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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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RG7440, Ipatasertib, アイパタセルチブ;


1001264-89-6.png

Ipatasertib.svg

Ipatasertib

GDC-0068 , RG7440

CAS 1001264-89-6, C24H32ClN5O2, 457.9962

アイパタセルチブ;
イパタセルチブ;

Antineoplastic, AKT serine/threonine kinase inhibitor

2(S)-(4-Chlorophenyl)-1-[4-[7(R)-hydroxy-5(R)-methyl-6,7-dihydro-5H-cyclopenta[d]pyrimidin-4-yl]piperazin-1-yl]-3-(isopropylamino)propan-1-one

(2S)-2-(4-Chlorophenyl)-1-(4-((5R,7R)-7-hydroxy-5-methyl-6,7-dihydro-5H-cyclopenta(d)pyrimidin-4-yl)piperazin-1-yl(-3-((propan-2-yl)amino)propan-1-one

1-Propanone, 2-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(4-((5R,7R)-6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-5-methyl-5H-cyclopentapyrimidin-4-yl)-1-piperazinyl)-3-((1-methylethyl)amino)-,  (2S)-

2D chemical structure of 1396257-94-5

Ipatasertib dihydrochloride
1396257-94-5

Ipatasertib (RG7440) is an experimental cancer drug in development by Roche. It is a small molecule inhibitor of Akt. It was discovered by Array Biopharma and is currently in phase II trials for treatment of breast cancer.[1]

In vitro, ipatasertib showed activity against all three isoforms of Akt.[2]

Ipatasertib is an orally-available protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) inhibitor in phase III clinical development at Genentech for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer in combination with abiraterone and prednisone.

In 2014, orphan drug designation was assigned in the U.S. for the treatment of gastric cancer including cancer of the gastro-esophageal junction.

Ipatasertib. An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the serine/threonine protein kinase Akt (protein kinase B) with potential antineoplastic activity. Ipatasertib binds to and inhibits the activity of Akt in a non-ATP-competitive manner, which may result in the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and tumor cell proliferation and the induction of tumor cell apoptosis. Activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is frequently associated with tumorigenesis and dysregulated PI3K/Akt signaling may contribute to tumor resistance to a variety of antineoplastic agents. Check for active clinical trials using this agent.

PROBLEM 

It has been found that ipatasertib exhibits a very high solubility (>1 g/g water; >2 g/g water/ethanol 1:1) and a very high hygroscopicity (˜6% at 50% RH, >35% at 95% RH). Whereas poor solubility is often a limiting factor in the development of galenical formulations of other API’s (active pharmaceutical ingredient), a high solubility can equally be problematic for the process performance. Due to this very high intrinsic hygroscopicity of the API, ipatasertib drug substance tends to auto-dissolve to a honey-like viscous liquid at increased humidity. Such high solubility and hygroscopicity may pose serious problems for processing as well as for stability and shelf-life of the final product. Therefore, conventional pharmaceutical compositions comprising ipatasertib and processes for the manufacture of pharmaceutical compositions comprising wetting (e.g. wet granulation) are difficult due to the high solubility and high hygroscopicity of the API.

SYN

 Ipatasertib pk_prod_list.xml_prod_list_card_pr?p_tsearch=A&p_id=691990

Bromination of (+)-(R)-pulegone (I) with Br2 in the presence of NaHCO3 in Et2O, followed by ring contraction via Favorskii rearrangement with NaOEt in EtOH, and treatment with semicarbazide hydrochloride and NaOAc in refluxing EtOH/H2O gives rise to cyclopentanecarboxylate (II) (1). Subsequent ozonolysis of olefin (II) by means of O3 in EtOAc at -78 °C, and reductive treatment with Zn in AcOH provides beta-ketoester (III). Reaction of ketoester (III) with ammonium acetate (IVa) in MeOH/CH2Cl2 yields enamine (V), which upon cyclization with ammonium formate (IVb) and formamide (VI) at 150 °C provides cyclopentapyrimidinol (VII). Chlorination of pyrimidinol (VII) using POCl3 in refluxing CH2Cl2 results in 4-chloro-5(R)-methyl-6,7-dihydro-5H-cyclopenta[d]pyrimidine (VIII), which is condensed with N-Boc-piperazine (IX) in the presence of DIEA in refluxing BuOH to produce piperazinyl cyclopentapyrimidine (X). Oxidation of compound (X) using mCPBA and NaHCO3 in CHCl3 furnishes N-oxide (XI). Subsequent rearrangement of N-oxide (XI) using Ac2O in CH2Cl2 at 100 °C yields acetate (XII). This compound (XII) is hydrolyzed with LiOH in H2O/THF to give alcohol (XIII), which upon Swern oxidation with (COCl)2, DMSO and Et3N in CH2Cl2 at -78 °C affords ketone (XIV) (1-6). Asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of ketone (XIV) in the presence of RuCl[(R,R)-TsDPEN(p-cymene)], HCOOH and Et3N in CH2Cl2, followed by protection with PNBCl in the presence of Et3N in CH2Cl2, and hydrolysis with LiOH in H2O/THF gives rise to alcohol (XV) (1-6). Also, intermediate (XV) can be produced by enzymatic reduction of ketone (XI) using KRED-101 in the presence of GDH, NADP, KOH and PEG-400, KRED-X1.1-P1F01 in the presence of glucose and NAD in DMSO/i-PrOH or KRED-X1.1-P1B06, KRED-X1.1-P1F01 or KRED-X1.1-P1H10 in the presence of NADP in DMSO/i-PrOH or i-PrOH (11,12). In an alternative method, asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of ketone (XIV) in the presence of RuCl[(R,R)-MsDPEN(p-cymene)], HCOOH and Et3N in CH2Cl2, followed by O-protection of the resultant cis/trans mixture of alcohols with PNBCl and Et3N or protection with pivaloyl chloride in the presence of DIEA in CH2Cl2, followed by separation of the resulting cis/trans mixture of esters by means of HPLC. Hydrolysis of trans ester with LiOH in THF yields alcohol (XV) (11). N-Deprotection of piperazine derivative (XV) by means of HCl in CH2Cl2, i-PrOH or toluene at 62 °C provides amine dihydrochloride (XVI) (1-7,11,12), which is then coupled with aminoacid derivative (XVIIa) (1-7,11) or its sodium salt (XVIIb) (12,13) in the presence of DIEA and HBTU in CH2Cl2 or NMM and T3P in i-PrOH or toluene to produce amide (XVIII) (1-7,11-13). Finally, Boc-deprotection of precursor (XVIII) by means of HCl in MeOH/Et2O, PrOH, i-PrOH or toluene at 57 °C furnishes the target GDC-0068

 Ipatasertib pk_prod_list.xml_prod_list_card_pr?p_tsearch=A&p_id=691990

Synthesis of intermediate (XVII): Condensation of methyl (4-chlorophenyl)acetate (XIX) with formaldehyde (XX) in the presence of NaOMe in DMSO gives beta-hydroxyester (XXI). Subsequent dehydration of alcohol (XXI) using MsCl and Et3N in CH2Cl2 provides arylacrylate (XXII), which upon conjugate addition with isopropylamine (XXIII) in the presence of Boc2O in THF yields N-Boc beta-aminoester (XXIV). Basic hydrolysis of ester (XXIV) using KOSiMe3 in THF generates the potassium carboxylate (XXV), which upon condensation with 4(R)-benzyl-2-oxazolidinone (XXVI) via activation with pivaloyl chloride and BuLi in THF at -78 °C affords the N-acyl oxazolidinone (XXVII) (2-6). Finally, removal of the chiral auxiliary group of (XXVII) using LiOH and H2O2 in THF/H2O furnishes the key intermediate (XVII) (1-6,11). Alternative synthesis of intermediate (XXVII): Protection of isopropylamine (XXIII) with Boc2O in toluene affords tert-butyl isopropylcarbamate (XXVIII), which upon N-alkylation with bromomethyl methyl ether (XXIX) in the presence of NaHMDS in 2-MeTHF gives tert-butyl isopropyl(methoxymethyl)carbamate (XXX) (11). Condensation of 4(R)-benzyl-2-oxazolidinone (XXVI) with 2-(4-chlorophenyl)acetyl chloride (XXXIIa) using BuLi in THF at -50 °C (1) or with 2-(4-chlorophenyl)acetic acid (XXXIIb) via activation with pivaloyl chloride and Et3N in refluxing toluene (11) affords N-acyl oxazolidinone(XXXI). After conversion of intermediate (XXXI) to its titanium enolate with TiCl4 and DIEA in CH2Cl2 at -50 °C, diastereoselective Mannich reaction with formaldehyde hemiaminal (XXX) affords adduct (XXVII)

PAPER

Synthesis of Akt inhibitor ipatasertib. Part 2. Total synthesis and first kilogram scale-up
Org Process Res Dev 2014, 18(12): 1652

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/op500270z

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/suppl/10.1021/op500270z/suppl_file/op500270z_si_001.pdf

Synthesis of Akt Inhibitor Ipatasertib. Part 2. Total Synthesis and First Kilogram Scale-up

 Small Molecule Process Chemistry, Genentech, Inc., a member of the Roche Group, 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, California 94080-4990, United States
 Array BioPharma Inc., 3200 Walnut Street, Boulder, Colorado 80301, United States
Org. Process Res. Dev.201418 (12), pp 1652–1666
DOI: 10.1021/op500270z
*E-mail: travisr@gene.com.
Abstract Image

Herein, the first-generation process to manufacture Akt inhibitor Ipatasertib through a late-stage convergent coupling of two challenging chiral components on multikilogram scale is described. The first of the two key components is a trans-substituted cyclopentylpyrimidine compound that contains both a methyl stereocenter, which is ultimately derived from the enzymatic resolution of a simple triester starting material, and an adjacent hydroxyl group, which is installed through an asymmetric reduction of the corresponding cyclopentylpyrimidine ketone substrate. A carbonylative esterification and subsequent Dieckmann cyclization sequence was developed to forge the cyclopentane ring in the target. The second key chiral component, a β2-amino acid, is produced using an asymmetric aminomethylation (Mannich) reaction. The two chiral intermediates are then coupled in a three-stage endgame process to complete the assembly of Ipatasertib, which is isolated as a stable mono-HCl salt.

(S)-2-(4-Chlorophenyl)-1-(4-((5R,7R)-7-hydroxy-5-methyl-6,7-dihydro-5H-cyclopenta[d]pyrimidin-4-yl)piperazin-1-yl)-3-(isopropylamino)propan-1-one, Ipatasertib Mono-HCl

 Ipatasertib mono-HCl (3.23 kg, 80% yield) as an off-white solid. Analytical results: 99.7 A% [0.26% S,R,S-diastereomer observed)]; impurity 23 (M399) was not detected (<0.02 A%) [Method 2.2]; ruthenium content by IPC-AES = 5 ppm; analysis for PF6 anion by CAD-HPLC resulted in not detected [Method 2.3]; residual solvent = 0.4% EtOAc; ion chromatography (IC) = 8.5% chloride (1.14 salt equivalent); DSC = 141 °C; FTIR (neat) 3269 (br OH), 2961–2865 (N–H stretch), 1637 (C═O stretch); 1H NMR (600 MHz, DMSO-d6) 9.39 (s, 1H), 8.64 (s, 1H), 8.49 (s, 1H), 7.49 (q, J = 2.9 Hz, 2H), 7.41 (q, J = 2.9 Hz, 2H), 5.58 (s, 1H), 4.91 (t, J = 6.9 Hz, 1H), 4.78 (dd, J = 8.9, 4.5 Hz, 1H), 3.81 (m, J = 3.3 Hz, 1H), 3.68 (m, J = 3.3 Hz, 1H), 3.67 (m, J = 3.1 Hz, 1H), 3.65 (m, J = 3.2 Hz, 1H), 3.63 (m, J = 3.6 Hz, 1H), 3.59 (m, J = 4.3 Hz, 1H), 3.51 (m, J = 3.5 Hz, 1H), 3.46 (m, J = 3.5 Hz, 1H), 3.36 (m, J = 3.2 Hz, 1H), 3.30 (m, J = 5.7 Hz, 1H), 3.21 (m, J = 3.4 Hz, 1H), 2.98 (m, J = 5.8 Hz, 1H), 1.97 (m, J = 4.8 Hz, 2H), 1.26 (d, J = 6.6 Hz, 3H), 1.25 (d, J = 7.0 Hz, 3H); 13C NMR (150 MHz, DMSO-d6) 170.2, 168.2, 159.4, 155.2, 135.3, 132.5, 129.7 (2C), 129.1 (2C), 120.8, 71.7, 50.4, 47.0, 44.8, 44.5, 44.1, 41.4, 40.8, 34.5, 19.8, 18.4, 18.1; HRMS calcd for C24H32ClN5O2 457.2245; found [M+H]+ 458.2306.

str1

 Ipatasertib freebase (3.9 kg, 98.2 A% containing ~1.2% impurity 23 (M399) and impurity M416 at 0.2 A% [Method 2.2]) as tan solid. By CAD-HPLC (see Figure S1-2), the PF6 anion was present in ~0.86 A% [Method 2.3]; Ion chromatography (IC) = 4.0% chloride (0.56 salt equivalent); 1 H NMR (600 MHz, DMSO-d6) 8.44 (s, 1H), 7.45 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 2H), 7.40 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 2H), 5.48 (br s, 1H), 4.86 (t, J = 6.9 Hz, 1H), 4.58 (dd, J = 7.3, 4.6 Hz, 1H), 3.74 (m, 1H), 3.40 (m, 1H), 3.63 (m, 2H), 3.61 (m, 1H), 3.42 (m, 1H), 3.57 (m, 1H), 3.18 (m, 1H), 3.50 (m, J = 2.9 Hz, 1H), 3.09 (m, J = 3.1 Hz, 1H), 3.42 (m, 1H), 2.87 (m, J = 4.7 Hz, 1H), 2.00 (m, 1H), 1.92 (m, J = 3.1 Hz, 1H), 1.15 (d, J = 6.4 Hz, 6H), 1.03 (d, J = 6.9 Hz, 3H); 13C NMR (150 MHz, DMSO-d6) 172.0, 169.0, 159.6, 156.3, 136.3, 132.1, 129.7 (2C), 128.9 (2C), 120.9, 72.0, 49.4, 48.7, 45.4, 44.9, 44.8, 44.6, 41.4, 40.9, 34.3, 20.1, 19.9, 19.7; HRMS calcd for C24H32ClN5O2 [M+H]+ 458.2317; found 458.2312. See supporting information (S2) for the NMR spectra (DMSO-d6) of Ipatasertib freebase: ( 1 H) S2, Figure S2-5.12 and ( 13C) Figure S2-5.13.

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/suppl/10.1021/op500270z/suppl_file/op500270z_si_002.pdf

Table S2-1 1 H NMR Assignments of Ipatasertib mono-HCl. S2-52 Figure S2-5.10. 13C NMR (DMSO-d6) spectrum of Ipatasertib mono-HCl. S2-53 Table S2-2 13C NMR Assignments of Ipatasertib mono-HCl. S2-54 Table S2-3 Characteristic Ipatasertib mono-HCl Infrared Signals. S2-55 Figure S2-5.11. FTIR Spectrum of Ipatasertib mono-HCl. S2-56 Figure S2-5.12. XRPD Pattern of Ipatasertib mono-HCl. S2-57

PAPER

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/op500271w

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/suppl/10.1021/op500271w/suppl_file/op500271w_si_001.pdf

Synthesis of Akt Inhibitor Ipatasertib. Part 1. Route Scouting and Early Process Development of a Challenging Cyclopentylpyrimidine Intermediate

 Array BioPharma Inc., 3200 Walnut Street, Boulder, Colorado 80301, United States
 Genentech Inc., a member of the Roche Group, 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, California 94080-4990, United States
Org. Process Res. Dev.201418 (12), pp 1641–1651
DOI: 10.1021/op500271w
Abstract Image

Herein, the route scouting and early process development of a key cyclopentylpyrimidine ketone intermediate toward the synthesis of Akt inhibitor Ipatasertib are described. Initial supplies of the intermediate were prepared through a method that commenced with the natural product (R)-(+)-pulegone and relied on the early construction of a methyl-substituted cyclopentyl ring system. The first process chemistry route, detailed herein, enabled the synthesis of the ketone on a hundred-gram scale, but it was not feasible for the requisite production of multikilogram quantities of this compound and necessitated the exploration of alternative strategies. Several new synthetic approaches were investigated towards the preparation of the cyclopentylpyrimidine ketone, in either racemic or chiral form, which resulted in the discovery of a more practical route that hinged on the initial preparation of a highly substituted dihydroxypyrimidine compound. The cyclopentane ring in the target was then constructed through a key carbonylative esterification and subsequent tandem Dieckmann cyclization–decarboxylation sequence that was demonstrated in a racemic synthesis. This proof-of-concept was later developed into an asymmetric synthesis of the cyclopentylpyrimidine ketone, which will be described in a subsequent paper, along with the synthesis of Ipatasertib.

PAPER

Discovery and preclinical pharmacology of a selective ATP-Competitive akt inhibitor (GDC-0068) for the treatment of human tumors
J Med Chem 2012, 55(18): 8110

PAPER

Asymmetric synthesis of akt kinase inhibitor ipatasertib
Org Lett 2017, 19(18): 4806

PATENT

WO 2008006040

PATENT

WO 2012135753

PATENT

WO 2012135759

PATENT

WO 2012135781

PATENT

WO 2013173784

PATENT

WO 2015073739

PATENT

WO 2012135779

PATENT

WO 2013173768

References

  1. Jump up^ https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02301988
  2. Jump up^ Lin K, Friedman L, Gloor S, Gross S, Liederer BM, Mitchell I, et al. Preclinical characterization of GDC-0068, a novel selective ATP competitive inhibitor of Akt. 22nd-EORTC-NCI-AACR-2010 2010; abstr. 79
Ipatasertib
Ipatasertib.svg
Clinical data
Routes of
administration
PO
ATC code
  • None
Identifiers
ChemSpider
KEGG
Chemical and physical data
Formula C24H32ClN5O2
Molar mass 458.00 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)

////////////// ipatasertib, orphan drug designation, GDC-0068 , RG7440, PHASE 3

CC(C)NC[C@@H](C(=O)N1CCN(CC1)c2ncnc3[C@H](O)C[C@@H](C)c23)c4ccc(Cl)cc4

It has been found that ipatasertib exhibits a very high solubility (>1 g/g water; >2 g/g water/ethanol 1:1) and a very high hygroscopicity (˜6% at 50% RH, >35% at 95% RH). Whereas poor solubility is often a limiting factor in the development of galenical formulations of other API’s (active pharmaceutical ingredient), a high solubility can equally be problematic for the process performance. Due to this very high intrinsic hygroscopicity of the API, ipatasertib drug substance tends to auto-dissolve to a honey-like viscous liquid at increased humidity. Such high solubility and hygroscopicity may pose serious problems for processing as well as for stability and shelf-life of the final product. Therefore, conventional pharmaceutical compositions comprising ipatasertib and processes for the manufacture of pharmaceutical compositions comprising wetting (e.g. wet granulation) are difficult due to the high solubility and high hygroscopicity of the API.

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BMS 986205, ONO 7701


ChemSpider 2D Image | BMS 986205 | C24H24ClFN2Oimg

BMS 986205

(2R)-N-(4-Chlorophenyl)-2-[cis-4-(6-fluoro-4-quinolinyl)cyclohexyl]propanamide
Cyclohexaneacetamide, N-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-(6-fluoro-4-quinolinyl)-α-methyl-, cis-
Cyclohexaneacetamide, N-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-(6-fluoro-4-quinolinyl)-α-methyl-, cis-(αR)-
(i?)-N-(4-chlorophenyl)-2- c 5-4-(6-fluoroquinolin-4-yl)cyclohexyl)propanamide

CAS: 1923833-60-6

Phase III Head and neck cancer; Malignant melanoma

BMS-986205, ONO-7701,  F- 001287

  • Molecular Formula C24H24ClFN2O
  • Average mass 410.912 Da

BMS986205, BMS 986205, ONO-7701

Cyclohexaneacetamide, N-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-(6-fluoro-4-quinolinyl)-α-methyl-, cis-(αR)-

A potent and selective IDO1 (indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1) inhibitor.

Alternate Name (R)-N-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-((1s,4S)-4-(6-fluoroquinolin-4-yl)cyclohexyl)propenamide
Appearance Crystalline solid
CAS # 1923833-60-6
Molecular Formula C₂₄H₂₄ClFN₂O
Molecular Weight 410.92
  • Originator Bristol-Myers Squibb
  • Developer Bristol-Myers Squibb; Ono Pharmaceutical
  • Class Antineoplastics; Cyclohexanes; Quinolines; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action Indoleamine-pyrrole 2,3-dioxygenase inhibitors

Highest Development Phases

  • Phase II IHead and neck cancer; Malignant melanoma
  • Phase I/II Cancer
  • Phase I Solid tumours

Most Recent Events

  • 01 Jun 2018Efficacy and adverse events data from a phase I/IIa trial in Bladder cancer (Combination therapy, Late-stage disease) presented at the 54th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO- 2018)
  • 08 May 2018Bristol-Myers Squibb plans the CheckMate 9UT phase II trial for Bladder Cancer in USA, Canada, Italy, Mexico, Netherlands, Spain and United Kingdom , (NCT03519256)
  • 30 Apr 2018Bristol-Myers Squibb withdraws a phase III trial for Non-small cell lung cancer (First-line therapy, Combination therapy, Late-stage disease) in USA, Austria, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Mexico, Spain, Switzerland, Taiwan and Turkey prior to enrolment (NCT03417037)

WO 2016073770

Inventors Hilary Plake BeckJuan Carlos JaenMaksim OSIPOVJay Patrick POWERSMaureen Kay REILLYHunter Paul SHUNATONAJames Ross WALKERMikhail ZIBINSKYJames Aaron BalogDavid K WilliamsJay A MARKWALDEREmily Charlotte CHERNEYWeifang ShanAudris Huang
Applicant Flexus Biosciences, Inc.

Image result for BMS 986205

Image result for BMS 986205
Bristol-Myers Squibb
, following its acquisition of Flexus Biosciences, is developing BMS-986205 (previously F- 001287), the lead from an immunotherapy program of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) inhibitors for the potential treatment of cancer. In February 2016, a phase I/IIa trial was initiated .

BMS-986205 (ONO-7701) is being evaluated at Bristol-Myers Squibb in phase I/II clinical trials for the oral treatment of adult patients with advanced cancers in combination with nivolumab. Early clinical development is also ongoing at Ono in Japan for the treatment of hematologic cancer and for the treatment of solid tumors.

In April 2017, data from the trial were presented at the 108th AACR Annual Meeting in Washington DC. As of February 2017, the MTD had not been reached, but BMS-986205 plus nivolumab treatment was well tolerated, with only two patients discontinuing treatment due to DLTs. The most commonly reported treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs) were decreased appetite, fatigue, nausea, diarrhea, and vomiting. Grade 3 TRAEs were reported in three patients during the combination therapy; however, no grade 3 events were reported during BMS-986205 monotherapy lead-in. No grade 4 or 5 TRAEs were reported with BMS-986205 alone or in combination with nivolumab

Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO; also known as IDOl) is an IFN-γ target gene that plays a role in immunomodulation. IDO is an oxidoreductase and one of two enzymes that catalyze the first and rate-limiting step in the conversion of tryptophan to N-formyl-kynurenine. It exists as a 41kD monomer that is found in several cell populations, including immune cells, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts. IDO is relatively well-conserved between species, with mouse and human sharing 63% sequence identity at the amino acid level. Data derived from its crystal structure and site-directed mutagenesis show that both substrate binding and the relationship between the substrate and iron-bound dioxygenase are necessary for activity. A homolog to IDO (ID02) has been identified that shares 44% amino acid sequence homology with IDO, but its function is largely distinct from that of IDO. (See, e.g., Serafini P, et al, Semin. Cancer Biol, 16(l):53-65 (Feb. 2006) and Ball, H.J. et al, Gene, 396(1):203-213 (Jul. 2007)).

IDO plays a major role in immune regulation, and its immunosuppressive function manifests in several manners. Importantly, IDO regulates immunity at the T cell level, and a nexus exists between IDO and cytokine production. In addition, tumors frequently manipulate immune function by upregulation of IDO. Thus, modulation of IDO can have a therapeutic impact on a number of diseases, disorders and conditions.

A pathophysiological link exists between IDO and cancer. Disruption of immune homeostasis is intimately involved with tumor growth and progression, and the production of IDO in the tumor microenvironment appears to aid in tumor growth and metastasis. Moreover, increased levels of IDO activity are associated with a variety of different tumors (Brandacher, G. et al, Clin. Cancer Res., 12(4): 1144-1151 (Feb. 15, 2006)).

Treatment of cancer commonly entails surgical resection followed by chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The standard treatment regimens show highly variable degrees of long-term success because of the ability of tumor cells to essentially escape by regenerating primary tumor growth and, often more importantly, seeding distant metastasis. Recent advances in the treatment of cancer and cancer-related diseases, disorders and conditions comprise the use of combination therapy incorporating immunotherapy with more traditional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Under most scenarios, immunotherapy is associated with less toxicity than traditional chemotherapy because it utilizes the patient’s own immune system to identify and eliminate tumor cells.

In addition to cancer, IDO has been implicated in, among other conditions, immunosuppression, chronic infections, and autoimmune diseases or disorders (e.g. , rheumatoid arthritis). Thus, suppression of tryptophan degradation by inhibition of IDO activity has tremendous therapeutic value. Moreover, inhibitors of IDO can be used to enhance T cell activation when the T cells are suppressed by pregnancy, malignancy, or a virus (e.g., HIV). Although their roles are not as well defined, IDO inhibitors may also find use in the treatment of patients with neurological or neuropsychiatric diseases or disorders (e.g., depression).

Small molecule inhibitors of IDO have been developed to treat or prevent IDO-related diseases. For example, the IDO inhibitors 1-methyl-DL-tryptophan; p-(3-benzofuranyl)-DL-alanine; p-[3-benzo(b)thienyl]-DL-alanine; and 6-nitro-L-tryptophan have been used to modulate T cell-mediated immunity by altering local extracellular concentrations of tryptophan and tryptophan metabolites (WO 99/29310). Compounds having IDO inhibitory activity are further reported in WO 2004/094409.

In view of the role played by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in a diverse array of diseases, disorders and conditions, and the limitations (e.g., efficacy) of current IDO inhibitors, new IDO modulators, and compositions and methods associated therewith, are needed.

In April 2017, preclinical data were presented at the 108th AACR Annual Meeting in Washington DC. BMS-986205 inhibited kynurenine production with IC50 values of 1.7, 1.1 and > 2000 and 4.6, 6.3 and > 2000 nM in human (HeLa, HEK293 expressing human IDO-1 and tryptophan-2, 3-dioxygenase cell-based assays) and rat (M109, HEK293 expressing mouse ID0-1 and -2 cell-based assays) respectively. In human SKOV-3 xenografts (serum and tumor) AUC (0 to 24h; pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic [PK and PD])) was 0.8, 4.2 and 23 and 3.5, 11 and 40 microM h, respectively; area under the effect curve (PK and PD) was 39, 32 and 41 and 60, 63 and 76% kyn, at BMS-986205 (5, 25 and 125 mg/kg, qd×5), respectively

In April 2017, preclinical data were presented at the 253rd ACS National Meeting and Exhibition in San Francisco, CA. BMS-986205 showed potent and selective inhibition of IDO-1 enzyme (IC50 = 1.7nM) and potent growth inhibition in cellular assays (IC50 = 3.4 nM) in SKOV3 cells. A good pharmacokinetic profile was seen at oral and iv doses in rats, dogs and monkeys. The compound showed good oral exposure and efficacy in in vivo assays

Preclinical studies were performed to evaluate the activity of BMS-986205, a potent and selective optimized indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO)- 1inhibitor, for the treatment of cancer. BMS-986205 inhibited kynurenine production with IC50 values of 1.7, 1.1 and > 2000 and 4.6, 6.3 and > 2000 nM in human (HeLa, HEK293 expressing human IDO-1 and tryptophan-2, 3-dioxygenase cell-based assays) and rat (M109, HEK293 expressing mouse ID0-1 and -2 cell-based assays) respectively. BMS-986205 was also found to be potent when compared with IDO-1from other species (human < dog equivalent monkey equivalent mouse > rat). In cell-free systems, incubation of inhibitor lead to loss of heme absorbance of IDO-1 which was observed in the presence of BMS-986205 (10 microM), while did not observed with epacadostat (10 microM). The check inhibitory activity and check reversibility (24 h after compound removal) of BMS-986205 was found to be < 1 and 18% in M109 (mouse) and < 1 and 12% SKOV3 (human) cells, respectively. In human whole blood IDO-1, human DC mixed lymphocyte reaction and human T cells cocultured with SKOV3 cells- cell based assays, BMS-986205 showed potent cellular effects (inhibition of kynurenine and T-cell proliferation 3H-thymidine) with IC50 values of 2 to 42 (median 9.4 months), 1 to 7 and 15 nM, respectively. In human SKOV-3 xenografts (serum and tumor) AUC (0 to 24h; pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic [PK and PD])) was 0.8, 4.2 and 23 and 3.5, 11 and 40 microM h, respectively; area under the effect curve (PK and PD) was 39, 32 and 41 and 60, 63 and 76% kyn, at BMS-986205 (5, 25 and 125 mg/kg, qd×5), respectively. In vivo human-SKOV3 and hWB-xenografts, IC50 values of BMS-986205 were 3.4 and 9.4 NM, respectively. The ADME of BMS-986205 at parameters iv/po dose was 0.5/2, 0.5/1.5 and 0.5/1.2 mg/kg, respectively; iv/clearance was 27, 25 and 19 ml, min/kg, respectively; iv Vss was 3.8, 5.7 and 4.1 l/kg, respectively; t1/2 (iv) was 3.9, 4.7 and 6.6 h, respectively; fraction (po) was 64, 39 and 10%, respectively. At the time of presentation, BMS-986205 was being evaluated in combination with nivolumab.

The chemical structure and preclinical profile was presented for BMS-986205 ((2R)-N-(4-Chlorophenyl)-2-[cis-4-(6-fluoroquinolin-4-yl)cyclohexyl]propanamide), a potent IDO-1 inhibitor in phase I for the treatment of cancer. This compound showed potent and selective inhibition of IDO-1 enzyme (IC50 = 1.7nM) and potent growth inhibition in cellular assays (IC50 = 3.4 nM) in SKOV3 cells. The pharmacokinetic profile in rats dosed at 0.5 mg/kg iv and 2 mg/kg po, with clearance, Vss, half-life and bioavailability of 27 ml/min/kg, 3.8 l/kg, 3.9 h and 4%, respectively; in dogs at 0.5 iv and 1.5 po mg/kg dosing results were 25 ml/min/kg, 5.7 l/kg, 4.7 h and 39%; and, in cynomolgus monkeys with the same doses as dogs results were 19 ml/min/kg, 4.1 l/kg, 6.6 h and 10%, respectively. The compound showed good oral exposure and efficacy in in vivo assays.

BMS-986158: a BET inhibitor for cancerAshvinikumar Gavai of Bristol Myers Squibb (BMS) gave an overview of his company’s research into Bromodomian and extra-terminal domain (BET) as oncology target for transcriptional suppression of key oncogenes, such as MYC and BCL2. BET inhibition has been defined as strong rational strategy for the treatment of hematologic malignancies and solid tumors. From crystal-structure guided SAR studies, BMS-986158, 2-{3-(1,4-Dimethyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-5-yl)-5-[(S)-(oxan-4-yl)(phenyl)methyl]-5H-pyrido[3,2-b]indol-7-yl}propan-2-ol, was chosen as a potent BET inhibitor, showing IC50 values for BRD2, BRD3 and BRD4 activity of 1 nM; it also inhibited Myc oncogene (IC50 = 0.5 nM) and induced chlorogenic cancer cell death. In vitro the compound also displayed significant cytotoxicity against cancer cells.  When administered at 0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg po, qd to mice bearing human lung H187 SCLC cancer xenograft, BMS-986158 was robust and showed efficacy as a anticancer agent at low doses. In metabolic studies, it showed t1/2 of 36, 40 and 24 min in human, rat and mice, respectively, and it gave an efflux ratio of 3 in Caco-2 permeability assay. In phase 1/II studies, BMS-986158 was well tolerated at efficacious doses and regimens, and drug tolerable toxicity at efficacy doses and regimens. Selective Itk inhibitors for inflammatory disordersThe development of highly selective Itk inhibitors for the treatment of diseases related to T-cell function, such as inflammatory disorders, was described by Shigeyuki Takai (Ono Pharmaceutical). Inhibitory properties of a hit compound, ONO-8810443, were modified via X-ray structure and Molecular Dynamics stimulation to get ONO-212049 with significant kinase selectivity (140-fold) against Lck, a tyrosine kinase operating upstream of Itk in the TCR cascade. Further modifications identified final lead compound ONO-7790500 (N-[6-[3-amino-6-[2-(3-methoxyazetidin-1-yl)pyridin-4-yl]pyrazin-2-yl]pyridin-3-yl]-1-(3-methoxyphenyl)-2,3-dimethyl-5-oxopyrazole-4-carboxamide), which selectively inhibited Itk (IC50 = < 0.004 microM) over Lck (IC50 = 9.1 microM; SI 2000-fold) and suppressed Jurkat T-cell proliferation (IC50 = 0.014 microM). This compound suppressed alphaCD3/CDP28 CD4+T-cell stimulation (IC50 = 0.074 microM) with selectivity over PMA/Ionomycin (IC50 = > 10 microM). ONO-7790500 also exhibited in vivo IL-2 inhibitory properties (62% inhibition at 30 mg/kg po) in mice. In pharmacokinetic studies in balb/c mice, the compound administered orally (10 mg/kg) showed a Cmax of 1420 ng/ml, AUClast of 11,700 ng*h/ml, t1/2 of 5.3 h and oral bioavailability of 68%. Administration iv at 0.3 mg/kg gave an AUC last of 610 ng*h/ml, t1/2 of 3.8 h, Vss of 1260 ml/kg and Cl of 5.1 ml/min/kg. ADMET data showed ONO-7790500 did not have relevant activity in cytochromes and hERG channels (IC50 > 10 microM) in toxicological studies, and gave a PAMPA value of 5.0 x 10(-6) cm/s. Fused imidazole and pyrazole derivatives as TGF-beta inhibitorsDual growth and differentiation factor-8 (GDF-8; also known as myostatin) and TGF-beta inhibitors were described. Both targets belong to TGF-beta superfamily consisting of a large group of structurally related cell regulatory proteins involved in fundamental biological and pathological processes, such as cell proliferation or immunomodulation. Myostatin (GDF8) is a negative regulator negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth and has also been related to bone metabolism. Investigators at Rigel Pharmaceuticals found that compounds designed to be GDF-8 inhibitors were able to inhibit TGF-beta as well, this could be an advantage for the treatment of diseases associated with muscle and adipose tissue disorders, as well as potentially immunosuppressive disorders. Jiaxin Yu from the company described  new fused imidazole derivatives, of which the best compound was 6-[2-(2,4,5-Trifluorophenyl)-6,7-dihydro-5H-pyrrolo[1,2-a]imidazol-3-yl]quinoxaline. This compound was very potent at TGF-beta Receptor Type-1 (ALK5) inhibition with an IC50 value of 1nM. In an in vivo mouse assay this compound showed good activity at 59.7 mg/kg, po, and good plasma exposure; inhibition of GDF-8 and TGFbeta growth factors was 90 and 81.6 %, respectively.Rigel’s Ihab Darwish described a series of fused pyrazole derivatives, with the best compound being 6-[2-(2,4-Difluorophenyl)-5,6-dihydro-4H-pyrrolo[1,2-b]pyrazol-3-yl][1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyridine. This compound showed an IC50 of 0.06 and 0.23 microM for GDF-8 and TGFbeta, respectively, in the pSMAD (MPC-11) signaling inhibition test. The compound had a good pharmacokinetic profile, with 40% of bioavailability in mice after a 5-mg/kg po dose. An iv dose of 1 mg/kg showed t1/2 of 0.7 h and Vss of 1.0 l/h/kgDiscovery of selective inhibitor of IDO BMS-986205 for cancerIndoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO)-1 enzyme initiates and regulates the first step of the kynurenine pathway (KP) of tryptophan metabolism, and evidence has shown that overexpression of IDO-1 in cancer tumors is a crucial mechanism facilitating tumor immune evasion and persistence. The chemical structure and preclinical profile of BMS-986205 was presented by Aaron Balog from BMS. BMS-986205 ((2R)-N-(4-Chlorophenyl)-2-[cis-4-(6-fluoroquinolin-4-yl)cyclohexyl]propanamide),  is a potent IDO-1 inhibitor in phase I for the treatment of cancer. This compound showed potent and selective inhibition of IDO-1 enzyme (IC50 = 1.7nM) and potent growth inhibition in cellular assays (IC50 = 3.4 nM) in SKOV3 cells. The pharmacokinetic profile in rats dosed at 0.5 mg/kg iv and 2 mg/kg po, with clearance, Vss, half-life and bioavailability of 27 ml/min/kg, 3.8 l/kg, 3.9 h and 4%, respectively; in dogs at 0.5 iv and 1.5 po mg/kg dosing results were 25 ml/min/kg, 5.7 l/kg, 4.7 h and 39%; and, in cynomolgus monkeys with the same doses as dogs results were 19 ml/min/kg, 4.1 l/kg, 6.6 h and 10%, respectively. The compound showed good oral exposure and efficacy in in vivo assays.Three further reports have been published from this meeting .The website for this meeting can be found at https://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/meetings/spring-2017.html.

SYNTHESIS

1 Wittig  NaH

2 REDUCTION H2, Pd, AcOEt, 4 h, rt, 50 psi

3 Hydrolysis HCl, H2O, Me2CO, 2 h, reflux

4  4-Me-2,6-(t-Bu)2-Py, CH2Cl2, overnight, rt

5 SUZUKI AcOK, 72287-26-4, Dioxane, 16 h, 80°C

6  Heck Reaction,  Suzuki Coupling, Hydrogenolysis of Carboxylic Esters, Reduction of Bonds, HYDROGEN

7 Et3N, THF, rt – -78°C , Pivaloyl chloride, 15 min, -78°C; 1 h, 0°C ,THF, 0°C – -78°C, BuLi, Me(CH2)4Me, 15 min, -78°C, R:(Me3Si)2NH •Na, THF, 10 min, -50°C , HYDROLYSIS,  (PrP(=O)O)3, C5H5N, AcOEt, 5 min, rt

Product Patent

WO2016073770

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf;jsessionid=289DBE79BEFC6ADC558C89E7A74B19DB.wapp2nB?docId=WO2016073770&recNum=1&maxRec=&office=&prevFilter=&sortOption=&queryString=&tab=PCTDescription

Example 19

(i?)-N-(4-chlorophenyl)-2- c 5-4-(6-fluoroquinolin-4-yl)cyclohexyl)propanamide

Example 19 : (i?)-N-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(cz5-4-(6-fluoroquinolin-4- yl)cyclohexyl)propanamide

[0277] Prepared using General Procedures K, B, E, L, M, N, and O. General Procedure L employed 2-(4-(6-fluoroquinolin-4-yl)-cyclohexyl)acetic acid (mixture of

diastereomers), and ( ?)-2-phenyl-oxazolidinone. General Procedure M employed the cis product and iodomethane. The auxiliary was removed following General Procedure N and the desired product formed employing General Procedure O with 4-chloroaniline.

Purified using silica gel chromatography (0% to 100% ethyl acetate in hexanes) to afford Example 19. 1H NMR of czs-isomer (400 MHz; CDC13): δ 9.14 (s, 1H), 8.70 (d, J= 4.6 Hz, 1H), 8.06 (dd, J= 9.2 Hz, J= 5.6 Hz, 1H), 7.58-7.64 (m, 3H), 7.45 (ddd, J= 9.3 Hz, J= 7.8 Hz, J= 2.7 Hz, 1H), 7.19-7.24 (m, 2H), 7.15 (d, J= 4.6Hz, 1H), 3.16-3.26 (m, 1H), 2.59-2.69 (m, 1H), 2.08-2.16 (m, 1H), 1.66-1.86 (m, 7H), 1.31-1.42 (m, 1H), 1.21 (d, J= 6.8Hz, 3H) ppm. m/z 411.2 (M+H)+.

PAPER

Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters (2018), 28(3), 319-329.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960894X17312180

PATENT

WO 2018022992

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2018022992&recNum=1&maxRec=&office=&prevFilter=&sortOption=&queryString=&tab=PCTDescription

PATENT

WO 2018071500

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2018071500&redirectedID=true

REFERENCES

23-Feb-2015
Bristol-Myers Squibb To Expand Its Immuno-Oncology Pipeline with Agreement to Acquire Flexus Biosciences, Inc
Bristol-Myers Squibb Co; Flexus Biosciences Inc

17-Dec-2014
Flexus Biosciences, a Cancer Immunotherapy Company Focused on Agents for the Reversal of Tumor Immunosuppression (ARTIS), Announces $38M Financing
Flexus Biosciences Inc

2015106thApril 21Abs 4290
Potent and selective next generation inhibitors of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1) for the treatment of cancer
American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting
Jay P. Powers, Matthew J. Walters, Rajkumar Noubade, Stephen W. Young, Lisa Marshall, Jan Melom, Adam Park, Nick Shah, Pia Bjork, Jordan S. Fridman, Hilary P. Beck, David Chian, Jenny V. McKinnell, Maksim Osipov, Maureen K. Reilly, Hunter P. Shunatona, James R. Walker, Mikhail Zibinsky, Juan C. Jaen

2017108thApril 04Abs 4964
Structure, in vitro biology and in vivo pharmacodynamic characterization of a novel clinical IDO1 inhibitor
American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting
John T Hunt, Aaron Balog, Christine Huang, Tai-An Lin, Tai-An Lin, Derrick Maley, Johnni Gullo-Brown, Jesse Swanson, Jennifer Brown

2017253rdApril 05Abs MEDI 368
Discovery of a selective inhibitor of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase for use in the therapy of cancer
American Chemical Society National Meeting and Exposition
Aaron Balog

April 2-62017
American Chemical Society – 253rd National Meeting and Exhibition (Part IV) – OVERNIGHT REPORT, San Francisco, CA, USA
Casellas J, Carceller V

////////////////PHASE 1, BMS 986205, 1923833-60-6, BMS-986205, ONO-7701,Bristol-Myers Squibb,  Antineoplastics,  F- 001287

 C[C@H]([C@H]1CC[C@@H](C2=CC=NC3=CC=C(F)C=C23)CC1)C(NC4=CC=C(Cl)C=C4)=O

Wrapping up ‘s 1st time disclosures is Aaron Balog of @bmsnews talking about an IOD-1 inhibitor to treat cancer 

str0

////////////////BMS986205, BMS 986205, BM-986205, ONO-7701, Phase III,  Head and neck cancer, Malignant melanoma, 1923833-60-6

CC(C1CCC(CC1)C2=C3C=C(C=CC3=NC=C2)F)C(=O)NC4=CC=C(C=C4)Cl

ABL 001, Asciminib


img

Image result for ABL001 / Asciminib

ABL001 / Asciminib

Cas 1492952-76-7
Chemical Formula: C20H18ClF2N5O3
Molecular Weight: 449.8428
Elemental Analysis: C, 53.40; H, 4.03; Cl, 7.88; F, 8.45; N, 15.57; O, 10.67

N-[4-[Chloro(difluoro)methoxy]phenyl]-6-[(3R)-3-hydroxypyrrolidin-1-yl]-5-(1H-pyrazol-5-yl)pyridine-3-carboxamide

3-Pyridinecarboxamide, N-[4-(chlorodifluoromethoxy)phenyl]-6-[(3R)-3-hydroxy-1-pyrrolidinyl]-5-(1H-pyrazol-3-yl)-

PHASE 3, Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, NOVARTIS

Asciminib is an orally bioavailable, allosteric Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Designed to overcome resistance, ABL001 binds to the Abl portion of the Bcr-Abl fusion protein at a location that is distinct from the ATP-binding domain. This binding results in the inhibition of Bcr-Abl-mediated proliferation and enhanced apoptosis of Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) hematological malignancies. The Bcr-Abl fusion protein tyrosine kinase is an abnormal enzyme produced by leukemia cells that contain the Philadelphia chromosome.

ABL001 has been used in trials studying the health services research of Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia and Philadelphia Chromosome-positive Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.
  • Originator Novartis
  • Developer Novartis; Novartis Oncology
  • Class Antineoplastics; Pyrazoles; Pyrrolidines; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action Bcr-abl tyrosine kinase inhibitors

Highest Development Phases

  • Phase III Chronic myeloid leukaemia
  • No development reported Precursor cell lymphoblastic leukaemia-lymphoma

Most Recent Events

  • 04 Nov 2017 No recent reports of development identified for phase-I development in Acute-lymphoblastic-leukaemia(Second-line therapy or greater) in Australia (PO)
  • 04 Nov 2017 No recent reports of development identified for phase-I development in Acute-lymphoblastic-leukaemia(Second-line therapy or greater) in France (PO)
  • 04 Nov 2017 No recent reports of development identified for phase-I development in Acute-lymphoblastic-leukaemia(Second-line therapy or greater) in Germany (PO)
  • The tyrosine kinase activity of the ABLl protein is normally tightly regulated, with the N-terminal cap region of the SH3 domain playing an important role. One regulatory mechanism involves the N-terminal cap glycine-2 residue being myristoylated and then interacting with a myristate binding site within the SHI catalytic domain. A hallmark of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is the Philadelphia chromosome (Ph), formed by the t(9,22) reciprocal chromosome translocation in a haematopoietic stem cell. This chromosome carries the BCR-ABL1 oncogene which encodes the chimeric BCR-ABL1 protein, that lacks the N-terminal cap and has a constitutively active tyrosine kinase domain.Although drugs that inhibit the tyrosine kinase activity of BCR-ABL1 via an ATP-competitive mechanism, such as Gleevec® / Glivec® (imatinib), Tasigna® (nilotinib) and Sprycel® (dasatinib), are effective in the treatment of CML, some patients relapse due to the emergence of drug-resistant clones, in which mutations in the SHI domain compromise inhibitor binding. Although Tasigna® and Sprycel® maintain efficacy towards many Gleevec-resistant mutant forms of BCR-ABLl, the mutation in which the threonine-315 residue is replaced by an isoleucine (T315I) remains insensitive to all three drugs and can result in CML patients developing resistance to therapy. Therefore, inhibiting BCR-ABLl mutations, such as T315I, remains an unmet medical need. In addition to CML, BCR-ABLl fusion proteins are causative in a percentage of acute lymphocytic leukemias, and drugs targeting ABL kinase activity also have utility in this indication.Agents targeting the myristoyl binding site (so-called allosteric inhibitors) have potential for the treatment of BCR-ABLl disorders (J. Zhang, F. J. Adrian, W. Jahnke, S. W. Cowan- Jacob, A. G. Li, R. E. Iacob4, T. Sim, J. Powers, C. Dierks, F. Sun, G.-R. Guo, Q. Ding, B. Okram, Y. Choi, A. Wojciechowski, X. Deng, G. Liu, G. Fendrich, A. Strauss, N. Vajpai, S. Grzesiek, T. Tuntland, Y. Liu, B. Bursulaya, M. Azam, P. W. Manley, J. R. Engen, G. Q. Daley, M. Warmuth., N. S. Gray. Targeting BCR-ABL by combining allosteric with ATP -binding-site inhibitors. Nature 2010;463:501-6). To prevent the emergence of drug resistance from ATP inhibitor and/or allosteric inhibitor use, a combination treatment using both types of inhibitor can be developed for the treatment of BCR-ABLl related disorders. In particular, the need exists for small molecules, or combinations thereof, that inhibit the activity of BCR-ABLl and BCR-ABLl mutations via the ATP binding site, the myristoyl binding site or a combination of both sites.Further, inhibitors of ABL 1 kinase activity have the potential to be used as therapies for the treatment of metastatic invasive carcinomas and viral infections such as pox and Ebola viruses.The compounds from the present invention also have the potential to treat or prevent diseases or disorders associated with abnormally activated kinase activity of wild-type ABL1, including non-malignant diseases or disorders, such as CNS diseases in particular neurodegenerative diseases (for example Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s diseases), motoneuroneuron diseases (amyotophic lateral sclerosis), muscular dystrophies, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases (diabetes and pulmonary fibrosis), viral infections, prion diseases.

Asciminib is an allosteric inhibitor of BCR-ABL kinase in phase III clinical development at Novartis for the treatment of patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in chronic phase who have been previously treated with ATP-binding site tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Early clinical trials are also under way in patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ ALL) and as first-line threapy of CML.

PATENT

WO2013171639

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2013171639&recNum=141&docAn=IB2013053768&queryString=EN_ALL:nmr%20AND%20PA:novartis&maxRec=3644

To illustrate tautomerism with the following specific examples, (R)-N-(4- (chlorodifluoromethoxy)phenyl)-6-(3-hydroxypyrrolidin-l-yl)-5-(lH-pyrazol-5-yl)nicotinamide

(right structure, below) is a tautomer of (R)-N-(4-(chlorodifluoromethoxy)phenyl)-6-(3-hydroxypyrrolidin-l-yl)-5-(lH-pyrazol-3-yl)nicotinamide (left structure, below) and vice versa:

[0045] Where the plural form (e.g. compounds, salts) is used, this includes the singular

Example 9

(R)-N-(4-(Chlorodifluoromethoxy)phenyl)-6-(3-hvdroxypyrrolidin-l-yl)-5-(lH-pyrazol-5- vDnicotinamide

[00365] A mixture of (R)-5-Bromo-N-(4-(chlorodifluoromethoxy)phenyl)-6-(3-hydroxypyrrolidin-l-yl)nicotinamide (Stage 9.2, 100 mg, 0.216 mmol) and 5-(4 ,4,5,5-tetramethyl- 1 ,3 ,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)- 1 -((2-(trimethylsilyl)ethoxy)methyl)- IH-pyrazole (215 mg, 0.663 mmol), Pd(PPh3)2Cl2 (17 mg, 0.024 mmol), Na2C03 (115 mg, 1.081 mmol), DME (917 μί), water (262 μΕ) and EtOH (131 μί) in a MW vial was sealed, evacuated / purged 3 times with argon and subjected to MW irradiation at 125°C for 20 min. The RM was diluted with 2 mL

of DME, stirred with Si-Thiol (Silicycle 1.44 mmol/g, 90 mg, 0.130 mmol) for 3 h. The mixture was centrifuged and the supernatant was filtered through a 0.45 μηι PTFE filter and the solvent was evaporated off under reduced pressure. The crude product was purified by flash

chromatography (RediSep® Silica gel column, 12 g, cyclohexane / EtOAc from 40% to 100% EtOAc) to afford the protected intermediate as a colorless oil. Ethylene diamine (96 μί, 1.428 mmol) and TBAF 1 M in THF (1.428 mL, 1.428 mmol) were then added and the RM was stirred at 80-85°C for 5 days. The solvent was evaporated off under reduced pressure and the residue was dissolved in EtOAc (40 mL), washed 3 times with sat. aq. NaHCC and brine, dried over Na2S04 and The solvent was evaporated off under reduced pressure to give a residue which was purified by preparative SFC (Column DEAP, from 25% to 30% in 6 min) to yield the title compound as a white solid.

[00366] Alternatively, Example 9 was prepared by adding TFA (168 mL, 2182 mmol) to a solution of N-(4-(chlorodifluoromethoxy)phenyl)-6-((R)-3-hydroxypyrrolidin-l-yl)-5-(l-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-5-yl)nicotinamide (Stage 9.1, 31.3 g, 54.6 mmol) in DCM (600 mL). The mixture was stirred at RT for 2.5 h. The solvent was evaporated off under reduced pressure and the residue was dissolved in EtOAc (1.5 L),washed with a sat. solution of NaHC03 (3 x 500 mL) and brine (500 mL), dried over Na2S04 and the solvent was evaporated off under reduced pressure to give a residue which was suspended in DCM (300 mL), stirred at RT for 15 min, filtered, washed with DCM (200 mL), dried and purified by chromatography (Silica gel, 1 kg, DCM / MeOH 95:5). The residue was dissolved in MeOH (500 mL) and treated with Si-Thiol (Biotage, 5.0 g , 6.5 mmol) for 16 h at 25°C. The resin was filtered off, the solvent was evaporated off under reduced pressure and the residue was crystallized from MeCN to afford the title compound as a white crystalline solid.

[00367] Alternatively, Example 9 was prepared by the dropwise addition of aqueous HC1

(7.7 mL of 6M) to a solution of N-(4-(chlorodifluoromethoxy)phenyl)-6-((R)-3-hydroxypyrrolidin- 1 -yl)-5-( 1 -(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)- 1 H-pyrazol-5-yl)nicotinamide (Stage 9.1, 3.8 g, 7.12 mmol) in MeOH (20 mL) and THF (10 mL) with cooling (below 35°C). The mixture was stirred at 22°C for 2 h and then added to cooled (10°C) 1.2 M NaOH (22 mL).

Throughout the addition the temperature was kept below 30°C and pH was kept in the range of 9-10. The RM was then stirred for 30 min at 30°C. The solvent was evaporated off under reduced pressure, until the desired compound precipitated. The precipitate was filtered and dried to give the title compound as a yellow solid.

[00368] Analytical data for Example 9: HPLC (Condition 5) tR = 5.54 min, HPLC Chiral

(CHIRALCEL® OD-H, 250 x 4.6 mm, eluent : n-heptane/EtOH/MeOH (85: 10:5), 1 mL/min, UV 210 nm) tR = 10.17 min, UPLC-MS (condition 3) tR = 0.93 min, m/z = 450.3 [M+H]+, m/z = 494.1 [M+formic acid-H]XH-NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 1.65 – 1.76 (m, 1 H) 1.76 – 1.87 (m, 1 H) 2.93 (d, J=l 1.73 Hz, 1 H) 3.19 – 3.29 (m, 2 H) 3.35 – 3.51 (m, 1 H) 4.10 – 4.25 (m, 1 H) 4.89 (br. s, 1 H) 6.41 (br. s, 1 H) 7.33 (d, J=8.50 Hz, 2 H) 7.57/7.83 (br. s, 1 H) 7.90 (d, J=8.50 Hz, 2 H) 8.07 (br. s, 1 H) 8.77 (br. s, 1 H) 10.23 (s, 1 H) 12.97/13.15 (br. s, 1 H).

[00369] Stage 9.1 : N-(4-(Chlorodifluoromethoxy)phenyl)-6-((R)-3-hydroxypyrrolidin- 1 -yl)-5-( 1 -(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2- l)- 1 H-pyrazol-5-yl)nicotinamide

[00370] l-(Tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)-5-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-l,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazole (29.6 g, 102 mmol), K3P04 (51.6 g, 236 mmol) and Pd(PPh3)4 (4.55 g, 3.93 mmol) were added to a suspension of (R)-5-bromo-N-(4-(chlorodifluoromethoxy)phenyl)-6-(3-hydroxypyrrolidin-l-yl)nicotinamide (Stage 9.2, 36.4 g, 79 mmol) in toluene (360 mL) under an argon atmosphere and the mixture was stirred at 110°C for 4 h. The RM was poured into brine (500 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (2 x 1 L). The combined extracts were washed with brine (500 mL), dried over Na2S04, and the solvent was evaporated off under reduced pressure to give a residue which was purified by chromatography (Silica gel column, 1.5 kg, DCM / MeOH 95:5) to afford a dark yellow foam, that was dissolved in MeOH / DCM (1 L of 3: l) and treated with Si-Thiol (Biotage, 35 g , 45.5 mmol) for 17 h at 30°C. The resin was filtered off, and solvent was evaporated off under reduced pressure, until the desired compound crystallized. The product was filtered washed with MeOH and dried to afford the title compound.

[00371] Alternatively, Stage 9.1 was prepared by adding 4-(chlorodifluoromethoxy)aniline

(16.6 g, 84.9 mmol), NMM (21.7 g, 212.1 mmol), hydroxybenzotriazole hydrate (HOBt H20, 11.9 g, 77.77 mmol) and l-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDCIHCl, 20.9 g, 109.0 mmol) to a solution of 6-((R)-3-hydroxypyrrolidin-l-yl)-5-(l-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-5-yl)nicotinic acid (Stage 9.4, 29.83 g, 70.7 mmol) in THF (271 mL). The mixture was stirred for 1.5 h at 25°C and then at 65°C for 16 h. After cooling the RM to 35 °C, further EDCIHCl (13.3 g, 69.4 mmol) was added and the RM was stirred for 1.5 h at 35°C then again at 65°C for 16 h. After cooling the RM to 35°C, water (150 mL) was added, the THF was removed under reduced pressure, EtOAc (180 mL) was added and the mixture was stirred for at 35 °C fori h. The two layers were separated and the aq. phase was then extracted with EtOAc (60 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with water (90 mL), brine (90 mL). The solvent was evaporated off under reduced pressure to give a brown solid which was purified by column chromatography (Silica gel, DCM / MeOH 40: 1 to 20: 1) to afford the title compound as a yellow solid.

[00372] Analytical data for Stage 9.1: HPLC (Condition 5) tR = 6.12 min, UPLC-MS

(Condition 3) tR = 1.06 min, m/z = 533.2 [M+H]+XH-NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 1.36 -2.02 (m, 7 H) 2.23 – 2.38 (m, 1 H) 3.08 – 3.29 (m, 2 H) 3.32 – 3.52 (m, 2 H) 3.73 – 3.93 (m, 1 H) 4.13 – 4.25 (m, 1 H) 4.80 – 4.90 (m, 1 H) 4.95 – 5.17 (m, 1 H) 6.33 – 6.50 (m, 1 H) 7.33 (d, J=8.99 Hz, 2 H) 7.61 (d, J=1.56 Hz, 1 H) 7.86 (d, J=8.99 Hz, 2 H) 7.97 – 8.11 (m, 1 H) 8.82 (s, 1 H) 10.13 – 10.25 (m, 1 H).

[00373] Stage 9.2: (R)-5-Bromo-N-(4-(chlorodifluoromethoxy)phenyl)-6-(3-hydroxypyrrolidin- 1 -yl)nicotinamide

[00374] (R)-Pyrrolidin-3-ol (9.55 g, 109.6 mmol) and DIPEA (35.1 ml, 201.3 mmol) were added to a suspension of 5-bromo-6-chloro-N-(4-(chlorodifluoromethoxy)phenyl)nicotinamide (Stage 9.3, 37.7 g, 91.5 mmol) in iPrOH (65 mL) and stirred at 140°C for 1 h. EtOAc (700 mL) was added and the solution was washed IN HC1 (2 x 200 mL), sat. NaHCC (200 mL) and brine (2 x 200 mL), dried over Na2S04, and the solution was concentrated under reduced pressure until crystallization commenced. n-Heptane (1 L) were added and the mixture was stirred at RT for 30 min, filtered and washed with ΪΡΓ20 (500 mL) to afford the title compound as a white crystalline solid. HPLC (Condition 5) tR = 6.68 min, UPLC-MS (Condition 3) tR = 1.10 min, m/z =

462.2/464.2 [M+H]+XH-NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 1.78 – 2.01 (m, 2 H) 3.55 (d, J=l 1.34 Hz, 1 H) 3.66 – 3.75 (m, 1 H) 3.79 – 3.93 (m, 2 H) 4.34 (br. s, 1 H) 4.98 (d, =3.13 Hz, 1 H) 7.32 (d, J=8.99 Hz, 2 H) 7.84 (d, J=8.99 Hz, 2 H) 8.33 (d, J=1.96 Hz, 1 H) 8.66 (d, J=1.96 Hz, 1 H) 10.21 (s, 1 H).

[00375] Stage 9.3: 5-Bromo-6-chloro-N- 4-(chlorodifluoromethoxy)phenyl)nicotinamide

[00376] DMF (2.55 mL, 33.0 mmol) and SOCl2 (24.08 ml, 330 mmol) were added to a suspension of 5-bromo-6-chloro-nicotinic acid (26 g, 110 mmol) in toluene (220 mL) and the RM was stirred at 80°C for 1 h. The solvent was evaporated off under reduced pressure and the residue was dissolved in THF (220 mL) and cooled to -16°C. DIPEA (38.4 mL, 220 mmol) was added, followed by dropwise addition of a solution of 4-(chlorodifluoromethoxy)aniline (22.35 g, 115 mmol) in THF (220 mL) over 15 min. The suspension was stirred for 1 h at RT. The solvent was evaporated off under reduced pressure and the residue was dissolved in TBME (700 mL), washed with IN HC1 (2 x 200 mL), sat. NaHC03 (200 mL) and brine (2 x 200 mL), dried over Na2S04, and the solvent was evaporated off under reduced pressure to give the product which was crystallized from EtOAc – n-heptane to afford the title compound as a white crystalline solid. HPLC (Condition 5) tR = 7.77 min, UPLC-MS (Condition 3) tR = 1.24 min, m/z =

409.1/411.1/413.1 [M+H]+XH-NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 7.38 (d, =8.99 Hz, 2 H) 7.85 (d, =8.99 Hz, 2 H) 8.72 (br. s, 1 H) 8.92 (br. s, 1 H) 10.68 (s, 1 H).

[00377] Stage 9.4: 6-((R)-3-Hydroxypyrrolidin-l-yl)-5-(l-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-5-yl)nicotinic acid

[00378] Aq. NaOH (180 niL of 2.6 M) was added to a solution of methyl 6-((R)-3-hydroxypyrrolidin- 1 -yl)-5-(l -(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)- 1 H-pyrazol-5-yl)nicotinate (Stage 9.5, 11 lg, 299 mmol) in MeOH (270 mL) and the RM was stirred at RT for 14 h. The MeOH was evaporated off under reduced pressure and the aq. residue was treated with brine (90 mL), extracted with MeTHF twice (540 mL + 360 mL) and the combined organic layers were washed with water (90 mL). MeTHF was added to the combined aq. layers, the biphasic mixture was cooled to 0 °C and acidified (pH = 4-4.5) with aq. HC1 solution (18%) and extracted with

MeTHF. The combined organic extracts were washed with brine and the solvent was evaporated off under reduced pressure to give a residue which was recrystallized from a EtOAc / TBME (1 : 1) to afford the title compound as a white solid. HPLC (Condition 7) tR = 4.74 min, LC-MS

(Condition 8) tR = 3.37 min, m/z = 359.0 [M+H]+XH-NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 1.44 (br. s, 2 H), 1.51 (d, J=11.54 Hz, 2 H), 1.64 – 1.86 (m, 4 H), 1.90 (br. s, 1 H), 2.31 (d, J=9.29 Hz, 1 H), 2.77 (br. s, 1 H), 3.10 (br. s, 1 H), 3.21 (d, J=8.78 Hz, 2 H), 3.27 – 3.51 (m, 4 H), 3.87 (d, J=11.54 Hz, 1 H), 4.16 (br. s, 1 H), 4.75 – 4.93 (m, 1 H), 5.04 (br. s, 1 H), 6.35 (d, J=17.32 Hz, 1 H), 7.51 – 7.64 (m, 1 H), 7.64 – 7.82 (m, 1 H), 8.67 (d, J=2.26 Hz, 1 H), 12.58 (br. s, 1 H).

[00379] Stage 9.5: Methyl 6-((R)-3-hydroxypyrrolidin-l-yl)-5-(l-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)- 1 H-pyrazol-5-yl)nicotinate

[00380] A mixture of (R)-methyl 5-bromo-6-(3-hydroxypyrrolidin-l-yl)nicotinate (Stage

9.6, 90 g, 299 mmol), l-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)-lH-pyrazole-5-boronic acid pinacol ester (103.9 g, 373.6 mmol), K3P04 (126.9 g, 597.7 mmol), Pd(PPh3)2Cl2 (6.29 g, 8.97 mmol) in toluene (900 mL) was stirred at 92°C and for 16 h. After cooling the mixture to RT, the solution was washed with water (450 mL), 5% NaHCC solution (430 mL) and the solvent was evaporated off under reduced pressure to give a residue which was used without further purifications in the next step. HPLC (Condition 7) tR = 6.929 min, LC-MS (Condition 8) tR = 4.30 min, m/z = 373.0 [M+H ; XH-NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 1.19 – 1.28 (m, 1 H), 1.35 – 1.63 (m, 4 H), 1.63 -1.86 (m, 3 H), 1.89 (br. s, 1 H), 2.12 – 2.39 (m, 1 H), 3.11 (br. s, 1 H), 3.18 – 3.48 (m, 4 H), 3.78 (s, 4 H), 3.88 (d, J=11.54 Hz, 1 H), 4.08 – 4.24 (m, 1 H), 4.86 (dd, J=18.20, 2.89 Hz, 1 H), 5.02 (d, J=8.28 Hz, 1 H), 6.39 (br. s, 1 H), 7.58 (d, J=1.25 Hz, 1 H), 7.78 (br. s, 1 H), 8.69 (t, J=2.01 Hz, 1 H).

[00381] Stage 9.6: (R)-methyl 5-bromo-6-(3-hydroxypyrrolidin-l-yl)nicotinate

[00382] DIPEA (105.3 g, 142.2 mL, 814.4 mmol) was added to a solution of methyl-5-bromo-6-chroronicotinate (85 g, 339.5 mmol) and (R)-pyrrolidin-3-ol (54.2 g, 441.2 mmol) in isopropyl acetate and the RM was stirred at 70°C for 14 h . The solvent was evaporated off under reduced pressure to give a the residue which was dissolved in toluene (850 mL), washed with water (127 mL) and brine (127 mL)and concentrated under reduced pressure until precipitation commenced. n-Heptane (340 mL) was slowly added to the stirred mixture at 22 °C, which was then cooled to 0 °C and the product was filtered, washed with a toluene / n-heptane mixture

(1 : 1.5) and dried to give the title compound as a yellow solid. HPLC (Condition 7) tR = 8.54 min, LC-MS (Condition 8) tR = 4.62 min, m/z = 300.9/302.9 [M+H]+XH-NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ρριη 1.77 – 1.99 (m, 2 H), 3.57 (d, J=11.54 Hz, 1 H), 3.72 (ddd, J=l 1.11, 7.97, 3.26 Hz, 1 H), 3.78 (s, 3 H), 3.81 -3.90 (m, 2 H), 4.26 – 4.39 (m, 1 H), 4.99 (br. s, 1 H), 8.11 (d, J=2.01 Hz, 1 H), 8.56 (d, J=1.76 Hz, 1 H).

PAPER

  • By Wylie, Andrew A.; Schoepfer, Joseph; Jahnke, Wolfgang; Cowan-Jacob, Sandra W.; Loo, Alice; Furet, Pascal; Marzinzik, Andreas L.; Pelle, Xavier; Donovan, Jerry; Zhu, Wenjing; et al
  • From Nature (London, United Kingdom) (2017), 543(7647), 733-737.

By Wylie, Andrew A. et alFrom Nature (London, United Kingdom), 543(7647), 733-737; 2017

PAPER

  • By Molica, Matteo; Massaro, Fulvio; Breccia, Massimo
  • From Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy (2017), 18(1), 57-65.

PATENT

US 20170216289

PAPER

  • By El Rashedy, Ahmed A.; Olotu, Fisayo A.; Soliman, Mahmoud E. S.
  • From Chemistry & Biodiversity (2018), 15(3), n/a.
Patent ID

Patent Title

Submitted Date

Granted Date

US2016108123 ANTIBODY MOLECULES TO PD-L1 AND USES THEREOF
2015-10-13
2016-04-21
US2014343086 COMPOUNDS AND COMPOSITIONS FOR INHIBITING THE ACTIVITY OF ABL1, ABL2 AND BCR-ABL1
2014-07-31
2014-11-20
US8829195 Compounds and compositions for inhibiting the activity of ABL1, ABL2 and BCR-ABL1
2013-05-13
2014-09-09

////////////////ABL001, Asciminib, ABL 001, ABL-001, PHASE 3, Chronic Myeloid Leukemia,  NOVARTIS

 O=C(NC1=CC=C(OC(F)(Cl)F)C=C1)C2=CN=C(N3C[C@H](O)CC3)C(C4=CC=NN4)=C2

Alpelisib, BYL 719


Alpelisib.pngChemSpider 2D Image | Alpelisib | C19H22F3N5O2S

Alpelisib

(2S)-1-N-[4-methyl-5-[2-(1,1,1-trifluoro-2-methylpropan-2-yl)pyridin-4-yl]-1,3-thiazol-2-yl]pyrrolidine-1,2-dicarboxamide
PDT PAT WO 2010/029082
Chemical Names: Alpelisib; CAS 1217486-61-7; BYL-719; BYL719; UNII-08W5N2C97Q; BYL 719
Molecular Formula: C19H22F3N5O2S
Molecular Weight: 441.473 g/mol
  1. alpelisib
  2. 1217486-61-7
  3. BYL-719
  4. BYL719
  5. UNII-08W5N2C97Q
  6. BYL 719
  7. Alpelisib (BYL719)
  8. (S)-N1-(4-Methyl-5-(2-(1,1,1-trifluoro-2-methylpropan-2-yl)pyridin-4-yl)thiazol-2-yl)pyrrolidine-1,2-dicarboxamide
  9. NVP-BYL719

Alpelisib is an orally bioavailable phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Alpelisib specifically inhibits PI3K in the PI3K/AKT kinase (or protein kinase B) signaling pathway, thereby inhibiting the activation of the PI3K signaling pathway. This may result in inhibition of tumor cell growth and survival in susceptible tumor cell populations. Activation of the PI3K signaling pathway is frequently associated with tumorigenesis. Dysregulated PI3K signaling may contribute to tumor resistance to a variety of antineoplastic agents.

Alpelisib has been used in trials studying the treatment and basic science of Neoplasms, Solid Tumors, BREAST CANCER, 3rd Line GIST, and Rectal Cancer, among others.
str1 str2
Image result for Alpelisib PHARMACODIA
 SYN 2Image result for Alpelisib PHARMACODIA
POLYMORPHS

(S)-pyrrolidine-l,2-dicarboxylic acid 2-amide l-(4-methyl-5-[2-(2,2,2-trifluoro-l,l- dimethyl-ethyl)-pyridin-4-yl]-thiazol-2-yl)-amidei hereafter referred to as compound I,

Figure imgf000002_0001

is an alpha-selective phosphatidylinositol 3 -kinase (PI3K) inhibitor. Compound I was originally described in WO 2010/029082, wherein the synthesis of its free base form was described. There is a need for additional solid forms of compound I, for use in drug substance and drug product development. It has been found that new solid forms of compound I can be prepared as one or more polymorph forms, including solvate forms. These polymorph forms exhibit new physical properties that may be exploited in order to obtain new pharmacological properties, and that may be utilized in drug substance and drug product development. Summary of the Invention

In one aspect, provided herein is a crystalline form of the compound of formula I, or a solvate of the crystalline form of the compound of formula I, or a salt of the crystalline form of the compound of formula I, or a solvate of a salt of the crystalline form of the compound of formula I. In one embodiment, the crystalline form of the compound of formula I has the polymorph form SA, SB, Sc, or SD.

In another aspect, provided herein is a pharmaceutical composition comprising a crystalline compound of formula I. In one embodiment of the pharmaceutical composition, the crystalline compound of formula I has the polymorph form SA, SB,Sc, or So.

In another aspect, provided herein is a method for the treatment of disorders mediated by PI3K, comprising administering to a patient in need of such treatment an effective amount of a crystalline compound of formula I, particularly SA, SB, SC,or SD .

In yet another aspect, provided herein is the use of a crystalline compound of formula I, particularly SA, SB, SC, or SD, for the preparation of a medicament for the treatment of disorders mediated by PI3K.

In still another aspect, provided herein is a method for the treatment of disorders selected from benign or malignant tumor; a cancer selected from sarcoma; lung; bronchus; prostate; breast (including sporadic breast cancers and sufferers of Cowden disease);

pancreas; gastrointestinal cancer; colon; rectum; colon carcinoma; colorectal adenoma;

thyroid; liver; intrahepatic bile duct; hepatocellular; adrenal gland; stomach; gastric; glioma; glioblastoma; endometrial; melanoma; kidney; renal pelvis; urinary bladder; uterine corpus; uterine cervix; vagina; ovary; multiple myeloma; esophagus; a leukaemia; acute myelogenous leukemia; chronic myelogenous leukemia; lymphocytic leukemia; myeloid leukemia; brain; a carcinoma of the brain; oral cavity and pharynx; larynx; small intestine; non-Hodgkin lymphoma; melanoma; villous colon adenoma; a neoplasia; a neoplasia of epithelial character; lymphomas; a mammary carcinoma; basal cell carcinoma; squamous cell carcinoma; actinic keratosis; tumor diseases, including solid tumors; a tumor of the neck or head; polycythemia vera; essential thrombocythemia; myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia; and Walden stroem disease; as well as polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia, asthma, COPD, ARDS, Loffler’s syndrome, eosinophilic pneumonia, parasitic (in particular metazoan) infestation (including tropical eosinophilia), bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, polyarteritis nodosa (including Churg-Strauss syndrome), eosinophilic granuloma, eosinophil-related disorders affecting the airways occasioned by drug-reaction, psoriasis, contact dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, alopecia areata, erythema multiforme, dermatitis herpetiformis, scleroderma, vitiligo, hypersensitivity angiitis, urticaria, bullous pemphigoid, lupus erythematosus, pemphisus, epidermolysis bullosa acquisita, autoimmune haematogical disorders (e.g., haemolytic anaemia, aplastic anaemia, pure red cell anaemia and idiopathic thrombocytopenia), systemic lupus erythematosus, polychondritis, scleroderma, Wegener granulomatosis, dermatomyositis, chronic active hepatitis, myasthenia gravis, Steven-Johnson syndrome, idiopathic sprue, autoimmune inflammatory bowel disease (e.g., ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease), endocrine opthalmopathy, Grave’s disease, sarcoidosis, alveolitis, chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis, multiple sclerosis, primary biliary cirrhosis, uveitis (anterior and posterior), interstitial lung fibrosis, psoriatic arthritis, glomerulonephritis, cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis, hypertension, deep venous thrombosis, stroke, myocardial infarction, unstable angina, thromboembolism, pulmonary embolism, thrombolytic diseases, acute arterial ischemia, peripheral thrombotic occlusions, and coronary artery disease, reperfusion injuries, retinopathy, such as diabetic retinopathy or hyperbaric oxygen-induced retinopathy, and conditions characterized by elevated intraocular pressure or secretion of ocular aqueous humor, such as glaucoma, comprising administering to a patient in need of such treatment an effective amount of the crystalline compound of formula I, particularly polymorph forms SA, SB, SC, or SD-

In another aspect, provided herein is the use of the crystalline compound of formula I, particularly polymorph forms SA, SB, SC, or SD for the preparation of a medicament for the treatment of the disorders listed above. Brief Description of the Drawings

Figure I depicts the X-ray powder diffraction pattern of polymorph form A. Figure II depicts the FT-IR spectrum of polymorph form A. Figure III depicts the differential scanning calorimetry thermogram of polymorph form A. Figure IV depicts the X-ray powder diffraction pattern of polymorph form SA- Figure V depicts the X-ray powder diffraction pattern of polymorph form SB. Figure VI depicts the X-ray powder diffraction pattern of polymorph form Sc. Figure VII depicts the X-ray powder diffraction pattern of polymorph form SD.

Scheme 2. Synthesis of (S)-Pyrrolidine-1.2-dicarboxylic acid 2-amide l-((4-methyl-5-r2- (2,2,2-trifluoro- 1 , 1 -dimethyl-ethyl -pyridin-4-yl1-thiazol-2-yl} -amide)

Figure imgf000028_0001

Example 2: (S)-Pyrrolidine-1.2-dicarboxylic acid 2-amide 1 -((4-methyl-5- 2 -(2,2,2- trifluoro-1 J-dirhethyl-ethylVpyridin-4-yl -thia2ol-2-yll-amide

The title compound is prepared in analogy to the procedure described in Example 1 but with the following modifications. In Step 2.1 (corresponding to Step 1.1 of Example 1), the reaction mixture is stirred for 14 h at reflux. In Step 2.2 (corresponding to Step 1.2 of Example 1), the reaction mixture is stirred for 1 h at 85 °C and extracted with ethyl acetate after being quenched. In step 2.3 (corresponding to Step 1.3 of Example 1), the reaction mixture is stirred for 2.5 h at 120 °C. In Step 2.4 (corresponding to Step 1.4 of Example 1), the reaction mixture is stirred for 1 h at 83 °C and extracted with ethyl acetate after being quenched. In Step 2.5 (corresponding to Step 1.5 of Example 1), the reaction mixture is stirred for 1 h at 65 °C and trituration in methanol is not performed. In Step 2.6

(corresponding to Step 1.6 of Example 1), the crude product is not purified. In Step 2.7 (corresponding to Step 1.7 of Example 1), 3,3,3-trifluoro-2,2-dimethyl-propionyl chloride is used.

Title compound: ESI-MS: 442.0 [M+H]+; tR= 3.02 min (System 1); TLC: Rf = 0.35 (DCM/MeOH, 9: 1).

Example 3: Preparation of Polymorph Form A

(S)-Pyrrolidine-l,2-dicarboxylic acid 2-amide l-({4-methyl-5-[2-(2,2,2-trifluoro-l,l- dimethyl-ethyl)-pyridin-4-yl]-thiazol-2-yl}-amide) (10.0 g) was suspended in ethanol/water (85:15 v/v; 75 mL) and the mixture was heated to 75 °C. The solution was clear-filtered into a second flask and the first flask was then washed with ethanol/water (4:6 v/v; 20 mL), followed by water (10 mL). The clear solution was stirred at 75 °C for an additional 30 minutes. The clear solution was then cooled to 2 °C over 2 hours and the obtained thick suspension was stirred at 2 °C for an additional hour. The mixture was then filtered, and the flask and filter cake were washed with ethanol/water (1 :1 v/v; 20 mL), followed by ethyl acetate (10 mL). The wet filter cake was returned to the flask and suspended in ethyl acetate (75 mL). the mixture was heated to 78 °C and was stirred under reflux for 1 hour. During this time, 15 mL ethyl acetate was distilled off. The mixture was then cooled to 2 °C over 2 hours and the suspension was stirred at 2 °C for an additional hour. The mixture was filtered, and the flask and filter cake were washed with cold ethyl acetate (12 mL). The filter cake was then dried under 1-50 mbar vacuum at 50 °C to yield the polymorph form A (7.3 g).

Publication numberPriority datePublication dateAssigneeTitle
WO2010029082A12008-09-102010-03-18Novartis AgOrganic compounds
WO2012016970A1 *2010-08-022012-02-09Novartis AgA crystalline form of (s)-pyrrolidine-1,2-dicarboxylic acid 2-amide 1-(4 -methyl-5-[2-(2,2,2-trifluoro-1,1-dimethyl-ethyl)-pyridin-4-yl]-thiazol-2-yl)-amide and its use as pi3k inhibitor
KR20070113188A *2004-10-072007-11-28베링거 인겔하임 인터내셔날 게엠베하Thiazolyldihydroindazoles
EP2016075A1 *2006-05-032009-01-21AstraZeneca ABThiazole derivatives and their use as anti-tumour agents
WO2016051374A1 *2014-10-032016-04-07Novartis AgPharmaceutical compositions comprising alpelisib
CN105979947A *2013-12-062016-09-28诺华股份有限公司Dosage regimen for an alpha-isoform selective phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor
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US9605070 ANTIBODY MOLECULES TO TIM-3 AND USES THEREOF
2015-01-30
2015-08-06
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Patent Title

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Granted Date

US2016108123 ANTIBODY MOLECULES TO PD-L1 AND USES THEREOF
2015-10-13
2016-04-21
US2017209574 COMBINATION THERAPIES
2015-10-02
US2017224836 ANTI-CDH6 ANTIBODY DRUG CONJUGATES
2015-08-07
US2017189409 MEDICAL USE
2015-05-21
US2015320880 ANTIBODY DRUG CONJUGATES
2015-05-20
2015-11-12

/////////////////Alpelisib,  CAS,  1217486-61-7, BYL-719, BYL719, UNII-08W5N2C97Q, BYL 719

CC1=C(SC(=N1)NC(=O)N2CCCC2C(=O)N)C3=CC(=NC=C3)C(C)(C)C(F)(F)F

Capmatinib, капматиниб , كابماتينيب , 卡马替尼 ,


  • ThumbChemSpider 2D Image | Capmatinib | C23H17FN6OChemSpider 2D Image | Capmatinib | C23H17FN6OCapmatinib.png

Capmatinib / INC280/ INCB 28060

INC280 / INCB-28060 FREE BASE

UNIITY34L4F9OZ

CAS number 1029712-80-8

WeightAverage: 412.428
Chemical FormulaC23H17FN6O

2-fluoro-N-methyl-4-{7-[(quinolin-6-yl)methyl]imidazo[1,2-b][1,2,4]triazin-2-yl}benzamide

Capmatinib dihydrochloride; CAS 1197376-85-4

1029712-80-8 [RN]
2-Fluoro-N-méthyl-4-[7-(6-quinoléinylméthyl)imidazo[1,2-b][1,2,4]triazin-2-yl]benzamide [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
капматиниб [Russian] [INN]
كابماتينيب [Arabic] [INN]
卡马替尼 [Chinese] [INN]

Scheme 1

Scheme 2

Method C


Capmatinib has been used in trials studying the treatment of Melanoma, Gliosarcoma, Solid Tumors, Colorectal Cancer, and Hepatic Impairment, among others.

Capmatinib is an orally bioavailable inhibitor of the proto-oncogene c-Met (also known as hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR)) with potential antineoplastic activity. Capmatinib selectively binds to c-Met, thereby inhibiting c-Met phosphorylation and disrupting c-Met signal transduction pathways. This may induce cell death in tumor cells overexpressing c-Met protein or expressing constitutively activated c-Met protein. c-Met, a receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed or mutated in many tumor cell types, plays key roles in tumor cell proliferation, survival, invasion, metastasis, and tumor angiogenesis.

Capmatinib has been used in trials studying the treatment of Melanoma, Gliosarcoma, Solid Tumors, Colorectal Cancer, and Hepatic Impairment, among others

Protein kinases (PKs) are a group of enzymes that regulate diverse, important biological processes including cell growth, survival and differentiation, organ formation and morphogenesis, neovascularization, tissue repair and regeneration, among others. Protein kinases exert their physiological functions through catalyzing the phosphorylation of proteins (or substrates) and thereby modulating the cellular activities of the substrates in various biological contexts, hi addition to the functions in normal tissues/organs, many protein kinases also play more specialized roles in a host of human diseases including cancer. A subset of protein kinases (also referred to as oncogenic protein kinases), when dysregulated, can cause tumor formation and growth, and further contribute to tumor maintenance and progression (Blume- Jensen P et al, Nature 2001, 411(6835):355-365). Thus far, oncogenic protein kinases represent one of the largest and most attractive groups of protein targets for cancer intervention and drug development. c-Met, a proto-oncogene, is a member of a distinct subfamily of heterodimeric receptor tyrosine kinases which include Met, Ron, and Sea (Birchmeier, C. et al., Nat. Rev. MoI. Cell Biol. 2003, 4(12):915-925; Christensen, J. G. et al., Cancer Lett. 2005, 225(1): 1-26). The only high affinity ligand for c-Met is the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), also known as scatter factor (SF). Binding of HGF to c-Met induces activation of the receptor via autophosphorylation resulting in an increase of receptor dependent signaling. Both c-Met and HGF are widely expressed in a variety of organs, but their expression is normally confined to the cells of epithelial and mesenchymal origin, respectively. The biological functions of c-Met (or c-Met signaling pathway) in normal tissues and human malignancies such as cancer have been well documented (Christensen, J.G. et al., Cancer Lett. 2005, 225(l):l-26; Corso, S. et al., Trends in MoI. Med. 2005, l l(6):284-292).

HGF and c-Met are each required for normal mammalian development, and abnormalities reported in both HGF- and c-Met-null mice are consistent with proximity of embryonic expression and epithelial-mesenchymal transition defects during organ morphogenesis (Christensen, J.G. et al., Cancer Lett. 2005, 225(1): 1-26). Consistent with these findings, the transduction of signaling and subsequent biological effects of HGF/c-Met pathway have been shown to be important for epithelial-mesenchymal interaction and regulation of cell migration, invasion, cell proliferation and survival, angiogenesis, morphogenesis and organization of three-dimensional tubular structures (e.g. renal tubular cells, gland formation) during development. The specific consequences of c-Met pathway activation in a given cell/tissue are highly context-dependent.

Dysregulated c-Met pathway plays important and sometimes causative (in the case of genetic alterations) roles in tumor formation, growth, maintenance and progression (Birchmeier, C. et al., Nat. Rev. MoI. Cell. Biol. 2003, 4(12):915-925; Boccaccio, C. et al., Nat. Rev. Cancer 2006, 6(8):637-645; Christensen, J.G. et al., Cancer Lett. 2005, 225(1): 1-26). HGF and/or c-Met are overexpressed in significant portions of most human cancers, and are often associated with poor clinical outcomes such as more aggressive disease, disease progression, tumor metastasis and shortened patient survival. Further, patients with high levels of HGF/c-Met proteins are more resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, hi addition to the abnormal HGF/c-Met expression, c-Met receptor can also be activated in cancer patients through genetic mutations (both germline and somatic) and gene amplification. Although gene amplification and mutations are the most common genetic alterations that have been reported in patients, the receptor can also be activated by deletions, truncations, gene rearrangement, as well as abnormal receptor processing and defective negative regulatory mechanisms.

The various cancers in which c-Met is implicated include, but are not limited to: carcinomas (e.g., bladder, breast, cervical, cholangiocarcinoma, colorectal, esophageal, gastric, head and neck, kidney, liver, lung, nasopharygeal, ovarian, pancreas, prostate, thyroid); musculoskeletal sarcomas (e.g., osteosarcaoma, synovial sarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma); soft tissue sarcomas (e.g., MFH/fibrosarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, Kaposi’s sarcoma); hematopoietic malignancies (e.g., multiple myeloma, lymphomas, adult T cell leukemia, acute myelogenous leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia); and other neoplasms (e.g., glioblastomas, astrocytomas, melanoma, mesothelioma and Wilm’s tumor (www.vai.org/met/; Christensen, J. G. et al., Cancer Lett. 2005, 225(1): 1-26).

The notion that the activated c-Met pathway contributes to tumor formation and progression and could be a good target for effective cancer intervention has been further solidified by numerous preclinical studies (Birchmeier, C. et al., Nat. Rev. MoI. Cell Biol. 2003, 4(12):915-925; Christensen, J.G. et al., Cancer Lett. 2005, 225(l):l-26; Corso, S. et al., Trends in MoI. Med. 2005, 11(6):284-292). For example, studies showed that the tpr-met fusion gene, overexpression oϊc-met and activated c-met mutations all caused oncogenic transformation of various model cell lines and resulted in tumor formation and metastasis in mice. More importantly, significant anti-tumor (sometimes tumor regression) and anti-metastasis activities have been demonstrated in vitro and in vivo with agents that specifically impair and/or block HGF/c-Met signaling. Those agents include anti-HGF and anti-c-Met antibodies, HGF peptide antagonists, decoy c-Met receptor, c-Met peptide antagonists, dominant negative c-Met mutations, c-Met specific antisense oligonucleotides and ribozymes, and selective small molecule c-Met kinase inhibitors (Christensen, J.G. et al., Cancer Lett. 2005, 225(1): 1-26).

In addition to the established role in cancer, abnormal HGF/c-Met signaling is also implicated in atherosclerosis, lung fibrosis, renal fibrosis and regeneration, liver diseases, allergic disorders, inflammatory and autoimmune disorders, cerebrovascular diseases, cardiovascular diseases, conditions associated with organ transplantation (Ma, H. et al., Atherosclerosis. 2002, 164(l):79-87; Crestani, B. et al., Lab. Invest. 2002, 82(8):1015-1022; Sequra-Flores, A. A. et al., Rev. Gastroenterol. Mex. 2004, 69(4)243-250; Morishita, R. et al., Curr. Gene Ther. 2004, 4(2)199-206; Morishita, R. et al., Endocr. J. 2002, 49(3)273-284; Liu, Y., Curr. Opin. Nephrol. Hypertens. 2002, l l(l):23-30; Matsumoto, K. et al., Kidney Int. 2001, 59(6):2023-2038; Balkovetz, D.F. et al., Int. Rev. Cytol. 1999, 186:225-250; Miyazawa, T. et al., J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 1998, 18(4)345-348; Koch, A.E. et al., Arthritis Rheum. 1996, 39(9):1566-1575; Futamatsu, H. et al., Circ. Res. 2005, 96(8)823-830; Eguchi, S. et al., Clin. Transplant. 1999, 13(6)536-544).

Inhibitors of c-Met and other kinases are reported in U.S. Ser. No. 11/942,130, including the compound 2-fluoro-N-methyl-4-[7-(quinolin-6-ylmethyl)imidazo[l ,2-b][l ,2,4]triazin-2-yl]benzamide (I) having the structure indicated below.

(I)

New or improved forms of existing agents which inhibit kinases such as c-Met are continually needed for developing more effective pharmaceuticals to treat cancer and other diseases. The salts, compositions, and methods described herein are directed toward these needs and other ends.

PATENT

Example 8 4-Bromo-3-fluoro-N-methoxy-iV-methylbenzamide (3)

To a suspension of 4-bromo-3-fluorobenzoic acid (1, 967.9 g, 4.4 mol) in dichloromethane (5.9 L) and DMF (21 mL) was slowly added a solution of oxalyl chloride ((COCl)2, 560 mL, 6.4 mol, 1.45 equiv) in dichloromethane (520 mL) at room temperature. The resulting reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 20 h and then cooled to 0 0C by ice-water bath. iV,0-dimethyl hydroxylamine hydrochloride (826 g, 8.4 mol, 1.9 equiv) was added followed by slow addition of triethylamine (TEA, 2.5 L, 17.7 mol, 4.0 equiv) at 0 0C. The reaction mixture was then gradually warmed to room temperature and stirred at room temperature overnight. Once the coupling reaction was complete, the reaction mixture was washed with saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution (NaHCO3, 2 L). The aqueous phase was back extracted with dichloromethane (1 L). The combined organic phases were washed with water (1 L), brine (1 L), and concentrated under reduced pressure. The resulting solid residue was dissolved into methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE, 5 L), washed sequentially with water (5 x 1 L), brine (1 L), and dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate (Na2SO4). The filtrated solution was concentrated under reduced pressure and the resulting solid was dried in a vacuum oven at 45 0C to afford 4-bromo-3-fluoro-Λr-methoxy-Λr-methylbenzamide (3, 1106 g, 1153 g theoretical, 95.9% yield) which was used for the subsequent reaction without further purification. For 3: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-J6) δ ppm 7.78 (t, IH, J= 7.47 Hz), 7.56 (dd, IH, J= 9.3, 1.6 Hz), 7.18 (d, IH, J= 8.1 Hz), 3.53 (s, 3H), 3.25(s, 3H); C9H9BrFNO2 (MW 262.08), LCMS (EI) mle 262.0/ 264.0 (M+ + H).

Scheme 1 (Examples 8-14)

C7H4BrFO2 C7H3BrCIFO C9H9BrFNO2 MoI. Wt: 219.01 MoI. Wt: 237.45 MoI. Wt: 26208

C8H6BrFO C8H4BrFO2 Ci2Hi4BrFO3 MoI. Wt: 217.04 MoI. Wt: 231.02 MoI. Wt: 305.14

13

C22H13FN3 MoI. Wt: 380.38

Example 9 l-(4-Bromo-3-fluorophenyl)ethanone (4)

To a solution of crude 4-bromo-3-fluoro-N-methoxy-iV-methylbenzamide (3, 1106 g, 4.2 mol) in anhydrous tetrahydrofuran (THF, 11 L) was slowly added a 3.0 M solution of methylmagnesium chloride (MeMgCl, 2.5 L, 7.5 mol, 1.7 equiv) in THF at 0 0C. The resulting reaction mixture was stirred at 0 0C for 2 h and then quenched very carefully with saturated aqueous ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, 1.5 L). The resulting solution was concentrated under reduced pressure to remove most of THF. The residue was then diluted with ethyl acetate (EtOAc, 5 L) and the resulting solution was washed with water (2 L). The aqueous phase was extracted with ethyl acetate (EtOAc, 2 x 2 L). The combined organic phases were washed with water (2 L), brine (2 L) and dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate (Na2SO4). The filtered solution was concentrated under reduced pressure and the resulting solid was dried in a vacuum oven at 45 0C to afford l-(4-bromo-3-fluorophenyl)ethanone (4, 890.8 g, 911.6 g theoretical, 97.7% yield) as a solid which was used in the subsequent reaction without further purification. For 4: 1H NMR (400 MHz, OMSO-d6) δ ppm 7.89-7.84 (m, 2H), 7.71 (dd, IH, J= 8.30, 1.87 Hz), 2.57 (s, 3H).

Example 10 2-(4-Bromo-3-fluorophenyl)-2-oxoacetaldehyde (5)

To a solution of l-(4-bromo-3-fluorophenyl)ethanone (4, 890.8 g, 4.1 mol) in DMSO (4 L) was slowly added a solution of 48% aqueous hydrogen bromide (HBr, 1420 mL, 12.5 mol, 3.0 equiv). The reaction temperature was gradually increased from 2O0C to 50 0C during the course of the addition. The reaction mixture was subsequently heated to 60 0C and stirred at 60 0C overnight. The resulting dimethyl sulfide was removed by distillation and the residue was poured into ice water (28 L). The resulting yellow precipitate was collected by filtration (save the filtrate) and washed with water (5 L). The yellow solid was dissolved in ethyl acetate (EtOAc, 5 L), washed with brine (1 L) and dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate (Na2SO4). The solution was then concentrated under the reduced pressure and the resulting solid was dried in a vacuum oven at 45 0C to give the desired product, 2-(4-bromo-3-fluorophenyl)-2-oxoacetaldehyde, as its hydrate (hydrate of 5, 730.6 g, 1020.9 g theoretical, 71.6% yield). The aqueous phase (filtrate) was extracted with ethyl acetate (3 x 5 L) and the combined organic phase was washed with water (2 x 2 L), brine (2 L) and dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate (Na2SO4). The solution was concentrated under reduced pressure and the resulting solid was dried in a vacuum oven at 45 0C to give the second crop of 2-(4-bromo-3-fluorophenyl)-2-oxoacetaldehyde hydrate (hydrate of 5, 289.4 g, 1020.9 g theoretical, 28.3% yield; total 1020 g, 1020.9 g theoretical, 99.9% yield) which was used in the subsequent reaction without further purification. For hydrate of 5: H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-</6) δ ppm 8.00-7.70 (m, 3H), 6.69 (br s, 2H), 5.59 (s, IH).

Example 11 l-(4-Bromo-3-fluorophenyl)-2,2-diethoxyethanone (6)

A 22 L flask was charged with the hydrate of (4-bromo-3-fluorophenyl)-2-oxoacetaldehyde (5, 1020 g, 4.41 mol), toluene (7.5 L), triethyl orthoformate (1633 g, 1.8 L, 11.04 mol, 2.5 equiv), para-toluene sulfonic acid (33.5 g, 0.176 mol, 0.4 equiv) at room temperature, and the resulting reaction mixture was heated to 110 0C and stirred at 1 10 0C for 6 h. When HPLC showed that the reaction was complete, the reaction mixture was cooled down to room temperature before being poured into a 50 L separation funnel along with ethyl acetate (7.5 L) and the saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution (NaHCO3, 3 L). The mixture was stirred and the layers were separated. The aqueous layer was extracted with ethyl acetate (2 L). The combined organic layers were washed with brine (4 L), dried with sodium sulfate (Na2SO4), and concentrated under the reduced pressure to afford crude l-(4-bromo-3-fluorophenyl)-2,2-diethoxyethanone (6, 1240 g, 1345.7 g theoretical, 92.1% yield) which was used in the subsequent reaction without further purification. For 6: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-J6) δ ppm 7.94-7.94 (m, 2H), 7.78 (dd, IH, J= 8.51, 2.08 Hz), 5.40 (s, IH), 3.77-3.60 (m, 4H), 1.16-1.14 (m, 6H).

Example 12 6-(4-Bromo-3-fluorophenyl)-l,2,4-triazin-3-amine (7)

A 22 L flask was charged with l-(4-bromo-3-fluorophenyl)-2,2-diethoxyethanone (6, 1240 g, 4.07 mol), ethanol (11 L), water (1.4 L), potassium hydroxide (KOH, 910 g, 16.3 mol, 4.0 equiv), and aminoguanidine bicarbonate (1105 g, 8.13 mol, 2.0 equiv) at room temperature. The resulting reaction mixture was then heated to 75 0C for 14 h. When HPLC showed the condensation reaction was deemed complete, the reaction mixture was cooled down to room temperature before being filtered. The filtrate was then concentrated under the reduced pressure to remove the most of the solvents. The residual aqueous solution was extracted with ethyl acetate (EtOAc, 3 x 6 L). The organic layers were combined and concentrated under the reduced pressure to give a dark brown solid. This solid was dissolved in ethanol (4 L) and the resulting solution was treated with a solution of 0.2 M aqueous hydrochloric acid solution (4 L). The resulting slurry was subsequently heated to 50 0C for 6 h before being allowed to cool down to room temperature. A solution of saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution (NaHCO3, 2 L) was slowly added to the slurry and the resulting mixture was then concentrated under the reduced pressure to remove most of the solvents. The aqueous residue was then treated with ethyl acetate (20 L) to dissolve the solids. The two layers were separated and the aqueous layer was extracted with ethyl acetate (2 x 2 L). The combined organic layers were concentrated under the reduced pressure. The dark brown solids were treated with methyl ter/-butyl ether (MTBE, 4 L) and the resulting slurry was heated to 30 0C and stirred at 30 0C for 30 min. The mixture was filtered and the solids (green to orange in color) were collected (save the filtrate) and washed with methyl tert-buty\ ether (MTBE, 2 L) to give the first crop of the crude desired product (7). The filtrate was evaporated under the reduced pressure, and the resulting dark brown solids were treated with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE, 2 L). The resulting slurry was heated to 30 0C and stirred at 30 0C for 30 min. The mixture was filtered to give the second crop of the crude desired product (7) which was washed with MTBE (1 L). The combined solids were dried in vacuum at 40 – 45 0C to afford 6-(4-bromo-3-fluorophenyl)-l,2,4-triazin-3-amine (7, 585 g, 1095.1 g theoretical, 53.4 % yield) which was used in the subsequent reaction without further purification. For 7: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-J6) δ ppm 8.86 (s, IH), 7.97 (d, IH, J= 10.79 Hz), 7.81 (m, 2H), 7.52 (br s, 2H); C9H6BrFN4 (MW 269.07), LCMS (EI) mle 269.0/271.1 (M+ + H).

Example 13 6-((2-(4-Bromo-3-fluorophenyl)imidazo[l,2-6][l,2,4]triazin-7-yl)methyl)quinoline (12) l-(2-Chloro-l-hydroxy-3-(quinolin-6-yl)propyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-dione (11, 228 g, 0.74 mol, 1.1 equiv) and 6-(4-bromo-3-fluorophenyl)-l,2,4-triazin-3-amine (7, 181 g, 0.673 mol) were suspended in 1-butanol (1800 mL) and the resulting suspension was heated to 110 0C and stirred at 110 0C for 18 h (the reaction mixture becomes homogeneous at this point). The reaction mixture was then gradually cooled down to room temperature before being further cooled down to 10 0C in an ice bath. The resulting yellow solid was collected by filtration (save the 1 -butanol filtrates), washed with cold 1-butanol (3 x 100 mL) and dried by suction. This solid was then suspended in the saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution (NaHCO3, 500 mL) and the resulting suspension was stirred at room temperature for 1 h to neutralize the corresponding hydrochloride salt. The free base was then filtered, washed with water (500 mL) and dried in a vacuum oven at 45 0C for 18 h to afford the first crop of the crude 6-((2-(4-bromo-3-fluorophenyl)imidazo[l,2-6][l,2,4]triazin-7-yl)methyl)quinoline (12, 125.1 g, 292.3 g theoretical, 42.8% yield). The 1-butanol filtrates were then concentrated under the reduced pressure and the resulting solids were dissolved in dichloromethane (CH2Cl2, 2 L). The solution was wash with the saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution (NaHCO3, 1 L), dried over sodium sulfates (Na2SO4), and concentrated under the reduced pressure. The residue was then purified by flash column chromatography (SiO2, O – 10% MeOH-CH2Cl2 gradient elution) to afford the second crop of 6-((2-(4-bromo-3-fluorophenyl)imidazo[l,2-&][l ,2,4]triazin-7-yl)methyl)-quinoline (12, 19.7 g, 292.3 g theoretical, 6.7% yield; total 144.8 g, 292.3 g theoretical, 49.5% yield) as yellow solids. For 12: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-^6) δ ppm 9.23 (s, IH), 9.11 (dd, IH, J= 4.98, 1.55 Hz), 8.85 (d, IH, J= 8.09 Hz), 8.25 – 8.18 (m, 2H), 8.12 -8.00 (m, 3H), 7.93 – 7.86 (m, 3H), 4.70 (s, 2H); C21H13BrFN5 (MW 434.26), LCMS (EI) mle 434.00/435.95 (M+ + H).

Example 14 2-Fluoro-4-(7-(quinolin-6-ylmethyl)imidazo[l,2-6][l,2,4]triazin-2-yl)benzonitrile (13)

6-((2-(4-Bromo-3-fluorophenyl)imidazo[ 1 ,2-b] [ 1 ,2,4]triazin-7-yl)methyl)quinoline (12, 200 g, 0.461 mol), zinc cyanide (ZnCN2, 32.7 g, 0.277 mol, 0.6 equiv), zinc powder (Zn, 6.0 g, 0.093 mol, 0.2 equiv) and Pd(dppf)2Cl2 (22.6 g 0.028 mol, 0.06 eqiv) were suspended in premixed solution of ΛyV-dimethyl acetamide (DMAC, 2000 mL) and water (H2O, 40 mL). The resulting suspension was then degassed with a stream of nitrogen for 20 min before being heated to 110 0C and stirred at 110 0C for 1 – 2 h (homogeneous solution was observed). When LC/MS indicated the reaction was deemed complete, the reaction mixture was cooled first to room temperature and then in an ice bath to 5 0C. The cooled reaction mixture was diluted with a mixture of the saturated aqueous ammonium chloride solution (aq. NH4Cl), the concentrated ammonium hydroxide aqueous solution (aq. NH4OH), and water (4:1 :4 by volumn, 8.1 L) and the resulting mixture was stirred at room temperature for 30 min. The resulting solids were collected by filtration and dried in a vacuum oven overnight at 45 0C to afford the crude desired product (13). This crude material was then purified by flash chromatography (SiO2, gradient elution with 1% triethylamine in dichloromethane, 2.5 % acetone and 1% triethylamine in dichloromethane, 5.0 % acetone and 1% triethylamine in dichloromethane, and 10.0 % acetone and 1% triethylamine in dichloromethane sequentially) to afford the pure 2-fluoro-4-(7-(quinolin-6-ylmethyl)-imidazo[l,2-έ][l,2,4]triazin-2-yl)benzonitrile (13, 127.4 g, 175.4 g theoretical, 72.6% yield) as yellow solids. For 13: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-^6) δ ppm 9.24 (s, IH), 8.81 (dd, IH, J= 4.15, 1.66 Hz), 8.26 – 8.12 (m, 4H), 8.02 (s, IH), 7.95 – 7.93 (m, 2H), 7.76 (dd, IH, J= 8.71, 2.08 Hz), 7.47 (dd, IH, J= 8.70, 4.15 Hz), 4.62 (s, 2H); C22HnFN6 (MW 380.38), LCMS (EI) mle 381.0 (M+ + H).

Example 15 6-(3,3-Diethoxyprop-l-ynyl)quinoline (22)

A mixture of 6-bromoquinoline (8, 2.63 g, 12.6 mmol), propargylaldehyde diethyl acetal (3.73 niL, 25.2 mmol, 2.0 equiv), triethylamine (TEA, 12.7 mL, 90.8 mmol, 7.2 equiv), copper(I) iodide (CuI, 24.0 mg, 0.126 mmol, 0.01 equiv), and triphenylphosphine (PPh3, 0.39716 g, 1.5142 mmol, 0.12 equiv) in JV^V-dimethylformamide (DMF, 15.6 mL, 202 mmol) was degassed with nitrogen bubbling for 5 min. Palladium acetate (Pd(OAc)2, 0.08499 g, 0.3786 mmol, 0.03 equiv) was added and the mixture was degassed with nitrogen bubbling for 5 min. The reaction mixture was heated to 90 0C under nitrogen with stirring. After 3 h and 10 min, HPLC indicated that the reaction was complete. The reaction mixture was diluted with ethyl acetate (EtOAc, 100 mL) and washed with water (H2O, 2 x 100 mL). The aqueous layer was extracted with ethyl acetate (EtOAc, 20 mL). The combined organic extracts were then concentrated under the reduced pressure to give the crude product as a black oil. The crude product was purified by flash column chromatography (SiO2, 0 – 40% EtOAc in hexane gradient elution) to afford 6-(3,3-diethoxyprop-l-ynyl)quinoline (22, 3.2 g, 3.22 g theoretical, 99% yield) as a colorless oil. For 22: 1H NMR (400 MHz, OMSO-d6) δ ppm 8.92 (dd, IH, J= 4.35 Hz, 1.86 Hz), 8.36 (d, IH, J= 8.40 Hz, 1.66 Hz), 8.20 (d, IH, J= 1.78 Hz), 7.99 (d, IH, J= 8.71 Hz), 7.76 (dd, IH, J= 8.71 Hz, 1.87 Hz), 7.57 (dd, IH, J= 8.09 Hz, 4.05 Hz), 5.58 (s, IH), 3.75 – 3.55 (m, 4H), 1.17 (t, 6H, J= 7.16 Hz); Ci6H17NO2 (MW 255.31), LCMS (EI) m/e 256.0 (M+ + H).

Scheme 2 (Examples 15-18)

Method C


Example 16 6-(3,3-Diethoxypropyl)quinoline (23)

Method A. 3,3-Diethoxy-l-propene (548 g, 4.2 mol, 1.75 equiv) was added to a 22 L flask charged with 0.5 M solution of 9-borabicyclo[3.3.1] nonane in tetrahydrofuran (9-BBN solution in THF, 8.4 L, 4.2 mol, 1.75 equiv) at room temperature (the internal temperature raised to 40 0C) over 1 h.. The resulting reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for overnight. At which time 1H NMR of an aliquot of the reaction mixture indicated that all the 3,3-diethoxy-1-propene had been consumed. 6-Bromoquinoline (8, 500 g, 2.4 mol, 1.0 equiv), potassium carbonate (K2CO3, 662 g, 4.8 mol, 2.0 equiv), tricyclohexylphosphine (67.4 g, 0.24 mol, 0.1 equiv), palladium acetate (Pd(OAc)2, 27 g, 0.12 mol, 0.05 equiv) and water (90 mL) were added to the reaction mixture in that order followed by degassing with nitrogen for 0.5 h. The reaction mixture was then heated to reflux for 4 h. Once TLC and LC/MS showed that the starting material had been consumed, the reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature with stirring before being quenched with water (7.5 L) and ethyl acetate (EtOAc, 7.5 L). The layers were separated and the aqueous layer was extracted with ethyl acetate (EtOAc, 4 L). The combined organic layers were washed with a saturated brine solution (NaCl, 4 L), dried over magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) and concentrated under the reduced pressure. The residue was purified by column chromatography (SiO2, 10 – 60% of ethyl acetate in heptane gradient elution) to afford 6-(3,3-diethoxypropyl)quinoline (23, 520 g, 622.4 g theoretical, 83.5% yield) as a colorless oil. For 23: 1HNMR (DMSO-</6, 300MHz) δ ppm 8.81 (dd, IH, J= 4.23 Hz, 1.73 Hz), 8.28 (d, IH, J= 8.07 Hz), 7.91 (d, IH, J= 8.62 Hz ), 7.75 (s, IH), 7.61 (dd, lH, J= 8.63 Hz, 1.92 Hz), 7.46 (dd, IH, J= 8.25 Hz, 4.22 Hz), 4.46 (t, IH, J= 5.60 Hz), 3.61 – 3.38 (m, 4H), 2.79 (t, 2H, J= 8.53 Hz), 1.95 -1.85 (m, 2H), 1.11 (t, 6H, J= 6.84 Hz); Ci6H21NO2 (MW 259.34), LCMS (EI) m/e 260.2 (M+ + H).

Method A-Alternative. 9-BBN was generated in situ and used to prepare compound 23 as discribed as follows: under a nitrogen atmosphere anhydrous 1 ,2-dimethoxyethane (DME, 47.0 mL) was charged into a 500 mL 3-neck flask equipped with a distillation apparatus. Borane-dimethyl sulfide complex (12.1 g, 151 mmol, 2 equiv) was added and the solution temperature increased from 20 to 22 0C. To this solution, 1 ,5-cyclooctadiene (16.3 g, 151 mmol, 2 equiv) was added dropwise over a period of 30 min to maintain a reaction temperature of 50 – 60 0C, during which time a small amount of dimethyl sulfide was collected by the distillation apparatus. The reaction mixture was then distilled under nitrogen until the distillate temperature reach 84 0C. The distillates collected had a volume of ~ 21 mL. The oil bath was removed and anhydrous THF (49 mL) was added. A small sample of the reaction mixture was taken for 1H NMR analysis and the result indicated the olefin was consumed. This 9-BBN solution was used directly for the next step.

To the above 9-BBN solution, 3,3-diethoxy-l-propene (19.3 g, 142 mmol, 1.89 equiv) was added dropwise while maintaining the temperature below 30 0C. The reaction is slightly exothermal and white precipitate slowly dissolved. The reaction mixture was then stirred at room temperature for 18 h.

To the solution prepared above, 6-bromoquinoline (8, 15.7 g, 75.4 mmol, 1 equiv), tricyclohexylphosphine (1.27 g, 4.52 mmol, 0.06 equiv), potassium carbonate (20.8 g, 151 mmol, 2 equiv), and water (0.421 mL, 23.4 mmol) were added. The mixture was degassed with nitrogen bubbling for 10 – 15 min. Palladium acetate (Pd(OAc)2, 0.508 g, 2.26 mmol, 0.03 equiv) was added and the nitrogen bubbling was continued for an additional 10 min. The reaction mixture was heated to 75 0C and maintained at 75 – 78 0C for 2 – 3 h. When HPLC showed the completion of the reaction, the heating was discontinued and the reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature. Ethyl acetate (EtOAc, 162 mL) and water (H2O, 162 mL) were added and the organic layer was separated. The aqueous layer was extracted with ethyl acetate (EtOAc, 2 x 60 mL) and the combined organic extracts were dried over sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) and concentrated under the reduced pressure. The residue was purified by flash column chromatography (silica gel, 0 – 40% EtOAc in hexane gradient elution) to afford 6-(3,3-diethoxypropyl)quinoline (23, 17.6 g, 19.6 g theoretical, 90% yield) as a clear oil, which was found to be identical to the meterial made from Method A in every comparable aspect.

Method B. A mixture of 6-(3,3-diethoxyprop-l-yn-l-yl)quinoline (22, 56 mg, 0.22 mmol) and 10% palladium on carbon (5 mg) in THF (5 mL) was hydrogenated under H2 at 1 atm for 6 h. The reaction mixture was filtered through a celite bed and the celite bed was washed with THF (2 x 2 mL). The combined filtrates were concentrated under the reduced pressure to afford 6-(3,3-diethoxypropyl)quinoline (23, 56 mg, 57 mg theoretical, 98% yield) as a clear oil, which was found to be sufficiently pure to be used in the subsequent reaction without further purification and was identical to the meterial made from Method A in every comparable aspect.

Example 17 3-(Quinolin-6-yl)propanal (9)

Method 1. A 22 L flask was charged with tris(dibenzylideneacetone)dipalladium(0) (70.0 g, 0.076 mol, 0.015 equiv), tri-tert-butylphosphonium tetrafluoroborate (44 g, 0.152 mol, 0.03 equiv), and dioxane (12 L) at room temperature. The resulting solution was then degassed with a steady stream of nitrogen for 20 min before 6-bromoquinoline (8, 1055 g, 5.07 mol, 1.0 equiv), allyl alcohol (588 g, 10.1 mol, 2.0 equiv), and 7V-methyl-iV-cyclohexylcyclohexylamine (1186 g, 6.08 mol, 1.2 equiv) were added at room temperature. The resulting reaction mixture was stirred at 50 – to 55 °C for 8 – 12 h. When TLC and LC/MS showed that the reaction was deemed complete, the reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature before methyl fert-butyl ether (MTBE, 10 L) was added to the reaction mixture. The resulting mixture was stirred at room temperature for 10 min before being filtered through a plug of celite. The filtrate was concentrated under the reduced pressure and the residue was purified by flash column chromatography (SiO2, 20 – 80 % ethyl acetate in heptane gradient elution) to afford 3-(quinolin-6-yl)propanal (9, 495 g, 939.1 g theoretical, 52.7%) as a yellow oil, which solidified partially upon standing at 0 – 5 0C. For 9: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-J6) δ ppm 9.75 (t, IH, J= 1.24 Hz), 8.83 (dd, IH, J= 4.15 Hz, 1.66 Hz), 8.25 (dd, IH, J= 8.3, 1.03 Hz), 7.93 (d, IH, J= 8.71 Hz), 7.76 (d, IH, J= 1.45 Hz), 7.64 (dd, IH, J= 8.72 Hz, 2.08 Hz), 7.48 (dd, IH, J= 8.30 Hz, 4.36 Hz), 3.05 (t, 2H, J= 7.26 Hz), 2.89 (t, 2H, J= 7.26 Hz); Ci2HnNO (MW 185.22), LCMS (EI) We 186 (M+ + H).

Method 2. A solution of 6-(3,3-diethoxypropyl)quinoline (23, Method A of Example 16, 520 g , 2.08 mol, 1.0 equiv) in ethyl acetate (EtOAc, 2.2 L) was cooled to 0 0C before a 2 N aqueous hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution (2.2 L) was added over 1 h while keeping the reaction temperature below 5 0C. The resulting reaction mixture was stirred for an additional 2 h at 0 – 5 0C. When TLC and HPLC/MS indicated the reaction was complete, the reaction was quenched with an ice cold 3 N aqueous sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution at 0 °C until the pH was between 8 to 9. The layers were separated and the aqueous layer was extracted with ethyl acetate (EtOAc, 2 L). The combined organic layers were washed with brine (2 L), dried with sodium sulfate (Na2SO4), and concentrated under the reduced pressure to afford crude 3-(quinolin-6-yl)propanal (9, 385.3 g, 385.3 g theoretical, 100%) as a yellow oil, which was found to be identical to the material obtained from Method 1 in every comparable aspect. Since this crude material was found to be sufficiently pure, it was used directly in subsequent reaction without further purification.

Method 5. A 22 L flask charged with 0.5 M solution of 9-borabicyclo[3.3.1] nonane in tetrahydrofuran (9-BBN, 5.75 L, 2.89 mol, 2.0 equiv) and tetrahydrofuran (THF, 6 L) was treated with 3,3-diethoxy-l-propene (393 g, 3.02 mol, 2.10 equiv) at 0 – 5 0C and the resulting reaction mixture was subsequently warmed to room temperature and stirred at room temperature for 14 h. 6-Bromoquinoline (8, 300 g, 1.44 mol, 1.0 equiv), palladium acetate (Pd(OAc)2, 16.1 g, 0.072 mol, 0.05 equiv), potassium carbonate (K2CO3, 398 g, 2.89 mol, 2.0 equiv), tricyclohexylphosphine (22.3 g, 0.079 mol, 0.055 equiv), and water (52 g, 2.8 mol) were added to the reaction mixture at room temperature before being degassed with nitrogen for 1 h. The resulting reaction mixture was heated to 75 0C for 1 h. When TLC and LC/MS showed the reaction was deemed complete, the reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature and water (2 L) was added to dissolve the salts. The resulting mixture was then concentrated under the reduced pressure to a volume of approximately 4 L before being filtered through a plug of Celite. The Celite plug was washed with ethyl acetate (EtOAc, 2 L). The filtrate was concentrated under the reduced pressure to a volume of approximately 2 L and this residual solution was then added slowly over 5 min to a flask containing a 2.0 M aqueous hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution (2 L) at 0 – 5 °C. The resulting solution was stirred at 0 – 5 °C for 14 h before being quenched with saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) solution at 0 0C until the pH was between 8 to 9. The layers were separated and the aqueous layer was extracted with ethyl acetate (EtOAc, 2 L). The combined organic layers were washed with brine (1 L), dried with sodium sulfate (Na2SO4), and concentrated under the reduced pressure. The residue, which contains the crude 3-(quinolin-6-yl)propanal (9) was purified by flash column chromatography (SiO2, 20 – 80 % ethyl acetate in heptane gradient elution) to afford 3-(quinolin-6-yl)propanal (9, 139 g, 266.7 g theoretical, 52.1%) as a yellow oil, which was found to be identical to the material obtained from Methods 1 and 2.

Example 18 l-(2-Chloro-l-hydroxy-3-(quinolin-6-yI)propyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-dione (11)

Method I. A solution of 3-(quinolin-6-yl)propanal (9, 407 g, 2.2 mol, 1.0 equiv) in chloroform (CHCl3, 1700 mL) was cooled to 0 0C before proline (52 g, 0.44 mol, 0.2 equiv) and iV-chlorosuccinimide (NCS, 303 g, 2.31 mol, 1.05 equiv) were added. The resulting reaction mixture was allowed to slowly warm to room temperature (becomes homogeneous) and stirred at room temperature for overnight. The reaction was exothermal to around 40 0C when it reaches room temperature and a precipitate had formed at this point. Once TLC and LC/MS showed that the reaction was deemed complete, the reaction mixture was diluted with ethyl acetate (EtOAc, 1700 mL) and the resulting mixture was cooled to 0 0C. The solid was collected by filtration and the collected wet solid cake was placed in a flask and triturated with water (750 mL). The resulting suspension was stirred at room temperature for 30 min before the solids were collected by filtration. The collected solids were washed with water (250 mL) and methyl tert-bntyl ether (MTBE, 500 mL) and dried in a vacuum oven at 45 0C to constant weight to afford l-(2-chloro-l-hydroxy-3-(quinolin-6-yl)propyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-dione (11, 378.7 g, 701.3 g theoretical, 54 % yield) as off-white powder. For 11: 1HNMR (DMSO-J6, 400MHz) δ ppm 8.86 (dd, IH, J= 4.15 Hz, 1.66 Hz), 8.33 (dd, IH, J= 8.51 Hz, 1.04 Hz), 7.98 (d, IH, J= 8.72 Hz), 7.85 (d, IH, J= 1.66 Hz), 7.68 (dd, IH, J= 8.51 Hz, 1.87 Hz), 7.51 (dd, IH, J= 8.29 Hz, 4.15 Hz), 7.36 (d, IH, J = 7.05 Hz), 5.28 (dd, IH, J= 9.54 Hz, 6.85 Hz), 5.07 (dt, IH, J= 9.75 Hz, 2.70 Hz), 3.65 (dd, IH, J= 14.52 Hz, 2.49 Hz), 3.09 (dd, IH, J= 14.52 Hz, 9.75 Hz), 2.64 (s, 4H); C16H15ClN2O3 (MW 318.75), LCMS (EI) m/e 319.2 (M+ + H).

Method II. A solution of 3-quinolin-6-ylpropanal (9, 74.8 g, 0.404 mol) in acetonitrile (202 mL, 3.87 mol) was cooled to 0 0C before L-proline (4.70 g, 0.0404 mol, 0.10 equiv), benzoic acid (4.96 g, 0.0404 mol, 0.10 equiv), and iV-chlorosuccinimide (NCS, 57.8 g, 0.424 mol, 1.05 equiv) were added at 0 0C. The reaction mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 3 h and the resulting clear solution was allowed to warm to room temperature and stirred at room temperature for 18 h. The reaction mixture became a thick suspension and LCMS showed the completion of the reaction. Ethyl acetate (EtOAc, 202 mL) was added to the reaction mixture and the resulting mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 h. The solids were collected by filtration, washed with ethyl acetate (EtOAc, 100 mL) and dried under vacuum at 40 – 45 0C to constant weight to afford l-(2-chloro-l-hydroxy-3-(quinolin-6-yl)propyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-dione (11, 88.8 g, 128.8 g theoretical, 69 % yield) as an off-white powder, which was found to be identical to the material made from method I in every comparable aspect.

Scheme 3 (Examples 19-21)

15 21, dihydrochloride

C23H17FN6O C23H19Q2FN6O MoI Wt 412 42 MoI Wt 485 34

Example 19

2-Fluoro-4-(7-(quinolin-6-ylmethyl)imidazo[l,2-Z>] [l,2,4]triazin-2-yl)benzoic acid (14)

A suspension of 2-fluoro-4-(7-(quinolin-6-ylmethyl)imidazo[l ,2-&][l ,2,4]triazin-2-yl)benzonitrile (13, 277.5 g, 0.73 mol, 1.0 equiv) in concentrated hydrochloric acid (2500 mL) and water (250 mL) was heated to 1000C (homogenous at this point) and stirred at around 100 0C for 18 h. When LC/MS indicated the reaction was deemed complete, the reaction mixture was cooled down to 70 – 80 0C before being diluted with water (2500 mL). The resulting diluted reaction mixture was then cooled down to room temperature (yellow solid forms at 40 – 50 0C) and subsequent to 0 – 5 0C. The solids were then collected by filtration, washed with a small amount of IN aqueous HCl (100 mL), and dried in a vacuum oven at 45 0C to constant weight to afford 2-fluoro-4-(7-(quinolin-6-ylmethyl)imidazo[l,2-έ][l,2,4]triazin-2-yl)benzoic acid (14, 271 g, 291.5 g theoretical, 93% yield) as yellow to bright-yellow powders. For 14: 1H NMR (400 MHz, OMSO-d6) δ ppm 9.34 (s, IH), 9.23 (dd, IH, J- 5.19 Hz, 1.45 Hz), 9.08 (d, IH, J= 8.29 Hz), 8.38 (d, IH, J= 8.92 Hz), 8.30 (d, IH, J= 1.24 Hz), 8.18 (dd, IH, J= 8.72 Hz, 1.87 Hz), 8.12 (s, IH), 8.08 – 8.00 (m, 4H), 4.75 (s, 2H); C22H16Cl2FN5O2 (MW 472.30), C22H14FN5O2 (free base: MW 399.38), LCMS (EI) mle 400.0 (M+ + H).

Example 20 2-Fluoro-7V-methyl-4-(7-(quiiiolin-6-ylmethyl)imidazo[l,2-^][l,2,4]triazin-2-yl)benzainide

(15).

A suspension of 2-fluoro-4-(7-(quinolin-6-ylmethyl)imidazo[l ,2-b][l ,2,4]triazin-2-yl)benzoic acid (14, 431.4 g, 0.914 mol, 1.0 equiv) and (benzotriazol-1-yloxy)tripyrrolidinophosphonium hexafluorophosphate (PyBOP, 570 g, 1.1 mol, 1.2 equiv) in ΛyV-dimethylformamide (DMF, 3700 mL) was treated with a solution of 2 M methylamine in THF (1830 mL, 3.656 mol, 4.0 equiv) over 15 min at room temperature. The reaction temperature increased to 30 0C during the addition of methylamine and the reaction mixture became homogeneous once the addition of methylamine was complete. Triethylamine (TEA, 382 mL, 2.742 mol, 3.0 equiv) was then added to the reaction mixture and the resulting reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 2 – 4 h. When LC/MS showed the coupling reaction was deemed complete, the reaction mixture was treated with water (950 mL). The resulting suspension was cooled down to 0 – 5 0C in an ice-bath and stirred at 0 – 5 0C for 30 min. The solids were collected by filtration and washed with water (200 mL). The wet solid cake was then suspended in a mixture of water and acetonitrile (1/1 by volume, 2000 mL) and the resulted suspension was stirred at room temperature for Ih. The solids were collected by filtration, washed with water and acetonitrile, and dried in a vacuum oven at 40 – 45 0C to constant weight to afford 2-fluoro-Λ/-methyl-4-(7-(quinolin-6-ylmethyl)imidazo[l ,2-έ>][l ,2,4]triazin-2-yl)benzamide (15, 322 g, 377 g theoretical, 85.4% yield) as yellow to bright-yellow powders. For 15: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-J6) δ ppm 9.20 (s, IH), 8.82 (dd, IH, J= 4.05, 1.56 Hz), 8.38 (br m, IH), 8.27 (dd, IH, J= 8.50 Hz, 1.25 Hz), 8.06 – 7.93 (m, 5H), 7.81 – 7.74 (m, 2H), 7.49 (dd, IH, J= 8.40 Hz, 4.35 Hz), 4.62 (s, 2H), 2.78 (d, 3H, J= 4.36 Hz); C23H17FN6O (MW 412.42), LCMS (EI) mle 413.1 (M+ + H).

Example 21

2-Fluoro-Λr-methyl-4-(7-(quinoIin-6-ylmethyl)imidazo[l,2-6][l,2,4]triazm-2-yl)benzamide dihydrochloride (21, dihydrochloride)

A suspension of 2-fluoro-iV-methyl-4-[7-(quinolin-6-ylmethyl)imidazolo[l ,2-6][l,2,4]triazin-2-yl]benzamide (15, 421.2 g, 1.021 mol) in methanol (MeOH, 6600 mL) was heated to 55 0C before a premixed solution of aqueous concentrated hydrochloric acid (cone.

HCl, 37 wt.%, 12 M, 420 mL, 5.10 mol, 5.0 equiv) in isopropyl alcohol (IPA, 1510 mL) was added dropwise at 55 0C. The resulting clear solution was stirred at 55 0C for 30 min before methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE, 6750 mL) was added via an additional runnel over 30 min. The solids were slowly precipitated out after addition of methyl tert-butyl ether. The resulting mixture was stirred at 55 0C for an additional 1 h before being gradually cooled down to room temperature. The mixture was stirred at room temperature for overnight. The solids were collected by filtration, washed with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE, 3 x 500 mL), and dried in vacuum oven at 45 – 55 0C to constant weight. The desired 2-fluoro-Λr-methyl-4-[7-(quinolin-6-ylmethyl)imidazolo[l,2-£][l,2,4]triazin-2-yl]benzamide dihydrochloride (21, dihydrochloride, 470.7 g, 495.5 g theoretical, 95% yield) was obtained as off-white to light yellow crystalline solids. For 21 (dihydrochloride): mp (decom.) 222 0C; 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-J6) δ ppm 9.46 (s, IH), 9.25 (dd, IH, J= 5.4 Hz, 1.4 Hz), 9.12 (d, IH, J= 8.3 Hz), 8.51 (m, IH), 8.47 (d, IH, J= 0.9 Hz), 8.34 (d, IH, J= 1.3 Hz), 8.23 (s, IH), 8.21 (dd, IH, J= 9.0 Hz, 1.8 Hz), 8.09-8.02 (m, 3H), 7.79 (dd, IH, J= 7.5 Hz, 8.3 Hz), 4.77 (s, 2H), 2.78 (s, 3H, J= 4.5 Hz); 13C NMR (100 MHz, DMSO-^6) δ ppm 163.4, 159.4 (d, J= 249.9 Hz), 145.8, 145.4, 144.5, 143.8, 140.4, 138.8, 136.8, 135.9, 135.7 (J= 8.6 Hz), 131.2 ( J= 3.1 Hz), 130.7, 128.7, 128.2, 126.2 (J- 14.9 Hz), 126.0, 123.1 (J= 3 Hz), 122.5, 121.0, 114.9 (J= 5.6 Hz), 28.4, 26.3; 19F NMR (376.3 MHz, DMSO-^6) δ ppm -113.2; C23H17FN6O (free base, MW 412.42), LCMS (EI) mle 413.1 (M+ + H) and 435.0 (M+ + Na).

Scheme 4 (Examples 22-25)

C7H3BrFN C13H15BFN2O2 MoI. Wt: 200.01 MoI. Wt: 247.07 Example 22 l,2,4-Triazin-3-amine (16)

An aqueous solution of glyoxal (57 Kg of 40 wt% aqueous solution, 393 mol, 0.73 equiv) was added to a suspension of aminoguanidine bicarbonate (73 Kg, 536.3 mol) in water (400 L) at room temperature. The evolution of carbon dioxide (CO2) began almost immediately. The reaction mixture was then stirred at room temperature for 18 h and the evolution of gas had virtually ceased after about 2 h. The reaction mixture was then filtered, and the filtrate was evaporated to dryness under the reduced pressure. The residue was then extracted with cold methanol (MeOH, 3 x 120 L), and the combined methanol solution was cooled down to 0 – 5 0C before being filtered to remove the residual solids. The filtrate was then concentrated under the reduced pressure, and the residue was recrystallized in acetonitrile to afford l,2,4-triazin-3-amine (16, 34 Kg, 37.76 Kg theoretical, 90% yield) as fine, white needles. For 16: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-J6) δ ppm 8.54 (d, IH, J- 2.33 Hz), 8.20 (d, IH, J= 2.33 Hz), 7.15 (br s, 2H).

Example 23 6-Bromo-l,2,4-triazin-3-amine (17)

A solution of 1 ,2,4-triazin-3-amine (16, 33 Kg, 343.4 mol) in water (500 L) and acetonitrile (300 L) was treated with jV-bromosuccinimide (NBS, 66 Kg, 370 mol, 1.08 equiv) at 5 – 15 0C, and the resulting reaction mixture was stirred at 10 – 15 0C for 1 – 4 h. When TLC and LC/MS showed that the bromination reaction was deemed complete, the reaction mixture was treated with an aqueous solution of saturated sodium carbonate (Na2CO3). The resulting solution was then extracted with ethyl acetate (EtOAc, 3 x 500 L). The combined organic extracts were washed with water (2 x 100 L), dried over magnesium sulfate (MgSO4), and concentrated under the reduced pressure to afford 6-bromo-l,2,4-triazin-3-amine (17, 10.3 Kg, 60 Kg theoretical, 17.2% yield) as yellow to brown powders. For 17: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-J6) δ ppm 8.39 (s, IH), 7.47 (br, 2H); C3H3BrN4 (MW 174.99), LCMS (EI) mle 175.0/176.9 (M+ + H).

Example 24 2-Fluoro-4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-l,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)benzonitrile (19) Step 1. A solution of 2-fluro-4-bromobenzonitrile (18, 12.5 Kg, 62.5 mol) in anhydrous tetrahydrofuran (THF, 30 L) was treated with a solution of isopropylmagnesium chloride generated from magnesium (Mg, 1.8 Kg, 150 mol, 1,2 equiv) an 2-chloropropane (7.2 Kg, 92 mol, 1.47 equiv) in THF (20 L) and 2-(2-(dimethylamino)ethoxy)-τV/vr-dimethylethanamine (11 Kg, 69 mol, 1.1 equiv) at room temperature. The resulting mixture was then stirred at 12 – 20 0C for an additional 2 h before being treated with trimethylborate (9 Kg, 86.7 mol, 1.4 equiv) at 10 -15 0C. The reaction mixture was stirred at 7 – 16 0C for 40 min. When TLC and LC/MS showed that the reaction was deemed complete, the reaction mixture was quenched with 1 N aqueous hydrochloric acid (HCl, 35 Kg) at room temperature. The quenched aqueous reaction mixture was then extracted with ethyl acetate (EtOAc, 4 x 35 L). The combined organic extracts were washed with water (50 L), dried over magnesium sulfate (MgSO4), and concentrated under the reduced pressure. The residual solids were then recrystallized from acetonitrile (20 L) and hexanes (45 L) to afford the corresponding crude 3-fluoro-4-cyanophenyl boronic acid (5.0 Kg, 48% yield).

Step 2. A suspension of the crude 3-fluoro-4-cyanophenyl boronic acid (9.2 Kg, 55.8 mol) in cyclohexane (150 L) was treated with pinacol (13.2 Kg, 111.6 mol, 2.0 equiv) at room temperature, and the resulting reaction mixture was warmed to 40 0C for 4 h. When TLC and LC/MS showed that the reaction was deemed complete, the reaction mixture was cooled down to room temperature before being washed with water (2 x 75 L). The organic layer was then dried over magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) and concentrated under the reduced pressure to afford 2-fluoro-4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-l,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)benzonitrile (19, 11.8 Kg, 13.8 Kg theoretical, 85.6% yield) as a light yellow solid. For 19: 1H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-J6) δ ppm 7.92 (t, IH, J- 7.00 Hz), 7.62 (m, 2H), 1.29 (s, 12 H).

Example 25 4-(3-Amino-l,2,4-triazin-6-yI)-2-fluorobenzonitrile (20).

A mixture of 6-bromo- 1,2, 4-triazin-3 -amine (17, 100.0 g, 571.47 mmol) and 2-fluoro-4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-l,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)benzonitrile (19, 145.43 g, 588.61 mmol, 1.03 equiv) in 1,4-dioxane (1200 mL) was stirred at room temperature for 10 min before potassium carbonate (K2CO3, 355.4 g, 2572 mmol) in water (600 mL) was added to give a deep red solution. The mixture was degassed by bubbling with nitrogen for 10 min before 1,1′-bis(diphenyl phosphino)ferrocene dichloropalladium(II) complex with dichloromethane (1 :1) (Pd(dppf)2Cl2, 14.14 g, 17.14 mmol, 0.03 equiv) was added at room temperature. The resulting reaction mixture was degassed by bubbling with nitrogen for 10 min and then heated at 86 0C under nitrogen. After 2 h, HPLC showed that the reaction was deemed complete, and the reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature and then to 0 – 5 0C with an ice-water bath. 1 ,4-Dioxane (400 mL) was added to the cooled reaction mixture before a solution of 3.3 M aqueous hydrochloric acid solution (HCl, 1900 mL) was added dropwise with stirring to adjust pH to 0.40- 0.93. The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 30 min and filtered. The solid collected was stirred with 1,4-dioxane (260 mL) and then added IN HCl (400 mL). The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 10 min and filtered. The filtrate was combined with the filtrate obtained earlier and washed with ethyl acetate (EtOAc, 2 x 2 L). The combined ethyl acetate extracts was extracted with 1 N aqueous hydrochloric acid solution (HCl, 3 x 200 mL). The combined aqueous solution was then treated with activated charcoal (20 g) and stirred at room temperature for 30 min. The mixture was filtered through a celite bed and the filtrate was cooled to 0 – 5 0C with an ice- water bath. A solution of 50% of sodium hydroxide in water (NaOH, 240 mL, 4500 mmol) was added drowise at 5-12 0C to adjust pH tolθ.6 – 11.6. The mixture was stirred at 0 – 5 0C for 30 min and then filtered. The solids collected were washed with aqueous ammonium hydroxide (1 to 3 of 28% concentrated NH4OH to water, 1900 mL) and dried under vacuum at 40 – 45 0C to constant weight to afford 4-(3-amino-l,2,4-triazin-6-yl)-2-fluorobenzonitrile (20, 101.2 g, 122.9 g theoretical, 82.3% yield) as a off-white powder. For 20: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-J6) δ ppm 8.94 (s, IH), 8.12 (d, IH, J= 11.41 Hz), 8.08 – 8.00 (m, 2 H), 7.71 (br s, 2 H); Ci0H6FN5 (MW 215.19), LCMS (EI) mle 215.9 (M+ + H).

Scheme 5 (Example 26)

20 13

C10H6FN5 C16H15ON2O3 C22H13FN6 MoI. Wt: 215.19 MoI. Wt 318.75 MoI. Wt: 380.38 Example 26 2-Fluoro-4-(7-(quinolin-6-ylmethyl)imidazo[l,2-Z>][l,2,4]triazin-2-yl)benzonitrile (13).

Step 1. A 22 L reactor equipped with a overhead stirring, a thermocouple, a distillation apparatus, and a nitrogen inlet was purged with nitrogen before 4-(3-amino-l,2,4-triazin-6-yl)-2-fluorobenzonitrile (20, 300 g, 1.39 mol), l-(2-chloro-l-hydroxy-3-(quinolin-6-yl)propyl)pyrrolidine-2,5-dione (11, 635 g, 1.99 mol, 1.43 equiv), and ethylene glycol (3.0 L) were charged to the reactor at room temperature. The resulting reaction mixture was heated to 130-140 °C with nitrogen bubbled through continuously. The distillate was collected with the distillation apparatus. After 3 – 4 h, HPLC indicated the reaction was deemed complete (presence of < 1.5% of starting material 20). The reaction mixture was gradually cooled to room temperature. A 2.5% aqueous sodium carbonate solution (Na2CO3, 14.1 L) was added with stirring to the reactor over 60 min and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 – 2 h. The mixture was then filtered, and the solid was washed with water (9.6 L) and dried under vacuum to afford the desired crude product (13, 980.4 g), which was combined with several other batches for purification as described below.

Step 2. A solution of crude product (13, 2754 g) in methylene chloride (CH2Cl2, 37.8 L) and methanol (0.54 L) was treated with silica gel (SiO2, 2700 g) at room temperature, and the resulting mixture was stirred at room temperature for 90 min. The mixture was filtered and the filter cake was washed with a mixture OfCH2Cl2(18 L) and methanol (0.26 L). The combined filtrates were treated with silica gel (SiO2J 800 g) and the resulting mixture was stirred at room temperature for 90 min and then filtered. The filter cake was washed with a mixture of CH2Cl2 (18 L) and methanol (0.26 L). The combined filtrates were concentrated under the reduced pressure at 20 – 60 0C to about 8 – 12 L. The residue was treated with a mixture of isopropanol (IPA) and water (1 : 1 , 9 L) in portions and the distillation was continued at 1 atm pressure until the temperature reached 68 – 75 0C. The mixture was cooled to room temperature and the solids were collected by filtration. The solids collected were washed with isopropanol (IPA, 3.6 L) and dried under vacuum at 40 – 45 0C to constant weight to afford pure 2-fluoro-4-(7-(quinolin-6-ylmethyl)imidazo[l,2-ό][l,2,4]triazin-2-yl)benzonitrile (13, 940.27g) as a bright yellow powder.

The above reaction and purification process gave product 13 in 59 – 64% yield. The spectroscopic data of compound 13 made by this synthetic process was found to be identical to those obtained from material made by cyanation of compound 12 described previously. For 13: 1H NMR (400 MHz, OMSO-d6) δ ppm 9.24 (s, IH), 8.81 (dd, IH5 J= 4.15, 1.66 Hz), 8.26 – 8.12 (m, 4H), 8.02 (s, IH), 7.95 – 7.93 (m, 2H), 7.76 (dd, IH, J= 8.71, 2.08 Hz), 7.47 (dd, IH, J = 8.70, 4.15 Hz), 4.62 (s, 2H); C22Hi3FN6 (MW 380.38), LCMS (EI) m/e 381.0 (M+ + H).

Scheme 6 (Examples 27-29)

14 15

C22H14FN5O2 C23H17FN6O MoI. Wt: 399.38 MoI. Wt: 412.42

I I) SOd2 aq. HCl/ acetone { 2) MeNH2

15 (.{hydrochloride

C23H17FN6O C23H19CI2FN6O MoI. Wt: 412.42 MoI. Wt: 485.34

Example 27

2-Fluoro-4-(7-(quinolin-6-ylmethyl)imidazo [1,2-6] [1,2,4] triazin-2-yl)benzoic acid (14).

To a 22 L reactor equipped with a overhead stirring, a thermocouple, and a nitrogen inlet was charged compound 13 (900 g, 2.37 mol), water (0.9 L), and concentrated HCl (9.1 L) at room temperature. The resulting reaction mixture was heated at 100 0C for 12 h. When HPLC showed the reaction was complete, the reaction mixture was cooled to 90 0C and water (4.9 L) was added over 15 min while maintaining the temperature at 65 – 90 0C. The reaction mixture was further cooled to room temperature and stirred at room temperature for 3 h. The solids were collected by filtration, washed with water (1.2 L) and dried in vacuum at 40 – 45 0C to constant weight to afford 2-fluoro-4-(7-(quinolin-6-ylmethyl)imidazo[l,2-6][l,2,4]triazin-2-yl)benzoic acid (14, 945 g, 946.5 g theoretical, 99.8% yield) as a light yellow solid, which was found to be identical to the material made by earlier method. For 14: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-J6) δ ppm 9.34 (s, IH), 9.23 (dd, IH, J= 5.19 Hz, 1.45 Hz), 9.08 (d, IH5 J= 8.29 Hz), 8.38 (d, IH, J = 8.92 Hz), 8.30 (d, IH, J= 1.24 Hz), 8.18 (dd, IH, J= 8.72 Hz, 1.87 Hz), 8.12 (s, IH), 8.08-8.00 (m, 4H), 4.75 (s, 2H); C22Hi6Cl2FN5O2 (MW 472.30), C22H14FN5O2 (free base: MW 399.38), LCMS (EI) mle 400.0 (M+ + H).

Example 28

2-Fluoro-iV-methyl-4-(7-(quinolin-6-yImethyl)iinidazo [ 1 ,2-6] [ 1 ,2,4] triazin-2-yl)benzamide

(15).

Method A. To a stirred solution of 2-fluoro-4-(7-(quinolin-6-ylmethyl)imidazo[l,2-6][l,2,4]triazin-2-yl)benzoic acid (14, 1000 g, 2.12 mol) in acetonitrile (5 L) and CH2Cl2(10 L) were charged HOBt (358 g, 2.65 mol, 1.25 equiv), and EDC hydrochloride (508.4 g, 2.65 mol, 1.25 equiv) at room temperature. Another portion OfCH2Cl2 (10 L) was then added to the reaction mixture and the resulting reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 20 min. A 2.0 M solution of methylamine (MeNH2) in THF (3.44 L, 6.88 mol, 3.25 equiv) was added with stirring while maintaining the temperature at 15 – 30 0C. The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 2 h before an additional portion of 2.0 M solution of methylamine (MeNH2) in THF (1.06 L, 2.12 mol, 1 equiv) was added. The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 h and a second portion of EDC hydrochloride (406 g, 2.12 mol, 1 equiv) was added and the stirring was continued for 6 h. When HPLC showed less than 1 % of starting material (14) was remaining, the reaction mixture was concentrated under the reduced pressure at < 50 0C. During distillation acetonitile (20 L) was added and distillation was continued until the remaining volume was about 20 L. The residue was treated with an aqueous solution of 2.5% sodium carbonate (Na2CO3, 40 L) and the resulting mixture was stirred at room temperature for 30 min. The solids were collected by filtration, washed with water (3 x 4.0 L), air dried by pulling vacuum on the filter to afford the crude desired product (15). The crude solids were treated with CH2Cl2 (17.6 L) and MeOH (5.2 L) at room temperature and resulting mixture was stirred until a clear solution was obtained. The solution was filtered to remove insoluble materials. With vigorous stirring a 2.5% aqueous solution of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3, 17.6 L) was added to the filtrate and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 60 min to give a suspension. Heptane (20 L) was added and the mixture was stirred for an additional 60 min. The mixture was filtered and the solid was washed sequentially with water (3 x 4.0 L) and heptane (4.0 L), and dried in vacuum to afford 2-fluoro-./V-methyl-4-(7-(quinolin-6-ylmethyl)imidazo[l,2-b][l,2,4]triazin-2-yl)benzamide (15, 1095.3 g, 874.3 g theoretical) as a bright yellow solid, which was found to be not totally dry and to contain ~ 25% residual solvents. This wet solid was used directly for the subsequent dihydrochloride salt (21) formation reaction without further drying. A small sample was dried completely for spectroscopic analyses and the data were consistent with those obtained by earlier method: For 15: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-J6) δ ppm 9.20 (s, IH), 8.82 (dd, IH, J= 4.05, 1.56 Hz), 8.38 (br m, IH), 8.27 (dd, IH, J = 8.50 Hz, 1.25 Hz), 8.06 – 7.93 (m, 5H), 7.81 – 7.74 (m, 2H), 7.49 (dd, IH, J= 8.40 Hz, 4.35 Hz), 4.62 (s, 2H), 2.78 (d, 3H, J= 4.36 Hz); C23HnFN6O (MW 412.42), LCMS (EI) m/e 413.1 (M+ + H).

Method B. 2-Fluoro-4-[7-(quinolin-6-ylmethyl)imidazo[l,2-b][l,2,4]triazin-2-yl]benzoic acid dihydrochloride (14, 50.00 g, 0.1059 mol) was added toluene (300 mL) and followed by thionyl chloride (SOCl2, 77.2 mL, 1.06 mol, 10.0 equiv) at room temperature. The resulting reaction mixture was heated at 72 0C under N2 and the reaction was followed by HPLC analysis of the disappearance of the starting material benzoic acid (14). After 48 h, HPLC indicated ~4% starting material remaining and the reaction was stopped. The reaction mixture was concentrated to dryness by vacuum distillation at 40-50 0C. The residual solids were added toluene (300 mL) and the solvent was removed by vacuum distillation at 40-50 0C. THF (250 mL) was added and the mixture was cooled with an ice-water bath. A 2.0 M of methylamine (MeNH2) in THF (529 mL, 1.06 mol, 10 equiv) was added dropwise. The resulting reaction mixture was allowed to warm up to room temperature and stirred at room temperature for 17 h. Water (600 mL) was added to the reaction mixture and THF (400 – 500 mL) was removed by vacuum distillation at 40 0C. Sodium carbonate (15.60 g, 0.147 mol) was added and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 30 min. The mixture was filtered and the solid was washed with water (3 x 30 mL) and dried. The solid was dissolved in pre-mixed methylene chloride (CH2Cl2, 1000 mL) and methanol (MeOH, 300 mL). With vigorous stirring, a solution of 0.236 M of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) in water (1000 mL) was added dropwise. Solid was slowly precipitated out after addition of aqueous solution of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3). Hexane (1000 niL) was then added dropwise with stirring. The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 30 – 40 min and the solids were collected by filtration. The solids collected were washed with water (3 x 200 mL) and dried in vacuum at 40 – 500C to constant weight to afford 2-fluoro-Λr-methyl-4-(7-(quinolin-6-ylmethyl)imidazo[l,2-ό][l,2,4]triazin-2-yl)benzamide (15, 42.2 g, 43.67 g theoretical, 96.6% yield) as a bright yellow solid, which was found to be identical to the material made by Method A in every comparable aspect. For 15: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-J6) δ ppm 9.20 (s, IH), 8.82 (dd, IH, J= 4.05, 1.56 Hz), 8.38 (br m, IH), 8.27 (dd, IH, J= 8.50 Hz, 1.25 Hz), 8.06 – 7.93 (m, 5H), 7.81-7.74 (m, 2H), 7.49 (dd, IH, J= 8.40 Hz, 4.35 Hz), 4.62 (s, 2H), 2.78 (d, 3H, J= 4.36 Hz); C23H17FN6O (MW 412.42), LCMS (EI) mle 413.1 (M+ + H).

Example 29

2-Fluoro-iV-methyl-4-(7-(quinolin-6-ylmethyl)imidazo [ 1 ,2-b] [ 1 ,2,4] triazin-2-yl)benzamide dihydrochloride (21, dihydrochloride)

2-Fluoro-vV-methyl-4-(7-(quinolin-6-ylmethyl)imidazo[l, 2-Z?][l, 2,4]triazin-2-yl)benzamide (15, 210O g, containing ~25% residual solvents) and filtered USP water (7.6 L) were charged into a 50 L reactor at room temperature. With stirring a solution of 6 M aqueous hydrochloric acid (HCl, 3 L) was added with an additional funnel. The resulting reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1.5 h. Acetone (30.5 L) was added to the reactor with stirring during 1 h and the resulting mixture was stirred at room temperature for 2.5 h. The solids were collected by filtration, washed with acetone (2 x 4.3 L) and dried in vacuum to constant weight to afford 2-fluoro-iV-methyl-4-(7-(quinolin-6-ylmethyl)imidazo[l ,2-b][ 1 ,2,4]triazin-2-yl)benzamide dihydrochloride (21, dihydrochloride, 1629.2 g, 1830.6 g theoretical, 89%) as a pale yellowish crystalline powder, which was found to be identical to the material made by previous method in every comparable aspect. For 21 (dihydrochloride): 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-J6) δ ppm 9.46 (s, IH), 9.25 (dd, IH, J= 5.4 Hz, 1.4 Hz), 9.12 (d, IH, J= 8.3 Hz), 8.51 (m, IH), 8.47 (d, IH, J= 0.9 Hz), 8.34 (d, IH, J= 1.3 Hz), 8.23 (s, IH), 8.21 (dd, IH, J= 9.0, 1.8 Hz), 8.09 – 8.02 (m, 3H), 7.79 (dd, IH, J= 7.5, 8.3 Hz), 4.77 (s, 2H), 2.78 (s, 3H, J= 4.5 Hz); 13C NMR (100 MHz, DMSO-J6) δ ppm 163.4, 159.4 (d, J= 249.9 Hz), 145.8, 145.4, 144.5, 143.8, 140.4, 138.8, 136.8, 135.9, 135.7 (J= 8.6 Hz), 131.2 ( J= 3.1 Hz), 130.7, 128.7, 128.2, 126.2 (J= 14.9 Hz), 126.0, 123.1 (J= 3 Hz), 122.5, 121.0, 114.9 (J= 5.6 Hz), 28.4, 26.3; 19F NMR (376.3 MHz, DMSO-Z6) δ ppm -113.2; C23H17FN6O (free base, MW 412.42), LCMS (EI) mle 413.1 (M+ + H) and 435.0 (M+ + Na).\

PATENT

(S)-N-(54(R)-2-(2,5-difluoropheny1)-pyrrolidin-1-y1)-pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-3-y1)-3-hydroxypyrrolidine-1-carboxamide.

Patent ID

Patent Title

Submitted Date

Granted Date

US9605070 ANTIBODY MOLECULES TO TIM-3 AND USES THEREOF
2015-01-30
2015-08-06
US9683048 ANTIBODY MOLECULES TO PD-1 AND USES THEREOF
2015-01-23
2015-07-30
US8461330 IMIDAZOTRIAZINES AND IMIDAZOPYRIMIDINES AS KINASE INHIBITORS
2011-06-09
US8420645 SALTS OF 2-FLUORO-N-METHYL-4-[7-(QUINOLIN-6-YL-METHYL)-IMIDAZO[1, 2-b][1, 2, 4]TRIAZIN-2-YL]BENZAMIDE AND PROCESSES RELATED TO PREPARING THE SAME
2009-11-26
US7767675 IMIDAZOTRIAZINES AND IMIDAZOPYRIMIDINES AS KINASE INHIBITORS
2008-07-10
2010-08-03
Patent ID

Patent Title

Submitted Date

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US2017190777 ANTIBODY MOLECULES TO TIM-3 AND USES THEREOF
2017-03-17
US2016326178 IMIDAZOTRIAZINES AND IMIDAZOPYRIMIDINES AS KINASE INHIBITORS
2016-02-05
US2016046672 STAPLING eIF4E INTERACTING PEPTIDES
2014-02-28
2016-02-18
US2013324515 IMIDAZOTRIAZINES AND IMIDAZOPYRIMIDINES AS KINASE INHIBITORS
2013-05-16
2013-12-05
US2015148348 SALTS OF 2-FLUORO-N-METHYL-4-[7-(QUINOLIN-6-YL-METHYL)- IMIDAZO[1, 2-B][1, 2, 4]TRIAZIN-2-YL]BENZAMIDE AND PROCESSES RELATED TO PREPARING THE SAME
2014-10-28
2015-05-28
Patent ID

Patent Title

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US2017198041 ANTIBODY MOLECULES TO TIM-3 AND USES THEREOF
2017-02-14
US2017258800 SALTS OF 2-FLUORO-N-METHYL-4-[7-(QUINOLIN-6-YL-METHYL)- IMIDAZO[1, 2-B][1, 2, 4]TRIAZIN-2-YL]BENZAMIDE AND PROCESSES RELATED TO PREPARING THE SAME
2016-11-18
US2016108123 ANTIBODY MOLECULES TO PD-L1 AND USES THEREOF
2015-10-13
2016-04-21
US2017209574 COMBINATION THERAPIES
2015-10-02
US2015259420 ANTIBODY MOLECULES TO LAG-3 AND USES THEREOF
2015-03-13
2015-09-17

/////////////////Capmatinib, INC 280, INC-280, капматиниб كابماتينيب 卡马替尼 , INCB 28060

CNC(=O)C1=CC=C(C=C1F)C1=NN2C(CC3=CC=C4N=CC=CC4=C3)=CN=C2N=C1

Glasdegib, PF-04449913


Glasdegib.svgChemSpider 2D Image | Glasdegib | C21H22N6OGlasdegib.png

str1

Glasdegib (PF-04449913)

1-[(2R,4R)-2-(1H-Benzimidazol-2-yl)-1-methyl-4-piperidinyl]-3-(4-cyanophenyl)urea [ACD/IUPAC Name]
1-[(2R,4R)-2-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-1-methylpiperidin-4-yl]-3-(4-cyanophenyl)urea
CAS 1095173-27-5 [RN]Orphan Drug Status

Glasdegib

  • Molecular FormulaC21H22N6O
  • Average mass374.439 Da
  • Urea, N-[(2R,4R)-2-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-1-methyl-4-piperidinyl]-N’-(4-cyanophenyl)- [ACD/Index Name]
    гласдегиб [Russian] [INN]
    غلاسديغيب [Arabic] [INN]
    格拉德吉 [Chinese] [INN]

FACT SHEET   https://www.pfizer.com/files/news/asco/Glasdegib-Fact-Sheet-6JUNE2018.pdf

Glasdegib (PF-04449913) is an experimental cancer drug developed by Pfizer. It is a small molecule inhibitor of the Sonic hedgehog pathway, which is overexpressed in many types of cancer. It inhibits smoothened receptor, as do most drug in its class.[1]

Four phase II clinical trials are in progress. One is evaluating the efficacy of glasdegib in treating myelofibrosis in patients who were unable to control the disease with ruxolitinib.[2] Another is a combination trial of glasdenib with ARA-Cdecitabinedaunorubicin, or cytarabine for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia.[3] The third is for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia.[4] The fourth administers glasdegib to patients at high risk for relapse after stem cell transplants in acute lymphoblastic or myelogenous leukemia.[5]

  • OriginatorPfizer
  • DeveloperGrupo Espanol de Trasplante Hematopoyetico y Terapia Celular; H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute; Netherlands Cancer Institute; Pfizer
  • ClassAntineoplastics; Benzimidazoles; Phenylurea compounds; Piperidines; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of ActionHedgehog cell-signalling pathway inhibitors; SMO protein inhibitors
  • Orphan Drug StatusYes – Acute myeloid leukaemia; Myelodysplastic syndromes
  • New Molecular EntityYes

Highest Development Phases

  • Phase IIIAcute myeloid leukaemia
  • Phase IIChronic myeloid leukaemia; Colorectal cancer; Myelodysplastic syndromes; Myelofibrosis; Non-small cell lung cancer
  • Phase I/IIChronic myelomonocytic leukaemia; Glioblastoma; Graft-versus-host disease
  • Phase ICancer; Haematological malignancies
  • No development reportedSolid tumours

Most Recent Events

  • 20 Apr 2018Phase-III clinical trials in Acute myeloid leukaemia (Combination therapy, First-line therapy) in Japan (PO) (NCT03416179)
  • 02 Apr 2018Pfizer terminates a phase II trial in Myelofibrosis (Second-line therapy or greater) in USA, Japan, Austria, France, Spain and United Kingdom (PO) (NCT02226172) (EudraCT2014-001048-40)
  • 06 Feb 2018Phase-I/II clinical trials in Glioblastoma (Newly diagnosed) in Spain (PO) (EudraCT2017-002410-31)

Glasdegib is an orally bioavailable small-molecule inhibitor of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway with potential antineoplastic activity. Glasdegib appears to inhibit Hh pathway signaling. The Hh signaling pathway plays an important role in cellular growth, differentiation and repair. Constitutive activation of Hh pathway signaling has been observed in various types of malignancies.

Glasdegib is under investigation for the treatment of Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

SYNTHESIS

Discovery of PF-04449913, a Potent and Orally Bioavailable Inhibitor of Smoothened

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ml2002423

 Michael J. Munchhof LLC, 266 West Road, Salem, Connecticut 06420, United States
 Pfizer Global Research and Development, Groton, Connecticut 06340, United States
§ 24 Queen Eleanor Drive, Gales Ferry, Connecticut 06335, United States
 INC Research, Old Lyme, Connecticut 06371, United States
 Reiter.MedChem, 32 West Mystic Avenue, Mystic, Connecticut 06355, United States
# Bristol-Meyers Squibb, Princeton, New Jersey 08540, United States
ACS Med. Chem. Lett.20123 (2), pp 106–111
DOI: 10.1021/ml2002423
Publication Date (Web): December 21, 2011
Copyright © 2011 American Chemical Society
*Tel: 860-287-5924. E-mail: mikemunchhof@yahoo.com.
Abstract Image

Inhibitors of the Hedgehog signaling pathway have generated a great deal of interest in the oncology area due to the mounting evidence of their potential to provide promising therapeutic options for patients. Herein, we describe the discovery strategy to overcome the issues inherent in lead structure 1 that resulted in the identification of Smoothened inhibitor 1-((2R,4R)-2-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)-1-methylpiperidin-4-yl)-3-(4-cyanophenyl)urea (PF-04449913, 26), which has been advanced to human clinical studies

1-((2R,4R)-2-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)-1-methylpiperidin-4-yl)-3-(4-cyanophenyl)urea (26)

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/suppl/10.1021/ml2002423/suppl_file/ml2002423_si_001.pdf

str1

Product was purified by Companion (ReadySep 40g, silica gel packed) with CH3OH/CH2Cl2 from 1-5% to give the title compound as an off-white solid 915mg (73%). LC-MS 375.3.

1H NMR(acetone-D6): δ 1.81 (m, 2H), 1.9- 2.05 (m, 2H), 2.10 (m, 1H), 2.17 (s, 3H), 2.52 (m, 1H), 2.94 (m, 1H), 3.86 (m, 1H), 4.2 (m, 1H), 6.4 (d, 1H), 7.16 (m, 2H), 7.52 (m, 2H), 7.60 (m, 2H), 7.62 (m, 2H), 8.46 (s, 1H).

The dihydrochloride salt was prepared by adding 4M HCl in dioxane (1.22mL, 4.86 mmol) to a solution of 1-((2R,4R)-2-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)-1-methylpiperidin-4-yl)-3-(4- cyanophenyl)urea (910 mg’s, 2.43mmol) in methanol (10mL). The mixture was stirred at at 230C for 10 minutes. The solution was concentrated to give a white solid, 1082 mg’s as the 2 .HCl monohydrate salt. M.P. > 125 0C with dehydration above 130 0C. Analytical calculated for free base C21H22N6O: C 67.38%, H 5.88%, N 22.46%; Found: C 67.16%, H 5.54%, N 22.18%. Purity of the dihydrochloride monohydrate salt was determined to be > 99.9% by analytical HPLC using a Xbridge C18; 3.5µm column and eluting with 95:5 0.1% Perchloric Acid (HClO4) solution in water and acetonitrile, over a gradient of 25 minutes, with and ending solvent ratio of 5:95. Enantiomeric purity of the dihydrochloride monohydrate salt was > 99.9% by chiral HPLC using a Chiralcel OJ column and eluting with 96:4 Heptane:Ethanol(with 0.1% diethylamine).

Syn 2

Development of a Concise, Asymmetric Synthesis of a Smoothened Receptor (SMO) Inhibitor: Enzymatic Transamination of a 4-Piperidinone with Dynamic Kinetic Resolution

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/ol403630g

Chemical Research & Development, Analytical Research & Development, Pfizer Worldwide Research & Development, Eastern Point Road, Groton, Connecticut 06340, United States
Org. Lett.201416 (3), pp 860–863
DOI: 10.1021/ol403630g
Publication Date (Web): January 22, 2014
Copyright © 2014 American Chemical Society
Abstract Image

A concise, asymmetric synthesis of a smoothened receptor inhibitor (1) is described. The synthesis features an enzymatic transamination with concurrent dynamic kinetic resolution (DKR) of a 4-piperidone (4) to establish the two stereogenic centers required in a single step. This efficient reaction affords the desired anti amine (3) in >10:1 dr and >99% ee. The title compound is prepared in only five steps with 40% overall yield.

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/suppl/10.1021/ol403630g/suppl_file/ol403630g_si_001.pdf

1-((2R,4R)-2-(1H-Benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)-1-methylpiperidin-4-yl)-3-(4-cyanophenyl)urea (1)

1 as white solids3 (27.1 g, 99.5 wt%, 90.0% corrected yield, > 99.0 UPLC area% purity): m.p. 223–224 °C; UPLC tR 2.11 min; 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) δ 12.39 (s, 1H), 8.94 (s, 1H), 7.69 (m, 2 H), 7.57 (m, 3 H), 7.43 (m, 1 H), 7.13 (m, 2H), 6.75 (d, J = 7.2 Hz, 1H), 4.08 (m, 1H), 3.63 (dd, J = 10.3, 3.5 Hz, 1H), 2.89 (dt, J = 12.0, 4.0 Hz, 1H), 2.40 (td, J = 11.9, 3.1 Hz, 1H), 2.06 (s, 3H), 1.98–2.10 (m, 1H), 1.83–1.95 (m, 2H), 1.72 (m, 1H); 13C NMR (DMSO-d6) δ 155.7, 153.9, 144.8, 142.7, 134.3, 133.2, 121.8, 120.9, 119.4, 118.5, 117.3, 111.2, 102.4, 58.6, 49.9, 43.7, 42.4, 36.0, 29.8. HRMS (EI) calcd. for C21H23N6O [M+H]+ : 375.1928; Found 375.1932.

To the crude solution of 3 in DMSO-H2O (UPLC assay ~55.0 mg/mL, 104 mL, ~5.74 g of 3, 24.9 mmol) from the enzymatic transamination reaction (vide supra) was added THF (57.0 mL) followed by 17 (mixture with imidazole, 9.31 gm, 74.0 wt%, 31.2 mmol). The mixture was then stirred at rt for three hours. Once the reaction was complete (<1 % of 3 remaining by UPLC), methanol (10.1 mL, 249 mmol) was added followed by 2-MeTHF (57.0 mL). The layers were separated and the aqueous was extracted with 2-MeTHF (57.0 mL). The combined organic layers were then washed with 2 × 50.0 mL water and 2 × 50.0 mL of 10% aqueous NaCl solution. The organic solution was then concentrated under vacuum and the solvent was switched to acetonitrile to give a slurry with a final volume of ~90.0 mL. The slurry was stirred at rt for three hours and filtered, and the solids were washed with 2 × 10.0 mL of acetonitrile and dried in oven at 60 °C for two hours. The solids (~7.90 gm) were then slurried in 70.0 mL of acetonitrile. The slurry was heated to 60 °C for two hours, cooled to rt, filtered, and the solids were dried in oven under vacuum at 60 °C for 12 hours to give 1 as white solids (7.64 g, 98.0 wt%, 80.0% corrected yield, > 98 UPLC area% purity). The analytical data were identical to that obtained with method A.

References

1. Lin TL, Matsui W. Hedgehog pathway as a drug target: smoothened inhibitors in development. Onco Targets Ther. 2012;5:47-58.

2. Munchhof MJ, Li Q, Shavnya A, et al. Discovery of PF-04449913, a potent and orally bioavailable inhibitor of smoothened. ACS Med Chem Lett. 2012;3(2):106-111.

3. Clement V, Sanchez P, de Tribolet N, et al. Hedgehog-GLI1 signaling regulates human glioma growth, cancer stem cell self-renewal, and tumorigenicity. Curr Biol. 2007;17(2):165-172.

4. Deschler, B. and Lübbert, M. (2006), Acute myeloid leukemia: Epidemiology and etiology. Cancer, 107: 2099–2107. doi: 10.1002/cncr.22233.

5. American Cancer Society. Key statistics for acute myeloid leukemia. Available at https://www.cancer.org/cancer/acute-myeloid-leukemia/about/key-statistics.html. Accessed January 25, 2018.

6. SEER Cancer Stat Facts: Acute Myeloid Leukemia. National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD, April 2017. Available at: http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/amyl.html. Accessed January 25, 2018.

7. Appelbaum FR, Gundacker H, Head DR, et al. Age and acute myeloid leukemia. Blood 2006; 107(9): 3481-5.

8. Estey E. Acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes in older patients. Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology 2007; 25(14): 1908-15.

9. Kantarjian HM, Thomas XG, Dmoszynska A, et al. Multicenter, randomized, open-label, phase III trial of decitabine versus patient choice, with physician advice, of either supportive care or low-dose cytarabine for the treatment of older patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia. Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology 2012; 30(21): 2670-7.

10. Ornstein MC, Mukherjee S, Sekeres MA. More is better: combination therapies for myelodysplastic syndromes. Best Pract Res Clin Haematol. 2015;28(1):22-31.

11. American Cancer Society. What are the key statistics about myelodysplastic syndromes? Available at: http://www.cancer.org/cancer/myelodysplasticsyndrome/detailedguide/myelo-dysplastic-syndromes-key-statistics. Accessed January 25, 2018. 12. Ma X, Does M, Raza A, et al. Myelodysplastic syndromes: incidence and survival in the United States. Cancer. 2007;109(8):1536-1542

Glasdegib
Glasdegib.svg
Clinical data
Synonyms PF-04449913
Identifiers
CAS Number
ChemSpider
KEGG
Chemical and physical data
Formula C21H22N6O
Molar mass 374.45 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
 to 3 of 3
Patent ID

Patent Title

Submitted Date

Granted Date

US8431597 Benzimidazole derivatives
2012-02-24
2013-04-30
US8148401 BENZIMIDAZOLE DERIVATIVES
2009-01-01
2012-04-03
US9611330 COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS FOR CANCER AND CANCER STEM CELL DETECTION AND ELIMINATION
2012-09-07
2014-10-09

////////////Glasdegib, PF-04449913, гласдегиб غلاسديغيب 格拉德吉 , PF04449913, PF 04449913, phase 3, aml, Orphan Drug Status

CN1CCC(CC1C2=NC3=CC=CC=C3N2)NC(=O)NC4=CC=C(C=C4)C#N

Talazoparib, MDV3800


Talazoparib.svg

Talazoparib, BMN-673, MDV-3800

(2S,3S)-methyl-7-fluoro-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-(1-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-yl)-4-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline-5-carboxylate

(8S,9R)-5-fluoro-8-(4-fluorophenyl)-9-(1-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-yl)-8,9-dihydro-2H-pyrido[4,3,2-de]phthalazin-3(7H)-one

(8S,9R)-5-Fluoro-8-(4-fluorophenyl)-9-(1-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-yl)-2,7,8,9-tetrahydro-3H-pyrido[4,3,2-de]phthalazin-3-one

CAS 1207456-01-6
Chemical Formula: C19H14F2N6O
Exact Mass: 380.11972

BMN673, BMN673, BMN-673, LT673, LT 673, LT-673,  Talazoparib

BioMarin Pharmaceutical Inc

phase 3

Poly ADP ribose polymerase 2 inhibitor; Poly ADP ribose polymerase 1 inhibitor

cancer

(85,9R)-5-fluoro-8-(4-fluorophenyl)-9-(l-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5-yl)-8,9-dihydro-2H-pyrido[4,3,2-de]phthalazin-3(7H)-one toluenesulfonate salt

CAS 1373431-65-2(Talazoparib Tosylate)

1H NMR DMSOD6

str1

13C NMR DMSOD6

str1

HMBC NMR

str1

HSQC NMR

str1

Talazoparib (BMN-673) is an investigational drug that acts as a PARP inhibitor. It is in clinical trials for various cancers.

Talazoparib.png

Medivation, under license from BioMarin Pharmaceuticals, following its acquisition of LEAD Therapeutics, is developing a PARP-1/2 inhibitor, talazoparib, for treating cancer, particularly BRCA-mutated breast cancer. In February 2016, talazoparib was reported to be in phase 3 clinical development

Talazoparib, also known as BMN-673, is an orally bioavailable inhibitor of the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) with potential antineoplastic activity (PARP1 IC50 = 0.57 nmol/L). BMN-673 selectively binds to PARP and prevents PARP-mediated DNA repair of single strand DNA breaks via the base-excision repair pathway. This enhances the accumulation of DNA strand breaks, promotes genomic instability and eventually leads to apoptosis. PARP catalyzes post-translational ADP-ribosylation of nuclear proteins that signal and recruit other proteins to repair damaged DNA and is activated by single-strand DNA breaks. BMN-673 has been proven to be highly active in mouse models of human cancer and also appears to be more selectively cytotoxic with a longer half-life and better bioavailability as compared to other compounds in development. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

Talazoparib is C19H14F2N6O.

Talazoparib tosylate is C26H22F2N6O4S.[1]

Approvals and indications

None yet.

Mechanism of action

Main article: PARP inhibitor

Clinical trials

After trials for advanced hematological malignancies and for advanced or recurrent solid tumors.[2] it is now in phase 3 for metastatic germline BRCA mutated breast cancer.[3] Trial estimated to complete in June 2016.[4]

As of January 2016 it in 14 active clinical trials.[5]

WO2010017055,  WO2015069851, WO 2012054698, WO 2011130661, WO 2013028495, US 2014323725, WO 2011097602

PAPER

Discovery and Characterization of (8S,9R)-5-Fluoro-8-(4-fluorophenyl)-9-(1-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-yl)-2,7,8,9-tetrahydro-3H-pyrido[4,3,2-de]phthalazin-3-one (BMN 673, Talazoparib), a Novel, Highly Potent, and Orally Efficacious Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase-1/2 Inhibitor, as an Anticancer Agent

BioMarin Pharmaceutical Inc., 105 Digital Drive, Novato, California 94949, United States
J. Med. Chem.201659 (1), pp 335–357
DOI: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.5b01498
Publication Date (Web): December 10, 2015
Copyright © 2015 American Chemical Society
*Phone: 1-415-506-3319. E-mail: bwang@bmrn.com.

Abstract

Abstract Image

We discovered and developed a novel series of tetrahydropyridophthlazinones as poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) 1 and 2 inhibitors. Lead optimization led to the identification of (8S,9R)-47 (talazoparib; BMN 673; (8S,9R)-5-fluoro-8-(4-fluorophenyl)-9-(1-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-yl)-2,7,8,9-tetrahydro-3H-pyrido[4,3,2-de]phthalazin-3-one). The novel stereospecific dual chiral-center-embedded structure of this compound has enabled extensive and unique binding interactions with PARP1/2 proteins. (8S,9R)-47 demonstrates excellent potency, inhibiting PARP1 and PARP2 enzyme activity with Ki = 1.2 and 0.87 nM, respectively. It inhibits PARP-mediated PARylation in a whole-cell assay with an EC50 of 2.51 nM and prevents proliferation of cancer cells carrying mutant BRCA1/2, with EC50 = 0.3 nM (MX-1) and 5 nM (Capan-1), respectively. (8S,9R)-47 is orally available, displaying favorable pharmacokinetic (PK) properties and remarkable antitumor efficacy in the BRCA1 mutant MX-1 breast cancer xenograft model following oral administration as a single-agent or in combination with chemotherapy agents such as temozolomide and cisplatin. (8S,9R)-47 has completed phase 1 clinical trial and is currently being studied in phase 2 and 3 clinical trials for the treatment of locally advanced and/or metastatic breast cancer with germline BRCA1/2 deleterious mutations.

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.5b01498

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/suppl/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.5b01498/suppl_file/jm5b01498_si_001.pdf

Preparation of (8S,9R)-5-Fluoro-8-(4-fluorophenyl)-9-(1-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-yl)-2,7,8,9-tetrahydro-3H-pyrido[4,3,2-de]phthalazin-3-one Tosylate Salt ((8S,9R)-47 Tosylate Salt)

A suspension of (8S,9R)-47 (BMN 673) (400 mg, 1.05 mmol) in a mixture of acetone (27 mL) and THF (13 mL) was heated to reflux until the suspension became clear. TsOH (220 mg, 1.16 mmol) was then added to the solution. White solids started to precipitate out from the solution shortly after the addition of TsOH. After stirring at 25 °C for 30 min, the mixture was filtered to collect the white crystal solids, which were washed with a mixture of acetone (10 mL) and 1,4-dioxane (4 mL) and then dried under vacuum at 45 °C for 3 days. This afforded the product as a white crystalline solid (540 mg, yield 93%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ (ppm) 2.29 (s, 3H), 3.67 (s, 3H), 4.97–5.06 (m, 2H), 6.91–6.94 (dd, J1 = 2.0 Hz, J2 = 10.8 Hz, 1H), 7.06–7.19 (m, 5H), 7.19–7.51 (m, 4H), 7.74 (s, 1H), 7.87 (s, 1H), 10.32 (brs, 1H), 12.36 (s, 1H). LC-MS (ESI)m/z: 381 (M + H)+. Anal. Calcd for C19H14F2N6O·toluene sulfonic acid: C, 56.52; H, 4.01; N, 15.21. Found: C, 56.49; H, 3.94; N, 15.39.

(8S,9R)-5-Fluoro-8-(4-fluorophenyl)-9-(1-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-yl)-2,7,8,9-tetrahydro-3H-pyrido[4,3,2-de]phthalazin-3-one (8S,9R)-47 or BMN 673 and (8R,9S)-5-Fluoro-8-(4-fluorophenyl)-9-(1-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-yl)-2,7,8,9-tetrahydro-3H-pyrido[4,3,2-de]phthalazin-3-one (8R,9S)-47

Compound 47 was dissolved in DMF, and chiral resolution was performed using supercritical-fluid chromatography (SFC) with a CHIRALPAK IA chiral column and methanol (20% with 0.1% DEA) and CO2 (80%) as the eluents. Yield 90%. For (8S,9R)-47 (BMN 673): retention time 8.8 min and ee 99.3%. For (8R,9S)-47: retention time 10.2 min and ee 99.2%.
Alternatively, compound (8S,9R)-47 could also be made using (2S,3R)-60a as a starting material and employing the same procedure described for the conversion of 60a to 47.
The optical rotation for both (8S,9R)-47 and (8R,9S)-47 was measured using a RUDOLPH (AUTOPOL V) automatic polarimeter at a concentration of 6.67 mg/mL in MeOH/MeCN/DMF = 0.5:0.5:1 at 20 °C. The specific rotation for (8S,9R)-47 was +92.2°, whereas it was −93.4° for (8R,9S)-47.

PATENT

WO-2016019125

WO2016019125

The compound (85,9R)-5-fluoro-8-(4-fluorophenyl)-9-(l-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5-yl)-8,9-dihydro-2H-pyrido[4,3,2-de]phthalazin-3(7H)-one toluenesulfonate salt (Compound (A))

Compound (A)

is an inhibitor of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP). Methods of making it are described in WO2010017055, WO2011097602, and WO2012054698. However, the disclosed synthetic routes require chiral chromatography of one of the synthetic intermediates in the route to make Compound (A), methyl 7-fluoro-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-(l -methyl- lH-1, 2,4-triazol-5-yl)-4-oxo- 1 ,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline-5-carboxylate (Intermediate (A)),

Intermediate (A)

to yield the chirally pure (2S,35)-methyl 7-fluoro-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-(l-methyl-lH- 1,2,4-triazol-5-yl)-4-oxo-l,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline-5-carboxylate (Compound (1))

Compound (1).

Using conventional chiral chromatography is often solvent and time intensive.

Use of more efficient chromatography methods, such as simulated moving bed (SMB) chromatography still requires the use of expensive chiral chromatography resins, and is not practical on a large scale to purify pharmaceutical compounds. Also, maintaining

Compound (1) in solution for an extended time period during chromatography can lead to epimerization at the 9-position and cleavage of the methyl ester group in Compound (1). Replacing the chromatography step with crystallization step(s) to purify Compound (1) is desirable and overcomes these issues. Therefore, it is desirable to find an alternative to the use of chiral chromatography separations to obtain enantiomeric Compound (1).

Scheme 1 below describes use of Ac49 as a coformer acid for the preparation of Compound (la) and for the chiral resolution of Compound (1).

Scheme 1

Compound (1 )

Example 2 – Preparation of Compound (1) Using Scheme 1

Step la

Intermediate (A) (5 g, 12.5 mmol) was dissolved in 9: 1 v/v MIBK/ethanol (70 mL, 14 vol.) at 50 °C with stirring and dissolution was observed in less than about 5 minutes. [(lS)-en<io]-(+)-3-bromo-10-camphor sulfonic acid monohydrate (4.1 g, 12.5 mmol) was added and dissolution was observed in about 10-20 minutes. Seeding was then performed with Compound (la) (95% e.e., 5 mg, 0.1% w.) and the system was allowed to equilibrate for about 1 hour at 50 °C, was cooled to about 20 °C at 0.15 °C/min, and then equilibrated at 20 °C for 2 hours. The solid phase was isolated by filtration, washed with ethanol, and dried at about 50 °C and 3 mbar for about 2 to 3 hours to yield Compound (la) as a 0.6 molar equiv. EtOH solvate and 0.6 molar equiv. hydrate (93.4% e.e.).

Step lb

Compound (la) was then suspended in MIBK/ethanol 95/5% by volume (38 mL, 10 vol.) at 50 °C with stirring. After about 2 hours at 50 °C, the suspension was cooled to about 5 °C for 10 to 15 hours. The solid phase was recovered by filtration and dried at about 50 °C and 3 mbar for about 3 hours. Compound (la) (97.4% e.e.) was recovered. Step 2

000138] Compound (1) was released by suspending Compound (la) (3.9 g, 5.5 mmoi), without performing the optional reslurrying in Step 1, in 20 mL of water at room temperature and treating with 5M sodium hydroxide in water (1.3 mL, 1.2 mol). The mixture was kept at room temperature for about 15 hours and the solid was isolated by filtration and dried at 50 °C and 3 mbar for about 3 hours. Compound (1) was recovered (94.4% e.e.).

Example 3 – Large Scale Preparation of Compound (1) Using Scheme 1

The procedure of Example 1 was followed using 3.3 kg of Intermediate (A) and the respective solvent ratios to provide 95.7% e.e. in Step la; 99.2% e.e. in Step lb; and 99.2% e.e. in Step 2.

Example 4 – Alternative Preparation of Compound (1) Using Scheme 1

Step la

Intermediate (A) (751 mg, 1.86 mmol)) was dissolved in 9: 1 v/v

MIBK/ethanol (7.5 mL, 10 vol.) at 50 °C with stirring. [(15)-eni o]-(+)-3-bromo-10-camphor sulfonic acid monohydrate (620 mg, 1.88 mmol, 1 equiv.) was added. Formation of a precipitate was observed at about 1 hour at 50 °C. The system was then cooled to about 5 °C at 0.1 °C/min, and then equilibrated at 5 °C for about 60 hours. The solid phase was isolated by filtration and dried at about 50 °C and 3 mbar for about 2 hours to yield

Compound (la)(92% e.e.). See Figures 1-4 for XRPD (Figure 1), chiral HPLC (Figure 2), Ή NMR (Figure 3), and TGA/DSC analyses (Figure 4). The XRPD pattern from the material in Example 3 is similar to that in Example 1 with some slight shifts in the positions of specific diffraction peaks (highlighted by black arrows in Figure l). The ‘H NIVIR was consistent with a mono-salt of Compound (la) containing 0.5 molar equivalent of EtOH and 0.6% by weight residual MIBK. The TGA analysis showed a stepwise mass loss of 3.5% between 25 and 90 °C (potentially representing loss of the 0.5 molar equivalent of EtOH) and a gradual mass loss of 1.2% between 90 and 160 °C (potentially representing the loss of adsorbed water). The DSC analysis had a broad endotherm between 25 and 90 °C

representing desolvation and an endotherm at 135 °C representing melt/degradation.

Step lb

Compound (la) (100.3 mg, 0.141 mmol) was re-suspended in 95:5 v/v MIBK EtOH (1 mL, 10 vol.) at 50 °C and stirred for 1 hour before cooling to 5 °C at

0.1 °C/min. The solid (99.4% e.e.) was recovered by filtration after 1 night at 5 °C. Shifts in the XRPD diffraction peaks were no longer detected (Figure 5; compare Figure 1). Figure 6 shows the chiral HPLC for Compound (la).

Step 2

Compound (la) (100.2 mg, 0.141 mmol) from Step la was suspended in water (2 mL, 20 vol.) at 50 °C and 5 M NaOH in water (34 μL·, 1.2 molar equiv) was added. The resulting suspension was kept at 50 °C for one night, cooled to room temperature

(uncontrolled cooling) and filtered to yield Compound (1) (92% e.e.). The chiral purity was not impacted by this step and no [(15)-enJo]-(+)-3-bromo-10-camphor sulfonic acid was detected by NMR. Figure 7 compares the XRPD of Compound (1) in Step 2 with

Intermediate (A), the starting material of Step 1. Figure 8 shows the NMR of Compound (1) in Step 2 with Intermediate (A), the starting material of Step 1.

Example 5 – Alternative Preparation of Compound (1) Using Scheme 1 Step la

000144] Intermediate (A) (1 equiv.) was added with stirring to a solution of MIBK (12-13 vol), ethanol (1-1.5 vol), and water (0.05-0.10 vol) and the reaction was heated within 15 minutes to an internal temperature of about 48 °C to about 52 °C . [(lS)-endo]-(+)-3-bromo- 10-camphor sulfonic acid (1 equiv) was added and the reaction was stirred for about 5-10 mins at an internal temperature of about 48 °C to about 52 °C until dissolution occurred. Seed crystals of Compound (la) were added and the reaction was allowed to proceed for 1 hour at an internal temperature of about 48 °C to about 52 °C. The reaction was cooled at a rate of 0.15 °C /min to about 19-21 °C. The suspension was stirred for 2 hours at an internal temperature of about 19 °C to 21 °C and then was collected by filtration and washed twice with ethanol. The product was characterized by 1H NMR and 13C NMR (Figures 13a and 13b), IR Spectrum (Figure 14), DSC (Figure 15), and chiral HPLC (Figure 16).

Step 2a

To Compound (la) (1 equiv.) was added acetone (1.1 vol), IPA (0.55 vol), and methanol (0.55 vol) and the reaction was heated to an internal temperature of about 38 °C to 42 °C. Aqueous ammonia (25%) (1.3 equiv) was added and the reaction was stirred for about 10 minutes. The pH of the reaction was confirmed and the next step performed if > 7. Water was added (0.55 vol), the reaction was cooled to an internal temperature of about 35 °C, seed crystals of Compound (1) were added, and the reaction was stirred for about 10 mins. Water was added (3.3 vol) dropwise within about 30 minutes, the suspension was cooled within 30 minutes to an internal temperature of about 0 °C to 5 °C, and the reaction was stirred for 15 minutes. The solid was collected by filtration and washed three times with water.

Step 2b

To the product of Step 2a) was added acetone (4 vol), ΓΡΑ (1 vol), and methanol (1 vol) and the reaction was heated to an internal temperature of about 38 °C to 42 °C resulting in a clear solution. Water (2 vol) and seed crystals of Compound (1) were added and the system was stirred for about 15 minutes at an internal temperature of about 35 °C. Water (342 mL) was added dropwise in about 30 minutes. The suspension was then cooled in 30 min to an internal temperature of about 0 °C to 5 °C and was stirred for an additional 15 minutes. The solid was collected by filtration, washed twice with water, and chiral purity was determined. If > 99% e.e., then the solid was dried at an internal temperature of about 60 °C under reduced pressure to yield Compound (1). The product was characterized by Ή NMR (Figure 19), 13C NMR (Figure 20), IR (Figure 21), DSC (Figure 22), chiral HPLC (Figure 23).

Scheme 2 below describes use of Acl 10 as a coformer acid for the preparation of Compound (lb) and the chiral resolution of Compound (1).

Intermediate (A)

Compound (1 b)

Intermediate (A)

Compound (1 b)

Compound (1 )

Example 6 – Preparation of Compound (1) Using Scheme 2

Step la

Intermediate (A) (102 mg, 0.256 mmol) was dissolved in MIBK (1 mL, 10 vol.) at 65 °C with stirring. (lS)-phenylethanesulfonic acid, prepared using procedures known to one of skill in the art, in MIBK (3.8 M, 80 μί, 1 molar equiv.) was added and a suspension was observed after 30 minutes at 65 °C. The system was kept at 65 °C for another 30 minutes before cooling to 5 °C at 0.1 C/min. After one night at 5 °C, the solid was filtered, dried at 50 °C, 3 mbar pressure for about 2 hours to yield Compound (lb). See Figures 9-12 for XRPD (Figure 9), chiral HPLC (Figure 10), Ή NMR (Figure 11), and TGA/DSC analyses (Figures 12a and 12b). The XRPD diffraction pattern of the solid obtained in Example 5 differed from the XRPD pattern obtained with the solid from in the salt screen of Example 1 and was consistent with the production of different solids in Examples 1 and 5. The Ή NMR was consistent with the mono-salt with a 0.3% by weight residue of dioxane. In Figure 12a, the thermal behavior was consistent with a non-solvated form exhibiting a melt/degradation at 201 °C. Figure 12b compares the melt pattern of Compound (lb) in Example 5 with Compound (lb) in Example 1.

Steps lb and 2 can be carried out using procedures similar to those used in Examples 2-5.

Example 7 – Polymorphism of Compound (la)

Compound (1) (92% e.e., 10 mg, mmol) was placed in 1.5 mL vials and the solvents (1 mL or less) of Table 3 were added at 50 °C until dissolution was achieved. [(1S)-eni o]-(+)-3-bromo-10-camphorsulfonic acid was added as a solid at 50 °C. The samples were kept at 50 °C for about 1 hour prior to being cooled to room temperature overnight

(uncontrolled cooling rate). Clear solutions were successively cooled to 4 °C, -20 °C and evaporated at room temperature. Any gum obtained after evaporation was re-suspended in diethyl ether. The solid phases generated were characterized by XRPD and if relevant, by Ή NMR and TGA/DSC.

Table 3. Compound (la) Polymorphism Conditions

C.S. means clear solution and Susp. means suspension. “A” means the XRPD diffraction pattern was new but similar to that for Ac49 in

Example 1. “B” means the XRPD diffraction pattern was the same as that for Ac49 in Example 1. “M.E.” means molar equiv.

Page 38 of 64

NAI- 1500460480V I

Each of the seven solvents in which solvates were observed (heterosolvates not included) were mixed with MIBK (90% vol). Solutions of Intermediate (A) were prepared in the solvent mixtures (10 vol) at 50 C and [(15)-en<io]-(+)-3-bromo-10-camphor sulfonic acid (1 molar equivalent) was added. The resulting clear solutions were cooled to 5 °C at 0.2 C/min. Surprisingly, no crystallization was reported in any sample. Seeding was performed with a few crystals of each solvate at about 25 °C. The solid phases were analyzed by XRPD and the liquid phases were analyzed by chiral HPLC. See Table 4 for a summary of the results (where “Dias 2” is the (2R, 3R) diastereomer of Compound (la)) .

Table 4. Compound (la) Solvate Analysis

As seen in Table 4 above, the ethanol/MIBK system yielded 93% pure Compound (la) which demonstrates that Compound (la) does crystallize in a very pure form as an ethanolate solvate.

Other objects, features and advantages of the compounds, methods and compositions described herein will become apparent from the following description. It should be understood, however, that the description and the specific examples, while indicating specific embodiments, are given by way of illustration only, since various changes and modifications within the spirit and scope of the present description will become apparent from this detailed description.

All publications including patents, patent applications and published patent applications cited herein are hereby incorporated by reference for all purposes.

PATENT

US 2011196153

http://www.google.co.ve/patents/US20110237581

STR1.jpg

Patent

US 2011237581

PATENTSTR1.jpg

PATENT

http://www.google.com/patents/WO2015069851A1?cl=en

SYNTHETIC EXAMPLES

Example 1

\ , 

(1 a) (2) (3) (la) (5)

To a flask was added N-methyl-l,2,4-triazole (la)(249.3 g, 3.0 mol, 1 equiv.),

2-methyl-THF (1020 mL, about 1 :4 m/v), and DMF (2)(230.2 g, 3.15 mol, 1.05 equiv.), in any order. The solution was cooled to an internal temperature of about -5 to 0 °C. To the flask was added LiHMDS (3) as a 20% solution in 2-methyl-THF (3012 g, 3.6 mol, 1.2 equiv.) dropwise within about 60 minutes. During the addition of the LiHMDS (3), the desired Compound (la) was precipitated as the 2-methyl-THF solvate, and the flask was cooled to about -30 °C. The reaction was stirred for about 30 minutes at an internal temperature of about -5 to 0 °C.

The precipitated crystals were removed from the reaction mixture by filtration and washed with 2-methyl-THF. The product, Compound (la) as the 2-methyl-THF solvate, was dried under vacuum at an internal temperature of about 60 °C (about 72.5% as measured by NMR) to yield Compound (la).

Example 2

As shown in Example 2, the Compounds of Formula I are useful in the synthesis of more complex compounds. See General Scheme 1 for a description of how the first step can be accomplished. Compounds of Formula I can be reacted with compound (6) to yield Compounds of Formula II. In Example 2, Compound (la) can be reacted with

Compound (6) to yield Compound (7). The remaining steps are accomplished using procedures known to one of ordinary skill in the art, for example, as disclosed in

WO2010017055 and WO2011097602 to yield Compound (12).

PATENT

US 2014323725/http://www.google.com/patents/WO2011097602A1

5-fluoro-8-(4-fluorophenyl)-9-(l-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5-yl)-8,9- dihydro-2H-pyrido[4,3,2-Je]phthalazin-3(7H)-one, as shown in formula (1), and its enantiomer compounds, as shown in formulas (la) and (lb):

Figure imgf000003_0001

Example 1

(Z)-6-Fluoro-3-(( 1 -methyl- IH- 1 ,2,4-triazol-5 -yl)methylene)-4-nitroisobenzofuran- 1 (3H)-one (3)

Figure imgf000013_0001

[0053] To a 80 L jacketed glass reactor equipped with a chiller, mechanical stirrer, thermocouple, and nitrogen inlet/outlet, at 15 – 25 °C, anhydrous 2-methyl-tetrahydrofuran (22.7 kg), 6-fluoro-4- nitroisobenzofuran-l(3H)-one (2) (2.4 kg, 12.2 mol, 1.00 eq.), and 2-methyl-2H-l,2,4-triazole-3- carbaldehyde (49.6 – 52.6 % concentration in dichloromethane by GC, 3.59 – 3.38 kg, 16.0 mol, 1.31 eq.) were charged consecutively. Triethylamine (1.50 kg, 14.8 mol, 1.21 eq.) was then charged into the above reaction mixture. The reaction mixture was stirred for another 10 minutes. Acetic anhydride (9.09 – 9.10 kg, 89.0 – 89.1 mol, 7.30 eq.) was charged into the above reaction mixture at room temperature for 20 – 30 minutes. The reaction mixture was heated from ambient to reflux temperatures (85 – 95 °C) for 80 – 90 minutes, and the mixture was refluxed for another 70 – 90 minutes. The reaction mixture was monitored by HPLC, indicating compound (2) was reduced to < 5 %. The resulting slurry was cooled down to 5 – 15 °C for 150 – 250 minutes. The slurry was aged at 5 – 15 °C for another 80 – 90 minutes. The slurry was filtered, and the wet cake was washed with ethyl acetate (2L x 3). The wet cake was dried under vacuum at 40 – 50 °C for 8 hours to give 2.65 – 2.76 kg of (Z)-6-fluoro-3-((l -methyl-lH-l ,2,4-triazol-3- yl)methylene)-4-nitroisobenzofuran-l(3H)-one (3) as a yellow solid (2.66 kg, yield: 75.3 %, purity: 98.6 – 98.8 % by HPLC). LC-MS (ESI) m/z: 291 (M+l)+. Ή-ΝΜΡ (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ (ppm): 3.94 (s, 3H), 7.15 (s, 1H), 8.10 (s, 1H), 8.40-8.42 (dd, Jx = 6.4 Hz, J2 = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 8.58-8.61 (dd, Jx = 8.8 Hz, J2 = 2.4 Hz, 1H).

Example 2

Methyl 5- enzoate (4)

Figure imgf000014_0001

Example 2A

[0054] (¾-6-Fluoro-3-((l-methyl-lH-l,2,4-taazol-3-yl)m (3) (177 g, 0.6 mol, 1.0 eq.), and HC1 (2 N in methanol, 3 L, 6 mol, 10 eq.) were charged into a 5 L 3-neck flask equipped with mechanical stirrer, thermometer, and nitrogen inlet/outlet. The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 25 hours. The reaction mixture was monitored by HPLC, indicating 0.8 % compound (3) remained. The reaction mixture was concentrated under vacuum at 40 °C to dryness, and methyl 5-fluoro-2-(2-(l -methyl- lH-l,2,4-triazole-3-yl)acetyl)-3-nitrobenzoate hydrochloride (4) was obtained as a yellow solid (201 g, yield: 93.4 %). It was used for the next step without further purification. LC-MS (ESI) m/z: 323 (M+l)+ ¾-NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-J6) δ (ppm): 3.89 (s, 3H), 3.92 (s, 3H), 4.60 (s, 2H), 7.85 (s, 1H), 8.25-8.28 (dd, Jx = 8.4 Hz, J2 = 2.8 Hz, 2H), 8.52-8.54 (dd, Jx = 8.4 Hz, J2 = 2.8 Hz, 2H).

Example 2B

An alternative workup procedure to that illustrated in Example 2A follows. Instead of evaporating the reaction mixture to dryness, it was condensed to 2 volumes, followed by solvent exchange with 12 volumes of THF, and then 12 volumes of heptane. The slurry mixture was concentrated to 2 volumes and filtered to give the product. As such, 1.8 kilograms of (Z)-6-fluoro-3-((l-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-3- yl)methylene)-4-nitroisobenzofuran-l(3H)-one (3) gave 2.15 kilograms (yield 96.4 %) of the product methyl 5-fluoro-2-(2-(l -methyl- lH-l,2,4-triazole-3-yl)acetyl)-3-nitrobenzoate hydrochloride (4).

Example 3

Methyl 7-fluoro-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-(l-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5-yl)-4-oxo-l,2,3,4- tetrahydroquinoline-5 -carboxylate (5)

Figure imgf000015_0001

Example 3A

To a suspension of methyl 5-fluoro-2-(2-(l-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5-yl)acetyl)-3-nitrobenzoate (4) (5 g, 15.5 mmol, leq.) and 4-fluorobenzaldehyde (3.6 g, 29 mmol, 1.87 eq.) in a mixture of solvents tetrahydrofuran (30 mL) and MeOH (5 mL) was added titanium(III) chloride (20 % w/w solution in 2N Hydrochloric acid) (80 mL, 6 eq.) dropwise with stirring at room temperature. The reaction mixture was allowed to stir at 30~50°C for 2 hours. The mixture was then diluted with water (160 mL), and the resulting solution was extracted with ethyl acetate (100 mL x 4). The combined organic layers were washed with saturated NaHC03 (50 mL x 3) and aqueous NaHS03 (100 mL x 3), dried by Na2S04, and concentrated to dryness. This afforded a crude solid, which was washed with petroleum ether (120 mL) to obtain the title compound as a yellow solid (5.9 g, yield: 95 %, purity: 97 %). LC-MS (ESI) m/z: 399 (M+l)+. ^-NMR (400 MHz, CDCla) δ (ppm): 3.58 (s, 3H), 3.87 (s, 3H), 4.16-4.19 (d, J2=13.2 Hz, 1H), 4.88 (s, 1H), 5.37-5.40 (d, J2=13.2 Hz, 1H), 6.47-6.53 (m, 2H) , 6.97-7.01 (m, 2H), 7.37-7.41 (m, 2H), 7.80 (s, 1H).

Example 3B

An alternative workup procedure to that illustrated in Example 3A follows. After the completion of the reaction, the mixture was extracted with isopropyl acetate (20 volumes x 4) without water dilution. The product was isolated by solvent exchange of isopropyl acetate with heptanes followed by re-slurry with MTBE and filtration. As such, 3 kilograms of methyl 5-fluoro-2-(2-(l-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5- yl)acetyl)-3-nitrobenzoate (4) afforded 2.822 kilograms of the title compound (5) (yield 81 %).

Example 3C

To a stirred solution of methyl 5-fluoro-2-(2-(l-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5-yl)acetyl)-3- nitrobenzoate (4) (580 mg, 2 mmol) and 4-fluorobenzaldehyde (488 mg, 4 mmol) in methanol (0.75 mL) and tetrahydrofuran (4.5 mL) was added concentrated HC1 solution (w/w 37 %, 6 mL), then reductive powdered Fe (672 mg, 12 mmol) was added slowly to the reaction system. After the addition was complete, the resulting mixture was heated to 60 °C and kept at this temperature for 3 hours. After the disappearance of the starting material (4) as monitored by LC-MS, the reaction mixture was partitioned between ethyl acetate (30 mL) and water (30 mL) and the aqueous phase was extracted with ethyl acetate (20 mL x 3). The combined organic phase was dried with Na2S04, concentrated in vacuo and purified by column chromatography (ethyl acetate: petroleum ether = 1 : 1) to give the title compound (5) as a pale yellow solid (300 mg, yield 40 %). LC-MS (ESI) m/z: 399 (M+l)+LH-NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) δ (ppm): 3.58 (s, 3H), 3.87 (s, 3H), 4.17 (d, 1H), 4.87 (s, 1H), 5.38 (d, 1H), 6.50 (dd, 2H), 6.99 (dd, 2H), 7.38 (dd, 2H), 7.80 (s, 1H).

Example 3D

To a stirred solution of methyl 5-fluoro-2-(2-(l-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5-yl)acetyl)-3- nitrobenzoate (4) (580 mg, 2 mmol) and 4-fluorobenzaldehyde (488 mg, 4 mmol) in methanol (0.75 mL) and tetrahydrofuran (4.5 mL) was added SnCl2 (2.28 g, 12 mmol) and concentrated HC1 (w/w 37 %, 6 mL), the resulting mixture was reacted at 45 °C for 3 hours, until LC-MS indicating the disappearance of the starting material (4) and about 50 % formation of the product. The mixture was then partitioned between ethyl acetate (30 mL) and water (30 mL) and the aqueous phase was extracted with ethyl acetate (20 mL x 3). The combined organic phase was dried with Na2S04, concentrated in vacuo and purified by column chromatography (ethyl acetate: petroleum ether = 1 : 1) to give the title compound (5) as a pale yellow solid (10 mg, yield 1.3 %). LC-MS (ESI) m/z: 399 (M+l)+LH-NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) δ (ppm): 3.58 (s, 3H), 3.87 (s, 3H), 4.17 (d, 1H), 4.87 (s, 1H), 5.38 (d, 1H), 6.50 (dd, 2H), 6.99 (dd, 2H), 7.38 (dd, 2H), 7.80 (s, 1H).

Example 3E

A solution of methyl 5-fluoro-2-(2-(l-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5-yl)acetyl)-3-nitrobenzoate (4) (580 mg, 2 mmol) and 4-fluorobenzaldehyde (488 mg, 4 mmol) in methanol (20 mL) and acetic acid (1 mL) was stirred at room temperature for 24 hours under hydrogen (1 barr) in the presence of a catalytic amount of 10 % Pd/C (212 mg, 0.2 mmol). After the reaction was complete, the catalyst was removed by filtration through a pad of Celite, the solvent was removed in vacuo, and the residue was purified by column chromatography (ethyl acetate: petroleum ether = 1 : 1) to give the title compound (5) as a pale yellow solid (63 mg, yield 8 %). LC-MS (ESI) m/z: 399 (M+l)+ . 1HNMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ (ppm): 3.56 (s, 3H), 3.86 (s, 3H), 7.02 (dd, 2H), 7.21 (dd, 2H), 7.90 (s, 1H), 8.08 (s, 1H), 8.26 (dd, 1H), 8.56 (dd, 1H).

Example 4

5-Fluoro-8-(4-fluorophenyl)-9-(l-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5-yl)-8,9-dihydro-2H-pyrido[4,3,2-

Figure imgf000016_0001

 Methyl 7-fluoro-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-(l -methyl-lH-l ,2,4-triazol-5-yl)-4-oxo-l,2,3,4- tetrahydroquinoline-5-carboxylate (5) (150 g, 0.38 mol, 1.0 eq.) and methanol (1.7 L) were charged into a 3 L 3-neck flask equipped with a mechanical stirrer, thermometer, and nitrogen inlet/outlet. The resulted suspension was stirred at room temperature for 15 minutes. Hydrazine hydrate (85 % of purity, 78.1 g, 1.33 mol, 3.5 eq.) was charged dropwise into the above reaction mixture within 30 minutes at ambient temperature. The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight. The reaction was monitored by HPLC, showing about 2 % of compound (5) left. The obtained slurry was filtered. The wet cake was suspended in methanol (2 L) and stirred at room temperature for 3 hours. The above slurry was filtered, and the wet cake was washed with methanol (0.5 L). The wet cake was then dried in vacuum at 45 – 55 °C for 12 hours. This afforded the title compound as a pale yellow solid (112 g, yield: 78.1 %, purity: 95.98 % by HPLC). LC-MS (ESI) m/z: 381 (M+l)+. ^-NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-J6) δ (ppm): 3.66 (s, 3H), 4.97-5.04 (m, 2H), 6.91-6.94 (dd, Jx = 2.4, J2 = 11.2 Hz, 1H), 7.06-7.09 (dd, Jx = 2.4, J2 = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 7.14-7.18 (m, 3H), 7.47-7.51 (m, 2H), 7.72 (s, 1H), 7.80 (s, 1H), 12.35 (s, 1H).

Example 5

5 -Amino-7-flu in- 1 (2H)-one

Figure imgf000017_0001

To a solution of 6-fluoro-3-((l-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-3-yl)methylene)-4-nitroiso-benzofuran- l(3H)-one (3) (4.0 g, 135 mmol) in THF (100 mL) was added hydrazine monohydrate (85 %) (6 mL) at room temperature under nitrogen atmosphere. The mixture was stirred for 2 hours, then acetic acid (6 mL) was added and the mixture was heated to and kept at 60 °C for 18 hours. The resulting mixture was diluted with water (100 mL) and extracted with ethyl acetate (100 mL x 3). The organic layer was dried over anhydrous Na2S04 and evaporated to dryness to afford the title compound as a yellow solid (1.6 g, yield 42 %). LC-MS (ESI) m/z: 275(M+1)+.

Example 6

(£’)-7-fluoro-5-(4-fluorobenzylideneamino)-4-((l -methyl- IH- 1 ,2,4-triazol-5-yl)methyl)phthalazin- 1 (2H)- one

Figure imgf000018_0001

(7)

To a suspended of 5-amino-7-fluoro-4-((l-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-3-yl)methyl) phthalazin- l(2H)-one (7) (1.6 g, 5.8 mmol) in acetonitrile (50 mL) was added 4-fluorobenzaldehyde (2.2 g, 17.5 mmol). The mixture was stirred under reflux under nitrogen for 48 hours. The precipitate was filtered and washed with a mixture of solvents (ethyl acetate/hexane, 1 :1, 10 mL). After drying in vacuum, it afforded the title compound as a yellow solid (1.2 g, yield 52 %). LC-MS (ESI) m/z: 381(M+1)+.

Example 7

5-Fluoro-8 4-fluorophenyl)-9 l-methyl H-l,2,4-triazol-5-yl)-8,9-dihydro-2H^yrido[4,3,2-

Figure imgf000018_0002

(8) (1 )

To a suspension of (£’)-7-fluoro-5-(4-fluorobenzylideneamino)-4-((l-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5- yl)methyl)phthalazin-l(2H)-one (8) (2.0 g, 5.3 mmol) in THF (80 mL) was added cesium carbonate (3.4 g, 10.6 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at 55 °C for 4 hours and cooled down to room temperature. The mixture was diluted with water (50 ml) and extracted with ethyl acetate (50 mL x 3). The combined organic layers were dried over anhydrous Na2S04 and evaporated to dryness to afford the title compound as a white solid (1.6 g, yield 80 %). LC-MS (ESI) m/z: 381(M+1)+. ^-NMR (400 MHz, DMSO- ) δ (ppm): 3.66 (s, 3H), 4.97-5.04 (m, 2H), 6.91-6.94 (dd, Jx = 2.4, J2 = 11.2 Hz, 1H), 7.06-7.09 (dd, Ji = 2.4, J2 = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 7.14-7.18 (m, 3H), 7.47-7.51 (m, 2H), 7.72 (s, 1H), 7.80 (s, 1H), 12.35 (s, 1H).

Example 8

(£)-Methyl 5-fluoro-2-(3-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(l-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5-yl)acryloyl)-3-nitrobenzoate

(9)

Figure imgf000019_0001

To a stirred solution of methyl 5-fluoro-2-(2-(l-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5-yl)acetyl)-3- nitrobenzoate (4) (580mg, 2 mmol) and 4-fluorobenzaldehyde (488 mg, 4 mmol) in dimethylsulfoxide (2 mL) was added L-proline (230 mg, 2 mmol). The resulting mixture was kept with stirring at 45 °C for 48 hours. The reaction system was then partitioned between ethyl acetate (50 mL) and water (30 mL), and the organic phase was washed with water (20 mL x 3), dried with Na2S04, concentrated in vacuo, and purified by column chromatography (ethyl acetate: petroleum ether = 1 :3) to give the title compound (9) as a pale yellow foam (340 mg, yield 40 %). LC-MS (ESI) m/z: 429 (M+l)+. ^-NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-dg); δ (ppm): 3.56 (s, 3H), 3.86 (s, 3H), 7.02 (dd, 2H), 7.21 (dd, 2H), 7.90 (s, IH), 8.08 (s, IH), 8.26 (dd, IH), 8.56 (dd, IH).

Example 9

Methyl 7-fluoro-2-(4-fluorophenyl)- 1 -hydroxy-3-( 1 -methyl- IH- 1 ,2,4-triazol-5-yl)-4-oxo- 1 ,2,3,4- tetrahydroquinoline-5 -carboxylate (10)

Figure imgf000019_0002

To a solution of (£)-Methyl 5-fluoro-2-(3-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(l-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5- yl)acryloyl)-3-nitrobenzoate (9) (200 mg, 0.467 mmol) in methanol (20 mL) was added 10 % Pd/C (24 mg). After the addition, the mixture was stirred under H2 (1 atm) at room temperature for 0.5 h. The reaction system was then filtered and evaporated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by chromatography (ethyl acetate: petroleum ether = 1 :1) to give the title compound (10) (110 mg, yield 57 %) as an off-white foam. LC-MS (ESI) m/z: 415 (M+H)+. ¾-NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ (ppm): 3.53 (s, 3H), 3.73 (s, 3H), 5.08 (d, 2H), 5.27 (d, 2H), 6.95 (dd, IH), 7.08 (dd, 2H), 7.15 (dd, IH), 7.42 (dd, 2H), 7.77 (s, IH), 9.92 (s, IH). Example 10

Methyl 7-fluoro-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-(l-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5-yl)-4-oxo-l,2,3,4-

Figure imgf000020_0001

(10) (5)

To a stirred solution of methyl 7-fluoro-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-l-hydroxy-3-(l-methyl-lH-l,2,4- triazol-5-yl)-4-oxo-l, 2,3, 4-tetrahydroquinoline-5 -carboxylate (10) (41.4 mg, 0.1 mmol) in methanol (5 mL) was added concentrated HCl solution (w/w 37 %, 1 mL) and reductive powdered Fe (56 mg, 1 mmol). The reaction mixture was refluxed for 3 hours. After the disappearance of compound (10) as monitored by LC-MS, the reaction system was partitioned between ethyl acetate (20 mL) and water (20 mL) and then the aqueous phase was extracted with ethyl acetate (10 mL x 3). The combined organic phase was dried with Na2S04, concentrated in vacuo and purified by column chromatography (ethyl acetate: petroleum ether = 1 :1) to give the title compound (5) as a pale yellow solid (12 mg, yield 30 %). LC-MS (ESI) m/z: 399 (M+l)+. ¾-NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) δ (ppm): 3.58 (s, 3H), 3.87 (s, 3H), 4.17 (d, 1H), 4.87 (s, 1H), 5.38 (d, 1H), 6.50 (dd, 2H), 6.99 (dd, 2H), 7.38 (dd, 2H), 7.80 (s, 1H).

Example 11

Methyl 7-fluoro-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-(l-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5-yl)-4-oxo-l,2,3,4-

Figure imgf000020_0002

To a solution of (£)-Methyl 5-fluoro-2-(3-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(l-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5- yl)acryloyl)-3-nitrobenzoate (9) (214 mg, 0.5 mmol) in methanol (5 mL) was added concentrated HCl solution (w/w 37 %, 1 mL), then reductive Fe powder (140 mg, 2.5 mmol) was added slowly to the reaction system. After the addition was complete the resulting mixture was refluxed for 24 hours. The reaction mixture was then filtered, concentrated, neutralized with saturated NaHC03 (20 mL), and extracted with ethyl acetate (10 mL x 3). The residue was purified by chromatography (ethyl acetate: petroleum ether = 1 : 1) to give the title compound (5) (30 mg, yield 15 %) as an off-white foam. LC-MS (ESI) m/z: 399 (M+H)+. ^-NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ (ppm): 3.56 (s, 3H), 3.86 (s, 3H), 7.02 (dd, 2H), 7.21 (dd, 2H), 7.90 (s, 1H), 8.08 (s, 1H), 8.26 (dd, 1H), 8.56 (dd, 1H).

Example 12

(8R,9S)-5-fluoro-8-(4-fluorophenyl)-9-(l-me

Je]phthalazin-3(7H)-one (la) and (8S,9R)-5-fluoro-8-(4-fluorophenyl)-9-(l-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5-

Figure imgf000021_0001

(1) (la) (lb)

A chiral resolution of 5-fluoro-8-(4-fluorophenyl)-9-(l-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5-yl)-8,9- dihydro-2H-pyrido[4,3,2-Je]phthalazin-3(7H)-one (1) (52.5 g) was carried out on a super-fluid chromatography (SFC) unit using a CHIRALPAK IA column and C02/methanol/diethylamine

(80/30/0.1) as a mobile phase. This afforded two enantiomers with retention times of 7.9 minute (23.6 g, recovery 90 %, > 98 % ee) and 9.5 minute (20.4 g, recovery 78 %, > 98 % ee) as analyzed with a CHIRALPAK IA 0.46 cm x 15 cm column and C02/methanol/diethylamine (80/30/0.1) as a mobile phase at a flow rate of 2 g/minute.

Example 13

(2R,3R)-methyl 7-fluoro-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-(l-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5-yl)-4-oxo-l,2,3,4- tetrahydroquinoline-5-carboxylate (6a) and (2S,3S)-methyl 7-fluoro-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-(l-methyl-lH-

Figure imgf000021_0002

(5) (6a) (6b)

Example 13A

The chiral resolution of compound (5) was carried out on a SFC unit with a CHIRALPAK®IC 3 cm (I.D.) x 25 cm, 5 μηι column, using C02/MeOH (80/20) as a mobile phase at a flow rate of 65 g/ minute while maintaining the column temperature at 35 °C and with a detection UV wavelength of 254 nm. As such, a racemate of compound (5) (5 g) in methanol solution was resolved, which resulted in two enantiomers with a retention times of 2.35 minute (2.2 g, 88 % recovery, >98 % ee) and 4.25 minute (2.3 g, 92 % recovery, >98 % ee), respectively when analyzed using CHIRALPAK®IC 0.46 cm x 15 cm column and CO2/MeOH(80/20) as a mobile phase at a flow rate of 2 mL/ minute.

Example 13B

The chiral resolution of compound (5) was carried out on a SFC unit with a CHIRALPAK®IC 5cm (I.D.) x 25 cm, 5 μηι column, using C02/MeOH (75/25) as a mobile phase at a flow rate of 200 mL/ minute while maintaining the column temperature at 40 °C and with a detection UV wavelength of 255 nm. As such, a racemate of compound (5) (1.25 kg) in methanol solution was resolved, which resulted in two enantiomers in about 83 % yield and 97.4 % purity.

Example 13C

Alternatively, the separation can also be achieved on a Simulated Moving Bed (SMB) unit with a CHIRALPAK®IC column and acetonitrile as a mobile phase. The retention times for the two enantiomers are 3.3 and 4.1 minutes, respectively. In certain embodiments, the productivity can be greater than 6 kg Feed/day/kg CSP.

Example 14

(8R,9S)-5-fluoro-8 4-fluorophenyl)-9<l-me

Je]phthalazin-3(7H)-one (la) and (8S,9R)-5-fluoro-8-(4-fluorophenyl)-9-(l-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5- (lb)

Figure imgf000022_0001

Example 14A

To a solution of (2R,3R)-methyl 7-fluoro-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-(l-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5-yl)- 4-oxo-l,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline-5-carboxylate (6a) or (2S,3S)-methyl 7-fluoro-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-(l- methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5-yl)-4-oxo-l,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline-5-carboxylate (6b) (400 mg, 1.0 mmol) in ethanol (8.0 mL) was added hydrazine monohydrate (85 %, 2.0 mL), and the solution stirred at room temperature for 2 hours. The resulting solution was then concentrated to a volume of 2 mL and filtered, and the resultant cake washed with ethanol (1 mL). After drying in vacuum at 50°C, this afforded the title compound as a white solid (209 mg, yield 55 %). LC-MS (ESI) m/z: 381(M+1)+. ^-NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-dg): δ (ppm): 3.681 (s, 3H), 4.99-5.06 (m, 2H), 6.92-6.96 (m, 1H), 7.08-7.11 (m, 1H), 7.16-7.21 (t, J= 8.8 Hz, 2H), 7.49-7.53 (m, 2H), 7.75 (s, 1H), 7.83 (s, 1H), 12.35 (s, 1H).

Example 14B

To a solution of (2R,3R)-methyl 7-fluoro-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-(l-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5-yl)- 4-oxo-l,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline-5-carboxylate (6a) or (2S,3S)-methyl 7-fluoro-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-(l- methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5-yl)-4-oxo-l,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline-5-carboxylate (6b) (446 g) in acetonitrile (10 volume) was added hydrazine monohydrate (2.9 eq.), and the solution stirred at room temperature for 2 hours. The resulting solution was then concentrated to a volume of 2 mL and filtered. The crude product was re-slurried with water (3~5 volumes) at 15-16 °C. After drying in vacuum at 50 °C, this affords the title compound as a white solid (329 g, yield 77%, 99.93% purity). LC-MS (ESI) m/z:

381(M+1)+; ¾-NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ (ppm): 3.681 (s, 3H), 4.99-5.06 (m, 2H), 6.92-6.96 (m, 1H), 7.08-7.11 (m, 1H), 7.16-7.21 (t, J= 8.8 Hz, 2H), 7.49-7.53 (m, 2H), 7.75 (s, 1H), 7.83 (s, 1H), 12.35 (s, 1H).

Talazoparib (BMN-673) is an orally available poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitor currently in development by Pfizer for the treatment of advanced breast cancer patients with germline BRCA mutations.[1] Talazoparib is similar to the first in class PARP inhibitor, olaparib.[2][3] However, talazoparib is thought to be more potent than olaparib.[3]

Mechanism of action

Talazoparib acts as an inhibitor of poly ADP ribose polymerase(PARP) which aids in single strand DNA repair. Cells that have BRCA1/2mutations are susceptible to the cytotoxic effects of PARP inhibitors because of an accumulation of DNA damage.[1] Talazoparib is theorized to have a higher potency than olaparib due to the additional mechanism of action called PARP trapping. PARP trapping is the mechanism of action where the PARP molecule is trapped on the DNA, which interferes with the cells ability to replicate. Talazoparib is found to be ~100 fold more efficient in PARP trapping than olaparib.[4] However, this increased potency may not translate directly to clinical effectiveness as many other factors must be considered.[3][4]

Commercialization

Talazoparib was originally developed by BioMarin Pharmaceutical Inc. However, Medivation Inc. acquired all worldwide rights to talazoparib in August 2015 to expand their global oncology franchise.[5] Medivation acquired talazoparib for $410 million with additional payments of up to $160 million in royalties and milestones. Under this agreement, Medivation assumed all financial responsibilities for the continued development, regulatory, and commercialization of talazoparib.[5][6]

Clinical trials

As of January 2016, talazoparib is in 14 active clinical trials [7] including a new arm of I-SPY 2.[8] These trials cover a variety of cancers types and combination therapies. The most notable clinical trials are the ABRAZO and EMBRACA studies.

ABRAZO

ABRAZO is a phase II study for the safety and efficacy of treatment of BRCA breast cancer patients with Talazoparib monotherapy. This study is for patients who have failed at least two prior chemotherapy treatments for metastatic breast cancer or been previously treated with a platinum regimen.[6][9][10] The original target enrollment for the study was 70 patients but Biomarin expanded the trial to 140 patients.[9][10] The estimated completion date is December 2016.[10]

EMBRACA

EMBRACA is a phase III study for the treatment of BRCA breast cancer patients with Talazoparib.[11][12][13] This trial is an open-label, randomized, parallel, 2-arm, multi-center comparison of talazaporib against physician’s preference for the treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer. Patients must also have received prior chemotherapy regimens for metastatic breast cancer.[12][13] Patients participating in this study are randomly selected for either talazoparib or physician’s choice of chemotherapy at a 2:1 ratio to talazoparib.[6] The target enrollment for the study was 430 patients [12][13] and the estimated completion date is June 2017.[13]

References

  1. Jump up to:a b Medivation Inc. “Talazoparib”.
  2. Jump up^ FDA (19 December 2014). “FDA approves Lynparza to treat advanced ovarian cancer”FDA News Release.
  3. Jump up to:a b c Jessica Brown, Stan Kaye, Timothy Yap (29 March 2016). “PARP inhibitors: the race is on”British Journal of Cancer114: 713–5. doi:10.1038/bjc.2016.67PMC 4984871Freely accessiblePMID 27022824.
  4. Jump up to:a b Yuqiao Shen, Mika Aoyagi-Scharber, Bing Wang (June 2015). “Trapping Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase”Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.
  5. Jump up to:a b Biomarin (24 August 2015). “Medivation to Expand Global Oncology Franchise With the Acquisition of All Worldwide Rights to Talazoparib (BMN 673), a Potent PARP Inhibitor, From BioMarin”.
  6. Jump up to:a b c Silus Inman (25 August 2015). “Medivation Acquires BioMarin’s PARP Inhibitor Talazoparib”.
  7. Jump up^ BMN 673 trials registered
  8. Jump up^ I-SPY 2 TRIAL: Neoadjuvant and Personalized Adaptive Novel Agents to Treat Breast Cancer (I-SPY 2)
  9. Jump up to:a b “BioMarin Provides Program Update for Talazoparib in Metastatic Breast Cancer”. 20 July 2015.
  10. Jump up to:a b c “A Phase 2, 2-Stage, 2-Cohort Study of Talazoparib (BMN 673), in Locally Advanced and/or Metastatic Breast Cancer Patients With BRCA Mutation (ABRAZO Study)”ClinicalTrials.gov.
  11. Jump up^ “EMBRACA CLINICAL STUDY IS NOW ENROLLING”.
  12. Jump up to:a b c “A Study Evaluating Talazoparib (BMN 673), a PARP Inhibitor, in Advanced and/or Metastatic Breast Cancer Patients With BRCA Mutation (EMBRACA Study)”ClinicalTrials.gov.
  13. Jump up to:a b c d “BioMarin Initiates Phase 3 BMN 673 Trial for Metastatic gBRCA Breast Cancer”Benzinga.

External links

nmr……http://www.medkoo.com/uploads/product/Talazoparib__BMN-673_/qc/BMN673-QC-BBC20130523-Web.pdf

Patent                       Submitted                        Granted

PROCESSES OF SYNTHESIZING DIHYDROPYRIDOPHTHALAZINONE DERIVATIVES [US2014323725]2014-06-022014-10-30

CRYSTALLINE (8S,9R)-5-FLUORO-8-(4-FLUOROPHENYL)-9-(1-METHYL-1H-1,2,4-TRIAZOL-5-YL)-8,9-DIHYDRO-2H-PYRIDO[4,3,2-DE]PHTHALAZIN-3(7H)-ONE TOSYLATE SALT [US2014228369]2014-04-142014-08-14

Crystalline (8S,9R)-5-fluoro-8-(4-fluorophenyl)-9-(1-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-yl)-8,9-dihydro-2H-pyrido[4,3,2-de]phthalazin-3(7H)-one tosylate salt [US8735392]2011-10-202014-05-27

DIHYDROPYRIDOPHTHALAZINONE INHIBITORS OF POLY(ADP-RIBOSE)POLYMERASE (PARP) [US8012976]2010-02-112011-09-06

DIHYDROPYRIDOPHTHALAZINONE INHIBITORS OF POLY(ADP-RIBOSE)POLYMERASE (PARP) FOR USE IN TREATMENT OF DISEASES ASSOCIATED WITH A PTEN DEFICIENCY [US2014066429]2013-08-212014-03-06

METHODS AND COMPOSITIONS FOR TREATMENT OF CANCER AND AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE [US2013184342]2013-03-132013-07-18

WO2012054698A1 Oct 20, 2011 Apr 26, 2012 Biomarin Pharmaceutical Inc. Crystalline (8s,9r)-5-fluoro-8-(4-fluorophenyl)-9-(1-methyl-1h-1,2,4-triazol-5-yl)-8,9-dihydro-2h-pyrido[4,3,2-de]phthalazin-3(7h)-one tosylate salt
WO2015069851A1 Nov 6, 2014 May 14, 2015 Biomarin Pharmaceutical Inc. Triazole intermediates useful in the synthesis of protected n-alkyltriazolecarbaldehydes
US8420650 Mar 31, 2011 Apr 16, 2013 Biomarin Pharmaceutical Inc. Dihydropyridophthalazinone inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP)
US8541403 Feb 3, 2011 Sep 24, 2013 Biomarin Pharmaceutical Inc. Dihydropyridophthalazinone inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) for use in treatment of diseases associated with a PTEN deficiency
US8735392 Oct 20, 2011 May 27, 2014 Biomarin Pharmaceutical Inc. Crystalline (8S,9R)-5-fluoro-8-(4-fluorophenyl)-9-(1-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-yl)-8,9-dihydro-2H-pyrido[4,3,2-de]phthalazin-3(7H)-one tosylate salt
US8765945 Feb 8, 2011 Jul 1, 2014 Biomarin Pharmaceutical Inc. Processes of synthesizing dihydropyridophthalazinone derivatives
US8999987 Mar 6, 2013 Apr 7, 2015 Biomarin Pharmaceutical Inc. Dihydropyridophthalazinone inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP)
US9018201 Aug 21, 2013 Apr 28, 2015 Biomarin Pharmaceuticial Inc. Dihydropyridophthalazinone inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) for use in treatment of diseases associated with a PTEN deficiency

SEE………..http://orgspectroscopyint.blogspot.in/2016/02/talazoparib.html

http://apisynthesisint.blogspot.in/2016/02/talazoparib.html

Talazoparib
Talazoparib.svg
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(8S,9R)-5-Fluoro-8-(4-fluorophenyl)-9-(1-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-yl)-2,7,8,9-tetrahydro-3H-pyrido[4,3,2-de]phthalazin-3-one
Clinical data
Legal status
  • Investigational
Chemical data
Formula C19H14F2N6O
Molar mass 380.35 g/mol
Talazoparib
Talazoparib.svg
Legal status
Legal status
  • Investigational
Identifiers
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEMBL
Chemical and physical data
Formula C19H14F2N6O
Molar mass 380.35 g/mol
3D model (JSmol)

/////////////BMN 673, talazoparib, phase 3, BMN673, BMN673, BMN-673, LT673, LT 673, LT-673, Poly ADP ribose polymerase 2 inhibitor, Poly ADP ribose polymerase 1 inhibitor, cancer, MDV-3800 , MDV 3800

Cn1c(ncn1)[C@H]2c3c4c(cc(cc4N[C@@H]2c5ccc(cc5)F)F)c(=O)[nH]n3

O=C1NN=C2C3=C1C=C(F)C=C3N[C@H](C4=CC=C(F)C=C4)[C@H]2C5=NC=NN5C

Atogepant, атогепант , أتوجيبانت , 阿托吉泮 ,


imgChemSpider 2D Image | atogepant | C29H23F6N5O3Atogepant.pngImage result for AtogepantImage result for AtogepantFigure imgf000011_0002

Atogepant

  • Molecular FormulaC29H23F6N5O3
  • Average mass603.515 Da

AGN 241689; MK 8031

(3S)-N-[(3S,5S,6R)-6-methyl-2-oxo-1-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-5-(2,3,6-trifluorophenyl)piperidin-3-yl]-2-oxospiro[1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine-3,6′-5,7-dihydrocyclopenta[b]pyridine]-3′-carboxamide

Spiro[6H-cyclopenta[b]pyridine-6,3′-[3H]pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine]-3-carboxamide, 1′,2′,5,7-tetrahydro-N-[(3S,5S,6R)-6-methyl-2-oxo-1-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-5-(2,3,6-trifluorophenyl)-3-piperidinyl]-2′-ox o-, (6S)-[ACD/Index Name]
атогепант [Russian] [INN]
أتوجيبانت [Arabic] [INN]
阿托吉泮 [Chinese] [INN]
(6S)-N-[(3S,5S,6R)-6-Methyl-2-oxo-1-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-5-(2,3,6-trifluorophenyl)-3-piperidinyl]-2′-oxo-1′,2′,5,7-tetrahydrospiro[cyclopenta[b]pyridine-6,3′-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine]-3-carboxamide [ACD/IUPAC Name]
10510
1374248-81-3 [RN]
7CRV8RR151
Atogepant; UNII-7CRV8RR151; 7CRV8RR151; AGN-241689; MK-8031; 1374248-81-3

 Spiro(6H-cyclopenta(b)pyridine-6,3′-(3H)pyrrolo(2,3-b)pyridine)-3-carboxamide, 1′,2′,5,7-tetrahydro-N-((3S,5S,6R)-6-methyl-2-oxo-1-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-5-(2,3,6-trifluorophenyl)-3-piperidinyl)-2′-oxo-, (3’S)-

Oral prevention of episodic migraine in adult patients.
 
Innovator – Allergan Phase 3
Allergan announced positive results from Phase 2b/3 clinical trial in Jun 2018 evaluating the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of orally administered Atogepant,  
Being CGRP antagonist, is more efficacious than any other preventative treatment on the market
  • Originator Merck AG
  • Developer Allergan
  • Class Antimigraines; Monoclonal antibodies; Piperidines; Pyridines; Pyrroles; Small molecules; Spiro compounds
  • Mechanism of Action Calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonists

Highest Development Phases

  • Phase II/III Migraine

Most Recent Events

  • 11 Jun 2018 Efficacy and adverse events data from a phase IIb/III trial in Migraine released by Allergan
  • 23 Apr 2018 Allergan completes a phase II/III trial for Migraine (Prevention) in USA (PO) (NCT02848326)
  • 14 Sep 2017 Chemical structure information added

The product was discovered by Merck and, in August 2015, it was licensed to Allergan for worldwide development and marketing.

Synthesis

US20160130273

Figure US20160130273A1-20160512-C00031

 Figure imgf000055_0002
Figure imgf000056_0001
Figure imgf000057_0001
Figure imgf000057_0002
Figure imgf000058_0001
Figure imgf000059_0001
Figure imgf000060_0001
Figure imgf000061_0001
Figure imgf000061_0002
PATENT
WO 2007133491
PATENT
PRODUCT PATENT
WO 2012064910

INTERMEDIATE 1

Figure imgf000041_0002
Figure imgf000042_0001

carboxylic acid

The title compound can be prepared by either Method I or Method II as described below.

Method I:

Step A: (6S)-3-Iodo-5 J-dihyc ospiro cyclopentar¾1pyrid e-6 ‘-py

one

A solution of sodium nitrite (36.1 g, 523 mmol) in water (20 mL) was added dropwise over 5 min to a solution of (6S -3-amino-5,7-dihydros iro[cyclopenta[ί)]pyridi e-6,3,– pyrrolo[2,3-0]pyridin]-2′(rH)-one (prepared according to the procedures described in

WO2008/020902, 66.0 g, 262 mmol) and -toluenesulfonic acid (149 g, 785 mmol) in acetonitrile (650 mL) at 23 °C. After stirring for 30 min, a solution of potassium iodide (109 g, 654 mmol) in water (20 mL) was added over 5 min. The resulting mixture was stirred at 23 °C for 40 min, then diluted with water (1 L) and basified by the addition of solid NaOH (33.0 g, 824 mmol) with stirring. Iodine by-product was reduced by the addition of 10% aqueous sodium thio sulfate solution and stirring for an additional 30 min. The solids were collected by filtration, washed with water, and dried under nitrogen atmosphere to give the title compound, which was used without further purification. MS: mlz = 363.9 (M + 1).

Step B: Methyl (65V2′-oxo-lΛ2 5J-tetrahydrospiroicvclopenta[6]p ridine-6.3′-pyrlΌlo[2. – 6]py ridine] – 3 -car boxy late

A solution of (65)-3-iodo~5 ,7-dihydrospiro[cyclopenta[&]pyridine-6,3′- pyrrolo[2,3-&]pyridin]-2′(rH)-one (51.0 g, 140 mmol), sodium acetate (23.0 g, 281 mmol) and dichloro l,l’~bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene palladium(II) dichloromethane adduct (2.9 g, 3.5 mmol) in MeOH (560 mL) was pressurized to 120 psi of CO at 23 °C and then heated at 80 °C for 12 h with stirring. The reaction mixture was diluted with water (1 L), and the precipitate collected by filtration, washed with water, and dried under nitrogen atmosphere to give the title compound, which was used without further purification. MS: mlz = 296.1 (M + 1).

Figure imgf000042_0002

3 -carboxylic acid

A mixture of methyl (6S)-2′-oxo-r,2′,5,7-tetrahydrospiro[cyclopenta[i)]pyridine- 6,3′-pyrrolo[2,3-&]pyridine]-3-carboxylate (30.0 g, 102 mmol) and aqueous 6 N sodium hydroxide solution (50.8 mL, 305 mmol) in MeOH (920 mL) was heated at reflux for 1 h. The mixture was allowed to cool to 23 °C before it was acidified to pH ~6 with aqueous 1 N hydrochloric acid solution, resulting in a black precipitate which was removed by filtration. The filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure to a volume of ~100 mL and then partitioned between water (500 mL) and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (2- eTHF, 250 mL). The aqueous layer was extracted with 2-MeTHF (5 χ 250 mL), and the combined organic layers were dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated to provide the title compound. MS: mlz ~ 282.0 (M + 1).

Method II:

Step A: Dimethyl 5-bromopyridine-2,3-dicarboxylate

Concentrated sulfuric acid (1 L, 18.7 mol) was added slowly over 10 min to a . suspension of pyridine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid (5.00 kg, 29.9 mol) in methanol (50 L), dissolving the suspension. The resulting mixture was heated at reflux for 48 h then cooled to 40 °C.

Bromine (8.0 kg, 50 mol) was added slowly over 2 h in 1-kg portions, keeping the temperature below 55 °C. The reaction mixture was then heated at 55 °C for 24 h, cooled to 50 °C and additional Br2 (4.0 kg, 25 mol) was added slowly over 1 h in 1-kg portions, keeping temperature below 55 °C. The reaction mixture was heated at 55 °C for 24 h, concentrated to a minimum volume (internal temp -30 °C, solution may occasionally foam), then diluted with isopropyl acetate (50 L) and washed with a saturated aqueous sodium sulfite solution (3 x 20 L) (final extract is ~pH 8) followed by water (20 L). The organic layer was concentrated to

approximately 15 L then diluted with heptane (40 L). The resulting slurry was stirred for 24 h at 23 °C. The solids were filtered, washed with heptane (10 L), and dried to give the title compound. Step B: (5-Bromopyridine-23-diyl)dimcthanol

Sodium borohydride (15.9g, 420 mmol) was added portionwise over 30 min to a solution of dimethyl 5-bromopyridine-2,3-dicarboxylate (20 g, 73 mmol) in ethanol (460 mL) precooled to 0 °C. A solution of calcium chloride (23.3 g, 209 mmol) in 150 mL was added slowly at 0 °C, and the reaction mixture was warmed to 23 °C and stirred overnight. Excess sodium borohydride was quenched by slow addition of aqueous 2 N HCl solution (230 mL, 460 mmol), followed by a stirring at 23 °C for 2 h. The mixture was concentrated to dryness.

Saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution was added to the residue until a pH of approximately 7 was reached. The aqueous mixture was extracted with 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (4 x 200 mL). The combined organic layers were dried over sodium sulfate then treated with a solution of 4 N HC1 in dioxane (25 mL, 100 mmol). The resulting solid was filtered, washed with 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, and dried to give the title compound as a hydrochloride salt. MS: m!z = 218.1 (M + 1). Step C: (5-Bromopyridine-2,3-diyI)dimethanediyl dimethanesulfonate

A slurry of (5-bromopyridine-2,3-diyl)dimethanol hydrochloride (12.9g, 59.2 mmol) in tetrahydrofuran (400 mL) at 0 °C was treated with triethylamine (37.1 mL, 266 mmol). To the resulting mixture was added portionwise methanesulfonic anhydride (30.9 g, 177 mmol), keeping temperature below 5 °C. The reaction mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 1 h, then partitioned between saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution (500 mL) and ethyl acetate (500 mL). The organic layer was washed saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution, dried over magnesium sulfate, and concentrated to give the title compound. MS: m/z – 376.0 (M + 1).

Step D: 3-Bromo-r-{[2-(trimethylsilyl)ethoxy]methyl}-5,7- dihyjirpspiro [cyclop

(5-Bromopyridine-2,3-diyI)dimethanediyl dimethanesulfonate (17.0 g, 45.4 mmol) was added to a mixture of l-{[2-(trimetliylsilyl)ethoxy]methyl}-l}3-dihydro-2H- pyrrolo[2,3-&]pyridin-2-one (prepared according to the procedures described in

WO2008/020902, 14.0 g, 53.0 mmol) and cesium carbonate (49.0 g, 150 mmol) in ethanol (500 mL) 23 °C, and the resulting mixture was stirred for 20 h. The reaction mixture was

concentrated then partitioned between ethyl acetate (500 mL) and water (500 mL). The organic layer was dried over magnesium sulfate and concentrated. The residue was purified via silica gel chromatography (heptane initially, grading to 100% EtOAc) to give the title compound. MS: m/z = 448.1 (M + 1).

Step E: Methyl (6<Sf)-2′-oxo-r-{r2-(trimethylsilyl ethoxylmethyli-r,2′,5 J- tetrahydrospiro [cy clopenta[6] pyridine-6 ,3 ‘-pyrrolo [2, 3 -b]py ridinel -3 -carboxy late

A mixture of 3-bromo-r-{[2-(trimethylsilyl)ethoxy]methyl}-5,7- dihydrospiro[cyclopenta[¾]pyridine-6,3’-pyrrolo[2,3-¾pyridin]-2′(rH)-one (22.0 g, 49.3 mmol), PdCl2(dppf)»CH Cl2 (2.012g, 2.46 mmol), and sodium acetate (8.1g, 99 mmol) in in methanol (150 mL) was pressurized to 300 psi of carbon monoxide and then heated at 85 °C for 72 h. The reaction mixture was allowed to cool then concentrated. The residue was purified via silica gel chromatography (heptane initially, grading to 100% EtOAc) to give the title compound as a racemic mixture. MS: m/z – 426.1 (M +1). Resolution of the enantiomers by supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) using a ChiralPak AD-H column and eluting with 40% ethanol in C02 (0.05% diethylamine as modifier) provided the title compound as the second enantiomer to elute.

Figure imgf000045_0001

A solution of methyl (65)-2′-oxo- -{[2-(trimethylsilyl)ethoxy]methyl}-r!2′f5,7- tetrahydrospiro[cyclopenta[&]pyridine-6,3′-pyrrolo[2,3-&]pyridine]-3-carboxylate (238 g, 559 mmol) in methanol (2 L) was saturated with HCI gas, allowing temperature to increase to 55 °C. The reaction mixture was cooled to 23 °C, stirred for 20 h, then concentrated. Aqueous 10 N sodium hydroxide (400 mL, 4 mol) was added to a solution of the residue in methanol (2 L), and the resulting mixture was heated at reflux for 2 h. The solution was cooled to 23 °C and the pH was adjusted to 3 with concentrated HCI. The resulting solid was filtered, washed with water then heptane, and dried to give the title compound. MS: m!z = 282.2 (M + 1).

INTERMEDIATE 15

Figure imgf000066_0001
Figure imgf000066_0002

hydrochloride

Step A: (5SSR & 5j?,6y)-6-Methvi-l-r2.2.2-trifluoroethvn-5-(2,3.6-trifluorophenvnpiperidin-2- one

Essentially following the procedures described in Intermediate 14, but using 2,3,6-trifluorophenylboronic acid in place of 2,3,5-trifluorophenylboronic acid, the title compound was obtained. MS: m/z = 326.0 (M + 1).

Step B: GS.5S.6R & 3i?,5J?.6 ‘ -3-Azido-6-methyl-i-r2.2.2 rifluoroethyl)-5-(2.3.6- trifluorophenyl)piperidin-2-one

To a stirred solution of lithium 6w(trimethylsilyl)amide (1.0 M in THF, 4.80 mL,

4.80 mmol) in THF (20 mL) at -78 °C was added a cold (-78 °C) solution of (5S,6R & 5i?,6,S)-6- methyl-l-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-5-(2,3,6-trifluorophenyl)piperidin-2-one (1.30 g, 4,00 mmol) in THF (10 mL) dropwise, keeping the internal temperature of the reaction mixture below -65 °C. The resulting mixture was stirred at -78 °C for 30 min, then a cold (-78 °C) solution of 2,4,6- triisopropylbenzenesulfonyl azide (Harmon et l. (1973) J Org. Chem. 38, 11-16) (1.61 g, 5.20 mmol) in THF (10 mL) was added dropwise, keeping the internal temperature of the reaction mixture below -65 °C. The reaction mixture was stirred at -78 °C for 30 min, then AcOH (1.05 mL, 18.4 mmol) was added. The resulting mixture was allowed to warm slowly to ambient temperature and was poured into saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate (50 mL) and the mixture was extracted with EtOAc (2 χ 75 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine, then dried over sodium sulfate, filtered, and concentrated to dryness in vacuo. The crude product was purified by silica gel chromatography, eluting with a gradient of hexanes:EtOAc – 100:0 to 20:80, to give the diastereomeric azide products (3R,5Sf6R & 3S, ;5i?,65)-3-azido-6- methyl-l-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-5-(2f3,5-trifluorophenyl)piperidin-2-one, which eluted second, and the title compound, which eluted first. MS: mlz = 367.1 (M+ 1).

Step C: ferf-Butyl [(3&5^6^ν6^Φν1-2-οχο-1-(2.2,2-ΐπΑηοΓθ£υΐν1 -5-ί2.3,6- trifluorophenyl)piperidin-3-yl|carbamate

To a solution of ( S,5S,6R & 3JR,5if,6S)-3-azido-6-methyl-l-(2,2,2- trifiuoroethyl)-5-(2,3,5-trifluorophenyl)piperidin-2-one (280 mg, 0.764 mmol) and di-tert-butyl dicarbonate (217 mg, 0.994 mmol) in EtOH (5 mL) was added 10% palladium on carbon (25 mg, 0.024 mmol) and the resulting mixture was stirred vigorously under an atmosphere of hydrogen (ca. 1 atm) for 1 h. The reaction mixture was filtered through a pad of Celite® washing with EtOH, and the filtrate was concentrated in vacuo to give a crude solid. The crude product was purified by silica gel chromatography, eluting with a gradient of hexanes:EtOAc – 100:0 to 30:70, to give the racemic title compound. Separation of the enantiomers was achieved by SFC on a ChiralTech IC column, eluting with C02:MeOH:CH CN – 90:6.6:3.3, to give tert- butyl [(3i?,5i?,65)-6-methyl-2-oxo-l-(2J2,2-trifluoroemyl)-5-(2,3J6-tri¾orophenyl)piperidin-3- yl]carbamate as the first major peak, and fert-butyl [(3Sf5S,6R)-6-methyl-2-oxo-l -(2,2,2- trifluoroethyl)-5-(2,3,6-trifiuorophenyl)piperidin-3-yl]carbamate, the title compound, as the second major peak. MS: mlz = 463.2 (M + Na).

Step D: (3&5^6i?)-3-Amino-6-methyi-l-(2,2.2-trifluoroethyl)-5-(2,3,6- trifluorophenyl)piperidin-2-one hydrochloride

A solution of tert-butyl [(35′,55′,6ii)-6-methyl-2-oxo-l-(2J2,2-trifluoroethyl)-5-

(2s3,6-trifluorophenyl)piperidin-3-yl]carbamate (122 mg, 0.277 mmol) in EtOAc (10 mL) was saturated with HCl (g) and aged for 30 min. The resulting mixture was concentrated in vacuo to give the title compound. MS: mlz = 341.1 (M + 1); lH NM (500 MHz, CD3OD) δ 7.33 (qd, 1H, J- 9.3, 4.9 Hz), 7.05 (tdd, 1H, J= 9.8, 3.7, 2.2 Hz), 4.78 (dq, 1H, J= 15.4, 9.3 Hz), 4.22 (dd, 1H, J = 12.2, 6.6 Hz ), 4.06 (ddd, 1H, J- 13.3, 4.5, 2.7 Hz ), 3.97 (m, 1H), 3.73 (dq, 1H, J = 15.4, 8.8 Hz), 2.91 (qt, 1H, J- 12.7, 3.1 Hz), 2.36 (ddd, 1H, J= 12.7, 6.4, 2.0 Hz), 1.22 (d, 3H, J = 6.6 Hz).

EXAMPLE 4

Figure imgf000075_0001

f6SyN-[f3£5£6iO-6-Methyl-2-QXO-i-(2,2,,2-trifl^yl]-2′-oxo-l\2 5J~tetrahydrospiro[cyciopen^

carboxamide dihvdrochloride

To a stirred mixture of (6>$)-2′-οχο-Γ,2′,5,7- tetrahydrospirotcyclopenta[6]pyridine-6,3′-pyrroio[2,3-6]pyridine]-3-carboxylic acid (described in Intermediate 1) (264 mg, 0.939 mmol), (35′,5S’36J?)-3-amino-6-methyl-l-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)- 5-(2f3s6-trifluorophenyl)piperidin-2-one hydrochloride (described in Intermediate 15) (295 mg, 0.782 mmol), HOBT (144 mg, 0.939 mmol), and EDC (180 mg, 0.939 mmol) in DMF (8 mL) was added 7V,N-diisopropylethylamine (0.34 mL, 1.96 mmol), and the resulting mixture was stirred at ambient temperature for 3 h. The reaction mixture was then poured into saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate (30 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (2 χ 40 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over sodium sulfate, and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography, eluting with a gradient of

CH2Cl2:MeOH:NH40H – 100:0:0 to 90:10:0.1, to give the product, which was treated with HC1 in EtOAc at 0 °C to afford the title compound. HRMS: m/z = 604.1783 (M + 1), calculated m/z = 604.1778 for C29H24F6N5O3. iH NMR (500 MHz, CD3OD) δ 9.09 (s, 1H), 8.69 (s, 1H), 8.18 (dd, 1H, J = 5.9, 1.5 Hz), 7.89 (dd5 1H, J= 7.3, 1.5 Hz), 7.30 (m, 1H), 7.23 (dd, 1H, J= 7.3, 5.9 Hz), 7.03 (m, 1H), 4.78 (m, 1H), 4.61 (dd, 1H, J = 11.5, 6.6 Hz), 4.05 (dd, 1H, J= 13.8, 2.8 Hz), 3.96 (m, 1H), 3.84 (d, 1H, J= 18.6 Hz), 3.76 (d, 1H, J = 18.6 Hz), 3.73 (d, 1H, J= 17.3 Hz), (m, 1H), 3.61 (d, 1H, J = 17.3 Hz), 3.22 (m, 1H), 2.38 (m, 1H), 1.34 (d, 3H, J= 6.6 Hz).

POLYMORPHS
US 20160130273
Monohydrate, trihydrate, and carboxamide L-tartaric acid cocrystal;
  • Schemes 1 to 15 described below.
  • [0122]
    Scheme 1 illustrates a route to 3-aminopiperidinone intermediates of type 1.5 which may be used to prepare compounds of the present invention. Aryl acetone 1.1 can be alkylated using the iodoalanine derivative 1.2 under basic conditions to provide keto ester 1.3.
  • [0123]
    Reductive amination followed by cyclization and epimerization provides primarily cis-substituted lactam 1.4 as a racemic mixture. Chiral resolution using normal-phase liquid chromatography, for example, and removal of the Boc protecting group with HCl in EtOAc furnishes 3-aminopiperidinone 1.5 as a hydrochloride salt.
  • [0000]
    Figure US20160130273A1-20160512-C00020
  • [0124]
    An alternative sequence to 3-aminopiperidinone intermediates of type 1.5 is shown in Scheme 2. Reductive amination of keto ester 1.3 with ammonia followed by epimerization provides 2.1 as a mostly cis-substituted racemic mixture. Chiral resolution of the enantiomers provides 2.2. N-Alkylation with LiHMDS as base, for example, and an alkyl halide or epoxide affords 1.4. Removal of the Boc protecting group with HCl then affords 1.5 as a hydrochloride salt.
  • [0000]
    Figure US20160130273A1-20160512-C00021
  • [0125]
    A third method to 3-aminopiperidinone intermediates of type 1.5 is shown in Scheme 3. N-Alkylation of 5-bromo-6-methylpyridin-2(1H)-one (3.1) using cesium carbonate as base and an alkyl halide followed by nitration provides 3.2. Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling with an aryl boronic acid then affords 3.3. Hydrogenation using platinum oxide under acidic conditions and chiral resolution of the mostly cis-substituted racemic product mixture provides 1.5 as a single enantiomer.
  • [0000]
    Figure US20160130273A1-20160512-C00022
  • [0126]
    A synthetic route to 3-aminopiperidinone intermediates of type 4.4 is shown in Scheme 4. Aryl acetonitrile 4.1 can be alkylated using the iodoalanine derivative 1.2 under basic conditions to provide cyano ester 4.2. Reductive cyclization using hydrogen and palladium hydroxide on carbon or Raney nickel, epimerization, and chiral resolution affords cis lactam 4.3 as a single enantiomer. N-Alkylation and removal of the Boc protecting group then provides 4.4 as a hydrochloride salt.
  • [0000]
    Figure US20160130273A1-20160512-C00023
  • [0127]
    Scheme 5 illustrates an alternative route to 3-aminopiperidinone intermediates of type 4.4. The arylacetonitrile 5.1 may be condensed with acrylate 5.2 at elevated temperature to give the 4-cyanobutanoate ester 5.3. Hydrogenation of nitrile 5.3 using Raney nickel catalyst and an ethanolic solution of ammonia affords the corresponding amine product, which typically cyclizes in situ to provide piperidinone 5.4. N-Alkylation of lactam 5.4 may be accomplished by a variety of methods known to those skilled in the art of organic synthesis, the exact choice of conditions being influenced by the nature of the alkylating agent, R1X. Electrophilic azidation of the resulting substituted lactam 5.5 can be accomplished using similar methodology to that described by Evans and coworkers (Evans et al. (1990) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 112, 4011-4030) to provide the azide 5.6 as a mixture of diastereoisomers, which can be separated by chromatography. The desired cis diastereomer of azide 5.6 may be reduced by catalytic hydrogenation in the presence of di-tert-butyl dicarbonate to give the corresponding Boc-protected amine 5.7, and separation of the enantiomers using chiral HPLC or SFC leads to the (3S,5S)-isomer 5.8. Finally, standard deprotection affords the desired 3-aminopiperidinone intermediate 4.4 as a hydrochloride salt.
  • [0000]
    Figure US20160130273A1-20160512-C00024
  • [0128]
    Another approach to 3-aminopiperidinone intermediates of interest, which is particularly useful for preparing 3-amino-6-methyl-5-arylpiperidin-2-ones such as 1.5, is outlined in Scheme 6. The pyridin-2(1H)-one 3.1 may be converted to the N-substituted pyridinone 6.1 by treatment with a suitable electrophile (R1X) under basic conditions. Pyridinone 6.1 can then be subjected to Suzuki-Miyaura coupling with the boronic acid 6.2, and the resulting 5-arylpyridinone 6.3 may be hydrogenated using, for example, platinum(IV) oxide catalyst to afford the corresponding 5-arylpiperidinone 6.4, which is usually obtained as predominantly the cis isomer. Further elaboration of piperidinone 6.4 may be achieved using analogous methodology to that described in Scheme 5. Specifically, electrophilic azidation followed by one-pot reduction and Boc protection leads to carbamate 6.6, and the desired enantiomer may be obtained using chiral chromatography. In some cases, the desired diastereomer of azide 6.5 may be isolated as a racemic mixture of the (3S,5S,6R)- and (3R,5R,6S)-isomers following silica gel chromatography of the crude product, and this mixture may be elaborated as outlined in Scheme 6. In other cases, it may be advantageous to take a mixture of diastereomers of azide 6.5 forward to the corresponding carbamate 6.6. The mixture of carbamate 6.6 diastereomers may be epimerized under basic conditions, such as potassium carbonate in EtOH, to afford a mixture that is significantly enriched in the desired (3S,5S,6R)- and (3R,5R,6S)-isomers, further purification may be employed to obtain the enantiomer of interest as outlined herein.
  • [0000]
    Figure US20160130273A1-20160512-C00025
    Figure US20160130273A1-20160512-C00026
  • [0129]
    A synthetic route to the azaoxindole pyridine acid intermediate 7.4 is shown in Scheme 7. Diazotization of aminopyridine 7.1, whose preparation is described in WO 2008/020902, followed by treatment with potassium iodide in the presence of NaNOprovides iodide 7.2. Palladium-catalyzed carbonylation in methanol then affords ester 7.3, which may be saponified with sodium hydroxide to furnish 7.4.
  • [0000]
    Figure US20160130273A1-20160512-C00027
  • [0130]
    An alternative synthesis of the azaoxindole pyridine acid intermediate 7.4 is shown in Scheme 8. Esterification of diacid 8.1 followed by bromination provides 8.2. Reduction with sodium borohydride then furnishes diol 8.3. Alkylation of the protected azaoxindole 8.4 with the bis-mesylate produced from 8.3 affords the spirocycle 8.5. Palladium-catalyzed carbonylation in methanol followed by chiral resolution gives ester 8.6 as a single enantiomer. Removal of the SEM protecting group under acidic conditions and hydrolysis of the ester using sodium hydroxide then provides 7.4.
  • [0000]
    Figure US20160130273A1-20160512-C00028
  • [0131]
    A synthetic route to diazaoxindole carboxylic acid intermediate 9.7 is shown in Scheme 9. Esterification of acid 9.1 is followed by vinylation under palladium catalysis to afford divinyl pyridine 9.2. Ozonolysis with a borohydride reductive workup then yields diol 9.3. After mesylation and treatment with sodium choride, the resulting dichloro intermediate 9.4 can be alkylated with oxindole 9.5 under basic conditions to give spirocycle 9.6, following chiral resolution of the enantiomers. Dechlorination under buffered hydrogenation conditions and acidic deprotection affords acid 9.7.
  • [0000]
    Figure US20160130273A1-20160512-C00029
  • [0132]
    Useful derivatives of the intermediates described herein may be prepared using well-precedented methodology. One such example is illustrated in Scheme 10, in which the azaoxindole intermediate 7.4 is converted to the corresponding nitrile derivative 10.2, which may be used to prepare compounds of the present invention. Bromination of 7.4 with N-bromosuccinimide in boron trifluoride dihydrate provides the bromo derivative 10.1, which may be converted to the desired nitrile 10.2 using zinc cyanide and a palladium catalyst as shown.
  • [0000]
    Figure US20160130273A1-20160512-C00030
  • [0133]
    A synthetic route to the azaoxindole indane acid intermediate 11.17 is shown in Scheme 11. Esterification of diacid 11.1 followed by hydrogenation using palladium on carbon as a catalyst provides aniline 11.2. Dibenzylation under basic conditions with heat affords 11.3, and reduction of the diester with LiAlHfurnishes diol 11.4. Chlorination with thionyl chloride provides benzyl chloride 11.5. Palladium-catalyzed amination of bromide 11.6 with tert-butylamine gives 11.7. Sequential treatment with n-hexyllithium and methyl chloroformate (2×) affords azaoxindole ester 11.8. Alkylation with the benzylchloride 11.5 under basic conditions in the presence of the cinchonidine-derived catalyst 11.12 (prepared via the alkylation of cinchonidine 11.10 with benzyl bromide 11.11) affords spirocycle 11.13. Deprotection of the azaoxindole using methanesulfonic acid with heat and debenzylation under standard hydrogenation conditions provides aniline 11.14. Diazotization followed by treatment with potassium iodide provides iodide 11.15. Palladium-catalyzed carbonylation in methanol then affords ester 11.16, which may be saponified with sodium hydroxide to furnish 11.17.
  • [0000]
    Figure US20160130273A1-20160512-C00031
  • [0134]
    An alternative synthesis of the azaoxindole pyridine acid intermediate 11.17 is shown in Scheme 12. Alkylation of the azaoxindole ester 11.8 with dibenzyl bromide 12.1 followed by chiral resolution of the enantiomers provides ester 12.2. Sequential deprotection of the azaoxindole using methanesulfonic acid with heat and hydrolysis of the ester provides 11.17.
  • [0000]
    Figure US20160130273A1-20160512-C00032
  • [0135]
    A synthetic route to the diazaoxindole carboxylic acid intermediate 13.4 is shown in Scheme 13. Alkylation of dibromide 12.1 with oxindole 9.5 under basic conditions and subsequent chiral resolution affords spirocycle 13.2. Dechlorination under buffered hydrogenation conditions and ester hydrolysis then affords acid 13.4.
  • [0000]
    Figure US20160130273A1-20160512-C00033
  • [0136]
    Useful derivatives of the intermediates described herein may be prepared using well-precedented methodology. One such example is illustrated in Scheme 14, in which the azaoxindole intermediate 11.17 is converted to the corresponding nitrile derivative 14.2, which may be used to prepare compounds of the present invention. Treatment of 11.17 with bromine in acetic acid provides the bromo derivative 14.1, which may be converted to the desired nitrile 14.2 using zinc cyanide and a palladium catalyst as shown.
  • [0000]
    Figure US20160130273A1-20160512-C00034
  • [0137]
    Scheme 15 illustrates conditions that can be used for the coupling of 3-aminopiperidinone intermediates, such as 15.1, and carboxylic acid intermediate 15.2, to produce, in this instance, amides 15.3. These standard coupling conditions are representative of the methods used to prepare the compounds of the present invention.
  • [0000]
    Figure US20160130273A1-20160512-C00035
  • [0138]
    The previous methods for synthesizing the lactam intermediate suffered from one or more drawbacks: racemic mixture was separated by chiral-HPLC, separation of diasteromixture by crystallization and/or use of costly PtO2. The process of the instant invention utilizes a transaminase induced dynamic kinetic resolution providing high diastereoselectivity at positions C5 and C6. N-mono-trifluoroethylation was discovered and developed. Cis and trans isomer at the alpha position of the amine was successfully controlled by crystallization in the presence of arylaldehyde derivatives. Overall, synthetic steps are shorter, practical and efficient and yield is dramatically improved.
    • Example 1 Isopropyl 2-(tert-butoxycarbonylamino)-3-(methylsulfonyloxy)propanoate (2)

    • [0139]
      Figure US20160130273A1-20160512-C00036
    • [0140]
      To a solution of N-tert-butyl-L-serine isopropyl ester 1 (12 g, 48.5 mmol)* and methanesulfonyl chloride (4.0 ml) in dichloromethane (100 mL), triethylamine (7.2 ml) was added slowly under an ice bath. The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 h, then 1 N HCl (40 mL) was added with stirring. The organic layer was separated, washed with 1 N HCl (40 ml) and brine (40 ml), dried over MgSO4, and concentrated in vacuo to give 2 (14.5 g, 91.9%) as a solid. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 500 MHz): δ 5.45 (s, broad, 1H), 5.13 (m, 1H), 4.62-4.47 (m, 3H), 3.04 (s, 3H), 1.48 (s, 9H), 1.31 (d, J=6.4 Hz, 6H); 13C NMR (CDCl3, 100 MHz): δ 168.0, 135.1, 80.6, 70.5, 69.1, 53.3, 37.4, 28.3, 21.7, 21.6; HRMS m/z calcd. for C12H23NO7S 348.1087 (M+Na). found 348.1097
    • [0000]
      * preparation of 1 was reported in J. Med. Chem., 2010, 53, 6825-6837 6825

Isopropyl 2-(tert-butoxycarbonylamino)-3-iodopropanoate (3)

    • [0141]
      Figure US20160130273A1-20160512-C00037
    • [0142]
      To a solution of 2 (392 g) in acetone (3.14 L), sodium iodide (542 g) was added. The reaction temperature went up to 29° C. from 17° C. The reaction mixture was maintained at room temperature over weekend. The mixture was filtrated and washed with MTBE. The filtrate and washings were combined and concentrated. The residue was treated with MTBE and water with a small amount of sodium thiosulfate. The organic layer was washed with water and concentrated to an oil. The oil was charged slowly into a mixture of water (2 L) and DMF (300 ml) with a small amount of seed at 5° C. The crystals were filtered and dried to give 3 (400 g, 93% yield).

Isopropyl 4-(4-bromophenyl)-2-(tert-butoxycarbonylamino)-5-oxohexanoate (5) and isopropyl 4-phenyl-2-(tert-butoxycarbonylamino)-5-oxohexanoate (6)

    • [0143]
      Figure US20160130273A1-20160512-C00038
    • [0144]
      To a solution of 4 (51.7 g, 243 mmol) in DMF (850 ml) was added 3 (88 g, 246 mmol). The resulting solution was cooled to 5° C. and Cs2CO(240 g) was added in one portion. The suspension was warmed to 15° C. and stirred at this temperature for 2.5 h. Additional Cs2CO(25 g) was charged and the mixture was stirred for additional 8 h or until HPLC analysis indicated the conversion was greater than 95%. The batch was then slowly quenched into a mixture of 2N HCl (850 mL) and MTBE (900 mL) at 5-20° C. Organic layer was separated and aqueous layer extracted with MTBE (400 mL). Combined organic layers were washed with 5% NaHCO3solution (400 mL) twice. The resulting solution containing desired product 5 (90% LC purity) was concentrated under vacuum. The residue was dissolved in isopropanol (1 L). To the solution was added K2CO(25 g), potassium formate (34 g) and 10% Pd/C (20 g). The mixture was warmed up to 60° C. and stirred for 2 h. The mixture was filtered after cooling to room temperature. The HPLC analysis of the filtrate indicated that the solution contained 6 (54.7 g, 95 wt %, 62% yield). The crude product was used directly in the next step without further purification. The compound 6 is a mixture of two pair of diastereomers 6-1 and 6-2, partially separable by flash chromatography on silica gel with ethyl acetate and heptane as a eluant (1:10). 6-1: 1H NMR (CDCl3, 500 MHz): δ 7.35 (m, 2H), 7.30 (m, 1H), 7.20 (m, 2H), 5.17 (br, 1H), 4.95 (m, 1H), 4.76 (br, 1H), 3.73 (m, 1H), 2.70 (br, 1H), 2.07 (s, 1H), 1.45 (s, 9H), 1.29 (d, J=6.6 Hz, 3H), 1.28 (d, J=6.6 Hz, 3H); 6-2: 1H NMR (CDCl3, 500 MHz): δ 5.12 (m, 1H), 4.70 (m, 1H), 3.27 (m, 1H), 2.80 (m 1H), 2.34 (s, 3H), 1.50 (s, 9H), 1.26 (d, J=6.6 Hz, 3H), 1.25 (d, J=6.6 Hz, 3H); HRMS m/z: cacld. for 6-1: C20H29NO386.1938 (M+Na). found 386.1947.

Isopropyl 2-((tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino)acrylate (7)

    • [0145]
      Figure US20160130273A1-20160512-C00039
    • [0146]
      To a solution of 1 (10.05 g, 40.6 mmol) in DMF (100 mL) was added MsCl (4.12 mL, 52.8 mmol) under ice-cooling. Triethylamine (14.16 mL, 102.0 mmol) was then added dropwise via an addition funnel over 30 min, while maintaining the reaction temperature between 0-5° C. When the addition was complete, the cooling bath was removed and the yellow heterogeneous reaction mixture was aged at room temperature under N2for overnight. The reaction mixture was diluted with ice cold water (1 L) and MTBE (1 L). The layers were separated and the aqueous layer was back-extracted with MTBE (500 mL). The organic layers were combined and washed with 1M citric acid (750 mL), water (1 L) and then 10% aqueous NaCl (1 L). The organic solution contained 7 (8.652 g, 93% yield). Solvent was switched to DMSO at <40° C. and use solution directly in next step.

Isopropyl 4-phenyl-2-(tert-butoxycarbonylamino)-5-oxohexanoate (6)

    • [0147]
      Figure US20160130273A1-20160512-C00040
    • [0000]
      Compound 6 was prepared from 7 in DMSO in the presence of 0.5 equiv. Cs2COwith 1.05 equiv. of phenylacetone at room temperature in 79% yield.

tert-Butyl(5S,6R)-6-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenylpiperidin-3-ylcarbamate (8)

    • [0148]
      Figure US20160130273A1-20160512-C00041
    • [0149]
      To a 5 L RBF with overhead stirring, a temperature control, a pH probe and a base addition line, was added sodiumtetraborate decahydrate (26.7 g) and DI water (1.4 L). After all solids were dissolved, isopropylamine (82.8 g) was added. The pH of the buffer was adjusted to pH 10.5 using 6 N HCl. The buffer was cooled to room temperature. Then, pyridoxal-5-phosphate (2.8 g) and SEQ ID NO: 1 (70 g) were added and slowly dissolved at room temperature.
    • [0150]
      An oil (197.9 g, containing 70.7 wt % keto ester 6 (140 g, 0.385 mol) were dissolved in DMSO (1.4 L). The solution was added to the flask over 5-10 min and the reaction was heated to 55° C. The pH was adjusted to 10.5 according to a handheld pH meter and controlled overnight with an automated pH controller using 8 M aqueous isopropylamine. The reaction was aged for 24 h.
    • [0151]
      After confirmation of >95A % conversion by HPLC, the reaction was extracted by first adding a mixture of iPA:IPAc (3:4, 2.8 L) and stirring for 20 min. The phases were separated and the aqueous layer was back extracted with a mixture of iPA:IPAc (2:8, 2.8 L). The phases were separated, the organic layers were combined and washed with DI water (0.5 L). The HPLC based assay yield in the organic layer was 8 (114.6 g) with >60:1 dr at the positions C5 and C6. The ratio of stereoisomers at position C2 was ˜1:1. The extract was concentrated and dissolved in CH2Cl2. The organic solution was washed with water then saturated aqueous NaCl, concentrated and crystallized from MTBE/n-hexane (2:3). The crystal was filtered at room temperature and washed with MTBE/n-hexane (2:3) and dried to afford a cis and trans mixture (˜1:1.2) of the lactam 8 (99.6 g, 80.0%) as crystals.
    • [0000]
      cis: trans (˜1:1.2) mixture but NMR integration was reported as 1:1 (for proton number counts) Mp 87-90.9° C.; 1H NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz): δ 7.40-7.20 (m, 8H, cis and trans), 7.16-7.12 (m, 2H, cis and trans); 6.56 (broad s, 1H, trans), 6.35 (broad s, 1H, cis), 5.57 (broad d, J=4.6 Hz, 1H, cis), 5.34 (broad d, J=5.7 Hz, 1H, trans), 4.33-4.15 (m, 2H, cis and trans), 3.93 (m, 1H, trans), 3.81 (m, 1H, cis), 3.41 (dt, J=11.8, 5.0 Hz, 1H, cis), 3.29 (dt, J=8.0, 4.4 Hz, 1H, trans), 2.74 (m, 1H, cis), 2.57 (m, 1H, trans), 2.23 (ddd, J=13.5, 8.0, 4.4 Hz, trans), 2.07 (q, J=11.8 Hz, 1H, cis), 1.46 (s, 9H, cis), 1.42 (s, 9H, trans), 1.05 (d, J=6.9 Hz, 3H, trans), 0.89 (d, J=6.9 Hz, 3H, cis); 13C NMR (CDCl3, 100 MHz): δ 171.5(cis), 171.4(trans), 156.0(cis or trans), 155.93 (cis or trans), 140.8 (cis), 139.9 (trans), 128.8 (trans), 128.7 (cis), 128.6 (trans), 128.1 (cis), 127.2(trans), 127.1(cis), 79.9(trans), 79.91(cis), 52.4 (trans), 51.8 (broad, cis), 51.7 (cis), 49.0 (broad, trans), 42.1 (cis), 41.9 (trans), 32.4 (broad, trans), 30.1 (cis), 28.5(cis or trans), 28.53(cis or trans), 18.3 (cis), 18.1 (broad, trans); HRMS m/z cacld. for C17H24N2O3327.1679 (M+Na). found 327.1696

tert-Butyl(5S,6R)-6-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-1-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)piperidine-3-ylcarbamate (9) and tert-butyl(5S,6R)-6-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-1-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)piperidine-3-yl(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)carbamate (10)

    • [0152]
      Figure US20160130273A1-20160512-C00042
    • [0153]
      To the solution of 8 (480 g, 1.58 mol) in anhydrous THF (3.8 L) was added lithium tert-amoxide solution in heptane (512 mL, 3.1 M, 1.58 mol) over about 15 min while maintaining the reaction temperature between 15 and 20° C. The resulting solution was then cooled to a temperature between 0 and 2° C. 2,2,2-Trifluoroethyl trifluoromethanesulfonate (368 g, 1.58 mol) was added over 15 min while maintaining the reaction temperature between 0 and 3° C. The solution was agitated at 0° C. for 15 min. DMPU (300 ml) was charged to the mixture through an additional funnel over 30 min while maintaining the reaction temperature between 0 and 3° C. The resulting solution was agitated at 0° C. for 2.5 h. Another 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl trifluoromethanesulfonate (182 g, 0.79 mol) was added to the mixture over 10 min followed by another 3.1 M lithium tert-amoxide solution (104 mL) while maintaining the reaction temperature between 0 and 3° C. The batch was agitated for another 2.5 h at 0° C. The mixture was quenched into a mixture of heptane (4.8 L), water (3.4 L) and 2N HCl solution (280 mL) below 15° C. The phases were separated. The aqueous phase was extracted with heptane (4 L). The combined organic phase was washed with water (2 L). The solution was concentrated to a volume of about 1 L under vacuum between 25 and 50° C. The crude material was passed through a short silica gel plug with heptane/ethyl acetate. The resulting solution was concentrated under vacuum until distillation stopped at a temperature below 50° C., dissolved in IPAc (2 L) and used for the next processing step. The assay yield of 9 for both cis and trans isomers was 85% in the ratio of ˜8 to 1.
    • [0154]
      Analytically pure cis and trans isomers of 9 were isolated by chromatography on silica gel with ethyl acetate and heptane as eluant. 9 (cis): 1H NMR (CDCl3, 500 MHz): δ 7.30 (m, 5H), 5.75 (s, broad, 1H), 4.35 (m, 1H), 4.15 (m, 1H), 3.80 (m, 1H), 3.50 (m, 1H), 3.17 (m, 1H), 2.45 (m, 2H), 1.45 (s, 9H), 0.93 (d, J=6.7 Hz, 3H); 13C NMR (CDCl3, 100 MHz): δ 170.3, 155.9, 140.0, 128.6, 127.6, 127.1, 124.6 (q, J=279 Hz), 79.7, 58.7, 52.2, 45.3 (q, J=33.7 Hz), 41.9, 28.3, 27.4, 13.4; HRMS: m/z calcd for C19H25F3N2O387.1890 (M+H). found: 387.1899. 9 (trans): 1H NMR (CDCl3, 500 MHz): δ 7.40 (m, 2H), 7.30 (m, 3H), 5.55 (br, 1H), 4.53 (br, 1H), 4.45 (m, 1H), 3.78 (m 2H), 3.45 (m, 1H), 3.0 (m, 1H), 2.12 (m, 1H), 1.46 (s, 9H), 1.12 (d, J=7.0 Hz, 3H); 13C NMR (CDCl3, 100 MHz): δ 170.2, 155.9, 139.6, 128.7, 127.9, 127.4, 124.3 (q, J=279 Hz), 80.0, 59.6, 49.1, 46.9 (q, J=34.0 Hz), 42.1, 28.3, 25.3, 13.4; HRMS: m/z calcd for C19H25F3N2O3387.1890 (M+H). found 387.1901.

(3S,5S,6R)-6-Methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-1-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)piperidine-3-aminium 4-nitrobenzoate (11)

    • [0155]
      Figure US20160130273A1-20160512-C00043
    • [0156]
      To a solution of the crude 9 obtained from above experiment (10 g assay, 25.9 mmol) in iPAC (8 ml) was added p-toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate (6.7 g, 35.2 mmol) and the mixture was stirred at 50-60° C. for 3 hr until the reaction was completed (>99%). The solution was cooled to 15-20° C., and washed with 10% aqueous K2COfollowed by water. The aqueous layers were re-extracted with iPAc (5 ml). The organic layers were combined and heated to 55-60° C. 4-Nitrobenzoic acid (3.9 g, 23.2 mmol) was slowly added in 20 min. The mixture was slowly cooled to room temperature. 5-Nitro-2-hydroxylbenzaldehyde (50 mg) was added and the batch was agitated for at least 12 h. The mixture was filtrated and washed with MeCN to give 11 as crystals. Optionally, a slurry in MeCN was carried out for further purification of 11. The isolated yield was 90%. Mp 205-208° C.; 1H NMR (DMSO-d6, 400 MHz): δ 8.21 (dd, J=9.0, 2.1 Hz, 2H), 8.08 (dd, J=9.0, 2.1 Hz, 2H), 7.37 (t, J=7.4 Hz, 2H), 7.28 (t, J=7.4 Hz, 1H), 7.24 (d, J=7.4 Hz, 2H), 4.65 (ddd, J=15.1, 9.7, 7.7 Hz, 1H), 3.72-3.98 (m, 3H), 3.57 (m, 1H), 2.46 (q, J=12.6 Hz, 1H), 2.25 (m, 1H), 0.90 (d, J=6.4 Hz, 3H); 19F NMR (DMSO-d6, 376 MHz): δ −69 (s); 13C NMR (DMSO-d6, 100 MHz): δ 168.7, 167.3, 148.3, 143.8, 140.1, 130.1, 128.6, 127.4, 127.0, 124.9 (q, J=280.9 Hz), 122.8, 58.7, 49.8, 44.5 (q, J=32.7 Hz), 40.6, 25.3, 13.2.

(5S,6R)-3-Amino-6-methyl-5-phenyl-1-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)piperidin-2-one (12)

    • [0157]
      Figure US20160130273A1-20160512-C00044
    • [0158]
      To a mixture of 8 (20.0 g, 65.7 mmol) and Na2S2O(0.52 g, 3.3 mmol) in THF (200 mL) was added tert-BuOLi (6.8 g, 85 mmol) at 16° C. The mixture was stirred at 16° C. for 15 min followed by addition of trifluoroethyl trifluoromethansulfonate (20.6 g, 89 mmol) in one portion. The resulting mixture was stirred for 18 h at 16° C. The reaction mixture was then quenched by addition of toluene (70 mL) followed by 0.5N HCl solution (50 mL). The aqueous layer was separated and extracted with toluene (20 mL). The combined organic layer contained 87% of 9, 6% of 10 and 6% of 8 by HPLC and yield for the desired product 9 was 87%. The organic layer was then stirred with 3N HCl solution (80 ml) and tetrabutylammoniium bromide (0.8 g) for about 3 h until HPLC analysis indicated selective removal of the Boc group in the unreacted 8 was completed. The aqueous layer was removed. The organic layer containing 9 and 10 was then concentrated under vacuum at 60° C. to remove most of solvent. The residue was dissolved in MTBE (60 mL), and 5N HCl solution (65 mL) was added. The diphasic solution was agitated vigorously at 50° C. for about 5 h until the deprotection of 9 was completed while 10 was mainly intact. After addition of heptane (30 mL) to the mixture, the organic layer was separated at 45° C. The aqueous layer was diluted with water (60 mL) and resulting aqueous and washed with heptane (30 mL) at 45° C. The aqueous solution was then mixed with MTBE (100 mL) and basified with 10 N NaOH solution until the pH of the mixture was about 10. The organic layer was separated and the aqueous layer was back-extracted with MTBE (60 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine (60 mL). The resulting organic solution was suitable for next reaction. The solution was contained 12 (15.6 g, 83% from 8) with 97% LC purity as a mixture of two diastereomers (cis and trans) in 4 to 1 ratio.

(3S,5S,6R)-6-Methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-1-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)piperidin-3-aminium 4-methylbenzoate (13)

    • [0159]
      Figure US20160130273A1-20160512-C00045
    • [0160]
      To a suspension of 4-methylbenzoic acid (6.8 g, 49.9 mmol) and 3,5-dichlorosalicylaldehyde (93 mg, 0.49 mmol) in MTBE (40 mL) was added a solution of 12 (13.9 g, 48.5 mmol) in MTBE (about 150 mL) over 1 h at 50° C. The resulting suspension was agitated for about 3 h at 50° C. The solids were collected by filtration after cooling to −5° C. over 1 h. The cake was washed with MTBE (50 mL). The solids were dried in a vacuum oven to give 13 (17.6 g, 86%) as crystals with 99.5% LC purity and 99.6% de. 1H NMR (DMSO-d6, 400 MHz): δ 7.85 (d, J=8.1 Hz, 2H), 7.40 (m, 2H), 7.25 (m, 5H), 6.0 (br, 3H), 4.65 (m, 1H), 3.65-3.80 (m, 2H), 3.45-3.65 (m, 2H), 2.35 (s, 3H), 2.30 (m, 1H), 2.15 (m, 1H), 0.88 (d, J=6.5 Hz, 3H); 13C NMR (DMSO-d6, 100 MHz): δ 172.4, 168.5, 142.1, 141.1, 130.9, 129.7, 129.2, 129.0, 128.0, 125.5 (q, J=279 Hz), 59.1, 51.6, 45.1 (q, J=32 Hz), 41.6, 28.0, 21.5, 13.9.

(S)—N-((3S,5S,6R)-6-Methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-1-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)piperidine-3-yl)-2′-oxo-1′,2′,5,7-tetrahydrospiro[cyclopenta[b]pyridine-6,3′-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine]-3-carboxamide trihydrate (15)

    • [0161]
      Figure US20160130273A1-20160512-C00046
    • [0162]
      To a suspension of 11 (465 g, 96% wt, 0.99 mol) in iPAc (4.6 L) was added 5% aqueous K3PO(4.6 L). The mixture was stirred for 5 min. The organic layer was separated and washed with 5% aqueous K3PO(4.6 L) twice and concentrated in vacuo and dissolved in acetonitrile (1.8 L).
    • [0163]
      To another flask was added 14 (303 g, 91.4 wt %), acetonitrile (1.8 L) and water (1.8 L) followed by 10 N NaOH (99 mL). The resulting solution was stirred for 5 min at room temperature and the chiral amine solution made above was charged to the mixture and the container was rinsed with acetonitrile (900 mL). HOBT hydrate (164 g) was charged followed by EDC hydrochloride (283 g). The mixture was agitated at room temperature for 2.5 h. To the mixture was added iPAc (4.6 L) and organic layer was separated, washed with 5% aqueous NaHCO(2.3 L) followed by a mixture of 15% aqueous citric acid (3.2 L) and saturated aqueous NaCl (1.2 L). The resulting organic layer was finally washed with 5% aqueous NaHCO(2.3 L). The organic solution was concentrated below 50° C. and dissolved in methanol (2.3 L). The solution was slowly added to a mixture of water (6 L) and methanol (600 mL) with ˜2 g of seed crystal. And the resulting suspension was stirred overnight at room temperature. Crystals were filtered, rinsed with water/methanol (4 L, 10:1), and dried under nitrogen flow at room temperature to provide 15 (576 g, 97% yield) as trihydrate.
    • [0164]
      1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3): δ 10.15 (br s, 1H), 8.91 (br s, 1H), 8.21 (d, J=6.0 Hz, 1H), 8.16 (dd, J=5.3, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 8.01 (br s, 1H), 7.39-7.33 (m, 2H), 7.31-7.25 (m, 1H), 7.22-7.20 (m, 2H), 7.17 (dd, J=7.4, 1.6 Hz, 1H), 6.88 (dd, J=7.4, 5.3 Hz, 1H), 4.94 (dq, J=9.3, 7.6 Hz, 1H), 4.45-4.37 (m, 1H), 3.94-3.87 (m, 1H), 3.72 (d, J=17.2 Hz, 1H), 3.63-3.56 (m, 2H), 3.38-3.26 (m, 1H), 3.24 (d, J=17.3 Hz, 1H), 3.13 (d, J=16.5 Hz, 1H), 2.78 (q, J=12.5 Hz, 1H), 2.62-2.56 (m, 1H), 1.11 (d, J=6.5 Hz, 3H); 13C NMR (126 MHz, CD3CN): δ 181.42, 170.63, 166.73, 166.63, 156.90, 148.55, 148.08, 141.74, 135.77, 132.08, 131.09, 130.08, 129.66, 129.56, 128.78, 128.07, 126.25 (q, J=280.1 Hz), 119.41, 60.14, 53.07, 52.00, 46.41 (q, J=33.3 Hz), 45.18, 42.80, 41.72, 27.79, 13.46; HRMS m/z: calcd for C29H26F3N5O550.2061 (M+H). found 550.2059.

Alternative Procedure for 15

    • [0165]
      Figure US20160130273A1-20160512-C00047
    • [0166]
      To a suspension of 13 (10 g, 98 wt %, 23.2 mmol) in MTBE (70 mL) was added 0.6 N HCl (42 mL). The organic layer was separated and extracted with another 0.6 N HCl (8 mL). The combined aqueous solution was washed with MTBE (10 mL×3). To the resulting aqueous solution was added acetonitrile (35 mL) and 14 (6.66 g, 99 wt %). To the resulting suspension was neutralized with 29% NaOH solution to pH 6. HOPO (0.26 g) was added followed by EDC hydrochloride (5.34 g). The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 6-12 h until the conversion was complete (>99%). Ethanol (30 ml) was added and the mixture was heated to 35° C. The resulting solution was added over 2 h to another three neck flask containing ethanol (10 mL), water (30 mL) and 15 seeds (0.4 g). Simultaneously, water (70 mL) was also added to the mixture. The suspension was then cooled to 5° C. over 30 min and filtered. The cake was washed with a mixture of ethanol/water (1:3, 40 mL). The cake was dried in a vacuum oven at 40° C. to give 15 trihydrate (13.7 g, 95%) as crystals.

Example 2 N-Methoxy-N-methyl-2-(2,3,6-trifluorophenyl)acetamide (17)

    • [0167]
      Figure US20160130273A1-20160512-C00048
    • [0168]
      To a solution of DMF (58.1 mL, 750 mmol) in iPAc (951 mL) was added POCl(55.9 mL, 600 mmol) under ice-cooling. After aged for 1 h under ice-bath, acid 16 (95 g, 500 mmol) was added under ice-cooling. The solution was stirred under ice-cooling for 30 min. The solution was added over 30 min into a solution of K2CO(254 g, 1.835 mol) and NHMe(OMe)HCl (73.2 g, 750 mmol) in water (951 mL) below 8° C. After aged for 30 min below 8° C., the organic layer was separated, washed with water (500 mL) twice and sat. NaCl aq (100 mL) once, and concentrated in vacuo to afford 17 as an oil (117.9 g, 97.7 wt %, 99% yield). 1H NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz); δ 7.05 (m, 1H), 6.82 (m, 1H), 3.86 (s, 2H), 3.76 (s, 3H), 3.22 (s, 3H); 19F NMR (CDCl3, 376.6 MHz); δ −120.4 (dd, J=15.1, 2.7 Hz), −137.9 (dd, J=20.8, 2.7 Hz), −143.5 (dd, J=20.8, 15.1 Hz); 13C NMR (CDCl3, 100 MHz); δ 169.4, 156.9 (ddd, J=244, 6.2, 2.7 Hz), 149.3 (ddd, J=249, 14.4, 8.4 Hz), 147.1 (ddd, J=244, 13.1, 3.5 Hz), 115.5 (ddd, J=19.4, 9.9, 1.5 Hz), 133.4 (dd, J=22.3, 16.4 Hz), 110.2 (ddd, J=24.8, 6.7, 4.1 Hz), 32.4 (broad), 26.6 (m); HRMS m/z calcd for C10H10F3NO234.0736 (M+H). found 234.0746.

1-(2,3,6-Trifluorophenyl)propan-2-one (18)

    • [0169]
      Figure US20160130273A1-20160512-C00049
    • [0170]
      A mixture of CeCl(438 g, 1779 mmol) and THF (12 L) was heated at 40° C. for about 2 h then cooled to 5° C. Methylmagensium chloride in THF (3 M, 3.4 L) was charged at 5-9° C. and then it was warmed up to 16° C. and held for 1 h. The suspension was re-cooled to −10 to −15° C. A solution of 17 (1.19 kg) in THF (2.4 L) was charged into the suspension over 15 min. After confirmation of completion of the reaction, the reaction mixture was transferred to a cold solution of hydrochloric acid (2 N, 8.4 L) and MTBE (5 L) in 5-10° C. The aqueous phase was separated and the organic layer was washed with aqueous 5% K2CO(6 L) and then 10% aqueous NaCl (5 L). The organic layer was dried over Na2SO4, concentrated to give crude 18 (917 g, >99 wt %) in 95% yield. The crude 18 was used in the next step without further purification. Analytically pure 18 was obtained by silica gel column.
    • [0171]
      1H NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz); δ 7.07 (m, 1H), 6.84 (m, 1H), 3.82 (s, 2H), 2.28 (s, 3H); 19F NMR (CDCl3, 376.6 MHz); δ −120.3 (dd, J=15.3, 2.5 Hz), −137.8 (dd, J=21.2, 2.5 Hz), −143.0 (dd, J=20.2, 15.3 Hz); 13C NMR (CDCl3, 100 MHz); δ 202.2, 156.5 (ddd, J=244, 6.3, 2.9 Hz), 148.9 (ddd, J=249, 14.4, 8.6 Hz), 147.0 (ddd, J=244, 13.1, 3.5 Hz), 115.7 (ddd, J=19.4, 10.5, 1.2 Hz), 112.8 (dd, J=22.7, 17.0 Hz), 110.3 (ddd, J=24.8, 6.7, 4.1 Hz), 37.2 (d, J=1.2 Hz), 29.3.

Isopropyl 2-((tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino)-5-oxo-4-(2,3,6-trifluorophenyl)hexanoate (19)

    • [0172]
      Figure US20160130273A1-20160512-C00050
    • [0173]
      To a solution of 18 (195 g, 1.03 mol) in MTBE (1.8 L) was added zinc bromide (67 g, 0.30 mol) followed by 2 (390 g, 1.2 mol). tert-BuOLi (290 g, 3.6 mol) was then added in several portions while maintaining the reaction temperature below 40° C. The resulting mixture was stirred at 35° C. for 24 h and quenched into a mixture of 2 N HCl (5.6 L) and heptane (5 L) at 0° C. The organic layer was separated and washed with 5% aqueous NaHCO(5 L) twice. The resulting organic solution was concentrated under vacuum. The residue was dissolved in heptane (2 L) and the solution was concentrated again under vacuum. The resulting oil was dissolved in DMSO (2.5 L) and the solution was used in the next step without further purification. HPLC analysis indicated that the solution contained the desired product 19 (290 g, 67% yield) as the major component along with 5% of starting material 18. The analytically pure product 19 as one pair of diastereomers was isolated by chromatography on silica gel with ethyl acetate and heptane mixture as an eluant. HRMS: m/z calcd for C20H26F3NO418.1836 (M+H). found 418.1849.

tert-Butyl((5S,6R)-6-methyl-2-oxo-5-(2,3,6-trifluorophenyl)piperidin-3-yl)carbamate (20)

    • [0174]
      Figure US20160130273A1-20160512-C00051
    • [0175]
      To a 0.5 L cylindrical Sixfors reactor with an overhead stirring, a temperature control, a pH probe and a base addition line, was added sodiumtetraborate decahydrate (3.12 g) and DI water (163 mL). After all solids were dissolved, isopropylamine (9.63 g) was added. The pH of the buffer was adjusted to pH 10.5 using 6 N HCl. The buffer was cooled to room temperature. Then, pyridoxal-5-phosphate (0.33 g) and SEQ ID NO: 1 (8.15 g) were added and slowly dissolved at room temperature.
    • [0176]
      Crude keto ester 19 (23.6 g, 69 wt %, 16.3 g assay, 39 mmol) was dissolved in DMSO (163 mL) and the solution was added to the reactor over 5-10 min. Then the reaction was heated to 55° C. The pH was adjusted to 10.5 according to a handheld pH meter and controlled overnight with an automated pH controller using 8 M aqueous isopropylamine. The reaction was aged for 27.5 hours.
    • [0177]
      After confirmation of >95A % conversion by HPLC, the reaction was extracted by first adding a mixture of iPA: iPAc (3:4, 350 mL) and stirring for 20 min. The phases were separated and the aqueous layer was back extracted with a mixture of iPA: iPAc (2:8, 350 mL). The phases were separated. The organic layers were combined and washed with DI water (90 mL). The HPLC based assay yield in the organic layer was 20 (9.86 g, 70.5% assay yield) with >60:1 dr at the positions C5 and C6.

tert-Butyl((3S,5S,6R)-6-methyl-2-oxo-5-(2,3,6-trifluorophenyl)piperidin-3-yl)carbamate (21)

    • [0178]
      Figure US20160130273A1-20160512-C00052
    • [0179]
      A solution of crude cis and trans mixture 20 in a mixture of iPAc and iPA (1.83 wt %, 9.9 kg; 181 g assay as a mixture) was concentrated in vacuo and dissolved in 2-Me-THF (3.6 L). To the solution was added tert-BuOK (66.6 g, 0.594 mol) at room temperature. The suspension was stirred at room temperature for 2 h. The mixture was poured into water (3.5 L) and the organic layer was separated, washed with 15 wt % of aqueous NaCl (3.5 L), dried over Na2SO4, and concentrated to dryness. The residue was suspended with iPAc (275 mL) and heptane (900 mL) at 60° C. The suspension was slowly cooled down to 1° C. The solid was filtered and rinsed with iPAc and heptane (1:3), dried to afford 21 (166 g, 93 wt %; 85%) as crystals. Mp 176-179° C.; 1H NMR (CDCl3, 500 MHz): δ 7.06 (m, 1H), 6.84 (m, 1H), 5.83 (broad s, 1H), 5.58 (broad s, 1H), 4.22 (m, 1H), 3.88-3.79 (m, 2H), 2.77 (m, 1H), 2.25 (m, 1H), 1.46 (s, 9H), 1.08 (d, J=6.4 Hz, 3H); 19F NMR (CDCl3, 376 MHz): δ −117 (d, J=14 Hz), −135 (d, J=20 Hz), −142 (dd, J=20, 14 Hz); 13C NMR (CDCl3, 100 MHz): δ 171.1, 156.6 (ddd, J=245, 6.4, 2.8 Hz), 155.8, 149.3 (ddd, J=248, 14.4, 8.8 Hz), 147.4 (ddd, J=245, 14.2, 3.8 Hz), 118.0 (dd, J=19.3, 14.5 Hz), 115.9 (dd, J=19.2, 10.4 Hz), 111.0 (ddd, J=26.4, 6.0, 4.3 Hz), 79.8, 51.4, 49.5, 34.1, 29.3, 28.3, 18.0; HRMS: m/z calcd for C17H21F3N2O381.1396 (M+Na). found 381.1410.

tert-Butyl((5S,6R)-6-methyl-2-oxo-1-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-5-(2,3,6-trifluorophenyl)piperidin-3-yl)carbamate (22)

    • [0180]
      Figure US20160130273A1-20160512-C00053
    • [0181]
      To a solution of 21 (10 g, 87% purity, 24.3 mmol) in THF (70 ml) was added tert-BuOLi (2.5 g, 31.2 mmol) at 5° C. in one portion. The solution was cooled to between 0 and 5° C. and trifluoroethyl trifluoromethanesulfonate (10.0 g, 43 mmol) was added in one portion. DMPU (7 mL) was added slowly over 15 min while maintaining the the reaction temperature below 5° C. After the mixture was stirred at 0° C. for 3 h, additional tert-BuOLi (0.9 g, 11.2 mmol) was added. The mixture was aged for an additional 90 min. The mixture was quenched with 0.2 N HCl (70 ml), followed by addition of heptane (80 ml). The organic layer was separated and aqueous layer extracted with heptane (30 ml). The combined organic layers were washed with 15% aqueous citric acid (50 mL) and 5% aqueous NaHCO3(50 mL). The solution was concentrated under vacuum at 40° C. and the resulting oil was dissolved in iPAc (30 mL). The solution was used directly in the next step without further purification. The HPLC analysis indicated that the solution contained 22 (9.8 g, 92% as cis and trans mixture in a ratio of 6.5 to 1) along with 4% of starting material 21 and 8% of a N,N′-alkylated compound. Analytically pure 22 (cis isomer) was isolated by chromatography on silica gel with ethyl acetate and heptane as an eluant. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 500 MHz): δ 7.15 (m, 1H), 6.85 (m, 1H), 5.45 (broad, s, 1H), 4.90 (m, H), 4.20 (m, 1H), 3.92 (m, 2H), 3.28 (m, 1H), 2.70 (m, 2H), 1.48 (s, 9H), 1.20 (d, J=5.9 Hz, 3H); 13C NMR (CDCl3, 100 MHz): δ 170.2, 156.9 (ddd, J=245, 6.3, 2.7 Hz), 156.0, 149.6 (ddd, J=251, 14.8, 8.8 Hz), 147.6 (ddd, J=246, 13.9, 3.6 Hz), 124.5 (q, J=281 Hz), 117.6 (dd, J=19.2, 3.7 Hz), 116.4 (dd, J=19.1, 10.4 Hz), 111.4 (ddd, J=25.8, 6.4, 4.1 Hz), 56.6, 52.8, 45.3 (q, J=34.2 Hz), 35.2, 28.7, 28.3 (br t, J=4 Hz), 14.6; HRMS: m/z calcd for C19H22F6N2O(M+H): 441.1607. found 441.1617.

(3S,5S,6R)-6-Methyl-2-oxo-1-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-5-(2,3,6-trifluorophenyl)piperidin-3-aminium (S)-2-acetamido-3-phenylpropanoate (23)

    • [0182]
      Figure US20160130273A1-20160512-C00054
    • [0183]
      iPAc solution of 22 (529 g assayed, 1.2 mol), obtained from previous step, was diluted to 6 L with iPAc, p-toluenesulfonic acid monohydride (343 g, 1.8 mol) was added and the solution was heated to 55° C. After 4 h, the reaction completed (>99% conversion). Aqueous K2CO(530 g in 3 L of water) was charged into the solution after cooled to 15-25° C. The aqueous layer was separated and was back-extracted with iPAc (2 L). The iPAc solutions were combined and the total volume was adjusted to 10 L by adding iPAc. The solution was heated to 50-60° C. About 20 g of N-acetyl L-phenylalanine was added and the solution was agitated for 15 min or until solids precipitated out. The remaining N-acetyl L-phenylalanine (total 250 g, 1.2 mol) was charged slowly and 2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzaldehyde (2 g) was charged. The suspension was agitated for 12 h at 20° C. and then cooled to 0° C. for 3 h. The suspension was filtrated, washed with iPAc three times and dried to give 23 (583 g, 89% yield) as crystals. Mp 188-190° C.; 1H NMR (DMSO-d6, 400 MHz): δ 7.96 (d, J=8.0 Hz, 1H), 7.48 (m, 1H), 7.15-7.25 (m, 6H), 4.65 (ddd, J=19.4, 15.3, 9.6 Hz, 1H), 4.33 (ddd, J=8.7, 8.4, 4.9 Hz, 1H), 3.70-3.87 (m, 3H), 3.57 (dd, J=11.5, 6.6 Hz, 1H), 3.04 (dd, J=13.7, 4.9 Hz, 1H), 2.82 (dd, J=13.7, 8.9 Hz, 1H), 2.59 (m, 1H), 2.24 (m, 1H), 2.95 (s, 3H), 1.10 (d, J=6.4 Hz, 1H); 19F NMR (DMSO-d6, 376 MHz): δ −69 (s), −118 (d, J=15 Hz), −137 (d, J=21 Hz), −142 (dd, J=21, 15 Hz); 13C NMR (DMSO-d6, 100 MHz): δ 173.6, 171.1, 168.7, 156.3 (ddd, J=243.5, 7.0, 3.1 Hz), 148.7 (ddd, J=249, 14.4, 9.1 Hz), 146.8 (ddd, J=245, 13.7, 3.1 Hz), 138.5, 129.2, 128.0, 126.1, 124.9 (q, J=280.9 Hz), 117.4.0 (dd, J=19.3, 13.8 Hz), 116.7 (dd, J=19.3, 10.6 Hz), 111.8 (ddd, J=26.0, 6.7, 3.6 Hz), 56.6, 54.3, 51.2, 44.3 (q, J=32.5 Hz), 37.2, 34.8, 26.9 (br t, J=4 Hz), 22.5, 14.1.

(3S,5S,6R)-6-methyl-2-oxo-1-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-5-(2,3,6-trifluorophenyl)piperidin-3-aminium 2,2-diphenylacetate (25)

    • [0184]
      Figure US20160130273A1-20160512-C00055
    • [0185]
      To a mixture of crude material containing (5S,6R)-3-amino-6-methyl-1-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-5-(2,3,6-trifluorophenyl)piperidin-2-one (24, 2.00 g, 5.88 mmol), prepared according to the same method as the previous example, and 3,5-dichloro-2-hydroxybenzaldehyde (0.011 g, 0.059 mmol) in isopropyl acetate (15.0 ml) at 55-60° C. under nitrogen was slowly added a solution of diphenylacetic acid (1.26 g, 5.88 mmol) in THF (10.0 ml) over 2 h. Upon completion of acid addition, a thick salt suspension was agitated at 55-60° C. for another 18 h and then was allowed to cool to ambient temperature. The salt was filtered and washed with isopropyl acetate. After drying at 60° C. in a vacuum oven with nitrogen purge for 8 hours, 25 (2.97 g, 91.4%) was obtained as crystals. 1H NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 7.48 (qd, J=9.4, 4.9 Hz, 1H), 7.32 (d, J=7.7 Hz, 4H), 7.25-7.26 (m, 4H), 7.19-7.17 (m, 3H), 6.79 (br, 3H), 4.95 (s, 1H), 4.67 (dq, J=15.3, 9.7 Hz, 1H), 3.81-3.79 (m, 3H), 3.62 (dd, J=11.6, 6.5 Hz, 1H), 2.66-2.62 (m, 1H), 2.25 (dd, J=12.9, 6.4 Hz, 1H), 1.11 (d, J=6.5 Hz, 3H); 13C NMR (100 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 174.4, 171.8, 156.9 (ddd, J=244, 7.0, 2.5 Hz), 149.1 (ddd, J=249, 14.4, 8.5 Hz), 147.2 (ddd, J=246, 13.9, 3.2 Hz), 141.4, 129.0, 128.5, 126.7, 125.5 (q, J=281 Hz), 118.0 (dd, J=19.8, 13.8 Hz), 117.1 (dd, J=19.2, 10.6 Hz), 112.3 (ddd, J=26.1, 6.7, 3.3 Hz), 58.5, 57.1, 51.7, 44.8 (q, J=32.7 Hz), 35.3, 27.5 (br t, J=4.6 Hz), 14.5.

(3S,5S,6R)-6-methyl-2-oxo-1-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-5-(2,3,6-trifluorophenyl)piperidin-3-aminium 1H-indole-2-carboxylate (26)

    • [0186]
      Figure US20160130273A1-20160512-C00056
    • [0187]
      To a mixture of crude material containing 24 (2.00 g, 5.88 mmol) and 3,5-dichloro-2-hydroxybenzaldehyde (0.011 g, 0.059 mmol) in isopropyl acetate (15.0 ml) at 55-60° C. under nitrogen was slowly added a solution of 1H-indole-2-carboxylic acid (0.96 g, 5.88 mmol) in THF (10.0 ml) over 2 hours. Upon completion of acid addition, a thick salt suspension was agitated at 55-60° C. for another 18 h and then was allowed to cool to ambient temperature. The salt was filtered and washed with isopropyl acetate. After drying at 60° C. in a vacuum oven with nitrogen purge for 8 h, 26 (2.33 g, 79.0%) was isolated as crystals. 1H NMR (500 MHz, DMSO): δ 11.40 (s, 1H), 7.56 (d, J=8.0 Hz, 1H), 7.45 (br, 3H), 7.47 (ddd, J=14.8, 10.1, 8.3 Hz, 1H), 7.41-7.40 (m, 1H), 7.16-7.14 (m, 2H), 6.98-6.97 (m, 1H), 6.87 (s, 1H), 4.69 (dq, J=15.3, 9.6 Hz, 1H), 3.84-3.81 (m, 4H), 2.76-2.71 (m, 1H), 2.34 (dd, J=12.7, 6.3 Hz, 1H), 1.13 (d, J=6.5 Hz, 3H); 13C NMR (100 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 170.9, 164.8, 156.8 (ddd, J=244, 7.0, 2.5 Hz), 149.1 (ddd, J=249, 14.4, 8.5 Hz), 147.2 (ddd, J=246, 13.9, 3.2 Hz), 137.0, 133.5, 127.8, 125.4 (q, J=282 Hz), 123.3, 121.8, 119.7, 117.8 (dd, J=19.8, 13.8 Hz), 117.2 (dd, J=19.2, 10.6 Hz), 112.7, 112.3 (ddd, J=26.1, 6.7, 3.3 Hz), 105.1, 57.1, 51.3, 44.8 (q, J=32.7 Hz), 35.2, 26.9, 14.5.

N-((3S,5S,6R)-6-Methyl-2-oxo-1-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-5-(2,3,6-trifluorophenyl)piperidin-3-yl)-2′-oxo-1′,2′,5,7-tetrahydrospiro[cyclopenta[b]pyridine-6,3′-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine]-3-carboxamide monohydrate (28)

    • [0188]
      Figure US20160130273A1-20160512-C00057
    • [0189]
      To a suspension of 23 (5.0 g, 9.1 mmol) in isopropyl acetate (50 mL) was added 5% aqueous K3PO(50 mL). The mixture was stirred for 5 min. The organic layer was separated and washed with aqueous K3PO(50 mL). Solvent removed under vacuum and resulting oil (27) was dissolved in acetonitrile (20 mL). To another flask was added 14 (2.57 g), acetonitrile (40 mL), water (20 mL) and NaOH solution (10N, 0.9 mL). The solution of 27 in acetonitrile was charged to the mixture followed by HOBT monohydrate (1.5 g) and EDC hydrochloride (2.6 g). The mixture was agitated at room temperature for 4 h and HPLC analysis indicated a complete conversion. The reaction mixture was stirred with isopropyl acetate (60 mL) and the aqueous layer was removed. The organic layer was washed with 5% aqueous NaHCO(40 mL) followed by a mixture of 15% aqueous citric acid (40 mL) and saturated aqueous NaCl (10 mL). The resulting organic layer was finally washed with 5% aqueous NaHCO(40 mL). The solvent was removed under vacuum and the residue was dissolved in methanol (20 mL). The methanol solution was slowly charged into a mixture of water (50 mL) and methanol (5 mL) over 30 min with good agitation, followed by addition of water (50 mL) over 30 min. The suspension was stirred over night at room temperature. The mixture was filtered and crystals were dried in a vacuum oven for 5 h at 50° C. to give 28 (5.4 g, 95%) as monohydrate. 1H NMR (500 MHz, CD3OD): δ 8.88 (t, J=1.2 Hz, 1H), 8.15 (t, J=1.2 Hz, 1H), 8.09 (dd, J=5.3, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 7.36 (dd, J=7.4, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 7.28 (qd, J=9.3, 4.7 Hz, 1H), 7.01 (tdd, J=9.7, 3.6, 1.9 Hz, 1H), 6.96 (dd, J=7.4, 5.3 Hz, 1H), 4.80 (dq, J=15.2, 9.2 Hz, 1H), 4.56 (dd, J=11.7, 6.8 Hz, 1H), 4.03 (ddd, J=13.6, 4.2, 2.6 Hz, 1H), 3.97-3.90 (m, 1H), 3.68 (dq, J=15.3, 8.8 Hz, 1H), 3.59 (t, J=16.2 Hz, 2H), 3.35 (d, J=4.4 Hz, 1H), 3.32 (d, J=3.5 Hz, 1H), 3.21 (qt, J=12.7, 3.1 Hz, 1H), 2.38-2.32 (m, 1H), 1.34 (d, J=6.5 Hz, 3H); 13C NMR (126 MHz, CD3OD): δ 182.79, 171.48, 168.03, 166.71, 159.37 (ddd, J=244.1, 6.5, 2.1 Hz), 157.43, 150.88 (ddd, J=249.4, 14.4, 8.7 Hz), 148.96 (ddd, J=243.8, 13.7, 3.1 Hz), 148.67, 148.15, 136.84, 133.43, 131.63, 130.83, 130.48, 126.41 (q, J=280.0 Hz), 119.85, 118.89 (dd, J=19.0, 13.5 Hz), 117.77 (dd, J=19.8, 10.8 Hz), 112.80 (ddd, J=26.5, 6.5, 4.2 Hz), 58.86, 53.67, 52.87, 46.56 (q, J=33.3 Hz), 45.18, 42.06, 36.95, 27.76 (t, J=4.8 Hz), 14.11.

Example 3 3-Hydroxy-3-(2,3,6-trifluorophenyl)butan-2-one (30)

    • [0190]
      Figure US20160130273A1-20160512-C00058
    • [0191]
      To a solution of 1,2,4-trifluorobenzene (29, 49.00 g, 371 mmol) and diisopropylamine (4.23 mL, 29.7 mmol) in THF (750 mL) at −70° C. was slowly added 2.5 M of n-BuLi (156.0 ml, 390 mmol) to maintain temperature between −45 to −40° C. The batch was agitated for 30 min. To another flask, a solution of 2,3-butadione (37.7 mL, 427 mmol) in THF (150 mL) was prepared and cooled to −70° C. The previously prepared lithium trifluorobenzene solution was transferred to the second flask between −70 to −45° C. The reaction was agitated for 1 hour at −55 to −45 and then quenched by adding AcOH (25.7 mL, 445 mmol) and then water (150 mL). After warmed to room temperature, the aqueous layer was separated. The aqueous solution was extracted with MTBE (200 mL×1) and the combined organic layers were washed with brine (100 mL×1). The organic layer was concentrated at 25-35° C. The residue was flashed with heptane (100 mL×1) and concentrated to dryness and give 30 (87.94 g, 90.2 wt %, 98% yield, and >99% HPLC purity) as an oil. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz): δ 7.16 (m, 1H), 6.86 (m, 1H), 6.88 (s, 1H), 4.59 (s, 1H), 2.22 (s, 3H), 1.84 (dd, J=4.0, 2.8 Hz, 3H); 19F NMR (CDCl3, 376.6 MHz): δ −114.6 (dd, J=14.5, 1.4 Hz), −133.6 (d, J=19.9 Hz), −141.3 (dd, J=19.9, 14.5 Hz); 13C NMR (CDCl3, 100 MHz): δ 207.4, 156.4 (ddd, J=247, 6.2, 2.9 Hz), 149.4 (ddd, J=253, 15.0, 9.0 Hz), 147.5 (ddd, J=245, 14.4, 3.3 Hz), 119.4 (dd, J=17.3, 11.7 Hz), 117.0 (ddd, J=19.3, 11.1, 1.4 Hz), 116.6 (ddd, J=26.6, 6.5, 4.1 Hz), 77.9, 25.0 (dd, J=6.5, 4.9 Hz), 23.3.

3-(2,3,6-Trifluorophenyl)but-3-en-2-one (31)

    • [0192]
      Figure US20160130273A1-20160512-C00059
    • [0193]
      The hydroxy ketone 30 (7.69 g, 35.2 mmol) and 95% H2SO(26.2 mL, 492.8 mmol) were pumped at 2.3 and 9.2 mL/min respectively into the flow reactor. The temperature on mixing was controlled at 22-25° C. by placing the reactor in a water bath (21° C.). The effluent was quenched into a a mixture of cold water (106 g) and heptane/IPAc (1:1, 92 mL) in a jacketed reactor cooled at 0° C.; the internal temperature of the quench solution was ˜7° C. during the reaction. The layers in the quench reactor were separated and the organic layer was washed with 10% NaH2PO4/Na2HPO(1:1, 50 mL). The pH of the final wash was 5-6. Solka flock (3.85 g, 50 wt %) was added to the organic solution. The resulting slurry was concentrated and solvent-switched to heptanes at 25-30° C. The mixture was filtered, rinsed with heptanes (50 mL×1). The combined filtrates were concentrated under vacuum to give 31 as an light yellow oil (6.86 g, 90 wt %, 87% yield), which solidified in a freezer. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz): δ 7.13 (m, 1H), 6.86 (m, 1H), 6.60 (s, 1H), 6.15 (s, 1H), 2.46 (s, 3H); 19F NMR (CDCl3, 376.6 MHz): δ −117.7 (dd, J=15.0, 1.4 Hz), −135.4 (dd, J=21.4, 1.4 Hz), −42.7 (dd, J=21.4, 15.0 Hz); 13C NMR (CDCl3, 100 MHz): δ 196.3, 155.3 (ddd, J=245, 5.1, 2.9 Hz), 147.9 (ddd, J=250, 14.5, 7.8 Hz), 147.0 (ddd, J=245, 13.4, 3.7 Hz), 137.5 (d, J=1.3 Hz), 131.7, 116.6 (ddd, J=19.9, 9.7, 1.2 Hz), 116.2 (dd, J=22.6, 16.5 Hz), 110.6 (ddd, J=24.8, 6.5, 4.1 Hz), 25.8.

Alternative Synthesis of 3-(2,3,6-trifluorophenyl)but-3-en-2-one (31)

    • [0194]
      Figure US20160130273A1-20160512-C00060
    • [0195]
      A solution of 18 (3.5 g, 18.6 mmol), acetic acid (0.34 ml, 5.58 mmol), piperidine (0.37 ml, 3.72 mmol), formaldehyde (6.0 g, 37% aqueous solution) in MeCN (20 mL) was heated over weekend. The conversion was about 60%. Reaction was heated to 70° C. overnight. The mixture was concentrated and extracted with MTBE and HCl (0.5N). The organic layer was washed with aqueous K2CO(0.5N) and water, in turns. The organic layer was concentrated. The product was isolated by chromatography column (hexane and EtOAc), yielding 31 (2.29 g, 61.5%).

Isopropyl 2-((diphenylmethylene)amino)-5-oxo-4-(2,3,6-trifluorophenyl)hexanoate (32)

    • [0196]
      Figure US20160130273A1-20160512-C00061
    • [0197]
      Diphenylidene isopropyl glycinate (2.0 g, 7.0 mmol) and 31 (1.4 g, 7.0 mmole) were dissolved in THF (10 ml). The solution was cooled to −10° C. tert-BuOLi (0.56 g, 7.0 mmole) was charged into the solution in several portions. The reaction was warmed up to room temperature slowly and stirred overnight. After quenched by addition of aqueous NH4Cl, the solvents were removed by distillation under vacuum. The residue was subjected to silica chromatography column eluted by hexane and EtOAc yielding 32 (3.0 g, 89%) as an oil, which was directly used in the next step.

Isopropyl 2-((tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino)-5-oxo-4-(2,3,6-trifluorophenyl)hexanoate (19)

    • [0198]
      Figure US20160130273A1-20160512-C00062
    • [0199]
      Compound 32 (100 mg, 0.21 mmol) was dissolved in THF (2 ml) and the solution was cooled to −10° C. Hydrochloric acid (2N, 1 ml) was added and stirred until all starting material disappeared by TLC. The pH of the reaction was adjusted (pH.>10) by addition of aqueous K2CO3. Boc2O (68 mg, 0.31 mmole) was added into the mixture and stirred overnight. The reaction was completed checked by TLC and the product was identical to the one prepared from the iodo coupling route.

Isopropyl 2-((tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino)-5-oxo-4-(2,3,6-trifluorophenyl)hexanoate (19)

    • [0200]
      Figure US20160130273A1-20160512-C00063
    • [0201]
      To a 100 mL round bottom was charged 2-methyl THF (43.7 mL) and diisopropyl amine (4.92 mL, 34.2 mmol) and the solution was cooled to −70° C. n-BuLi (13.08 mL, 32.7 mmol) was charged dropwise during which the temperature was controlled below −45° C. The mixture was stirred at −45° C. for 0.5 h. N-Boc-glycine ester (3.58 g) was added dropwise keeping temperature between −45 to −40° C. and aged at the same temperature for 1 h.
    • [0202]
      The solution of 31 (2.91 g, 14.5 mmol) in 2-methyl THF (2.9 mL) was then added dropwise in the same manner at −45 to −40° C. After a 0.5-1 h age, LC analysis showed nearly complete reaction. The reaction was quenched by addition of HOAc (3.83 mL) and the mixture was warmed to −10° C. and water (11.6 mL, 4 vol) was charged at <20° C. The phase was separated, and the organic layer was washed with 16% NaCl aqueous solution (11.6 mL). Assay desired product 19 as a mixture of diastereomers in the organic solution was 5.40 g (89% yield). The organic layer was concentrated to give crude product 19, which was directly used in the next step reaction. For characterization purposes, a small sample was purified by flash chromatography (silica gel, EtOAc/hexanes=1:10) to give two diastereomers 19A and 19B. 19A as a colorless oil, 1H NMR (CD3CN, 400 MHz) δ: 7.29 (m, 1H), 7.02 (m, 1H), 5.58 (d, J=6.1 Hz, 1H), 4.91 (m, 1H), 4.19-4.05 (m, 2H), 2.79 (m, 1H), 2.05 (s, 3H), 1.84 (m, 1H), 1.41 (s, 9H), 1.23 (d, J=6.7 Hz, 3H), 1.22 (d, J=6.7 Hz, 3H); 13C NMR (CD3CN, 100 MHz) δ: 204.7, 172.4, 158.6 (ddd, J=244, 6, 3 Hz), 156.3, 149.8 (ddd, J=248, 15, 9 Hz), 148.5 (ddd, J=242, 14, 3 Hz), 118.3 (dd, J=21, 16 Hz), 117.7 (ddd, J=19, 10, 2 Hz), 112.6 (ddd, J=26, 7, 4 Hz), 80.2, 70.0, 53.5, 46.0, 32.0, 28.5, 22.0, 21.9. 19B as colorless crystals, MP 91.5-92.0° C., 1H NMR (CD3CN, 400 MHz) δ: 7.31 (m, 1H), 7.03 (m, 1H), 5.61 (d, J=8.2 Hz, 1H), 4.95 (m, 1H), 4.19 (dd, J=10.2, 5.1 Hz, 1H), 3.72 (m, 1H), 2.45-2.29 (m, 2H), 2.09 (s, 3H), 1.41 (s, 9H), 1.21 (d, J=6.3 Hz, 3H), 1.20 (d, J=6.3 Hz, 3H); 13C NMR (CD3CN, 100 MHz) δ: 205.0, 172.8, 157.9 (ddd, J=244, 7, 3 Hz), 156.5, 150.3 (ddd, J=248, 149, 9 Hz), 148.5 (ddd, J=242, 13, 4 Hz), 117.9 (dd, J=19, 10 Hz), 115.9 (dd, J=21, 15 Hz), 111.5 (ddd, J=25, 8, 4 Hz), 80.1, 69.9, 52.9, 46.5, 31.1, 28.5, 22.0, 21.9.

Example 4 N-Methoxy-N-methyl-2-(o-tolyl)acetamide (34)

    • [0203]
      Figure US20160130273A1-20160512-C00064
    • [0204]
      To a solution of NHMe(OMe).HCl (203 g, 2.1 mol) in THF (1 L), H2O (400 mL) and TEA (263 g, 2.2 mol) was added 33 (200 g, 1.3 mol) and CDI (243 g, 1.5 mol) at 0-10° C. The reaction mixture was stirred at 0-10° C. for 5 h. After HPLC showed that the reaction was complete, the mixture was filtered through celite and the filtrate was partitioned with water and EtOAc. The organic solution was dried over Na2SOand concentrated. The crude residual was further purified by flash chromatography on silica gel (5-10% EtOAc/PE) to give 34 (200 g, 78% yield). 1H NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz): δ 7.17-7.13 (m, 4H), 3.75 (m, 2H), 3.66 (d, 3H), 3.11 (s, 3H), 2.20 (s, 3H), 1.63-1.55 (m, 1H); MS (ESI) m/e [M+H]+: 194.1.

1-(o-Tolyl)propan-2-one (35)

    • [0205]
      Figure US20160130273A1-20160512-C00065
    • [0206]
      A solution of CeCl(114.4 g, 0.45 mol) in THF (4 L) was degassed for 1 h and heated to 45-50° C. for 5 h. When the solution was cooled to −10˜−5° C., MeMgCl (193.2 g, 2.6 mol) in THF was added and the mixture was stirred for 1 h at −10˜−5° C. After amide 34 (256 g, 1.3 mol) was charged into the reaction mixture at −10˜−5° C., the mixture was stirred for 5 h at 10-20° C. After the reaction was complete monitored by LCMS, the mixture was quenched by 1M HCl, and then partitioned with water and EtOAc. The organic phase was dried over Na2SOand concentrated. The crude residual was further purified by flash chromatography on silica gel (2-10% EtOAc/PE) to give 35 (157 g, 80% yield). 1H NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz): δ 7.1-6.91 (d, 4H), 3.55 (s, 3H), 2.25 (s, 3H), 2.05 (s, 3H); MS (ESI) m/e [M+H]+: 149.05.

Isopropyl 2-((tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino)-5-oxo-4-(o-tolyl)hexanoate (36)

  • [0207]
    Figure US20160130273A1-20160512-C00066
  • [0208]
    To a solution of 2 (181.2 g, 0.557 mol) in THF (1 L) was added TEA (84.6 g, 0.836 mol) in portions at 15-20° C. The mixture was stirred for 30 h. After the reaction was complete, the solution was concentrated to give crude 7. To a solution of 35 (82.5 g, 0.557 mol) and Cs2CO(91 g, 0.279 mol) in DMSO (1 L) was added slowly crude 7 in DMSO (500 mL) over 30 min at 15-20° C. The mixture was stirred for 1 h. After the reaction was complete, the mixture was partitioned with water and MTBE (5 L), and extracted with MTBE twice. The combined organic layer was dried over Na2SOand concentrated. The crude residual was further purified by flash chromatography on silica gel (5-10% EtOAc/PE) to give 36 (138 g, 65% yield). 1H NMR (DMSO-d6, 400 MHz): δ 7.14-7.09 (m, 3H), 7.10-6.91 (d, 1H), 4.93-4.89 (m, 1H), 4.05-3.98 (s, 3H), 2.39-2.37 (d, 3H), 1.98-1.92 (d, 3H), 1.20-1.19 (m, 9H), 1.18-1.15 (m, 6H); MS (ESI) m/e [M+H]+: 364.2
    • (S)-1′-(tert-Butyl)-2′-oxo-1′,2′,5,7-tetrahydrospiro[cyclopenta[b]pyridine-6,3′-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine]-3-carboxylic acid (59)

    • [0249]
      Figure US20160130273A1-20160512-C00088
    • [0250]
      A mixture of 58 (5.0 g, 14.5 mmol), K2CO(5.01 g, 36.2 mmol), Pd(OAc)2(33 mg, 0.145 mmol), 1,3-bis(dicyclohexylphosphino)propane (DCPP, 127 mg, 0.290 mmol) and water (0.522 mL, 29.0 mmol) in NMP (32 mL) was heated at 120° C. under 30 psi of CO for 24 h. After cooling to room temperature, the resulting slurry was diluted with water (100 mL). The pH was slowly adjusted to 3-4 with 2 N HCl. The slurry was aged at room temperature for 1 h, filtered, rinsed with water (40 to 50 mL), dried under oven at 60° C. to give 59 (4.64 g, 95%) as a solid. 1H NMR (DMSO-d6, 500 MHz): δ 8.90 (s, 1H), 8.19 (d, J=5.2 Hz, 1H), 7.54 (d, J=7.3 Hz, 1H,), 6.99 (dd, J=7.3, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 3.33 (m, 4H), 1.72 (s, 9H); 13C NMR (DMSO-d6, 125 MHz): δ 180.16, 167.44, 166.97, 158.07, 149.76, 146.61, 135.39, 133.09, 130.36, 128.81, 125.48, 118.44, 58.19, 51.12, 44.56, 41.24, 28.91.

(S)-2′-Oxo-1′,2′,5,7-tetrahydrospiro[cyclopenta[b]pyridine-6,3′-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine]-3-carboxylic acid (14)

  • [0251]
    Figure US20160130273A1-20160512-C00089
  • [0252]
    To 59 (4 g, 97% wt) was charged 37% HCl (40 to 44 mL). The slurry was heated at 94° C. for up to 48 h, cooled down to room temperature. The solvent was partially removed by reducing pressure to about total 2 vol (˜4 mL water remained). The residue was diluted with water (20 mL) followed by adjusting pH to 2.6 with NaOH (3.5 N, 4.5 mL). The thick slurry was aged for 1 to 2 h, filtered, rinsed with water (2×8 mL), followed by water/acetone (1:1, 8 mL). The wet cake was dried to give compound 14 (3.1 g, 98% wt, 94%) as crystals. 1H NMR (DMSO-d6, 500 MHz): δ 13.31 (br, 1H), 11.14 (s, 1H), 8.91 (s, 1H), 8.11 (m, 2H), 7.49 (dd, J=7.3, 1.3 Hz, 1H), 6.93 (dd, J=7.3, 5.3 Hz, 1H), 3.36 (m, 4H); 13C NMR (DMSO-d6, 125 MHz): δ 181.06, 167.36, 166.95, 156.80, 149.79, 147.32, 135.37, 133.19, 130.73, 128.88, 125.50, 118.46, 51.78, 44.12, 40.70.
PATENT
WO 2013169348

2′-oxo-l\2 5,7-tetrahydrospiro[cyclopenta[¾]pyridine-6,3′-pyrrolo[2,3-¾]pyridine]-3-carboxamide monohydrate (28)

To a suspension of 23 (5.0 g, 9.1 mmol) in isopropyl acetate (50 mL) was added 5% aqueous K3PO4 (50 mL). The mixture was stirred for 5 min. The organic layer was separated and washed with aqueous K3PO4 (50 mL). Solvent removed under vacuum and resulting oil (27) was dissolved in acetonitrile (20 mL). To another flask was added 14 (2.57 g), acetonitrile (40 mL), water (20 mL) and NaOH solution (10N, 0.9 mL). The solution of 27 in acetonitrile was

charged to the mixture followed by HOBT monohydrate (1.5 g) and EDC hydrochloride (2.6 g). The mixture was agitated at room temperature for 4 h and HPLC analysis indicated a complete conversion. The reaction mixture was stirred with isopropyl acetate (60 mL) and the aqueous layer was removed. The organic layer was washed with 5% aquoues NaHC03 (40 mL) followed by a mixture of 15% aqueous citric acid (40 mL) and saturated aqueous NaCl (10 mL). The resulting organic layer was finally washed with 5% aquous NaHC03 (40 mL). The solvent was removed under vacuum and the residue was dissolved in methanol (20 mL). The methanol solution was slowly charged into a mixture of water (50 mL) and methanol (5 mL) over 30 min with good agitation, followed by addition of water (50 mL) over 30 min. The suspension was stirred over night at room temperature. The mixture was filtered and crystals were dried in a vacuum oven for 5 h at 50 °C to give 28 (5.4 g, 95%) as monohydrate. Ή NMR (500 MHz, CD3OD): δ 8.88 (t, J= 1.2 Hz, 1 H), 8.15 (t, J = 1.2 Hz, 1 H), 8.09 (dd, J= 5.3, 1.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.36 (dd, J= 7.4, 1.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.28 (qd, J= 9.3, 4.7 Hz, 1 H), 7.01 (tdd, J= 9.7, 3.6, 1.9 Hz, 1 H), 6.96 (dd, J= 7.4, 5.3 Hz, 1 H), 4.80 (dq, J= 15.2, 9.2 Hz, 1 H), 4.56 (dd, J= 11.7, 6.8 Hz, 1 H), 4.03 (ddd, J= 13.6, 4.2, 2.6 Hz, 1 H), 3.97-3.90 (m, 1 H), 3.68 (dq, J= 15.3, 8.8 Hz, 1 H), 3.59 (t, J= 16.2 Hz, 2 H), 3.35 (d, J= 4.4 Hz, 1 H), 3.32 (d, J= 3.5 Hz, 1 H), 3.21 (qt, J= 12.7, 3.1 Hz, 1 H), 2.38-2.32 (m, 1 H), 1.34 (d, J= 6.5 Hz, 3 H); 13C NMR (126 MHz, CD3OD): δ 182.79, 171.48, 168.03, 166.71, 159.37 (ddd, J= 244.1, 6.5, 2.1 Hz), 157.43, 150.88 (ddd, J = 249.4, 14.4, 8.7 Hz), 148.96 (ddd, J= 243.8, 13.7, 3.1 Hz), 148.67, 148.15, 136.84, 133.43, 131.63, 130.83, 130.48, 126.41 (q, J = 280.0 Hz), 119.85, 118.89 (dd, J= 19.0, 13.5 Hz), 117.77 (dd, J= 19.8, 10.8 Hz), 112.80 (ddd, J= 26.5, 6.5, 4.2 Hz), 58.86, 53.67, 52.87, 46.56 (q, J = 33.3 Hz), 45.18, 42.06, 36.95, 27.76 (t, J= 4.8 Hz), 14.11.

PATENT

This invention relates to a process for making piperidinone carboxamide indane and azainane derivatives, which are CGRP receptor antagonists useful for the treatment of migraine. This class of compounds is described in U.S. Patent Application Nos. 13/293,166 filed November 10, 2011, 13/293,177 filed November 10, 2011 and 13/293,186 filed November 10, 2011, and PCT International Application Nos. PCT/US11/60081 filed November 10, 2011 and PCT/US 11/60083 filed November 10, 2011.

CGRP (Calcitonin Gene -Related Peptide) is a naturally occurring 37-amino acid peptide that is generated by tissue-specific alternate processing of calcitonin messenger RNA and is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous system. CGRP is localized

predominantly in sensory afferent and central neurons and mediates several biological actions, including vasodilation. CGRP is expressed in alpha- and beta-forms that vary by one and three amino acids in the rat and human, respectively. CGRP-alpha and CGRP -beta display similar biological properties. When released from the cell, CGRP initiates its biological responses by binding to specific cell surface receptors that are predominantly coupled to the activation of adenylyl cyclase. CGRP receptors have been identified and pharmacologically evaluated in several tissues and cells, including those of brain, cardiovascular, endothelial, and smooth muscle origin.

Based on pharmacological properties, these receptors are divided into at least two subtypes, denoted CGRPi and CGRP2- Human a-CGRP-(8-37), a fragment of CGRP that lacks seven N-terminal amino acid residues, is a selective antagonist of CGRPi, whereas the linear analogue of CGRP, diacetoamido methyl cysteine CGRP ([Cys(ACM)2,7]CGRP), is a selective agonist of CGRP2- CGRP is a potent neuromodulator that has been implicated in the pathology of cerebrovascular disorders such as migraine and cluster headache. In clinical studies, elevated levels of CGRP in the jugular vein were found to occur during migraine attacks (Goadsby et al, Ann. Neurol, 1990, 28, 183-187), salivary levels of CGRP are elevated in migraine subjects between attacks (Bellamy et al., Headache, 2006, 46, 24-33), and CGRP itself has been shown to trigger migrainous headache (Lassen et al., Cephalalgia, 2002, 22, 54-61). In clinical trials, the CGRP antagonist BIBN4096BS has been shown to be effective in treating acute attacks of migraine (Olesen et al, New Engl. J. Med., 2004, 350, 1104-1110) and was able to prevent headache induced by CGRP infusion in a control group (Petersen et al., Clin. Pharmacol. Ther., 2005, 77, 202-213).

CGRP -mediated activation of the trigeminovascular system may play a key role in migraine pathogenesis. Additionally, CGRP activates receptors on the smooth muscle of intracranial vessels, leading to increased vasodilation, which is thought to contribute to headache pain during migraine attacks (Lance, Headache Pathogenesis: Monoamines, Neuropeptides, Purines and Nitric Oxide, Lippincott-Raven Publishers, 1997, 3-9). The middle meningeal artery, the principle artery in the dura mater, is innervated by sensory fibers from the trigeminal ganglion which contain several neuropeptides, including CGRP. Trigeminal ganglion stimulation in the cat resulted in increased levels of CGRP, and in humans, activation of the trigeminal system caused facial flushing and increased levels of CGRP in the external jugular vein (Goadsby et al., Ann. Neurol., 1988, 23, 193-196). Electrical stimulation of the dura mater in rats increased the diameter of the middle meningeal artery, an effect that was blocked by prior administration of CGRP(8-37), a peptide CGRP antagonist (Williamson et al., Cephalalgia, 1997, 17, 525-531). Trigeminal ganglion stimulation increased facial blood flow in the rat, which was inhibited by CGRP(8-37) (Escott et al, Brain Res. 1995, 669, 93-99). Electrical stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion in marmoset produced an increase in facial blood flow that could be blocked by the non-peptide CGRP antagonist BIBN4096BS (Doods et al, Br. J.

Pharmacol., 2000, 129, 420-423). Thus the vascular effects of CGRP may be attenuated, prevented or reversed by a CGRP antagonist.

CGRP -mediated vasodilation of rat middle meningeal artery was shown to sensitize neurons of the trigeminal nucleus caudalis (Williamson et al., The CGRP Family:

Calcitonin Gene -Related Peptide (CGRP), Amylin, and Adrenomedullin, Landes Bioscience, 2000, 245-247). Similarly, distention of dural blood vessels during migraine headache may sensitize trigeminal neurons. Some of the associated symptoms of migraine, including extracranial pain and facial allodynia, may be the result of sensitized trigeminal neurons (Burstein et al, Ann. Neurol. 2000, 47, 614-624). A CGRP antagonist may be beneficial in attenuating, preventing or reversing the effects of neuronal sensitization.

The ability of the compounds to act as CGRP antagonists makes them useful pharmacological agents for disorders that involve CGRP in humans and animals, but particularly in humans. Such disorders include migraine and cluster headache (Doods, Curr Opin Inves Drugs, 2001, 2 (9), 1261-1268; Edvinsson et al, Cephalalgia, 1994, 14, 320-327); chronic tension type headache (Ashina et al, Neurology, 2000, 14, 1335-1340); pain (Yu et al, Eur. J. Pharm., 1998, 347, 275-282); chronic pain (Hulsebosch et al, Pain, 2000, 86, 163-175);

neurogenic inflammation and inflammatory pain (Holzer, Neurosci., 1988, 24, 739-768; Delay- Goyet et al, Acta Physiol. Scanda. 1992, 146, 537-538; Salmon et al, Nature Neurosci., 2001, 4(4), 357-358); eye pain (May et al. Cephalalgia, 2002, 22, 195-196), tooth pain (Awawdeh et al, Int. Endocrin. J., 2002, 35, 30-36), non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (Molina et al, Diabetes, 1990, 39, 260-265); vascular disorders; inflammation (Zhang et al, Pain, 2001, 89, 265), arthritis, bronchial hyperreactivity, asthma, (Foster et al, Ann. NY Acad. Sci., 1992, 657, 397-404; Schini et al, Am. J. Physiol, 1994, 267, H2483-H2490; Zheng et al, J. Virol, 1993, 67, 5786-5791); shock, sepsis (Beer et al, Crit. Care Med., 2002, 30 (8), 1794-1798); opiate withdrawal syndrome (Salmon et al, Nature Neurosci., 2001, 4(4), 357-358); morphine tolerance (Menard et al, J. Neurosci., 1996, 16 (7), 2342-2351); hot flashes in men and women (Chen et al, Lancet, 1993, 342, 49; Spetz et al, J. Urology, 2001, 166, 1720-1723); allergic dermatitis (Wallengren, Contact Dermatitis, 2000, 43 (3), 137-143); psoriasis; encephalitis, brain trauma, ischaemia, stroke, epilepsy, and neurodegenerative diseases (Rohrenbeck et al, Neurobiol. of Disease 1999, 6, 15-34); skin diseases (Geppetti and Holzer, Eds., Neurogenic Inflammation, 1996, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL), neurogenic cutaneous redness, skin rosaceousness and erythema; tinnitus (Herzog et al, J. Membrane Biology, 2002, 189(3), 225); inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, (Hoffman et al. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, 2002, 37(4) 414-422) and cystitis. Of particular importance is the acute or prophylactic treatment of headache, including migraine and cluster headache.

The present invention describes a novel process for making piperidinone carboxamide indane and azainane derivatives, which are CGRP receptor antagonists, having less steps and improved yields as compared to previous synthetic methods for making these compounds.

Another embodiment of the invention encompasses crystalline monohydrate free base of the compound having the structure

Figure imgf000011_0002

and having the following chemical name: (S)-N-((3S,5S,6R)-6-mQthyl-2-oxo-l -(2,2,2- trifluoroethyl)-5-(2,3,6-trifluorophenyl)piperidin-3-yl)-2′-oxo- ,2′,5,7- tetrahydrospiro [cyclopenta[b]pyridine-6,3 ‘-pyrrolo [2,3 -b]pyridine] -3 -carboxamide monohydrate

EXAMPLE 2 acetamide (17)

K2C03, water

Figure imgf000055_0002

To a solution of DMF (58.1 mL, 750 mmol) in iPAc (951 mL) was added POCl3 (55.9 mL, 600 mmol) under ice-cooling. After aged for 1 h under ice-bath, acid 16 (95 g, 500 mmol) was added under ice-cooling. The solution was stirred under ice-cooling for 30 min. The solution was added over 30 min into a solution of K2CO3 (254 g, 1.835 mol) and

NHMe(OMe)HCl (73.2 g, 750 mmol) in water (951 mL) below 8 °C. After aged for 30 min below 8 °C, the organic layer was separated, washed with water (500 mL) twice and sat. NaCl aq (100 mL) once, and concentrated in vacuo to afford 17 as an oil (117.9 g, 97.7 wt%, 99% yield). ‘H NMR (CDCI3, 400 MHz); δ 7.05 (m, 1H), 6.82 (m, 1H), 3.86 (s, 2H), 3.76 (s, 3H), 3.22 (s,

3H); 19F NMR (CDCI3, 376.6 MHz); δ -120.4 (dd, J= 15.1, 2.7 Hz), -137.9 (dd, J= 20.8, 2.7 Hz), -143.5 (dd, J= 20.8, 15.1 Hz); 13C NMR (CDC13, 100 MHz); δ 169.4, 156.9 (ddd, J= 244, 6.2, 2.7 Hz), 149.3 (ddd, J= 249, 14.4, 8.4 Hz), 147.1 (ddd, J= 244, 13.1, 3.5 Hz), 115.5 (ddd, J = 19.4, 9.9, 1.5 Hz), 133.4 (dd, J= 22.3, 16.4 Hz), 110.2 (ddd, J= 24.8, 6.7, 4.1 Hz), 32.4 (broad), 26.6 (m); HRMS m/z calcd for C10H10F3NO2 234.0736 (M+H); found 234.0746 l-(2,3,6-Trifluorophenyl)propan-2-one (18)

Figure imgf000056_0001

A mixture of CeCl3 (438 g, 1779 mmol) and THF (12 L) was heated at 40 °C for about 2 h then cooled to 5 °C. Methylmagensium chloride in THF (3 M, 3.4 L) was charged at 5- 9 °C and then it was warmed up to 16 °C and held for 1 h. The suspension was re-cooled to -10 to -15 °C. A solution of 17 (1.19 kg) in THF (2.4 L) was charged into the suspension over 15 min. After confirmation of completion of the reaction, the reaction mixture was transferred to a cold solution of hydrochloric acid (2 N, 8.4 L) and MTBE (5 L) in 5-10°C. The aqueous phase was separated and the organic layer was washed with aqueous 5%> K2CO3 (6 L) and then 10%> aqueous NaCl (5 L). The organic layer was dried over Na2S04, concentrated to give crude 18 (917g, >99wt%>) in 95% yield. The crude 18 was used in the next step without further purification. Analytically pure 18 was obtained by silica gel column.

!H NMR (CDCI3, 400 MHz); δ 7.07 (m, 1H), 6.84 (m, 1H), 3.82 (s, 2H), 2.28 (s, 3H); 19F NMR (CDCI3, 376.6 MHz); δ -120.3 (dd, J= 15.3, 2.5 Hz), -137.8 (dd, J= 21.2, 2.5 Hz), -143.0 (dd, J = 20.2, 15.3 Hz); 13C NMR (CDCI3, 100 MHz); δ 202.2, 156.5 (ddd, J= 244, 6.3, 2.9 Hz), 148.9 (ddd, J= 249, 14.4, 8.6 Hz), 147.0 (ddd, J = 244, 13.1, 3.5 Hz), 115.7 (ddd, J = 19.4, 10.5, 1.2 Hz), 112.8 (dd, J= 22.7, 17.0 Hz), 110.3 (ddd, J = 24.8, 6.7, 4.1 Hz), 37.2 (d, J=1.2 Hz), 29.3. Isopropyl 2-((tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino)-5-oxo-4-(2,3,6-trifluorophenyl)hexanoate (19)

Figure imgf000057_0001

To a solution of 18 (195 g, 1.03 mol) in MTBE (1.8 L) was added zinc bromide (67 g, 0.30 mol) followed by 2 (390 g, 1.2 mol). tert-BuOLi (290 g, 3.6 mol) was then added in several portions while maintaining the reaction temperature below 40 °C. The resulting mixture was stirred at 35 °C for 24 h and quenched into a mixture of 2 N HC1 (5.6 L) and heptane (5 L) at 0 °C. The organic layer was separated and washed with 5% aqueous NaHC03 (5 L) twice. The resulting organic solution was concentrated under vacuum. The residue was dissolved in heptane (2 L) and the solution was concentrated again under vacuum. The resulting oil was dissolved in DMSO (2.5 L) and the solution was used in the next step without further purification. HPLC analysis indicated that the solution contained the desired product 19 (290 g, 67% yield) as the major component along with 5% of starting material 18. The analytically pure product 19 as one pair of diastereomers was isolated by chromatography on silica gel with ethyl acetate and heptane mixture as an eluant. HRMS: m/z calcd for C2oH26F3N05 418.1836 (M+H); found 418.1849. tert- Butyl ((55,,6i?)-6-methyl-2-oxo-5-(2,3,6-trifluorophenyl)piperidin-3-yl)carbamate (20)

Figure imgf000057_0002

To a 0.5 L cylindrical Sixfors reactor with an overhead stirring, a temperature control, a pH probe and a base addition line, was added sodiumtetraborate decahydrate (3.12 g) and DI water (163 mL). After all solids were dissolved, isopropylamine (9.63 g) was added. The pH of the buffer was adjusted to pH 10.5 using 6 N HC1. The buffer was cooled to room temperature. Then, pyridoxal-5 -phosphate (0.33 g) and SEQ ID NO: 1 (8.15 g) were added and slowly dissolved at room temperature. Crude keto ester 19 (23.6 g, 69 wt%, 16.3 g assay, 39 mmol) was dissolved in DMSO (163 mL) and the solution was added to the reactor over 5-10 min. Then the reaction was heated to 55 °C. The pH was adjusted to 10.5 according to a handheld pH meter and controlled overnight with an automated pH controller using 8 M aqueous isopropylamine. The reaction was aged for 27.5 hours.

After confirmation of >95A% conversion by HPLC, the reaction was extracted by first adding a mixture of iPA: iPAc (3:4, 350 mL) and stirring for 20 min. The phases were separated and the aqueous layer was back extracted with a mixture of iPA: iPAc (2:8, 350 mL). The phases were separated. The organic layers were combined and washed with DI water (90 mL). The HPLC based assay yield in the organic layer was 20 (9.86 g, 70.5 % assay yield) with >60:1 dr at the positions C5 and C6. tert- utyl ((35′,55′,6i?)-6-methyl-2-oxo-5-(2,3,6-trifiuorophenyl)piperidin-3-yl)carbamate (21)

Figure imgf000058_0001

A solution of crude cis and trans mixture 20 in a mixture of iPAc and iPA (1.83 wt%, 9.9 kg; 181 g assay as a mixture) was concentrated in vacuo and dissolved in 2-Me-THF (3.6 L). To the solution was added tert-BuOK (66.6 g, 0.594 mol) at room temperature. The suspension was stirred at room temperature for 2 h. The mixture was poured into water (3.5 L) and the organic layer was separated, washed with 15 wt% of aqueous NaCl (3.5 L), dried over Na2S04, and concentrated to dryness. The residue was suspended with iPAc (275 mL) and heptane (900 mL) at 60 °C. The suspension was slowly cooled down to 1 °C. The solid was filtered and rinsed with iPAc and heptane (1 :3), dried to afford 21 (166 g, 93 wt%; 85 %) as crystals. Mp 176-179 °C; 1H NMR (CDC13, 500 MHz): δ 7.06 (m, 1H), 6.84 (m, 1H), 5.83 (broad s, 1H), 5.58 (broad s, 1H), 4.22 (m, 1H), 3.88-3.79 (m, 2H), 2.77 (m, 1H), 2.25 (m, 1H), 1.46 (s, 9H), 1.08 (d, J= 6.4 Hz, 3H); 19F NMR (CDCI3, 376 MHz): δ -117 (d, J= 14 Hz), -135 (d, J= 20 Hz), -142 (dd, J= 20, 14 Hz); 13C NMR (CDC13, 100 MHz): δ 171.1, 156.6 (ddd, J = 245, 6.4, 2.8 Hz), 155.8, 149.3 (ddd, J= 248, 14.4, 8.8 Hz), 147.4 (ddd, J= 245, 14.2, 3.8 Hz), 118.0 (dd, J= 19.3, 14.5 Hz), 115.9 (dd, J= 19.2, 10.4 Hz), 111.0 (ddd, J = 26.4, 6.0, 4.3 Hz), 79.8, 51.4, 49.5, 34.1, 29.3, 28.3, 18.0; HRMS: m/z calcd for Ci7H2iF3N203 381.1396 (M+ Na); found 381.1410. tert-Butyl ((55′,6i?)-6-methyl-2-oxo-l-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-5-(2,3,6-trifluorophenyl)piperidin-3- yl)carbamate (22)

Figure imgf000059_0001

To a solution of 21 (10 g, 87% purity, 24.3 mmol) in THF (70 ml) was added tert- BuOLi (2.5 g, 31.2 mmol) at 5 °C in one portion. The solution was cooled to between 0 and 5 °C and trifluoroethyl trifluoromethanesulfonate (10.0 g, 43 mmol) was added in one portion. DMPU (7 mL) was added slowly over 15 min while maintaining the the reaction temperature below 5 °C. After the mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 3 h, additional tert-BuOLi (0.9 g, 11.2 mmol) was added. The mixture was aged for an additional 90 min. The mixture was quenched with 0.2 N HC1 (70 ml), followed by addition of heptane (80 ml). The organic layer was separated and aqueous layer extracted with heptane (30 ml). The combined organic layers were washed with 15%) aquoeus citric acid (50 mL) and 5% aqueous NaHC03 (50 mL). The solution was concentrated under vacuum at 40 °C and the resulting oil was dissolved in iPAc (30 mL). The solution was used directly in the next step without further purification. The HPLC analysis indicated that the solution contained 22 (9.8 g, 92% as cis and trans mixture in a ratio of 6.5 to 1) along with 4% of starting material 21 and 8% of a N,N’-alkylated compound. Analytically pure 22 (cis isomer) was isolated by chromatography on silica gel with ethyl acetate and heptane as an eluant. 1H NMR (CDC13, 500 MHz): δ 7.15 (m, 1H), 6.85 (m, 1H), 5.45 (broad, s, 1H), 4.90 (m, H), 4.20 (m, 1H), 3.92 (m, 2H), 3.28 (m, 1H), 2.70 (m, 2H), 1.48 (s, 9H), 1.20 (d, J= 5.9 Hz, 3H); 13C NMR (CDC13, 100 MHz): δ 170.2, 156.9 (ddd, J= 245, 6.3,2.7 Hz), 156.0, 149.6 (ddd, J= 251, 14.8, 8.8 Hz), 147.6 (ddd, J= 246, 13.9,3.6 Hz), 124.5 (q, J= 281 Hz), 117.6 (dd, J = 19.2, 3.7 Hz), 116.4 (dd, J= 19.1, 10.4 Hz), 111.4 (ddd, J= 25.8, 6.4,4.1Hz), 56.6, 52.8, 45.3 (q, J= 34.2 Hz), 35.2, 28.7, 28.3 (br t, J= 4 Hz), 14.6; HRMS: m/z calcd for Ci9H22F6N203 (M+H): 441.1607; found 441.1617. (35′,55′,6i?)-6-Methyl-2-oxo-l-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-5-(2,3,6-trifluorophenyl)piperi (S)-2-acetamido-3 -phenylpropanoate (23)

Figure imgf000060_0001

iPAc solution of 22 (529 g assayed, 1.2 mol), obtained from previous step, was diluted to 6 L with iPAc, /?-toluenesulfonic acid monohydride (343 g, 1.8 mol) was added and the solution was heated to 55 °C. After 4 h, the reaction completed (>99% conversion). Aqueous K2CO3 (530 g in 3 L of water) was charged into the solution after cooled to 15-25 °C. The aqueous layer was separated and was back-extracted with iPAc (2 L). The iPAc solutions were combined and the total volume was adjudted to 10 L by adding iPAc. The solution was heated to 50-60 °C. About 20 g of N-acetyl L-phenylalanine was added and the solution was agitated for 15 min or until solids precipitated out. The remaining N-acetyl L-phenylalanine (total 250 g, 1.2 mol) was charged slowly and 2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzaldehyde (2 g) was charged. The suspension was agitated for 12 h at 20 °C and then cooled to 0 °C for 3 h. The suspension was filtrated, washed with iPAc three times and dried to give 23 (583g, 89% yield) as crystals. Mp 188 – 190 °C; 1H NMR (DMSO-de, 400 MHz): δ 7.96 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, 1H) , 7.48 (m, 1H), 7.15-7.25 (m, 6H), 4.65 (ddd, J= 19.4, 15.3, 9.6 Hz, 1H), 4.33 (ddd, J= 8.7, 8.4, 4.9 Hz, 1H), 3.70-3.87 (m, 3H), 3.57 (dd, J= 11.5, 6.6 Hz, 1H), 3.04 (dd, J= 13.7, 4.9 Hz, 1H), 2.82 (dd, J= 13.7, 8.9 Hz,lH), 2.59 (m, 1H), 2.24 (m, 1H), 2.95 (s, 3H), 1.10 (d, J= 6.4 Hz, 1H); 19F NMR (DMSO-d6, 376 MHz): δ -69 (s) , -118 (d, J= 15 Hz), -137 (d, J = 21 Hz), -142 (dd, J= 21, 15 Hz); 13C NMR (DMSO-d6, 100 MHz): δ 173.6, 171,. l, 168.7, 156.3 (ddd, J= 243.5, 7.0, 3.1 Hz), 148.7 (ddd, J= 249, 14.4, 9.1 Hz), 146.8 (ddd, J = 245, 13.7, 3.1 Hz), 138.5, 129.2, 128.0, 126.1, 124.9 (q, J= 280.9 Hz), 117.4.0 (dd, J= 19.3, 13.8 Hz), 116.7 (dd, J= 19.3, 10.6 Hz), 111.8 (ddd, J= 26.0, 6.7, 3.6 Hz), 56.6, 54.3, 51,2, 44.3 (q, J= 32.5 Hz), 37.2, 34.8, 26.9 (br t, J= 4 Hz), 22.5, 14.1.

(35′,55′,6i?)-6-methyl-2-oxo-l-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-5-(2,3,6-trifluorophenyl)piperidin-3- aminium 2,2-diphenylacetate (25)

Figure imgf000061_0001

To a mixture of crude material containing (55′,6i?)-3-amino-6-methyl-l -(2,2,2- trifluoroethyl)-5-(2,3,6-trifluorophenyl)piperidin-2-one (24, 2.00 g, 5.88 mmol), prepared according to the same method as the previous example, and 3,5-dichloro-2-hydroxybenzaldehyde (0.011 g, 0.059 mmol) in isopropyl acetate (15.0 ml) at 55-60 °C under nitrogen was slowly added a solution of diphenylacetic acid (1.26 g, 5.88 mmol) in THF (10.0 ml) over 2 h. Upon completion of acid addition, a thick salt suspension was agitated at 55-60 °C for another 18 h and then was allowed to cool to ambient temperature. The salt was filtered and washed with isopropyl acetate. After drying at 60 °C in a vacuum oven with nitrogen purge for 8 hours, 25 (2.97 g, 91.4%) was obtained as crystals. 1H NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 7.48 (qd, J= 9.4, 4.9 Hz, 1 H), 7.32 (d, J= 7.7 Hz, 4 H), 7.25-7.26 (m, 4 H), 7.19-7.17 (m, 3 H), 6.79 (br, 3H), 4.95 (s, 1 H), 4.67 (dq, J= 15.3, 9.7 Hz, 1 H), 3.81-3.79 (m, 3 H), 3.62 (dd, J= 11.6, 6.5 Hz, 1 H), 2.66-2.62 (m, 1 H), 2.25 (dd, J= 12.9, 6.4 Hz, 1 H), 1.11 (d, J= 6.5 Hz, 3 H); 13C NMR (100 MHz, DMSO-de): δ 174.4, 171.8, 156.9 (ddd, J= 244, 7.0, 2.5 Hz), 149.1 (ddd, J= 249, 14.4, 8.5 Hz), 147.2 (ddd, J= 246, 13.9, 3.2 Hz), 141.4, 129.0, 128.5, 126.7, 125.5 (q, J= 281 Hz), 118.0 (dd, J= 19.8, 13.8 Hz), 117.1 (dd, J= 19.2, 10.6 Hz), 112.3 (ddd, J= 26.1, 6.7, 3.3 Hz), 58.5, 57.1, 51.7, 44.8 (q, J= 32.7 Hz), 35.3, 27.5 (br t, J= 4.6 Hz), 14.5.

(35′,55′,6i?)-6-methyl-2-oxo-l-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-5-(2,3,6-trifluorophenyl)piperidin-3-amM lH-indole-2-carboxylate (26)

Figure imgf000061_0002

To a mixture of crude material containing 24 (2.00 g, 5.88 mmol) and 3,5-dichloro-2- hydroxybenzaldehyde (0.011 g, 0.059 mmol) in isopropyl acetate (15.0 ml) at 55-60 °C under nitrogen was slowly added a solution of lH-indole-2-carboxylic acid (0.96 g, 5.88 mmol) in THF (10.0 ml) over 2 hours. Upon completion of acid addition, a thick salt suspension was agitated at 55-60 °C for another 18 h and then was allowed to cool to ambient temperature. The salt was filtered and washed with isopropyl acetate. After drying at 60 °C in a vacuum oven with nitrogen purge for 8 h, 26 (2.33 g, 79.0%) was isolated as crystals. 1H NMR (500 MHz, DMSO): δ 11.40 (s, 1 H), 7.56 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.45 (br, 3 H), 7.47 (ddd, J= 14.8, 10.1, 8.3 Hz, 1 H), 7.41- 7.40 (m, 1 H), 7.16-7.14 (m, 2 H), 6.98-6.97 (m, 1 H), 6.87 (s, 1 H), 4.69 (dq, J= 15.3, 9.6 Hz, 1 H), 3.84-3.81 (m, 4 H), 2.76-2.71 (m, 1 H), 2.34 (dd, J= 12.7, 6.3 Hz, 1 H), 1.13 (d, J= 6.5 Hz, 3 H); 13C NMR (100 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 170.9, 164.8, 156.8 (ddd, J= 244, 7.0, 2.5 Hz), 149.1 (ddd, J= 249, 14.4, 8.5 Hz), 147.2 (ddd, J = 246, 13.9, 3.2 Hz), 137.0, 133.5, 127.8, 125.4 (q, J = 282 Hz), 123.3, 121.8, 119.7, 117.8 (dd, J= 19.8, 13.8 Hz), 117.2 (dd, J= 19.2, 10.6 Hz), 112.7, 112.3 (ddd, J= 26.1, 6.7, 3.3 Hz), 105.1, 57.1, 51.3, 44.8 (q, J= 32.7 Hz), 35.2, 26.9, 14.5.

Figure imgf000062_0001

2′-oxo-l\2 5,7-tetrahydrospiro[cyclopenta[¾]pyridine-6,3′-pyrrolo[2,3-¾]pyridine]-3- carboxamide monohydrate (28)

Figure imgf000062_0002

To a suspension of 23 (5.0 g, 9.1 mmol) in isopropyl acetate (50 mL) was added 5% aqueous K3PO4 (50 mL). The mixture was stirred for 5 min. The organic layer was separated and washed with aqueous K3PO4 (50 mL). Solvent removed under vacuum and resulting oil (27) was dissolved in acetonitrile (20 mL). To another flask was added 14 (2.57 g), acetonitrile (40 mL), water (20 mL) and NaOH solution (10N, 0.9 mL). The solution of 27 in acetonitrile was charged to the mixture followed by HOBT monohydrate (1.5 g) and EDC hydrochloride (2.6 g). The mixture was agitated at room temperature for 4 h and HPLC analysis indicated a complete conversion. The reaction mixture was stirred with isopropyl acetate (60 mL) and the aqueous layer was removed. The organic layer was washed with 5% aquoues NaHC03 (40 mL) followed by a mixture of 15% aqueous citric acid (40 mL) and saturated aqueous NaCl (10 mL). The resulting organic layer was finally washed with 5% aquous NaHC03 (40 mL). The solvent was removed under vacuum and the residue was dissolved in methanol (20 mL). The methanol solution was slowly charged into a mixture of water (50 mL) and methanol (5 mL) over 30 min with good agitation, followed by addition of water (50 mL) over 30 min. The suspension was stirred over night at room temperature. The mixture was filtered and crystals were dried in a vacuum oven for 5 h at 50 °C to give 28 (5.4 g, 95%) as monohydrate. Ή NMR (500 MHz, CD3OD): δ 8.88 (t, J= 1.2 Hz, 1 H), 8.15 (t, J = 1.2 Hz, 1 H), 8.09 (dd, J= 5.3, 1.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.36 (dd, J= 7.4, 1.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.28 (qd, J= 9.3, 4.7 Hz, 1 H), 7.01 (tdd, J= 9.7, 3.6, 1.9 Hz, 1 H), 6.96 (dd, J= 7.4, 5.3 Hz, 1 H), 4.80 (dq, J= 15.2, 9.2 Hz, 1 H), 4.56 (dd, J= 11.7, 6.8 Hz, 1 H), 4.03 (ddd, J= 13.6, 4.2, 2.6 Hz, 1 H), 3.97-3.90 (m, 1 H), 3.68 (dq, J= 15.3, 8.8 Hz, 1 H), 3.59 (t, J= 16.2 Hz, 2 H), 3.35 (d, J= 4.4 Hz, 1 H), 3.32 (d, J= 3.5 Hz, 1 H), 3.21 (qt, J= 12.7, 3.1 Hz, 1 H), 2.38-2.32 (m, 1 H), 1.34 (d, J= 6.5 Hz, 3 H); 13C NMR (126 MHz, CD3OD): δ 182.79, 171.48, 168.03, 166.71, 159.37 (ddd, J= 244.1, 6.5, 2.1 Hz), 157.43, 150.88 (ddd, J = 249.4, 14.4, 8.7 Hz), 148.96 (ddd, J= 243.8, 13.7, 3.1 Hz), 148.67, 148.15, 136.84, 133.43, 131.63, 130.83, 130.48, 126.41 (q, J = 280.0 Hz), 119.85, 118.89 (dd, J= 19.0, 13.5 Hz), 117.77 (dd, J= 19.8, 10.8 Hz), 112.80 (ddd, J= 26.5, 6.5, 4.2 Hz), 58.86, 53.67, 52.87, 46.56 (q, J = 33.3 Hz), 45.18, 42.06, 36.95, 27.76 (t, J= 4.8 Hz), 14.11.

EXAMPLE 3

3-Hydroxy-3-(2,3,6-trifluorophenyl)butan-2-one (30)

Figure imgf000063_0001

To a solution of 1,2,4-trifluorobenzene (29, 49.00 g, 371 mmol) and diisopropylamine (4.23 mL, 29.7 mmol) in THF (750 mL) at -70 °C was slowly added 2.5 M of ft-BuLi (156.0 ml, 390 mmol) to maintain temperature between -45 to -40 °C. The batch was agitated for 30 min. To another flask, a solution of 2,3-butadione (37.7 mL, 427 mmol) in THF (150 mL) was prepared and cooled to -70 °C. The previously prepared lithium trifluorobenzene solution was transferred to the second flask between -70 to -45 °C. The reaction was agitated for 1 hour at -55 to -45 and then quenched by adding AcOH (25.7 mL, 445 mmol) and then water (150 mL). After warmed to room temperature, the aqueous layer was seperated. The aqueous solution was extracted with MTBE (200 mL x 1) and the combined organic layers were washed with brine (100 mL x 1). The organic layer was concentrated at 25-35 °C. The residue was flashed with heptane (100 mL x 1) and concentrated to dryness and give 30 (87.94 g, 90.2 wt%, 98% yield, and >99% HPLC purity) as an oil. H NMR (CDCI3, 400 MHz): δ 7.16 (m, 1H), 6.86 (m, 1H), 6.88 (s, 1H), 4.59 (s, 1H), 2.22 (s, 3H), 1.84 (dd, J= 4.0, 2.8 Hz, 3H); 19F NMR (CDCI3, 376.6 MHz): δ -114.6 (dd, J= 14.5, 1.4 Hz), -133.6 (d, J= 19.9 Hz), -141.3 (dd, J =

19.9, 14.5 Hz); 13C NMR (CDCI3, 100 MHz): δ 207.4, 156.4 (ddd, J= 247, 6.2, 2.9 Hz), 149.4 (ddd, J= 253, 15.0, 9.0 Hz), 147.5 (ddd, J= 245, 14.4, 3.3 Hz), 119.4 (dd, J=17.3, 11.7 Hz), 117.0 (ddd, J=19.3, 11.1, 1.4 Hz), 116.6 (ddd, J= 26.6, 6.5, 4.1 Hz), 77.9, 25.0 (dd, J= 6.5, 4.9 Hz), 23.3. -(2,3,6-Trifluorophenyl)but-3-en-2-one (31)

Figure imgf000064_0001

The hydroxy ketone 30 (7.69 g, 35.2 mmol) and 95% H2S04 (26.2 mL, 492.8 mmol) were pumped at 2.3 and 9.2 mL/min respectively into the flow reactor. The temperature on mixing was controlled at 22-25 °C by placing the reactor in a water bath (21 °C). The effluent was quenched into a a mixture of cold water ( 106 g) and heptane/IP Ac ( 1 : 1 , 92 mL) in a j acketed reactor cooled at 0 °C; the internal temperature of the quench solution was ~ 7 °C during the reaction. The layers in the quench reactor were separated and the organic layer was washed with 10% NaH2P04/Na2HP04 (1 :1, 50 mL). The pH of the final wash was 5-6. Solka flock (3.85 g, 50 wt%>) was added to the organic solution. The resulting slurry was concentrated and solvent- switched to heptanes at 25-30 °C. The mixture was filtered, rinsed with heptanes (50 mL x 1). The combined filtrates were concentrated under vacuum to give 31 as an light yellow oil (6.86 g, 90 wt%, 87% yield), which solidified in a freezer. *H NMR (CDC13, 400 MHz): δ 7.13 (m, 1H), 6.86 (m, 1H), 6.60 (s, 1H), 6.15 (s, 1H), 2.46 (s, 3H); 19F NMR (CDC13, 376.6 MHz): δ -117.7 (dd, J= 15.0, 1.4 Hz), -135.4 (dd, J= 21.4, 1.4 Hz), -42.7 (dd, J= 21.4, 15.0 Hz); 13C NMR (CDCls, 100 MHz): δ 196.3, 155.3 (ddd, J= 245, 5.1, 2.9 Hz), 147.9 (ddd, J= 250, 14.5, 7.8 Hz), 147.0 (ddd, J = 245, 13.4, 3.7 Hz), 137.5 (d, J=1.3 Hz), 131.7, 116.6 (ddd, J= 19.9, 9.7, 1.2 Hz), 116.2 (dd, J= 22.6, 16.5 Hz), 110.6 (ddd, J= 24.8, 6.5, 4.1 Hz), 25.8.

Alternative synthesis of 3-(2,3,6-trifluorophenyl)but-3-en-2-one (31)

Figure imgf000065_0001

A solution of 18 (3.5 g, 18.6 mmol), acetic acid (0.34 ml, 5.58 mmol), piperidine (0.37 ml, 3.72 mmol), formaldehyde (6.0 g, 37%> aqueous solution) in MeCN (20 mL) was heated over weekend. The conversion was about 60%. Reaction was heated to 70 °C overnight. The mixtrure was concentrated and extracted with MTBE and HC1 (0.5N). The organic layer was washed with aqueous K2CO3 (0.5N) and water, in turns. The organic layer was concentrated. The product was isolated by chromatography column (hexane and EtOAc), yielding 31 (2.29 g, 61.5%).

Isopropyl 2-((diphenylmethylene)amino)-5-oxo-4-(2,3,6-trifluorophenyl)hexanoate (32)

Figure imgf000065_0002

Diphenylidene isopropyl glycinate (2.0 g, 7.0 mmol) and 31 (1.4 g, 7.0 mmole) were dissolved in THF (10 ml). The solution was cooled to -10 °C. tert- uOLi (0.56 g, 7.0 mmole) was charged into the solution in several portions. The reaction was warmed up to room temperature slowly and stirred overnight. After quenched by addition of aqueous NH4CI, the solvents were removed by distillation under vacuum. The residue was subjected to silica chromatography column eluted by hexane and EtOAc yielding 32 (3.0 g, 89 %) as an oil, which was directly used in the next step.

Isopropyl 2-((tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino)-5-oxo-4-(2,3,6-trifluorophenyl)hexanoate (19)

Figure imgf000066_0001

Compound 32 (100 mg, 0.21 mmol) was dissolved in THF (2 ml) and the solution was cooled to -10 °C. Hydrochloric acid (2N, 1 ml) was added and stirred until all starting material disappeared by TLC. The pH of the reaction was adjusted (pH.>10) by addition of aqueous K2CO3. Boc20 (68 mg, 0.31 mmole) was added into the mixture and stirred overnight. The reaction was completed checked by TLC and the product was identical to the one prepared from the iodo coupling route.

Isopropyl 2-((tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino)-5-oxo-4-(2,3,6-trifluorophenyl)hexanoate (19)

Figure imgf000066_0002

To a 100 mL round bottom was charged 2-methyl THF (43.7 mL) and diisopropyl amine (4.92 mL, 34.2 mmol) and the solution was cooled to -70 °C. n-BuLi (13.08 mL, 32.7 mmol) was charged dropwise during which the temperature was controlled below -45 °C. The mixture was stirred at -45 °C for 0.5 h. N-Boc-glycine ester (3.58 g) was added dropwise keeping temperature between -45 to -40 °C and aged at the same temperature for 1 h.

The solution of 31 (2.91 g, 14.5 mmol) in 2-methyl THF (2.9 mL) was then added dropwise in the same manner at -45 to -40 °C. After a 0.5-1 h age, LC analysis showed nearly complete reaction. The reaction was quenched by addition of HO Ac (3.83 mL) and the mixture was warmed to -10 °C and water (1 1.6 mL, 4 vol) was charged at < 20 °C. The phase was separated, and the organic layer was washed with 16% NaCl aqueous solution (11.6 mL). Assay desired product 19 as a mixture of diastereomers in the organic solution was 5.40 g (89% yield). The organic layer was concentrated to give crude product 19, which was directly used in the next step reaction. For characterization purposes, a small sample was purified by flash chromatography (silica gel, EtOAc/hexanes = 1 : 10) to give two diastereomers 19A and 19B. 19A as a colorless oil, 1H NMR (CD3CN, 400 MHz) δ: 7.29 (m, 1 H), 7.02 (m, 1 H), 5.58 (d, J = 6.1 Hz, 1 H), 4.91 (m, 1 H), 4.19-4.05 (m, 2 H), 2.79 (m, 1 H), 2.05 (s, 3 H), 1.84 (m, 1 H), 1.41 (s, 9 H), 1.23 (d, J = 6.7 Hz, 3 H), 1.22 (d, J = 6.7 Hz, 3 H); 13C NMR (CD3CN, 100 MHz) δ: 204.7, 172.4, 158.6 (ddd, J = 244, 6, 3 Hz), 156.3, 149.8 (ddd, J = 248, 15, 9 Hz), 148.5 (ddd, J = 242, 14, 3 Hz), 118.3 (dd, J = 21, 16 Hz), 117.7 (ddd, J = 19, 10, 2 Hz), 112.6 (ddd, J = 26, 7, 4 Hz), 80.2, 70.0, 53.5, 46.0, 32.0, 28.5, 22.0, 21.9. 19B as colorless crystals, MP 91.5-92.0 °C, 1H NMR (CD3CN, 400 MHz) δ: 7.31 (m, 1 H), 7.03 (m, 1 H), 5.61 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 1 H), 4.95 (m, 1 H), 4.19 (dd, J = 10.2, 5.1 Hz, 1 H), 3.72 (m, 1 H), 2.45-2.29 (m, 2 H), 2.09 (s, 3 H), 1.41 (s, 9 H), 1.21 (d, J = 6.3 Hz, 3 H), 1.20 (d, J = 6.3 Hz, 3 H); 13C NMR (CD3CN, 100 MHz) δ: 205.0, 172.8, 157.9 (ddd, J= 244, 7, 3 Hz), 156.5, 150.3 (ddd, J= 248, 149, 9 Hz), 148.5 (ddd, J = 242, 13, 4 Hz), 117.9 (dd, J = 19, 10 Hz), 115.9 (dd, J = 21, 15 Hz), 111.5 (ddd, J = 25, 8, 4 Hz), 80.1, 69.9, 52.9, 46.5, 31.1, 28.5, 22.0, 21.9.

PATENT

https://encrypted.google.com/patents/US20120122911

[0000]

Figure US20120122911A1-20120517-C00039

(3S,5S,6R)-3-Amino-6-methyl-1-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-5-(2,3,6-trifluorophenyl)piperidin-2-one hydrochlorideStep A: (5S,6R & 5R,6S)-6-Methyl-1-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-5-(2,3,6-trifluorophenyl)piperidin-2-one

Essentially following the procedures described in Intermediate 14, but using 2,3,6-trifluorophenylboronic acid in place of 2,3,5-trifluorophenylboronic acid, the title compound was obtained. MS: m/z=326.0 (M+1).

Step B: (3S,5S,6R & 3R,5R,6S)-3-Azido-6-methyl-1-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-5-(2,3,6-trifluorophenyl)piperidin-2-one

To a stirred solution of lithium bis(trimethylsilyl)amide (1.0 M in THF, 4.80 mL, 4.80 mmol) in THF (20 mL) at −78° C. was added a cold (−78° C.) solution of (5S,6R & 5R,6S)-6-methyl-1-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-5-(2,3,6-trifluorophenyl)piperidin-2-one (1.30 g, 4.00 mmol) in THF (10 mL) dropwise, keeping the internal temperature of the reaction mixture below −65° C. The resulting mixture was stirred at −78° C. for 30 min, then a cold (−78° C.) solution of 2,4,6-triisopropylbenzenesulfonyl azide (Harmon et al. (1973) J. Org. Chem. 38, 11-16) (1.61 g, 5.20 mmol) in THF (10 mL) was added dropwise, keeping the internal temperature of the reaction mixture below −65° C. The reaction mixture was stirred at −78° C. for 30 min, then AcOH (1.05 mL, 18.4 mmol) was added. The resulting mixture was allowed to warm slowly to ambient temperature and was poured into saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate (50 mL) and the mixture was extracted with EtOAc (2×75 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine, then dried over sodium sulfate, filtered, and concentrated to dryness in vacuo. The crude product was purified by silica gel chromatography, eluting with a gradient of hexanes:EtOAc—100:0 to 20:80, to give the diastereomeric azide products (3R,5S,6R & 3S,5R,6S)-3-azido-6-methyl-1-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-5-(2,3,5-trifluorophenyl)piperidin-2-one, which eluted second, and the title compound, which eluted first. MS: m/z=367.1 (M+1).

Step C: tent-Butyl [(3S,5S,6R)-6-methyl-2-oxo-1-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-5-(2,3,6-trifluorophenyl)piperidin-3-yl]carbamate

To a solution of (3S,5S,6R & 3R,5R,6S)-3-azido-6-methyl-1-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-5-(2,3,5-trifluorophenyl)piperidin-2-one (280 mg, 0.764 mmol) and di-tert-butyl dicarbonate (217 mg, 0.994 mmol) in EtOH (5 mL) was added 10% palladium on carbon (25 mg, 0.024 mmol) and the resulting mixture was stirred vigorously under an atmosphere of hydrogen (ca. 1 atm) for 1 h. The reaction mixture was filtered through a pad of Celite®, washing with EtOH, and the filtrate was concentrated in vacuo to give a crude solid. The crude product was purified by silica gel chromatography, eluting with a gradient of hexanes:EtOAc—100:0 to 30:70, to give the racemic title compound. Separation of the enantiomers was achieved by SFC on a ChiralTech IC column, eluting with CO2:MeOH:CH3CN—90:6.6:3.3, to give tert-butyl [(3R,5R,6S)-6-methyl-2-oxo-1-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-5-(2,3,6-trifluorophenyl)piperidin-3-yl]carbamate as the first major peak, and tert-butyl [(3S,5S,6R)-6-methyl-2-oxo-1-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-5-(2,3,6-trifluorophenyl)piperidin-3-yl]carbamate, the title compound, as the second major peak. MS: m/z=463.2 (M+Na).

Step D: (3S,5S,6R)-3-Amino-6-methyl-1-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-5-(2,3,6-trifluorophenyl)piperidin-2-one hydrochloride

A solution of tert-butyl [(3S,5S,6R)-6-methyl-2-oxo-1-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-5-(2,3,6-trifluorophenyl)piperidin-3-yl]carbamate (122 mg, 0.277 mmol) in EtOAc (10 mL) was saturated with HCl (g) and aged for 30 min. The resulting mixture was concentrated in vacuo to give the title compound. MS: m/z=341.1 (M+1); 1H NMR (500 MHz, CD3OD) δ 7.33 (qd, 1H, J=9.3, 4.9 Hz), 7.05 (tdd, 1H, J=9.8, 3.7, 2.2 Hz), 4.78 (dq, 1H, J=15.4, 9.3 Hz), 4.22 (dd, 1H, J=12.2, 6.6 Hz), 4.06 (ddd, 1H, J=13.3, 4.5, 2.7 Hz), 3.97 (m, 1H), 3.73 (dq, 1H, J=15.4, 8.8 Hz), 2.91 (qt, 1H, J=12.7, 3.1 Hz), 2.36 (ddd, 1H, J=12.7, 6.4, 2.0 Hz), 1.22 (d, 3H, J=6.6 Hz).

Example 4

Figure US20120122911A1-20120517-C00047

(6S)—N-[(3S,5S,6R)-6-Methyl-2-oxo-1-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-5-(2,3,6-trifluorophenyl)piperidin-3-yl]-2′-oxo-1′,2′,5,7-tetrahydrospiro[cyclopenta[b]pyridine-6,3′-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine]-3-carboxamide dihydrochloride

To a stirred mixture of (6S)-2′-oxo-1′,2′,5,7-tetrahydrospiro[cyclopenta[b]pyridine-6,3′-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine]-3-carboxylic acid (described in Intermediate 1) (264 mg, 0.939 mmol), (3S,5S,6R)-3-amino-6-methyl-1-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-5-(2,3,6-trifluorophenyl)piperidin-2-one hydrochloride (described in Intermediate 15) (295 mg, 0.782 mmol), HOBT (144 mg, 0.939 mmol), and EDC (180 mg, 0.939 mmol) in DMF (8 mL) was added N,N-diisopropylethylamine (0.34 mL, 1.96 mmol), and the resulting mixture was stirred at ambient temperature for 3 h. The reaction mixture was then poured into saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate (30 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (2×40 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over sodium sulfate, and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography, eluting with a gradient of CH2Cl2:MeOH:NH4OH—100:0:0 to 90:10:0.1, to give the product, which was treated with HCl in EtOAc at 0° C. to afford the title compound. HRMS: m/z=604.1783 (M+1), calculated m/z=604.1778 for C29H24F6N5O31H NMR (500 MHz, CD3OD) δ 9.09 (s, 1H), 8.69 (s, 1H), 8.18 (dd, 1H, J=5.9, 1.5 Hz), 7.89 (dd, 1H, J=7.3, 1.5 Hz), 7.30 (m, 1H), 7.23 (dd, 1H, J=7.3, 5.9 Hz), 7.03 (m, 1H), 4.78 (m, 1H), 4.61 (dd, 1H, J=11.5, 6.6 Hz), 4.05 (dd, 1H, J=13.8, 2.8 Hz), 3.96 (m, 1H), 3.84 (d, 1H, J=18.6 Hz), 3.76 (d, 1H, J=18.6 Hz), 3.73 (d, 1H, J=17.3 Hz), 3.72 (m, 1H), 3.61 (d, 1H, J=17.3 Hz), 3.22 (m, 1H), 2.38 (m, 1H), 1.34 (d, 3H, J=6.6 Hz).

Publication numberPriority datePublication dateAssigneeTitle
US9487523B22012-03-142016-11-08Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.Process for making CGRP receptor antagonists
Family To Family Citations
CA2865941A12012-03-142013-09-19Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.Bis-quarternary cinchona alkaloid salts as asymmetric phase transfer catalysts
CN105037210A *2015-05-272015-11-11江苏大学Alpha,beta-dehydrogenated-alpha-amino acid synthesis method
GB201519194D02015-10-302015-12-16Heptares Therapeutics LtdCGRP receptor antagonists
GB201519195D02015-10-302015-12-16Heptares Therapeutics LtdCGRP Receptor Antagonists
GB201519196D02015-10-302015-12-16Heptares Therapeutics LtdCGRP Receptor Antagonists
PATENT 
Cited Patent Filing date Publication date Applicant Title
US7390798 * Feb 9, 2005 Jun 24, 2008 Merck & Co., Inc. Carboxamide spirolactam CGRP receptor antagonists
US20090054408 * Sep 6, 2005 Feb 26, 2009 Bell Ian M Monocyclic anilide spirolactam cgrp receptor antagonists
US20100160334 * Mar 5, 2010 Jun 24, 2010 Bell Ian M Tricyclic anilide spirolactam cgrp receptor antagonists
US20100179166 * Jun 2, 2008 Jul 15, 2010 Ian Bell Carboxamide heterocyclic cgrp receptor antagonists
US20120122899 * Nov 10, 2011 May 17, 2012 Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. Piperidinone carboxamide azaindane cgrp receptor antagonists
US20120122900 * Nov 10, 2011 May 17, 2012 Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. Piperidinone carboxamide azaindane cgrp receptor antagonists
US20120122911 * Nov 10, 2011 May 17, 2012 Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. Piperidinone carboxamide azaindane cgrp receptor antagonists
Reference
1 * See also references of EP2849568A4
Citing Patent Filing date Publication date Applicant Title
CN105037210A * May 27, 2015 Nov 11, 2015 江苏大学 Alpha,beta-dehydrogenated-alpha-amino acid synthesis method
US9688660 Oct 28, 2016 Jun 27, 2017 Heptares Therapeutics Limited CGRP receptor antagonists
US9802935 Oct 28, 2016 Oct 31, 2017 Heptares Therapeutics Limited CGRP receptor antagonists
US9808457 Oct 28, 2016 Nov 7, 2017 Heptares Therapeutics Limited CGRP receptor antagonists
Patent ID

Patent Title

Submitted Date

Granted Date

US2016346214 TABLET FORMULATION FOR CGRP ACTIVE COMPOUNDS
2015-01-30
US9850246 Process for Making CGRP Receptor Antagonists
2015-09-15
2016-05-12
US9499545 PIPERIDINONE CARBOXAMIDE AZAINDANE CGRP RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTS
2014-09-12
2015-01-01
US9487523 PROCESS FOR MAKING CGRP RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTS
2013-09-19
2015-02-05
US9174989 Process for making CGRP receptor antagonists
2013-03-12
2015-11-03
Patent ID

Patent Title

Submitted Date

Granted Date

US8481556 Piperidinone carboxamide azaindane CGRP receptor antagonists
2011-11-10
2013-07-09
US8754096 Piperidinone carboxamide azaindane CGRP receptor antagonists
2011-11-10
2014-06-17
US8912210 Piperidinone carboxamide azaindane CGRP receptor antagonists
2011-11-10
2014-12-16
US2017027925 PIPERIDINONE CARBOXAMIDE AZAINDANE CGRP RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTS
2016-10-14
US2016346198 NOVEL DISINTEGRATION SYSTEMS FOR PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS
2015-02-04

////////////////Atogepant, атогепант أتوجيبانت 阿托吉泮 , PHASE 3, MERCK, ALLERGAN, 

CC1C(CC(C(=O)N1CC(F)(F)F)NC(=O)C2=CC3=C(CC4(C3)C5=C(NC4=O)N=CC=C5)N=C2)C6=C(C=CC(=C6F)F)F

Mavacamten


imgMavacamten.pngImage result for Mavacamten

Mavacamten

SAR-439152; SAR 439152; SAR439152; MYK-461; MYK 461; MYK461; Mavacamten

(S)-3-isopropyl-6-((1-phenylethyl)amino)pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione

cas 1642288-47-8
Chemical Formula: C15H19N3O2
Molecular Weight: 273.336

  1. UNII-QX45B99R3J
  2. QX45B99R3J
  3. HCM 1; MYK-461; SAR-439152

Mavacamten, also known as SAR-439152 and MYK-461, is a myosin inhibitor potentially for the treatment of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. SAR-439152 reduces contractility by decreasing the adenosine triphosphatase activity of the cardiac myosin heavy chain.

Innovator – MyoKardia in collaboration with Sanofi

Treatment of symptomatic obstructive HCM (oHCM), Phase 3

  • Originator MyoKardia
  • Class Cardiovascular therapies; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action Myosin inhibitors
  • Orphan Drug Status Yes – Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Highest Development Phases

  • Phase III Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Most Recent Events

  • 30 May 2018 Phase-III clinical trials in Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in USA (PO) (NCT03470545)
  • 08 May 2018 MyoKardia plans a long-term extension (LTE) trial of patients who complete the phase III EXPLORER-HCM or the phase II MAVERICK-HCM trial for Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy by the end of 2018
  • 26 Apr 2018 MyoKardia initiates the PIONEER-OLE trial (an extension trial of phase II PIONEER trial) for Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in USA (PO) (NCT03496168)
 Image result for Mavacamten
SYN CONSTRUCTION
Figure US09585883-20170307-C00005
Figure US09585883-20170307-C00006
Figure US09585883-20170307-C00007
Figure US09585883-20170307-C00008
PATENT
Current Assignee MyoKardia Inc Original AssigneeMyoKardia Inc
Priority date 2013-06-21

Example 1 Preparation of (S)-3-Isopropyl-6-((1-phenylethyl)amino)pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione

Figure US09585883-20170307-C00005

Compound 1.1. Isopropylurea. To a stirred solution of isopropylamine (15.3 g, 0.258 mol, 1.0 equiv) in CH2Cl(200 mL) under argon at 0° C. was added dropwise trimethylsilyl isocyanate (30 g, 0.26 mol, 1.0 equiv). The resulting mixture was allowed to reach ambient temperature and stirred overnight. After cooling to 0° C., CH3OH (100 mL) was added dropwise. The resulting solution was stirred for 2 hours (h) at room temperature and then concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude residue was recrystallized from CH3OH:Et2O (1:20) to yield 15.4 g (58%) the title compound as a white solid. LC/MS: m/z (ES+) 103 (M+H)+.

Figure US09585883-20170307-C00006

Compound 1.2. 1-Isopropyl barbituric acid. To a stirred solution of 1.1 (14.4 g, 0.14 mol, 1.00 equiv) in CH3OH (500 mL) were added dimethyl malonate (19.55 g, 0.148 mol, 1.05 equiv) and sodium methoxide (18.9 g, 0.35 mol, 2.50 equiv). The resulting mixture was stirred overnight at 65° C. After cooling to ambient temperature and then to 0° C., the pH was carefully adjusted to 3 using aqueous concentrated HCl. The resulting mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was taken up in EtOH (200 mL) and filtered. The filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure and the residue was purified by silica gel column chromatography using CH2Cl2/CH3OH (20:1) as eluent to yield 16.8 g (50%) of the title compound as a white solid. LC/MS: m/z (ES+) 171 (M+H)+1 1H-NMR (300 MHz, d6-DMSO): δ 11.19 (s, 1H), 4.83 (m, 1H), 3.58 (s, 2H), 1.32 (d, J=6.0 Hz, 6H).

Figure US09585883-20170307-C00007

Compound 1.3. 6-chloro-3-isopropylpyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione. To a 100-mL round-bottom flask containing compound 1.2 (11.4 g, 66.99 mmol, 1.00 equiv) under argon were added triethylbenzylammonium chloride (21.3 g, 93.51 mmol, 1.40 equiv) and POCl(30 mL). The resulting mixture was stirred overnight at 50° C. After cooling to room temperature, the mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was dissolved in CH2Cl(150 mL) followed by slow addition of H2O (100 mL). The phases were separated and the organic layer was washed with H2O (100 mL), dried with anhydrous Na2SO4, and concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude residue was purified by silica gel column chromatography using EtOAc/petroleum ether (1:1) as eluent to yield 5.12 g (40%) of the title compound as a light yellow solid. 1H-NMR (300 MHz, d6-DMSO): δ 12.22 (s, 1H), 5.88 (s, 1H), 4.95 (m, 1H), 1.34 (d, J=6.0 Hz, 6H).

Figure US09585883-20170307-C00008

Compound 1. (S)-3-Isopropyl-6-((1-phenylethyl)amino)pyrimidine-2, 4(1H,3H)-dione. To a solution of 6-chloro-3-isopropylpyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione (1.3, 1.0 g, 5.31 mmol) in 1,4-dioxane (20 mL) was added (S)-α-methylbenzylamine (Sigma-Aldrich, 1.43 g, 11.7 mmol, 2.2 equiv). The reaction mixture was stirred at 80° C. for 24 h. After cooling to ambient temperature, the mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure. The residual was taken up in EtOAc (70 mL) and washed with aqueous 1N HCl (2×50 mL) and brine (40 mL). The organic layer was dried with anhydrous Na2SOand then concentrated under reduced pressure to half the original volume to yield a precipitate. Hexane (20 mL) was added and the mixture was stirred at room temperature. The resulting solid was collected by filtration, washed with hexane (20 mL), and dried to yield 1.0 g (69%) of the title compound as a white solid. LC/MS: m/z (ES+) 274 (M+H)+1H-NMR (400 MHz, d6-DMSO): δ 9.77 (s, 1H), 7.32 (m, 4H), 7.24 (m, 1H), 6.50 (d, J=6.8 Hz, 1H), 4.87 (m, 1H), 4.52 (m, 1H), 4.31 (d, J=6.8 Hz, 1H), 1.37 (m, 3H), 1.24 (m, 6H). 1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) δ ppm 7.39-7.20 (m, 5H), 5.01 (m, 1H), 4.48 (m, 1H), 1.49 (d, J=6.7 Hz, 3H), 1.36 (m, 6H).

PATENT

https://patents.google.com/patent/US9181200/zh-CN

Genetic (heritable) hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) comprises a group of highly penetrant, monogenic, autosomal dominant myocardial diseases. HCM is caused by one or more of over 1,000 known point mutations in any one of the structural protein genes contributing to the functional unit of myocardium, the sarcomere. About 1 in 500 individuals in the general population are found to have left ventricular hypertrophy unexplained by other known causes (e.g., hypertension or valvular disease), and many of these can be shown to have HCM, once other heritable (e.g., lysosomal storage diseases), metabolic, or infiltrative causes have been excluded.

[0004] Sarcomere gene mutations that cause HCM are highly penetrant, but there is wide variability in clinical severity and clinical course. Some genotypes are associated with a more malignant course, but there is considerable variability between and even within families carrying the same mutation. Sex differences have also been noted, with male patients generally more severely affected than female patients. While many patients with HCM report minimal or no symptoms for extended periods of time, HCM is a progressive disease with a significant cumulative burden of morbidity. Symptoms of effort intolerance predominate, and can be exacerbated by exercise and other maneuvers that increase heart rate and/or decrease preload. As with many other disorders, symptoms tend to worsen with age. By far the most prevalent clinical burden for patients with HCM is exertional dyspnea, which limits their activities of daily living and can be debilitating.

[0005] Patients with HCM are often symptomatic in the absence of documented hemodynamic abnormalities like left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (with or without mitral regurgitation). Patients’ symptoms of exertional dyspnea can rapidly worsen with the onset of atrial fibrillation, a common complication of HCM that can precipitate acute pulmonary edema that increases the risk of systemic arterial thromboembolic disease, including stroke. Other adverse events associated with HCM include intolerance of hypovolemia or hypervolemia, and syncope. Concomitant coronary artery disease may confer a higher risk of acute coronary syndromes than in patients without HCM. Sudden cardiac death (SCD) in patients with HCM is both uncommon and difficult to predict but is a leading cause of non-traumatic death in young adults. For survivors of SCD, ICD placement is standard practice, and in other HCM patients risk profiling, while imprecise, is used to identify those for whom ICD placement for primary prevention is deemed prudent.

[0006] Medical therapy for HCM is limited to the treatment of symptoms and does not address the fundamental, underlying cause of disease – disruptions in normal sarcomere function. Currently available therapies are variably effective in alleviating symptoms but typically show decreased efficacy with increasing disease duration. Patients are thus empirically managed with beta-blockers, non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers, and/or disopyramide. None of these agents carry labeled indications for treating HCM, and essentially no rigorous clinical trial evidence is available to guide their use. Compounding this unfortunate situation is the fact that no new medical therapies for HCM have been identified for many years. For patients with hemodynamically significant outflow tract obstruction (resting gradient >30mmHg), in appropriately selected patients surgical myectomy or alcohol septal ablation is usually required to alleviate the hemodynamic obstruction. Provided are new therapeutic agents and methods that remedy the long-felt need for improved treatment of HCM and related cardiac disorders.

Example 1. Preparation of (61-3-Isopropyl-6-((1-phenylethyl) amino) pyrimidine-2, 4(1H,3H)-dione.

[0072] Compound 1.1. Isopropylurea. To a stirred solution of isopropylamine (15.3 g, 0.258 mol, 1.0 equiv) in CH2Cl2 (200 mL) under argon at 0 °C was added dropwise trimethylsilyl isocyanate (30 g, 0.26 mol, 1.0 equiv). The resulting mixture was allowed to reach ambient temperature and stirred overnight. After cooling to 0 °C, CH3OH (100 mL) was added dropwise. The resulting solution was stirred for 2 hours (h) at room temperature and then concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude residue was recrystallized from CH3OH:Et2O (1 :20) to yield 15.4 g (58%) the title compound as a white solid. LC/MS: m/z (ES+) 103 (M+H)+.

[0073] Compound 1.2. 1-Isopropyl barbituric acid. To a stirred solution of 1.1 (14.4 g, 0.14 mol, 1.00 equiv) in CH3OH (500 mL) were added dimethyl malonate (19.55 g, 0.148 mol, 1.05 equiv) and sodium methoxide (18.9 g, 0.35 mol, 2.50 equiv). The resulting mixture was stirred overnight at 65 °C. After cooling to ambient temperature and then to 0 °C, the pH was carefully adjusted to 3 using aqueous concentrated HCl . The resulting mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was taken up in EtOH (200 mL) and filtered. The filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure and the residue was purified by silica gel column chromatography using CH2Cl2/CH3OH (20: 1) as eluent to yield 16.8 g (50%) of the title compound as a white solid. . LC/MS: m/z (ES+) 171 (M+H)+.1 1H-NMR (300 MHz, de-DMSO): 5 11.19 (s, 1H), 4.83 (m, 1H), 3.58 (s, 2H), 1.32 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 6H).

[0074] Compound 1.3. 6-chloro-3-isopropylpyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione. To a 100-mL round-bottom flask containing compound 1.2 (11.4 g, 66.99 mmol, 1.00 equiv) under argon were added triethylbenzylammonium chloride (21.3 g, 93.51 mmol, 1.40 equiv) and POCl3 (30 mL). The resulting mixture was stirred overnight at 50 °C. After cooling to room temperature, the mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was dissolved in CH2Cl2 (150 mL) followed by slow addition of H2O (100 mL). The phases were separated and the organic layer was washed with H2O (100 mL), dried with anhydrous Na2SO4 , and concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude residue was purified by silica gel column chromatography using EtO Ac/petroleum ether (1 : 1) as eluent to yield 5.12 g (40%) of the title compound as a light yellow solid. 1H-NMR (300 MHz, d6-DMSO): δ 12.22 (s, 1H), 5.88 (s, 1H), 4.95 (m, 1H), 1.34 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 6H).

[0075] Compound 1. (S)-3-Isopropyl-6-((1-phenylethyl) amino) pyrimidine-2,

4(1H,3H)-dione. To a solution of 6-chloro-3-isopropylpyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione (1.3,

1.0 g, 5.31 mmol) in 1,4-dioxane (20 mL) was added (S)-a-methylbenzylamine (Sigma- Aldrich, 1.43 g, 11.7 mmol, 2.2 equiv). The reaction mixture was stirred at 80 °C for 24 h. After cooling to ambient temperature, the mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure. The residual was taken up in EtOAc (70 mL) and washed with aqueous IN C1 (2 x 50 mL) and brine (40 mL). The organic layer was dried with anhydrous Na2SC”4 and then

concentrated under reduced pressure to half the original volume to yield a precipitate.

Hexane (20 mL) was added and the mixture was stirred at room temperature. The resulting solid was collected by filtration, washed with hexane (20 mL), and dried to yield 1.0 g (69%) of the title compound as a white solid. LC/MS: m/z (ES+) 274 (M+H)+. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, de-DMSO): δ 9.77 (s, 1H), 7.32 (m, 4H), 7.24 (m, 1H), 6.50 (d, J= 6.8 Hz, 1H), 4.87 (m,

1H), 4.52 (m, 1H), 4.31 (d, J=6.8 Hz, 1H), 1.37 (m, 3H ), 1.24 (m, 6H). 1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) δ ppm 7.39-7.20 (m, 5H), 5.01 (m, 1H), 4.48 (m, 1H), 1.49 (d, J = 6.7 Hz, 3H), 1.36 (m, 6H).

Patent ID

Patent Title

Submitted Date

Granted Date

US9585883 PYRIMIDINEDIONE COMPOUNDS
2015-10-14
2016-02-04
US9181200 PYRIMIDINEDIONE COMPOUNDS
2014-06-19
2014-12-25

Image result for Mavacamten

REFERENCES

1: Green EM, Wakimoto H, Anderson RL, Evanchik MJ, Gorham JM, Harrison BC, Henze M, Kawas R, Oslob JD, Rodriguez HM, Song Y, Wan W, Leinwand LA, Spudich JA, McDowell RS, Seidman JG, Seidman CE. A small-molecule inhibitor of sarcomere contractility suppresses hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in mice. Science. 2016 Feb 5;351(6273):617-21. doi: 10.1126/science.aad3456. PubMed PMID: 26912705; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4784435.

/////////////////Mavacamten, SAR-439152, SAR 439152, SAR439152, MYK-461, MYK 461, MYK461, phase 3

O=C1N(C(C)C)C(C=C(N[C@H](C2=CC=CC=C2)C)N1)=O

TIPIFARNIB, типифарниб , تيبيفارنيب , 替匹法尼 ,


Tipifarnib.svgDB04960.pngChemSpider 2D Image | tipifarnib | C27H22Cl2N4O

str1

TIPIFARNIB

R-115777, NSC-702818

Categories

UNIIMAT637500A

CAS number 192185-72-1 +form
192185-68-5 (racemate)
192185-69-6 (racemic; fumarate)
192185-70-9 (racemic; diHCl)

(+)-(R)-6-[1-Amino-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(1-methylimidazol-5-yl)methyl]-4-(3-chlorophenyl)-1-methylquinolin-2(1H)-one

2(1H)-Quinolinone, 6-[(R)-amino(4-chlorophenyl)(1-methyl-1H-imidazol-5-yl)methyl]-4-(3-chlorophenyl)-1-methyl-

Weight Average: 489.396
Chemical Formula C27H22Cl2N4O

типифарниб [Russian] [INN]
تيبيفارنيب [Arabic] [INN]
替匹法尼 [Chinese] [INN]
(R)-(+)-R115777
(R)-6-(Amino(4-chlorophenyl)(1-methyl-1H-imidazol-5-yl)methyl)-4-(3-chlorophenyl)-1-methyl-2(1H)-quinolinone
(R)-6-(amino(4-chlorophenyl)(1-methyl-1H-imidazol-5-yl)methyl)-4-(3-chlorophenyl)-1-methylquinolin-2(1H)-one
2 (1H))-Quinolinone,6-(amino(4-chlorophenyl)(1-methyl-1H-imidazol-5-yl)methyl)-4-(3-chlorophenyl)-1-methyl-, 2(1H )-quinolinone
Title: Tipifarnib
CAS Registry Number: 192185-72-1; 192185-68-5 (unspecified stereo)
CAS Name: 6-[(R)-Amino(4-chlorophenyl)(1-methyl-1H-imidazol-5-yl)methyl]-4-(3-chlorophenyl)-1-methyl-2(1H)-quinolinone
Manufacturers’ Codes: R-115777
Trademarks: Zarnestra (Janssen)
Molecular Formula: C27H22Cl2N4O
Molecular Weight: 489.40
Percent Composition: C 66.26%, H 4.53%, Cl 14.49%, N 11.45%, O 3.27%
Literature References: Farnesyl transferase inhibitor. Prepn: M. G. Venet et al., WO 9721701eidemUS 6037350 (1997, 2000 both to Janssen). Review of syntheses: P. R. Angibaud et al., Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2004, 479-486. Inhibition of farnesyl protein transferase and antitumor effects in vivo: D. W. End et al., Cancer Res. 61, 131 (2001). Clinical pharmacology and pharmacokinetics: J. Zujewski et al., J. Clin. Oncol. 18, 927 (2000). Accelerator mass spec determn in biological samples: R. C. Garner et al., Drug Metab. Dispos. 30, 823 (2002). Clinical evaluation in hematologic malignancies: J. Cortes et al., Blood 101, 1692 (2003). Review of clinical experience: P. Norman, Curr. Opin. Invest. Drugs 3, 313-319 (2002).
Properties: Crystals from 2-propanol, mp 234°. [a]D20 +22.86° (c = 0.98 in methanol).
Melting point: mp 234°
Optical Rotation: [a]D20 +22.86° (c = 0.98 in methanol)
Therap-Cat: Antineoplastic.
Keywords: Antineoplastic; Farnesyl Transferase Inhibitors.

PRODUCT PATENT

WO 9721701

Tipifarnib (R-115777) is a substance that is being studied in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and other types of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called farnesyltransferase inhibitors. It is also called Zarnestra. In June 2005, the FDA issued a Not Approvable Letter for Zarnestra.

Investigated for use/treatment in colorectal cancer, leukemia (myeloid), pancreatic cancer, and solid tumors.

Drug had been granted orphan drug designation by the FDA for the treatment of AML in 2004. In 2005, the Committee for Orphan Medicinal Products of the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) adopted a positive opinion on orphan medicinal product designation for the drug. In 2014, Eiger BioPharmaceuticals licensed the product for worldwide development for the treatment of viral diseases and Kura Oncology licensed development and commercialization rights for the treatment cancer indications.

Pharmacodynamics

R115777, a nonpeptidomimetic farnesyl transferase inhibitor, suppresses the growth of human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines. This growth inhibition is associated with modulation in the phosphorylation levels of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)

Tipifarnib (INN,[1]:213 proposed trade name Zarnestra) is a farnesyltransferase inhibitor that is being investigated in patients 65 years of age and older with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML). It inhibits the Ras kinase in a post-translational modification step before the kinase pathway becomes hyperactive. It inhibits prenylation of the CaaX tail motif, which allows Ras to bind to the membrane where it is active. Without this step the protein cannot function.

It is also being tested in clinical trials in patients in certain stages of breast cancer.[2] It is also investigated as a treatment for multiple myeloma.[3]

For treatment of progressive plexiform neurofibromas associated with neurofibromatosis type I, it successfully passed phase I clinical trials but was suspended (NCT00029354) in phase II.[4][5] The compound was discovered by and is under investigation by Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research & Development, L.L.C, with registration number R115777.Approval process

Tipifarnib was submitted to the FDA by Johnson & Johnson for the treatment of AML in patients aged 65 and over with a new drug application (NDA) to the FDA on January 24, 2005.

In June 2005, the FDA issued a “not approvable” letter for tipifarnib.[6]Progeria

Confocal microscopy photographs of the descending aortas of two 15-month-old progeria mice, one untreated (left picture) and the other treated with the farnsyltransferase inhibitor drug tipifarnib (right picture). The microphotographs show prevention of the vascular smooth muscle cell loss that is otherwise rampant by this age. Staining was smooth muscle alpha-actin (green), lamins A/C (red) and DAPI (blue). (Original magnification, ×40)

It was shown on a mouse model of Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome that dose-dependent administration of tipifarnib can significantly prevent both the onset of the cardiovascular phenotype as well as the late progression of existing cardiovascular disease.[7]

PATENT

TIPIFARNIB BY SOLIPHARMA

WO-2018103027

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2018103027&recNum=1&maxRec=&office=&prevFilter=&sortOption=&queryString=&tab=FullText

Crystalline form (I, II, III and IV) of tipifarnib . Useful for the treatment and/or prevention of abnormal cell growth diseases such as lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, colon cancer, melanoma, neuroblastoma or glioma. first filing from Solipharma claiming tipifarnib which was developing by Kura Oncology , under license from Johnson & Johnson subsidiary J&JPRD (now Janssen Research & Development).

Tipifarnib is a farnesyltransferase inhibitor that acts on H-RAS or N-RAS mutant cells and has antiproliferative effects. It can block the farnesylation modification of RAS protein, thereby disturbing its localization on the inner surface of the plasma membrane and subsequent activation of downstream signaling pathways, and has an effective anti-tumor disease activity.
Tipifarny’s chemical name is (R)-(+)-6-[amino(4-chlorophenyl)(1-methyl-1H-imidazol-5-yl)methyl]-4-(3-chloro) Phenyl) 1-methyl-2(1H)-quinolinone, English name Tipifarnib; its chemical structure is shown below:
The patent document CN1101392C reports the preparation method of typrivadina, which is a racemate and does not disclose any characterization data; the patent document CN100567292C reports the preparation method of typ fenfanide, which is a mixture of certain enantiomeric excesses. Only the melting point of the mixture is mentioned; the patent document CN1246318C reports the preparation method of typifanidin and the method for the resolution and purification of tepifefene in its enantiomers. The present inventors have found that the form of typifene prepared according to the method provided by CN1246318C is in the crystalline state (herein referred to as “Form A”), but it has a defect of low crystallinity and poor stability of the crystal, and the patent The typifanibs reported in the documents CN1101392C and CN100567292C are both mixtures and lack the characteristic data accurately reflecting their physical form and cannot be fully disclosed.
PATENT

Cyclization of 3-(3-chlorophenyl)-N-phenyl-2-propenamide by means of polyphosphoric acid (PPA) at 100 °C gives 4-(3-chlorophenyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolin-2-one ,

Which is condensed with 4-chlorobenzoic acid by means of PPA at 140 °C to yield 6-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-4-(3-chlorophenyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolin-2-one

The dehydrogenation of compound  by means of Br2 in bromobenzene at 160 °C affords 6-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-4-(3-chlorophenyl)quinolin-2-one,

Which is N-alkyalted with iodomethane in the presence of BnNMe3Cl and NaOH in THF to provide 6-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-4-(3-chlorophenyl)-1-methylquinolin-2-one.

Condensation of compound  with 1-methylimidazole  by means of BuLi in THF gives the triaryl carbinol (N-1),

Which is finally treated with NH3 in THF to afford the target Tipifarnib, R-115777 .

Scheme SHOWING COMPLICATIONS

PATENT

WO 2005105782

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2005105782

Farnesyltransf erase inhibitors block the main post-translational modification of the Ras protein, thus interfering with its localization to the inner surface of the plasma
10 membrane and subsequent activation of the downstream effectors. Although initially developed as a strategy to target Ras in cancer, farnesyltransferase inhibitors have
subsequently been acknowledged as acting by additional and more complex
mechanisms that may extend beyond Ras involving GTP-binding proteins, kinases,
centromere-binding proteins and probably other f arnesylated proteins.
15
A particular farnesyltransferase inhibitor is described in WO 97/21701, namely (R)-(+)- 6-[amino(4-chlorophenyl)(l-methyl-lH-imidazol-5-yl)methyl]-4-(3-chlorophenyl)-l- methyl-2(liϊ)-quinolinone. The absolute stereochemical configuration of the compound was not determined in the experiments described in the above-mentioned patent
20 specification, but the compound was identified by the prefix “(B)” to indicate that it was the second compound isolated from column chromatography. The compound thus obtained has been found to have the (R)-(+)-configuration. This compound will be
referred to below by its published code number Rl 15777 and has the following formula

Rl 15777 (Tipifamib) is a potent, orally active inhibitor of f arnesylprotein transferase.
It is one of the most advanced of the farnesylprotein transferase inhibitors currently
reported to be in clinical development, being one of the agents that have progressed to phase III studies.
30 Rl 15777 has been found to have very potent activity against neoplaslic diseases.
Antineoplastic activity in solid tumors, such as breast cancer, as well as in haematological malignancies, such as leukemia, have been observed. Also combination studies have been carried out demonstrating that R 115777 can be safely combined with several highly active anticancer drugs.

In WO 01/53289, the racemates (±) (4-(3-chloro-phenyl)-6-[(6-chloro-pyridin-3-yl)-(4-methoxy-benzylamino)-(3-methyl-3-f: -imidazol-4-yl)-methyl]-l-cyclopropylmethyl-liϊ-quinolin-2-one (racemate 1) and (±) 4-(3-chloro-phenyl)-6-[(6-chloro-pyridin-3-yl)-[(4-methoxy-benzylidene)-amino]-(3-methyl-3jr7-imidazol-4-yl)-methyl]-l-cyclopropylmethyl-liϊ-quinolin-2-one (racemate 2) are prepared.

racemate 1 racemate 2

After chiral molecule separation using column chromatography, either the benzylamino or the benzilidine moiety of the resulting (+) and /or (-) enantiomers are converted to an amino group under acidic conditions.

The synthesis of Rl 15777 as originally described in WO 97/21701, is presented in scheme 1.

Herein, in step 1, the intermediate 1-methyl imidazole in tetrahydrofuran, is mixed with a solution of ra-butyllithium in a hexane solvent to which is added chlorotriethylsilane (triethylsilyl chloride), followed by a further addition of ra-butyllithium in hexane, the resulting mixture being cooled to -78°C before the addition of a solution of a compound of formula (I), i.e. 6-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-4-(3-chlorophenyl)-l-methyl-2(12ϊ)-quinolinone in tetrahydrofuran. The reaction mixture is subsequently brought to room temperature, and then hydrolysed, extracted with ethyl acetate and the organic layer worked up to obtain a compound of formula (II), i.e. (±)-6-[hydroxy(4-chlorophenyl) (l-methyl-liϊ-imidazol-5-yl)methyl]-4-(3-chlorophenyl)-l-methyl-2(lia- )-quinolinone.

In step 2, the hydroxy compound of formula (II) is chlorinated with thionylchloride to form a compound of formula (III), i.e. (±)-6-[chloro(4-chlorophenyl)(l -methyl- liJ-imidazol-5-yl)methyl]-4-(3-chloroρhenyl)-l-methyl-2(li3)-quinolinone.

In step 3, the chloro compound of formula (III) is treated, with NEaL OH in
tetrahydrofuran to form the amino compound of formula (IV), i.e. (±)-6-[amino(4-chlorophenyl)(l-methyl-l -imidazol-5-yl)methyl]-4-(3-chlorophenyl)-l-methyl- 2(l/J)-quinolinone.

In step 4, the amino compound of formula (IV) is separated into its enantiomers by chiral column chromatography over Chiracel OD (25 cm; eluent: 100% ethanol; flow: 0.5 ml/rnin; wavelength: 220 nm). The pure (B)-fractions are collected and recrystallised from 2-propanol resulting in Rl 15777, the compound of formula (V).

Scheme 1

However, the procedure described in WO97/21701 has a number of disadvantages. For example, during the first step, the procedure results in the undesired formation of a corresponding compound of formula (XI), i.e. 6-[hydroxy(4-chlorophenyl) (1-methyl-lJrJ-imidazol-2-yl)methyl]-4-(3-chlorophenyl)-l-methyl-2(liϊ)-quinolinone)Jn which the imidazole ring is attached to the remainder of the molecule at the 2-position of the ring, instead of the desired 5-position. At the end of the procedure, this results in the formation of a compound of formula (XII), i.e.6-[amino(4-chlorophenyl)(l-methyl-lϊJ-imidazol-2-yl)methyl]-4-(3-chlorophenyl)-l-methyl-2(lβ -quinolinone.

(XI) CXH)

The use of n-butyllithium during the conversion of a compound of formula (I) in a compound of formula (II) is also undesirable in a commercial process in view of its pyrophoric nature and the formation of butane, a flammable gas, as the by-product. Also the carrying out of this process step, at a temperature as low as -78°C, is inconvenient and costly on a commercial scale.
Finally, the purification of compound (V) using chiral chromatography is expensive and disadvantageous in view of the large amounts of solvent needed and the specialised equipment required to perform a large scale chiral chromatography.

Another process for the synthesis of Rl 15777 as described in WO 02/072574, is presented in scheme 2.

Herein, in step 1, 1-methyl imidazole in tetrahydrofuran is mixed with a solution of n-hexyllithium in a hexane solvent to which is added tri-iso-butylsilyl chloride, followed by a further addition of n-hexyllithium in hexane. The compound of formula (I) in tetrahydrofuran is then added to the reaction mixture, keeping the temperature between -5°C and 0°C. The resulting product of formula (II) is isolated by salt formation.

In step 2, the chlorination reaction is effected by treatment of the compound of formula (II) with thionyl chloride in 1 ,3-dimethyl-2-imidazolidinone.

In step 3, the chloro compound of formula (III) is treated with a solution of ammonia in methanol. After the addition of water, the compound of formula (IV), precipitates and can be isolated.

In step 4, the compound of formula (IV) can be reacted with L-(-)-dibenzoyl tartaric acid (DBTA) to form the diastereomeric tartrate salt with formula (VI) i.e. R-(-)-6-[amino(4-chlorophenyl)(l-methyl-ljt-imidazol-5-yl)methyl]-4-(3-chlorophenyl)-l-methyl-2(l Z)-quinolinone [R-(R*,RH!)]-2,3-bis(benzoyloxy)butanedioate (2:3).

Finally, in step 5, the compound of formula (VI) is treated with aqueous ammonium hydroxide, to form the crude compound of formula (V) which is then purified by recrystallisation from ethanol to the pure compound (V).

(VI) (V)
Scheme 2

However, in view of the fact that water is present during the third and the fifth step of this procedure, there is significant formation of the hydroxy compound of formula (II).

This is important because the compounds of formula (II) and (V) are difficult to separate. In order to keep the quality of the final product (V) as high as possible, it is critical to limit the formation of compound (II).

The major drawback of the above described processes is the generation of large amounts of the other enantiomer that subsequently must be recycled.

Attempts were made to develop processes that solve this problem. One of the possibilities was to enter chirality in the first step of the procedure. A first study was carried out in order to determine if the conversion of an enantiomer of the hydroxy compound of formula (II) into a compound of formula (IV) could preserve chirality. Several experimental conditions have been tested starting with an enantiomer of a compound of formula (II), but racemisation always occurred.

Another possibility was to try entering chirality by adding N-methylimidazole under the reaction conditions described herein above under steps 1 of WO97/21701 and WO 02/072574, to an N-Ct-6alkyl-(S(R))-sulfinylketimine prepared from the compound of formula (I). It turned out that the resulting N-Cι-6alkyl-(S(R))-sulfinylamide of the compound of formula (I) was in the desired R-configuration and could be used for conversion into compound (V).
These results are completely unexpected, especially in view of Shaw et al.
(Tetrahedron Letters: 42, 7173-7176). Already in 2001, Shaw et al. disclosed an asymmetric synthesis process for the production of α-aryl-α-heteroaryl alkylamines using organometallic additions to N-tert-butanesulfinyl ketimines. However, the configuration and the yield of the final enantiomer formed with this process, was depending on the configuration of the N-tert-butanesulfinyl moiety of the ketimines, the composition of the aryl and/or the heteroaryl moieties of the ketimines, as well as on the organo- and the metallic moiety of the organometallic reagent. Furthermore, the use of heteroaryllithium reagents were described in this document, as being in particular disadvantageous, in view of their instability.

Thus the present invention solves the above described problems. It provides a new process for the preparation of the compound of formula (V) without the need to recycle one of the enantiomers while minimising the formation of undesired isomers and impurities and under conditions which offer economic advantages for operation on a commercial scale.

A. Preparation of intermediates

Example AJ
a) Preparation of /V-r(4-chlorophenyl)((,4- -chlorophenyl’)-l-methyl-l f-quinolin-2-one’)-6-yDmethylenel-2-methyl-2-propanesulfinamide TSfR-)! (com ound 15)


Ti(OEt) (0.0122 mol) was added to a mixture of compound (I) (0.0024 mol) and (R)-(+)-2-methyl-2-propane-sulfinamide (0.0024 mol) in DCM (15ml). The mixture was stirred and refluxed for 4 days, then cooled to room temperature. Ice water was added. The mixture was filtered over celite. Celite was washed with DCM. The organic layer was extracted with saturated sodium chloride. The organic layer was separated, dried (MgS04), filtered, and the solvent was evaporated. This fraction was purified by column chromatography over silica gel (40 μm) (eluent: DCM/MeOH 98/2). The pure fractions were collected and the solvent was evaporated, yielding 0.95g of compound 15 _ (76%), melting point: 115°C.

b) Preparation of (R)-N-r(4-chlorophenyl1((4-(3-chlorophenyl)-l-methyl-lic/-quinoline- 2-one -6-ylVl-methyl-l/j-imidazole-5-yl’)methyll-2-methyl-2-propanesulfinamide rS(R)l (compound 161

(compound 16)

n-Butyllithium (1.34ml, 0.002 mol) was added dropwise at -70°C to a mixture of 1-methylimidazole (0.0021 mol) in THF (4.5ml). The mixture was stirred at -70°C for 15 minutes. Triethylsilyl chloride (0.0021 mol) was added. The mixture was stirred at -70°C for 15 minutes. n-Butyllithium (1.34ml, 0.0021 mol) was added dropwise. The mixture was stirred at -70°C for 15 minutes. A solution of compound 15 (0.0019 mol) in THF (5.5ml) was added. The mixture was stirred at -70°C for 45 minutes, poured out into ice water and extracted with EtOAc. The organic layer was separated, dried (MgS04), filtered, and the solvent was evaporated. The residue was purified by column chromatography over silica gel (15-40 m)(eluent: DCM/MeOH/ΝEUOH 95/5/0.5), yielding 0.59g (52%) of compound 16, diastereomeric excess 24%.

c) Preparation of the (B)-diastereomer (compound 18) of compound 16

(compound 18)

Compound 16 was purified by column chromatography over silica gel (15-40μm) (eluent: DCM/MeOH/NHtOH 95/5/0.5). Two fractions were collected and the solvent was evaporated, yielding 0.304g diastereomer (B) (compound 18) (27%), melting point 174°C.

Example A.2
a) Preparation of jV-r(4-chlorophenyl¥(4-(3-chlorophenyl)-l-methyl-l JJ-quinolin-2-one)-6-yl)methylene1-4-methylphenylsulfιnamidesulfιnamide fS(S)l (compound 17)

(compound 17)

Ti(OEt)4 (0.0122 mol) was added to a mixture of compound (I) (0.0123 mol) and (S)-(+)-j5-toluenesulfinamide (0.0123 mol) in DCM (80ml). The mixture was stirred and refluxed for 4 days, then cooled to room temperature. Satured sodium chloride was added. The mixture was filtered over celite. Celite was washed with DCM. The organic layer was separated, dried (MgS04), filtered, and the solvent was evaporated. A fraction was purified by column chromatography over silica gel (40 μm) (eluent: DCM MeOH 98/2). The fractions were collected and the solvent was evaporated, yielding 0.65g of pure compound 17 .

The pure compound N-[(4-chlorophenyl)((4-(3-chlorophenyl)-l-methyl-l-tf-quinolin-2-one)-6-yl)methylene]-2-methyl-2-propanesulfinamide [S(R)] can be obtained in an analogues way.

B. Preparation of final compounds

Example BJ
a Preparation of compound (V)

Hydrochloric acid in isopropanol was added to a solution of compound 16 (0.00003 mol) in methanol (0J ml). The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 30 minutes. The mixture was added to potassium carbonate (10%) on ice. The organic layer was separated, washed with a solution of saturated sodium chloride, dried (MgS04), filtered, and evaporated giving 0,017 g (100%) of compound (V), enantiomeric excess 22%, content of compound (II) < 1%.

PATENT

WO 2005105783

https://encrypted.google.com/patents/WO2005105783A1?cl=en

A. Preparation of intermediates

Example A.1

a) Preparation of N-r(4-chlorophenyl’)(l-methyl-lH-imidazol-5-yl)methylene)l-2- methyl-2-propanesulfinamide KSfl l (compound 25)

Figure imgf000016_0001

(compound 25) Ti(OEt)4 (0.0162 mol) was added to a mixture of (4-chlorophenyiχi-methyl-lH- imidazol-5-yl)methanone (0.0032 mol) and (R)-(+)-2-methyl-2-propane-sulfinamide (0.0032 mol) in DCE (7ml). The mixture was stirred and refluxed for 6 days, then cooled to room temperature. Ice water was added. The mixture was filtered over celite. Celite was washed with DCM. The organic layer was extracted with saturated sodium chloride. The organic layer was separated, dried (MgS04), filtered, and the solvent was evaporated. This fraction was purified by column chromatography over silica gel (40 μm) (eluent: DCM/MeOH/NH OH 97/3/0.5), yielding 0.475g of compound 25 (46%).

The compound N-[(4-chlorophenyl)(l-methyl-lH-imidazol-5-yl)methylene)]-2-methyl- 2-propanesulfinamide [(S(S)] can be obtained in an analogous way.

b) Preparation of N-r(4-chlorophenyl)((4-(3-chlorophenyl)-2-methoχy-quinoline-6- yl l-methyl-lH-imidazole-5-yl)methyn-2-methyl-2-propanesulfinamide TS(R)1 (compound 26)

Figure imgf000017_0001

(compound 26)

n-Butyllithium (0.00081 mol) in hexane, was added dropwise at -78°C to a mixture of 6-bromo-4-(3-chlorophenyl)-2-methoxy-quinoline (0.00081 mol) in THF (3 ml) under nitrogen flow. The mixture was stirred at -78°C for 30 minutes. A solution of compound 25 (0.00065 mol) in THF (0.6 ml) was added . The mixture was stirred at – 78°C for 1 hour and 30 minutes, poured out into ice water and extracted with EtOAc. The organic layer was separated, dried (MgS04), filtered, and the solvent was evaporated. This fraction was purified by column chromatography over silica gel (40μm)(eluent: DCM eOH/NB OH 97/3/0.1). The pure fractions were collected and the solvent was evaporated, yielding 0.138g (36 %) of compound 26, melting point 153°C.

The compound N-[(4-chlorophenyl)((4-(3-chlorophenyl)-2-methoxy-quinoline-6-yl)(l- methyl-lH-imidazole-5-yl)methyl]-2-methyl-2-propanesulfmamide [S(S)] can be obtained in an analogous way

c) Preparation of (S)-l-,4-chlorophenylV l-r4-(3-chlorophenylV2-methoxy-quinoline-6- yll-l-(l-methyl-l/J-imidazole-5-yl)-methylamine (compound 27)

Figure imgf000017_0002

(compound 27) Hydrochloric acid in isopropanol was added to a solution of compound 26 (0.000018 mol) in methanol (4.2 ml). The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 30 minutes. The mixture was added to potassium carbonate (10%) on ice and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic layer was separated, washed with a solution of saturated sodium chloride, dried (MgS0 ), filtered, and evaporated giving 0,086 g (100%) of compound 27, melting point 96°C, enantiomeric excess 88%. d) Preparation of (SV6-ramino(4-chlorophenyl¥l-methyl-l #-imidazol-5-yDmethyH-4- (3-chlorophenyD-lH)-quinorin-2-one (compound 28)

Figure imgf000018_0001

(compound 28) Compound 27 (0.00038 mol) in hydrochloric acid 3N (9.25 ml) and THF (9.25 ml), was stirred at 60°C for 24 hours and evaporated, giving 0,18 g (100%) of compound 28, melting point 210°C.

Example A.2

a) Preparation of N-r(4-chlorophenyl)(l-methyl-lH-imidazol-5-yl’)methylene)1-p-

Figure imgf000018_0002

(compound 29) Ti(OEt)4 (0.0419 mol) was added to a mixture of (4-chlorophenyl)(l-methyl-lH- imidazol-5-yl)methanone (0.0084 mol) and (S)-(+)-p-_toluenesulfinamide (0.0084 mol) in DCE (18ml). The mixture was stirred and refluxed for 7 days, then cooled to room temperature. Ice water was added. The mixture was filtered over celite. Celite was washed with DCM. The organic layer was extracted with saturated sodium chloride. The organic layer was separated, dried (MgS04), filtered, and the solvent was evaporated. This fraction was purified by column chromatography over silica gel (40 μm) (eluent: DCM/MeOH/ΝHiOH 97/3/0.5), yielding 1.15 g of compound 29 (38%).

The compound N-[(4-chlorophenyl)(l-methyl-lH-imidazol-5-yl)methylene)]-p- toluenesulfinamide [(S(R)] can be obtained in an analogues way. B. Preparation of final compounds

Example B.l a) Preparation of (S)-6-ramino(4-chlorophenyl)(l-methyl-lH-imidazol-5-yl)methyll-4-

Figure imgf000019_0001

Compound 28 (0.00038 mol) was added to a solution of THF (1.8 ml) and NaOH ION (1.8 ml). BTEAC (0.0019 mol) and methyliodide (0.00076 mol) were added and the mixture was stirred for 2 hours at room temperature. EtOAc was added. The organic layer was separated, dried (MgS04), filtered, and evaporated giving 0,149 g (83%) of compound 30, enantiomeric excess 86%.

PATENT

WO 02/072574

https://encrypted.google.com/patents/WO2002072574A1?cl=en

Preparation of compound (III):

110 ml of dry tetrahydrofuran was added to 7.6 ml of 1-methylimidazole (0.0946 mole) and the resulting solution cooled to -15°C.37.8 ml of n-hexyllithium 2.5 M in n-hexane (0.0946 mole) was added, while the temperature during addition was kept between – 5°C and 0°C. After addition, the reaction mixture was stirred for 15 minutes, while cooling to -12°C. 26.2 ml of tri-w o-butylsilyl chloride (0.0964 mole) was added, while the temperature during addition was kept between -5° and 0°C. After addition, the reaction mixture was stirred for 15 minutes, while cooling to -13°C. 37.2 ml of n- hexyllithium 2.5 M in n-hexane (0.0930 mole) was added, while the temperature during addition was kept between -5°C and 0°C (some precipitation occured). After addition, the reaction mixture was stirred for 15 minutes, while cooling to -14°C. 128 ml of dry tetrahydrofuran was added to 26.22 g of 6-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-4-(3-chlorophenyl)-l- methyl-2(lH)-quinolinone (compound (II)) (0.0642 mole) and stirred until dissolution. This solution was added to the reaction mixture, while the temperature during addition was kept between -5°C and 0°C. After addition, the reaction mixture was stirred for 15 minutes between -5°C and 0°C. 128 ml of water was added to the reaction mixture, followed by the addition of 10.6 ml of acetic acid. The mixture was then heated to 40°C and stirred for 2 hours. The layers were separated and the organic layer washed with 32 ml water. 64 ml water and 7.8 ml aqueous NaOΗ 50% were added to the organic layer which was stirred for 1 hour at ambient temperature. The layers were separated and the organic layer concentrated under reduced pressure, yielding 51.08 g of a brown oil (46.6 wt% 4-(3-chlorophenyl)-6-[(4-chlorophenyl)hydroxy(l-methyl-lH-imidazol-5- yl)methyl]-l-methyl-2(lH)-quinolinone (compound HI); 75.6 % yield).

The product can be isolated via the procedures mentioned above. The resulting product was analysed by hplc using the following conditions :-

Column: Ηypersil C18-BD 3μm, 100mm x 4 mm (i.d.)

Mobile phase:

Solvent A: 0.5% NΗLjOAc

Solvent B: CΗ3CN

Gradient: Time %A %B

0 100 0

15 0 100

18 0 100 19 100 0 23 100 0 Detector: UV 254nm Solvent: DMF The product was found to have a C5:C2 ratio of 99.8:0.2. In contrast using n-butyllithium in place of n-hexyllithium, triethylsilyl chloride in place of tri-i.ro- butylsilyl chloride and conducting the process at -70°C, i.e. generally in accordance with prior art procedures discussed above, the resulting product had a C5:C2 ratio of 95:5, a significant difference in commercial terms.

Preparation of compound (IV)

A 1 liter reaction vessel was charged with 105.4 g of 4-(3-chlorophenyl)-6-[(4- chlorophenyl)hydroxy ( 1 -methyl- 1 H-imidazol-5-yl)methyl] – 1 -methyl-2( 1 H)- quinolinone hydrochloric acid salt (compound (IΗ)and 400 ml of N,N- dimethylimidazolidinone added at 22°C. The mixture was stirred vigorously for 15 minutes at 22°C and became homogeneous. 32.1 ml of thionyl chloride was added over 10 minutes to the reaction mixture, the reaction temperature rising from 22°C to 40°C. After addition of the thionyl chloride, the reaction mixture was cooled from 40°C to 22°C and stirred for three hours at the latter temperature to provide a solution of 4-(3- chlorophenyl)-6-[chloro-(4-chlorophenyl)(l-methyl-lH-imidazol-5-yl)methyl]-l- methyl-2(lH)-quinolinone (compound (IN).

Preparation of unresolved compound (I)

429 ml of ammonia in methanol 7Ν was cooled to 5°C in a 3 liter reaction vessel and the solution of compound (IN), obtained in the previous stage, added, while stirring, over 10 minutes, with an exothermic reaction, the temperature rising from 5°C to 37°C. After the addition was complete, the reaction mixture was cooled to 22°C and stirred for 20 hours. 1000ml of water was then added over 20 minutes, the addition being slightly exothermic so the reaction mixture was cooled to keep the temperature below 30°C. The mixture was then stirred for 22 hours at 22°C, the resulting precipitate filtered off and the precipitate washed three times with 100ml of water to provide a yield of 70-75% of 6-[arnino(4-chlorophenyl)-l-methyl-lH-imidazol-5-ylmethyl]-4-(3- chlorophenyl)-l-methyl-2(lH)-quinolinone. Resolution of compound (I)

a) A 3 liter reaction vessel was charged with 146.8 g of 6-[amino(4-chlorophenyl)(l- methyl-lH-imidazol-5-yl)methyl]-4-(3-chlorophenyl)-l-methyl-2(lH)-quinolinone and 301.1 g of L-(-)-dibenzoyl-tartaric acid monohydrate, 1200ml of acetone was added and the reaction mixture stirred vigorously for 10 minutes at 22°C to form a solution which was seeded with lOOmg of the final tartrate salt product (obtained from previous screening experiments) and then stirred for 22 hours at 22°C. The resulting precipitate was filtered off and the precipitate was washed twice with 75 ml of acetone and the product dried at 50°C in vacuo to yield 114.7g of R-(-)-6-[amino(4-chlorophenyl)(l- methyl-lΗ-imidazol-5-yl)methyl]-4-(3-chlorophenyl)-l-methyl-2(lΗ)-quinolinone [R- (R*,R*)]-2,3-bis(benzoyloxy)butanedioate (2:3).

b) 41.08 g of the product of stage a) and 80 ml ethanol were stirred for 15 minutes at 22°C. 12.0 ml concentrated aqueous ammonium hydroxide was added over 2 minutes, and the reaction mixture stirred for 1 hour at 25°C. 160 ml water was added over 10 minutes at 25 °C and the mixture heated to reflux and stirred at reflux for 1 hour. The reaction mixture was then cooled to 20°C and stirred for 16 hours at 20°C. The product was filtered, washed twice with 8 ml water and dried at 50°C in vacuo to yield 16.87 g of (R)-(+)-6-[amino(4-chloro-phenyl)(l-methyl-lH-imidazol-5-yl)methyl]-4-(3- chlorophenyl)-l-methyl-2(lH)-quinolinone (compound (I)).

Purification of compound (I)

265 ml of ethanol was added to 19.9g of compound (I), obtained as described in the previous stage, and the mixture warmed while stirring to reflux temperature (78 °C) and then stirred at reflux temperature for 15 minutes before cooling the solution to 75 °C. 1.0 g of activated carbon (Norit A Supra) was then added to the mixture which was stirred at reflux temperature for 1 hour, filtered while warm and the filter then washed with 20 ml warm ethanol. The filtrate and wash solvent were combined (the product spontaneously crystallizes at 48°C), and the mixture warmed to reflux temperature and concentrated by removing 203 ml of ethanol. The resulting suspension was cooled to 22°C, stirred for 18 hours at 22°C, cooled to 2°C and stirred for 5 more hours at 2°C. The precipitate was filtered and washed with 4 ml ethanol and the product dried at 50°C in vacuo to yield 17.25 g of purified compound (I) which complies with the infrared spectrum of reference material.

PAPER

Practical route to 2-quinolinones via a pd-catalyzed c-h bond Activation/C-C bond Formation/Cyclization cascade reaction
Org Lett 2015, 17(2): 222

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/ol503292p

Practical Route to 2-Quinolinones via a Pd-Catalyzed C–H Bond Activation/C–C Bond Formation/Cyclization Cascade Reaction

Division of Chemistry and Biological Chemistry, School of Physical & Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371
Org. Lett.201517 (2), pp 222–225
DOI: 10.1021/ol503292p
Publication Date (Web): December 29, 2014
Copyright © 2014 American Chemical Society
Abstract Image

Quinolinone derivatives were constructed via a Pd-catalyzed C–H bond activation/C–C bond formation/cyclization cascade process with simple anilines as the substrates. This finding provides a practical procedure for the synthesis of quinolinone-containing alkaloids and drug molecules. The utility of this method was demonstrated by a formal synthesis of Tipifarnib.

SEE https://pubs.acs.org/doi/suppl/10.1021/ol503292p/suppl_file/ol503292p_si_001.pdf

4-(3-chlorophenyl)-6-(4-chlorobenzyl)-2-quinolinone 5:

str1

0.5 mmol 4-Amino-4′-chlorodiphenylmethane 4, 1mmol acetic anhydride and 2 mL toluene were added into the Schlenk tuble. The mixture was stirred at r.t. for 5 minutes, then 0.5 mmol TsOH•H2O, 2.5 mmol (2E)-3-(3-chlorophenyl) propenoate, 1.5 mmol Na2S2O8 and 5 mmol % Pd(OAc)2 were added into the reaction system in one time. The mixture was heated at 100 oC for 36 h and cooled down to room temperature, quenched with 50 mL saturated sodium bicarbonate solution and extracted thrice with ethyl acetate (30 mL) and the combined organic phase was dried over Na2SO4. After evaporation of the solvents the residue was purified by silica gel chromatography to afford 5 as pale yellow solid (elute: hexane-EtOAc) (180 mg, 95%).

1H NMR (400 MHz, d6-DMSO) ppm: 11.87 (s, 1H), 7.59-7.52 (m, 2H), 7.50-7.47 (m, 1H), 7.42-7.37 (m, 2H), 7.35-7.28 (m, 3H), 7.19-7.14 (m, 3H), 6.41 (s, 1H), 3.92 (s, 2H).

13C NMR (100 MHz, d6-DMSO): 161.50, 150.09, 140.52, 139.13, 138.25, 134.89, 133.85, 132.04, 131.16, 130.99, 130.95, 129.17, 128.88, 128.80, 127.94, 125.84, 122.30, 118.44, 116.55, 39.92.

HRMS (ESI) Calcd. for C22H15Cl2NO: [M + H]+ , 380.0609. Found: m/z 380.0613.

4-(3-chlorophenyl)-6-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-2-quinolinone 6:1

str2

4-(3-chlorophenyl)-6-(4-chlorobenzyl)-2-quinolinone 5 (0.2 mmol), iodine (0.002 mmol), pyridine (0.002 mmol) and aqueous tert-butylhydroperoxide (70%, 0.5 ml) were sealed in a 5 mL tube, then stirred at 80 oC overnight. After cooling to room temperature, the mixture was purified by a short silica gel chromatography column to afford 6 as pale yellow solid (elute: DCM/acetone = 2/1) (77 mg, 98%).

1H NMR (400 MHz, d6-DMSO) ppm: 12.31 (s, 1H), 8.00 (dd, J = 8.40 Hz, 1.60 Hz, 1H), 7.76 (d, J = 8.40 Hz, 2H), 7.74 (d, J = 1.60 Hz, 1H) 7.68 (s, 1H), 7.60 (d, J = 8.40 Hz, 2H), 7.55-7.50 (m, 4H), 6.57 (s, 1H).

13C NMR (100MHz, d6-DMSO): 193.48, 161.83, 150.38, 143.00, 138.46, 137.74, 136.36, 133.92, 132.04, 131.85, 131.16, 130.20, 129.93, 129.57, 129.08, 128.99, 128.11, 123.01, 117.81, 116.74. HRMS (ESI) Calcd. for C22H13Cl2NO2: [M + H]+ , 394.0402. Found: m/z 394.0405.

Reference: 1. Zhang, J.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Y.; Wan, C.; Zheng, X.; Wang, Z. Green Chem. 2009, 11, 1973. 2. (a) Angibaud, P.; Venet, M.; Filliers, W.; Broeckx, R.; Ligny, Y.; Muller, P.; Poncelet, V.; End, D. Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2004, 479. (b) Filliers, W.; Broeckx, R.; Angibaud, P. U.S. patent, US7572916, 2009.

NMR SIMULATION

PREDICTED VALUES

1H NMR: δ 3.42 (3H, s), 3.63 (3H, s), 6.57 (1H, s), 6.67 (1H, d, J = 1.7 Hz), 7.27 (1H, dd, J = 8.3, 1.5 Hz), 7.36-7.59 (8H, 7.46 (ddd, J = 8.3, 1.5, 0.5 Hz), 7.41 (ddd, J = 8.1, 8.1, 0.5 Hz), 7.39 (ddd, J = 8.1, 1.6, 1.5 Hz), 7.49 (ddd, J = 8.1, 1.7, 1.5 Hz), 7.55 (ddd, J = 8.3, 1.6, 0.5 Hz), 7.58 (d, J = 1.7 Hz)), 7.66 (1H, dd, J = 8.3, 0.5 Hz), 7.71 (1H, dd, J = 1.5, 0.5 Hz), 7.84 (1H, ddd, J = 1.7, 1.6, 0.5 Hz).

13C NMR PREDICT

str1

COSY PREDICT

HSQC PREDICT

References

  1. Jump up^ “International Nonproprietary Names for Pharmaceutical Substances (INN). Recommended International Nonproprietary Names (Rec. INN): List 46” (PDF). World Health Organization. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  2. Jump up^ Sparano, JA; Moulder, S; Kazi, A; Coppola, D; Negassa, A; Vahdat, L; Li, T; Pellegrino, C; Fineberg, S; Munster, P; Malafa, M; Lee, D; Hoschander, S; Hopkins, U; Hershman, D; Wright, JJ; Kleer, C; Merajver, S; Sebti, SM (15 April 2009). “Phase II Trial of Tipifarnib plus Neoadjuvant Doxorubicin-Cyclophosphamide in Patients with Clinical Stage IIB-IIIC Breast Cancer” (PDF). Clinical Cancer Research15 (8): 2942–48. doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-08-2658PMC 2785076Freely accessiblePMID 19351752. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  3. Jump up^ Alsina, M; Fonseca, R; Wilson, EF; Belle, AN; Gerbino, E; Price-Troska, T; Overton, RM; Ahmann, G; Bruzek, LM; Adjei, AA; Kaufmann, SH; Wright, JJ; Sullivan, D; Djulbegovic, B; Cantor, AB; Greipp, RP; Dalton, WS; Sebti, SM (1 May 2004). “Farnesyltransferase Inhibitor Tipifarnib Is Well Tolerated, Induces Stabilization of Disease, and Inhibits Farnesylation and Oncogenic/Tumor Survival Pathways in Patients with Advanced Multiple Myeloma” (PDF). Blood103 (9): 3271–7. doi:10.1182/blood-2003-08-2764PMID 14726402. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  4. Jump up^ “R115777 in Treating Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors”
  5. Jump up^ “R115777 to Treat Children With Neurofibromatosis Type 1 and Progressive Plexiform Neurofibromas”
  6. Jump up^ “Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research & Development, L.L.C. Receives Not Approvable Letter From FDA for Tipifarnib Based on Phase II Data”. PR Newswire. Jun 30, 2005. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  7. Jump up^ Capell, BC; Olive, M; Erdos, MR; Cao, K; Faddah, DA; Tavarez, UL; Conneely, KN; Qu, X; San, H; Ganesh, SK; Chen, X; Avallone, H; Kolodgie, FD; Virmani, R; Nabel, EG; Collins, FS (6 October 2008). “A Farnesyltransferase Inhibitor Prevents Both the Onset and Late Progression of Cardiovascular Disease in a Progeria Mouse Model” (PDF). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences105 (41): 15902–7. doi:10.1073/pnas.0807840105PMC 2562418Freely accessiblePMID 18838683. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
Tipifarnib
Tipifarnib.svg
Clinical data
Synonyms R115777
ATC code
  • None
Legal status
Legal status
  • Investigational
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
IUPHAR/BPS
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEMBL
Chemical and physical data
Formula C27H22Cl2N4O
Molar mass 489.40 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
PATENT 
Cited Patent Filing date Publication date Applicant Title
WO1997021701A1 * Oct 16, 1996 Jun 19, 1997 Janssen Pharmaceutica N.V. Farnesyl protein transferase inhibiting (imidazol-5-yl)methyl-2-quinolinone derivatives
WO2001051127A1 * Jan 9, 2001 Jul 19, 2001 Merck & Co., Inc. Inhibitors of prenyl-protein transferase
WO2001053289A1 * Nov 29, 2000 Jul 26, 2001 Pfizer Products Inc. Anticancer compound and enantiomer separation method useful for synthesizing said compound
WO2002020015A1 * Aug 30, 2001 Mar 14, 2002 Merck & Co., Inc. Inhibitors of prenyl-protein transferase
WO2002072574A1 * Mar 5, 2002 Sep 19, 2002 Janssen Pharmaceutica N.V. Process for the preparation of imidazole compounds
WO2002079147A2 * Mar 26, 2002 Oct 10, 2002 Merck & Co., Inc. Inhibitors of prenyl-protein transferase
NON-PATENT CITATIONS
Reference
1 * SHAW A W ET AL: “Asymmetric synthesis of alpha,alpha-diaryl and alpha-aryl-alpha-heteroaryl alkylamines by organometallic additions to N-tert-butanesulfinyl ketimines” TETRAHEDRON LETTERS, ELSEVIER SCIENCE PUBLISHERS, AMSTERDAM, NL, vol. 42, no. 41, 8 October 2001 (2001-10-08), pages 7173-7176, XP004304959 ISSN: 0040-4039 cited in the application
Citing Patent Filing date Publication date Applicant Title
US9707221 Nov 8, 2016 Jul 18, 2017 Kura Oncology, Inc. Methods of treating cancer patients with farnesyltransferase inhibitors

//////////////////TIPIFARNIB , R-115777, типифарниб تيبيفارنيب 替匹法尼 , NSC-702818  , phase 3, orphan drug designation, NSC 702818, R 115777, Kura Oncology, Zarnestra, Janssen

CN1C=NC=C1[C@@](N)(C1=CC=C(Cl)C=C1)C1=CC2=C(C=C1)N(C)C(=O)C=C2C1=CC(Cl)=CC=C1

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