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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK LIFE SCIENCES LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 PLUS year tenure till date June 2021, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 90 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, 233 countries, 7 continents, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 33 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 233 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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LORPUCITINIB


Structure of LORPUCITINIB
Lorpucitinib Chemical Structure
Lorpucitinib.png

LORPUCITINIB

JNJ 64251330

2230282-02-5

UNII-OE1QTY7C25

Molecular Weight408.50
FormulaC22H28N6O2
1-(TRANS-4-(CYANOMETHYL)CYCLOHEXYL)-1,6-DIHYDRO-N-(2-HYDROXY-2-METHYLPROPYL)IMIDAZO(4,5-D)PYRROLO(2,3-B)PYRIDINE-2-ACETAMIDE

2-[3-[4-(cyanomethyl)cyclohexyl]-3,5,8,10-tetrazatricyclo[7.3.0.02,6]dodeca-1,4,6,8,11-pentaen-4-yl]-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)acetamide

is a Gut-Restricted JAK Inhibitor for the research of Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Lorpucitinib is an orally bioavailable pan-inhibitor of the Janus associated-kinases (JAKs), with potential immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activities. Upon oral administration, lorpucitinib works in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract where it targets, binds to and inhibits the activity of the JAKs, thereby disrupting JAK-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling pathways and the phosphorylation of STAT proteins. This may inhibit the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, reducing inflammatory responses and preventing inflammation-induced damage. The Janus kinase family of non-receptor tyrosine kinases, which includes tyrosine-protein kinase JAK1 (Janus kinase 1; JAK1), tyrosine-protein kinase JAK2 (Janus kinase 2; JAK2), tyrosine-protein kinase JAK3 (Janus kinase 3; JAK3) and non-receptor tyrosine-protein kinase TYK2 (tyrosine kinase 2), plays a key role in cytokine signaling and inflammaton.

PATENT

WO2019239387

WO2018112379 

WO2018112382

PATENT

WO/2022/189496LORPUCITINIB FOR USE IN THE TREATMENT OF JAK MEDIATED DISORDERS

Example 1

[0117] 2-(1-((1r,4r)-4-(Cyanomethyl)cyclohexyl)-1,6-dihydroimidazo[4,5-d]pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-2-yl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)acetamide

Step A: 2-(1-((1r,4r)-4-(Cyanomethyl)cyclohexyl)-6-(phenylsulfonyl)-1,6-dihydroimidazo[4,5-d]pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-2-yl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)acetamide. To ensure dry starting material, ethyl 2-(1-((1r,4r)-4-(cyanomethyl)cyclohexyl)-6-(phenylsulfonyl)-1,6-dihydroimidazo[4,5-d]pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-2-yl)acetate (Intermediate 3) was heated under vacuum at 50 °C for 18 h prior to the reaction. In a 1 L flask, ethyl 2-(1-((1r,4r)-4-(cyanomethyl)cyclohexyl)-6-(phenylsulfonyl)-1,6-dihydroimidazo[4,5-d]pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-2-yl)acetate (Intermediate 3, 52.585 g, 104.01 mmol) was suspended in DMA (50 mL). 1-Amino-2-methylpropan-2-ol (50 mL) was added and the reaction was heated to 110 °C for 45 minutes, then to 125 °C for 5 hours. The reaction was cooled to room temperature and diluted with EtOAc (800 mL). The organic layer was extracted three times with a solution of water/ brine wherein the solution was made up of 1 L water plus 50 mL brine. The aqueous layers were back extracted with EtOAc (2 × 600 mL). The combined organic layers were dried over anhydrous MgSO4,

concentrated to dryness, and then dried for 3 days under vacuum to provide the title compound (65.9 g, 98% yield) as a yellow foam. The product was taken to the next step with no further purification. MS (ESI): mass calcd. for C28H32N6O4S, 548.22; m/z found, 549.2 [M+H]+.1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): δ 8.76 (s, 1H), 8.26 – 8.19 (m, 2H), 7.84 (d, J = 4.1 Hz, 1H), 7.60 – 7.53 (m, 1H), 7.50 – 7.44 (m, 2H), 6.84 (d, J = 4.2 Hz, 1H), 4.76 – 4.61 (m, 1H), 3.97 (s, 2H), 3.45 (s, 1H), 3.27 (d, J = 5.9 Hz, 2H), 2.41 (d, J = 6.5 Hz, 2H), 2.38 – 2.25 (m, 2H), 2.23 – 2.12 (m, 2H), 2.09 -1.94 (m, 4H), 1.48 (qd, J = 13.6, 4.0 Hz, 2H), 1.21 (s, 6H).

[0118] Step B: 2-(1-((1r,4r)-4-(Cyanomethyl)cyclohexyl)-1,6-dihydroimidazo[4,5-d]pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-2-yl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)acetamide. 2-(1-((1r,4r)-4-(Cyanomethyl)cyclohexyl)-6-(phenylsulfonyl)-1,6-dihydroimidazo[4,5-d]pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-2-yl)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)acetamide (65.90 g, 102.1 mmol) was added to a 1 L flask containing a stir bar. 1,4-dioxane (300 mL) was added, followed by aq KOH (3 M, 150 mL). The reaction was heated at 80 °C for 2 h. The reaction was cooled to room temperature and the solvent volume was reduced to about 200 mL on a rotovap. The residue was treated with a solution of water/brine (100 mL/100mL), then extracted with 10% MeOH in CH2Cl2 (2 x 1L). The organic layers were combined, dried over anhydrous MgSO4, and concentrated to dryness to provide a yellow solid. The solid was suspended in CH2Cl2 (200 mL), stirred vigorously for 30 minutes, and then collected by filtration. The solid was rinsed with CH2Cl2 (100 mL), dried by pulling air through the filter, and then further dried under vacuum at room temperature for 16 h to provide the title compound (41.59 g, 89% yield) as a white solid. MS (ESI): mass calcd. for C22H28N6O2, 408.23; m/z found, 409.2 [M+H]+1H NMR (600 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 11.85 (s, 1H), 8.50 (s, 1H), 8.21 – 8.10 (m, 1H), 7.49 – 7.43 (m, 1H), 6.74 – 6.65 (m, 1H), 4.53 – 4.42 (m, 2H), 4.07 (s, 2H), 3.08 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 2H), 2.58 (d, J = 6.1 Hz, 2H), 2.41 – 2.28 (m, 2H), 2.09 – 1.92 (m, 5H), 1.42 – 1.31 (m, 2H), 1.09 (s, 6H). The synthesis and active compound characterization of each of the aspects of this invention are provided herein in the form of examples. Due to the crystal structure of some of the aspects of this invention, polymorph screening may be pursued to further characterize specific forms of any such compound. This is illustrated in a non-limiting manner for compound of Formula I by the example under the heading polymorph screening.

[0119] The following compounds were prepared in reference to the foregoing synthesis:

Intermediate 1

[0120] 2-((1r,4r)-4-((5-Nitro-1-(phenylsulfonyl)-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-4-yl)amino)cyclohexyl)acetonitrile

[0121] Step A: tert-butyl N-[(1r,4r)-4-(Hydroxymethyl)cyclohexyl]carbamate. To a 20-L 4-necked round-bottom flask purged and maintained with an inert atmosphere of nitrogen was placed (1r,4r)-4-[[(tert-butoxy)carbonyl]amino]cyclohexane-1-carboxylic acid (1066 g, 4.38 mol, 1.00 equiv) and THF (10 L). This was followed by the dropwise addition of BH3-Me2S (10 M, 660 mL) at -10 °C over 1 h. The resulting solution was stirred for 3 h at 15 °C. This reaction was performed three times in parallel and the reaction mixtures were combined. The reaction was then quenched by the addition of methanol (2 L). The resulting mixture was concentrated under vacuum. This resulted in of tert-butyl N-[(1r,4r)-4-(hydroxymethyl)cyclohexyl]carbamate (3000 g, 99.6%) as a white solid. MS (ESI): mass calcd. for C12H23NO3, 229.32; m/z found, 215.2 [M-tBu+MeCN+H]+1H NMR: (300 MHz, CDCl3): δ 4.40 (s, 1H), 3.45 (d, J = 6.3 Hz, 2H), 3.38 (s, 1H), 2.05-2.02 (m, 2H), 1.84-1.81 (m, 2H), 1.44 (s, 11H), 1.17-1.01 (m, 4H).

[0122] Step B: tert-butyl N-[(1r,4r)-4-[(Methanesulfonyloxy)methyl]cyclohexyl]carbamate. To a 20 L 4-necked round-bottom flask purged and maintained with an inert atmosphere of nitrogen, was placed tert-butyl N-[(1r,4r)-4-(hydroxymethyl)cyclohexyl]carbamate (1000 g, 4.36 mol, 1.00 equiv.), dichloromethane (10 L), pyridine (1380 g, 17.5 mol, 4.00 equiv.). This was followed by the dropwise addition of MsCl (1000 g, 8.73 mol, 2.00 equiv.) at -15 °C. The resulting solution was stirred overnight at 25 °C. This reaction was performed in parallel for 3 times and the reaction mixtures were combined. The reaction was then quenched by the addition of 2 L of water. The

water phase was extracted with ethyl acetate (1 x 9 L). The organic layer was separated and washed with 1 M HCl (3 x 10 L), NaHCO3 (saturated aq.) (2 x 10 L), water (1 x 10 L) and brine (1 x 10 L). The mixture was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated under vacuum. This resulted in of tert-butyl N-[(1r,4r)-4-[(methanesulfonyloxy)methyl]cyclohexyl]carbamate (3300 g, 82%) as a white solid. LC-MS: MS (ESI): mass calcd. for C13H25NO5S, 307.15; m/z found 292.1, [M-tBu+MeCN+H]+1H NMR: (300 MHz, CDCl3): δ 4.03 (d, J = 6.6 Hz, 2H), 3.38 (s, 1H), 3.00 (s, 3H), 2.07-2.05 (m, 2H), 1.87-1.84 (m, 2H), 1.72-1.69 (m, 1H), 1.44 (s, 9H), 1.19-1.04 (m, 4H).

[0123] Step C: tert-butyl N-[(1r,4r)-4-(Cyanomethyl)cyclohexyl]carbamate. To a 10 L 4-necked round-bottom flask, was placed tert-butyl N-[(1r,4r)-4-[(methanesulfonyloxy)methyl]cyclohexyl]carbamate (1100 g, 3.58 mol, 1.00 equiv.), DMSO (5500 mL) and NaCN (406 g, 8.29 mol, 2.30 equiv.). The resulting mixture was stirred for 5 h at 90 °C. This reaction was performed in parallel 3 times and the reaction mixtures were combined. The reaction was then quenched by the addition of 15 L of water/ice. The solids were collected by filtration. The solids were washed with water (3 x 10 L). This resulted in tert-butyl N-[(1r,4r)-4-(cyanomethyl)cyclohexyl]carbamate (2480 g, 97%) as a white solid. MS (ESI): mass calcd. for C13H22N2O2, 238.17; m/z found 224 [M-tBu+MeCN+H]+1H NMR: (300 MHz, CDCl3): δ 4.39 (s, 1H), 3.38 (s, 1H), 2.26 (d, J = 6.9 Hz, 2H), 2.08-2.04 (m, 2H), 1.92-1.88 (m, 2H), 1.67-1.61 (m, 1H), 1.44 (s, 9H), 1.26-1.06 (m, 4H).

[0124] Step D: 2-[(1r,4r)-4-Aminocyclohexyl]acetonitrile hydrochloride. To a 10-L round-bottom flask was placed tert-butyl N-[(1r,4r)-4-(cyanomethyl)cyclohexyl]carbamate (620 g, 2.60 mol, 1.00 equiv.), and 1,4-dioxane (2 L). This was followed by the addition of a solution of HCl in 1,4-dioxane (5 L, 4 M) dropwise with stirring at 10 °C. The resulting solution was stirred overnight at 25 °C. This reaction was performed for 4 times and the reaction mixtures were combined. The solids were collected by filtration. The solids were washed with 1,4-dioxane (3 x 3 L), ethyl acetate (3 x 3 L) and hexane (3 x 3 L). This resulted in 2-[(1r,4r)-4-aminocyclohexyl]acetonitrile hydrochloride (1753 g, 96%) as a white solid. MS (ESI): mass calcd. for C8H14N2, 138.12; m/z found 139.25, [M+H]+1H NMR: (300 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 8.14 (s, 3H), 2.96-2.84 (m, 1H), 2.46 (d, J = 6.3 Hz, 2H), 1.98 (d, J = 11.1 Hz, 2H), 1.79 (d, J = 12.0 Hz, 2H), 1.64-1.49 (m, 1H), 1.42-1.29 (m, 2H), 1.18-1.04 (m, 2H).

[0125] Step E: 2-((1r,4r)-4-((5-Nitro-1-(phenylsulfonyl)-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-4-yl)amino)cyclohexyl)acetonitrile. To a 1000 mL round bottom flask containing 2-[(1r,4r)-4-aminocyclohexyl]acetonitrile hydrochloride (29.10 g, 166.6 mmol) was added DMA (400 mL). The resulting suspension was treated with 4-chloro-5-nitro-1-(phenylsulfonyl)-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine (51.53 g, 152.6 mmol), followed by DIPEA (63.0 mL, 366 mmol). The reaction mixture was placed under N2 and heated at 80 °C for 4 h. The crude reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature and slowly poured into a vigorously stirred 2 L flask containing 1.6 L water. The resulting suspension was stirred for 15 minutes at room temperature, then filtered and dried for 16 h in a vacuum oven with heating at 70 °C to provide the title compound (63.37 g, 95%) as a yellow solid. MS (ESI): mass calcd. for C21H21N5O4S, 439.1; m/z found, 440.1 [M+H]+1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3): δ 9.10 (s, 1H), 8.99 (d, J = 7.8 Hz, 1H), 8.23 – 8.15 (m, 2H), 7.66 – 7.59 (m, 2H), 7.56 – 7.49 (m, 2H), 6.67 (d, J = 4.2 Hz, 1H), 3.95 – 3.79 (m, 1H), 2.38 (d, J = 6.2 Hz, 2H), 2.32 -2.21 (m, 2H), 2.08 – 1.98 (m, 2H), 1.88 – 1.76 (m, 1H), 1.60 – 1.32 (m, 4H).

Intermediate 2

[0126] 2-((1r,4r)-4-((5-Amino-1-(phenylsulfonyl)-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-4-yl)amino)cyclohexyl)acetonitrile

[0127] 2-((1r,4r)-4-((5-Nitro-1-(phenylsulfonyl)-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-4-yl)amino)cyclohexyl)acetonitrile (Intermediate 1, 58.60 g, 133.3 mmol) was dissolved in THF/MeOH (1:1, 4800 mL). The mixture was passed through a continuous-flow hydrogenation reactor (10% Pd/C), such as a Thales Nano H-Cube®, at 10 mL/min with 100 % hydrogen (atmospheric pressure, 80 °C), then the solution was concentrated to provide the product as a purple solid. The solid was triturated with EtOAc (400 mL) and then triturated again with MeOH (200 mL) then filtered and dried under vacuum to provide the title compound (50.2 g, 91.9% yield).

MS (ESI): mass calcd. for C21H23N5O2S, 409.2; m/z found, 410.2 [M+H]+1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 8.10 – 8.03 (m, 2H), 7.76 (s, 1H), 7.51 – 7.43 (m, 1H), 7.43 – 7.34 (m, 3H), 6.44 (d, J = 4.2 Hz, 1H), 4.61 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 1H), 3.65 – 3.51 (m, 1H), 2.74 (s, 2H), 2.26 (d, J = 6.4 Hz, 2H), 2.19 – 2.05 (m, 2H), 1.97 – 1.86 (m, 2H), 1.76 – 1.59 (m, 1H), 1.33 – 1.12 (m, 4H).

Intermediate 3

[0128] Ethyl 2-(1-((1r,4r)-4-(cyanomethyl)cyclohexyl)-6-(phenylsulfonyl)-1,6-dihydroimidazo[4,5-d]pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-2-yl)acetate

[0129] To a 1L round bottom flask containing a stir bar and 2-((1r,4r)-4-((5-amino-1-(phenylsulfonyl)-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-4-yl)amino)cyclohexyl)acetonitrile (Intermediate 2, 58.31 g, 142.4 mmol) was added ethyl 3-ethoxy-3-iminopropanoate (60.51 g, 309.3 mmol), followed by EtOH (600 mL, dried over 3Å molecular sieves for 48 h). A reflux condenser was attached to the reaction flask, the reaction was purged with N2, and was heated at 90 °C for 9 h. The reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature and left to stand for 30 h where the product crystallized out as brown needles. The solids were broken up with a spatula and the reaction mixture was transferred to a 2 L flask. Water (1.4 L) was added slowly via separatory funnel with vigorous stirring. After addition of the water was complete, the suspension was stirred for 30 minutes. The brown needles were isolated by filtration and then dried by pulling air through the filter for 1 h. The product was transferred to a 500 mL flask and treated with EtOAc (200 mL). A small quantity of seed crystals were added, which induced the formation of a white solid precipitate. The suspension was stirred for 30 minutes at room temperature, filtered, rinsed with EtOAc (25 mL), and dried under vacuum to provide the product as a white solid (48.65 g, 68% yield). MS (ESI): mass calcd. for C26H27N5O4S, 505.2; m/z found, 506.2 [M+H]+1H NMR (400

MHz, CDCl3) δ 8.85 (s, 1H), 8.28 – 8.19 (m, 2H), 7.84 (d, J = 4.0 Hz, 1H), 7.61 – 7.53 (m, 1H), 7.52 – 7.43 (m, 2H), 6.84 (d, J = 4.1 Hz, 1H), 4.32 (s, 1H), 4.20 (q, J = 7.1 Hz, 2H), 4.09 (s, 2H), 2.44 (d, J = 6.2 Hz, 2H), 2.40 – 2.27 (m, 2H), 2.16 (d, J = 13.3 Hz, 2H), 2.12 – 1.96 (m, 3H), 1.54 – 1.38 (m, 2H), 1.27 (t, J = 7.1 Hz, 3H).

Polymorph screening example

[0130] Some embodiments of compound of Formula I as free bases present multiple crystalline configurations that have a complex solid-state behavior, some of which in turn can present distinguishing features among themselves due to different amounts of incorporated solvent. Some embodiments of compound of Formula I are in the form of pseudopolymorphs, which are embodiments of the same compound that present crystal lattice compositional differences due to different amounts of solvent in the crystal lattice itself. In addition, channel solvation can also be present in some crystalline embodiments of compound of Formula I, in which solvent is incorporated within channels or voids that are present in the crystal lattice. For example, the various crystalline configurations given in Table 2 were found for compound of Formula I. Because of these features, non-stoichiometric solvates were often observed, as illustrated in Table 2. Furthermore, the presence of such channels or voids in the crystal structure of some embodiments according to this invention enables the presence of water and/or solvent molecules that are held within the crystal structure with varying degrees of bonding strength. Consequently, changes in the specific ambient conditions can readily lead to some loss or gain of water molecules and/or solvent molecules in some embodiments according to this invention. It is understood that “solvation” (third column in Table 2) for each of the embodiments listed in Table 2 is the formula solvation, and that the actual determination of the same as a stoichiometry number (fourth column in Table 2) can slightly vary from the formula solvation depending on the actual ambient conditions when it is experimentally determined. For example, if about half of the water molecules in an embodiment may be present as hydrogen-bonded to the active compound in the crystal lattice, while about the other half of water molecules may be in channels or voids in the crystal lattice, then changes in ambient conditions may alter the amount of such loosely contained water molecules in voids or channels, and hence lead to a slight difference between the formula solvation that is assigned according to, for example, single crystal diffraction, and the

stoichiometry that is determined by, for example, thermogravimetric analysis coupled with mass spectroscopy.

Table 2. Embodiments of crystalline forms of compound of Formula I

[0131] The compound that was obtained as described in Example 1 was further crystallized by preparing a slurry in DCM (1:3, for example 10 g of compound in 30 ml DCM) that was stirred at 40oC for 4 hours, and further stirred for 14 hours at 25oC, then heptane was slowly added (1:2, for example 20 ml of heptane into the compound/DCM slurry/solution) at 25oC, stirred at 40oC for 4 hours, cooled to 25oC and stirred for further 14 hours at 25oC. Subsequent filtration led to compound of Formula I in the form of an off-white solid, that was identified as a monohydrate, a 1s embodiment.

CLIP

Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2020), 63(6), 2915-2929

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https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04552197

The purpose of this study is to evaluate: systemic and local gut (rectum and sigmoid colon) exposure to JNJ-64251330, local tissue Pharmacodynamics (PD) using gut (rectum and sigmoid colon) biopsies (Part 1) and the effect of food on the rate and extent of absorption of JNJ-64251330 from oral tablet dosed with or without food (Part 2).

Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is the most common polyposis syndrome. It is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder characterized by the early onset of hundreds to thousands of adenomatous polyps throughout the colon. JNJ-64251330 (lorpucitinib) is an oral, small molecule, potent pan-janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor that blocks phosphorylation of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT) proteins. pSTAT induces transcription of multiple genes involved in the progression of inflammatory disease. JNJ-64251330 has chemical properties that limits the amount of drug in the blood while delivering the drug to the tissues of the gut. Local inhibition of JAK in the gut may present a promising method to treat inflammatory diseases of the intestinal tract, such as FAP. The study consists of 3 phases: screening phase (30 days) a treatment phase (24 weeks), and follow-up visit (up to 30 days after last dose of study drug). The total duration of the study will be up to 32 weeks. Study evaluations will include efficacy via endoscopies, safety (monitoring of adverse events (AE), serious adverse events (SAEs), events of infections including tuberculosis (TB), clinical laboratory blood tests (complete blood count and serum chemistries), vital signs, and concomitant medication review), pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamic and biomarkers evaluations.

Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) also known as deleted in polyposis 2.5 (DP2.5) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APC gene.[4] The APC protein is a negative regulator that controls beta-catenin concentrations and interacts with E-cadherin, which are involved in cell adhesion. Mutations in the APC gene may result in colorectal cancer.[5]

APC is classified as a tumor suppressor gene. Tumor suppressor genes prevent the uncontrolled growth of cells that may result in cancerous tumors. The protein made by the APC gene plays a critical role in several cellular processes that determine whether a cell may develop into a tumor. The APC protein helps control how often a cell divides, how it attaches to other cells within a tissue, how the cell polarizes and the morphogenesis of the 3D structures,[6] or whether a cell moves within or away from tissue. This protein also helps ensure that the chromosome number in cells produced through cell division is correct. The APC protein accomplishes these tasks mainly through association with other proteins, especially those that are involved in cell attachment and signaling. The activity of one protein in particular, beta-catenin, is controlled by the APC protein (see: Wnt signaling pathway). Regulation of beta-catenin prevents genes that stimulate cell division from being turned on too often and prevents cell overgrowth.

The human APC gene is located on the long (q) arm of chromosome 5 in band q22.2 (5q22.2). The APC gene has been shown to contain an internal ribosome entry siteAPC orthologs[7] have also been identified in all mammals for which complete genome data are available.

////////////////JNJ-64251330, JNJ 64251330, LORPUCITINIB, PHASE 1, CANCER, Adenomatous Polyposis Coli

O=C(NCC(C)(O)C)CC1=NC2=CN=C(NC=C3)C3=C2N1[C@H]4CC[C@H](CC#N)CC4

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NEW DRUG APPROVALS

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Camizestrant, AZD 9833


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Camizestrant, AZD 9833

AZ 14066724

PHASE 2

CAS: 2222844-89-3
Chemical Formula: C24H28F4N6
Exact Mass: 476.2312
Molecular Weight: 476.5236
Elemental Analysis: C, 60.49; H, 5.92; F, 15.95; N, 17.64

 N-(1-(3-fluoropropyl)azetidin-3-yl)-6-((6S,8R)-8-methyl-7-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-3H-pyrazolo[4,3-f]isoquinolin-6-yl)pyridin-3-amine

  • AZ14066724
  • AZD-9833
  • AZD9833
  • Camizestrant
  • UNII-JUP57A8EPZ
  • WHO 11592
  • OriginatorAstraZeneca
  • ClassAmines; Antineoplastics; Azetidines; Fluorinated hydrocarbons; Isoquinolines; Pyrazolones; Pyridines; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of ActionSelective estrogen receptor degraders
  • Phase IIIBreast cancer
  • 13 Jun 2022AstraZeneca initiates a phase I drug-drug interaction trial of AZD 9833 Healthy postmenopausal female volunteers, in USA (NCT05438303)
  • 10 Jun 2022AstraZeneca and Quotient Sciences complete the phase I QSC205863 trial in Breast cancer (In volunteers) in United Kingdom (PO, Liquid) (NCT05364255)
  • 03 Jun 2022Safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetics data from the phase I SERENA 1 trial for Breast cancer presented at the 58th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO-2022)
  • Mechanism:selective estrogen receptor degrader
  • Area under investigation:estrogen receptor +ve breast cancer
  • Date commenced phase:Q1 2019
  • Estimated Filing Acceptance:
  • CountryDateUS: EU: Japan: China:

AZD9833 is an orally available selective estrogen receptor degrader (SERD), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, SERD AZD9833 binds to the estrogen receptor (ER) and induces a conformational change that results in the degradation of the receptor. This prevents ER-mediated signaling and inhibits the growth and survival of ER-expressing cancer cells

Camizestrant is an orally available selective estrogen receptor degrader (SERD), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, camizestrant binds to the estrogen receptor (ER) and induces a conformational change that results in the degradation of the receptor. This prevents ER-mediated signaling and inhibits the growth and survival of ER-expressing cancer cells

SYN

https://www.thieme-connect.de/products/ejournals/abstract/10.1055/s-0040-1719368

Discovery of AZD9833, a Potent and Orally Bioavailable Selective Estrogen Receptor Degrader and Antagonist J. Med. Chem. 2020, 63, 14530–14559, DOI: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.0c01163.

SYN

doi: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.0c01163.

aReagents and Conditions: (a) n-BuLi, THF, −78 oC to 0 oC, 1 h, then 4 N HCl/dioxane, RT, 1 h, 60%; (b) alkyl triflate, DIPEA, 1,4-dioxane, 90 oC, 63-74% or isobutyrylaldehyde, Na(OAc)3BH, THF, 0 oC, 56%; (c) benzophenone imine, Pd2dba3, Rac-BINAP, NaOtBu, toluene, 90 oC, then 1 N aq. HCl, 71-85%; (d) nBuLi, THF, −78 oC to 0 oC, 1 h, then 4 N HCl/dioxane, RT, 4 h; e) NH2OH, NH2OH.HCl, EtOH, reflux. 84% over 2 steps; (f) alkyl triflate, DIPEA, 1,4-dioxane, 90 oC, 44-100% or 1-fluorocyclopropane-1- carboxylic acid, HATU, Et3N, DMF, RT, 61%, then BH3.THF, THF, 65 oC, 82%.

[α]26 D -147 (c 2.3, MeOH); 1H NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-d6, 27 °C) 1.08 (d, J = 6.6 Hz, 3H), 1.64 (dp, J = 25.0, 6.3 Hz, 2H), 2.45 (t, J = 6.9 Hz, 2H), 2.73(t, J = 6.8 Hz, 2H), 2.84 (dd, J = 17.1, 8.2 Hz, 1H), 2.96 (dt, J = 19.6, 9.8 Hz, 1H), 3.07 (dd, J = 17.2, 4.6 Hz, 1H), 3.49 (m, 1H), 3.50 – 3.58 (m, 1H), 3.58 – 3.66 (m, 2H), 3.92 (h, J = 6.5 Hz, 1H), 4.44 (dtd, J = 47.4, 6.1, 1.3 Hz, 2H), 4.93 (s, 1H), 6.23 (d, J = 6.9 Hz, 1H), 6.80 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 1H), 6.83 (dt, J = 8.8, 2.0 Hz, 1H), 6.97 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 1H), 7.22 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 1H), 7.73 (d, J = 2.8 Hz, 1H), 8.05 (d, J = 1.3 Hz, 1H), 12.97 (s, 1H); 13C NMR (125 MHz, DMSO-d6, 27 °C) 16.2, 28.2 (d, J = 19.4 Hz), 30.1, 43.0, 47.3, 48.7 (q, J = 30.1 Hz), 54.8 (d, J = 5.6 Hz), 61.3 (2C), 67.1, 82.0 (d, J = 161.3 Hz), 107.5, 119.0, 122.4, 123.7, 126.1, 126.2 (q, J = 278.5 Hz), 126.4, 127.5, 131.7, 132.9, 138.5, 142.3, 150.0; 19F NMR (376 MHz, DMSO-d6, 27 °C) -218.1 (1F), -69.7 (3F); m/z (ES+), [M+H]+ = 477, HRMS (ESI) (MH+ ); calcd, 477.2408; found, 477.2390

/////////

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AZD9833 is selective oestrogen receptor degrader (SERD). It works by breaking down the site where oestrogen attaches to the cancer cell. This can help stop or slow the growth of hormone receptor breast cancer. Researchers think that AZD9833 with palbociclib might work better than anastrozole and palbociclib.

AZD9833 + palbociclib

The patients will receive AZD9833 (75 mg, PO, once daily) + palbociclib (PO, once daily, 125 mg for 21 consecutive days followed by 7 days off treatment) + anastrozole placebo (1 mg, PO, once daily)

SERENA-1: Study of AZD9833 Alone or in Combination in Women With Advanced Breast Cancer. (clinicaltrials.gov)…..https://veri.larvol.com/news/azd9833/drug

P1, N=305, Recruiting, AstraZeneca | Trial primary completion date: Dec 2022 –> Oct 2023

2 months ago

Trial primary completion date

|

HER-2 (Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) • ER (Estrogen receptor) • PGR (Progesterone receptor)

|

HER-2 negative

Ibrance (palbociclib) • everolimus • Verzenio (abemaciclib) • capivasertib (AZD5363) • camizestrant (AZD9833)

DescriptionCamizestrant (AZD-9833) is a potent and orally active estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist. Camizestrant is used for the study of ER+ HER2-advanced breast cancer[1].
IC50 & TargetIC50: estrogen receptor (ER)[1]
In VitroCamizestrant is extracted from patent US20180111931A1, example 17[1].MCE has not independently confirmed the accuracy of these methods. They are for reference only.
In VivoCamizestrant (oral administration; 0.2-50 mg/kg; 20 days) exhibits anti-tumour efficacy as a dose-dependent manner in human parental MCF7 mice xenograft[1].
Camizestrant (oral administration; 0.8-40 mg/kg; 30 days) decreases tumor growth as a dose-dependent manner. It gives almost complete tumour growth inhibition at the doses >10 mg/kg in mice[1].
MCE has not independently confirmed the accuracy of these methods. They are for reference only.Animal Model:Human ESR1 mutant breast cancer patient derived xenograft with CTC174 cells in female NSG mice[1]Dosage:0.8 mg/kg, 3 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kgAdministration:Oral administration; 30 days; once dailyResult:Inhibited tumor growth in a dose-dependent manner.
Clinical TrialNCT NumberSponsorConditionStart DatePhaseNCT04711252AstraZenecaER-Positive HER2-Negative Breast CancerJanuary 28, 2021Phase 3NCT04964934AstraZenecaER-Positive HER2-Negative Breast CancerJune 30, 2021Phase 3NCT04214288AstraZenecaAdvanced ER-Positive HER2-Negative Breast CancerApril 22, 2020Phase 2NCT04588298AstraZenecaHER2-negative Breast CancerNovember 2, 2020Phase 2NCT04541433AstraZenecaER&addition; HER2- Advanced Breast CancerSeptember 29, 2020Phase 1NCT03616587AstraZenecaER&addition; HER2- Advanced Breast CancerOctober 11, 2018Phase 1NCT04546347AstraZeneca|Quotient SciencesHealthy VolunteersSeptember 17, 2020Phase 1NCT04818632AstraZenecaER&addition;, HER2-, Metastatic Breast CancerOctober 11, 2021Phase 1

////////////Camizestrant, AZD 9833, AZ 14066724, UNII-JUP57A8EPZ, WHO 11592, PHASE 2, ASTRA ZENECA, CANCER

C[C@@H]1CC2=C3C(NN=C3)=CC=C2[C@@H](C4=NC=C(NC5CN(CCCF)C5)C=C4)N1CC(F)(F)F

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GEMCITABINE


Gemcitabine.svg

GEMCITABINE

95058-81-4

WeightAverage: 263.1981
Monoisotopic: 263.071762265

Chemical FormulaC9H11F2N3O4

4-amino-1-[(2R,4R,5R)-3,3-difluoro-4-hydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]-1,2-dihydropyrimidin-2-one

Product Ingredients

INGREDIENTUNIICASINCHI KEY
Gemcitabine hydrochlorideU347PV74IL122111-03-9OKKDEIYWILRZIA-OSZBKLCCSA-N
  • LY-188011
  • LY188011

Gemcitabine

CAS Registry Number: 95058-81-4

CAS Name: 2¢-Deoxy-2¢,2¢-difluorocytidine

Additional Names: 1-(2-oxo-4-amino-1,2-dihydropyrimidin-1-yl)-2-deoxy-2,2-difluororibose; dFdC; dFdCyd

Manufacturers’ Codes: LY-188011

Trademarks: Gemzar (Lilly)

Molecular Formula: C9H11F2N3O4

Molecular Weight: 263.20

Percent Composition: C 41.07%, H 4.21%, F 14.44%, N 15.97%, O 24.32%

Literature References: Prepn: L. W. Hertel, GB2136425idem,US4808614 (1984, 1989 both to Lilly); L. W. Hertel et al.,J. Org. Chem.53, 2406 (1988); T. S. Chou et al.,Synthesis1992, 565. Antitumor activity: L. W. Hertel et al.,Cancer Res.50, 4417 (1990). Mode of action study: V. W. T. Ruiz et al.,Biochem. Pharmacol.46, 762 (1993). Clinical pharmacokinetics and toxicity: J. L. Abbruzzese et al.,J. Clin. Oncol.9, 491 (1991). Review of clinical studies: B. Lund et al.,Cancer Treat. Rev.19, 45-55 (1993).

Properties: Crystals from water, pH 8.5. [a]365 +425.36°; [a]D +71.51° (c = 0.96 in methanol). uv max (ethanol): 234, 268 (e 7810, 8560). LD10 i.v. in rats: 200 mg/m2 (Abbruzzese).

Optical Rotation: [a]365 +425.36°; [a]D +71.51°

Absorption maximum: uv max (ethanol): 234, 268 (e 7810, 8560)

Toxicity data: LD10 i.v. in rats: 200 mg/m2 (Abbruzzese)

Derivative Type: Hydrochloride

CAS Registry Number: 122111-03-9

Molecular Formula: C9H11F2N3O4.HCl

Molecular Weight: 299.66

Percent Composition: C 36.07%, H 4.04%, F 12.68%, N 14.02%, O 21.36%, Cl 11.83%

Properties: Crystals from water-acetone, mp 287-292° (dec). [a]D +48°; [a]365 +257.9° (c = 1.0 in deuterated water). uv max (water): 232, 268 nm (e 7960, 9360).

Melting point: mp 287-292° (dec)

Optical Rotation: [a]D +48°; [a]365 +257.9° (c = 1.0 in deuterated water)

Absorption maximum: uv max (water): 232, 268 nm (e 7960, 9360)

Therap-Cat: Antineoplastic.

Keywords: Antineoplastic; Antimetabolites; Pyrimidine Analogs.

Gemcitabine is a nucleoside metabolic inhibitor used as adjunct therapy in the treatment of certain types of ovarian cancer, non-small cell lung carcinoma, metastatic breast cancer, and as a single agent for pancreatic cancer.

Gemcitabine hydrochloride was first approved in ZA on Jan 10, 1995, then approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on May 15, 1996, and approved by Pharmaceuticals and Medicals Devices Agency of Japan (PMDA) on Aug 31, 2001. It was developed and marketed as Gemzar® by Eli Lilly.

Gemcitabine hydrochloride is a nucleoside metabolic inhibitor. It kills cells undergoing DNA synthesis and blocks the progression of cells through the G1/S-phase boundary. It is indicated for the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer that has relapsed at least 6 months after completion of platinum-based therapy, in combination with paclitaxel, for first-line treatment of metastatic breast cancer after failure of prior anthracycline-containing adjuvant chemotherapy, unless anthracyclines were clinically contraindicated, and it is also indicated in combination with cisplatin for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer, and treated as a single agent for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

Gemzar® is available as injection of lyophilized powder for intravenous use, containing 200 mg or 1000 mg of free Gemcitabine per vial. The recommended initial dosage is 1000 mg/m2 over 30 minutes on days 1 and 8 of each 21 day cycle for ovarian cancer, 1250 mg/m2 over 30 minutes on days 1 and 8 of each 21 day cycle for breast cancer, 1000 mg/m2 over 30 minutes on days 1, 8, and 15 of each 28 day cycle or 1250 mg/m2 over 30 minutes on days 1 and 8 of each 21 day cycle for non-small cell lung cancer, and 1000 mg/m2 over 30 minutes once weekly for the first 7 weeks, then one week rest, then once weekly for 3 weeks of each 28 day cycle for pancreatic cancer.

Approved Countries or AreaUpdate US, JP, CN, ZA

Approval DateApproval TypeTrade NameIndicationDosage FormStrengthCompanyReview Classification
1996-05-15First approvalGemzarOvarian cancer,Breast cancer,Non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC),Pancreatic cancerInjection, Lyophilized powder, For solutionEq. 200 mg/1000 mg Gemcitabine/vialLillyPriority

More

Approval DateApproval TypeTrade NameIndicationDosage FormStrengthCompanyReview Classification
2013-02-01New indicationGemzarRelapsed or refractory malignant lymphomaInjection, Lyophilized powder, For solution200 mg; 1 gLilly 
2011-02-23New indicationGemzarAdvanced ovarian cancerInjection, Lyophilized powder, For solution200 mg; 1 gLilly 
2010-02-05New indicationGemzarAdvanced breast cancerInjection, Lyophilized powder, For solution200 mg; 1 gLilly 
2008-11-25New indicationGemzarUrothelial cancerInjection, Lyophilized powder, For solution200 mg; 1 gLilly 
2006-06-15New indicationGemzarBiliary cancerInjection, Lyophilized powder, For solution200 mg; 1 gLilly 
2001-08-31First approvalGemzarPancreatic cancer,Non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)Injection, Lyophilized powder, For suspension200 mg; 1 gLilly 

More

Approval DateApproval TypeTrade NameIndicationDosage FormStrengthCompanyReview Classification
2014-04-15Marketing approval Ovarian cancer,Breast cancer,Non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC),Pancreatic cancerInjectionEq. 1000 mg Gemcitabine per vial湖北一半天制药 
2014-04-15Marketing approval Ovarian cancer,Breast cancer,Non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC),Pancreatic cancerInjectionEq. 200 mg Gemcitabine per vial湖北一半天制药6类
2014-04-08Marketing approval Ovarian cancer,Breast cancer,Non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC),Pancreatic cancerInjectionEq.1000 mg Gemcitabine per vial南京正大天晴制药6类
2011-12-02Marketing approval健择/GemzarOvarian cancer,Breast cancer,Non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC),Pancreatic cancerInjectionEq. 200 mg/1000 mg Gemcitabine per vialLilly 
2010-08-31Marketing approval Ovarian cancer,Breast cancer,Non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC),Pancreatic cancerInjection1000 mg/200 mg北京协和药厂6类

More

Approval DateApproval TypeTrade NameIndicationDosage FormStrengthCompanyReview Classification
1995-01-10First approvalGemzarOvarian cancer,Breast cancer,Non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC),Pancreatic cancerInjection, Lyophilized powder, For solutionEq. 200 mg/1000 mg Gemcitabine per vialLilly

Gemcitabine, with brand names including Gemzar,[1] is a chemotherapy medication.[2] It treats cancers including testicular cancer,[3]breast cancerovarian cancernon-small cell lung cancerpancreatic cancer, and bladder cancer.[2][4] It is administered by intravenous infusion.[2] It acts against neoplastic growth, and it inhibits the replication of Orthohepevirus A, the causative agent of Hepatitis E, through upregulation of interferon signaling.[5]

Common side effects include bone marrow suppression, liver and kidney problems, nauseafeverrashshortness of breath, mouth sores, diarrhea, neuropathy, and hair loss.[2] Use during pregnancy will likely result in fetal harm.[2] Gemcitabine is in the nucleoside analog family of medication.[2] It works by blocking the creation of new DNA, which results in cell death.[2]

Gemcitabine was patented in 1983 and was approved for medical use in 1995.[6] Generic versions were introduced in Europe in 2009 and in the US in 2010.[7][8] It is on the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines.[9]

Medical uses

Gemcitabine treats various carcinomas. It is used as a first-line treatment alone for pancreatic cancer, and in combination with cisplatin for advanced or metastatic bladder cancer and advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer. It is used as a second-line treatment in combination with carboplatin for ovarian cancer and in combination with paclitaxel for breast cancer that is metastatic or cannot be surgically removed.[10][11][12]

It is commonly used off-label to treat cholangiocarcinoma[13] and other biliary tract cancers.[14]

It is given by intravenous infusion at a chemotherapy clinic.[2]

Contraindications and interactions

Taking gemcitabine can also affect fertility in men and women, sex life, and menstruation. Women taking gemcitabine should not become pregnant, and pregnant and breastfeeding women should not take it.[15]

As of 2014, drug interactions had not been studied.[11][10]

SYN

. Hertel, L. W.; Kroin, J. S.; Misner, J. W.; Tustin, J. M. J. Org. Chem. 1988, 53, 2406– 2409.

NEXT

a) Noe, C. R.; Jasic, M.; Kollmann, H.; Saadat, K. WO009147, 2007.; b) Noe, C. R.; Jasic, M.; Kollmann, H.; Saadat, K. US0249119, 2008. Note: no stereochemistry was indica

NExT

15. Hanzawa, Y.; Inazawa, K.; Kon, A.; Aoki, H.; Kobayashi, Y. Tetrahedron Lett. 1987, 28, 659–662. 16. Wirth, D. D. EP0727432, 1996

Synthesis Reference

John A. Weigel, “Process for making gemcitabine hydrochloride.” U.S. Patent US6001994, issued May, 1995.US6001994Route 1

Reference:1. J. Org. Chem. 198853, 2406-2409.

2. US4808614A.Route 2

Reference:1. CN102417533A.Route 3

Reference:1. Nucleosides, Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids 201029, 113-122.Route 4

Reference:1. CN102617677A.Route 5

Reference:1. CN103012527A.

SYN

U.S. Patent No. 4,808,614 (the ‘614 patent) describes a process for synthetically producing gemcitabine, which process is generally illustrated in Scheme Scheme 1

Figure imgf000003_0001

5

Figure imgf000003_0002

SYN

U.S. Patent No. 4,965,374 (the ‘374 patent) describes a process for producing gemcitabine from an intermediate 3,5-dibenzoyl ribo protected lactone of the formula:

Figure imgf000004_0001

11 where the desired erythro isomer can be isolated in a crystalline form from a mixture of erythro and threo isomers. The process described in the ‘374 patent is generally outlined in Scheme 2.

Scheme 2

Figure imgf000005_0001

mixture of α and β anomers

SYN

U.S. Patent No. 5,521,294 (the ‘294 patent) describes l-alkylsulfonyl-2,2- difluoro-3 -carbamoyl ribose intermediates and intermediate nucleosides derived therefrom. The compounds are reportedly useful in the preparation of 2′-deoxy-2′,2’- difluoro-β-cytidine and other β-anomer nucleosides. The ‘294 patent teaches, inter alia, that the 3-hydroxy carbamoyl group on the difluororibose intermediate may enhance formation of the desired β-anomer nucleoside derivative. The ‘294 patent describes converting the lactone 4 to the dibenzoyl mesylate 13, followed by deprotection at the 3 position to obtain the 5-monobenzoyl mesylate intermediate 15, which is reacted with various isocyanates to obtain the compounds of formula 16. The next steps involve coupling and deprotection using methods similar to those described in previous patents. The process and the intermediates 15 and 16 are illustrated by scheme 3 below: Scheme 3

Figure imgf000007_0001

13 15

PhCOCK

PhNCO/TEA -o. -~- j*«0Ms

PhNHCOO -r F

16

1 coupling 2 deprotection

Figure imgf000007_0003
Figure imgf000007_0002

16 gemcitabine

CLIP

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0008621514000500

WO2008129530A1 - Gemcitabine production process - Google Patents

PATENT

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2008129530A1/en

Scheme 4

Figure imgf000013_0001

e3

13A deprotection isomer separation

Figure imgf000013_0002

deprotection

Figure imgf000013_0004
Figure imgf000013_0003

EXAMPLE 1

[0045] This example demonstrates the preparation of 2-deoxy-2,2-difluoro-D- ribofuranose-3,5-dicinnamate-l-p-toluenesulfonate.

[0046] Crude 2-deoxy-2,2-difluoro-D-riboufuranose-3,5-dicinnamate (2.5g, 6 mmol) was dissolved in dichloromethane (20 ml) in a round flask, and diethylamine (0.7g, 9.6 mmol) was added followed by p-toluenesulfonyl chloride (1.32 g, 6.92 mmol), which was added drop wise while cooling to 0-50C. The mixture was stirred for 1 hour, and washed with IN HCl (15 ml), concentrated solution OfNaHCO3 (15 ml), and dried over MgSO4. The solvent was distilled off under reduced pressure to obtain crude 2-deoxy-2,2-difluoro-D-ribofuranose-3,5-dicinnamate-l-p- toluenesulfonate as light oil. Yield: 3.22 g, (5.6 mmol), 93%.

EXAMPLE 2

[0047] This example demonstrates the preparation of 3′,5′-dicinnamoyl-2′-deoxy- 2′,2′-difluorocytidine.

[0048] Dry 1 ,2-dichloroethane (800 ml) was added to N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)- cytosine (136 g, 487 mmol) under nitrogen blanket to produce a clear solution, followed by adding trimethylsilyl triflate (Me3SiOTf), (100 ml, 122.8 g, 520 mmol) and stirred for 30 minutes. A solution of 2-deoxy-2,2-difluoro-D-ribofuranose-3,5- dicinnamate-1-p-toluenesulfonate (128 g, 224 mmol) in 1 ,2-dichloroethane (400 ml) was added drop wise, and the mixture was refluxed overnight. After cooling, the solvent was distilled off to obtain crude 3,5-dicinnamoyl-N4-trimethylsilyl-2′-deoxy- 2′,2′-difluorocytidine as a light yellow solid. The residue was dissolved in ethyl acetate (1600 ml) and washed 3 times with water (3X400 ml). The ethyl acetate phase was mixed with concentrated solution OfNaHCO3 (800 ml) for about 5 minutes, and then the mixture was set aside for about 20 minutes without stirring. The thus formed solid, which was precipitated in the inter-phase of the two layers, was filtered off and washed with 60 ml of ethyl acetate. The solid was dried under reduced pressure to obtain 116.7 g (223 mmol, 99.5%) of the crude 3′,5′-dicinnamoyl- 2′-deoxy-2′,2′- difluorocytidine containing 73.3 % of the β-anomer and 11.8 % of the α-anomer.

EXAMPLE 3

[0049] This example demonstrates the preparation of 3′,5′-dicinnamoyl-2′-deoxy- 2′,2′-difluorocytidine.

[0050] Dry 1,2-dichloroethane (1.5 L) was added to bis(trimethylsilyl)cytosine (417 g, 1.49 mol) under nitrogen blanket to produce a clear solution followed by adding trimethylsilyl triflate (Me3SiOTf), (300 ml, 368.4 g, 1.56 mol) and stirred for 30 minutes. A solution of 2-deoxy-2,2-difluoro-D-ribofuranose-3,5-dicinnamate-l-p- toluenesulfonate (384 g, 673 mmol) in 1,2-dichloroethane (1.2 L) was added drop wise, and the mixture was refluxed overnight. After cooling, the solvent was distilled off to obtain crude 3,5-dicinnamoyl-N4-trimethylsilyl-2l-deoxy-2′,2′-difluorocytidine as a light yellow solid. The residue was dissolved in ethyl acetate (2.4 L) and washed 3 times with water (3X1.2 L). The ethyl acetate phase was mixed with concentrated solution OfNaHCO3 (1.34 L) for about 20 minutes. The thus formed solid, which was precipitated in the inter-phase of the two layers, was filtered off and washed with 180 ml of ethyl acetate. The solid was dried under reduced pressure to obtain 346.5 g (0.66 mol, 99.9% yield) of the crude 3l,5l-dicinnamoyl-2′-deoxy-2′,2′-difluorocytidine containing 43 % of the β-anomer and 52 % of the α-anomer.

EXAMPLE 4

[0051] This example demonstrates the preparation of gemcitabine hydrochloride. [0052] To a solution of ammonia-methanol (15.8 %, 4.57 L), the crude 3,5- dicirmamoyl-2′-deoxy-2′,2′-difluorocytidine of example 3 was added (346.5 g, 0.66 mol), and stirred at ambient temperature for 6 hours. The mixture was concentrated to afford a light yellow solid (306 g). Purified water (3 L) was added to the solid, followed by addition of ethyl acetate (1.8 L), and stirring was maintained for about 10 minutes. The aqueous layer was separated and the organic layer was extracted with water (1.05 L). The aqueous layers were combined and water was removed by evaporation under reduced pressure to obtain an oil (154.7 g). Water was added (660 ml) and the mixture was heated to 50-550C to dissolve the solid. The mixture was cooled to 5-1O0C during about one hour and mixed for about 16 hours at that temperature. The thus formed solid was filtered and dried to afford 46.75 g (0.177 mol), containing 98 % of the β-anomer and 1.3 % of the α-anomer. 0.5N HCl (936 ml) was added followed by addition of dichloromethane (300 ml) with stirring. The water phase was separated and the aqueous phase was washed with dichloromethane (300 ml). After filtration, the aqueous phase was concentrated to dryness under reduced pressure to obtain gemcitabine hydrochloride as a solid (46.9 g). The solid was dissolved in water (187 ml) at ambient temperature and the mixture was heated to 500C to afford a clear solution and cooled to ambient temperature. Acetone (1.4 L) was added and stirring was maintained for about one hour. Then, the precipitate was collected by filtration and washed twice with acetone (2X30 ml) and dried at 450C under vacuum to obtain 39.2 g of gemcitabine hydrochloride, containing 99.9% of the β-anomer

EXAMPLE 5

[0053] This example demonstrates the preparation of gemcitabine hydrochloride. [0054] To a solution of ammonia-methanol (about 15.8 %, 1.35 L), the crude 3′,5′- dicinnamoyl-2′-deoxy-2′,2′-difluorocytidine prepared as described in example 2 was added (96 g, 183.4 mmol), and stirred at ambient temperature for 4 hours. The mixture was concentrated to afford a light yellow solid (80.5 g). Purified water (1 L) was added to the solid, followed by addition of ethyl acetate (600 ml), and stirring was maintained for about 10 minutes. The aqueous layer was separated and the organic layer was extracted with water (350 ml). The aqueous layers were combined and water was removed by evaporation under reduced pressure to obtain an oil (46.4 g). Water was added (220 ml) and the mixture was heated to 50-550C to dissolve the solid. The mixture was cooled to 0-50C during about one hour and mixed for about 16 hours at that temperature. The thus formed solid was filtered and dried to afford 11.1 g of gemcitabine free base. 0.5N HCl (240 ml) was added followed by addition of dichloromethane (100 ml) with stirring. The water phase was separated and the aqueous phase was washed with dichloromethane (300 ml). After filtration, the aqueous phase was concentrated to dryness under reduced pressure to obtain gemcitabine hydrochloride as a solid (12.0 g). The solid was dissolved in water (48 ml) at ambient temperature and the mixture was heated to 5O0C to afford a clear solution and cooled to ambient temperature. Acetone (360 ml) was added and stirring was maintained for about one hour. Then, the precipitate was collected by filtration and washed twice with acetone (2X30 ml) and dried at 450C under vacuum to obtain 9.9 g of gemcitabine hydrochloride, containing 99.6% of the β-anomer.

EXAMPLE 6

[0055] This example demonstrates the slurrying procedure of the 3 ‘,5′- dicinnamoyl-2′-deoxy-2’,2l-difluorocytidine in different solvents. [0056] 1 g of the crude 3′,5′-dicinnamoyl-2′-deoxy-2l,2′-difluorocytidine, containing 73.7 % of the β-anomer and 17.5 % of the α-anomer, was placed in flask and 10 ml of a solvent was added and the mixture was mixed at ambient temperature for one hour. Then, the solid was obtained by filtration, washed with 5 ml of the solvent and dried. The liquid obtained after filtering the solid and the liquid obtained after washing the solid were combined (hereinafter the mother liquor). The ratio between the β-anomer and the α-anomer in the solid and in the mother liquor was determined by HPLC and the results are summarized in Table 1.

Table 1

Figure imgf000020_0001

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Adverse effects

Gemcitabine is a chemotherapy drug that works by killing any cells that are dividing.[10] Cancer cells divide rapidly and so are targeted at higher rates by gemcitabine, but many essential cells also divide rapidly, including cells in skin, the scalp, the stomach lining, and bone marrow, resulting in adverse effects.[16]: 265 

The gemcitabine label carries warnings that it can suppress bone marrow function and cause loss of white blood cellsloss of platelets, and loss of red blood cells, and that it should be used carefully in people with liver, kidney, or cardiovascular disorders. People taking it should not take live vaccines. The warning label also states it may cause posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, that it may cause capillary leak syndrome, that it may cause severe lung conditions like pulmonary edemapneumonia, and adult respiratory distress syndrome, and that it may harm sperm.[10][17]

More than 10% of users develop adverse effects, including difficulty breathing, low white and red blood cells counts, low platelet counts, vomiting and nausea, elevated transaminases, rashes and itchy skin, hair loss, blood and protein in urine, flu-like symptoms, and edema.[10][15]

Common adverse effects (occurring in 1–10% of users) include fever, loss of appetite, headache, difficulty sleeping, tiredness, cough, runny nose, diarrhea, mouth and lip sores, sweating, back pain, and muscle pain.[10]

Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a rare but serious side effect that been associated with particular chemotherapy medications including gemcitabine. TTP is a blood disorder and can lead to microangipathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA), neurologic abnormalities, fever, and renal disease.[18]

Pharmacology

Gemcitabine is hydrophilic and must be transported into cells via molecular transporters for nucleosides (the most common transporters for gemcitabine are SLC29A1 SLC28A1, and SLC28A3).[19][20] After entering the cell, gemcitabine is first modified by attaching a phosphate to it, and so it becomes gemcitabine monophosphate (dFdCMP).[19][20] This is the rate-determining step that is catalyzed by the enzyme deoxycytidine kinase (DCK).[19][20] Two more phosphates are added by other enzymes. After the attachment of the three phosphates gemcitabine is finally pharmacologically active as gemcitabine triphosphate (dFdCTP).[19] [21]

After being thrice phosphorylated, gemcitabine can masquerade as deoxycytidine triphosphate and is incorporated into new DNA strands being synthesized as the cell replicates.[2][19][20]

When gemcitabine is incorporated into DNA it allows a native, or normal, nucleoside base to be added next to it. This leads to “masked chain termination” because gemcitabine is a “faulty” base, but due to its neighboring native nucleoside it eludes the cell’s normal repair system (base-excision repair). Thus, incorporation of gemcitabine into the cell’s DNA creates an irreparable error that leads to inhibition of further DNA synthesis, and thereby leading to cell death.[2][19][20]

The form of gemcitabine with two phosphates attached (dFdCDP) also has activity; it inhibits the enzyme ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), which is needed to create new DNA nucleotides. The lack of nucleotides drives the cell to uptake more of the components it needs to make nucleotides from outside the cell, which also increases uptake of gemcitabine.[2][19][20][22]

Chemistry

Gemcitabine is a synthetic pyrimidine nucleoside prodrug—a nucleoside analog in which the hydrogen atoms on the 2′ carbon of deoxycytidine are replaced by fluorine atoms.[2][23][24]

The synthesis described and pictured below is the original synthesis done in the Eli Lilly Company labs. Synthesis begins with enantiopure D-glyceraldehyde (R)-2 as the starting material which can made from D-mannitol in 2–7 steps. Then fluorine is introduced by a “building block” approach using ethyl bromodifluroacetate. Then, Reformatsky reaction under standard conditions will yield a 3:1 anti/syn diastereomeric mixture, with one major product. Separation of the diastereomers is carried out via HPLC, thus yielding the anti-3 gemcitabine in a 65% yield.[23][24] At least two other full synthesis methods have also been developed by different groups.[24]

Illustration of the original synthesis process used and published by Hertel et al. in 1988 of Lilly laboratories.

History[

Gemcitabine was first synthesized in Larry Hertel’s lab at Eli Lilly and Company during the early 1980s. It was intended as an antiviral drug, but preclinical testing showed that it killed leukemia cells in vitro.[25]

During the early 1990s gemcitabine was studied in clinical trials. The pancreatic cancer trials found that gemcitabine increased one-year survival time significantly, and it was approved in the UK in 1995[10] and approved by the FDA in 1996 for pancreatic cancers.[4] In 1998, gemcitabine received FDA approval for treating non-small cell lung cancer and in 2004, it was approved for metastatic breast cancer.[4]

European labels were harmonized by the EMA in 2008.[26]

By 2008, Lilly’s worldwide sales of gemcitabine were about $1.7 billion; at that time its US patents were set to expire in 2013 and its European patents in 2009.[27] The first generic launched in Europe in 2009,[7] and patent challenges were mounted in the US which led to invalidation of a key Lilly patent on its method to make the drug.[28][29] Generic companies started selling the drug in the US in 2010 when the patent on the chemical itself expired.[29][8] Patent litigation in China made headlines there and was resolved in 2010.[30]

Society and culture

As of 2017, gemcitabine was marketed under many brand names worldwide: Abine, Accogem, Acytabin, Antoril, axigem, Bendacitabin, Biogem, Boligem, Celzar, Citegin, Cytigem, Cytogem, Daplax, DBL, Demozar, Dercin, Emcitab, Enekamub, Eriogem, Fotinex, Gebina, Gemalata, Gembin, Gembine, Gembio, Gemcel, Gemcetin, Gemcibine, Gemcikal, Gemcipen, Gemcired, Gemcirena, Gemcit, Gemcitabin, Gemcitabina, Gemcitabine, Gemcitabinum, Gemcitan, Gemedac, Gemflor, Gemful, Gemita, Gemko, Gemliquid, Gemmis, Gemnil, Gempower, Gemsol, Gemstad, Gemstada, Gemtabine, Gemtavis, Gemtaz, Gemtero, Gemtra, Gemtro, Gemvic, Gemxit, Gemzar, Gentabim, Genuten, Genvir, Geroam, Gestredos, Getanosan, Getmisi, Gezt, Gitrabin, Gramagen, Haxanit, Jemta, Kalbezar, Medigem, Meditabine, Nabigem, Nallian, Oncogem, Oncoril, Pamigeno, Ribozar, Santabin, Sitagem, Symtabin, Yu Jie, Ze Fei, and Zefei.[1]

Research

Because it is clinically valuable and is only useful when delivered intravenously, methods to reformulate it so that it can be given by mouth have been a subject of research.[31][32][33]

Research into pharmacogenomics and pharmacogenetics has been ongoing. As of 2014, it was not clear whether or not genetic tests could be useful in guiding dosing and which people respond best to gemcitabine.[19] However, it appears that variation in the expression of proteins (SLC29A1SLC29A2SLC28A1, and SLC28A3) used for transport of gemcitabine into the cell lead to variations in its potency. Similarly, the genes that express proteins that lead to its inactivation (deoxycytidine deaminasecytidine deaminase, and NT5C) and that express its other intracellular targets (RRM1RRM2, and RRM2B) lead to variations in response to the drug.[19] Research has also been ongoing to understand how mutations in pancreatic cancers themselves determine response to gemcitabine.[34]

It has been studied as a treatment for Kaposi sarcoma, a common cancer in people with AIDS which is uncommon in the developed world but not uncommon in the developing world.[35]

References

  1. Jump up to:a b c “Gemcitabine International Brands”. Drugs.com. Archived from the original on 25 May 2014. Retrieved 6 May 2017.
  2. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l “Gemcitabine Hydrochloride”. The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  3. ^ “Drug Formulary/Drugs/ gemcitabine – Provider Monograph”Cancer Care Ontario. Retrieved 6 December 2020.
  4. Jump up to:a b c National Cancer Institute (2006-10-05). “FDA Approval for Gemcitabine Hydrochloride”National Cancer InstituteArchived from the original on 5 April 2017. Retrieved 22 April 2017.
  5. ^ Li Y, Li P, Li Y, Zhang R, Yu P, Ma Z, Kainov DE, de Man RA, Peppelenbosch MP, Pan Q (December 2020). “Drug screening identified gemcitabine inhibiting hepatitis E virus by inducing interferon-like response via activation of STAT1 phosphorylation”Antiviral Research184: 104967. doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104967PMID 33137361.
  6. ^ Fischer J, Ganellin CR (2006). Analogue-based Drug Discovery. John Wiley & Sons. p. 511. ISBN 9783527607495.
  7. Jump up to:a b Myers, Calisha (13 March 2009). “Gemcitabine from Actavis launched on patent expiry in EU markets”FierceBiotechArchived from the original on 11 September 2017.
  8. Jump up to:a b “Press release: Hospira launches two-gram vial of gemcitabine hydrochloride for injection”. Hospira via News-Medical.Net. 16 November 2010. Archived from the original on 2 October 2015.
  9. ^ World Health Organization (2019). World Health Organization model list of essential medicines: 21st list 2019. Geneva: World Health Organization. hdl:10665/325771. WHO/MVP/EMP/IAU/2019.06. License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
  10. Jump up to:a b c d e f g “UK label”. UK Electronic Medicines Compendium. 5 June 2014. Archived from the original on 10 July 2017. Retrieved 6 May 2017.
  11. Jump up to:a b “US formLabel” (PDF). FDA. June 2014. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 February 2017. Retrieved 6 May 2017. For label updates see FDA index page for NDA 020509 Archived 2017-04-29 at the Wayback Machine
  12. ^ Zhang XW, Ma YX, Sun Y, Cao YB, Li Q, Xu CA (June 2017). “Gemcitabine in Combination with a Second Cytotoxic Agent in the First-Line Treatment of Locally Advanced or Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis”. Targeted Oncology12 (3): 309–321. doi:10.1007/s11523-017-0486-5PMID 28353074S2CID 3833614.
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  14. ^ Jain A, Kwong LN, Javle M (November 2016). “Genomic Profiling of Biliary Tract Cancers and Implications for Clinical Practice”. Current Treatment Options in Oncology17 (11): 58. doi:10.1007/s11864-016-0432-2PMID 27658789S2CID 25477593.
  15. Jump up to:a b Macmillan Cancer Support. “Gemcitabine”Macmillan Cancer SupportArchived from the original on 25 March 2017. Retrieved 6 May 2017.
  16. ^ Rachel Airley (2009). Cancer Chemotherapy. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-470-09254-5.
  17. ^ Siddall E, Khatri M, Radhakrishnan J (July 2017). “Capillary leak syndrome: etiologies, pathophysiology, and management”Kidney International92 (1): 37–46. doi:10.1016/j.kint.2016.11.029PMID 28318633.
  18. ^ Kasi PM (January 2011). “Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and gemcitabine”Case Reports in Oncology4 (1): 143–8. doi:10.1159/000326801PMC 3114619PMID 21691573.
  19. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i Alvarellos ML, Lamba J, Sangkuhl K, Thorn CF, Wang L, Klein DJ, Altman RB, Klein TE (November 2014). “PharmGKB summary: gemcitabine pathway”Pharmacogenetics and Genomics24 (11): 564–74. doi:10.1097/fpc.0000000000000086PMC 4189987PMID 25162786.
  20. Jump up to:a b c d e f Mini E, Nobili S, Caciagli B, Landini I, Mazzei T (May 2006). “Cellular pharmacology of gemcitabine”Annals of Oncology. 17 Suppl 5: v7-12. doi:10.1093/annonc/mdj941PMID 16807468.
  21. ^ Fatima, M., Iqbal Ahmed, M. M., Batool, F., Riaz, A., Ali, M., Munch-Petersen, B., & Mutahir, Z. (2019). Recombinant deoxyribonucleoside kinase from Drosophila melanogaster can improve gemcitabine based combined gene/chemotherapy for targeting cancer cells. Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences, 19(4), 342-349. https://doi.org/10.17305/bjbms.2019.4136
  22. ^ Cerqueira NM, Fernandes PA, Ramos MJ (2007). “Understanding ribonucleotide reductase inactivation by gemcitabine”. Chemistry13 (30): 8507–15. doi:10.1002/chem.200700260PMID 17636467.
  23. Jump up to:a b Brown K, Weymouth-Wilson A, Linclau B (April 2015). “A linear synthesis of gemcitabine”Carbohydrate Research406: 71–5. doi:10.1016/j.carres.2015.01.001PMID 25681996.
  24. Jump up to:a b c Brown K, Dixey M, Weymouth-Wilson A, Linclau B (March 2014). “The synthesis of gemcitabine”Carbohydrate Research387: 59–73. doi:10.1016/j.carres.2014.01.024PMID 24636495.
  25. ^ Sneader, Walter (2005). Drug discovery: a history. New York: Wiley. p. 259. ISBN 978-0-471-89979-2.
  26. ^ “Gemzar”. European Medicines Agency. 24 September 2008. Archived from the original on 11 September 2017.
  27. ^ Myers, Calisha (18 August 2009). “Patent for Lilly’s cancer drug Gemzar invalidated”FiercePharmaArchived from the original on 11 September 2017.
  28. ^ Holman, Christopher M. (Summer 2011). “Unpredictability in Patent Law and Its Effect on Pharmaceutical Innovation” (PDF). Missouri Law Review76 (3): 645–693. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-09-11. Retrieved 2017-05-06.
  29. Jump up to:a b Ravicher, Daniel B. (28 July 2010). “On the Generic Gemzar Patent Fight”Seeking AlphaArchived from the original on 9 December 2012.
  30. ^ Wang M, Alexandre D (2015). “Analysis of Cases on Pharmaceutical Patent Infringement in Great China”. In Rader RR, et al. (eds.). Law, Politics and Revenue Extraction on Intellectual Property. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 119. ISBN 9781443879262Archived from the original on 2017-09-11.
  31. ^ Dyawanapelly S, Kumar A, Chourasia MK (2017). “Lessons Learned from Gemcitabine: Impact of Therapeutic Carrier Systems and Gemcitabine’s Drug Conjugates on Cancer Therapy”. Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems34 (1): 63–96. doi:10.1615/CritRevTherDrugCarrierSyst.2017017912PMID 28322141.
  32. ^ Birhanu G, Javar HA, Seyedjafari E, Zandi-Karimi A (April 2017). “Nanotechnology for delivery of gemcitabine to treat pancreatic cancer”. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy88: 635–643. doi:10.1016/j.biopha.2017.01.071PMID 28142120.
  33. ^ Dubey RD, Saneja A, Gupta PK, Gupta PN (October 2016). “Recent advances in drug delivery strategies for improved therapeutic efficacy of gemcitabine”. European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences93: 147–62. doi:10.1016/j.ejps.2016.08.021PMID 27531553.
  34. ^ Pishvaian MJ, Brody JR (March 2017). “Therapeutic Implications of Molecular Subtyping for Pancreatic Cancer”Oncology31 (3): 159–66, 168. PMID 28299752Archived from the original on 3 July 2017.
  35. ^ Krown SE (September 2011). “Treatment strategies for Kaposi sarcoma in sub-Saharan Africa: challenges and opportunities”Current Opinion in Oncology23 (5): 463–8. doi:10.1097/cco.0b013e328349428dPMC 3465839PMID 21681092.

External links

Clinical data
Pronunciation/dʒɛmˈsaɪtəbiːn/
Trade namesGemzar, others[1]
Other names2′, 2′-difluoro 2’deoxycytidine, dFdC
AHFS/Drugs.comMonograph
Pregnancy
category
AU: D
Routes of
administration
Intravenous
ATC codeL01BC05 (WHO)
Legal status
Legal statusAU: S4 (Prescription only)UK: POM (Prescription only)US: ℞-onlyIn general: ℞ (Prescription only)
Pharmacokinetic data
Protein binding<10%
Elimination half-lifeShort infusions: 32–94 minutes
Long infusions: 245–638 minutes
Identifiers
showIUPAC name
CAS Number95058-81-4 
PubChem CID60750
IUPHAR/BPS4793
DrugBankDB00441 
ChemSpider54753 
UNIIB76N6SBZ8R
KEGGD02368 
ChEBICHEBI:175901 
ChEMBLChEMBL888 
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)DTXSID3040487 
ECHA InfoCard100.124.343 
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC9H11F2N3O4
Molar mass263.201 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)Interactive image
showSMILES
showInChI
  (verify)

/////////////GEMCITABINE, LY 188011, LY188011, CANCER

NC1=NC(=O)N(C=C1)[C@@H]1O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)C1(F)F

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OTERACIL

UNII4R7FFA00RX, CAS Number2207-75-2,  WeightAverage: 195.175, Monoisotopic: 194.96823705, Chemical FormulaC4H2KN3O4

[K+].OC1=NC(=NC(=O)N1)C([O-])=O

1,3,5-Triazine-2-carboxylic acid, 1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-4,6-dioxo-, potassium salt (1:1)

218-627-5[EINECS]

2207-75-2[RN]

4,6-Dihydroxy-1,3,5-triazine-2-carboxylic acid potassium salt

  • KOX
  • NSC 28841
  • Oxonate
  • Oxonate, potassium

CDSCO APPROVED,01.02.2022

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Gimeracil bulk & Oteracil potassium bulk and Tegafur 15mg/20mg, Gimeracil 4.35mg/5.8mg and Oteracil 11.8mg/15.8mg capsules

indicated in adults for the treatment of advanced gastric cancer when given in combination with cisplatin.

Oteracil Potassium is the potassium salt of oxonate, an enzyme inhibitor that modulates 5- fluorouracil (5-FU) toxicity. Potassium oxonate inhibits orotate phosphoribosyltransferase, which catalyzes the conversion of 5-FU to its active or phosphorylated form, FUMP. Upon oral administration, Oxonate is selectively distributed to the intracellular sites of tissues lining the small intestines, producing localized inhibitory effects within the gastrointestinal tract. As a result, 5-FU associated gastrointestinal toxic effects are reduced and the incidence of diarrhea or mucositis is decreased in 5-FU related therapy.

Oteracil is an adjunct to antineoplastic therapy, used to reduce the toxic side effects associated with chemotherapy. Approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) in March 2011, Oteracil is available in combination with Gimeracil and Tegafur within the commercially available product “Teysuno”. The main active ingredient in Teysuno is Tegafur, a pro-drug of Fluorouracil (5-FU), which is a cytotoxic anti-metabolite drug that acts on rapidly dividing cancer cells. By mimicking a class of compounds called “pyrimidines” that are essential components of RNA and DNA, 5-FU is able to insert itself into strands of DNA and RNA, thereby halting the replication process necessary for continued cancer growth.

Oteracil’s main role within Teysuno is to reduce the activity of 5-FU within normal gastrointestinal mucosa, and therefore reduce’s gastrointestinal toxicity 1. It functions by blocking the enzyme orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (OPRT), which is involved in the production of 5-FU.

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SYNTHESIS

https://patents.google.com/patent/CN103435566A/zh

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STR2
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SYN

https://europepmc.org/article/pmc/pmc7717319

Poje et al. reported a two-step, gram-scale preparation of the TS-1 additive oteracil 21 (Scheme 16).226 Iodine-mediated-oxidation of uric acid 116 produced dehydroallantoin 117 as the major product, and subsequent treatment with potassium hydroxide resulted in the rearranged product oteracil 21.227

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is nihms-1649941-f0037.jpg

Synthesis of Oteracil 21a

aReagents and conditions: (a) LiOH, I2, H2O, 5 °C, 5 min, then AcOH, 75%; (b) aq KOH, 20 min, rt, 82%.

(226) Poje M; Sokolić-Maravić L The mechanism for the conversion of uric acid into allantoin and dehydro-allantoin: A new look at an old problem. Tetrahedron 1986, 42 (2), 747–751. [Google Scholar]

(227) Sugi M; Igi M EP Patent 0957096, 1999.

EP0957096A1 *1998-05-111999-11-17SUMIKA FINE CHEMICALS Co., Ltd.Method for producing potassium oxonate

CN101475539A *2009-02-112009-07-08鲁南制药集团股份有限公司Refining method for preparing high-purity oteracil potassium

CN102250025A *2011-05-182011-11-23深圳万乐药业有限公司Preparation method suitable for industrially producing oteracil potassium

CN102746244A *2012-07-272012-10-24南京正大天晴制药有限公司Refining method of oteracil potassium

//////////OTERACIL POTTASIUM, KOX, NSC 28841, Oxonate, Oxonate potassium, INDIA 2022, APPROVALS 2022, CANCER

[K+].OC1=NC(=NC(=O)N1)C([O-])=O

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GIMERACIL


Gimeracil.png

GIMERACIL

C5H4ClNO2, 145.54

103766-25-2

5-chloro-4-hydroxy-1H-pyridin-2-one

5-Chloro-2,4-dihydroxypyridine

5-chloropyridine-2,4-diol

5-Chloro-4-hydroxy-2(1H)-pyridone

Ts-1 (TN)

CDSCO APPROVED,01.02.2022

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Gimeracil bulk & Oteracil potassium bulk and Tegafur 15mg/20mg, Gimeracil 4.35mg/5.8mg and Oteracil 11.8mg/15.8mg capsules

indicated in adults for the treatment of advanced gastric cancer when given in combination with cisplatin.

Combination of
TegafurAntineoplastic drug
GimeracilEnzyme inhibitor
OteracilEnzyme inhibitor
Clinical data
Trade namesTeysuno, TS-1
Other namesS-1[1]
AHFS/Drugs.comUK Drug Information
License dataEU EMAby Tegafur
Pregnancy
category
Contraindicated
Routes of
administration
By mouth
ATC codeL01BC53 (WHO)
Legal status
Legal statusUK: POM (Prescription only) [2]EU: Rx-only [3]In general: ℞ (Prescription only)
Identifiers
CAS Number150863-82-4
PubChem CID54715158

Tegafur/gimeracil/oteracil, sold under the brand names Teysuno and TS-1,[3][4] is a fixed-dose combination medication used for the treatment of advanced gastric cancer when used in combination with cisplatin,[3] and also for the treatment of head and neck cancer, colorectal cancer, non–small-cell lung, breast, pancreatic, and biliary tract cancers.[5]: 213 

The most common severe side effects when used in combination with cisplatin include neutropenia (low levels of neutrophils, a type of white blood cell), anaemia (low red blood cell counts) and fatigue (tiredness).[3]

Tegafur/gimeracil/oteracil (Teysuno) was approved for medical use in the European Union in March 2011.[3] It has not been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).[5]: 213 

Medical uses

In the European Union tegafur/gimeracil/oteracil is indicated in adults for the treatment of advanced gastric cancer when given in combination with cisplatin.[3]

Contraindications

In the European Union, tegafur/gimeracil/oteracil must not be used in the following groups:

  • people receiving another fluoropyrimidine (a group of anticancer medicines that includes tegafur/gimeracil/oteracil) or who have had severe and unexpected reactions to fluoropyrimidine therapy;[3]
  • people known to have no DPD enzyme activity, as well as people who, within the previous four weeks, have been treated with a medicine that blocks this enzyme;[3]
  • pregnant or breastfeeding women;[3]
  • people with severe leucopenia, neutropenia, or thrombocytopenia (low levels of white cells or platelets in the blood);[3]
  • people with severe kidney problems requiring dialysis;[3]
  • people who should not be receiving cisplatin.[3]

Mechanism of action

Tegafur is the actual chemotherapeutic agent. It is a prodrug of the active substance fluorouracil (5-FU).[3] Tegafur, is a cytotoxic medicine (a medicine that kills rapidly dividing cells, such as cancer cells) that belongs to the ‘anti-metabolites’ group. Tegafur is converted to the medicine fluorouracil in the body, but more is converted in tumor cells than in normal tissues.[3] Fluorouracil is very similar to pyrimidine.[3] Pyrimidine is part of the genetic material of cells (DNA and RNA).[3] In the body, fluorouracil takes the place of pyrimidine and interferes with the enzymes involved in making new DNA.[3] As a result, it prevents the growth of tumor cells and eventually kills them.[3]

Gimeracil inhibits the degradation of fluorouracil by reversibly blocking the dehydrogenase enzyme dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD). This results in higher 5-FU levels and a prolonged half-life of the substance.[6]

Oteracil mainly stays in the gut because of its low permeability, where it reduces the production of 5-FU by blocking the enzyme orotate phosphoribosyltransferase. Lower 5-FU levels in the gut result in a lower gastrointestinal toxicity.[6]

Within the medication, the molar ratio of the three components (tegafur:gimeracil:oteracil) is 1:1:0.4.[7]

The maximum tolerated dose differed between Asian and Caucasian populations (80 mg/m2 and 25 mg/m2 respectively), perhaps due to differences in CYP2A6 genotype.[5]: 213 

Research

It is being developed for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.[8] and has activity in esophageal,(Perry Chapter 33) breast,[citation needed] cervical,[citation needed] and colorectal cancer.[9]

  • Tegafur
  • Gimeracil
  • Oteracil potassium

References

  1. ^ Liu TW, Chen LT (201). “S-1 with leucovorin for gastric cancer: how far can it go?”. Lancet Oncol17 (1): 12–4. doi:10.1016/S1470-2045(15)00478-7PMID 26640038.
  2. ^ “Teysuno 20mg/5.8mg/15.8mg hard capsules – Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC)”(emc). Retrieved 30 July 2020.
  3. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r “Teysuno EPAR”European Medicines Agency (EMA). Retrieved 30 July 2020. Text was copied from this source which is © European Medicines Agency. Reproduction is authorized provided the source is acknowledged.
  4. ^ “ティーエスワン 患者さん・ご家族向け総合情報サイト | 大鵬薬品工業株式会社”.
  5. Jump up to:a b c DeVita, DeVita; Lawrence, TS; Rosenberg, SA (2015). DeVita, Hellman, and Rosenberg’s Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology (10th ed.). LWW. ISBN 978-1451192940.
  6. Jump up to:a b A. Klement (22 July 2013). “Dreier-Kombination gegen Magenkrebs: Teysuno”. Österreichische Apothekerzeitung (in German) (15/2013): 23.
  7. ^ Peters GJ, Noordhuis P, Van Kuilenburg AB et al. (2003). “Pharmacokinetics of S-1, an oral formulation of ftorafur, oxonic acid and 5-chloro-2,4-dihydroxypyridine (molar ratio 1:0.4:1) in patients with solid tumors”. Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol52 (1): 1–12. doi:10.1007/s00280-003-0617-9PMID 12739060S2CID 10858817.
  8. ^ “BCIQ”.
  9. ^ Miyamoto Y, Sakamoto Y, Yoshida N, Baba H (2014). “Efficacy of S-1 in colorectal cancer”. Expert Opin Pharmacother15 (12): 1761–70. doi:10.1517/14656566.2014.937706PMID 25032886S2CID 23637808.

External links

  • “Tegafur”Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • “Gimeracil”Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • “Oteracil”Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine.

Gimeracil is an adjunct to antineoplastic therapy, used to increase the concentration and effect of the main active componets within chemotherapy regimens. Approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) in March 2011, Gimeracil is available in combination with Oteracil and Tegafur within the commercially available product “Teysuno”. The main active ingredient in Teysuno is Tegafur, a pro-drug of Fluorouracil (5-FU), which is a cytotoxic anti-metabolite drug that acts on rapidly dividing cancer cells. By mimicking a class of compounds called “pyrimidines” that are essential components of RNA and DNA, 5-FU is able to insert itself into strands of DNA and RNA, thereby halting the replication process necessary for continued cancer growth.

Gimeracil’s main role within Teysuno is to prevent the breakdown of Fluorouracil (5-FU), which helps to maintin high enough concentrations for sustained effect against cancer cells 2. It functions by reversibly and selectively blocking the enzyme dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), which is involved in the degradation of 5-FU 1. This allows higher concentrations of 5-FU to be achieved with a lower dose of tegafur, thereby also reducing toxic side effects.

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Metabolism, Biochemical Actions, and Chemical Synthesis of Anticancer Nucleosides, Nucleotides, and Base Analogs. - Abstract - Europe PMC
Metabolism, Biochemical Actions, and Chemical Synthesis of Anticancer Nucleosides, Nucleotides, and Base Analogs. - Abstract - Europe PMC
An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc. Object name is nihms-1649941-f0002.jpg

SYNTHESIS

https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/A-Convenient-Synthesis-of-Gimeracil-Li-Zhu/8c04bd3d12699b5c7b9f55cf4723cc0aaf7e3d70

A Convenient Synthesis of Gimeracil | Semantic Scholar

SYN

https://europepmc.org/article/pmc/pmc7717319

Synthesis of Gimeracil 20a

aReagents and conditions: (a) CH3C(OCH3)3, MeOH, then (CH3)2NHCH(OCH3)2, reflux, 92%; (b) aq AcOH, 130 °C, 2 h, 95%; (c) SO2Cl2, HOAc, 50 °C, 0.5 h, 91%; (d) 40% H2SO4, 130 °C, 4 h, 91%; (e) SO2Cl2, HOAc, 50 °C, 45 min, 86%; (f) 75% H2 SO4, 140 °C, 3 h, then NaOH, then pH 4–4.5, 89%

str1

In 1953, Kolder and Hertog reported a synthesis of the TS-1 additive gimeracil 20, which was completed in seven steps using 4-nitropyridine N-oxide as starting material.222 Later, Yano et al. reported an alternative gram-scale synthesis (Scheme 15).223 The one-pot, three component condensation of malononitrile 111, 1,1,1-trimethoxyethane, and 1,1-dimethyoxytrimethylamine generated the dicyano intermediate 112, which was into 2(1H)-pyridinone 113.224 Selective chlorination of 113 was followed by acid-mediated demethylation, hydrolysis, and decarboxylation, to afford gimeracil 20. Interestingly, Xu et al. found that treatment of intermediate 113 with sulfuryl chloride resulted in dichloro 115 formation, which could still be converted to gimeracil 20 by treatment with sulfuric acid.225

(222) Kolder CR; den Hertog HJ Synthesis and reactivity of 5-chloro-2,4-dihydroxypyridine. Rec. Trav. Chim 1953, 72, 285–295. [Google Scholar]

(223) Yano S; Ohno T; Ogawa K Convenient and practical synthesis of 5-chloro-4-hydroxy-2(1H)-pyridinone. Heterocycles 1993, 36, 145–148. [Google Scholar]

(224) Mittelbach M; Kastner G; Junek H Synthesen mit Nitrilen, 71. Mitt. Zur Synthese von 4-Hydroxynicotinsaure aus Butadiendicarbonitrilen. Arch. Pharm 1985, 318 (6), 481–486. [Google Scholar]

(225) Xu Y; Mao D; Zhang F CN Patent 1915976, 2007.

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OC1=CC(=O)NC=C1Cl

IMIPRIDONE


img
7-Benzyl-4-(2-methylbenzyl)-1,2,6,7,8,9-hexahydroimidazo[1,2-A]pyrido[3,4-E]pyrimidin-5(4H)-one.png
2D chemical structure of 1616632-77-9

IMIPRIDONE

CAS No. : 1616632-77-9

Molecular Weight, 386.4964

Related CAS #: 41276-02-2 (TIC10 isomer)   1616632-77-9 (free base)   1638178-82-1 (HCl)   1777785-71-3 (HBr)   2007141-57-1 (2HBr)

TIC 10, 0NC 201, OP 10

Synonym: ONC201; ONC 201; ONC-201; NSC350625; NSC-350625; NSC 350625; TIC10; TIC 10; TIC-10; TRAIL inducing compound 10; imipridone

7-benzyl-4-(2-methylbenzyl)-1,2,6,7,8,9-hexahydroimidazo[1,2-a]pyrido[3,4-e]pyrimidin-5(4H)-one

2,4,6,7,8,9-Hexahydro-4-((2-methylphenyl)methyl)-7-phenylmethyl)imidazo)(1,2-a)pyrido(3,4-e)pyrimidin-5(1H)-one

ONC-201 Dihydrochloride.png

ONC-201 Dihydrochloride

C24H28Cl2N4O

459.4

UNII-53VG71J90J

53VG71J90J

Q27896336

1638178-82-1

Imidazo(1,2-a)pyrido(3,4-E)pyrimidin-5(1H)-one, 2,4,6,7,8,9-hexahydro-4-((2-methylphenyl)methyl)-7-(phenylmethyl)-, hydrochloride (1:2)

  • A TRAIL-dependent antitumor agent.

TIC10 (ONC-201) is a potent, orally active, and stable tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) inducer which acts by inhibiting Akt and ERK, consequently activating Foxo3a and significantly inducing cell surface TRAIL. TIC10 can cross the blood-brain barrier.

ONC-201, also known as TIC10, is a potent, orally active, and stable small molecule that transcriptionally induces TRAIL in a p53-independent manner and crosses the blood-brain barrier. TIC10 induces a sustained up-regulation of TRAIL in tumors and normal cells that may contribute to the demonstrable antitumor activity of TIC10. TIC10 inactivates kinases Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), leading to the translocation of Foxo3a into the nucleus, where it binds to the TRAIL promoter to up-regulate gene transcription. TIC10 is an efficacious antitumor therapeutic agent that acts on tumor cells and their microenvironment to enhance the concentrations of the endogenous tumor suppressor TRAIL.

Akt/ERK Inhibitor ONC201 is a water soluble, orally bioavailable inhibitor of the serine/threonine protein kinase Akt (protein kinase B) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, Akt/ERK inhibitor ONC201 binds to and inhibits the activity of Akt and ERK, which may result in inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signal transduction pathway as well as the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/ERK-mediated pathway. This may lead to the induction of tumor cell apoptosis mediated by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)/TRAIL death receptor type 5 (DR5) signaling in AKT/ERK-overexpressing tumor cells. The PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and MAPK/ERK pathway are upregulated in a variety of tumor cell types and play a key role in tumor cell proliferation, differentiation and survival by inhibiting apoptosis. In addition, ONC201 is able to cross the blood-brain barrier.

STR1

SYN

Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry, 19(39), 8497-8501; 2021

Herein, we present a copper-catalyzed tandem reaction of 2-aminoimidazolines and ortho-halo(hetero)aryl carboxylic acids that causes the regioselective formation of angularly fused tricyclic 1,2-dihydroimidazo[1,2-a]quinazolin-5(4H)-one derivatives. The reaction involved in the construction of the core six-membered pyrimidone moiety proceeded via regioselective N-arylation–condensation. The presented protocol been successfully applied to accomplish the total synthesis of TIC10/ONC201, which is an active angular isomer acting as a tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL): a sought after anticancer clinical agent.

Graphical abstract: Tandem copper catalyzed regioselective N-arylation–amidation: synthesis of angularly fused dihydroimidazoquinazolinones and the anticancer agent TIC10/ONC201

7-Benzyl-4-(2-methylbenzyl)-1,2,6,7,8,9-hexahydroimidazo[1,2-a]pyrido[3,4-e]pyrimidin-5(4H)-one (6): Pale orange semi-solid, 202 mg (0.521 mmol), 52 % Rf = 0.25 (CH3OH/CHCl3 5:95); IR 1490, 1610, 1644, 2882, 2922 cm-1 ; 1H-NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) δ = 2.39 (s, 3H), 2.54 (t, J = 5.5 Hz, 2H), 2.72 (t, J = 5.7 Hz, 2H), 3.31 (s, 2H), 3.67 (s, 2H), 3.84-3.91 (m, 4H), 5.04 (s, 2H), 7.02-7.04 (m, 1H), 7.08-7.12 (m, 3H), 7.26- 7.34 (m, 5H). 13C{1H}-NMR (101 MHz, CDCl3) δ = 19.3, 26.8, 43.4, 46.9, 48.2, 49.6, 50.45, 62.3, 102.1, 125.2, 125.9, 126.8, 127.4, 128.45, 129.2, 130.2, 134.2, 135.6, 137.9, 145.7, 153.3, 161.4; MS (ESI, m/z): [M+H]+ 387; HRMS (ESI, m/z): calcd for C24H27N4O [M+H]+ found 387.2183.

PATENT

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2017132661A2/en

Scheme 1.

Figure imgf000028_0002
Figure imgf000028_0003

Scheme 2.

Figure imgf000029_0001
Figure imgf000029_0002
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CLIP

https://mdanderson.elsevierpure.com/en/publications/discovery-and-clinical-introduction-of-first-in-class-imipridone-Discovery and clinical introduction of first-in-class imipridone ONC201

Abstract

ONC201 is the founding member of a novel class of anti-cancer compounds called imipridones that is currently in Phase II clinical trials in multiple advanced cancers. Since the discovery of ONC201 as a p53-independent inducer of TRAIL gene transcription, preclinical studies have determined that ONC201 has anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects against a broad range of tumor cells but not normal cells. The mechanism of action of ONC201 involves engagement of PERK-independent activation of the integrated stress response, leading to tumor upregulation of DR5 and dual Akt/ERK inactivation, and consequent Foxo3a activation leading to upregulation of the death ligand TRAIL. ONC201 is orally active with infrequent dosing in animals models, causes sustained pharmacodynamic effects, and is not genotoxic. The first-in-human clinical trial of ONC201 in advanced aggressive refractory solid tumors confirmed that ONC201 is exceptionally well-tolerated and established the recommended phase II dose of 625 mg administered orally every three weeks defined by drug exposure comparable to efficacious levels in preclinical models. Clinical trials are evaluating the single agent efficacy of ONC201 in multiple solid tumors and hematological malignancies and exploring alternative dosing regimens. In addition, chemical analogs that have shown promise in other oncology indications are in pre-clinical development. In summary, the imipridone family that comprises ONC201 and its chemical analogs represent a new class of anti-cancer therapy with a unique mechanism of action being translated in ongoing clinical trials.

////////////IMIPRIDONE, TIC 10, ONC 201, NSC 350625, OP 10, Fast Track Designation, Orphan Drug Designation, Rare Pediatric Disease Designation, PHASE 3, GLIOMA, CHIMERIX

O=C1N(CC2=CC=CC=C2C)C3=NCCN3C4=C1CN(CC5=CC=CC=C5)CC4

Pafolacianine


Pafolacianine skeletal.svg
ChemSpider 2D Image | OTL-38 | C61H67N9O17S4
2D chemical structure of 1628858-03-6
img

Pafolacianine

OTL-38

  • Molecular FormulaC61H67N9O17S4
  • Average mass1326.495 Da

FDA APPROVED NOV 2021

2-{(E)-2-[(3E)-2-(4-{2-[(4-{[(2-Amino-4-oxo-3,4-dihydro-6-pteridinyl)methyl]amino}benzoyl)amino]-2-carboxyethyl}phenoxy)-3-{(2E)-2-[3,3-dimethyl-5-sulfo-1-(4-sulfobutyl)-1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-ylidene ]ethylidene}-1-cyclohexen-1-yl]vinyl}-3,3-dimethyl-1-(4-sulfobutyl)-3H-indolium-5-sulfonate OTL-38Tyrosine, N-[4-[[(2-amino-3,4-dihydro-4-oxo-6-pteridinyl)methyl]amino]benzoyl]-O-[(6E)-6-[(2E)-2-[1,3-dihydro-3,3-dimethyl-5-sulfo-1-(4-sulfobutyl)-2H-indol-2-ylidene]ethylidene]-2-[(E)-2-[3,3-dimethy l-5-sulfo-1-(4-sulfobutyl)-3H-indolium-2-yl]ethenyl]-1-cyclohexen-1-yl]-, inner salt

 2-(2-(2-(4-((2S)-2-(4-(((2-amino-4-oxo-3,4-dihydropteridin-6-yl)methyl)amino)benzamido)-2-carboxyethyl)phenoxy)-3-(2-(3,3-dimethyl-5-sulfo-1-(4-sulfobutyl)-1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-ylidene)ethylidene)cyclohex-1-en-1-yl)ethenyl)-3,3-dimethyl-5-sulfo-1-(4-sulfobutyl)-3H-indolium inner salt,sodium salt (1:4)

  • 3H-Indolium, 2-(2-(2-(4-((2S)-2-((4-(((2-amino-3,4-dihydro-4-oxo-6-pteridinyl)methyl)amino)benzoyl)amino)-2-carboxyethyl)phenoxy)-3-(2-(1,3-dihydro-3,3-dimethyl-5-sulfo-1-(4-sulfobutyl)-2H-indol-2-ylidene)ethylidene)-1-cyclohexen-1-yl)ethenyl)-3,3-dimethyl-5-sulfo-1 (4-sulfobutyl)-, inner salt,sodium salt (1:4)

1628423-76-6 [RN]

Pafolacianine sodium.png

Pafolacianine sodium [USAN]
RN: 1628858-03-6
UNII: 4HUF3V875C

C61H68N9Na4O17S4+5

  • Intraoperative Imaging and Detection of Folate Receptor Positive Malignant Lesions

Pafolacianine, sold under the brand name Cytalux, is an optical imaging agent.[1][2]

The most common side effects of pafolacianine include infusion-related reactions, including nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, flushing, dyspepsia, chest discomfort, itching and hypersensitivity.[2]

It was approved for medical use in the United States in November 2021.[2][3]

Pafolacianine is a fluorescent drug that targets folate receptor (FR).[1]

Medical uses

Pafolacianine is indicated as an adjunct for intraoperative identification of malignant lesions in people with ovarian cancer.[1][2]

History

The safety and effectiveness of pafolacianine was evaluated in a randomized, multi-center, open-label study of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer or with high clinical suspicion of ovarian cancer who were scheduled to undergo surgery.[2] Of the 134 women (ages 33 to 81 years) who received a dose of pafolacianine and were evaluated under both normal and fluorescent light during surgery, 26.9% had at least one cancerous lesion detected that was not observed by standard visual or tactile inspection.[2]

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted the application for pafolacianine orphan drugpriority review, and fast track designations.[2][4] The FDA granted the approval of Cytalux to On Target Laboratories, LLC.[2]

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SYN

WO 2014149073

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2014149073

In another aspect of the invention, this disclosure provides a method of synthesizing a compound having the formula

[0029] In a fourth embodiment of the invention, this disclosure provides a method of synthesizing a compound having the formula

[0030] 

 [0032] wherein C is any carbon isotope. In this embodiment, the amino acid linker is selected from a group consisting of methyl 2-di-tert-butyl dicarbonate-amino-3-(4-phenyl)propanoate, 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-(di-tert-butyl-dicarbonate methylamino)propanoic acid, 2-amino-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)butanoic acid, and Tert-butyl (2-di-tert-butyl dicarbonate- amino)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propanoate . In a particular embodiment, the aqueous base is potassium hydroxide (KOH). The method of this embodiment may also further include purifying the compound by preparatory HPLC.

EXAMPLE 1 : General synthesis of Pte – L Tyrosine – S0456 (OTL-0038)

[0088] Scheme:

C33H37CIF3N

Reactants for Step I:

[0089] A 500 mL round bottom flask was charged with a stirring bar, pteroic acid

(12.0 g, 29.40 mmol, 1 equiv), (L)-Tyr(-OfBu)-OfBu- HCI (1 1 .63 g, 35.28 mmol, 1 .2

equiv) and HATU (13.45 g, 35.28 mmol, 1 .2 equiv) then DMF (147 mL) was added to give a brown suspension [suspension A]. DIPEA (20.48 mL, 1 17.62 mmol, 4.0 equiv) was added slowly to suspension A at 23 °C, over 5 minutes. The suspension turned in to a clear brown solution within 10 minutes of addition of DIPEA. The reaction was stirred at 23 °C for 2.5 h. Reaction was essentially complete in 30 minutes as judged by LC/MS but was stirred further for 2.5 h. The formation of Pte_N10(TFA)_L_Tyr(-OfBu)-OfBu HCI (Figure 12) was confirmed by LC/MS showing m/z 409→m/z 684. LC/MS method: 0-50% acetonitrile in 20 mM aqueous NH4OAc for 5 min using Aquity UPLC-BEH C18, 1 .7μιη 2.1 * 50 mm column . The reaction mixture was cannulated as a steady stream to a stirred solution of aq. HCI (2.0 L, 0.28 M) over the period of 30 minutes to give light yellow precipitate of Pte_N10(TFA)_L_Tyr(-OfBu)-OfBu HCI. The precipitated Pte_N 10(TFA)_L_Tyr(- OfBu)-OfBu HCI was filtered using sintered funnel under aspirator vacuum, washed with water (8 * 300 mL) until the pH of the filtrate is between 3 and 4. The wet solid was allowed to dry under high vacuum for 12 hours on the sintered funnel. In a separate batch, where this wet solid (3) was dried under vacuum for 48 hours and then this solid was stored at -20 0 C for 48 h. However, this brief storage led to partial decomposition of 3. The wet cake (58 g) was transferred to a 500 mL round bottom flask and was submitted to the next step without further drying or purification.

Reactants for Step II:

The wet solid (58 g) was assumed to contain 29.40 mmol of the desired compound (3) (i. e. quantitative yield for the step I ).

[0090] A 500 mL round bottom flask was charged with a stirring bar, Pte_N10(TFA)_L_Tyr(-OfBu)-OfBu HCI as a wet cake (58 g, 29.40 mmol, 1 equiv). A solution of TFA:TIPS:H20 (95:2.5:2.5, 200 mL) was added at once to give a light brown suspension. The reaction content was stirred at 23°C for 1 .5 hours and was monitored by LC/MS. The suspension became clear dull brown solution after stirring for 5 minutes. LC/MS method: 0-50% acetonitrile in 20 mM aqueous NH4OAc for 5 min using Aquity UPLC-BEH C18, 1 .7μιη 2.1 * 50 mm column. The formation of Pte_TFA_L_Tyr (Figure 12) was confirmed by showing m/z 684→m/z 572. Reaction time varies from 30 min to 1 .5 hours depending on the water content of Pte_N10(TFA)_L_Tyr(-OfBu)-OfBu HCI. The reaction mixture was cannulated as a steady stream to a stirred MTBE (1 .8 L) at 23 °C or 100 °C to give light yellow precipitate of Pte_TFA_L_Tyr. The precipitated Pte_TFA_L_Tyr was filtered using sintered funnel under aspirator vacuum, washed with MTBE (6 * 300 mL) and dried under high vacuum for 8 hours to obtain Pte_TFA_L_Tyr (14.98 g, 83.98% over two steps) as a pale yellow solid. The MTBE washing was tested for absence of residual TFA utilizing wet pH paper (pH between 3-4). The yield of the reaction was between 80-85% in different batches. The deacylated side product was detected in 3.6% as judged by LC/MS. For the different batches this impurity was never more than 5%.

Reactants for Step III:

[0091] A 200 mL round bottom flask was charged with a stirring bar and Pte_TFA_L_Tyr (13.85 g, 22.78 mmol, 1 equiv), then water (95 mL) was added to give a yellow suspension [suspension B]. A freshly prepared solution of aqueous 3.75 M NaOH (26.12 mL, 97.96 mmol, 4.30 equiv), or an equivalent base at a corresponding temperature using dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as a solvent (as shown in Table 1 ), was added dropwise to suspension B at 23 °C, giving a clear dull yellow solution over 15 minutes [solution B]. The equivalence of NaOH varied from 3.3 to 5.0 depending on the source of 4 (solid or liquid phase synthesis) and the residual TFA. Trianion 5 (Figure 12) formation was confirmed by LC/MS showing m/z 572→m/z 476 while the solution pH was 9-10 utilizing wet pH paper. The pH of the reaction mixture was in the range of 9-10. This pH is crucial for the overall reaction completion. Notably, pH more than 10 leads to hydrolysis of S0456. Excess base will efficiently drive reaction forward with potential hydrolysis of S0456. The presence of hydrolysis by product can be visibly detected by the persistent opaque purple/blue to red/brown color.

TABLE 1 : Separate TFA deprotection via trianion formation; S0456

[0092] The precipitated OTL-0038 product could also be crashed out by adding the reaction solution steady dropwise to acetone, acetonitrile, isopropanol or ethyl acetate/acetone mixture. Acetone yields optimal results. However, viscous reactions could be slower due to partial insolubility and/or crashing out of S0456. In this reaction, the equivalence of the aqueous base is significant. Excess base will efficiently drive reaction forward with potential hydrolysis of S0456. This solution phase synthesis provides Pte_N10(TFA)_Tyr-OH »HCI salt and desires approximately 4.1 to approximately 4.8 equiv base as a source to hydrolyze the product. Particularly, precipitation of Pte_Tyr_S0456 was best achieved when 1 mL of reaction mixture is added dropwise to the stirred acetone (20 mL). Filtration of the precipitate and washing with acetone (3 x10 mL) gave the highest purity as judged from LC/MS chromatogram.

[0093] During experimentation of this solution-phase synthesis of Pte – L Tyrosine -S0456 (OTL-0038) at different stages, some optimized conditions were observed:

Mode of addition: Separate TFA deprotection via trianion formation; S0456 @ 23 °C; reflux.

Stability data of Pte – L Tyrosine – S0456 (OTL-0038):

Liquid analysis: At 40 °C the liquid lost 8.6% at 270 nm and 1 % at 774 nm. At room temperature the liquid lost about 1 .4% at 270 nm and .5% at 774 nm. At 5 °C the

270 nm seems stable and the 774 nm reasonably stable with a small degradation purity.

Source Purity Linker S0456 Base Solvent Duration % Conversion

4.3-4.6

Solution 0.95

95% 1 equiv equiv H20 15 min 100% phase equiv

K2C03

PATENT

 US 20140271482

FDA approves pafolacianine for identifying malignant ovarian cancer lesions

https://www.fda.gov/drugs/resources-information-approved-drugs/fda-approves-pafolacianine-identifying-malignant-ovarian-cancer-lesions

On November 29, 2021, the Food and Drug Administration approved pafolacianine (Cytalux, On Target Laboratories, LLC), an optical imaging agent, for adult patients with ovarian cancer as an adjunct for interoperative identification of malignant lesions. Pafolacianine is a fluorescent drug that targets folate receptor which may be overexpressed in ovarian cancer. It is used with a Near-Infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging system cleared by the FDA for specific use with pafolacianine.

Efficacy was evaluated in a single arm, multicenter, open-label study (NCT03180307) of 178 women diagnosed with ovarian cancer or with high clinical suspicion of ovarian cancer scheduled to undergo primary surgical cytoreduction, interval debulking, or recurrent ovarian cancer surgery. All patients received pafolacianine. One hundred and thirty-four patients received fluorescence imaging evaluation in addition to standard of care evaluation which includes pre-surgical imaging, intraoperative palpation and normal light evaluation of lesions. Among these patients, 36 (26.9%) had at least one evaluable ovarian cancer lesion detected with pafolacianine that was not observed by standard visual or tactile inspection. The patient-level false positive rate of pafolacianine with NIR fluorescent light with respect to the detection of ovarian cancer lesions confirmed by central pathology was 20.2% (95% CI 13.7%, 28.0%).

The most common adverse reactions (≥1%) occurring in patients were nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, flushing, dyspepsia, chest discomfort, pruritus, and hypersensitivity.

The recommended pafolacianine dose is 0.025 mg/kg administered intravenously over 60 minutes, 1 to 9 hours before surgery. The use of folate, folic acid, or folate-containing supplements should be avoided within 48 hours before administration of pafolacianine.

View full prescribing information for Cytalux.

This application was granted priority review, fast track designation, and orphan drug designation. A description of FDA expedited programs is in the Guidance for Industry: Expedited Programs for Serious Conditions-Drugs and Biologics.

USFDA approves new drug to help identify cancer lesions

This drug is indicated for use in adult patients with ovarian cancer to help identify cancerous lesions during surgery.By The Health Master -December 2, 2021

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) has approved Cytalux (pafolacianine), an imaging drug intended to assist surgeons in identifying ovarian cancer lesions. The drug is designed to improve the ability to locate additional ovarian cancerous tissue that is normally difficult to detect during surgery.

Cytalux is indicated for use in adult patients with ovarian cancer to help identify cancerous lesions during surgery. The drug is a diagnostic agent that is administered in the form of an intravenous injection prior to surgery.

Alex Gorovets, M.D., deputy director of the Office of Specialty Medicine in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research said, “The FDA’s approval of Cytalux can help enhance the ability of surgeons to identify deadly ovarian tumors that may otherwise go undetected.

By supplementing current methods of detecting ovarian cancer during surgery, Cytalux offers health care professionals an additional imaging approach for patients with ovarian cancer.”

The American Cancer Society estimates there will be more than 21,000 new cases of ovarian cancer and more than 13,000 deaths from this disease in 2021, making it the deadliest of all female reproductive system cancers.

Conventional treatment for ovarian cancer includes surgery to remove as many of the tumors as possible, chemotherapy to stop the growth of malignant cells or other targeted therapy to identify and attack specific cancer cells.

Ovarian cancer often causes the body to overproduce a specific protein in cell membranes called a folate receptor. Following administration via injection, Cytalux binds to these proteins and illuminates under fluorescent light, boosting surgeons’ ability to identify the cancerous tissue.

Currently, surgeons rely on preoperative imaging, visual inspection of tumors under normal light or examination by touch to identify cancer lesions. Cytalux is used with a Near-Infrared fluorescence imaging system cleared by the FDA for specific use with pafolacianine.

The safety and effectiveness of Cytalux was evaluated in a randomized, multi-center, open-label study of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer or with high clinical suspicion of ovarian cancer who were scheduled to undergo surgery.

Of the 134 women (ages 33 to 81 years) who received a dose of Cytalux and were evaluated under both normal and fluorescent light during surgery, 26.9% had at least one cancerous lesion detected that was not observed by standard visual or tactile inspection.

The most common side effects of Cytalux were infusion-related reactions, including nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, flushing, dyspepsia, chest discomfort, itching and hypersensitivity. Cytalux may cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman.

The use of folate, folic acid, or folate-containing supplements should be avoided within 48 hours before administration of Cytalux. There is a risk of image interpretation errors with the use of Cytalux to detect ovarian cancer during surgery, including false negatives and false positives.

References

  1. Jump up to:a b c d https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2020/214907s000lbl.pdf
  2. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i “FDA Approves New Imaging Drug to Help Identify Ovarian Cancer Lesions”U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Press release). 29 November 2021. Retrieved 30 November 2021. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  3. ^ “On Target Laboratories Announces FDA Approval of Cytalux (pafolacianine) injection for Identification of Ovarian Cancer During Surgery”. On Target Laboratories. 29 November 2021. Retrieved 30 November 2021 – via PR Newswire.
  4. ^ “Pafolacianine Orphan Drug Designations and Approvals”U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 23 December 2014. Retrieved 30 November 2021.
Clinical data
Trade namesCytalux
Other namesOTL-0038
License dataUS DailyMedPafolacianine
Pregnancy
category
Not recommended
Routes of
administration
Intravenous
ATC codeNone
Legal status
Legal statusUS: ℞-only [1][2]
Identifiers
showIUPAC name
CAS Number1628423-76-6
PubChem CID135565623
DrugBankDB15413
ChemSpider64880249
UNIIF7BD3Z4X8L
ChEMBLChEMBL4297412
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC61H67N9O17S4
Molar mass1326.49 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)Interactive image
showSMILES
showInChI

////////////Pafolacianine, FDA 2021, APPROVALS 2021,  Cytalux, OVARIAN CANCER, OTL 38, 

[Na+].[Na+].[Na+].[Na+].CC1(C)\C(=C/C=C/2\CCCC(=C2Oc3ccc(C[C@H](NC(=O)c4ccc(NCc5cnc6N=C(N)NC(=O)c6n5)cc4)C(=O)O)cc3)\C=C\C7=[N](CCCCS(=O)(=O)O)c8ccc(cc8C7(C)C)S(=O)(=O)O)\N(CCCCS(=O)(=O)O)c9ccc(cc19)S(=O)(=O)O

NEW DRUG APPROVALS

ONE TIME

$10.00

TNO 155


TNO155 Chemical Structure

TNO 155

2-Oxa-8-azaspiro[4.5]decan-4-amine, 8-[6-amino-5-[(2-amino-3-chloro-4-pyridinyl)thio]-2-pyrazinyl]-3-methyl-, (3S,4S)-

  • (3S,4S)-8-[6-Amino-5-[(2-amino-3-chloro-4-pyridinyl)thio]-2-pyrazinyl]-3-methyl-2-oxa-8-azaspiro[4.5]decan-4-amine
  • (3S,4S)-8-(6-amino-5-((2-amino-3-chloropyridin-4-yl)thio)pyrazin-2-yl)-3-methyl-2-oxa-8-azaspiro[4.5]decan-4-amine
Molecular Weight

421.95

Formula

C₁₈H₂₄ClN₇OS

CAS No.
  • PTPN11 inhibitor TNO155
  • SHP2 inhibitor TNO155
  • TNO-155
  • TNO155
  • UNII-FPJWORQEGI

TNO155 is a potent selective and orally active allosteric inhibitor of wild-type SHP2 (IC50=0.011 µM). TNO155 has the potential for the study of RTK-dependent malignancies, especially advanced solid tumors.

  • Originator Novartis
  • Developer Mirati Therapeutics; Novartis
  • Class Antineoplastics
  • Mechanism of ActionProtein tyrosine phosphatase non receptor antagonists
  • Phase I/IISolid tumours
  • Phase IColorectal cancer
  • 11 Jul 2021Phase I trial in Solid tumours is still ongoing in USA, Canada, Japan, South Korea, Netherlands, Singapore, Spain, Taiwan (NCT03114319)
  • 04 Jun 2021Efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics data from phase I trial in Solid tumours presented at 57th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO-2021)
  • 08 Jan 2021Novartis plans a phase Ib/II trial for Solid tumours (Combination therapy, Inoperable/Unresectable, Late-stage disease, Metastatic disease, Second-line therapy or greater) in February 2021 (NCT04699188)

CLIP

Combinations with Allosteric SHP2 Inhibitor TNO155 to Block Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Signaling

Chen Liu,

Results: In EGFR-mutant lung cancer models, combination benefit of TNO155 and the EGFRi nazartinib was observed, coincident with sustained ERK inhibition. In BRAFV600E colorectal cancer models, TNO155 synergized with BRAF plus MEK inhibitors by blocking ERK feedback activation by different RTKs. In KRASG12C cancer cells, TNO155 effectively blocked the feedback activation of wild-type KRAS or other RAS isoforms induced by KRASG12Ci and greatly enhanced efficacy. In addition, TNO155 and the CDK4/6 inhibitor ribociclib showed combination benefit in a large panel of lung and colorectal cancer patient–derived xenografts, including those with KRAS mutations. Finally, TNO155 effectively inhibited RAS activation by colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor, which is critical for the maturation of immunosuppressive tumor-associated macrophages, and showed combination activity with anti–PD-1 antibody.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest TNO155 is an effective agent for blocking both tumor-promoting and immune-suppressive RTK signaling in RTK- and MAPK-driven cancers and their tumor microenvironment. Our data provide the rationale for evaluating these combinations clinically.

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PATENT

WO 2015107495

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2015107495

PATENT

WO 2020065453

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2020065453

(3S,4S)-8-(6-amino-5-((2-amino-3-chloropyridin-4-yl)thio)pyrazin-2-yl)-3-methyl-2-oxa-8-azaspiro[4.5]decan-4-amine, which has the formula I,

WO/2015/107495 A1 describes a method for the manufacture of the compound of the formula I which can be characterized by the following reaction scheme 1:

Scheme 1:

[0008] The last compound resulting from step g above was then reacted as in the following scheme 2:

Scheme 2:

[0009] Thus the compound of formula I is obtained (last compound in the scheme 2, above). The synthesis requires at least the 9 steps shown and is rather appropriate for synthesis in laboratory amounts.

Scheme 1A:

[0016] Therefore, the process, though readily feasible on a laboratory scale, is not ideal for manufacture at a large scale.

[0017] The compound added in reaction b in Scheme 2 is obtained in WO

2015/107495 A1 as “Intermediate 10” follows:

Scheme 3:

[0018] An issue here is the relatively low yield of the amine resulting from reaction a in

Scheme 3.

[0019] In addition, while WO 2015/107495 A1 generically mentions that pharmaceutically acceptable salts of the compound of the formula I may be obtainable, no concrete reason for obtaining such salts and no specific examples of salts are described.

[0020] In addition, given the many potentially salt forming groups in formula I, it is not clear whether any salts with a clear stoichiometry can be formed at all.

Example 1

Method of synthesis of the compound of the formula I ((3S,4S)-8-(6-amino-5-((2-amino-3- chloropyridin-4-yl)thio)pyrazin-2-yl)-3-methyl-2-oxa-8-azaspiro[4.5]decan-4-amine):

The overall synthesis can be described by the following Reaction Scheme A:

Scheme A:

Step a


[00293] To a solution of A1 (10.4 kg, 100 mol, 1.0 Eq) in CH2Cl2 (50 L) was added imidazole (8.16 kg, 120 mol, 1.2eq) and TBSCl (18 kg, 120 mol, 1.2 Eq) at 0 °C. After addition, the mixture was stirred at 0°C for 4 h . GC showed the reaction was finished. (A1/ (A1 + A2) < 1%). The reaction mixture was quenched with saturated NaHCO3 (14L) at 0-5°C. Phases were separated. The organic phase was washed with brine (14L). The organic layer was dried over Na2SO4, concentrated under vacuum at 40-45°C to afford A2 (23.3 kg, assay 88%, yield 94%) which was used for the next step directly. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) δ = 4.35 (d, J= 8.8 Hz, 1H), 3.74 (s, 3H), 2.48 (s, J= 8.8

Hz, 3H), 0.93 (s, 9H), 0.09 (s, 6H).

Step b

[00294] To a solution of A2 (7.5 kg, 34.3 mol, 1.0 Eq) and N,O-dimethylhydroxylamine hydrochloride (6.69 kg, 68.6mol, 2.0 Eq) in THF (20 L) was added drop-wise a solution

of chloro(isopropyl)magnesium (2 M, 51.45 L, 3.5 Eq) at 0 °C under N2 over 5-6 h. After addition, the reaction mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 1h, GC showed the reaction was finished (A2/(A2+A3) < 2 %). The mixture was quenched with NH4Cl (25 L) slowly by keeping the temperature at 0-5°C. After addition, the reaction mixture was stirred for 30min. Phase was separated. The aqueous layer was extracted with EA(2 x 20 L). The combined organic phase was washed with brine (25L), dried over Na2SO4, concentrated to give A3(9.4 kg, assay 86%, yield 95%) which was used for the next step directly. 1HNMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ = 4.67 (m, J= 6.6 Hz, 1H), 3.70 (s, 3H), 3.21 (s, 3H), 3.17 (d, 3H)2.48 (s , J= 6.6 Hz, 3H), 0.90 (s, 9H), 0.10 (s, 3H), 0.08 (s, 3H).

Step c

[00295] To a solution of A3 (7.1 kg, assay 86%, 24.65 mol, 1.0 Eq) in DCM (30 L) was added dropwise a solution of LiAlH4 (2.4 M, 11.3 L, 1.1 Eq) at -70 °C under N2. Then the reaction mixture was stirred at -70 °C for 3h, and TLC showed the reaction was finished (PSC-1). The mixture was warmed to 0 °C, and then quenched with sat. potassium sodium tartrate (35 L) at 0 °C. After addition, DCM (20L) was added and stirred for 2h at 20-25°C. Phases were separated. The aqueous layer was extracted with DCM (25 L). The combined organic phase was charged with sat. citric acid (45L) and stirred at 0°C for 8h. Phase was separated. The organic phase was washed with NaHCO3 (25L), brine (25 L), dried over Na2SO4, and the solvent was removed under vacuum at 25-30°C. n-Heptane (10 L) was added to the residue and concentrated under vacuum at 30-35°C. n-Heptane (10 L) was added to the residue again and concentrated under vacuum at 30-35°C to give A4 (4.2 kg, assay

60%, yield 54%) which was used for the next step directly.

Step d

[00296] To a solution of diisopropylamine (3.06 kg, 30.3 mol, 1.5 eq) in THF (20 L) cooled to approximately -10°C was added 2.5 M n-BuLi (12.12 L, 30.3 mol, 1.5 eq) under N2. The resulting mixture was stirred at approximately -10 °C for 30min, then a solution of A5 (5.2 kg, 20.20 mol, 1.0eq) in THF (10 L) was added slowly. After addition, the reaction mixture was stirred at -10°C for 30 min, and then cooled to -50°C. A4 (4.18 kg, 22.22 mol, 1.1eq) was added dropwise. After addition, the reaction mixture was stirred at -50°C for 30 min. The mixture was quenched with saturated aqueous NH4Cl (30L) and water (10L) at -50°C. The reaction mixture was warmed to 20-25°C. Phase was separated. The aqueous phase was extracted with EA (3 x 20 L). All organic phases were combined and washed with brine(20L), then concentrated to a yellow oil which was purified by column (silica gel, 100-200 mesh, eluted with n-heptane:EA from 50:1 to 10:1) to give A6 (5.5 kg, assay 90 %, yield 55%) as pale yellow oil. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ = 4.35-4.15 (m, 2H), 3.95-3.74 (m, 3H), 3.52 (m, 2H), 2.67(m, 2H), 2.12-1.98 (m, 2H), 1.75-1.52 (m, 4H), 1.49 (s, 9H), 1.35-1.10 (m, 6H), 0.98 (s,

9H), 0.02 (s, 6H).

Step e

[00297] To a solution of A6 (11.4 kg, 25.58 mol, 1.0eq) in THF (60 L) was added LiBH4

(836 g, 38.37 mol, 1.5eq) in portions at 5-10 °C, and the reaction mixture was stirred at 20-25 °C for 18 h. HPLC showed the reaction was finished (A6/(A6+A7)<2%). The mixture was cooled to l0°C and slowly quenched with saturated NaHCO3 solution (15 L) and water (25L) with vigorously stirring. After gas formation stopped, vacuum filtration was applied to remove solids. The solid was washed with EA (2 x 15 L). Phase was separated; the aqueous phase was extracted with EA (3 x15L). All organic phases were combined and washed with brine (15L), and concentrated to obtain crude A7 (13.8 kg, assay 58%, yield 77%) which was used for the next step directly.

Step f

[00298] To a solution of A7 (8 kg, 19.82 mol, 1.0 eq) in THF (40 L) under nitrogen atmosphere was added TsCl (5.28 kg, 27.75 mol, 1.4 eq) at 10-15°C. After addition, the mixture was cooled to 0 °C, and 1M LiHMDS (29.7 L, 29.73 mol, 1.5 eq) was added dropwise during 2h. After addition, the mixture was stirred at 0°C for 3h. HPLC showed the reaction was finished (PSC-1 A7/ (A7+A8)<7%). TBAF (20.72 kg, 65.67 mol, 3.3 eq) was added into the mixture at 0 °C and the reaction mixture was stirred at 25-30 °C for 48h. HPLC showed the reaction was finished ( PSC-2, A9-intermedaite/(A9-intermediate+A9) < 2%). The mixture was quenched with saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution (32L) and stirred for 30min at 0 °C. Phase was separated, and the aqueous phase was extracted with EA (3 x 20 L). The combined organic phase was washed with brine(20 L), dried over Na2SO4, and concentrated to a yellow oil which was purified by column (eluted with n-heptane:EA from 10:1 to 1:1) to give A9 (4.42 kg, assay 90%, yield 74 %) as pale yellow solid.

Step g

[00299] To a solution of A9 (4.0 kg, 14.74 mol, 1.0 eq) in DCM (40 L) cooled on an ice-bath was added DMP (9.36 kg, 23.58mol, 1.6eq) in portions, and it resulted in a suspension. After addition, the mixture stirred for 4 hours at 20-25°C. HPLC showed the reaction was finished (A9/(A9+A10)<2%). DCM (30L) was added at 0°C. After addition, the mixture was quenched with saturated aqueous Na2SO3 (20 L). The mixture was stirred for 30min at 0 °C, filtered and the white solid was washed with DCM (2 x15L). Phase was separated, and the organic phase was cooled to 0°C, to which was added saturated aqueous NaHCO3 (20L) and stirred for 1h. Phase was separated, and the organic phase was washed with brine(25L), dried over Na2SO4, and concentrated to a yellow oil which was purified by column (eluted with n-heptane:EA from 50:1 to 10:1) to give A10 (3.70 kg, assay 88%, ee value 95.3%, yield 82%) as white solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ = 4.20 (d, J = 8.0 Hz,

1H), 3.98-3.67 (m, 4H), 3.08-2.90 (m, 2H), 1.54-1.39(m, 13H), 1.18 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 3H).

Step h

[00300] To a solution of A10 (4.60 kg, 17.08 mol, 1.0 eq) in THF (40 L) was added

Ti(OEt)4 (15.58 kg, 68.32 mol, 4.0 eq) and (R)-t-Butyl sulfmamide (4.14 kg, 34.16 mol, 2.0 eq) at 25 °C. After addition, the mixture was heated to 70°C and stirred for 20h. HPLC showed the reaction was finished (PSC-l, A10/(A10+A12)<4%). The mixture was cooled to -30— 40°C, and MeOH (4 L) was added dropwise within 30 min and stirred for 1 h. 2M L1BH4 (8.1 L) solution was added dropwise to the reaction mixture at -40- -50°C and stirred for 1h. HPLC indicated all of imine was consumed (PSC-2, A12/(A12+A13)<1%). The mixture was warmed to -30 °C and stirred for 1h, then warmed to 0 °C within 2 h and stirred for 1h, then warmed to 20-25 °C and stirred for 30min. IP AC ( 25L) was added to above mixture, NaHCO3(5L) was added dropwise in about 1h at 25 °C and stirred for 30 min. The mixture was filtered under vacuum and the cake was washed with IP AC (8 x15L). The combined organic phase was washed with brine (25L), then evaporated under vacuum to get a solution of A13

(about 28kg) which was used for next step.

Step i

[00301] To a mixture of A13 in IPAC (about 28 kg, 17.08 mol, 1.0 eq) was added dropwise

4M HCl/IPA (8.54 L, 34.16 mol, 2.0 eq) at -5 °C and stirred for 5h at -5 °C. HPLC showed that A13 was consumed completely (A13/(A14+A13)<1%). MTBE (25 L) was added to above mixture within

30 min and stirred for 30 min at -5 °C .The solid was collected by vacuum filtration. The cake was washed with MTBE (2 x 2.5 L). The wet cake was used for next step directly.

Step j

[00302] The wet solid A14 (from 9.2 kg A10) was stirred in MTBE(76 L) at 25°C, then the

16% NaOH (9.84 kg) solution was added dropwise to the MTBE suspension while maintaining IT<10ºC. After addition, the mixture was stirred for 15 min and all solids were dissolved at 0°C. The organic phase was separated, and the aqueous phase was extracted with MTBE (2 x 20L). The combined organic phase was washed with brine (10 L) and evaporated under vacuum to remove all MTBE. ACN (24 L) was added to above residue, and the mixture was evaporated under vacuum to remove the organic solvents and yielded a crude A15 (5.42 kg, qnmr 90%, 18.04 mol, 1.0 eq). ACN (34.68 kg) was added to above residue and stirred for 10 min at 65°C. A solution of (-)-O-acetyl-D-mandelic acid (3.15kg,16.2 mol, 0.9 eq) in ACN(11.6 kg) was added drop-wise to the mixture (firstly added 1/3, stirred for 0.5 h, then added the others) over 3h. The mixture was stirred for 1 h at 65°C, then cooled to 25°C over 4h and stirred for l2h at 25°C . The solid was collected by vacuum filtration, and the cake was washed with pre-cooled ACN (2 x15kg) (PSC-1) and dried under vacuum to give

A16 (7.36 kg, yield 46% from A10 to A16). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ = 7.43-7.29 (m, 5H),

5.58 (s, 2H), 4.12-4.07 (m, 1H), 3.75-3.65 (m, 3H), 3.51-3.49 (m, 1H), 3.18-3.17 (m, 1H), 2.84 (bs,

2H), 2.05 (s, 3H), 1.60-1.40 (m, 13H), 1.14-1.12 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, 3H).

Step k

[00303] To a solution of A16 (15 g) in MeOH (90 mL) was added dropwise 5N HC1/IPA

(45 mL) at room temperature within 15 minutes. After the addition, the mixture was stirred for 6 hours.

IP AC (180 mL) was added dropwise to above mixture within 1h at room temperature. The resulting mixture was stirred for another 30 minutes before it was cooled to 0-5 °C. The mixture was stirred at 0- 5 °C for another 2h and the precipitants were collected by filtration. The cake was washed with (45*2 mL) IP AC, dried under vacuum at 60 °C overnight to afford the product as a white solid. 1H NMR (400

MHz, DMSO-d6) δ = 9.37 (br s, 1H), 9.25 (br s, 1H), 8.42 (br s, 3H), 4.26 – 4.17 (m, 1H), 3.72 (ABq, J

= 9.1 Hz, 2H), 3.50 – 3.41 (m, 1H), 3.28 – 3.18 (m, 1H), 3.18 – 3.09 (m, 1H), 2.99 – 2.74 (m, 2H), 2.07 – 1.63 (m, 4H), 1.22 (d, J= 6.5 Hz, 3H).

Step l

[00304] To a mixture of A17 (10 g) and Z17a (9.5 g) in DMAC (60 mL) was added K2CO3

(22.5 g) and H2O (40 mL) at room temperature. The mixture was degassed with nitrogen and stirred at

90 °C overnight. The mixture was cooled to room temperature, diluted with Me-THF (500 mL) and

H2O (280 mL). The organic phase was separated and the aqueous phase was extracted with Me-THF

(300 mL*2). The combined organic phases were washed with brine (200 mL*3), concentrated under

vacuum to remove most of the solvent. The residue was diluted with IPA (60 mL) and H2O (20 mL), stirred at 50 °C for 1h, cooled to 5 °C within 3h, stirred at this temperature for 1h. The solid was collected by vacuum filtration, dried under vacuum to afford the product as a yellow solid (l2g,

87.4%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6)δ = 7.64 (d, J= 6.2 Hz, 1H), 7.62 (s, 1H), 6.26 (s, 2H), 6.13 (s, 2H), 5.74 (d, J= 5.3 Hz, 1H), 4.12 – 4.02 (m, 1H), 3.90 – 3.78 (m, 2H), 3.67 (d, J= 8.4 Hz, 1H), 3.49 (d, J= 8.4 Hz, 1H), 3.33 (s, 2H), 2.91 (d, J= 5.1 Hz, 1H), 1.78 – 1.68 (m, 1H), 1.67 – 1.57 (m, 1H), 1.56 – 1.41 (m, 2H), 1.08 (d, J= 6.5 Hz, 3H).

Example 2

Formation of the succinate salt of the compound of the formula I:

[00305] The reaction is summarized by the following Reaction Scheme:

[00306] To a mixture of A18 (10 g) in MeOH (76 g) and H2O (24 g) was added succinic acid (2.94 g) at room temperature. The mixture was heated to 50 °C and stirred for 30 minutes to dissolve all solid. The solution was added to IPA (190 mL) at 60-65 °C. The resulting mixture was stirred at 60 °C >5 hours, cooled to -15 °C within 5 hours and stirred at this temperature >4 hours. The solid was collected by vacuum filtration, dried under vacuum to afford the product as an off-white solid(l0.8 g, 82.8%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6)δ = 7.64 (d, J= 6.2 Hz, 1H), 7.63 (s, 1H), 6.26 (s, 2H), 6.16 (s, 2H), 5.74 (d, J= 5.3 Hz, 1H), 4.12 – 4.02 (m, 1H), 3.90 – 3.78 (m, 2H), 3.67 (d, J= 8.4 Hz, 1H), 3.49 (d, J= 8.4 Hz, 1H), 3.33 (s, 2H), 2.91 (d, J= 5.1 Hz, 1H), 2.34 (s, 4H), 1.71 – 1.60 (m, 4H), 1.13 (d, J = 6.5 Hz, 3H).

[00307] In a special variant, the reaction follows the following Reaction Scheme, also including an optional milling to yield the final product:

Example 3

Formation of the intermediate Z17a (3-((2-amino-3-chloropyridin-4-yl)thio)-6-chloropyrazin-2- amine). Variant 1:

[00308] The compound Z17a was obtained by reaction according to the following Reaction

Scheme:

[00309] In detail, the synthesis of Compound Z17a was carried out as follows:

Step a


[00310] Under nitrogen atmosphere, n-BuLi (2.5M, 7.6 L) was added dropwise to a solution of 3-chloro-2-fluoropyridine (2 kg) in THF (15 L) at -78°C. Then the resultant mixture was stirred for 1h. Then a solution of I2 (4.82 kg) in THF (6 L) was added dropwise. After addition, the reaction mixture was stirred for 30 min, and then quenched with sat. Na2SO3 (10 L), and warmed to 20- 25°C. Phase was separated. The aqueous phase was extracted with EA (2 x 10 L). The combined organic phase was washed with sat.Na2SO3 (2 x 8 L), brine (8 L), and dried over Na2SO4. The organic phase was concentrated under vacuum. The residue was slurried in MeOH (4 L), filtered, and dried to offer 3-chloro-2-fluoro-4-iodopyridine 1c (2.2 kg, yield 68%).

Step b

[00311] Into a solution of Compound 1c (8 kg) in DMSO (48 L) was passed through NH3

(gas) at 80 °C overnight. TLC showed the reaction was finished. The reaction mixture was cooled to RT. The reaction mixture was added to water (140 L). The solid was collected and washed with water (25 L), dried to afford Z17b (6.91 kg, yield 87%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) δ = 7.61 (d, J= 6.8 Hz,

1H), 7.14 (s , J= 6.8 Hz, 1H), 5.09 (bs, 2H).

Step c

[00312] A solution of 2-amino-6-chloro-pyrazine la (1 kg, 7.69 mol) in DCM (15 L) was heated to reflux, to which was charged NBS (4l7g) in portions during 1 h. The reaction was cooled to room temperature. The reaction mixture was washed with water (3 L) and brine (3 L). The organic phase was evaporated, and the residue was purified by column chromatography to give product Z17f

(3-bromo-6-chloropyrazin-2-amine) (180 g, 11% yield).

Step d

[00313] To a solution of 3-bromo-6-chloropyrazin-2-amine Z17f (6.0 kg, 28.78 mol) in 1,4- Dioxane (40 L) was added Pd(OAc)2 (64.56 g, 287.6 mmol), Xantphos (333 g, 575.6 mmol), and DIPEA (7.44 kg, 57.56 mol) at room temperature under nitrogen. After another 30 minutes purging with nitrogen, methyl 3-mercaptopropanoate (3.81 kg, 31.70 mol) was added, resulting in darkening of the orange mixture. The mixture was heated to 90°C. HPLC showed complete conversion of the starting material. The mixture was allowed to cool to about room temperature, then diluted with EtOAc (40L). After aging for 30 min with stirring, the entire mixture was filtered and solids were washed with EtOAc (3 x 15L). The combined orange filtrate was concentrated to dryness and the solid residue was suspended in DCM (45 L). The mixture was heated to 35-40 °C and stirred for 1h until all solids were dissolved. Then n-heptane (45L) was added dropwise. Upon complete addition, the mixture was cooled to 15-20 °C with stirring for 1h. The solids were collected by vacuum filtration and solids were washed with cold 1:1 DCM/heptane (25 L), then heptane (25 L) (PSC-2). The solids were dried over the weekend to give Z17d (5.32 kg, yield 75%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ = 7.83 (s, 1H), 4.88 (bs,

2H), 3.73 (s, 3H), 3.47 (t, J= 9.2 Hz, 2H), 2.79 (t, J= 9.2 Hz, 2H).

Step e

[00314] To a solution of Z17d (8.0 kg, assay 95%, 30.68 mol) in THF (70 L) was added

EtONa (prepared from 776 g Na and 13.6 L EtOH) at room temperature and the mixture was stirred at

ambient temperature for 1 hour. The mixture was then concentrated to a wet yellow solid by rotary evaporation and the residue was suspended in DCM (40L). The mixture stirred under N2 for l6h. The solids were collected by vacuum filtration and the cake was washed with DCM (about 15 L) until the filtrate was colorless (PSC-2). The solids were then dried under vacuum to give Z17c (6.93 kg, qNMR

72 %, yield 88%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, D2O) δ = 7.37 (s, 1H).

Step f

[00315] To a mixture of Z17c (6.95 kg, assay 72%, 27.23 mol) in l,4-dioxane (72 L) was added Xantphos (233 g, 411 mmol, 0.015 eq), Pd2(dba)3 (186 g, 206 mmol, 0.0075 eq), Z17b (7.13 kg, 28.02 mol) and DIPEA (7.02 kg, 54.46 mol). The system was vacuated and purged with nitrogen gas three times. The mixture was stirred at 65 °C for 16 h under N2. The mixture was cooled to RT and water (50 L) was added, filtered. The cake was washed with EA (25 L). The filtrate was extracted with EA (4 x 20 L). The organic phase was concentrated in vacuum to offer the crude product which was combined with the cake. Then DCM (60 L) was added to the crude product and stirred at 25-30°C for l8h and then filtered. The filter cake was slurried with CH2Cl2 (30 L) for 4 hrs and filtered. The filter cake was slurred in CH2Cl2 (30 L) for 16 hrs and filtered. Then the filter cake was dried in vacuum to give Z17a (3-((2-amino-3-chloropyridin-4-yl)thio)-6-chloropyrazin-2-amine; 9.1 kg, 84 %) as light yellow solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ = 7.89 (s, 1H), 7.7 (d, J= 7.6 Hz, 1H), 7.18 (bs, 2H), 6.40 (bs, 2H), 5.97 (d, J= 7.6 Hz, 1H).

Example 4

Alternative formation of the intermediate Z17a (here also named Y7a)

[00316] By way of alternative and according to a preferred reaction method, the compound of the formula Z17a was obtained according to the following Reaction Scheme:

In detail, the synthesis of the compound of the formula Y7a = Z17a was carried out as follows:

Step a

[00317] 2, 3, 5-trichloropyrazine (70.50 g, 384.36 mmol, 1 equiv) and ammonia solution

(25% wt, 364.00 g, 400 mL, 2.68 mol, 6.14 equiv) were added to a 1-L sealed reactor. The mixture was heated to 80 °C and stirred for 24 h, and the reaction was completed. The reaction mixture was cooled to 30 °C and filtered to give a brown filter cake. The brown filter cake was dissolved in acetone

(50 mL), and filtered. To the filtrate was added petroleum ether (300 mL). The suspension was stirred for 4 h, and filtered to give the crude product. The crude product was slurried in combined solvents of petroleum ether and acetone (10/1, 200 mL) and filtered to give the product Y7d (51.00 g, 307.91 mmol, 80% yield) as a light yellow solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ = 7.63 (s, 1H).

Step b

[00318] To a 200 mL round bottom flask was added Na2S (10.816 g, 44wt% containing crystalline water, 60.978mmol) and toluene (100 mL). The mixture was heated to reflux, and water was removed with a Dean-Stark trap (about 5~6 mL water was distilled out). After cooling, the mixture was concentrated to dryness.

[00319] To above round bottom flask was added Y7d (5.000 g, 30.489mmol) and 2-methylbutan-2-ol (50 mL), the reaction was heated to reflux and stirred for 36 h. After cooling to 25 °C, the mixture was filtered. The solvent of the filtrate was exchanged with n-heptane (5 V, 3 times, based on Y7d), and finally concentrated to IV residue. THF (25 mL) was charged to the residue at 25 °C and stirred. The suspension was filtered and washed with THF/n-heptane (5 mL/5 mL) to give a brown solid (6.200 g).

[00320] To another 200 mL round bottom flask was added above brown solid (6.200 g),

10% brine (25 mL), Me-THF (30 mL) and n-Bu4NBr (9.829 g, 30.489 mmol). The mixture was stirred for 0.5 h at room temperature, and the phases were separated. The organic phase was washed with 20% brine (25 mL), and exchanged the solvent with iso-propanol (5 V *3 times, based on Y7d) to give the iso-propanol solution of Y7c (27.000g, 99.2% purity by HPLC area, 58.08% assay yield). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ = 6.88 (s, 1H), 2.97 – 2.92 (m, 14H), 1.38 – 1.31 (m, 14H), 1.13 – 1.04 (m,

14H), 0.73 – 0.69 (t, 21H).

Step c

[00321] To a 25-mL round-bottom flask was added Y7c (4.7g, 23.27wt%, IPA solution from Step b, 2.723 mmol, 1.0 equiv), Y7b (1.052 g, 4.085 mmol, 1.5 equiv), l,lO-Phenanthroline (0.05 g, 0.272 mmol) and water (8 mL). The mixture was purged with nitrogen gas three times, and Cul (0.026 g, 0.136 mmol) was added under nitrogen atmosphere. The mixture was heated up to 65 °C and stirred for 3 h, and the reaction was completed. The reaction was cooled to room temperature and filtered, and the filter cake was washed with water (4 mL*3). The filter cake was slurried in MTBE (6 mL) for 30 min and filtered. The filter cake was washed with MTBE (6 mL) and dried to afford Y7a which is Z17a (565 mg, 72% yield).

[00322] Z17b is synthesized as described in Example 3 Step a and Step b.

Example 5

Alternative Synthesis of the intermediate Z17a:

[00323] According to another preferred method, the compound of the formula Z17a was obtained in accordance with the following Reaction Scheme:

[00324] The reactions were carried out as follows:

Step a

Y7d was synthesised as described in Example 4 step a.

Step b

[00325] To a three-necked round-bottle flask was added Y7d (200 mg, 1.22 mmol, 1 equiv), dioxane (4 mL). The solution was vacuated and purged with nitrogen gas three times. Xantphos (14mg, 0.024 mmol, 0.02 equiv), PdCl2(dppf) (8.9 mg, 0.012 mmol, 0.1 equiv), and DIPEA (0.32 g, 2.44 mmol, 2.0 equiv) were added under nitrogen atmosphere. The solution was heated to 85 °C for overnight. The reaction was cooled and evaporated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (eluent/ethyl acetate/heptane = 1/1) to give Z17d (259 mg, 0.99 mmol, 81%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ = 7.83 (s, 1H), 4.88 (bs, 2H), 3.73 (s, 3H), 3.47 (t, J= 9.2 Hz, 2H), 2.79 (t, J= 9.2 Hz, 2H).

[00326] The remaining steps were carried out as described in Example 4, Steps e and f, to yield Z17a. Z17b was synthesized as described in Example 3 Step a and Step b.

Example 6

(3S,4S)-8-(6-amino-5-((2-amino-3-chloropyridin-4-yl)thio)pyrazin-2-yl)-3-methyl-2-oxa-8- azaspiro[4.5]decan-4-amine. succinate (1:1) hemihydrate. modification (form) HA:Variant a)

[00327] 50 ml ethanol and 2.5 ml water were added to a 100ml flask containing 3.0 g of free base of 3S,4S)-8-(6-amino-5-((2-amino-3-chloropyridin-4-yl)thio)pyrazin-2-yl)-3-methyl-2-oxa-8-azaspiro[4.5]decan-4-amine (obtained as A18 for example as described in Example 1) and 848.0 mg of succinic acid. The mixture was heated to 50°C to generate a clear solution. The temperature was lowered to 15°C during a period of 3 hours. The solution was kept stirring at 15°C overnight.

Precipitated solid was separated via suction filtration and 50 ml of acetone was added to produce a suspension. The suspension was stirred at 50°C for 3 hours. The solid was separated with suction filtration and dried at room temperature under vacuum for 3 hours. Yield was about 60%.

[00328] The succinate appeared as a highly crystalline solid, with a melting point onset of

94.4°C and an accompanying enthalpy of 96 J/g. The succinate salt crystals showed aggregates of broken drusy tabular particles.

[00329] Variant b)

[00330] 14.34 g of 3S,4S)-8-(6-amino-5-((2-amino-3-chloropyridin-4-yl)thio)pyrazin-2-yl)- 3-methyl-2-oxa-8-azaspiro[4.5]decan-4-amine free form (obtained as A18 for example as described in Example 1) and 4.053 g of succinic acid were equilibrated in 100 mL 95% EtOH at 50°C. Add 5 mL of water into the system and heat to 70-75 °C. Add 95 mL of pure EtOH and heat for 30 min more. Stir over night at 25 oC. Filter the mixture wash with EtOH and dry under vacuum in an oven at room temperature. Yield is 87.5%.

PATENT

WO 2020065452

PATENT

WO/2021/224867

PHARMACEUTICAL COMBINATION COMPRISING TNO155 AND NAZARTINIB

PAPER

Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2020), 63(22), 13578-13594.

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.0c01170

SHP2 is a nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatase encoded by the PTPN11 gene and is involved in cell growth and differentiation via the MAPK signaling pathway. SHP2 also plays an important role in the programed cell death pathway (PD-1/PD-L1). As an oncoprotein as well as a potential immunomodulator, controlling SHP2 activity is of high therapeutic interest. As part of our comprehensive program targeting SHP2, we identified multiple allosteric binding modes of inhibition and optimized numerous chemical scaffolds in parallel. In this drug annotation report, we detail the identification and optimization of the pyrazine class of allosteric SHP2 inhibitors. Structure and property based drug design enabled the identification of protein–ligand interactions, potent cellular inhibition, control of physicochemical, pharmaceutical and selectivity properties, and potent in vivo antitumor activity. These studies culminated in the discovery of TNO155, (3S,4S)-8-(6-amino-5-((2-amino-3-chloropyridin-4-yl)thio)pyrazin-2-yl)-3-methyl-2-oxa-8-azaspiro[4.5]decan-4-amine (1), a highly potent, selective, orally efficacious, and first-in-class SHP2 inhibitor currently in clinical trials for cancer.

Abstract Image

file:///C:/Users/Inspiron/Downloads/jm0c01170_si_001.pdf

(3S,4S)-8-(6-amino-5-((2-amino-3-chloropyridin-4-yl)thio)pyrazin-2-yl)-3-methyl-2-oxa-8- azaspiro[4.5]decan-4-amine (1):

Step a: A mixture of (3S,4S)-tert-butyl 4-((R)-1,1-dimethylethylsulfinamido)-3-methyl-2-oxa-8- azaspiro[4.5]decane-8-carboxylate (51 mg, 0.136 mmol) and HCl (4 M in dioxane, 340 L, 1.362 mmol) in MeOH (5 mL) was stirred for 1 h at 40 °C. After cooling to RT, the volatiles were removed under reduced pressure to give (3S,4S)-3-methyl-2-oxa-8-azaspiro[4.5]decane-4-amine which was used in next step without further purification. MS m/z 171.1 (M+H)+. Step b: A mixture of (3S,4S)-3-methyl-2-oxa-8-azaspiro[4.5]decane-4-amine crude, 3-((2-amino3-chloropyridin-4-yl)thio)-6-chloropyrazin-2-amine (35.5 mg, 0.123 mmol), and DIPEA (193 L, 1.11 mmol) in DMSO (600 L) was stirred for 16 h at 100 °C. After cooling to RT, the volatiles were removed under reduced pressure and the resulting residue was purified by HPLC (gradient elution 15-40% acetonitrile in water, 5 mM NH4OH modifier) to give (3S,4S)-8-(6-amino-5-((2-amino-3-chloropyridin-4-yl)thio)pyrazin-2-yl)-3-methyl-2-oxa-8-azaspiro[4.5]decan-4-amine (11 mg, 0.026 mmol). 1 H NMR (400 MHz, METHANOL-d4) δ ppm 7.67-7.47 (m, 2 H), 5.91 (d, J=5.5 Hz, 1 H), 4.22 (qd, J=6.4, 4.8 Hz, 1 H), 4.03 (ddt, J=13.5, 8.9, 4.7 Hz, 2 H), 3.86 (d, J=8.7 Hz, 1 H), 3.71 (d, J=8.7 Hz, 1 H), 3.37 (td, J=9.9, 4.9 Hz, 1 H), 3.29-3.23 (m, 1 H), 3.00 (d, J=5.0 Hz, 1H) 1.91-1.56 (m, 4 H), 1.21 (d, J=6.4 Hz, 3 H). HRMS calcd for C18H25ClN7OS (M+H)+ 422.1530, found 422.1514.

//////////TNO 155, CANCER

 

RP 12146


RP 12146

RP-12146 is an oral poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor in phase I clinical development at Rhizen Pharmaceuticals for the treatment of adult patients with locally advanced or metastatic solid tumors.

Solid TumorExtensive-stage Small-cell Lung CancerLocally Advanced Breast CancerMetastatic Breast CancerPlatinum-sensitive Ovarian CancerPlatinum-Sensitive Fallopian Tube CarcinomaPlatinum-Sensitive Peritoneal Cancer

Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) defines a family of 17 enzymes that cleaves NAD+ to nicotinamide and ADP-ribose to form long and branched (ADP-ribose) polymers on glutamic acid residues of a number of target proteins, including PARP itself. The addition of negatively charged polymers profoundly alters the properties and functions of the acceptor proteins. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is involved in the regulation of many cellular processes, such as DNA repair, gene transcription, cell cycle progression, cell death, chromatin functions and genomic stability. These functions have been mainly attributed to PARP-1 that is regarded as the best characterized member of the PARP family. However, the identification of novel genes encoding PARPs, together with the characterization of their structure and subcellular localization, have disclosed different roles for poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in cells, including telomere replication and cellular transport.

Recently, poly(ADP-ribose) binding sites have been identified in many DNA damage checkpoint proteins, such as tumor suppressor p53, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21Cip1/waf1, DNA damage recognition factors (i.e., the nucleotide excision repair xeroderma pigmentosum group A complementing protein and the mismatch repair protein MSH6), base excision repair (BER) proteins (i.e. DNA ligase III, X-ray repair cross-complementing 1, and XRCC1), DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), cell death and survival regulators (i.e.,

NF-kB, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and telomerase). These findings suggest that the different components of the PARP family might be involved in the DNA damage signal network, thus regulating protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions and, consequently, different types of cellular responses to genotoxic stress. In addition to its involvement in BER and single strand breaks (SSB) repair, PARP-1 appears to aid in the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR) pathways of double strand breaks (DSB) repair. See Lucio Tentori et al., Pharmacological Research, Vol. 45, No. 2, 2002, page 73-85.

PARP inhibition might be a useful therapeutic strategy not only for the treatment of BRCA mutations but also for the treatment of a wider range of tumors bearing a variety of deficiencies in the HR pathway. Further, the existing clinical data (e.g., Csaba Szabo et al., British Journal of Pharmacology (2018) 175: 192-222) also indicate that stroke, traumatic brain injury, circulatory shock and acute myocardial infarction are some of the indications where PARP activation has been demonstrated to contribute to tissue necrosis and inflammatory responses.

As of now, four PARP inhibitors, namely olaparib, talazoparib, niraparib, and rucaparib have been approved for human use by regulatory authorities around the world.

Patent literature related to PARP inhibitors includes International Publication Nos. WO 2000/42040, WO 2001/016136, WO 2002/036576, WO 2002/090334, WO2003/093261, WO 2003/106430, WO 2004/080976, WO 2004/087713, WO 2005/012305, WO 2005/012524, WO 2005/012305, WO 2005/012524, WO 2005/053662, W02006/033003, W02006/033007, WO 2006/033006, WO 2006/021801, WO 2006/067472, WO 2007/144637, WO 2007/144639, WO 2007/144652, WO 2008/047082, WO 2008/114114, WO 2009/050469, WO 2011/098971, WO 2015/108986, WO 2016/028689, WO 2016/165650, WO 2017/153958, WO 2017/191562, WO 2017/123156, WO 2017/140283, WO 2018/197463, WO 2018/038680 and WO 2018/108152, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety for all purposes.

There still remains an unmet need for new PARP inhibitors for the treatment of various diseases and disorders associated with cell proliferation, such as cancer.

PATENT

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https://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/81/13_Supplement/1233

Abstract 1233: Preclinical profile of RP12146, a novel, selective, and potent small molecule inhibitor of PARP1/2

Srikant Viswanadha, Satyanarayana Eleswarapu, Kondababu Rasamsetti, Debnath Bhuniya, Gayatriswaroop Merikapudi, Sridhar Veeraraghavan and Swaroop VakkalankaProceedings: AACR Annual Meeting 2021; April 10-15, 2021 and May 17-21, 2021; Philadelphia, PA 

Abstract

Background: Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activity involves synthesis of Poly-ADP ribose (PAR) polymers that recruit host DNA repair proteins leading to correction of DNA damage and maintenance of cell viability. Upon combining with DNA damaging cytotoxic agents, PARP inhibitors have been reported to demonstrate chemo- and radio-potentiation albeit with incidences of myelosuppression. A need therefore exists for the development selective PARP1/2 inhibitors with a high therapeutic window to fully exploit their potential as a single agent or in combination with established therapy across various tumor types. Additionally, with the emerging concept of ‘synthetic lethality’, the applicability PARP inhibitors can be expanded to cancers beyond the well-defined BRCA defects. Herein, we describe the preclinical profile of RP12146, a novel and selective small molecule inhibitor of PARP1 and PARP2.

Methods: Enzymatic potency was evaluated using a PARP Chemiluminescent Activity Assay Kit (BPS biosciences). Cell growth was determined following incubation with RP12146 in BRCA1 mutant and wild-type cell lines across indications. Apoptosis was evaluated following incubation of cell lines with compound for 120 h, subsequent staining with Annexin-V-PE and 7-AAD, and analysis by flow cytometry. For cell cycle, cells were incubated with compound for 72 h, and stained with Propidium Iodide prior to analysis by flow cytometry. Expression of downstream PAR, PARP-trapping, phospho-γH2AX and cleaved PARP expression were determined in UWB1.289 (BRCA1 null) cells by Western blotting. Anti-tumor potential of RP12146 was tested in OVCAR-3 Xenograft model. Pharmacokinetic properties of the molecule were also evaluated. Results: RP12146 demonstrated equipotent inhibition of PARP1 (0.6 nM) and PARP2 (0.5 nM) with several fold selectivity over the other members of the PARP family. Compound caused a dose-dependent growth inhibition of both BRCA mutant and non-mutant cancer cell lines with GI50 in the range of 0.04 µM to 9.6 µM. Incubation of UWB1.289 cells with RP12146 caused a G2/M arrest with a corresponding dose-dependent increase in the percent of apoptotic cells. Expression of PAR was inhibited by 86% at 10 nM with a 2.3-fold increase in PARP-trapping observed at 100 nM in presence of RP12146. A four-fold increase in phospho-γH2AX and > 2-fold increase in cleaved PARP expression was observed at 3 µM of the compound. RP12146 exhibited anti-tumor potential with TGI of 28% as a single agent in OVCAR-3 xenograft model. Efficay was superior compared to Olaparib tested at an equivalent dose. Pharmacokinetic studies in rodents indicated high bioavailability with favorable plasma concentrations relevant for efficacy

Conclusions: Data demonstrate the therapeutic potential of RP12146 in BRCA mutant tumors. Testing in patients is planned in H1 2021.

Citation Format: Srikant Viswanadha, Satyanarayana Eleswarapu, Kondababu Rasamsetti, Debnath Bhuniya, Gayatriswaroop Merikapudi, Sridhar Veeraraghavan, Swaroop Vakkalanka. Preclinical profile of RP12146, a novel, selective, and potent small molecule inhibitor of PARP1/2 [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2021; 2021 Apr 10-15 and May 17-21. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2021;81(13_Suppl):Abstract nr 1233.

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https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20211101005515/en/Rhizen-Pharmaceuticals-AG-Announces-First-Patient-Dosing-in-a-Phase-IIb-Study-of-Its-Novel-PARP-Inhibitor-RP12146-in-Patients-With-Advanced-Solid-Tumors

Rhizen Pharmaceuticals AG Announces First Patient Dosing in a Phase I/Ib Study of Its Novel PARP Inhibitor (RP12146) in Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors

RHIZEN’S PARP INHIBITOR EFFORTS ARE PART OF A LARGER DDR PLATFORM THAT ALSO INCLUDES AN EARLY STAGE POLθ-DIRECTED PROGRAM; PLATFORM ENABLES PROPRIETARY IN-HOUSE COMBINATIONS

  • Rhizen Pharma commences dosing in a phase I/Ib trial to evaluate its novel PARP inhibitor (RP12146) in patients with advanced cancers.
  • Rhizen indicated that RP12146 has comparable preclinical activity vis-à-vis approved PARP inhibitors and shows improved preclinical safety that it expects will translate in the clinic.
  • The two-part multi-center phase I/Ib study is being conducted in Europe and is designed to initially determine safety, tolerability and MTD/RP2D of RP12146 and to subsequently assess its anti-tumor activity in expansion cohorts with HRR mutation-enriched ES-SCLC, ovarian and breast cancer patients.
  • RP12146 is part of a larger DDR platform at Rhizen that includes a preclinical-stage Polθ inhibitor program; the DDR platform enables novel, proprietary, in-house combinations

November 01, 2021 07:24 AM Eastern Daylight Time

BASEL, Switzerland–(BUSINESS WIRE)–Rhizen Pharmaceuticals AG (Rhizen), a Switzerland-based privately held, clinical-stage oncology & inflammation-focused biopharmaceutical company, announced today that it has commenced dosing in a multi-center, phase I/Ib trial to evaluate its novel poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor (RP12146) in patients with advanced solid tumors. This two-part multi-center phase I/Ib study is being conducted in Europe and has been designed to initially determine safety, tolerability, maximum tolerated dose (MTD), and/or recommended phase II dose (RP2D) of RP12146 and to subsequently assess its anti-tumor activity in expansion cohorts with HRR mutation-enriched ES-SCLC, ovarian and breast cancer patients.

“Our PARP program is foundational for our DDR platform efforts and will be the backbone for several novel proprietary combinations that we hope to bring into development going forward.”

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Rhizen indicated that RP12146 has shown preclinical activity and efficacy comparable to the approved PARP inhibitor Olaparib, and shows improved safety as seen in the preclinical IND-enabling toxicology studies; an advantage that Rhizen hopes will translate in the clinical studies. Rhizen also announced that its PARP program is part of a larger DNA Damage Response (DDR) platform effort, which includes a preclinical-stage polymerase theta (Polθ) inhibitor program. Rhizen expects the platform to enable novel proprietary combinations of its PARP and Polθ assets given the mechanistic synergy and opportunity across PARP resistant/refractory settings.

PARP inhibitors are a great success story in the DNA damage response area, but they are not without safety concerns that have limited realization of their full potential. Although our novel PARP inhibitor is competing in a crowded space, we expect its superior preclinical safety to translate into the clinic which will differentiate our program and allow us to extend its application beyond the current landscape of approved indications and combinations”, said Swaroop Vakkalanka, Founder & CEO of Rhizen Pharma. Swaroop also added that “Our PARP program is foundational for our DDR platform efforts and will be the backbone for several novel proprietary combinations that we hope to bring into development going forward.

About Rhizen Pharmaceuticals AG.:

Rhizen Pharmaceuticals is an innovative, clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on the discovery and development of novel oncology & inflammation therapeutics. Since its establishment in 2008, Rhizen has created a diverse pipeline of proprietary drug candidates targeting several cancers and immune associated cellular pathways.

Rhizen has proven expertise in the PI3K modulator space with the discovery of our first PI3Kδ & CK1ε asset Umbralisib, that has been successfully developed & commercialized in MZL & FL by our licensing partner TG Therapeutics (TGTX) in USA. Beyond this, Rhizen has a deep oncology & inflammation pipeline spanning discovery to phase II clinical development stages.

Rhizen is headquartered in Basel, Switzerland.

REF

Safety, Pharmacokinetics and Anti-tumor Activity of RP12146, a PARP Inhibitor, in Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Solid Tumors….https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT05002868

//////////RP 12146,  oral poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, phase I,  clinical development, INCOZEN,  Rhizen Pharmaceuticals, adult patients,  locally advanced, metastatic solid tumors, PARP, CANCER

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AUPM 170, CA 170, PD-1-IN-1


str1
 https://www.nature.com/articles/s42003-021-02191-1
str1
str1

(2S,3R)-2-(3-((S)-3-amino-1-(3-((R)-1-amino-2-hydroxyethyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl)-3-oxopropyl)ureido)-3-hydroxybutanoic acid

CA-170
GLXC-15291
str1
PD-1-IN-1 Chemical Structure
Molecular Weight (MW) 360.33
Formula C12H20N6O7
CAS No. 1673534-76-3

N-[[[(1S)-3-Amino-1-[3-[(1R)-1-amino-2-hydroxyethyl]-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]-3-oxopropyl]amino]carbonyl]-L-threonine

L-Threonine, N-[[[(1S)-3-amino-1-[3-[(1R)-1-amino-2-hydroxyethyl]-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]-3-oxopropyl]amino]carbonyl]-

 AUPM 170, CA 170, AUPM-170, CA-170, PD-1-IN-1

Novel inhibitor of programmed cell dealth-1 (PD-1)

CA-170 (also known as AUPM170 or PD-1-IN-1) is a first-in-class, potent and orally available small molecule inhibitor of the immune checkpoint regulatory proteins PD-L1 (programmed cell death ligand-1), PD-L2 and VISTA (V-domain immunoglobulin (Ig) suppressor of T-cell activation (programmed death 1 homolog; PD-1H). CA-170 was discovered by Curis Inc. and has potential antineoplastic activities. CA-170 selectively targets PD-L1 and VISTA, both of which function as negative checkpoint regulators of immune activation. Curis is currently investigating CA-170 for the treatment of advanced solid tumours and lymphomas in patients in a Phase 1 trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02812875).

References: www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02812875); WO 2015033299 A1 20150312.

Aurigene Discovery Technologies Limited INNOVATOR

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CURIS AND AURIGENE ANNOUNCE AMENDMENT OF COLLABORATION FOR THE DEVELOPMENT AND COMMERCIALIZATION OF CA-170

PRESS RELEASE

https://www.aurigene.com/curis-and-aurigene-announce-amendment-of-collaboration-for-the-development-and-commercialization-of-ca-170/

Curis and Aurigene Announce Amendment of Collaboration for the Development and Commercialization of CA-170

– Aurigene to fund and conduct a Phase 2b/3 randomized study of CA-170 in patients with non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (nsNSCLC) –

– Aurigene to receive Asia rights for CA-170; Curis entitled to royalty payments in Asia –

LEXINGTON, Mass., February 5, 2020 /PRNewswire/ — Curis, Inc. (NASDAQ: CRIS), a biotechnology company focused on the development of innovative therapeutics for the treatment of cancer, today announced that it has entered into an amendment of its collaboration, license and option agreement with Aurigene Discovery Technologies, Ltd. (Aurigene). Under the terms of the amended agreement, Aurigene will fund and conduct a Phase 2b/3 randomized study evaluating CA-170, an orally available, dual
inhibitor of VISTA and PDL1, in combination with chemoradiation, in approximately 240 patients with nonsquamous
non-small cell lung cancer (nsNSCLC). In turn, Aurigene receives rights to develop and commercialize CA-170 in Asia, in addition to its existing rights in India and Russia, based on the terms of the original agreement. Curis retains U.S., E.U., and rest of world rights to CA-170, and is entitled to receive royalty payments on potential future sales of CA-170 in Asia.

In 2019, Aurigene presented clinical data from a Phase 2a basket study of CA-170 in patients with multiple tumor types, including those with nsNSCLC. In the study, CA-170 demonstrated promising signs of safety and efficacy in nsNSCLC patients compared to various anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies.

“We are pleased to announce this amendment which leverages our partner Aurigene’s expertise and resources to support the clinical advancement of CA-170, as well as maintain our rights to CA-170 outside of Asia,” said James Dentzer, President and Chief Executive Officer of Curis. “Phase 2a data presented at the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) conference last fall supported the potential for CA-170 to serve as a therapeutic option for patients with nsNSCLC. We look forward to working with our partner Aurigene to further explore this opportunity.”

“Despite recent advancements, patients with localized unresectable NSCLC struggle with high rates of recurrence and need for expensive intravenous biologics. The CA-170 data presented at ESMO 2019 from Aurigene’s Phase 2 ASIAD trial showed encouraging results in Clinical Benefit Rate and Prolonged PFS and support its potential to provide clinically meaningful benefit to Stage III and IVa nsNSCLC patients, in combination with chemoradiation and as oral maintenance” said Kumar Prabhash, MD, Professor of Medical Oncology at Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, India.

Murali Ramachandra, PhD, Chief Executive Officer of Aurigene, commented, “Development of CA-170, with its unique dual inhibition of PD-L1 and VISTA, is the result of years of hard-work and commitment by many people, including the patients who participated in the trials, caregivers and physicians, along with the talented teams at Aurigene and Curis. We look forward to further developing CA-170 in nsNSCLC.”

About Curis, Inc.

Curis is a biotechnology company focused on the development of innovative therapeutics for the treatment of cancer, including fimepinostat, which is being investigated in combination with venetoclax in a Phase 1 clinical study in patients with DLBCL. In 2015, Curis entered into a collaboration with Aurigene in the areas of immuno-oncology and precision oncology. As part of this collaboration, Curis has exclusive licenses to oral small molecule antagonists of immune checkpoints including, the VISTA/PDL1 antagonist CA-170, and the TIM3/PDL1 antagonist CA-327, as well as the IRAK4 kinase inhibitor, CA- 4948. CA-4948 is currently undergoing testing in a Phase 1 trial in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
In addition, Curis is engaged in a collaboration with ImmuNext for development of CI-8993, a monoclonal anti-VISTA antibody. Curis is also party to a collaboration with Genentech, a member of the Roche Group, under which Genentech and Roche are commercializing Erivedge® for the treatment of advanced basal cell carcinoma. For more information, visit Curis’ website at http://www.curis.com.

About Aurigene

Aurigene is a development stage biotech company engaged in discovery and clinical development of novel and best-in-class therapies to treat cancer and inflammatory diseases and a wholly owned subsidiary of Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories Ltd. (BSE: 500124, NSE: DRREDDY, NYSE: RDY). Aurigene is focused on precision- oncology, oral immune checkpoint inhibitors, and the Th-17 pathway. Aurigene currently has several programs from its pipeline in clinical development. Aurigene’s ROR-gamma inverse agonist AUR-101 is currently in phase 2 clinical development under a US FDA IND. Additionally, Aurigene has multiple compounds at different stages of pre-clinical development. Aurigene has partnered with many large and mid-pharma companies in the United States and Europe and has 15 programs  currently in clinical development. For more information, please visit Aurigene’s website at https://www.aurigene.com/

Curis with the option to exclusively license Aurigene’s orally-available small molecule antagonist of programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) in the immuno-oncology field

Addressing immune checkpoint pathways is a well validated strategy to treat human cancers and the ability to target PD-1/PD-L1 and other immune checkpoints with orally available small molecule drugs has the potential to be a distinct and major advancement for patients.

Through its collaboration with Aurigene, Curis is now engaged in the discovery and development of the first ever orally bioavailable, small molecule antagonists that target immune checkpoint receptor-ligand interactions, including PD-1/PD-L1 interactions.  In the first half of 2016, Curis expects to file an IND application with the U.S. FDA to initiate clinical testing of CA-170, the first small molecule immune checkpoint antagonist targeting PD-L1 and VISTA.  The multi-year collaboration with Aurigene is focused on generation of small molecule antagonists targeting additional checkpoint receptor-ligand interactions and Curis expects to advance additional drug candidates for clinical testing in the coming years. The next immuno-oncology program in the collaboration is currently targeting the immune checkpoints PD-L1 and TIM3.

In November 2015, preclinical data were reported. Data demonstrated tha the drug rescued and sustained activation of T cells functions in culture. CA-170 resulted in anti-tumor activity in multiple syngeneic tumor models including melanoma and colon cancer. Similar data were presented at the 2015 AACR-NCI-EORTC Molecular Targets and Cancer Therapeutics Conference in Boston, MA

By August 2015, preclinical data had been reported. Preliminary data demonstrated that in in vitro studies, small molecule PD-L1 antagonists induced effective T cell proliferation and IFN-gamma production by T cells that were specifically suppressed by PD-L1 in culture. The compounds were found to have effects similar to anti-PD1 antibodies in in vivo tumor models

 (Oral Small Molecule PD-L1/VISTAAntagonist)

Certain human cancers express a ligand on their cell surface referred to as Programmed-death Ligand 1, or PD-L1, which binds to its cognate receptor, Programmed-death 1, or PD-1, present on the surface of the immune system’s T cells.  Cell surface interactions between tumor cells and T cells through PD-L1/PD-1 molecules result in T cell inactivation and hence the inability of the body to mount an effective immune response against the tumor.  It has been previously shown that modulation of the PD-1 mediated inhibition of T cells by either anti-PD1 antibodies or anti-PD-L1 antibodies can lead to activation of T cells that result in the observed anti-tumor effects in the tumor tissues.  Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 interactions have now been approved by the U.S. FDA for the treatment of certain cancers, and multiple therapeutic monoclonal antibodies targeting PD-1 or PD-L1 are currently in development.

In addition to PD-1/PD-L1 immune regulators, there are several other checkpoint molecules that are involved in the modulation of immune responses to tumor cells1.  One such regulator is V-domain Ig suppressor of T-cell activation or VISTA that shares structural homology with PD-L1 and is also a potent suppressor of T cell functions.  However, the expression of VISTA is different from that of PD-L1, and appears to be limited to the hematopoietic compartment in tissues such as spleen, lymph nodes and blood as well as in myeloid hematopoietic cells within the tumor microenvironment.  Recent animal studies have demonstrated that combined targeting/ blockade of PD-1/PD-L1 interactions and VISTA result in improved anti-tumor responses in certain tumor models, highlighting their distinct and non-redundant functions in regulating the immune response to tumors2.

As part of the collaboration with Aurigene, in October 2015 Curis licensed a first-in-class oral, small molecule antagonist designated as CA-170 that selectively targets PD-L1 and VISTA, both of which function as negative checkpoint regulators of immune activation.  CA-170 was selected from the broad PD-1 pathway antagonist program that the companies have been engaged in since the collaboration was established in January 2015.  Preclinical data demonstrate that CA-170 can induce effective proliferation and IFN-γ (Interferon-gamma) production (a cytokine that is produced by activated T cells and is a marker of T cell activation) by T cells that are specifically suppressed by PD-L1 or VISTA in culture.  In addition, CA-170 also appears to have anti-tumor effects similar to anti-PD-1 or anti-VISTA antibodies in multiple in vivo tumor models and appears to have a good in vivo safety profile.  Curis expects to file an IND and initiate clinical testing of CA-170 in patients with advanced tumors during the first half of 2016.

Jan 21, 2015

Curis and Aurigene Announce Collaboration, License and Option Agreement to Discover, Develop and Commercialize Small Molecule Antagonists for Immuno-Oncology and Precision Oncology Targets

— Agreement Provides Curis with Option to Exclusively License Aurigene’s Antagonists for Immuno-Oncology, Including an Antagonist of PD-L1 and Selected Precision Oncology Targets, Including an IRAK4 Kinase Inhibitor —

— Investigational New Drug (IND) Application Filings for Both Initial Collaboration Programs Expected this Year —

— Curis to issue 17.1M shares of its Common Stock as Up-front Consideration —

— Management to Host Conference Call Today at 8:00 a.m. EST —

LEXINGTON, Mass. and BANGALORE, India, Jan. 21, 2015 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) — Curis, Inc. (Nasdaq:CRIS), a biotechnology company focused on the development and commercialization of innovative drug candidates for the treatment of human cancers, and Aurigene Discovery Technologies Limited, a specialized, discovery stage biotechnology company developing novel therapies to treat cancer and inflammatory diseases, today announced that they have entered into an exclusive collaboration agreement focused on immuno-oncology and selected precision oncology targets. The collaboration provides for inclusion of multiple programs, with Curis having the option to exclusively license compounds once a development candidate is nominated within each respective program. The partnership draws from each company’s respective areas of expertise, with Aurigene having the responsibility for conducting all discovery and preclinical activities, including IND-enabling studies and providing Phase 1 clinical trial supply, and Curis having responsibility for all clinical development, regulatory and commercialization efforts worldwide, excluding India and Russia, for each program for which it exercises an option to obtain a license.

The first two programs under the collaboration are an orally-available small molecule antagonist of programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) in the immuno-oncology field and an orally-available small molecule inhibitor of Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK4) in the precision oncology field. Curis expects to exercise its option to obtain exclusive licenses to both programs and file IND applications for a development candidate from each in 2015.

“We are thrilled to partner with Aurigene in seeking to discover, develop and commercialize small molecule drug candidates generated from Aurigene’s novel technology and we believe that this collaboration represents a true transformation for Curis that positions the company for continued growth in the development and eventual commercialization of cancer drugs,” said Ali Fattaey, Ph.D., President and Chief Executive Officer of Curis. “The multi-year nature of our collaboration means that the parties have the potential to generate a steady pipeline of novel drug candidates in the coming years. Addressing immune checkpoint pathways is now a well validated strategy to treat human cancers and the ability to target PD-1/PD-L1 and other immune checkpoints with orally available small molecule drugs has the potential to be a distinct and major advancement for patients. Recent studies have also shown that alterations of the MYD88 gene lead to dysregulation of its downstream target IRAK4 in a number of hematologic malignancies, including Waldenström’s Macroglobulinemia and a subset of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, making IRAK4 an attractive target for the treatment of these cancers. We look forward to advancing these programs into clinical development later this year.”

Dr. Fattaey continued, “Aurigene has a long and well-established track record of generating targeted small molecule drug candidates with bio-pharmaceutical collaborators and we have significantly expanded our drug development capabilities as we advance our proprietary drug candidates in currently ongoing clinical studies. We believe that we are well-positioned to advance compounds from this collaboration into clinical development.”

CSN Murthy, Chief Executive Officer of Aurigene, said, “We are excited to enter into this exclusive collaboration with Curis under which we intend to discover and develop a number of drug candidates from our chemistry innovations in the most exciting fields of cancer therapy. This unique collaboration is an opportunity for Aurigene to participate in advancing our discoveries into clinical development and beyond, and mutually align interests as provided for in our agreement.  Our scientists at Aurigene have established a novel strategy to address immune checkpoint targets using small molecule chemical approaches, and have discovered a number of candidates that modulate these checkpoint pathways, including PD-1/PD-L1. We have established a large panel of preclinical tumor models in immunocompetent mice and can show significant in vivo anti-tumor activity using our small molecule PD-L1 antagonists.  We are also in the late stages of selecting a candidate that is a potent and selective inhibitor of the IRAK4 kinase, demonstrating excellent in vivo activity in preclinical tumor models.”

In connection with the transaction, Curis has issued to Aurigene approximately 17.1 million shares of its common stock, or 19.9% of its outstanding common stock immediately prior to the transaction, in partial consideration for the rights granted to Curis under the collaboration agreement. The shares issued to Aurigene are subject to a lock-up agreement until January 18, 2017, with a portion of the shares being released from the lock-up in four equal bi-annual installments between now and that date.

The agreement provides that the parties will collaborate exclusively in immuno-oncology for an initial period of approximately two years, with the option for Curis to extend the broad immuno-oncology exclusivity.

In addition Curis has agreed to make payments to Aurigene as follows:

  • for the first two programs: up to $52.5 million per program, including $42.5 million per program for approval and commercial milestones, plus specified approval milestone payments for additional indications, if any;
  • for the third and fourth programs: up to $50 million per program, including $42.5 million per program for  approval and commercial milestones, plus specified approval milestone payments for additional indications, if any; and
  • for any program thereafter: up to $140.5 million per program, including $87.5 million per program in approval and commercial milestones, plus specified approval milestone payments for additional indications, if any.

Curis has agreed to pay Aurigene royalties on any net sales ranging from high single digits to 10% in territories where it successfully commercializes products and will also share in amounts that it receives from sublicensees depending upon the stage of development of the respective molecule.
About Immune Checkpoint  Modulation and Programmed Death 1 Pathway

Modulation of immune checkpoint pathways has emerged as a highly promising therapeutic approach in a wide range of human cancers. Immune checkpoints are critical for the maintenance of self-tolerance as well as for the protection of tissues from excessive immune response generated during infections. However, cancer cells have the ability to modulate certain immune checkpoint pathways as a mechanism to evade the immune system. Certain immune checkpoint receptors or ligands are expressed by various cancer cells, targeting of which may be an effective strategy for generating anti-tumor activity. Some immune-checkpoint modulators, such as programmed death 1 (PD-1) protein, specifically regulate immune cell effector functions within tissues. One of the mechanisms by which tumor cells block anti-tumor immune responses in the tumor microenvironment is by upregulating ligands for PD-1, such as PD-L1. Hence, targeting of PD-1 and/or PD-L1 has been shown to lead to the generation of effective anti-tumor responses.
About Curis, Inc.

Curis is a biotechnology company focused on the development and commercialization of novel drug candidates for the treatment of human cancers. Curis’ pipeline of drug candidates includes CUDC-907, a dual HDAC and PI3K inhibitor, CUDC-427, a small molecule antagonist of IAP proteins, and Debio 0932, an oral HSP90 inhibitor. Curis is also engaged in a collaboration with Genentech, a member of the Roche Group, under which Genentech and Roche are developing and commercializing Erivedge®, the first and only FDA-approved medicine for the treatment of advanced basal cell carcinoma. For more information, visit Curis’ website at www.curis.com.

About Aurigene

Aurigene is a specialized, discovery stage biotechnology company, developing novel and best-in-class therapies to treat cancer and inflammatory diseases. Aurigene’s Programmed Death pathway program is the first of several immune checkpoint programs that are at different stages of discovery and preclinical development. Aurigene has partnered with several large- and mid-pharma companies in the United States and Europe and has delivered multiple clinical compounds through these partnerships. With over 500 scientists, Aurigene has collaborated with 6 of the top 10 pharma companies. Aurigene is an independent, wholly owned subsidiary of Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories Ltd. (NYSE:RDY). For more information, please visit Aurigene’s website at http://aurigene.com/.

POSTER

STR3
STR3
STR3

WO2011161699, WO2012/168944, WO2013144704 and WO2013132317 report peptides or peptidomimetic compounds which are capable of suppressing and/or inhibiting the programmed cell death 1 (PD1) signaling pathway.

PATENT

WO 2015033299

Inventors

  • SASIKUMAR, Pottayil Govindan Nair
  • RAMACHANDRA, Muralidhara
  • NAREMADDEPALLI, Seetharamaiah Setty Sudarshan

Priority Data

4011/CHE/2013 06.09.2013 IN

Example 4: Synthesis of Co

str1

The compound was synthesised using similar procedure as depicted in Example 2 for synthesising compound 2 using 
instead of H-Ser(‘Bu)-0’Bu (in synthesis of compound 2b) to yield 0.35 g crude material of the title compound. The crude solid material was purified using preparative HPLC described under experimental conditions. LCMS: 361.2 (M+H)+, HPLC: tR = 12.19 min.

Pottayil Sasikumar

Pottayil Sasikumar

Murali Ramachandra

Murali Ramachandra

REFERENCES

US20150073024

WO2011161699A227 Jun 201129 Dec 2011Aurigene Discovery Technologies LimitedImmunosuppression modulating compounds
WO2012168944A121 Dec 201113 Dec 2012Aurigene Discovery Technologies LimitedTherapeutic compounds for immunomodulation
WO2013132317A14 Mar 201312 Sep 2013Aurigene Discovery Technologies LimitedPeptidomimetic compounds as immunomodulators
WO2013144704A128 Mar 20133 Oct 2013Aurigene Discovery Technologies LimitedImmunomodulating cyclic compounds from the bc loop of human pd1

http://www.curis.com/pipeline/immuno-oncology/pd-l1-antagonist

http://www.curis.com/images/stories/pdfs/posters/Aurigene_PD-L1_VISTA_AACR-NCI-EORTC_2015.pdf

References:

1) https://bmcimmunol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12865-021-00446-4

2) https://www.nature.com/articles/s42003-021-02191-1

3) https://www.esmoopen.com/article/S2059-7029(20)30108-3/fulltext

4) https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/24/15/2804

////////Curis, Aurigene,  AUPM 170, CA 170, AUPM-170, CA-170, PD-L1, VISTA antagonist, PD-1-IN-1, phase 2, CANCER

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