using ammonia in a suitable solvent (e.g., MeOH, EtOH, or water). Racemic amino-alcohols ±4b and ±1-6 can then be enantio-enriched by exposure to a chiral acid (e.g., tartaric acid, di-benzoyltartaric acid, or di-p-toluoyltartaric acid or the like) in a suitable solvent (e.g., acetonitrile, isopropanol, EtOH, or mixtures thereof, or a mixture of any of these with water or MeOH; preferably acetonitrile or a mixture of acetonitrile and MeOH, such as 90:10, 85: 15, or 80:20 mixture) to afford compounds 4b (or 4c, the enantiomer of 4b, or mixtures thereof) or 1-6* (or 1-7*, the enantiomer of 1-6*, or mixtures thereof). Subsequent treatment with TMS-azide in the presence of trimethylorthoformate and sodium acetate in acetic acid would yield compounds 20 (or 20a, the enantiomer of 20, or mixtures thereof) or 1 (or la, the enantiomer of 1, or mixtures thereof) (US 4,426,531).

Scheme 3. Synthesis of 1 or la via TMSI Epoxidation Method

R-ι = halo, -0(C=0)-alkyl, -0(C=0)-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-aryl, -0(C=0)- substituted aryl, -0(C=0)-0-alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-0- aryl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted aryl, -0(S02)-alkyl, -0(S02)-substituted alkyl, – 0(S02)-aryl, or -0(S02)-substituted aryl.

Compound 1 (or la, the enantiomer of 1, or mixtures thereof) prepared by any of the methods presented herein can be converted to a sulfonic salt of formula IX (or IXa, the enantiomer of

IX, or mixtures thereof), as shown in Scheme 4. This can be accomplished by a) combining compound 1 (or la, the enantiomer of 1, or mixtures thereof), a crystallization solvent or crystallization solvent mixture (e.g., EtOAc, iPrOAc, EtOH, MeOH, or acetonitrile, or o

Z-S-OH

combinations thereof), and a sulfonic acid o (e.g., Z = Ph, p-tolyl, Me, or Et), b) diluting the mixture with an appropriate crystallization co-solvent or crystallization co-solvent mixture (e.g., pentane, methyl i-butylether, hexane, heptane, or toluene, or combinations thereof), and c) filtering the mixture to obtain a sulfonic acid salt of formula IX (or IXa, the enantiomer of IX, or mixtures thereof).

Scheme 4. Synthesis of a Sulfonic Acid Salt of Compound 1 or la

EXAMPLE 1: Preparation of l-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-2,2-difluoro-2-(5-(4- (trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)pyridin-2-yl)ethanone (1-4).

la. ethyl 2-(5-bromopyridin-2-yl)-2,2-difluoroacetate (2)

2-Br
Typical Procedure for Preparing 2-Br

Copper ( 45μιη, 149g, 0.198moles, 2.5 equiv) was placed into a 3L, 3-neck round bottom flask equipped with a condenser, thermocouple, and an overhead stirrer. DMSO (890 mL, 4.7 vol. based on ethyl 2-bromo-2,2-difluoroacetate) and 14mL of concentrated sulfuric acid was added and the mixture stirred for 30 minutes. The mixture self-heated to about 31°C during the stir time. After cooling the contents to 23°C, 2,5-dibromopyridine 1 (277g, 1.17 moles, 1.5 eq) was added to the reaction mixture. The temperature of the contents decreased to 16°C during a 10 minute stir time. 2-bromo-2,2-difluoroacetate (190 g, 0.936 moles, 1.0 eq) was added in one portion and the mixture stirred for 10 min. The flask contents were warmed to 35°C and the internal temperature was maintained between 35-38° for 18 h. In-process HPLC showed 72% desired 2-Br. The warm reaction mixture was filtered through filter paper and the collected solids washed with 300mL of 35°C DMSO. The solids were then washed with 450mL of n-heptane and 450mL of MTBE. The collected filtrate was cooled to about 10°C and was slowly added 900mL of a cold 20% aqueous NH4C1 solution, maintaining an internal temperature of <16°C during the addition. After stirring for 15 minutes, the layers were settled and separated. The aqueous layer was extracted 2 X 450mL of a 1: 1 MTBE: n-heptane mixture. The combined organic layers were washed 2 X 450mL of aqueous 20% NH4CI and with 200mL of aqueous 20% NaCl. The organic layer was dried with 50g MgS04 and the solvent removed to yield 2-Br as a dark oil. Weight of oil = 183g ( 70% yield by weight) HPLC purity ( by area %) = 85%. *H NMR (400 MHz, d6-DMSO) : 58.86 (m, 1H), 8.35 ( dd, J= 8.4, 2.3Hz, 1H), 7.84 (dd, J= 8.3, 0.6Hz, 1H), 4.34 ( q, J= 7.1Hz, 2H), 1.23 ( t, J= 7.1Hz, 3H). MS m/z 280 ( M+H+), 282 (M+2+H+).

lb. 2-(5-bromopyridin-2-yl)-2,2-difluoro-l-morpholinoethanone (2b-Br)

Table 2 illustrates the effects of the relative proportions of each of the reagents and reactants, and the effect of varying the solvent had on the overall performance of the transformation as measured by the overall yield and purity of the reaction.

Table 2. Process Development for the Preparation of compound 2b-Br

Note: All reactions were conducted at 22- 25°C

Typical Procedure for Converting 2-Br to 2b-Br

Crude ester 2-Br (183g, 0.65moles) was dissolved in 1.5L of n-heptane and transferred to a 5L 3-neck round bottom flask equipped with a condenser, an overhead stirrer and a thermocouple. Morpholine ( 248g, 2.85 moles, 4.4 equiv.) was charged to the flask and the mixture warmed to 60°C and stirred for 16 hours. In-process HPLC showed <1 % of ester 2-Br. The reaction mixture was cooled to 22-25 °C and 1.5L of MTBE was added with continued cooling of the mixture to 4°C and slowly added 700mL of a 30%, by weight, aqueous citric acid solution. The temperature of the reaction mixture was kept < 15°C during the addition. The reaction was stirred at about 14°C for one hour and then the layers were separated. The organic layer was washed with 400mL of 30%, by weight, aqueous citric acid solution and then with 400mL of aqueous 9% NaHC03. The solvent was slowly removed until 565g of the reaction mixture

remained. This mixture was stirred with overhead stirring for about 16 hours. The slurry was filtered and the solids washed with 250mL of n-heptane. Weight of 2b-Br = 133g. HPLC purity (by area %) 98%.

This is a 44% overall yield from 2,5-dibromopyridine.

*H NMR (400 MHz, d6-DMSO): 58.86 (d, J= 2.3Hz, 1H), 8.34 (dd, J= 8.5, 2.3Hz, 1H), 7.81 (dd, J = 8.5, 0.5Hz, 1H), 3.63-3.54 ( m, 4H), 3.44-3.39 (m, 2H), 3.34-3.30 ( m, 2H). MS m/z 321 (M+H+), 323 (M+2+H+).

lc. 2-(5-bromopyridin-2-yl)-l-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-2,2-difluoroethanone (3-Br)

Process Development

Table 3 illustrates the effects of the relative proportions of each of the reagents and reactants, and the effect of varying the temperature had on the overall performance of the transformation as measured by the overall yield and purity of the reaction.

Table 3. Process Development for the Preparation of bromo-pyridine 3-Br

Typical Procedure for Converting 2b-Br to 3-Br

Grignard formation:

Magnesium turnings (13.63 g, 0.56 moles) were charged to a 3-neck round bottom flask equipped with a condenser, thermocouple, addition funnel, and a stir bar. 540 mL of anhydrous tetrahydrofuran was added followed by l-Bromo-2,4-difluorobenzene (16.3 mL, 0.144 moles). The contents were stirred at 22-25°C and allowed to self -heat to 44°C. 1- Bromo-2,4-difluorobenzene ( 47mL, 0.416 moles) was added to the reaction mixture at a rate that maintained the internal temperature between 40-44°C during the addition. Once the addition was complete, the mixture was stirred for 2 hours and allowed to cool to about 25° during the stir time.

This mixture was held at 22-25°C and used within 3-4 hours after the addition of l-bromo-2,4-difluorobenzene was completed.

Coupling Reaction

Compound 2b-Br (120 g, 0.0374 moles) was charged to a 3-neck round bottom flask equipped with a condenser, thermocouple, and an overhead stirrer. 600 mL of anhydrous

tetrahydrofuran was added. The flask contents were stirred at 22°C until a clear solution was obtained. The solution was cooled to 0-5°C. The previously prepared solution of the Grignard reagent was then added slowly while maintaining the reaction temperature at 0-2°C. Reaction progress was monitored by HPLC. In-process check after 45 minutes showed <1% amide 2b-Br remaining. 2 N aqueous HC1 (600 mL, 3 vol) was added slowly maintaining the temperature below 18°C during the addition. The reaction was stirred for 30 minutes and the layers were separated. The aqueous layer was extracted with 240mL MTBE. The combined organic layers were washed with 240mL of aqueous 9% NaHCC>3 and 240mL of aqueous 20% NaCl. The organic layer was dried over 28g of MgS04 and removed the solvent to yield 3-Br (137g) as an amber oil.

HPLC purity ( by area %) = -90%; *H NMR (400 MHz, d6-DMSO) : 58.80 (d, J= 2.2Hz, 1H), 8.41 ( dd, J= 8.3, 2.3Hz, 1H), 8.00 (m, 2H), 7.45 ( m, 1H), 7.30 ( m, 1H). MS m/z 348 (M+H+), 350 (M+2+H+).

Id. l-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-2,2-difluoro-2-(5-(4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)pyridin-2-yl)ethanone (1-4)

Typical Procedure for Converting 3-Br to 1-4

Into a 250 mL reactor were charged THF (45 mL), water (9.8 mL), bromo-pyridine 3-Br (6.0 g, 17.2 mmoles), 4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylboronic acid (3.57 g, 17.3 mmoles), and Na2CC>3 (4.55 g, 42.9 mmoles). The stirred mixture was purged with nitrogen for 15 min. The catalyst (Pd(dppf)Cl2 as a CH2C12 adduct, 0.72 g, 0.88 mmoles) was added, and the reaction mixture was heated to 65 °C and held for 2.5 h. The heat was shut off and the reaction mixture was allowed to cool to 20-25 °C and stir overnight. HPLC analysis showed -90% ketone 1-4/hydrate and no unreacted bromo-pyridine 3-Br. MTBE (45 mL) and DI H20 (20 mL) were added, and the quenched reaction was stirred for 45 min. The mixture was passed through a plug of Celite (3 g) to remove solids and was rinsed with MTBE (25 mL). The filtrate was transferred to a separatory funnel, and the aqueous layer drained. The organic layer was washed with 20% brine (25 mL). and split into two portions. Both were concentrated by rotovap to give oils (7.05 g and 1.84 g, 8.89 g total, >100% yield, HPLC purity -90%). The larger aliquot was used to generate hetone 1-4 as is. The smaller aliquot was dissolved in DCM (3.7 g, 2 parts) and placed on a pad of Si02 (5.5 g, 3 parts). The flask was rinsed with DCM (1.8 g), and the rinse added to the pad. The pad was eluted with DCM (90 mL), and the collected filtrate concentrated to give an oil (1.52 g). To this was added heptanes (6 g, 4 parts) and the mixture stirred. The oil crystallized, resulting in a slurry. The slurry was stirred at 20-25 °C overnight. The solid was isolated by vacuum filtration, and the cake washed with heptanes (-1.5 mL). The cake was dried in the vacuum oven (40-45 °C) with a N2 sweep. 0.92 g of ketone 1-4 was obtained, 60.1% yield (corrected for aliquot size), HPLC purity = 99.9%.

TMSI Epoxidation Method

3d. 2-((2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)oxiran-2-yl)difluoromethyl)-5-(4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)pyridine (5)

Typical Procedure for Converting 1-4 to 5

i-BuOK (2.22 g, 19.9 mmoles), TMSI (4.41 g, 20.0 mmoles), and THF (58.5 mL) were charged to a reaction flask, and the cloudy mixture was stirred. DMSO (35.2 mL) was added, and the clearing mixture was stirred at 20-25°C for 30 min before being cooled to 1-2°C.

Ketone 1-4 (crude, 5.85 g, 13.6 mmoles) was dissolved in THF (7.8 mL), and the 1-4 solution was added to the TMSI mixture over 12.75 min, maintaining the temperature between 1.5 and 2.0°C. The reaction was held at 0-2°C. After 1 h a sample was taken for HPLC analysis, which showed 77.6% epoxide 5, and no unreacted ketone 1-4. The reaction was quenched by the slow addition of 1 N HC1 (17.6 mL), keeping the temperature below 5°C. After 5 min 8% NaHCC>3 (11.8 mL) was added slowly below 5°C to afford a pH of 8. The reaction mixture was transferred to a separatory funnel, and the layers were separated. The aqueous layer was extracted with MTBE (78 mL), and the combined organic layers were washed with 20% NaCl (2 x 20 mL). After concentration, 7.36 g of a dark oil was obtained. HPLC of the crude oil shows it contained 75% epoxide 5. The oil was dissolved in DCM (14.7 g, 2 parts) and the solution placed on a pad of Si02 (22 g, 3 parts). The flask was rinsed with DCM (7.4 g, 1 part) and the rinse placed on the pad. The pad was eluted with DCM (350 mL) to give an amber filtrate. The filtrate was concentrated by rotovap, and when space in the flask allowed, heptane (100 mL) was added. The mixture was concentrated until 39.4 g remained in the flask, causing solid to form. The suspension was stirred for 70 min at 20-25°C. Solid was isolated by vacuum filtration, and the cake washed with heptane (10 mL) and pulled dry on the funnel. After drying in a vacuum oven (40-45 °C) with a N2 sweep, 3.33 g solid was obtained, 55.1% yield from bromo-pyridine 3, HPLC purity = 99.8%.

3e. 3-amino-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-l,l-difluoro-l-(5-(4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)pyridin-2-yl)propan-2-ol (±1-6)

Process Development

Table 8 illustrates the effects of the relative proportions of each of the reagents and reactants, the effect of varying the solvent, and the effect of varying the temperature had on the overall performance of the transformation as measured by the overall yield and purity of the reaction. Table 8. Process Development for the Preparation of ±1-6

Typical Procedure for Converting 5 to +1-6

Epoxide 5 (2.17 g, 4.89 mmoles) was combined in a glass pressure tube with methanol (48 mL) and aqueous ammonia (19.5 mL). The tube was sealed and placed in an oil bath held at 54°C, with stirring. After 15 h the tube was removed from the bath, cooled, and the reaction sampled for HPLC, which showed 93.6% amino-alcohol ±1-6 and 6.0% di-adducts. To the reaction were added MTBE (48 mL) and 20% NaCl (20 mL). The layers were separated and the aqueous layer extracted with MTBE (20 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with H20 (20 mL) and transferred to a rotovap flask. Heptane (20 mL) was added, and the solution was concentrated until 16.9 g remained in the flask. An H20 layer appeared in the flask, and was pipetted out, leaving 12.8 g. Compound 1-6 seed was added, and the crystallizing mixture was stirred at 20-25 °C overnight. The flask was cooled in an ice bath for 2 h prior to filtration, and the isolated solid was washed with cold heptane (5 mL), and pulled dry on the funnel. After drying in a vacuum oven (40-45°C) for several hours 1.37 g of amino-alcohol ±1-6 was obtained, 60.8% yield, HPLC purity = 98.0%.

3f . 3-amino-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)- 1 , 1-difluoro- 1 -(5-(4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)pyridin-2- yl)propan-2-ol (1-6* or 1-7*)

Process Development

Table 9 illustrates the initial screen performed surveying various chiral acid/solvent combinations. All entries in Table 9 were generated using 0.1 mmoles of amino-alcohol ±1-6, 1 equivalent of the chiral acid, and 1ml of solvent.

Table 9. Resolution of ±1-6 (Initial Screen)

Since the best results from Table 9 were generated using tartaric acid and di-p-toluoyltartaric acid, Table 10 captures the results from a focused screen using these two chiral acids and various solvent combinations. All entries in Table 10 were performed with 0.2 mmoles of amino-alcohol ±1-6, 87 volumes of solvent, and each entry was exposed to heating at 51 °C for lh, cooled to RT, and stirred at RT for 24h.

Table 10. Resolution of ±1-6 (Focused Screen)

Each of the three entries using di-p-toluoyltartaric acid in Table 10 resulted in higher levels of enantio-enrichment when compared to tartaric acid. As such, efforts to further optimize the enantio-enrichment were focusing on conditions using di-p-toluoyltartaric acid (Table 11).

Ό.6 equivalents used

ee sense was opposite from the other entries in the table (i.e., enantiomer of 1-6*)

Typical Procedure for Converting +1-6 to 1-6* or 1-7*

(This experimental procedure describes resolution of ±1-6, but conditions used for DPPTA resolution of 1-6 or 1-7 are essentially the same.)

Amino-alcohol ±1-6 (7.0 g, 15 mmoles) was dissolved in a mixture of acetonitrile (84 mL) and methanol (21 mL). (D)-DPTTA (5.89 g, 15 mmoles) was added, and the reaction was warmed to 50°C and held for 2.5 h. The heat was then removed and the suspension was allowed to cool and stir at 20-25 °C for 65 h. The suspension was cooled in an ice bath and stirred for an additional 2 h. Solid was isolated by vacuum filtration, and the cake was washed with cold 8:2 ACN/MeOH (35 mL). After drying at 50°C, 5.18 g of 1-6* or l-7*/DPPTA salt was isolated, HPLC purity = 99.0, ee = 74.

The 1-6* or l-7*/DPPTA salt (5.18 g) was combined with 8:2 ACN/MeOH (68 mL) and the suspension was heated to 50°C and held for 20 min. After cooling to 20-25 °C the mixture was stirred for 16 h. Solids were isolated by vacuum filtration, and the cake washed with cold 8:2 ACN/MeOH (30 mL), and pulled dry on the funnel. 2.82 g of 1-6* or l-7*/DPPTA salt was obtained, 44.4% yield (from crude ±1-6), ee = 97.5. The resulting solids were freebased to provide 1-6* or 1-7* with the same achiral and chiral purity as the DPPTA salt.

EXAMPLE 4: Preparation of 2-(2.4-difluorophenyl -l.l-difluoro-3-(lH-tetrazol-l-yl -l-(5-(4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)pyridin-2-yl)propan-2-ol (1 or la).

The procedure used to generate compound 1 or la is as described in US 4,426,531. Table 13 illustrates the efficient and quantitative nature of this procedure as performed on amino- alcohol 1-6* or 1-7* produced from both the TMS-cyanohydrin method and the TMSI- epoxidation method.

Table 13. Formation of Compound 1 or la

EXAMPLE 5: 2-(2.4-difluorophenyl -l.l-difluoro-3-(lH-tetrazol-l-yl -l-(5-(4- (trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)pyridin-2-yl)propan-2-ol benzenesulfonate (1 or la-BSA).

Typical Procedure for Converting 1 or la to 1 or la-BSA

46.6 g of compound 1 or la was dissolved in ethylacetate (360ml). The solution was filtered through a glass microfiber filter and placed in a 2 L reaction flask equipped with an overhead stirrer, condenser, and a J-Kem thermocouple. Pharma-grade benzenesulfonic acid (BSA, 14.39g, leq) was dissolved in ethyl acetate (100ml). The BSA solution was filtered through a glass microfiber filter and added to the stirred 1 or la solution in one portion. The mixture was warmed to 60-65 °C; precipitation of the 1 or la/BSA salt occurred during the warm up period. The slurry was held for 60 minutes at 60-65 °C. The suspension was allowed to slowly cool to 22 °C and was stirred at 20-25 °C for 16 hours. n-Heptane (920ml) was charged in one portion and the suspension was stirred at 22 °C for an additional 90 minutes. The slurry was filtered and the collected solids washed with n-heptane (250ml). The isolated solids were placed in a vacuum oven at 50 °C for 16 hours. 52.26g (86% yield) of 1 or la

benzenesulfonate was obtained.

*H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6 + D20): 89.16 (s, 1H), 8.95 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 8.26 (dd, J = 8.2, 2.3 Hz, 1H), 7.96-7.89 (m, 2H), 7.66-7.61 (m, 2H), 7.59 (dd, J = 8.3, 0.4 Hz, 1H), 7.53 (br d, J = 8.0 Hz, 2H), 7.38-7.15 (m, 5H), 6.90 (dt, J = 8.3, 2.5 Hz, 1H), 5.69 (d, J = 14.8 Hz, 1H), 5.15 (d, J = 15.2 Hz, 1H).

Further results are in Table 14.

Table 14. Formation of 1 or la-BSA

( ) (%ee) Yield Purity (%) ee

97.9 95.9 84% 98.2 97.1

Figures 1-2 contain the analytical data for 1 or la-BSA prepared by the TMSI-epoxidation process.

EXAMPLE 6: 5-bromo-2-((2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)oxiran-2-yl)difluoromethyl)pyridine -Br).

Typical Procedure for Converting 3-Br to 4-Br

KOtBu ( 41.7g, 0.372moles, 1.05 equiv) and trimethylsulfoxonium iodide ( 85.7g,

0.389moles, 1.1 equiv) were charged to a 3L 3-neck round bottom flask equipped with an overhead stirrer, a thermocouple and an addition funnel. 1.2L of anhydrous THF and 740mL of DMSO were added to the flask and stirred at 22-25 °C for 70 minutes. The contents were cooled to 0°C. Crude ketone 3 was dissolved in 250mL of anhydrous THF and slowly added the ketone 3-Br solution to the reaction mixture over 20 minutes while maintaining a reaction temperature at < 3°C during the addition and stirred at 0°C for one hour. In-process HPLC showed <1% ketone 3-Br remaining. 200mL of IN HC1 was slowly added maintaining a reaction temperature of < 6°C during the addition. After stirring for 30 minutes the layers were separated and the aqueous layer was extracted with 375mL of MTBE. The combined organic layers were washed with 375mL of aqueous 9% NaHCC>3 and with 375mL of aqueous 20% NaCl. The solvent was removed to yield 4-Br as a brown waxy solid.

Weight of crude epoxide 4-Br = 124.6g; *H NMR (400 MHz, d6-DMSO) : 58.82 (d, J= 2.3Hz, 1H), 8.21 ( dd, J= 8.3, 2.3Hz, 1H), 7.50 (dd, J= 8.3, 0.5Hz, 1H), 7.41 ( m, 1H), 7.25 ( m, 1H), 7.10 (m,lH), 3.40 ( d, J= 4.5Hz, 1H), 3.14 ( m, 1H). MS m/z 362 (M+H+), 364 (M+2+H+).

EXAMPLE 7: 3-amino-l-(5-bromopyridin-2-yl)-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-l,l-difluoropropan-2-ol (4b-Br).

Typical Procedure for Converting 4-Br to 4b-Br

Crude epoxide 4-Br ( 54.4g, 0.15moles) was placed into a Schott autoclave bottle equipped with a stir bar. 550mL of MeOH was added to the bottle and stirred for 90 minutes at 22-25 °C. Concentrated NH4OH ( 550mL, 7.98 moles, 53 equiv) was added to the epoxide 4-Br

solution. The bottle was sealed and placed in an oil bath at 55 °C. The mixture was stirred at 55°C for 17 hours. The bottle was removed from the oil bath and cooled to 22-25°C. In-process HPLC showed <1% epoxide 4-Br remaining. The solvent was removed via rotary evaporation until 362g ( 37%) of the reaction mass remained. 500mL of MTBE was added and cooled the mixture to 8°C. 500mL of 6N HCl was slowly added maintaining the reaction temperature between 8 – 12°C during the addition. After stirring for 10 minutes, the layers were separated. The MTBE layer was extracted with 350mL of 6N HCl. The combined aqueous layers were washed with 250mL MTBE and 2 X 250mL heptane. MTBE, 250mL, was added to the aqueous layer and the mixture was cooled to 2°C. 344g of KOH was dissolved in 500mL of water. The KOH solution was slowly added to the reaction mixture over one hour while maintaining the temperature at <19°C. After stirring for 15 minutes, the layers were separated. The aqueous layer was extracted with 250mL MTBE. The combined organic layers were washed with 250mL of aqueous 20% NaCl and the solvent was removed to yield ±4b-Br as a dark oil. Weight of crude amino alcohol ±4b-Br = 46.0g. HPLC purity ( by area %) = 92%; *H NMR (400 MHz, d6-DMSO) : 58.67 (d, J= 2.2Hz, 1H), 8.15 ( dd, J= 8.6, 2.4Hz, 1H), 7.46 (m, 1H), 7.40 ( dd, J= 8.5, 0.7Hz, 1H), 7.10 ( m, 1H), 7.00 (m,lH), 3.37 (dd, J= 13.7, 2.1Hz, 1H), 3.23 ( dd, J= 13.7, 2.7, 1H). MS m/z 379 (M+H+), 381 (M+2+H+).

EXAMPLE 8: 3-amino-l-(5-bromopyridin-2-yl -2-(2.4-difluorophenyl -l.l-difluoropropan-2-ol (4b-Br or 4c-Br).

Typical Procedure for Converting 4-Br to 4b-Br or 4c-Br

Crude amino alcohol ±4b-Br ( 42.4, O. llmoles) was dissolved in 425mL of 8:2 IPA: CH3CN. The solution was charged to a 1L 3-neck round bottom flask equipped with a condenser, overhead stirrer and a thermocouple. Charged di-p-toluoyl-L-tartaric acid ( 21.6g, 0.056moles, 0.5 equiv) to the flask and warmed the contents to 52°C. The reaction mixture was stirred at 52°C for 5 hours, cooled to 22-25°C and stirred for 12 hours. The slurry was cooled to 5-10°C and stirred for 90 minutes. The mixture was filtered and collected solids washed with 80mL of cold CH3CN. The solids were dried in a vacuum oven 45-50°C. Weight of amino alcohol/ DPTTA salt = 17.4g

Chemical purity by HPLC ( area %) = 98.5%; Chiral HPLC= 98.0% ee.

13.60g of the amino alcohol/ DPTTA salt was placed into a 250mL flask with a stir bar and to this was added lOOmL of MTBE and lOOmL of 10% aqueous K2CO3solution. The reaction was stirred until complete dissolution was observed. The layers were separated and the aqueous layer was extracted with 50mL of MTBE. The combined MTBE layers were washed with 50mL of 20% aqueous NaCl and the solvent removed to yield 8.84 (98%) of 4b-Br or 4c-Br as a light yellow oil.

EXAMPLE 9: 3-amino-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-l J-difluoro-l-(5-(4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)pyridin-2-yl)propan-2-ol (1-6* or 1-7*).

Typical Procedure for Converting 4b-Br or 4c-Br to 1-6* or 1-7*

Amino alcohol 4b-Br or 4c-Br (8.84g, 0.023moles, 1 equiv) was dissolved in 73mL of n-propanol. The solution was transferred to a 250mL 3-neck round bottom flask equipped with a condenser, thermocouple, stir bar and septum. 17mL of water was added and stirred at 22-25°C for 5 minutes. To the reaction was added K2CO3 ( 9.67g, 0.07moles, 3 equiv), 4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylboronic acid ( 5.76g, 0.028moles, 1.2 equiv.) and Pd(dppf)Cl2 as a CH2Cl2 adduct ( 0.38g, 0.47mmoles, 0.02 equiv) to the flask. After the mixture was purged with nitrogen for 10 minutes, the reaction was then warmed to 85-87°C and stirred at 85-87°C for 16 hours. HPLC analysis showed < 1% of the amino alcohol 4b-Br or 4c-Br remaining. The mixture was cooled to 22-25 °C, then 115mL of MTBE and 115mL of water were added and stirred for 30 minutes. The layers were separated and the organic layer was washed with 2 X 60mL of 20% aqueous NaCl. The solvent was removed to yield 12.96g ( 121% yield) of 1-6* or 1-7* as a crude dark oil. It should be noted that the oil contains residual solvent, Pd and boronic acid impurity.

‘ll NMR (400 MHz, d6-DMSO) : 58.90 (d, J= 2.2Hz, 1H), 8.22 ( dd, J= 8.3, 2.3Hz, 1H), 7.91 (m, 2H), 7.54 ( m, 4H), 7.14 ( m, 1H), 7.02 (m,lH), 3.41 (m, 1H), 3.27 ( dd, J= 14.0, 2.7, 1H). MS m/z 461 (M+H+)

CLIP

Med. Chem. Commun., 2016,7, 1285-1306

DOI: 10.1039/C6MD00222F

Fungal infections directly affect millions of people each year. In addition to the invasive fungal infections of humans, the plants and animals that comprise our primary food source are also susceptible to diseases caused by these eukaryotic microbes. The need for antifungals, not only for our medical needs, but also for use in agriculture and livestock causes a high demand for novel antimycotics. Herein, we provide an overview of the most commonly used antifungals in medicine and agriculture. We also present a summary of the recent progress (from 2010–2016) in the discovery/development of new agents against fungal strains of medical/agricultural relevance, as well as information related to their biological activity, their mode(s) of action, and their mechanism(s) of resistance.

 

Graphical abstract: A complex game of hide and seek: the search for new antifungals
CLIP
Design and optimization of highly-selective fungal CYP51 inhibitors
  • Viamet Pharmaceuticals Inc., Durham, NC 27703, USA

Image for figure Scheme 1

able 3.Antifungal activity of difluoromethyl-pyridyl-benzenes

Antifungal activity of difluoromethyl-pyridyl-benzenes
Compound R C. albicans MICa T. rubrum MICa CYP3A4 IC50b Selectivity indexc
7a Cl ⩽0.001 0.004 36 9000
7b CF3 ⩽0.001 0.002 54 27,000
7c

VT 1129

OCF3 ⩽0.001 ⩽0.001 79 >79,000
7d

VT 1161

OCH2CF3 ⩽0.001 ⩽0.001 65 >65,000
Itraconazole 0.016 0.062 0.07 1.1
aMinimum concentration that achieved 50% inhibition of fungal growth; MIC units in μg/mL.5
bInhibition of CYP3A4 measured in microsomes obtained from pooled human hepatocytes, IC50 units in μM.8
cIn vitro selectivity calculated as CYP3A4 IC50/T. rubrum MIC.
(R)-(+)-Enantiomers (7a7d) were isolated from racemates using chiral chromatography.
16 Hoekstra, W.J.; Schotzinger, R.J.; Rafferty, S.W. U.S. Patent 8,236,962 issued Aug. 7, 2012.

 

////////VT 1129,  VIAMET, WO 2016149486,  Viamet Pharmaceuticals,  Antifungals,  Small molecules,  14-alpha demethylase inhibitors, Orphan Drug Status, Cryptococcosis, On Fast track, PHASE 1, VT-1129

O[C@@](Cn1cnnn1)(c2ccc(F)cc2F)C(F)(F)c3ccc(cn3)c4ccc(OC(F)(F)F)cc4

FDA grants accelerated approval to first drug for Duchenne muscular dystrophy


Image result for Exondys 51

Image result for eteplirsen

CAS 1173755-55-9
eteplirsen, eteplirsén [Spanish], étéplirsen [French] , eteplirsenum [Latin], этеплирсен [Russian], إيتيبليرسان [Arabic]

Structure credit http://lgmpharma.com/eteplirsen-still-proves-efficacious-duchenne-drug/

FDA grants accelerated approval to first drug for Duchenne muscular dystrophy
New therapy addresses unmet medical need

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Exondys 51 (eteplirsen) injection, the first drug approved to treat patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Exondys 51 is specifically indicated for patients who have a confirmed mutation of the dystrophin gene amenable to exon 51 skipping, which affects about 13 percent of the population with DMD.

Read more

Image result for Duchenne muscular dystrophy

FDA grants accelerated approval to first drug for Duchenne muscular dystrophy

September 19, 2016

Release

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Exondys 51 (eteplirsen) injection, the first drug approved to treat patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Exondys 51 is specifically indicated for patients who have a confirmed mutation of the dystrophin gene amenable to exon 51 skipping, which affects about 13 percent of the population with DMD.

“Patients with a particular type of Duchenne muscular dystrophy will now have access to an approved treatment for this rare and devastating disease,” said Janet Woodcock, M.D., director of the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “In rare diseases, new drug development is especially challenging due to the small numbers of people affected by each disease and the lack of medical understanding of many disorders. Accelerated approval makes this drug available to patients based on initial data, but we eagerly await learning more about the efficacy of this drug through a confirmatory clinical trial that the company must conduct after approval.”

DMD is a rare genetic disorder characterized by progressive muscle deterioration and weakness. It is the most common type of muscular dystrophy. DMD is caused by an absence of dystrophin, a protein that helps keep muscle cells intact. The first symptoms are usually seen between three and five years of age, and worsen over time. The disease often occurs in people without a known family history of the condition and primarily affects boys, but in rare cases it can affect girls. DMD occurs in about one out of every 3,600 male infants worldwide.

People with DMD progressively lose the ability to perform activities independently and often require use of a wheelchair by their early teens. As the disease progresses, life-threatening heart and respiratory conditions can occur. Patients typically succumb to the disease in their 20s or 30s; however, disease severity and life expectancy vary.

Exondys 51 was approved under the accelerated approval pathway, which provides for the approval of drugs that treat serious or life-threatening diseases and generally provide a meaningful advantage over existing treatments. Approval under this pathway can be based on adequate and well-controlled studies showing the drug has an effect on a surrogate endpoint that is reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit to patients (how a patient feels or functions or whether they survive). This pathway provides earlier patient access to promising new drugs while the company conducts clinical trials to verify the predicted clinical benefit.

The accelerated approval of Exondys 51 is based on the surrogate endpoint of dystrophin increase in skeletal muscle observed in some Exondys 51-treated patients. The FDA has concluded that the data submitted by the applicant demonstrated an increase in dystrophin production that is reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit in some patients with DMD who have a confirmed mutation of the dystrophin gene amenable to exon 51 skipping. A clinical benefit of Exondys 51, including improved motor function, has not been established. In making this decision, the FDA considered the potential risks associated with the drug, the life-threatening and debilitating nature of the disease for these children and the lack of available therapy.

Under the accelerated approval provisions, the FDA is requiring Sarepta Therapeutics to conduct a clinical trial to confirm the drug’s clinical benefit. The required study is designed to assess whether Exondys 51 improves motor function of DMD patients with a confirmed mutation of the dystrophin gene amenable to exon 51 skipping. If the trial fails to verify clinical benefit, the FDA may initiate proceedings to withdraw approval of the drug.

The most common side effects reported by participants taking Exondys 51 in the clinical trials were balance disorder and vomiting.

The FDA granted Exondys 51 fast track designation, which is a designation to facilitate the development and expedite the review of drugs that are intended to treat serious conditions and that demonstrate the potential to address an unmet medical need. It was also granted priority review and orphan drug designation.Priority review status is granted to applications for drugs that, if approved, would be a significant improvement in safety or effectiveness in the treatment of a serious condition. Orphan drug designation provides incentives such as clinical trial tax credits, user fee waiver and eligibility for orphan drug exclusivity to assist and encourage the development of drugs for rare diseases.

The manufacturer received a rare pediatric disease priority review voucher, which comes from a program intended to encourage development of new drugs and biologics for the prevention and treatment of rare pediatric diseases. This is the seventh rare pediatric disease priority review voucher issued by the FDA since the program began.

Exondys 51 is made by Sarepta Therapeutics of Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Image result for Exondys 51 (eteplirsen) injection

ChemSpider 2D Image | eteplirsen | C364H569N177O122P30

CAS 1173755-55-9 [RN]
eteplirsén [Spanish] [INN]
étéplirsen [French] [INN]
eteplirsenum [Latin] [INN]
этеплирсен [Russian] [INN]
إيتيبليرسان [Arabic] [INN]
Eteplirsen
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(P-deoxy-P-(dimethylamino)](2′,3′-dideoxy-2′,3′-imino-2′,3′-seco)(2’a→5′)(C-m5U-C-C-A-A-C-A-m5U-C-A-A-G-G-A-A-G-A-m5U-G-G-C-A-m5U-m5U-m5U-C-m5U-A-G),5′-(P-(4-((2-(2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)ethoxy)ethoxy)carbonyl)-1-piperazinyl)-N,N-dimethylphosphonamidate) RNA
Clinical data
Routes of
administration
Intravenous infusion
Legal status
Legal status
  • Investigational
Identifiers
CAS Number 1173755-55-9
ATC code None
ChemSpider 34983391
UNII AIW6036FAS Yes
Chemical data
Formula C364H569N177O122P30
Molar mass 10305.738

///////////Exondys 51, Sarepta Therapeutics, Cambridge, Massachusetts, eteplirsen,  Orphan drug designationPriority reviewfast track designation, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, этеплирсен ,  إيتيبليرسان ,

Evofosfamide, эвофосфамид , إيفوفوسفاميد , 艾伏磷酰胺 ,


str1

TH-302.svg

Evofosfamide, HAP-302 , TH-302, TH 302

эвофосфамид ,  إيفوفوسفاميد ,  艾伏磷酰胺 ,

  • Molecular Formula C9H16Br2N5O4P
  • Average mass 449.036 Da

(1-Methyl-2-nitro-1H-imidazol-5-yl)methyl N,N’-bis(2-bromoethyl)phosphorodiamidate

(1-Methyl-2-nitro-1H-imidazol-5-yl)methyl-N,N’-bis(2-bromethyl)phosphorodiamidat
918633-87-1

TH-302 is a nitroimidazole-linked prodrug of a brominated derivative of an isophosphoramide mustard previously used in cancer drugs

  • Originator Threshold Pharmaceuticals
  • Developer Merck KGaA; Threshold Pharmaceuticals
  • Class Antineoplastics; Nitroimidazoles; Phosphoramide mustards; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action Alkylating agents
  • Orphan Drug Status Yes – Soft tissue sarcoma; Pancreatic cancer
  • On Fast track Pancreatic cancer; Soft tissue sarcoma
  • Suspended Glioblastoma; Leukaemia; Malignant melanoma; Multiple myeloma; Non-small cell lung cancer; Solid tumours
  • Discontinued Pancreatic cancer; Soft tissue sarcoma

Most Recent Events

  • 01 Aug 2016 Threshold plans a clinical trial for Solid tumours
  • 01 Aug 2016 Threshold announces intention to submit NDA to the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Device Agency in Japan
  • 16 Jun 2016 Merck KGaA terminates a phase II trial in Soft tissue sarcoma (Combination therapy, Inoperable/Unresectable, Metastatic disease, Late-stage disease) in Japan (IV) due to negative results from the phase III SARC021 trial (NCT02255110)

Evofosfamide (first disclosed in WO2007002931), useful for treating cancer.

Image result for Evofosfamide

Threshold Pharmaceuticals and licensee Merck Serono are codeveloping evofosfamide, the lead in a series of topoisomerase II-inhibiting hypoxia-activated prodrugs and a 2-nitroimidazole-triggered bromo analog of ifosfamide, for treating cancer, primarily soft tissue sarcoma and pancreatic cancer (phase 3 clinical, as of April 2015).

In November 2014, the FDA granted Fast Track designation to the drug for the treatment of previously untreated patients with metastatic or locally advanced unresectable soft tissue sarcoma.

Evofosfamide (INN,[1] USAN;[2] formerly known as TH-302) is an investigational hypoxia-activated prodrug that is in clinical development for cancer treatment. The prodrug is activated only at very low levels of oxygen (hypoxia). Such levels are common in human solid tumors, a phenomenon known as tumor hypoxia.[3]

Evofosfamide is being evaluated in clinical trials for the treatment of multiple tumor types as a monotherapy and in combination with chemotherapeutic agents and other targeted cancer drugs.

Dec 2015 : two Phase 3 trials fail, Merck will not apply for a license

Collaboration

Evofosfamide was developed by Threshold Pharmaceuticals Inc. In 2012, Threshold signed a global license and co-development agreement for evofosfamide with Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany (EMD Serono Inc. in the US and Canada), which includes an option for Threshold to co-commercialize evofosfamide in the United States. Threshold is responsible for the development of evofosfamide in the soft tissue sarcoma indication in the United States. In all other cancer indications, Threshold and Merck KGaA are developing evofosfamide together.[4] From 2012 to 2013, Merck KGaA paid 110 million US$ for upfront payment and milestone payments to Threshold. Additionally, Merck KGaA covers 70% of all evofosfamide development expenses.[5]

Mechanism of prodrug activation and Mechanism of action (MOA) of the released drug[edit]

Evofosfamide is a 2-nitroimidazole prodrug of the cytotoxin bromo-isophosphoramide mustard (Br-IPM). Evofosfamide is activated by a process that involves a 1-electron (1 e) reduction mediated by ubiquitous cellular reductases, such as the NADPH cytochrome P450, to generate a radical anion prodrug:

  • A) In the presence of oxygen (normoxia) the radical anion prodrug reacts rapidly with oxygen to generate the original prodrug and superoxide. Therefore, evofosfamide is relatively inert under normal oxygen conditions, remaining intact as a prodrug.
  • B) When exposed to severe hypoxic conditions (< 0.5% O2; hypoxic zones in many tumors), however, the radical anion undergoes irreversible fragmentation, releasing the active drug Br-IPM and an azole derivative. The released cytotoxin Br-IPM alkylates DNA, inducing intrastrand and interstrand crosslinks.[6]

Evofosfamide is essentially inactive under normal oxygen levels. In areas of hypoxia, evofosfamide becomes activated and converts to an alkylating cytotoxic agent resulting in DNA cross-linking. This renders cells unable to replicable their DNA and divide, leading to apoptosis. This investigational therapeutic approach of targeting the cytotoxin to hypoxic zones in tumors may cause less broad systemic toxicity that is seen with untargeted cytotoxic chemotherapies.[7]

The activation of evofosfamide to the active drug Br-IPM and the mechanism of action (MOA) via cross-linking of DNA is shown schematically below:

Activation of eofosfamide to the active drug Br-IPM, and mechanism of action via cross-linking of DNA

Drug development history

Phosphorodiamidate-based, DNA-crosslinking, bis-alkylator mustards have long been used successfully in cancer chemotherapy and include e.g. the prodrugs ifosfamide andcyclophosphamide. To demonstrate that known drugs of proven efficacy could serve as the basis of efficacious hypoxia-activated prodrugs, the 2-nitroimidizole HAP of the active phosphoramidate bis-alkylator derived from ifosfamide was synthesized. The resulting compound, TH-281, had a high HCR (hypoxia cytotoxicity ratio), a quantitative assessment of its hypoxia selectivity. Subsequent structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies showed that replacement of the chlorines in the alkylator portion of the prodrug with bromines improved potency about 10-fold. The resulting, final compound is evofosfamide (TH-302).[8]

Synthesis

Evofosfamide can be synthesized in 7 steps.[9][10]

  1. CPhI.cn: Synthetic routes to explore anti-pancreatic cancer drug Evofosfamide, 22 Jan 2015
  2.  Synthetic route Reference: International patent application WO2007002931A2

Formulation

The evofosfamide drug product formulation used until 2011 was a lyophilized powder. The current drug product formulation is a sterile liquid containing ethanol,dimethylacetamide and polysorbate 80. For intravenous infusion, the evofosfamide drug product is diluted in 5% dextrose in WFI.[11]

Diluted evofosfamide formulation (100 mg/ml evofosfamide, 70% ethanol, 25% dimethylacetamide and 5% polysorbate 80; diluted to 4% v/v in 5% dextrose or 0.9% NaCl) can cause leaching of DEHP from infusion bags containing PVC plastic.[12]

Clinical trials

Overview and results

Evofosfamide (TH-302) is currently being evaluated in clinical studies as a monotherapy and in combination with chemotherapy agents and other targeted cancer drugs. The indications are a broad spectrum of solid tumor types and blood cancers.

Evofosfamide clinical trials (as of 21 November 2014)[13] sorted by (Estimated) Primary Completion Date:[14]


Both, evofosfamide and ifosfamide have been investigated in combination with doxorubicin in patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma. The study TH-CR-403 is a single arm trial investigating evofosfamide in combination with doxorubicin.[35] The study EORTC 62012 compares doxorubicin with doxorubicin plus ifosfamide.[36] Doxorubicin and ifosfamide are generic products sold by many manufacturers.Soft tissue sarcoma

The indirect comparison of both studies shows comparable hematologic toxicity and efficacy profiles of evofosfamide and ifosfamide in combination with doxorubicin. However, a longer overall survival of patients treated with evofosfamide/doxorubicin (TH-CR-403) trial was observed. The reason for this increase is probably the increased number of patients with certain sarcoma subtypes in the evofosfamide/doxorubicin TH-CR-403 trial, see table below.

However, in the Phase 3 TH-CR-406/SARC021 study (conducted in collaboration with the Sarcoma Alliance for Research through Collaboration (SARC)), patients with locally advanced unresectable or metastatic soft tissue sarcoma treated with evofosfamide in combination with doxorubicin did not demonstrate a statistically significant improvement in OS compared with doxorubicin alone (HR: 1.06; 95% CI: 0.88 – 1.29).

Metastatic pancreatic cancer

Both, evofosfamide and protein-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel) have been investigated in combination with gemcitabine in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer. The study TH-CR-404 compares gemcitabine with gemcitabine plus evofosfamide.[39] The study CA046 compares gemcitabine with gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel.[40] Gemcitabine is a generic product sold by many manufacturers.

The indirect comparison of both studies shows comparable efficacy profiles of evofosfamide and nab-paclitaxel in combination with gemcitabine. However, the hematologic toxicity is increased in patients treated with evofosfamide/gemcitabine (TH-CR-404 trial), see table below.

In the Phase 3 MAESTRO study, patients with previously untreated, locally advanced unresectable or metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma treated with evofosfamide in combination with gemcitabine did not demonstrate a statistically significant improvement in overall survival (OS) compared with gemcitabine plus placebo (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.71 – 1.01; p=0.0589).

Drug development risks

Risks published in the quarterly/annual reports of Threshold and Merck KGaA that could affect the further development of evofosfamide (TH-302):

Risks related to the formulation

The evofosfamide formulation that Threshold and Merck KGaA are using in the clinical trials was changed in 2011[43] to address issues with storage and handling requirements that were not suitable for a commercial product. Additional testing is ongoing to verify if the new formulation is suitable for a commercial product. If this new formulation is also not suitable for a commercial product another formulation has to be developed and some or all respective clinical phase 3 trials may be required to be repeated which could delay the regulatory approvals.[44]

Risks related to reimbursement

Even if Threshold/Merck KGaA succeed in obtaining regulatory approvals and bringing evofosfamide to the market, the amount reimbursed for evofosfamide may be insufficient and could adversely affect the profitability of both companies. Obtaining reimbursement for evofosfamide from third-party and governmental payors depend upon a number of factors, e.g. effectiveness of the drug, suitable storage and handling requirements of the drug and advantages over alternative treatments.

There could be the case that the data generated in the clinical trials are sufficient to obtain regulatory approvals for evofosfamide but the use of evofosfamide has a limited benefit for the third-party and governmental payors. In this case Threshold/Merck KGaA could be forced to provide supporting scientific, clinical and cost effectiveness data for the use of evofosfamide to each payor. Threshold/Merck KGaA may not be able to provide data sufficient to obtain reimbursement.[45]

Risks related to competition

Each cancer indication has a number of established medical therapies with which evofosfamide will compete, for example:

  • If approved for commercial sale for pancreatic cancer, evofosfamide would compete with gemcitabine (Gemzar), marketed by Eli Lilly and Company; erlotinib (Tarceva), marketed by Genentech and Astellas Oncology; protein-bound paclitaxel (Abraxane), marketed by Celgene; and FOLFIRINOX, which is a combination of generic products that are sold individually by many manufacturers.
  • If approved for commercial sale for soft tissue sarcoma, evofosfamide could potentially compete with doxorubicin or the combination of doxorubicin and ifosfamide, generic products sold by many manufacturers.[46]

Risks related to manufacture and supply

Threshold relies on third-party contract manufacturers for the manufacture of evofosfamide to meet its and Merck KGaA’s clinical supply needs. Any inability of the third-party contract manufacturers to produce adequate quantities could adversely affect the clinical development and commercialization of evofosfamide. Furthermore, Threshold has no long-term supply agreements with any of these contract manufacturers and additional agreements for more supplies of evofosfamide will be needed to complete the clinical development and/or commercialize it. In this regard, Merck KGaA has to enter into agreements for additional supplies or develop such capability itself. The clinical programs and the potential commercialization of evofosfamide could be delayed if Merck KGaA is unable to secure the supply.[47]

History

Date Event
Jun 2005 Threshold files evofosfamide (TH-302) patent applications in the U.S.[48]
Jun 2006 Threshold files an evofosfamide (TH-302) patent application in the EU and in Japan[49]
Sep 2011 Threshold starts a Phase 3 trial (TH-CR-406) of evofosfamide in combination with doxorubicin in patients with soft tissue sarcoma
Feb 2012 Threshold signs an agreement with Merck KGaA to co-develop evofosfamide
Apr 2012 A Phase 2b trial (TH-CR-404) of evofosfamide in combination with gemcitabine in patients with pancreatic cancer meets primary endpoint
Jan 2013 Merck KGaA starts a global Phase 3 trial (MAESTRO) of evofosfamide in combination with gemcitabine in patients with pancreatic cancer
Dec 2015 two Phase 3 trials fail, Merck will not apply for a license

CLIP

CLIP

Efficient synthesis of 2-nitroimidazole derivatives and the bioreductive clinical candidate Evofosfamide (TH-302)

*Corresponding authors
aDepartment of Chemistry, Chemistry Research Laboratory, University of Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford, UK
E-mail: stuart.conway@chem.ox.ac.uk
bCancer Research UK/MRC Oxford Institute for Radiation Oncology, Department of Oncology, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus Research Building, Oxford, UK
Org. Chem. Front., 2015,2, 1026-1029

DOI: 10.1039/C5QO00211G

http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2015/qo/c5qo00211g/unauth#!divAbstract

http://www.rsc.org/suppdata/c5/qo/c5qo00211g/c5qo00211g1.pdf

Hypoxia, regions of low oxygen, occurs in a range of biological environments, and is involved in human diseases, most notably solid tumours. Exploiting the physiological differences arising from low oxygen conditions provides an opportunity for development of targeted therapies, through the use of bioreductive prodrugs, which are selectively activated in hypoxia. Herein, we describe an improved method for synthesising the most widely used bioreductive group, 2-nitroimidazole. The improved method is applied to an efficient synthesis of the anti-cancer drug Evofosfamide (TH-302), which is currently in Phase III clinical trials for treatment of a range of cancers.

Graphical abstract: Efficient synthesis of 2-nitroimidazole derivatives and the bioreductive clinical candidate Evofosfamide (TH-302)

Image result for Evofosfamide

(1-Methyl-2-nitro-1H-imidazol-5-yl)-N,N–bis(2-bromoethyl) phosphordiamidate (TH- 302)

The residue was then purified by semi-preparative HPLC on a Phenomenex Luna (C18(2), 10 µm, 250 × 10 mm) column, eluting with H2O and methanol (50 – 70% methanol over 10 min, then 1 min wash with methanol, 5 mL/min flow rate) to afford TH-302 as a yellow gum: vmax (solid) cm-1 : 3212 (br), 1489 (m), 1350 (m), 1105 (m), 1004 (s); δH (DMSO-D6, 400 MHz) 7.25 (1H, s, CH), 5.10–4.90 (2H, m, NHCH2CH2Br), 4.98 (2H, d, J 7.8, CH2O), 3.94 (3H, s, CH3), 3.42 (4H, t, J 7.0, NHCH2CH2Br), 3.11 (4H, dt, J 9.8, 7.2, NHCH2CH2Br); δC (DMSO-D6, 126 MHz) 146.1, 134.2 (d, J 7.5, OCH2CN), 128.2, 55.6 (d, J 4.6, CH2O), 42.7, 34.2 (d, J 26.4, CH2Br), 34.1; δP (DMSO-D6, 202 MHz) 15.4; HRMS m/z (ESI− ) [found; (M-H)− 447.9216, C9H16 79Br81BrN5O4P requires (M-H)− 447.9213]; m/z (ESI+ ) 448.0 ([M-H]− , 60%, [C9H15 79Br81BrN5O4P] − ), 493.9 ([M+formate] − , 100%, [C10H17 79Br81BrN5O6P] − ). These data are in good agreement with the literature values.4

4 J.-X. Duan, H. Jiao, J. Kaizerman, T. Stanton, J. W. Evans, L. Lan, G. Lorente, M. Banica, D. Jung, J. Wang, H. Ma, X. Li, Z. Yang, R. M. Hoffman, W. S. Ammons, C. P. Hart and M. Matteucci, J. Med. Chem., 2008, 51, 2412–2420.

J. Med. Chem., 2008, 51, 2412–2420/……………….1-Methyl-2-nitro-1H-imidazol-5-yl)methyl N,N-bis(2-bromoethyl)
phosphordiami-date (3b). Compound 3b was synthesized by a procedure similar to that described for 3a and obtained as an off-white solid in 47.6% yield.

1H NMR (DMSO-d6) δ: 7.22 (s, 1H), 5.10–5.00 (m, 2H), 4.97 (d, J ) 7.6 Hz, 2H), 3.94 (s, 3H), 3.42 (t, J ) 7.2 Hz, 4H), and 3.00–3.20 (m, 4H).

13C NMR (DMSOd6)δ: 146.04, 134.16 (d, J ) 32 Hz), 128.17, 55.64, 42.70, 34.33,and 34.11 (d, J ) 17.2 Hz).

31P NMR (DMSO-d6) δ: -11.25.
HRMS: Calcd for C9H16N5O4PBr2, 446.9307; found, 446.9294.

CLIP

Synthesis Route reference WO2007002931A2

Med J.. Chem. 2008, 51, 2412-2420

From compound S-1 starting aminoacyl protection is S-2 , a suspension of NaH grab α -proton, offensive, ethyl, acidification, introduction of an aldehyde group, S-3followed by condensation with the amino nitrile, off N- acyl ring closure, migration rearrangement amino imidazole compound S-. 8 , the amino and sodium nitrite into a diazonium salt, raising the temperature, nitrite anion nucleophilic attack diazonium salt obtained nitro compound S-9, under alkaline conditions ester hydrolysis gives acid S-10 , followed by NEt3 under the action of isobutyl chloroformate and the reaction mixed anhydride formed by of NaBH 4 reduction to give the alcohol S-. 11 , [use of NaBH 4 reduction of the carboxyl group is another way and the I 2 / of NaBH 4 ] , to give S-11 later, the DIAD / PPh3 3 under the action via Mitsunobu linking two fragments obtained reaction Evofosfamide

Image result for Evofosfamide.

PATENT

http://www.google.co.in/patents/WO2015051921A1?cl=en

EXAMPLE 1

1

N-Formylsarcosine ethyl ester 1 (1 ,85 kg) was dissolved in toluene (3,9 kg) and ethyl formate (3,28 kg) and cooled to 10 °C. A 20 wt-% solution of potassium tert-butoxide (1 ,84 kg) in tetrahydrofuran (7,4 kg) was added and stirring was continued for 3h. The reaction mixture was extracted 2x with a solution of sodium chloride in water (10 wt-%) and the combined water extracts were washed lx with toluene.

Aqueous hydrogen chloride (25% wt-%; 5,62 kg) was added to the aqueous solution, followed by ethylene glycol (2,36 kg). The reaction mixture was heated to 55-60 °C for lh before only the organic solvent residues were distilled off under vacuum.

Aqueous Cyanamide (50 wt-%, 2,16 kg) was then added at 20 °C, followed by sodium acetate (3,04 kg). The resulting reaction mixture was heated to 85-90 °C for 2h and cooled to 0-5 °C before a pH of ~ 8-9 was adjusted via addition of aqueous sodium hydroxide (32% wt-%; 4,1 kg). Compound 3 (1,66 kg; 75%) was isolated after filtration and washing with water.

Ή-NMR (400 MHz, d6-DMSO): δ= 1,24 (3H, t, J= 7,1 Hz); 3,53 (3H, s); 4,16 (2H, q, J= 7,0 Hz) ; 6,15 (s, 2 H); 7,28 (s, 1H).

HPLC (Rt = 7,7 min): 97,9% (a/a).

HPLC data was obtained using Agilent 1100 series HPLC from agilent technologies using an Column: YMC-Triart CI 8 3μ, 100 x 4,6 mm Solvent A: 950 ml of ammonium acetate/acetic acid buffer at pH = 6 + 50 ml acetonitril; Solvent B: 200 ml of ammonium acetate/acetic acid buffer at pH = 6 + 800 ml acetonitril; Flow: 1,5 ml/min; Gradient: 0 min: 5 % B, 2 min: 5 % B, 7 min: 20 % B, 17 min: 85% B, 17, 1 min: 5% B, 22 min: 5% B.

PATENT

WO2007002931

http://www.google.com/patents/WO2007002931A2?cl=en

Example 8

Synthesis of Compounds 25, 26 [0380] To a solution of 2-bromoethylammmonium bromide (19.4 g) in DCM (90 mL) at – 1O0C was added a solution OfPOCl3 (2.3 mL) in DCM (4 mL) followed by addition of a solution of TEA (14.1 mL) in DCM (25 mL). The reaction mixture was filtered, the filtrate concentrated to ca. 30% of the original volume and filtered. The residue was washed with DCM (3×25 mL) and the combined DCM portions concentrated to yield a solid to which a mixture of THF (6 mL) and water (8 mL) was added. THF was removed in a rotary evaporator, the resulting solution chilled overnight in a fridge. The precipitate obtained was filtered, washed with water (10 mL) and ether (30 mL), and dryed in vacuo to yield 2.1 g of:

Figure imgf000127_0001

Isophosphoramide mustard

Figure imgf000127_0002

can be synthesized employing the method provided in Example 8, substituting 2- bromoethylammmonium bromide with 2-chloroethylammmonium chloride. Synthesis of Isophosphoramide mustard has been described (see for example Wiessler et al., supra).

The phosphoramidate alkylator toxin:

Figure imgf000127_0003

was transformed into compounds 24 and 25, employing the method provided in Example 6 and the appropriate Trigger-OH.

Example 25

Synthesis of l-N-methyl-2-nitroimidazole-5-carboxylis acid

Figure imgf000143_0002

A suspension of the nitro ester (39.2 g, 196.9 rnmol) in IN NaOH (600 mL) and water (200 mL) was stirred at rt for about 20 h to give a clear light brown solution. The pH of the reaction mixture was adjusted to about 1 by addition of cone. HCl and the reaction mixture extracted with EA (5 x 150 mL). The combined ethyl acetate layers were dried over MgS O4 and concentrated to yield l-N-methyl-2-nitroimidazole-5-carboxylis acid (“nitro acid”) as a light brown solid (32.2 g, 95%). Example 26

Synthesis of l-N-methyl-2-nitroimidazole-5-carboxylis acid

Figure imgf000144_0001

A mixture of the nitro acid (30.82 g, 180.23 mmol) and triethylamine (140 niL, 285 mmol) in anhydrous THF (360 mL) was stirred while the reaction mixture was cooled in a dry ice-acetonitrile bath (temperature < -20 0C). Isobutyl chloroformate (37.8 mL, 288 mmol) was added drop wise to this cooled reaction mixture during a period of 10 min and stirred for 1 h followed by the addition of sodium borohydride (36 g, 947 mmol) and dropwise addition of water during a period of 1 h while maintaining a temperature around or less than O0C. The reaction mixture was warmed up to O0C. The solid was filtered off and washed with THF. The combined THF portions were evaporated to yield l-N-methyl-2- nitroimidazole-5-methanol as an orange solid (25 g) which was recrystallized from ethyl acetate.

PATENT

WO-2015051921

EXAMPLE 1

1

N-Formylsarcosine ethyl ester 1 (1 ,85 kg) was dissolved in toluene (3,9 kg) and ethyl formate (3,28 kg) and cooled to 10 °C. A 20 wt-% solution of potassium tert-butoxide (1 ,84 kg) in tetrahydrofuran (7,4 kg) was added and stirring was continued for 3h. The reaction mixture was extracted 2x with a solution of sodium chloride in water (10 wt-%) and the combined water extracts were washed lx with toluene.

Aqueous hydrogen chloride (25% wt-%; 5,62 kg) was added to the aqueous solution, followed by ethylene glycol (2,36 kg). The reaction mixture was heated to 55-60 °C for lh before only the organic solvent residues were distilled off under vacuum.

Aqueous Cyanamide (50 wt-%, 2,16 kg) was then added at 20 °C, followed by sodium acetate (3,04 kg). The resulting reaction mixture was heated to 85-90 °C for 2h and cooled to 0-5 °C before a pH of ~ 8-9 was adjusted via addition of aqueous sodium hydroxide (32% wt-%; 4,1 kg). Compound 3 (1,66 kg; 75%) was isolated after filtration and washing with water.

Ή-NMR (400 MHz, d6-DMSO): δ= 1,24 (3H, t, J= 7,1 Hz); 3,53 (3H, s); 4,16 (2H, q, J= 7,0 Hz) ; 6,15 (s, 2 H); 7,28 (s, 1H).

HPLC (Rt = 7,7 min): 97,9% (a/a).

PATENT

WO 2016011195

http://google.com/patents/WO2016011195A1?cl=en

Figure 1 provides the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) data of crystalline solid form A of TH-302.

Figure 2 shows the 1H-NMR of crystalline solid form A of TH-302.

Figure 5 shows the Raman Spectra of TH-302 (Form A)

Scheme 1 illustrates a method of preparing TH-302.

Scheme 1: Process for the Preparation of TH-302

NaOH (RGT)

Step 1. Imidazole Purified water (SLV)

Carboxylic Acid IPC: NMT 1.0% SM by HPLC

HCI (RGT)

IPC: pH 1.0 ± 0.5

IPC: NMT 1.0% water by KF

TH-302

MW = 449.0

SM = Starting Material INT = Intermediate IPC = In-process Control RGT = Reagent SLV = Solvent MW = Molecular Weight LOD = Loss on drying NMT = Not more than NLT = Not less than

TH-302 can be prepared by hydro lyzing (l-methyl-2-nitro-lH-imidazol-5-yl) ethyl ester above for example under aqueous conditions with a suitable base catalyst (e.g. NaOH in water at room temperature). The imidazole carboxylic acid prepared by this method can be used without further purification. However, it has been found that treating the dried crude intermediate product with a solvent such as acetonitrile, ethyl acetate, n-heptane, acetone, dimethylacetamide, dimethylformamide, 1, 4-dioxane, ethylene glycol, 2-propanol, 1-propanol, tetrahydrofuran (1 : 10 w/v) or combinations thereof in a vessel with heating, followed by cooling and filtration through a filtration aid with acetone decreased the number and levels of impurities in the product. The number and levels of impurities could be further reduced by treating the dried crude product with water (1 :5.0 w/v) in a vessel with heating followed by cooling and filtration through a filtration aid with water.

The carboxylic acid of the imidazole can then be reduced using an excess of a suitable reducing agent (e.g. sodium borohydride in an appropriate solvent, typically aqueous. The reaction is exothermic (i.e. potentially explosive) releasing borane and hydrogen gases over several hours. It was determined that the oxygen balance of the product imidazole alcohol is about 106.9, which suggests a high propensity for rapid decomposition. It has been found that using NaOH, for example 0.01M NaOH followed by quenching the reaction with an acid. Non-limiting examples of acids include, but are not limited to water, acetic acid, hydrobromic acid, hydrochloric acid, sodium hydrogen phosphate, sulfuric acid, citric acid, carbonic acid, phosphoric acid, oxalic acid, boric acid and combinations thereof. In some embodiments, the acid may diluted with a solvent, such as water and/or tetrahydrofuran. In some embodiments, acetic acid or hydrochloric acid provide a better safety profile, presumably because it is easier to control the temperature during the addition of the reducing agent and the excess reducing agent is destroyed after the reaction is complete. This also results in improved yields and fewer impurities, presumably due to reduced impurities from the reducing agent and decomposition of the product. Using this process, greater than 98.5% purity could be achieved for this intermediate. The formation of ether linkage can be accomplished by treating the product imidazole alcohol with solution of N,N’-Bis(2-bromoethyl)phosphorodiamidic acid (Bromo IPM), a trisubstituted phosphine and diisopropyl azodicarboxylate in tetrahydrofuran at room temperature to afford TH-302. It has been found that by recrystallizing the product from a solvents listed in the examples, one could avoid further purfication by column chromatography, which allowed for both reduced solvent use especially on larger scales.

Scheme 2 illustrates an alternative method of preparing TH-302.

Scheme 2: Process for the Preparation of TH-302

(SM)

ethylamine mide (SM) 04.9 ) SLV) , RGT) ter by KF

NT)

MW = 449.0

Example 1: Synthesis of TH-302

Step 1 – Preparation intermediate imidazole carboxylic

I T)

Crude imidazole carboxylic acid ethyl ester (1 : 1.0 w/w) was taken in water (1 : 10.0 w/v) at 25± 5°C and cooled to 17± 3°C. A 2.5 N sodium hydroxide solution (10 V) was added slowly at 17±3°C. The reaction mass was warmed to 25±5°C and monitored by HPLC. After the completion of reaction, the reaction mass was cooled to 3±2°C and pH of the reaction mass adjusted to 1=1=0.5 using 6 M HC1 at 3±2°C. The reaction mass was then warmed to 25±5°C and extracted with ethyl acetate (3 x 10 V). The combined organic layers

were washed with water (1 x 10 V) followed by brine (1 x 10 V). The organic layer was dried over sodium sulfate (3 w/w), filtered over Celite and concentrated. n-Heptane (1.0 w/v) was added and the the reaction mixture was concentrated below 45°C to 2.0 w/v. The reaction mass was cooled to 0±5°C. The solid was filtered, and the bed was washed with n-heptane (1 x 0.5 w/v) and dried at 35±5°C. In a vessel, acetone (1 : 10 w/v) was added. Dry crude imidazole carboxylic acid (ICA) from 1.12 was added to the acetone. The mixture was warmed to 45±5°C and was stirred for 30 minutes. The mass was cooled to 28±3°C and filtered through a Celite bed. The filter bed was washed with 1 : 1.0 w/v of acetone. Water (1 :5.0 w/v) was added to the filtrate and the mixture was concentrated. The concentrated mass was cooled to 5±5°C and stirred for 30 minutes. The material was filtered and the solid was washed 2 x 1 : 1.0 w/v of water at 3±2°C. The product was dried for 2 hours at 25±5°C and then at 45±5°C. As can be seen below, the number and levels of impurities are decreased.

Table I: Purity and Impurity Profile Comparison of Typical Crude ICA and Purified

ICA

Imidazole alcohol:

CI^Oi-Bu

T

o

Imidazole carboxylic acid (1.0 w/w) was taken in tetrahydrofuran (10 w/v) under nitrogen atmosphere at 25±5°C. The reaction mass was cooled to -15±5°C. Triethylamine (1 : 1.23 w/v) was added slowly over a period of 1 hour maintaining the temperature at – 15±5°C. The reaction mass was stirred at -15±5°C for 15-20 min. Isobutylchloroformate (1 : 1.14 w/v) was added slowly over a period of 1 hour maintaining the temperature at – 15±5°C. The reaction mass was stirred at -15±5°C for 30-40 min. A solution of sodium borohydride (1 : 1.15 w/w) in 0.01 M aqueous sodium hydroxide (2.2 w/v) was divided into 6 lots and added to the above reaction mass while maintaining the temperature of the reaction mass between 0±10°C for 40-60 min for each lot. The reaction mass was warmed to 25±5°C and stirred until imidazole carboxylic acid content < 5.0 % w/w. The reaction mass was filtered and the bed was washed with tetrahydrofuran (1 :2.5 w/v). The filtrate was quenched with 10 % acetic acid in water at 25±5°C. Reaction mass stirred for 50-60 minutes at 25±5°C. The filtrate was concentrated below 45°C until no distillate was observed. The mass was cooled to 5±5°C and stirred for 50-60 minutes. The reaction mass was filtered and the solid was taken in ethanol (1 :0.53 w/v). The reaction mass was cooled 0±5°C and stirred for 30-40 min. The solid was filtered and the bed was washed ethanol (1 :0.13 w/v). The solid was dried at 40±5 °C.

Step 3 – Synthesis of intermediate Br-IPM:

P

o

M
W = 286.7 MW = 204.9 Purified water (SLV, RGT)

Acetone (SLV)

IPC: NMT 1.0% water by KF

2-Bromoethylamine hydrobromide (1 : 1.0 w/w) and POBr^ (1 :0.7 w/w) were taken in DCM (1 :2 w/v) under nitrogen atmosphere. The reaction mixture was cooled to -70±5°C. Triethylamine (1 : 1.36 w/v) in DCM (1 :5 w/v) was added to the reaction mass at -70±5°C. The reaction mass was stirred for additional 30 min at -70±5°C. Reaction mass was warmed to 0±3°C and water (1 :1.72 w/v) was added. The reaction mixture was stirred at 0±3°C for 4 hrs. The solid obtained was filtered and filter cake was washed with ice cold water (2 x 1 :0.86 w/v) and then with chilled acetone (2 x 1 :0.86 w/v). The solid was dried in at 20±5°C.

Step 4 Synthesis ofTH-302

TH-302

MW = 449.0

Imidazole alcohol (IA) (1 : 1.0 w/w), Bromo-IPM (1 :2.26 w/w) and

triphenylphosphine (1 :2.0 w/w) were added to THF (1 : 13.5 w/v) at 25±5°C. The reaction

mass was cooled to 0±5°C and DIAD (1.5 w/v) was added. The reaction mixture warmed to 25±5°C and stirred for 2 hours. Progress of the reaction was monitored by HPLC. Solvent was removed below 50°C under vacuum. Solvent exchange with acetonitrile (1 :10.0 w/v) below 50°C was performed. The syrupy liquid was re-dissolved in acetonitrile (1 : 10.0 w/v) and the mixture was stirred at -20±5°C for 1 hour. The resulting solid was filtered and the filtrate bed was washed with chilled acetonitrile (1 : 1.0 w/v). The acetonitrile filtrate was concentrated below 50°C under vacuum. The concentrated mass was re-dissolved in ethyl acetate (1 : 10.0 w/v) and concentrated below 50°C under vacuum. The ethyl acetate strip off was repeated two more times. Ethyl acetate (1 : 10.0 w/v) and silica gel (230-400 mesh, 1 :5.3 w/w) were added to the concentrated reaction mass. The mixture was concentrated below 40°C under vacuum. n-Heptane (1 :5.0 w/v) was charged to the above mass and the mixture was evaporated below 40°C under vacuum. n-Heptane (1 :5.0 w/v) was again added to the above mass and the solid was filtered and the bed was washed with n-heptane (1 : 1.0 w/v). The solid was suspended in a mixture oftoluene (1 :7.1 w/v) and n-heptane (1 :21.3 w/v), stirred at 35±5°C for 15-20 minutes, filtered off and the bed was washed with n-heptane

(1 : 1.0 w/v). The solid was re-suspended in a mixture of toluene (1 : 10.6 w/v) and n-heptane (1 : 10.6 w/v), stirred at 35±5°C for 15-20 minutes, filtered off and the bed was washed with n-heptane (1 : 1.0 w/v). The solid was suspended in acetone (1 : 19.0 w/v), stirred at 35±5°C for 15-20 minutes, filtered off and the bed was washed with acetone (1 : 1.0 w/v). The acetone washes were repeated 3 more times. Filtrates from the above acetone washings were combined and concentrated below 40°C under vacuum. The residue dissolved in ethyl acetate (1 : 10.0 w/v) and concentrated below 40°C under vacuum. The ethyl acetate strip off was repeated one more time. The residue was re-dissolved in ethyl acetate (1 :5.5 w/v), cooled to 0±3°C and stirred at 0±3°C for 2 h and then at -20±5°C for 2 h. The solid was filtered and the solid was washed with ethyl acetate (1 :0.10 w/v). The solid was dissolved in ethyl acetate (1 : 10.0 w/v) at 50±5°C and the resulting solution was filtered through a cartridge filter. The filtrate was concentrated to ~4.0 w/w and stirred at 0±3°C for 4 hours. The solid was filtered and washed with ethyl acetate (1 :0.10 w/v). The crystallization from ethyl acetate was repeated and TH-302 was dried at 25±5°C. Table 2 shows how the process reduces solvent use.

Table 2: Solvent and Silica Gel Usage for 10 kg Column and 10 kg Column-free Purification

“Amounts are estimated from a 5 kg batch

b Amounts are estimated

Example 2: Synthesis ofTH-302 using alternative procedure to purify ICA:

Crude ICA was prepared according to the method described in Example 1. In a vessel, water (1 :7.0 w/v) was added. Dry crude ICA was added to the water. The reaction mixture was heated to 85±5°C until a clear solution was obtained. The reaction mass was cooled to 20±5°C and filtered through a Celite bed. The filter bed was washed with 2 x 5.0 of n-heptane. The material was dried for 2 hours at 25±5°C and then 45±5°C. As can be seen below, the number and levels of impurities decreased.

Table 3: Purity and Impurity Profile Comparison of Typical Crude ICA and Purified

ICA

Example 3: Synthesis ofTH-302 using alternative procedure to purify ICA:

Crude ICA was prepared according to the method described in Example 1. In a vessel

ethanol (1 :30.0 w/v) and ICA (1 : 1.0 w/w) were mixed. The reaction mixture was stirred at

25±5°C for 30 minutes and filtered. Water (1 :50.0 w/v) was added and the mixture was

stirred at 50±5°C for 30 minutes. The reaction mass was cooled to 20±5°C and filtered. The isolated solid was dried at 25±5°C for 24 hours. As can be seen below, the number and levels

of impurities generally decreased.

Table 4: Purity and Impurity Profile Comparison of Typical Crude ICA and Purified

ICA

Example 4: Synthesis ofTH-302 using alternative procedure to purify ICA:

Crude ICA was prepared according to the method described in Example 1. In a vessel

acetonitrile (1 :20.0 w/v) and ICA (1 : 1.0 w/w) were mixed at 25±5°C for one hour. The

reaction mixture was filtered and the solution was concentrated to ~ 6 volumes. The mixture

was then cooled to 0±5°C, stirred at this temperature for one hour and filtered. The isolated

solid was dried at 25±5°C for 24 hours. As can be seen below the number of impurities

decreased and except for TH-2717, the amounts also decreased.

Table 5: Purity and Impurity Profile Comparison of Typical Crude ICA and Purified

ICA

Example 5: Synthesis ofTH-302 using alternative procedure to purify ICA:

Crude ICA is prepared according to the method described in Example 1 and purified by treatment with dimethylacetamide and water.

Example 6: Synthesis ofTH-302 using alternative procedure to purify ICA:

Crude ICA is prepared according to the method described in Example 1 and purified by treatment with dimethylforamide and water.

Example 7: Synthesis ofTH-302 using alternative procedure to purify ICA:

[0109] Crude ICA is prepared according to the method described in Example 1 and purified by crystallization from a 1,4-dioxane and water mixture.

Example 8: Synthesis ofTH-302 using alternative procedure to purify ICA:

Crude ICA is prepared according to the method described in Example 1 and purified by crystallization from a mixture of ethylene glycol and water.

Example 9: Synthesis ofTH-302 using alternative procedure to purify ICA:

Crude ICA is prepared according to the method described in Example 1 and purified by treatment with 2-propanol and water.

Example 10: Synthesis ofTH-302 using alternative procedure to purify ICA:

[0112] Crude ICA is prepared according to the method described in Example 1 and purified by treatment with 1-propanol and water.

Example 11: Synthesis ofTH-302 using alternative procedure to purify ICA:

[0113] Crude ICA is prepared according to the method described in Example 1 and purified by crystallization from a mixture of tetrahydrofuran and water.

Example 12: Synthesis ofTH-302 using alternative procedure to quench IA:

[0114] The reduction of ICA to IA was carried out according to Example 1 except that after reaction completion and filtration of the inorganics, the filtrate was quenched with 1.5 M hydrochloric acid.

Example 13: Synthesis ofTH-302 using alternative procedure to quench IA:

[0115] The reduction of ICA to IA was carried out according to Example 1 except that after

reaction completion and filtration of the inorganics, the filtrate was quenched with 1.5 M

hydrobromic acid.

Example 14: Synthesis ofTH-302 using alternative procedure to quench IA:

The reduction of ICA to IA was carried out according to Example 1 except that after

reaction completion and filtration of the inorganics, the filtrate was quenched with

hydrobromic acid in acetic acid.

Example 15: Synthesis ofTH-302 using alternative procedure to quench IA:

The reduction of ICA to IA was carried out according to Example 1 except that after

reaction completion and filtration of the inorganics, the filtrate was treated with sodium

hydrogen phosphate.

Example 16: Synthesis ofTH-302 using alternative procedure to quench IA:

The reduction of ICA to IA was carried out according to Example 1 except that after

reaction completion and filtration of the inorganics, the filtrate was quenched with 10% acetic

acid in tetrahydrofuran.

Example 17: Synthesis ofTH-302 using alternative procedure to quench IA:

The reduction of ICA to IA was carried out according to Example 1 except that after

reaction completion and filtration of the inorganics, the filtrate was quenched with water.

Example 18: Synthesis ofTH-302 using alternative procedure to quench IA:

The reduction of ICA to IA is carried out according to Example 1 except that after

reaction completion and filtration of the inorganics, the filtrate is quenched with sulfuric acid.

Example 19: Synthesis ofTH-302 using alternative procedure to quench IA:

The reduction of ICA to IA is carried out according to Example 1 except that after

reaction completion and filtration of the inorganics, the filtrate is quenched with citric acid.

Example 20: Synthesis ofTH-302 using alternative procedure to quench IA:

The reduction of ICA to IA is carried out according to Example 1 except that after

reaction completion and filtration of the inorganics, the filtrate is treated with carbonic acid.

Example 21: Synthesis ofTH-302 using alternative procedure to quench IA:

The reduction of ICA to IA is carried out according to Example 1 except that after

reaction completion and filtration of the inorganics, the filtrate is treated with phosphoric

acid.

Example 22: Synthesis ofTH-302 using alternative procedure to quench IA:

The reduction of ICA to IA is carried out according to Example 1 except that after

reaction completion and filtration of the inorganics, the filtrate is quenched with oxalic acid.

Example 23: Synthesis ofTH-302 using alternative procedure to quench IA:

The reduction of ICA to IA is carried out according to Example 1 except that after reaction completion and filtration of the inorganics, the filtrate is quenched with boric acid.

Example 24: Synthesis ofTH-302 using alternative procedure to purify TH-302:

[0126] Coupling of bromo-IPM and IA was performed according to Example 1 except that after concentration of the reaction mixture, ethyl acetate (1 : 10 w/v) was added to the concentrated mass. The mixture was stirred at -55±5°C for 2 hours. The resulting solid was filtered and washed with chilled EtOAc (1 :2.0 w/v). The solid was reslurried in ethyl acetate (1 : 10 w/v) at -55±5°C for 2 hours, filtered and the solid was washed with chilled ethyl acetate (1 : 1.0 w/v). The filtrates from both filtrations were combined and treated with silica gel (1 :5.3 w/w) of silica gel (230-400 mesh). The mixture was concentrated below 40°C under vacuum. n-Heptane (1 :5.0 w/v) was again added to the above mass and the solid was filtered and the bed was washed with n-heptane (1 : 1.0 w/v). The solid was suspended in a mixture of toluene (1 :7.1 w/v) and n-heptane (1 :21.3 w/v), stirred at 35±5°C for 15-20 minutes, filtered off and the bed was washed with n-heptane (1 : 1.0 w/v). The solid was re-suspended in a mixture of toluene (1 : 10.6 w/v) and n-heptane (1 :10.6 w/v), stirred at 35±5°C for 15-20 minutes, filtered off and the bed was washed with n-heptane (1 : 1.0 w/v). The solid was suspended in acetone (1 : 19.0 w/v), stirred at 35±5°C for 15-20 minutes, filtered off and the bed was washed with acetone (1 : 1.0 w/v). The acetone washes were repeated 3 more times. Filtrates from the above acetone washings were combined and concentrated below 40°C under vacuum. The residue dissolved in ethyl acetate (1 :5.5 w/v), cooled to 0±3°C and stirred at 0±3°C for 2 h and then at -20±5°C for 2 h. The solid was filtered and the solid was washed with ethyl acetate (1 :0.10 w/v). The solid was dissolved in ethyl acetate (1 :27 w/v), stirred at 50±5°C and filtered through Celite. The filtrate was concentrated to ~4.0 w/w and stirred at 0±5°C for 4 hours. The recrystallization from ethyl acetate was repeated and TH- 302 was dried at 25±5°C. Table 4 shows how the process reduced solvent use.

Table 4: Estimated Solvent and Silica Gel Usage for Column and 10 kg Column-free

(EtOAc) Purification

References

  1.  WHO Drug Information; Recommended INN: List 73
  2.  Adopted Names of the United States Adopted Names Council
  3.  Duan J; Jiao, H; Kaizerman, J; Stanton, T; Evans, JW; Lan, L; Lorente, G; Banica, M; et al. (2008). “Potent and Highly Selective Hypoxia-Activated Achiral Phosphoramidate Mustards as Anticancer Drugs”. J. Med. Chem. 51 (8): 2412–20. doi:10.1021/jm701028q.PMID 18257544.
  4. Jump up^ Threshold Pharmaceuticals and Merck KGaA Announce Global Agreement to Co-Develop and Commercialize Phase 3 Hypoxia-Targeted Drug TH-302 – Press release from 3 February 2012
  5. Jump up^ Threshold Pharmaceuticals Form 8-K from 3 Nov 2014
  6. Jump up^ Weiss, G.J., Infante, J.R., Chiorean, E.G., Borad, M.J., Bendell, J.C., Molina, J.R., Tibes, R., Ramanathan, R.K., Lewandowski, K., Jones, S.F., Lacouture, M.E., Langmuir, V.K., Lee, H., Kroll, S., Burris, H.A. (2011) Phase 1 Study of the Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacokinetics of TH-302, a Hypoxia-Activated Prodrug, in Patients with Advanced Solid Malignancies. Clinical Cancer Research 17, 2997–3004.doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-10-3425
  7.  J. Thomas Pento (2011). “TH-302”. Drugs of the Future. 36 (9): 663–667.doi:10.1358/dof.2011.036.09.1678337.
  8. Jump up^ Duan J; Jiao, H; Kaizerman, J; Stanton, T; Evans, JW; Lan, L; Lorente, G; Banica, M; et al. (2008). “Potent and Highly Selective Hypoxia-Activated Achiral Phosphoramidate Mustards as Anticancer Drugs”. J. Med. Chem. 51 (8): 2412–20. doi:10.1021/jm701028q.PMID 18257544.
  9. Jump up^ CPhI.cn: Synthetic routes to explore anti-pancreatic cancer drug Evofosfamide, 22 Jan 2015
  10.  Synthetic route Reference: International patent application WO2007002931A2
  11. Jump up^ FDA Advisory Committee Briefing Materials Available for Public Release, TH-302: Pediatric oncology subcommittee of the oncologic drugs advisory committee (ODAC) meeting, December 4, 2012
  12. Jump up^ AAPS 2014 – Measurement of Diethylhexyl Phthalate (DEHP) Leached from Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Containing Plastics by Infusion Solutions Containing an Organic Parenteral Formulation – Poster W4210, Nov 5, 2014
  13. Jump up^ ClinicalTrials.gov
  14.  The Primary Completion Date is defined as the date when the final subject was examined or received an intervention for the purposes of final collection of data for the primary outcome.
  15. Jump up^ Detailed Results From Positive Phase 2b Trial of TH-302 in Pancreatic Cancer at AACR Annual Meeting – Press release from 30 March 2012
  16. Jump up^ TH-302 Plus Gemcitabine vs. Gemcitabine in Patients with Untreated Advanced Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma. Borad et al. Presentation at the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) 2012 Congress, September 2012. (Abstract 6660)
  17. Stifel 2014 Healthcare Conference; Speaker: Harold Selick – 18 November 2014
  18.  Updated Phase 2 Results Including Analyses of Maintenance Therapy With TH-302 Following Induction Therapy With TH-302 Plus Doxorubicin in Soft Tissue Sarcoma – Press release from 15 November 2012
  19.  TH-302 Maintenance Following TH-302 Plus Doxorubicin Induction: The Results pf a Phase 2 Study of TH-302 in Combination with Doxorubicin in Soft Tissue Sarcoma. Ganjoo et al. Connective Tissue Oncology Society (CTOS) 2012 Meeting, November 2012
  20. Jump up^ Chawla, S.P., Cranmer, L.D., Van Tine, B.A., Reed, D.R., Okuno, S.H., Butrynski, J.E., Adkins, D.R., Hendifar, A.E., Kroll, S., Ganjoo, K.N., 2014. Phase II Study of the Safety and Antitumor Activity of the Hypoxia-Activated Prodrug TH-302 in Combination With Doxorubicin in Patients With Advanced Soft Tissue Sarcoma. Journal of Clinical Oncology 32, 3299–3306.doi:10.1200/JCO.2013.54.3660
  21. Jump up^ Follow-Up Data From a Phase 1/2 Clinical Trial of TH-302 in Solid Tumors – Press release from 12 October 2010
  22.  TH-302 Continues to Demonstrate Promising Activity in Pancreatic Cancer Phase 1/2 Clinical Trial – Press release from 24 January 2011
  23. Jump up^ TH-302, a tumor selective hypoxia-activated prodrug, complements the clinical benefits of gemcitabine in first line pancreatic cancer. Borad et al. ASCO Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium, January 2011
  24. Jump up^ Stifel 2014 Healthcare Conference; Speaker: Harold Selick – 18 November 2014
  25. Jump up^ Borad et al., ESMO Annual Meeting, October 2010
  26. Jump up^ Video interview of Stefan Oschmann, CEO Pharma at Merck – Merck Serono Investor & Analyst Day 2014 – 18 Sept 2014 – 2:46 min – Youtube
  27. Jump up^ The Phase 3 Trial of TH-302 in Patients With Advanced Soft Tissue Sarcoma Will Continue as Planned Following Protocol-Specified Interim Analysis – Press release from 22 September 2014
  28. Jump up^ Threshold Pharmaceuticals’ Partner Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany, Completes Target Enrollment in the TH-302 Phase 3 MAESTRO Study in Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma – Press release from 3 November 2014
  29.  Data From Ongoing Phase 1/2 Trial of TH-302 Plus Bevacizumab (Avastin(R)) in Patients With Recurrent Glioblastoma – Press release from 30 May 2014
  30. Jump up^ Phase 1/2 Study of Investigational Hypoxia-Targeted Drug, TH-302, and Bevacizumab in Recurrent Glioblastoma Following Bevacizumab Failure. Brenner, et al. 2014 ASCO, 7 – 30 May 2014
  31. Jump up^ Phase 1/2 Interim Data Signaling Activity of TH-302 Plus Bevacizumab (Avastin(R)) in Patients With Glioblastoma – Press release from 17 November 2014
  32. Jump up^ Threshold Pharmaceuticals’ Partner Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany, Completes Target Enrollment in the TH-302 Phase 3 MAESTRO Study in Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma – Press release from 3 November 2014
  33. Jump up^ Stifel 2014 Healthcare Conference; Speaker: Harold Selick – 18 November 2014
  34. Jump up^ Stifel 2014 Healthcare Conference; Speaker: Harold Selick – 18 November 2014
  35. Jump up^ Chawala SP, et al. J Clin Oncol. 2014 (54) 3660 doi:10.1200/JCO.2013.54.3660
  36. Jump up^ Judson I, et al. Lancet Oncol. 2014 Apr;15(4):415-23doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(14)70063-4
  37. Jump up^ Judson I, et al. Lancet Oncol. 2014 Apr;15(4):415-23doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(14)70063-4
  38. Jump up^ Chawala SP, et al. J Clin Oncol. 2014 (54) 3660 doi:10.1200/JCO.2013.54.3660
  39. Jump up^ Borad, M. J. et al. Randomized Phase II Trial of Gemcitabine Plus TH-302 Versus Gemcitabine in Patients With Advanced Pancreatic Cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology (2014). doi: 10.1200/JCO.2014.55.7504
  40. Jump up^ Von Hoff, D. D. et al. Increased Survival in Pancreatic Cancer with nab-Paclitaxel plus Gemcitabine. New England Journal of Medicine 369, 1691–1703 (2013). doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1304369
  41. Jump up^ Von Hoff, D. D. et al. Increased Survival in Pancreatic Cancer with nab-Paclitaxel plus Gemcitabine. New England Journal of Medicine 369, 1691–1703 (2013). doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1304369
  42. Jump up^ Borad, M. J. et al. Randomized Phase II Trial of Gemcitabine Plus TH-302 Versus Gemcitabine in Patients With Advanced Pancreatic Cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology (2014). doi: 10.1200/JCO.2014.55.7504
  43. Jump up^ Threshold Pharmaceuticals 10-K Annual report 2011 from 15 Mar 2012
  44. Jump up^ Threshold Pharmaceuticals 10-Q Quarterly report Q3/2014 from 3 Nov 14
  45. Jump up^ Threshold Pharmaceuticals Form 8-K from 9 Oct 14
  46. Jump up^ Threshold Pharmaceuticals Form 8-K from 9 Oct 14
  47.  Threshold Pharmaceuticals Form 8-K from 9 Oct 14
  48.  Phosphoramidate alkylator prodrugs US8003625B2,US8507464B2, US8664204B2
  49.  Phosphoramidate alkylator prodrugs EP1896040B1and JP5180824B2
WO2007002931A2 * Jun 29, 2006 Jan 4, 2007 Threshold Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Phosphoramidate alkylator prodrugs
WO2008083101A1 * Dec 21, 2007 Jul 10, 2008 Threshold Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Phosphoramidate alkylator prodrugs for the treatment of cancer
WO2010048330A1 * Oct 21, 2009 Apr 29, 2010 Threshold Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Treatment of cancer using hypoxia activated prodrugs
WO2015051921A1 * Oct 10, 2014 Apr 16, 2015 Merck Patent Gmbh Synthesis of 1-alkyl-2-amino-imidazol-5-carboxylic acid ester via calpha-substituted n-alkyl-glycine ester derivatives
Reference
1 * DUAN, J.-X. ET AL.: “Potent and Highly Selective Hypoxia-Activated Achiral Phosphoramidate Mustards as Anticancer Drugs“, JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY, vol. 51, 2008, pages 2412 – 2420, XP008139620, DOI: doi:10.1021/jm701028q
Evofosfamide
TH-302.svg
Names
IUPAC name

(1-Methyl-2-nitro-1H-imidazol-5-yl)methyl N,N’-bis(2-bromoethyl)phosphorodiamidate
Other names

TH-302; HAP-302
Identifiers
918633-87-1 Yes
ChemSpider 10157061 Yes
Jmol-3D images Image
PubChem 11984561
Properties
C9H16Br2N5O4P
Molar mass 449.04 g·mol−1
6 to 7 g/l

///////////Orphan Drug Status, soft tissue sarcoma,  Pancreatic cancer, Fast track,  TH-302, TH 302, эвофосфамид ,  إيفوفوسفاميد ,  艾伏磷酰胺 , Evofosfamide, 918633-87-1, PHASE 3

O=[N+]([O-])c1ncc(COP(=O)(NCCBr)NCCBr)n1C

Pitolisant


Pitolisant skeletal.svg

Pitolisant

1-(3-(3-(4-Chlorophenyl)propoxy)propyl)piperidine

MF  C17H26ClNO
MW  295.1703

(Wakix®)Approved EU 31/3/2016, Narcolepsy

A histamine H3 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist used to treat narcolepsy.

BF-2649; BF-2.649; FUB-649, Ciproxidine, Tiprolisant

CAS 362665-56-3, 362665-57-4 (oxalate)

ChemSpider 2D Image | 1-{3-[3-(4-Chlorophenyl)propoxy]propyl}piperidine hydrochloride (1:1) | C17H27Cl2NO

 CAS 903576-44-3(Pitolisant Hydrochloride)

1-{3-[3-(4-Chlorophenyl)propoxy]propyl}piperidine hydrochloride (1:1)

Molecular Weight 332.31
Formula C17H26ClNO ● HCl

Image result for Bioprojet

Bioprojet INNOVATOR

Jean-Charles Schwartz, Jeanne-Marie Lecomte

Pitolisant (INN) or tiprolisant (USAN) is a histamine receptor inverse agonist/antagonist selective for the H3 subtype.[1] It hasstimulant and nootropic effects in animal studies,[2] and may have several medical applications, having been researched for the treatment of narcolepsy, for which it has been granted orphan drug status in the EU and US.[3][4] It is currently in clinical trials forschizophrenia and Parkinson’s disease.[4][5][6]

Pitolisant hydrochloride was approved by European Medicine Agency (EMA) on Mar 31, 2016. It was developed and marketed as Wakix® by Bioprojet in EU.

 

Image result for Wakix®

Pitolisant hydrochloride is an antagonist/inverse agonist of the histamine H3 receptor, which is indicated in adults for the treatment of narcolepsy with or without cataplexy.

Wakix® is available as tablet for oral use, containing 4.5 mg and 18 mg of Pitolisant hydrochloride. The initial dose of 9 mg (two 4.5 mg, tablets) per day, and it should be used at the lowest effective dose, depending on individual patient response and tolerance, according to an up-titration scheme, without exceeding the dose of 36 mg/day.

Pitolisant was developed by Jean-Charles Schwartz, Walter Schunack and colleagues after the former discovered H3 receptors.[7]Pitolisant was the first clinically used H3 receptor inverse agonist.

Pitolisant, also known as Tiprolisant, is a histamine receptor inverse agonist/antagonist selective for the H3 subtype. It has stimulant and nootropic effects in animal studies, and may have several medical applications, having been researched for the treatment of narcolepsy, for which it has been granted orphan drug status in the EU and US. It is currently in clinical trials for schizophrenia and Parkinson’s disease. Pitolisant was the first clinically used H3 receptor inverse agonist.

Image result for pitolisant

The European Medicines Agency (EMA) has recommended granting marketing authorization for pitolisant (Wakix, Bioprojet Pharma) for narcolepsy with or without cataplexy, the agency announced today.

Narcolepsy is a rare sleep disorder that affects the brain’s ability to regulate the normal sleep-wake cycle, leading to excessive daytime sleepiness, including the sudden urge to sleep, and disturbed night-time sleep. Some patients also experience sudden episodes of cataplexy, potentially causing dangerous falls and increasing the risks for accidents, including car accidents. Symptoms of narcolepsy can be severe and significantly reduce quality of life.

Pitolisant “will add to the available treatment options for narcolepsy. It is a first-in-class medicine that acts on histamine H3 receptors in the brain. This leads to increased histamine release in the brain, thereby enhancing wakefulness and alertness,” the EMA notes in a news release.

The EMA recommendation for approval of pitolisant is based on an evaluation of all available safety and efficacy data conducted by the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP). The data include two pivotal placebo-controlled trials involving 259 patients, as well as one uncontrolled, open-label study involving 102 patients with narcolepsy and one supportive study in 105 patients.

The studies showed that pitolisant was effective in reducing excessive daytime sleepiness in patients with narcolepsy. The beneficial effect of the drug on cataplexy was demonstrated in one of the pivotal studies as well as in the supportive study.

No major safety concerns with pitolisant emerged in testing. Insomnia, headache, and nausea were among the most common adverse effects observed in the clinical trials, and the CHMP decided on measures to mitigate these risks, the EMA said. The CHMP also requested the company conduct a long-term safety study to further investigate the safety of the drug when used over long periods.

Pitolisant for narcolepsy received orphan designation from the Committee for Orphan Medicinal Products in 2007. Orphan designation provides medicine developers access to incentives, such as fee reductions for scientific advice, with the aim of encouraging the development of treatments for rare disorders.

The CHMP opinion will now be sent to the European Commission for the adoption of a decision on a European Union–wide marketing authorization. Once that has been granted, each member state will decide on price and reimbursement based on the potential role/use of this medicine in the context of its national health system.

Image result for pitolisant

Narcolepsy-cataplexy.

Narcolepsy-cataplexy, or Gelineau syndrome, is a rare but serious disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness which can be an extreme hindrance to normal professional and social activities, and which is accompanied by more or less frequent attacks of cataplexy (a sudden loss of muscle tone triggered by emotions as varied as laughter or fear) and erratic episodes of REM sleep (during wakefulness and during sleep), sometimes associated with hypnagogic hallucinations. Moreover, individuals with narcolepsy have various degrees of cognitive impairment and tend to be obese (reviewed by Dauvilliers et al., Clin. Neurophysiol., 2003, 114, 2000; Baumann and Bassetti, Sleep Med. Rev., 2005, 9, 253).

The disorder is caused by the loss of a group of neurons in the brain which produce two peptides, orexins, also known as hypocretins, located in the anterior hypothalamus and projecting to the main groups of aminergic neurons which regulate wakefulness and sleep. Patients with the disorder generally have very low levels of orexins in cerebrospinal fluid. Orexin knock-out mice display many of the symptoms seen in narcoleptic subjects, confirming the role of these peptides and thereby providing an excellent animal model of the disease (Chemelli et al., Cell, 1999, 98, 437).

Several types of treatments which can improve the symptoms of narcolepsy already exist, although they do not completely relieve symptoms and, furthermore, can cause significant side effects limiting their usefulness.

For instance, amphetamines or analogues such as methylphenidate which release catecholamines are used to treated daytime sleepiness, but these agents induce a state of excessive excitation as well as cardiovascular disturbances and also carry a potential for drug addiction.

Modafinil, a drug whose mechanism of action is unclear, also improves daytime sleepiness without causing as many side effects as amphetamines. Nonetheless, its efficacy is limited and it can cause headaches and nausea, particularly at high doses. Moreover amphetamines and/or modafinil do not appear to improve some of the most disabling symptoms of the disease, particularly cataplexy attacks, cognitive deficits and weight gain. With regard to cataplexy, treatments include antidepressants and oxybate. Effectiveness of the former has not been demonstrated (Cochrane Database Syst. Rev., 2005, 20, 3), and the latter is a drug of illegal abuse and its use is restricted.

It has also been shown that histamine H3 receptor antagonists induce the activation of histaminergic neurons in the brain which release histamine, a neurotransmitter with a crucial role in maintaining wakefulness (Schwartz et al., Physiol. Rev. 1991, 71, 1).

str1

PATENT

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2006084833&recNum=1&maxRec=&office=&prevFilter=&sortOption=&queryString=&tab=PCTDescription

Pharmaceutical products with histamine H3 receptor ligand properties and 0 subsequent pharmacological activities thereof are described in EP-980300. An especially important product among those disclosed is 1-[3-[3-(4- chlorophenyl)propoxy] propyl]-piperidine. This compound is disclosed as the free base and as the oxalate salt.

5 The use of 1-[3-[3-(4-chlorophenyl)propoxy]propyl]-piperidine as the free base is limited because of its oily nature. On the contrary, 1-[3-[3-(4- chlorophenyl)propoxy]propyl]-piperidine oxalate is a crystalline substance but its low aqueous solubility (0.025 g/ml at 230C) also limits its use as a
pharmaceutical ingredient.
0
Subsequent patents EP-1100503 and EP-1428820 mention certain salts of 1- [3-[3-(4-chlorophenyl)propoxy]propyl]-piperidine. However, the only one specifically described is the oxalate salt. The crystalline monohydrochloride salt is not described.

Example 1 : 1-[3-[3-(4-chlorophenyl)propoxy]propyl]-piperidine

According to the method disclosed in EP-982300, Example 78, sodium 3-piperidinopropanolate (2.127 kg; 12.88 mol), 3-(4-chlorophenyl)propyl mesylate (1.121 kg; 4.51 mol) and 0.322 mol of 15-crown-5 in 4.5 kg of dry toluene were refluxed for 4 hours. The solvent was evaporated and the residue purified by column chromatography on silica gel (eluent: methylene chloride/methanol (90/10)). The obtained oil was distilled in a fractionating equipment at reduced pressure (0.3-0.7 mmHg) and with a heating jacket at 207-2100C. The head fractions and the distilled fraction at 0.001-0.010 mmHg with a jacket temperature of 180-2000C were collected. The obtained oil (1.0 kg; 3.38 mol) corresponds to 1-[3-[3-(4-chlorophenyl)propoxy] propyl]-piperidine. Yield 75%.

Example 2: 1-[3-[3-(4-chlorophenyl)propoxy]propyl]-piperidine
monohydrochloride

Preparation

Distilled 1-[3-[3-(4-chlorophenyl)propoxy]propyl]-piperidine (1.0 kg) and anhydrous ethyl acetate (4.5 kg) are transferred to a 10-L glass vessel fitted with a cooling bath and a gas inlet. A stream of gaseous hydrogen chloride is bubbled in the reaction mixture at 20-250C.

The pH of the solution is checked by taking a 0.5 mL sample of the reaction mixture and diluting it with 5 mL of deionized water. The final pH must be about 3-4.

The mixture is cooled to -10°C-(-12°C) and stirred at this temperature for 1 h. The precipitate is filtered by using a sintered glass filter and washed with 0.5 L of anhydrous ethyl acetate previously cooled to 0-50C. The product is dried in a vacuum oven at 5O0C for a minimum period of 12 hours. The resulting crude 1 -[3-[3-(4-chlorophenyl)propoxy]propyl]-piperidine monohydrochloride weighs 1.10 kg.

Purification

A mixture of the above-described crude, 3.98 kg of anhydrous ethyl acetate and 0.35 kg of /-propanol is heated slowly at 55-6O0C in a 10-L glass vessel fitted with a heating and cooling system. When the solution has been completed, it is filtered through a heat-isolated sintered glass filter, keeping the temperature at 55-6O0C. The solution is transferred to a 10 L glass vessel and the mass is slowly cooled to 0-50C for about 1 hour. The mixture is stirred at this temperature for 1 hour and the precipitate is filtered through a sintered glass filter. The solid is washed with a mixture of 1.6 kg of anhydrous ethyl acetate and 0.14 kg of /-propanol cooled at 0-50C. The solid is dried in a vacuum oven at 5O0C for a minimum period of 12 hours. M. p. 117-1190C. Yield 80%.
IR spectrum (KBr): bands at 1112 and 1101 (C-O Ether/ St. asym), 2936 and 2868 (Alkane CH(CH2)) / St.), 1455 (Alkane CH(CH2)) / Deform.), 2647 and 2551 (Amine Salt / St.), 1492 (Amine / St.), 802 (Aromatic / Deform.) cm“1.

SEE

Eur. J. Pharm. Sci. 2001, 13, 249–259.

US2004220225A1.

CN101155793A


CN101171009A

References

  1.  Celanire S, Wijtmans M, Talaga P, Leurs R, de Esch IJ (December 2005). “Keynote review: histamine H3 receptor antagonists reach out for the clinic”. Drug Discov. Today. 10 (23-24): 1613–27. doi:10.1016/S1359-6446(05)03625-1. PMID 16376822.
  2.  Ligneau X, Perrin D, Landais L, Camelin JC, Calmels TP, Berrebi-Bertrand I, Lecomte JM, Parmentier R, Anaclet C, Lin JS, Bertaina-Anglade V, la Rochelle CD, d’Aniello F, Rouleau A, Gbahou F, Arrang JM, Ganellin CR, Stark H, Schunack W, Schwartz JC. BF2.649 [1-{3-[3-(4-Chlorophenyl)propoxy]propyl}piperidine, hydrochloride], a nonimidazole inverse agonist/antagonist at the human histamine H3 receptor: Preclinical pharmacology. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 2007 Jan;320(1):365-75. PMID 17005916
  3.  Lin JS, Dauvilliers Y, Arnulf I, Bastuji H, Anaclet C, Parmentier R, Kocher L, Yanagisawa M, Lehert P, Ligneau X, Perrin D, Robert P, Roux M, Lecomte JM, Schwartz JC. An inverse agonist of the histamine H(3) receptor improves wakefulness in narcolepsy: studies in orexin-/- mice and patients. Neurobiology of Disease. 2008 Apr;30(1):74-83. PMID 18295497
  4. ^ Jump up to:a b Prous Science: Molecule of the Month September 2011
  5.  Ligneau X, Landais L, Perrin D, Piriou J, Uguen M, Denis E, Robert P, Parmentier R, Anaclet C, Lin JS, Burban A, Arrang JM, Schwartz JC. Brain histamine and schizophrenia: potential therapeutic applications of H3-receptor inverse agonists studied with BF2.649. Biochemical Pharmacology. 2007 Apr 15;73(8):1215-24. PMID 17343831
  6.  Stocking EM, Letavic MA (2008). “Histamine H3 antagonists as wake-promoting and pro-cognitive agents”. Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry. 8 (11): 988–1002. doi:10.2174/156802608784936728. PMID 18673168.
  7.  Schwartz, Jean-Charles (May 2011). “The histamine H3 receptor: from discovery to clinical trials with pitolisant”. BPJ. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01286.x.

REFERENCES

1: Leu-Semenescu S, Nittur N, Golmard JL, Arnulf I. Effects of pitolisant, a histamine H3 inverse agonist, in drug-resistant idiopathic and symptomatic hypersomnia: a chart review. Sleep Med. 2014 Jun;15(6):681-7. doi: 10.1016/j.sleep.2014.01.021. Epub 2014 Mar 18. PubMed PMID: 24854887.

2: Dauvilliers Y, Bassetti C, Lammers GJ, Arnulf I, Mayer G, Rodenbeck A, Lehert P, Ding CL, Lecomte JM, Schwartz JC; HARMONY I study group. Pitolisant versus placebo or modafinil in patients with narcolepsy: a double-blind, randomised trial. Lancet Neurol. 2013 Nov;12(11):1068-75. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(13)70225-4. Epub 2013 Oct 7. PubMed PMID: 24107292.

3: Nirogi R, Ajjala DR, Kandikere V, Pantangi HR, Jonnala MR, Bhyrapuneni G, Muddana NR, Vurimindi H. LC-MS/MS method for the determination of pitolisant: application to rat pharmacokinetic and brain penetration studies. Biomed Chromatogr. 2013 Nov;27(11):1431-7. doi: 10.1002/bmc.2939. Epub 2013 Jun 13. PubMed PMID: 23760876.

4: Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité D, Parain D, Genton P, Masnou P, Schwartz JC, Hirsch E. Efficacy of the histamine 3 receptor (H3R) antagonist pitolisant (formerly known as tiprolisant; BF2.649) in epilepsy: dose-dependent effects in the human photosensitivity model. Epilepsy Behav. 2013 Jul;28(1):66-70. doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2013.03.018. Epub 2013 May 8. PubMed PMID: 23665640.

5: Uguen M, Perrin D, Belliard S, Ligneau X, Beardsley PM, Lecomte JM, Schwartz JC. Preclinical evaluation of the abuse potential of Pitolisant, a histamine H₃ receptor inverse agonist/antagonist compared with Modafinil. Br J Pharmacol. 2013 Jun;169(3):632-44. doi: 10.1111/bph.12149. PubMed PMID: 23472741; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3682710.

6: Brabant C, Charlier Y, Tirelli E. The histamine H₃-receptor inverse agonist pitolisant improves fear memory in mice. Behav Brain Res. 2013 Apr 15;243:199-204. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2012.12.063. Epub 2013 Jan 14. PubMed PMID: 23327739.

7: Zhang DD, Sisignano M, Schuh CD, Sander K, Stark H, Scholich K. Overdose of the histamine H₃ inverse agonist pitolisant increases thermal pain thresholds. Inflamm Res. 2012 Nov;61(11):1283-91. doi: 10.1007/s00011-012-0528-5. Epub 2012 Jul 21. PubMed PMID: 22820944.

8: Inocente C, Arnulf I, Bastuji H, Thibault-Stoll A, Raoux A, Reimão R, Lin JS, Franco P. Pitolisant, an inverse agonist of the histamine H3 receptor: an alternative stimulant for narcolepsy-cataplexy in teenagers with refractory sleepiness. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2012 Mar-Apr;35(2):55-60. doi: 10.1097/WNF.0b013e318246879d. PubMed PMID: 22356925.

9: Schwartz JC. The histamine H3 receptor: from discovery to clinical trials with pitolisant. Br J Pharmacol. 2011 Jun;163(4):713-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01286.x. Review. PubMed PMID: 21615387; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3111674.

Pitolisant
Pitolisant skeletal.svg
Names
IUPAC name

1-{3-[3-(4-Chlorophenyl)propoxy]propyl}piperidine
Other names

BF2.649
Identifiers
903576-44-3 
ChEMBL ChEMBL462605 Yes
ChemSpider 8123714 Yes
Jmol 3D model Interactive image
PubChem 9948102
Properties
C17H26ClNO
Molar mass 295.846 g/mol
Pharmacology
N07XX11 (WHO)

//////////Pitolisant Hydrochloride, Wakixhistamine H3 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist, narcolepsy, orphan drug, tiprolisant

ClC1=CC=C(CCCOCCCN2CCCCC2)C=C1

Biafungin, CD 101, a Novel Echinocandin for Vulvovaginal candidiasis


STR1

str1

str1as  CH3COOH salt

UNII-W1U1TMN677.png

CD 101

Several structural representations above

Biafungin™; CD 101 IV; CD 101 Topical; CD101; SP 3025, Biafungin acetate, Echinocandin B

UNII-G013B5478J FRE FORM,

CAS 1396640-59-7 FREE FORM

MF, C63-H85-N8-O17, MW, 1226.4035

Echinocandin B,

1-((4R,5R)-4-hydroxy-N2-((4”-(pentyloxy)(1,1′:4′,1”-terphenyl)-4-yl)carbonyl)-5-(2-(trimethylammonio)ethoxy)-L-ornithine)-4-((4S)-4-hydroxy-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-L-allothreonine)-

Treat and prevent invasive fungal infections; Treat and prevent systemic Candida infections; Treat candidemia

2D chemical structure of 1631754-41-0

Biafungin acetate

CAS 1631754-41-0 ACETATE, Molecular Formula, C63-H85-N8-O17.C2-H3-O2, Molecular Weight, 1285.4472,

C63 H85 N8 O17 . C2 H3 O2
1-[(4R,5R)-4-hydroxy-N2-[[4”-(pentyloxy)[1,1′:4′,1”-terphenyl]-4-yl]carbonyl]-5-[2-(trimethylammonio)ethoxy]-L-ornithine]-4-[(4S)-4-hydroxy-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-L-allothreonine]-, acetate (1:1)

UNII: W1U1TMN677

CD101 – A novel echinocandin antifungal C. albicans (n=351) MIC90 = 0.06 µg/mL C. glabrata (n=200) MIC90 = 0.06 µg/mL  Echinocandins have potent fungicidal activity against Candida species

  • Originator Seachaid Pharmaceuticals
  • Developer Cidara Therapeutics
  • Class Antifungals; Echinocandins; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action Glucan synthase inhibitors

 

BIAFUNGIN, CD 101

Watch this space as I add more info…………….

U.S. – Fast Track (Treat candidemia);
U.S. – Fast Track (Treat and prevent invasive fungal infections);
U.S. – Orphan Drug (Treat and prevent invasive fungal infections);
U.S. – Orphan Drug (Treat candidemia);
U.S. – Qualified Infectious Disease Program (Treat candidemia);
U.S. – Qualified Infectious Disease Program (Treat and prevent invasive fungal infections)

Fungal infections have emerged as major causes of human disease, especially among the immunocompromised patients and those hospitalized with serious underlying disease. As a consequence, the frequency of use of systemic antifungal agents has increased significantly and there is a growing concern about a shortage of effective antifungal agents. Although resistance rates to the clinically available antifungal agents remains low, reports of breakthrough infections and the increasing prevalence of uncommon fungal species that display elevated MIC values for existing agents is worrisome. Biafungin (CD101, previously SP 3025) is a novel echinocandin that displays chemical stability and long-acting pharmacokinetics that is being developed for once-weekly or other intermittent administration (see posters #A-693 and A- 694 for further information). In this study, we test biafungin and comparator agents against a collection of common Candida and Aspergillus species, including isolates resistant to azoles and echinocandins.

The echinocandins are an important class of antifungal agents, but are administered once daily by intravenous (IV) infusion. An echinocandin that could be administered once weekly could facilitate earlier hospital discharges and could expand usage to indications where daily infusions are impractical. Biafungin is a highly stable echinocandin for once-weekly IV administration. The compound was found to have a spectrum of activity and potency comparable to other echinocandins. In chimpanzees single dose pharmacokinetics of IV and orally administered biafungin were compared to IV anidulafungin, which has the longest half-life (T1/2 ) of the approved echinocandins.

Background  Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a highly prevalent mucosal infection  VVC is caused by Candida albicans (~85%) and non-albicans (~15%)  5-8% of women have recurrent VVC (RVVC) which is associated with a negative impact on work/social life  Oral fluconazole prescribed despite relapse, potential DDIs and increased risk to pregnant women  No FDA-approved therapy for RVVC and no novel agent in >20 years

str1

Cidara Therapeutics 6310 Nancy Ridge Drive, Suite 101 San Diego, CA 92121

The incidence of invasive fungal infections, especially those due to Aspergillus spp. and Candida spp., continues to increase. Despite advances in medical practice, the associated mortality from these infections continues to be substantial. The echinocandin antifungals provide clinicians with another treatment option for serious fungal infections. These agents possess a completely novel mechanism of action, are relatively well-tolerated, and have a low potential for serious drug–drug interactions. At the present time, the echinocandins are an option for the treatment of infections due Candida spp (such as esophageal candidiasis, invasive candidiasis, and candidemia). In addition, caspofungin is a viable option for the treatment of refractory aspergillosis. Although micafungin is not Food and Drug Administration-approved for this indication, recent data suggests that it may also be effective. Finally, caspofungin- or micafungin-containing combination therapy should be a consideration for the treatment of severe infections due to Aspergillus spp. Although the echinocandins share many common properties, data regarding their differences are emerging at a rapid pace. Anidulafungin exhibits a unique pharmacokinetic profile, and limited cases have shown a potential far activity in isolates with increased minimum inhibitory concentrations to caspofungin and micafungin. Caspofungin appears to have a slightly higher incidence of side effects and potential for drug–drug interactions. This, combined with some evidence of decreasing susceptibility among some strains ofCandida, may lessen its future utility. However, one must take these findings in the context of substantially more data and use with caspofungin compared with the other agents. Micafungin appears to be very similar to caspofungin, with very few obvious differences between the two agents.

Echinocandins are a new class of antifungal drugs[1] that inhibit the synthesis of glucan in the cell wall, via noncompetitive inhibition of the enzyme 1,3-β glucan synthase[2][3] and are thus called “penicillin of antifungals”[4] (a property shared with papulacandins) as penicillin has a similar mechanism against bacteria but not fungi. Beta glucans are carbohydrate polymers that are cross-linked with other fungal cell wall components (The bacterial equivalent is peptidoglycan). Caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin are semisynthetic echinocandin derivatives with clinical use due to their solubility, antifungal spectrum, and pharmacokinetic properties.[5]

List of echinocandins:[17]

  • Pneumocandins (cyclic hexapeptides linked to a long-chain fatty acid)
  • Echinocandin B not clinically used, risk of hemolysis
  • Cilofungin withdrawn from trials due to solvent toxicity
  • Caspofungin (trade name Cancidas, by Merck)
  • Micafungin (FK463) (trade name Mycamine, by Astellas Pharma.)
  • Anidulafungin (VER-002, V-echinocandin, LY303366) (trade name Eraxis, by Pfizer)

History

Discovery of echinocandins stemmed from studies on papulacandins isolated from a strain of Papularia sphaerosperma (Pers.), which were liposaccharide – i.e., fatty acid derivatives of a disaccharide that also blocked the same target, 1,3-β glucan synthase – and had action only on Candida spp. (narrow spectrum). Screening of natural products of fungal fermentation in the 1970s led to the discovery of echinocandins, a new group of antifungals with broad-range activity against Candida spp. One of the first echinocandins of the pneumocandin type, discovered in 1974, echinocandin B, could not be used clinically due to risk of high degree of hemolysis. Screening semisynthetic analogs of the echinocandins gave rise to cilofungin, the first echinofungin analog to enter clinical trials, in 1980, which, it is presumed, was later withdrawn for a toxicity due to the solvent system needed for systemic administration. The semisynthetic pneumocandin analogs of echinocandins were later found to have the same kind of antifungal activity, but low toxicity. The first approved of these newer echinocandins was caspofungin, and later micafungin and anidulafungin were also approved. All these preparations so far have low oral bioavailability, so must be given intravenously only. Echinocandins have now become one of the first-line treatments for Candida before the species are identified, and even as antifungal prophylaxis in hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients.

CIDARA THERAPEUTICS DOSES FIRST PATIENT IN PHASE 2 TRIAL OF CD101 TOPICAL TO TREAT VULVOVAGINAL CANDIDIASIS

SAN DIEGO–(BUSINESS WIRE)–Jun. 9, 2016– Cidara Therapeutics, Inc. (Nasdaq:CDTX), a biotechnology company developing novel anti-infectives and immunotherapies to treat fungal and other infections, today announced that the first patient has been dosed in RADIANT, a Phase 2 clinical trial comparing the safety and tolerability of the novel echinocandin, CD101, to standard-of-care fluconazole for the treatment of acute vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). RADIANT will evaluate two topical formulations of CD101, which is Cidara’s lead antifungal drug candidate.

“There have been no novel VVC therapies introduced for more than two decades, so advancing CD101 topical into Phase 2 is a critical step for women with VVC and for Cidara,” said Jeffrey Stein, Ph.D., president and chief executive officer of Cidara. “Because of their excellent safety record and potency against Candida, echinocandin antifungals are recommended as first line therapy to fight systemic Candida infections. CD101 topical will be the first echinocandin tested clinically in VVC and we expect to demonstrate safe and improved eradication of Candida with rapid symptom relief for women seeking a better option over the existing azole class of antifungals.”

RADIANT is a Phase 2, multicenter, randomized, open-label, active-controlled, dose-ranging trial designed to evaluate the safety and tolerability of CD101 in women with moderate to severe episodes of VVC. The study will enroll up to 125 patients who will be randomized into three treatment cohorts. The first cohort will involve the treatment of 50 patients with CD101 Ointment while a second cohort of 50 patients will receive CD101 Gel. The third cohort will include 25 patients who will be treated with oral fluconazole.

The primary endpoints of RADIANT will be the safety and tolerability of a single dose of CD101 Ointment and multiple doses of CD101 Gel in patients with acute VVC. Secondary endpoints include therapeutic efficacy in acute VVC patients treated with CD101. Treatment evaluations and assessments will occur on trial days 7, 14 and 28.

The RADIANT trial will be conducted at clinical trial centers across the United States. More information about the trial is available at www.clinicaltrials.gov, identifier NCT02733432.

About VVC and RVVC

Seventy-five percent of women worldwide suffer from VVC in their lifetime, and four to five million women in the United Statesalone have the recurrent form of the infection, which is caused by Candida. Many women will experience recurrence after the completion of treatment with existing therapies. Most VVC occurs in women of childbearing potential (the infection is common in pregnant women), but it affects women of all ages. In a recent safety communication, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration(FDA) advised caution in the prescribing of oral fluconazole for yeast infections during pregnancy based on a published study concluding there is an increased risk of miscarriage. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines recommend using only topical antifungal products to treat pregnant women with vulvovaginal yeast infections. Vaginal infections are associated with a substantial negative impact on day-to-day functioning and adverse pregnancy outcomes including preterm delivery, low birth weight, and increased infant mortality in addition to predisposition to HIV/AIDS. According to the CDC, certain species of Candida are becoming increasingly resistant to existing antifungal medications. This emerging resistance intensifies the need for new antifungal agents.

About CD101 Topical

CD101 topical is the first topical agent in the echinocandin class of antifungals and exhibits a broad spectrum of fungicidal activity against Candida species. In May 2016, the FDA granted Qualified Infectious Disease Product (QIDP) and Fast Track Designation to CD101 topical for the treatment of VVC and the prevention of RVVC.

About Cidara Therapeutics

Cidara is a clinical-stage biotechnology company focused on the discovery, development and commercialization of novel anti-infectives for the treatment of diseases that are inadequately addressed by current standard-of-care therapies. Cidara’s initial product portfolio comprises two formulations of the company’s novel echinocandin, CD101. CD101 IV is being developed as a once-weekly, high-exposure therapy for the treatment and prevention of serious, invasive fungal infections. CD101 topical is being developed for the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and the prevention of recurrent VVC (RVVC), a prevalent mucosal infection. In addition, Cidara has developed a proprietary immunotherapy platform, Cloudbreak™, designed to create compounds that direct a patient’s immune cells to attack and eliminate pathogens that cause infectious disease. Cidara is headquartered inSan Diego, California. For more information, please visit www.cidara.com.

REF http://ir.cidara.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=253962&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=2176474

CLIP

Cidara Therapeutics raises $42 million to develop once-weekly anti-fungal therapy

Cidara Therapeutics (formerly K2 Therapeutics) grabbed $42 million in a private Series B funding round Wednesday to continue developing its once-weekly anti-fungal therapy. Just in June 2014, the company completed a $32 million Series A financing led by 5AM Ventures, Aisling Capital, Frazier Healthcare and InterWest Partners, which was the fourth largest A round in 2014 for innovative startups[1]. FierceBiotech named the company as one of 2014 Fierce 15 biotech startups.

Cidara has an impressive executive team. The company was co-founded by Kevin Forrest, former CEO of Achaogen (NASDAQ: AKAO), and Shaw Warren. Jeffrey Stein, former CEO of Trius Therapeutics (NASDAQ: TSRX) and Dirk Thye, former president of Cerexa, have joined Cidara as CEO and CMO, respectively. Trius successfully developed antibiotic tedizolid and was acquired in 2013 by Cubist Pharmaceuticals (NASDAQ: CBST) for $818 million.

Cidara’s lead candidate, biafungin (SP3025), was acquired from Seachaid Pharmaceuticals for $6 million. Biafungin’s half-life is much longer than that of similar drugs known as echinocandins (e.g., caspofungin, micafungin, anidulafungin), which may allow it to be developed as a once-weekly therapy, instead of once daily. The company is also developing a topical formulation of biafungin, namely topifungin. Cidara intends to file an IND and initiate a Phase I clinical trial in the second half of 2015.

Merck’s Cancidas (caspofungin), launched in 2001, was the first of approved enchinocandins. The drug generated annual sales of $596 million in 2008. The approved echinocandins must be administered daily by intravenous infusion. Biafungin with improved pharmacokinetic characteristics has the potential to bring in hundreds of millions of dollars per year.

[1] Nat Biotechnol. 2015, 33(1), 18.

CLIP

Biafungin is a potent and broad-spectrum antifungal agent with excellent activity against wild-type and troublesome azole- and echinocandin-resistant strains of Candida spp. The activity of biafungin is comparable to anidulafungin. • Biafungin was active against both wild-type and itraconazole-resistant strains of Aspergillus spp. from four different species. • In vitro susceptibility testing of biafungin against isolates of Candida and Aspergillus may be accomplished by either CLSI or EUCAST broth microdilution methods each providing comparable results. • The use of long-acting intravenous antifungal agents that could safely be given once a week to select patients is desirable and might decrease costs with long-term hospitalizations. Background: A novel echinocandin, biafungin, displaying long-acting pharmacokinetics and chemical stability is being developed for once-weekly administration. The activities of biafungin and comparator agents were tested against 173 fungal isolates of the most clinically common species. Methods: 106 CAN and 67 ASP were tested using CLSI and EUCAST reference broth microdilution methods against biafungin (50% inhibition) and comparators. Isolates included 27 echinocandin-resistant CAN (4 species) with identified fks hotspot (HS) mutations and 20 azole nonsusceptible ASP (4 species). Results: Against C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. tropicalis, the activity of biafungin (MIC50, 0.06, 0.12 and 0.03 μg/ml, respectively by CLSI method) was comparable to anidulafungin (AND; MIC50, 0.03, 0.12 and 0.03 μg/ml, respectively) and caspofungin (CSP; MIC50, 0.12, 0.25 and 0.12 μg/ml, respectively; Table). C. krusei strains were very susceptible to biafungin, showing MIC90 values of 0.06 μg/ml by both methods. Biafungin (MIC50/90, 1/2 μg/ml) was comparable to AND and less potent than CSP against C. parapsilosis using CLSI methodology. CLSI and EUCAST methods displayed similar results for most species, but biafungin (MIC50, 0.06 μg/ml) was eight-fold more active than CSP (MIC50, 0.5 μg/ml) against C. glabrata using the EUCAST method. Overall, biafungin was two- to four-fold more active against fks HS mutants than CSP and results were comparable to AND. Biafungin was active against A. fumigatus (MEC50/90, ≤0.008/0.015 μg/ml), A. terreus (MEC50/90, 0.015/0.015 μg/ml), A. niger (MEC50/90, ≤0.008/0.03 μg/ml) and A. flavus (MEC50/90, ≤0.008/≤0.008 μg/ml) using CLSI method. EUCAST results for ASP were also low for all echinocandins and comparable to CLSI results. Conclusions: Biafungin displayed comparable in vitro activity with other echinocandins against common wild-type CAN and ASP and resistant subsets that in combination with the long-acting profile warrants further development of this compound. 1. Arendrup MC, Cuenca-Estrella M, Lass-Florl C, Hope WW (2013). Breakpoints for antifungal agents: An update from EUCAST focussing on echinocandins against Candida spp. and triazoles against Aspergillus spp. Drug Resist Updat 16: 81-95. 2. Castanheira M, Woosley LN, Messer SA, Diekema DJ, Jones RN, Pfaller MA (2014). Frequency of fks mutations among Candida glabrata isolates from a 10-year global collection of bloodstream infection isolates. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 58: 577-580. 3. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (2008). M27-A3. Reference Method for Broth Dilution Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Yeasts: third edition. Wayne, PA: CLSI. 4. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (2008). M38-A2. Reference Method for Broth Dilution Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Filamentous Fungi: Second Edition. Wayne, PA: CLSI. 5. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (2012). M27-S4. Reference Method for Broth Dilution Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Yeasts: 4th Informational Supplement. Wayne, PA: CLSI. 6. European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (2014). Breakpoint tables for interpretation of MICs and zone diameters. Version 4.0, January 2014. Available at: http://www.eucast.org/clinical_breakpoints/. Accessed January 1, 2014. 7. Pfaller MA, Diekema DJ (2010). Epidemiology of invasive mycoses in North America. Crit Rev Microbiol 36: 1-53. 8. Pfaller MA, Diekema DJ, Andes D, Arendrup MC, Brown SD, Lockhart SR, Motyl M, Perlin DS (2011). Clinical breakpoints for the echinocandins and Candida revisited: Integration of molecular, clinical, and microbiological data to arrive at species-specific interpretive criteria. Drug Resist Updat 14: 164-176. ABSTRACT Activity of a Novel Echinocandin Biafungin (CD101) Tested against Most Common Candida and Aspergillus Species, Including Echinocandin- and Azole-resistant Strains M CASTANHEIRA, SA MESSER, PR RHOMBERG, RN JONES, MA PFALLER JMI Laboratories, North Liberty, Iowa, USA C

PATENT

https://www.google.com/patents/WO2015035102A2?cl=en

BIAFUNGIN ACETATE IS USED AS STARTING MATERIAL

Example 30b: Synthesis of Compound 31

Step a. Nitration of Biafungin Acetate

To a stirring solution of biafungin (1 00 mg, 0.078 mmol) in glacial acetic acid(1 .5 ml_) was added sodium nitrite (1 1 mg, 0.159 mmol) and the reaction was stirred at ambient temperature for 20 hours. The mixture was applied directly to reversed phase H PLC (Isco CombiFlash Rf; 50g RediSep C1 8 column, 5 to 95% acetonitrile in Dl water containing 0.1 % formic acid: 15 minute gradient). The pure fractions were pooled and lyophilized to yield 85 mg of the desired product as a light yellow solid, formate salt. 1 H-NMR (300 M Hz, Methanol-d4) δ 8.58 (d, 1 H, J = 1 1 .7 Hz), 8.47 (t, 2H, J = 8.7Hz), 8.05 (d, 1 H, J = 2.1 Hz), 7.99 (d, 2H, J = 9.3 Hz), 7.82 (d, 2H, J = 8.7 Hz), 7.79-7.60 (m, 12H), 7.1 7 (d, 1 H, J = 8.7 Hz), 7.03 (d, 2H, J = 9 Hz), 5.48 (d, 1 H, J = 6 Hz), 5.08 (dd, 1 H, J = 1 .2, 5.7 Hz), 4.95-4.73 (m, 5H), 4.68-4.56 (m, 2H), 4.53 (d, 1 H, J = 5.7 Hz), 4.48-4.39 (m, 2H), 4.31 -3.79 (m, 6H), 4.04 (t, 2H, J = 5.7 Hz), 3.72-3.44 (m,3H), 3.1 8 (s, 9H), 2.60-1 .99 (m, 5H), 1 .83 (m, 2H, J = 8.7 Hz), 1 .56-1 .35 (m, 5H), 1 .28 (d, 6H, J = 4.2 Hz), 1 .09 (d, 3H, J = 1 0.2 Hz), 0.99 (t, 3H, J = 8.7 Hz) ; LC/MS, [M/2+H]+: 635.79, 635.80 calculated.

Step b. Reduction of Nitro-Biafungin To Amino-Biafungin

To a stirring solution of Nitro-Biafungin (1 00 mg, 0.075 mmol) in glacial acetic acid(1 .5 ml_) was added zinc powder (50 mg, 0.77 mmol) and the reaction was stirred at ambient temperature for 1 hour. The mixture was filtered and applied directly to reversed phase HPLC (Isco CombiFlash Rf, 50g Redisep C18 column; 5 to 95% acetonitrile in Dl water containing 0.1 % formic acid: 15 minute gradient). The pure fractions were pooled and lyophilized to yield 55 mg of the desired product as a white solid, formate salt. 1 H-NMR (300 MHz, Methanol-d4) 5 8.47 (bs, 1 H), 7.99 (d, 2H, J = 1 0.8Hz), 7.82 (d, 2H, J = 7.5 Hz), 7.80-7.67 (m, 6H), 7.62 (d, 2H, J = 8.7 Hz), 7.03 (d, 2H, J = 7.5 Hz), 6.77 (d, 1 H, J = 1 .9 Hz), 6.68 (d, 1 H, J = 8.2 Hz), 6.55 (dd, 2H, J = 8.2, 1 .9 Hz), 5.43 (d, 1 H, J = 2.5 Hz), 5.05 (d, 1 H, J = 3 Hz), 4.83-4.73 (m, 2H), 4.64- 4.56 (m, 2H), 4.43-4.34 (m, 2H), 4.31 -4.15 (m, 4H), 4.03-4.08 (m, 1 H), 4.1 1 -3.89 (m, 8H), 3.83 (d, 1 H, J = 1 0.8 Hz), 3.68-3.47 (m, 3H), 3.1 7 (s, 9H), 2.57-2.42 (m, 2H), 2.35-2.27 (m, 1 H), 2.14-1 .98 (m, 2H), 1 .83 (m, 2H, J = 6 Hz), 1 .56-1 .38 (m, 4H), 1 .28 (dd, 6H, J = 6.5, 2 Hz), 1 .09 (d, 3H, J = 7 Hz), 0.986 (t, 3H, J = 7 Hz); High Res LC/MS: [M+H]+ 1241 .61 63; 1241 .6136 calculated.

Step c. Reaction of Amino-Biafungin with lnt-2 to Produce Compound 31

To a stirring solution of Amino-Biafungin (50 mg, 0.04 mmol) in DM F (1 ml_) was added formyl-Met-Leu-Phe- -Ala-OSu (lnt-2) (36 mg, 0.06 mmol) and DI PEA (7 uL, 0.04 mmol). The reaction was stirred at ambient temperature for 1 8 hours. The mixture was applied directly to reversed phase HPLC (Isco CombiFlash Rf; 50g Redisep C1 8 column; 5 to 95% acetonitrile in Dl water containing 0.1 % formic acid: 15 minute gradient). The pure fractions were pooled and lyophilized to yield 26 mg of a white solid as a formate salt. 1 H-NMR (300 M Hz, Methanol-d4) 5 8.55 (bs, 1 H), 8.44 (t, 1 H, J = 10 Hz), 8.1 8 (d, 1 H, J = 6 Hz), 8.1 1 (s, 1 H), 7.99 (d, 2H, J = 1 0 Hz), 7.84-7.70 (m, 6H), 7.63 (d, 2H, J = 7.8 Hz), 7.32-7.1 9 (m, 6H), 7.03 (d, 4H, J = 9 Hz), 6.87 (d, 1 H, J = 8.1 Hz), 5.44 (d, 1 H, J = 1 0.5 Hz), 5.05 (d, 1 H, J = 4.5 Hz), 4.83-4.74 (m, 2H), 4.66-4.50 (m, 6H), 4.45-4.29 (m, 10H), 4.1 9-3.82 (m, 1 0H), 3.67-3.57 (m, 6H), 3.1 7 (s, 9H), 2.64-2.46 (m, 6 H), 2.14-1 .92 (m, 6H), 1 .84 (m, 4H, J = 6 Hz), 1 .62-1 .40 (m, 8H), 1 .32-1 .22 (m, 6H), 1 .09 (d, 3H, J = 9 Hz), 0.99 (t, 3H, J = 7.5 Hz), 0.88 (m, 6H, J = 6.8 Hz) ; High Res LC/MS, [M/2+H]+ 865.4143, 865.4147 calculated.

REFERENCES

  1. Denning, DW (June 2002). “Echinocandins: a new class of antifungal.”. The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy 49 (6): 889–91. doi:10.1093/jac/dkf045. PMID 12039879.
  2.  Morris MI, Villmann M (September 2006). “Echinocandins in the management of invasive fungal infections, part 1”. Am J Health Syst Pharm 63 (18): 1693–703.doi:10.2146/ajhp050464.p1. PMID 16960253.
  3. Morris MI, Villmann M (October 2006). “Echinocandins in the management of invasive fungal infections, Part 2”. Am J Health Syst Pharm 63 (19): 1813–20.doi:10.2146/ajhp050464.p2. PMID 16990627.
  4. ^ Jump up to:a b “Pharmacotherapy Update – New Antifungal Agents: Additions to the Existing Armamentarium (Part 1)”.
  5.  Debono, M; Gordee, RS (1994). “Antibiotics that inhibit fungal cell wall development”.Annu Rev Microbiol 48: 471–497. doi:10.1146/annurev.mi.48.100194.002351.

17 Eschenauer, G; Depestel, DD; Carver, PL (March 2007). “Comparison of echinocandin antifungals.”. Therapeutics and clinical risk management 3 (1): 71–97. PMC 1936290.PMID 18360617.

///////////Biafungin™,  CD 101 IV,  CD 101 Topical,  CD101,  SP 3025, PHASE 2, CIDARA, Orphan Drug, Fast Track Designation, Seachaid Pharmaceuticals,  Qualified Infectious Disease Product, QIDP, UNII-G013B5478J, 1396640-59-7, 1631754-41-0, Vulvovaginal candidiasis, Echinocandin B, FUNGIN

FREE FORM

CCCCCOc1ccc(cc1)c2ccc(cc2)c3ccc(cc3)C(=O)N[C@H]4C[C@@H](O)[C@H](NC(=O)[C@@H]5[C@@H](O)[C@@H](C)CN5C(=O)[C@@H](NC(=O)C(NC(=O)[C@@H]6C[C@@H](O)CN6C(=O)C(NC4=O)[C@@H](C)O)[C@H](O)[C@@H](O)c7ccc(O)cc7)[C@@H](C)O)OCC[N+](C)(C)C

AND OF ACETATE

CCCCCOc1ccc(cc1)c2ccc(cc2)c3ccc(cc3)C(=O)N[C@H]4C[C@@H](O)[C@H](NC(=O)[C@@H]5[C@@H](O)[C@@H](C)CN5C(=O)[C@@H](NC(=O)C(NC(=O)[C@@H]6C[C@@H](O)CN6C(=O)[C@@H](NC4=O)[C@@H](C)O)[C@H](O)[C@@H](O)c7ccc(O)cc7)[C@@H](C)O)OCC[N+](C)(C)C.CC(=O)[O-]

Three antifungal drugs approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration, caspofungin, anidulafungin, and micafungin, are known to inhibit β-1 ,3-glucan synthase which have the structures shown below.

caspofungin

Anidulafungin

Other exemplary p-1 ,3-glucan synthase inhibitors include,

echinocandin B

cilofungin

pneumocandin A0

pneumocandin B0

L-705589

L-733560

A-174591

or a salt thereof,

Biafungin


or a salt thereof,

Amino-biafungin


or a salt thereof,

Amino-AF-053

ASP9726

Yet other exemplary p-1 ,3-glucan synthase inhibitors include, without limitation:

Papulacandin B

Ergokonin

//////////////

Ataluren (Translarna) drug for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy


ChemSpider 2D Image | Ataluren | C15H9FN2O3

Ataluren (Translarna)

3-(5-(2-fluorophenyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)benzoic acid

3-[5-(2-fluorophenyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl]benzoic acid

CAS 775304-57-9

PTC Therapeutics (Originator)

  • Molecular FormulaC15H9FN2O3
  • Average mass284.242 Da
  • EC-000.2051
    NCGC00168759-02
    PTC-124, PTC124, 
    UNII:K16AME9I3V
  • EU 2014-07-31 APPROVED

Ataluren, formerly known as PTC124, is a pharmaceutical drug for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy and potentially other genetic disorders. It was designed by PTC Therapeutics and is sold under the trade name Translarna in the European Union.

Ataluren was approved by European Medicine Agency (EMA) on July 31, 2014. It was developed and marketed as Translarna® by PTC Therapeutics.

Ataluren was regulator of nonsense mutations indicated for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy resulting from a nonsense mutation in the dystrophin gene, in ambulatory patients aged 5 years and older.

Translarna® is available as granules for oral use, containing 125 mg, 250 mg or 1000 mg of free Ataluren. The recommended dose is 10 mg/kg body weight in the morning, 10 mg/kg body weight at midday, and 20 mg/kg body weight in the evening.

Medical uses

Ataluren has been tested on healthy humans and humans carrying genetic disorders caused by nonsense mutations,[1][2] such as some people with cystic fibrosis and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. It is approved for the use in Duchenne in the European Union.

Mechanism of action

Ataluren makes ribosomes less sensitive to premature stop codons (referred to as “read-through”). This may be beneficial in diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy where the mRNA contains a mutation causing premature stop codons or nonsense codons. Studies have demonstrated that PTC124 treatment increases expression of full-length dystrophin protein in human and mouse primary muscle cells containing the premature stop codon mutation for Duchenne muscular dystrophy and rescues striated muscle function.[3] Studies in mice with the premature stop codon mutation for cystic fibrosis demonstrated increased CFTR protein production and function.[4] The European Medicines Agency review on the approval of ataluren concluded that “the non-clinical data available were considered sufficient to support the proposed mechanism of action and to alleviate earlier concerns on the selectivity of ataluren for premature stop codons.” [5]

In cystic fibrosis, early studies of ataluren show that it improves nasal potential difference.[6] Ataluren appears to be most effective for the stop codon ‘UGA’.[1]

History

Clinical trials

In 2010, PTC Therapeutics released preliminary results of its phase 2b clinical trial for Duchenne muscular dystrophy, with participants not showing a significant improvement in the six minute walk distance after the 48 weeks of the trial.[7] This failure resulted in the termination of a $100 million deal with Genzyme to pursue the drug.

Phase 2 clinical trials were successful for cystic fibrosis in Israel, France and Belgium.[8] Multicountry phase 3 clinical trials are currently in progress for cystic fibrosis in Europe and the USA.[9]

Approval

On 23 May 2014 ataluren received a positive opinion from the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) of the European Medicines Agency (EMA).[10]Translarna was first available in Germany, the first EU country to launch the new medicine.[11]

In August 2014, ataluren received market authorization from the European Commission to treat patients with nonsense mutation Duchenne muscular dystrophy. A confirmatory phase III clinical trial is ongoing.[11] The drug does not yet have approval by the US Food and Drug Administration.

In October 2015, NICE asked for further evidence of benefit to justify the “very high cost”.[12] NICE estimated that for a typical patient, treatment would cost £220,256 per year.

In February 2016, FDA declined to approve or even discuss PTC Therapeutics application for ataluren because it deemed the data presented by the developer “insufficient to warrant a review”.[13]

Ataluren Molecule

PAPER

Auld, Douglas S.; Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2009, V106(9), P3585-3590

http://www.pnas.org/content/106/9/3585.full

http://www.pnas.org/content/suppl/2009/02/10/0813345106.DCSupplemental

http://www.pnas.org/content/suppl/2009/02/10/0813345106.DCSupplemental/Appendix_PDF.pdf

STR1

Samples were analyzed for purity on an Agilent 1200 series LC/MS equipped with a Luna® C18 reverse phase (3 micron, 3 x 75 mm) column having a flow rate of 0.8-1.0 mL/min. The mobile phase was a mixture of acetonitrile (0.025% TFA) and H2O (0.05% TFA), and temperature was maintained at 50 °C. A gradient of 4% to 100% acetonitrile over 7 minutes was used during analytical analysis. Purity of final compounds was determined to be >95%, using a 5 μL injection with quantitation by AUC at 220 and 254 nM. High resolution mass spectra were obtained with an Agilent 6210 Time-of-Flight LC/MS with a 3.5 um Zorbax SB-C18 column (2.1 x 30 mm) (solvents are Water and ACN with 0.1% Formic Acid). A 3 minute gradient at 1 mL/min from 5% to 100% acetonitrile was used.

3-[5-(2-fluorophenyl)-[1,2,4]-oxadiazol-3-yl]-benzoic acid (1a, PTC124).

1 H NMR (d6-DMSO, 400 MHz) δ 13.15-13.68 (bs, 1H), 8.62 (s, 1H), 8.31 (d, 1H, JHH = 6.8 Hz), 8.24 (t, 1H, JHH = 7.2 Hz), 8.17 (d, 1H, JHH = 7.4 Hz), 7.77-7.82 (m, 1H), 7.73 (t, 1H, JHH = 7.6 Hz), 7.53 (dd, 1H, JHH = 10.8 Hz, JHH = 8.4 Hz), 7.48 (t, 1H, JHH = 6.8 Hz).

13C NMR (d6-DMSO, 400 MHz) δ 172.72 (d, JCF = 4.4 Hz), 167.39, 166.52, 159.95 (d, JCF = 258.0 Hz), 135.80 (d, JCF = 8.8 Hz), 132.28, 131.97, 131.97, 131.04, 130.94, 129.86, 127.76, 125.4 (d, JCF = 3.6 Hz), 117.2 (d, JCF = 20.4 Hz), 111.6 (d, JCF = 11.2 Hz). LC-

MS: rt (min) = 5.713; [M+H]+ 285.1;

HRMS: (CI+, m/z), calcd for C15H10FN2O3 (MH+ ), 285.06814; found, 285.06769.

CLIP

Ataluren (Translarna) Ataluren is a drug marketed under the trade name Translarna which was developed by PTC Therapeutics and approved by the European Union in May 2014 for the treatment of Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy (DMD) and potentially other genetic disorders.50

Ataluren renders ribosomes less sensitive to premature stop or ‘read-through’ codons, which are thought to be beneficial in diseases such as DMD and cystic fibrosis.51 Of the reported synthetic approaches to ataluren,52–55 the most likely process-scale approach consists of the sequence described in Scheme 7, which reportedly has been exemplified on kilogram scale.56

The sequence to construct ataluren, which was described by the authors at PTC Therapeutics, commenced with commercially available methyl 3-cyanobenzoate (38).56 This ester was exposed to hydroxylamine in aqueous tert-butanol and warmed gently until the reaction was deemed complete.

Then this mixture was treated with 2-fluorobenzoyl chloride dropwise and subsequently triethylamine dropwise. To minimize exotherm and undesired side products, careful control of the addition of reagents was achieved through slow dropwise addition of these liquid reagents.

Upon complete consumption of starting materials and formation of amidooxime 39, the aqueous reaction mixture was then heated to 85 C to facilitate 1,2,4-oxadiazole formation, resulting in the tricyclic ester 40 in excellent yield across the three steps.

Finally,saponification of ester 40 through the use of sodium hydroxide followed by acidic quench gave ataluren (V) in 96% over the two-step sequence.57

STR1

50. Welch, E. M.; Barton, E. R.; Zhuo, J.; Tomizawa, Y.; Friesen, W. J.; Trifillis, P.;Paushkin, S.; Patel, M.; Trotta, C. R.; Hwang, S.; Wilde, R. G.; Karp, G.; Takasugi,J.; Chen, G.; Jones, S.; Ren, H.; Moon, Y. C.; Corson, D.; Turpoff, A. A.; Campbell,J. A.; Conn, M. M.; Khan, A.; Almstead, N. G.; Hedrick, J.; Mollin, A.; Risher, N.;Weetall, M.; Yeh, S.; Branstrom, A. A.; Colacino, J. M.; Babiak, J.; Ju, W. D.;Hirawat, S.; Northcutt, V. J.; Miller, L. L.; Spatrick, P.; He, F.; Kawana, M.; Feng,H.; Jacobson, A.; Peltz, S. W.; Sweeney, H. L. Nature 2007, 447, 87.
51. Hirawat, S.; Welch, E. M.; Elfring, G. L.; Northcutt, V. J.; Paushkin, S.; Hwang,S.; Leonard, E. M.; Almstead, N. G.; Ju, W.; Peltz, S. W.; Miller, L. L. J. Clin.Pharmacol. 2007, 47, 430.

52Karp, G. M.; Hwang, S.; Chen, G.; Almstead, N. G. US Patent 2004204461A1,2004.
53. Andersen, T. L.; Caneschi, W.; Ayoub, A.; Lindhardt, A. T.; Couri, M. R. C.;Skrydstrup, T. Adv. Synth. Catal. 2014, 356, 3074.
54. Gupta, P. K.; Hussain, M. K.; Asad, M.; Kant, R.; Mahar, R.; Shukla, S. K.; Hajela,K. New J. Chem. 2014, 38, 3062.
55. Lentini, L.; Melfi, R.; Di Leonardo, A.; Spinello, A.; Barone, G.; Pace, A.; PalumboPiccionello, A.; Pibiri, I. Mol. Pharm. 2014, 11, 653.
56. Almstead, N. G.; Hwang, P. S.; Pines, S.; Moon, Y. -C.; Takasugi, J. J. WO Patent2008030570A1, 2008.
57. Almstead, N. G.; Chen, G.; Hirawat, S.; Hwang, S.; Karp, G. M.; Miller, L.; Moon,Y. C.; Ren, H.; Takasugi, J. J.; Welch, E. M.; Wilde, R. G. WO Patent2007117438A2, 2007.

CLIP

Ataluren trial success: trial aborted.

07 September 2011 – Pharma……..http://chem.vander-lingen.nl/info/item/September_2011/id/190/mid/140

Last week the newspaper NRC Handelsblad reported on a court case in which the parents of two young boys sued a pharmaceutical company over access to one of their developmental drugs. The drug in question wasAtaluren, the pharmaceutical companyPTC Therapeutics. The boys suffer from Duchenne muscular dystrophyand had taken part in a clinical trial. Whereas the results of this trial on the whole were inconclusive the boys did seriously benefit from the drug. Hardly any wonder the parents took action when the whole development program was canceled.

And the judge? He threw the case out arguing that doctors do not make the compound themselves and arguing that the compound is not commercially available. Are these arguments valid? and do the boys have options?

It is not that ataluren is a complex molecule. To judge from one of the patents, synthesis is straightforward starting from 2-cyanobenoic acid and 2-fluorobenzoyl chloride, both commercially available. The synthetic steps are methylation of 2-cyanobenoic acid (iodomethane), nitrile hydrolysis with hydroxylamine, esterification with the fluoro acid chloride using DIPEA, high-temperature dehydration to the oxadiazole and finally ester hydrolysis (NaOH).

Except for the fluorine atom in it the compound is unremarkable. If you have to believe the Internet many Chinese companies produce and sell it. Ataluren is also still in the running as a potential treatment for some other diseases. So if need be the compound will be around for some time to come.

CLIP

Ataluren [3-[5-(2-Fluorophenyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl]benzoic acid] is an orally available, small molecule compound that targets nonsense mutation. It is the first drug in its class and appears to allow cellular machinery to read through premature stop codons in mRNA, and thus enables the translation process to produce full-length, functional proteins.
Ataluren is developed and approved for the treatment of nonsense mutation Duchenne muscular dystrophy (nmDMD) by EU in July 2014 [1].

Ataluren: 2D and 3D Structure

Nonsense Mutations as Target for DMD

A single nucleotide change in the DNA sequence that introduces a premature stop codon is known as a nonsense mutation, a subset of a major class of premature termination codon (PTC) mutations. Nonsense mutations cause premature termination of translation resulting in the production of truncated polypeptides, which in turn halts the ribosomal translation process at an earlier site than normal, producing a truncated, non-functional protein [1].

Nonsense mutations are implicated in 5-70 % of individual cases of most inherited diseases, including Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and cystic fibrosis. Ataluren appears to allow cellular machinery to read through premature stop codons in mRNA, enabling the translation process to produce full length, functional proteins.

Ataluren Synthesis

New J Chem 2014, 38, 3062-3070: The text reports one pot synthesis of Ataluren with an overall yield of 40%. It also reports few interesting and potent derivatives too.


WO 2007117438A2: It appears to be the industrial process. The patent also reports various pharmaceutically relevant assay and their results wrt Ataluren.
Identifications:

1H NMR (Estimated) for Ataluren

Experimental: 1H NMR (d6-DMSO, 400 MHz) δ 13.15-13.68 (bs, 1H), 8.62 (s, 1H), 8.31 (d, 1H, JHH= 6.8 Hz), 8.24 (t, 1H, JHH = 7.2 Hz), 8.17 (d, 1H, JHH = 7.4 Hz), 7.77-7.82 (m, 1H), 7.73 (t, 1H, JHH = 7.6 Hz), 7.53 (dd, 1H, JHH = 10.8 Hz, JHH = 8.4 Hz), 7.48 (t, 1H, JHH = 6.8 Hz).

13C-NMR (Estimated) for Ataluren

Experimental: 13C NMR (d6-DMSO, 400 MHz) δ 172.72 (d, JCF = 4.4 Hz), 167.39, 166.52, 159.95 (d, JCF = 258.0 Hz), 135.80 (d, JCF = 8.8 Hz), 132.28, 131.97, 131.97, 131.04, 130.94, 129.86, 127.76, 125.4 (d, JCF = 3.6 Hz), 117.2 (d, JCF = 20.4 Hz), 111.6 (d, JCF = 11.2 Hz)……https://ayurajan.blogspot.in/2016/05/ataluren-treatment-for-duchenne.html

CLIP

It is not that ataluren is a complex molecule. To judge from one of the patents, synthesis is straightforward starting from 2-cyanobenoic acid and 2-fluorobenzoyl chloride, both commercially available. The synthetic steps are methylation of 2-cyanobenoic acid (iodomethane), nitrile hydrolysis with hydroxylamine, esterification with the fluoro acid chloride using DIPEA, high-temperature dehydration to the oxadiazole and finally ester hydrolysis (NaOH).
CLIP
Route 1

Reference:1. WO2004091502A2 / US6992096B2.

2. WO2008045566A1 / US2008114039A1.

3. WO2008030570A1 / US2008139818A1.

4. Mol. Pharmaceutics 2014, 11, 653-664.

Route 2
Route 3

CLIP

Carcinogenicity

Carcinogenicity bioassays in transgenic mice (26 weeks) and in rats (24 months):

●    For Tg.rasH2 mouse: Ataluren did not increase the incidence of tumors up to the HDs in males (600 mg/kg/day) and in females (300 mg/kg/day).  The non-neoplastic findings included endometrial hyperplasia and nephropathy in females.

●    For rats: Urinary bladder tumors (benign urothelial cell papilloma [2 rats] and malignant urothelial cell carcinoma [1 rat]) were observed in 3/60 female rats dosed at 300 mg/kg/day.  In addition, one case of malignant hibernoma was observed in 1/60 male rats at the dose of 300 mg/kg/day.  The non-neoplastic toxicity consisted of a decrease of body weight.

PATENT

Example 1 (prepared by known ataluren)

Method ataluren according to Patent Document 2 is described in Example W02004091502A2 prepared.

Specific methods of preparation:

To a solution of 0.6 l of DMF was 44. 14g3- cyano acid 62.19 g of potassium carbonate was added, followed by stirring at room temperature for 30 minutes. 20 minutes To the suspension was added 28 ml of methyl iodide (450mmol), and the reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 4 hours. The reaction mixture was poured into 1.2 l of ice water, stirred for 30 minutes, the precipitate was filtered out thereof. The white cake was dissolved in 70 ml of methanol, and then reprecipitated in cold water. To give 79% yield of 3-cyano-benzoic acid methyl ester.

50 g of 3-cyano-benzoic acid methyl ester was dissolved in 500 ml of ethanol, to which was added 41 ml of 50% aqueous hydroxylamine (620mmol). 100 ° C and the reaction mixture was stirred for 1 hour, the solvent was removed under reduced pressure. So that the oily residue is dissolved in 100 ml of 20/80 ethanol / toluene, concentrated again. To give 61 g 3- (N- hydroxy amidino (carbamimidoyl)) – benzoic acid methyl ester.

60 g of 3- (N- hydroxy amidino (carbamimidoyl)) – benzoic acid methyl ester was dissolved in 200 ml of anhydrous tetrahydrofuran, followed by adding thereto 75 ml of diisopropylethylamine (434 mmol), and then 20 minutes this mixture was added 48.1 ml 2- fluorobenzoyl chloride (403mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 hour. The precipitate was filtered off, the filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was dissolved in 400 ml of ethyl acetate, washed with 400 ml of water and then twice. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure, containing 60% ethyl acetate in hexane to give the desired product, generating 81 g 3- (N-2- amidino-fluorobenzoyl) – benzoate.

at 130 ° C with a Dean-Stark apparatus was dissolved in 500 ml of toluene was heated under reflux in 44 g of 3- (N-2- fluorobenzoyl) -1,2,3,4-_ benzoate 4 hours. 5 ° C and the reaction mixture was stirred for 18 hours. The white precipitate was filtered off, the filtrate was concentrated, recrystallized in toluene. To give 38 g of 3- [5- (2-fluorophenyl) – [1,2,4] oxadiazol-3-yl] – benzoic acid methyl ester.

33 g of 3- [5- (2-fluorophenyl) – [1,2,4] oxadiazol-3-yl] – benzoic acid methyl ester was dissolved in 400 ml of tetrahydrofuran, to which was added 100 ml of 1. 5M aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. At 100 ° C and the reaction mixture was heated at reflux for 2 hours. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure at 5 ° C the solution was stirred for 2 hours. The organic solvent was removed, washed with 50 mL of water. The aqueous solution was then acidified with hydrochloric acid to pH 1. The white precipitate was filtered off, the filter cake washed with cold water, then dried with a freeze dryer. To give 3.0 g of 3- [5- (2-fluorophenyl) – [1,2,4] oxadiazol-3-yl] benzoic acid. 1H-NMR (500MHz, d6-DMS0): 8. 31 (1H), 8 18 (2H), 8 08 (1H), 7 88 (2H), 7 51 (2H)….. Display: ataluren- Sample Preparation Example 1 prepared in Preparation Example 2 and TO2004091502A2 induced.

Each prepared in Example 2 (prepared according to known Form A)

Method [0084] A known polymorph according to Patent Document W02008039431A2 Example 5. 1. 1.1 prepared as described. Specifically: ataluren be prepared 1 100 mg Preparation Example, 60 ° C add 16.2 ml of isopropanol ultrasound clear solution, the solution by 2 square micron filter and the filtrate was kept covered with aluminum foil having a small hole. vial, 60 ° C and evaporated. The solid formed was isolated to give ataluren the A polymorph.

as needles.

its XRPD shown in Figure 1, the display ataluren polymorph A disclosed in Patent Document W02008039431A2 consistent.

SEE
European Journal of Organic Chemistry (2016), 2016(3), 438-442
Russian Chemical Bulletin (2015), 64(1), 142-145.
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2015), 101, 236-244.
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters (2014), 24(11), 2473-2476.
New Journal of Chemistry (2014), 38(7), 3062-3070.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2010), 107(11), 4878-4883, S4878/1-S4878/14.
WO 2008039431
WO 2008045566
WO 2008030570
WO 2007117438
WO 2006110483
WO 2007117438
WO 2006110483
US 20040204461
PATENT

novel crystalline forms of 3-[5-(2-fluorophenyl)-

[l,2,4]oxadiazol-3-yl]-benzoic acid, which has the following chemical structure (I):

Figure imgf000003_0001

(I)

In particular, crystalline forms of 3-[5-(2-fluorophenyl)-[l,2,4]oxadiazol-3-yl]- benzoic acid are useful for the treatment, prevention or management of diseases ameliorated by modulation of premature translation termination or nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, as described in U.S. Patent No. 6,992,096 B2, issued January 31, 2006, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. In addition, the present provides a crystalline form of 3-[5-(2-fluorophenyl)-[l,2,4]oxadiazol-3-yl]-benzoic acid which is substantially pure, i.e., its purity greater than about 90%.

Processes for the preparation of 3-[5-(2-fluorophenyl)-[l,2,4]oxadiazol-3-yl]- benzoic acid are described in U.S. Patent No. 6,992,096 B2, issued January 31, 2006, and U.S. patent application no. 1 1/899,813, filed September 9, 2007, both of which are incorporated by reference in their entirety.

PATENT

CN101535284

https://worldwide.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/originalDocument?CC=CN&NR=101535284A&KC=A&FT=D&ND=&date=20090916&DB=&locale=

STR1

STR1

Example

3- ‘5- (2-fluorophenyl) – “1,2,41 oxadiazol-3-yl benzoate 1- Batch 1

The 3-cyano-benzoic acid methyl ester (105 kg) and t-butanol was added molten drying reactor. Under an inert atmosphere for about 2 hours 48 minutes, 50. /. Aqueous hydroxylamine (43L, 47.4 kg) was added to a clear solution of 3-cyano benzoic acid methyl ester in a molten in t-butanol. The addition of a 50% aqueous solution of hydroxylamine period, the maximum temperature batch of about 43 ° C. 50% aqueous solution of hydroxylamine addition rate of from about 9L / h when the changes start adding to about 30L / hr. To maintain the temperature of the batch by varying the reactor jacket set point. In particular, the set value is about 40.5 ° C, with the addition of a rate increase at the beginning join, change the setting to about 29.6 ° C. After about 40-45t stirred for about 4 hours, the reaction was deemed complete (i.e., less than about 0.5% ester).

The batch was transferred to a drying reactor, additional (chased through) approximately 10L molten tert-butanol. Jacket setpoint from about 33 when the batch was received when dried reactor. C is reduced to about 27 after the completion of the transfer. C. Batch crystallization was observed part, which does not adversely affect stirring. The batch was cooled to about 34.4 ° C, triethylamine (72.6 kg, IOOL) added to the reactor. The jacket temperature set value from about 20.4. C is increased to about 31.0 ° C, in order to maintain the batch temperature in the range of about 30-35t. With molten tert-butanol (IO L) was washed with a linear (line rinse) After the batch was added to the 2-fluorobenzoyl chloride (113.7 kg, 86.0L).Charge is added to the first third of the rate of about 25L / hr. In the meantime, the jacket inlet temperature was lowered to about 15 ° C, the batch temperature is maintained at about 34.6 ° C. In about 5.5 hours after the addition was complete.During the addition, the maximum temperature of the batch was about 38.8 ° C. Near the end of the addition, the addition rate slowed to about 11L / hr was added last 27 liters of 2-fluoro-benzoyl chloride. 30-35. C After stirring for about 2 hours, that the reaction was complete (i.e., less than about 0.5% of methyl 3-amidinophenoxy). Then, after about 1 hour 42 minutes, the batch was heated to reflux temperature (about 82 ° C), and then stirred for about 18 hours. During the stirring, a number of product partially crystallized to form a slurry. The slurry was cooled to about 40. C thus sampled, during which complete crystallization occurs. The batch was then heated to reflux temperature and stirred for about 1 hour 50 minutes.Then, after about two hours, the batch was cooled to about 69 ° C, and after about four hours and 15 minutes, slowly added 630L of pure water, while maintaining the batch temperature at about 66-69 ° C. After about 3 hours 14 minutes, the slurry was cooled to about 22.4 ° C, and transferred to 2x200L ceramic filter, the ceramic filter equipped 25-30n polypropylene mesh filter cloth. In about 55 minutes after the completion of material from the container to the filter transfer. With 50n /. The tert-butanol solution (210L) was washed cake was washed for about 10 minutes so that the cleaning liquid can penetrate into each cake. Then, the cake was dried in a vacuum for about 5-10 minutes. The purified water as a second washing (158L / cake) applied to the filter cake to remove residual t-butanol and triethylammonium chloride salt. Dried in a vacuum for about 5 minutes, the solution was removed. In vacuo and then the cake was dried for about 2 hours, and then sampled using liquid chromatography. The filter cake was measured by liquid chromatography purity of about 99.6%.

The filter cake was dried in vacuo for about 8 hours 25 minutes later, the wet cake (207.4kg) is transferred to an air oven. At about 50-55. C, the oven dried in air for about 52 hours. The product was isolated in a total yield of about 89.9% (174.65kg), in the calculation of cost of materials sampling, you can adjust the overall yield of about 90.7%.

Batch 2

The 3-cyano-benzoic acid methyl ester (105 kg) and t-butanol was added molten drying reactor. Under an inert atmosphere for about 3 hours 29 minutes, 50% aqueous solution of hydroxylamine (47.85 kg) was added to the reactor. During the addition, the temperature is maintained at about 40-45 ° C. At about 40-45. C After stirring for about 3 hours 16 minutes, that the reaction was complete (i.e., less than about 0.5% ester). As for the drying reactor, the batch was transferred to one of the batch in. The batch was cooled

To about 34.4 ° C, and triethylamine (72.6 kg, 100 L). During about 45 minutes was added, while maintaining the batch temperature between about 30-35 ° C. During the addition, the jacket inlet temperature of from about 31.4. C increased to about 32.6. C. After the molten tert-butanol linear washed, was added to the batch 2- fluorobenzoyl chloride (l 13.7 kg, 86.0 L). After about 3 hours, 27 minutes, add the acid chloride. 35. C under stirring for about 8 hours, that the reaction is not complete (i.e., more than about 0.5% residual 3-amidino-benzoyl ester). Then, 1.5% by weight of the original charge of triethylamine and 2-fluorobenzoyl chloride was added to the batch. Linear washed with tert-butanol (IO L) associated with each additional charge. During the addition of the acid chloride, no additional cooling. The batch was maintained at a temperature of about 30-35 ° C, the jacket inlet temperature range was maintained at about 30.3. C to about 33.0 ° C. After stirring for about 2 hours at 30-35t, that reaction was complete (i.e., less than 0.5% of methyl 3-amidinophenoxy).

After about 1 hour and 44 minutes, the batch was heated to reflux temperature (about 83 ° C), and stirred for about 18 hours.The same batch 1, during cooling the sample, the solid was completely crystallized. The batch was then heated to reflux temperature and stirred for about 1 hour and 2 minutes. Then, after about 2 hours and 20 minutes, the batch was cooled to about 69.2 ° C, and after about four hours and 30 minutes, slowly added 630 L of pure water, while the temperature of the batch was maintained at about 65.6-69.2 ° C. After about 3 hours and 30 minutes, the slurry was cooled to about 23.4 ° C, and, as for, the contents were transferred to one of the double batch of the ceramic filter. About 5 hours and 6 minutes, to complete the transfer of the material. With about 50% of t-butanol (2 volumes / cake) was washed filter cake was washed with 10 minutes to allow the cleaning liquid to penetrate into each cake, then dried in vacuo. About 1 hour and 40 minutes, the filter is completed. The purified water was added to a final wash the filter cake. The liquid was removed by drying under vacuum for about 10 minutes. In vacuo and then the cake was dried for about 2 hours and 5 minutes, and then sampled using liquid chromatography. The cake purity liquid chromatography were about 99.5% and 99.6%. After the cake was then dried in vacuo for about 2 hours and 5 minutes, the wet cake (191.5 kg) is transferred to an air oven. At about 50-55. C under dry in an air oven for about 48 hours. The product was isolated in a total yield of about 92.5% (179.7 kg).

Lot 3

The 3-cyano-benzoic acid methyl ester (52.5 kg) and molten tert-butanol (228 kg) added to the reaction vessel. The vessel was sealed, the batch temperature set of about 40-45 ° C, and the stirrer is started. Under an inert atmosphere, after 2 hours 40 minutes, 50% of the shoes amine solution (24 kg) was added to the reactor. During the addition, the temperature is maintained at about 40-45 ° C. In about 42. Under C, then further stirred for about 5 hours to complete the reaction.

The batch was cooled to 30-35 ° C, and after 15 minutes, was added triethylamine (36 kg). After about 2 hours 44 minutes, was added 2-fluorobenzoyl chloride (57 kg). During the addition, batch temperature was maintained at about 30-35 ° C.Under the 32t, the batch was stirred for 2 hours 10 minutes to complete the reaction.

After about 50 minutes, the batch was heated to reflux temperature (about 83-86 ° C), at about 8rc, stirred for about 18 hours. Then, over about two hours, the batch was cooled to about 65-70 ° C, and after about 6 hours 25 minutes, slowly added to purified water (315 L), while the batch temperature was maintained at about 65- 70 ° C. After about 2 hours and 15 minutes, the slurry was cooled to about 22 ° C, and the contents were transferred to a centrifuge filter (2 batches). About 1 hour and 40 minutes, the filter is completed. After about 20 minutes, with about 50% aqueous solution of tert-butyl alcohol (90 kg / cake), dried cake. The purified water (79 kg / cake) as the last added to the filter cake washed. At about 900 rpm drying the cake for about 1 hour and 5 minutes, then filled cylinder. Liquid chromatography wet cake (91.5 kg, LOD = 5% w / w) of a purity of about 99.75% area.

3- ‘5- (2-fluorophenyl) -fl, 2,41 oxadiazol-3-yl l- acid batch 1

3- [5- (2-fluorophenyl) – [l, 2,4] oxadiazol-3-yl] – benzoic acid methyl ester (74.0kg) added to the reaction vessel, the vessel is sealed, evacuated and purification. Jacket set value of about 35. C, start the stirrer in the container. Molten tert-butanol (222 L, 3 volumes) and purified water (355 L, 4.8 vol) was added to the vessel. After the addition was added 25.1% w / w aqueous sodium hydroxide solution (43.5 kg, 1.1 molar equivalents), and with additional purified water (100L, 1.35 mol) was washed linear. During the addition, the batch temperature from about 39.0t reduced to about 38.8 ° C. After about 1 hour and 54 minutes, the batch temperature to about 63-67. C, and then, after about 30 minutes, which was adjusted to about 68-72.C. About 68-72t, stirring the mixture for about 3 hours. Then, after about five hours 11 minutes, the solution was cooled to about 40-45 ° C. Then, after the above process, after about three hours 33 minutes, the solution was then heated to about 68-72. C.

Jacket temperature of the reaction vessel was set to about 60 ° C, the stirrer started, and at about 70 ° C, a slightly positive pressure of nitrogen (1.5 to 5.6 psig), the heat transfer liquid through a micron filter . During the transfer, the product temperature is reduced to about 64.3 ° C, the transfer is completed in about 45 minutes. Was added to the purified water container (61 L, 0.82 vol) and the contents were heated to about 68-72. C.

The batch temperature was adjusted to about 69.4 ° C, and after about four hours and 18 minutes, with 13.9% w / w sulfuric acid (100.7 kg, 1.15 mol equiv.). During the addition, batch temperature was maintained at about 68.0-70.8 ° C. After the addition of the acid, with purified water (50 L, 0.68 vol) line wash at about 68-72 ° C, the stirring was continued for 31 minutes.

After about 4 hours and 10 minutes, the batch in a linear fashion from about 69.2t cooled to about 41.2 ° C. The stirrer Rosenmund filter / dryer was elevated to the highest position and jacket set value is set at about 40 ° C. The slurry was transferred to the two portions of the filter / drier. Applying a constant nitrogen pressure to the first portion (less than about 15 psig). During the transfer, a pressure of about 23.9 to about 28.8 psi, the transfer is complete in about 1 hour and 5 minutes. The second part of the slurry was transferred onto the filter cake, and the composite was stirred briefly to homogenize the batch. Use about 26.1 to about 29.1 psi nitrogen pressure filters the second part, after about three hours, squeeze the cake so that it does not contain liquid. With about 38-42 ° C hot tert-butanol solution (352 kg, 5 volumes) and about 65-70 ° C in 3x hot purified water (370 L, 5 volumes) and the filter 々.

Said filter / dryer jacket temperature was set to about 43 ° C, the product was dried under vacuum for about 26 hours while stirring periodically. Determination of purity of about 99.7%. The product was isolated in a total yield of about 74.4% (52.45 kg).

Batch 2

Was added to the reactor vessel 3- [5- (2-fluorophenyl) – [1,2,4] oxadiazol-3-yl] – benzoic acid methyl ester (47 kg, wet cake) and melt-hyun tert-butyl alcohol (111.4 kg). A sealed container, and the batch temperature was set at 30-40t, and start the stirrer. The purified water (51.6 kg) was added to the vessel. After the addition was added 3.47% w / w aqueous sodium hydroxide solution (202.4 kg). After about l hour, the batch temperature to about 67-73. C, then, at about 7 (under TC, stirred for about three hours.

Under a slight positive pressure of nitrogen, with a 1 micron polypropylene bag filter the batch, and then transferred to the new reactor. Was added to the vessel pure water (146 kg), and heating the batch to about 68-72. C.

After about four hours, the 10.7% aqueous hydrochloric acid was added to the batch. During the addition, batch temperature was maintained at about 68-72 ° C. PH was measured by using the batch pH of about 2.2, and then stirring was continued at about 7 (under TC about 1 hour.

After about two hours, the batch in a linear fashion from about 70. C is cooled to about 60 ° C. After about two hours, about 60. C of the batch in a linear fashion from about 6 (TC was cooled to about 40 ° C. In 40t, the batch was stirred for 2 hours, and the slurry was transferred to a centrifuge filter. After about 30 minutes, filtered completion . After about 30 minutes, with about 42Mw / w in t-butanol solution (165kg) cake was washed. The purified water (118kg, 4 (TC) as the last added to the filter cake was washed. The filter cake was dried at about 900rpm about 1 hour, then filled cylinder.

The wet cake was transferred to a paddle dryer (a double cone drier also suitable for this step), the jacket temperature was set to about 70. C. At about 70. C, the product was dried under vacuum for about 48 hours while stirring periodically.Determination of purity of about 99.8%. The product was isolated overall yield of about 74% (68.5 kg).

Lot 3

To the reaction vessel was added 3- [5- (2-fluorophenyl) – [1,2,4] oxadiazol-3-yl] – benzoic acid methyl ester (10 g) and t-butanol fused (128mL ). The batch temperature was set to 30-40 ° C, and the stirrer is started. After about 30 minutes, the aqueous sodium hydroxide solution 4.48% w / w of (32.5 g) was added to the vessel. The batch was maintained at a temperature of about 40-50 ° C. After about l hour, the batch temperature is raised to about 78-82 ° C, and then, at about 78-82t, and then stirred for about one hour. Under positive pressure of nitrogen, a polyethylene bag with a 5 micron filter the batch, and then transferred to a new reaction vessel. The batch was maintained at a temperature of about 78-82 ° C.

It was added to a new vessel 37% aqueous hydrochloric acid (4 mL) and tert-butanol molten (8 mL). The temperature was maintained at about 30-40. Under C, and stirring the mixture for about 30 minutes.

After about four hours, using a metering pump was added to the batch of hydrochloric acid in tert-butanol. After about SO-SO minutes before adding half filled. The stirrer speed is set at about 200rpm. After about 3.5 hours, add the remaining charge. The stirrer speed is set at about 100 rpm. During the addition, batch temperature was maintained at about 78-82 ° C.PH meter with a final batch pH was adjusted to about 1.2, at about 78-82t, then continue stirring for about l hour. After about one hour, the batch in a linear fashion from about 78-82. C is cooled to about 70 ° C. After about four hours, about 7 (TC batches in a linear fashion from 70.C cooled to about 50 ° C, and the stirrer speed was set at about 80 rpm. After about four hours, about 50 ° C Batch linearly cooled from 50 ° C to about 40t, and stirrer speed was set at approximately 60rpm. In 40.C, the batch was stirred for a further 4 hours.

The temperature of the filter is set to about 40-45 ° C. The slurry was transferred to the filter. After about one minute to complete filtration. After about two minutes, with tert-butanol (50 mL, 50.C) washing the filter cake. The pure water (IOO mLx2, 60.C) as the last wash was added to the cake. Under vacuum at about 60-70 ° C the cake was dried for about 12 hours, and then loaded into the container.

Determination of HPLC purity of about 99.9% of the area. The yield of isolated product was about 94% (9.0g).

3- “5- (2-fluorophenyl) -” 1,2,41-oxadiazol-3-yl 1- acid: One-pot

The methyl 3-cyanophenyl Yue (7.35 g) and tert-butanol molten (100 mL) added to the reactor vessel. Sealed containers, the batch temperature was set to 60 ° C, and the stirrer is started. The suspension was stirred for 1 hour and then the batch temperature was set to 40. C. Under an inert atmosphere, after three hours, 50% aqueous solution of hydroxylamine (3.63 g) was added to the reactor. During the addition, batch temperature was maintained at 38-41 ° C. 40. C After stirring for 18 hours, to complete the reaction.

The batch was cooled to 27 ° C, and after two minutes, triethylamine (5.56 g). After 3 hours, was added 2-fluorobenzoyl chloride (7.82 g). During the addition, batch temperature was maintained at 24-27 ° C. 40. C, the batch was stirred for a further 4 hours.

After 30 minutes, the batch was heated to 79 ° C, and at about 79. C was stirred for 16 hours. After 3 hours, the white suspension was added to the water (IOO mL), while the batch temperature was maintained at 70 ° C. After 20 minutes, a 37% aqueous hydrochloric acid were added to the batch. PH was measured by using the batch pH of about 2.2, stirring was continued at about 70t for about 1 hour.

After three hours, the batch in a linear manner from 7 (TC cooled to 30 ° C, and the slurry is transferred to the filter. After 5 minutes, the filtering is done. After five minutes, with tert-butanol (50mL, 40 .C) filter cake was washed. The purified water (IOO mL, 60.C) is added to a final wash the filter cake. In 70.C of the filter cake was dried in a vacuum oven for 18 hours and then removed. Determination of purity approximately 98.68%. The total yield of isolated product of about 76% (10.8g).

PICS

A large-scale, multinational, phase 3 trial of the experimental drug ataluren has opened its first trial site, in Cincinnati, Ohio.
The trial is recruiting boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) or Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) caused by anonsense mutation —  also known as a premature stop codon — in the dystrophin gene. This type of mutation causes cells to stop synthesizing a protein before the process is complete, resulting in a short, nonfunctional protein. Nonsense mutations are believed to cause DMD or BMD in approximately 10 to 15 percent of boys with these disorders.
Ataluren — sometimes referred to as a stop codon read-through drug — has the potential to overcome the effects of a nonsense mutation and allow functional dystrophin — the muscle protein that’s missing in Duchenne MD and deficient in Becker MD — to be produced.
The orally delivered drug is being developed by PTC Therapeutics, a South Plainfield, N.J., biotechnology company, to whichMDA gave a $1.5 million grant in 2005.
PTC124 has been developed by PTC Therapeutics.

References

  1. Welch EM, Barton ER, Zhuo J, Tomizawa Y, Friesen WJ, Trifillis P, Paushkin S, Patel M, Trotta CR, Hwang S, Wilde RG, Karp G, Takasugi J, Chen G, Jones S, Ren H, Moon YC, Corson D, Turpoff AA, Campbell JA, Conn MM, Khan A, Almstead NG, Hedrick J, Mollin A, Risher N, Weetall M, Yeh S, Branstrom AA, Colacino JM, Babiak J, Ju WD, Hirawat S, Northcutt VJ, Miller LL, Spatrick P, He F, Kawana M, Feng H, Jacobson A, Peltz SW, Sweeney HL (May 2007). “PTC124 targets genetic disorders caused by nonsense mutations”. Nature 447 (7140): 87–91. Bibcode:2007Natur.447…87W.doi:10.1038/nature05756. PMID 17450125.
  2.  Hirawat S, Welch EM, Elfring GL, Northcutt VJ, Paushkin S, Hwang S, Leonard EM, Almstead NG, Ju W, Peltz SW, Miller LL (Apr 2007). “Safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of PTC124, a nonaminoglycoside nonsense mutation suppressor, following single- and multiple-dose administration to healthy male and female adult volunteers”. Journal of clinical pharmacology 47 (4): 430–444.doi:10.1177/0091270006297140. PMID 17389552.
  3.  Nature. 2007 May 3;447(7140):87-91.
  4.  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Feb 12;105(6):2064-9.
  5.  Neuromuscul Disord. 2015 Jan;25(1):5-13.
  6. Wilschanski, M. (2013). “Novel therapeutic approaches for cystic fibrosis”. Discovery Medicine 15 (81): 127–133. PMID 23449115.
  7.  “PTC Therapeutics and Genzyme Corporation announce preliminary results from the phase 2b clinical trial of ataluren for nonsense mutation Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy (NASDAQ:PTCT)”. Ptct.client.shareholder.com. Retrieved 2013-11-28.
  8.  Wilschanski, M.; Miller, L. L.; Shoseyov, D.; Blau, H.; Rivlin, J.; Aviram, M.; Cohen, M.; Armoni, S.; Yaakov, Y.; Pugatsch, T.; Cohen-Cymberknoh, M.; Miller, N. L.; Reha, A.; Northcutt, V. J.; Hirawat, S.; Donnelly, K.; Elfring, G. L.; Ajayi, T.; Kerem, E. (2011). “Chronic ataluren (PTC124) treatment of nonsense mutation cystic fibrosis”. European Respiratory Journal 38 (1): 59–69. doi:10.1183/09031936.00120910. PMID 21233271.Sermet-Gaudelus, I.; Boeck, K. D.; Casimir, G. J.; Vermeulen, F.; Leal, T.; Mogenet, A.; Roussel, D.; Fritsch, J.; Hanssens, L.; Hirawat, S.; Miller, N. L.; Constantine, S.; Reha, A.; Ajayi, T.; Elfring, G. L.; Miller, L. L. (November 2010). “Ataluren (PTC124) induces cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein expression and activity in children with nonsense mutation cystic fibrosis”. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 182 (10): 1262–1272. doi:10.1164/rccm.201001-0137OC. PMID 20622033.
  9.  “PTC Therapeutics Completes Enrollment of Phase 3 Trial of Ataluren in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis (NASDAQ:PTCT)”. Ptct.client.shareholder.com. 2010-12-21. Retrieved2013-11-28.
  10. http://www.marketwatch.com/story/ptc-therapeutics-receives-positive-opinion-from-chmp-for-translarna-ataluren-2014-05-23
  11.  “PTC Therapeutics Announces Launch of Translarna™ (ataluren) in Germany”.marketwatch.com. 3 Dec 2014. Retrieved 27 Dec 2014.
  12.  “NICE asks for further evidence for the benefits of a new treatment for Duchenne muscular dystrophy to justify its very high cost”.
  13. http://uk.reuters.com/article/us-ptc-therapeutics-fda-idUKKCN0VW1FG

External links

References:
1. Ryan, N. J. Ataluren: first global approval. Drugs 2014, 74(14), 1709-14. (FMO only)
2. Gupta, P. K.; et. al. A metal-free tandem approach to prepare structurally diverse N-heterocycles: synthesis of 1,2,4-oxadiazoles and pyrimidinones. New J Chem 2014, 38, 3062-3070 (FMO only)
3. Almstead, N. G.; et. al. Methods for the production of functional protein from dna having a nonsense mutation and the treatment of disorders associated therewith. WO2007117438A2

WO2004091502A2 Apr 9, 2004 Oct 28, 2004 Ptc Therapeutics, Inc. 1,2,4-oxadiazole benzoic acid compounds
Citing Patent Filing date Publication date Applicant Title
US8486982 Jun 22, 2012 Jul 16, 2013 Ptc Therapeutics, Inc. 1,2,4-oxadiazole benzoic acids
US8796322 Jun 19, 2013 Aug 5, 2014 Ptc Therapeutics, Inc. Methods for using 1,2,4-oxadiazole benzoic acid compounds
US8975287 Jun 18, 2014 Mar 10, 2015 Ptc Therapeutics, Inc. Methods for using 1,2,4-Oxadiazole benzoic acid compounds
US9205088 Jan 28, 2015 Dec 8, 2015 Ptc Therapeutics, Inc. Compositions of 1,2,4-oxadiazol benzoic acid compounds and methods for their use
US9289398 Mar 29, 2007 Mar 22, 2016 Ptc Therapeutics, Inc. Methods for the production of functional protein from DNA having a nonsense mutation and the treatment of disorders associated therewith
Preparation CN101535284A CN101535284B
10 Crystal CN101541770A
11 Crystal CN104341371A
12 Crystal CN102382075A
Formula CN1802360A CN1802360B
2 Combination CN104056278A
3 Indication CN101076703A
4 Indication CN101076332A
5 Indication CN101076337A
6 Indication CN101193632A
7 Formulation CN103720688A
8 Indication CN101505739A

Ataluren
Ataluren.svg
Ataluren ball-and-stick model.png
Names
IUPAC name

3-[5-(2-Fluorophenyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl]benzoic acid
Other names

PTC124
Identifiers
775304-57-9 
ChEMBL ChEMBL256997 Yes
ChemSpider 9394889 Yes
7341
Jmol 3D model Interactive image
KEGG D09323 Yes
PubChem 11219835
UNII K16AME9I3V Yes
Properties
C15H9FN2O3
Molar mass 284.24 g/mol
Pharmacology
M09AX03 (WHO)
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).

///////ORPHAN DRUG, Ataluren, Translarna, Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, EU, 775304-57-9, PTC Therapeutics, PTC 124

O=C(O)c1cccc(c1)c2nc(on2)c3ccccc3F

Recilisib Sodium, EX-RAD


Recilisib Sodium

Phase I

C16H12ClNaO4S
Molecular Weight: 358.771849 g/mol

Recilisib sodium.png

A protein kinase inhibitor potentially for the treatment of acute radiation syndrome.

sodium;4-[(E)-2-[(4-chlorophenyl)methylsulfonyl]ethenyl]benzoate

Onc-01210; ON-01210.Na, Ex-RAD; ON 01210.Na; ON-01210; ON-01210-Na; Recilisib

CAS No. 334969-03-8(free)

CAS 922139-31-9(Recilisib sodium)

Benzoic acid, 4-[(1E)-2-[[(4-chlorophenyl)methyl]sulfonyl]ethenyl]-, sodium salt (1:1)

Onconova Therapeutics Inc, Univ Temple INNOVATOR

Stephen C Cosenza, Lawrence Helson,Premkumar E Reddy, Ramana M V Reddy  INVENTORS

Company Onconova Therapeutics Inc.
Description Synthetic, low molecular weight radioprotectant that modulates DNA repair pathways
Molecular Target DNA
Mechanism of Action Radioprotectant
Therapeutic Modality Small molecule
Latest Stage of Development Phase I
Standard Indication Poisoning
Indication Details Prevent radiation poisoning; Provide radation protection; Treat and prevent acute radiation syndrome (ARS)
  • Originator Onconova Therapeutics
  • Class Radioprotectives; Small molecules; Sulfonamides
  • Mechanism of Action Apoptosis inhibitors; Protein kinase inhibitors
  • Orphan Drug Status Yes – Acute radiation syndrome
  • Phase I Acute radiation syndrome

Most Recent Events

  • 22 Apr 2016 Phase I development is ongoing in the US (PO & SC)
  • 20 Mar 2014 Recilisib receives Orphan Drug status for Acute radiation syndrome in USA
  • 03 Oct 2012 Phase-I clinical trials in Acute radiation syndrome in USA (PO)

Ex-Rad (or Ex-RAD), also known by the code name ON 01210.Na, or recilisib sodium (INN, USAN) is a drug developed by Onconova Therapeutics and the U.S. Department of Defense.[1][2] This newly developed compound is said to be a potent radiation protection agent.  Chemically, it is the sodium salt of 4-carboxystyryl-4-chlorobenzylsulfone.[3]

Clinical trials

The results of two Phase I clinical studies in healthy human volunteers indicate that subcutaneously injected Ex-Rad is safe and well tolerated, with “no evidence of systemic side effects”.[4] A study in mice demonstrated the efficacy of Ex-Rad by increasing the survival rate of mice exposed to typically lethal whole-body irradiation. The study tested oral and parenteral administration of Ex-Rad for both pre- and post-exposure radiomitigation.[1]

Research on Ex-Rad has involved collaboration with the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI), the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular & Cellular Biology at Georgetown University, Long Island University‘s Arnold & Marie Schwartz College of Pharmacy, and the Department of Oncological Sciences at the Mt. Sinai School of Medicine.[1]

Mechanism of action

Onconova suggests that Ex-Rad protects cells exposed to radiation against DNA damage, and that the drug’s mechanism of action does not involve scavenging free radicals or arresting the cell cycle. Instead, they claim it employs a “novel mechanism” involving “intracellular signaling, damage sensing, and DNA repair pathways”.[4] Ex-RAD is a chlorobenzylsulfone derivative that works after free radicals have damaged DNA. Onconova CEO Ramesh Kumar believes this is a better approach than trying to scavenge free radicals. “Free radicals are very short-lived, and so the window of opportunity to give a drug is very narrow,” he says. In cell and animal models, Ex-RAD protects hematopoieticand gastrointestinal tissues from radiation injury when given either before or after exposure.[5]

While anti-radiation suits or other protective gear may be effective at reducing radiation exposure, such gear is expensive, unwieldy, and generally not available to public. Moreover, radioprotective gear will not protect normal tissue adjacent to a tumor from stray radiation exposure during radiotherapy. Pharmaceutical radioprotectants offer a cost-efficient, effective and easily available alternative to radioprotective gear. However, previous attempts at radioprotection of normal cells with pharmaceutical compositions have not been entirely successful. For example, cytokines directed at mobilizing the peripheral blood progenitor cells confer a myeloprotective effect when given prior to radiation (Neta et al., Semin. Radiat. Oncol. 6:306-320, 1996), but do not confer systemic protection. Other chemical radioprotectors administered alone or in combination with biologic response modifiers have shown minor protective effects in mice, but application of these compounds to large mammals was less successful, and it was questioned whether chemical radioprotection was of any value (Maisin, J. R., Bacq and Alexander Award Lecture. “Chemical radioprotection: past, present, and future prospects”, Int J. Radiat Biol. 73:443-50, 1998). Pharmaceutical radiation sensitizers, which are known to preferentially enhance the effects of radiation in cancerous tissues, are clearly unsuited for the general systemic protection of normal tissues from exposure to ionizing radiation.

The major biological effects of radiation exposure are the destruction of bone marrow cells, gastrointestinal (GI) damage, lung pneumonitis, and central nervous system (CNS) damage. The long-term effects of radiation exposure include an increase in cancer rates. It has been estimated that the exposure of 100 rems (roentgen equivalent man: a measurement used to quantify the amount of radiation that would produce harmful biological effects) would produce ARS symptoms. Exposure levels above 300 rems would result in the death of approximately 50% of the exposed population.

The α,β-unsaturated aryl sulfones, in particular benzyl styryl sulfones, provide significant and selective systemic protection of normal cells from radiation-induced damage in animals. When used in radiotherapy techniques, these compounds also exhibit independent toxicity to cancer cells. These α,β-unsaturated aryl sulfones, in particular benzyl styryl sulfones, are described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,656,973 and 6,667,346, which are particularly incorporated herein by reference in their entirety. Although these compounds are stable in solid state their aqueous formulations for parenteral administration are pH sensitive and pose challenging hurdles to overcome physical stability. The most likely causative factor may be attributed to the reactive styryl sulfone conjugated double bond, which is prone to Michael addition by nucleophiles and eventual fallout of the conjugated addition product.

U.S. Patent No. 6,656,973, describes in vitro pharmacological effects of DMSO solubilization of a benzyl styryl sulfone (e.g. ON 01210.NA) but fails to disclose a composition comprising ON 01210. NA formulation and specifically, a shelf stable formulation which is suitable for administration to humans.

PCT Application WO 2007/016201 describes pharmaceutical solution compositions for parenteral administration for reducing toxic effects of ionizing radiation in a subject, comprising an effective amount of at least one radioprotective α,β-Unsaturated aryl sulfone, and at least one component selected from the group consisting of a) a water soluble polymer in an amount between about 0.5% and about 90% w/v, b) at least one chemically modified cyclodextrin in an amount between about 20% and about 60% w/v, and c) DMA in an amount between 10% and about 50% w/v.

U.S. Patent Application 20090247624, and corresponding PCT Application WO 2008/105808, are directed to aqueous solutions, which comprise between about 20 mg/ml to about 100 mg/ml of at least one α,β-unsaturated aryl sulfone (e.g., the compound ON 01210. Na ((E)-4-Carboxystyryl-4-chlorobenzylsulfone sodium salt, a cosolvent in an amount between about 25% and about 90% w/v (e.g., about 50% PEG 400), wherein the composition is buffered and exists within the range of about pH 7.0 to about pHIO (e.g., 0.2M Tris-EDTA, pH about 8.5). The aforementioned solution formulations have exhibited a sub-optimal shelf life and lack a preferred degree of solubility and/or stability. These formulations evolved progressively as a result of addressing the most challenging aspects in the formulation and drug development field, namely, solubility and stability parameters that defined the long term viability of these formulations. There seems to be a delicate balance between pH, solubility and stability of the active moiety in aqueous milieu, wherein achieving such balance and development of a shelf stable aqueous formulation has presented a formidable challenge. Therefore, a shelf stable effective solution formulation that prevents the breakdown of the therapeutically active entity and keeps the drug in the solution at the desired pH was most desired and significant effort was directed towards this goal.

What is needed therefore, is a shelf stable effective solution formulation of radioprotective α,β-unsaturated aryl sulfones that prevents the breakdown of the therapeutically active entity and keeps the drug in the solution at the desired pH. This invention solves these and other long felt needs by providing improved solution formulation of radioprotective α,β- unsaturated aryl sulfones having improved physical and chemical stability and enhanced shelf life.

SYNTHESIS BY WORLDDRUGTRACKER

STR1

PATENT

WO 2011119863

An exemplary species of a radioprotective α,β-unsaturated aryl sulfone is ON 01210.Na. ON 01210.Na is a derivative of chlorobenzylsulfone. This compound is described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,656,973 and 6,667,346 as exhibiting valuable prophylactic properties which mitigate the effects of accidental and intentional exposure to life-threatening levels of irradiation. Hence, a systematic development of this compound is described with the objective of developing a shelf stable formulation.

Table 1 describes the general physical properties of ON. 1210. Na. The exemplary compound is a sodium salt of (E)-4-Carboxystyryl-4-chlorobenzylsulfone.

TABLE 1

Physical Properties of ON.1210.Na

Chemical Structure

Figure imgf000018_0001

Chemical Name (E)-4-Carboxystyryl-4-chlorobenzylsulfone,

Sodium Salt

Empirical Formula C16H12ClNa04S

Molecular Weight 358.79

Physical Nature White crystalline flakes

Melting Point 354-356° C.

Solubility Soluble in water at 8-10 mg/ml

The compound ON 01210. Na appears to form at least one polymorph. X-ray diffraction pattern, for example, of precipitated ON 01210. Na is different from that of the originally synthesized compound. Polymorphs of ON 01210.Na are intended to be within the scope of the claims appended hereto.

EXAMPLE 1

Preparation of ON 01210. Na

4-Chlorobenzyl-4-carboxystyryl sulfone (ON 01210) (49 g; 0.145 mol) was taken in a one-liter conical flask and 500 ml of distilled water was added. Sodium hydroxide solution (16 ml: 10 M stock) (0.150 mol.) was added to the conical flask. The contents of the flask were then boiled with stirring till ON 01210 was completely dissolved. The solution was then cooled to room temperature and shining crystals separated were filtered through a fluted filter paper. The crystalline material was dried under vacuum to yield (48 g) (92% yield) of pure ON 1210. Na.

EXAMPLE II

Preparation of ON 01210. Na Formulation A (Without Vitamin E TPGS)

TRIS (968.0 mg), EDTA (233.8 mg), and deionized (DI) water (24 ml) were combined in a beaker equipped with a Teflon coated stirring bar. The mixture was stirred until complete dissolution occurred, and the resulting solution was covered with aluminum foil and allowed to stir gently overnight at room temperature. The following morning, PEG 400 NF (40.0 ml) was added to the TRIS/EDTA aqueous solution with continued stirring. The vessel containing PEG 400 NF was rinsed with DI water (2 x 3.2 ml), and the rinsate added to the formulation mixture. After stirring the mixture to homogeneity (approx. 10 minutes), the pH was measured to be 9.46 using a calibrated electronic pH meter. The pH was adjusted to 8.37 (target pH = 8.40) by the careful addition of 98 pipet drops of 1.0 M HCl (aq) with stirring and allowed to fully equilibrate over a 10-15 minute period. Once the pH steadied at 8.37, ON 01210. Na (4.0 g) was added to the stirring formulation mixture. Complete dissolution required vigorous stirring and brief periodic sonication to break up ON 01210.Na clumps over a two hour period. After complete dissolution of ON 01210. Na, DI water (approx. 5 ml) was added to bring the final volume to approximately 80 milliliters. The pH of the resulting solution was determined to be 8.31, and thus 20 pipet drops of 1.0N NaOH(aq) were added to adjust the final formulation batch (defined as ON 01210.Na Formulation A) pH to 8.41-8.42. Formulation A was 0.22 micron filtered using a 100 ml Gastight Syringe equipped with a Millex®GP filter unit (Millipore Express® PES Membrane; Lot No R8KN13888).

PATENT

WO 2008105808

PATENT

WO 2007016201 

PATENT

WO 2002069892

The α,β unsaturated aryl sulfones are characterized by cis-trans isomerism resulting from the presence of one or more double bonds. The compounds are named according to the Cahn-Ingold-Prelog system, the IUPAC 1974 Recommendations, Section E: Stereochemistry, in Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY, 4th ed., 1992, p.

127-138. Stearic relations around a double bond are designated as “Z” or “E”.

(E)-α,β unsaturated aryl sulfones may be prepared by Knoevenagel condensation of aromatic aldehydes with benzylsulfonyl acetic acids or arylsulfonyl acetic acids. The procedure is described by Reddy et al, Ada. Chim. Hung. 115:269-71 (1984); Reddy et al, Sulfur Letters 13:83-90 (1991); Reddy et al, Synthesis No. 4, 322-23 (1984); and Reddy et al, Sulfur Letters 7:43-48 (1987), the entire disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference.
According to the Scheme 1 below, Ra and Rb each represent from zero to five substituents on the depicted aromatic nucleus. For purposes of illustration, and not limitation, the aryl groups are represented as phenyl groups, that is, the synthesis is exemplified by the preparation of styryl benzylsulfones. Accordingly, the benzyl thioacetic acid B is formed by the reaction of sodium thioglycollate and a benzyl chloride A. The benzyl thioacetic acid B is then oxidized with 30% hydrogen peroxide to give a corresponding benzylsulfonyl acetic acid C. Condensation of the benzylsulfonyl acetic acid C with an aromatic aldehyde D via a Knoevenagel reaction in the presence of benzylamine and glacial acetic acid yields the desired (E)-styryl benzylsulfone E.

Scheme 1

The following is a more detailed two-part synthesis procedure for preparing (E)-styryl benzylsulfones according to the above scheme.

General Procedure 1: Synthesis (E)-Styryl Benzylsulfones
Part A. To a solution of (8g, 0.2 mol) sodium hydroxide in methanol (200 ml), thioglycollic acid (0.1 mol) is added slowly and the precipitate formed is dissolved by stirring the contents of the flask. Then an appropriately substituted benzyl chloride (0.1 mol) is added stepwise and the reaction mixture is refluxed for 2-3 hours. The cooled contents are poured onto crushed ice and neutralized with dilute hydrochloric acid (200 ml). The resulting corresponding benzylthioacetic acid (0.1 mol) is subjected to oxidation with 30% hydrogen peroxide (0.12 mol) in glacial acetic acid (125 ml) by refluxing for 1 hour. The contents are cooled and poured onto crushed ice. The separated solid is recrystalized from hot water to give the corresponding pure benzylsulfonylacetic acid.
Part B. A mixture of the benzylsulfonyl acetic acid (10 mmol), an appropriately substituted aromatic aldehyde (10 mmol), and benzylamine (0.2 ml) in glacial acetic acid (12 ml) is refluxed for 2-3 hours. The contents are cooled and treated with cold ether (50 ml). Any product precipitated out is separated by filtration. The filtrate is diluted with more ether and washed successively with a saturated solution of sodium bicarbonate (20 ml), sodium bisulfite (20 ml), dilute hydrochloric acid (20 ml) and finally with water (35 ml). Evaporation of the dried ethereal layer yields styryl benzylsulfones as a solid material.

According to an alternative to Part A, the appropriate benzylsulfonylacetic acids may be generated by substituting a thioglycollate

HSCH2COOR for thioglycollic acid, where R is an alkyl group, typically C1-C6 alkyl. This leads to the formation of the alkylbenzylthioacetate intermediate (F),

which is then converted to the corresponding benzyl thioacetic acid B by alkaline or acid hydrolysis.

(E)-styryl phenyl sulfones (formula I: n=zero; Qls Q2 = substituted or unsubstituted phenyl) are prepared according to the method of General Procedure 1, replacing the benzylsulfonyl acetic acid in Part B with the appropriate substituted or unsubstituted phenylsulfonyl acetic acid.

(Z)-Styryl benzylsulfones are prepared by the nucleophilic addition of the appropriate thiols to substituted phenylacetylene with subsequent oxidation of the resulting sulfide by hydrogen peroxide to yield the (Z)-styryl benzylsulfone. The procedure is generally described by Reddy et al., Sulfur Letters 13:83-90 (1991), the entire disclosure of which is incorporated herein as a reference.
In the first step of the (Z)-styryl benzylsulfones synthesis, the sodium salt of benzyl mercaptan or the appropriate substituted benzyl mercaptan is allowed to react with phenylacetylene or the appropriate substituted phenylacetylene forming the pure (Z)-isomer of the corresponding styryl benzylsulfide in good yield.
In the second step of the synthesis, the (Z)-styryl benzylsulfide intermediate is oxidized to the corresponding sulfone in the pure (Z)-isomeric form by treatment with hydrogen peroxide.
The following is a more detailed two-part synthesis procedure for preparing (Z)-styryl benzylsulfones:

Procedure 2: Synthesis of (Z)-Styryl Benzylsulfones
Part A. To a refluxing methanolic solution of substituted or unsubstituted sodium benzylthiolate prepared from 460 mg (0.02g atom) of (i) sodium, (ii) substituted or unsubstituted benzyl mercaptan (0.02 mol) and (iii) 80 ml of absolute methanol, is added freshly distilled substituted or unsubstituted phenylacetylene. The mixture is refluxed for 20 hours, cooled and then poured on crushed ice. The crude product is filtered, dried and recrystalized from methanol or aqueous methanol to yield a pure (Z)- styryl benzylsulfide.
Part B. An ice cold solution of the (Z)- styryl benzylsulfide (3.0g) in 30 ml of glacial acetic acid is treated with 7.5 ml of 30% hydrogen peroxide. The reaction mixture is refluxed for 1 hour and then poured on crushed ice. The separated solid is filtered, dried, and recrystalized from 2-propanol to yield the pure (Z)-styryl benzylsulfone. The purity of the compounds is ascertained by thin layer chromatography and geometrical configuration is assigned by analysis of infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectral data.

The bis(styryl) sulfones of formula IN are prepared according to Procedure 3:
Procedure 3
Synthesis of (E)(E)- and (E)(Z)-bis(Styryl) Sulfones
To freshly distilled phenyl acetylene (51.07 g, 0.5 mol) is added sodium thioglycollate prepared from thioglycollic acid (46 g, 0.5 mol) and sodium hydroxide (40 g, 1 mol) in methanol (250 ml). The mixture is refluxed for 24 hours and poured onto crushed ice (500 ml) after cooling. The styrylthioacetic acid, formed after neutralization with dilute hydrochloric acid (250 ml), is filtered and dried; yield 88 g (90%); m.p. 84-86°C.
The styrylthioacetic acid is then oxidized to styrylsulfonylacetic acid as follows. A mixture of styrylthioacetic acid (5 g, 25 mmol) in glacial acetic acid (35 ml) and 30% hydrogen peroxide (15 ml) is heated under reflux for 60 minutes and the mixture is poured onto crushed ice (200 ml) after cooling. The compound separated is filtered and recrystalized from hot water to give white crystalline flakes of (Z)-styrylsulfonylacetic acid; yield 2.4 g (41%); m.p. 150-51°C.
A solution of (Z)-styrylsulfonylacetic acid (2.263 g, 10 m mol) in glacial acetic acid (6 ml) is mixed with an aromatic aldehyde (10 mmol) and benzylamine (0.2 ml) and refluxed for 3 hours. The reaction mixture is cooled, treated with dry ether (50 ml), and any product separated is collected by filtration. The filtrate is diluted with more ether and washed successively with a saturated solution of sodium hydrogen carbonate (15 ml), sodium bisulfite (15 ml), dilute hydrochloric acid (20 ml) and finally with water (30 ml). Evaporation of the dried ethereal layer yields (E)(Z)-bis(styryl)sulfones.
(E),(E)-bis(styryl)sulfones are prepared following the same procedure as described above with exception that sulfonyldiacetic acid is used in place of (Z)-styrylsulfonylacetic acid, and twice the amount of aromatic aldehyde (20 mmol) is used.

The styryl sulfones of formula N, which are systematically identified as 2-(phenylsulfonyl)-l-phenyl-3-phenyl-2-propen-l-ones, may be prepared according to either Method A or Method B of Procedure 4:

Procedure 4
Synthesis of 2-(Phenylsulfonyl)-l-phenyl-3-phenyl-2-propen-l-ones
These compounds are synthesized by two methods which employ different reaction conditions, solvents and catalysts.
Method A: Phenacyl aryl sulfones are made by refluxing α-bromoacetophenones (0.05 mol) and sodium arylsulfinates (0.05 mol) in absolute ethanol (200 ml) for 6-8 hours. The product which separates on cooling is filtered and washed several times with water to remove sodium bromide. The product is then recrystalized from ethanol: phenacyl-phenyl sulfone, m.p. 90-91°C; phenacyl-p-fluorophenyl sulfone, m.p. 148-149°C; phenacyl-p-bromophenyl sulfone, m.p. 121-122°C; phenacyl-p-methoxyphenyl sulfone, m.p. 104-105°C; p-nitrophenacyl-phenyl sulfone, m.p. 136-137°C.
A solution of phenacyl aryl sulfone (0.01 mol) in acetic acid (10 ml) is mixed with an araldehyde (0.01 mol) and benzylamine (0.02 ml) and refluxed for 3 hours. The solution is cooled and dry ether (50 ml) is added. The ethereal solution is washed successively with dilute hydrochloric acid, aqueous 10% NaOH, saturated NaHSO3 solution and water. Evaporation of the dried ethereal layer gives a solid product which is purified by recrystallization.

Method B: Dry tetrahydrofuran (200 ml) is taken in a 500 ml conical flask flushed with nitrogen. To this, a solution of titanium (IN) chloride (11 ml, 0.01 mol) in absolute carbon tetrachloride is added dropwise with continuous stirring. The contents of the flask are maintained at -20°C throughout the course of the addition. A mixture of phenacyl aryl sulfone (0.01 mol) and aromatic aldehyde (0.01 mol) is added to the reaction mixture and pyridine (4 ml, 0.04 mol) in tetrahydrofuran (8 ml) is added slowly over a period of 1 hour. The contents are stirred for 10-12 hours, treated with water (50 ml) and then ether (50 ml) is added. The ethereal layer is separated and washed with 15 ml of saturated solutions of 10% sodium hydroxide, sodium bisulfite and brine. The evaporation of the dried ethereal layer yields 2-(phenylsulfonyl)-l-phenyl-3-phenyl-2 propen-l-ones.

PATENT

https://www.google.com/patents/CN104817488A?cl=en

The structure of this medicine formula (I) shown below,

Figure CN104817488AD00031

Wherein, R1 is absent or is halogen, C1-3 alkyl, alkoxy and -CF3; R2 is absent or is halogen, C1-3 alkyl, alkoxy and -cf3; structural formula (I) The method for the preparation of compounds as follows:

Figure CN104817488AD00041
WO2007016201A2 Jul 28, 2006 Feb 8, 2007 Onconova Therapeutics, Inc. FORMULATION OF RADIOPROTECTIVE α, β UNSATURATED ARYL SULFONES
WO2008105808A2 Jul 27, 2007 Sep 4, 2008 Onconova Therapeutics, Inc. FORMULATIONS OF RADIOPROTECTIVE α, β UNSATURATED ARYL SULFONES
US6656973 Nov 27, 2002 Dec 2, 2003 Temple University – Of The Commonwealth System Of Higher Education (E)-4-carboxystyrl-4-chlorobenzyl sulfone and pharmaceutical compositions thereof
US6667346 Feb 28, 2002 Dec 23, 2003 Temple University – Of The Commonwealth System Of Higher Education Method for protecting cells and tissues from ionizing radiation toxicity with α, β unsaturated aryl sulfones
US6982282 * May 17, 2002 Jan 3, 2006 Sonus Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Emulsion vehicle for poorly soluble drugs
US20090247624 Jul 27, 2007 Oct 1, 2009 Onconova Therapeutics Inc. Formulations of radioprotective alpha beta unsaturated aryl sulfones

References

  1. “Onconova Therapeutics presents new data demonstrating radioprotection by Ex-RAD at RRS annual meeting” (Press release). EurekAlert. 2010-09-27. Archived from the originalon 2011-03-22. Retrieved 2011-03-22.
  2.  Hipp, Van (2011-03-16). “Ex-Rad, the U.S. Military’s Radiation Wonder Drug”. FoxNews.com (FOX News Network). Archived from the original on 2011-03-26. Retrieved 2011-03-26.
  3.  Ghosh, Sanchita P.; Perkins, Michael W.; Hieber, Kevin; Kulkarni, Shilpa; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Reddy, E. Premkumar; Reddy, M. V Ramana; Maniar, Manoj; Seed, Thomas; Kumar, K. Sree (2009). “Radiation Protection by a New Chemical Entity, Ex-Rad™: Efficacy and Mechanisms”. Radiation Research 171 (2): 173–9. doi:10.1667/RR1367.1. PMID 19267542.
  4.  “Ex-RAD® for Protection from Radiation Injury”. Onconova Therapeutics. 2009. Archived from the original on 2011-03-22. Retrieved 2011-03-22.
  5.  http://cen.acs.org/articles/90/i26/Drugs-Never-Used.html[full citation needed]
  6.  Kouvaris, J. R.; Kouloulias, V. E.; Vlahos, L. J. (2007). “Amifostine: The First Selective-Target and Broad-Spectrum Radioprotector”. The Oncologist 12 (6): 738–47.doi:10.1634/theoncologist.12-6-738. PMID 17602063.
  7.  http://www.news-medical.net/news/20110323/Cellerant-commences-CLT-008-Phase-III-trial-in-patients-with-leukemia.aspx
  8.  Reliene, Ramune; Pollard, Julianne M.; Sobol, Zhanna; Trouiller, Benedicte; Gatti, Richard A.; Schiestl, Robert H. (2009). “N-acetyl cysteine protects against ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage but not against cell killing in yeast and mammals”. Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 665: 37. doi:10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2009.02.016.
  9. Mansour, Heba H.; Hafez, Hafez F.; Fahmy, Nadia M.; Hanafi, Nemat (2008). “Protective effect of N-acetylcysteine against radiation induced DNA damage and hepatic toxicity in rats”.Biochemical Pharmacology 75 (3): 773–80. doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2007.09.018. PMID 18028880.
  10.  Demirel, C; Kilçiksiz, S; Ay, OI; Gürgül, S; Ay, ME; Erdal, N (2009). “Effect of N-acetylcysteine on radiation-induced genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in rat bone marrow”. Journal of radiation research 50 (1): 43–50. doi:10.1269/jrr.08066. PMID 19218780.
  11.  Demirel, C; Kilciksiz, S; Evirgen-Ayhan, S; Gurgul, S; Erdal, N (2010). “The preventive effect of N-acetylcysteine on radiation-induced dermatitis in a rat model”. Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology 15 (3): 577–82. PMID 20941831.
  12. Geiger, Hartmut; Pawar, Snehalata A; Kerschen, Edward J; Nattamai, Kalpana J; Hernandez, Irene; Liang, Hai Po H; Fernández, Jose Á; Cancelas, Jose A; Ryan, Marnie A; Kustikova, Olga; Schambach, Axel; Fu, Qiang; Wang, Junru; Fink, Louis M; Petersen, Karl-Uwe; Zhou, Daohong; Griffin, John H; Baum, Christopher; Weiler, Hartmut; Hauer-Jensen, Martin (2012).“Pharmacological targeting of the thrombomodulin–activated protein C pathway mitigates radiation toxicity”. Nature Medicine 18 (7): 1123–9. doi:10.1038/nm.2813. PMC 3491776.PMID 22729286.

External links

Patent ID Date Patent Title
US2015265549 2015-09-24 STABLE AQUEOUS FORMULATION OF (E)-4-CARBOXYSTYRYL-4-CHLOROBENZYL SULFONE
US2015238448 2015-08-27 FORMULATION OF RADIOPROTECTIVE ALPHA, BETA UNSATURATED ARYL SULFONES
US2013012588 2013-01-10 COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS FOR PREVENTION AND TREATEMENT OF WOUNDS
US2013012589 2013-01-10 STABLE AQUEOUS FORMULATION OF (E)-4-CARBOXYSTYRYL-4-CHLOROBENZYL SULFONE
US2011250184 2011-10-13 METHODS FOR DETERMINING EFFICACY OF A THERAPEUTIC REGIMEN AGAINST DELETERIOUS EFFECTS OF CYTOTOXIC AGENTS IN HUMAN
US2011028504 2011-02-03 Formulation of radioprotective alpha beta unsaturated aryl sulfones
US2009247624 2009-10-01 FORMULATIONS OF RADIOPROTECTIVE ALPHA BETA UNSATURATED ARYL SULFONES
Ex-Rad
Ex-rad.png
Identifiers
922139-31-9 Yes
PubChem 23668369
Properties
C16H12ClNaO4S
Molar mass 358.77 g·mol−1

//////////Onc-01210,  ON-01210.Na, 334969-03-8,  922139-31-9, Recilisib Sodium, Phase I , A protein kinase inhibitor,   treatment of acute radiation syndrome, Orphan Drug Status, Ex-RAD

C1=CC(=CC=C1CS(=O)(=O)C=CC2=CC=C(C=C2)C(=O)[O-])Cl.[Na+]

AMG 900, An aurora kinase (ARK) inhibitor potentially for the treatment of leukemia and solid tumours


AMG-900

N-(4-((3-(2-aminopyrimidin-4-yl)pyridin-2-yl)oxy)phenyl)-4-(4-methylthiophen-2-yl)phthalazin-1-amine.

N-(4-(3-(2-Aminopyrimidin-4-yl)pyridin-2-yloxy)phenyl)-4-(4-methylthiophen-2-yl)phthalazin-1-amine

Phase I

Amgen Inc. INNOVATOR

Inventors Victor J. Cee, Holly L. Deak, Bingfan Du,Stephanie D. Geuns-Meyer, Brian L. Hodous,Hanh Nho Nguyen, Philip R. Olivieri, Vinod F. Patel, Karina Romero, Laurie Schenkel,Less «
Applicant Amgen Inc.

An aurora kinase (ARK) inhibitor potentially for the treatment of leukemia and solid tumours.

CAS No. 945595-80-2

In 2014, orphan drug designation was assigned in the U.S. for the treatment of ovarian cancer

Molecular Formula: C28H21N7OS
Molecular Weight: 503.57764 g/mo
AMG 900; AMG-900; 945595-80-2; AMG900; UNII-9R2G075611; N-(4-((3-(2-aminopyrimidin-4-yl)pyridin-2-yl)oxy)phenyl)-4-(4-methylthiophen-2-yl)phthalazin-1-amine;

AMG 900 is a small-molecule inhibitor of Aurora kinases A, B and C with potential antineoplastic activity. Aurora kinase inhibitor AMG 900 selectively binds to and inhibits the activities of Aurora kinases A, B and C, which may result in inhibition of cellular division and proliferation in tumor cells that overexpress these kinases. Aurora kinases are serine-threonine kinases that play essential roles in mitotic checkpoint control during mitosis and are overexpressed by a wide variety of cancer cell types. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent

AMG 900 is a potent and highly selective pan-Aurora kinases inhibitor for Aurora A/B/C with IC50 of 5 nM/4 nM /1 nM;  >10-fold selective for Aurora kinases than p38α, Tyk2, JNK2, Met and Tie2.
IC50 Value: 5 nM(Aurora A); 4 nM(Aurora B); 1 nM(Aurora C)
Target: pan-Aurora
in vitro: AMG 900 is a novel class of ATP-competitive phthalazinamine small molecule inhibitors of aurora kinases. In HeLa cells, AMG 900 inhibits autophosphorylation of aurora-A and -B as well as phosphorylation of histone H3 on Ser, a proximal substrate of aurora-B. The predominant cellular response of tumor cells to AMG 900 treatment is aborted cell division without a prolonged mitotic arrest, which ultimately results in cell death. AMG 900 inhibits the proliferation of 26 tumor cell lines, including cell lines resistant to the antimitotic drug paclitaxel and to other aurora kinase inhibitors (AZD1152, MK-0457, and PHA-739358), at low nanomolar concentrations (about 2- 3 nM). Furthermore, AMG 900 is active in an AZD1152-resistant HCT116 variant cell line that harbors an aurora-B mutation (W221L) [1].
in vivo: Oral administration of AMG 900 blocks the phosphorylation of histone H3 in a dose-dependent manner and significantly inhibited the growth of HCT116 tumor xenografts. AMG 900 is broadly active in multiple xenograft models, including 3 multidrugresistant xenograft models, representing 5 tumor types [1]. AMG 900 exhibits a low-to-moderate clearance and a small volume of distribution. Its terminal elimination half-life ranged from 0.6 to 2.4 hours. AMG 900 is well-absorbed in fasted animals with an oral bioavailability of 31% to 107%. Food intake has an effect on rate (rats) or extent (dogs) of AMG 900 oral absorption. The clearance and volume of distribution at steady state in humans are predicted to be 27.3 mL/h/kg and 93.9 mL/kg, respectively. AMG 900 exhibits acceptable PK properties in preclinical species and is predicted to have low clearance in humans [2].

In mammalian cells, the aurora kinases (aurora-A, -B, and -C) play essential roles in regulating cell division. The expression of aurora-A and -B is elevated in a variety of human cancers and is associated with high proliferation rates and poor prognosis, making them attractive targets for anticancer therapy. AMG 900 is an orally bioavailable, potent, and highly selective pan-aurora kinase inhibitor that is active in taxane-resistant tumor cell lines. In tumor cells, AMG 900 inhibited autophosphorylation of aurora-A and -B as well as phosphorylation of histone H3 on Ser(10), a proximal substrate of aurora-B. The predominant cellular response of tumor cells to AMG 900 treatment was aborted cell division without a prolonged mitotic arrest, which ultimately resulted in cell death. AMG 900 inhibited the proliferation of 26 tumor cell lines, including cell lines resistant to the antimitotic drug paclitaxel and to other aurora kinase inhibitors (AZD1152, MK-0457, and PHA-739358), at low nanomolar concentrations. Furthermore, AMG 900 was active in an AZD1152-resistant HCT116 variant cell line that harbors an aurora-B mutation (W221L). Oral administration of AMG 900 blocked the phosphorylation of histone H3 in a dose-dependent manner and significantly inhibited the growth of HCT116 tumor xenografts. Importantly, AMG 900 was broadly active in multiple xenograft models, including 3 multidrug-resistant xenograft models, representing 5 tumor types. AMG 900 has entered clinical evaluation in adult patients with advanced cancers and has the potential to treat tumors refractory to anticancer drugs such as the taxanes.

MG 900 is an orally bioavailable, potent, and highly selective pan-aurora kinase inhibitor that is active in taxane-resistant tumor cell lines. In tumor cells, AMG 900 inhibited autophosphorylation of aurora-A and -B as well as phosphorylation of histone H3 on Ser10, a proximal substrate of aurora-B. The predominant cellular response of tumor cells to AMG 900 treatment was aborted cell division without a prolonged mitotic arrest, which ultimately resulted in cell death. AMG 900 inhibited the proliferation of 26 tumor cell lines, including cell lines resistant to the antimitotic drug paclitaxel and to other aurora kinase inhibitors (AZD1152, MK-0457, and PHA-739358), at low nanomolar concentrations. Furthermore, AMG 900 was active in an AZD1152-resistant HCT116 variant cell line that harbors an aurora-B mutation (W221L). Oral administration of AMG 900 blocked the phosphorylation of histone H3 in a dose-dependent manner and significantly inhibited the growth of HCT116 tumor xenografts. Importantly, AMG 900 was broadly active in multiple xenograft models, including 3 multidrug-resistant xenograft models, representing 5 tumor types. AMG 900 has entered clinical evaluation in adult patients with advanced cancers and has the potential to treat tumors refractory to anticancer drugs such as the taxanes. (Source: Cancer Res; 70(23); 9846–54.)

Clinical Information of AMG 900

Product Name Sponsor Only Condition Start Date End Date Phase Last Change Date
AMG 900 Amgen Inc Leukemia 31-JUL-11 31-JUL-14 Phase 1 14-SEP-13
Amgen Inc Advanced solid tumor 30-APR-09 30-JUN-13 Phase 1 10-SEP-13

AMG 900.png

PATENT

WO 2007087276

http://www.google.co.in/patents/WO2007087276A1?cl=en

PATENT

WO 2015084649

https://google.com/patents/WO2015084649A1?cl=en

The compound, N-(4-((3-(2-amino-4-pyrimidinyl)-2-pyridinyl)oxy)phenyl)- 4-(4-methyl-2-thienyl)-l-phthalazinamine, also chemically named as 4-((3-(2-amino- pyrimidin-4-yl)-pyridin-2-yl)oxy)phenyl-(4-(4-methyl-thiophen-2-yl)-phthalazin-l- yl)amine, and is referred to herein as “AMG 900” has a chemical structure of

AMG 900 is an ATP competitive small molecule Aurora kinase inhibitor that is highly potent and selective for Aurora kinases A, B and C. AMG 900 is disclosed in US patent publication no. 20070185111, which published on August 9, 2007 and issued as U.S. Patent No. 7,560,551. AMG 900 is further disclosed in US patent publication no.

20090163501, now US patent no 8,022,221. Various uses and applications of AMG 900 are described in patent publications US20120028917 and WO2013149026. AMG 900 is being clinically evaluated primarily for its safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetic (PK) profile in human phase I trials for (1) advanced solid tumors (US Clinical Trial Id No. NCT00858377), and (2) for acute leukemias (US Clinical Trial Id No. NCT1380756).

Different solid state forms of a given compound are typically investigated to determine whether or not a particular form possesses and/or exhibits desirable properties allowing that compound to be clinically and/or commercially developed. Such beneficial and advantageous properties, by way of example, include without limitation, crystallinity, improved thermodynamic stability, non-hygroscopicity, high purity, minimal to total absence of moisture and/or residual solvents, chemical stability, high yielding synthetic process and/or manufacturability and reproducibility, desirable biopharmaceutical properties including improved dissolution characteristics and increased bioavailability, absence or reduced toxicities due to reduced or limited exposure, rate of exposure or release, or related to counter ions, good bulk and formulation properties including good flow, bulk density, desirable particle size and the like, or a combination of the aforementioned characteristic attributes.

Generally when a compound, also referred to herein as drug substance (DS), has been identified as a developmental candidate, the DS is screened to identify potentially beneficial polymorphic, crystalline or solid state forms of the compound and/or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. X-ray diffraction, Raman, solid state NMR and a melting point temperature and/or a melting point temperature range have been typically used to monitor or screen and identify the different polymorphic form of the DS.

Different polymorphic forms of a given DS can have an impact on that compound’s solubility, stability and bioavailability. Also, it is important to monitor possible changes in polymorphic forms of the DS during stability studies.

AMG 900 was previously isolated and identified as a free base compound. This compound exhibited rather lack-luster pharmacokinetic (PK) and/or pharmacodynamic (PD) properties, including poor aqueous solubility, poor bioavailability, poor absorption, poor target exposure and overall, a not-so-attractive in-vivo efficacy profile. Thus, there is a need to address and solve the technical problem of identifying alternative forms of AMG 900 to achieve substantially the same effect or an improved effect, including improved PK and PD profiles, as that of AMG 900 known in the art.

Example 1

Synthesis of N-(4-((3-(2-amino-4-pyrimidinylN)-2-pyridinylN)oxyN)phenylN)-4-(4-methyl-2-thienvD-l-phthalazinamine (AMG 900)

Step 1 : 4-(2-chloropyridin-3-yl)pyrimidin-2 -amine

In an argon purged 500 mL round bottom flask placed in an isopropanol bath, was added sodium metal (3.40g, 148mmol) slowly to methanol (180mL). The mixture was stirred at room temperature (RT) for about 30 minutes. To this was added guanidine hydrochloride (12.0 mL, 182 mmol) and the mixture was stirred at RT for 30 minutes, followed by addition of (E)-l-(2-chloropyridin-3-yl)-3-(dimethylamino)prop-2-en-l-one (12.0 g, 57.0 mmol), attached air condenser, moved reaction to an oil bath, where it was heated to about 50 °C for 24 hr. Approximately half of the methanol was evaporated under reduced pressure and the solids were filtered under vacuum, then washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO and H^O, air dried to yield 4-(2-chloropyridin-3-yl)pyrimidin-2-amine as off white solid. MS m/z = 207 [M+l]+. Calc’d for C9H7C1N4: 206.63.

Step 2: 4-(2-(4-aminophenoxy)pyridin-3-yl)pyrimidin-2-amine

To a resealable tube was added 4-aminophenol (1.3 g, 12 mmol), cesium carbonate (7.8 g, 24 mmol), and DMSO (16 ml, 0.75 M). The mixture was heated to 100 °C for 5 minutes, and then 4-(2-chloropyridin-3-yl)pyrimidin-2 -amine (2.5 g, 12 mmol) was added, and the reaction mixture was heated to 130 °C overnight. Upon completion, as judged by LCMS, the reaction mixture was allowed to cool to RT and diluted with water. The resulting precipitate was filtered, and the solid washed with water and diethyl ether. The solid was then taken up in 9: 1 CH2Cl2:MeOH and passed through a pad of silica gel with 9:1 CH2Cl2:MeOH as eluent. The solvent was concentrated in vacuo to provide the desired product, 4-(2-(4-aminophenoxy)pyridin-3-yl)pyrimidin-2-amine. MS m/z = 280

[M+l]+. Calc’d for Ci5H13N50: 279.30.

Step 3: l-Chloro-4-(4-methylthiophen-2-yl)phthalazine

1 ,4-Dichlorophthalazine (1.40 g, 7.03 mmol), 4-methyltmophen-2-ylboronic acid (999 mg, 7.03 mmol), and PdCl2(DPPF) (721 mg, 985 μιηοΐ) were added into a sealed tube. The tube was purged with Argon. Then sodium carbonate (2.0 M in water) (7.74 ml, 15.5 mmol) and 1,4-dioxane (35.2 ml, 7.03 mmol) were added. The tube was sealed, stirred at RT for 5 min, and placed in a preheated oil bath at 110 °C. After 1 hr, LC-MS showed product and byproduct (double coupling), and starting material

dichlorophthalazme. The reaction was cooled to RT, filtered through a pad of celite with an aid of ethyl acetate (EtOAc), concentrated, and loaded onto column. The product was purified by column chromatography using Hex to remove the top spot, then 80:20 hexanes:EtOAc to collect the product. The product, 1 -chloro-4-(4-methylthiophen-2-yl)phthalazine was obtained as yellow solid. LC-MS showed that the product was contaminated with a small amount of dichlorophthalazme and biscoupling byproduct. MS m/z = 261 [M+l]+. Calcd for Ci3H9ClN2S: 260.12.

Step 4: N-(4-((3-(2-amino-4-pyrimidinyl)-2-pyridinyl)oxy)phenyl)-4-(4-methyl-2-thienyl)- 1 -phthalazinamine

To 4-(2-(4-aminophenoxy)pyridin-3-yl)pyrimidin-2 -amine and l-chloro-4-(4-methyl-2-thienyl)phthalazine was added tBuOH. The resulting mixture was heated at 100 °C in a sealed tube for 16 hours. The rection was diluted with diethyl ether and saturated sodium carbonate and vigorously shaken. The resulting solids were filtered and washed with water, diethyl ether and air dried to yield N-(4-((3-(2-amino-4-pyrimidinyl)-2-pyridinyl)oxy)phenyl)-4-(4-methyl-2-thienyl)-l -phthalazinamine as an off-white solid. MS m/z = 504 [M+H]+. Calc’d for C28 H21 N7 O S: 503.58.

Example 2

Alternative Synthesis of N-(4-((3-(2-amino-4-pyrimidinylN)-2-pyridinylN)oxyN)phenylN)-4-(4-methyl-2-thienvD-l-phthalazinamine (AMG 900)

Step 1 : 4-(2-chloropyridin-3-yl)pyrimidin-2 -amine

In an argon purged 500 mL round bottom flask placed in an isopropanol bath, was added sodium metal (3.40g, 148mmol) slowly to methanol (180mL). The mixture was stirred at room temperature (RT) for about 30 minutes. To this was added guanidine hydrochloride (12.0 mL, 182 mmol) and the mixture was stirred at RT for 30 minutes, followed by addition of (E)-l-(2-chloropyridin-3-yl)-3-(dimethylamino)prop-2-en-l-one (12.0 g, 57.0 mmol), attached air condenser, moved reaction to an oil bath, where it was heated to about 50 °C for 24 hr. Approximately half of the methanol was evaporated under reduced pressure and the solids were filtered under vacuum, then washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO and H^O, air dried to yield 4-(2-chloropyridin-3-yl)pyrimidin-2-amine as off white solid. MS m/z = 207 [M+l]+. Calc’d for C9H7C1N4: 206.63.

Step 2: 4-(2-(4-aminophenoxy)pyridin-3-yl)pyrimidin-2-amine

To a reaction vessel at ambient temperature was added 4-aminophenol (571 g, 5.25 mol, 1.05 equiv) followed by 4-(2-chloropyridin-3-yl)pyrimidin-2-amine (1064g, 97 wt%, 5.00 mol, 1.0 equiv) and DMSO (7110 ml, 7820 g, 7x the volume of 4-(2-chloropyridin-3-yl)pyrimidin-2 -amine). The reaction mixture was agitated and sparged with nitrogen gas for at least 10 minutes. Then a 50 weight % aqueous KOH solution (593 g, 5.25 mol, 1.05 equiv.) was added to the mixture while keeping the reaction

mixture temperature below about 40°C. The mixture was sparged with nitrogen gas for more than 5 minutes, the sparging tube was removed, and the reaction mixture was heated to 110 +/- 10 °C for at least 1.5 hrs. Upon completion, as judged by HPLC, the reaction mixture was allowed to cool to RT and diluted with 6N HC1 (42 mL, 0.25 mol, 0.05 equiv). The desired product, 4-(2-(4-aminophenoxy)pyridin-3-yl)pyrimidin-2 -amine was not isolated. Rather, it was formed in-situ and combined with the product of step 3 below, in step 4 to form the desired product.

Step 3: l-Chloro-4-(4-methylthiophen-2-yl)phthalazine

A separate reaction vessel was fitted with a reflux condenser and an addition funnel, and 4-(4-methylthiophen-2-yl)phthalazin-l(2H)-one (1,537 mg, 6.34 mol, 1.0 equivalent) was added to the reaction vessel. Acetonitrile (7540 mL, 5859 g, 5 V), was added and the reaction vessel was agitated to allow the starting material to dissolve. The vessel was then charged with phosphorus oxychloride (709 ml, 1166 g, 7.44 mol, 1.2 equivalents) and the reaction was heated to about 75 +/- 5 °C for a least 4 hrs. The reaction was cooled to about about 25 +/- 5 °C and held there for more than 24 hrs. N,N-diisopropylethylamine (3046 g, 4100 mL, 3.8 equivalents) was added to the reaction vessel and the temperature was maintained at <30°C. Pyridine (97g, 1.24 mol, 0.2 equiv) was added in a single portion followed by water (4100 g, 2.7V) over more than 30 minutes. The reaction mixture was stirred at ambient temperature ofr about 24 hrs. the mixture was filtered through a <25uM polypropylene filter and the rsulting mother liquor was diluted with 1 : 1 ACN:water (9000 mL total) and stirred for a minimum of 2 minutes. Filter off product solids as they precipitate. Collect mother liquor and washes to obtain additional product. Dry the filter cake, and additional product crops, under a constant stream of nitrogen gas for at least 14 hrs. Unlike the previous method, the present method avoids contamination of impurities, such as dichlorophthalazine and biscoupling byproduct, as seen via LC-MS. Yield: 1537 g (97.2 weight %). MS m/z = 261 [M+l]+. Calcd for Ci3H9ClN2S: 260.12.

Step 4: N-(4-((3-(2-amino-4-pyrimidinyl)-2-pyridinyl)oxy)phenyl)-4-(4-methyl-2-thienyl)- 1 -phthalazinamine

To the reaction mixture was added l-chloro-4(4-methylthiophen-2-yl)phthalazine

(1450g, 97.2 wt%, 5.40 mol, 1.08 equiv) rinding the addition port with DMSO (520 ml, 572 g, 0.5x the volume of 4-(2-chloropyridin-3-yl)pyrimidin-2-amine). The reaction mixture was again agitated and sparged with nitrogen gas for at least 10 minutes. The sparging tube was removed, and the reaction mixture was heated to 80 +/- 20 °C for at least 2 hrs. Upon completion, as judged by HPLC, the reaction mixture was allowed to cool to RT and N,N-diisopropylethylamine (776 g, 1045 mL, 6.0 mol, 1.2 equiv) was added and the mixture was kept at about 80 +/- 10°C. Filter the mixture at about 80oC into a separate reactor vessel rinsing with DMSO (1030 mL, 1133 g, 1 V). Then adjust the raction mixture temperature to about 70+/-5 °C and add 2-propanol (13200 mL, 10360 g, 12.75 V) over more than 15 minutes at about 70°C. As the reaction mistreu cools, the product begins to precipitate out of solution. Add more 2-propanol (8780 mL, 6900 g, 8.5V) to the solution slowly over more then 60 minutes at about 70°C. The reactor vessel was cooled to about 20°C over more than 60 minutes and let sit for over 2 hrs. The product was filtered through an Aurora filter with a >25uM polypropylene filter cloth. Additional crops were obtained from the mother liquors by diluting with additional 2-propanol. The filter cakes were dried under a constant stream of nitrogen gas for at least 14 hrs to provide the desired product, N-(4-((3-(2-amino-4-pyrimidinyl)-2-pyridinyl)oxy)phenyl)-4-(4-methyl-2-thienyl)-l-phthalazinamine as an off-white solid. Yield: 2831 g (88.8%); purity 99.7%. MS m/z = 504 [M+H]+. Calc’d for C28 H21 N7 O S: 503.58.

The starting material 1 used/shown in Example 2 was prepared as follows:

and starting material 3, thienyl substituted phthalazinone, shown in Example 2 was prepared as follows:

Starting material 3

Synthesis of 4-(5-methylthiophen-2-yl)phthalazin-l(2//)-one

Step 1 : 2-(Dimethylamino)isoindoline-1.3-dione

A solution of isobenzofuran-l,3-dione (5.00 g, 34 mmol) and N,N-dimethylhydrazine (2.9 ml, 37 mmol) in toluene (75 ml, 34 mmol) was added p-TsOH H20 (0.32 g, 1.7 mmol). The Dean-Stark apparatus and a condenser were attached. The mixture was refluxed. After 4 hr, LCMS showed mainly product. The reaction was cooled to rt. Toluene was removed under reduced pressure the crude was dissolved in DCM, washed with sat NaHC03, water, and brine. The organic was dried over MgS04, filtered, and concentrated. Light yellow solid was obtained. !H NMR showed mainly product, 2-(dimethylamino)isoindoline-l,3-dione. MS Calcd for C10H10N2O2: [M]+ = 190. Found: [M+H]+ = 191.

Step 2 : 2-(Dimethylamino)-3 -hydroxy-3 -(5 -methylthiophen-2 -vDisoindolin- 1 -one

A solution of 2-bromo-5-methylthiophene (0.60 mL, 5.3 mmol) in THF (11 mL) was purged with nitrogen and cooled to -78 °C. «-Butyllithium (2.2 mL, 5.5 mmol; 2.5 M in THF) was added and the mixture was stirred under nitrogen for 30 min. This solution was cannulated into a flask containing a solution of 2-(dimethylamino)isoindoline-l,3-dione (1.5 g, 7.9 mmol) in THF (16 mL) at -78 °C under nitrogen. The reaction was allowed to warm to -30 °C over an hour, at which point LCMS showed complete conversion of 2-bromo-5-methylthiophene to product. The reaction was quenched by careful addition of saturated aqueous NH4C1. The reaction mixture was diluted with dichloromethane and water, and the layers were separated. The aqueous portion was extracted with additional dichloromethane, and the combined organic layers were dried with MgS04, filtered, concentrated, and purified by silica gel chromatography eluting with 0-2% MeOH in dichloromethane to provide intermediate A, as a light yellow solid, 2-(dimethylamino)-3-hydroxy-3-(5-methylthiophen-2-yl)isoindolin-l-one (1.2 g, 80% yield). !H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-4) δ 7.68-7.65 (m, 1H). 7.63-7.59 (m, 1H), 7.57-7.51 (m, 1H), 7.37 (d, 1H, J=8), 7.09 (s, 1H), 6.69-6.66 (m, 1H), 6.65-6.62 (m, 1H), 2.81 (s, 6H), 2.40 (s, 3H). 13C NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-de) δ 165.0, 147.3, 141.6, 139.3, 132.7, 129.49, 129.46, 125.0, 124.7, 123.0, 122.1, 88.4, 44.7, 14.9. FT-IR (thin film, cm ) 3347, 3215, 1673. MS Calcd for Ci2H7ClN2S: [M]+ = 288. Found: [M+H]+= 289.

HRMS Calcd for Ci5H16N202S: [M+H]+= 288.1005, [M+Na]+ = 311.0825. Found:

[M+H]+ = 289.1022, [M+Na]+= 311.0838. mp = 138-140 °C.

Step 3: 4-(5-Methylthiophen-2-yl)phthalazin-l(2//)-one

2-(Dimethylamino)-3 -hydroxy-3 -(5 -methylthiophen-2-yl)isoindolin- 1 -one (1.1 g, 0.40 mmol), EtOH (4.0 mL), and hydrazine (0.19 mL, 59 mmol) were added into a RBF fitted with a reflux condenser. A nitrogen balloon was attached on top of the condenser. After refluxing overnight, the reaction was cooled to room temperature. An off-white solid precipitated. After cooling to 0 °C, water was added. The solid was filtered off with an aid of water and dried under vacuum to afford a white solid, 4-(5-methylthiophen-2-yl)phthalazin-l(2//)-one (0.82 g, 85% yield).

!H NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) δ 10.57 (s, 1H), 8.50-8.39 (m, 1H), 8.14-8.04 (m, 1H), 7.83- 7.69 (m, 2H), 7.20-7.17 (m, 1H), 6.82-6.71 (m, 1H), 2.47 (s, 3H). 13C NMR (400 MHz,

CDC13) 8 159.9, 142.5, 141.1, 134.3, 133.7, 131.7, 129.4, 128.8, 128.3, 127.1, 126.6,

125.8, 15.4. FT-IR (thin film, cm“1) 2891, 1660, 1334. MS Calcd for Ci3H10N2OS: [M]+

= 242. Found: [M+H]+= 243. HRMS Calcd for Ci3H10N2OS: [M+H]+= 243.0587. Found:

[M+H]+ = 243.0581. mp = 191-194 °C.

Alternatively, starting material 3 was prepared as follows:

The above scheme depicts the process by which intermediate-scale synthesis of thiophene-phthalazinone 5 (shown above) was prepared. Treatment of 50 grams of 3-methylthiophene with z-PrMgCl at 66 °C in the presence of catalytic TMP-H resulted in 98% conversion to the reactive species lb with a >40:1 regioisomeric ratio. After cooling to 20 °C, this mixture was added dropwise to a -20 °C slurry of phthalic anhydride in THF to provide keto acid 3 in 94% assay yield. While this intermediate could be crystallized from toluene/heptane, the crude reaction mixture was taken directly in a through -process conversion to the phthalazinone 5. To that end, removal of THF, MTBE, and residual 3-methylthiophene was accomplished through a distillative solvent switch into ethanol. The resulting solution of 3 was exposed to aqueous hydrazine at 80 °C. After 18 hours, the reaction was cooled and the precipitated product was filtered directly at 20 °C. This process provided 82.7 grams of 98.6 wt % thiophene-phthalazinone 5 in a weight-adjusted 85% yield over the two steps.

LCMS Method:

Samples were run on a Agilent model- 1100 LC-MSD system with an Agilent Technologies XDB-C8 (3.5 μ) reverse phase column (4.6 x 75 mm) at 30 °C. The flow rate was constant and ranged from about 0.75 mL/min to about 1.0 mL/min.

The mobile phase used a mixture of solvent A (H2O/0.1% HO Ac) and solvent B

(AcCN/O.1 HOAc) with a 9 min time period for a gradient from 10%> to 90%> solvent B. The gradient was followed by a 0.5 min period to return to 10% solvent B and a 2.5 min 10% solvent B re-equilibration (flush) of the column.

Other methods may also be used to synthesize AMG 900. Many synthetic chemistry transformations, as well as protecting group methodologies, useful in synthesizing AMG 900, are known in the art. Useful organic chemical transformation literature includes, for example, R. Larock, Comprehensive Organic Transformations, VCH Publishers (1989); T.W. Greene and P.G.M. Wuts, Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis, 3rd edition, John Wiley and Sons (1999); L. Fieser and M. Fieser, Fieser and Fieser’s Reagents for Organic Synthesis, John Wiley and Sons (1994); A. Katritzky and

A. Pozharski, Handbook of Heterocyclic Chemistry, 2nd edition (2001); M. Bodanszky, A. Bodanszky, The Practice of Peptide Synthesis, Springer- Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg (1984); J. Seyden-Penne, Reductions by the Alumino- and Borohydrides in Organic Synthesis, 2nd edition, Wiley- VCH, (1997); and L. Paquette, editor, Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis, John Wiley and Sons (1995).

AMG 900 was tested for its ability to reduce or inhibit tumor progression in various cell lines (in-vitro) and multiple solid tumor types (in-vivo), some of which have previously been exposed to and developed resistance to standard-of-care antimitotic agents, including taxanes and vinca alkaloids, as well as to other chemotherapeutic agents. The following Examples and resulting data will illustrate the ability of AMG 900 to treat cancer, including cancer resistant to the presently standard-of-care therapies, including antimitotic agents, such as paclitaxel, and other drugs used in conjunction with chemotherapy, such as doxorubicin. Unless otherwise indicated, the free base form of AMG 900 was used in the Examples described hereinbelow.

The following Examples describe the efforts of identifying and characterizing various crystalline solid state forms of various salts of AMG 900. Some attempts at forming a solid state crystalline form of a given salt failed, as shown in table 1 hereinbelow. To this end, synthesizing and/or forming &isolating a crystalline solid state form of AMG 900 was not, in any way, straightforward or routine. Rather, the ability to prepare and identify a crystalline solid state form of AMG 900 depended upon the particular salt of AMG 900 and/or the crystallization conditions employed.

PAPER

Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2015), 58(13), 5189-5207

Discovery of N-(4-(3-(2-Aminopyrimidin-4-yl)pyridin-2-yloxy)phenyl)-4-(4-methylthiophen-2-yl)phthalazin-1-amine (AMG 900), A Highly Selective, Orally Bioavailable Inhibitor of Aurora Kinases with Activity against Multidrug-Resistant Cancer Cell Lines

Departments of Medicinal Chemistry, Pharmaceutical Research and Development, §Pharmacokinetics and Drug Metabolism, Molecular Structure, and Oncology Research, Amgen Inc., 360 Binney Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, United States, and Amgen Inc., One Amgen Center Drive, Thousand Oaks, California 91320, United States
J. Med. Chem., 2015, 58 (13), pp 5189–5207
DOI: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.5b00183
*Phone: 617-444-5041. E-mail: MeyerS@amgen.com.

ACS Editors’ Choice – This is an open access article published under an ACS AuthorChoice License, which permits copying and redistribution of the article or any adaptations for non-commercial purposes.

Abstract

Abstract Image

Efforts to improve upon the physical properties and metabolic stability of Aurora kinase inhibitor14a revealed that potency against multidrug-resistant cell lines was compromised by increased polarity. Despite its high in vitro metabolic intrinsic clearance, 23r (AMG 900) showed acceptable pharmacokinetic properties and robust pharmacodynamic activity. Projecting from in vitro data to in vivo target coverage was not practical due to disjunctions between enzyme and cell data, complex and apparently contradictory indicators of binding kinetics, and unmeasurable free fraction in plasma. In contrast, it was straightforward to relate pharmacokinetics to pharmacodynamics and efficacy by following the time above a threshold concentration. On the basis of its oral route of administration, a selectivity profile that favors Aurora-driven pharmacology and its activity against multidrug-resistant cell lines, 23r was identified as a potential best-in-class Aurora kinase inhibitor. In phase 1 dose expansion studies with G-CSF support, 23r has shown promising single agent activity.

N-(4-(3-(2-Aminopyrimidin-4-yl)pyridin-2-yloxy)phenyl)-4-(4-methylthiophen-2-yl)phthalazin-1-amine (23r)

Applying similar SNAr conditions as for 23b, reaction of 22r and 20a in 2-butanol provided the title compound (2.08 g, 49%) as an off-white solid; mp (DSC) 216 °C.
1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 9.36 (s, 1 H) 8.64–8.69 (m, 1 H) 8.41–8.44 (m, 1 H) 8.36–8.40 (m, 1 H) 8.35 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1 H) 8.23 (dd, J = 4.8, 2.0 Hz, 1 H) 8.00–8.10 (m, 2 H) 7.91–7.97 (m, 2 H) 7.52 (d, J = 1.0 Hz, 1 H) 7.26–7.33 (m, 3 H) 7.16–7.22 (m, 2 H) 6.74 (br s, 2 H) 2.34 (br s, 3 H).
13C NMR (150 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 163.81, 160.72, 160.67, 158.68, 151.64, 148.50, 148.36, 147.14, 139.86, 139.24, 137.72, 137.10, 132.61, 131.74, 130.24, 125.27, 124.89, 122.92, 122.83, 122.44, 121.56, 121.52, 119.11, 118.23, 109.93, 15.6
HRMS m/z [M + H]+ Calcd for C28H21N7OS: 504.1601. Found: 504.1607.
Table 1. Aurora Kinase Inhibitors with Known Structures That Have Entered Clinical Trials

ID, compd name AKa AK cell assayb (nM) most potently inhibited non-AKs (nM)c [total kinases in panel] admin route
1 (MK-0457/VX-680/tozasertib)(7) A/B MDA-MB-231 p-HH3(12) 43 FLT3 (6), PLK4 (9), ABL (13), MLCK (15), RET (28); [317](16) IV
2 (PHA-739358/danusertib)(8) A/B MDA-MB-231 p-HH3(12) 49 ABL (25), RET (31), TrkA (31), FGFR1 (47); [35](17) IV
3a(AZD1152/barasertib)d,(9) B MDA-MB-231 p-HH3(12) 16 FLT3 (8), cKIT (17), PDGFRA (38), PDGFRB (41), RET (80); [317](16) IV
4 (AT9283)(18) A/B HCT-116 DNA ploidy ∼30 JAK2 (1), JAK3 (1) Abl (T315I) (4), 9 others ≤10 nM; [230] IV
5 (SNS-314)(19) A/B HCT-116 DNA ploidy(20) 9 TrkB (5), TrkA (12), FLT4 (14), Fms (15), DDR2 (82), Axl (84); [219] IV
6 (GSK1070916)(21) B HCT-116 p-HH3(22) 20 FLT1 (42), TIE2 (59), SIK (70), FLT4 (74), FGFR (78); [328](22) IV
7 (ENMD-2076)(23) A HCT-116 p-AurA 130 FLT3 (2), RET (10), FLT4 (16), SRC (20), TrkA (24), Fms (25); [100] PO
8 (CYC116)(24) A/B A549 p-HH3 480 VEGFR2 (44), FLT3 (44), CDK2 (390); [23] PO
9 (ABT-348)(25) A/B HCT-116 p-HH3 21 VEGFR1 (1), FLT3 (1), VEGFR2 (2), CSF-1R (3), PDGFR-α (11); [128] PO
10 (AS703569/R763)(26) A/B A549 p-HH3 14 cell-based assays: VEGFR2 (11), FLT3 (27), AMPK (201); [10] PO
11 (PF-03814735)(27) A/B MDA-MB-231 p-HH3 ∼50 FLT1 (10), FAK (22), TrkA (30), 17 others ≥90% inh@100 nM; [220] PO
12 (MK-5108)(28) A HeLa S3 ↑p-HH3+ cells <1000 TrkA (2), ABL (8), FLT4 (12), TrkB (13), VEGFR2 (30); [233] PO
13a (MLN8054)(29) A HCT-116 p-AurA 34 DRAK2 (8), BLK (68), DRAK1 (190), FGR (220); [317](16) PO
13b (MLN8237/alisertib)(30) A HeLa p-AurA 7 %inh@1 μM: EphA2 (111), FGR (97), CAMK2A (95), EphA4 (94); [220] PO

a

AK = Aurora kinase family member(s) inhibited (AurA and/or AurB; AurC potency not listed).

b

Cell line; substrate or phenotype detected.

c

Kinase activities of greatest potency listed in published literature.

d

Listed enzyme and cellular potency data is for 3b, the parent of prodrug 3a.

References on AMG 900

Patent ID Date Patent Title
US2016008316 2016-01-14 USE OF DIANHYDROGALACTITOL AND ANALOGS OR DERIVATIVES THEREOF IN COMBINATION WITH PLATINUM-CONTAINING ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS TO TREAT NON-SMALL-CELL CARCINOMA OF THE LUNG AND BRAIN METASTASES
US2016009785 2016-01-14 NOVEL FUSION MOLECULES AND USES THEREOF
US2015266868 2015-09-24 PHARMACEUTICALLY ACTIVE COMPOUNDS
US2015079022 2015-03-19 USE OF AMG 900 FOR THE TREATMENT OF CANCER
US2015072988 2015-03-12 USE OF N-(4-((3-(2-AMINO-4-PYRIMIDINYL)-2-PYRIDINYL)OXY)PHENYL)-4-(4-METHYL-2-THIENYL)-1-PHTHALAZINAMINE IN COMBINATION WITH HISTONE DEACETYLASE INHIBITORS FOR TREATMENT OF CANCER
US8921367 2014-12-30 Use of AMG 900 for the treatment of cancer
US2014163052 2014-06-12 FUSED TRICYCLIC DUAL INHIBITORS OF CDK 4/6 AND FLT3
US2014127271 2014-05-08 BLOCK COPOLYMERS FOR STABLE MICELLES
US2014113879 2014-04-24 BLOCK COPOLYMERS FOR STABLE MICELLES
US2014114051 2014-04-24 BLOCK COPOLYMERS FOR STABLE MICELLES
Patent ID Date Patent Title
US2014114051 2014-04-24 BLOCK COPOLYMERS FOR STABLE MICELLES
US2014066430 2014-03-06 AURORA KINASE MODULATORS AND METHOD OF USE
US8623885 2014-01-07 Fused tricyclic dual inhibitors of CDK 4/6 and FLT3
US2012028917 2012-02-02 Use Of N-(4-((3-(2-Amino-4-Pyrimidinyl)-2-Pyridinyl)Oxy)Phenyl)-4-(4-Methyl-2-Thienyl)-1-Phthalazinamine In The Treatment Of Antimitotic Agent Resistant Cancer
US2011263530 2011-10-27 Aurora Kinase Modulators and Method of Use
US8022221 2011-09-20 Aurora kinase modulators and method of use
US7560551 2009-07-14 Aurora kinase modulators and method of use
WO2003055491A1 20 Dec 2002 10 Jul 2003 Astrazeneca Ab Substituted quinazoline derivatives as inhibitors of aurora kinases
WO2004000833A1 19 Jun 2003 31 Dec 2003 Vertex Pharmaceuticals Incorporated Processes for preparing substituted pyrimidines and pyrimidine derivatives as inhibitors of protein kinase
WO2004016612A2 13 Aug 2003 26 Feb 2004 Cyclacel Limited New purine derivatives
WO2004037814A1 27 Oct 2003 6 May 2004 Vertex Pharmaceuticals Incorporated Indazolinone compositions useful as kinase inhibitors
WO2004039774A2 19 May 2003 13 May 2004 Merck & Co., Inc. Mitotic kinesin inhibitors
WO2004092607A1 30 Mar 2004 28 Oct 2004 Carbone Lorraine Composants Ventilated disc brake pads
WO2005113494A2 9 May 2005 1 Dec 2005 Amgen Inc. Nitrogenated heterocyclic derivatives as protein kinase modulators and use for the treatment of angiogenesis and cancer
EP1702919A1 28 Dec 2004 20 Sep 2006 Banyu Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. Novel 2-heteroaryl-substituted benzimidazole derivative
US6919338 21 Jun 2001 19 Jul 2005 Astrazeneca Ab Substituted quinazoline derivatives and their use as inhibitors of aurora-2 kinase
Citing Patent Filing date Publication date Applicant Title
WO2008124083A3 * 3 Apr 2008 15 Jan 2009 Amgen Inc Aurora kinase modulators and method of use
WO2009117157A1 * 19 Mar 2009 24 Sep 2009 Amgen Inc. Aurora kinase modulators and method of use
WO2010017240A2 * 4 Aug 2009 11 Feb 2010 Amgen Inc. Aurora kinase modulators and methods of use
WO2010017240A3 * 4 Aug 2009 1 Apr 2010 Amgen Inc. Aurora kinase modulators and methods of use
WO2011031842A1 9 Sep 2010 17 Mar 2011 Amgen Inc. N-4 ( – ( ( 3- ( 2 -amino-4 pyrimidinyl) -2 -pyridinyl) oxy) phenyl) -4- (4-methyl-2-thienyl) -1-phthalazinamine for use in the treatment of antimitotic agent resistant cancer
WO2012129344A1 21 Mar 2012 27 Sep 2012 Amgen Inc. Fused tricyclic dual inhibitors of cdk 4/6 and flt3
WO2015084649A1 25 Nov 2014 11 Jun 2015 Amgen Inc. Crystalline forms of n-(4-((3-(2-amino-4-pyrimidinyl) – 2-pyridinyl)oxy)phenyl)-4-(4-methyl-2-thienyl)-1 -phthalazinamine pharmaceutically acceptable salts and uses thereof
EP2818170A1 9 Sep 2010 31 Dec 2014 Amgen, Inc N-(4-((3-(2-amino-4-pyrimidinyl)-2-pyridin yl)oxy)phenyl)-4-(4-methyl-2-thienyl)-1-phthalazinamine for use in the treatment of antimitotic agent resistant cancer
EP2937349A1 21 Mar 2012 28 Oct 2015 Amgen Inc. Fused tricyclic dual inhibitors of cdk 4/6 and flt3
US7994185 4 May 2009 9 Aug 2011 Glaxo Smith Kline LLC Benzene sulfonamide thiazole and oxazole compounds
US8362241 29 Jan 2013 Amgen Inc. Inhibitors of PI3 kinase and/or mTOR
US8404694 19 Mar 2009 26 Mar 2013 Amgen Inc. Aurora kinase modulators and method of use
US8415345 4 May 2009 9 Apr 2013 Glaxo SmithKline LLC Benzene sulfonamide thiazole and oxazole compounds
US8586751 10 Jun 2010 19 Nov 2013 Bristol-Myers Squibb Company Nicotinamide compounds useful as kinase modulators
US8637500 16 Dec 2009 28 Jan 2014 Amgen Inc. Aminopyridine and carboxypyridine compounds as phosphodiesterase 10 inhibitors
US8642759 31 Jan 2013 4 Feb 2014 Glaxosmithkline Llc Benzene sulfonamide thiazole and oxazole compounds
US8772480 19 Nov 2012 8 Jul 2014 Amgen Inc. Inhibitors of PI3 kinase and/or mTOR
US9126935 7 Aug 2009 8 Sep 2015 Amgen Inc. Aurora kinase modulators and methods of use
US9233956 25 Nov 2013 12 Jan 2016 Novartis Ag Benzene sulfonamide thiazole and oxazole compounds

///////////945595-80-2, AMG 900,  aurora kinase (ARK) inhibitor,  treatment of leukemia and solid tumours, AMGEN, 2014, orphan drug designation,  U.S. for the treatment of ovarian cancer

CC1=CSC(=C1)C2=NN=C(C3=CC=CC=C32)NC4=CC=C(C=C4)OC5=C(C=CC=N5)C6=NC(=NC=C6)N

Reslizumab


Reslizumab

(Cinqair®) Approved Active, FDA 2016-03-23

An interleukin-5 (IL-5) antagonist used to treat severe asthma.

CAS  241473-69-8

Research Code CDP-835; CEP-38072; CTx-55700; SCH-5570; SCH-55700; TRFK-5,

Anti-interleukin-5 monoclonal antibody – Celltech/Schering-Plough

Reslizumab was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on March 23, 2016. It was developed and marketed as Cinqair® by Teva.

Reslizumab is an interleukin-5 antagonist, which binds to human IL-5 and prevents it from binding to the IL-5 receptor, thereby reducing eosinophilic inflammation. It is indicated for the maintenance treatment of patients with severe asthma in patients aged 18 years and older.

Cinqair® is available as injection for intravenous infusion, containing 100 mg of reslizumab in 10 mL solution in single-use vials. The recommended dose is 3 mg/kg once every four weeks.

  • Originator Celltech R&D; Schering-Plough
  • Developer Celltech R&D; Teva Pharmaceutical Industries
  • Class Antiasthmatics; Monoclonal antibodies
  • Mechanism of Action Interleukin 5 receptor antagonists
  • Orphan Drug Status Yes – Oesophagitis
  • 23 Mar 2016 Registered for Asthma in USA (IV) – First global approval
  • 04 Mar 2016 Pooled efficacy data from two phase III trials in Asthma presented at the 2016 Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI-2016)
  • 10 Dec 2015 Preregistration for Asthma in Canada (IV)

Reslizumab (trade name Cinqair) is a humanized monoclonal antibody intended for the treatment of eosinophil-meditated inflammations of the airways, skin and gastrointestinal tract.[1] The FDA approved reslizumab for use with other asthma medicines for the maintenance treatment of severe asthma in patients aged 18 years and older on March 23, 2016. Cinqair is approved for patients who have a history of severe asthma attacks (exacerbations) despite receiving their current asthma medicines.[2]

Teva Announces FDA Acceptance of the Biologics License Application for Reslizumab

Investigational Biologic for the Treatment of Inadequately Controlled Asthma in Patients with Elevated Blood Eosinophils Accepted for Review

JERUSALEM–(BUSINESS WIRE)–Jun. 15, 2015– Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., (NYSE: TEVA) announced today that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has accepted for review the Biologics License Application (BLA) for reslizumab, the company’s investigational humanized monoclonal antibody (mAb) which targets interleukin-5 (IL-5), for the treatment of inadequately controlled asthma in adult and adolescent patients with elevated blood eosinophils, despite an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS)-based regimen.

“Despite currently available medicines, uncontrolled asthma remains a serious problem for patients, physicians and healthcare systems, highlighting the need for targeted new treatment options,” said Dr. Michael Hayden, President of Global R&D and Chief Scientific Officer at Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. “The reslizumab BLA filing acceptance represents a significant milestone for Teva as we work toward serving a specific asthma patient population that is defined by elevated blood eosinophil levels and inadequately controlled symptoms despite standard of care therapy. In clinical trials, patients treated with reslizumab showed significant reductions in the rate of asthma exacerbations and significant improvement in lung function. If approved, we believe reslizumab will serve as an important new targeted treatment option to achieve better asthma control for patients with eosinophil-mediated disease.”

The BLA for reslizumab includes data from Teva’s Phase III BREATH clinical trial program. The program consisted of four separate placebo-controlled Phase III trials involving more than 1,700 adult and adolescent asthma patients with elevated blood eosinophils, whose symptoms were inadequately controlled with inhaled corticosteroid-based therapies. Results from these studies demonstrated that reslizumab, in comparison to placebo, reduced asthma exacerbation rates by at least half and provided significant improvement in lung function and other secondary measures of asthma control when added to an existing ICS-based therapy. Common adverse events in the reslizumab treatment group were comparable to placebo and included worsening of asthma, nasopharyngitis, upper respiratory infections, sinusitis, influenza and headache. Two anaphylactic reactions were reported and resolved following medical treatment at the study site.

Results from the reslizumab BREATH program were recently presented at the American Thoracic Society 2015 Annual Meeting and the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology 2015 Annual Meeting, in addition to being published in The Lancet Respiratory Medicine. The BLA for reslizumab has been accepted for filing by the FDA for standard review, with FDA Regulatory Action expected in March 2016.

About Reslizumab

Reslizumab is an investigational humanized monoclonal antibody which targets interleukin-5 (IL-5). IL-5 is a key cytokine involved in the maturation, recruitment, and activation of eosinophils, which are inflammatory white blood cells implicated in a number of diseases, such as asthma. Elevated levels of blood eosinophils are a risk factor for future asthma exacerbations. Reslizumab binds circulating IL-5 thereby preventing IL-5 from binding to its receptor.

About Asthma

Asthma is a chronic (long term) disease usually characterized by airway inflammation and narrowing of the airways, which can vary over time. Asthma may cause recurring periods of wheezing (a whistling sound when you breathe), chest tightness, shortness of breath and coughing that often occurs at night or early in the morning. Without appropriate treatment, asthma symptoms may become more severe and result in an asthma attack, which can lead to hospitalization and even death.

About Eosinophils

Eosinophils are a type of white blood cell that are present at elevated levels in the lungs and blood of many asthmatics. Evidence shows that eosinophils play an active role in the pathogenesis of the disease. IL-5 has been shown to play a crucial role in maturation, growth and activation of eosinophils. Increased levels of eosinophils in the sputum and blood have been shown to correlate with severity and frequency of asthma exacerbations.

About Teva

Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. (NYSE and TASE: TEVA) is a leading global pharmaceutical company that delivers high-quality, patient-centric healthcare solutions to millions of patients every day. Headquartered in Israel, Teva is the world’s largest generic medicines producer, leveraging its portfolio of more than 1,000 molecules to produce a wide range of generic products in nearly every therapeutic area. In specialty medicines, Teva has a world-leading position in innovative treatments for disorders of the central nervous system, including pain, as well as a strong portfolio of respiratory products. Teva integrates its generics and specialty capabilities in its global research and development division to create new ways of addressing unmet patient needs by combining drug development capabilities with devices, services and technologies. Teva’s net revenues in 2014 amounted to $20.3 billion. For more information, visit www.tevapharm.com.

USFDA

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Cinqair (reslizumab) for use with other asthma medicines for the maintenance treatment of severe asthma in patients aged 18 years and older. Cinqair is approved for patients who have a history of severe asthma attacks (exacerbations) despite receiving their current asthma medicines.

Asthma is a chronic disease that causes inflammation in the airways of the lungs. During an asthma attack, airways become narrow making it hard to breathe. Severe asthma attacks can lead to asthma-related hospitalizations because these attacks can be serious and even life-threatening. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, as of 2013, more than 22 million people in the U.S. have asthma, and there are more than 400,000 asthma-related hospitalizations each year.

“Health care providers and their patients with severe asthma now have another treatment option to consider when the disease is not well controlled by their current asthma therapies,” said Badrul Chowdhury, M.D., Ph.D., director of the Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Rheumatology Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research.

Cinqair is administered once every four weeks via intravenous infusion by a health care professional in a clinical setting prepared to manage anaphylaxis. Cinqair is a humanized interleukin-5 antagonist monoclonal antibody produced by recombinant DNA technology in murine myeloma non-secreting 0 (NS0) cells. Cinqair reduces severe asthma attacks by reducing the levels of blood eosinophils, a type of white blood cell that contributes to the development of asthma.

The safety and efficacy of Cinqair were established in four double-blind, randomized, placebo‑controlled trials in patients with severe asthma on currently available therapies. Cinqair or a placebo was administered to patients every four weeks as an add-on asthma treatment. Compared with placebo, patients with severe asthma receiving Cinqair had fewer asthma attacks, and a longer time to the first attack. In addition, treatment with Cinqair resulted in a significant improvement in lung function, as measured by the volume of air exhaled by patients in one second.

Cinqair can cause serious side effects including allergic (hypersensitivity) reactions. These reactions can be life-threatening. The most common side effects in clinical trials for Cinqair included anaphylaxis, cancer, and muscle pain.

Cinqair is made by Teva Pharmaceuticals in Frazer, Pennsylvania.

References

Reslizumab
Monoclonal antibody
Type Whole antibody
Source Humanized (from rat)
Target IL-5
Clinical data
Trade names Cinquil
Identifiers
ATC code R03DX08 (WHO)
ChemSpider none

/////////CDP-835,  CEP-38072,  CTx-55700,  SCH-5570,  SCH-55700,  TRFK-5, Reslizumab, Cinqair®, teva, interleukin-5 (IL-5) antagonist, severe asthma, FDA 2016, Orphan Drug StatuS

%d bloggers like this: