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Read all about Organic Spectroscopy on ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY INTERNATIONAL 

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with AFRICURE PHARMA, ROW2TECH, NIPER-G, Department of Pharmaceuticals, Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers, Govt. of India as ADVISOR, earlier assignment was with GLENMARK LIFE SCIENCES LTD, as CONSUlTANT, Retired from GLENMARK in Jan2022 Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 32 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 32 PLUS year tenure till date Feb 2023, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 100 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 100 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, 227 countries, 7 continents, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 38 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 227 countries...... , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc He has total of 32 International and Indian awards

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Bristol-Myers Squibb to Market Japanese Hypertension Drug in China

Bristol-Myers Squibb licensed exclusive China rights to market Coniel, a calcium channel blocker treatment for hypertension and angina pectoris, from Kyowa Hakko Kirin Co. BMS said the transaction, its first China-specific in-licensing deal, demonstrated the company’s long-term commitment to China. Previously, Kyowa Hakko Kirin handled China marketing of the product itself. 

O5-methyl O3-[(3R)-1-(phenylmethyl)piperidin-3-yl] 2,6-dimethyl-4-(3-nitrophenyl)-1,4-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarboxylate

Benidipine (INN), also known as Benidipinum or benidipine hydrochloride, is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker for the treatment of high blood pressure (hypertension).

Molecular Structure of 105979-17-7 (3,5-Pyridinedicarboxylicacid, 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-4-(3-nitrophenyl)-, 3-methyl5-[(3R)-1-(phenylmethyl)-3-piperidinyl] ester, (4R)-rel-)


Benidipine is dosed as 2–4 mg once daily.[1]

Benidipine is sold as Coniel by Kyowa Hakko Kogyo.

Benidipine is only licensed for use in Japan and selected Southeast Asian countries, where it is sold as 4 mg tablets.

Also known as: 105979-17-7, NCGC00185768-01, Benidipene, AC1LCVDP, SureCN24516, CTK8E8626, AKOS015895389, H007

Molecular Formula: C28H31N3O6   Molecular Weight: 505.56224

  1.  Hi-Eisai Pharmaceutical, Inc. “Coniel (benidipine) package insert (Philippines)”.MIMS Philippines. CMPMedica. Retrieved 2008-03-31.
  2. Hirayama, N. and Shimizu, E.: Acta Cryst., C47, 458 (1991)

Benidipine hydrochloride, A calcium channel protein inhibitor

Benidipine hydrochloride C28H31N3O6.HCl [91599-74-5]

Alternative Name: KW 3049

Chemical Name: (4R)-rel-1,4-Dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-4​-(3-nitrophenyl)-3,5-pyridinedicarboxylic acid 3-methyl 5-[(3R)-1-(phenylmethyl)-3-piperidinyl] ester hydrochloride

Biological Activity

Orally active antihypertensive agent which displays a wide range of activities in vitro and in vivo. Inhibits L-, N- and T-type Ca2+ channels. Also inhibits aldosterone-induced mineralocorticoid receptor activation. Exhibits cardioprotective and antiartherosclerotic effects.

Technical Data






Soluble to 75 mM in DMSO and to 10 mM in ethanol


Desiccate at RT




Yao et al (2006) Pharmacological, pharmacokinetic, and clinical properties of benidipine hydrochloride, a novel long-acting calcium channel blocker. J.Pharmacol.Sci. 100 243. PMID: 16565579.

Kosaka et al (2010) The L-, N-, T-type triple calcium channel blocker benidipine acts as an antagonist of mineralocorticoid receptor, a member of nuclear receptor family. Eur.J.Pharmacol. 635 49. PMID: 20307534.

Benidipine hydrochloride, whose chemical name is (±)-(R*)- 1 ,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-4-(meta-nitrophenyl)-3 ,5-pyridinedica rbolate methyl ester [(R*)-l-benzyl-3-piperidine alcohol ester], belongs to dihydropyridine receptor antagonist. It can bind to dihydropyridine receptors at the binding site with high affinity and high specificity, and shows a strong inhibitory effect on Ca channel. Benidipine not only has an inhibitory effect on muscular (L-type) Ca channel, but also has an inhibitory effect on voltage-dependent N- and T-type Ca channels. It is, up to now, the only calcium antagonist that can inhibit all the three Ca channels mentioned above. Furthermore, benidipine has highly affinity with cell membrane, has vascular selectivity and renal protection effect. Therefore, it is an ideal, safe and effective agent for the treatment of hypertension and renal parenchymal hypertension and angina.

There are two chiral atoms in the molecule of benidipine hydrochloride, which locate on site 4 of the dihydropyridine ring and site 3′ of the side chain piperidine ring. Accordingly, benidipine hydrochloride has 4 optical isomers: (S)-(S)-(+)-a, (R)-(R)-(-)-a, (R)-(S)-(+)^ and (S)-(R)-(-)^, and the active ingredients for drug are the mixture of (S)-(S)-(+)-a and (R)-(R)-(-)-0L Therefore, it is necessary to separate a and β isomers during the post- treatment stage of benidipine hydrochloride preparation.

Based on the order of synthesis of dihydropyridine main ring, there mainly are two groups of total 5 synthesis routes of benidipine hydrochloride. Among them, there are two routes which involve synthesis of the main ring first: 1) acylchloridizing the main ring of dihydropyridine and then linking the side chain to synthesize directlybenidipine hydrochloride; 2) After acylchloridizing the main ring of dihydropyridine, 3-piperidinol and then benzyl is added. The routes involve the synthesis of the main ring later includes the following; 1) synthesizing the main ring via β-aminocrotonate; 2) synthesizing the main ring via acetylacetate ester; 3) the One-pot’ method involving 3-nitrobenzaldehyde, β-aminocrotonate and acetylaceate ester.

Several synthetic routes of benidipine hydrochloride and its analogues have been disclosed in EP0063365A1, EP0161877A2, JP57-171968A, EP0106275 A2, etc. Among them, EP0106275 A2 gave a summary of the synthetic pathways ofbenidipine hydrochloride. In all of the above references, it was mentioned to separate the benidipine hydrochloride prepared through column chromatography and spit it into its a and β isomers, thus obtain the therapeutically active (±)-a-benidipine hydrochloride.

In order to obtain a highly purified benidipine hydrochloride meeting pharmaceutical use, it is necessary to perform multiple recrystallization with acetone and/or ethanol. Moreover, the crystallization condition is relatively strict since it should be performed below freezing point or even below -20 °C . Furthermore, the crystallization process usually need a relatively long time (more than 24 hours).

JP2007-8819A thus disclosed a method for preparing highly purified benidipine hydrochloride meeting pharmaceutical use by first preparing the monohydrate of benidipine hydrochloride.

Because benidipine hydrochloride has a very low solubility, for dissolving in a solvent quickly, benidipine hydrochloride is often grounded into nanoparticles. CN 1794993 A provided a method to grind benidipine hydrochloride into particles of 1.0^50.0 μπι. The mechanical grinding method is performed by grinding larger particles of crystals into desired smaller size of crystals. This method consumes large amount of energy and time, and results in a widely distribution of the crystal particle size.

PEOPLE found the desired sizes of benidipinehydrochloride nanoparticles could be obtained by ultrasonic crystallization technology. Unlike the method of CN 1794993 A, the method according to the present invention obtains crystals from smaller to larger sizes. The distribution of particle sizes in the method of the present invention is relatively narrower since the solvent crystalizes rapidly and steadily in the solution. Overall, the present invention can save time and energy, and is readily for preparation. Summary of the invention

benidipine preparation are disclosed in EP0106275, after JP 2007008819 discloses the industrial preparation methods, Kyowa Hakko Kogyo Co., Japan Institute of Pharmacology at Arzneimittelforschung magazine published a hydrochloric Benidipine physical and chemical properties and stability studies Japanese Pharmacopoeia 15th edition reproduces the drug. Benidipine given above literature its infrared spectrum (IR) in 3170cm “\ 3066 cm-1, 2950cm-1, 2523cm-1, 1694cm-1, 1666cm-1, 1642cm_ \ l533cm_ \ l491cm_ \ l432cm_ \ l348cm_ \ l299cm_ \ l218cm_ \ lll6cm_ \ l088cm_ \




Purity test of benidipine hydrochloride (area normalization method): Chromatography conditions

Detector: ultraviolet absorption detector (detection wavelength: 237nm)

Chromatography column: stainless steel column: 4.6 mm x 10 cm, with octadecylsilyl (ODS) silica as filler.

Column temperature: constant, about 25 °C

Mobile phase: mixed solution of 0.05 mol/L potassium dihydrophosphate solution (pH 3.0): methanol : tetrahydrofuran (65:27:8) Flow rate: adjusted to render the retention time of benidipine hydrochloride to be about 20 min.

Chromatogram record time: about 2 times of the peak time of benidipine hydrochloride



Benidipine-based Comparison of Angiotensin Receptors, β-blockers, or Thiazide Diuretics in Hypertensive Patients Completed Cardiovascular Disease February 19, 2012




Title: Benidipine
CAS Registry Number: 105979-17-7
CAS Name: (4R)-rel-1,4-Dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-4-(3-nitrophenyl)-3,5-pyridinedicarboxylic acid methyl (3R)-1-(phenylmethyl)-3-piperidinyl ester
Additional Names: (±)-(R*)-3-[(R*)-1-benzyl-3-piperidyl] methyl 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-4-(m-nitrophenyl)-3,5-pyridinedicarboxylate; (±)-2,6-dimethyl-4-(3-nitrophenyl)-1,4-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarboxylic acid-3-(1-benzyl-3-piperidyl) ester-5-methyl ester
Molecular Formula: C28H31N3O6
Molecular Weight: 505.56
Percent Composition: C 66.52%, H 6.18%, N 8.31%, O 18.99%
Literature References: Dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. Prepn (stereochemistry unspecified): K. Muto et al., EP 63365;eidem, US 4448964 (1982, 1984 both to Kyowa). Prepn: eidem, EP 106275 (1984 to Kyowa); and toxicity data: eidem, Arzneim.-Forsch. 38, 1662 (1988). Structural studies: N. Hirayama, E. Shimizu, Acta Crystallogr. C47, 458 (1991). Series of articles on properties, pharmacology, determn and clinical evaluation: Arzneim.-Forsch. 38, 1666-1763 (1988). Review: H. Suzuki, T. Saruta,Cardiovasc. Drug Rev. 7, 25-38 (1989).
Derivative Type: Hydrochloride
CAS Registry Number: 91599-74-5
Manufacturers’ Codes: KW-3049
Trademarks: Coniel (Kyowa)
Molecular Formula: C28H31N3O6.HCl
Molecular Weight: 542.02
Percent Composition: C 62.05%, H 5.95%, N 7.75%, O 17.71%, Cl 6.54%
Properties: Yellow crystalline powder, mp 199.4-200.4°. uv max (ethanol): 238, 359 nm (e 2.80 ´ 104, 6.68 ´ 103). Soly at 25° (%): methanol 6.9; ethanol 2.2; water 0.19; chloroform 0.16; acetone 0.13; ethyl acetate 0.0056; toluene 0.0019; n-heptane 0.00009. pKa 7.34. Partition coefficient (n-octanol/water): 1230 (pH 6.4, 22°). LD50 orally in male mice: 218 mg/kg (Muto, 1988).
Melting point: mp 199.4-200.4°
pKa: pKa 7.34
Log P: Partition coefficient (n-octanol/water): 1230 (pH 6.4, 22°)
Absorption maximum: uv max (ethanol): 238, 359 nm (e 2.80 ´ 104, 6.68 ´ 103)
Toxicity data: LD50 orally in male mice: 218 mg/kg (Muto, 1988)
Therap-Cat: Antihypertensive.
Keywords: Antihypertensive; Dihydropyridine Derivatives; Calcium Channel Blocker; Dihydropyridine Derivatives.

Drugs for Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension (CTEPH)

<div style=”margin-bottom:5px”> <strong> <a href=”; title=”Drugs for CTEPH – studi farmacologici” target=”_blank”>Drugs for CTEPH – studi farmacologici</a> </strong> from <strong><a href=”; target=”_blank”>CTEPH</a></strong> </div>

Generic versions of high cholesterol drug Lovaza can be developed, rules judge

LOVAZA, a lipid-regulating agent, is supplied as a liquid-filled gel capsule for oral administration. Each 1-gram capsule of LOVAZA (omega-3-acid ethyl esters) contains at least 900 mg of the ethyl esters of omega-3 fatty acids. These are predominantly a combination of ethyl esters of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA – approximately 465 mg) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA – approximately 375 mg).

The structural formula of EPA ethyl ester is:

EPA chemical structure

The empirical formula of EPA ethyl ester is C22H34O2, and the molecular weight of EPA ethyl ester is 330.51.

The structural formula of DHA ethyl ester is:

DHA chemical structure

The empirical formula of DHA ethyl ester is C24H36O2, and the molecular weight of DHA ethyl ester is 356.55.

LOVAZA capsules also contain the following inactive ingredients: 4 mg α-tocopherol (in a carrier of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils including soybean oil), and gelatin, glycerol, and purified water (components of the capsule shell).


A US appeals court ruled on this week that drug companies can develop generic versions of fish oil-derived, high-cholesterol drug Lovaza.

read all at

Lovaza is a brand name prescription drug. The capsule sold by GlaxoSmithKline but developed by Reliant Pharmaceuticals, contains esterified fish oils and is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to lower very high triglyceride levels. It is metabolized intoOmega-3 fatty acids. It is a dietary supplement that has been purified, chemically altered, branded, and been put through the approval process of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA); in these respects it is considered a pharmaceutical. Due to the esterification process during manufacturing there is no risk of contamination[citation needed] by methyl mercuryarsenic,[1] or other pollutants that are often seen in the world’s oceans. Each 1-gram capsule is 38% DHA, 47% EPA, and 17% other fish oils in the form of the ethyl ester.

Lovaza is named Omacor in Europe (and this name was once used in the US).[2]


Lovaza is approved in the U.S. for treatment of patients with very high triglycerides (hypertriglyceridemia).[3]

In the European markets and other major markets outside the US Lovaza is known as Omacor, and is indicated for:

  1. Hypertriglyceridemia. Used as monotherapy, or in combination with a statin for patients with mixed dyslipidemia.
  2. Secondary prevention after myocardial infarction (heart attack)

in addition to other standard therapy (e.g. statins, antiplatelets medicinal products, beta-blockers, and ACE-I).

Lovaza has been demonstrated to reduce triglycerides in patients with high or very high triglycerides. [3]

Lovaza has also been demonstrated to reduce VLDL-cholesterol and non-HDL-cholesterol, and increase HDL-cholesterol. But, it can raise LDL-cholesterol up to 45%.[4] The LDL raising activity correlates with a reduction in ApoB levels, though. Lovaza, through the stimulation of Lipoprotein Lipase, seems to stimulate the production of less atherogenic LDL species. In some patients, it can elevatealanine transaminase levels, so liver enzymes should be checked, periodically.[4]

Effects on significant patient outcomes such as acute myocardial infarction, stroke, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality have been studied in patients who have suffered a myocardial infarction (this is in the US; however, data from GISSI-P showed a combined end-point of all-cause death, non-fatal MI, and non-fatal stroke was significantly reduced by 15%). Lovaza has not been shown to lower the rates of all cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality, or the combination of mortality and non-fatal cardiovascular events.[3]

GlaxoSmithKline‘s patent expired in September 2012. Generic versions may be made available at that time. Other DHA/EPA products containing similar amounts of Omega-3 fatty acids are currently sold over the counter in the United States as dietary supplements.


In July 2012, Amarin Corporation received U.S. FDA marketing approval for Vascepa, also referred to as AMR-101.[5] Vascepa will undoubtedly become a major competitor for Lovaza.[6] In clinicial trials, Vascepa was shown to lower triglycerides; while Lovaza also lowers the triglyceride concentration, Vascepa also lowers LDL-C; Lovaza does not. Lovaza was approved to treat people with very high triglyceride levels (>500 mg/dl), Vascepa is also approved for this market; however the company has also demonstrated that the drug can impact levels in people with high triglyceride (> 200 mg/dl and < 500 mg/dl) levels and will file an sNDA for this indication late in 2012.[7]

In 2011, Ariix started selling an almost identical FDA-Certified Omega3 Ethyl Ester 1000 mg capsule ‘OmegaQ’ fish oil through direct marketing and online auto-ship at a discounted price, creating another major competitor for Lovaza and Amarin’s Vascepa. One capsule contains 295 mg EPA, and 235 mg DHA, but it is unique in that it is combined with 20 mg of the coenzyme CoQ-10, with reported ‘anti-aging’ effects on the cell’s telomeres, which are still under study.

Forms of Lovaza

Lovaza is available as 1-gram soft-gelatin capsules.[8]

Active Ingredient: Omega-3-acid ethyl esters

Inactive Ingredients: Gelatin, glycerol, purified water, alpha-tocopherol (in soybean oil)


  1. NIFES (Nasjonalt institutt for ernærings- og sjømatforskning – Norwegian National Institute for Nutrition and Seafood Research)
  2. University of Utah Pharmacy Services (August 15, 2007) “Omega-3-acid Ethyl Esters Brand Name Changed from Omacor to Lovaza”
  3. GSK Information for Medical Professionals
  4. Pharmacy & Therapeutics (May, 2008) “Omega-3-acid Ethyl Esters (Lovaza) For Severe Hypertriglyceridemia”
  5. “Amarin Prescription Fish-Oil Pill Approved – TheStreet”. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  6.  “”. Reuters. 26 July 2012. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
  7.  “Amarin’s AMR101 Phase 3 ANCHOR Trial Meets all Primary and Secondary Endpoints with Statistically Significant Reductions in Triglycerides at Both 4 Gram and 2 Gram Doses and Statistically Significant Decrease in LDL-C (NASDAQ:AMRN)”. Amarin. 18 April 2011. Retrieved 26 July 2012.

External links

Pharmaceutical Industry In Global Market: Issues To Be Handled For Better Growth

In the global market, the position of the pharmaceutical industry is not parallel as compared to other information and technology based industries.
Among the Leading industries, the pharmaceutical industry lacks behind in the growth rate as far as innovative research, capital investment and
government regulations are concern. Most of the countries simply depends on bulk production of the generic drugs and not focused on core research. In
comparison with the growth rate of the electronic and IT industry stands first where as the pharmaceutical comes at the 9th position.

read all at

Lee Pharma buys China Rights for Kalbitor (ecallantide – for treatment of Hereditary Angioedema) from Dyax

Molecular Structure of 460738-38-9 (Ecallantide)

Ecallantide It is an inhibitor of the protein kallikrein and a 60-amino acid polypeptide.

  • Ecallantide

  • CAS No.:460738-38-9
  • Formula:C305H442N88O91S8
  • Molecular Weight:7053.82798
  • [Glu20,Ala21,Arg36,Ala38,His39,Pro40,Trp42]tissue factor pathway inhibitor (human)-(20-79)-peptide (modified on reactive bond region Kunitz inhibitor 1 domain containing fragment)

KALBITOR (ecallantide) is a human plasma kallikrein inhibitor for injection for subcutaneous use.

11 FEB 2013

Dyax Corp.  a developer of novel biotherapeutics for unmet medical needs, and CVie Therapeutics (CVie), a subsidiary of Lee’s Pharmaceutical Holdings Ltd., announced today a strategic partnership for the development and commercialization of KALBITOR® (ecallantide) in the treatment of hereditary angioedema (HAE) and other angioedema indications in China, Hong Kong and Macau.

KALBITOR is currently marketed in United States for the treatment of acute attacks of HAE in

patients 16 years of age and older. Under the terms of the exclusive license agreement, Dyax will receive an upfront payment and is eligible to receive future development, regulatory and sales milestones. Dyax is also eligible to receive royalty on net product sales. CVie is solely responsible for all costs associated with development, regulatory activities, and the commercialization of KALBITOR in China, Hong Kong
and Macau. Additionally, CVie will purchase drug product from Dyax on a cost-plus basis for
commercial supply.
If approved in China, KALBITOR would become the first novel therapy available for HAE in China, where presently only steroids are used.

KALBITOR (ecallantide injection) is a clear and colorless, sterile, and nonpyrogenic solution. Each vial contains 10 mg ecallantide as the active ingredient, and the following inactive ingredients: 0.76 mg disodium hydrogen orthophosphate (dihydrate), 0.2 mg monopotassium phosphate, 0.2 mg potassium chloride, and 8 mg sodium chloride in water for injection, USP. KALBITOR (ecallantide injection) is preservative free, with a pH of approximately 7.0. A 30 mg dose is supplied as 3 vials each containing 1 mL of 10 mg/mL KALBITOR (ecallantide injection) . Each vial contains a slight overfill. Vials are intended for single use. Ecallantide is a 60-amino-acid protein produced in Pichia pastoris yeast cells by recombinant DNA technology.

The Ecallantide, with the IUPAC name of [Glu20,Ala21,Arg36,Ala38,His39,Pro40,Trp42]tissue factor pathway inhibitor (human)-(20-79)-peptide (modified on reactive bond region Kunitz inhibitor 1 domain containing fragment), is one kind of inhibitor. This chemical’s classification codes are Plasma Kallikrein Inhibitor; Reduction of Blood Loss During Cardiothoracic Surgery (Plasma Kallikrein Inhibitor); Treatment of Hereditary Angioedema. Ecallantide (trade name Kalbitor, investigational name DX-88) is an inhibitor of the protein kallikrein used for hereditary angioedema (HAE) and in the prevention of blood loss in cardiothoracic surgery. If approved for cardiothoracic surgery, it could become a replacement for aprotinin, which was withdrawn in 2007 after being shown to cause complications.

Ecallantide (trade name Kalbitor, investigational name DX-88) is a drug used for the treatment of hereditary angioedema (HAE) and in the prevention of blood loss incardiothoracic surgery.[1] It is an inhibitor of the protein kallikrein and a 60-amino acidpolypeptide which was developed from a Kunitz domain through phage display to mimic antibodies inhibiting kallikrein.[1] On November 27, 2009, ecallantide was approved by theU.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of acute attacks of hereditary angioedema for persons over 16 years of age.[2]

If approved for cardiothoracic surgery, it could become a replacement foraprotinin, which was withdrawn in 2007 after being shown to cause complications.

  1.  Lehmann A (August 2008). “Ecallantide (DX-88), a plasma kallikrein inhibitor for the treatment of hereditary angioedema and the prevention of blood loss in on-pump cardiothoracic surgery”. Expert Opin Biol Ther 8 (8): 1187–99. doi:10.1517/14712598.8.8.1187.PMID 18613770.
  2. Waknine, Yael (December 4, 2009). “FDA Approves Ecallantide for Hereditary Angioedema”Medscape. Retrieved 2009-12-07.
  3. Dyax Corp. (2009). “Full prescibing information Kalbitor”. Retrieved 2010-05-02.
  4. Bhoola, K. D.; Figueroa, C. D.; Worthy, K. (1992). “Bioregulation of kinins: Kallikreins, kininogens, and kininases”. Pharmacological reviews 44 (1): 1–80. PMID 1313585edit
  5. Stefan Offermanns; Walter Rosenthal (2008). Encyclopedia of Molecular Pharmacology. Springer. pp. 673–. ISBN 978-3-540-38916-3. Retrieved 11 December 2010.

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