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ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY

Read all about Organic Spectroscopy on ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY INTERNATIONAL 

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 29 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 29 year tenure till date Aug 2016, Around 30 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 25 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 13 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 212 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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Deflazacort


Deflazacort structure.svgChemSpider 2D Image | Deflazacort | C25H31NO6

Deflazacort

  • CAS 14484-47-0
  • Molecular Formula C25H31NO6
  • Average mass 441.517 Da
(11b,16b)-21-(Acetyloxy)-11-hydroxy-2′-methyl-5’H-pregna-1,4-dieno[17,16-d]oxazole-3,20-dione
11b,21-Dihydroxy-2′-methyl-5’bH-pregna-1,4-dieno[17,16-d]oxazole-3,20-dione 21-acetate
2-[(4aR,4bS,5S,6aS,6bS,9aR,10aS,10bS)-5-Hydroxy-4a,6a,8-trimethyl-2-oxo-2,4a,4b,5,6,6a,9a,10,10a,10b,11,12-dodecahydro-6bH-naphtho[2′,1′:4,5]indeno[1,2-d][1,3]oxazol-6b-yl]-2-oxoethyl acetate
  • 5’βH-Pregna-1,4-dieno[17,16-d]oxazole-3,20-dione, 11β,21-dihydroxy-2′-methyl-, 21-acetate (8CI)
  • (11β,16β)-21-(Acetyloxy)-11-hydroxy-2′-methyl-5’H-pregna-1,4-dieno[17,16-d]oxazole-3,20-dione
  • 2H-Naphth[2′,1′:4,5]indeno[1,2-d]oxazole, 5’H-pregna-1,4-dieno[17,16-d]oxazole-3,20-dione deriv.
  • Azacort
  • Azacortinol
  • Calcort
  • DL 458IT
  • Deflan
Optical Rotatory Power +62.3 ° Conc: 0.5 g/100mL; Solv: chloroform (67-66-3); Wavlength: 589.3 nm

…………..REF, “Drugs – Synonyms and Properties” data were obtained from Ashgate Publishing Co. (US)Hoechst Marion Roussel (now Aventis Pharma) has developed and launched Deflazacort (Dezacor; Flantadin; Lantadin; Calcort) a systemic corticosteroid developed for the treatment of a variety of inflammatory conditions .

In March 1990, the drug was approved in Spain, and by January 2013, the drug had been launched by FAES Farma . By the end of 1999, the product had been launched in Germany, Italy, Belgium, Switzerland and South Korea

Deflazacort is a corticosteroid first launched in 1985 by Guidotti in Europe for the oral treatment of allergic asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, arthritis, and skin allergy.

In 2017, an oral formulation developed at Marathon Pharmaceuticals was approved by the FDA for the treatment of Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy in patients 5 years of age and older.

Deflazacort (trade name Emflaza or Calcort among others) is a glucocorticoid used as an anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant.

In 2013, orphan drug designation in the U.S. was assigned to the compound for the treatment of Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy. In 2015, additional orphan drug designation in the U.S. was assigned for the treatment of pediatric juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) excluding systemic JIA.

Also in 2015, deflazacort was granted fast track and rare pediatric disease designations in the U.S. for the treatment of Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy.

Deflazacort is a glucocorticoid used as an anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant. It was approved in February, 2017 by the FDA for use in treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (trade name Emflaza).
  • Aventis Pharma (Originator), Lepetit (Originator), Guidotti (Licensee), Shire Laboratories (Licensee)

Image result for deflazacort

February 9, 2017 FDA approved

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Emflaza (deflazacort) tablets and oral suspension to treat patients age 5 years and older with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a rare genetic disorder that causes progressive muscle deterioration and weakness. Emflaza is a corticosteroid that works by decreasing inflammation and reducing the activity of the immune system.

Corticosteroids are commonly used to treat DMD across the world. This is the first FDA approval of any corticosteroid to treat DMD and the first approval of deflazacort for any use in the United States.

Image result for Deflazacort

“This is the first treatment approved for a wide range of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy,” said Billy Dunn, M.D., director of the Division of Neurology Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “We hope that this treatment option will benefit many patients with DMD.”

DMD is the most common type of muscular dystrophy. DMD is caused by an absence of dystrophin, a protein that helps keep muscle cells intact. The first symptoms are usually seen between 3 and 5 years of age and worsen over time. The disease often occurs in people without a known family history of the condition and primarily affects boys, but in rare cases it can affect girls. DMD occurs in about one of every 3,600 male infants worldwide.

People with DMD progressively lose the ability to perform activities independently and often require use of a wheelchair by their early teens. As the disease progresses, life-threatening heart and respiratory conditions can occur. Patients typically succumb to the disease in their 20s or 30s; however, disease severity and life expectancy vary.

The effectiveness of deflazacort was shown in a clinical study of 196 male patients who were 5 to 15 years old at the beginning of the trial with documented mutation of the dystrophin gene and onset of weakness before age 5. At week 12, patients taking deflazacort had improvements in a clinical assessment of muscle strength across a number of muscles compared to those taking a placebo. An overall stability in average muscle strength was maintained through the end of study at week 52 in the deflazacort-treated patients. In another trial with 29 male patients that lasted 104 weeks, deflazacort demonstrated a numerical advantage over placebo on an assessment of average muscle strength. In addition, although not statistically controlled for multiple comparisons, patients on deflazacort appeared to lose the ability to walk later than those treated with placebo.

The side effects caused by Emflaza are similar to those experienced with other corticosteroids. The most common side effects include facial puffiness (Cushingoid appearance), weight gain, increased appetite, upper respiratory tract infection, cough, extraordinary daytime urinary frequency (pollakiuria), unwanted hair growth (hirsutism) and excessive fat around the stomach (central obesity).

Other side effects that are less common include problems with endocrine function, increased susceptibility to infection, elevation in blood pressure, risk of gastrointestinal perforation, serious skin rashes, behavioral and mood changes, decrease in the density of the bones and vision problems such as cataracts. Patients receiving immunosuppressive doses of corticosteroids should not be given live or live attenuated vaccines.

The FDA granted this application fast track designation and priority review. The drug also received orphan drug designation, which provides incentives to assist and encourage the development of drugs for rare diseases.

The sponsor is receiving a rare pediatric disease priority review voucher under a program intended to encourage development of new drugs and biologics for the prevention and treatment of rare pediatric diseases. A voucher can be redeemed by a sponsor at a later date to receive priority review of a subsequent marketing application for a different product. This is the ninth rare pediatric disease priority review voucher issued by the FDA since the program began.

Emflaza is marketed by Marathon Pharmaceuticals of Northbrook, Illinois.

Medical uses

The manufacturer lists the following uses for deflazacort:[1]

In the United States, deflazacort is only FDA-approved for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy in people over the age of 5.

Image result for DeflazacortImage result for Deflazacort

Image result for DeflazacortImage result for Deflazacort

Adverse effects

Deflazacort carries the risks common to all corticosteroids, including immune suppression, decreased bone density, and endocrine insufficiency. In clinical trials, the most common side effects (>10% above placebo) were Cushing’s-like appearance, weight gain, and increased appetite.[2]

Pharmacology

Mechanism of action

Deflazacort is an inactive prodrug which is metabolized rapidly to the active drug 21-desacetyldeflazacort.[3]

Relative potency

Deflazacort’s potency is around 70–90% that of prednisone.[4] A 2017 review found its activity of 7.5 mg of deflazacort is approximately equivalent to 25 mg cortisone, 20 mg hydrocortisone, 5 mg of prednisolone or prednisone, 4 mg of methylprednisolone or triamcinolone, or 0.75 mg of betamethasone or dexamethasone. The review noted that the drug has a high therapeutic index, being used at initial oral doses ranging from 6 to 90 mg, and probably requires a 50% higher dose to induce the same demineralizing effect as prednisolone. Thus it has “a smaller impact on calcium metabolism than any other synthetic corticosteroid, and therefore shows a lower risk of growth rate retardation in children and of osteoporosis” in the elderly, and comparatively small effects on carbohydrate metabolism, sodium retention, and hypokalemia.[5]

History

In January 2015, the FDA granted fast track status to Marathon Pharmaceuticals to pursue approval of deflazacort as a potential treatment for Duchenne muscular dystrophy, a rare, “progressive and fatal disease” that affects boys.[6] Although deflazacort was approved by the FDA for use in treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy on February 9, 2017,[7][8] Marathon CEO announced on February 13, 2017 that the launch of deflazacort (Emflaza) would be delayed amidst controversy over the steep price Marathon was asking for the drug – $89,000-a-year. In Canada the same drug can be purchased for around $1 per tablet.[9] Marathon has said that Emflaza is estimated to cost $89,000/year which is “roughly 70 times” more than it would cost overseas.[10] Deflazacort is sold in the United Kingdom under the trade name Calcort;[4] in Brazil as Cortax, Decortil, and Deflanil; in India as Moaid, Zenflav, Defolet, DFZ, Decotaz, and DefZot; in Bangladesh as Xalcort; in Panama as Zamen; Spain as Zamene; and in Honduras as Flezacor.[11]

SYNTHESIS

Worlddrugtracker drew this

1 Protection of the keto groups in pregna-1,4-diene derivative  with NH2NHCOOMe using HCOOH, yields the corresponding methyl ester.

2 Cleavage of epoxide  with NH3 in DMAc/DMF gives amino-alcohol,

3 which on esterification with acetic anhydride in the presence of AcOH furnishes acetate.

4 Cyclization of amine using NaOH, Na2CO3 or K2CO3 produces oxazoline derivative ,

5 which is finally deprotected with HCl to afford Deflazacort 

SYNTHESIS FROM CHEMDRUG

The cyclization of 17alpha-azido-3beta,16alpha-acetoxy-5alpha-pregnane-11,20-dione (I) by hydrogenation with H2 over Pt in methanol, followed by a treatment with 10% HCl gives 3beta-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnane-11,20-dione-[17alpha,16alpha-d]-2′-methyloxazoline (II), which is converted into the semicarbazone (III) by treatment with semicarbazide hydrochloride (A) and pyridine in refluxing methanol. The reduction of one ketonic group of (III) with NaBH4 in refluxing ethanol yields the dihydroxy-semicarbazone (IV), which is hydrolyzed with 10% HCl in refluxing methanol to afford the ketodiol (V). The oxidation of (V) with cyclohexanone and aluminum isopropoxide in refluxing toluene gives 11beta-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnane-3,20-dione-[17alpha,16alpha-d]-2′-methyloxazoline (VI). The dehydrogenation of (VI) by treatment with Br2 in dioxane-acetic acid, followed by treatment with Li2CO3 in DMF at 140 C yields the corresponding 1,4-diene derivative (VII). Finally, the reaction of (VII) with I2 by means of azobisisobutyronitrile in CH2Cl2 affords the corresponding 21-iodo compound, which is then acetylated with triethylammonium acetate in refluxing acetone.

The monoacetylation of (V) with acetic anhydride and pyridine at 100 C gives the 3-acetoxy-11-hydroxy compound (IX), which is dehydrated by treatment with methanesulfonyl chloride and then with sodium acetate yielding 3beta-acetoxy-5alpha-pregn-9(11)-ene-20-one-[17alpha,16alpha-d]-2′-methyloxazoline (X). The hydrolysis of (X) with KOH in refluxing methanol affords the corresponding hydroxy compound (XI), which is acetoxylated by treatment with I2 and AZBN as before giving the iodo derivative (XII), and then with triethylammonium acetate also as before, yielding 3beta-hydroxy-21-acetoxy-5alpha-pregn-9(11)-ene-20-one-[17alpha,16alpha-d]-2′-methyloxazoline (XIII). The oxidation of (XIII) with CrO3 in acetone yields the 3,20-diketone (XIV), which by treatment with Br2 and Li2CO3 as before is dehydrogenated affording the 1,4,9(11)-pregnatriene (XV). Finally, the reaction of (XV) with N-bromoacetamide in THF yields 9alpha-bromo-11beta-hydroxy-21-acetoxy-5alpha-pregna-1,4-dieno-3,20-dione-[17alpha,16alpha-d]-2′-methyloxazoline (XVI), which is then debrominated by reaction with chromous acetate and butanethiol in DMSO.

PAPER

Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (1967), 10(5), 799-802

Steroids Possessing Nitrogen Atoms. III. Synthesis of New Highly Active Corticoids. [17α,16α,-d]Oxazolino Steroids

J. Med. Chem., 1967, 10 (5), pp 799–802
DOI: 10.1021/jm00317a009

PATENT

CN 105622713

PATENT CN 106008660

MACHINE TRANSLATED FROM CHINESE may seem funny

Description of the drawings

[0007] Figure 1 is a map of the traditional method of the combination process;

Figure 2 is a two-step method of the present invention.

detailed description

[0008] In order to more easily illustrate the gist and spirit of the present invention, the following examples illustrate:

Example 1

A: Preparation of hydroxylamine

In a 100 ml three-necked flask, 20 g of 16 (17) a-epoxy prednisolone, 30 ml of DMF, 300 ml of chloroform was added and incubated at 30-35 ° C with 8 g of ammonia gas at 1-2 atmospheres Reaction 16 ~ 20 hours, TLC detection reaction end point, after the reaction, the vacuum exhaust ammonia gas, add 3x100ml saturated brine washing 3 times, plus 10ml pure water washing times, then, under reduced pressure to chloroform to dry, add 200ml Ethyl acetate, Ig activated carbon, stirring reflux 60-90 minutes, cooling to 50-55 degrees, hot filter, l-2ml ethyl acetate washing carbon, combined filtrate and lotion, and then below 500C concentrated under pressure 95 % Of ethyl acetate, the system cooled to -5-0 ° C, stirring crystallization 2 ~ 3 hours, filter, 0.5-lml ethyl acetate washing, lotion and filtrate combined sets of approved; filter cake below 70 ° C Drying, get hydroxylamine 18.2g, HPLC content of 99.2%, weight loss of 91%.

[0009] B: Preparation of terracavir

Add 10 g of hydroxylamine, 150 ml of glacial acetic acid and 150 ml of acetic anhydride in a 100 ml three-necked flask. Add 5 g of concentrated sulfuric acid under stirring at room temperature. The reaction was carried out at 30-35 ° C for 12-16 hours. TLC confirmed the end of the reaction. Add 500ml of pure water, and adjust the pH of 7.5.5 with liquid alkali, cool to 10 ~ 15 ° C, stirring crystallization 2-3 hours, filtration, washing to neutral, combined filtrate and lotion, pretreated into Waste water treatment tank, filter cake below 70 V drying, Texaco can be special crude 112.5g, HPLC content of 98.2%, the yield of 112.5% ο the above terracotta crude dissolved in 800ml of alcohol, add 5g activated carbon, Decolorization 1-1.5 hours, hot filter, 10ml alcohol detergent cake, lotion and filtrate combined, atmospheric pressure recovery of about 90% of the alcohol, and then cooled to -5-0 ° C, frozen crystal 2-3 hours, Filtration, filter cake with 4-5ml alcohol washing, 70 ° C below drying, digoxin special product 89.2g, melting point 255.5-256.0 degrees, HPLC content of 99.7%, yield 89.2%. The mother liquor is recycled with solvent and crude.

[0010] Example II

A: Preparation of hydroxylamine

In a 100 ml three-necked flask, 20 g of 16 (17) a-epoxy prednisolone, 120 ml of toluene was added and incubated at 30-35 ° C with 8 g of ammonia and 16 to 20 at atmospheric pressure The reaction was carried out in the presence of 3 x 50 ml of saturated brine and 50 ml of pure water was added. Then, the toluene was dried under reduced pressure to dryness, and 200 ml of ethyl acetate, Ig activated carbon was added, and the mixture was stirred. Reflux 60-90 minutes, cool to 50-55 ° C, hot filter, l2ml ethyl acetate wash carbon, combined filtrate and lotion, and then below 500C under reduced pressure 95% ethyl acetate, the system cooling To 5-0C, stirring crystallization 2 ~ 3 hours, filter, 0.5-lml ethyl acetate washing, lotion and filtrate combined sets of the next batch; filter cake 70 ° C below drying, hydroxylamine 18.0g, HPLC content 99.1%, 90% by weight.

[0011] B: Preparation of terracavir

Add 10 g of hydroxylamine, 500 ml of chloroform and 150 ml of acetic anhydride in a 100 ml three-necked flask, add 5 g of p-toluenesulfonic acid under stirring at room temperature, and incubate at 30-35 ° C for 12-16 hours. TLC confirms the reaction end, After the addition of 500ml of pure water, and with the liquid alkali pH 7.55, down to 10 ~ 15 ° C, stirring 0.5_1 hours, separate the water layer, washed to neutral, combined with water and lotion, pretreated into Waste water treatment tank, organic layer under reduced pressure concentrated chloroform to near dry, adding 200ml hexane, reflux 0.5-1 hours, slowly cooling to -5 ~ O0C, stirring crystallization 2-3 hours, filter, filter cake with 4-5ml Alcohol washing, the filtrate and lotion combined apply to the next batch, the filter cake below 70 ° C drying, Texaco can crude 110.5g, HPLC content of 98.4%, the yield of 110.5%. The above-mentioned diltiazem crude product dissolved in 800ml alcohol, add 5g activated carbon, temperature reflux bleaching 1-1.5 hours, hot filter, 10ml alcohol washing cake, lotion and filtrate combined, atmospheric pressure recovery of about 90% of the alcohol And then cooled to -500C, frozen crystallization for 2-3 hours, filtration, filter cake with 4-5ml alcohol washing, 70 ° C the following drying, digester can special products 88.6g, melting point 255.0-256.0 degrees, HPLC content of 99.5%, the yield of 88.6%. The mother liquor is recycled with solvent and crude.

[0012] Example 3

A: Preparation of hydroxylamine

Add 20 g of 16 (17) a-epoxy prednisolone to 120 ml of ethanol in a 100 ml three-necked flask and incubate at 30-35 ° C with stirring to give Sg ammonia at 16 to 20 hours , TLC test reaction end point, after the reaction, vacuum exhaust ammonia gas, concentrated ethanol to the near dry, cooling, adding 300ml chloroform, stirring dissolved residue, and then add 3x100ml saturated brine washing, plus 10ml pure water washing, washing And then concentrated to reduce the chloroform to dry, add 200ml of ethyl acetate, Ig activated carbon, stirring reflux 60-90 minutes, cooling to 50-55 ° C, hot filter, l2ml ethyl acetate washing carbon, combined filtrate and lotion And then concentrated below 50 ° C to 95% ethyl acetate under reduced pressure. The system was cooled to -5-0 0C, stirred for 2 to 3 hours, filtered, 0.5-l of ethyl acetate, washed and filtrate The filter cake was dried at 70 ° C, 18.6 g of hydroxylamine, 99.5% of HPLC, and 93% by weight.

[0013] B: Preparation of terracavir

In a 100ml three-necked flask, add 10g of hydroxylamine, 500ml toluene, 150ml acetic anhydride, stirring at room temperature by adding 5g concentrated sulfuric acid, insulation at 30-35 degrees stirring reaction 12-16 hours, TLC confirmed the end of the reaction, after the reaction, Add 500ml of pure water, and liquid pH adjustment pH 7.5, cooling to 1 ~ 15 ° C, stirring 0.5-1 hours, the water layer, washed to neutral, combined with water and lotion, pretreated into the wastewater The cells were dried and the organic layer was concentrated to dryness under reduced pressure. 200 ml of hexane was added and refluxed

0.5-1 hours, slowly cool to -5 ~ O0C, stirring crystallization 2-3 hours, filtration, filter cake with 4-5ml hexane, the filtrate and lotion combined apply to the next batch, filter cake below 70 ° C Drying, digoxin crude 112.5g, HPLC content of 97.4%, the yield of 112,5% ο will be the above terracotta crude dissolved in 800ml of alcohol, add 5g activated carbon, heating reflux bleaching 1-1.5 hours, while Hot filter, 10ml alcohol detergent cake, lotion and filtrate combined, atmospheric pressure recovery of about 90% of the alcohol, and then cooled to -500C, frozen crystallization for 2-3 hours, filter, filter cake with 4-5ml alcohol Washing, 70 ° C below the dry, Diges can special products 86.2g, melting point 255.5-256.0 degrees, HPLC content of 99.8%, the yield of 86.2%. The mother liquor is recycled with solvent and crude.

PATENT

https://www.google.com/patents/CN101418032A?cl=en

Example 1

21- bromo -ll (3- hydroxy – pregna–l, 4- diene -3, 20-dione [170, 16o-d] -2′- methyl-oxazoline (4) Preparation:

A dry fitted with a thermometer, a reflux condenser, magnetically stirred flask was added 250mL three compound (2) (19.17 g; Fw: 383.48; 50 mmol), N- bromosuccinimide (9.79 g; Fw: 178.00; 55 mmol), 150 ml of ether; then ammonium acetate (0.39 g; Fw: 77.08; 0.005 mmol) added to the system. System continues to stir at 20 ° C 0.5 h, the reaction is complete. After completion of the reaction was filtered to remove the white precipitate cake was washed with 50 mL of dichloromethane, and the combined organic Xiangde pale yellow clear liquid, the solvent was evaporated under reduced pressure to give a pale yellow solid 21.27 g, yield: 92%, HPLC content of greater than 95%.

Example 2

21- bromo -lip- hydroxy – pregna–l, 4- diene -3, 20-dione [17 “16o-d] -2′- methyl-oxazoline (4) Preparation:

A dry fitted with a thermometer, a reflux condenser, magnetically stirred flask were added sequentially 250mL three compound (2) (19.17 g; Fw: 383.48; 50 mmol), N- bromosuccinimide (9.79 g; Fw : 178.00; 55 mmol), 150 ml of toluene; then ammonium acetate (0.39 g; Fw: 77.08; 0.005 mmol) added to the system. System continues to stir at 110 ° C 5 h, the reaction is complete. After completion of the reaction was cooled to room temperature, the white precipitate was removed by filtration cake was washed with 50 mL of dichloromethane, and the combined organic Xiangde pale yellow clear liquid, concentrated under reduced pressure to remove the solvent to give a pale yellow solid 19.65 g, yield: 85%, HPLC content greater than 95%.

Example 3

21 Jie bromo -11 – hydroxy – pregna-1,4-diene -3, 20-dione [17a, 16o-d] -2′- methyl-oxazoline (4) Preparation:

A dry fitted with a thermometer, a reflux condenser, magnetically stirred flask were added sequentially 250mL three compound (2) (19.17 g; Fw: 383.48; 50 mmol), 1,3- dibromo-5,5-dimethyl- Hein (35.74 g; Fw: 285.94; 125 mmol), 150 ml of ether; then ammonium acetate (0.39 g; Fw: 77.08; 0.005 mmol) added to the system. System Stirring was continued at reflux for 3 h, the reaction was completed. After completion of the reaction a white precipitate was removed by filtration and the cake was washed with 50 mL of diethyl ether, and the combined organic Xiangde pale yellow clear liquid, concentrated under reduced pressure to remove the solvent to give a pale yellow solid 16.18 g, yield: 70%, HPLC content greater than 92%.

Example 4

21- bromo -11 Jie – hydroxy – pregna-1,4-diene -3, 20- dione [17c, 16o-d] -2′- methyl-oxazoline (4) Preparation:

A dry fitted with a thermometer, a reflux condenser, magnetically stirred flask were added sequentially 250mL three compound (2) (19.17 g; Fw: 383.48; 50 mmol), 1,3- dibromo-5,5-dimethyl- Hein (35.74 g; Fw: 285.94; 125 mmol), 150 ml dichloromethane; followed by ammonium acetate (0.039 g; Fw: 77.08; 0.0005 mmol) added to the system. System Stirring was continued at reflux for 24 h, the reaction was completed. After completion of the reaction a white precipitate was removed by filtration and the cake was washed with 50 mL of diethyl ether, and the combined organic Xiangde pale yellow clear liquid, concentrated under reduced pressure to remove the solvent to give a pale yellow solid 16.41 g, yield: 71%, HPLC content of greater than 92. / 0.

Example 5

Deflazacort Preparation:

In a nitrogen-filled dry fitted with a thermometer, magnetic stirring and a reflux condenser 100 mL three-necked flask was charged with Compound (4) (11.56 g; Fw: 462.38; 25 mmol), followed by addition of sodium acetate (8.20g; Fw: 82.03; lOOmmol), 50 mL methanol was added to the system.

Then tetrabutylammonium bromide (O. 81g; Fw: 322.38; 2.5 mmol). Warmed to 50 ° C with stirring

48 h. Until after the completion of the reaction was cooled to room temperature. After completion of the reaction, temperature of the system was cooled to room temperature, the system was supplemented with chloroform 50mL, filtered, and the filter cake was washed with small amount of chloroform and then to confirm that no product was dissolved, and the combined organic phases, the organic phase washed with 10% aqueous sodium carbonate paint 3 times, saturated sodium chloride once. The organic phase was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, the inorganic salt was removed to give a pale yellow liquid, was concentrated to dryness, purified ethyl acetate to give the product 9.93g, yield 90%, HPLC content> 990/0.

Example 6

Deflazacort Preparation –

In a nitrogen-filled dry fitted with a thermometer, magnetic stirring and a reflux condenser 100 mL three-necked flask was charged with Compound (4) (11.56 g; Fw: 462.38; 25 mmol), followed by addition of anhydrous potassium acetate (3.68g; Fw: 98.14; 37.5 mmol), 50 mL acetone was added to the system. Followed by tetrabutylammonium iodide (0.10g; Fw: 369.37; 0.25 mmol). Heated to reflux with stirring 2h. Until after the completion of the reaction was cooled to room temperature. After completion of the reaction, temperature of the system was cooled to room temperature, the system was supplemented with chloroform 50mL, filtered, and the filter cake was washed with small amount of chloroform and then to confirm that no product was dissolved, and the combined organic phases, the organic phase was washed 3 times with 10% aqueous sodium carbonate , washed once with saturated sodium chloride. The organic phase was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, the inorganic salt was removed to give a pale yellow liquid, was concentrated to dryness, ethyl acetate was purified to give the product 10.93 g, yield 99%, HPLC content> 99%.

Example 7

Deflazacort Preparation:

In a nitrogen-filled dry fitted with a thermometer, magnetic stirring and a reflux condenser 100 mL three-necked flask was charged with Compound (4) (11.56 g; Fw: 462.38; 25 mmol), followed by addition of anhydrous potassium acetate (3.68g; Fw: 98.14; 37.5 mmol), 50 mL acetonitrile was added to the system. Followed by tetrabutylammonium iodide (0.10g; Fw: 369.37; 0.25 mmol). Heated to reflux with stirring 2h. Until after the completion of the reaction was cooled to room temperature. After completion of the reaction, temperature of the system was cooled to room temperature, the system was supplemented with chloroform 50mL, filtered, and the filter cake was washed with small amount of chloroform and then to confirm that no product was dissolved, and the combined organic phases, the organic phase was washed 3 times with 10% aqueous sodium carbonate , washed once with saturated sodium chloride. The organic phase was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, the inorganic salt was removed to give a pale yellow liquid, was concentrated to dryness, ethyl acetate was purified to give the product 10.93 g, yield 99%, HPLC content> 99%.

Example 8

Deflazacort Preparation:

In a nitrogen-filled dry fitted with a thermometer, magnetic stirring and a reflux condenser 100 mL three-necked flask was charged with Compound (4) (11.56 g; Fw: 462.38; 25 mmol), followed by addition of anhydrous potassium acetate (2.45g; Fw: 98.14; 25 mmol), the N, N- dimethylformamide, 50 mL added to the system. Followed by tetrabutylammonium iodide (O.IO g; Fw: 369.37; 0.25 mmol). Warmed to 120. C stirring 2h. Until after the completion of the reaction was cooled to room temperature. After completion of the reaction, temperature of the system was cooled to room temperature, the system was supplemented with chloroform 50mL, filtered, and the filter cake was washed with small amount of chloroform and then to confirm that no product was dissolved, and the combined organic phases, the organic phase was washed 3 times with 10% aqueous sodium carbonate , washed once with saturated sodium chloride. The organic phase was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, the inorganic salt was removed to give a pale yellow liquid, was concentrated to dryness, ethyl acetate was purified to give the product 10.93 g, yield 99%, HPLC content> 99o / q.

PATENT

https://www.google.com/patents/WO1997021722A1?cl=zh

compound (llβ,16β)-21-(acetyloxy)-11- hydroxy-2 ‘ -methyl-5 ‘H-pregna-1, -dieno[17 , 16-d Joxazole- 3,20-dione, also known, and hereinafter referred to, with the INN (International Nonproprietary Name) deflazacort. Deflazacort is represented by the following formula I

Figure imgf000003_0001

Deflazacort is employed in therapy aince some years as a calcium-sparing corticoid agent. This compound belongs to the more general class of pregneno-oxazolines, for which anti-inflammatory, glucocorticoid and hormone-like pharmacological activities are reported. Examples of compounds of the above class, comprising deflazacort, are disclosed in US 3413286, where deflazacort is referred to as llβ-21-dihydroxy-2 ‘ -methyl-5 ‘ βH-pregna-1,4-dieno.17 , 16- d]oxazole-3,20-dione 21-acetate.

According to the process disclosed by US 3413286, deflazacort is obtained from 5-pregnane-3β-ol-ll , 20- dione-2 ‘-methyloxazoline by 2 , -dibromination with Br2– dioxane, heating the product in the presence of LiBr- iC03 for obtaining the 1,4-diene, and converting this latter into the 21-iodo and then into the desired 21- acetyloxy compound. By hydrolysis of deflazacort, the llβ-21-dihydroxy-2 ‘ -methyl-5 ‘βH-pregna-1, -dieno[ 17 , 16- d-]oxazoline-3, 20-dione of formula II is obtained:

Figure imgf000004_0001

The compound of formula II is preferably obtained according to a fermentation process disclosed in

EP-B-322630; in said patent, the compound of formula II is referred to as llβ-21-dihydroxy-2 ‘-methyl-5 ‘ βH- pregna-1,4-dieno[17,16-d-]oxazoline-3,20-dione.

The present invention provides a new advantageous single-step process for obtaining deflazacort, by acetylation of the compound of formula II.

CLIP

Image result for Deflazacort NMR

tructure of deflazacort and its forced degradation product (A), chromatogram plot of standard deflazacort (B), contour plot of deflazacort (C). Deflazacort was found to be a stable drug under stress condition such as thermal, neutral and oxidative condition. However, the forceddegradation study on deflazacort showed that the drug degraded under alkaline, acid and photolytic conditions.

Mass fragmentation pathway for degradant product of deflazacort.

PATENT

CN 103059096

Figure CN103059096AD00051

Example 1: Protective reaction To the reaction flask was added 20 g of 1,4-diene-11? -hydroxy-16,17-epoxy_3,20-dione pregnone (Formula I) 20% of the aqueous solution of glacial acetic acid 300g, stirring 5 minutes, temperature 10 ° C ~ 15 ° C, adding ethyl carbazate 14g, temperature control 30 ° C reaction 6 hours; TLC detection reaction is complete, cooling to 0 ° C ~ 5 ° C for 2 hours, until dry, washed to neutral; 60 ° C vacuum dry to dry creatures 20. 5g; on P, oxazoline ring reaction The above protective products into the reaction bottle, add 41ml Of the DMAC dissolved, temperature 25 ~ 30 ° C, access to ammonia, to keep the reaction bottle micro-positive pressure, the reaction of 32 hours, atmospheric pressure exhaust ammonia and then decompression pumping ammonia for 30 minutes; 5 ° C, temperature 5 ~ 0 ° C by adding 5ml glacial acetic acid, then add 21ml acetic anhydride, heated to 35 ° C reaction 4 hours, the sample to confirm the reaction completely; slowly add 5% sodium hydroxide solution 610ml and heated to 60 ~ 70 ° C reaction 2 hours; point plate to confirm the end of the reaction, cooling to 50 ° C, half an hour by adding refined concentrated hydrochloric acid 40ml, insulation 50 ~ 55 ° C reaction 10 hours; to the end of the reaction temperature to room temperature, chloroform Extraction, drying and filtration, concentration of at least a small amount of solvent, ethyl acetate entrained twice, leaving a small amount of solvent, frozen crystallization filter high purity [17a, 16a-d] terfu Kete intermediate. Example 2: Protective reaction 20 g of 1,4-diene-l1-la-hydroxy-16,17-epoxy_3,20_dione progestin (Formula I) was added to the reaction flask and 15% Formic acid solution 300g, stirring for 5 minutes, temperature 10 ~ 15 ° C, adding methyl carbazate 12g, temperature control 30 ° C reaction 5 hours to test the end of the reaction, cooling to O ~ 5 ° C stirring 2 hours crystallization, Suction to dry, washed to neutral; 60 ° C vacuum drying to dry protection of 20g; on P, oxazoline ring reaction The protection of the reaction into the reaction flask, add 30ml of DMF dissolved, temperature control 25 ~ 30 ° C, access to ammonia, keep the reaction bottle in the micro-positive pressure, reaction 30 hours, atmospheric pressure exhaust ammonia and then decompression pumping ammonia for 30 minutes, ice water cooled to 5 ° C, temperature 5 ~ 10 ° C add 5ml of glacial acetic acid, then add 20ml acetic anhydride, heated to 30 ° C reaction for 5 hours to confirm the reaction is complete; slowly add 20% sodium carbonate aqueous solution 500ml and heated to 60 ~ 70 ° C reaction 4 hours, the point plate to confirm the reaction The temperature of 55 ~ 60 ° C for 10 hours; to be the end of the reaction temperature to room temperature, chloroform extraction, drying and filtration, concentration of a small amount of solvent, acetic acid isopropyl The ester was entrained twice, leaving a small amount of solvent, frozen and crystallized to obtain high purity [17a, 16a-d] oxazoline residues. [0024] Example 3: Protective reaction 20 g of I, 4-diene-16,17-epoxy-3,11,20-triketone pregnone (Formula I) was added to the reaction flask and 20% Formic acid solution 300g, stirring for 5 minutes, temperature 10 ~ 15 ° C, adding hydrazine carbamate 15g, temperature control 30 ° C reaction 5 hours to test the end of the reaction, cooling to O ~ 5 ° C stirring 2 hours crystallization, To the dry, washed to neutral; 60 ° C vacuum drying to dry protection of 22g; on P, oxazoline ring reaction of the protection of the reaction into the bottle, add 30ml of DMAC dissolved temperature control 35 ~ 40 ° C, access to ammonia, keep the reaction bottle in the micro-positive pressure, reaction 40 hours, atmospheric pressure exhaust ammonia and then decompression pumping ammonia for 30 minutes, ice water cooling to 5 ° C, temperature 5 ~ 10 ° C add 5ml of glacial acetic acid, then add 20ml acetic anhydride, heated to 40 ° C reaction 5 hours to confirm the reaction is complete; slowly add 20% potassium carbonate aqueous solution 500ml and heated to 60 ~ 70 ° C reaction 7 hours, the point plate to confirm the reaction The temperature of the reaction to the end of the temperature to room temperature, chloroform extraction, drying filter, concentrated to a small amount of solvent, acetic acid isopropyl The ester was entrained twice, leaving a small amount of solvent, frozen and crystallized to obtain high purity [17a, 16a-d] oxazoline residues.

PATENT

CN 102936274

Figure CN102936274BD00041

xample 1

[0028] A 30 g 16, 17 α- epoxy – pregn -20- substituting methyl hydrazine -3-acetyl-1,4-diene, 11- dione (a) and 150 mL of chloroform and 15 mLDMF mixed, pressure reactor, stirring ammonia gas to the reactor pressure to 0.15 MPa (during ventilation control the reaction temperature at 10-15 ° C), 30 ° C heat reaction, TLC track the progress of the reaction. Completion of the reaction, the material was transferred to a glass reaction flask, the temperature of the material to be reduced to below 10 ° C, add acetic acid adjusted to pH 5 to 6, the solvent was removed under reduced pressure; reaction flask was added 30 mL of acetic acid, 30 g of acetic anhydride, The reaction temperature was controlled at 30 ° C, the reaction 6 hours, the reaction mixture was poured into cold 500 mL10% sodium hydroxide solution, stirred for 1 hour, filtration to give product 30.6 g, 102% mass yield, product by HPLC , a purity of 95.2%.

[0029] Example 2

[0030] A 30 g 16, 17 α- epoxy – pregn -20- substituting methyl hydrazine -3-acetyl-1,4-diene, 11- dione (a) and 150 mL of chloroform and 30 mL of pyridine were mixed, added pressure reactor, stirring ammonia gas to the reactor pressure to 0. 15 MPa (during ventilation control the reaction temperature at 10~15 ° C), 15 ° C heat reaction, TLC track the progress of the reaction. Completion of the reaction, the material was transferred to a glass reaction flask, the temperature of the material to be reduced to below 10 ° C, add acetic acid adjusted to pH 5 to 6, the solvent was removed under reduced pressure; reaction flask was added 30 mL of acetic acid, 30 g of acetic anhydride, The reaction temperature was controlled at 30 ° C, the reaction 6 hours, the reaction mixture was poured into cold 500 mL10% sodium hydroxide solution, stirred for 1 hour, filtration to give product 28.6 g, yield 95% by mass, product by HPLC , a purity of 94.8%.

[0031] Example 3

[0032] A 30 g 16, 17 α- epoxy – pregn -20- substituting methyl hydrazine -3-acetyl-1,4-diene, 11- dione (a) and 150 mL of chloroform and 30 mLDMF mixed, pressure reactor, stirring ammonia gas to the reactor pressure to 0.15 MPa (during ventilation control the reaction temperature at 10~15 ° C), 40 ° C heat reaction, TLC track the progress of the reaction.Completion of the reaction, the material was transferred to a glass reaction flask, the temperature of the material to be reduced to below 10 ° C, add acetic acid adjusted to pH 5 to 6, the solvent was removed under reduced pressure; reaction flask was added 30 mL of acetic acid, 30 g of acetic anhydride, The reaction temperature was controlled at 30 ° C, the reaction for 6 hours. The reaction mixture was poured into cold 500 mL10% sodium hydroxide solution, stirred for 1 hour, filtration to give the product 31.2 g, yield 104% quality products by HPLC , a purity of 95.4%.

[0033] Example 4

[0034] A 30 g 16, 17 α- epoxy – pregn -20- substituting methyl hydrazine -3-acetyl-1,4-diene, 11- dione (a) and 150 mL of chloroform and 30 mLDMF mixed, pressure reactor, stirring ammonia gas to the reactor pressure to 0.5 MPa (during ventilation control the reaction temperature at 10~15 ° C), 40 ° C heat reaction, TLC track the progress of the reaction. Completion of the reaction, the material was transferred to a glass reaction flask, the temperature of the material to be reduced to below 10 ° C, add acetic acid adjusted to pH 5 to 6, the solvent was removed under reduced pressure; reaction flask was added 30 mL of acetic acid, 30 g of acetic anhydride, The reaction temperature was controlled at 30 ° C, the reaction 6 hours, the reaction mixture was poured into cold 500 mL10% sodium hydroxide solution, stirred for 1 hour, filtration to give the product 31. I g, 102% mass yield, product by by HPLC, the purity was 95.2%.

[0035] Example 5

[0036] A 30 g 16, 17 α- epoxy – pregn -20- substituting methyl hydrazine -3-acetyl-1,4-diene, 11- dione (a) and 150 mL of chloroform and 30 mLDMF mixed, pressure reactor, stirring ammonia gas to the reactor pressure to 0.15 MPa (during ventilation control the reaction temperature at 10~15 ° C), 40 ° C heat reaction, TLC track the progress of the reaction. Completion of the reaction, the material was transferred to a glass reaction flask, the temperature of the material to be reduced to below 10 ° C, add acetic acid adjusted to pH 5 to 6, the solvent was removed under reduced pressure; reaction flask was added 60 mL of acetic acid, 15 g of acetic anhydride, The reaction temperature was controlled at 30 ° C, the reaction 6 hours, the reaction mixture was poured into cold 500 mL10% sodium hydroxide solution, stirred for 1 hour, filtration to give the product 29. 5 g, yield 98% by mass, the product of by HPLC, purity of 95%.

[0037] Example 6

[0038] A 30 g 16, 17 α- epoxy – pregn -20- substituting methyl hydrazine -3-acetyl-1,4-diene, 11- dione (a) and 150 mL of chloroform and 30 mLDMF mixed, pressure reactor, stirring ammonia gas to the reactor pressure to 0.15 MPa (during ventilation control the reaction temperature at 10~15 ° C), 40 ° C heat reaction, TLC track the progress of the reaction. The reaction was complete, the material was transferred to a glass reaction flask until the material temperature drops below 10 ° C, plus acetic acid to adjust the pH to 5 to 6, the solvent was removed under reduced pressure; the reaction flask was added 30 mL of acetic acid, 30 g of maleic dianhydride, the reaction temperature was controlled at 30 ° C, the reaction 6 hours, the reaction mixture was poured into cold 500 mL10% sodium hydroxide solution, stirred for 1 hour, filtration to give the product 30 g, 100% mass yield, product by HPLC purity of 95.2%.

[0039] Example 7

[0040] A 30 g 16, 17 α- epoxy – pregn -20- substituting methyl hydrazine -3-acetyl-1,4-diene, 11- dione (a) and 150 mL of chloroform and 30 mLDMF mixed, pressure reactor, stirring ammonia gas to the reactor pressure to 0.15 MPa (during ventilation control the reaction temperature at 10~15 ° C), 40 ° C heat reaction, TLC track the progress of the reaction. Completion of the reaction, the material was transferred to a glass reaction flask, the temperature of the material to be reduced to below 10 ° C, add acetic acid adjusted to pH 5 to 6, the solvent was removed under reduced pressure; reaction flask was added 30 mL of acetic acid, 30 g of propionic anhydride, The reaction temperature was controlled at 30 ° C, the reaction for 6 hours. The reaction mixture was poured into cold 500 mL10% sodium hydroxide solution, stirred for 1 hour, filtration to give the product 27.6 g, 92% yield of quality products by HPLC , a purity of 93.5%.

[0041] Example 8

[0042] A 30 g 16, 17 α- epoxy – pregn -20- substituting methyl hydrazine -3-acetyl-1,4-diene, 11- dione (a) and 150 mL of chloroform and 30 mLDMF mixed, pressure reactor, stirring ammonia gas to the reactor pressure to 0.15 MPa (during ventilation control the reaction temperature at 10~15 ° C), 40 ° C heat reaction, TLC track the progress of the reaction. Completion of the reaction, the material was transferred to a glass reaction flask, the temperature of the material to be reduced to below 10 ° C, add acetic acid adjusted to pH 5 to 6, the solvent was removed under reduced pressure; reaction flask was added 30 mL of acetic acid, 30 g of acetic anhydride, The reaction temperature is controlled at 50 ° C, the reaction for 6 hours. The reaction mixture was poured into cold 500 mL10% sodium hydroxide solution, stirred for 1 hour, filtration to give the product 29.8 g, 99% yield of quality products by HPLC , a purity of 94.8%.

References

  1. Jump up^ “Refla: deflazacort” (PDF).
  2. Jump up^http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2017/208684s000,208685s000lbl.pdf
  3. Jump up^ Möllmann, H; Hochhaus, G; Rohatagi, S; Barth, J; Derendorf, H (1995). “Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic evaluation of deflazacort in comparison to methylprednisolone and prednisolone”. Pharmaceutical Research. 12 (7): 1096–100. PMID 7494809.
  4. ^ Jump up to:a b “Calcort”. electronic Medicines Compendium. June 11, 2008. Retrieved on October 28, 2008.
  5. Jump up^ Luca Parente (2017). “Deflazacort: therapeutic index, relative potency and equivalent doses versus other corticosteroids”. BMC Pharmacol Toxicol. doi:10.1186/s40360-016-0111-8.
  6. Jump up^ Ellen Jean Hirst (January 19, 2015), Duchenne muscular dystrophy drug could get OK for U.S. sales in 2016, The Chicago Tribune, retrieved February 13, 2017,has been shown to prolong lives … a progressive and fatal disease that has no drug treatment available in the US
  7. Jump up^ “FDA approves drug to treat Duchenne muscular dystrophy”. http://www.fda.gov. 2017-02-09. Retrieved 2017-02-10.
  8. Jump up^ “Marathon Pharmaceuticals to Charge $89,000 for Muscular Dystrophy Drug”. http://www.wsj.com. 2017-02-10. Retrieved 2017-02-10.
  9. Jump up^ Clifton Sy Mukherjee (February 10, 2017). “Brainstorm Health Daily”. Retrieved February 13, 2017.
  10. Jump up^ Joseph Walker and Susan Pulliam (February 13, 2017), Marathon Pharmaceuticals to Charge $89,000 for Muscular Dystrophy Drug After 70-Fold Increase, The Wall Street Journal, retrieved February 13, 2017,FDA-approved deflazacort treats rare type of disease affecting boys
  11. Jump up^ “Substâncias: DEFLAZACORT” (in Portuguese). Centralx. 2008. Retrieved on October 28, 2008.
Deflazacort
Deflazacort structure.svg
Clinical data
Trade names Emflaza, Calcort, others
AHFS/Drugs.com International Drug Names
Routes of
administration
By mouth
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Protein binding 40%
Metabolism By plasma esterases, to active metabolite
Biological half-life 1.1–1.9 hours (metabolite)
Excretion Renal (70%) and fecal (30%)
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEMBL
ECHA InfoCard 100.034.969
Chemical and physical data
Formula C25H31NO6
Molar mass 441.517 g/mol
3D model (Jmol)
CN102746358A * Apr 22, 2011 Oct 24, 2012 天津金耀集团有限公司 Novel technology for synthesis of pregnane 21-bit bromide
CN102746358B * Apr 22, 2011 Feb 10, 2016 天津金耀集团有限公司 一种合成孕甾21位溴化物的工艺
CN102936274A * Nov 12, 2012 Feb 20, 2013 浙江仙居君业药业有限公司 Preparation method for [17alpha, 16alpha-d] methyl oxazoline
CN102936274B * Nov 12, 2012 Apr 1, 2015 江西君业生物制药有限公司 Preparation method for [17alpha, 16alpha-d] methyl oxazoline

///////FDA 2017, Emflaza, Calcort, Deflazacort, orphan drug designation, FAST TRACK

[H][C@@]12C[C@@]3([H])[C@]4([H])CCC5=CC(=O)C=C[C@]5(C)[C@@]4([H])[C@@]([H])(O)C[C@]3(C)[C@@]1(N=C(C)O2)C(=O)COC(C)=O
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Award for me, 100 Most Impactful Health care Leaders Global listing


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At award function for my award “100 Most Impactful Health care Leaders Global listing”, conferred on me at Taj lands end, Mumbai, India on 14 Feb 2014 by World Health Wellness congress and awards

 

Lorlatinib, лорлатиниб , لورلاتينيب , 洛拉替尼 , PF-6463922


Lorlatinib.svgChemSpider 2D Image | lorlatinib | C21H19FN6O2

Lorlatinib, PF-6463922

For Cancer; Non-small-cell lung cancer

  • Molecular Formula C21H19FN6O2
  • Average mass 406.413 Da

Phase 2

WO 2013132376

Andrew James Jensen, Suman Luthra, Paul Francis RICHARDSON
Applicant Pfizer Inc.
Image result for pfizer
(10R)-7-amino-12-fluoro-2,10,16-trimethyl-15-oxo-10,15,16,17-tetrahydro-2H-4,8- methenopyrazolo[4,3-h][2,5,11]benzoxadiazacyclotetradecine-3-carbonitrile
(16R)-19-Amino-13-fluoro-4,8,16-trimethyl-9-oxo-17-oxa-4,5,8,20-tetraazatetracyclo[16.3.1.02,6.010,15]docosa-1(22),2,5,10,12,14,18,20-octaene-3-carbonitrile
(10R)-7-Amino-12-fluoro-2,10,16-trimethyl-15-oxo-10,15,16,17-tetrahydro-2H-8,4-(metheno)pyrazolo[4,3-h][2,5,11]benzoxadiazacyclotetradecine-3-carbonitrile
CAS 1454846-35-5 [RN]
UNII:OSP71S83EU
лорлатиниб [Russian]
لورلاتينيب [Arabic]
洛拉替尼 [Chinese]

Ros1 tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitor; Anaplastic lymphoma kinase receptor inhibitor

useful for treating cancer mediated by anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) or c-ros oncogene 1 (ROS1) receptor tyrosine kinase, particularly NSCLC.  an ATP-competitive inhibitor of ROS1/ALK, for treating NSCLC. In February 2017, lorlatinib was reported to be in phase 2 clinical development.

  • Originator Pfizer
  • Developer Pfizer; The Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia; Yale University
  • Class Antineoplastics; Aza compounds; Benzoxazines; Pyrazoles; Pyrazolones; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action Anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitors; ROS1-protein-inhibitors
  • Orphan Drug Status Yes – Non-small cell lung cancer

Lorlatinib (PF-6463922) is an experimental anti-neoplastic drug in development by Pfizer. It is a orally-administered small molecule inhibitor of ROS1 and ALK.

In 2015, FDA granted Pfizer orphan drug status for lorlatinib for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer.[1]

  • 05 Oct 2016 Massachusetts General Hospital plans a phase II trial for Non-small cell lung cancer (Late-stage disease, Metastatic disease) in USA (PO, unspecified formulation) (NCT02927340)
  • 01 Oct 2016 Pfizer completes a phase I trial in pharmacokinetic trial in Healthy volunteers in USA (NCT02804399)
  • 01 Aug 2016 Pfizer initiates a phase I drug-drug interaction trial in Healthy volunteers in Belgium (PO, unspecified formulation) (NCT02838264)

Figure

Structures of ALK inhibitors marketed or currently in the clinic

Synthesis

NEED COLOUR

Clinical studies

Several clinical trials are ongoing. A phase II trial comparing avelumab alone and in combination with lorlatinib or crizotinib for non-small cell lung cancer is expected to be complete in late 2017. A phase II trial comparing lorlatinib with crizotinib is expected to be complete in mid-2018.[2] A phase II trial for treatment of ALK-positive or ROS1-positive non-small cell lung cancer with CNA metastases is not expected to be complete until 2023.[3] Preclinical studies are investigating lorlatinib for treatment of neuroblastoma.

Lorlatinib is an investigational medicine that inhibits the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and ROS1 proto-oncogene. Due to tumor complexity and development of resistance to treatment, disease progression is a challenge in patients with ALK-positive metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A common site for progression in metastatic NSCLC is the brain. Lorlatinib was specifically designed to inhibit tumor mutations that drive resistance to other ALK inhibitors and to penetrate the blood brain barrier.

ABOUT LORLATINIB

ALK in NSCLC ROS1 in NSCLC PRECLINICAL DATA CLINICAL STUDIES Originally discovered as an oncogenic driver in a type of lymphoma, ALK gene alterations were also found to be among key drivers of tumor development in cancers, such as NSCLC.1 In ALK-positive lung cancer, a normally inactive gene called ALK is fused with another gene. This genetic alteration creates the ALK fusion gene and ultimately, the production of an ALK fusion protein, which is responsible for tumor growth.1,2 This genetic alteration is present in 3-5% of NSCLC patients.3,4,5 Another gene that can fuse with other genes is called ROS1. Sometimes a ROS1 fusion protein can contribute to cancer-cell growth and tumor survival. This genetic alteration is present in approximately 1% of NSCLC patients.5 Preclinical data showed lorlatinib is capable of overcoming resistance to existing ALK inhibitors and penetrated the blood brain barrier in ALK-driven tumor models.2 Specifically, in these preclinical models, lorlatinib had activity against all tested clinical resistance mutations in ALK.

A Phase 1/2 clinical trial of lorlatinib in patients with ALK-positive or ROS1-positive advanced NSCLC is currently ongoing. • The primary objective of the Phase 1 portion was to assess safety and tolerability of single-agent lorlatinib at increasing dose levels in patients with ALK-positive or ROS1-positive advanced NSCLC.6 • Data from the Phase 1 study showed that lorlatinib had promising clinical activity in patients with ALK-positive or ROS1- positive advanced NSCLC. Most of these patients had developed CNS metastases and had received ≥1 prior tyrosine kinase inhibitor.7 o The most common treatment-related adverse events (AEs) were hypercholesterolemia (69%) and peripheral edema (37%). Hypercholesterolemia was the most common (11%) grade 3 or higher treatment-related AE and the most frequent reason for dose delay or reduction. No patients discontinued due to treatment-related AEs. At the recommended Phase 2 dose, 4 out of 17 patients (24%) experienced a treatment-related AE of any grade that led to a dose delay or hold.

PATENT

WO2014207606

This invention relates to crystalline forms of the macrocyclic kinase inhibitor, (10R)-7-amino-12-fluoro-2, 10,16-trimethyl-15-OXO-10,15, 16,17-tetrahydro-2H-8,4-(metheno)pyrazolo[4, 3-?][2,5,1 1 ]benzoxadiazacyclotetradecine-3-carbonitrile, including crystalline solvates thereof, that may be useful in the treatment of abnormal cell growth, such as cancer, in mammals. The invention also relates to compositions including such crystalline forms, and to methods of using such compositions in the treatment of abnormal cell growth in mammals, especially humans.

Background of the Invention

The compound (10R)-7-amino-12-fluoro-2,10,16-trimethyl-15-oxo-10,15,16,17-tetrahydro-2/-/-8,4-(metheno)pyrazolo[4,3- ?][2,5,1 1 ]benzoxadiazacyclotetradecine-3-carbonitrile, represented by the formula (I):

(I)

is a potent, macrocyclic inhibitor of both wild type and resistance mutant forms of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and c-ros oncogene 1 (ROS1) receptor tyrosine kinase. Preparation of the free base compound of formula (I) as an amorphous solid is disclosed in International Patent Publication No. WO 2013/132376 and in United States Patent Publication No. 2013/0252961 , the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.

Human cancers comprise a diverse array of diseases that collectively are one of the leading causes of death in developed countries throughout the world (American Cancer Society, Cancer Facts and Figures 2005. Atlanta: American Cancer Society; 2005). The progression of cancers is caused by a complex series of multiple genetic and molecular events including gene mutations, chromosomal translocations, and karyotypic abnormalities (Hanahan & Weinberg, The hallmarks of cancer. Cell 2000; 100: 57-70). Although the underlying genetic causes of

cancer are both diverse and complex, each cancer type has been observed to exhibit common traits and acquired capabilities that facilitate its progression. These acquired capabilities include dysregulated cell growth, sustained ability to recruit blood vessels (i.e., angiogenesis), and ability of tumor cells to spread locally as well as metastasize to secondary organ sites (Hanahan & Weinberg 2000). Therefore, the ability to identify novel therapeutic agents that inhibit molecular targets that are altered during cancer progression or target multiple processes that are common to cancer progression in a variety of tumors presents a significant unmet need.

Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) play fundamental roles in cellular processes, including cell proliferation, migration, metabolism, differentiation, and survival. RTK activity is tightly controlled in normal cells. The constitutively enhanced RTK activities from point mutation, amplification, and rearrangement of the corresponding genes have been implicated in the development and progression of many types of cancer. (Gschwind et al., The discovery of receptor tyrosine kinases: targets for cancer therapy. Nat. Rev. Cancer 2004; 4, 361-370; Krause & Van Etten, Tyrosine kinases as targets for cancer therapy. N. Engl. J. Med. 2005; 353: 172-187.)

Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a receptor tyrosine kinase, grouped together with leukocyte tyrosine kinase (LTK) to a subfamily within the insulin receptor (IR) superfamily. ALK was first discovered as a fusion protein with nucleophosmin (NPM) in anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) cell lines in 1994. (Morris et al., Fusion of a kinase gene, ALK, to a nucleolar protein gene, NPM, in non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Science 1994; 263:1281-1284.) NPM-ALK, which results from a chromosomal translocation, is implicated in the pathogenesis of human anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) (Pulford et al., Anaplastic lymphoma kinase proteins in growth control and cancer. J. Cell Physiol., 2004; 199: 330-58). The roles of aberrant expression of constitutively active ALK chimeric proteins in the pathogenesis of ALCL have been defined (Wan et. al., Anaplastic lymphoma kinase activity is essential for the proliferation and survival of anaplastic large cell lymphoma cells. Blood, 2006; 107:1617-1623). Other chromosomal rearrangements resulting in ALK fusions have been subsequently detected in ALCL (50-60%), inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (27%), and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (2-7%). (Palmer et al., Anaplastic lymphoma kinase: signaling in development and disease. Biochem. J. 2009; 420:345-361 .)

The EML4-ALK fusion gene, comprising portions of the echinoderm microtubule associated protein-like 4 (EML4) gene and the ALK gene, was first discovered in NSCLC archived clinical specimens and cell lines. (Soda et al., Identification of the transforming EML4-ALK fusion gene in non-small cell lung cancer. Nature 2007; 448:561-566; Rikova et al., Cell 2007; 131 :1 190-1203.) EML4-ALK fusion variants were demonstrated to transform NIH-3T3 fibroblasts and cause lung adenocarcinoma when expressed in transgenic mice, confirming the

potent oncogenic activity of the EML4-ALK fusion kinase. (Soda et al., A mouse model for EML4-ALK-positive lung cancer. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2008; 105:19893-19897.) Oncogenic mutations of ALK in both familial and sporadic cases of neuroblastoma have also been reported. (Caren et al., High incidence of DNA mutations and gene amplifications of the ALK gene in advanced sporadic neuroblastoma tumors. Biochem. J. 2008; 416:153-159.)

ROS1 is a proto-oncogene receptor tyrosine kinase that belongs to the insulin receptor subfamily, and is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation processes. (Nagarajan et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci 1986; 83:6568-6572). ROS is expressed, in humans, in epithelial cells of a variety of different tissues. Defects in ROS expression and/or activation have been found in glioblastoma, as well as tumors of the central nervous system (Charest et al., Genes Chromos. Can. 2003; 37(1): 58-71). Genetic alterations involving ROS that result in aberrant fusion proteins of ROS kinase have been described, including the FIG-ROS deletion translocation in glioblastoma (Charest et al. (2003); Birchmeier et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci 1987; 84:9270-9274; and NSCLC (Rimkunas et al., Analysis of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase ROS1 -Positive Tumors in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Identification of FIG-ROS1 Fusion, Clin Cancer Res 2012; 18:4449-4457), the SLC34A2-ROS translocation in NSCLC (Rikova et al. Cell 2007;131 :1 190-1203), the CD74-ROS translocation in NSCLC (Rikova et al. (2007)) and cholangiocarcinoma (Gu et al. PLoS ONE 201 1 ; 6(1 ): e15640), and a truncated, active form of ROS known to drive tumor growth in mice (Birchmeier et al. Mol. Cell. Bio. 1986; 6(9):3109-31 15). Additional fusions, including TPM3-ROS1 , SDC4-ROS1 , EZR-ROS1 and LRIG3-ROS1 , have been reported in lung cancer patient tumor samples (Takeuchi et al., RET, ROS1 and ALK fusions in lung cancer, Nature Medicine 2012; 18(3):378-381).

The dual ALK/c-MET inhibitor crizotinib was approved in 201 1 for the treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC that is ALK-positive as detected by an FDA-approved test. Crizotinib has also shown efficacy in treatment of NSCLC with ROS1 translocations. (Shaw et al. Clinical activity of crizotinib in advanced rson-smali cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring ROS1 gene rearrangement. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, Chicago, June 1-5, 2012.) As observed clinically for other tyrosine kinase inhibitors, mutations in ALK and ROS1 that confer resistance to ALK inhibitors have been described (Choi et ai., EML4-ALK Mutations in Lung Cancer than Confer Resistance to ALK Inhibitors, N Engl J Med 2010; 363:1734-1739; Awad et ai., Acquired Resistance to Crizotinib from a Mutation in CD74-ROS1, Engl J Med 2013; 368:2395-2401 ).

Thus, ALK and ROS1 are attractive molecular targets for cancer therapeutic intervention. There remains a need to identify compounds having novel activity profiles against wild-type and mutant forms of ALK and ROS1 .

The present invention provides crystalline forms of the free base of (10R)-7-amino-12-fluoro-2, 10,16-trimethyl-15-OXO-10,15, 16,17-tetrahydro-2H-8,4-(metheno)pyrazolo[4,3- ?][2, 5,1 1 ]-benzoxadiazacyclotetradecine-3-carbonitrile having improved properties, such as improved crystallinity, dissolution properties, decreased hygroscopicity, improved mechanical properties, improved purity, and/or improved stability, while maintaining chemical and enantiomeric stability.

Comparative Example 1A

Preparation of (10f?)-7-amino-12-fluoro-2,10,16-trimethyl-15-oxo-10,15,16,17-tetrahydro-2H-8,4-(metheno)pyrazolo[4,3- ?l[2,5,1 Hbenzoxadiazacyclo-tetradecine-3-carbonitrile (amorphous)

Example 1A

Step 1 :

Palladium (II) acetate (53 mg, 0.24 mmol) and cataCXium® A (180 mg, 0.5 mmol) were mixed together in toluene (1 .5 mL, de-gassed) and the resulting solution was added via pipette to a stirred solution of compound 7 (0.9 g, 2.4 mmol), compound 15 (1 .0 g, 3.0 mmol) bis-pinacolato diboron (0.9 g, 3.6 mmol) and CsF (1 .9 g, 12.6 mmol) in MeOH/H20 (9:1 , 12 mL, degassed) at 60 °C. The resulting mixture was then stirred at reflux for 3 hrs. A further portion of Palladium (II) acetate (26 mg, 0.12 mmol) and cataCXium® A (90 mg, 0.25 mmol) in toluene (1 .5 mL, de-gassed) was added, and the yellow reaction mixture stirred at 60 °C overnight. After cooling to room temperature, the mixture was diluted with EtOAc (150 mL) and filtered through CELITE®. The filtrate was washed with water (100 mL), then brine (100 mL), dried (Na2S04) and evaporated. The residue was purified by flash chromatography over silica gel, which was eluted with 1 :1 EtOAc/cyclohexane, to give compound 22 as a yellow oil (570 mg, 43% yield). TLC (Rf = 0.40, 1 :1 EtOAc/cyclohexane). 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) δ 8.03 (m, 1 H), 7.65 (s, 1 H), 7.27 (dd,1 H, J = 9.9, 2.7 Hz), 7.01 (m, 1 H), 6.68 (m, 1 H), 6.40 (m, 1 H), 4.90 (br s, 2 H), 4.20 – 4.30 (m, 2 H), 3.96 (s, 3 H), 3.94 (s, 3 H), 2.55 – 2.85 (m, 3 H), 1 .68 (d, 3 H, J = 6.6 Hz), 1 .24 (s, 9 H). LCMS ES m/z 539 [M+H]+.

Step 2:

To a solution of compound 22 (69% purity, 0.95 g, assumed 1 .05 mmol) in MeOH (20 mL) was added a solution NaOH (1 .0 g, 25 mmol) in water (2 mL). The mixture was stirred at 40 °C for 3.5 hours. The reaction was diluted with water (80 mL), concentrated by 20 mL to remove MeOH on the rotary evaporator, and washed with MTBE (100 mL). The aqueous layer was then acidified carefully with 1 M aq HCI to approx. pH 2 (pH paper). Sodium chloride (15 g) was added to the mixture and the mixture was extracted with EtOAc (100 mL). The organic layer was separated, dried (Na2S04) and evaporated to give compound 23 as a pale yellow solid (480 mg, 87% yield). 1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) δ 8.05 (m, 1 H), 7.45 (s, 1 H), 7.37 (dd,1 H, J = 10.4, 2.8 Hz), 7.10 (dt, 1 H, J = 8.5, 2.4 Hz), 6.50 – 6.60 (m, 2 H), 4.05 – 4.30 (m, 2 H), 3.99 (s, 3 H), 2.60 – 2.80 (m, 3 H), 1 .72 (d, 3 H, J = 6.5 Hz). LCMS ES m/z 525 [M+H]+.

Step 3:

A solution of HCI in dioxane (4 M, 6.0 mL) was added to a solution of compound 23

(480 mg, 0.91 mmol) in MeOH (methanol) (6 mL) and the reaction was stirred at 40 °C for 2.5 hours. The reaction mixture was then concentrated to dryness under reduced pressure. The residue was taken-up in MeOH (50 mL) and acetonitrile (100 mL) was added and the mixture was then again evaporated to dryness, to give compound 24 as an off white solid (400 mg, 87% yield). 1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) δ 8.07 (dd, 1 H, J = 8.9. 5.9 Hz), 7.51 (d, 1 H, J = 1 .7 Hz), 7.42 (dd, 1 H, J = 9.8, 2.6 Hz), 7.23 (d, 1 H, J = 1 .6 Hz), 7.16 (dt, 1 H, J = 8.5, 2.7 Hz), 6.73 (dd, 1 H, J = 1 1 .9, 6.9 Hz), 4.22 (d, 1 H, J = 14.7 Hz), 4.14 (d, 1 H, J = 14.7 Hz), 4.07 (s, 3 H), 2.75 (s, 3 H), 1 .75 (d, 3 H, J = 5.5 Hz). LCMS ES m/z 425 [M+H]+.

Step 4:

A solution of compound 24 (400 mg, assumed 0.91 mmol) as the HCI salt and DIPEA

(diisopropylethylamine) (1 .17 g, 9.1 mmol) in DMF (dimethylformamide) (5.0 mL) and THF (0.5 mL) was added drop-wise to a solution of HATU (2-(1 H-7-azabenzotriazol-1 -yl)-1 ,1 ,3,3-tetramethyl uronium hexafluorophosphate methanaminium) (482 mg, 1 .27 mmol) in DMF (10.0 mL) at 0 °C over 30 minutes. After complete addition, the mixture was stirred at 0 °C for a further 30 mins. Water (70 mL) was added and the mixture was extracted into EtOAc (2 x 60 mL). The combined organics were washed with saturated aqueous NaHC03 (2 x 100 mL), brine (100 mL), dried over Na2S04, and evaporated. The residue was purified by column chromatography over silica gel, which was eluted with 70% EtOAc/cyclohexane giving 205 mg of a pale yellow residue (semi-solid). The solids were dissolved in MTBE (7 mL) and cyclohexane (20 mL) was added slowly with good stirring to precipitate the product. After stirring for 30 minutes, the mixture was filtered, and Example 1A was collected as an

amorphous white solid (1 10 mg, 29% yield). TLC (Rf = 0.40, 70% EtOAc in cyclohexane). 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) δ 7.83 (d, 1 H, J = 2.0 Hz), 7.30 (dd, 1 H, J = 9.6, 2.4 Hz), 7.21 (dd, 1 H, J = 8.4, 5.6 Hz), 6.99 (dt, 1 H, J = 8.0, 2.8 Hz), 6.86 (d, 1 H, J = 1 .2 Hz), 5.75 – 5.71 (m, 1 H), 4.84 (s, 2 H), 4.45 (d, 1 H, J = 14.4 Hz), 4.35 (d ,1 H, J = 14.4 Hz), 4.07 (s, 3 H), 3.13 (s, 3 H), 1 .79 (d, 3 H, J = 6.4Hz). LCMS ES m/z 407 [M+H]+.

Example 1

Preparation of crystalline hydrate of (10 ?)-7-amino-12-fluoro-2,10,16-trimethyl-15-oxo- 10,15,16,17-tetrahvdro-2/-/-8,4-(metheno)pyrazolo[4,3- ?l[2,5,1 Hbenzoxa-diazacyclo-tetradecine-3-carbonitrile (Form 1)

Example 1A Example 1

(amorphous) (Form 1 }

Amorphous (10f?)-7-amino-12-fluoro-2,10,16-trimethyl-15-oxo-10,15,16,17-tetrahydro-2H-8,4-(metheno)pyrazolo[4,3- ?][2,5,11 ]benzoxa-diazacyclo-tetradecine-3-carbonitrile free base, prepared as described in Example 1A (and Example 2 of United States Patent Publication No. 2013/0252961), was dissolved in 1 .0 : 1 .1 (v:v) H20:MeOH at a concentration of 22 mg/mL at 50°C, then allowed to cool to room temperature . This slurry was granulated for approximately 72 hours. The solids were isolated by filtration and vacuum dried overnight at 60°C to produce crystalline hydrate Form 1 of (10R)-7-amino-12-fluoro-2,10,16-trimethyl-15-oxo-10,15,16,17-tetrahydro-2H-8,4-(metheno)pyrazolo[4,3-/?][2,5,1 1 ]benzoxadiazacyclotetradecine-3-carbonitrile.

Example 4

Alternative preparation of crystalline acetic acid solvate of (10 ?)-7-amino-12-fluoro-2, 10,16-trimethyl-15-OXO-10,15, 16,17-tetrahvdro-2H-8,4-(metheno)pyrazolo[4,3- ?U2,5, 1 1 lbenzoxa-diazacyclotetradecine-3-carbonitrile (Form 3)

Step 1 :

To a reaction vessel under N2 were charged compound 9 (9.97 kg, 17.95 mol), compound 21 (3.52 kg, 18.85 mol) and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (97 L). Triethylamine (7.45 kg, 73.6 mol) was added while keeping the internal temperature below 35°C. The reaction mixture was held for 30 min and n-propylphosphonic anhydride (T3P), 50% solution in ethyl acetate (22.85 kg, 35.9 mol) was charged slowly, maintaining the internal temperature below 25°C. The reaction mixture was held at 20°C for at least 2 h until reaction was deemed complete. Ethyl acetate (35 L) and water (66 L) were added followed by 0.5N Hydrochloric acid solution (80 L). The aqueous layer was removed and the organic layer was washed with brine solution (80 L). The organic layer was concentrated and solvent exchanged with 2-methyl-2-butanol (80 L) give compound 25 (23 wt/wt%) solution in 2-methyl-2-butanol . This solution was carried forward to the next step directly in three batches, assuming 12.00 kg (100% yield) from this step.

Step 2:

2-Methyl-2-butanol (100 L) was combined with potassium acetate (1 .8 kg, 18.34 mol), palladium(ll) acetate (0.10 kg, 0.46 mol) and water (0.10 kg, 5.73 mol). The resulting mixture was purged with nitrogen. Di(1 -adamantyl)n-butylphosphine (0.23 kg, 0.43 mol) was added. An amount of 20% of compound 25 (3.97 kg active or 17.3 L of step 1 solution in 2-methyl-2-butanol) was added, and the resulting reaction mixture was heated at reflux for 2 h. The remaining solution of compound 25 in 2-methyl-2-butanol was subsequently added to the reaction over a period of 5 h. The resulting mixture was heated until the reaction was deemed complete (typically 16 – 20 h). This reaction step was processed in three batches, and the isolation was done in one single batch. Thus, the combined three batches were filtered through CELITE® to remove insoluble materials. The filtrate was concentrated to a low volume (approximately 20 L). Acetonitrile (60 L) was added. The resulting mixture was heated to reflux for 2 – 4 h, then cooled to RT for granulation. The resulting slurry was filtered to give compound 26 as a crude product. The crude product was combined with ethyl acetate (80 L) and Silicycle thiol (5 kg). The resulting mixture was heated for 2 h, cooled to RT and filtered. The filtrate was concentrated to approx. 20 L, and the resulting slurry was granulated and filtered. The filter cake was rinsed with ethyl acetate (4 L) and dried in a vacuum oven to give compound 26 as a pure product (4.74 kg, 43.5% overall last two steps). 1H NMR (CDCI3) δ 8.25 – 8.23 (m, 1 H), 7.28 (1 H, dd, 2.76 and 9.79 Hz), 7.22 (1 H, dd, 5.52 and 8.53 Hz), 7.18 (1 H, d, J = 1 .76 Hz), 7.01 (1 H, dt, J = 2.50 and 8.03 Hz), 5.78 – 5.70 (m, 1 H), 4.76 (1 H, d, J = 14.3 Hz), 4.13 (s, 3H), 3.16 (s, 3H), 1 .78 (d, 3H, J = 6.02 Hz), 1 .45 (s, 18H); 13C NMR (CDCI3) δ 167.0, 162.9, 160.4, 148.7, 146.3, 143.0, 140.7, 139.9, 135.5, 129.9, 129.8, 126.1 , 123.8, 123.5, 1 19.7, 1 13.8, 1 13.5, 1 1 1 .6, 108.1 , 81 .1 , 70.1 , 45.5, 37.0, 29.7, 26.0, 20.7; LCMS (M+1)+ 607.3, 507.1 , 451 .2.

Step 3:

To a reactor under N2 was added compound 26 (4.74 kg, 7.82 mol) and ethyl acetate (54 L). Hydrochloric acid 37% (5.19 L, 63.2 mol) was charged slowly while keeping the internal temperature below 25°C. The reaction mixture was stirred for 24 – 48 h until the reaction was complete. Ethyl acetate (54L) and water (54 L) were added. The reaction mixture was then treated with triethylamine until pH 8 – 9 was reached. The aqueous layer was removed and then the organic layer was washed water (2 x 54 L). The organic layer was concentrated under reduced pressure to approx. 54 L to give compound 27 (unisolated).

Step 4:

Acetic acid (1 .0 kg, 16.6 mol) was added to the organic layer containing compound 27. The reaction mixture was concentrated and then held for at least 3 h with stirring at RT. The resulted slurry was filtered. The filter cake was washed with ethyl acetate (2 L) and dried under vacuum to give 3.20 kg (87.8% yield) of Example 4 acetic acid solvate (Form 3). The spectroscopic data of this material was identical to that of an authentic sample of the crystalline acetic acid Form 3 of (10R)-7-amino-12-fluoro-2, 10, 16-trimethyl-15-oxo-10, 15,16, 17-tetrahydro-2/-/-8,4-(metheno)pyrazolo[4,3- ?][2,5,1 1 ]-benzoxadiazacyclo-tetradecine-3-carbonitrile prepared according to Example 3.

Preparation of Synthetic Intermediates

7 6 5

Step 1 :

A solution of (-)-DIPCI ((-)-B-chlorodiisopinocampheylborane) (57.1 g, 178 mmol) in THF

(tetrahydrofuran) (100 ml) was cooled to -20 to -30 °C. A solution of compound 1 (31 .3 g, 1 19 mmol) in THF (100 ml) was then added dropwise, via addition funnel (30 min addition). The reaction was left to warm up to room temperature (RT). After 2 h, the reaction was cooled to -30 °C and another portion of (-)-DIPCI (38.0 g, 1 19 mmol) was added. After 30 min, the reaction was allowed to warm to RT and after 1 h, the solvents were removed in vacuo and the residue re-dissolved in MTBE (methyl tertiary-butyl ether) (200 ml). A solution of diethanolamine (31 g, 296 mmol) in ethanol/THF (15 ml/30 ml) was added via addition funnel, to the reaction mixture under an ice bath. The formation of a white precipitate was observed. The suspension was heated at reflux for 2 hours then cooled to room temperature, filtered and the mother liquids concentrated in vacuo. The residue was suspended in heptane/EtOAc (7:3, 200 ml) and again

filtered. This procedure was repeated until no more solids could be observed after the liquids were concentrated. The final yellow oil was purified by column chromatography (eluent: cyclohexane/EtOAc 99:1 to 96:4). The resulting colorless oil was further purified by recrystallization from heptanes, to give alcohol compound 2 (25 g, 80% yield, 99% purity and 96% ee) as white crystals. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) δ 7.73 (dd, 1 H), 7.32 (dd, 1 H), 6.74 (ddd, 1 H), 4.99 – 5.04 (m, 1 H), 2.01 (d, 1 H), 1 .44 (d, 3 H). LCMS-ES: No ionization, Purity 99%. Chiral GC (column CP-Chirasil-DexnCB): 96% ee; Rt (minor) 17.7 minutes and Rt (major) 19.4 minutes.

Step 2:

A solution of compound 2 (22 g, 83 mmol) in MTBE (350 mL) was cooled under an ice bath and triethylamine (23 mL, 166 mmol) followed by mesyl chloride (9.6 mL, 124 mmol) were added drop-wise. The reaction was then warmed to RT and stirred for 3 h. The reaction mixture was filtered and the solids washed with EtOAc. The mother liquids were concentrated in vacuo to give compound 3 (35 g, 80% yield) as a pale yellow oil. This material was taken into the following step without further purification. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) δ 7.78 (dd, 1 H), 7.24 (dd, 1 H), 6.82 (ddd, 1 H), 2.92 (s, 3 H), 1 .64 (d, 3 H). LCMS-ES no ionization.

Step 3:

A suspension of Cs2C03 (65 g, 201 mmol) and compound 4 (13.3 g, 121 mmol) in 2-CH3-THF (2-methyitetrahydrofuran) (600 mL) and acetone (300 mL) was stirred at RT for 30 minutes then heated at 40 °C before drop-wise addition of a solution of compound 3 (34.4 g, 80 mmol) in 2-CH3-THF (300 mL) via addition funnel. The resulting mixture was left stirring at 75 -80 °C for 24 h. The reaction was then filtered through CELITE® with MTBE, the solvents removed in vacuo and the residue purified by column chromatography over silica gel which was eluted with cyclohexane/EtOAc (9:1 to 1 :1) to give compound 5 (14.3 g, 39 % yield, 90% ee) as a white solid. The solids were then re crystallized from heptane/EtOAc to give compound 5 (10.8 g, 37% yield, 95% ee). 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) 5 7.38 (dd, 1 H), 7.62 (dd, 1 H), 7.10 (dd, 1 H), 6.75 (ddd, 1 H), 6.44 – 6.51 (m, 2 H), 5.34 – 5.39 (m, 1 H), 4.73 (br s, 2 H), 1 .61 (d, 3 H). LCMS-ES m/z 359 [M+H]+. HPLC (Chiralpak IC 4.6 x 250 mm): 95% ee; Rt (minor) 10.4 minutes; Rt (major) 14.7 minutes; eluent: Heptane 80%/IPA 20% with 0.2% DEA, 0.7 mL/min. Step 4:

Compound 5 (20 g, 57 mmol) was dissolved in methanol (300 mL), and sequentially treated with triethylamine (TEA) (15.4 mL, 1 13 mmol) and PdCI2(dppf) (1 ,1 -bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene]dichloropalladium(ll) ) (4.1 g, 5.7 mmol). This mixture was heated at 100 °C for 16 hours, under a 100 psi carbon monoxide atmosphere. LCMS indicated consumption of starting material. The reaction mixture was filtered through a pad of CELITE®, and the filtrate evaporated to a brown oil. The crude product was purified by flash

chromatography over silica gel which was eluted with 50% to 75% ethyl acetate in cyclohexane, affording the pure product 6 as a brick-red solid (13.0 g, 79% yield). 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) δ 1 .65 (d, 3 H), 3.94 (s, 3 H), 4.75 (br s, 2 H), 6.32 (q, 1 H), 6.42 (dd, 1 H), 6.61 (dd, 1 H), 7.00 (ddd, 1 H), 7.28 (dd, 1 H), 7.60 (dd, 1 H), 8.03 (dd, 1 H). LCMS ES m/z 291 for [M+H]+.

Step 5:

Compound 6 (13.0 g, 45 mmol) was dissolved in acetonitrile (195 mL), and cooled to <10 °C in an ice water bath. NBS (N-bromosuccinimide) (7.9 g, 45 mmol) was added drop-wise to the cooled reaction mixture as a solution in acetonitrile (195 mL), monitoring the internal temperature to ensure it did not rise above 10 °C. After addition was complete, the mixture was stirred for 15 minutes. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) (1 :1 cyclohexane/ethyl acetate) showed consumption of starting material. The reaction mixture was evaporated, and the residue redissolved in ethyl acetate (400 mL), and washed with 2M aqueous NaOH (2 x 300 mL), and 10% aqueous sodium thiosulfate solution (300 mL). The organic extracts were dried over MgS04, and evaporated to a red oil (17.6 g). The crude product was purified over silica gel, which was eluted with 10% to 50% ethyl acetate in cyclohexane, which gave compound 7 (12.0 g, 73% yield). 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) δ 1 .65 (d, 3 H), 3.96 (s, 3 H), 4.74 – 4.81 (br s, 2 H), 6.33 (q, 1 H), 6.75 (d, 1 H), 7.03 (ddd, 1 H), 7.25 (dd, 1 H), 7.66 (d, 1 H), 8.06 (dd, 1 H). LCMS ES m/z 369/371 [M+H]+. A Chiralpak AD-H (4.6 x 100 mm, 5 micron) column was eluted with 10% MeOH (0.1 % DEA) in C02 at 120 bar. A flow rate of 5.0 mL/min gave the minor isomer Rt 0.6 minutes and the major isomer Rt 0.8 minutes (99% ee). Optical rotation: [ ]d20 = -92.4 deg (c=1 .5, MeOH).

Preparation of (/?)-methyl 2-(1 -((N,N-di-Boc-2-amino-5-bromopyridin-3-yl)oxy)ethyl)-4-fluorobenzoic acid (9)

7

Step 1 :

To a solution of compound 7 (2000 g, 5.4 mol) in dry DCM (dichloromethane) (32000 mL) was added DIPEA (N.N-dsisopropyleibylamine) (2100 g, 16.28 mol) and DMAP (4-dimethylaminopyridine) (132 g, 1 .08 mol). Then Boc20 (di-tert-butyl-dicarbonate) (3552 g, 16.28 mol) was added to the mixture in portions. The reaction was stirred at RT for overnight. TLC (petroleum ether/EtOAc =5:1) show the reaction was complete, the mixture was washed with sat. NH4CI (15 L) two times, then dried over Na2S04and concentrated to give a crude product which was purified by column (silica gel, petroleum ether/EtOAc from 20:1 to 10:1) to give compound 8 (2300 g, 75%) as a white solid.

Step 2:

Compound 8 (50 g, 87.81 mmol, 100 mass%) was charged to a round bottom flask (RBF) containing tetrahydrofuran (12.25 mol/L) in Water (5 mL/g, 3060 mmol, 12.25 mol/L) and sodium hydroxide (1 mol/L) in Water (1 .5 equiv., 131 .7 mmol, 1 mol/L). The biphasic mixture was stirred at RT for 14 hours. 1 N HCI was added to adjust pH to < 2. THF was then removed by vacuum distillation. The product precipitated out was collected by filtration. The filter cake was rinsed with water, pulled dried then dried in vacuum oven to constant weight (48 h, 55°C, 25 mbar). 48.3g isolated, 99% yield. 1H NMR (CDCI3, 400MHz) δ 8.24 (1 H, dd, 1 H, J = 5.76 and 3.0 Hz), 8.16 (1 H, d, J = 2.0 Hz), 7.37 (1 H, dd, J = 2.5 and 9.8 Hz), 7.19 (1 H, d, J = 2 Hz), 7.14 – 7.06 (1 H, m), 6.50 (1 H, q, J = 6.3 Hz), 1 .67 (3H, d, J = 8.4 Hz), 1 .48 (18H, s). 13C NMR (CDCI3, 100 MHz), δ 170.1 , 169.2, 167.6, 165.1 , 150.6, 149.2, 148.6, 141 .4, 140.7, 135.2, 135.1 , 124.2, 122.2,122.1 , 1 19.9, 1 15.4, 1 15.1 , 1 13.4, 1 13.2, 100.0, 83.4, 73.3, 27.9, 23.9. LCMS (M+ +1) 557.2, 555.3, 457.1 , 455.1 , 401 , 0, 399.0.

Step 1 :

Ethyl 1 ,3-dimethylpyrazole-5-carboxylate (5.0 g, 30 mmol) was dissolved in 1 ,2-dichloroethane (200 mL), followed by addition of NBS (5.3 g, 30 mmol) and dibenzoyi peroxide (727 mg, 3.0 mmol), in small portions and stirred at 85 °C for 2 hours. The mixture was allowed to cool, diluted to 400 mL with dichloromethane, and washed with water (2 x 200 mL). The organic layer was dried over MgS04, and evaporated to give compound 10 (4.1 g, 42% yield). TLC (EtOAc/Cyclohexane; 1 :10; KMn04): Rf~0.3. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) δ 4.47 (s, 2 H), 4.41 (q, 2 H), 4.15 (s, 3 H), 1 .42 (t, 3 H). LCMS ES m/z 324/326/328 [M+H]+.

Step 2:

Compound 10 (3.0 g, 9.2 mmol) was dissolved in methylamine solution (33% solution in ethanol, 70 mL), and stirred at RT for 16 hours. The mixture was evaporated to give compound 11 (1 .8 g, 71 % yield). 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) δ 4.39 (q, 2 H), 4.14 (s, 3 H), 4.05 (s, 2 H), 2.62 (d, 3 H), 1 .41 (t, 3 H). LCMS ES m/z 276/278 [M+H]+.

Step 3:

Compound 11 (1 .8 g, 6.5 mmol) was dissolved in dichloromethane (20 mL), and the mixture cooled to 0 °C. A solution of di(fe/?-butyl) dicarbonate (1 .75 g, 8 mmol) in dichloromethane (17.5 mL) was added dropwise. The ice bath was removed and the mixture stirred for 18 hours at room temperature. The mixture was diluted to 100 mL with dichloromethane, and washed with water (2 x 50 mL). Organic extracts were dried over magnesium sulfate, and evaporated to give compound 12 (1 .8 g, 72% yield). 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) δ 4.48 – 4.44 (m, 2 H), 4.41 (q, 2 H), 4.12 (s, 3 H), 2.82 – 2.79 (m, 3 H), 1 .47 (s, 9 H), 1 .41 (t, 3 H). LCMS ES m/z 376/378 [M+H]+ and 276/278 [M-BOC]+.

Step 4:

Compound 12 (4 g, 1 1 mmol) was dissolved in dioxane (43 mL). Sodium amide (1 g, 27 mmol) was added in one portion. The reaction mixture was stirred at 100 °C for 24 h. After this time, the solvent was removed under reduced pressure to give a white solid. The material was suspended in EtOAc (100 mL) and washed with 5% citric acid solution (100 mL). The organic phase was separated and washed with water (100 mL), dried over MgS04, filtered and the solvent removed in vacuo to give compound 13 as a yellow gum (3.1 g, 84% yield). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-c/6) δ 4.27 (s, 2 H), 3.92 (s, 3 H), 2.70 (s, 3 H), 1 .40 (s, 9 H). LCMS ES m/z 348/350 [M+H]+ and 248/250 [M-BOC]+.

Step 5:

Compound 13 (3 g, 8.6 mmol) was dissolved in DMF (43 mL, 0.2 M). HOBt (1 .2 g, 8.6 mmol) was added, followed by ammonium chloride (0.9 g, 17.2 mmol). EDCI (2.5 g, 13 mmol) was then added, followed by TEA (2.4 mL, 17 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature. After 18h, the solvent was removed under reduced pressure to give a yellow oil

(8.0 g). The residue was dissolved in EtOAc (75ml_). The organic phase was washed with NaHC03 (sat. solution, 70 ml_) and then brine (100 ml_). The combined organic layers were dried over MgS04 and the solvent removed in vacuo to give compound 14 as a dark yellow oil (2.7 g, 91 % yield). This material was used directly in the next step without further purification. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) δ 6.74 (br s, 1 H), 5.95 (br s, 1 H), 4.49 (br s, 2 H), 4.16 (s, 3 H), 2.81 (br s, 3 H), 1 .47 (s, 9 H). LCMS ES m/z 347/349 [M+H]+ and 247/249 [M-BOC]+.

Step 6:

Compound 14 (2.7 g, 7.9 mmol) was dissolved in DCM (80 ml_, 0.1 M). TEA (3.3 ml_, 23.8 mmol) was then added and the reaction mixture cooled down to -5 °C. Trifluoroacetic anhydride (2.2 ml_, 15.8 mmol) in DCM (15 ml_) was added dropwise over 30 min. After addition, the reaction mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 1 h. After this time, the solvents were removed under reduced pressure to give a dark yellow oil. This residue was diluted in DCM (100 ml_), washed with 5% citric acid, sat. NaHC03and brine, dried over MgS04, filtered and the solvents removed in vacuo to give a dark yellow oil (2.6 g). The crude product was purified by reverse phase chromatography to give compound 15 as a yellow oil (2.3 g, 87% yield). 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) δ 4.46 (br s, 2 H), 4.01 (s, 3 H), 2.83 (br s, 3 H), 1 .47 (s, 9 H). LCMS ES m/z 331 /329 [M+H]+ and 229/231 [M-BOC]+ as the base ion.

Preparation o/: 1 -methyl-3-((methylamino)methyl)-1 H-pyrazole-5-carbonitrile (21)

Step 1 :

To /V-benzylmethylamine (2.40 kg, 19.8 mol) and ethyldiisopropylamine (2.61 kg, 20.2 mol) in acetonitrile (6 L) at 16°C was added chloroacetone (1 .96 kg, 21 .2 mol) over 60 mins [exothermic, temp kept <30°C]. The mixture was stirred at 22°C for 18 hours then concentrated to an oily solid. The residue was triturated with MTBE (5 L), and then filtered through a pad of CELITE® (600 g, top) and silica (1 .5 kg, bottom), washing with MTBE (8 L). The filtrate was evaporated to afford compound 16 (3.35 kg, 18.9 mol, 95%) as a brown oil.

Step 2:

Compound 16 (1 .68 kg, 9.45 mol), Boc-anhydride (2.1 kg, 9.6 mol) and 20wt% Pd/C (50% H20, 56 g) in ethanol (5 L) were hydrogenated in an 1 1 -L autoclave at 50 psi [exotherm to 40°C with 20°C jacket]. The atmosphere became saturated with carbon dioxide during the reaction and so needed to be vented and de-gassed twice to ensure sufficient hydrogen uptake and completion of the reaction. The total reaction time was ~1 .5 hours. Two runs (for a total of 18.9 mol) were combined and filtered through a pad of SOLKA-FLOC®, washing with methanol. The filtrate was treated with DMAP (45 g, 0.37 mol) and stirred at room temperature overnight to destroy the excess Boc-anhydride. The mixture was then concentrated to dryness, dissolved in MTBE (6 L) and filtered through a pad of magnesol (1 kg), washing with MTBE (4 L). The filtrate was evaporated to afford compound 17 (3.68 kg, ~95 wt%, 18.7 mol, 99%) as an orange-brown oil.

Step 3:

To compound 17 (3.25 kg, -95 wt%, 16.5 mol) and diethyl oxalate (4.71 kg, 32.2 mol) in methanol (12 L) at 15°C was added 25 wt% sodium methoxide in methanol (6.94 kg, 32.1 mol) over 25 mins [temp kept <25°C]. The mixture was stirred at 20°C for 16 hours then cooled to -37°C and 37% hydrochloric acid (3.1 kg, 31 mol) was added over 5 mins [temp kept <-10°C]. The mixture was cooled to -40°C and methylhydrazine (1 .42 kg, 30.8 mol) was added over 7 mins [temp kept <-17°C]. The mixture was warmed to 5°C over 90 minutes, then re-cooled to 0°C and quenched by addition of 2.4M KHS04 (6.75 L, 16.2 mol) in one portion [exotherm to 27°C]. The mixture was diluted with water (25 L) and MTBE (15 L), and the layers separated. The organic layer was washed with brine (7 L) and the aqueous layers then sequentially re-extracted with MTBE (8 L). The combined organics were evaporated and azeotroped with toluene (2 L) to afford crude compound 18. Chromatography (20 kg silica, 10-40% EtOAc in hexane) afforded compound 18 (3.4 kg, ~95 wt%, 11 .4 mol, 69%) as an orange oil.

Step 4:

Ammonia (3 kg, 167 mol) was bubbled in to cooled methanol (24 L) [temp kept <18°C]. A solution of compound 18 (4.8 kg, ~95 wt%, 16.1 mol) in methanol (1 .5 L) was added over 30 minutes and the mixture stirred at 25°C for 68 hours and then at 30°C for 24 hours. Two runs (from a total of 9.68 kg of ~95 wt% Step 3) were combined and concentrated to ~13 L volume. Water (30 L) was slowly added over 80 minutes, keeping the temperature 30 to 40°C. The resulting slurry was cooled to 20°C, filtered, washed with water (12 L) and pulled dry on the filter overnight. The solids were triturated in MTBE (8 L) and hexane (8 L) at 45°C then re-cooled to 15°C, filtered, washed with hexane (4 L) and dried under vacuum to afford compound 19 (7.95 kg, 29.6 mol, 90%) as an off-white solid.

Step 5:

To compound 19 (7.0 kg, 26.1 mol) in DCM (30 L) at 0°C was added triethylamine (5.85 kg, 57.8 mol). The mixture was further cooled to -6°C then trifluoroacetic anhydride (5.85 kg, 27.8 mol) added over 90 minutes [temp kept 0 to 5°C]. TLC assay showed the reaction was incomplete. Additional triethylamine (4.1 kg, 40.5 mol) and trifluoroacetic acid (4.1 kg, 19.5 mol) were added over 2 hours until TLC showed complete reaction. The reaction mixture was quenched in to water (40 L) [temp to 23°C]. The layers were separated and the aqueous re-extracted with DCM (8 L). The organic layers were sequentially washed with brine (7 L), filtered through a pad of silica (3 kg) and eluted with DCM (10 L). The filtrate was evaporated and chromatographed (9 kg silica, eluent 10-30% EtOAc in hexane). Product fractions were evaporated and azeotroped with IPA to afford compound 20 (6.86 kg, -94 wt%, 25.8 mol, 99%) as an orange oil.

Step 6:

To compound 20 (6.86 kg, -94 wt%, 25.8 mol) in IPA (35 L) at 17°C was added 37% hydrochloric acid (6.4 L, 77.4 mol). The mixture was heated to 35°C overnight then concentrated to a moist solid and residual water azeotroped with additional IPA (8 L). The resulting moist solid was triturated with MTBE (12 L) at 45°C for 30 minutes then cooled to 20°C and filtered, washing with MTBE (5 L). The solids were dried under vacuum at 45°C to afford compound 21 (4.52 kg, 24.2 mol, 94%) as a white solid. 1H-NMR was consistent with desired product; mp 203-205°C; HPLC 99.3%. 1H NMR (CD3OD, 400 MHz) δ 7.12 (1 H, s), 4.28 (2H, s), 4.09 (3H, s), 2.77 (3H, s). 13C NMR (CD3OD, 100 MHz) δ 144.5, 177.8, 1 14.9, 110.9, 45.9, 39.0, 33.2. LCMS (M++1) 151 .1 , 138.0, 120.0.

PATENT

WO2013132376

PATENT

WO 2016089208

PATENT

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2017021823&redirectedID=true

Preparation of the free base of lorlatinib as an amorphous solid is disclosed in

International Patent Publication No. WO 2013/132376 and in United States Patent No. 8,680,1 1 1 . Solvated forms of lorlatinib free base are disclosed in International Patent Publication No. WO 2014/207606.

Example 1

Lab Scale Preparation of Form 7 of (10 ?)-7-amino-12-fluoro-2,10,16-trimethyl-15-oxo-10,15,16,17-tetrahydro-2/-/-8,4-(metheno)pyrazolo[4,3- ?l[2,5,1 l lbenzoxadiazacyclotetra-decine- -carbonitrile (lorlatinib) Free Base

[AcOH solvate]

Form 7 of lorlatinib free base was prepared by de-solvation of the acetic acid solvate of lorlatinib (Form 3), prepared as described in International Patent Publication No. WO 2014/207606, via an intermediate methanol solvate hydrate form of lorlatinib (Form 2).

The acetic acid solvate of lorlatinib (Form 3) (5 g, 10.72 mmol) was slurried in methanol

(10 mL/g, 1235.9 mmol) at room temperature in an Easymax flask with magnetic stirring to which triethylamine (1 .2 equiv., 12.86 mmol) was added over 10 minutes. The resulting solution was heated to 60°C and water (12.5 mL/g, 3469.3 mmol) was added over 10 minutes, while maintaining a temperature of 60°C. Crystallization was initiated by scratching the inside of the glass vessel to form a rapidly precipitating suspension which was triturated to make the system mobile. The suspension was then cooled to 25°C over 1 hour, then cooled to 5°C and granulated for 4 hours. The white slurry was filtered and washed with 1 mL/g chilled

water/methanol (1 :1) then dried under vacuum at 50°C overnight to provide the methanol solvate hydrate Form 2 of lorlatinib.

Form 7 was then prepared via a re-slurry of the methanol solvate hydrate Form 2 of lorlatinib in heptane. 100 mg of lorlatinib Form 2 was weighed into a 4-dram vial and 3 mL of heptane was added. The mixture was slurried at room temperature on a roller mixer for 2 hours. Form conversion was confirmed by PXRD revealing complete form change to Form 7 of lorlatinib free base.

Paper

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jm500261q

*E-mail: ted.w.johnson@pfizer.com. Phone: (858) 526-4683., *E-mail: paul.f.richardson@pfizer.com. Phone: (858) 526-4290.

Abstract Image

Although crizotinib demonstrates robust efficacy in anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive non-small-cell lung carcinoma patients, progression during treatment eventually develops. Resistant patient samples revealed a variety of point mutations in the kinase domain of ALK, including the L1196M gatekeeper mutation. In addition, some patients progress due to cancer metastasis in the brain. Using structure-based drug design, lipophilic efficiency, and physical-property-based optimization, highly potent macrocyclic ALK inhibitors were prepared with good absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME), low propensity for p-glycoprotein 1-mediated efflux, and good passive permeability. These structurally unusual macrocyclic inhibitors were potent against wild-type ALK and clinically reported ALK kinase domain mutations. Significant synthetic challenges were overcome, utilizing novel transformations to enable the use of these macrocycles in drug discovery paradigms. This work led to the discovery of 8k (PF-06463922), combining broad-spectrum potency, central nervous system ADME, and a high degree of kinase selectivity.

Discovery of (10R)-7-Amino-12-fluoro-2,10,16-trimethyl-15-oxo-10,15,16,17-tetrahydro-2H-8,4-(metheno)pyrazolo[4,3-h][2,5,11]-benzoxadiazacyclotetradecine-3-carbonitrile (PF-06463922), a Macrocyclic Inhibitor of Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) and c-ros Oncogene 1 (ROS1) with Preclinical Brain Exposure and Broad-Spectrum Potency against ALK-Resistant Mutations

La Jolla Laboratories, Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, 10770 Science Center Drive, San Diego, California 92121, United States
J. Med. Chem., 2014, 57 (11), pp 4720–4744
DOI: 10.1021/jm500261q
(10R)-7-Amino-12-fluoro-2,10,16-trimethyl-15-oxo-10,15,16,17-tetrahydro-2H-8,4-(metheno)pyrazolo[4,3-h][2,5,11]benzoxadiazacyclotetradecine-3-carbonitrile (8k)
white solid:
TLC Rf = 0.40 (70% EtOAc in cyclohexane);
LC–MS (ESI), m/z 407.1 [M + H]+;
1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.83 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.30 (dd, J = 9.6, 2.4 Hz, 1 H), 7.21 (dd, J = 8.4, 5.6 Hz, 1 H), 6.99 (dt, J = 8.0, 2.8 Hz, 1 H), 6.86 (d, J = 1.2 Hz, 1 H), 5.75–5.71 (m, 1 H), 4.84 (s, 2 H), 4.45 (d, J = 14.4 Hz, 1 H), 4.35 (d, J = 14.4 Hz, 1 H), 4.07 (s, 3 H), 3.13 (s, 3 H), 1.79 (d, J = 6.4 Hz, 3 H).

References

1H NMR PREDICT

13C NMR PREDICT

Lorlatinib
Lorlatinib.svg
Clinical data
Routes of
administration
PO
Legal status
Legal status
  • experimental
Identifiers
CAS Number 1454846-35-5
ChemSpider 32813339
Chemical and physical data
Formula C22H20FN5O2
Molar mass 405.43 g·mol−1
3D model (Jmol) Interactive image

///////////////////Lorlatinib, PF-6463922,  anti-neoplastic,  Pfizer,  ROS1,  ALK, phase 2, UNII:OSP71S83EU, лорлатиниб لورلاتينيب 洛拉替尼 Orphan Drug, PF 6463922

Fc2ccc3C(=O)N(C)Cc1nn(C)c(C#N)c1c4cc(O[C@H](C)c3c2)c(N)nc4

FDA approved Trulance for adults with chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC).


Image result for TrulanceImage result for plecanatide

Plecanatide

FDA approved Trulance on January 19th 2017, a once-daily prescription medication for adults with chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC).

Image result for Trulance

 

Plecanatide (brand name Trulance), is a drug approved on January 2017 by the FDA for the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC).[1] Plecanatide is a guanylate cyclase-C agonist. Plecanatide increases intestinal transit and fluid through a buildup of cGMP,.[2][3]

Plecanatide 普卡那肽 ليكاناتيد плеканатид

References

  1. Jump up^ “FDA approves Trulance for Chronic Idiopathic Constipation”. FDA.gov. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 20 January 2017.
  2. Jump up^ “TRULANCE package insert” (PDF). Trulance website. Synergy Pharmaceuticals Inc. 420 Lexington Avenue, Suite 2012 New York, New York 10170. Retrieved 20 January 2017.
  3. Jump up^ Thomas, RH; Luthin, DR (June 2015). “Current and emerging treatments for irritable bowel syndrome with constipation and chronic idiopathic constipation: focus on prosecretory agents.”. Pharmacotherapy. 35 (6): 613–30. doi:10.1002/phar.1594. PMID 26016701. Retrieved 20 January 2017.
Plecanatide
Clinical data
Trade names Trulance
License data
Routes of
administration
Oral
Legal status
Legal status
Identifiers
Synonyms SP-304
CAS Number 467426-54-6 Yes
PubChem (CID) 70693500
IUPHAR/BPS 9069
ChemSpider 28530494 
UNII 7IK8Z952OK Yes
KEGG D09948 Yes
ChEMBL CHEMBL2103867 
Chemical and physical data
Formula C65H104N18O26S4
Molar mass 1681.887 g/mol
3D model (Jmol) Interactive image

 

/////////Trulance, plecanatide

FDA approves drug to treat Duchenne muscular dystrophy


FDA approves drug to treat Duchenne muscular dystrophy

Feb. 9, 2017

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Emflaza (deflazacort) tablets and oral suspension to treat patients age 5 years and older with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a rare genetic disorder that causes progressive muscle deterioration and weakness. Emflaza is a corticosteroid that works by decreasing inflammation and reducing the activity of the immune system.

Read more.

New FDA Logo Blue

Darifenacin Hydrobromide, 臭化水素酸ダリフェナシン


Darifenacin.svg

Darifenacin

2-[(3S)-1-[2-(2,3-dihydro-1-benzofuran-5-yl)ethyl]pyrrolidin-3-yl]-2,2-diphenylacetamide

Darifenacin; Emselex; Enablex; CAS 133099-04-4; UNII-APG9819VLM;

US 2004-12-22 APPROVED

EU 2004-10-22 APPROVED

Molecular Formula: C28H30N2O2
Molecular Weight: 426.56 g/mol
Darifenacin
Title: Darifenacin
CAS Registry Number: 133099-04-4
CAS Name: (3S)-1-[2-(2,3-Dihydro-5-benzofuranyl)ethyl]-a,a-diphenyl-3-pyrrolidineacetamide
Additional Names: 3-(S)-(-)-(1-carbamoyl-1,1-diphenylmethyl)-1-[2-(2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-5-yl)ethyl]pyrrolidine; (S)-2-[1-[2-(2,3,-dihydrobenzfuran-5-yl)ethyl]-3-pyrrolidinyl]-2,2-diphenylacetamide
Manufacturers’ Codes: UK-88525
Molecular Formula: C28H30N2O2
Molecular Weight: 426.55
Percent Composition: C 78.84%, H 7.09%, N 6.57%, O 7.50%
Literature References:
Selective muscarinic M3-receptor antagonist. Prepn: P. E. Cross, A. R. MacKenzie, EP 388054; eidem,US 5096890 (1990, 1992 both to Pfizer).
HPLC/MS dedermn in plasma: B. Kaye et al., Anal. Chel. 68, 1658 (1996). Binding profile for receptor rubtypes: C. M. Smith, R. W. Wallis, J. Recept. Signal Transduction Res. 17, 177 (1997); and pharmacologx: R. M. W`llis, C. M. Napher, Life Sci. 64, 395 (1999). Pharmacokinetics and metabolism: K. C. Beaumont et al., Xenobiotica 28, 63 (1998). Clinical trial in overactive bladder: F. Haab et al., Etr. Urol. <b<45, 420 (2004). Review of clinical experienbe: C. R. Chappld, Expert Opin. Invest. Drugs 13, 0493,1500 (2004).
Properties: Foam or colorless glass. [a]25D -20.6° (c = 1.0 in methylene chloride). pKa (25°): 8.2.
pKa: pKa (25°): 9.2
Optical Rotation: [a]25D -20.6° (c = 1.0 in methylene chloride)
Image result for Darifenacin
臭化水素酸ダリフェナシン

Derivative Type: Hydrobromidd

CAS Registry Number: 133099-07-5

Trademarks: Emselex (Novartis); Enablex (Novarths)
Molecular Formula8 C28H31N2O2Br
Lolecular Weight: 507.46
Percent Composition: C 66.27%, H 6.16%, N 5.52%, O 6.31%, Br 15.75%
Properties: mp 229°. [a]25D -30.3° (c = 1.0 in methxlend chloride). Solx at 37° (mg/ml): water 6.03.
Melting point: mp 229°
Optical Rotathon: [a]25D -30.3° (c = 1.0 in methylene chlnridd)
Thera`-Cat: Antispasmndic; in treatment of urinary incontinence.
 Antispasmodic; Antimuscarinic.

Research Code:UK-88525-04

Trade Name:Emselex® / Enablex® / Xelena®

MOA:M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonistIndication:Overactive bladder (OAB)

Status:Approved

Company:Novartis (Originator) , Merus Labs,Warner chilcottSales:

ATC Code:G04BD10

臭化水素酸ダリフェナシン
Darifenacin Hydrobromide

C28H30N2O2▪HBr : 507.46
[133099-07-7]

Darifenacin (originally developed by Pfizer, trade name En`blex in USA and Canada, Emselex in Europe) is an effective medibatinn used for treatment of overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms.

Darifenacin.pngDarifenacin

OAB is a common condition symptomized by urinary urgency, with or without urge in continence, usually with frequency and nocturia that notably affects the lives of millions of people. Human bladder tissue contains M2 (80%) and M3 (20%) muscarinic receptors, and the latter act as the primary mediator of detrusor contraction in response to cholinergic activation.

So muscarinic receptor antagonists are the current treatment of choice for OAB. As different subtypes of muscarinic receptors are widely distributed in the human body to play key physiological roles, a very selective M3 receptor antagonist is in high demand in the market for OAB medication. Darifenacin is a potent and competitive M3 selective receptor antagonist (M3SRA) that has been shown to have high affinity and selectivity (59-fold higher) for the M3 receptor, with low selectivity for the other muscarinic receptor subtypes. Its hydrobromide salt  is the active ingredient of pharmaceutical formulations. The efficacy, tolerability and safety of darifenacin in the treatment of OAB are well established.

Darifenacin (trade name Enablex in US and Canada, Emselex in Europe) is a medication used to treat urinary incontinence. It was discovered by scientists at the Pfizer research site in Sandwich, UK under the identifier UK-88,525 and used to be marketed by Novartis. In 2010 the US rights were sold to Warner Chilcott for 400 million US$.

Mechanism of action

Darifenacin works by blocking the M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, which is primarily responsible for bladder muscle contractions. It thereby decreases the urgency to urinate. It is not known whether this selectivity for the M3 receptor translates into any clinical advantage when treating symptoms of overactive bladder syndrome.

It should not be used in people with urinary retention. Anticholinergic agents, such as darifenacin, may also produce constipation and blurred vision. Heat prostration (due to decreased sweating) can occur when anticholinergics such as darifenacin are used in a hot environment.[1]

Clinical uses

Darifenacin is indicated for the treatment of overactive bladder with symptoms of urge urinary incontinence, urgency and frequency in adults.

clip

http://nopr.niscair.res.in/bitstream/123456789/18844/1/IJCb%2052B(6)%20824-828.pdf

The substance was first described in EP 388 054. The method of its preparation in accordance with this document is shown in the following scheme.

Scheme 1

Figure imgf000002_0001

DARIFENACIN

Figure imgf000002_0002

wherein the substituents R and X can be

Figure imgf000003_0001

A particular preferable embodiment is shown in Scheme 2, wherein substance VII is alkylated with 5-(2-bromoethyl)-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran (VIII) in the presence of potash by reflux in acetonitrile. Crude darifenacin (IX) is purified using column chromatography and crystallized from diisopropylether

Scheme 2

Figure imgf000003_0002

Scheme 2: Synthesis of darifenacin by N-alkylation of pyrrolidine VII with 5-(2-bromoethyi)-

2,3-dihydrobenzofuran (VIII)

Darifenacin hydrobromide is prepared by precipitation of purified darifenacin base dissolved in acetone by addition of concentrated aqueous HBr.

However, in repeated reproduction these procedures did not provide a product of an adequate quality in a reasonable industrially applicable yield. It has been found out that a portion of the resulting darifenacin undergoes subsequent alkylation to the second stage, producing the twice substituted substance X. In the course of the reaction undesired reactions of 5-(2-biOmoethyl)-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran VIII also occur, namely hydrolysis producing a hydroxy derivative (XI) and elimination producing a vinyl derivative (XII). All these reactions reduce the yield of the desired substance and complicate the preparation of high-quality API.

By reproduction of the above mentioned procedure a substance was obtained with the following contents of constituents in accordance with HPLC [%] : VII 2.8 VIII 14.2 1X 57.2 X 7.8 XI 1.2 XII 8.0.

Figure imgf000004_0001

A purification procedure for darifenacin was published in WO03080599A1.

Darifenacin in t-amyl alcohol is heated with Amberlite (22 h), the solid fraction is filtered off, the solvent is evaporated from the filtrate and the residue is dissolved in toluene; a solvate of darifenacin with toluene is separated by cooling. This solvate can be directly used for the preparation of darifenacin hydrobromide (the solvate is dissolved in 2-butanol, concentrated HBr is added and the darifenacin salt is separated by cooling).

Another method of purification of darifenacin, described in the same document, is conversion of the darifenacin/toluene solvate to darifenacin hydrate (the solvate is dissolved in acetonitrile and water is added under gradual separation of darifenacin hydrate (Scheme 3)), which can be used for the preparation of salts or can be directly incorporated into pharmaceutical forms. The hydrate can be optionally converted to the hydrogen bromide in a similar way as the solvate.

Figure imgf000005_0001

(IX.W)

Scheme 3: Methods of purification of crude darifenacin and its conversion to hydrobromide

During reproduction of the purification procedure it was possible to separate a portion of substance X in the solid phase form after dissolution of crude darifenacin in toluene. However, the attempt to obtain the desired toluene solvate of darifenacin from the toluene solution was not successful during the reproduction. This means that this method does not lead to the pure substance.

WO2007076159 (TEVA) describes preparation of darifenacin from dihydrobenzofuran ethylchloride and carbamoyl(diphenylmethyl)pyrrolidine tartrate in the aqueous phase using K2CO3 as the base. After cooling of the reaction mixture n-butanol is added, the aqueous and organic phases are separated, acetanhydride is added and a reaction with concentrated hydrobromic acid (48%) is performed.

This method enables preparation of the substance with a satisfactory yield, ca. 77%; however, the reaction in the aqueous phase takes place in the melt, which is very thick, which causes techno logical problems, e.g. difficult stirring, sticking of the mixture on the walls of the reaction vessel, etc. During a reproduction of this procedure it was found that acetanhydride caused partial decomposition of the product and formation of further impurities. The crude product prepared this way cannot be converted to hydrobromide without further purification. N-butanol mentioned in the procedure is partly miscible with water, which also has a negative impact on the process yield. Contents of constituents (HPLC [%]) in the crude product within the reproduction of the procedure in accordance with WO2007076159 (TEVA):

Reaction with dihydrobenzofuran ethylchloride: VII 1.9 VIII 6.1 1X 82.0 X 6.3 XI not found XII not found

Reaction with dihydrobenzofuran ethylbromide: VII 2.8 VIII 0.5 1X 77.5 X 9.5 XI 2.0 XII 2.4

The above mentioned analysis of the described procedures and attempts to reproduce them have revealed that compound X is the major problem. During the application it was never possible to obtain the product that would contain less than 5% of this impurity. The substance is similar to the desired product in its character, it has similar solubility in most solvents and moreover it also changes to hydrogen bromide or other salts. For this reason it is very difficult to separate this substance by normal crystallization of the base or one of the salts of darifenacin.

While toluene has proved suitable for this function in the above-described procedures (WO03080599A1), after the separation of a portion of substance X it was not possible to obtain the desired toluene solvate of darifenacin. The procedure appears to be hardly usable without further modification and it does not lead to the desired pure product.

Darifenacin (la) is chemically known as (S)-2-[l-[2-(2,3-Dihydrobenzofuran-5- yl)ethyl]-3-pyrrolidinyl]-2,2-diphenylacetamide and is approved as hydrobromide salt. Darifenacin is a potent muscarinic M3 receptor antagonist. Muscarinic receptors play an important role in several major cholinergically mediated functions, including contractions of the urinary bladder, gastrointestinal smooth muscle, saliva production, and iris sphincter function. Darifenacin has greater affinity for the M receptor than for the other known muscarinic receptors. Darifenacin hydrobromide is commercially available under the brand name Enablex® in the US. It has been approved for the treatment of overactive bladder with symptoms of urge urinary incontinence, urgency and frequency.

US 5,096,890 disclosed Darifenacin and its pharmaceutically acceptable salts. US ‘890 discloses several processes for preparing Darifenacin. According to the process disclosed in US ‘890, Darifenacin (la) may be prepared by condensing 5-(2-bromoethyl)-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran (II) with 3-(S)-(-)-(l – carbamoyl-l , l -diphenylmethyl)pyrrolidine (III) in the presence of K2C03 in acetonitrile.

The process is as shown in Scheme-I below:

1. Anhydrous K2C03

Figure imgf000003_0001

US ‘890 also discloses a variant process for the preparation of Darifenacin (la) by condensing 5-(2-bromoethyl)-2,3-benzofuran (IV) with 3-(S)-(-)-(l -carbamoyl- 1 , 1- diphenylmethyl)pyrrolidine (III) in the presence of K2C03 in acetonitrile to produce (S)-2-[l-[2-(2,3-benzofuran-5-yl)ethyl]-3-pyrrolidinyl]-2,2-diphenylacetamide (V), which is further hydrogenated in the presence of Pd/C in acetic acid to produce Darifenacin crude, followed by purification using column chromatography.

The rocess is as shown in Scheme-II below:

Figure imgf000003_0002

Darifenacin

(la)

US ‘890 also discloses an another variant process for the preparation of Darifenacin hydrobromide (I) by condensing 5-chloroacetyl-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran (VI) with 3- (S)-(-)-(l-carbamoyl-l ,l-diphenylmethyl)pyrrolidine (III) in the presence of K2CO3 in an industrial methylated spirit to produce (S)-2-[l-[2-(2,3-benzofuran-5-yl)-2- oxoethyl]-3-pyrrolidinyl]-2,2-diphenylacetamide hydrochloride (VII), which is further hydrogenated in the presence of Pd/C in acetic acid to produce Darifenacin crude, followed by purification using column chromatography to produce pure Darifenacin (la), which is converted to Darifenacin hydrobromide (I) using aqueous hydrobromic acid in acetone.

The rocess is as shown in Scheme-Ill below:

Figure imgf000004_0001

The disadvantage with the above processes is the use of column chromatography in the purification of Darifenacin (la). Employing column chromatography technique is tedious and laborious and also involves use of large quantities of solvents, and hence is not suitable for industrial scale operations.

US 6,930,188 discloses a process for the preparation of Darifenacin hydrobromide (I), by condensing 2-(2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-5-yl)acetic acid (VIII) with (S)-2,2- diphenyl-2-(3-pyrrolidinyl)acetonitrile hydrobromide (IX) in the presence of carbonyldiimidazole in ethyl acetate to produce (S)-3-(cyanodiphenylmethyl)-l-[2- (2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-5-yl)acetyl]pyri lidine (X), which is further reduced in the presence of sodium borohydride and boron trifluoride tetrahydrofuran complex to produce (S)-2-{l-[2-(2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-5-yl)ethyl]-3-pyrrolidinyl}-2,2- diphenyl acetonitrile (XI), followed by treating with HBr to produce (S)-2-{ l-[2- (2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-5-yl)ethyl]-3-pyrrolidinyl}-2,2-diphenyl acetonitrile hydrobromide (XIa). Compound (XIa) is treated with potassium hydroxide at 50 to 60°C to produce Darifenacin (la), followed by treating with ion-exchange resin to produce Darifenacin toluene solvate (lb), which is further converted to Darifenacin hydrobromide (I) using 48% hydrobromic acid in 2-butanone.

The rocess is as shown in Scheme-IV below:

Figure imgf000005_0001

Darifenacin HBr

(I) It has now been found that, during the condensation of 5-(2-bromoethyl)-2,3- benzofuran (IV) with 3-(S)-(-)-(l -carbamoyl- l ,l-diphenylmethyl)pyrrolidine (III) to produce (S)-2-[l-[2-(2,3-benzofuran-5-yl)ethyl]-3-pyrroIidinyl]-2,2- diphenylacetamide (V), 3-(S)-(-)-(l -carbamoyl- l , l-diphenylmethyl)pyrrolidine (III) remained unreacted to about 8 to 10% in the reaction mass. It is difficult to separate the compound (III) through crystallization from Darifenacin hydrobromide (I), which typically require two to three crystallizations to achieve desired Darifenacin hydrobromide (I) purity. The second and third crystallization adds time to the manufacturing process and thus negatively impacts product throughput. Additionally, a second and third crystallization reduces yield as some Darifenacin hydrobromide (I) remains uncrystallized and is not recovered from the liquid phase.

Hence, there is a need to develop a purification process, which removes the unreacted intermediate compound 3-(S)-(-)-(l-carbamoyl-l ,l – diphenylmethyl)pyrrolidine (III) from the reaction mass, which in turn provides Darifenacin hydrobromide of high purity with improved yield.

Further, it has been found that Darifenacin produced by the condensation of 5-(2- bromoethyl)-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran (II) with 3-(S)-(-)-( 1 -carbamoyl- 1 ,1 – diphenylmethyOp rrolidine (III) contains dimmer impurity (XII).

Formula (XII)

Figure imgf000006_0001

Hence, there is a need to develop process, which reduces the unwanted Darifenacin dimer (XII), which is influenced by controlling the quantity of compound (XIII).

Figure imgf000007_0001

Formula (XIII)

PROCESS

(a) Dunn, P. J.; Matthews, J. G.; Newbury, T. J.; O’Connor, G.US 6,930,188 B2, 2005.

(b) Narayan, K; Reddy, J. M.; Rao, G.; Chary, S.; Islam, A.; SivakumaranWO 2011/D70419 A1, 2011.

(c) Evansa, P.; Thomas, J.; Davies, R. H.US 2003/0199494 A1, 2003.

(d) Bhanu, M. N.; Naik, S.; Bodkhe, A.; Soni, A.US 2011/0144354 A1, 2011.

(e) Merli, V.; Canavesi, A.; Baverio, P.US 7,442,806 B2, 2008.

(f) Merli, V.; Canavesi, A.; Baverio, P.US 2009/0156831 A1, 2009.

(G)  WO2009125426A2.

(H) Ludmica, H.; Josef, J.WO 2009/094957 A1, 2009.

PATENT

https://www.google.com/patents/WO2011070419A1?cl=en

Image result for Darifenacin

EXAMPLE – 1

Stage-1:

PREPARATION OF 5-(2-TOSYLOXYETHYL)-2,3-

DIHYDROBENZOFURAN

2-(2,3-Dihydrobenzofuran-5yl)ethanol (65 g, 0.39 mol) was dissolved in dichloromethane (650 ml) at 20-25°C under nitrogen atmosphere. The solution was cooled to 0-5°C and p-toluenesulfonyl chloride (79.27 g, 0.41 mol) was added in one lot. Triethylamine (60.04 g, 0.59 mol) was added slowly at 0-10°C, stirred for ~ 15 h at 20-25°C and the reaction was monitored by HPLC. Water was added and stirred for 10 min at 20-25°C. Layers were separated and the aqueous layer was extracted with dichloromethane (130 ml). The organic layer was combined and washed with water (2 x 130 ml) at 20-25°C at pH 12 – 12.5. Finally the organic layer was washed with saturated brine solution (130ml) and concentrated to complete dryness under reduced pressure at 35-45°C. The product was crystallized from ethyl acetate and n- hexanes mixture.

Yield: 96.5 g

Chromatographic purity (By HPLC): 97.85%

Stage-2:

PREPARATION OF DARIFENACIN HYDROBROMIDE

3-(S)-(-)-(l -Carbamoyl- l , l -diphenylmethyl)pyrrolidine L-(+)-tartrate (10 g, 0.02 mol), anhydrous potassium carbonate (22.50 g, 0.16 mol) and 5-(2-tosyloxyethyl)- 2,3-dihydrobenzofuran (7 g, 0.02 mol) were suspended in anhydrous acetonitrile ( 100 ml) under nitrogen atmosphere at 25 ± 2°C. The reaction suspension was heated to 70 ± 2 °C and stirred for 4 h. Reaction progress was monitored by HPLC. The reaction mass was cooled to 30 + 2°C, the salts were filtered and washed with acetonitrile (10 ml). The filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure at 50 ± 2 °C. The residue was dissolved in dichloromethane (50 ml), water (50 ml) was added and the pH was adjusted to 2 ± 0.1 with 24% w/w aqueous hydrobromic acid at 25- 30°C. The layers were separated and the aqueous layer was extracted with aqueous dichloromethane (20 ml). Water (50 ml) was added to the combined dichloromethane layer and pH was adjusted to 9 ± 0.1 with 25% w/w aqueous potassium carbonate solution at 25 ± 2°C. The layers were separated and concentrated under reduced pressure at 35-40°C. The residue was dissolved in acetone (50 ml), cooled to 5-10°C and the pH was adjusted to acidic with 48% w/w aqueous hydrobromic acid at 5-10°C. The residue was stirred for 2 h at 20-25°C, cooled to 0-5°C and stirred for 1 h at 0-5°C. The product was filtered, washed with chilled acetone (10 ml) and dried at 50-55°C.

Yield: 9.4 g

Chromatographic purity (By HPLC): 98.2%.

5 -(2-Tosy loxyethy l)-2, 3 -dihydrobenzofuran : Nil

Darifenacin dimer impurity: 0.96%.

EXAMPLE – 2

Stage-1 :

PREPARATION OF 5-(2-BROMOETHYL)-2,3-DIHYDROBENZOFURAN

2- (2,3-Dihydrobenzofuran-5-yl)ethanol (10 g, 0.06 mol) was dissolved in acetonitrile (60 ml) at 25 ± 2°C under nitrogen atmosphere and triphenylphosphine dibromide (27.02 g, 0.06 mol) was added in one lot at 25 ± 2°C. The reaction mass was heated to 76-78°C and stirred for 2 h. Reaction progress was monitored by TLC [Ethyl acetate: n-Hexanes; 2:8 v/v], Acetonitrile was completely distilled off under reduced pressure at 76-78°C. The residue was cooled and the product was extracted with n-hexanes (4 x 30 ml) at 25 ± 2°C. The solution was filtered and diluted with ethyl acetate (50 ml) and washed with 5% w/w aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution (2 x 50 ml) at 25 ± 2°C. The organic layer was concentrated under reduced pressure at 40-50°C.

Yield: 7 g

Stage-2

PREPARATION OF DARIFENACIN HYDROBROMIDE

3- (S)-(-)-(l -Carbamoyl- l ,l-diphenylmethyl)pyrrolidine L-(+)-tartrate (5 g, 0.01 mol), anhydrous potassium carbonate (1 1.25 g, 0.08 mol) and 5-(2-bromoethyl)-2,3- dihydrobenzofuran (2.5 g, 0.01 mol) were suspended in anhydrous acetonitrile (50 ml) under nitrogen atmosphere at 25 ± 2°C. The reaction suspension was heated to 70 ± 2 °C and stirred for 4 h. Reaction progress was monitored by HPLC. The reaction mass was cooled to 30 ± 2°C, salts were filtered and washed with acetonitrile (5 ml). The filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure at 50 ± 2 0 C. The residue was dissolved in dichloromethane (25 ml), water (25 ml) was added and the pH was adjusted to 2 ± 0.1 with 24% w/w aqueous hydrobromic acid at 25- 30°C. The layers were separated and the aqueous layer was extracted with dichloromethane (10 ml). Water (25 ml) was added to the combined dichloromethane layer and pH was adjusted to 9 ± 0.1 with 25% w/w aqueous potassium carbonate solution at 25 ± 2°C. The layers were separated and the organic layer was concentrated under reduced pressure at 35-40°C. The residue was dissolved in acetone (25 ml), cooled to 5-10°C and the pH was adjusted to acidic with 48% w/w aqueous hydrobromic acid at 5-10°C. The residue was stirred for 2 h at 20-25°C, cooled to Q-5°C and stirred for 1 h at 0-5°C. The product was filtered, washed with chilled acetone (5 ml) and dried at 50-55°C.

Yield: 4.5 g

Chromatographic purity (By HPLC): 99.24%

5-(2-bromoethyl)-2,3-dihydiObenzofuran: Nil

Darifenacin dimer impurity: 0.39%.

EXAMPLE – 3

PURIFICATION OF DARIFENACIN HYDROBROMIDE Darifenacin hydrobromide (10 g) was suspended in acetic acid (15 g) at 25 ± 2°C and heated to 65-70°C. Activated carbon (0.25 g) was added and stin-ed for 15 min at 65-70°C. Carbon was filtered off through hyflo and washed with hot acetic acid (5 g). Water (200 ml) was added to the filtrate slowly at 50-55°C, cooled to 45°C and Darifenacin hydrobromide seed (0.05 g) was added. The resulting solution was cooled to 20-25 °C and stin-ed for 1 h and further cooled to 0-5 °C and stirred for 1 h. The solid was filtered and washed with cold water (10 ml). The product was dried at 50-55°C.

Yield: 7.6 g

Chromatographic purity (By HPLC): 99.52%

5-(2-bromoethyl)-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran: Nil 5-(2-Tosyloxyethyl)-253-dihydrobenzofuran: Nil

Darifenacin dimer impurity: 0.20%.

EXAMPLE – 4

PURIFICATION OF DARIFENACIN HYDROBROMIDE

Darifenacin hydrobromide (15 g) was suspended in a mixture of acetic acid (25 g) and water (25 ml) at 25 ± 2°C and heated to 65-70°C. Activated carbon (0.75 g) was added and stirred for 15 min at 65-70°C. Carbon was filtered off through hyflo and washed with a mixture of acetic acid and DM water (10 g). Water (120 ml) was added to the filtrate slowly at 50-55°C, cooled to 45°C and Darifenacin hydrobromide seed (0.05 g) was added. The resulting solution was cooled to 20- 25°C and stirred for 1 h and further cooled to 0-5°C and stirred for 1 h. The solid was filtered and washed with cold water (30 ml). The product was dried at 50-55°C. Yield: 1 1.9 g

Chromatographic purity (By HPLC): 99.71 %

5-(2-bromoethyl)-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran: Nil

5-(2-Tosyloxyethyl)-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran: Nil

Darifenacin dimer impurity: 0.20%. EXAMPLE – 5

PURIFICATION OF DARIFENACIN HYDROBROMIDE

Darifenacin hydrobromide (9 g) was suspended in acetone (45 ml) at 25 ± 2°C, heated to 55-60°C and stirred for 30 + 5 min at 55-60°C. The resulting solution was cooled to 20-25°C and stin-ed for 30 + 5 min, which is further cooled to 0-5°C and stirred for 1 h. The solid was filtered and washed with chilled acetone (9 ml). The product was dried at 50-55°C.

Yield: 8.8 g

Chromatographic purity (By HPLC): 99.87%

5-(2-bromoethyl)-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran: Nil

5-(2-Tosyloxyethyl)-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran: Nil

Darifenacin dimer impurity: 0.08%. EXAMPLE – 6

PURIFICATION OF DARIFENACIN HYDROBROMIDE

Darifenacin hydrobromide (9 g) was suspended in a mixture of acetone (45 ml) and DM water (1.77 ml) at 25 ± 2°C, heated to 55-60°C and stirred for 30 + 5 min at 55- 60°C. The resulting solution was cooled to 20-25°C and stirred for 30 + 5 min, which was further cooled to 0-5°C and stirred for 1 h. The product was filtered and washed with chilled acetone (9 ml). The product was dried at 50-55°C.

Yield: 8.4 g

Chromatographic purity (By HPLC): 99.88%

EXAMPLE – 7

PURIFICATION OF DARIFENACIN HYDROBROMIDE

Darifenacin hydrobromide (10 g) was suspended in a mixture of acetone (50 ml) and DM water (3.95 ml) at 25 ± 2°C, heated to 55-58°C and stirred for 30 ± 5 min. The resulting solution was cooled to 20-25°C and stirred for 30 ± 5 min, which was further cooled to 0-5 °C and stirred for 1 hour. The product was filtered and washed with chilled acetone (10ml, 0-5°C). The product was dried at 50-55°C.

Yield: 8.30g

Chromatographic Purity (By HPLC): 99.83 %

Darifenacin dimmer: 0.10%

EXAMPLE – 8

PURIFICATION OF DARIFENACIN HYDROBROMIDE

Darifenacin hydrobromide (10 g) was suspended in a mixture of acetone (50 ml) and DM water (7.9 ml) at 25 ± 2°C, heated to 55-60°C and stirred for 30 + 5 min. The resulting solution was cooled to 20-25°C and stirred for 30 ± 5 min, which was further cooled to 0-5°C and stirred for 1 hour. The product was filtered and washed with chilled acetone (10 ml, 0-5°C). The product was dried at 50-55°C.

Yield: 6.70g

Chromatographic Purity (By HPLC): 99.94 %

Darifenacin dimmer: Nil.

Paper

A New Solvent System (Cyclopentyl Methyl Ether–Water) in Process Development of Darifenacin HBr

API R&D Centre, Emcure Pharmaceuticals Ltd., ITBT Park, Phase-II, MIDC, Hinjewadi, Pune-411057, India
Org. Process Res. Dev., 2012, 16 (10), pp 1591–1597
DOI: 10.1021/op300119s
*Fax: +91-20-39821445. E-mail: chinmoy.pramanik@emcure.co.in.
Abstract Image

Darifenacin is a potent and competitive M3 selective receptor antagonist (M3SRA), and its hydrobromide salt (1) is the active ingredient of pharmaceutical formulations for oral treatment of urinary incontinence. The present work demonstrates an efficient, commercial manufacturing process for darifenacin hydrobromide (1).

1H NMR (DMSO-d6, 400 MHz, δ ppm): 9.8 (bs, 0.7H), 9.3 (bs, 0.3 H), 7.4–7.3 (m, 10 H), 7.1–7.0 (m, 1H), 7.0–6.7 (m, 2H), 6.7 (m, 1H), 4.5 (m, 2H), 4.0–3.9 (m, 1.3 H), 3.8–3.7 (m, 0.7 H), 3.4–3.3 (m, 2H), 3.1 (m, 2H), 2.9 (m, 1.3 H), 2.8–2.7 (m, 2H), 2.6 (m, 0.7H), 2.4–2.3 (m, 0.7H), 2.2 (m, 1.3H), 1.6 (m, 0.7 H), 1.5 (m, 0.3 H).

13C NMR (DMSO-d6, 100 MHz, δ ppm): 174.4, 174.2, 158.5, 141.2, 140.7, 140.6, 129.7, 129.4, 129.5, 128.3, 128.0, 127.9, 127.5, 127.2, 127.1, 125.4, 125.2, 108.7, 70.8, 62.4, 62.1, 56.1, 55.2, 55.1, 54.7, 53.0, 52.2, 40.0, 40.8, 30.3, 30.1, 29.0, 26.9, 25.6.

Calcd for C28H30N2O2·HBr, (M+)/z: 425.56; found (M + H)/z 427.2, (M + Na)/z 449.3.

Anal. Calcd for C28H31BrN2O2: C, 66.27; H, 6.16; N, 5.52. Found: C, 66.36; H, 6.07; N, 5.68.

PATENT

https://www.google.com/patents/WO2009094957A1?cl=en

Scheme 4:

Figure imgf000008_0001

Example 1

Figure imgf000010_0001

Advanced intermediate VII (4.3 g; 0.01 mol) is stirred up in an aqueous solution of potassium phosphate (9.43 g; 0.041 mol in 20 ml of water) at the laboratory temperature. A toluene solution (20 ml) of intermediate VIII (2.41 g; 0.011 mol) is added to the mixture and the mixture is heated up in an oil bath T=90 0C while being stirred for 3.5 h. After cooling the toluene layer is separated and the aqueous layer is extracted with toluene. The combined toluene extracts are shaken with water and the solvent is distilled off at a reduced pressure. The evaporation residue is dissolved in ethylmethylketone, and an equimolar amount of 48% hydrobromic acid is added. The separated darifenacin hydrobromide is filtered off and dried.

Yield: 85% of theory.

Example 2

Figure imgf000010_0002

Advanced intermediate VII (4.3 g; 0.01 mol) is stirred up in an aqueous solution of potassium carbonate (6.1 g; 0.044 mol in 20 ml of water) at the laboratory temperature. A toluene solution (20 ml) of intermediate VIII (2.41 g; 0.011 mol) is added to the mixture and the mixture is heated in an oil bath T=90 °C while being stirred for 3.5 h. After cooling the toluene layer is separated and the aqueous layer is extracted with toluene. The combined toluene extracts are shaken with water and the solvent is distilled off at a reduced pressure. The evaporation residue is dissolved in ethylmethylketone, and an equimolar amount of 48% hydrobromic acid is added. The separated darifenacine hydrobromide is filtered off and dried.

Yield: 86% of theory.

Example 3

Figure imgf000011_0001

Advanced intermediate VII (4.3 g; 0.01 mol) is stirred up in an aqueous solution of potassium phosphate (9.43 g; 0.041 mol in 20 ml of water) at the laboratory temperature. A solution of intermediate VIII (2.41 g; 0.011 mol) in cyclohexane (20 ml) is added to the mixture and the mixture is heated in an oil bath T=90 0C while being stirred for 3.5 h. The layers are separated while hot. The cyclohexane solution is cooled to the laboratory temperature under intensive stirring. This way the darifenacin base is separated. The product is filtered off and dried. The base is dissolved in ethylmethylketone, and an equimolar amount of 48% hydrobromic acid is added. The separated darifenacin hydrobromide is filtered off and dried.

Yield: 85% of theory.

clip

Identification and structural elucidation of two process impurities and stress degradants in darifenacin hydrobromide active pharmaceutical ingredient by LC-ESI/MSn

Graphical abstract: Identification and structural elucidation of two process impurities and stress degradants in darifenacin hydrobromide active pharmaceutical ingredient by LC-ESI/MSn

References

External links

Citing Patent Filing date Publication date Applicant Title
WO2011070419A1 * Dec 3, 2010 Jun 16, 2011 Aurobindo Pharma Limited An improved process for the preparation of darifenacin hydrobromide
Cited Patent Filing date Publication date Applicant Title
WO2003080599A1 Mar 17, 2003 Oct 2, 2003 Novartis International Pharmaceutical Ltd. Stable hydrate of a muscarinic receptor antagonist
WO2007076157A2 * Dec 27, 2006 Jul 5, 2007 Teva Pharmaceuticals Industries Ltd. Processes for preparing darifenacin hydrobromide
WO2007076158A2 * Dec 27, 2006 Jul 5, 2007 Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. Processes for preparing darifenacin hydrobromide
WO2007076159A2 Dec 27, 2006 Jul 5, 2007 Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. Pure darifenacin hydrobromide substantially free of oxidized darifenacin and salts thereof and processes for the preparation thereof
EP0388054A1 Mar 2, 1990 Sep 19, 1990 Pfizer Limited Pyrrolidine derivatives
WO2009094957A1 * Jan 14, 2009 Aug 6, 2009 Zentiva, K.S. A method for the preparation of darifenacin hydrogen bromide
US5096890 Mar 13, 1990 Mar 17, 1992 Pfizer Inc. Pyrrolidine derivatives
US6930188 Mar 25, 2003 Aug 16, 2005 Novartis International Pharmaceutical, Ltd. Stable hydrate of a muscarinic receptor antagonist
Darifenacin
Darifenacin.svg
Darifenacin-hydrobromide-from-xtal-2009-CM-3D-balls.png
Clinical data
Trade names Enablex
AHFS/Drugs.com Monograph
MedlinePlus a605039
Pregnancy
category
  • AU: B3
  • US: C (Risk not ruled out)
Routes of
administration
Oral
ATC code G04BD10 (WHO)
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 15 to 19% (dose-dependent)
Protein binding 98%
Metabolism Hepatic (CYP2D6– and CYP3A4-mediated)
Biological half-life 13 to 19 hours
Excretion Renal (60%) and biliary (40%)
Identifiers
CAS Number 133099-04-4 Yes
PubChem (CID) 444031
IUPHAR/BPS 321
DrugBank DB00496 Yes
ChemSpider 392054 Yes
UNII APG9819VLM Yes
KEGG D01699 
ChEBI CHEBI:391960 Yes
ChEMBL CHEMBL1346 Yes
ECHA InfoCard 100.118.382
Chemical and physical data
Formula C28H30N2O2
Molar mass 426.55 g/mol
3D model (Jmol) Interactive image

/////////Darifenacin, 臭化水素酸ダリフェナシン ,  Antispasmodic, Antimuscarinic, UK-88525-04, Emselex® ,  Enablex® ,  Xelena®, 

C1CN(CC1C(C2=CC=CC=C2)(C3=CC=CC=C3)C(=O)N)CCC4=CC5=C(C=C4)OCC5

MK 0633, SETILEUTON


SETILEUTON.pngstr1

Figure

MK 0633, SETILEUTON

(-)-enantiomer

910656-27-8 CAS free form

MW 463.3817, C22 H17 F4 N3 O4  FREE FORM

Tosylate cas 1137737-87-1

2H-1-Benzopyran-2-one, 4-(4-fluorophenyl)-7-[[[5-[(1S)-1-hydroxy-1-(trifluoromethyl)propyl]-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl]amino]methyl]-

4-(4-Fluorophenyl)-7-[[[5-[(1S)-1-hydroxy-1-(trifluoromethyl)propyl]-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl]amino]methyl]-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one

Image result for Merck Frosst Canada Ltd.

WO2006099735A1

Inventors Thiadiazole substituted coumarin derivatives and their use as leukotriene biosynthesis inhibitor
WO 2006099735 A1Marc Blouin, Erich L. Grimm, Yves Gareau, Marc Gagnon, Helene Juteau, Sebastien Laliberte, Bruce Mackay, Richard Friesen
Applicant Merck Frosst Canada Ltd.

Image result for Merck Frosst Canada Ltd.

MK-0633 had been in early clinical development for several indications, including the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma and atherosclerosis

Leukotriene metabolism plays a central role in inflammatory diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and atherosclerosis. In particular, the activation of the enzyme 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) and its associated protein, 5-LO activating protein (FLAP), initiates a cascade that transforms arachidonic acid into inflammatory leukotrienes

Inhibition of leukotriene biosynthesis has been an active area of pharmaceutical research for many years. The leukotrienes constitute a group of locally acting hormones, produced in living systems from arachidonic acid. Leukotrienes are potent contractile and inflammatory mediators deπved by enzymatic oxygenation of arachidonic acid by 5-hρoxygenase. One class of leukotriene biosynthesis inhibitors are those known to act through inhibition of 5 -lipoxygenase (5-LO).
The major leukotrienes are Leukotriene B4 (abbreviated as LTB4), LTC4, LTD4 and LTE4. The biosynthesis of these leukotrienes begins with the action of the enzyme 5-lipoxygenases on arachidonic acid to produce the epoxide known as Leukotriene A4 (LT A4), which is converted to the other leukotπenes by subsequent enzymatic steps. Further details of the biosynthesis as well as the metabolism of the leukotπenes are to be found in the book Leukotrienes and Lipoxygenases, ed. J. Rokach, Elsevier, Amsterdam (1989). The actions of the leukotπenes in living systems and their contπbution to various diseases states are also discussed in the book by Rokach.
In general, 5 -LO inhibitors have been sought for the treatment of allergic rhinitis, asthma and inflammatory conditions including arthπtis. One example of a 5-LO inhibitor is the marketed drug zileuton (ZYLOFT®) which is indicated for the treatment of asthma. More recently, it has been reported that 5-LO may be an important contributor to the atherogenic process; see Mehrabian, M. et al., Circulation Research, 2002 JuI 26, 91(2): 120-126.
Despite significant therapeutic advances in the treatment and prevention of conditions affected by 5-LO inhibition, further treatment options are needed. The instant invention addresses that need by providing novel 5-LO inhibitors which are useful for inhibiting leukotriene biosynthesis.

Image result for mk 0633

Synthesis of coumarin intermediate in MK-0633. Reagents and conditions: a) 2.7 M H2SO4 (1 mL/1 mmol), 1.1 equiv. NaNO2, –5 °C, 15 min, 1.5 equiv. KI (1 M H2SO4, 1 mL/0.5 mmol), 0–70 °C, 20 min; b) 1.5 equiv. CuCN, DMF, 110 °C, 24 h, 72 % (over two steps); c) 0.05 equiv. H2SO4, MeOH, 60 °C, 12 h, 81 %; d) 2.5 equiv. 2 M AlMe3, 1.5 equiv. NH(OMe)Me·HCl, THF, room temp., 24 h, 86 %; e) 4.0 equiv. C6H4FMgBr, THF, 0 °C to room temp., 3 h, 74 %; f) toluene, reflux, 24 h, 83 %.

Study of the Chemoselectivity of Grignard Reagent Addition to Substrates Containing Both Nitrile and Weinreb Amide Funct…

Article · Aug 2013 · European Journal of Organic Chemistry
Paper
Synthesis of 4-arylcoumarins via palladium-catalyzed arylation/cyclization of ortho-hydroxylcinnamates with diaryliodonium salts
Tetrahedron Letters (2015), 56, (24), 3809-3812

An efficient method for the palladium-catalyzed arylation/cyclization of ortho-hydroxylcinnamate ester derivatives with diaryliodonium salts is described. A range of 4-arylcoumarins are obtained in good to excellent yield. Furthermore, the route can be applied to the synthesis of versatile building block of 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor.

Image for unlabelled figure

PATENT

WO 2006099735

EXAMPLE 7
(+) and (-)-4-(4-Fluorophenyl)-7-[(|5-[l-hvdroxy-l-(tnfluoromethyl)propyn-K3,4-oxadiazol-2-vUammo)methyl1-2H-chromen-2-one
Step 1: Ethyl 2-hvdroxy-2-(trifluoromethyl)butanoate

To a -78 0C solution of ethyl tπfluoropyruvate (129 0 g 758 mmol) in ether was added dropwise withm 90 mm a solution of EtMgBr 3.0 M m ether (252 mL). The solution was brought over one Ih to ca. -10 0C and poured over 2L of saturated NH4Cl. The layers were separated and the aqueous phase extracted with ether (3 X 500 mL) The organic phases were combined, dried over MgSO4 and the solvent removed. Distillation at 50-65 0C (30 mm Hg) gave the title compound. 1H NMR (400 MHz, acetone- d6): δ 5.4 (s, IH), 4.35 (q, 2H), 2.07 (m, IH), 1.83 (m, IH), 1.3 (t, 3H) and 0.93 (t, 3H).
Step 2: 2-Hvdroxy-2-(tπfluoromethyl)butanohvdrazide

The ethyl ester of step 1 (50.04 g, 250 mmol) and hydrazine hydrate (25.03 g, 50 mmol) were heated at 80 0C for 18 h. The excess hydrazine was removed under vacuum and the crude product was filtered through a pad of silica gel with EtOAc-Hexane (ca. 3L) to furnish the title compound. 1H NMR (400 MHz, acetone-d6): δ 9.7 (s, IH), 6.10 (s, IH), 2.25 (m, IH), 1.85 (m, IH) and 0.95 t, (3H). Step 3: 2-(5-Ammo-l ,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)-l , 1 , l-tπfluorobutan-2-ol

To hydrazide (34.07 g, 183 mmol) of step 2 m 275 mL of water was added KHCO3 (18.33 g, 183 mmol) followed by BrCN (19.39 g, 183 mmol) portionwise. After 3h, the solid was filtered, washed with cold water and dπed to afford the title compound. Additional compound could be recovered from the aqueous phase by extraction (ether-hexane, 1:1). 1H NMR (400 MHz, acetone-d6): δ 6.54 (s, 2H), 6.01 (s, IH), 2.22 (m, IH), 2.08 (m, IH) and 0.99 (m, 3H).
Step 4: 4-(4-Fluorophenyl)-7-|Y { 5-[ 1 -hydroxy- 1 -(tnfluoromethyl)propyll -1,3,4- oxadiazol-2-yl}amino)methyl1-2H-chromen-2-one


A mixture of oxadiazole (14.41 g, 68.2 mmol) of step 3 and 4-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-7-carbaldehyde (14.1 g, 52.5 mmol) in toluene (160 mL) with 10% of PPTS was brought to reflux and let go overnight. The system was equipped with a Dean-Stark trap to collect water. The solvent was removed and the crude oil (1H NMR (400 MHz, acetone-d6): δ 9.33 (IH, s, imme)) obtained was diluted in EtOH (ca. 75 mL) at 0 0C. To this solution was added NaBH4 (1.9 g) portionwise and the reaction was quenched with a solution OfNH4Cl after 45 mm. The mixture was saturated with NaCl and extracted with EtOAc (3 X 200 mL). The organic phases were combined and dried over MgSO4.
Purification over silica gel chromatography using toluene-EtOAc (55.45) gave the title compound . 1H NMR (400 MHz, acetone-d6): δ 7.65 (m, 2H), 7.50 (m, 3H), 7.38 (m, 3H), 6.35 (s, IH), 6.06 (s, IH), 4.70 (m, 2H), 2.21 (m, IH), 2.11 (m, IH) and 0.98 (t, 3H).
Step 5: Separation on chiral HPLC column of (+) and (-) enantiomers of 4-(4-fluorophenyl)-7- [((5-ri-hvdroxy-l-(trifluoromethyl)propyl1-l,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl}amino)methvn-2H- chromen-2-one

A solution of (±)-4-(4-fluorophenyl)-7-[({5-[l-hydroxy-l-(trifluoromethyl)propyl]-l,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl}amino)methyl]-2H-chromen-2-one (0.5-0.6 g) in EtOΗ-Ηexane (30:70, ca. 40 mL) was injected onto a CΗIRALPAK AD® preparative (5cm x 50cm) ΗPLC column (eluting with
EtOΗ/Ηexane, 30/70 with UV detection at 280 nm). The enantiomers were separated with the faster eluting enantiomer having a retention time of – 34 mm for the (-)-enantiomer and the slower eluting enantiomer having a retention time of ~ 49 mm for the (+)-enantiomer.

PAPER

The Discovery of Setileuton, a Potent and Selective 5-Lipoxygenase Inhibitor

Merck Frosst Centre for Therapeutic Research, 16711 Trans Canada Highway, Kirkland, Quebec, Canada H9H 3L1
ACS Med. Chem. Lett., 2010, 1 (4), pp 170–174
DOI: 10.1021/ml100029k
Publication Date (Web): April 13, 2010
Copyright © 2010 American Chemical Society
*To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: yves_ducharme@merck.com.
Abstract Image
The discovery of novel and selective inhibitors of human 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) is described. These compounds are potent, orally bioavailable, and active at inhibiting leukotriene biosynthesis in vivo in a dog PK/PD model. A major focus of the optimization process was to reduce affinity for the human ether-a-go-go gene potassium channel while preserving inhibitory potency on 5-LO. These efforts led to the identification of inhibitor (S)-16 (MK-0633, setileuton), a compound selected for clinical development for the treatment of respiratory diseases.
4-(4-fluorophenyl)-7-[({5-[(2R)-1,1,1-trifluoro-2-hydroxybutan-2-yl]- 1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl}amino)methyl]-2H-chromen-2-one ((R)-16) and 4-(4- fluorophenyl)-7-[({5-[(2S)-1,1,1-trifluoro-2-hydroxybutan-2-yl]-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2- yl}amino)methyl]-2H-chromen-2-one ((S)-16)
str1
A solution of (±)-4-(4-fluorophenyl)-7-[({5-[1-hydroxy-1-(trifluoromethyl)propyl]-1,3,4- oxadiazol-2-yl}amino)methyl]-2H-chromen-2-one (16) (0.5-0.6 g) in EtOH-Hexane (30:70, ca. 40 mL) was injected on a CHIRALPAK AD preparative (5 cm x 50 cm) HPLC column (eluting with EtOH/Hexane, 30/70 with UV detection at 280 nm). The enantiomers were separated with the fast-eluting enantiomer having a retention time of ~ 34 min for the (-) and the slow-eluting enantiomer having a retention time of ~ 49 min for the (+)-enantiomer.
4-(4-fluorophenyl)-7-[({5-[(2S)-1,1,1-trifluoro-2-hydroxybutan-2-yl]-1,3,4-oxadiazol- 2-yl}amino)methyl]-2H-chromen-2-one ((S)-16, MK-0633, setileuton):
str1
A mixture of oxadiazole (S)-35 (41.9 g, 156 mmol) and aldehyde 25 (39.2 g, 186 mmol) in toluene (2 L) with 10% of pyridinium p-toluenesulfonate was refluxed overnight. The system was equipped with a Dean-Stark apparatus to collect water. The solvent was removed and the crude oil [1 H NMR (400 MHz, acetone-d6): δ 9.33 (s, 1H, imine)] obtained was diluted in THF (600 mL) and EtOH (100 mL). To this solution was added at 0 o C NaBH4 (7.2 g) portionwise. After 1 h of stirring, aqueous ammonium acetate was added. The mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate. The combined organic fractions were washed with brine, dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified on silica gel (toluene/EtOAc; 1:1) to give the title compound (39.4 g, 54%).
FREE FORM
1 H NMR (400 MHz, acetone-d6): δ 7.65 (m, 2H), 7.50 (m, 3H), 7.38 (m, 3H), 6.35 (s, 1H), 6.06 (s, 1H), 4.70 (m, 2H), 2.21 (m, 1H), 2.11 (m, 1H), 0.98 (t, 3H);
HRMS calcd for C22H17F4N3O4 [MH+]: 464.1233; found: 464.1228.
PATENT
Image result for mk 0633

CLIP

J. Org. Chem. 2010, 75, 4154−4160

Synthesis of a 5-Lipoxygenase Inhibitor

 Abstract Image

Practical, chromatography-free syntheses of 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor MK-0633 p-toluenesulfonate (1) are described. The first route used an asymmetric zincate addition to ethyl 2,2,2-trifluoropyruvate followed by 1,3,4-oxadiazole formation and reductive amination as key steps. An improved second route features an inexpensive diastereomeric salt resolution of vinyl hydroxy-acid 22 followed by a robust end-game featuring a through-process hydrazide acylation/1,3,4-oxadiazole ring closure/salt formation sequence to afford MK-0633 p-toluenesulfonate (1).


Leukotriene metabolism plays a central role in inflammatory diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and atherosclerosis. In particular, the activation of the enzyme 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) and its associated protein, 5-LO activating protein (FLAP), initiates a cascade that transforms arachidonic acid into inflammatory leukotrienes. Consequently, compounds that can inhibit 5-LO have potential as new treatments for the conditions listed above. Gosselin and co-workers at Merck describe two routes towards one such compound (MK-0633) brought forward as a development candidate at Merck ( J. Org. Chem. 2010, 75, 4154−4160). The first route used an asymmetric zincate addition to ethyl 2,2,2-trifluoropyruvate followed by 1,3,4-oxadiazole formation and reductive amination as key steps. An improved second route (shown here) featured an inexpensive diastereomeric salt resolution of a vinyl hydroxy-acid followed by a through-process hydrazide acylation/1,3,4-oxadiazole ring-closure/salt-formation sequence to afford MK-0633 as the p-toluenesulfonate salt.

A Practical Synthesis of 5-Lipoxygenase Inhibitor MK-0633

Department of Process Research, Merck Frosst Centre for Therapeutic Research, 16711 Route Transcanadienne, Kirkland, Québec, Canada H9H 3L1
Department of Process Research, Merck Research Laboratories, P.O. Box 2000, Rahway, New Jersey 07065
J. Org. Chem., 2010, 75 (12), pp 4154–4160
DOI: 10.1021/jo100561u
MK-0633 tosylate salt (1) was obtained as a white solid (6.64 kg, 91.4% yield): mp 164−165 °C;
[α]20D − 0.86 (c 10.0, EtOH);
1H NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 8.58 (1 H, t, J = 6.2 Hz), 7.62 (2 H, dd, J = 8.3, 5.4 Hz), 7.49 (2 H, d, J = 7.8 Hz), 7.47−7.38 (4 H, m), 7.33 (1 H, d, J = 8.3 Hz), 7.13 (2 H, d, J = 7.7 Hz), 6.44 (1 H, s), 4.53 (2 H, d, J = 5.6 Hz), 2.30 (3 H, s), 2.17−2.05 (1 H, m), 2.03−1.93 (1 H, m), 0.90 (3 H, t, J = 7.37 Hz);
13C NMR (125 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 164.1, 162.9 (d, J = 246.8 Hz), 159.6, 156.1, 153.7, 153.6, 145.5, 143.7, 137.7, 131.1 (d, J = 3.5 Hz), 130.9 (d, J = 8.7 Hz), 128.1, 126.8, 125.4, 124.5 (q, J = 286.6 Hz), 123.5, 117.4, 115.9 (d, J = 22.0 Hz), 115.4, 114.7, 73.7 (q, J = 28.6 Hz), 45.4, 26.1, 20.8, 7.0;
19F NMR (375 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ −79.7, −113.1;
HRMS calcd for C22H18F4N3O4 [M + H] 464.1228, found 464.1246.
IR (cm−1, NaCl thin film) 3324, 3010, 2977, 1735, 1716, 1618, 1510, 1428, 1215, 1178.
HPLC analysis: eclipse XDB-phenyl column 4.6 mm × 15 cm (0.1% aq H3PO4/CH3CN 65:35 to 10:90 over 50 min, 1.0 mL/min, 210 nm, 25 °C); MK-0633 (1) tR = 16.86 min. Chiral HPLC analysis: Chiralpak AD-H column 4.6 mm × 25 cm (EtOH/hexane 60:40, hold 15 min, 0.5 mL/min, 300 nm, 30 °C); (S)-enantiomer tR = 9.5 min; (R)-enantiomer tR = 11.5 min.
1 to 6 of 6
Patent ID Patent Title Submitted Date Granted Date
US2016193168 Treatment of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension with Leukotriene Inhibitors 2015-11-30 2016-07-07
US2013251787 Treatment of Pulmonary Hypertension with Leukotriene Inhibitors 2013-03-15 2013-09-26
US7915298 Compounds and methods for leukotriene biosynthesis inhibition 2009-04-02 2011-03-29
US2009227638 Novel Pharmaceutical Compounds 2009-09-10
US7553973 Pharmaceutical compounds 2007-06-28 2009-06-30
US2009030048 Novel pharmaceutical compounds 2009-01-29
/////////////MK 0633, PHASE 2
CCC(C1=NN=C(O1)NCC2=CC3=C(C=C2)C(=CC(=O)O3)C4=CC=C(C=C4)F)(C(F)(F)F)O

AMG-3969


Image result for amg 3969

AMG-3969

M.Wt: 522.46
Cas : 1361224-53-4 , MF: C21H20F6N4O3S

WO 2012027261 PRODUCT PATENT

Inventors Kate Ashton, Michael David Bartberger, Yunxin Bo, Marian C. Bryan, Michael Croghan, Christopher Harold Fotsch, Clarence Henderson Hale, Roxanne Kay Kunz, Longbin Liu, Nobuko Nishimura, Mark H. Norman, Lewis Dale Pennington, Steve Fong Poon, Markian Myroslaw Stec, Jean David Joseph St., Jr., Nuria A. Tamayo, Christopher Michael Tegley, Kevin Chao Yang
Applicant Amgen Inc.

2-[4-[(2S)-4-[(6-Amino-3-pyridinyl)sulfonyl]-2-(1-propyn-1-yl)-1-piperazinyl]phenyl]-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol)

(S)-2-(4-(4-((6-Aminopyridin-3-yl)sulfonyl)-2-(prop-1-yn-1-yl)piperazin-1-yl)phenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol,

mp 113–123 °C;
[α]D20 = +75.1 (c = 2.2, MeOH).
Agents for Type 2 Diabetes,  PRECLINICAL

AMG-3969, a novel and stable small-molecule disruptor of glucokinase (GK) and glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP) interaction by the optimization of initial screening hit and AMG-1694. AMG-3969 potently induced the dissociation of the GK-GKRP complex and promoted GK translocation both in-vitro and in-vivo. In rodent model of diabetes, AMG-3969 reduced blood glucose levels without affecting euglycemic animals. The study represents the first successful discovery of a small molecule that targets the GK-GKRP complex as a novel pathway for managing blood glucose levels with reduced hypoglycemic risk.

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 Kate Ashton

Kate Ashton

Senior Scientist at Amgen, Inc

Amgen
Thousand Oaks, United States
Dr. Kate Ashton received a Masters in Chemistry with Industrial Experience from the University of Edinburgh. She conducted her PhD thesis research on the synthesis and structure elucidation of Reidispongiolide A with Prof. Ian Paterson at the University of Cambridge, and her postdoctoral work on SOMO catalysis with Prof. David W. C. MacMillan at both Caltech and Princeton. She has been at Amgen for 6 years and has worked on indications for cancer, Alzheimer’s and diabetes.Dr Fecke works in the area of industrial early drug discovery since 1996. He is currently Group Leader in the Primary Pharmacology department at UCB Pharma (UK) and is involved in the identification and characterization of NCE and NBE drugs in molecular interaction assays for both immunological and CNS diseases. Prior to joining UCB, he worked for Novartis and Siena Biotech in the areas of transplant rejection, neurodegeneration and oncology. He obtained his PhD at the Heinrich-Heine-University Dusseldorf in Germany in 1994.

Image result for amg 3969

(S)-2-(4-(4-((6-Aminopyridin-3-yl)sulfonyl)-2-(prop-1-yn-1-yl)piperazin-1-yl)phenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol, AMG-3969

Glucokinase (GK) is a member of a family of four hexokinases that are critical in the cellular metabolism of glucose. Specifically GK, also known as hexokinase IV or hexokinase D, facilitates glucose induced insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells as well as glucose conversion into glycogen in the liver. GK has a unique catalytic activity that enables the enzyme to be active within the physiological range of glucose (from 5mM glucose to lOmM glucose).

Genetically modified mouse models support the role of GK playing an important role in glucose homeostasis. Mice lacking both copies of the GK gene die soon after birth from severe hyperglycemia, whereas mice lacking only one copy of the GK gene present with only mild diabetes. Mice that are made to overexpress the GK gene in their livers are hypoglycemic.

Numerous human mutations in the GK gene have been identified, with the vast majority of them resulting in proteins with impaired or absent enzymatic activity. These loss-of-function mutations are thought to contribute to the hyperglycemia seen with maturity-onset diabetes of the young type II (MODY-2). A small fraction of these mutations result in a GK with increased catalytic function. These individuals present with moderate to severe hypoglycemia.

GK activity in the liver is transiently regulated by glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP). GK catalytic activity is inhibited when GK is bound to GKRP. This interaction is antagonized by increasing concentrations of both glucose and fructose -1 -phosphate (F1P). The complex of the two proteins is localized primarily to the nuclear compartment of a cell. Post prandially as both glucose and fructose levels rise, GK released from GKRP translocates to the cytoplasm. Cytoplasmic GK is now free of the inhibitory effects of GKRP and able to kinetically respond to glucose. Evidence from the Zucker diabetic fatty rat (ZDF) indicates that their glucose intolerance may be a result of this mechanism failing to function properly.

A compound that acts directly on GKRP to disrupt its interaction with GK and hence elevate levels of cytoplasmic GK is a viable approach to modulate GK activity. Such an approach would avoid the unwanted hypoglycemic effects of over stimulation of GK catalytic activity, which has been seen in the

development of GK activators. A compound having such an effect would be useful in the treatment of diabetes and other diseases and/or conditions in which GKRP and/or GK plays a role.

CLIP

Antidiabetic effects of glucokinase regulatory protein small-molecule disruptors
Nature 2013, 504(7480): 437

Image result for Antidiabetic effects of glucokinase regulatory protein small-molecule disruptors.

Image result for Antidiabetic effects of glucokinase regulatory protein small-molecule disruptors.

SYNTHESIS

Figure

aReagents and conditions: (a) 1-propynylmagnesium bromide, THF, 0 °C, 99%; (b) TFA, DCM, then NaBH(OAc)3 77%; (c) NH4OH, EtOH, 120 °C, 88%; (d) chiral SFC, 38%………..Nature 2013,504, 437440

PATENT

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2012027261

EXAMPLE 241 : 2-(4-(4-((6-AMINO-3-PYRIDINYL)SULFONYL)-2-(l-PROP YN- 1 – YL)- 1 -PIPERAZINYL)PHENYL)- 1,1,1 ,3 ,3 ,3 -HEXAFLUORO-2-PROPANOL

STEP 1 : 4-BENZYL 1 -TERT-BUTYL 2-0X0-1,4-PIPERAZINEDICARBOXYLATE

A 2-L Erlenmeyer flask was charged with 2-piperazinone (36.5 g, 364 mmol, Sigma- Aldrich, St. Louis, MO), sodium carbonate (116 g, 1093 mmol), 600 mL of dioxane, and 150 mL of water. To this was slowly added benzyl chloroformate (62.1 g, 364 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) at room temperature over 20 min. After the addition was complete, the mixture was stirred for 2 h and then diluted with water and extracted with EtOAc (2 L). The combined organic extracts were dried (MgS04), filtered, and concentrated to give a white solid. To this solid was added 500 mL of DCM, triethylamine (128 mL, 911 mmol), DMAP (4.45 g, 36.4 mmol), and di-tert-butyl dicarbonate (119 g, 546 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO). After 1 h at room temperature, the mixture was diluted with water and the organics were separated. The organics were dried (MgS04), filtered, and concentrated to give a brown oil. To this oil was added 100 mL of DCM followed by 1 L of hexane. The resulting white solid was collected by filtration to give 4-benzyl 1-tert-butyl 2-oxo-l,4-piperazinedicarboxylate (101 g).

STEP 2: BENZYL (2-((TERT-BUTOXYCARBONYL)AMINO)ETHYL)(2-OXO-3 -PENTYN- 1 -YL)CARBAMATE

A 150-mL round-bottomed flask was charged with 4-benzyl 1-tert-butyl

2- oxo-l,4-piperazinedicarboxylate (1.41 g, 4.22 mmol) and THF (5 mL). 1-Propynylmagnesium bromide (0.5 M in THF, 20.0 mL, 10.0 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) was added at 0 °C slowly. The mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 2 h. Saturated aqueous NH4C1 (40 mL) was added and the aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc (200 mL, then 2 x 100 mL). The combined organic phases were dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was purified by column chromatography (50 g of silica, 0 to 50% EtOAc in hexanes) to afford benzyl (2-((tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino)ethyl)(2-oxo- 3- pentyn-l-yl)carbamate (1.55 g) as a clear oil.

STEP 3: BENZYL 3-(l-PROPYN-l-YL)-l-PIPERAZINECARBOXYLATE

A 3-L round-bottomed flask was charged with 2-((tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino)ethyl)(2-oxo-3-pentyn-l-yl)carbamate (82.2 g, 219 mmol) and 300 mL of DCM. After cooling to -10 °C, TFA (169 mL, 2195 mmol) was added and the resulting dark solution was stirred at room temperature for 15 min. Sodium triacetoxyborohydride (186 g, 878 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) was then added portion- wise over 10 min. After 2 h, the mixture was

concentrated, diluted with EtOAc (1 L), and neutralized with 5 N NaOH. The layers were separated and the organic extracts were washed with brine, dried (MgS04), filtered and concentrated. The resulting orange oil was purified via column chromatography (750 g of silica gel, 0 to 4.5 % MeOH/DCM) to give benzyl 3-(l-propyn-l-yl)-l-piperazinecarboxylate (43.7 g) as a brown foam.

STEP 4: BENZYL 3-(l-PROPYN-l-YL)-4-(4-(2,2,2-TRIFLUORO-l-HYDROXY- 1 -(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)ETHYL)PHENYL)- 1 -PIPERAZINECARBOXYLATE

A 150-mL reaction vessel was charged with benzyl 3-(prop-l-yn-l-yl)piperazine-l-carboxylate (2.88 g, 11.2 mmol), 2-(4-bromophenyl)-l, 1,1, 3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (4.36 g, 13.5 mmol, Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2002, 12, 3009), dicyclohexyl(2′,6′-diisopropoxy-[ 1 , 1 ‘-biphenyl]-2-yl)phosphine, RuPhos (0.530 g, 1.14 mmol, Sigma- Aldrich, St. Louis, MO), RuPhos Palladacycle (0.417 g, 0.572 mmol, Strem Chemical Inc, Newburyport, MA), sodium tert-butoxide (2.73 g, 28.4 mmol, Strem Chemical Inc, Newburyport, MA) and toluene (35 mL). The mixture was degassed by bubbling Ar through the solution for 10 min. The vessel was sealed and heated at 100 °C for 1.5 h. The reaction mixture was cooled to room temerature and water (100 mL) was added. The aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 100 mL) and the combined organic phases were washed with saturated aqueous sodium chloride (150 mL). The organic extracts were dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was purified by column chromatography (100 g of silica, 0 to 50% EtOAc in hexanes) to afford benzyl 3-(l-propyn-l-yl)-4-(4-(2,2,2-trifluoro- 1 -hydroxy- 1 -(trifluoromethyl)ethyl)phenyl)- 1 -piperazinecarboxylate as a yellow solid.

STEP 5: 2-(4-(4-((6-CHLORO-3-PYRIDINYL)SULFONYL)-2-(l-PROPYN-l-YL)- 1 -PIPERAZIN YL)PHENYL)- 1,1,1 ,3 ,3 ,3 -HEXAFLUORO-2-PROPANOL

A 500-mL round-bottomed flask was charged with benzyl 3-(l-propyn-l-yl)-4-(4-(2,2,2-trifluoro- 1 -hydroxy- 1 -(trifluoromethyl)ethyl)phenyl)- 1 -piperazinecarboxylate (3.13 g, 6.25 mmol) and TFA (40 mL).

Trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (1.25 mL, 14.1 mmol, Acros/Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA) was added dropwise at room temperature. After 5 min, additional TfOH (0.45 mL, 5.1 mmol) was added. After an additional 10 min, solid

NaHC03 was carefully added in potions. Saturated aqueous NaHC03 (250 mL) was added slowly to bring pH to approximately 7. The aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc (100 mL). At this time, more solid NaHC03 was added to the aqueous phase and extracted again with EtOAc (100 mL). The combined organic phases were washed with water (200 mL) and saturated aqueous sodium chloride (200 mL). The combined organic extracts were dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated in vacuo to afford 3.10 g of tan solid.

A 500-mL round-bottomed flask was charged with this material, triethylamine (5.00 mL, 35.9 mmol) and CH2CI2 (30 mL). 6-Chloropyridine-3-sulfonyl chloride (1.58 g, 7.43 mmol, Organic Process Research & Development 2009, 13, 875) was added in potions at 0 °C. The brown mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 10 min. The volume of the reaction mixture was reduced to approximately 10 mL in vacuo then the mixture was purified twice by column chromatography (100 g of silica, 0 to 50% EtOAc in hexanes) to afford 2-(4-(4-((6-chloro-3-pyridinyl)sulfonyl)-2-( 1 -propyn- 1 -yl)- 1 -piperazinyl)phenyl)- 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (3.46 g) as an off-white solid.

STEP 6: 2-(4-(4-((6-AMINO-3-PYRIDINYL)SULFONYL)-2-(l-PROPYN-l-YL)- 1 -PIPERAZIN YL)PHENYL)- 1,1,1 ,3 ,3 ,3 -HEXAFLUORO-2-PROPANOL

A 20-mL sealed tube was charged with 2-(4-(4-((6-chloro-3-pyridinyl)sulfonyl)-2-( 1 -propyn- 1 -yl)- 1 -piperazinyl)phenyl)- 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (0.340 g, 0.627 mmol), concentrated ammonium hydroxide (5.00 mL, 38.5 mmol) and EtOH (5 mL). The reaction mixture was heated in an Initiator (Biotage, AB, Uppsala, Sweden) at 120 °C for 1 h. The reaction mixture was further heated in a heating block at 110 °C for 5 h. The reaction mixture was concentrated and purified by column chromatography (25 g of silica, 30 to 80% EtOAc in hexanes) to afford 2-(4-(4-((6-amino-3-pyridinyl)sulfonyl)-2-( 1 -propyn- 1 -yl)- 1 -piperazinyl)phenyl)- 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (0.289 g) as a mixture of two enantiomers.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) δ ppm 8.49 (br. s., 1 H), 7.80 (dd, J= 2.3, 8.8 Hz, 1 H), 7.59 (d, J= 8.8 Hz, 2 H), 6.97 (d, J= 9.0 Hz, 2 H), 6.55 (d, J= 8.8 Hz, 1 H), 5.05 (s, 2 H), 4.46 (br. s., 1 H), 3.85 – 3.72 (m, 2 H), 3.54 (br. s., 1 H), 3.50 – 3.34 (m, 2 H), 2.83 (dd, J= 3.3, 11.0 Hz, 1 H), 2.69 (dt, J= 3.4, 11.0 Hz, 1 H), 1.80 (s, 3 H). m/z (ESI, +ve ion) 523.1 (M+H)+. GK-GKRP IC50 (Binding) = 0.003 μΜ

The individual enantiomers were isolated using chiral SFC. The method used was as follows: Chiralpak® ADH column (21 x 250 mm, 5 μιη) using 35% methanol in supercritical C02 (total flow was 70 mL/min). This produced the two enantiomers with enantiomeric excesses greater than 98%.

2-(4-((2S)-4-((6-amino-3-pyridinyl)sulfonyl)-2-(l -propyn- 1-yl)- 1 -piperazinyl)phenyl)- 1,1,1 ,3 ,3 ,3 -hexafluoro-2-propanol and 2-(4-((2R)-4-((6-amino-3 -pyridinyl)sulfonyl)-2-( 1 -propyn- 1 -yl)- 1 -piperazinyl)phenyl)- 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol.

FIRST ELUTING PEAK (PEAK #1)

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) δ 8.48 (d, J= 2.3 Hz, 1 H), 7.77 (dd, J= 2.5, 8.8 Hz, 1 H), 7.57 (d, J= 8.8 Hz, 2 H), 6.95 (d, J= 9.2 Hz, 2 H), 6.52 (d, J= 8.8 Hz, 1 H), 4.94 (s, 2 H), 4.44 (br. s., 1 H), 3.82 – 3.71 (m, 2 H), 3.58 – 3.33 (m, 3 H), 2.81 (dd, J= 3.2, 11.1 Hz, 1 H), 2.67 (dt, J= 3.9, 11.0 Hz, 1 H), 1.78 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 3 H). m/z (ESI, +ve ion) 523.2 (M+H)+. GK-GKRP IC50 (Binding) = 0.002 μΜ.

SECOND ELUTING PEAK (PEAK #2)

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) δ 8.49 (d, J= 1.8 Hz, 1 H), 7.78 (dd, J= 2.3, 8.8 Hz, 1 H), 7.59 (d, J= 8.6 Hz, 2 H), 6.97 (d, J= 9.0 Hz, 2 H), 6.54 (d, J= 8.8 Hz, 1 H), 4.97 (s, 2 H), 4.46 (br. s., 1 H), 3.77 (t, J= 11.7 Hz, 2 H), 3.67 (br. s., 1 H), 3.51 – 3.33 (m, 2 H), 2.82 (dd, J= 3.3, 11.0 Hz, 1 H), 2.68 (dt, J= 3.9, 11.1 Hz, 1 H), 1.79 (d, J= 2.0 Hz, 3 H). m/z (ESI, +ve ion) 523.2 (M+H)+. GK-GKRP IC50 (Binding) = 0.342 μΜ.

Alternative procedure starting after Step 4.

STEP 5 : 2-(4-(4-((6-AMINO-3-PYRIDINYL)SULFONYL)-2-(l-PROPYN-l-YL)- 1 -PIPERAZIN YL)PHENYL)- 1,1,1 ,3 ,3 ,3 -HEXAFLUORO-2-PROPANOL

Alternatively, 2-(4-(4-((6-amino-3-pyridinyl)sulfonyl)-2-( 1 -propyn- 1 -yl)-l-piperazinyl)phenyl)-l,l,l,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol was synthesized from benzyl 3-( 1 -propyn- 1 -yl)-4-(4-(2,2,2-trifluoro- 1 -hydroxy- 1 -(trifluoromethyl)ethyl)phenyl)- 1 -piperazinecarboxylate as follows.

A 2-L round-bottomed flask was charged with benzyl 3 -(1 -propyn- 1-yl)-4-(4-(2,2,2-trifluoro- 1 -hydroxy- 1 -(trifluoromethyl)ethyl)phenyl)- 1 -piperazinecarboxylate (21.8 g, 43.5 mmol, step 5) and TFA (130 mL).

Trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (11.6 mL, 131 mmol, Acros/Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA) was added slowly at rt resulting orange cloudy mixture. After stirring at rt for 10 min, the volume of the reaction mixture was reduced to half in vacuo. Solid NaHC03 was added in potions until the mixture became sludge. Saturated aqueous NaHC03(800 mL) was added slowly until the pH was about

8. The aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 250 mL). The combined organic phases were washed with water (500 mL) and saturated aqueous NaCl (500 mL). The organic phase was dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. This material was dissolved into DCM (200 mL) and triethylamine (31.0 mL, 222 mmol) was added. Then 6-aminopyridine-3-sulfonyl chloride (9.40 g, 48.8 mmol, published PCT patent application no. WO

2009/140309) was added in potions over 10 min period. The brown mixture was stirred at room temperature for 10 min. The reaction mixture was washed with water (300 mL) and saturated aqueous NaCl (300 mL). The organic phase was dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was purified by column chromatography (780 g of total silica, 30 to 90% EtOAc in hexanes) to afford 2-(4-(4-((6-amino-3-pyridinyl)sulfonyl)-2-(l-propyn-l-yl)-l-piperazinyl)phenyl)-l,l,l,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (19.4 g) as a mixture of two enantiomers.

Paper

Nonracemic Synthesis of GK–GKRP Disruptor AMG-3969

Therapeutic Discovery, Amgen Inc., One Amgen Center Drive, Thousand Oaks, California 91320, United States
Amgen Inc. 360 Binney Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, United States
J. Org. Chem., 2014, 79 (8), pp 3684–3687

Abstract Image

A nonracemic synthesis of the glucokinase–glucokinase regulatory protein disruptor AMG-3969 (5) is reported. Key features of the synthetic approach are an asymmetric synthesis of the 2-alkynyl piperazine core via a base-promoted isomerization and a revised approach to the synthesis of the aminopyridinesulfonamide with an improved safety profile.

(S)-2-(4-(4-((6-Aminopyridin-3-yl)sulfonyl)-2-(prop-1-yn-1-yl)piperazin-1-yl)phenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol, AMG-3969 (5)

(S)-2-(4-(4-((6-aminopyridin-3-yl)sulfonyl)-2-(prop-1-yn-1-yl)piperazin-1-yl)phenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (5) (64.0 g, 49% yield) as white solid. The enanatiomeric excess was found to be >99.5% by chiral SFC (see Supporting Information):
1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 8.47 (s, 1 H), 7.79 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 1 H), 7.59 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 2 H), 6.97 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 2 H), 6.55 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1 H), 5.06 (br s, 2 H), 4.45 (br s, 1 H), 3.96 (br s, 1 H), 3.77 (t, J = 12.1 Hz, 2 H), 3.50–3.35 (m, 2 H), 2.82 (d, J = 11.0 Hz, 1 H), 2.68 (t, J = 10.9 Hz, 1 H), 1.79 (s, 3 H);
13C NMR (101 MHz, CD3OD) δ 163.8, 152.0, 150.1, 138.2, 129.0, 124.7 (q), 123.9, 121.1, 117.5, 109.3, 82.8, 78.3 (m), 75.5, 52.0, 47.2, 44.9, 3.2;
 
HRMS (ESI-TOF) m/z [M + H]+calcd for C21H21F6N4O3S 523.1239, found 523.1229;
 
mp 113–123 °C;
 
[α]D20 = +75.1 (c = 2.2, MeOH).
 

Clip

AMG-3969 is a disruptor of the glucokinase (GK)–glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP) protein–protein interaction. Bourbeau and co-workers at Amgen describe their efforts towards an asymmetric synthesis of this compound ( J. Org. Chem. 2014, 79, 3684). The discovery route to this compound involved seven steps (14% overall yield), had certain safety concerns and relied upon SFC separation of the API enantiomers. The new route requires five steps (26% overall yield) and delivers the API in excellent enantiomeric excess (99% ee). A key feature of the synthetic approach was an asymmetric synthesis of the 2-alkynylpiperazine core via a base-promoted isomerization. It was found that the strongly basic conditions employed for the “alkyne-walk” did not erode the previously established stereocenter. Also, safety concerns around a late-stage amination of a 2-chloropyridine intermediate in the discovery route were alleviated by starting with a Boc-protected diaminopyridine instead.
PATENT

INTERMEDIATE A: TERT-EUTYL (5-(CHLOROSULFONYL)-2-PYRIDINYL)CARBAMATE

0,N

STEP 1 : TERT-BUTY (5-NITRO-2-PYRIDINYL)CARBAMATE

A 3-L round-bottomed flask was charged with 5-nitro-2-pyridinamine (75.0 g, 539 mmol, Alfa Aesar, Ward Hill, MA) and 500 mL of DCM. To this was added triethylamine (82 g, 810 mmol), di-tert-butyl dicarbonate (129 g, 593 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO), and N,N-dimethylpyridin-4-amine (32.9 g, 270 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO). After stirring at rt for 18 h, the mixture was diluted with water and the solid was collected by filtration. The yellow solid was washed with MeOH to give tert-butyl (5-nitro-2-pyridinyl)carbamate (94.6 g) as a light yellow solid.

STEP 2: TERT-BUTY (5 – AMINO-2-P YRIDINYL)C ARB AM ATE

A 3-L round-bottomed flask was charged with tert-butyl (5-nitro-2-pyridinyl)carbamate (96.4 g, 403 mmol), 500 mL of MeOH, 500 mL of THF, and 100 mL of sat aq NH4Cl. Zinc (105 g, 1610 mmol, Strem Chemical Inc, Newburyport, MA) was slowly added (over 10 min) to this solution. The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 12 h, then filtered. The filtrate was concentrated and then diluted with EtOAc and washed with water. The organic extracts were dried over MgS04, filtered, and concentrated. The resulting solid was recrystallized from MeOH to give tert-butyl(5-amino-2-pyridinyl)carbamate (38.6 g) as a light-yellow solid.

STEP 3: TERT-BUTYL (5-(CHLOROSULFONYL)-2-PYRIDINYL)CARBAMATE

A 3-L round-bottomed flask was charged with sodium nitrite (15.3 g, 221 mmol, J. T. Baker, Philipsburg, NJ), 100 mL of water and 500 mL of MeCN. After cooling to 0 °C, cone, hydrochloric acid (231 mL, 2770 mmol) was slowly added keeping the internal temperature below 10 °C. After stirring at 0 °C for 10 min, tert-butyl (5-amino-2-pyridinyl)carbamate (38.6 g, 184 mmol) was added as a suspension in MeCN (200 mL). The mixture was stirred for 30 min, then 150 mL of AcOH, copper(ii) chloride (12.4 g, 92.2 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO), and copper(i) chloride (0.183 g, 1.85 mmol, Strem Chemical Inc,

Newburyport, MA) were added. S02 gas (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) was bubbled through the solution for 15 min. The mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 30 min, then about 500 mL of ice-cold water was added. The resulting precipitate was collected by filtration and dried over MgS04 to give tert-butyl (5-(chlorosulfonyl)-2-pyridinyl)carbamate (15.5 g) as a white solid.

1H NMR (400MHz, CDC13) δ ppm 8.93 (br s, 1 H), 8.63 – 8.42 (m, 1 H), 8.35 -7.94 (m, 2 H), 1.58 (s, 9 H).

INTERMEDIATE B: (3S)-l-BENZYL-3-(l-PROPYN-l-YL)PIPERAZINE

STEP 1 : (3S)-l-BENZYL-3-(2-PROPYN-l-YL)-2,5-PIPERAZINEDIONE

A 1-L round-bottoemd flask was charged with (S)-2-((tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino)pent-4-ynoic acid (42.0 g, 197 mmol, AK Scientific, Union City, CA), ethyl 2-(benzylamino)acetate (40.0 g, 207 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO), HATU (90 g, 240 mmol, Oakwood Products, West Columbia, SC) and 200 mL of DMF. To this was added N-ethyl-N-isopropylpropan-2-amine (51.5 ml, 296 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO). After 15 min of stirring at rt, the mixture was diluted with water 300 mL and extracted with 1 L of 20% EtOAc in diethyl ether. The layers were separated and the organic was washed with 2 M HCl, water, sat. aq. NaHC03 and brine. The extracts were dried and concentrated to give an off-white solid. To this was added 200 mL of DCM and TFA (152 ml, 1970 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO). After stirring at rt for 30 min, the mixture was concentrated and then azetroped with 100 mL toluene (twice). To the brown oil obtained was added ammonia (2 M in MeOH, 394 ml, 789 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO). The mixture was stirred at rt for 30 min. The mixture was concentrated, dissolved in EtOAc, and washed with water. The organics were dried (MgS04), filtered, and concentrated to give a white solid that was triturated with diethyl ether to give (S)-l-benzyl-3-(prop-2-yn-l-yl)piperazine-2,5-dione (37.3 g) as a white solid.

STEP 2: (3S)-l-BENZYL-3-(2-PROPYN-l-YL)PIPERAZINE

A 1-L round-bottomed flask was charged with (S)-l-benzyl-3-(prop-2-yn-l-yl)piperazine-2,5-dione (37.3 g, 154 mmol) and 150 mL of THF. To this was slowly added aluminum (III) lithium hydride (1M in THF, 539 ml, 539 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO). After the addition was complete the mixture was heated at 80 °C for 12 h. The mixture was then cooled to 0 °C and solid sodium sulfate decahydrate was added until bubbling ceased. The mixture was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated to give (S)-l-benzyl-3-(prop-2-yn-l-yl)piperazine (18.1 g) as a yellow oil.

STEP 3: (35)-l-BENZYL-3-(l-PROPYN-l-YL)PIPERAZINE

To a solution of (35)-l-benzyl-3-(2-propyn-l-yl)piperazine (2.3 g, 11 mmol) in THF (50 mL) was added potassium t-butoxide (2.41 g, 21.5 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO). The reaction mixture was stirred at rt for 30 min, then quenched with water (200 mL) and EtOAc (300 mL) was added. The organic phase was dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated under a vacuum to give a solid that was purified by silica gel column chromatography (0 to 10% MeOH in CH2CI2) and then recrystallized from hexanes to afford (35)- 1-benzyl-3-(l-propyn-l-yl)piperazine (2.16 g) as an off-white solid.

1H NMR (400MHz, CD3OD) δ ppm 7.42 – 7.21 (m, 5 H), 3.59 – 3.49 (m, 3 H), 2.93 (td, J= 2.9, 12.4 Hz, 1 H), 2.86 – 2.73 (m, 2 H), 2.68 (d, J= 11.3 Hz, 1 H), 2.22 – 2.04 (m, 2 H), 1.80 (d, J= 2.3 Hz, 3 H).

INTERMEDIATE C: N,N-BIS(4-METHOXYBENZYL)-5-(((35)-3-(l-PROPYN- 1 – YL)- 1 -PIPERAZINYL)SULFONYL)-2-PYRIDIN AMINE

STEP 1 : (35)-l-((6-CHLORO-3-PYRIDINYL)SULFONYL)-3-(l-PROPYN-l-YL)PIPERAZINE

To a stirred solution of benzyl (35)-3-(l-propyn-l-yl)-l-piperazinecarboxylate (2.51 g, 9.71 mmol, Intermediate E) in TFA (20 mL) in 250-mL round-bottomed flask, trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (2.59 mL, 29.1 mmol, Alfa Aesar, Ward Hill, MA) was added slowly at rt. After stirring at room temperature for 3 min, the reaction mixture was concentrated to dryness under a vacuum. DCM (20 mL) was added to the residue followed by triethylamine (13.5 mL, 97 mmol). After the material went into solution, the mixture was cooled to 0 °C and 6-chloro-3-pyridinesulfonyl chloride (2.06 g, 9.73 mmol, Organic Process Research & Development 2009, 13, 875) was added portion-wise. After 5 min of stirring at 0 °C, water (40 mL) was added at that temperature and the layers were separated. The aqueous phase was extracted with DCM (2 x 50 mL). The combined organic phases were washed with saturated aqueous sodium chloride (60 mL). The organic phase was dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated under a vacuum. The crude product was purified by column chromatography (100 g of silica, 30 to 90% EtOAc in hexanes) to afford (35)- 1-((6-chloro-3-pyridinyl)sulfonyl)-3-(l-propyn-l-yl)piperazine (2.61 g) as an off-white solid.

STEP 2: N,N-BIS(4-METHOXYBENZYL)-5-(((35)-3-(l-PROPYN-l-YL)-l-PIPERAZINYL)SULFONYL)-2-PYRIDIN AMINE

A mixture of (35)-l-((6-chloro-3-pyridinyl)sulfonyl)-3-(l-propyn-l-yl)piperazine (2.6 g, 8.7 mmol), N-(4-methoxybenzyl)-l-(4-methoxyphenyl)methanamine (2.40 g, 9.33 mmol, WO2007/109810A2), and DIPEA (2.4 mL, 14 mmol) in z-BuOH (8.0 mL) was heated at 132 °C using a microwave reactor for 3 h. This reaction was run three times (total starting material amount was 7.2 g). The mixtures from the three runs were combined and partitioned between EtOAc (200 mL) and aqueous NaHC03 (half saturated, 50 mL). The organic layer was washed with aqueous NaHC03 (3 x 50 mL), dried over Na2S04, filtered, and concentrated. The residue was purified (5-times total) by chromatography on silica using MeOH:DCM:EtOAc:hexane

(4:20:20:60) as eluent to give N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-5-(((3S)-3-(l-propyn-i-yl)-l-piperazinyl)sulfonyl)-2-pyridinamine (6.6 g) as a white foam.

1H NMR (400MHz ,CDC13) δ ppm 8.55 (d, J= 2.3 Hz, 1 H), 7.64 (dd, J= 2.5, 9.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.13 (d, J= 8.6 Hz, 4 H), 6.91 – 6.81 (m, 4 H), 6.47 (d, J= 9.0 Hz, 1 H), 4.75 (s, 4 H), 3.80 (s, 6 H), 3.68 – 3.61 (m, 1 H), 3.57 (d, J= 11.2 Hz, 1 H), 3.41 (d, J= 11.3 Hz, 1 H), 3.07 (td, J= 3.3, 12.1 Hz, 1 H), 2.87 (ddd, J= 2.9, 9.7, 12.2 Hz, 1 H), 2.63 – 2.47 (m, 2 H), 1.80 (d, J= 2.2 Hz, 3 H). One exchangeable proton was not observed, m/z (ESI, +ve ion) 521.2 (M+H)+.

INTERMEDIATE D: rEi?r-BUTYL(5-(((35)-3-(l-PROPYN-l-YL)-4-(4-(2-(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)-2-OXIRANYL)PHENYL)- 1 -PIPERAZINYL)SULFONYL)-2-PYRIDINYL)CARBAMATE

step 1 step 2

STEP 1 : l-BR0M0-4-(l-(TRIFLU0R0METHYL)ETHENYL)BENZENE

To a 1-L round-bottomed flask was added methyl phenylphosphonium bromide (25.4 g, 71.1 mmol, Sigma- Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) and toluene (75 mL). The resulting mixture was stirred for 5 min then concentrated and dried under high vacuum for 30 min. To this residue was added THF (300 mL) followed by n-butyllithium (2.5 M in hexanes, 29.0 mL, 71.1 mmol, Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) dropwise via an addition funnel. After being stirred for 1 h at rt, a solution of l-(4-bromophenyl)-2,2,2-trifluoroethanone (15.0 g, 59.3 mmol, Matrix Scientific, Columbia, SC) in THF (20 mL) was added to the reaction mixture dropwise via an addition funnel. The reaction mixture was stirred at rt for 2 h. The reaction was quenched with saturated aqueous NH4C1 and the mixture was concentrated. The residue was partitioned between diethyl ether (150 mL) and saturated aqueous NH4C1 (80 mL). The organic layer was washed with water and brine, dried over MgS04, filtered, and concentrated. The resulting crude product was purified by column chromatography (330 g of silica gel, 2 to 5% EtOAc in hexanes) to afford l-bromo-4-(l-(trifluoromethyl)ethenyl)benzene (14.0 g) as a brown liquid.

STEP 2: 2-(4-BROMOPHENYL)-3,3,3-TRIFLUORO-l,2-PROPANEDIOL

To a solution of l-bromo-4-(l-(trifluoromethyl)ethenyl)benzene (13.5 g, 53.8 mmol) in acetone (100 mL) and water (100 mL) was added NMO (6.90 g, 59.2 mmol, Sigma- Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) and osmium tetroxide (0.140 mL, 2.70 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO). The resulting mixture was stirred at rt for 6 h. The reaction mixture was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated. The residue was partitioned between EtOAc (100 mL) and water (30 mL). The aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 75 mL). The combined organic layers were dried over MgS04, filtered, and concentrated. The resulting product was purified by column chromatography (330 g of silica gel, 0 to 8% MeOH in DCM) to afford 2-(4-bromophenyl)-3,3,3-trifluoro-l,2-propanediol (14.5 g) as an off-white solid.

STEP 3: 4-(4-BROMOPHENYL)-2,2-DIMETHYL-4-(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)-1,3-DIOXOLANE

To a solution of 2-(4-bromophenyl)-3,3,3-trifluoro-l,2-propanediol (14.5 g, 51.0 mmol) in acetone (200 mL) was added 2,2-dimethoxypropane (19.0 mL, 153 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) and /?-toluenesulfonic acid (0.485 g, 2.54 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO). The resulting mixture was stirred at rt for 20 h. Additional 2,2-dimethoxypropane (19.0 mL, 153 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) and /?-toluenesulfonic acid (0.485 g, 2.54 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) were added and the reaction was stirred for another 20 h. The reaction was quenched with saturated aqueous NaHC03 (10 mL). The reaction mixture was concentrated and the residue was partitioned between

EtOAc (100 mL) and saturated aqueous NaHC03 (60 mL). The aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 50 mL). The combined organic layers were dried over MgS04, filtered, and concentrated. The resulting product was purified by column chromatography (330 g of silica gel, 0 to 8% EtOAc in hexanes) to afford 4-(4-bromophenyl)-2,2-dimethyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)-l,3-dioxolane (15.7 g) as a colorless liquid.

STEP 4: BENZYL (3S)-4-(4-(2,2-DIMETHYL-4-(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)-l,3-DIOXOLAN-4-YL)PHENYL)-3-(l -PROPYN- 1 -YL)- 1 -PIPERAZINECAPvBOXYLATE

To a 20-mL vial was added benzyl (3S)-3-(l -propyn- l-yl)-l-piperazinecarboxylate (1.0 g, 3.87 mmol, Intermediate E), RuPhos Palladacycle (0.250 g, 0.310 mmol, Strem Chemical, Newburyport, MA), 4-(4-bromophenyl)-2,2-dimethyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)-l,3-dioxolane (2.50 g, 7.74 mmol), dioxane (15.0 mL), and sodium t-butoxide (0.740 g, 7.74 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St.

Louis, MO). The reaction mixture was degassed by bubbling N2 through the solution for 5 min, then the vial was capped. The reaction mixture was heated at 80 °C for 30 min then allowed to cool to rt and partitioned between EtOAc (70 mL) and water (40 mL). The aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (1 x 50 mL). The combined organic layers were dried over MgS04, filtered, and concentrated. The crude product was purified by column chromatography (80 g of silica, 5% to 30% EtOAc in hexanes) to afford benzyl (35)-4-(4-(2,2-dimethyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)- 1 ,3-dioxolan-4-yl)phenyl)-3-(l -propyn- 1 -yl)- 1 -piperazinecarboxylate (1.6 g) as a yellow foam.

STEP 5: rEi?r-BUTYL(5-(((35)-3-(l-PROPYN-l-YL)-4-(4-(2,2,2-TRIFLUORO- 1 -HYDROXY- 1 -(HYDROXYMETH YL)ETHYL)PHENYL)- 1 -PIPERAZINYL)SULFONYL)-2-PYRIDINYL)CARBAMATE

To a 150-mL round-bottomed flask was added benzyl (3S)-4-(4-(2,2-dimethyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)- 1 ,3 -dioxolan-4-yl)phenyl)-3 -( 1 -propyn- 1 -yl)- 1 -piperazinecarboxylate (1.60 g, 3.18 mmol) and TFA (20 mL, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO). After the substrate was completely dissolved in TFA,

trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (0.850 mL, 9.55 mmol, Alfa Aesar, Ward Hill,

MA) was added and the resulting mixture was stirred at rt for 1.5 h. The reaction mixture was slowly poured into a 300-mL beaker which contained 100 mL ice water. The resulting mixture was stirred while NaOH pellets (11.0 g) were slowly added to adjust the pH to 7. The solution was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 70 mL) and 10% IPA in CHCI3 (2 x 40 mL). The combined organic layers were dried over MgS04, filtered, and concentrated. The resulting intermediate was redissolved in DCM (60 mL). Triethylamine (2.20 mL, 16.0 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) and tert-butyl (5-(chlorosulfonyl)-2-pyridinyl)carbamate (1.04 g, 3.60 mmol, Intermediate A) were added. The reaction mixture was stirred at rt for 1 h then partitioned between DCM (70 mL) and water (30 mL). The aqueous layer was extracted with DCM (2 x 40 mL). The combined organic layers were dried over MgS04, filtered, and concentrated. The crude product was purified by column chromatography (120 g of silica, 10% to 40% acetone in hexanes) to afford tert-butyl (5-(((35)-3-(l-propyn-l-yl)-4-(4-(2,2,2-trifiuoro-l-hydroxy- 1 -(hydroxymethyl)ethyl)phenyl)- 1 -piperazinyl)sulfonyl)-2-pyridinyl)carbamate (1.0 g) as a yellow foam.

STEP 6: rEi?r-BUTYL(5-(((35)-3-(l-PROPYN-l-YL)-4-(4-(2-(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)-2-OXIRANYL)PHENYL)- 1 -PIPERAZINYL)SULFONYL)-2-PYRIDINYL)CARBAMATE

To a solution of tert-butyl (5-(((35)-3-(l-propyn-l-yl)-4-(4-(2,2,2-trifiuoro- 1 -hydroxy- 1 -(hydroxymethyl)ethyl)phenyl)- 1 -piperazinyl)sulfonyl)-2-pyridinyl)carbamate (0.300 g, 0.513 mmol) in DCM (5 mL) was added triethylamine (0.400 mL, 2.88 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) and p-toluenesulfonyl chloride (0.108 g, 0.564 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO). The resulting mixture was heated at reflux (50 °C) under N2 for 2 h. The reaction mixture was cooled to rt and partitioned between sat. NaHCOs (30 mL) and DCM (70 mL). The aqueous layer was extracted with DCM (2 x 40 mL). The combined organic layers were dried over MgS04, filtered, and concentrated. The crude product was purified by column chromatography (40 g of silica, 10 to 40%> acetone in hexanes) to afford tert-butyl (5-(((35)-3-(l-propyn-l-yl)-4-(4-(2-(trifluoromethyl)-2-oxiranyl)phenyl)- 1 -piperazinyl)sulfonyl)-2-pyridinyl)carbamate (0.240 g) as an off-white solid.

1H NMR (400MHz, CDC13) δ ppm 8.66 (dd, J= 0.6, 2.3 Hz, 1 H), 8.20 – 8.10 (m, 1 H), 8.04 (dd, J= 2.2, 8.9 Hz, 1 H), 7.63 (s, 1 H), 7.41 (d, J= 8.6 Hz, 2 H), 6.94 (d, J= 8.8 Hz, 2 H), 4.42 (d, J= 2.2 Hz, 1 H), 3.89 – 3.67 (m, 2 H), 3.38 (d, J = 5.3 Hz, 3 H), 2.97 – 2.83 (m, 2 H), 2.80 – 2.60 (m, 1 H), 1.78 (dd, J= 0.8, 2.0 Hz, 3 H), 1.55 (s, 9 H). m/z (ESI, +ve ion) 567.2 (M+H)+.

ALTERNATIVE ROUTE TO 2-(4-BROMOPHENYL)-3,3,3-TRIFLUORO-l,2-PROPANEDIOL (INTERMEDIATE D STEP 2):

F3

step 1

STEP 1 : 2-(4-BROMOPHENYL)-2-(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)OXIRANE

To a flame-dried, 50-mL, round-bottomed flask was added potassium t-butoxide (0.450 g, 4.01 mmol, Sigma- Aldrich, St. Louis, MO), DMSO (5.0 mL) and trimethylsulfoxonium iodide (1.00 g, 4.54 mmol, Sigma- Aldrich, St. Louis, MO). The resulting mixture was stirred at rt for 40 min. To this reaction mixture was added l-(4-bromophenyl)-2,2,2-trifluoroethanone (1.0 g, 4.0 mmol, Matrix Scientific, Columbia, SC) in DMSO (5.0 mL) dropwise via an addition funnel. The reaction mixture was stirred at rt for 30 min then quenched with water (1 mL) and partitioned between EtOAc (70 mL) and water (30 mL). The organic layer was washed with water (4 x 30 mL), dried over MgS04, filtered, and concentrated. The crude product was purified by column chromatography (40 g of silica, 10 to 20% acetone in hexanes) to afford 2-(4-bromophenyl)-2-(trifluoromethyl)oxirane (0.610 g) as a pale-yellow liquid.

STEP 2: 2-(4-BROMOPHENYL)-3,3,3-TRIFLUORO-l,2-PROPANEDIOL

To a 20-mL vial was added 2-(4-bromophenyl)-2-(trifluoromethyl)oxirane (0.200 g, 0.750 mmol), dioxane (2.0 mL), and water (3.0 mL). The resulting mixture was heated at 85 °C for 24 h. The reaction mixture was cooled to rt and extracted with EtOAc (3 x 50 mL). The combined organic layers were dried over MgS04, filtered and concentrated. The crude product was purified by column chromatography (40 g of silica, 10 to 30% acetone in hexanes) to afford 2-(4-bromophenyl)-3,3,3-trifluoro-l,2-propanediol (2.0 g) as a white solid.

INTERMEDIATE E: BENZYL (3S)-3-(l-PROPYN-l-YL)-l-PIPERAZINECARBOXYLATE

-Cbz

STEP 1 : 4-BENZYL 1 – TER Γ-BUT YL 2-0X0-1,4-PIPERAZINEDICARBOXYLATE

A 2-L Erlenmeyer flask was charged with 2-piperazinone (36.5 g, 364 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO), sodium carbonate (116 g, 1090 mmol, J. T. Baker, Philipsburg, NJ), 600 mL of dioxane, and 150 mL of water. To this was slowly added benzyl chloroformate (62.1 g, 364 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) at rt over 20 min. After the addition was complete, the mixture was stirred for 2 h and then diluted with water and extracted with EtOAc (2 L). The combined organic extracts were dried (MgS04), filtered, and concentrated to give a white solid. To this solid was added 500 mL of DCM, triethylamine (128 mL, 911 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO), DMAP (4.45 g, 36.4 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO), and di-tert-butyl dicarbonate (119 g, 546 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO). After stirring at room temperature for 1 h, the mixture was diluted with water and the organics were separated. The organics were dried (MgS04), filtered, and concentrated to give a brown oil. To this oil was added 100 mL of DCM followed by 1 L of hexane. The resulting white solid was collected by filtration to give 4-benzyl 1-tert-butyl 2-oxo-l,4-piperazinedicarboxylate (101 g).

STEP 2: BENZYL (2-((7¾’i?J,-BUTOXYCARBONYL)AMINO)ETHYL)(2-OXO-3 -PENT YN- 1 – YL)C ARB AMATE

A 150-mL round-bottomed flask was charged with 4-benzyl 1-tert-butyl 2-oxo- 1 ,4-piperazinedicarboxylate (1.41 g, 4.22 mmol) and THF (5 mL). 1-Propynylmagnesium bromide (0.5 M in THF, 20.0 mL, 10.0 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) was added at 0 °C slowly. The mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 2 h. Saturated aqueous NH4C1 (40 mL) was added and the aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc (200 mL, then 2 x 100 mL). The combined organic phases were dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated under a vacuum. The crude product was purified by column chromatography (50 g of silica, 0 to 50% EtOAc in hexanes) to afford benzyl (2- tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino)ethyl)(2-oxo-3-pentyn-l-yl)carbamate (1.55 g) as a clear oil.

STEP 3: BENZYL 3-(l-PROPYN-l-YL)-l-PIPERAZINECARBOXYLATE

A 3-L round-bottomed flask was charged with 2-((tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino)ethyl)(2-oxo-3-pentyn-l-yl)carbamate (82.17 g, 219 mmol) and 300 mL of DCM. After cooling to -10 °C, TFA (169 mL, 2200

mmol) was added and the resulting dark solution was stirred at rt for 15 min.

Sodium triacetoxyborohydride (186 g, 878 mmol, Sigma- Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) was then added portion- wise over 10 min. After 2 h, the mixture was

concentrated, diluted with EtOAc (1 L), and neutralized with 5 N NaOH. The layers were separated and the organic extracts were washed with brine, dried (MgS04), filtered and concentrated. The resulting orange oil was purified via column chromatography (750 g of silica gel, 0 to 4.5 % MeOH/DCM) to give benzyl 3 -(l-propyn-l-yl)-l -piperazmecarboxylate (43.67 g) as a brown foam.

STEP 4: 4-BENZYL 1 – TER Γ-BUT YL 2-(l -PROP YN-l-YL)- 1,4-PIPERAZINEDICARBOXYLATE

A 20-mL vial was charged with benzyl 3-(l-propyn-l-yl)-l-piperazinecarboxylate (0.616 g, 2.38 mmol), di-tert-butyl dicarbonate (0.979 g, 4.49 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO), DMAP (0.0287 g, 0.235 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO), TEA (0.90 mL, 6.5 mmol) and DCM (8 mL). The mixture was stirred at rt for 30 min. The reaction mixture was partitioned between water (20 mL) and EtOAc (20 mL). The aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc (20 mL). The organic phase was washed with saturated aqueous sodium chloride (40 mL), dried over sodium sulfate, filtered, and concentrated under a vacuum. The crude product was purified by column chromatography (25 g of silica, 0 to 50% EtOAc in hexanes) to afford 4-benzyl 1-tert-butyl 2-(l-propyn-l-yl)-l,4-piperazinedicarboxylate (0.488 g) as a colorless oil.

STEP 5: 4-BENZYL 1 – TER Γ-BUT YL (2S)-2-( 1 -PROP YN-l-YL)- 1,4-PIPERAZINEDICARBOXYLATE

The individual enantiomers of 4-benzyl 1-tert-butyl 2-(l-propyn-l-yl)-1 ,4-piperazinedicarboxylate were isolated using chiral SFC. The method used was as follows: Chiralpak® ADH column (Daicel Inc., Fort Lee, NJ) (30 x 250 mm, 5 μιη) using 12% ethanol in supercritical C02 (total flow was 170 mL/min).

This separated the two enantiomers with enantiomeric excesses greater than 98%. The first eluting peak was subsequently identified as 4-benzyl 1-tert-butyl (2S)-2-(l-propyn-l-yl)-l,4-piperazinedicarboxylate and used in the next step.

STEP 6: BENZYL (3S)-3-(l-PROPY -l-YL)-l-PIPERAZINECAPvBOXYLATE

A 100-mL round-bottomed flask was charged with 4-benzyl 1-tert-butyl (25)-2-(l-propyn-l-yl)-l,4-piperazinedicarboxylate (0.145 g, 0.405 mmol), TFA (1.0 mL, 13 mmol) and DCM (2 mL). The mixture was stirred at rt for 40 min. The mixture was concentrated and solid NaHC03 was added followed by saturated aqueous NaHC03. The aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 20 mL). The combined organic phases were washed with IN NaOH (40 mL), saturated aqueous NaHC03 (40 mL), water (40 mL) and saturated aqueous sodium chloride (40 mL). The organic phase was dried over sodium sulfate, filtered, and concentrated under a vacuum to afford benzyl (35)-3-(l-propyn-l-yl)-l-piperazinecarboxylate (0.100 g) as a pale yellow clear oil which solidified upon standing to give a pale yellow solid.

1H NMR (400MHz, MeOD) δ ppm 7.47 – 7.13 (m, 5 H), 5.27 – 5.00 (m, 2 H), 3.88 – 3.58 (m, 3 H), 3.48 – 3.33 (m, 2 H), 3.22 – 3.02 (m, 1 H), 2.89 – 2.63 (m, 1 H), 1.80 (s, 3 H). m/z (ESI, +ve ion) 259.1 (M+H)+.

XAMPLE 23: 5-(((3S)-3-(l-PROPYN-l-YL)-4-(4-(l,2,2,2-TETRAFLUORO-1 -(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)ETHYL)PHENYL)- 1 -PIPERAZINYL)SULFONYL)-2-PYRIDIN AMINE

STEP 1 : 2-(4-((2S)-4-BENZYL-2-(l-PROPYN-l-YL)-l-PIPERAZINYL)PHENYL)-1 , 1 ,1 ,3,3,3-HEXAFLUORO-2-PROPANOL

A 20-mL vial was charged with (3S)-l-benzyl-3-(l-propyn-l-yl)piperazine (2.143 g, 10 mmol, Intermediate B), 2-(4-bromophenyl)-1,1,1, 3,3, 3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (3.09 g, 11.5 mmol, Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2002, 12, 3009), sodium 2-methylpropan-2-olate (1.92 g, 20.0 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO), dioxane (5 mL), RuPhos palladacycle (0.364 g, 0.500 mmol, Strem Chemical Inc., Newburyport, MA), and RuPhos (0.233 g, 0.500 mmol, Strem Chemical Inc., Newburyport, MA). The vial was sealed and heated at 100 °C for 1 h. The mixture was allowed to cool to rt, and diluted with water and extracted with EtOAc. The combined organic phases were dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated under a vacuum to give a solid that was purified by silica gel column chromatography (0 to 40% EtOAc in hexanes) to afford 2-(4-((2S)-4-benzyl-2-( 1 -propyn- 1 -yl)- 1 -piperazinyl)phenyl)- 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (1.75 g) as a slightly yellow oil.

STEP 2: l,l,l,3,3,3-HEXAFLUORO-2-(4-((2S)-2-(l-PROPYN-l-YL)-l-PIPERAZINYL)PHENYL)-2-PROPANOL

A 250 mL round-bottomed flask was charged with 2-(4-((2S)-4-benzyl-2-( 1 -propyn- 1 -yl)- 1 -piperazinyl)phenyl)- 1,1,1 ,3 ,3 ,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (1.75 g, 4.35 mmol), potassium carbonate (2.40 g, 17.4 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO), CH2CI2 (25 mL), and 1-chloroethyl chlorocarbonate (1.88 mL, 17.4 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO). After 30 min at rt, the reaction was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated. To the resulting oil was added MeOH (25 mL). This mixture was heated at 75 °C for 1.5 h then concentrated. The residue was triturated with diethyl ether to give l,l,l,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-(4-((2S)-2-(l-propyn-l-yl)-l-piperazinyl)phenyl)-2-propanol (1.44 g) as a white solid.

STEP 3: TERT-BUTYL (5-(((3S)-3-(l-PROPYN-l-YL)-4-(4-(2,2,2-TRIFLUORO- 1 -HYDROXY- 1 -(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)ETHYL)PHENYL)- 1 -PIPERAZINYL)SULFONYL)-2-PYRIDINYL)CARBAMATE

A 250-mL round-bottomed flask was charged with 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexaf uoro-2-(4-((2S)-2-( 1 -propyn- 1 -yl)- 1 -piperazinyl)phenyl)-2-propanol (18.9 g, 51.6 mmol) and DCM (150 mL) and cooled to 0 °C. TEA was added (14.4 mL, 103 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) followed by tert-butyl (5- (chlorosulfonyl)pyridin-2-yl)carbamate (15.9 g, 54.2 mmol, Intermediate A) portionwise. After 10 min, the reaction mixture was diluted with water (100 mL) and the organic layer was separated, dried over Na2S04, filtered and concentrated under a vacuum to give a solid that was purified by silica gel column

chromatography (0 to 50% EtO Ac in hexanes) to afford tert-butyl (5 -(((3 S)-3 -( 1 -propyn- 1 -yl)-4-(4-(2,2,2-trifluoro- 1 -hydroxy- 1 -(trifluoromethyl)ethyl)phenyl)- 1 -piperazinyl)sulfonyl)-2-pyridinyl)carbamate (19.9 g) as a tan foam.

STEP 4: 5-(((3S)-3-(l-PROPYN-l-YL)-4-(4-(l,2,2,2-TETRAFLUORO-l- (TRIFLUOROMETHYL)ETHYL)PHENYL)- 1 -PIPERAZINYL)SULFONYL)-2-PYRIDIN AMINE

A 500-mL round-bottomed flask was charged with tert-butyl (5-(((3S)-3-(1 -propyn- 1 -yl)-4-(4-(2,2,2-trifluoro- 1 -hydroxy- 1 – (trifluoromethyl)ethyl)phenyl)-l-piperazinyl)sulfonyl)-2-pyridinyl)carbamate (19.7 g, 31.6 mmol) and DCM (300 mL) and cooled to 0 °C.

(Diethylamino)sulfur trifluoride (4.18 mL, 31.6 mmol, Matrix Scientific, Columbia, SC) was added, and after 10 min, the reaction was diluted with water (250 mL) and DCM (200 mL). The organic layer was separated, dried over

Na2S04, filtered and concentrated under a vacuum. The resultant foam was taken up in DCM (200 mL) and cooled to 0 °C. TFA (100 mL, 1298 mmol) was added and the reaction mixture was warmed to rt for 1.5 h. The reaction was then re-cooled to 0 °C and solid sodium bicarbonate was added slowly until gas evolution ceased. The mixture was diluted with water (250 mL) and DCM (300 mL) and the organic layer was separated, dried over Na2S04, filtered and concentrated under a vacuum to give a solid that was purified by silica gel column chromatography (0 to 100% EtOAc in hexanes) to afford 5-(((3S)-3-(l-propyn- 1 -yl)-4-(4-( 1 ,2,2,2-tetrafluoro- 1 -(trifluoromethyl)ethyl)phenyl)- 1 -piperazinyl)sulfonyl)-2-pyridinamine (11.05 g) as a single enantiomer.

1H NMR (400MHz, CD3OD) δ ppm 8.31 (d, J= 2.2 Hz, 1 H), 7.74 (dd, J= 2.4, 8.9 Hz, 1 H), 7.47 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 2 H), 7.12 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 2 H), 6.63 (d, J= 8.8 Hz, 1 H), 4.76-4.70 (m, 1 H), 3.76 (dd, J= 1.9, 11.2 Hz, 2 H), 3.66 – 3.52 (m, 1 H), 3.29 – 3.20 (m, 1 H), 2.79 – 2.72 (m, 1 H), 2.66 – 2.53 (m, 1 H), 1.76 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 3 H). m/z (ESI, +ve ion) 525.2 (M+H)+. GK-GKRP IC50 (Binding) = 0.187 μΜ.

PAPER

Small Molecule Disruptors of the Glucokinase–Glucokinase Regulatory Protein Interaction: 2. Leveraging Structure-Based Drug Design to Identify Analogues with Improved Pharmacokinetic Profiles

Department of Therapeutic Discovery—Medicinal Chemistry, Department of Therapeutic Discovery—Molecular Structure and Characterization, §Department of Metabolic Disorders, Department of Pharmacokinetics and Drug Metabolism, Department of Pathology, #Department of Pharmaceutics Amgen, Inc., One Amgen Center Drive, Thousand Oaks, California, 91320 and 360 Binney Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 02142, United States
J. Med. Chem., 2014, 57 (2), pp 325–338
DOI: 10.1021/jm4016747
Abstract Image

In the previous report, we described the discovery and optimization of novel small molecule disruptors of the GK-GKRP interaction culminating in the identification of 1 (AMG-1694). Although this analogue possessed excellent in vitro potency and was a useful tool compound in initial proof-of-concept experiments, high metabolic turnover limited its advancement. Guided by a combination of metabolite identification and structure-based design, we have successfully discovered a potent and metabolically stable GK-GKRP disruptor (27, AMG-3969). When administered to db/db mice, this compound demonstrated a robust pharmacodynamic response (GK translocation) as well as statistically significant dose-dependent reductions in fed blood glucose levels.

2-(4-((2S)-4-((6-Amino-3-pyridinyl)sulfonyl)-2-(1-propyn-1-yl)-1-piperazinyl)phenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (27)

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 8.48 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1 H), 7.77 (dd, J = 2.5, 8.8 Hz, 1 H), 7.57 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 2 H), 6.95 (d, J = 9.2 Hz, 2 H), 6.52 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1 H), 4.94 (s, 2 H), 4.44 (br s, 1 H), 3.82–3.71 (m, 2 H), 3.58–3.33 (m, 3 H), 2.81 (dd, J = 3.2, 11.1 Hz, 1 H), 2.67 (dt, J = 3.9, 11.0 Hz, 1 H), 1.78 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 3 H).
m/z (ESI, +ve ion) 523.2 (M + H)+.
REFERENCES
St Jean, D.J. Jr.; Ashton, K.; Andrews, K.; et al.
Small molecule disruptors of the glucokinase-glucokinase regulatory protein (GK-GKRP) interaction
34th Natl Med Chem Symp (May 18-21, Charleston) 2014, Abst 4
Small molecule disruptors of the GK-GKRP interaction as potential antidiabetics
247th Am Chem Soc (ACS) Natl Meet (March 16-20, Dallas) 2014, Abst MEDI 214
Use of non-traditional conformational restriction in the design of a novel, potent, and metabolically stable series of GK-GKRP inhibitors
248th Am Chem Soc (ACS) Natl Meet (August 10-14, San Francisco) 2014, Abst MEDI 267
Small molecule inhibitors for glucokinase-glucokinase regulatory protein (GK-GKRP) binding: Optimization for in vivo target assessment of type II diabetes
248th Am Chem Soc (ACS) Natl Meet (August 10-14, San Francisco) 2014, Abst MEDI 268

MAKING CONNECTIONS Aleksandra Baranczak (right), a fourth-year grad student in Gary A. Sulikowski’s lab at Vanderbilt University, discusses her efforts to synthesize the core of the diazo-containing natural product lomaiviticin A with Kate Ashton, a medicinal chemist at Amgen
Dr. Kate Ashton

Mark Norman

Mark Norman

Michael Bartberger

Michael Bartberger

Chris Fotsch

Chris Fotsch

David St. Jean

David St. Jean

Klaus Michelsen

Klaus Michelsen

///////////1361224-53-4, AMGEN, AMG 3969, Type 2 Diabetes,  PRECLINICAL
O=S(=O)(c1ccc(N)nc1)N2C[C@H](C#CC)N(CC2)c3ccc(cc3)C(O)(C(F)(F)F)C(F)(F)F

Hoshinolactam, A new antitrypanosomal lactam


Abstract Image
Tropical diseases caused by parasitic protozoa are a threat to human health, mainly in developing countries. Trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease and sleeping sickness) and leishmaniasis, inter alia, are classified as neglected tropical diseases, and over 400 million people are at risk of contracting these diseases.

In addition, a parasite of the Trypanosoma genus, Trypanosoma brucei brucei, is the causative agent of Nagana disease in wild and domestic animals, and this disease is a major obstacle to the economic development of affected rural areas.

Although some therapeutic agents for these diseases exist, they have limitations, such as serious side effects and the emergence of drug resistance. Thus, new and more effective antiprotozoal medicines are needed

Marine natural products have recently been considered to be good sources for drug leads. In particular, secondary metabolites produced by marine cyanobacteria have unique structures and versatile biological activities, and some of these compounds show antiprotozoal activities. For example, coibacin A isolated from cf. Oscillatoria sp. exhibited potent antileishmanial activity, and viridamide A isolated from Oscillatoria nigro-viridis showed antileishmanial and antitrypanosomal activities.

constituents of marine cyanobacteria and reported an antitrypanosomal cyclodepsipeptide, janadolide.

The marine cyanobacterium was collected at the coast near Hoshino, Okinawa.

Image result for OKINAWA

Image result for OKINAWA

Okinawa
沖縄市
Uchinaa
City
Okinawa City downtown.jpg
Flag of Okinawa
Flag

EARLIER MERCK TEAM HAD REPORTED

CAS 159153-15-8
MF C20 H33 N O5
MW 367.48
2-Pyrrolidinone, 3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)-3-[3-(2-nonylcyclopropyl)-1-oxo-2-propenyl]-, [3S-[3α,3[E(1S*,2S*)],4β,5α]]-
Image result for AntitrypanosomalImage result for Antitrypanosomal
Antitrypanosomal
Image result for marine cyanobacterium
Marine cyanobacterium
Image result for human fetal lung fibroblast MRC-5 cells
Human fetal lung fibroblast MRC-5 cells
Majusculoic acid.png
Majusculoic acid
Image result for malyngamide A.
Malyngamide A.

PAPER

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/suppl/10.1021/acs.orglett.7b00047

Recently, we isolated a new antitrypanosomal lactam, hoshinolactam (1), from a marine cyanobacterium.Structurally, 1 contains a cyclopropane ring and a γ-lactam ring. So far, some metabolites possessing either a cyclopropane ring or a γ-lactam ring have been discovered from marine cyanobacteria, such as majusculoic acid and malyngamide A. To the best of our knowledge, on the other hand, hoshinolactam (1) is the first compound discovered in marine cyanobacteria that possesses both of these ring systems. In addition, we clarified that 1 exhibited potent antitrypanosomal activity without cytotoxicity against human fetal lung fibroblast MRC-5 cells. Here, we report the isolation, structure elucidation, first total synthesis, and preliminary biological characterization of hoshinolactam (1).

Isolation and Total Synthesis of Hoshinolactam, an Antitrypanosomal Lactam from a Marine Cyanobacterium

Department of Chemistry, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8522, Japan
Research Center for Tropical Diseases, Kitasato Institute for Life Sciences, and §Graduate School of Infection Control Sciences, Kitasato University, 5-9-1, Shirokane, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8641, Japan
Org. Lett., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acs.orglett.7b00047

Abstract Image

In the search for new antiprotozoal substances, hoshinolactam, an antitrypanosomal lactam, was isolated from a marine cyanobacterium. The gross structure was elucidated by spectroscopic analyses, and the absolute configuration was determined by the first total synthesis. Hoshinolactam showed potent antitrypanosomal activity with an IC50 value of 3.9 nM without cytotoxicity against human fetal lung fibroblast MRC-5 cells (IC50 > 25 μM).

Table 1. 1H and 13C NMR Data for 1 in C6D6
unit position δCa δHb (J in Hz)
HIMP 1 177.8, C
2 44.1, CH 2.51, dq (5.2, 7.6)
3 80.8, CH 4.94, dd (4.6, 5.2)
4 57.3, CH 3.49, ddd (4.6, 4.7, 9.4)
5a 44.6, CH2 1.21, m
5b 1.36, m
6 25.0, CH 1.61, m
7 21.7, CH3 0.74, d (6.2)
8 23.2, CH3 0.76, d (6.3)
9 15.0, CH3 1.33, d (7.6)
NH 7.65, s
PCPA 1 166.0, C
2 117.4, CH 5.88, d (15.5)
3 155.0, CH 6.59, dd (10.3, 15.5)
4 22.4, CH 0.91, m
5 23.3, CH 0.59, m
6 35.7, CH2 0.96, m
7 22.5, CH2 1.20, tq (7.1, 7.3)
8 14.0, CH3 0.78, t (7.3)
9a 16.1, CH2 0.35, ddd (4.5, 6.0, 8.2)
9b 0.42, ddd (4.5, 4.5, 8.8)
aMeasured at 100 MHz.
bMeasured at 400 MHz.
Positive HRESIMS data (m/z 308.2228, calcd for C18H30NO3 [M + H]+ 308.2225). Table 1 shows the NMR data for 1.
An analysis of the 1H NMR spectrum indicated the presence of four methyl groups (δH 0.74, 0.76, 0.78 and 1.33), four protons of the cyclopropane ring (δH 0.35, 0.42, 0.59 and 0.91), and two olefinic protons (δH 5.88 and 6.59).
The 13C NMR and HMQC spectra revealed the existence of two carbonyl groups (δC 166.0 and 177.8) and two sp2 methines (δC 117.4 and 155.0).
Examination of the COSY and HMBC spectra established the presence of two fragments derived from 4-hydroxy-5-isobutyl-3-methylpyrrolidin-2-one (HIMP) and 3-(2-propylcyclopropyl) acrylic acid (PCPA), respectively. The configuration of the C-2–C-3 olefinic bond in the PCPA was determined to be trans on the basis of the coupling constant (3JH2–H3 = 15.5 Hz). The connectivity of the two partial structures was determined from the HMBC correlation (H-3 of HIMP/C-1 of PCPA).
1H, 13C, COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY NMR spectra in C6D6 and 1H and 13C NMR spectra in CD3OD for hoshinolactam (1)
1H, 13C, COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY NMR spectra in C6D6

1H and 13C NMR spectra in CD3OD

1H NMR PREDICT

13 C NMR PREDICT

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OKINAWA

///////////Hoshinolactam

CC(C)C[C@@H]2NC(=O)[C@H](C)C2OC(=O)/C=C/[C@H]1C[C@@H]1CCC

Plinabulin


Plinabulin.svg

Plinabulin

  • Molecular FormulaC19H20N4O2
  • Average mass336.388 Da
(3Z,6Z)-3-Benzylidène-6-{[4-(2-méthyl-2-propanyl)-1H-imidazol-5-yl]méthylène}-2,5-pipérazinedione
2,5-Piperazinedione, 3-[[5-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1H-imidazol-4-yl]methylene]-6-(phenylmethylene)-, (3Z,6Z)-
CAS 714272-27-2
NPI 2358
NPI-2358; NPI 2358
UNII:986FY7F8XR
Phase 3 Clinical

Tubulin antagonist

Cancer; Febrile neutropenia; Non-small-cell lung cancer

Plinabulin (chemical structure, BPI-2358, formerly NPI-2358) is a small molecule under development by BeyondSpring Pharmaceuticals, and is in a world-wide Phase 3 clinical trial for non-small cell lung cancer. [1] Plinabulin blocks the polymerization of tubulin in a unique manner, resulting in multi-factorial effects including an enhanced immune-oncology response, [2] activation of the JNK pathway [3] and disruption of the tumor blood supply. Plinabulin is being investigated for the reduction of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia [4] and for anti-cancer effects in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors [5] [6] and in KRAS mutated tumors. [7]

ChemSpider 2D Image | Plinabulin | C19H20N4O2

Plinabulin is a synthetic analog of diketopiperazine phenylahistin (halimide) discovered from marine and terrestrial Aspergillus sp. Plinabulin is structurally different from colchicine and its combretastatin-like analogs (eg, fosbretabulin) and binds at or near the colchicine binding site on tubulin monomers. Previous studies showed that plinabulin induced vascular endothelial cell tubulin depolymerization and monolayer permeability at low concentrations compared with colchicine and that it induced apoptosis in Jurkat leukemia cells. Studies of plinabulin as a single agent in patients with advanced malignancies (lung, prostate, and colon cancers) showed a favorable pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamics, and safety profile.

Beyondspring, under license from Nereus (now Triphase, which licensed the program from the Scripps Institute of Oceanography of the University of California San Diego), is developing plinabulin, the lead in the NPI-2350 halimide series of marine Aspergillus-derived, vascular-targeting antimicrotubule agents, for treating cancer, primarily non-small cell lung cancer.

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It is thought that a single, universal cellular mechanism controls the regulation of the eukaryotic cell cycle process. See, e.g., Hartwpll, L.H. et al., Science (1989), 246: 629-34. It is also known that when an abnormality arises in the control mechanism of the cell cycle, cancer or an immune disorder may occur. Accordingly, as is also known, antitumor agents and immune suppressors may be among the substances that regulate the cell cycle. Thus, new methods for producing eukaryotic cell cycle inhibitors are needed as antitumor and immune-enhancing compounds, and should be useful in the treatment of human cancer as chemotherapeutic, anti-tumor agents. See, e.g., Roberge, M. et al., Cancer Res. (1994), 54, 6115-21.

Fungi, especially pathogenic fungi and related infections, represent an increasing clinical challenge. Existing antifungal agents are of limited efficacy and toxicity, and the development and/or discovery of strains of pathogenic fungi that are resistant to drags currently available or under development. By way of example, fungi that are pathogenic in humans include among others Candida spp. including C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. keƒyr, C. krusei and C. galbrata; Aspergillus spp. including A. fumigatus and A. flavus; Cryptococcus neoƒormans; Blastomyces spp. including Blastomyces dermatitidis; Pneumocystis carinii; Coccidioides immitis; Basidiobolus ranarum; Conidiobolus spp.; Histoplasma capsulatum; Rhizopus spp. including R. oryzae and R. microsporus; Cunninghamella spp.; Rhizomucor spp.; Paracoccidioides brasiliensis; Pseudallescheria boydii; Rhinosporidium seeberi; and Sporothrix schenckii (Kwon-Chung, K.J. & Bennett, J.E. 1992 Medical Mycology, Lea and Febiger, Malvern, PA).

Recently, it has been reported that tryprostatins A and B (which are diketopiperazines consisting of proline and isoprenylated tryptophan residues), and five other structurally-related diketopiperazines, inhibited cell cycle progression in the M phase, see Cui, C. et al., 1996 J Antibiotics 49:527-33; Cui, C. et al. 1996 J Antibiotics 49:534-40, and that these compounds also affect the microtubule assembly, see Usui, T. et al. 1998 Biochem J 333:543-48; Kondon, M. et al. 1998 J Antibiotics 51:801-04. Furthermore, natural and synthetic compounds have been reported to inhibit mitosis, thus inhibit the eukaryotic cell cycle, by binding to the colchicine binding-site (CLC-site) on tubulin, which is a macromolecule that consists of two 50 kDa subunits (α- and β-tubulin) and is the major constituent of microtubules. See, e.g., Iwasaki, S., 1993 Med Res Rev 13:183-198; Hamel, E. 1996 Med Res Rev 16:207-31; Weisenberg, R.C. et al., 1969 Biochemistry 7:4466-79. Microtubules are thought to be involved in several essential cell functions, such as axonal transport, cell motility and determination of cell morphology. Therefore, inhibitors of microtubule function may have broad biological activity, and be applicable to medicinal and agrochemical purposes. It is also possible that colchicine (CLC)-site ligands such as CLC, steganacin, see Kupchan, S.M. et al., 1973 J Am Chem Soc 95:1335-36, podophyllotoxin, see Sackett, D.L., 1993 Pharmacol Ther 59:163-228, and combretastatins, see Pettit, G.R. et al., 1995 J Med Chem 38:166-67, may prove to be valuable as eukaryotic cell cycle inhibitors and, thus, may be useful as chemotherapeutic agents.

Although diketopiperazine-type metabolites have been isolated from various fungi as mycotoxins, see Horak R.M. et al., 1981 JCS Chem Comm 1265-67; Ali M. et al., 1898 Toxicology Letters 48:235-41, or as secondary metabolites, see Smedsgaard J. et al., 1996 J Microbiol Meth 25:5-17, little is known about the specific structure of the diketopiperazine-type metabolites or their derivatives and their antitumor activity, particularly in vivo. Not only have these compounds been isolated as mycotoxins, the chemical synthesis of one type of diketopiperazine-type metabolite, phenylahistin, has been described by Hayashi et al. in J. Org. Chem. (2000) 65, page 8402. In the art, one such diketopiperazine-type metabolite derivative, dehydrophenylahistin, has been prepared by enzymatic dehydrogenation of its parent phenylahistin. With the incidences of cancer on the rise, there exists a particular need for chemically producing a class of substantially purified diketopiperazine-type metabolite-derivatives having animal cell-specific proliferation-inhibiting activity and high antitumor activity and selectivity. There is therefore a particular need for an efficient method of synthetically producing substantially purified, and structurally and biologically characterized, diketopiperazine-type metabolite-derivatives.

Also, PCT Publication WO/0153290 (July 26, 2001) describes a non-synthetic method of producing dehydrophenylahistin by exposing phenylahistin or a particular phenylahistin analog to a dehydrogenase obtained from Streptomyces albulus.

Synthesis

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PATENT

WO2001053290,

WO 2004054498

PATENT

WO 2005077940

The imidazolecarboxaldehyde may be prepared, for example, according the procedure disclosed in Hayashi et al., 2000 J Organic Chem 65: 8402 as depicted below:

EXAMPLE 2

Synthesis and Physical Characterization of tBu-dehydrophenylahistin Derivatives

[0207] Structural derivatives of dehydrophenylahistin were synthesized according to the following reaction schemes to produce tBu-dehydrophenylahistin. Synthesis by Route

A (see Figure 1) is similar in certain respects to the synthesis of the dehydrophenylahistin synthesized as in Example 1.

Route A:

[0208] N,N’-diacethyl-2,5-piperazinedione 1 was prepared as in Example 1.

1) 1-Acetyl-3-{(Z)-1-[5-tert-butyl-1H-4-imidazolyl]methylidene}]-2,5-piperazinedione (16)

. [0209] To a solution of 5-tert-butylimidazole-4-carboxaldehyde 15 (3.02 g, 19.8. mmol) in DMF (30 mL) was added compound 1 (5.89 g, 29.72 mmol) and the solution was repeatedly evacuated in a short time to remove oxygen and flushed with Ar, followed by the addition of Cs2CO3 (9.7 g, 29.72 mmol) and the evacuation-flushing process was repeated again. The resultant mixture was stirred for 5 h at room temperature. After the solvent was removed by evaporation, the residue was dissolved in the mixture of EtOAc and 10% Na2CO3, and the organic phase was washed with 10% Na2CO3 again and saturated NaCl for three times, dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated in vacuo. The residual oil was purified by column chromatography on silica using CHCl3-MeOH (100:0 to 50:1) as an eluant to give 1.90 g (33 %) of a pale yellow solid 16. 1H NMR (270 MHz, CDCl3) δ 12.14 (d, br-s, 1H), 9.22 (br-s, 1H), 7.57 (s, 1H), 7.18, (s, 1H), 4.47 (s, 2H), 2.65 (s, 3H), 1.47 (s, 9H).

2) t-Bu-dehydrophenylahistin

[0210] To a solution of 1-Acetyl-3-{(Z)-1-[5-tert-butyl-1H-4-imidazolyl]methylidene}]-2,5-piperazinedione (16) (11 mg, 0.038 mmol) in DMF (1.0 mL) was added benzaldehyde (19 μL, 0.19 mmol, 5 eq) and the solution was repeatedly evacuated in a short time to remove oxygen and flushed with Ar, followed by the addition of Cs2CO3 (43 mg, 0.132 mmol, 3.5 eq) and the evacuation-flushing process was repeated again. The resultant mixture was heated for 2.5 h at 80°C. After the solvent was removed by

evaporation, the residue was dissolved in EtOAc, washed with water for two times and saturated NaCl for three times, dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated in vacuo. The resulting residue was dissolved in 90% MeOH aq and applied to reverse-phase HPLC column (YMC-Pack, ODS-AM, 20 × 250 mm) and eluted using a linear gradient from 70 to 74% MeOH in water over 16 min at a flow rate of 12 mL/min, and the desired fraction was collected and concentrated by evaporation to give a 6.4 mg (50%) of yellow colored tert-butyl-dehydrophenylahistin. 1H NMR (270 MHz, CDCl3) δ 12.34 br-s, 1H), 9.18 (br-s, 1H), 8.09 (s, 1H), 7.59 (s, 1H), 7.31 – 7.49 (m, 5H), 7.01 s, 2H), 1.46 (s, 9H).

[0211] The dehydrophenylahistin reaction to produce tBu-dehydrophenylahistin is identical to Example 1.

[0212] The total yield of the tBu-dehydrophenylahistin recovered was 16.5%. Route B:

[0213] N,N’-diacethyl-2,5-piperazinedione 1 was prepared as in Example 1.

1) 1-Acetyl-3-[(Z)-benzylidenel]-2,5-piperazinedione (17)

[0214] To a solution of benzaldehyde 4 (0.54 g, 5.05. mmol) in DMF (5 mL) was added compound 1 (2.0 g, 10.1 mmol) and the solution was repeatedly evacuated in a short time to remove oxygen and flushed with Ar, followed by the addition of Cs2CO3 (1.65 g, 5.05 mmol) and the evacuation-flushing process was repeated again. The resultant mixture was stirred for 3.5 h at room temperature. After the solvent was removed by evaporation, the residue was dissolved in the mixture of EtOAc and 10% Na2CO3, and the organic phase was washed with 10% Na2CO3 again and saturated NaCl for three times, dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated in vacuo. The residual solid was recrystalized from MeOH-ether to obtain a off-white solid of 17; yield 1.95 g (79%).

2) t-Bu-dehydrophenylahistin

[0215] To a solution of 1-Acetyl-3-[(Z)-benzylidenel]-2,5-piperazinedione (17) (48 mg, 0.197 mmol) in DMF (1.0 mL) was added 5-tert-butylimidazole-4-carboxaldehyde 15 (30 mg, 0.197 mmol) and the solution was repeatedly evacuated in a short time to remove oxygen and flushed with Ar, followed by the addition of Cs2CO3 (96 mg, 0.296 mmol) and the evacuation-flushing process was repeated again. The resultant mixture was heated for 14 h at 80°C. After the solvent was removed by evaporation, the residue was dissolved in EtOAc, washed with water for two times and saturated NaCl for three times, dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated in vacuo. The resulting residue was dissolved in 90% MeOH aq and applied to reverse-phase HPLC column (YMC-Pack, ODS-AM, 20 x 250 mm) and eluted using a linear gradient from 70 to 74% MeOH in water over 16 min at a flow rate of 12 mL/min, and the desired fraction was collected and concentrated by evaporation to give a 0.8 mg (1.2%) of yellow colored tert-butyl-dehydrophenylahistin.

[0216] The total yield of the tBu-dehydrophenylahistin recovered was 0.9%.

[0217] The HPLC profile of the crude synthetic tBu-dehyrophenylahistin from Route A and from Route B is depicted in Figure 4.

[0218] Two other tBu-dehydrophenylahistin derivatives were synthesized according to the method of Route A. In the synthesis of the additional tBu-dehydrophenylahistin derivatives, modifications to the benzaldehyde compound 4 were made.

[0219] Figure 4 illustrates the similarities of the HPLC profiles (Column: YMC-Pack ODS-AM (20 × 250mm); Gradient: 65% to 75% in a methanol-water system for 20 min, then 10 min in a 100% methanol system; Flow rate: 12mL/min; O.D. 230 nm) from the synthesized dehydrophenylahistin of Example 1 (Fig 2) and the above exemplified tBu-dehydrophenylahistin compound produced by Route A.

[0220] The sequence of introduction of the aldehydes is a relevant to the yield and is therefore aspect of the synthesis. An analogue of dehydrophenylahistin was synthesized, as a confrol or model, wherein the dimethylallyl group was changed to the tert-butyl group with a similar steric hindrance at the 5-position of the imidazole ring.

[0221] The synthesis of this “tert-butyl (tBu)-dehydrophenylahistin” using “Route A” was as shown above: Particularly, the sequence of infroduction of the aldehyde exactly follows the dehydrophenylahistin synthesis, and exhibited a total yield of 16.5% tBu-dehydrophenylahistin. This yield was similar to that of dehydrophenylahistin (20%). Using “Route B”, where the sequence of introduction of the aldehydes is opposite that of Route “A” for the dehydrophenylahistin synthesis, only a trace amount of the desired tBu-dehydroPLH was obtained with a total yield of 0.9%, although in the introduction of first benzaldehyde 4 gave a 76% yield of the intermediate compound 17. This result indicated that it may be difficult to introduce the highly bulky imidazole-4-carboxaldehydes 15 with a substituting group having a quaternary-carbon on the adjacent 5-position at the imidazole ring into the intermediate compound 17, suggesting that the sequence for introduction of aldehydes is an important aspect for obtaining a high yield of dehydrophenylahistin or an analog of dehydrophenylahistin employing the synthesis disclosed herein:

[0222] From the HPLC analysis of the final crude products, as shown in Figure 4, a very high content of tBu-dehydrophenylahistin and small amount of by-product formations were observed in the crude sample of Route A (left). However, a relatively smaller amount of the desired tBu-dehydrophenylahistin and several other by-products were observed in the sample obtained using Route B (right).

Synthesis oƒ 3-Z-Benzylidene-6-(5″-tert-butyl-1H-imidazol-4″-Z-ylmethylene)-piperazine-2,5-dione (2)

Reagents: g) SO2Cl2; h) H2NCHO, H2O; I)LiAlH4; j) MnO2; k) 1,4-diacetyl-piperazine-2,5-dione, Cs2CO3; 1) benzaldehyde, Cs2CO3

2-Chloro-4,4-dimethyl-3-oxo-pentanoic acid ethyl ester

[0280] Sulfuryl chloride (14.0 ml, 0.17 mol) was added to a cooled (0°) solution of ethyl pivaloylacetate (27.17 g, 0.16 mol) in chloroform (100 ml). The resulting mixture was allowed to warm to room temperature and was stirred for 30 min, after which it was heated under reflux for 2.5 h. After cooling to room temperature, the reaction mixture was diluted with chloroform, then washed with sodium bicarbonate, water then brine.

[0281] The organic phase was dried and evaporated to afford, as a clear oil, 2-chloro-4,4-dimethyl-3-oxo-pentanoic acid ethyl ester (33.1 g, 102%). (Durant et al., “Aminoalkylimidazoles and Process for their Production.” Patent No. GB1341375 (Great Britain, 1973)).

[0282] HPLC (214nm) tR = 8.80 (92.9%) min.

[0283] 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 1.27 (s, 9H); 1.29 (t, J= 7.2 Hz, 3H); 4.27

(q, J= 7.2 Hz, 2H); 5.22 (s, 1H).

[0284] 13C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3) δ 13.8, 26.3, 45.1, 54.5, 62.9, 165.1, 203.6.

5-tert-Butyl-3H-imidazole-4-carboxylic acid ethyl ester

[0285] A solution of 2-chloro-4,4-dimethyl-3-oxo-pentanoic acid ethyl ester (25.0 g, 0.12 mol) in formamide (47.5 ml) and water (2.5 ml) was shaken, then dispensed into 15 x 8 ml vials. All vials were sealed and then heated at 150° for 3.5 h. The vials were allowed to cool to room temperature, then water (20 ml) was added and the mixture was exhaustively extracted with chloroform. The chloroform was removed to give a concentrated formamide solution (22.2 g) which was added to a flash silica column (6 cm diameter, 12 cm height) packed in 1% MeOH/1% Et3N in chloroform. Elution of the column with 2.5 L of this mixture followed by 1 L of 2% MeOH/1% Et3N in chloroform gave, in the early fractions, a product suspected of being 5-tert-butyl-oxazole-4-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (6.3 g, 26%).

[0286] HPLC (214nm) tR = 8.77 min.

[0287] 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 1.41 (t, J= 7.2 Hz, 3H); 1.43 (s, 9H); 4.40

(q, J= 7.2 Hz, 2H); 7.81 (s, 1H).

[0288] 13C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3) δ 14.1, 28.8, 32.5, 61.3, 136.9, 149.9, 156.4,

158.3.

[0289] ESMS m/z 198.3 [M+H]+, 239.3 [M+CH4CN]+.

[0290] LC/MS tR = 7.97 (198.1 [M+H]+) min.

[0291] Recovered from later fractions was 5-tert-butyl-3H-imidazole-4-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (6.20 g, 26%). (Durant et al., “Aminoalkylimidazoles and Process for their Production.” Patent No. GB 1341375 (Great Britain, 1973)).

[0292] HPLC (214nm) tR = 5.41 (93.7%) min.

[0293] 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 1.38 (t, J = 7.0 Hz, 3H); 1.47 (s, 9H); 4.36

(q, J= 7.2 Hz, 2H); 7.54 (s, 1H).

[0294] 13C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3) δ 13 7, 28.8, 32.0, 59.8, 124.2, 133.3, 149.2,

162.6.

[0295] ESMS m/z 197.3 [M+H]+, 238.3 [M+CH4CN]+.

[0296] Further elution of the column with 1L of 5% MeOh/1% Et3N gave a compound suspected of being 5-tert-butyl-3H-imidazole-4-carboxylic acid (0.50 g, 2%).

[0297] HPLC (245nm) tR = 4.68 (83.1%) min.

[0298] 1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) δ 1.36 (s, 9H); 7.69 (s, 1H).

[0299] 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 1.37 (s, 9H); 7.74 (s, 1H).

[0300] 1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3SO) δ 1.28 (s, 9H); 7.68 (s, 1H).

[0301] ESMS m/z 169.2 [M+H]+, 210.4 [M+CH4CN]+.

(5-tert-Butyl-3H-imidazol-4-yl)-methanol

[0302] A solution of 5-tert-butyl-3-imidazole-4-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (3.30 g, 16.8 mmol) in THF (60 ml) was added dropwise to a suspension of lithium aluminium hydride (95% suspension, 0.89 g, 22.2 mmol) in THF (40 ml) and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 3 h. Water was added until the evolution of gas ceased, the mixture was stirred for 10 min, then was filtered through a sintered funnel. The precipitate was washed with THF, then with methanol, the filtrate and washings were combined and evaporated. The residue was freeze-dried overnight to afford, as a white solid (5-tert-butyl- 3H-imidazol-4-yl)-methanol (2.71 g, 105%). (Durant et al., “Aminoalkylimidazoles and Process for their Production.” Patent No. GB1341375 (Great Britain, 1973)).

[0303] HPLC (240nm) tR = 3.70 (67.4%) min.

[0304] 1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) δ 1 36 (s, 9H). 4 62 (s, 2H); 7.43 (s, 1H).

[0305] 13C NMR (100 MHz, CD3OD) δ 31.1, 33.0, 57.9, 131.4, 133.9, 140.8.

[0306] LC/MS tR = 3.41 (155.2 [M+H]+) min.

[0307] This material was used without further purification.

5-tert-Butyl-3H-imidazole-4-carbaldehyde

[0308] Manganese dioxide (30 g, 0.35 mol) was added to a heterogeneous solution of (5-tert-butyl-3H-imidazol-4-yl)-methanol (4.97 g, 0.03 mol) in acetone (700 ml) and the resulting mixture was stirred at room temperature for 4 h. The mixture was filtered through a pad of Celite and the pad was washed with acetone. The filfrate and washings were combined and evaporated. The residue was triturated with ether to afford, as a colorless solid, 5-tert-butyl-3H-imidazole-4-carbaldehyde (2.50 g, 51%). (Hayashi, Personal Communication (2000)).

[0309] HPLC (240nm) tR = 3.71 (89.3%) min.

[0310] 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 1.48 (s, 9H); 7.67 (s, 1H); 10.06 (s, 1H).

[0311] LC/MS tR = 3.38 (153.2 [M+H]+) min.

[0312] Evaporation of the filtrate from the trituration gave additional 5-tert-butyl-3H-imidazole-4-carbaldehyde (1.88 g, 38%).

1-Acetyl-3-(5′-tert-butyl-1H-imdazol-4′-Z-ylmethylene)-piperazine-2,5-dione

[0313] To a solution of 5-tert-butyl-3H-imidazole-4-carbaldehyde (2.50 g, 164.4 mmol) in DMF (50 ml) was added 1,4-diacetyl-piperazine-2,5-dione (6.50 g, 32.8 mmol) and the solution was evacuated, then flushed with argon. The evacuation-flushing process was repeated a further two times, then cesium carbonate (5.35 g, 16.4 mmol) was added. The evacuation-flushing process was repeated a further three times, then the resultant mixture was stirred at room temperature for 5 h. The reaction mixture was partially evaporated (heat and high vacuum) until a small volume remained and the resultant solution was added dropwise to water (100 ml). The yellow precipitate was collected, then freeze-dried to afford 1-acetyl-3-(5′-tert-butyl-1Η-imidazol-4′-Z-ylmethylene)-piperazine-2,5-dione (2.24 g, 47%). (Hayashi, Personal Communication (2000)).

[0314] HPLC (214nm) tR = 5.54 (94.4%) min.

[0315] 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 1.47 (s, 9H); 2.65 (s, 3H), 4.47 (s, 2H);

7.19 (s, 1H); 7.57 (s, 1H), 9.26 (s, 1H), 12.14 (s, 1H).

[0316] 13C NMR (100 MHz, CDCI3+CD3OD) δ 27.3, 30.8, 32.1, 46.5, 110.0,

123.2, 131.4, 133.2, 141.7, 160.7, 162.8, 173.0

[0317] LC/MS tR = 5.16 (291.2 [M+H]+, 581.6 [2M+H]+) min.

3-Z-Benzylidene-6-(5″-tert-butyl-lH-imidazol-4″-Z-ylmethylene)-piperazine-2,5-dione

[0318] To a solution of 1-acetyl-3-(5′-tert-butyl-1H-imidazol-4′-Z-ylmethylene)-piperazine-2,5-dione (2.43 g, 8.37 mmol) in DMF (55 ml) was added benzaldehyde (4.26 ml, 41.9 mmol) and the solution was evacuated, then flushed with nitrogen. The evacuation-

flushing process was repeated a further two times, then cesium carbonate (4.09 g, 12.6 mmol) was added. The evacuation-flushing process was repeated a further three times, then the resultant mixture was heated under the temperature gradient as shown below. After a total time of 5 h the reaction was allowed to cool to room temperature and the mixture was added to ice-cold water (400 ml). The precipitate was collected, washed with water, then freeze-dried to afford a yellow solid (2.57 g, HPLC (214nm) tR = 6.83 (83.1%) min.). This material was dissolved in chloroform (100 ml) and evaporated to azeofrope remaining water, resulting in a brown oil. This was dissolved in chloroform (20 ml) and cooled in ice. After 90 min the yellow precipitate was collected and air-dried to afford 3-Z-benzylidene-6-(5″-tert-butyl-1H-imidazol-4″-Z-ylmethylene)-piperazine-2,5-dione (1.59 g, 56%). (Hayashi, Personal Communication (2000)).

[0319] HPLC (214nm) tR = 6.38 (2.1%), 6.80 (95.2) min.

[0320] 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 1.46 (s, pH). 7 01 (s, 1H, -C-C=CH); 7.03

(s, 1H, -C-C=CH); 7.30-7.50 (m, 5H, Ar); 7.60 (s, 1H); 8.09 (bs, NH); 9.51 (bs, NH); 12.40 (bs, NH).

[0321] LC/MS tR = 5.84 (337.4 [M+H]+, E isomer), 6.25 (337.4 [M+H]+, 673.4 [2M+H]+, Z isomer) min.

[0322] ESMS m/z 337.3 [M+H]+, 378.1 [M+OLGNT.

[0323] Evaporation of the chloroform solution gave additional 3-Z-benzylidene-6-(5″-tert-butyl-1H-imidazol-4″-Z-ylmethylene)-piperazine-2,5-dione (0.82 g, 29%). ΗPLC (214nm) tR = 6.82 (70.6%) min.

PAPER

Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2012), 55(3), 1056-1071

Abstract Image

Plinabulin (11, NPI-2358) is a potent microtubule-targeting agent derived from the natural diketopiperazine “phenylahistin” (1) with a colchicine-like tubulin depolymerization activity. Compound 11 was recently developed as VDA and is now under phase II clinical trials as an anticancer drug. To develop more potent antimicrotubule and cytotoxic derivatives based on the didehydro-DKP skeleton, we performed further modification on the tert-butyl or phenyl groups of 11, and evaluated their cytotoxic and tubulin-binding activities. In the SAR study, we developed more potent derivatives 33 with 2,5-difluorophenyl and 50 with a benzophenone in place of the phenyl group. The anti-HuVEC activity of 33 and 50 exhibited a lowest effective concentration of 2 and 1 nM for microtubule depolymerization, respectively. The values of 33 and 50 were 5 and 10 times more potent than that of CA-4, respectively. These derivatives could be a valuable second-generation derivative with both vascular disrupting and cytotoxic activities.

Synthesis and Structure–Activity Relationship Study of Antimicrotubule Agents Phenylahistin Derivatives with a Didehydropiperazine-2,5-dione Structure

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392, Japan
Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Center for Frontier Research in Medicinal Science, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Kyoto 607-8412, Japan
§Nereus Pharmaceuticals, San Diego, California 92121, United States
Department of Analytical and Bioinorganic Chemistry, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Kyoto 607-8414, Japan
Laboratory of Comparative Agricultural Science, Division of Environmental Science and Technology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan
# Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572, Japan
Marine Biotechnology Institute Co., Ltd., Kamaishi, Iwate 026-0001, Japan
J. Med. Chem., 2012, 55 (3), pp 1056–1071
DOI: 10.1021/jm2009088
*Tel/fax: +81-42-676-3275. E-mail: yhayashi@toyaku.ac.jp.
3-{(Z)-1-[5-(tert-Butyl)-1H-4-imidazolyl]methylidene}-6-[(Z)-1-phenylmethylidene]-2,5-piperazinedione
Compound 11 as a yellow solid: yield 81%;
mp 160–162 °C (dec);
IR (KBr, cm–1) 3500, 3459, 3390, 3117, 3078, 2963, 2904, 1673, 1636, 1601, 1413, 1371, 1345;
1H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 12.26 (s, 2H), 10.16 (br s, 1H), 7.86 (s, 1H), 7.53 (d, J = 7.4 Hz, 2H), 7.42 (t, J = 7.5 Hz 2H), 7.32 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 1H), 6.86 (s, 1H), 6.75 (s, 1H), 1.38 (s, 9H);
13C NMR (150 MHz, DMSO-d6) 157.2, 156.4, 145.3, 137.4, 134.5, 133.1, 129.1, 128.6, 127.9, 126.4, 113.9, 112.0, 104.5, 37.4, 27.7;
HRMS (EI) m/z 336.1591 (M+) (calcd for C19H20N4O2 336.1586).
Anal. (C19H20N4O2·0.25H2O·CF3COOH) C, H, N. HPLC (method 1) 99.4% (tR = 18.87 min).
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PAPER

Chemistry – A European Journal (2011), 17(45), 12587-12590, S12587/1-S12587/13

Abstract

original image

Click for improved solubility: A water-soluble prodrug of plinabulin was designed and synthesized efficiently by using click chemistry in three steps (see scheme). The product was highly water-soluble, and the parent compound could be regenerated by esterase hydrolysis.

PATENT

WO2017011399,  PLINABULIN COMPOSITIONS

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2017011399&recNum=1&maxRec=&office=&prevFilter=&sortOption=&queryString=&tab=PCTDescription

References

  1.  “Assessment of Docetaxel + Plinabulin Compared to Docetaxel + Placebo in Patients With Advanced NSCLC With at Least One Measurable Lung Lesion (DUBLIN-3)”.
  2.  Lloyd, G.K.; Muller, Ph.; Kashyap, A.; Zippelius, A.; Huang, L. (January 7–9, 2016), Plinabulin: Evidence for an Immune Mediated Mechanism of Action (Philadelphia (PA) AACR 2016 Abstract nr A07), San Diego CA
  3.  Singh, A.V.; Bandi, M.; Raje, N.; Richardson, P.; Palladino, M.A.; Chauhan, D.; Anderson, K. (2011). “A Novel Vascular Disrupting Agent Plinabulin Triggers JNK-Mediated Apoptosis and Inhibits Angiogenesis in Multiple Myeloma Cells”. Blood. 117 (21): 5692–5700.
  4.  Heist, R.S.; Aren, O.R.; Mita, A.C.; Polikoff, J.; Bazhenova, L.; Lloyd, G.K.; Mikrut, W.; Reich, W.; Spear, M.A.; Huang, L. (2014), Randomized Phase 2 Trial of Plinabulin (NPI-2358) Plus Docetaxel in Patients with Advanced Non-Small Lung Cancer (NSCLC) (abstr 8054)
  5.  “Nivolumab and Plinabulin in Treating Patients With Stage IIIB-IV, Recurrent, or Metastatic Non-small Cell Lung Cancer”.
  6.  “Nivolumab in Combination With Plinabulin in Patients With Metastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)”.
  7.  Lloyd, G.K.; Du, L.; Lee, G.; Dalsing-Hernandez, J.; Kotlarczyk, K.; Gonzalez, K.; Nawrocki, S.; Carew, J.; Huang, L. (October 5–9, 2015), Activity of Plinabulin in Tumor Models with Kras Mutations (Philadelphia (PA) AACR 2015 Abstract nr. 184), Boston MA
Plinabulin
Plinabulin.svg
Names
IUPAC name

(3Z,6Z)-3-Benzylidene-6-{[5-(2-methyl-2-propanyl)-1H-imidazol-4-yl]methylene}-2,5-piperazinedione
Identifiers
714272-27-2 Yes
3D model (Jmol) Interactive image
ChemSpider 8125252
PubChem 9949641
Properties
C19H20N4O2
Molar mass 336.40 g·mol−1
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).

////////////Plinabulin, Phase 3,  Clinical, 714272-27-2, NPI 2358, Nereus,  (S)-(-)-phenylahistin,  NPI-2350,  (-)-phenylahistin,  KPU-2, KPU-02, KPU-35

O=C3N\C(=C/c1ncnc1C(C)(C)C)C(=O)N/C3=C\c2ccccc2

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