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ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY

Read all about Organic Spectroscopy on ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY INTERNATIONAL 

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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GST-HG-121


GST-HG-121

mw 431.4

C23 H29 N07

Fujian Cosunter Pharmaceutical Co Ltd

Preclinical for the treatment of hepatitis B virus infection

This compound was originally claimed in WO2018214875 , and may provide the structure of GST-HG-121 , an HBsAg inhibitor which is being investigated by Fujian Cosunter for the treatment of hepatitis B virus infection; in June 2019, an IND application was planned in the US and clinical trials of the combination therapies were expected in 2020. Fujian Cosunter is also investigating GST-HG-131 , another HBsAg secretion inhibitor, although this appears to be being developed only as a part of drug combination.

WO2017013046A1

PATENT

WO2018214875

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2018214875&_cid=P21-KB0QYA-12917-1

Example 6

 

 

 

Step A: Maintaining at 0 degrees Celsius, lithium aluminum hydride (80.00 g, 2.11 mol, 2.77 equiv) was added to a solution of 6-1 (100.00 g, 762.36 mmol, 1.00 equiv) in tetrahydrofuran (400.00 mL). The solution was stirred at 10 degrees Celsius for 10 hours. Then, 80.00 ml of water was added to the reaction solution with stirring, and 240.00 ml of 15% aqueous sodium hydroxide solution was added, and then 80.00 ml of water was added. The resulting suspension was stirred at 10 degrees Celsius for 20 minutes, and filtered to obtain a colorless clear liquid. Concentrate under reduced pressure to obtain compound 6-2.

 

1 H NMR (400 MHz, deuterated chloroform) δ = 3.72 (dd, J = 3.9, 10.2 Hz, 1H), 3.21 (t, J = 10.2 Hz, 1H), 2.51 (dd, J = 3.9, 10.2 Hz, 1H ), 0.91(s, 9H)

 

Step B: Dissolve 6-2 (50.00 g, 426.66 mmol) and triethylamine (59.39 mL, 426.66 mmol) in dichloromethane (500.00 mL), di-tert-butyl dicarbonate (92.19 g, 422.40 mmol) Mol) was dissolved in dichloromethane (100.00 ml) and added dropwise to the previous reaction solution at 0 degrees Celsius. The reaction solution was then stirred at 25 degrees Celsius for 12 hours. The reaction solution was washed with saturated brine (600.00 mL), dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, the organic phase was concentrated under reduced pressure and spin-dried, and then recrystallized with methyl tert-butyl ether/petroleum ether (50.00/100.00) to obtain compound 6-3 .
1 H NMR (400 MHz, deuterated chloroform) δ 4.64 (br s, 1H), 3.80-3.92 (m, 1H), 3.51 (br d, J = 7.09 Hz, 2H), 2.17 (br s, 1H), 1.48 (s, 9H), 0.96 (s, 9H).

 

Step C: Dissolve thionyl chloride (100.98 ml, 1.39 mmol) in acetonitrile (707.50 ml), 6-3 (121.00 g, 556.82 mmol) in acetonitrile (282.90 ml), and drop at minus 40 degrees Celsius After adding to the last reaction solution, pyridine (224.72 mL, 2.78 mol) was added to the reaction solution in one portion. The ice bath was removed, and the reaction solution was stirred at 5-10 degrees Celsius for 1 hour. After spin-drying the solvent under reduced pressure, ethyl acetate (800.00 ml) was added, and a solid precipitated, which was filtered, and the filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure. Step 2: The obtained oil and water and ruthenium trichloride (12.55 g, 55.68 mmol) were dissolved in acetonitrile (153.80 ml), and sodium periodate (142.92 g, 668.19 mmol) was suspended in water (153.80 ml ), slowly add to the above reaction solution, and the final reaction mixture is stirred at 5-10 degrees Celsius for 0.15 hours. The reaction mixture was filtered to obtain a filtrate, which was extracted with ethyl acetate (800.00 mL×2). The organic phase was washed with saturated brine (800.00 mL), dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure to dryness. Column purification (silica, petroleum ether/ethyl acetate = 50/1 to 20/1) gave compound 6-4.

 

1 H NMR (400 MHz, deuterated chloroform) δ 4.49-4.55 (m, 1H), 4.40-4.44 (m, 1H), 4.10 (d, J = 6.15 Hz, 1H), 1.49 (s, 9H), 0.94 (s,9H).

[0230]
Step D: Dissolve 6-5 (100.00 g, 657.26 mmol) in acetonitrile (1300.00 mL), add potassium carbonate (227.10 g, 1.64 mol) and 1-bromo-3-methoxypropane (110.63 g, 722.99 Millimoles). The reaction solution was stirred at 85 degrees Celsius for 6 hours. The reaction solution was extracted with ethyl acetate 600.00 ml (200.00 ml×3), dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, then filtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure to obtain compound 6-6.

[0231]
1 H NMR (400 MHz, deuterated chloroform) δ 9.76-9.94 (m, 1H), 7.42-7.48 (m, 2H), 6.98 (d, J=8.03 Hz, 1H), 4.18 (t, J=6.53 Hz , 2H), 3.95 (s, 3H), 3.57 (t, J = 6.09 Hz, 2H), 3.33-3.39 (m, 3H), 2.13 (quin, J = 6.34 Hz, 2H).

[0232]
Step E: Dissolve 6-6 (70.00 g, 312.15 mmol) in methylene chloride, add m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid (94.27 g, 437.01 mmol), and the reaction was stirred at 50 degrees Celsius for 2 hours. After cooling the reaction solution, it was filtered, the filtrate was extracted with dichloromethane, the organic phase was washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate solution 2000.00 ml (400.00 ml × 5), dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, and concentrated under reduced pressure. A brown oil was obtained. After dissolving with as little methanol as possible, a solution of 2 mol per liter of potassium hydroxide (350.00 ml) was slowly added (exothermic). The dark colored reaction solution was stirred at room temperature for 20 minutes, and the reaction solution was adjusted to pH 5 with 37% hydrochloric acid. It was extracted with ethyl acetate 400.00 ml (200.00 ml×2), and the organic phase was washed with saturated brine 200.00 ml (100.00 ml×2), dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, and concentrated under reduced pressure to obtain compound 6-7.

 

1 H NMR (400 MHz, deuterated chloroform) δ 6.75 (d, J = 8.53 Hz, 1H), 6.49 (d, J = 2.89 Hz, 1H), 6.36 (dd, J = 2.82, 8.60 Hz, 1H), 4.07 (t, J = 6.40 Hz, 2H), 3.82 (s, 3H), 3.60 (t, J = 6.15 Hz, 2H), 3.38 (s, 3H), 2.06-2.14 (m, 2H).

 

Step F: Dissolve 6-7 (33.00 g, 155.48 mmol) in tetrahydrofuran (330.00 mL), add paraformaldehyde (42.02 g, 466.45 mmol), magnesium chloride (29.61 g, 310.97 mmol), triethylamine (47.20 g, 466.45 mmol, 64.92 mL). The reaction solution was stirred at 80 degrees Celsius for 8 hours. After the reaction was completed, it was quenched with 2 molar hydrochloric acid solution (200.00 ml) at 25°C, then extracted with ethyl acetate 600.00 ml (200.00 ml×3), and the organic phase was washed with saturated brine 400.00 ml (200.00 ml×2). Dry over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filter and concentrate under reduced pressure to obtain a residue. The residue was washed with ethanol (30.00 ml) and filtered to obtain a filter cake. Thus, compound 6-8 is obtained.

 

1 H NMR (400 MHz, deuterated chloroform) δ 11.29 (s, 1H), 9.55-9.67 (m, 1H), 6.83 (s, 1H), 6.42 (s, 1H), 4.10 (t, J=6.48 Hz , 2H), 3.79 (s, 3H), 3.49 (t, J = 6.05 Hz, 2H), 3.28 (s, 3H), 2.06 (quin, J = 6.27 Hz, 2H)

 

Step G: Dissolve 6-8 (8.70 g, 36.21 mmol) in N,N-dimethylformamide (80.00 mL), add potassium carbonate (10.01 g, 72.42 mmol) and 6-4 (11.13 g) , 39.83 mmol), the reaction solution was stirred at 50 degrees Celsius for 2 hours. The reaction solution was quenched with 1.00 mol/L aqueous hydrochloric acid solution (200.00 mL), and extracted with ethyl acetate (150.00 mL×2). The combined organic phase was washed with water (150.00 mL×3), dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure to obtain compound 6-9.
1 H NMR (400 MHz, deuterated chloroform) δ 10.31 (s, 1H), 7.34 (s, 1H), 6.57 (s, 1H), 4.18-4.26 (m, 3H), 4.07 (dd, J=5.33, 9.60Hz, 1H), 3.88(s, 4H), 3.60(t, J=5.96Hz, 2H), 3.39(s, 3H), 2.17(quin, J=6.21Hz, 2H), 1.47(s, 9H) , 1.06 (s, 9H).

 

Step H: Dissolve 6-9 (15.80 g, 35.95 mmol) in dichloromethane (150.00 mL) and add trifluoroacetic acid (43.91 mL, 593.12 mmol). The reaction solution was stirred at 10 degrees Celsius for 3 hours. The reaction solution was concentrated under reduced pressure and spin-dried, sodium bicarbonate aqueous solution (100.00 mL) was added, and dichloromethane (100.00 mL) was extracted. The organic phase was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure to obtain compound 6-10.
1 H NMR (400 MHz, deuterated chloroform) δ 8.40 (s, 1H), 6.80 (s, 1H), 6.51 (s, 1H), 4.30 (br d, J = 12.35 Hz, 1H), 4.04-4.11 ( m, 3H), 3.79 (s, 3H), 3.49 (t, J = 5.99 Hz, 2H), 3.36 (br d, J = 2.93 Hz, 1H), 3.28 (s, 3H), 2.06 (quin, J = 6.24Hz, 2H), 1.02(s, 9H).

 

Step I: Dissolve 6-10 (5.00 g, 15.56 mmol) in toluene (20.00 mL) and add 6-11 (8.04 g, 31.11 mmol). The reaction solution was stirred at 120 degrees Celsius for 12 hours under nitrogen protection. The reaction solution was quenched with water (100.00 mL), extracted with ethyl acetate (100.00 mL×2), the combined organic phases were washed with water (80.00 mL×2), dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by reverse phase column. Then purified by high-performance liquid chromatography (column: Phenomenex luna C18 250*50 mm*10 microns; mobile phase: [water (0.225% formic acid)-acetonitrile]; elution gradient: 35%-70%, 25 minutes) Compound 6-12 is obtained.

 

1 H NMR (400 MHz, deuterated chloroform) δ 7.95 (s, 1H), 6.59 (s, 1H), 6.40 (s, 1H), 5.15-5.23 (m, 1H), 4.35-4.41 (m, 2H) , 4.08-4.19 (m, 2H), 3.94-4.00 (m, 2H), 3.72 (s, 3H), 3.61-3.67 (m, 1H), 3.46 (dt, J=1.96, 5.99Hz, 2H), 3.27 (s, 3H), 3.01-3.08 (m, 1H), 2.85-2.94 (m, 1H), 1.97-2.01 (m, 2H), 1.18-1.22 (m, 3H), 1.04 (s, 9H).

 

Step J: Dissolve 6-12 (875.00 mg, 1.90 mmol) in toluene (20.00 mL) and ethylene glycol dimethyl ether (20.00 mL), and add tetrachlorobenzoquinone (1.40 g, 5.69 mmol). The reaction solution was stirred at 120 degrees Celsius for 12 hours. The reaction solution was cooled to room temperature, and a saturated aqueous sodium carbonate solution (50.00 ml) and ethyl acetate (60.00 ml) were added. The mixed solution was stirred at 10-15 degrees Celsius for 20 minutes, and the liquid was separated to obtain an organic phase. Add 2.00 mol/L aqueous hydrochloric acid solution (60.00 mL) to the organic phase, stir at 10-15 degrees Celsius for 20 minutes, and separate the liquid. Wash the organic phase with 2 mol/L aqueous hydrochloric acid solution (60.00 mL×2), separate the liquid, and separate the water phase A 2 mol/L aqueous sodium hydroxide solution (200.00 ml) and dichloromethane (200.00 ml) were added. The layers were separated, and the organic phase was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure to obtain compound 6-13.

[0243]
1 H NMR (400 MHz, deuterated chloroform) δ 7.98-8.78 (m, 1H), 6.86 (s, 1H), 6.43-6.73 (m, 2H), 4.41-4.48 (m, 1H), 4.28-4.38 ( m, 2H), 4.03-4.11 (m, 2H), 3.93 (br s, 1H), 3.80 (s, 3H), 3.47-3.52 (m, 3H), 3.29 (s, 3H), 2.06 (quin, J = 6.24 Hz, 2H), 1.33 (t, J = 7.15 Hz, 2H), 0.70-1.25 (m, 10H).

[0244]
Step K: Dissolve 6-13 (600.00 mg, 1.31 mmol) in methanol (6.00 mL), and add 4.00 mol/L aqueous sodium hydroxide solution (2.00 mL, 6.39 equiv). The reaction solution was stirred at 15 degrees Celsius for 0.25 hours. The reaction solution was adjusted to pH=3-4 with a 1.00 mol/L hydrochloric acid aqueous solution, and then extracted with dichloromethane (50.00 mL×3). The organic phases were combined, washed with saturated brine (50.00 mL), and dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate. , Filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure to obtain Example 6.

[0245]
ee value (enantiomeric excess): 100%.

[0246]
SFC (Supercritical Fluid Chromatography) method: Column: Chiralcel OD-3 100 mm x 4.6 mm ID, 3 μm mobile phase: methanol (0.05% diethylamine) in carbon dioxide from 5% to 40% Flow rate: 3 ml per minute Wavelength: 220 nm.

[0247]
1 H NMR (400 MHz, deuterated chloroform) δ 15.72 (br s, 1H), 8.32-8.93 (m, 1H), 6.60-6.93 (m, 2H), 6.51 (br s, 1H), 4.38-4.63 ( m, 2H), 4.11 (br dd, J = 4.52, 12.23 Hz, 3H), 3.79-3.87 (m, 3H), 3.46-3.54 (m, 2H), 3.29 (s, 3H), 2.07 (quin, J = 6.24 Hz, 2H), 0.77-1.21 (m, 9H).

PATENT

WO-2020103924

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2020103924&tab=FULLTEXT&_cid=P21-KB0QP8-09832-1

Novel crystalline forms of 11-oxo-7,11-dihydro-6H-benzo[f]pyrido[1,2-d][1,4]azepine, a hepatitis B surface antigen and HBV replication inhibitor, useful for treating HBV infection.

Hepatitis B virus, or hepatitis B for short, is a disease caused by Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection of the body. Hepatitis B virus is a hepatotropic virus, which mainly exists in liver cells and damages liver cells, causing inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis of liver cells. There are two types of viral hepatitis, acute and chronic. Acute hepatitis B in most adults can heal itself through its own immune mechanism. But chronic hepatitis B (CHB) has become a great challenge for global health care, and it is also the main cause of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and liver cancer (HCC). It is estimated that 2 billion people worldwide are infected with chronic hepatitis B virus, and more than 350 million people have developed into hepatitis B. Nearly 600,000 people die each year from complications of chronic hepatitis B. my country is a high incidence area of ​​hepatitis B. There are many patients with accumulated hepatitis B, and the harm is serious. According to data, there are about 93 million people with hepatitis B virus infection in China, and about 20 million of them are diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B, of which 10%-20% can evolve into cirrhosis and 1%-5% can develop into Liver cancer.

 

The key to the functional cure of hepatitis B is to remove HBsAg (hepatitis B virus surface antigen) and produce surface antibodies. HBsAg quantification is a very important biological indicator. In patients with chronic infection, few HBsAg reductions and seroconversion can be observed, which is the end point of current treatment.

 

The surface antigen protein of hepatitis B virus (HBV) plays a very important role in the process of HBV invading liver cells, and is of great significance for the prevention and treatment of HBV infection. Surface antigen proteins include large (L), medium (M) and small (S) surface antigen proteins, sharing a common C-terminal S region. They are expressed from an open reading frame, and their different lengths are determined by the three AUG start codons in the reading frame. These three surface antigen proteins include pre-S1/pre-S2/S, pre-S2/S and S domains. The HBV surface antigen protein is integrated into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane and is initiated by the N-terminal signal sequence. They not only constitute the basic structure of the virion, but also form spherical and filamentous subviral particles (SVPs, HBsAg), aggregated in the ER, host ER and pre-Golgi apparatus, SVP contains most S surface antigen proteins. The L protein is crucial in the interaction between viral morphogenesis and nucleocapsid, but it is not necessary for the formation of SVP. Due to their lack of nucleocapsid, the SVPs are non-infectious. SVPs are greatly involved in disease progression, especially the immune response to hepatitis B virus. In the blood of infected persons, the amount of SVPs is at least 10,000 times the number of viruses, trapping the immune system and weakening the body’s immune response to hepatitis B virus. HBsAg can also inhibit human innate immunity, can inhibit the production of cytokines induced by polysaccharide (LPS) and IL-2, inhibit the DC function of dendritic cells, and LPS interfere with ERK-1/2 and c-Jun N-terminal interfering kinase-1 2 Inducing activity in monocytes. It is worth noting that the disease progression of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma is also largely related to the persistent secretion of HBsAg. These findings indicate that HBsAg plays an important role in the development of chronic hepatitis.

 

The currently approved anti-HBV drugs are mainly immunomodulators (interferon-α and pegylated interferon-α-2α) and antiviral drugs (lamivudine, adefovir dipivoxil, entecavir, and Bifudine, Tenofovir, Kravudine, etc.). Among them, antiviral drugs belong to the class of nucleotide drugs, and their mechanism of action is to inhibit the synthesis of HBV DNA, and cannot directly reduce the level of HBsAg. As with prolonged treatment, nucleotide drugs show HBsAg clearance rate similar to natural observations.

 

Existing therapies in the clinic are not effective in reducing HBsAg. Therefore, the development of small molecule oral inhibitors that can effectively reduce HBsAg is urgently needed in clinical medicine.

 

Roche has developed a surface antigen inhibitor called RG7834 for the treatment of hepatitis B, and reported the drug efficacy of the compound in the model of woodchuck anti-hepatitis B: when using RG7834 as a single drug, it can reduce the surface of 2.57 Logs Antigen, reduced HBV-DNA by 1.7 Logs. The compound has good activity, but in the process of molecular synthesis, the isomers need to be resolved, which reduces the yield and increases the cost.

 

WO2017013046A1 discloses a series of 2-oxo-7,8-dihydro-6H-pyrido[2,1,a][2]benzodiazepine-3-for the treatment or prevention of hepatitis B virus infection Carboxylic acid derivatives. The IC 50 of Example 3, the highest activity of this series of fused ring compounds , is 419 nM, and there is much room for improvement in activity. The chiral centers contained in this series of compounds are difficult to synthesize asymmetrically. Generally, the 7-membered carbocyclic ring has poor water solubility and is prone to oxidative metabolism.
Example 1 Preparation of compound of formula (I)

 

[0060]

 

Step A: Maintaining at 0 degrees Celsius, to a solution of compound 1 (100.00 g, 762.36 mmol, 1.00 equiv) in tetrahydrofuran (400.00 mL) was added lithium aluminum hydride (80.00 g, 2.11 mol, 2.77 equiv). The solution was stirred at 10 degrees Celsius for 10 hours. Then, 80.00 ml of water was added to the reaction solution with stirring, and 240.00 ml of 15% aqueous sodium hydroxide solution was added, and then 80.00 ml of water was added. The resulting suspension was stirred at 10 degrees Celsius for 20 minutes, and filtered to obtain a colorless clear liquid. Concentrate under reduced pressure to obtain compound 2.
Step B: Dissolve compound 2 (50.00 g, 426.66 mmol) and triethylamine (59.39 mL, 426.66 mmol) in dichloromethane (500.00 mL), di-tert-butyl dicarbonate (92.19 g, 422.40 mmol) ) Was dissolved in dichloromethane (100.00 ml) and added dropwise to the previous reaction solution at 0 degrees Celsius. The reaction solution was then stirred at 25 degrees Celsius for 12 hours. The reaction solution was washed with saturated brine (600.00 ml), dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, the organic phase was concentrated under reduced pressure and spin-dried, and then recrystallized from methyl tert-butyl ether/petroleum ether (50.00/100.00) to obtain compound 3.
Step C: Dissolve thionyl chloride (100.98 ml, 1.39 mmol) in acetonitrile (707.50 ml), compound 3 (121.00 g, 556.82 mmol) in acetonitrile (282.90 ml), and add dropwise at minus 40 degrees Celsius To the last reaction solution, after the dropwise addition, pyridine (224.72 mL, 2.78 mol) was added to the reaction solution in one portion. The ice bath was removed, and the reaction solution was stirred at 5-10 degrees Celsius for 1 hour. After spin-drying the solvent under reduced pressure, ethyl acetate (800.00 ml) was added, and a solid precipitated, which was filtered, and the filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure. Step 2: The obtained oil and water and ruthenium trichloride (12.55 g, 55.68 mmol) were dissolved in acetonitrile (153.80 ml), and sodium periodate (142.92 g, 668.19 mmol) was suspended in water (153.80 ml ), slowly add to the above reaction solution, and the final reaction mixture is stirred at 5-10 degrees Celsius for 0.15 hours. The reaction mixture was filtered to obtain a filtrate, which was extracted with ethyl acetate (800.00 mL×2). The organic phase was washed with saturated brine (800.00 mL), dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure to dryness. Column purification (silica, petroleum ether/ethyl acetate = 50/1 to 20/1) gave compound 4.
Step D: Dissolve compound 5 (100.00 g, 657.26 mmol) in acetonitrile (1300.00 mL), add potassium carbonate (227.10 g, 1.64 mol) and 1-bromo-3-methoxypropane (110.63 g, 722.99 mmol) Mole). The reaction solution was stirred at 85 degrees Celsius for 6 hours. The reaction solution was extracted with ethyl acetate 600.00 ml (200.00 ml×3), dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, then filtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure to obtain compound 6.

 

Step E: Compound 6 (70.00 g, 312.15 mmol) was dissolved in methylene chloride, m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid (94.27 g, 437.01 mmol) was added, and the reaction was stirred at 50 degrees Celsius for 2 hours. After cooling the reaction solution, it was filtered, the filtrate was extracted with dichloromethane, the organic phase was washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate solution 2000.00 ml (400.00 ml × 5), dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, and concentrated under reduced pressure. A brown oil was obtained. After dissolving with as little methanol as possible, a solution of 2 mol per liter of potassium hydroxide (350.00 ml) was slowly added (exothermic). The dark colored reaction solution was stirred at room temperature for 20 minutes, and the reaction solution was adjusted to pH 5 with 37% hydrochloric acid. It was extracted with ethyl acetate 400.00 ml (200.00 ml×2), the organic phase was washed with saturated brine 200.00 ml (100.00 ml×2), dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, and concentrated under reduced pressure to obtain compound 7.

[0066]
Step F: Compound 7 (33.00 g, 155.48 mmol) was dissolved in tetrahydrofuran (330.00 mL), paraformaldehyde (42.02 g, 466.45 mmol), magnesium chloride (29.61 g, 310.97 mmol), triethylamine ( 47.20 g, 466.45 mmol, 64.92 mL). The reaction solution was stirred at 80 degrees Celsius for 8 hours. After the reaction was completed, it was quenched with 2 molar hydrochloric acid solution (200.00 ml) at 25°C, then extracted with ethyl acetate 600.00 ml (200.00 ml×3), and the organic phase was washed with saturated brine 400.00 ml (200.00 ml×2). Dry over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filter and concentrate under reduced pressure to obtain a residue. The residue was washed with ethanol (30.00 ml) and filtered to obtain a filter cake. Thus, compound 8 is obtained.

 

Step G: Dissolve compound 8 (8.70 g, 36.21 mmol) in N,N-dimethylformamide (80.00 mL), add potassium carbonate (10.01 g, 72.42 mmol) and compound 4 (11.13 g, 39.83 Mmol), the reaction solution was stirred at 50 degrees Celsius for 2 hours. The reaction solution was quenched with 1.00 mol/L aqueous hydrochloric acid solution (200.00 mL), and extracted with ethyl acetate (150.00 mL×2). The combined organic phase was washed with water (150.00 mL×3), dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure to obtain compound 9.

Step H: Compound 9 (15.80 g, 35.95 mmol) was dissolved in dichloromethane (150.00 mL), and trifluoroacetic acid (43.91 mL, 593.12 mmol) was added. The reaction solution was stirred at 10 degrees Celsius for 3 hours. The reaction solution was concentrated under reduced pressure and spin-dried, sodium bicarbonate aqueous solution (100.00 mL) was added, and dichloromethane (100.00 mL) was extracted. The organic phase was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure to obtain compound 10.

Step I: Compound 10 (5.00 g, 15.56 mmol) was dissolved in toluene (20.00 mL), and compound 11 (8.04 g, 31.11 mmol) was added. The reaction solution was stirred at 120°C for 12 hours under nitrogen protection. The reaction solution was quenched with water (100.00 mL), extracted with ethyl acetate (100.00 mL×2), the combined organic phases were washed with water (80.00 mL×2), dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by reverse phase column. Purified by high-performance liquid chromatography (column: Phenomenex luna C18 250×50 mm×10 μm; mobile phase: [water (0.225% formic acid)-acetonitrile]; elution gradient: 35%-70%, 25 minutes) Compound 12 is obtained.

Step J: Compound 12 (875.00 mg, 1.90 mmol) was dissolved in toluene (20.00 mL) and ethylene glycol dimethyl ether (20.00 mL), and tetrachlorobenzoquinone (1.40 g, 5.69 mmol) was added. The reaction solution was stirred at 120 degrees Celsius for 12 hours. The reaction solution was cooled to room temperature, and a saturated aqueous sodium carbonate solution (50.00 ml) and ethyl acetate (60.00 ml) were added. The mixed solution was stirred at 10-15 degrees Celsius for 20 minutes, and the liquid was separated to obtain an organic phase. Add 2.00 mol/L aqueous hydrochloric acid solution (60.00 mL) to the organic phase, stir at 10-15 degrees Celsius for 20 minutes, and separate the liquid. Wash the organic phase with 2 mol/L aqueous hydrochloric acid solution (60.00 mL×2), separate the liquid, and separate the water phase A 2 mol/L aqueous sodium hydroxide solution (200.00 ml) and dichloromethane (200.00 ml) were added. The layers were separated, and the organic phase was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure to obtain compound 13.

Step K: Compound 13 (600.00 mg, 1.31 mmol) was dissolved in methanol (6.00 mL), and 4.00 mol/L aqueous sodium hydroxide solution (2.00 mL, 6.39 equiv) was added. The reaction solution was stirred at 15 degrees Celsius for 0.25 hours. The reaction solution was adjusted to pH=3-4 with a 1.00 mol/L hydrochloric acid aqueous solution, and then extracted with dichloromethane (50.00 mL×3). The organic phases were combined, washed with saturated brine (50.00 mL), and dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate , Filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure to obtain the compound of formula (I). ee value (enantiomeric excess): 100%.

SFC (supercritical fluid chromatography) method:
Column: Chiralcel OD-3 100 mm x 4.6 mm size, 3 microns.
Mobile phase: methanol (0.05% diethylamine) in carbon dioxide, from 5% to 40%.
Flow rate: 3 ml per minute.
Wavelength: 220 nm.

////////////GST-HG-121, Fujian Cosunter,  Preclinical ,  hepatitis B,  virus infection

O=C(O)C1=CN2C(=CC1=O)c3cc(OC)c(OCCCOC)cc3OC[C@H]2C(C)(C)C

O=C(O)C1=CN2C(=CC1=O)c3cc(OC)c(OCCCOC)cc3OC[C@H]2C(C)(C)C

NARONAPRIDE


 

Thumb

Naronapride | C27H41ClN4O5 - PubChem

Naronapride | ATI-7505 | CAS#860174-12-5 | 860169-57-9 | 5-HT(4 ...

NARONAPRIDE

860174-12-5

Average: 537.1

C27H41ClN4O5

ATI 7505 / ATI-7505

(3R)-1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octan-3-yl 6-[(3S,4R)-4-(4-amino-5-chloro-2-methoxybenzamido)-3-methoxypiperidin-1-yl]hexanoate

INGREDIENT UNII CAS
Naronapride dihydrochloride 898PE2W8US 860169-57-9

 860174-12-5 (free base)   860169-57-9 (HCl)

Naronapride (free base), also known as ATI-7505, is a highly selective, high-affinity 5-HT(4) receptor agonist for gastrointestinal motility disorders. ATI-7505 accelerates overall colonic transit and tends to accelerate GE and AC emptying and loosen stool consistency.

 

Investigated for use/treatment in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and gastroparesis.

Renexxion , presumed to have been spun-out from Armetheon , under license from ARYx Therapeutics is developing naronapride (ATI-7505; phase 2 clinical in February 2020), an analog of the gastroprokinetic 5-HT 4 agonist cisapride identified using ARYx’s RetroMetabolic platform technology (ARM), for the oral treatment of upper GI disorders. In September 2018, this was still the case . PATENT

WO2005068461

NEW PATENT

WO-2020096911

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2020096911&tab=PCTDESCRIPTION&_cid=P21-KANOVN-53661-1

Process for preparing trihydrate salt of naronapride  hydrochloride as 5-HT 4 receptor agonist useful for treating gastrointestinal disorders such as dyspepsia, gastroparesis, constipation, post-operative ileus. Appears to be the first filing from the assignee and the inventors on this compound,

In some aspects, provided herein is a method of making a trihydrate form of (3S, 4R, 3’R)-6-[4-(4-amino-5-chloro-2-methoxy-benzoylamino)-3-methoxy-piperidin-l-yl]-hexanoic acid l-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3’-yl ester di-hydrochloride salt, which has the following formula:

Example 5: NMR Characterization of the Trihydrate

[0282] ^-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (‘H-NMR) : Approximately 6 mg of the trihydrate was dissolved in in 1 g of deuterated solvent (dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)-C45 99.9% d, with 0.05% v/v tetramethyl silane (TMS)). A Varian Gemini 300 MHz FT-NMR spectrometer was used to obtain the ¾-NMK spectrum. A list of the peaks is provided in Table 1 below. A representative ‘H-NMR spectrum is provided in FIG. 6.

Table 1. ‘H-NMR peak list for trihydrate

[0283] 13 C-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ( 13C-NMR ): Approximately 46 mg of the trihydrate was dissolved in 1 mL of deuterated solvent (deuterium oxide, Aldrich, 99.9% D, TPAS 0.75%). The 13C-NMR spectrum was obtained using a Varian Gemini 300 MHz FT-NMR spectrometer. A list of the peaks is provided in Table 2 below. A representative 13C-NMR spectrum is provided in FIG. 7.

Table 2. 13C-NMR peak list for trihydrate

 

 

PATENT

US10570127 claiming composition (eg tablet) comprising a trihydrate form of naronapride.

patent

ARYX THERAPEUTICS, WO2005/68461, A1, (2005)

Methods

titanium tetraethoxide; toluene;

Reactants can be synthesized in 1 step.
ARYX THERAPEUTICS, WO2005/68461, A1, (2005) The ester (1 part by weight) and (R)-3-Quinuclidinol (about 1.12 part by weight) were suspended in toluene before slowly adding titanium (IV) ethoxide (about 0.5 part by weight) to the stirred suspens ion. The mixture was heated to about 91 °C under a stream of nitrogen, and partial vacuum was applie d to the flask through a distillation apparatus in order to azeotropically remove the ethanol. Addit ional toluene was added as needed to maintain a minimum solvent volume in the flask. The reaction was considered complete after about 33 hours. The mixture was cooled to about room temperature and ext racted five times with water. The organic layer was concentrated under reduced pressure and the resulting residue was redissolved in EtOH/iPrOH (about 1: 1 v/v) and then filtered through a 0.45 micron membrane filter to remove any particulates. Concentrated hydrochloric acid was added slowly to the stirred filtrate to precipitate out the desired product as the dihydrochloride salt. The resulting s uspension was stirred for several hours at room temperature and collected under vacuum filtration and rinsed with EtOH/tPrOH (1: 1; v/v) to provide 0.53 part by weight of the crude product salt. Crude dihydrochloride salt was resuspended in ethanol and heated to reflux before cooling to room temperature over about 1 hour. The product was collected under vacuum filtration and rinsed with ethanol an d then air-dried. The solids were resuspended in ethanol and warmed to about 55 °C to give a clear s olution before adding warm isopropanol and the product was allowed to precipitate by slow cooling to room temperature. The resulting suspension was stirred for several hours before vacuum filtering and rinsing with, e. g., isopropanol. The product was vacuum dried, initially at room temperature for several hours and then at about 55 °C until a constant weight was achieved.

Patent

Methods

dmap; 1-ethyl-(3-(3-dimethylamino)propyl)-carbodiimide hydrochloride; DMFA;

Reactants can be synthesized in 2 steps.
ARYX THERAPEUTICS, WO2007/28073, A2, (2007) Production of Compound IV and Compound VI[0394] A mixture of (+)-Comrhoound II (1 eq.), (R)-(-)-3-quinuclidinol HCl salt (1 eq.), EDAC (1 eq.) and DMAP (1 eq.) in DMF is heated at around 5OC overnight . After cooling and diluting with water, the mixture is purified by chromatography or by crystallization to provide Compound IV. Similarly, using (S)-(+)-quinuclidinol, Compound VI is obtained

REFERENCES

1: Jiang C, Xu Q, Wen X, Sun H. Current developments in pharmacological therapeutics for chronic constipation. Acta Pharm Sin B. 2015 Jul;5(4):300-9. doi: 10.1016/j.apsb.2015.05.006. Epub 2015 Jun 6. Review. PubMed PMID: 26579459; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4629408.

2: Buchwald P, Bodor N. Recent advances in the design and development of soft drugs. Pharmazie. 2014 Jun;69(6):403-13. Review. PubMed PMID: 24974571.

3: Mozaffari S, Didari T, Nikfar S, Abdollahi M. Phase II drugs under clinical investigation for the treatment of chronic constipation. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2014 Nov;23(11):1485-97. doi: 10.1517/13543784.2014.932770. Epub 2014 Jun 24. Review. PubMed PMID: 24960333.

4: Shin A, Camilleri M, Kolar G, Erwin P, West CP, Murad MH. Systematic review with meta-analysis: highly selective 5-HT4 agonists (prucalopride, velusetrag or naronapride) in chronic constipation. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2014 Feb;39(3):239-53. doi: 10.1111/apt.12571. Epub 2013 Dec 5. Review. PubMed PMID: 24308797.

5: Stevens JE, Jones KL, Rayner CK, Horowitz M. Pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy of gastroparesis: current and future perspectives. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2013 Jun;14(9):1171-86. doi: 10.1517/14656566.2013.795948. Epub 2013 May 11. Review. PubMed PMID: 23663133.

6: Tack J, Camilleri M, Chang L, Chey WD, Galligan JJ, Lacy BE, Müller-Lissner S, Quigley EM, Schuurkes J, De Maeyer JH, Stanghellini V. Systematic review: cardiovascular safety profile of 5-HT(4) agonists developed for gastrointestinal disorders. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2012 Apr;35(7):745-67. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2036.2012.05011.x. Epub 2012 Feb 22. Review. PubMed PMID: 22356640; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3491670.

7: Hoffman JM, Tyler K, MacEachern SJ, Balemba OB, Johnson AC, Brooks EM, Zhao H, Swain GM, Moses PL, Galligan JJ, Sharkey KA, Greenwood-Van Meerveld B, Mawe GM. Activation of colonic mucosal 5-HT(4) receptors accelerates propulsive motility and inhibits visceral hypersensitivity. Gastroenterology. 2012 Apr;142(4):844-854.e4. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2011.12.041. Epub 2012 Jan 4. PubMed PMID: 22226658; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3477545.

8: Bowersox SS, Lightning LK, Rao S, Palme M, Ellis D, Coleman R, Davies AM, Kumaraswamy P, Druzgala P. Metabolism and pharmacokinetics of naronapride (ATI-7505), a serotonin 5-HT(4) receptor agonist for gastrointestinal motility disorders. Drug Metab Dispos. 2011 Jul;39(7):1170-80. doi: 10.1124/dmd.110.037564. Epub 2011 Mar 29. PubMed PMID: 21447732.

9: Tack J. Current and future therapies for chronic constipation. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2011 Feb;25(1):151-8. doi: 10.1016/j.bpg.2011.01.005. Review. PubMed PMID: 21382586.

10: Manabe N, Wong BS, Camilleri M. New-generation 5-HT4 receptor agonists: potential for treatment of gastrointestinal motility disorders. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2010 Jun;19(6):765-75. doi: 10.1517/13543784.2010.482927. Review. PubMed PMID: 20408739.

11: Sanger GJ. Translating 5-HT receptor pharmacology. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2009 Dec;21(12):1235-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2982.2009.01425.x. Review. PubMed PMID: 19906028.

12: Vakil N. New pharmacological agents for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Rev Gastroenterol Disord. 2008 Spring;8(2):117-22. Review. PubMed PMID: 18641594.

13: Bayés M, Rabasseda X, Prous JR. Gateways to clinical trials. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 2007 Jun;29(5):359-73. PubMed PMID: 17805439.

14: Camilleri M, Vazquez-Roque MI, Burton D, Ford T, McKinzie S, Zinsmeister AR, Druzgala P. Pharmacodynamic effects of a novel prokinetic 5-HT receptor agonist, ATI-7505, in humans. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2007 Jan;19(1):30-8. PubMed PMID: 17187586.

////////////NARONAPRIDE, ATI 7505, ATI 7505,PHASE 2

CO[C@H]1CN(CCCCCC(=O)O[C@H]2CN3CCC2CC3)CC[C@H]1NC(=O)C1=C(OC)C=C(N)C(Cl)=C1

VOCLOSPORIN


Voclosporin.svg

ChemSpider 2D Image | Voclosporin | C63H111N11O12

Voclosporin | C63H111N11O12 - PubChem

Structure of VOCLOSPORIN

Voclosporin

  • Molecular FormulaC63H111N11O12
  • Average mass1214.622 Da

VOCLOSPORIN

(3S,6S,9S,12R,15S,18S,21S,24S,30S,33S)-30-Ethyl-33-[(1R,2R,4E)-1-hydroxy-2-methyl-4,6-heptadien-1-yl]-6,9,18,24-tetraisobutyl-3,21-diisopropyl-1,4,7,10,12,15,19,25,28-nonamethyl-1,4,7,10,13,16,19,22,2 5,28,31-undecaazacyclotritriacontane-2,5,8,11,14,17,20,23,26,29,32-undecone
1,4,7,10,13,16,19,22,25,28,31-Undecaazacyclotritriacontane-2,5,8,11,14,17,20,23,26,29,32-undecone, 30-ethyl-33-[(1R,2R,4E)-1-hydroxy-2-methyl-4,6-heptadien-1-yl]-1,4,7,10,12,15,19,25,28-nonamethyl-3,2 1-bis(1-methylethyl)-6,9,18,24-tetrakis(2-methylpropyl)-, (3S,6S,9S,12R,15S,18S,21S,24S,30S,33S)-
2PN063X6B1
515814-01-4 [RN]
8889
SA247, ISAtx 247, ISAtx-247, ISAtx247, Luveniq, LX211,
The Greedy Vulture Accumulate under $3.50

Aurinia Pharmaceuticals  (following its merger with  Isotechnika ), in collaboration with licensee  Paladin Labs  (a subsidiary of Endo International plc ),  3SBio ,and  ILJIN , is developing a capsule formulation of the immunosuppressant calcineurin inhibitor peptide voclosporin for the treatment of psoriasis, the prevention of organ rejection after transplantation, autoimmune disease including systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis, and nephrotic syndrome including focal segmental glomerulosclerosis;

Voclosporin is an experimental immunosuppressant drug being developed by Aurinia Pharmaceuticals. It is being studied as a potential treatment for lupus nephritis (LN) and uveitis.[1] It is an analog of ciclosporin that has enhanced action against calcineurin and greater metabolic stability.[2] Voclosporin was discovered by Robert T. Foster and his team at Isotechnika in the mid 1990s.[3] Isotechnika was founded in 1993 and merged with Aurinia Pharmaceuticals in 2013.

Initially, voclosporin was a mixture of equal proporations of cis and trans geometric isomers of amino acid-1 modified cyclosporin. Later, in collaboration with Roche in Basel, Switzerland, voclosporin’s manufacturing was changed to yield the predominantly trans isomer which possesses most of the beneficial effect of the drug (immunosuppression) in the treatment of organ transplantation and autoimmune diseases.

Patent

WO-2020082061

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2020082061&_cid=P12-K9MDK8-59382-1

Novel crystalline forms of voclosporin  which is a structural analog of cyclosporine A as calcineurin signal-transduction pathway inhibitor useful for treating lupus nephritis.

Voclosporin is a structural analog of cyclosporine A, with an additional single carbon extension that has a double-bond on one side chain. Voclosporin has the chemical name (3S,6S,9S,l2R,l5S,l8S,2lS,24S,30S,33S)-30-Ethyl-33-[(lR,2R,4E)-l-hydroxy-2-methyl-4,6-heptadien-l-yl]-6,9,l8,24-tetraisobutyl-3,2l-diisopropyl-l,4,7,l0,l2,l5,l9,25,28-nonamethyl-l,4,7,l0,l3,l6,l9,22,25,28,3 l-undecaazacyclotritriacontane-2,5,8,l l,l4,l7,20,23,26,29,32-undecone and the following chemical structure:

Voclosporin is reported to be a semisynthetic structural analogue of cyclosporine that exerts its immunosuppressant effects by inhibition of the calcineurin signal-transduction pathway and is in Phase 3 Clinical Development for Lupus Nephritis.

[0003] Voclosporin and process for preparation thereof are known from International Patent Application No. WO 1999/18120.

[0004] Certain mixtures of cis and trans-isomers of cyclosporin A analogs referred to as

ISATX247 in different ratios are known from U.S. Patent No. 6,998,385, U.S. Patent No. 7,332,472 and U.S. Patent No. 9,765,119.

[0005] Polymorphism, the occurrence of different crystal forms, is a property of some molecules and molecular complexes. A single compound, like Voclosporin, may give rise to a variety of polymorphs having distinct crystal structures and physical properties like melting point, thermal behaviors (e.g. measured by thermogravimetric analysis – “TGA”, or differential scanning calorimetry – “DSC”), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) pattern, infrared absorption fingerprint, Raman absorption fingerprint, and solid state (13C-) NMR spectrum. One or more of these techniques may be used to distinguish different polymorphic forms of a compound.

[0006] Different salts and solid state forms (including solvated forms) of an active

pharmaceutical ingredient may possess different properties. Such variations in the properties of different salts and solid state forms and solvates may provide a basis for improving formulation, for example, by facilitating better processing or handling characteristics, improving the dissolution profile, or improving stability (polymorph as well as chemical stability) and shelf-life. These variations in the properties of different salts and solid state forms may also provide improvements to the final dosage form, for instance, if they serve to improve bioavailability. Different salts and solid state forms and solvates of an active pharmaceutical ingredient may also give rise to a variety of polymorphs or crystalline forms, which may in turn provide additional opportunities to use variations in the properties and characteristics of a solid active pharmaceutical ingredient for providing an improved product.

[0007] Discovering new salts, solid state forms and solvates of a pharmaceutical product can provide materials having desirable processing properties, such as ease of handling, ease of processing, storage stability, and ease of purification or as desirable intermediate crystal forms that facilitate conversion to other salts or polymorphic forms. New salts, polymorphic forms and solvates of a pharmaceutically useful compound can also provide an opportunity to improve the performance characteristics of a pharmaceutical product (dissolution profile, bioavailability, etc.). It enlarges the repertoire of materials that a formulation scientist has available for formulation optimization, for example by providing a product with different properties, e.g., a different crystal habit, higher crystallinity or polymorphic stability which may offer better processing or handling characteristics, improved dissolution profile, or improved shelf-life.

[0008] For at least these reasons, there is a need for solid state forms (including solvated forms) of Voclosporin and salts thereof.

HPLC method:

Method description

Column: Zorbax SB C18, 1.8 pm, 100×2.1 mm

Mobile phase: A: 38 ACN : 7 TBME : 55 voda : 0.02 H3P04 (V/V/V/V)

B: 70 ACN : 7 TBME : 23 voda : 0.02 H P04 (V/V/V/V)

Flow rate: 0.5 mL/min

Gradient

Analysis time: 26 minutes + 3 minutes equilibration

Injection volume: 3.0 pL

Column temperature: 90 °C

Diluent: Ethanol

Detection: UV, 210 nm

EXAMPLES

[0095] The starting material Voclosporin crude may be obtained according to ET.S. Patent No. 6,998,385 ETnless otherwise indicated, the purity is determined by HPLC (area percent). The crude product contained according to HPLC analysis 42.6 % trans-Voclosporin (further only Voclosporin), 40.2 % cis-Voclosporin and 2.9 % Cyclosporin A. The crude Voclosporin was purified by column chromatography on silica gel using a mixture of toluene and acetone 82 : 18 (v/v) as mobile phase. The fractions were monitored by HPLC. The appropriate fractions were joined and evaporated, obtaining purified Voclosporin as a white foam. According to HPLC analysis it contained 85.7 % Voclosporin, 3.6 % cis-Voclosporin and 2.6 % Cyclosporin A (further only purified Voclosporin).

[0096] The Voclosporin crude (containing about 42.6 % of Voclosporin) was used for further optimization of the chromatographic separation of cis-Voclosporin and Voclosporin and the effort resulted in improved process for chromatographic separation which includes purification by column chromatography on silica gel using a mixture of toluene and methylisobutylketone 38 : 62 as mobile phase. The fractions were monitored by HPLC. The appropriate fractions were joined and evaporated to a dry residue, weighing 31.0 grams. This residue was not analyzed. The material was dissolved in 25 ml of acetone and then 50 ml of water was added and the solution was let to crystallize for 2 hours in the refrigerator. Then the crystalline product was separated by filtration and dried in vacuum dryer (40 °C, 50 mbar, 12 hours), obtaining 29.6 g of dry product containing 90.6 % of Voclosporin, 0.4 % cis-Voclosporin and 3.7 % Cyclosporin A (further mentioned as final Voclosporin).

Example 1: Preparation of Voclosporin Form A

4.1 grams of Purified Voclosporin was dissolved in acetone and the solution was evaporated to 8.0 grams and the concentrate was diluted by 6 ml of water. The solution was let to crystallize in refrigerator at about 2 °C for 12 hours. The crystalline product was filtered off, washed by a mixture of acetone and water 1 : 1 (v/v) and dried on open air obtaining 2.6 grams of crystalline product Form A. Voclosporin form A was confirmed by PXRD as presented in Figure 1.

Example 2: Preparation of Voclosporin Form B

[0097] 1.0 gram of Purified Voclosporin was dissolved in a mixture of 1.5 ml acetone and 3.0 ml n-hexane. The solution was let to crystallize in refrigerator at about 2 °C for 12 hours. The crystalline product was filtered off, washed by a mixture of acetone and hexane 1 : 2 (v/v) and dried on open air obtaining 0.5 grams of crystalline product Form B. Voclosporin form B was confirmed by PXRD as presented in Figure 2.

Example 3: Preparation of Amorphous Voclosporin

[0098] 2.0 grams of Purified Voclosporin was dissolved in 40 ml of hot cyclohexane and the solution was stirred for 12 hours at room temperature. Then the crystalline product was filtered off and washed with 5 ml of cyclohexane and dried on open air, obtaining 1.3 grams of amorphous powder. Amorphous Voclosporin was confirmed by PXRD as presented in Figure 3

Example 4: Preparation of Voclosporin Form C

[0099] Final Voclosporin (2 grams) was dissolved in acetonitrile (20 ml) at 50 °C, water (6 ml) was added with stirring, and the clear solution was allowed to crystallize 5 days at 20 °C. Colorless needle crystals were directly mounted to the goniometer head in order to define the crystal structure. Voclosporin form C was confirmed by X-ray crystal structure determination.

References

  1. ^ “Luveniq Approval Status”Luveniq (voclosporin) is a next-generation calcineurin inhibitor intended for the treatment of noninfectious uveitis involving the intermediate or posterior segments of the eye.
  2. ^ “What is voclosporin?”. Isotechnika. Retrieved October 19, 2012.
  3. ^ U.S. Patent 6,605,593

External links

 

Voclosporin
Voclosporin.svg
Names
IUPAC name

(3S,6S,9S,12R,15S,18S,21S,24S,30S,33S)-30-Ethyl-33-[(1R,2R,4E)-1-hydroxy-2-methyl-4,6-heptadien-1-yl]-6,9,18,24-tetraisobutyl-3,21-diisopropyl-1,4,7,10,12,15,19,25,28-nonamethyl-1,4,7,10,13,16,19,22,25,28,31-undecaazacyclotritriacontane-2,5,8,11,14,17,20,23,26,29,32-undecone
Other names

VCS, ISA247, Luveniq
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChemSpider
PubChem CID
Properties
C63H111N11O12
Molar mass 1214.646 g·mol−1
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).

 

Synthesis

methanol; potassium carbonate;

Reactants can be synthesized in 7 steps.
Synthesis, vol. 44, 1, (2012), p. 63 – 68

Yield:60%
SYN 2

sulfuric acid; tetrahydrofuran;

ISOTECHNIKA INC., WO2004/89960, A2, (2004) 20 ml of THF were added and the reaction mixture was cooled to 0 °C. 2.7 ML (48.69 mmol, 3 equiv. ) of concentrated sulfuric acid were added. The temperature was raised to RT. After completion of the reaction (ca 1 hour), 100 ml of water were added. The organic phase was separated and washed 2 times with 50 ml water. The water phases were re-extracted sequentially with 50 ml dichloromethane. The c ombined organic phases were dried over NA2SO4, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure at 3 0°C. The resulting white foam was re-dissolved in 250 ml MTBE and after a few minutes, the crystalli zation started. After stirring 15 min. at RT and 2 hours at 0-2 C, THE SUSPENSION WAS FILTERED. THE crystals were washed with 50 ml cold MTBE (-20 °C) and dried at 40-50 °C under reduced pressure to p rovide 19.2 g of (E) -acetyl-ISA247 as white powder in >98percent isomeric purity (400MHZ LH NMR). (E)-ACETYL-ISA247 can be RECRYSTALLIZED by dissolving the solid in dichloromethane at room temperatur e and exchanging the solvent to MTBE (by adding MTBE, concentrating the solution to half its volume under reduced pressure at 40°C and repeating these operation 2 to three times). The solution is cool ed to room temperature and the crystallization then starts within a few minutes. The suspension is s tirred at room temperature for 2h and 30min at 0°C. The crystals of (E) -acetyl-ISA247 are isolated after filtration, washing with MTBE and drying under reduced pressure at 40°C.iii) Peterson eliminat ion The CRUDE-TRIMETHYLSILYALCOHOL diastereomers mixture (11 g, maximum 4.056 mmol) was dissolved in 25 ml THF. 0.679 ml (12.16 mmol, 3 equiv.) concentrated sulfuric were added dropwise maintaining th e temperature between 20 °C and 25 °C. After 2 hours at RT, 50 ml half saturated aqueous NaCl soluti on were added. The resulting mixture was extracted twice with 50 ML MTBE. The organic phases were washed with 50ML of a half saturated aqueous NACL solution, combined, dried over NA2SO4 and concentrat ed under reduce pressure at 40°C. The resulting crude E-acetyl-ISA247 was re-dissolved in 20 ml dich loromethane and concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude product was dissolved in 60 ml MTBE. The crystallization started within 10 min. The suspension was stirred for an additional 15 min. at R T and 2 hours AT-10 °C. The crystals were isolated by filtration, washed with 20 ml cold MTBE (-20 ° C) and dried under reduced pressure to provide 3. 6 G of (E)-ACETYL-ISA247 in ca 98percent isomeric purity by NMR.iii) Peterson elimination After overnight reaction, the organic layer was separated an d the water phase was discarded. 50 ML THF were added to the organic phase. The solution was concent rated under reduced pressure at 30 °C to half its volume. 100 ML THP were added and the solution was concentrated to 80 ML. The volume was adjusted to 100 ml with THF and the solution was cooled to 0- 2 °C. 1. 812 ML (32. 46 MMOL, 2 equiv.) concentrated sulfuric acid were added dropwise over 5 min., maintaining the temperature below 5 °C. After addition, the reaction cooling bath was removed and th e temperature was raised to RT. After 4 hours reaction, 40 ML water were added followed by 20 ml MTB E. The aqueous layer was separated and discarded. The organic phase was washed with 40 ml NAHCO3 Q, 20 ML saturated NACLAQ, 40 ml saturated NaClaq, dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated at 40 ° C under reduced pressure. The crude E-acetyl-ISA247 was RE-DISSOLVED in 200 ml MTBE and crystallizat ion started within a few minutes. After 15 min. at RT and 2.5 hours at 0 °C, the suspension was filt ered, the crystals were washed with 50 ML MTBE and dried at 50 °C under reduced pressure to give 18. 45 g of (E) -acetyl-ISA247 as a white powder (>98percent isomeric purity by NMR).iii) Peterson elim ination 5 ml THF were added to the organic phase and the solution was cooled to 0- 2 °C. 181 UL (3.2 46, 2 equiv. ) concentrated sulfuric acid were added. The reaction mixture was warmed up to RT. Afte r stirring overnight, 20 ml water were added. The aqueous layer was separated and discarded. The organic phase was washed with 20 ml of 5percent aqueous NAHCO3 solution, dried over MGS04, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure at 40 °C to give 2 g of (E) -acetyl-ISA247 as a white foam in > 98percent double bond isomeric purity (by NMR).ii) Peterson elimination The crude product was dissol ved in 11.15 ML THF and 268 P1 concentrated sulfuric acid were added. The reaction mixture was heate d at 33 °C for 1.5 hour and then cooled to RT. 22 ml water were added and the reaction mixture was e xtracted with 22 ml MTBE. The aqueous phase was RE-EXTRACTED with 11 ml MTBE. The organic layer were washed with 11 ml water, combined, dried over NA2SO4, filtered and concentrated at 40 °C under redu ced pressure to give 1.89 g of crude (E) -acetyl-ISA247 as a beige powder. The crude product was re-dissolved in 20 ml MTBE at RT. The crystallization started within a few minutes. The suspension was stirred 30 min. at RT, 45 min. at-10 °C and was filtered. The solid was washed with cold MTBE and dr ied at 40 °C under reduced pressure to give 1.02 g of (E)-acetylISA247 as a white powder in ca 98per cent double bond isomeric purity (NMR). ii) Peterson elimination The crude product was dissolved in 8 ML THF at RT. The solution was cooled to 0-5 °C and 200 UL of concentrated sulfuric acid were adde d dropwise. The temperature was raised to RT and the reaction mixture was stirred 10 hours. 40 ml MTBE and 15 ml of water were added. The water phase was separated and discarded. The organic phase was washed 15 ml of a 5percent aqueous NAHCO3 solution, 15 ml of a half saturated aqueous NACL solution, dried over NA2SO4, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure to give 1. 8 g of crude E-acet yl- ISA247. The crude diene was dissolved in 20 ml dichloromethane. 20 ML MTBE were added, and the s olution was concentrated at 40 °C under reduced pressure to half its volume. The last two operations was repeated three times to in order to exchange the solvent from dichloromethane to MTBE. The solution was cooled to RT and the crystallization started within a few minutes. The suspension was stirr ed 2 hours at RT and 30 min. at 0 °C. The suspension was filtered. The solid was washed with 15 ml M TBE and dried under reduced pressure at 40 °C to give 1.1 g OF E-ACETYL-ISA247 in >95percent double bond isomeric purity (NMR), as a white powder.ii) Peterson elimination The crude product was dissolv ed in 10 ml THF at RT. The solution was cooled to 0-5 °C and 200 UL of concentrated sulfuric acid we re added dropwise. The temperature was raised to RT and the reaction mixture was stirred overnight. 40 ml MTBE and 15 ML of water were added. The water phase was separated and discarded. The organic p hase was washed with 15 ml water, 15 ml of a 5percent aqueous NAHCO3 solution, 15 ml of a half saturated aqueous NaCl solution, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure to give 1.8 g of crude E-ACETYL-ISA247. The crude diene was redissolved in 35 ml of MTBE. The crystallization started withi n a few minutes. The suspension was stirred 2 hours at RT and 30 min. at 0 °C. The suspension was fi ltered. The solid was washed with 15 ml MTBE and dried under reduced pressure at 40 °C to gi ve 1 g of E-acetyl-ISA247 in >95percent double bond isomeric purity (NMR), as a white powder.

REFERENCES

1: Mok CC. Calcineurin inhibitors in systemic lupus erythematosus. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2017 Jun;31(3):429-438. doi: 10.1016/j.berh.2017.09.010. Epub 2017 Oct 11. Review. PubMed PMID: 29224682.

2: Dang W, Yin Y, Wang Y, Wang W, Su J, Sprengers D, van der Laan LJW, Felczak K, Pankiewicz KW, Chang KO, Koopmans MPG, Metselaar HJ, Peppelenbosch MP, Pan Q. Inhibition of Calcineurin or IMP Dehydrogenase Exerts Moderate to Potent Antiviral Activity against Norovirus Replication. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2017 Oct 24;61(11). pii: e01095-17. doi: 10.1128/AAC.01095-17. Print 2017 Nov. PubMed PMID: 28807916; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5655111.

3: Wong TC, Lo CM, Fung JY. Emerging drugs for prevention of T-cell mediated rejection in liver and kidney transplantation. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2017 Jun;22(2):123-136. doi: 10.1080/14728214.2017.1330884. Epub 2017 May 22. Review. PubMed PMID: 28503959.

4: Chow C, Simpson MJ, Luger TA, Chubb H, Ellis CN. Comparison of three methods for measuring psoriasis severity in clinical studies (Part 1 of 2): change during therapy in Psoriasis Area and Severity Index, Static Physician’s Global Assessment and Lattice System Physician’s Global Assessment. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2015 Jul;29(7):1406-14. doi: 10.1111/jdv.13132. Epub 2015 Apr 27. PubMed PMID: 25917315.

5: Simpson MJ, Chow C, Morgenstern H, Luger TA, Ellis CN. Comparison of three methods for measuring psoriasis severity in clinical studies (Part 2 of 2): use of quality of life to assess construct validity of the Lattice System Physician’s Global Assessment, Psoriasis Area and Severity Index and Static Physician’s Global Assessment. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2015 Jul;29(7):1415-20. doi: 10.1111/jdv.12861. Epub 2015 Apr 27. PubMed PMID: 25917214.

6: Maya JR, Sadiq MA, Zapata LJ, Hanout M, Sarwar S, Rajagopalan N, Guinn KE, Sepah YJ, Nguyen QD. Emerging therapies for noninfectious uveitis: what may be coming to the clinics. J Ophthalmol. 2014;2014:310329. doi: 10.1155/2014/310329. Epub 2014 Apr 24. Review. PubMed PMID: 24868451; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4020293.

7: Hardinger KL, Brennan DC. Novel immunosuppressive agents in kidney transplantation. World J Transplant. 2013 Dec 24;3(4):68-77. doi: 10.5500/wjt.v3.i4.68. Review. PubMed PMID: 24392311; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3879526.

8: Ling SY, Huizinga RB, Mayo PR, Larouche R, Freitag DG, Aspeslet LJ, Foster RT. Cytochrome P450 3A and P-glycoprotein drug-drug interactions with voclosporin. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2014 Jun;77(6):1039-50. doi: 10.1111/bcp.12309. PubMed PMID: 24330024; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4093929.

9: Mayo PR, Ling SY, Huizinga RB, Freitag DG, Aspeslet LJ, Foster RT. Population PKPD of voclosporin in renal allograft patients. J Clin Pharmacol. 2014 May;54(5):537-45. doi: 10.1002/jcph.237. Epub 2013 Nov 30. PubMed PMID: 24243422.

10: Gubskaya AV, Khan IJ, Valenzuela LM, Lisnyak YV, Kohn J. Investigating the Release of a Hydrophobic Peptide from Matrices of Biodegradable Polymers: An Integrated Method Approach. Polymer (Guildf). 2013 Jul 8;54(15):3806-3820. PubMed PMID: 24039300; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3770487.

11: Ling SY, Huizinga RB, Mayo PR, Freitag DG, Aspeslet LJ, Foster RT. Pharmacokinetics of voclosporin in renal impairment and hepatic impairment. J Clin Pharmacol. 2013 Dec;53(12):1303-12. doi: 10.1002/jcph.166. Epub 2013 Oct 8. PubMed PMID: 23996158.

12: Mayo PR, Huizinga RB, Ling SY, Freitag DG, Aspeslet LJ, Foster RT. Voclosporin food effect and single oral ascending dose pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies in healthy human subjects. J Clin Pharmacol. 2013 Aug;53(8):819-26. doi: 10.1002/jcph.114. Epub 2013 Jun 4. PubMed PMID: 23736966.

13: Schultz C. Voclosporin as a treatment for noninfectious uveitis. Ophthalmol Eye Dis. 2013 May 5;5:5-10. doi: 10.4137/OED.S7995. Print 2013. PubMed PMID: 23700374; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3653814.

14: Gomes Bittencourt M, Sepah YJ, Do DV, Agbedia O, Akhtar A, Liu H, Akhlaq A, Annam R, Ibrahim M, Nguyen QD. New treatment options for noninfectious uveitis. Dev Ophthalmol. 2012;51:134-61. doi: 10.1159/000336338. Epub 2012 Apr 17. Review. PubMed PMID: 22517211.

15: Khan IJ, Murthy NS, Kohn J. Hydration-induced phase separation in amphiphilic polymer matrices and its influence on voclosporin release. J Funct Biomater. 2012 Oct 30;3(4):745-59. doi: 10.3390/jfb3040745. PubMed PMID: 24955746; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4030927.

16: Roesel M, Tappeiner C, Heiligenhaus A, Heinz C. Oral voclosporin: novel calcineurin inhibitor for treatment of noninfectious uveitis. Clin Ophthalmol. 2011;5:1309-13. doi: 10.2147/OPTH.S11125. Epub 2011 Sep 13. PubMed PMID: 21966207; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3180504.

17: Busque S, Cantarovich M, Mulgaonkar S, Gaston R, Gaber AO, Mayo PR, Ling S, Huizinga RB, Meier-Kriesche HU; PROMISE Investigators. The PROMISE study: a phase 2b multicenter study of voclosporin (ISA247) versus tacrolimus in de novo kidney transplantation. Am J Transplant. 2011 Dec;11(12):2675-84. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2011.03763.x. Epub 2011 Sep 22. PubMed PMID: 21943027.

18: Kuglstatter A, Mueller F, Kusznir E, Gsell B, Stihle M, Thoma R, Benz J, Aspeslet L, Freitag D, Hennig M. Structural basis for the cyclophilin A binding affinity and immunosuppressive potency of E-ISA247 (voclosporin). Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2011 Feb;67(Pt 2):119-23. doi: 10.1107/S0907444910051905. Epub 2011 Jan 15. PubMed PMID: 21245533; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3045272.

19: Kunynetz R, Carey W, Thomas R, Toth D, Trafford T, Vender R. Quality of life in plaque psoriasis patients treated with voclosporin: a Canadian phase III, randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Eur J Dermatol. 2011 Jan-Feb;21(1):89-94. doi: 10.1684/ejd.2010.1185. PubMed PMID: 21227890.

20: Deuter CM. [Systemic voclosporin for uveitis treatment]. Ophthalmologe. 2010 Jul;107(7):672-5. doi: 10.1007/s00347-010-2217-5. German. PubMed PMID: 20571806.

//////////VOCLOSPORIN, Voclosporin, ISA247, ISAtx 247, ISAtx-247, ISAtx247, Luveniq, LX211,

CC[C@@H]1NC([C@@H](N(C([C@@H](N(C([C@@H](N(C([C@@H](N(C([C@H](NC([C@@H](NC([C@@H](N(C([C@H](C(C)C)NC([C@@H](N(C(CN(C1=O)C)=O)C)CC(C)C)=O)=O)C)CC(C)C)=O)C)=O)C)=O)C)CC(C)C)=O)C)CC(C)C)=O)C)C(C)C)=O)C)[C@@H]([C@@H](C/C=C/C=C)C)O)=O

AZITHROMYCIN, アジスロマイシン;


Azithromycin

Azithromycin structure.svg

ChemSpider 2D Image | Azithromycin | C38H72N2O12

AZITHROMYCIN

C38H72N2O12,

748.9845

アジスロマイシン;

CAS: 83905-01-5
PubChem: 51091811
ChEBI: 2955
ChEMBL: CHEMBL529
DrugBank: DB00207
PDB-CCD: ZIT[PDBj]
LigandBox: D07486
NIKKAJI: J134.080H
CAS Registry Number: 83905-01-5
CAS Name: (2R,3S,4R,5R,8R,10R,11R,12S,13S,14R)-13-[(2,6-Dideoxy-3-C-methyl-3-O-methyl-a-L-ribo-hexopyranosyl)oxy]-2-ethyl-3,4,10-trihydroxy-3,5,6,8,10,12,14-heptamethyl-11-[[3,4,6-trideoxy-3-(dimethylamino)-b-D-xylo-hexopyranosyl]oxy]-1-oxa-6-azacyclopentadecan-15-one
Additional Names: N-methyl-11-aza-10-deoxo-10-dihydroerythromycin A; 9-deoxo-9a-methyl-9a-aza-9a-homoerythromycin A
Molecular Formula: C38H72N2O12
Molecular Weight: 748.98
Percent Composition: C 60.94%, H 9.69%, N 3.74%, O 25.63%
Literature References: Semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic; related to erythromycin A, q.v. Prepn: BE 892357; G. Kobrehel, S. Djokic, US 4517359 (1982, 1985 both to Sour Pliva); of the crystalline dihydrate: D. J. M. Allen, K. M. Nepveux, EP 298650eidemUS 6268489 (1989, 2001 both to Pfizer). Antibacterial spectrum: S. C. Aronoff et al., J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 19, 275 (1987); and mode of action: J. Retsema et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 31, 1939 (1987). Series of articles on pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and clinical experience: J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 31, Suppl. E, 1-198 (1993). Clinical trial in prevention of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in AIDS patients: M. W. Dunne et al., Lancet 354, 891 (1999). Review of pharmacology and clinical efficacy in pediatric infections: H. D. Langtry, J. A. Balfour, Drugs 56, 273-297 (1998).
Properties: Amorphous solid, mp 113-115°. [a]D20 -37° (c = 1 in CHCl3).
Melting point: mp 113-115°
Optical Rotation: [a]D20 -37° (c = 1 in CHCl3)
Derivative Type: Dihydrate
CAS Registry Number: 117772-70-0
Manufacturers’ Codes: CP-62993; XZ-450
Trademarks: Azitrocin (Pfizer); Ribotrex (Fabre); Sumamed (Pliva); Trozocina (Sigma-Tau); Zithromax (Pfizer); Zitromax (Pfizer)
Properties: White crystalline powder. mp 126°. [a]D26 -41.4° (c = 1 in CHCl3).
Melting point: mp 126°
Optical Rotation: [a]D26 -41.4° (c = 1 in CHCl3)
Therap-Cat: Antibacterial.

Azithromycin is an antibiotic used for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.[3] This includes middle ear infectionsstrep throatpneumoniatraveler’s diarrhea, and certain other intestinal infections.[3] It can also be used for a number of sexually transmitted infections, including chlamydia and gonorrhea infections.[3] Along with other medications, it may also be used for malaria.[3] It can be taken by mouth or intravenously with doses once per day.[3]

Common side effects include nauseavomitingdiarrhea and upset stomach.[3] An allergic reaction, such as anaphylaxisQT prolongation, or a type of diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile is possible.[3] No harm has been found with its use during pregnancy.[3] Its safety during breastfeeding is not confirmed, but it is likely safe.[4] Azithromycin is an azalide, a type of macrolide antibiotic.[3] It works by decreasing the production of protein, thereby stopping bacterial growth.[3]

Azithromycin was discovered 1980 by Pliva, and approved for medical use in 1988.[5][6] It is on the World Health Organization’s List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system.[7] The World Health Organization classifies it as critically important for human medicine.[8] It is available as a generic medication[9] and is sold under many trade names worldwide.[2] The wholesale cost in the developing world is about US$0.18 to US$2.98 per dose.[10] In the United States, it is about US$4 for a course of treatment as of 2018.[11] In 2016, it was the 49th most prescribed medication in the United States with more than 15 million prescriptions.[12]

Medical uses

Azithromycin is used to treat many different infections, including:

  • Prevention and treatment of acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease due to H. influenzaeM. catarrhalis, or S. pneumoniae. The benefits of long-term prophylaxis must be weighed on a patient-by-patient basis against the risk of cardiovascular and other adverse effects.[13]
  • Community-acquired pneumonia due to C. pneumoniaeH. influenzaeM. pneumoniae, or S. pneumoniae[14]
  • Uncomplicated skin infections due to S. aureusS. pyogenes, or S. agalactiae
  • Urethritis and cervicitis due to C. trachomatis or N. gonorrhoeae. In combination with ceftriaxone, azithromycin is part of the United States Centers for Disease Control-recommended regimen for the treatment of gonorrhea. Azithromycin is active as monotherapy in most cases, but the combination with ceftriaxone is recommended based on the relatively low barrier to resistance development in gonococci and due to frequent co-infection with C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae.[15]
  • Trachoma due to C. trachomatis[16]
  • Genital ulcer disease (chancroid) in men due to H. ducrey
  • Acute bacterial sinusitis due to H. influenzaeM. catarrhalis, or S. pneumoniae. Other agents, such as amoxicillin/clavulanate are generally preferred, however.[17][18]
  • Acute otitis media caused by H. influenzaeM. catarrhalis or S. pneumoniae. Azithromycin is not, however, a first-line agent for this condition. Amoxicillin or another beta lactam antibiotic is generally preferred.[19]
  • Pharyngitis or tonsillitis caused by S. pyogenes as an alternative to first-line therapy in individuals who cannot use first-line therapy[20]

Bacterial susceptibility

Azithromycin has relatively broad but shallow antibacterial activity. It inhibits some Gram-positive bacteria, some Gram-negative bacteria, and many atypical bacteria.

A strain of gonorrhea reported to be highly resistant to azithromycin was found in the population in 2015. Neisseria gonorrhoeae is normally susceptible to azithromycin,[21] but the drug is not widely used as monotherapy due to a low barrier to resistance development.[15] Extensive use of azithromycin has resulted in growing Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance.[22]

Aerobic and facultative Gram-positive microorganisms

Aerobic and facultative Gram-negative microorganisms

Anaerobic microorganisms

Other microorganisms

Pregnancy and breastfeeding[edit source]

No harm has been found with use during pregnancy.[3] However, there are no adequate well-controlled studies in pregnant women.[23]

Safety of the medication during breastfeeding is unclear. It was reported that because only low levels are found in breast milk and the medication has also been used in young children, it is unlikely that breastfed infants would suffer adverse effects.[4] Nevertheless, it is recommended that the drug be used with caution during breastfeeding.[3]

Airway diseases

Azithromycin appears to be effective in the treatment of COPD through its suppression of inflammatory processes.[24] And potentially useful in asthma and sinusitis via this mechanism.[25] Azithromycin is believed to produce its effects through suppressing certain immune responses that may contribute to inflammation of the airways.[26][27]

Adverse effects

Most common adverse effects are diarrhea (5%), nausea (3%), abdominal pain (3%), and vomiting. Fewer than 1% of people stop taking the drug due to side effects. Nervousness, skin reactions, and anaphylaxis have been reported.[28] Clostridium difficile infection has been reported with use of azithromycin.[3] Azithromycin does not affect the efficacy of birth control unlike some other antibiotics such as rifampin. Hearing loss has been reported.[29]

Occasionally, people have developed cholestatic hepatitis or delirium. Accidental intravenous overdose in an infant caused severe heart block, resulting in residual encephalopathy.[30][31]

In 2013 the FDA issued a warning that azithromycin “can cause abnormal changes in the electrical activity of the heart that may lead to a potentially fatal irregular heart rhythm.” The FDA noted in the warning a 2012 study that found the drug may increase the risk of death, especially in those with heart problems, compared with those on other antibiotics such as amoxicillin or no antibiotic. The warning indicated people with preexisting conditions are at particular risk, such as those with QT interval prolongation, low blood levels of potassium or magnesium, a slower than normal heart rate, or those who use certain drugs to treat abnormal heart rhythms.[32][33][34]

Pharmacology

Mechanism of action

Azithromycin prevents bacteria from growing by interfering with their protein synthesis. It binds to the 50S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, thus inhibiting translation of mRNA. Nucleic acid synthesis is not affected.[23]

Pharmacokinetics

Azithromycin is an acid-stable antibiotic, so it can be taken orally with no need of protection from gastric acids. It is readily absorbed, but absorption is greater on an empty stomach. Time to peak concentration (Tmax) in adults is 2.1 to 3.2 hours for oral dosage forms. Due to its high concentration in phagocytes, azithromycin is actively transported to the site of infection. During active phagocytosis, large concentrations are released. The concentration of azithromycin in the tissues can be over 50 times higher than in plasma due to ion trapping and its high lipid solubility.[citation needed] Azithromycin’s half-life allows a large single dose to be administered and yet maintain bacteriostatic levels in the infected tissue for several days.[35]

Following a single dose of 500 mg, the apparent terminal elimination half-life of azithromycin is 68 hours.[35] Biliary excretion of azithromycin, predominantly unchanged, is a major route of elimination. Over the course of a week, about 6% of the administered dose appears as unchanged drug in urine.

History

A team of researchers at the pharmaceutical company Pliva in ZagrebSR CroatiaYugoslavia, — Gabrijela Kobrehel, Gorjana Radobolja-Lazarevski, and Zrinka Tamburašev, led by Dr. Slobodan Đokić — discovered azithromycin in 1980.[6] It was patented in 1981. In 1986, Pliva and Pfizer signed a licensing agreement, which gave Pfizer exclusive rights for the sale of azithromycin in Western Europe and the United States. Pliva put its azithromycin on the market in Central and Eastern Europe under the brand name Sumamed in 1988. Pfizer launched azithromycin under Pliva’s license in other markets under the brand name Zithromax in 1991.[36] Patent protection ended in 2005.[37]

Society and culture

Zithromax (azithromycin) 250 mg tablets (CA)

Cost

It is available as a generic medication.[9] The wholesale cost is about US$0.18 to US$2.98 per dose.[10] In the United States it is about US$4 for a course of treatment as of 2018.[11] In India, it is about US$1.70 for a course of treatment.[citation needed]

Available forms

Azithromycin is commonly administered in film-coated tablet, capsule, oral suspensionintravenous injection, granules for suspension in sachet, and ophthalmic solution.[2]

Usage

In 2010, azithromycin was the most prescribed antibiotic for outpatients in the US,[38] whereas in Sweden, where outpatient antibiotic use is a third as prevalent, macrolides are only on 3% of prescriptions.[39]

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References

  1. Jump up to:ab “Azithromycin Use During Pregnancy”Drugs.com. 2 May 2019. Retrieved 24 December 2019.
  2. Jump up to:abcdef “Azithromycin International Brands”. Drugs.com. Archived from the original on 28 February 2017. Retrieved 27 February 2017.
  3. Jump up to:abcdefghijklm “Azithromycin”. The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
  4. Jump up to:ab “Azithromycin use while Breastfeeding”Archived from the original on 5 September 2015. Retrieved 4 September 2015.
  5. ^ Greenwood, David (2008). Antimicrobial drugs : chronicle of a twentieth century medical triumph (1. publ. ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 239. ISBN9780199534845Archived from the original on 5 March 2016.
  6. Jump up to:ab Fischer, Jnos; Ganellin, C. Robin (2006). Analogue-based Drug Discovery. John Wiley & Sons. p. 498. ISBN9783527607495.
  7. ^ World Health Organization (2019). World Health Organization model list of essential medicines: 21st list 2019. Geneva: World Health Organization. hdl:10665/325771. WHO/MVP/EMP/IAU/2019.06. License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
  8. ^ World Health Organization (2019). Critically important antimicrobials for human medicine (6th revision ed.). Geneva: World Health Organization. hdl:10665/312266ISBN9789241515528. License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
  9. Jump up to:ab Hamilton, Richart (2015). Tarascon Pocket Pharmacopoeia 2015 Deluxe Lab-Coat Edition. Jones & Bartlett Learning. ISBN9781284057560.
  10. Jump up to:ab “Azithromycin”International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Retrieved 4 September 2015.
  11. Jump up to:ab “NADAC as of 2018-05-23”Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Retrieved 24 May 2018.
  12. ^ “The Top 300 of 2019”clincalc.com. Retrieved 22 December2018.
  13. ^ Taylor SP, Sellers E, Taylor BT (2015). “Azithromycin for the Prevention of COPD Exacerbations: The Good, Bad, and Ugly”. Am. J. Med128 (12): 1362.e1–6. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2015.07.032PMID26291905.
  14. ^ Mandell LA, Wunderink RG, Anzueto A, Bartlett JG, Campbell GD, Dean NC, Dowell SF, File TM, Musher DM, Niederman MS, Torres A, Whitney CG (2007). “Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society consensus guidelines on the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults”. Clin. Infect. Dis. 44 Suppl 2: S27–72. doi:10.1086/511159PMID17278083.
  15. Jump up to:ab “Gonococcal Infections – 2015 STD Treatment Guidelines”Archived from the original on 1 March 2016.
  16. ^ Burton M, Habtamu E, Ho D, Gower EW (2015). “Interventions for trachoma trichiasis”Cochrane Database Syst Rev11 (11): CD004008. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004008.pub3PMC4661324PMID26568232.
  17. ^ Rosenfeld RM, Piccirillo JF, Chandrasekhar SS, Brook I, Ashok Kumar K, Kramper M, Orlandi RR, Palmer JN, Patel ZM, Peters A, Walsh SA, Corrigan MD (2015). “Clinical practice guideline (update): adult sinusitis”. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg152 (2 Suppl): S1–S39. doi:10.1177/0194599815572097PMID25832968.
  18. ^ Hauk L (2014). “AAP releases guideline on diagnosis and management of acute bacterial sinusitis in children one to 18 years of age”. Am Fam Physician89 (8): 676–81. PMID24784128.
  19. ^ Neff MJ (2004). “AAP, AAFP release guideline on diagnosis and management of acute otitis media”. Am Fam Physician69 (11): 2713–5. PMID15202704.
  20. ^ Randel A (2013). “IDSA Updates Guideline for Managing Group A Streptococcal Pharyngitis”. Am Fam Physician88 (5): 338–40. PMID24010402.
  21. ^ The Guardian newspaper: ‘Super-gonorrhoea’ outbreak in Leeds, 18 September 2015Archived 18 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  22. ^ Lippincott Illustrated Reviews : Pharmacology Sixth Edition. p. 506.
  23. Jump up to:ab “US azithromycin label”(PDF). FDA. February 2016. Archived(PDF) from the original on 23 November 2016.
  24. ^ Simoens, Steven; Laekeman, Gert; Decramer, Marc (May 2013). “Preventing COPD exacerbations with macrolides: A review and budget impact analysis”. Respiratory Medicine107 (5): 637–648. doi:10.1016/j.rmed.2012.12.019PMID23352223.
  25. ^ Gotfried, Mark H. (February 2004). “Macrolides for the Treatment of Chronic Sinusitis, Asthma, and COPD”CHEST125 (2): 52S–61S. doi:10.1378/chest.125.2_suppl.52SISSN0012-3692PMID14872001.
  26. ^ Zarogoulidis, P.; Papanas, N.; Kioumis, I.; Chatzaki, E.; Maltezos, E.; Zarogoulidis, K. (May 2012). “Macrolides: from in vitro anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties to clinical practice in respiratory diseases”. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology68 (5): 479–503. doi:10.1007/s00228-011-1161-xISSN1432-1041PMID22105373.
  27. ^ Steel, Helen C.; Theron, Annette J.; Cockeran, Riana; Anderson, Ronald; Feldman, Charles (2012). “Pathogen- and Host-Directed Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Macrolide Antibiotics”Mediators of Inflammation2012: 584262. doi:10.1155/2012/584262PMC3388425PMID22778497.
  28. ^ Mori F, Pecorari L, Pantano S, Rossi M, Pucci N, De Martino M, Novembre E (2014). “Azithromycin anaphylaxis in children”. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol27 (1): 121–6. doi:10.1177/039463201402700116PMID24674687.
  29. ^ Dart, Richard C. (2004). Medical Toxology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 23.
  30. ^ Tilelli, John A.; Smith, Kathleen M.; Pettignano, Robert (2006). “Life-Threatening Bradyarrhythmia After Massive Azithromycin Overdose”. Pharmacotherapy26 (1): 147–50. doi:10.1592/phco.2006.26.1.147PMID16506357.
  31. ^ Baselt, R. (2008). Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals in Man (8th ed.). Foster City, CA: Biomedical Publications. pp. 132–133.
  32. ^ Denise Grady (16 May 2012). “Popular Antibiotic May Raise Risk of Sudden Death”The New York TimesArchived from the original on 17 May 2012. Retrieved 18 May 2012.
  33. ^ Ray, Wayne A.; Murray, Katherine T.; Hall, Kathi; Arbogast, Patrick G.; Stein, C. Michael (2012). “Azithromycin and the Risk of Cardiovascular Death”New England Journal of Medicine366(20): 1881–90. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1003833PMC3374857PMID22591294.
  34. ^ “FDA Drug Safety Communication: Azithromycin (Zithromax or Zmax) and the risk of potentially fatal heart rhythms”. FDA. 12 March 2013. Archived from the original on 27 October 2016.
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  36. ^ Banić Tomišić, Z. (2011). “The Story of Azithromycin”Kemija U Industriji60 (12): 603–617. ISSN0022-9830Archived from the original on 8 September 2017.
  37. ^ “Azithromycin: A world best-selling Antibiotic”http://www.wipo.int. World Intellectual Property Organization. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
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External links

Keywords: Antibacterial (Antibiotics); Macrolides.

Azithromycin
Azithromycin structure.svg
Azithromycin 3d structure.png
Clinical data
Trade names Zithromax, Azithrocin, others[2]
Other names 9-deoxy-9α-aza-9α-methyl-9α-homoerythromycin A
AHFS/Drugs.com Monograph
MedlinePlus a697037
License data
Pregnancy
category
  • AU: B1 [1]
  • US: B (No risk in non-human studies) [1]
Routes of
administration
By mouth (capsule, tablet or suspension), intravenouseye drop
Drug class Macrolide antibiotic
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 38% for 250 mg capsules
Metabolism Liver
Elimination half-life 11–14 h (single dose) 68 h (multiple dosing)
Excretion Biliarykidney (4.5%)
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
IUPHAR/BPS
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
ChEMBL
NIAID ChemDB
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
ECHA InfoCard 100.126.551 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
Formula C38H72N2O12
Molar mass 748.984 g·mol−1 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)

/////////AZITHROMYCIN, Antibacterial, Antibiotics,  Macrolides, CORONA VIRUS, COVID 19, アジスロマイシン ,

CHLOROQUINE, クロロキン;Хлорохин , クロロキン , كلوروكين


Chloroquine

Chloroquine.svg

CHLOROQUINE

N4-(7-Chloroquinolin-4-yl)-N1,N1-diethylpentane-1,4-diamine
Хлорохин [Russian] [INN]
クロロキン [Japanese]
كلوروكين [Arabic] [INN]
Formula
C18H26ClN3
CAS
54-05-7
Mol weight
319.8721
CAS Registry Number: 54-05-7
CAS Name: N4-(7-Chloro-4-quinolinyl)-N1,N1-diethyl-1,4-pentanediamine
Additional Names: 7-chloro-4-(4-diethylamino-1-methylbutylamino)quinoline
Manufacturers’ Codes: SN-7618; RP-3377
Molecular Formula: C18H26ClN3
Molecular Weight: 319.87
Percent Composition: C 67.59%, H 8.19%, Cl 11.08%, N 13.14%
Literature References: Prepd by the condensation of 4,7-dichloroquinoline with 1-diethylamino-4-aminopentane: DE 683692 (1939); H. Andersag et al., US 2233970 (1941 to Winthrop); Surrey, Hammer, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 68, 113 (1946). Review: Hahn in Antibiotics vol. 3, J. W. Corcoran, F. E. Hahn, Eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1975) pp 58-78. Comprehensive description: D. D. Hong, Anal. Profiles Drug Subs. 5, 61-85 (1976). Comparative clinical trial with dapsone in rheumatoid arthritis: P. D. Fowler et al., Ann. Rheum. Dis. 43, 200 (1984); with penicillamine: T. Gibson et al., Br. J. Rheumatol. 26, 279 (1987).
Properties: mp 87°.
Melting point: mp 87°
Image result for CHLOROQUINE
Derivative Type: Diphosphate
CAS Registry Number: 50-63-5
Trademarks: Arechin (Polfa); Avloclor (AstraZeneca); Malaquin (Ahn Gook); Resochin (Bayer)
Molecular Formula: C18H26ClN3.2H3PO4
Molecular Weight: 515.86
Percent Composition: C 41.91%, H 6.25%, Cl 6.87%, N 8.15%, P 12.01%, O 24.81%
Properties: Bitter, colorless crystals. Dimorphic. One modification, mp 193-195°; the other, mp 215-218°. Freely sol in water; pH of 1% soln about 4.5; less sol at neutral and alkaline pH. Stable to heat in solns of pH 4.0 to 6.5. Practically insol in alcohol, benzene, chloroform, ether.
Melting point: mp 193-195°; mp 215-218°
Derivative Type: Sulfate
CAS Registry Number: 132-73-0
Trademarks: Aralen (Sanofi-Synthelabo); Nivaquine (Aventis)
Molecular Formula: C18H26ClN3.H2SO4
Molecular Weight: 417.95
Percent Composition: C 51.73%, H 6.75%, Cl 8.48%, N 10.05%, S 7.67%, O 15.31%
Therap-Cat: Antimalarial; antiamebic; antirheumatic. Lupus erythematosus suppressant.
Keywords: Antiamebic; Antiarthritic/Antirheumatic; Antimalarial; Lupus Erythematosus Suppressant.

Chloroquine is a medication used primarily to prevent and to treat malaria in areas where that parasitic disease is known to remain sensitive to its effects.[1] A benefit of its use in therapy, when situations allow, is that it can be taken by mouth (versus by injection).[1] Controlled studies of cases involving human pregnancy are lacking, but the drug may be safe for use for such patients.[verification needed][1][2] However, the agent is not without the possibility of serious side effects at standard doses,[1][3] and complicated cases, including infections of certain types or caused by resistant strains, typically require different or additional medication.[1] Chloroquine is also used as a medication for rheumatoid arthritislupus erythematosus, and other parasitic infections (e.g., amebiasis occurring outside of the intestines).[1] Beginning in 2020, studies have proceeded on its use as a coronavirus antiviral, in possible treatment of COVID-19.[4]

Chloroquine, otherwise known as chloroquine phosphate, is in the 4-aminoquinoline class of drugs.[1] As an antimalarial, it works against the asexual form of the malaria parasite in the stage of its life cycle within the red blood cell.[1] In its use against rheumatoid arthritis and lupus erythematosus, its activity as a mild immunosuppressive underlies its mechanism.[1] Antiviral activities, established and putative, are attributed to chloroquines inhibition of glycosylation pathways (of host receptor sialylation or virus protein post-translational modification), or to inhibition of virus endocytosis (e.g., via alkalisation of endosomes), or other possible mechanisms.[5] Common side effects resulting from these therapeutic uses, at common doses, include muscle problems,[clarification needed] loss of appetite, diarrhea, and skin rash.[clarification needed][1] Serious side effects include problems with vision (retinopathy), muscle damage, seizures, and certain anemias.[1][6]

Chloroquine was discovered in 1934 by Hans Andersag.[7][8] It is on the World Health Organization’s List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system.[9] It is available as a generic medication.[1] The wholesale cost in the developing world is about US$0.04.[10] In the United States, it costs about US$5.30 per dose.[1]

Medical uses

Malaria

Distribution of malaria in the world:[11]
♦ Elevated occurrence of chloroquine- or multi-resistant malaria
♦ Occurrence of chloroquine-resistant malaria
♦ No Plasmodium falciparum or chloroquine-resistance
♦ No malaria

Chloroquine has been used in the treatment and prevention of malaria from Plasmodium vivaxP. ovale, and P. malariae. It is generally not used for Plasmodium falciparum as there is widespread resistance to it.[12][13]

Chloroquine has been extensively used in mass drug administrations, which may have contributed to the emergence and spread of resistance. It is recommended to check if chloroquine is still effective in the region prior to using it.[14] In areas where resistance is present, other antimalarials, such as mefloquine or atovaquone, may be used instead. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend against treatment of malaria with chloroquine alone due to more effective combinations.[15]

Amebiasis

In treatment of amoebic liver abscess, chloroquine may be used instead of or in addition to other medications in the event of failure of improvement with metronidazole or another nitroimidazole within 5 days or intolerance to metronidazole or a nitroimidazole.[16]

Rheumatic disease

As it mildly suppresses the immune system, chloroquine is used in some autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus erythematosus.[1]

Side effects

Side effects include blurred vision, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, headache, diarrhea, swelling legs/ankles, shortness of breath, pale lips/nails/skin, muscle weakness, easy bruising/bleeding, hearing and mental problems.[17][18]

  • Unwanted/uncontrolled movements (including tongue and face twitching) [17]
  • Deafness or tinnitus.[17]
  • Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps[18]
  • Headache.[17]
  • Mental/mood changes (such as confusion, personality changes, unusual thoughts/behavior, depression, feeling being watched, hallucinating)[17][18]
  • Signs of serious infection (such as high fever, severe chills, persistent sore throat)[17]
  • Skin itchiness, skin color changes, hair loss, and skin rashes.[18][19]
    • Chloroquine-induced itching is very common among black Africans (70%), but much less common in other races. It increases with age, and is so severe as to stop compliance with drug therapy. It is increased during malaria fever; its severity is correlated to the malaria parasite load in blood. Some evidence indicates it has a genetic basis and is related to chloroquine action with opiate receptors centrally or peripherally.[20]
  • Unpleasant metallic taste
    • This could be avoided by “taste-masked and controlled release” formulations such as multiple emulsions.[21]
  • Chloroquine retinopathy
  • Electrocardiographic changes[22]
    • This manifests itself as either conduction disturbances (bundle-branch block, atrioventricular block) or Cardiomyopathy – often with hypertrophy, restrictive physiology, and congestive heart failure. The changes may be irreversible. Only two cases have been reported requiring heart transplantation, suggesting this particular risk is very low. Electron microscopy of cardiac biopsies show pathognomonic cytoplasmic inclusion bodies.
  • Pancytopeniaaplastic anemia, reversible agranulocytosislow blood plateletsneutropenia.[23]

Pregnancy

Chloroquine has not been shown to have any harmful effects on the fetus when used for malarial prophylaxis.[24] Small amounts of chloroquine are excreted in the breast milk of lactating women. However, this drug can be safely prescribed to infants, the effects are not harmful. Studies with mice show that radioactively tagged chloroquine passed through the placenta rapidly and accumulated in the fetal eyes which remained present five months after the drug was cleared from the rest of the body.[23][25] Women who are pregnant or planning on getting pregnant are still advised against traveling to malaria-risk regions.[24]

Elderly

There is not enough evidence to determine whether chloroquine is safe to be given to people aged 65 and older. Since it is cleared by the kidneys, toxicity should be monitored carefully in people with poor kidney functions.[23]

Drug interactions

Chloroquine has a number of drug-drug interactions that might be of clinical concern:[citation needed]

Overdose

Chloroquine is very dangerous in overdose. It is rapidly absorbed from the gut. In 1961, a published compilation of case reports contained accounts of three children who took overdoses and died within 2.5 hours of taking the drug. While the amount of the overdose was not stated, the therapeutic index for chloroquine is known to be small.[26] One of the children died after taking 0.75 or 1 gram, or twice a single therapeutic amount for children. Symptoms of overdose include headache, drowsiness, visual disturbances, nausea and vomiting, cardiovascular collapse, seizures, and sudden respiratory and cardiac arrest.[23]

An analog of chloroquine – hydroxychloroquine – has a long half-life (32–56 days) in blood and a large volume of distribution (580–815 L/kg).[27] The therapeutic, toxic and lethal ranges are usually considered to be 0.03 to 15 mg/l, 3.0 to 26 mg/l and 20 to 104 mg/l, respectively. However, nontoxic cases have been reported up to 39 mg/l, suggesting individual tolerance to this agent may be more variable than previously recognised.[27]

Pharmacology

Chloroquine’s absorption of the drug is rapid. It is widely distributed in body tissues. It’s protein binding is 55%.[ It’s metabolism is partially hepatic, giving rise to its main metabolite, desethylchloroquine. It’s excretion os ≥50% as unchanged drug in urine, where acidification of urine increases its elimination It has a very high volume of distribution, as it diffuses into the body’s adipose tissue.

Accumulation of the drug may result in deposits that can lead to blurred vision and blindness. It and related quinines have been associated with cases of retinal toxicity, particularly when provided at higher doses for longer times. With long-term doses, routine visits to an ophthalmologist are recommended.

Chloroquine is also a lysosomotropic agent, meaning it accumulates preferentially in the lysosomes of cells in the body. The pKa for the quinoline nitrogen of chloroquine is 8.5, meaning—in simplified terms, considering only this basic site—it is about 10% deprotonated at physiological pH (per the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation) This decreases to about 0.2% at a lysosomal pH of 4.6.Because the deprotonated form is more membrane-permeable than the protonated form, a quantitative “trapping” of the compound in lysosomes results.

Mechanism of action

Medical quinolines

Malaria

Hemozoin formation in P. falciparum: many antimalarials are strong inhibitors of hemozoin crystal growth.

The lysosomotropic character of chloroquine is believed to account for much of its antimalarial activity; the drug concentrates in the acidic food vacuole of the parasite and interferes with essential processes. Its lysosomotropic properties further allow for its use for in vitro experiments pertaining to intracellular lipid related diseases,[28][29] autophagy, and apoptosis.[30]

Inside red blood cells, the malarial parasite, which is then in its asexual lifecycle stage, must degrade hemoglobin to acquire essential amino acids, which the parasite requires to construct its own protein and for energy metabolism. Digestion is carried out in a vacuole of the parasitic cell.[citation needed]

Hemoglobin is composed of a protein unit (digested by the parasite) and a heme unit (not used by the parasite). During this process, the parasite releases the toxic and soluble molecule heme. The heme moiety consists of a porphyrin ring called Fe(II)-protoporphyrin IX (FP). To avoid destruction by this molecule, the parasite biocrystallizes heme to form hemozoin, a nontoxic molecule. Hemozoin collects in the digestive vacuole as insoluble crystals.[citation needed]

Chloroquine enters the red blood cell by simple diffusion, inhibiting the parasite cell and digestive vacuole. Chloroquine then becomes protonated (to CQ2+), as the digestive vacuole is known to be acidic (pH 4.7); chloroquine then cannot leave by diffusion. Chloroquine caps hemozoin molecules to prevent further biocrystallization of heme, thus leading to heme buildup. Chloroquine binds to heme (or FP) to form the FP-chloroquine complex; this complex is highly toxic to the cell and disrupts membrane function. Action of the toxic FP-chloroquine and FP results in cell lysis and ultimately parasite cell autodigestion. [31] Parasites that do not form hemozoin are therefore resistant to chloroquine.[32]

Resistance in malaria[edit source]

Since the first documentation of P. falciparum chloroquine resistance in the 1950s, resistant strains have appeared throughout East and West Africa, Southeast Asia, and South America. The effectiveness of chloroquine against P. falciparum has declined as resistant strains of the parasite evolved. They effectively neutralize the drug via a mechanism that drains chloroquine away from the digestive vacuole. Chloroquine-resistant cells efflux chloroquine at 40 times the rate of chloroquine-sensitive cells; the related mutations trace back to transmembrane proteins of the digestive vacuole, including sets of critical mutations in the P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (PfCRT) gene. The mutated protein, but not the wild-type transporter, transports chloroquine when expressed in Xenopus oocytes (frog’s eggs) and is thought to mediate chloroquine leak from its site of action in the digestive vacuole.[33] Resistant parasites also frequently have mutated products of the ABC transporter P. falciparum multidrug resistance (PfMDR1) gene, although these mutations are thought to be of secondary importance compared to PfcrtVerapamil, a Ca2+ channel blocker, has been found to restore both the chloroquine concentration ability and sensitivity to this drug. Recently, an altered chloroquine-transporter protein CG2 of the parasite has been related to chloroquine resistance, but other mechanisms of resistance also appear to be involved.[34] Research on the mechanism of chloroquine and how the parasite has acquired chloroquine resistance is still ongoing, as other mechanisms of resistance are likely.[citation needed]

Other agents which have been shown to reverse chloroquine resistance in malaria are chlorpheniraminegefitinibimatinibtariquidar and zosuquidar.[35]

Antiviral

Chloroquine has antiviral effects.[36] It increases late endosomal or lysosomal pH, resulting in impaired release of the virus from the endosome or lysosome – release requires a low pH. The virus is therefore unable to release its genetic material into the cell and replicate.[37][38]

Chloroquine also seems to act as a zinc ionophore, that allows extracellular zinc to enter the cell and inhibit viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.[39][40]

Other

Chloroquine inhibits thiamine uptake.[41] It acts specifically on the transporter SLC19A3.

Against rheumatoid arthritis, it operates by inhibiting lymphocyte proliferation, phospholipase A2, antigen presentation in dendritic cells, release of enzymes from lysosomes, release of reactive oxygen species from macrophages, and production of IL-1.

History

In Peru the indigenous people extracted the bark of the Cinchona plant[42] trees and used the extract (Chinchona officinalis) to fight chills and fever in the seventeenth century. In 1633 this herbal medicine was introduced in Europe, where it was given the same use and also began to be used against malaria.[43] The quinoline antimalarial drug quinine was isolated from the extract in 1820, and chloroquine is an analogue of this.

Chloroquine was discovered in 1934, by Hans Andersag and coworkers at the Bayer laboratories, who named it “Resochin”.[44] It was ignored for a decade, because it was considered too toxic for human use. During World War II, United States government-sponsored clinical trials for antimalarial drug development showed unequivocally that chloroquine has a significant therapeutic value as an antimalarial drug. It was introduced into clinical practice in 1947 for the prophylactic treatment of malaria.[45]

Society and culture

Resochin tablet package

Formulations

Chloroquine comes in tablet form as the phosphate, sulfate, and hydrochloride salts. Chloroquine is usually dispensed as the phosphate.[46]

Names

Brand names include Chloroquine FNA, Resochin, Dawaquin, and Lariago.[47]

Other animals

Chloroquine is used to control the aquarium fish parasite Amyloodinium ocellatum.[48]

Research

COVID-19

In late January 2020 during the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak, Chinese medical researchers stated that exploratory research into chloroquine and two other medications, remdesivir and lopinavir/ritonavir, seemed to have “fairly good inhibitory effects” on the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which is the virus that causes COVID-19. Requests to start clinical testing were submitted.[49] Chloroquine had been also proposed as a treatment for SARS, with in vitro tests inhibiting the SARS-CoV virus.[50][51]

Chloroquine has been recommended by Chinese, South Korean and Italian health authorities for the treatment of COVID-19.[52][53] These agencies noted contraindications for people with heart disease or diabetes.[54] Both chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine were shown to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 in vitro, but a further study concluded that hydroxychloroquine was more potent than chloroquine, with a more tolerable safety profile.[55] Preliminary results from a trial suggested that chloroquine is effective and safe in COVID-19 pneumonia, “improving lung imaging findings, promoting a virus-negative conversion, and shortening the disease course.”[56] Self-medication with chloroquine has caused one known fatality.[57]

On 24 March 2020, NBC News reported[58] a fatality due to misuse of a chloroquine product used to control fish parasites.[59]

Other viruses

In October 2004, a group of researchers at the Rega Institute for Medical Research published a report on chloroquine, stating that chloroquine acts as an effective inhibitor of the replication of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in vitro.[60]

Chloroquine was being considered in 2003, in pre-clinical models as a potential agent against chikungunya fever.[61]

Other

The radiosensitizing and chemosensitizing properties of chloroquine are beginning to be exploited in anticancer strategies in humans.[62][63] In biomedicinal science, chloroquine is used for in vitro experiments to inhibit lysosomal degradation of protein products.

 

 

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References

  1. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m n “Aralen Phosphate”. The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 2 December 2015.
  2. ^ “Chloroquine Use During Pregnancy”Drugs.comArchivedfrom the original on 16 April 2019. Retrieved 16 April 2019There are no controlled data in human pregnancies.
  3. ^ Mittra, Robert A.; Mieler, William F. (1 January 2013). Ryan, Stephen J.; Sadda, SriniVas R.; Hinton, David R.; Schachat, Andrew P.; Sadda, SriniVas R.; Wilkinson, C. P.; Wiedemann, Peter; Schachat, Andrew P. (eds.). Retina (Fifth Edition). W.B. Saunders. pp. 1532–1554 – via ScienceDirect.
  4. ^ Cortegiani A, Ingoglia G, Ippolito M, Giarratano A, Einav S (March 2020). “A systematic review on the efficacy and safety of chloroquine for the treatment of COVID-19”. Journal of Critical Caredoi:10.1016/j.jcrc.2020.03.005PMID 32173110.
  5. ^https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0924857920300881
  6. ^https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781455707379000898
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  11. ^ “Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs): If I get malaria, will I have it for the rest of my life?”. US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 8 February 2010. Archived from the original on 13 May 2012. Retrieved 14 May 2012.
  12. ^ Plowe CV (2005). “Antimalarial drug resistance in Africa: strategies for monitoring and deterrence”Malaria: Drugs, Disease and Post-genomic Biology. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. 295. pp. 55–79. doi:10.1007/3-540-29088-5_3ISBN 3-540-25363-7PMID 16265887.
  13. ^ Uhlemann AC, Krishna S (2005). “Antimalarial multi-drug resistance in Asia: mechanisms and assessment”Malaria: Drugs, Disease and Post-genomic Biology. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. 295. pp. 39–53. doi:10.1007/3-540-29088-5_2ISBN 3-540-25363-7PMID 16265886.
  14. ^ “Chloroquine phosphate tablet – chloroquine phosphate tablet, coated”dailymed.nlm.nih.govArchived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 4 November 2015.
  15. ^ CDC. Health information for international travel 2001–2002. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, 2001.
  16. ^ Amebic Hepatic Abscesses~treatment at eMedicine
  17. Jump up to:a b c d e f “Drugs & Medications”http://www.webmd.com. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  18. Jump up to:a b c d “Chloroquine Side Effects: Common, Severe, Long Term”Drugs.com. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  19. ^ “Chloroquine: MedlinePlus Drug Information”medlineplus.gov. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  20. ^ Ajayi AA (September 2000). “Mechanisms of chloroquine-induced pruritus”. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics68 (3): 336. PMID 11014416.
  21. ^ Vaziri A, Warburton B (1994). “Slow release of chloroquine phosphate from multiple taste-masked W/O/W multiple emulsions”. Journal of Microencapsulation11 (6): 641–8. doi:10.3109/02652049409051114PMID 7884629.
  22. ^ Tönnesmann E, Kandolf R, Lewalter T (June 2013). “Chloroquine cardiomyopathy – a review of the literature”. Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology35 (3): 434–42. doi:10.3109/08923973.2013.780078PMID 23635029.
  23. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i “Aralen Chloroquine Phosphate, USP” (PDF)Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 March 2020. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
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  26. ^ Cann HM, Verhulst HL (January 1961). “Fatal acute chloroquine poisoning in children”Pediatrics27: 95–102. PMID 13690445.
  27. Jump up to:a b Molina DK (March 2012). “Postmortem hydroxychloroquine concentrations in nontoxic cases”. The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology33 (1): 41–2. doi:10.1097/PAF.0b013e3182186f99PMID 21464694.
  28. ^ Chen PM, Gombart ZJ, Chen JW (March 2011). “Chloroquine treatment of ARPE-19 cells leads to lysosome dilation and intracellular lipid accumulation: possible implications of lysosomal dysfunction in macular degeneration”Cell & Bioscience1 (1): 10. doi:10.1186/2045-3701-1-10PMC 3125200PMID 21711726.
  29. ^ Kurup P, Zhang Y, Xu J, Venkitaramani DV, Haroutunian V, Greengard P, et al. (April 2010). “Abeta-mediated NMDA receptor endocytosis in Alzheimer’s disease involves ubiquitination of the tyrosine phosphatase STEP61”The Journal of Neuroscience30(17): 5948–57. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0157-10.2010PMC 2868326PMID 20427654.
  30. ^ Kim EL, Wüstenberg R, Rübsam A, Schmitz-Salue C, Warnecke G, Bücker EM, et al. (April 2010). “Chloroquine activates the p53 pathway and induces apoptosis in human glioma cells”Neuro-Oncology12 (4): 389–400. doi:10.1093/neuonc/nop046PMC 2940600PMID 20308316.
  31. ^ Hempelmann E (March 2007). “Hemozoin biocrystallization in Plasmodium falciparum and the antimalarial activity of crystallization inhibitors”. Parasitology Research100 (4): 671–6. doi:10.1007/s00436-006-0313-xPMID 17111179.
  32. ^ Lin JW, Spaccapelo R, Schwarzer E, Sajid M, Annoura T, Deroost K, et al. (June 2015). “Replication of Plasmodium in reticulocytes can occur without hemozoin formation, resulting in chloroquine resistance” (PDF)The Journal of Experimental Medicine212(6): 893–903. doi:10.1084/jem.20141731PMC 4451122PMID 25941254Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 September 2017. Retrieved 4 November 2018.
  33. ^ Martin RE, Marchetti RV, Cowan AI, Howitt SM, Bröer S, Kirk K (September 2009). “Chloroquine transport via the malaria parasite’s chloroquine resistance transporter”. Science325 (5948): 1680–2. Bibcode:2009Sci…325.1680Mdoi:10.1126/science.1175667PMID 19779197.
  34. ^ Essentials of medical pharmacology fifth edition 2003, reprint 2004, published by-Jaypee Brothers Medical Publisher Ltd, 2003, KD Tripathi, pages 739,740.
  35. ^ Alcantara LM, Kim J, Moraes CB, Franco CH, Franzoi KD, Lee S, et al. (June 2013). “Chemosensitization potential of P-glycoprotein inhibitors in malaria parasites”. Experimental Parasitology134 (2): 235–43. doi:10.1016/j.exppara.2013.03.022PMID 23541983.
  36. ^ Savarino A, Boelaert JR, Cassone A, Majori G, Cauda R (November 2003). “Effects of chloroquine on viral infections: an old drug against today’s diseases?”. The Lancet. Infectious Diseases3(11): 722–7. doi:10.1016/s1473-3099(03)00806-5PMID 14592603.
  37. ^ Al-Bari MA (February 2017). “Targeting endosomal acidification by chloroquine analogs as a promising strategy for the treatment of emerging viral diseases”Pharmacology Research & Perspectives5 (1): e00293. doi:10.1002/prp2.293PMC 5461643PMID 28596841.
  38. ^ Fredericksen BL, Wei BL, Yao J, Luo T, Garcia JV (November 2002). “Inhibition of endosomal/lysosomal degradation increases the infectivity of human immunodeficiency virus”Journal of Virology76 (22): 11440–6. doi:10.1128/JVI.76.22.11440-11446.2002PMC 136743PMID 12388705.
  39. ^ Xue J, Moyer A, Peng B, Wu J, Hannafon BN, Ding WQ (1 October 2014). “Chloroquine is a zinc ionophore”PloS One9(10): e109180. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0109180PMC 4182877PMID 25271834.
  40. ^ te Velthuis AJ, van den Worm SH, Sims AC, Baric RS, Snijder EJ, van Hemert MJ (November 2010). “Zn(2+) inhibits coronavirus and arterivirus RNA polymerase activity in vitro and zinc ionophores block the replication of these viruses in cell culture”PLoS Pathogens6 (11): e1001176. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1001176PMC 2973827PMID 21079686.
  41. ^ Huang Z, Srinivasan S, Zhang J, Chen K, Li Y, Li W, et al. (2012). “Discovering thiamine transporters as targets of chloroquine using a novel functional genomics strategy”PLOS Genetics8 (11): e1003083. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1003083PMC 3510038PMID 23209439.
  42. ^ Fern, Ken (2010–2020). “Cinchona officinalis – L.” Plans for a FutureArchived from the original on 25 August 2017. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  43. ^ V. Kouznetsov, Vladímir (2008). “Antimalarials: construction of molecular hybrids based on chloroquine” (PDF)Universitas Scientiarum: 1. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 February 2020. Retrieved 22 February 2020 – via scielo.
  44. ^ Krafts K, Hempelmann E, Skórska-Stania A (July 2012). “From methylene blue to chloroquine: a brief review of the development of an antimalarial therapy”. Parasitology Research111 (1): 1–6. doi:10.1007/s00436-012-2886-xPMID 22411634.
  45. ^ “The History of Malaria, an Ancient Disease”. Centers for Disease Control. 29 July 2019. Archived from the original on 28 August 2010.
  46. ^ “Chloroquine”nih.gov. National Institutes of Health. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  47. ^ “Ipca Laboratories: Formulations – Branded”Archived from the original on 6 April 2019. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  48. ^ Francis-Floyd, Ruth; Floyd, Maxine R. “Amyloodinium ocellatum, an Important Parasite of Cultured Marine Fish” (PDF)agrilife.org.
  49. ^ “Could an old malaria drug help fight the new coronavirus?”asbmb.orgArchived from the original on 6 February 2020. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  50. ^ Keyaerts E, Vijgen L, Maes P, Neyts J, Van Ranst M (October 2004). “In vitro inhibition of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus by chloroquine”. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications323 (1): 264–8. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2004.08.085PMID 15351731.
  51. ^ Devaux CA, Rolain JM, Colson P, Raoult D. New insights on the antiviral effects of chloroquine against coronavirus: what to expect for COVID-19? Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2020 Mar 11:105938. doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105938 PMID 32171740
  52. ^ “Physicians work out treatment guidelines for coronavirus”m.koreabiomed.com (in Korean). 13 February 2020. Archivedfrom the original on 17 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  53. ^ “Azioni intraprese per favorire la ricerca e l’accesso ai nuovi farmaci per il trattamento del COVID-19”aifa.gov.it (in Italian). Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  54. ^ “Plaquenil (hydroxychloroquine sulfate) dose, indications, adverse effects, interactions… from PDR.net”http://www.pdr.netArchivedfrom the original on 18 March 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  55. ^ Yao X, Ye F, Zhang M, Cui C, Huang B, Niu P, et al. (March 2020). “In Vitro Antiviral Activity and Projection of Optimized Dosing Design of Hydroxychloroquine for the Treatment of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)”. Clinical Infectious Diseasesdoi:10.1093/cid/ciaa237PMID 32150618.
  56. ^ Gao J, Tian Z, Yang X (February 2020). “Breakthrough: Chloroquine phosphate has shown apparent efficacy in treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in clinical studies”Bioscience Trends14: 72–73. doi:10.5582/bst.2020.01047PMID 32074550Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  57. ^ Edwards, Erika; Hillyard, Vaughn (23 March 2020). “Man dies after ingesting chloroquine in an attempt to prevent coronavirus”NBC News. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  58. ^ “A man died after ingesting a substance he thought would protect him from coronavirus”NBC News. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  59. ^ “Banner Health experts warn against self-medicating to prevent or treat COVID-19”Banner Health (Press release). 23 March 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  60. ^ Keyaerts E, Vijgen L, Maes P, Neyts J, Van Ranst M (October 2004). “In vitro inhibition of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus by chloroquine”. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications323 (1): 264–8. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2004.08.085PMID 15351731.
  61. ^ Savarino A, Boelaert JR, Cassone A, Majori G, Cauda R (November 2003). “Effects of chloroquine on viral infections: an old drug against today’s diseases?”. The Lancet. Infectious Diseases3(11): 722–7. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(03)00806-5PMID 14592603.
  62. ^ Savarino A, Lucia MB, Giordano F, Cauda R (October 2006). “Risks and benefits of chloroquine use in anticancer strategies”. The Lancet. Oncology7 (10): 792–3. doi:10.1016/S1470-2045(06)70875-0PMID 17012039.
  63. ^ Sotelo J, Briceño E, López-González MA (March 2006). “Adding chloroquine to conventional treatment for glioblastoma multiforme: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial”. Annals of Internal Medicine144 (5): 337–43. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-144-5-200603070-00008PMID 16520474.
    “Summaries for patients. Adding chloroquine to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy for glioblastoma multiforme”. Annals of Internal Medicine144 (5): I31. March 2006. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-144-5-200603070-00004PMID 16520470.

External links

“Chloroquine”Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine.

Chloroquine
Chloroquine.svg
Chloroquine 3D structure.png
Clinical data
Pronunciation /ˈklɔːrəkwɪn/
Trade names Aralen, other
Other names Chloroquine phosphate
AHFS/Drugs.com Monograph
License data
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Metabolism Liver
Elimination half-life 1-2 months
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
IUPHAR/BPS
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
ChEMBL
NIAID ChemDB
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
ECHA InfoCard 100.000.175 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
Formula C18H26ClN3
Molar mass 319.872 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)

//////////////CHLOROQUINE,, クロロキン, ANTIMALARIAL, COVID 19, CORONA VIRUS, Хлорохинクロロキン كلوروكين

Niclosamide, ニクロサミド , никлосамид , نيكلوساميد , 氯硝柳胺 , 


 

Niclosamide.svg

Niclosamide

ChemSpider 2D Image | Niclosamide | C13H8Cl2N2O4

Niclosamide

ニクロサミド;

Formula
C13H8Cl2N2O4
cas
50-65-7
Mol weight
327.1196
никлосамид [Russian] [INN]
نيكلوساميد [Arabic] [INN]
氯硝柳胺 [Chinese] [INN]
Niclosamide [BSI] [INN] [ISO] [USAN] [Wiki]
1532
2′,5-Dichlor-4′-nitro-salizylsaeureanilid [German]
2′,5-Dichloro-4′-nitrosalicylanilide
200-056-8 [EINECS]
2820605
50-65-7 [RN]
]
5-Chlor-N-(2-chlor-4-nitrophenyl)-2-hydroxybenzolcarboxamid
5-Chloro-N-(2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl)-2-hydroxybenzamide

CAS Registry Number: 50-65-7

CAS Name: 5-Chloro-N-(2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl)-2-hydroxybenzamide
Additional Names: 2¢,5-dichloro-4¢-nitrosalicylanilide; 5-chloro-N-(2¢-chloro-4¢-nitrophenyl)salicylamide; 5-chlorosalicyloyl-(o-chloro-p-nitranilide); N-(2¢-chloro-4¢-nitrophenyl)-5-chlorosalicylamide
Manufacturers’ Codes: Bayer 2353
Trademarks: Cestocide (Bayer); Niclocide (Miles); Ruby (Spencer); Trédémine (RPR); Yomesan (Bayer)
Molecular Formula: C13H8Cl2N2O4
Molecular Weight: 327.12
Percent Composition: C 47.73%, H 2.47%, Cl 21.68%, N 8.56%, O 19.56%
Literature References: Prepn: GB 824345 (1959 to Bayer), C.A. 54, 15822b (1960). See also: E. Schraufstätter, R. Gönnert, US 3079297; R. Strufe et al., US 3113067 (both 1963 to Bayer); Bekhli et al., Med. Prom. SSSR 1965, 25.
Properties: Pale yellow crystals, mp 225-230°. Practically insol in water. Sparingly sol in ethanol, chloroform, ether.
Melting point: mp 225-230°
Derivative Type: Ethanolamine salt
CAS Registry Number: 1420-04-8
Additional Names: Clonitrilide
Trademarks: Bayluscid (Bayer)
Molecular Formula: C13H8Cl2N2O4.C2H7NO
Molecular Weight: 388.20
Percent Composition: C 46.41%, H 3.89%, Cl 18.27%, N 10.82%, O 20.61%
Properties: Yellow-brown solid, mp 204°.
Melting point: mp 204°
Use: The ethanolamine salt as a molluscicide.
Therap-Cat: Anthelmintic (Cestodes).
Therap-Cat-Vet: Anthelmintic (Cestodes).
Keywords: Anthelmintic (Cestodes).

Niclosamide, sold under the brand name Niclocide among others, is a medication used to treat tapeworm infestations.[2] This includes diphyllobothriasishymenolepiasis, and taeniasis.[2] It is not effective against other worms such as pinworms or roundworms.[3] It is taken by mouth.[2]

Side effects include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and itchiness.[2] It may be used during pregnancy and appears to be safe for the baby.[2] Niclosamide is in the anthelmintic family of medications.[3] It works by blocking the uptake of sugar by the worm.[4]

Niclosamide was discovered in 1958.[5] It is on the World Health Organization’s List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system.[6] The wholesale cost in the developing world is about 0.24 USD for a course of treatment.[7] It is not commercially available in the United States.[3] It is effective in a number of other animals.[4]

Side effects

Side effects include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, constipation, and itchiness.[2] Rarely, dizziness, skin rash, drowsiness, perianal itching, or an unpleasant taste occur. For some of these reasons, praziquantel is a preferable and equally effective treatment for tapeworm infestation.[citation needed]

Mechanism of action

Niclosamide inhibits glucose uptake, oxidative phosphorylation, and anaerobic metabolism in the tapeworm.[8]

Other applications

Niclosamide’s metabolic effects are relevant to wide ranges of organisms, and accordingly it has been applied as a control measure to organisms other than tapeworms. For example, it is an active ingredient in some formulations such as Bayluscide for killing lamprey larvae,[9][10] as a molluscide,[11] and as a general purpose piscicide in aquaculture. Niclosamide has a short half-life in water in field conditions; this makes it valuable in ridding commercial fish ponds of unwanted fish; it loses its activity soon enough to permit re-stocking within a few days of eradicating the previous population.[11] Researchers have found that niclosamide is effective in killing invasive zebra mussels in cool waters.[12]

Research

Niclosamide is being studied in a number of types of cancer.[13] Niclosamide along with oxyclozanide, another anti-tapeworm drug, was found in a 2015 study to display “strong in vivo and in vitro activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)”.[14]

syn

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0099542805320028

Image result for niclosamide

References

  1. Jump up to:a b c d e f World Health Organization (2009). Stuart MC, Kouimtzi M, Hill SR (eds.). WHO Model Formulary 2008. World Health Organization. pp. 81, 87, 591. hdl:10665/44053ISBN 9789241547659.
  2. Jump up to:a b c “Niclosamide Advanced Patient Information – Drugs.com”http://www.drugs.comArchived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  3. Jump up to:a b Jim E. Riviere; Mark G. Papich (13 May 2013). Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. John Wiley & Sons. p. 1096. ISBN 978-1-118-68590-7Archived from the original on 10 September 2017.
  4. ^ Mehlhorn, Heinz (2008). Encyclopedia of Parasitology: A-M. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 483. ISBN 9783540489948Archived from the original on 2016-12-20.
  5. ^ World Health Organization (2019). World Health Organization model list of essential medicines: 21st list 2019. Geneva: World Health Organization. hdl:10665/325771. WHO/MVP/EMP/IAU/2019.06. License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
  6. ^ “Niclosamide”International Drug Price Indicator GuideArchived from the original on 10 May 2017. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
  7. ^ Weinbach EC, Garbus J (1969). “Mechanism of action of reagents that uncouple oxidative phosphorylation”. Nature221 (5185): 1016–8. doi:10.1038/2211016a0PMID 4180173.
  8. ^ Boogaard, Michael A. Delivery Systems of Piscicides “Request Rejected”(PDF)Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-06-01. Retrieved 2017-05-30.
  9. ^ Verdel K.Dawson (2003). “Environmental Fate and Effects of the Lampricide Bayluscide: a Review”. Journal of Great Lakes Research29 (Supplement 1): 475–492. doi:10.1016/S0380-1330(03)70509-7.
  10. Jump up to:a b “WHO Specifications And Evaluations. For Public Health Pesticides. Niclosamide” (PDF).[dead link]
  11. ^ “Researchers find new methods to combat invasive zebra mussels”The Minnesota Daily. Retrieved 2018-11-19.
  12. ^ “Clinical Trials Using Niclosamide”NCI. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
  13. ^ Rajamuthiah R, Fuchs BB, Conery AL, Kim W, Jayamani E, Kwon B, Ausubel FM, Mylonakis E (April 2015). Planet PJ (ed.). “Repurposing Salicylanilide Anthelmintic Drugs to Combat Drug Resistant Staphylococcus aureus”PLoS ONE10 (4): e0124595. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0124595ISSN 1932-6203PMC 4405337PMID 25897961.

External links

 

Niclosamide

Niclosamide
Niclosamide.svg
Clinical data
Trade names Niclocide, Fenasal, Phenasal, others[1]
AHFS/Drugs.com Micromedex Detailed Consumer Information
Routes of
administration
By mouth
ATC code
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
ChEMBL
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
ECHA InfoCard 100.000.052 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
Formula C13H8Cl2N2O4
Molar mass 327.119 g/mol g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
Melting point 225 to 230 °C (437 to 446 °F)

//////////Niclosamide ニクロサミド , никлосамидنيكلوساميد氯硝柳胺 , covid 19, corona virus

Nitazoxanide ニタゾキサニド;


Nitazoxanide

Image result for nitazoxanide SYNTHESIS

Nitazoxanide

Formula
C12H9N3O5S
Exact mass
307.0263
Mol weight
307.282
Nitazoxanide
CAS Registry Number: 55981-09-4
CAS Name: 2-(Acetyloxy)-N-(5-nitro-2-thiazolyl)benzamide
Additional Names: N-(5-nitro-2-thiazolyl)salicylamide acetate (ester); 2-(2¢-acetoxy)benzamido-5-nitrothiazole
Manufacturers’ Codes: PH-5776
Trademarks: Alinia (Romark); Cryptaz (Romark)
Molecular Formula: C12H9N3O5S
Molecular Weight: 307.28
Percent Composition: C 46.90%, H 2.95%, N 13.67%, O 26.03%, S 10.44%
Literature References: Broad spectrum antiparasitic agent; inhibits pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase. Prepn: J. F. Rossignol, R. Cavier, DE 2438037eidem, US 3950351 (1975, 1976 both to S.P.R.L. Phavic); and antiparasitic activity: R. Cavier et al., Eur. J. Med. Chem. – Chim. Ther. 13, 539 (1978). Antibacterial spectrum in vitro: L Dubreuil et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 40, 2266 (1996). Toxicology: J. R. Murphy, J.-C. Friedmann, J. Appl. Toxicol. 5, 49 (1985). Clinical pharmacokinetics: A. Stockis et al., Int. J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 34, 349 (1996). Clinical trial in intestinal protozoan and helminthic infections: H. Abaza et al., Curr. Ther. Res. 59, 116 (1998). Review of mechanism of action and clinical experience: H. M. Gilles, P. S. Hoffman, Trends Parasitol. 18, 95-97 (2002).
Properties: Light yellow crystalline powder. Crystals from methanol, mp 202°. Poorly sol in ethanol. Practically insol in water. LD50 orally in male, female mice: 1350, 1380 mg/kg; in rats: >10 g/kg (Murphy, Friedmann).
Melting point: mp 202°
Toxicity data: LD50 orally in male, female mice: 1350, 1380 mg/kg; in rats: >10 g/kg (Murphy, Friedmann)
Therap-Cat: Anthelmintic (cestodes); antiprotozoal (Cryptosporidium).
Keywords: Anthelmintic (Cestodes); Antiprotozoal (Cryptosporidium).

Nitazoxanide is a broad-spectrum antiparasitic and broad-spectrum antiviral drug that is used in medicine for the treatment of various helminthicprotozoal, and viral infections.[4][5][6] It is indicated for the treatment of infection by Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia in immunocompetent individuals and has been repurposed for the treatment of influenza.[1][6] Nitazoxanide has also been shown to have in vitro antiparasitic activity and clinical treatment efficacy for infections caused by other protozoa and helminths;[4][7] emerging evidence suggests that it possesses efficacy in treating a number of viral infections as well.[6]

Chemically, nitazoxanide is the prototype member of the thiazolides, a class of drugs which are synthetic nitrothiazolyl-salicylamide derivatives with antiparasitic and antiviral activity.[4][6][8] Tizoxanide, an active metabolite of nitazoxanide in humans, is also an antiparasitic drug of the thiazolide class.[4][9]

Uses

Nitazoxanide is an effective first-line treatment for infection by Blastocystis species[10][11] and is indicated for the treatment of infection by Cryptosporidium parvum or Giardia lamblia in immunocompetent adults and children.[1] It is also an effective treatment option for infections caused by other protozoa and helminths (e.g., Entamoeba histolytica,[12] Hymenolepis nana,[13] Ascaris lumbricoides,[14] and Cyclospora cayetanensis[15]).[7]

As of September 2015, it is in phase 3 clinical trials for the treatment influenza due to its inhibitory effect on a broad range of influenza virus subtypes and efficacy against influenza viruses that are resistant to neuraminidase inhibitors like oseltamivir.[6][16] Nitazoxanide is also being researched as a potential treatment for chronic hepatitis B, chronic hepatitis Crotavirus and norovirus gastroenteritis.[6]

Chronic hepatitis B

Nitazoxanide alone has shown preliminary evidence of efficacy in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B over a one-year course of therapy.[17] Nitazoxanide 500 mg twice daily resulted in a decrease in serum HBV DNA in all of 4 HBeAg-positive patients, with undetectable HBV DNA in 2 of 4 patients, loss of HBeAg in 3 patients, and loss of HBsAg in one patient. Seven of 8 HBeAg-negative patients treated with nitazoxanide 500 mg twice daily had undetectable HBV DNA and 2 had loss of HBsAg. Additionally, nitazoxanide monotherapy in one case and nitazoxanide plus adefovir in another case resulted in undetectable HBV DNA, loss of HBeAg and loss of HBsAg.[18] These preliminary studies showed a higher rate of HBsAg loss than any currently licensed therapy for chronic hepatitis B. The similar mechanism of action of interferon and nitazoxanide suggest that stand-alone nitazoxanide therapy or nitazoxanide in concert with nucleos(t)ide analogs have the potential to increase loss of HBsAg, which is the ultimate end-point of therapy. A formal phase Ⅱ study is being planned for 2009.[19]

Chronic hepatitis C

Romark initially decided to focus on the possibility of treating chronic hepatitis C with nitazoxanide.[20] The drug garnered interest from the hepatology community after three phase II clinical trials involving the treatment of hepatitis C with nitazoxanide produced positive results for treatment efficacy and similar tolerability to placebo without any signs of toxicity.[20] A meta-analysis from 2014 concluded that the previous held trials were of low-quality and with held with a risk of bias. The authors concluded that more randomized trials with low risk of bias are needed to give any determine if Nitazoxanide can be used as an effective treatment for chronic hepatitis C patients.[21]

Clinical trials

Nitazoxanide has gone through Phase II clinical trials for the treatment of hepatitis C, in combination with peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin.[22][23]Romark Laboratories has announced encouraging results from international Phase I and II clinical trials evaluating a controlled release version of nitazoxanide in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. The company used 675 mg and 1,350 mg twice daily doses of controlled release nitazoxanide showed favorable safety and tolerability throughout the course of the study, with mild to moderate adverse events. Primarily GI-related adverse events were reported.

A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study published in 2006, with a group of 38 young children (Lancet, vol 368, page 124-129)[24] concluded that a 3-day course of nitazoxanide significantly reduced the duration of rotavirus disease in hospitalized pediatric patients. Dose given was “7.5 mg/kg twice daily” and the time of resolution was “31 hours for those given nitazoxanide compared with 75 hours for those in the placebo group.” Rotavirus is the most common infectious agent associated with diarrhea in the pediatric age group worldwide.

Teran et al.. conducted a study at the Pediatric Center Albina Patinö, a reference hospital in the city of Cochabamba, Bolivia, from August 2007 to February 2008. The study compared nitazoxanide and probiotics in the treatment of acute rotavirus diarrhea. They found Small differences in favor of nitazoxanide in comparison with probiotics and concluded that nitazoxanide is an important treatment option for rotavirus diarrhea.[17]

Lateef et al.. conducted a study in India that evaluated the effectiveness of nitazoxanide in the treatment of beef tapeworm (Taenia saginata) infection. They concluded that nitazoxanide is a safe, effective, inexpensive, and well-tolerated drug for the treatment of niclosamide- and praziquantel-resistant beef tapeworm (Taenia saginata) infection.[18]

A retrospective review of charts of patients treated with nitazoxanide for trichomoniasis by Michael Dan and Jack D. Sobel demonstrated negative result. They reported three case studies; two of which with metronidazole-resistant infections. In Case 3, they reported the patient to be cured with high divided dose tinidazole therapy. They used a high dosage of the drug (total dose, 14–56 g) than the recommended standard dosage (total dose, 3 g) and observed a significant adverse reaction (poorly tolerated nausea) only with the very high dose (total dose, 56 g). While confirming the safety of the drug, they showed nitazoxanide is ineffective for the treatment of trichomoniasis.[25]

Contraindications

Nitazoxanide is contraindicated only in individuals who have experienced a hypersensitivity reaction to nitazoxanide or the inactive ingredients of a nitazoxanide formulation.[1]

Adverse effects

The side effects of nitazoxanide do not significantly differ from a placebo treatment for giardiasis;[1] these symptoms include stomach pain, headache, upset stomach, vomiting, discolored urine, excessive urinating, skin rash, itching, fever, flu syndrome, and others.[1][26] Nitazoxanide does not appear to cause any significant adverse effects when taken by healthy adults.[1][2]

Overdose

Information on nitazoxanide overdose is limited. Oral doses of 4 grams in healthy adults do not appear to cause any significant adverse effects.[1][2] In various animals, the oral LD50 is higher than 10 g/kg.[1]

Interactions

Due to the exceptionally high plasma protein binding (>99.9%) of nitazoxanide’s metabolite, tizoxanide, the concurrent use of nitazoxanide with other highly plasma protein-bound drugs with narrow therapeutic indices (e.g., warfarin) increases the risk of drug toxicity.[1] In vitro evidence suggests that nitazoxanide does not affect the CYP450 system.[1]

Pharmacology

Pharmacodynamics

The anti-protozoal activity of nitazoxanide is believed to be due to interference with the pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) enzyme-dependent electron transfer reaction which is essential to anaerobic energy metabolism.[1][8] PFOR inhibition may also contribute to its activity against anaerobic bacteria.[27]

It has also been shown to have activity against influenza A virus in vitro.[28] The mechanism appears to be by selectively blocking the maturation of the viral hemagglutinin at a stage preceding resistance to endoglycosidase H digestion. This impairs hemagglutinin intracellular trafficking and insertion of the protein into the host plasma membrane.

Nitazoxanide modulates a variety of other pathways in vitro, including glutathione-S-transferase and glutamate-gated chloride ion channels in nematodes, respiration and other pathways in bacteria and cancer cells, and viral and host transcriptional factors.[27]

Pharmacokinetics

Following oral administration, nitazoxanide is rapidly hydrolyzed to the pharmacologically active metabolite, tizoxanide, which is 99% protein bound.[1][9] Tizoxanide is then glucuronide conjugated into the active metabolite, tizoxanide glucuronide.[1] Peak plasma concentrations of the metabolites tizoxanide and tizoxanide glucuronide are observed 1–4 hours after oral administration of nitazoxanide, whereas nitazoxanide itself is not detected in blood plasma.[1]

Roughly ​23 of an oral dose of nitazoxanide is excreted as its metabolites in feces, while the remainder of the dose excreted in urine.[1] Tizoxanide is excreted in the urinebile and feces.[1] Tizoxanide glucuronide is excreted in urine and bile.[1]

Chemistry

History

Nitazoxanide is the prototype member of the thiazolides, which is a drug class of structurally-related broad-spectrum antiparasitic compounds.[4] Nitazoxanide is a light yellow crystalline powder. It is poorly soluble in ethanol and practically insoluble in water.

Nitazoxanide was originally discovered in the 1980s by Jean-François Rossignol at the Pasteur Institute. Initial studies demonstrated activity versus tapewormsIn vitro studies demonstrated much broader activity. Dr. Rossignol co-founded Romark Laboratories, with the goal of bringing nitazoxanide to market as an anti-parasitic drug. Initial studies in the USA were conducted in collaboration with Unimed Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Marietta, GA) and focused on development of the drug for treatment of cryptosporidiosis in AIDS. Controlled trials began shortly after the advent of effective anti-retroviral therapies. The trials were abandoned due to poor enrollment and the FDA rejected an application based on uncontrolled studies.

Subsequently, Romark launched a series of controlled trials. A placebo-controlled study of nitazoxanide in cryptosporidiosis demonstrated significant clinical improvement in adults and children with mild illness. Among malnourished children in Zambia with chronic cryptosporidiosis, a three-day course of therapy led to clinical and parasitologic improvement and improved survival. In Zambia and in a study conducted in Mexico, nitazoxanide was not successful in the treatment of cryptosporidiosis in advanced infection with human immunodeficiency virus at the doses used. However, it was effective in patients with higher CD4 counts. In treatment of giardiasis, nitazoxanide was superior to placebo and comparable to metronidazole. Nitazoxanide was successful in the treatment of metronidazole-resistant giardiasis. Studies have suggested efficacy in the treatment of cyclosporiasisisosporiasis, and amebiasis.[29] Recent studies have also found it to be effective against beef tapeworm(Taenia saginata).[30]

Research

Nitazoxanide is also under investigation for the treatment of COVID-19.[31]

Pharmaceutical products

Dosage forms

Nitazoxanide is currently available in two oral dosage forms: a tablet (500 mg) and an oral suspension (100 mg per 5 ml when reconstituted).[1]

An extended release tablet (675 mg) has been used in clinical trials for chronic hepatitis C; however, this form is not currently marketed and available for prescription.[20]

Brand names

Nitazoxanide is sold under the brand names Adonid, Alinia, Allpar, Annita, Celectan, Colufase, Daxon, Dexidex, Diatazox, Kidonax, Mitafar, Nanazoxid, Parazoxanide, Netazox, Niazid, Nitamax, Nitax, Nitaxide, Nitaz, Nizonide, NT-TOX, Pacovanton, Paramix, Toza, and Zox.

SYN

Image result for nitazoxanide SYNTHESIS

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960894X11002848

CLIP

Image result for nitazoxanide SYNTHESIS

Image result for nitazoxanide SYNTHESIS

CLIP

Image result for nitazoxanide SYNTHESIS

PATENT

Image result for nitazoxanide SYNTHESIS

https://patents.google.com/patent/CN105175352A/zh

 

References

  1. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w “Nitazoxanide Prescribing Information” (PDF). Romark Pharmaceuticals. August 2013. pp. 1–5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 January 2016. Retrieved 3 January 2016.
  2. Jump up to:a b c d e Stockis A, Allemon AM, De Bruyn S, Gengler C (May 2002). “Nitazoxanide pharmacokinetics and tolerability in man using single ascending oral doses”. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther40 (5): 213–220. doi:10.5414/cpp40213PMID 12051573.
  3. ^ “Nitazoxanide”PubChem Compound. National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved 3 January 2016.
  4. Jump up to:a b c d e Di Santo N, Ehrisman J (2013). “Research perspective: potential role of nitazoxanide in ovarian cancer treatment. Old drug, new purpose?”Cancers (Basel)5 (3): 1163–1176. doi:10.3390/cancers5031163PMC 3795384PMID 24202339Nitazoxanide [NTZ: 2-acetyloxy-N-(5-nitro-2-thiazolyl)benzamide] is a thiazolide antiparasitic agent with excellent activity against a wide variety of protozoa and helminths.  … Nitazoxanide (NTZ) is a main compound of a class of broad-spectrum anti-parasitic compounds named thiazolides. It is composed of a nitrothiazole-ring and a salicylic acid moiety which are linked together by an amide bond … NTZ is generally well tolerated, and no significant adverse events have been noted in human trials [13]. … In vitro, NTZ and tizoxanide function against a wide range of organisms, including the protozoal species Blastocystis hominis, C. parvum, Entamoeba histolytica, G. lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis [13]
  5. ^ White CA (2004). “Nitazoxanide: a new broad spectrum antiparasitic agent”. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther2 (1): 43–9. doi:10.1586/14787210.2.1.43PMID 15482170.
  6. Jump up to:a b c d e f Rossignol JF (October 2014). “Nitazoxanide: a first-in-class broad-spectrum antiviral agent”. Antiviral Res110: 94–103. doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2014.07.014PMID 25108173Originally developed and commercialized as an antiprotozoal agent, nitazoxanide was later identified as a first-in-class broad-spectrum antiviral drug and has been repurposed for the treatment of influenza. … From a chemical perspective, nitazoxanide is the scaffold for a new class of drugs called thiazolides. These small-molecule drugs target host-regulated processes involved in viral replication. … A new dosage formulation of nitazoxanide is presently undergoing global Phase 3 clinical development for the treatment of influenza. Nitazoxanide inhibits a broad range of influenza A and B viruses including influenza A(pH1N1) and the avian A(H7N9) as well as viruses that are resistant to neuraminidase inhibitors. … Nitazoxanide also inhibits the replication of a broad range of other RNA and DNA viruses including respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza, coronavirus, rotavirus, norovirus, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis virus and human immunodeficiency virus in cell culture assays. Clinical trials have indicated a potential role for thiazolides in treating rotavirus and norovirus gastroenteritis and chronic hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis C. Ongoing and future clinical development is focused on viral respiratory infections, viral gastroenteritis and emerging infections such as dengue fever.
  7. Jump up to:a b Anderson, V. R.; Curran, M. P. (2007). “Nitazoxanide: A review of its use in the treatment of gastrointestinal infections”. Drugs67(13): 1947–1967. doi:10.2165/00003495-200767130-00015PMID 17722965Nitazoxanide is effective in the treatment of protozoal and helminthic infections … Nitazoxanide is a first-line choice for the treatment of illness caused by C. parvum or G. lamblia infection in immunocompetent adults and children, and is an option to be considered in the treatment of illnesses caused by other protozoa and/or helminths.
  8. Jump up to:a b Sisson G1, Goodwin A, Raudonikiene A, Hughes NJ, Mukhopadhyay AK, Berg DE, Hoffman PS. (July 2002). “Enzymes associated with reductive activation and action of nitazoxanide, nitrofurans, and metronidazole in Helicobacter pylori”Antimicrob. Agents Chemother46 (7): 2116–23. doi:10.1128/aac.46.7.2116-2123.2002PMC 127316PMID 12069963Nitazoxanide (NTZ) is a redox-active nitrothiazolyl-salicylamide
  9. Jump up to:a b Korba BE, Montero AB, Farrar K, et al. (January 2008). “Nitazoxanide, tizoxanide and other thiazolides are potent inhibitors of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus replication”. Antiviral Res77 (1): 56–63. doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2007.08.005PMID 17888524.
  10. ^ “Blastocystis: Resources for Health Professionals”. United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2017-05-02. Retrieved 4 January 2016.
  11. ^ Roberts T, Stark D, Harkness J, Ellis J (May 2014). “Update on the pathogenic potential and treatment options for Blastocystis sp”Gut Pathog6: 17. doi:10.1186/1757-4749-6-17PMC 4039988PMID 24883113Blastocystis is one of the most common intestinal protists of humans. … A recent study showed that 100% of people from low socio-economic villages in Senegal were infected with Blastocystis sp. suggesting that transmission was increased due to poor hygiene sanitation, close contact with domestic animals and livestock, and water supply directly from well and river [10]. …
    Table 2: Summary of treatments and efficacy for Blastocystis infection
  12. ^ Muñoz P, Valerio M, Eworo A, Bouza E (2011). “Parasitic infections in solid-organ transplant recipients”Curr Opin Organ Transplant16 (6): 565–575. doi:10.1097/MOT.0b013e32834cdbb0PMID 22027588. Retrieved 7 January 2016Nitazoxanide: intestinal amoebiasis: 500 mg po bid x 3 days
  13. ^ “Hymenolepiasis: Resources for Health Professionals”. United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2017-05-02. Retrieved 4 January 2016.
  14. ^ Hagel I, Giusti T (October 2010). “Ascaris lumbricoides: an overview of therapeutic targets”Infectious Disorders – Drug Targets10 (5): 349–67. doi:10.2174/187152610793180876PMID 20701574new anthelmintic alternatives such as tribendimidine and Nitazoxanide have proved to be safe and effective against A. lumbricoides and other soil-transmitted helminthiases in human trials.
  15. ^ Shoff WH (5 October 2015). Chandrasekar PH, Talavera F, King JW (eds.). “Cyclospora Medication”Medscape. WebMD. Retrieved 11 January 2016Nitazoxanide, a 5-nitrothiazole derivative with broad-spectrum activity against helminths and protozoans, has been shown to be effective against C cayetanensis, with an efficacy 87% by the third dose (first, 71%; second 75%). Three percent of patients had minor side effects.
  16. ^ Li TC, Chan MC, Lee N (September 2015). “Clinical Implications of Antiviral Resistance in Influenza”Viruses7 (9): 4929–4944. doi:10.3390/v7092850PMC 4584294PMID 26389935Oral nitazoxanide is an available, approved antiparasitic agent (e.g., against cryptosporidium, giardia) with established safety profiles. Recently, it has been shown (together with its active metabolite tizoxanide) to possess anti-influenza activity by blocking haemagglutinin maturation/trafficking, and acting as an interferon-inducer [97]. … A large, multicenter, Phase 3 randomized-controlled trial comparing nitazoxanide, oseltamivir, and their combination in uncomplicated influenza is currently underway (NCT01610245).
    Figure 1: Molecular targets and potential antiviral treatments against influenza virus infection
  17. Jump up to:a b Teran, C. G.; Teran-Escalera, C. N.; Villarroel, P. (2009). “Nitazoxanide vs. Probiotics for the treatment of acute rotavirus diarrhea in children: A randomized, single-blind, controlled trial in Bolivian children”. International Journal of Infectious Diseases13(4): 518–523. doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2008.09.014PMID 19070525.
  18. Jump up to:a b Lateef, M.; Zargar, S. A.; Khan, A. R.; Nazir, M.; Shoukat, A. (2008). “Successful treatment of niclosamide- and praziquantel-resistant beef tapeworm infection with nitazoxanide”. International Journal of Infectious Diseases12 (1): 80–82. doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2007.04.017PMID 17962058.
  19. ^ World Journal of Gastroenterology 2009 April 21, Emmet B Keeffe MD, Professor, Jean-François Rossignol The Romark Institute for Medical Research, Tampa
  20. Jump up to:a b c Keeffe, E. B.; Rossignol, J. F. (2009). “Treatment of chronic viral hepatitis with nitazoxanide and second generation thiazolides”World Journal of Gastroenterology15 (15): 1805–1808. doi:10.3748/wjg.15.1805PMC 2670405PMID 19370775.
  21. ^ Nikolova, Kristiana; Gluud, Christian; Grevstad, Berit; Jakobsen, Janus C (2014). “Nitazoxanide for chronic hepatitis C”. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (4): CD009182. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009182.pub2ISSN 1465-1858PMID 24706397.
  22. ^ “Romark Initiates Clinical Trial Of Alinia For Chronic Hepatitis C In The United States” (Press release). Medical News Today. August 16, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-11.
  23. ^ Franciscus, Alan (October 2, 2007). “Hepatitis C Treatments in Current Clinical Development”. HCV Advocate. Archived from the original on September 6, 2003. Retrieved 2007-10-11.
  24. ^ Rossignol, Jean-François; Abu-Zekry, Mona; Hussein, Abeer; Santoro, M Gabriella (2006). “Effect of nitazoxanide for treatment of severe rotavirus diarrhoea: randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial”. The Lancet368 (9530): 124–9. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.458.1597doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)68852-1PMID 16829296.
  25. ^ Dan, M.; Sobel, J. D. (2007). “Failure of Nitazoxanide to Cure Trichomoniasis in Three Women”. Sexually Transmitted Diseases34 (10): 813–4. doi:10.1097/NMD.0b013e31802f5d9aPMID 17551415.
  26. ^ “Nitazoxanide”MedlinePlus. Retrieved 9 April 2014.
  27. Jump up to:a b Shakya, A; Bhat, HR; Ghosh, SK (2018). “Update on Nitazoxanide: A Multifunctional Chemotherapeutic Agent”. Current Drug Discovery Technologies15 (3): 201–213. doi:10.2174/1570163814666170727130003PMID 28748751.
  28. ^ Rossignol, J. F.; La Frazia, S.; Chiappa, L.; Ciucci, A.; Santoro, M. G. (2009). “Thiazolides, a New Class of Anti-influenza Molecules Targeting Viral Hemagglutinin at the Post-translational Level”Journal of Biological Chemistry284 (43): 29798–29808. doi:10.1074/jbc.M109.029470PMC 2785610PMID 19638339.
  29. ^ White Jr, AC (2003). “Nitazoxanide: An important advance in anti-parasitic therapy”. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg68 (4): 382–383. doi:10.4269/ajtmh.2003.68.382PMID 12875283.
  30. ^ Lateef, M.; Zargar, S. A.; Khan, A. R.; Nazir, M.; Shoukat, A. (2008). “Successful treatment of niclosamide- and praziquantel-resistant beef tapeworm infection with nitazoxanide”. International Journal of Infectious Diseases12 (1): 80–2. doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2007.04.017PMID 17962058.
  31. ^ Cynthia Liu, Qiongqiong Zhou, Yingzhu Li, Linda V. Garner, Steve P. Watkins, Linda J. Carter, Jeffrey Smoot, Anne C. Gregg, Angela D. Daniels, Susan Jervey, Dana Albaiu. Research and Development on Therapeutic Agents and Vaccines for COVID-19 and Related Human Coronavirus Diseases. ACS Central Science 2020; doi:10.1021/acscentsci.0c00272

External links

Nitazoxanide
Nitazoxanide.svg
Clinical data
Trade names Alinia, Nizonide, and others
AHFS/Drugs.com Monograph
MedlinePlus a603017
License data
Pregnancy
category
  • US: B (No risk in non-human studies)
Routes of
administration
Oral
Drug class Antiprotozoal
Broad-spectrum antiparasitic
Broad-spectrum antiviral
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Protein binding Nitazoxanide: ?
Tizoxanide: over 99%[1][2]
Metabolism Rapidly hydrolyzed to tizoxanide[1]
Metabolites tizoxanide[1][2]
tizoxanide glucuronide[1][2]
Elimination half-life 3.5 hours[3]
Excretion Renalbiliary, and fecal[1]
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEMBL
NIAID ChemDB
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
ECHA InfoCard 100.054.465 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
Formula C12H9N3O5S
Molar mass 307.283 g/mol g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)

//////////////nitazoxanide, corona virus, covid 19

Hydroxychloroquine, ヒドロキシクロロキン, гидроксихлорохин , هيدروكسيكلوروكين , 羟氯喹 ,


ChemSpider 2D Image | hydroxychloroquine | C18H26ClN3O

 

Hydroxychloroquine
ヒドロキシクロロキン;
Formula
C18H26ClN3O
cas
118-42-3
sulphate 747-36-4
Mol weight
335.8715

 

гидроксихлорохин [Russian] [INN]
هيدروكسيكلوروكين [Arabic] [INN]
羟氯喹 [Chinese] [INN]
Oxychlorochin, Plaquenil Plaquenil®, 

Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), sold under the brand name Plaquenil among others, is a medication used for the prevention and treatment of certain types of malaria.[2] Specifically it is used for chloroquine-sensitive malaria.[3] Other uses include treatment of rheumatoid arthritislupus, and porphyria cutanea tarda.[2] It is taken by mouth.[2] It is also being used as an experimental treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).[4]

Common side effects include vomitingheadache, changes in vision and muscle weakness.[2] Severe side effects may include allergic reactions.[2] Although all risk cannot be excluded it remains a treatment for rheumatic disease during pregnancy.[5] Hydroxychloroquine is in the antimalarial and 4-aminoquinoline families of medication.[2]

Hydroxychloroquine was approved for medical use in the United States in 1955.[2] It is on the World Health Organization’s List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system.[6] The wholesale cost in the developing world is about US$4.65 per month as of 2015, when used for rheumatoid arthritis or lupus.[7] In the United States the wholesale cost of a month of treatment is about US$25 as of 2020.[8] In the United Kingdom this dose costs the NHS about £ 5.15.[9] In 2017, it was the 128th most prescribed medication in the United States with more than five million prescriptions.[10]

Medical use

Hydroxychloroquine treats malaria, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatic disorders like rheumatoid arthritisporphyria cutanea tarda, and Q fever.[2]

In 2014, its efficacy to treat Sjögren syndrome was questioned in a double-blind study involving 120 patients over a 48-week period.[11]

Hydroxychloroquine is widely used in the treatment of post-Lyme arthritis. It may have both an anti-spirochaete activity and an anti-inflammatory activity, similar to the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.[12]

Contraindications

The drug label advises that hydroxychloroquine should not be prescribed to individuals with known hypersensitivity to 4-Aminoquinoline compounds.[13] There are a range of other contraindications[14] [15] and caution is required if patients have certain heart conditions, diabetes, psoriasis etc.

Side effects[

The most common adverse effects are a mild nausea and occasional stomach cramps with mild diarrhea. The most serious adverse effects affect the eye, with dose-related retinopathy as a concern even after hydroxychloroquine use is discontinued.[2] For short-term treatment of acute malaria, adverse effects can include abdominal cramps, diarrhea, heart problems, reduced appetite, headache, nausea and vomiting.[2]

For prolonged treatment of lupus or rheumatoid arthritis, adverse effects include the acute symptoms, plus altered eye pigmentation, acneanemia, bleaching of hair, blisters in mouth and eyes, blood disorders, convulsions, vision difficulties, diminished reflexes, emotional changes, excessive coloring of the skin, hearing loss, hives, itching, liver problems or liver failureloss of hair, muscle paralysis, weakness or atrophy, nightmares, psoriasis, reading difficulties, tinnitus, skin inflammation and scaling, skin rash, vertigoweight loss, and occasionally urinary incontinence.[2] Hydroxychloroquine can worsen existing cases of both psoriasis and porphyria.[2]

Children may be especially vulnerable to developing adverse effects from hydroxychloroquine.[2]

Eyes

One of the most serious side effects is retinopathy (generally with chronic use).[2][16] People taking 400 mg of hydroxychloroquine or less per day generally have a negligible risk of macular toxicity, whereas the risk begins to go up when a person takes the medication over 5 years or has a cumulative dose of more than 1000 grams. The daily safe maximum dose for eye toxicity can be computed from one’s height and weight using this calculator. Cumulative doses can also be calculated from this calculator. Macular toxicity is related to the total cumulative dose rather than the daily dose. Regular eye screening, even in the absence of visual symptoms, is recommended to begin when either of these risk factors occurs.[17]

Toxicity from hydroxychloroquine may be seen in two distinct areas of the eye: the cornea and the macula. The cornea may become affected (relatively commonly) by an innocuous cornea verticillata or vortex keratopathy and is characterized by whorl-like corneal epithelial deposits. These changes bear no relationship to dosage and are usually reversible on cessation of hydroxychloroquine.

The macular changes are potentially serious. Advanced retinopathy is characterized by reduction of visual acuity and a “bull’s eye” macular lesion which is absent in early involvement.

Overdose

Due to rapid absorption, symptoms of overdose can occur within a half an hour after ingestion. Overdose symptoms include convulsions, drowsiness, headache, heart problems or heart failure, difficulty breathing and vision problems.

Hydroxychloroquine overdoses are rarely reported, with 7 previous cases found in the English medical literature. In one such case, a 16-year-old girl who had ingested a handful of hydroxychloroquine 200mg presented with tachycardia (heart rate 110 beats/min), hypotension (systolic blood pressure 63 mm Hg), central nervous system depression, conduction defects (ORS = 0.14 msec), and hypokalemia (K = 2.1 meq/L). Treatment consisted of fluid boluses and dopamine, oxygen, and potassium supplementation. The presence of hydroxychloroquine was confirmed through toxicologic tests. The patient’s hypotension resolved within 4.5 hours, serum potassium stabilized in 24 hours, and tachycardia gradually decreased over 3 days.[18]

Interactions

The drug transfers into breast milk and should be used with care by pregnant or nursing mothers.[citation needed]

Care should be taken if combined with medication altering liver function as well as aurothioglucose (Solganal), cimetidine (Tagamet) or digoxin (Lanoxin). HCQ can increase plasma concentrations of penicillamine which may contribute to the development of severe side effects. It enhances hypoglycemic effects of insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents. Dose altering is recommended to prevent profound hypoglycemiaAntacids may decrease the absorption of HCQ. Both neostigmine and pyridostigmine antagonize the action of hydroxychloroquine.[19]

While there may be a link between hydroxychloroquine and hemolytic anemia in those with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, this risk may be low in those of African descent.[20]

Specifically, the FDA drug label for hydroxychloroquine lists the following drug interactions [13]:

  • Digoxin (wherein it may result in increased serum digoxin levels)
  • Insulin or antidiabetic drugs (wherein it may enhance the effects of a hypoglycemic treatment)
  • Drugs that prolong QT interval and other arrhythmogenic drugs (as Hydroxychloroquine prolongs the QT interval and may increase the risk of inducing ventricular arrhythmias if used concurrently)
  • Mefloquine and other drugs known to lower the convulsive threshold (co-administration with other antimalarials known to lower the convulsion threshold may increase risk of convulsions)
  • Antiepileptics (concurrent use may impair the antiepileptic activity)
  • Methotrexate (combined use is unstudied and may increase the frequency of side effects)
  • Cyclosporin (wherein an increased plasma cylcosporin level was reported when used together).

Pharmacology[

Pharmacokinetics

Hydroxychloroquine has similar pharmacokinetics to chloroquine, with rapid gastrointestinal absorption and elimination by the kidneys. Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP2D62C83A4 and 3A5) metabolize hydroxychloroquine to N-desethylhydroxychloroquine.[21]

Pharmacodynamics

Antimalarials are lipophilic weak bases and easily pass plasma membranes. The free base form accumulates in lysosomes (acidic cytoplasmic vesicles) and is then protonated,[22] resulting in concentrations within lysosomes up to 1000 times higher than in culture media. This increases the pH of the lysosome from 4 to 6.[23] Alteration in pH causes inhibition of lysosomal acidic proteases causing a diminished proteolysis effect.[24] Higher pH within lysosomes causes decreased intracellular processing, glycosylation and secretion of proteins with many immunologic and nonimmunologic consequences.[25] These effects are believed to be the cause of a decreased immune cell functioning such as chemotaxisphagocytosis and superoxide production by neutrophils.[26] HCQ is a weak diprotic base that can pass through the lipid cell membrane and preferentially concentrate in acidic cytoplasmic vesicles. The higher pH of these vesicles in macrophages or other antigen-presenting cells limits the association of autoantigenic (any) peptides with class II MHC molecules in the compartment for peptide loading and/or the subsequent processing and transport of the peptide-MHC complex to the cell membrane.[27]

Mechanism of action

Hydroxychloroquine increases[28] lysosomal pH in antigen-presenting cells. In inflammatory conditions, it blocks toll-like receptors on plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs).[citation needed] Hydroxychloroquine, by decreasing TLR signaling, reduces the activation of dendritic cells and the inflammatory process. Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR 9) recognizes DNA-containing immune complexes and leads to the production of interferon and causes the dendritic cells to mature and present antigen to T cells, therefore reducing anti-DNA auto-inflammatory process.

In 2003, a novel mechanism was described wherein hydroxychloroquine inhibits stimulation of the toll-like receptor (TLR) 9 family receptors. TLRs are cellular receptors for microbial products that induce inflammatory responses through activation of the innate immune system.[29]

As with other quinoline antimalarial drugs, the mechanism of action of quinine has not been fully resolved. The most accepted model is based on hydrochloroquinine and involves the inhibition of hemozoin biocrystallization, which facilitates the aggregation of cytotoxic heme. Free cytotoxic heme accumulates in the parasites, causing their deaths.[citation needed]

Brand names

It is frequently sold as a sulfate salt known as hydroxychloroquine sulfate.[2] 200 mg of the sulfate salt is equal to 155 mg of the base.[2]

Brand names of hydroxychloroquine include Plaquenil, Hydroquin, Axemal (in India), Dolquine, Quensyl, Quinoric.[30]

Research

COVID-19

Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine have been recommended by Chinese and South Korean health authorities for the experimental treatment of COVID-19.[31][32] In vitro studies in cell cultures demonstrated that hydroxychloroquine was more potent than chloroquine against SARS-CoV-2.[33]

On 17 March 2020, the AIFA Scientific Technical Commission of the Italian Medicines Agency expressed a favorable opinion on including the off-label use of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection.[34]

 

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Image result for hydroxychloroquine

clip

https://d-nb.info/1166863441/34

white solid (0.263 g, 78%). 1H NMR
(600 MHz, CDCl3
) δ 8.48 (d, J = 5.4 Hz, 1H), 7.93 (d, J = 5.4 Hz, 1H), 7.70 (d, J = 9.2 Hz, 1H), 7.34 (dd, J = 8.8, 7.3 Hz, 1H), 6.39 (d, J = 5.4 Hz, 1H), 4.96 (d, J = 7.5 Hz, 1H), 3.70 (sx,J = 6.8 Hz, 1H), 3.55 (m, 2H), 2.57 (m, 5H), 2.49 (m, 2H),
1.74–1.62 (m, 1H), 1.65–1.53 (m, 3H), 1.31 (d, J = 6.9 Hz, 3H),
1.24 (d, J = 7.2 Hz, 2H);

13C NMR (125 MHz, CDCl3) δ 152.2,
149.5, 149.2, 135.0, 129.0, 125.4, 121.2, 117.4, 99.4, 58.6, 54.9,
53.18, 48.5, 47.9, 34.5, 24.1, 20.6, 11.9. Spectra were obtained
in accordance with those previously reported [38,39].

38. Cornish, C. A.; Warren, S. J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 1 1985,
2585–2598. doi:10.1039/P19850002585
39. Münstedt, R.; Wannagat, U.; Wrobel, D. J. Organomet. Chem. 1984,
264, 135–148. doi:10.1016/0022-328X(84)85139-6

 

 

References

  1. Jump up to:a b “Hydroxychloroquine Use During Pregnancy”Drugs.com. 28 February 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  2. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p “Hydroxychloroquine Sulfate Monograph for Professionals”. The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. 20 March 2020. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  3. ^ Hamilton, Richart (2015). Tarascon Pocket Pharmacopoeia. Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 463. ISBN 9781284057560.
  4. ^ Cortegiani, Andrea; Ingoglia, Giulia; Ippolito, Mariachiara; Giarratano, Antonino; Einav, Sharon (10 March 2020). “A systematic review on the efficacy and safety of chloroquine for the treatment of COVID-19”Journal of Critical Caredoi:10.1016/j.jcrc.2020.03.005ISSN 0883-9441.
  5. ^ Flint, Julia; Panchal, Sonia; Hurrell, Alice; van de Venne, Maud; Gayed, Mary; Schreiber, Karen; Arthanari, Subha; Cunningham, Joel; Flanders, Lucy; Moore, Louise; Crossley, Amy (1 September 2016). “BSR and BHPR guideline on prescribing drugs in pregnancy and breastfeeding – Part I: standard and biologic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs and corticosteroids”Rheumatology55 (9): 1693–1697. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/kev404ISSN 1462-0324.
  6. ^ World Health Organization (2019). World Health Organization model list of essential medicines: 21st list. Geneva: World Health Organization. hdl:10665/325771. WHO/MVP/EMP/IAU/2019.06. License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
  7. ^ “Single Drug Information | International Medical Products Price Guide”. Retrieved 31 December 2019.[dead link]
  8. ^ “NADAC as of 2019-08-07”Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Retrieved 19 March 2020Typical dose is 600mg per day. Costs 0.28157 per dose. Month has about 30 days.
  9. ^ British national formulary: BNF 69 (69 ed.). British Medical Association. 2015. p. 730. ISBN 9780857111562.
  10. ^ “The Top 300 of 2020”ClinCalc. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  11. ^ Effects of Hydroxychloroquine on Symptomatic Improvement in Primary Sjögren Syndrome, Gottenberg, et al. (2014) “Archived copy”Archived from the original on 11 July 2015. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
  12. ^ Steere, AC; Angelis, SM (October 2006). “Therapy for Lyme Arthritis: Strategies for the Treatment of Antibiotic-refractory Arthritis”. Arthritis and Rheumatism54 (10): 3079–86. doi:10.1002/art.22131PMID 17009226.
  13. Jump up to:a b “Plaquenil- hydroxychloroquine sulfate tablet”DailyMed. 3 January 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  14. ^ “Plaquenil (hydroxychloroquine sulfate) dose, indications, adverse effects, interactions”pdr.net. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  15. ^ “Drugs & Medications”webmd.com. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  16. ^ Flach, AJ (2007). “Improving the Risk-benefit Relationship and Informed Consent for Patients Treated with Hydroxychloroquine”Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society105: 191–94, discussion 195–97. PMC 2258132PMID 18427609.
  17. ^ Marmor, MF; Kellner, U; Lai, TYY; Lyons, JS; Mieler, WF (February 2011). “Revised Recommendations on Screening for Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine Retinopathy”. Ophthalmology118 (2): 415–22. doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2010.11.017PMID 21292109.
  18. ^ Marquardt, Kathy; Albertson, Timothy E. (1 September 2001). “Treatment of hydroxychloroquine overdose”The American Journal of Emergency Medicine19 (5): 420–424. doi:10.1053/ajem.2001.25774ISSN 0735-6757PMID 11555803.
  19. ^ “Russian Register of Medicines: Plaquenil (hydroxychloroquine) Film-coated Tablets for Oral Use. Prescribing Information” (in Russian). Sanofi-Synthelabo. Archived from the original on 16 August 2016. Retrieved 14 July 2016.
  20. ^ Mohammad, Samya; Clowse, Megan E. B.; Eudy, Amanda M.; Criscione-Schreiber, Lisa G. (March 2018). “Examination of Hydroxychloroquine Use and Hemolytic Anemia in G6PDH-Deficient Patients”. Arthritis Care & Research70 (3): 481–485. doi:10.1002/acr.23296ISSN 2151-4658PMID 28556555.
  21. ^ Kalia, S; Dutz, JP (2007). “New Concepts in Antimalarial Use and Mode of Action in Dermatology”. Dermatologic Therapy20 (4): 160–74. doi:10.1111/j.1529-8019.2007.00131.xPMID 17970883.
  22. ^ Kaufmann, AM; Krise, JP (2007). “Lysosomal Sequestration of Amine-containing Drugs: Analysis and Therapeutic Implications”. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences96 (4): 729–46. doi:10.1002/jps.20792PMID 17117426.
  23. ^ Ohkuma, S; Poole, B (1978). “Fluorescence Probe Measurement of the Intralysosomal pH in Living Cells and the Perturbation of pH by Various Agents”Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America75 (7): 3327–31. doi:10.1073/pnas.75.7.3327PMC 392768PMID 28524.
  24. ^ Ohkuma, S; Chudzik, J; Poole, B (1986). “The Effects of Basic Substances and Acidic Ionophores on the Digestion of Exogenous and Endogenous Proteins in Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages”The Journal of Cell Biology102 (3): 959–66. doi:10.1083/jcb.102.3.959PMC 2114118PMID 3949884.
  25. ^ Oda, K; Koriyama, Y; Yamada, E; Ikehara, Y (1986). “Effects of Weakly Basic Amines on Proteolytic Processing and Terminal Glycosylation of Secretory Proteins in Cultured Rat Hepatocytes”The Biochemical Journal240 (3): 739–45. doi:10.1042/bj2400739PMC 1147481PMID 3493770.
  26. ^ Hurst, NP; French, JK; Gorjatschko, L; Betts, WH (1988). “Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine Inhibit Multiple Sites in Metabolic Pathways Leading to Neutrophil Superoxide Release”. The Journal of Rheumatology15 (1): 23–27. PMID 2832600.
  27. ^ Fox, R (1996). “Anti-malarial Drugs: Possible Mechanisms of Action in Autoimmune Disease and Prospects for Drug Development”. Lupus5: S4–10. doi:10.1177/096120339600500103PMID 8803903.
  28. ^ Waller; et al. Medical Pharmacology and Therapeutics (2nd ed.). p. 370.
  29. ^ Takeda, K; Kaisho, T; Akira, S (2003). “Toll-Like Receptors”. Annual Review of Immunology21: 335–76. doi:10.1146/annurev.immunol.21.120601.141126PMID 12524386.
  30. ^ “Hydroxychloroquine trade names”Drugs-About.com. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
  31. ^ “Diagnosis and Treatment Protocol for Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia”China Law Translate. 3 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  32. ^ “Physicians work out treatment guidelines for coronavirus”Korea Biomedical Review. 13 February 2020. Retrieved 18 March2020.
  33. ^ Yao, Xueting; Ye, Fei; Zhang, Miao; Cui, Cheng; Huang, Baoying; Niu, Peihua; Liu, Xu; Zhao, Li; Dong, Erdan; Song, Chunli; Zhan, Siyan (9 March 2020). “In Vitro Antiviral Activity and Projection of Optimized Dosing Design of Hydroxychloroquine for the Treatment of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)”. Clinical Infectious Diseasesdoi:10.1093/cid/ciaa237ISSN 1537-6591PMID 32150618.
  34. ^ “Azioni intraprese per favorire la ricerca e l’accesso ai nuovi farmaci per il trattamento del COVID-19”Italian Medicines Agency (AIFA) (in Italian). 17 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March2020.

External links

 

Hydroxychloroquine
Hydroxychloroquine.svg
Hydroxychloroquine.png

Hydroxychloroquine freebase molecule
Clinical data
Trade names Plaquenil, others
Other names Hydroxychloroquine sulfate
AHFS/Drugs.com Monograph
MedlinePlus a601240
License data
Pregnancy
category
  • AU: D [1]
  • US: N (Not classified yet) [1]
Routes of
administration
By mouth (tablets)
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
  • AU: S4 (Prescription only)
  • UK: POM (Prescription only)
  • US: ℞-only
  • In general: ℞ (Prescription only)
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability Variable (74% on average); Tmax = 2–4.5 hours
Protein binding 45%
Metabolism Liver
Elimination half-life 32–50 days
Excretion Mostly Kidney (23–25% as unchanged drug), also biliary (<10%)
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
IUPHAR/BPS
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
ChEMBL
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
ECHA InfoCard 100.003.864 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
Formula C18H26ClN3O
Molar mass 335.872 g/mol g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)

 

///////////Hydroxychloroquine, Hydroxy chloroquine, HCQ, ヒドロキシクロロキン , covid 19, coronavirus, antimalarial, гидроксихлорохинهيدروكسيكلوروكين羟氯喹Oxychlorochin, Plaquenil Plaquenil®, 

Arbidol, Umifenovir,


Arbidol.svg

ChemSpider 2D Image | Umifenovir | C22H25BrN2O3S

Umifenovir

  • Molecular FormulaC22H25BrN2O3S
  • Average mass477.414 Da
Арбидол [Russian]
阿比朵尔 [Chinese]
131707-25-0 [RN]
1H-Indole-3-carboxylic acid, 6-bromo-4-[(dimethylamino)methyl]-5-hydroxy-1-methyl-2-[(phenylthio)methyl]-, ethyl ester
9271
Arbidol
Ethyl 6-bromo-4-[(dimethylamino)methyl]-5-hydroxy-1-methyl-2-[(phenylsulfanyl)methyl]-1H-indole-3-carboxylate

Umifenovir[2] (trade names Arbidol RussianАрбидолChinese阿比朵尔) is an antiviral treatment for influenza infection used in Russia[3] and China. The drug is manufactured by Pharmstandard (RussianФармстандарт). Although some Russian studies have shown it to be effective, it is not approved for use in other countries. It is not approved by FDA for the treatment or prevention of influenza.[4] Chemically, umifenovir features an indole core, functionalized at all but one positions with different substituents. The drug is claimed to inhibit viral entry into target cells and stimulate the immune response. Interest in the drug has been renewed as a result of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak.

Umifenovir is manufactured and made available as tabletscapsules and syrup.

Image result for Arbidol

Arbidol Hydrochloride

  • Molecular FormulaC22H28BrClN2O4S
  • Average mass531.891 Da
  • 868364-57-2 [RN]

Status

Testing of umifenovir’s efficacy has mainly occurred in China and Russia,[5][6] and it is well known in these two countries.[7] Some of the Russian tests showed the drug to be effective[5] and a direct comparison with Tamiflu showed similar efficiency in vitro and in a clinical setting.[8] In 2007, Arbidol (umifenovir) had the highest sales in Russia among all over-the-counter drugs.

Mode of action

Biochemistry

Umifenovir inhibits membrane fusion.[3] Umifenovir prevents contact between the virus and target host cells. Fusion between the viral envelope (surrounding the viral capsid) and the cell membrane of the target cell is inhibited. This prevents viral entry to the target cell, and therefore protects it from infection.[9]

Some evidence suggests that the drug’s actions are more effective at preventing infections from RNA viruses than infections from DNA viruses.[10]

As well as specific antiviral action against both influenza A and influenza B viruses, umifenovir exhibits modulatory effects on the immune system. The drug stimulates a humoral immune response, induces interferon-production, and stimulates the phagocytic function of macrophages.[11]

Clinical application

Umifenovir is used primarily as an antiviral treatments for influenza. The drug has also been investigated as a candidate drug for treatment of hepatitis C.[12]

More recent studies indicate that umifenovir also has in vitro effectiveness at preventing entry of Ebolavirus Zaïre Kikwit, Tacaribe arenavirus and human herpes virus 8 in mammalian cell cultures, while confirming umifenovir’s suppressive effect in vitro on Hepatitis B and poliovirus infection of mammalian cells when introduced either in advance of viral infection or during infection.[13][14]

Research

In February 2020, Li Lanjuan, an expert of the National Health Commission of China, proposed using Arbidol (umifenovir) together with darunavir as a potential treatment during the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic.[15] Chinese experts claim that preliminary tests had shown that arbidol and darunavir could inhibit replication of the virus.[16][17] So far without additional effect if added on top of recombinant human interferon α2b spray.[18]

Side effects

Side effects in children include sensitization to the drug. No known overdose cases have been reported and allergic reactions are limited to people with hypersensitivity. The LD50 is more than 4 g/kg.[19]

Criticism

In 2007, the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences stated that the effects of Arbidol (umifenovir) are not scientifically proven.[20]

Russian media criticized lobbying attempts by Tatyana Golikova (then-Minister of Healthcare) to promote umifenovir,[21] and the unproven claim that Arbidol can speed up recovery from flu or cold by 1.3-2.3 days.[22] They also debunked claims that the efficacy of umifenovir is supported by peer-reviewed studies.[23][24]

 

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https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960894X1730687X

Image result for Arbidol

 

CLIP

1,2-Dimethyl-5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid ethyl ester (I) is acetylated with acetic anhydride affording the O-acyl derivative (II) , which is brominated to the corresponding dibromide compound (III) . The reaction of (III) with thiophenol in KOH yields (IV) , which is then submitted to a conventional Mannich condensation with formaldehyde and dimethylamine in acetic acid, giving the free base of arbidol (V), which is treated with aqueous hydrochloric acid .

Image result for Arbidol

References

  1. ^ “Full Prescribing Information: Arbidol® (umifenovir) film-coated tablets 50 and 100 mg: Corrections and Additions”State Register of Medicines (in Russian). Open joint-stock company “Pharmstandard-Tomskchempharm”. Retrieved 3 June 2015.
  2. ^ Recommended INN: List 65., WHO Drug Information, Vol. 25, No. 1, 2011, page 91
  3. Jump up to:a b Leneva IA, Russell RJ, Boriskin YS, Hay AJ (February 2009). “Characteristics of arbidol-resistant mutants of influenza virus: implications for the mechanism of anti-influenza action of arbidol”. Antiviral Research81 (2): 132–40. doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2008.10.009PMID 19028526.
  4. ^ “FDA Approved Drugs for Influenza”U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
  5. Jump up to:a b Leneva IA, Fediakina IT, Gus’kova TA, Glushkov RG (2005). “[Sensitivity of various influenza virus strains to arbidol. Influence of arbidol combination with different antiviral drugs on reproduction of influenza virus A]”Terapevticheskii Arkhiv (Russian translation). ИЗДАТЕЛЬСТВО “МЕДИЦИНА”. 77 (8): 84–8. PMID 16206613.
  6. ^ Wang MZ, Cai BQ, Li LY, Lin JT, Su N, Yu HX, Gao H, Zhao JZ, Liu L (June 2004). “[Efficacy and safety of arbidol in treatment of naturally acquired influenza]”. Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae26 (3): 289–93. PMID 15266832.
  7. ^ Boriskin YS, Leneva IA, Pécheur EI, Polyak SJ (2008). “Arbidol: a broad-spectrum antiviral compound that blocks viral fusion”. Current Medicinal Chemistry15 (10): 997–1005. doi:10.2174/092986708784049658PMID 18393857.
  8. ^ Leneva IA, Burtseva EI, Yatsyshina SB, Fedyakina IT, Kirillova ES, Selkova EP, Osipova E, Maleev VV (February 2016). “Virus susceptibility and clinical effectiveness of anti-influenza drugs during the 2010-2011 influenza season in Russia”. International Journal of Infectious Diseases43: 77–84. doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2016.01.001PMID 26775570.
  9. ^ Boriskin YS, Pécheur EI, Polyak SJ (July 2006). “Arbidol: a broad-spectrum antiviral that inhibits acute and chronic HCV infection”Virology Journal3: 56. doi:10.1186/1743-422X-3-56PMC 1559594PMID 16854226.
  10. ^ Shi L, Xiong H, He J, Deng H, Li Q, Zhong Q, Hou W, Cheng L, Xiao H, Yang Z (2007). “Antiviral activity of arbidol against influenza A virus, respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, coxsackie virus and adenovirus in vitro and in vivo”. Archives of Virology152 (8): 1447–55. doi:10.1007/s00705-007-0974-5PMID 17497238.
  11. ^ Glushkov RG, Gus’kova TA, Krylova LIu, Nikolaeva IS (1999). “[Mechanisms of arbidole’s immunomodulating action]”. Vestnik Rossiiskoi Akademii Meditsinskikh Nauk (in Russian) (3): 36–40. PMID 10222830.
  12. ^ Pécheur EI, Lavillette D, Alcaras F, Molle J, Boriskin YS, Roberts M, Cosset FL, Polyak SJ (May 2007). “Biochemical mechanism of hepatitis C virus inhibition by the broad-spectrum antiviral arbidol”Biochemistry46 (20): 6050–9. doi:10.1021/bi700181jPMC 2532706PMID 17455911.
  13. ^ Pécheur EI, Borisevich V, Halfmann P, Morrey JD, Smee DF, Prichard M, Mire CE, Kawaoka Y, Geisbert TW, Polyak SJ (January 2016). “The Synthetic Antiviral Drug Arbidol Inhibits Globally Prevalent Pathogenic Viruses”Journal of Virology90 (6): 3086–92. doi:10.1128/JVI.02077-15PMC 4810626PMID 26739045.
  14. ^ Hulseberg CE, Fénéant L, Szymańska-de Wijs KM, Kessler NP, Nelson EA, Shoemaker CJ, Schmaljohn CS, Polyak SJ, White JM. Arbidol and Other Low-Molecular-Weight Drugs That Inhibit Lassa and Ebola Viruses. J Virol. 2019 Apr 3;93(8). pii: e02185-18. doi:10.1128/JVI.02185-18 PMID 30700611
  15. ^ Ng E (4 February 2020). “Coronavirus: are cocktail therapies for flu and HIV the magic cure?”South China Morning PostBangkok and Hangzhou hospitals put combination remedies to the test.
  16. ^ Zheng W, Lau M (4 February 2020). “China’s health officials say priority is to stop mild coronavirus cases from getting worse”South China Morning Post.
  17. ^ Lu H (January 2020). “Drug treatment options for the 2019-new coronavirus (2019-nCoV)”. Bioscience Trendsdoi:10.5582/bst.2020.01020PMID 31996494.
  18. ^ “Efficacies of lopinavir/ritonavir and abidol in the treatment of novel coronavirus pneumonia”. 4 February 2020. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
  19. ^ “АРБИДОЛ® (ARBIDOL)”Vidal. Archived from the originalon 4 February 2009.
  20. ^ “Resolution”Meetings of the Presidium of the Formulary Committee. Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. 16 March 2007.
  21. ^ “How do we plant federal ministers”MKRU. 21 April 2011.
  22. ^ Golunov I (23 December 2013). “13 most popular flu cures: do they work?”Professional Journalism Platform.
  23. ^ Reuters S. “Stick in the wheel”Esquire.
  24. ^ “Repetition – the mother of learning”Esquire.

External links

Umifenovir
Arbidol.svg
Umifenovir ball-and-stick model.png
Clinical data
Trade names Arbidol
Pregnancy
category
  • C
Routes of
administration
Oral (hard capsulestablets)
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 40%
Metabolism Hepatic
Elimination half-life 17–21 hours
Excretion 40% excrete as unchanged umifenovir in feces (38.9%) and urine (0.12%)[1]
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
ChEMBL
PDB ligand
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
ECHA InfoCard 100.247.800 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
Formula C22H25BrN2O3S
Molar mass 477.41 g/mol g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)

Umifenovir is an indole-based, hydrophobic, dual-acting direct antiviral/host-targeting agent used for the treatment and prophylaxis of influenza and other respiratory infections.13 It has been in use in Russia for approximately 25 years and in China since 2006. Its invention is credited to a collaboration between Russian scientists from several research institutes 40-50 years ago, and reports of its chemical synthesis date back to 1993.13 Umifenovir’s ability to exert antiviral effects through multiple pathways has resulted in considerable investigation into its use for a variety of enveloped and non-enveloped RNA and DNA viruses, including Flavivirus,2 Zika virus,3 foot-and-mouth disease,4 Lassa virus,6 Ebola virus,6 herpes simplex,8, hepatitis B and C viruses, chikungunya virus, reovirus, Hantaan virus, and coxsackie virus B5.13,9 This dual activity may also confer additional protection against viral resistance, as the development of resistance to umifenovir does not appear to be significant.13

Umifenovir is currently being investigated as a potential treatment and prophylactic agent for COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV2 infections in combination with both currently available and investigational HIV therapies.1,16,17

 

Indication

Umifenovir is currently licensed in China and Russia for the prophylaxis and treatment of influenza and other respiratory viral infections.13 It has demonstrated activity against a number of viruses and has been investigated in the treatment of Flavivirus,2 Zika virus,3 foot-and-mouth disease,4 Lassa virus,6 Ebola virus,6 and herpes simplex.8 In addition, it has shown in vitro activity against hepatitis B and C viruses, chikungunya virus, reovirus, Hantaan virus, and coxsackie virus B5.13,9

Umifenovir is currently being investigated as a potential treatment and prophylactic agent for the prevention of COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 infections.1,16

Pharmacodynamics

Umifenovir exerts its antiviral effects via both direct-acting virucidal activity and by inhibiting one (or several) stage(s) of the viral life cycle.13 Its broad-spectrum of activity covers both enveloped and non-enveloped RNA and DNA viruses. It is relatively well-tolerated and possesses a large therapeutic window – weight-based doses up to 100-fold greater than those used in humans failed to produce any pathological changes in test animals.13

Umifenovir does not appear to result in significant viral resistance. Instances of umifenovir-resistant influenza virus demonstrated a single mutation in the HA2 subunit of influenza hemagglutinin, suggesting resistance is conferred by prevention of umifenovir’s activity related to membrane fusion. The mechanism through which other viruses may become resistant to umifenovir requires further study.13

Mechanism of action

Umifenovir is considered both a direct-acting antiviral (DAA) due to direct virucidal effects and a host-targeting agent (HTA) due to effects on one or multiple stages of viral life cycle (e.g. attachment, internalization), and its broad-spectrum antiviral activity is thought to be due to this dual activity.13 It is a hydrophobic molecule capable of forming aromatic stacking interactions with certain amino acid residues (e.g. tyrosine, tryptophan), which contributes to its ability to directly act against viruses. Antiviral activity may also be due to interactions with aromatic residues within the viral glycoproteins involved in fusion and cellular recognition,5,7 with the plasma membrane to interfere with clathrin-mediated exocytosis and intracellular trafficking,10 or directly with the viral lipid envelope itself (in enveloped viruses).13,12 Interactions at the plasma membrane may also serve to stabilize it and prevent viral entry (e.g. stabilizing influenza hemagglutinin inhibits the fusion step necessary for viral entry).13

Due to umifenovir’s ability to interact with both viral proteins and lipids, it may also interfere with later stages of the viral life cycle. Some virus families, such as Flaviviridae, replicate in a subcellular compartment called the membranous web – this web requires lipid-protein interactions that may be hindered by umifenovir. Similarly, viral assembly of hepatitis C viruses is contingent upon the assembly of lipoproteins, presenting another potential target.13

Absorption

Umifenovir is rapidly absorbed following oral administration, with an estimated Tmax between 0.65-1.8 hours.14,15,13 The Cmax has been estimated as 415 – 467 ng/mL and appears to increase linearly with dose,14,15 and the AUC0-inf following oral administration has been estimated to be approximately 2200 ng/mL/h.14,15

Volume of distribution

Data regarding the volume of distribution of umifenovir are currently unavailable.

Protein binding

Data regarding protein-binding of umifenovir are currently unavailable.

Metabolism

Umifenovir is highly metabolized in the body, primarily in hepatic and intestinal microsomess, with approximately 33 metabolites having been observed in human plasma, urine, and feces.14 The principal phase I metabolic pathways include sulfoxidation, N-demethylation, and hydroxylation, followed by phase II sulfate and glucuronide conjugation. In the urine, the major metabolites were sulfate and glucuronide conjugates, while the major species in the feces was unchanged parent drug (~40%) and the M10 metabolite (~3.0%). In the plasma, the principal metabolites are M6-1, M5, and M8 – of these, M6-1 appears of most importance given its high plasma exposure and long elimination half-life (~25h), making it a potentially important player in the safety and efficacy of umifenovir.14

Enzymes involved in the metabolism of umifenovir include members of the cytochrome P450 family (primarily CYP3A4), flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) family, and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) family (specifically UGT1A9 and UGT2B7).14,11

  1. Lu H: Drug treatment options for the 2019-new coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Biosci Trends. 2020 Jan 28. doi: 10.5582/bst.2020.01020. [PubMed:31996494]
  2. Haviernik J, Stefanik M, Fojtikova M, Kali S, Tordo N, Rudolf I, Hubalek Z, Eyer L, Ruzek D: Arbidol (Umifenovir): A Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Drug That Inhibits Medically Important Arthropod-Borne Flaviviruses. Viruses. 2018 Apr 10;10(4). pii: v10040184. doi: 10.3390/v10040184. [PubMed:29642580]
  3. Fink SL, Vojtech L, Wagoner J, Slivinski NSJ, Jackson KJ, Wang R, Khadka S, Luthra P, Basler CF, Polyak SJ: The Antiviral Drug Arbidol Inhibits Zika Virus. Sci Rep. 2018 Jun 12;8(1):8989. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-27224-4. [PubMed:29895962]
  4. Herod MR, Adeyemi OO, Ward J, Bentley K, Harris M, Stonehouse NJ, Polyak SJ: The broad-spectrum antiviral drug arbidol inhibits foot-and-mouth disease virus genome replication. J Gen Virol. 2019 Sep;100(9):1293-1302. doi: 10.1099/jgv.0.001283. Epub 2019 Jun 4. [PubMed:31162013]
  5. Kadam RU, Wilson IA: Structural basis of influenza virus fusion inhibition by the antiviral drug Arbidol. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 Jan 10;114(2):206-214. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1617020114. Epub 2016 Dec 21. [PubMed:28003465]
  6. Hulseberg CE, Feneant L, Szymanska-de Wijs KM, Kessler NP, Nelson EA, Shoemaker CJ, Schmaljohn CS, Polyak SJ, White JM: Arbidol and Other Low-Molecular-Weight Drugs That Inhibit Lassa and Ebola Viruses. J Virol. 2019 Apr 3;93(8). pii: JVI.02185-18. doi: 10.1128/JVI.02185-18. Print 2019 Apr 15. [PubMed:30700611]
  7. Zeng LY, Yang J, Liu S: Investigational hemagglutinin-targeted influenza virus inhibitors. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2017 Jan;26(1):63-73. doi: 10.1080/13543784.2017.1269170. Epub 2016 Dec 14. [PubMed:27918208]
  8. Li MK, Liu YY, Wei F, Shen MX, Zhong Y, Li S, Chen LJ, Ma N, Liu BY, Mao YD, Li N, Hou W, Xiong HR, Yang ZQ: Antiviral activity of arbidol hydrochloride against herpes simplex virus I in vitro and in vivo. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2018 Jan;51(1):98-106. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2017.09.001. Epub 2017 Sep 7. [PubMed:28890393]
  9. Pecheur EI, Borisevich V, Halfmann P, Morrey JD, Smee DF, Prichard M, Mire CE, Kawaoka Y, Geisbert TW, Polyak SJ: The Synthetic Antiviral Drug Arbidol Inhibits Globally Prevalent Pathogenic Viruses. J Virol. 2016 Jan 6;90(6):3086-92. doi: 10.1128/JVI.02077-15. [PubMed:26739045]
  10. Blaising J, Levy PL, Polyak SJ, Stanifer M, Boulant S, Pecheur EI: Arbidol inhibits viral entry by interfering with clathrin-dependent trafficking. Antiviral Res. 2013 Oct;100(1):215-9. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2013.08.008. Epub 2013 Aug 25. [PubMed:23981392]
  11. Song JH, Fang ZZ, Zhu LL, Cao YF, Hu CM, Ge GB, Zhao DW: Glucuronidation of the broad-spectrum antiviral drug arbidol by UGT isoforms. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2013 Apr;65(4):521-7. doi: 10.1111/jphp.12014. Epub 2012 Dec 24. [PubMed:23488780]
  12. Teissier E, Zandomeneghi G, Loquet A, Lavillette D, Lavergne JP, Montserret R, Cosset FL, Bockmann A, Meier BH, Penin F, Pecheur EI: Mechanism of inhibition of enveloped virus membrane fusion by the antiviral drug arbidol. PLoS One. 2011 Jan 25;6(1):e15874. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015874. [PubMed:21283579]
  13. Blaising J, Polyak SJ, Pecheur EI: Arbidol as a broad-spectrum antiviral: an update. Antiviral Res. 2014 Jul;107:84-94. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2014.04.006. Epub 2014 Apr 24. [PubMed:24769245]
  14. Deng P, Zhong D, Yu K, Zhang Y, Wang T, Chen X: Pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and excretion of the antiviral drug arbidol in humans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013 Apr;57(4):1743-55. doi: 10.1128/AAC.02282-12. Epub 2013 Jan 28. [PubMed:23357765]
  15. Liu MY, Wang S, Yao WF, Wu HZ, Meng SN, Wei MJ: Pharmacokinetic properties and bioequivalence of two formulations of arbidol: an open-label, single-dose, randomized-sequence, two-period crossover study in healthy Chinese male volunteers. Clin Ther. 2009 Apr;31(4):784-92. doi: 10.1016/j.clinthera.2009.04.016. [PubMed:19446151]
  16. Wang Z, Chen X, Lu Y, Chen F, Zhang W: Clinical characteristics and therapeutic procedure for four cases with 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia receiving combined Chinese and Western medicine treatment. Biosci Trends. 2020 Feb 9. doi: 10.5582/bst.2020.01030. [PubMed:32037389]
  17. Nature Biotechnology: Coronavirus puts drug repurposing on the fast track [Link]

 

/////////////////Arbidol, umifenovir, covid 19, corona virus, Арбидол阿比朵尔 

CCOC(=O)C1=C(CSC2=CC=CC=C2)N(C)C2=CC(Br)=C(O)C(CN(C)C)=C12

 

Image result for ARBIDOL DRUG FUTURE

https://eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2020-02/nuos-edm022620.php

LANRAPRENIB


Lanraplenib Chemical Structure

2D chemical structure of 1800046-95-0

LANRAPLENIB

GS-9876

Phase II, GILEAD

Phase II Gilead Cutaneous lupus erythematosus

Rheumatoid arthritis

Sjogren syndrome

GS-9876
 LANRAPLENIB

Imidazo(1,2-a)pyrazin-8-amine, 6-(6-amino-2-pyrazinyl)-N-(4-(4-(3-oxetanyl)-1-piperazinyl)phenyl)-

6-(6-Aminopyrazin-2-yl)-N-(4-(4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin-1-yl)phenyl)imidazo|1,2-a]pyrazin-8-amine

6-(6-Amino-2-pyrazinyl)-N-(4-(4-(3-oxetanyl)-1-piperazinyl)phenyl)imidazo(1,2-a)pyrazin-8-amine

Molecular Weight

443.50

Formula

C₂₃H₂₅N₉O

CAS No.

1800046-95-0

Lanraplenib (GS-9876) is a highly selective and orally active SYK inhibitor (IC50=9.5 nM) in development for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Lanraplenib (GS-9876) inhibits SYK activity in platelets via the glycoprotein VI (GPVI) receptor without prolonging bleeding time (BT) in monkeys or humans.

Description

Lanraplenib (GS-9876) is a highly selective and orally active SYK inhibitor (IC50=9.5 nM) in development for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Lanraplenib (GS-9876) inhibits SYK activity in platelets via the glycoprotein VI (GPVI) receptor without prolonging bleeding time (BT) in monkeys or humans[1][2][3].

IC50 & Target

IC50: 9.5 nM (SYK)[1]

In Vitro

Lanraplenib (GS-9876) inhibits anti-IgM stimulated phosphorylation of AKT, BLNK, BTK, ERK, MEK, and PKCδ in human B cells with EC50 values of 24-51 nM. Lanraplenib (GS-9876) inhibits anti-IgM mediated CD69 and CD86 expression on B-cells (EC50=112±10 nM and 164±15 nM, respectively) and anti-IgM /anti-CD40 co-stimulated B cell proliferation (EC50=108±55 nM). In human macrophages, Lanraplenib (GS-9876) inhibits IC-stimulated TNFα and IL-1β release (EC50=121±77 nM and 9±17 nM, respectively)[1].
Lanraplenib (GS-9876) inhibits glycoprotein VI (GPVI)-induced phosphorylation of linker for activation of T cells and phospholipase Cγ2, platelet activation and aggregation in human whole blood, and platelet binding to collagen under arterial flow[2].

Lanraplenib succinate.png

Lanraplenib succinate

1800047-00-0

UNII-QJ2PS903VZ

QJ2PS903VZ

GS-SYK Succinate

1241.3 g/mol, C58H68N18O14

6-(6-aminopyrazin-2-yl)-N-[4-[4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin-1-yl]phenyl]imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazin-8-amine;butanedioic acid

PAPER

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsmedchemlett.9b00621

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/suppl/10.1021/acsmedchemlett.9b00621/suppl_file/ml9b00621_si_001.pdf

Abstract Image

Spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) is a critical regulator of signaling in a variety of immune cell types such as B-cells, monocytes, and macrophages. Accordingly, there have been numerous efforts to identify compounds that selectively inhibit SYK as a means to treat autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. We previously disclosed GS-9973 (entospletinib) as a selective SYK inhibitor that is under clinical evaluation in hematological malignancies. However, a BID dosing regimen and drug interaction with proton pump inhibitors (PPI) prevented development of entospletinib in inflammatory diseases. Herein, we report the discovery of a second-generation SYK inhibitor, GS9876 (lanraplenib), which has human pharmacokinetic properties suitable for once-daily administration and is devoid of any interactions with PPI. Lanraplenib is currently under clinical evaluation in multiple autoimmune indications.

Step 6. 6-(6-Aminopyrazin-2-yl)-N-(4-(4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin-1-yl)phenyl)imidazo|1,2-a]pyrazin-8-amine (39). To a solution of tert-butyl(6-(6-(bis(tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino)pyrazm-2-yl)imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazin-8-yl)(4-(4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin1yl)phenyl)carbamate 45 (200 mg, 0.269 mmol) in DCM (2 ml) was added TFA (0.5 ml, 6.578 mmol). The reaction was stirred at room temperature for 16h, treated with saturated sodium bicarbonate, extracted with EtOAc, and purified on silica gel, eluting with 5%MeOH / EtOAc to 20%MeOH / EtOAc. The desired fractions were combined and concentrated to provide 100 mg (83% yield) of the title compound 39. m/z calcd for C23H25N9O [M+H] + 444.23, found LCMS-ESI+ (m/z): [M+H] + 444.20. 1H NMR (300 MHz d6-DMSO) δ: 9.5 (s,lH), 8.588 (s, 1H), 8.47 (s, 1H), 8.12 (d, 1H), 7.95-7.92 (d5 2H), 7.88 (s, 1H), 7.62 (s, 1H), 6.99-6.96 (d, 2H), 6.46 (s, 2H), 4.57- 4.53 (m, 2H), 4.48-4.44 (m, 2H), 3.43 (m, 1H), 3.15-3.12 (m, 4H), 2.41- 2.38 (m, 4H).

MORE SYNTHESIS COMING, WATCH THIS SPACE…………………..

 

SYNTHESIS

PATENT

WO 2015100217

WO 2016010809

PATENT

WO 2016172117

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2016172117

Protein kinases, the largest family of human enzymes, encompass well over 500 human proteins. Spleen Tyrosine Kinase (Syk) is a member of the Syk family of tyrosine kinases, and is a regulator of early B-cell development as well as mature B-cell activation, signaling, and survival.

Acute Graft Versus Host Disease (aGVHD), also known as fulminant Graft Versus Host Disease, generally presents symptoms within the first 100 days following allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and is generally characterized by selective damage to the skin, liver, mucosa, and gastrointestinal tract. Chronic Graft Versus Host Disease (cGVHD) occurs in recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). GVHD is considered chronic when it occurs >100 days post-transplant, though aspects of cGVHD may manifest themselves prior to the 100 day point and overlap with elements of aGVHD. The disease has a cumulative incidence of 35-70% of transplanted patients, and has an annual incidence of approximately 3,000-5,000 and a prevalence of approximately 10,000 in the US. cGVHD is difficult to treat and is associated with worse outcomes compared to those without cGVHD. Current standard of care includes a variety of approaches including systemic corticosteroids often combined with calcineurin inhibitors, mTOR inhibitors, mycophenylate mofetil, or rituximab. Despite treatment, response rates are poor (40-50%) and cGVHD is associated with significant morbidity such as serious infection and impaired quality of life; the 5-year mortality is 30-50% (Blazar et al., Nature Reviews Immunology 12, 443-458, June 2012).

Human and animal models have demonstrated that aberrant B-lymphocyte signaling and survival is important in the pathogenesis of cGVHD. B-cell targeted drugs, including SYK inhibitors (fostamatinib – Sarantopoulos et al, Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, 21(2015) S 11 -S 18) and BTK inhibitors (ibrutinib – Nakasone et al, Int. J. HematoL- 27 March 2015), have been shown to selectively reduce the function and frequency of aberrant GVHD B-cell populations ex vivo.

There remains a need for new methods, pharmaceutical compositions, and regimens for the treatment of GVHD, including aGVHD and cGVHD.

Example 2. Preparation of 6-(6-aminopyrazin-2-yl)-N-(4-(4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin-l- yl)phenyl)imid azo [ 1,2-a] pyrazin-8-amine (2)

2-Bis(tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino-6-bromopyrazine XIV: To a mixture of 6-bromopyrazin-2-amine (5 g, 28.7 mmol) and di-tert-butyl dicarbonate (25.09 g, 1 14.94 mmol) was added DCM (10 ml) followed by DMAP (0.351 g, 29 mmol). The reaction was heated to 55 °C for lh, cooled to RT, the reaction was partitioned between water and DCM, purified on silica gel and concentrated to provide of 2-bis(tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino-6-bromopyrazine XIV. LCMS-ESI+ (m/z): [M+H]+: 374.14. XH NMR (DMSO) δ: 8.84(d, 2H), 1.39 (s, 18H).

tert-Butyl (6-(6-(bis(tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino)pyrazin-2-yl)imidazo[l,2-a]pyrazin-8-yl)(4-(4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin-l-yl)phenyl)carbamate XVI – CHEMISTRY A route: tert-Butyl 4-(4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin-l-yl)phenyl(6-(tributylstannyl)imidazo[l,2-a]pyrazin-8-yl)carbamate V (215 mg, 0.291 mmol), was combined with 2-bis(tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino-6-bromopyrazine XIV (217.58 mg, 0.581 mmol),

bis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(II) dichloride(30.61 mg, 0.044 mmol) and 1,4-dioxane (5ml). The reaction mixture was stirred in a microwave reactor at 120 °C for 30 min. The reaction mixture was quenched with saturated KF, extracted with EtOAc, purified on silica gel, eluted with EtOAc. The desired fractions were combined and concentrated to provide 100 mg (46% yield) of tert-butyl (6-(6-(bis(tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino)pyrazin-2-yl)imidazo[l,2-a]pyrazin-8-yl)(4-(4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin-l-yl)phenyl)carbamate XVI. LCMS-ESI+ (m/z): [M+H]+: 744.4. lH NMR (300 MHz d6-DMSO) δ: 9.37 (s, 1H), 9.18 (s, 1H), 8.77 (s, 1H), 8.33 (d, 1H), 7.87 (d, 1H), 7.28-7.25 (d, 2H), 6.92-6.89 (d, 2H), 4.55-4.41 (m, 4H), 3.4 (m, lH), 3.14-3. 11 (m,4H), 2,37-2.34 (m, 4H), 1.37 (s, 18H), 1.3 (s, 9H).

tert-Butyl (6-(6-(bis(tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino)pyrazin-2-yl)imidazo[l,2-a]pyrazin-8-yl)(4-(4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin-l-yl)phenyl)carbamate XVI – CHEMISTRY B route: Step 1 : To a dry 250 mL round-bottomed flask was added 2-bis(tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino-6-bromopyrazine XIV (l .Og, l .Oequiv, 2.67mmol), KOAc (790mg, 8.02mmol, 3.0equiv), 4,4,4′,4′,5,5,5′,5′-octamethyl-2,2′-bi(l ,3,2-dioxaborolane) (750mg, 2.94mmol, l . l equiv), Pd(dba) (171mg, 0.187mmol, 0.07equiv) and X-phos (128mg, 0.267mmol, O. lequiv) followed by 1,4-dioxane (25mL) and the solution was sonicated for 5 min and then purged with N2 gas for 5 min. The flask with contents was then placed under N2 atmosphere and heated at 1 10 °C for 90 min. Once full conversion to the pinacolboronate was achieved by LCMS, the reaction was removed from heat and allowed to cool to RT. Once cool, the reaction contents were filtered through Celite and the filter cake was washed 3 x 20 mL EtOAc. The resultant solution was then concentrated down to a deep red-orange

syrup providing N, N-BisBoc 6-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-l,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)pyrazin-2-amine XV, which was used directly in the next step.

Step 2: The freshly formed N, N-BisBoc 6-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-l ,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)pyrazin-2-amine XV (2.67 mmol based on 100% conversion, 2.0 equiv based on bromide) was dissolved in 20 Ml of 1,2-dimethoxy ethane and to that solution was added tert-butyl (6-bromoimidazo[l,2-a]pyrazin-8-yl)(4-(4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin-l-yl)phenyl)carbamate IV (707mg, 1.34mmol, l .Oequiv), Na2CC>3 (283mg, 2.67mmol, 2.0equiv), Pd(PPh3)4 (155mg, 0.134mmol, 0.1 equiv) and water (l OmL) and the solution was degassed for 5 min using N2 gas. The reaction was then placed under N2 atmosphere and heated at 110 °C for 90 min. LCMS showed complete consumption of the bromide starting material and the reaction was removed from heat and allowed to cool to RT. The reaction was diluted with 100 mL water and 100 mL 20% MeOH/DCM and the organic layer was recovered, extracted 1 x sat. NaHCCb, 1 x sat brine and then dried over Na2SC>4. The solution was then filtered and concentrated down to an orange-red solid. The sample was then slurried in warm MeOH, sonicated then filtered, washing 2 x 20 mL with cold MeOH and then the cream-colored solid was dried on hi-vacuum overnight to yield 905 mg of tert-butyl (6-(6-(bis(tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino)pyrazin-2-yl)imidazo[l,2-a]pyrazin-8-yl)(4-(4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin- 1 -yl)phenyl)carbamate XVI.

6-(6-Aminopyrazin-2-yl)-N-(4-(4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin-l-yl)phenyl)imidazo[l,2-a]pyrazin-8-amine (2): To a solution of tert-butyl (6-(6-(bis(tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino)pyrazin-2-yl)imidazo[l,2-a]pyrazin-8-yl)(4-(4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin-l -yl)phenyl)carbamate XVI (200 mg, 0.269 mmol) in DCM (2 ml) was added TFA (0.5 ml, 6.578 mmol). The reaction was stirred at rt for 16h, saturated sodium bicarbonate was added, extracted with EtOAC and purified on silica gel, eluted with 5%MeOH / EtOAc, 20%MeOH / EtOAc. The desired fractions were combined and concentrated to provide the title compound 2. LCMS-ESI+(m/z): [M+H]+: 444.2. lH NMR (300 MHz d6-DMSO) δ: 9.5 (s, lH), 8.588 (s, IH), 8.47 (s, IH), 8. 12 (d, IH), 7.95-7.92 (d, 2H), 7.88 (s, IH), 7.62 (s, IH), 6.99-6.96 (d, 2H), 6.46 (s, 2H), 4.57-4.53 (m, 2H), 4.48-4.44 (m, 2H), 3.43 (m, IH), 3.15-3.12 (m, 4H), 2.41 -2.38 (m, 4H).

Example 2 – Alternate Synthesis

H2S04, water 

Di-feri-butyl {6-[8-({4-[4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin-l-yl]phenyl}amino)imidazo[l,2-fl]pyrazin-6-yl]pyrazin-2-yl}imidodicarbonate:

To a 720 L reactor, was added di-fer/-butyl (6-bromopyrazin-2-yl)imidodicarbonate (18.5 kg, 1.41 equiv, 49 mol), bis(pinacolato)diboron (13.8 kg, 1.56 equiv, 54 mol), potassium propionate (11.9 kg, 3.02 equiv, 106 mol), and bis(di-fer/-butyl(4-dimethylaminophenyl) phosphine)dichloropalladium (1.07 kg, 0.0043 equiv, 1.5 mol), followed by degassed toluene (173 L). The mixture was degassed then heated at 65 °C until the reaction was deemed complete (0% tert-butyl 2-((6-bromopyrazin-2-yl)(tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino)-2-oxoacetate) by UPLC. Upon completion, the reaction was cooled to 23 °C. Once cooled, 6-bromo-N-(4-(4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin-l -yl)phenyl)imidazo[l ,2-a]pyrazin-8-amine (15.0 kg, 1.00 equiv, 35 mol) was added and the mixture was degassed. A degassed aqueous potassium carbonate solution prepared using water (54 L) and potassium carbonate (20.6 g, 4.26 equiv, 149 mol) was then added to the reaction mixture and the reactor contents was degassed. The reactor contents was heated at 65 °C until reaction was deemed complete (1% 6-bromo-N-(4-(4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin-l-yl)phenyl)imidazo[l,2-a]pyrazin-8-amine) by UPLC. Upon completion, the reaction was cooled to 24 °C.

The cooled mixture was concentrated and then diluted with dichloromethane (300 L), transferred to a 1900 L reactor and rinsed forward with dichloromethane (57 L). N-acetyl-L-cysteine (3.8 kg) was charged and the mixture was agitated for 15 h. Water (135 L) was then added and the mixture was filtered and rinsed forward with dichloromethane (68 L). The organic layer was recovered and washed with a brine solution prepared using water (68 L) and sodium chloride (7.5 kg).

The resultant organic layer was polish filtered then concentrated and fert-butyl methyl ether (89.9 kg) was slowly charged keeping the temperature at 31 °C. The contents was cooled to 0 °C and aged, then filtered and rinsed with tert-butyl methyl ether (32.7 kg) and dried at 40 °C to give 17.2 kg of di-tert-butyl {6-[8-({4-[4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin-l-yl]phenyl} amino)imidazo[l,2-a]pyrazin-6-yl]pyrazin-2-yl}imidodicarbonate.

LCMS-ESf (m/z): [M+H]+: 644.3. ΧΗ ΝΜΚ (400 MHz, CDC13) δ: 9.43 (s, 1H), 8.58 (s, 1H), 8.53 (s, 1H), 8.02 (s, 1H), 7.84 (m, 2H), 7.63 (d, 1H), 7.61 (d, 1H), 7.04 (m, 2H), 4.71 (m,4H), 3.59 (m, lH), 3.27 (m, 4H), 2.55 (m, 4H), 1.46 (s, 18H).

6-(6-Aminopyrazin-2-yl)-N-(4-(4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin-l-yl)phenyl)imidazo[l,2-a]pyrazin-8-amine succinate (Example 2):

To a slurry of di-tert-butyl {6-[8-({4-[4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin-l -yl]phenyl} amino)imidazo[l,2-a]pyrazin-6-yl]pyrazin-2-yl}imidodicarbonate (225 g, 0.35 mol, 1 mol eq.) in water (12 parts) was added a solution of sulfuric acid (3.1 parts, 6.99 mol, 20 mol eq.) in water (5 parts). The reaction was heated to ca. 40 °C and stirred at this temperature for ca. 4 h at which point the reaction is deemed complete. The reaction mixture was cooled to ca. 22 °C, acetone (3 parts) was charged and a solution of sodium carbonate (4.1 parts, 8.75 mol, 25.0 mol eq.) in water (15 parts) was added. The resulting slurry was filtered and the wet cake was washed with water in portions (4 x 1 parts), then with fert-butyl methyl ether (4 parts). The wet cake (Example 2 free base) was dried at ca. 60 °C. To the slurry of dry Example 2 free base in 2-propanol (2.3 parts) was added a solution of succinic acid (Based on the isolated Example 2 free base: 0.43 parts, 1.6 mol eq.) in 2-propanol (15 parts). The resulting slurry was heated to ca. 40 °C and stirred at this temperature for ca. 2 h and then cooled to ca. 22 °C, followed by a stir period of ca. 16 h. The slurry was filtered at ca. 22 °C and the wet cake was washed with 2-propanol (5 parts) and dried at ca. 60 °C to afford the product.

LCMS-ESI+ (m/z): [M+H]+: 620.65. ¾ NMR (400 MHz d6-DMSO) δ: 12.2 (broad s, 1.5H), 9.58 (s, IH), 8.63 (s, IH), 8.50 (s, IH), 8.15 (s, IH), 7.95 (d, 2H), 7.90 (s, IH), 7.64 (s, IH), 7.00 (d, 2H), 6.50 (s, 2H), 4.52 (dd, 4H), 3.45 (m, IH), 3.19 (m, 4H), 2.40 (m, 10H).

REF

[1]. Di Paolo J, et al. FRI0049 Preclinical Characterization of GS-9876, A Novel, Oral SYK Inhibitor That Shows Efficacy in Multiple Established Rat Models of Collagen-Induced Arthritis.Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 2016;75:443-444.

[2]. Clarke AS, et al. Effects of GS-9876, a novel spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitor, on platelet function and systemic hemostasis. Thromb Res. 2018 Oct;170:109-118.

[3]. Kivitz AJ, et al. GS-9876, a Novel, Highly Selective, SYK Inhibitor in Patients with Active Rheumatoid Arthritis: Safety, Tolerability and Efficacy Results of a Phase 2 Study [abstract]. Arthritis Rheumatol.2018; 70 (suppl 10).

/////////////LANRAPLENIB, GS-9876, SYK inhibitor

NC1=CN=CC(C2=CN3C(C(NC4=CC=C(N5CCN(C6COC6)CC5)C=C4)=N2)=NC=C3)=N1

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