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- Ethanamine, 2-[(decahydro-3,6,9-trimethyl-3,12-epoxy-12H-pyrano[4,3-j]-1,2-benzodioxepin-10-yl)oxy]-, [3R-(3α,5aβ,6β,8aβ,9α,10α,12β,12aR*)]-, (Z)-2-butenedioate (1:1)
- 3,12-Epoxy-12H-pyrano[4,3-j]-1,2-benzodioxepin, ethanamine deriv.
- SM 934
- β-Aminoarteether maleate
TLR7/9 signal transduction modulator
2.5 and 5 mg/kg, ig (MRL/lpr mice);
10 mg·kg−1·d−1, ig (NZB/W F1 mice)
Autoimmune diseases; SLE
SM934, an artemisinin derivative, possesses potent antiproliferative and antiinflammatory properties.
In the present study, we investigated the immunosuppressive effects and underlying mechanisms of beta-aminoarteether maleate (SM934), a derivative of artemisinin, against T cell activation in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, SM934 significantly inhibited the proliferation of splenocytes induced by concanavalin A (Con A), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR), and anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28 (anti-CD3/28). SM934 significantly inhibited interferon (IFN)-gamma production and CD4(+) T cell division stimulated by anti-CD3/28. SM934 also promoted apoptosis of CD69(+) population in CD4(+) T cells stimulated by anti-CD3/28. Furthermore, SM934 inhibited interleukin (IL)-2 mediated proliferation and survival through blocking Akt phosphorylation in activated T cells. In ovalbumin (OVA)-immunized mice, oral administration of SM934 suppressed OVA-specific T cell proliferation and IFN-gamma production. SM934 treatment also significantly inhibited the sheep red blood cell (SRBC)-induced delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions in mice. Taken together, SM934 showed potent immunosuppressive activities in vitro and in vivo. Our results demonstrated that SM934 might be a potential therapeutic agent for immune-related diseases.
Volume 9, Issues 13–14, December 2009, Pages 1509–1517
Inflammatory Mediators Long Term after Sulfur Mustard Exposure (Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study)
SM934, a water-soluble derivative of arteminisin, exerts immunosuppressive functions in vitro and in vivo
- a State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
- b Department of Synthetic Chemistry, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
- c Laboratory of Immunology and Virology, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203, People’s Republic of China
- Hou LF, He SJ, Wang JX, Yang Y, Zhu FH, Zhou Y, et al. SM934, a water-soluble derivative of arteminisin, exerts immunosuppressive functions in vitro and in vivo. Int Immunopharmacol 2009; 9: 1509–17. | Article |
- Hou LF, He SJ, Li X, Yang Y, He PL, Zhou Y, et al. Oral administration of artemisinin analog SM934 ameliorates lupus syndromes in MRL/lpr mice by inhibiting Th1 and Th17 cell responses. Arthritis Rheum 2011; 63: 2445–55. | Article
- Hou LF, He SJ, Li X, Wan CP, Yang Y, Zhang XH, et al. SM934 treated lupus-prone NZB x NZW F1 mice by enhancing macrophage interleukin-10 production and suppressing pathogenic T cell development. PLoS One 2012; 7: e 32424.
- Wu Y, He S, Bai B, Zhang L, Xue L, Lin Z, et al. Therapeutic effects of the artemisinin analog SM934 on lupus-prone MRL/lpr mice via inhibition of TLR-triggered B-cell activation and plasma cell formation. Cell Mol Immunol 2015 Mar 16. doi: 10.1038/cmi.2015.13. [Epub ahead of print].
/////////TLR7/9 signal transduction modulator, SM 934, IND FILED, 133162-25-1, β-Aminoarteether maleate
|Molecular Weight:||392.8732 g/mol|
IND Filing…Tianjin Institute of Pharmaceutical research
CAS N. 1461750-27-5
The structures of dapagliflozin and 6-deoxydapagliflozin (1)
,deletion of the 6-OH in the sugar moiety of dapagliflozin led to the discovery of a more potent SGLT2 inhibitor, 6-deoxydapagliflozin (1, ). In an in vitro assay, 1 was a more active SGLT2 inhibitor, with IC 50 = 0.67 nM against human SGLT2 (hSGLT2), as compared with 1.1 nM for dapagliflozin, leading to the identification of 1 as the most active SGLT2 inhibitor discovered so far in this field. Also in an in vivo assay, 1 also introduced more urinary glucose in a rat urinary glucose excretion test (UGE) and exhibited more potent blood glucose inhibitory activity in a rat oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) than dapagliflozin.
SPECTRAL DATA of Tianagliflozin
1 as a white solid (3.65 g, 93 %). R f = 0.35 (EtOAc);
m.p.: 148–149 °C;
1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d 6): δ = 7.35 (d, 1H, J = 8.4 Hz), 7.25 (s, 1H), 7.18 (d, 1H, J = 8.0 Hz), 7.08 (d, 2H, J = 8.4 Hz), 6.81 (d, 2H, J = 8.4 Hz), 4.95 (d, 1H, J = 5.2 Hz, OH), 4.90 (d, 1H, J = 4.4 Hz, OH), 4.79 (d, 1H, J = 5.6 Hz, OH), 3.92–4.01 (m, 5H), 3.24–3.29 (m, 1H), 3.18–3.22 (m, 1H), 3.09–3.15 (m, 1H), 2.89–2.95 (m, 1H), 1.29 (t, 3H, J = 7.0 Hz, CH2 CH 3 ), 1.15 (d, 3H, J = 6.0 Hz, CHCH 3 ) ppm;
13C NMR (100 MHz, DMSO-d 6): δ = 156.85, 139.65, 137.82, 131.83, 131.16, 130.58, 129.52, 128.65, 127.14, 114.26, 80.71, 77.98, 75.77, 75.51, 74.81, 62.84, 37.55, 18.19, 14.62 ppm;
IR (KBr): v¯¯¯ = 3,564 (w), 3,385 (s), 2,981 (s), 2,899 (s), 2,861 (s), 1,613 (m), 1,512 (s), 1,477 (m), 1,247 (s), 1,102 (s), 1,045 (s), 1,012 (s) cm−1;
HR–MS: calcd for C21H29ClNO5 ([M + NH4]+) 410.1729, found 410.1724.
1 D1 -6 Optionally, the step (7 ‘) is the step (7’) in place:
LS l- [4 – D (I- Dl- 6)
(DMSO-d 6, 400 MHz), δ 7.35 (d, 1H, J = 8.0 Hz), 7.28 (d, 1H, J ‘. 2.0 Hz), 7.17 (dd, IH, / = 2.0 Hz and 8.4 Hz), 7.05 (d, 2H, J: 8.8 Hz), 6.79 (d, 2H, 8.8 Hz): 4.924,95 (m, 2H), 4,81 (d, IH, 6,0 Hz), 3.93- 3.99 (m, 5H), 3,85 (d, 1H, J = 10,4 Hz), 3,66 (dd, IH, 5,2 Hz and 11,6 Hz), 3.17-3,28 (m, 3H), 3.02-3.08 (m: IH), 1.28 (t, 3H, J = 7,0 Hz), 0,80 (s, 9H), -0.05 (s, 3H), -0.09 (s, 3H) .
 The added 100mL dried over anhydrous methanol 0. 5g of sodium metal, nitrogen at room temperature with stirring, until the sodium metal disappeared. Followed by addition of 5. 2g (10mmol) of compound 6, stirring was continued at room temperature for 3 hours. To the reaction system was added 5g strong acid cation exchange resin, stirred at room temperature overnight, the reaction mixture until pH = 7. The resin was removed by suction, and the filtrate evaporated to dryness on a rotary evaporator, the residue was further dried on a vacuum pump to give the product I-D1-6, as a white foamy solid.
Design of SGLT2 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes: A History Driven by Biology to Chemistry.
A brief history of the design of sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors is reviewed. The design of O-glucoside SGLT2 inhibitors by structural modification of phlorizin, a naturally occurring O-glucoside, in the early stage was a process mainly driven by biology with anticipation of improving SGLT2/SGLT1 selectivity and increasing metabolic stability. Discovery of dapagliflozin, a pioneering C-glucoside SGLT2 inhibitor developed by Bristol-Myers Squibb, represents an important milestone in this history. In the second stage, the design of C-glycoside SGLT2 inhibitors by modifications of the aglycone and glucose moiety of dapagliflozin, an original structural template for almost all C-glycoside SGLT2 inhibitors, was mainly driven by synthetic organic chemistry due to the challenge of designing dapagliflozin derivatives that are patentable, biologically active and synthetically accessible. Structure-activity relationships (SAR) of the SGLT2 inhibitors are also discussed.
Discovery of 6-Deoxydapagliflozin as a Highly Potent Sodium-dependent Glucose Cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitor for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes
The synthetic route to the target compound 1 is shown in Scheme 3. The starting material methyl 2,3,4-tri-O-benzyl-6-deoxy-6-iodo-α–d-glucopyranoside (3) was prepared from commercially available methyl α–d-glucopyranoside (2) according to a known method [5, 6].
Iodide 3 was reductively deiodinated to give 4 in 91 % yield under hydrogenolytic conditions using 10 % Pd/C as catalyst in the presence of Et3N as base in THF/MeOH at room temperature.
when the iodide 3 was treated with Barton–McCombie reagent (n-Bu3SnH/AIBN)  in toluene at room temperature no reaction occurred; however, when the reaction was carried out at elevated temperatures, such as reflux, a complex mixture formed with only a trace amount (3 %, entry 1) of the desired product 4.
When the iodide 3 was treated with LiAlH4 in THF at 0 °C to room temperature, another complex mixture was produced with only a trace amount (2 %, entry 2) of 4.
When Pd(OH)2 was used as the hydrogenolysis catalyst instead of 10 % Pd/C, the desired 4 was indeed formed (14 %, entry 4), but most of the starting material was converted to a few more polar byproducts, which were believed to result from the cleavage of at least one of the benzyl groups.
December 2013, Volume 144, Issue 12, pp 1903-1910
////////IND Filing, SGLT-2 inhibitor, type 2 diabetes, Tianagliflozin, taigeliejing, 6-deoxydapagliflozin, 1461750-27-5