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ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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DIOSMIN, диосмин , ديوسمين , 地奥司明 ,


Diosmin.svg

ChemSpider 2D Image | Diosmin | C28H32O15

Diosmin.png

DIOSMIN

  • Molecular FormulaC28H32O15
  • Average mass608.545 Da

5-hydroxy-2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-7-{[(2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-({[(2R,3R,4R,5R,6S)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-methyloxan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)oxan-2-yl]oxy}-4H-chromen-4-one

3′,5,7-Trihydroxy-4′-methoxyflavone-7-rutinoside
4H-1-Benzopyran-4-one, 7-((6-O-(6-deoxy-α-L-mannopyranosyl)-β- D-glucopyranosyl)oxy)-5-hydroxy-2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-
4H-1-Benzopyran-4-one, 7-((6-O-(6-deoxy-α-L-mannopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy)-5-hydroxy-2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-
4H-1-Benzopyran-4-one, 7-[[6-O-(6-deoxy-α-L-mannopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]oxy]-5-hydroxy-2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-
520-27-4 [RN]
5-Hydroxy-2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-4-oxo-4H-chromen-7-yl 6-O-(6-deoxy-α-L-mannopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside
диосмин [Russian] [INN]
ديوسمين [Arabic] [INN]
地奥司明 [Chinese] [INN]
Barosmin / Dalfon (Servier) / Detralex / Diosven / Dioven / Diovenor / Flebosmil / Flebosten / Hemerven / Insuven / Litosmil / Varinon / Ven-detrex / Venosmine, Barosmin,  Diosmine, Venosmine, Diosmil,
Diosmin is a bioflavonoid that strengthens vascular walls.
Diosmin is a semisynthetic drug indicated for the treatment of venous disease. Diosmin is a flavone that can be found in the plant Teucrium gnaphalodes. Diosmin is available as a prescription medicine in several European countries, and is available as a nutritional supplement in the United States and the rest of Europe. It should be noted that clinical studies have been inconclusive and no articles have been published pertaining to its use in the treatment of vascular disease. When used in rats, diosmin has been effective at mitigating hyperglycaemia, and may also have antineurodegenerative properties.

Diosmin is a flavone, a member of the flavonoid family. Diosmin aglycone is diosmetin. It can be found in Teucrium gnaphalodes, a plant endemic to the Iberian Peninsula.[1]

IR KBR

 SYNTHESIS

Drug

Diosmin is a semisynthetic flavonoid molecule derived from citrus d (modified hesperidin). It is an oral phlebotropic drug used in the treatment of venous disease, i.e., chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) including spider and varicose veins, leg swelling (edema), stasis dermatitis and venous ulcers. It is also used as a stand-alone or surgical adjunctive therapy in hemorrhoidal disease (HD).

There are extensive clinical trials that show diosmin improves all stages of venous disease including venous ulcers and improves quality of life.[2] There are no prospective studies in arterial disease.

Diosmin is currently a prescription medication in some European countries (under the Dio-PP, Venotec, Daflon etc. tradenames), and is sold as a nutritional supplement in the United States.

Diosmin has been found to be effective in mitigating hyperglycemia in diabetic rats.[3] It is also speculated that diosmin might have potential in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases,[4] such as Alzheimer’s disease.

Mechanisms

Diosmin improves lymphatic drainage by increasing the frequency and intensity of lymphatic contractions, and by increasing the total number of functional lymphatic capillaries. Furthermore, diosmin with hesperidine decreases the diameter of lymphatic capillaries and the intralymphatic pressure.Diosmin prolongs the vasoconstrictor effect of norepinephrine on the vein wall, increasing venous tone, and therefore reducing venous capacitance, distensibility, and stasis. This increases the venous return and reduces venous hyperpressure present in patients suffering from CVI.

At the microcirculation level, diosmin reduces capillary hyperpermeability and increases capillary resistance by protecting the microcirculation from damaging processes.

Diosmin reduces the expression of endothelial adhesion molecules (ICAM1VCAM1), and inhibits the adhesion, migration, and activation of leukocytes at the capillary level. This leads to a reduction in the release of inflammatory mediators, principally oxygen free radicals and prostaglandins (PGE2, PGF2a).

Society and culture

Diosmin is distributed in the U.S. as a dietary supplement.[5][6]

Diosmin was first reported by O. A. Osterle and G. Wander in HeIv. Chim. Acta. 8, 519 – 536, 1925 and is a naturally occurring flavonoid glycoside that can be isolated from various plant sources, i.e from the peel of the citrus fruit or hesperidin. Diosmin is a protecting agent and is used for the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency, lymphedema, hemorrhoids and varicose veins. It has been also used for other therapeutic purposes such as cancer, premenstrual syndrome, colitis, and diabetes.

The several references are reported in the prior art for conversion of hesperidin to diosmin.

Zemplen and Bogner, in Ber. 76, 452, 1943 reported monobromination of acetylated flavanones by liquid bromine in chloroform solution in presence of ultraviolet radiation to obtain flavone derivative by following loss of hydrogen bromide and deacetylation with alcoholic alkali. The conversion of hesperidin to diosmin reported is 37%.

In the journal reference, J. Org. Chem., 16, 930 – 933, 1951, by N. B. Lorette et. al. N-bromosuccinimide was used for the bromination of acetylated hesperidin in chloroform and benzoyl peroxide was used as a catalyst. Diosmin yield was 44%.

Studies in Organic Chemistry (Amsterdam) (1982), Volume Date 1981, 11, 115-119 describes conversion of Hesperidin, neohesperidin and naringin to diosmin, neodiosmin, and rhoifolin respectively by dehydrogenation with iodine in pyridine. Tianran Chanwu Yabjiu Yu Kaif (2006), 18(6), 896-899 describes separation and purification of diosmin by macroporous resins, and reported 95% pure diosmin.

ES459076 describes the preparation of diosmin by bromination and debromination of hesperidin acetate in tetrahydrofuran with 2-carboxy ethyl triphenyl phosphonium bromide followed by saponification with potassium tertiary butoxide.

ES465156 describes diosmin preparation by reaction of hesperidin with aqueous sodium hydroxide, iodine and pyridine with 66% yield.

DE2740950 describes iodination-dehydroiodination of hesperidin in the presence of pyridine and iodine resulting 89% of diosmin.

EP52086 claims a process for the preparation of diosmin comprising of total acetylation of hesperidin or related flavone by heating it in acetic anhydride and pyridine followed by selective dehydrogenation or oxidation by means of SeO2 in isoamyl alcohol and then deprotection by means of alkaline hydrolysis with inorganic bases under hot condition. The isolated diosmin is purified by base acid treatment with overall reported yield is of 60%.

US4078137 describes a process for diosmin comprising of acetylation of hesperidin, thereby brominating it and the brominated product is hydrolysed to isolate diosmin with bromine content less then 0.1% with over all 65% yield.

In BE 904614, diosmin was prepared by iodination of hesperidin followed by elimination of HI. In the process, iodine in dimethylformamide and pyridine were successively added to hesperidin and the resulting mixture was heated at 100°C to give 96% pure diosmin.

EP 860443 describes the process that involves reaction of hesperidin with iodine in presence of pyridine at reflux temperature for 5 hours. The reaction mixture is cooled to 5°C and the isolated diosmin is purified using base acid treatment to get the quality of diosmin above 90% with 75 % yield.

FR2760015 provides industrial dehydrogenation of hesperidin with potassium iodide in DMSO in presence of cone. H2SO4 resulted in diosmin with 73% yield and pharmacopoeial quality.

WO2000011009 describes reaction of hesperidin with iodine in presence of pyridine and anhydrous alkaline earth metal base. The process involves purifying the reaction mass using morpholine followed by base acid treatment which resulted in diosmin with 80% yield and purity of diosmin meets with pharmacopoeial norms.

EP 1086953 discloses the process for purification of diosmin by reacting with pulverized zinc in aqueous solution followed by filtration and acidification.

Diosmin which is produced by many of the prior art processes is often found to contain impurities and is contaminated with various byproducts, for instance hesperidin, Isorhoifin, acetyl lisovanilone, 6-Iododiosmin, linarin, diosmetin and other organic volatile impurities. Some of the major impurities are resulted from hesperidin during extraction. The impurities of hesperidin have a major effect on the final assay of diosmin. The impurities vary depending upon the source of hesperidin. It is worthy to note that direct crystallization of crude diosmin with aqueous base acid solution does not necessarily improve the assay / purity of diosmin.

The process described in Studies in Organic Chemistry (Amsterdam) (1982), Volume Date 1981, 11, 115-119 is different from the present inventors process.

Although ES459076 teaches the preparation of diosmin by bromination and debromination of hesperidin acetate in tetrahydrofuran with 2-carboxy ethyl triphenyl phosphonium bromide, it does not teach about the final purity of diosmin with pharmaceutical quality as required.

ES465156 and DE2740950 although disclose method of preparation, does not teach a process that gives yields as are taught by present invention.

EP52086 and US4078137 uses acetic anhydride for acetylation of hesperidine with yields around 60%, which are phenomenally less as compared with yields of process described by present invention.

Sequence of addition of reactants in the process as taught by BE 904614 is different than the teachings of the present invention.

FR2760015 teaches use of different reactants under conditions that are different from the teachings of the present invention.

Invention disclosed in present application does not use morpholine as disclosed in WO2000011009.

Though there are reported several processes for preparation of diosmin in the prior art, present invention describes a novel systematic process for the preparation of diosmin by converting hesperidin to diosmin at optimum level i.e. % conversion, and keeping the impurities at minimum level which results in consistently pure diosmin with good yield and the desired quality. The process allows recovery and recycle of major contributing chemicals and solvents such as methanol, pyridine and iodine, without impact on quality, purity or yield of the process making the process more economical and ecofriendly. It is surprisingly found that quality diosmin output obtained is independent of hesperidin quality used

Diosmin

Title: Diosmin
CAS Registry Number: 520-27-4
CAS Name: 7-[[6-O-(6-Deoxy-a-L-mannopyranosyl)-b-D-glucopyranosyl]oxy]-5-hydroxy-2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one
Additional Names: 3¢,5,7-trihydroxy-4¢-methoxyflavone-7-rutinoside; 5-hydroxy-2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-7-(O6-a-L-rhamnopyranosyl-b-D-glucopyranosyloxy)chromen-4-one; 5-hydroxy-2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-7-b-rutinosyloxy-4H-chromen-4-one; diosmetin 7-b-rutinoside; barosmin; buchu resin
Trademarks: Diosmil (Bellon); Diosven (CT); Diovenor (Innothža); Flebosmil (Bouchara); Flebosten (Bonomelli); Hemerven (Interdelta); Insuven (Berenguer); Litosmil (Evans); Tovene (Kali-Chemie); Varinon (Exa); Ven-Detrex (Zyma); Venosmine (Geymonat)
Molecular Formula: C28H32O15
Molecular Weight: 608.54
Percent Composition: C 55.26%, H 5.30%, O 39.44%
Literature References: Naturally occurring flavonic glycoside; rhamnoglycoside of diosmetin, q.v. Isolation from various plant sources: O. A. Oesterle, G. Wander, Helv. Chim. Acta 8, 519 (1925). Elucidation of structure: G. Zemplén, R. Bognár, Ber. 76, 452 (1943). Prepn from hesperidin, q.v.: eidem, ibid.; N. B. Lorette et al., J. Org. Chem. 16, 930 (1951). Isoln from lemon peel (Citrus limon Linn. Rutaceae): R. M. Horowitz, J. Org. Chem. 21, 1184 (1956); from Zanthoxylum avicennae, Rutaceae: H. R. Arthur et al.,J. Chem. Soc. 1956, 632; H. R. Arthur et al., ibid. 1959, 4007; from flowers of Sophora microphylla Ait. Leguminosae: L. H. Briggs et al., ibid. 1960, 1955. Toxicology studies: H. Heusser, W. Osswald, Arch. Farmacol. Toxicol. 3, 33 (1977). NMR spectrum: J. L. Nieto, A. M. Gutierrez, Spectrosc. Lett. 19, 427 (1986). Mechanism of action: C. Boudet, L. Peyrin, Arch. Int. Pharmacodyn. 283,312 (1986). Pharmacology: J. R. Caseley-Smith, J. R. Caseley-Smith, Agents Actions 17, 1 (1985); M. Damon et al., Arzneim.-Forsch. 37, 1149 (1987). HPLC determn in biological fluids: D. Baylocq et al., Ann. Pharm. Fr. 41, 115 (1983). Clinical study in post-phlebitic ulcers: M. C. Nguyen, K. Morere, Gaz. Med. 92, 71 (1985); in acute hemorrhoids: A. Tajana et al., Minerva Med. 79,387 (1988). Clinical trial in chronic venous insufficiency: R. Laurent et al., Int. Angiol. 7, Suppl. 2, 39 (1988).
Derivative Type: Monohydrate
Molecular Formula: C28H32O15.H2O
Molecular Weight: 626.56
Percent Composition: C 53.67%, H 5.47%, O 40.86%
Properties: mp 275-277° (dec) (Zemplén). Also reported as fine needles from aq pyridine or aq DMF, mp 283° (dec) (Briggs). uv max (ethanol): 255, 268, 345 nm (log e 4.28, 4.25, 4.30). Practically insol in water, alcohol.
Melting point: mp 275-277° (dec) (Zemplén); mp 283° (dec) (Briggs)
Absorption maximum: uv max (ethanol): 255, 268, 345 nm (log e 4.28, 4.25, 4.30)
Derivative Type: Flavonoid extract
Trademarks: Daflon (Servier); Flebopex (Profarma); Flebotropin (Bago)
Therap-Cat: Capillary protectant.
Keywords: Vasoprotectant.

PAPER

Lee, Sanghyun; Natural Product Sciences 2002, VOL 8(4), P127-128

Siciliano, Tiziana; Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2004, VOL 52(21), P6510-6515 

 Yin, Feng; Zhongguo Tianran Yaowu 2004, VOL 2(3), P149-151 

Markovic, D.; Farm. Glasnik 1949, VOL 5(No. 7;No. 8), P135-48;153-62 

Nakaoki, Tahitiro; Yakugaku Zasshi 1938, VOL 58, P639-47(in German 197-201)

Wander, G.; Pharmaceutical Journal 1925, VOL 115, P520 

Morita, Naokata; Yakugaku Zasshi 1967, VOL 87(3), P319-20 

“PhysProp” data were obtained from Syracuse Research Corporation of Syracuse, New York (US)

Narasimhachari, N.; Proceedings – Indian Academy of Sciences, Section A 1949, VOL 30A, P151-62 

Horowitz, Robert M.; Journal of Organic Chemistry 1956, VOL 21, P1184-5 

paper

Spectroscopy Letters , An International Journal for Rapid Communication , Volume 19, 1986 – Issue 51H NMR Spectra at 360 MHz of Diosmin and Hesperidin in DMSO Solution

Pages 427-434 | Received 03 Jan 1986, Accepted 03 Jan 1986, Published online: 06 Dec 2006

PAPER

Journal of Natural Products, 2013, vol. 76, 1, pg. 8 – 12

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/suppl/10.1021/np300460a/suppl_file/np300460a_si_001.pdf

1 H NMR, 13C NMR, HMQC and HMBC spectra of diosmin (5) ……………….S2

str1

PAPER

 Journal of Molecular Liquids, 2014, vol. 199, pg. 35 – 41

PATENT

https://patents.google.com/patent/CN102653549A/en

BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0012] BRIEF I: iodine purification process Figure 2: Synthesis of diosmin roadmap

detailed description

[0013] Main reaction: The 80Kg Hesperidin, 40Kg soda ash, 400kg90% ethanol, 80L pyridine, 24kg iodine successively into reactor closed good pot opening, with stirring and heated to 110 ° c with a microwave, heat stirring, until the orange leather glycosides completely dissolved, about ten minutes. Hesperidin is completely dissolved, the solvent was slowly added to 80L of pyridine, combined with sodium iodide 8Kg, heated to 110 ° C, the reaction was stirred for 3-4 hr incubation, the sample is then detected by HPLC detection method, when a peak area less than hesperidin the reaction was terminated when 5% diosmin peak area, heat recovery of the solvent pyridine.

[0014] The filter press: End recovered 25Kg pyridine was added a paste of methanol, was press iodine recycling of waste, the recovery is completed, washed with purified water of 62 ° C, colorless and transparent until the washing water to the water 3 t, remove the filter cake to afford crude diosmin, 125. 4Kg.

[0015] Purification: 16Kg sodium hydroxide into dissolving tank, add purified water 500Kg, dissolved under stirring, and after dissolution the crude into the tank, and the water plus t I stir crystals were filtered into a stainless steel frame filter kettle, adding 42Kg hydrochloric acid, adjusted to PH 6.7, 25Kg of methanol was added, after stirring for 30min, the precipitate was allowed to stand, the I h.

[0016] Washing: The crystalline material tank into the filter press, ere washed with purified water, the washing water to colorless far, four tons of water, remove the filter cake to afford fine diosmin, 118. 5Kg. [0017] The dried, pulverized, mixed: semi-finished products into the oven dried 11.2 hours, 82 ° C temperature conditions, the dried material was crushed with a grinder, then put double cone blender and mixed overall speed 15r / min, each of the positive and negative inversion 20min, diosmin have finished 72Kg, a yield of 90.0%.

[0018] Packaging: for medical packaging with double polyethylene bags, into the drum after passing inspection, into finished products.

[0019] The recovery of iodine: iodine-containing filtrate generated pressure filtration step was slowly added sulfuric acid to adjust the PH 4, left for 5 hours, vacuum distillation, collecting high-boiling fraction, 20Kg hydrogen peroxide was slowly added, stand for 2 hours, filtered, the recovered iodine cloth, can be re-purified to obtain purified iodine! .

[0020] Processing pyridine in water: pyridine pyridine recovered after 400Kg containing moisture added to the kettle, 35Kg of potassium hydroxide was added, heated to 105 ± 5 ° C, collecting it pyridine (105 ° C before the liquid front , is defective, back again into the reaction vessel, then 105 ° C out is a good product), Hugh moisture meter by Karl Fischer detected, less than 2%.

PATENT

https://patents.google.com/patent/CN102875621A/en

diosmin chemical name is 3 ‘, 5,7-trihydroxy-4’ – methoxy flavone, i.e. (7 – {[6-0- (6-deoxy-mannose -a -L- sugar) _β -D- glucopyranosyl] oxy} -5_ hydroxy-2- (3-hydroxy-_4_ methoxyphenoxy) -4H-L–benzopyran-4-one), the following structure Figure:

[0003]

Figure CN102875621AD00031

[0004] Diosmin has a comprehensive effect on vascular transfusion system to the venous system, micro-circulatory system and the lymphatic system has a powerful effect. Diosmin can be significantly reduced in addition to the adhesion of leukocytes to vascular endothelial cells, migration, inhibition of leukocyte disintegration and release of inflammatory mediators such as histamine, bradykinin, complement, leukotrienes, prostaglandins, free radical scavenging and the like, It may also reduce blood viscosity, to enhance flow of red blood cells, thus reducing the microcirculation stasis, mainly used in clinical treatment of chronic venous insufficiency.

[0005] diosmin content in natural plant is very low, direct extraction of high cost, so it is through the oxygen

Hesperidin is prepared by chemical synthesis; hesperidin formula below:

[0006]

Figure CN102875621AD00032

[0007] diosmin synthesis process generally as follows:

[0008] hesperidin and an oxidant, and a solvent after mixing an alkaline reagent can be synthesized by heating the reaction Diosmin; wherein said oxidizing agent is iodine, mainly basic agent mainly inorganic bases, typically hydrogen sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, sodium carbonate or potassium carbonate, an alkaline substance, etc., the solvent is pyridine or dimethylformamide.

[0009] Preparation of diosmin conventional synthesis method will inevitably pyridine or dimethylformamide as the reaction solvent, in particular in the main pyridine; as pyridine, dimethylformamide as a reaction solvent after the treatment process is not easy divisible, thus resulting in higher residual solvent in the product; the same time, since the two types of the organic solvent is pyridine, a large irritating odor on the human body have a greater toxic effects, and therefore in the production process and on the environment endanger personnel more apparent.

Example 8

[0081] In addition hesperidin 1000L reaction vessel 100 g, 47 g of sodium hydroxide and 12 g of iodine, and finally adding morpholine: water (60: 40) mixed solvent O. 8 liters, stir until completely dissolved. after heating to 85-90 ° C. was stirred incubated for 9 hours. the reaction liquid becomes viscous liquid was added 3 g of sodium thiosulfate, recovered at 85-90 ° C under vacuum conditions to a 70-80% morpholinyl, after complete recovery morpholine, O. 8 liters of water was added, stirred uniformly filtered to collect the waste. washed with water to give diosmin crude product. the crude product diosmin O. 8-liter and water was added 30 g of sodium hydroxide. stirred to dissolve completely after high-speed centrifuge filtration. into the crystallizer, water was added to the filtrate I. 5 liters of sulfuric acid was added slowly acidified to PH 2-3. standing, filtered and washed with water. diosmin give crude crystals. The crude crystals add water O. 8-liter and 30 g of sodium hydroxide and stirred to dissolve completely, placed in a crystallizer tank, to force saliva I. 5 liters of sulfuric acid was added slowly acidified to PH 2-3. Standing, was filtered, washed with water the drying, grinding to give the finished Diosmin 80. I g. Product purity by HPLC 95.26%, the yield was 80.1%, iodine residual, residual solvent, associated impurities, the content of all standards

PATENT

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2010092592A2/en

Example – 1

100 gm of hesperidin , 700 ml of pyridine, 9.8 gm of sodium hydroxide and 45.6 gm of iodine were charged in 2 liter clean glass assembly, The resulting solution was heated to 95-1050C for 9 – 10 hours. Reaction was monitored by HPLC to get hesperidin less than 1 %. The pyridine was recovered completely by distillation. Charged methanol to the resulting solid, the reaction mass was heated to reflux and filtered at room temperature. Iodine was recovered from mother liquor, solid obtained was treated with sodium thiosulfate solution and 900 ml, 5% aqueous NaOH solution. pH 2-4 was adjusted with cone, sulfuric acid. Reaction mass was filtered to obtain crude diosmin. Yield : 80 – 86 gm. Recovery of iodine from above methanol mother liquor: Distilled methanol and pyridine mixture. The obtained residue was acidified with sulfuric acid. The resulting pH was less than 1. The brown precipitate formed was filtered. The resulting filtrate was oxidized with hydrogen peroxide at 0-10°C and filtered to obtain crude iodine having assay 50 – 60 %, which was steam distilled to obtain pure iodine with assay 95 %.

Example – 2

100 gm of crude diosmin as prepared in example 1 and 1800 ml of dimethylformamide was charged in 3 liter clean glass assembly. The resulting mass was heated to 90-950C to obtain clear solution. 200 ml of water was added at 90- 950C and maintained for 30 min. The reaction mass was cooled and filtered. The wet solid was collected.

Charged wet solid obtained in 3 liter clean glass assembly and charged 900 ml of water, 900 ml of 5% aqueous NaOH solution. Distilled out approximately 900 ml of water under vacuum below 5O0C. Charged 1000 ml of water and the resulting reaction mass was treated with charcoal and filtered through hyflow. pH 1.8-2.2 was adjusted using sulfuric acid. Stirred the mass for 30 min, filtered and washed it with water, hot water. Solid was dried. Yield : 80 – 85 gm. Assay : 99.9 %.

Example – 3

100 gm of crude diosmin as prepared in example 1, 1800 ml of dimethylformamide and 1800 ml of water was charged in 5 liter clean glass assembly. The resulting solution was heated to 90-950C to obtain slurry and maintained for 30 min. Cooled the reaction mass and filtered, washed with water and hot water. The obtained solid was dried. Yield: 90 – 95 gm. Assay : 97 %. Example – 4

100 gm of crude diosmin as prepared in example 1 and 1800 ml of dimethylformamide was charged in 3 liter clean glass assembly. The resulting solution was heated to 90-950C to obtain clear solution.charged 360 ml of water at 90-950C and maintained for 30 min. The reaction mass was filtered, washed with water and with hot water. Solid obtained was dried. Yield: 90 – 95 gm. Assay : 99.5 %.

Example – 5

100 gm of crude diosmin as prepared in example 1 and 1800 ml of dimethylformamide was charged in 3 liter clean glass assembly. The resulting solution was heated to 90-950C to obtain clear solution, charged 900 ml of water at 90-950C and maintained for 30 min. The reaction mass was filtered, washed with water and with hot water. Solid obtained was dried. Solid obtained was 90 — 95 gm. Assay obtained was 98.8 %.

Example – 6

100 gm of hesperidin , 700 ml of recovered pyridine, 9.8 gm of sodium hydroxide and 45.6 gm of iodine were charged in 2 liter clean glass assembly . The resulting solution was heated to 95-1050C for 9 – 10 hrs. Reaction was monitored by HPLC. Pyridine was recovered completely by distillation. Charged methanol to the resulting solid, the reaction mass was heated to reflux and filtered at room temperature. The solid obtained was treated with sodium thiosulfate solution and 900 ml, 5% aqueous NaOH solution. pH 2-4 was adjusted with cone, sulfuric acid. Reaction mass was filtered to obtain crude diosmin. Crude diosmin obtained was 80 – 86 gm. Purity was 98.6 %.

Example – 7

100 gm of hesperidin , 700 ml of recovered Pyridine, 9.8 gm of sodium hydroxide and 48 gm (assay 95 %) of recovered iodine were charged in 2 liter clean glass assembly.. The resulting solution was heated to 95-1050C for 9 – 10 hours. Reaction was monitored by HPLC to get hesperidin less than 1 %. The pyridine was recovered by distillation. Charged methanol to the resulting solid, the reaction mass was heated to reflux and filtered at room temperature. The solid obtained was treated with sodium thiosulfate solution and 900 ml, 5% aqueous NaOH solution. pH 2-4 was adjusted with cone, sulfuric acid. Reaction mass was filtered to obtain crude diosmin. Yield:80 – 86 gm. Purity : 95.3 %.

PATENT

WO-2018039923

Method for preparing diosminum comprising the steps of mixing amide solvent, hesperidin, alkaline reagent and iodine, and heating the reaction to obtain diosmin . Diosmin is a naturally occurring flavonoid glycoside that can be obtained from various plant sources. It is used in therapy due to its pharmacological activity as phlebotonic and vascular protecting agent, and useful for treating chronic venous insufficiency.

0047]
Example 1
1.1 Oxidation reaction: Open the vacuum pump, vacuum inhale 1500L of dimethylformamide into the reaction tank, and add sodium hydroxide to adjust the pH of the solvent between 6 and 7. Add 250.00kg of hesperidin and stir it while feeding. The material and the solvent are in full contact; 125 kg of iodine is added into the reaction tank at a constant rate for reaction; the temperature of the reaction tank is controlled between 70° C. and 100° C. for 14 hours.
1.2 Solvent recovery: After the reaction is complete, open the valve of the turnover tank and dehydration tank and close the return valve. Control the temperature of the material to start depressurizing the solvent at 90°C to 110°C. During the recovery process, attention should be paid to observe the recovery temperature and recovery conditions. When the material is dilute, stop the solvent recovery and enter the next process.
1.3 Crude product crystallization, filtration, washing: open the reaction tank vacuum valve, pump 1500L of purified water from the upper part of the reaction tank, start the mixer, stir for 10-20min, then add 1500L of purified water and stir for 1h; after the mixing is accepted, when the temperature of the crystallization liquid drops After 35°C, the crystallization liquid is pumped into the plate and frame filter press for filtration, and the filtrate is temporarily stored in the storage tank; after the filtered plate nozzle no liquid flows out, the 18000L purified water pump is pumped into the frame filter press for washing; The water wash is discharged into a waterless collection tank for sewage treatment, and the water is washed until the pH of the effluent is measured with a pH test paper of 6 to 7. The beaker sample is observed to be colorless and transparent; after the washing is completed, the water inlet valve is closed and the air pressure is turned on. The valve is air-pressed, the air pressure is controlled at 0.07~0.09 MPa, and the time is maintained for 3 hours. The filter cake is collected and put into the turnover barrel for marking.

[0051]
1.4 Secondary Dissolution and Filtration: Open the dissolving tank and stir. In the dissolving tank, add 75 kg of alkali A to 1300 L of purified water. After the solution is completely dissolved, add the filter cake in the circulating drum to the tank; after the filter cake is added and stirring is continued for 1 h, Add 1300L of purified water into the tank, stir for 30 minutes, and stand for 3 hours. Filter the filtrate with a frame filter press. The filtered solution is finely filtered by a fine filter and then pumped into a clean area crystallizer.

[0052]
1.5 secondary crystallization: open the stirrer, slowly put 160 ~ 230kg 36% hydrochloric acid into the clean area crystallization tank, the measured pH of the solution is between 5.0 ~ 6.0, after stirring 20min measured the pH of the solution should be stable and qualified , Stir 1h, make the original record of the process.
1.6 Fine filtration and washing: The crystallization liquid is vacuum-inhaled into the box type filter press for filtration; after the filtration is completed, the washed water is washed with 18,000 to 20,000 L of purified water. After the washing is completed, it is checked that the washing liquid should be colorless and transparent, and the filtrate should be filtrated. Discharge into the sewage treatment system.
1.7 Fine Drying: Open the hot air circulation oven, control the temperature at 100 °C ~ 130 °C, drying time is maintained at 10 ~ 16h; when dried 10h, timely sampling, with a quick moisture meter to determine the moisture, when the sample moisture is less than 5%, Stop drying; after passing the drying, close the oven and transport the material to the next process.
1.8 Fine-grinding: The dried product is crushed with a crusher. The crushing sieve is 80 mesh to obtain Diosmin.
The quality standards of all raw materials in Example 1 are shown in Table 1.
Table 1 Raw material quality standards

[Table 0001]

Original accessories name specification Quality Standard
Hesperidin EC In line with “Hesperidin Quality Standard”
New solvent Industrial grade Meet the “new solvent quality standards”
Alkali A Industrial grade In accordance with the “Alkaline A Quality Standard”
iodine Pharmaceutical grade In line with “Iodine Quality Standards”
hydrochloric acid Analytical purity In line with the “Hydrochloric Acid Quality Standard”
Diosmin Yield Calculation Method:
Diosmin product yield = (Diosmin Fine Quality) / (Hesperidin weight) × 100%

References

  1. Jump up^ Flavonoid Aglycones and Glycosides from Teucrium gnaphalodes. F. A. T. Barberán, M. I. Gil, F. Tomás, F. Ferreres and A. Arques, J. Nat. Prod., 1985, 48 (5), pages 859–860, doi:10.1021/np50041a040
  2. Jump up^ Jantet, G. (2002-06-01). “Chronic venous insufficiency: worldwide results of the RELIEF study. Reflux assEssment and quaLity of lIfe improvEment with micronized Flavonoids”. Angiology53(3): 245–256. ISSN 0003-3197PMID 12025911.
  3. Jump up^ Leelavinothan Pari, Subramani Srinivasan, Antihyperglycemic effect of diosmin on hepatic key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats, Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Volume 64, Issue 7, September 2010, Pages 477-481.
  4. Jump up^ Sirlak, Mustafa; Akar, A. Ruchan; Eryilmaz, Sadik; Cetinkanat, Elif Kuzgun; Ozcinar, Evren; Kaya, Bulent; Elhan, Atilla Halil; Ozyurda, Umit (2010-01-01). “Micronized purified flavonoid fraction in pretreating CABG patients”Texas Heart Institute Journal37 (2): 172–177. ISSN 1526-6702PMC 2851420Freely accessiblePMID 20401289.
  5. Jump up^ “Nutratech dietary supplement notification” (PDF). FDA. November 3, 2000. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 9, 2006.
  6. Jump up^ “Stragen Pharma dietary supplement notification” (PDF). FDA. September 6, 2005.

Patent

Publication numberPriority datePublication dateAssigneeTitle
DE2740950A1 *1977-09-101979-03-22Merck Patent GmbhA process for the production of flavones
EP0860443A1 *1997-02-211998-08-26Innokem, SARLIndustrial process for the production of diosmine starting from hesperidine
WO2000011009A2 *1998-08-192000-03-02Innokem, S.A.R.L.Method for industrial production of diosmin from hesperidin by reaction with iodine and pyridine

Publication numberPriority datePublication dateAssigneeTitle

CN102070689A *2011-01-252011-05-25湖南圆通药业有限公司Method for producing diosmin
CN102653549A *2011-12-282012-09-05长沙富能生物技术有限公司Synthesis method of diosmin raw medicine meeting EP7 version quality standards
CN102875621A *2012-10-262013-01-16成都澜绮制药有限公司Synthesis method of diosmin
RU2481353C1 *2011-12-222013-05-10Закрытое акционерное общество “Активный Компонент”Commercial method for preparing officinal diosmin and crystalline form thereof (versions)
CN103772336A *2014-02-232014-05-07闻永举Semi-synthesis method of phenolic hydroxyl flavonoid compounds and iodine recycling method
CN103435666A *2013-07-302013-12-11李玉山Novel production technology of diosmin
CN105732744A *2016-04-292016-07-06南京正大天晴制药有限公司Method for preparing green and economic diosmin
Publication numberPriority datePublication dateAssigneeTitle
DE2740950A1 *1977-09-101979-03-22Merck Patent GmbhA process for the production of flavones
EP1086953A1 *1999-09-242001-03-28IsochemProcess for the purification of diosmine
WO2010092592A2 *2009-02-112010-08-19Elder Pharmaceuticals Ltd.Process for the preparation of diosmin
CN102653549A *2011-12-282012-09-05长沙富能生物技术有限公司Synthesis method of diosmin raw medicine meeting EP7 version quality standards
Diosmin
Diosmin.svg
Clinical data
AHFS/Drugs.com International Drug Names
Routes of
administration
oral
ATC code
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
ChEMBL
ECHA InfoCard 100.007.537
Chemical and physical data
Formula C28H32O15
Molar mass 608.545 g/mol
3D model (JSmol)

//////////DIOSMIN, диосмин ديوسمين 地奥司明 , Barosmin,  Diosmine, Venosmine, Diosmil,  

COC1=C(O)C=C(C=C1)C1=CC(=O)C2=C(O)C=C(O[C@@H]3O[C@H](CO[C@@H]4O[C@@H](C)[C@H](O)[C@@H](O)[C@H]4O)[C@@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@H]3O)C=C2O1

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Entecavir, энтекавир , إينتيكافير , 恩替卡韦 , エンテカビル


Entecavir structure.svg

ChemSpider 2D Image | entecavir | C12H15N5O3Entecavir.png

Entecavir

  • Molecular FormulaC12H15N5O3
  • Average mass277.279 Da
NNU2O4609D
QA-0464
SQ 34,676
SQ34676
Teviral
UNII:NNU2O4609D
Entecavir; 142217-69-4; Baraclude; BMS 200475; Anhydrous entecavir; UNII-NNU2O4609D
энтекавир [Russian] [INN]
إينتيكافير [Arabic] [INN]
恩替卡韦 [Chinese] [INN]
エンテカビル  JAPANESE
2-amino-9-[(1S,3R,4S)-4-hydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)-2-methylidenecyclopentyl]-9H-purin-6-ol
6H-Purin-6-one, 2-amino-1,9-dihydro-9-((1S,3R,4S)-4-hydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)-2-methylenecyclopentyl)-
6H-Purin-6-one, 2-amino-1,9-dihydro-9-[(1S,3R,4S)-4-hydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)-2-methylenecyclopentyl]-
9H-purin-6-ol, 2-amino-9-[(1S,3R,4S)-4-hydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)-2-methylenecyclopentyl]-
Baraclude[Trade name]
CAS 142217-69-4

Baraclude (Entecavir) Film Coated Tablets & Oral Solution
Company:  Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharmaceutical Co.
Application No.:  021797 & 021798
Approval Date: 03/29/2005

STR1

BARACLUDE® is the tradename for entecavir, a guanosine nucleoside analogue with selective activity against HBV. The chemical name for entecavir is 2-amino-1,9-dihydro-9-[(1S,3R,4S)-4-hydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)-2-methylenecyclopentyl]-6H-purin-6-one, monohydrate. Its molecular formula is C12H15N5O3•H2O, which corresponds to a molecular weight of 295.3. Entecavir has the following structural formula:

BARACLUDE® (entecavir) Structural Formula Illustration

Entecavir is a white to off-white powder. It is slightly soluble in water (2.4 mg/mL), and the pH of the saturated solution in water is 7.9 at 25° C ± 0.5° C.

BARACLUDE film-coated tablets are available for oral administration in strengths of 0.5 mg and 1 mg of entecavir. BARACLUDE 0.5 mg and 1 mg film-coated tablets contain the following inactive ingredients: lactose monohydrate, microcrystalline cellulose, crospovidone, povidone, and magnesium stearate. The tablet coating contains titanium dioxide, hypromellose, polyethylene glycol 400, polysorbate 80 (0.5 mg tablet only), and iron oxide red (1 mg tablet only). BARACLUDE Oral Solution is available for oral administration as a ready-to-use solution containing 0.05 mg of entecavir per milliliter. BARACLUDE Oral Solution contains the following inactive ingredients: maltitol, sodium citrate, citric acid, methylparaben, propylparaben, and orange flavor.

Entecavir 
Title: Entecavir
CAS Registry Number: 142217-69-4
CAS Name: 2-Amino-1,9-dihydro-9-[(1S,3R,4S)-4-hydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)-2-methylenecyclopentyl]-6H-purin-6-one
Molecular Formula: C12H15N5O3
Molecular Weight: 277.28
Percent Composition: C 51.98%, H 5.45%, N 25.26%, O 17.31%
Literature References: Deoxyguanine nucleoside analog; inhibits hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA polymerase. Prepn: R. Zahler, W. A. Slusarchyk, EP481754eidem,US5206244 (1992, 1993 both to Squibb); G. S. Bisacchi et al.,Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.7, 127 (1997). In vitro antiviral activity: S. F. Innaimo et al,Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.41, 1444 (1997). Review of pharmacology and clinical experience: P. Honkoop, R. A. de Man, Expert Opin. Invest. Drugs12, 683-688 (2003); T. Shaw, S. Locarnini, Expert Rev. Anti Infect. Ther.2, 853-871 (2004). Clinical comparisons with lamivudine in chronic hepatitis B: T.-T. Chang et al., N. Engl. J. Med.354, 1001 (2006); C.-L. Lai et al., ibid. 1011.
Derivative Type: Monohydrate
CAS Registry Number: 209216-23-9
Manufacturers’ Codes: BMS-200475; SQ-200475
Trademarks: Baraclude (BMS)
Molecular Formula: C12H15N5O3.H2O
Molecular Weight: 295.29
Percent Composition: C 48.81%, H 5.80%, N 23.72%, O 21.67%
Properties: White to off-white powder, mp >220°. [a]D +35.0° (c = 0.38 in water). Soly in water: 2.4 mg/ml. pH of saturated soln in water is 7.9 at 25°±0.5°.
Melting point: mp >220°
Optical Rotation: [a]D +35.0° (c = 0.38 in water)
Therap-Cat: Antiviral.
Keywords: Antiviral; Purines/Pyrimidinones.
Figure
Antiviral agents used against HBV

Entecavir is an oral antiviral drug used in the treatment of hepatitis B infection. It is marketed under the trade name Baraclude (BMS).

Entecavir is a guanine analogue that inhibits all three steps in the viral replication process, and the manufacturer claims that it is more efficacious than previous agents used to treat hepatitis B (lamivudine and adefovir). It was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in March 2005.

For the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in adults with evidence of active viral replication and either evidence of persistent elevations in serum aminotransferases (ALT or AST) or histologically active disease.

Entecavir (ETV), sold under the brand name Baraclude, is an antiviral medication used in the treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection.[1] In those with both HIV/AIDS and HBV antiretroviral medication should also be used.[1] Entecavir is taken by mouth as a tablet or solution.[1]

Common side effects include headache, nausea, high blood sugar, and decreased kidney function.[1] Severe side effects include enlargement of the liverhigh blood lactate levels, and liver inflammation if the medication is stopped.[1] While there appears to be no harm from use during pregnancy, this use has not been well studied.[4] Entecavir is in the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors(NRTIs) family of medications.[1] It prevents the hepatitis B virus from multiplying by blocking reverse transcriptase.[1]

Entecavir was approved for medical use in 2005.[1] It is on the World Health Organization’s List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.[5] In the United States as of 2015 it is not available as a generic medication.[6]The wholesale price is about 392 USD for a typical month supply as of 2016 in the United States.[7]

Medical uses

Entecavir is mainly used to treat chronic hepatitis B infection in adults and children 2 years and older with active viral replication and evidence of active disease with elevations in liver enzymes.[2] It is also used to prevent HBV reinfection after liver transplant[8] and to treat HIV patients infected with HBV. Entecavir is weakly active against HIV, but is not recommended for use in HIV-HBV co-infected patients without a fully suppressive anti-HIV regimen[9] as it may select for resistance to lamivudine and emtricitabine in HIV.[10]

The efficacy of entecavir has been studied in several randomized, double-blind, multicentre trials. Entecavir by mouth is effective and generally well tolerated treatment.[11]

Pregnancy and breastfeeding

It is considered pregnancy category C in the United States, and currently no adequate and well-controlled studies exist in pregnant women.[12]

Side effects

The majority of people who use entecavir have little to no side effects.[13] The most common side effects include headache, fatigue, dizziness, and nausea.[2] Less common effects include trouble sleeping and gastrointestinal symptoms such as sour stomach, diarrhea, and vomiting.[14]

Serious side effects from entecavir include lactic acidosis, liver problemsliver enlargement, and fat in the liver.[15]

Laboratory tests may show an increase in alanine transaminase (ALT), hematuriaglycosuria, and an increase in lipase.[16] Periodic monitoring of hepatic function and hematology are recommended.[2]

Mechanism of action

Entecavir is a nucleoside analog,[17] or more specifically, a deoxyguanosine analogue that belongs to a class of carbocyclic nucleosidesand inhibits reverse transcriptionDNA replication and transcription in the viral replication process. Other nucleoside and nucleotide analogues include lamivudinetelbivudineadefovir dipivoxil, and tenofovir.

Entecavir reduces the amount of HBV in the blood by reducing its ability to multiply and infect new cells.[18]

Administration

Entecavir is take by mouth as a tablet or solution. Doses are based on a person’s weight.[15] The solution is recommended for children more than 2 years old who weigh up to 30 kg. Entecavir is recommended on an empty stomach at least 2 hours before or after a meal, generally at the same time every day. It is not used in children less than 2 years old. Dose adjustments are also recommended for people with decreased kidney function.[15]

History

  • 1992: SQ-34676 at Squibb as part of anti-herpes virus program[19]
  • 1997: BMS 200475 developed at BMS pharmaceutical research institute as antiviral nucleoside analogue à Activity demonstrated against HBV, HSV-1, HCMV, VZV in cell lines & no or little activity against HIV or influenza[20]
  • Superior activity observed against HBV pushed research towards BMS 200475, its base analogues and its enantiomer against HBV in HepG2.2.15 cell line[20]
  • Comparison to other NAs, proven more selective potent inhibitor of HBV by virtue of being Guanine NA[21]
  • 1998: Inhibition of hepadnaviral polymerases was demonstrated in vitro in comparison to a number of NAs-TP[22]
  • Metabolic studies showed more efficient phosphorylation to triphosphate active form[23]
  • 3-year treatment of woodchuck model of CHB à sustained antiviral efficacy and prolonged life spans without detectable emergence of resistance[24]
  • Efficacy # LVD resistant HBV replication in vitro[25]
  • Superior activity compared to LVD in vivo for both HBeAg+ & HBeAg− patients[26][27]
  • Efficacy in LVD refractory CHB patients[28]
  • Entecavir was approved by the U.S. FDA in March 2005.

Patent information

Bristol-Myers Squibb was the original patent holder for Baraclude, the brand name of entecavir in the US and Canada. The drug patent expiration for Baraclude was in 2015.[29][30]On August 26, 2014, Teva Pharmaceuticals USA gained FDA approval for generic equivalents of Baraclude 0.5 mg and 1 mg tablets;[31] Hetero Labs received such approval on August 21, 2015;[32] and Aurobindo Pharma on August 26, 2015.[33]

Chronic hepatitis B virus infection is one of the most severe liver diseases in morbidity and death rate in the worldwide range. At present, pharmaceuticals for treating chronic hepatitis B (CHB) virus infection are classified to interferon α and nucleoside/nucleotide analogue, i.e. Lamivudine and Adefovir. However, these pharmaceuticals can not meet needs for doctors and patients in treating chronic hepatitis B virus infection because of their respective limitation. Entecavir (ETV) is referred to as 2′-cyclopentyl deoxyguanosine (BMS2000475) which belongs to analogues of Guanine nucleotide and is phosphorylated to form an active triple phosphate in vivo. The triple phosphate of entecavir inhibits HBV polymerase by competition with 2′-deoxyguanosine-5′-triphosphate as a nature substrate of HBV polymerase, so as to achieve the purpose of effectively treating chronic hepatitis B virus infection and have strong anti-HBV effects. Entecavir, [1S-(1α,3α,4β)]-2-amino-1,9-dihydro-9-[4-hydroxy-3-hydroxymethyl]-2-methylenecyclopentyl]-6H-purin-6-one, monohydrate, and has the molecular formula of C12H15N5O3.H2O and the molecular weight of 295.3. Its structural formula is as follows:

Figure US20140220120A1-20140807-C00001

Entecavir was successfully developed by Bristol-Myers Squibb Co. of USA first and the trademark of the product formulation is Baraclude™, including two types of formulations of tablet and oral solution having 0.5 mg and 1 mg of dosage. Chinese publication No. CN1310999 made by COLONNO, Richard, J. et al discloses a low amount of entecavir and uses of the composition containing entecavir in combination with other pharmaceutically active substances for treating hepatitis B virus infection, however, the entecavir is non-crystal. In addition, its oral formulations such as tablet and capsule are made by a boiling granulating process. The process is too complicated to control quality of products during humidity heat treatment even though ensuring uniform distribution of the active ingredients.

Entecavir, [1-S-(1α,3α,4β)]-2-amino-1,9-dihydro-9-[4-hydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)-2-methylenecyclopentyl]-6H-purin-6-one, is currently used for treating hepatitis B virus infection, whose structure is composed of a cyclopentane ring having purine, exomethylene, hydroxymethyl, and hydroxy substituents at the 1S-, 2-, 3R-, and 4S-positions, respectively. There have been conducted a number of studies to develop methods for preparing entecavir.

For example, U.S. Pat. No. 5,206,244 and WO 98/09964 disclose a method for preparing entecavir shown in Reaction Scheme 1:Figure imgb0001

The above method, however, has difficulties in that: i) the cyclopentadiene monomer must be maintained at a temperature lower than -30 °C in order to prevent its conversion to dicyclopentadiene; ii) residual sodium after the reaction as well as the sensitivity of the reaction toward moisture cause problems; iii) the process to obtain the intermediate of formula a) must be carried out at an extremely low temperature of below -70 °C in order to prevent the generation of isomers; iv) a decantation method is required when (-)-Ipc2BH (diisopinocampheylborane) is used for hydroboration; v) the process of the intermediate of formula a) does not proceed smoothly; and, vi) separation by column chromatography using CHP-20P resin is required to purify entecavir.

WO 2004/52310 and U.S. Pat. Publication No. 2005/0272932 disclose a method for preparing entecavir using the intermediate of formula (66), which is prepared as shown in Reaction Scheme 2:

Figure imgb0002

The above preparation method of the intermediate of formula (66) must be carried out at an extremely low temperature of -70 °C or less, and the yield of the desired product in the optical resolution step is less than 50%.

PATENT

https://patents.google.com/patent/EP2382217B1

Image result for Entecavir

(3-4) Preparation of [1-S-(1α,3α,4β)]-2-amino-1,9-dihydro-9-[4-hydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)-2-methylenecyclopentyl]-6H-purine-6-one (a compound of formula (1))

34 mg (0.115 mmol) of 4-(2-amino-6-chloro-purine-9-yl)-2-hydroxymethyl-3-methylene-cyclopentanol (a compound of formula (5)) obtained in (3-3) was added to 0.7 ml of 2N aqueous sodium hydroxide, and the resulting mixture was stirred. The solution thus obtained was heated to 72 °C and stirred for 3.5 hrs. After completion of the reaction, the resulting mixture was cooled to 0 °C, controlled to pH 6.3 by adding 2N aqueous hydrochloric acid and 1N aqueous hydrochloric acid, and condensed to obtain 24 mg of the title compound (yield: 70 %, purity: 99 %).

NMR(300MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 10.58 (s, 1H), 7.67 (s, 1H), 6.42 (s, 2H), 5.36 (t, 1H), 5.11 (s, 1H), 4.86 (d, 1H), 4.83 (t, 1H), 4.57 (s, 1H), 4.24 (s, 1H), 3.54 (t, 2H), 2.53(s, 1H), 2.27-2.18 (m, 1H), 2.08-2.01(m, 1H).

PAPER

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0040403911020144

Image result for Entecavir

Image result for Entecavir NMR

Image result for Entecavir NMR

PAPER

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0040402017313029

Image result for Entecavir NMR

Image result for Entecavir NMR

PAPER

Total Synthesis of Entecavir: A Robust Route for Pilot Production

Launch-Pharma Technologies, Ltd., 188 Kaiyuan Boulevard, Building D, Fifth Floor, The Science Park of Guangzhou, Guangzhou 510530, China
Org. Process Res. Dev., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acs.oprd.8b00007
Publication Date (Web): February 12, 2018
Copyright © 2018 American Chemical Society
Abstract Image

A practical synthetic route for pilot production of entecavir is described. It is safe, robust, and scalable to kilogram scale. Starting from (S)-(+)-carvone, this synthetic route consists of a series of highly efficient reactions including a Favorskii rearrangement-elimination-epimerization sequence to establish the cyclopentene skeleton, the Baeyer–Villiger oxidation/rearrangement to afford the correct configuration of the secondary alcohol, and a directed homoallylic epoxidation followed by epoxide ring-opening to introduce the hydroxyl group suitable for the Mitsunobu reaction. In addition, the synthesis contains only four brief chromatographic purifications.

 1: white crystalline solid; HRMS (m/z) calcd for C12H16N5O3 [M + H]+ 278.1253, found 278.1255; [α]D +27.2° [c 1.07, DMF/H2O (1:1)];

1H NMR (500 MHz, DMSO) δ 10.55 (s, 1H), 7.65 (s, 1H), 6.40 (s, 2H), 5.36 (dd, J = 10.3, 8.0 Hz, 1H), 5.10 (s, 1H), 4.85 (d, J = 3.1 Hz, 1H), 4.81 (t, J = 5.3 Hz, 1H), 4.56 (s, 1H), 4.23 (s, 1H), 3.54 (t, J = 6.1 Hz, 2H), 2.55–2.50 (m, 1H), 2.26–2.17 (m, 1H), 2.04 (dd, J = 12.5, 7.8 Hz, 1H);

13C NMR (126 MHz, DMSO) δ 156.8, 153.4, 151.4, 151.3, 135.9, 116.2, 109.2, 70.4, 63.0, 55.1, 54.1, 39.2.

 STR1 STR2

Clips

EP 0481754; JP 1992282373; US 5206244, WO 9809964

The regioselective reaction of cyclopentadiene (I) and sodium or commercial sodium cyclopentadienide (II) with benzyl chloromethyl ether (III) by means of the chiral catalyst (-)-diisopinocampheylborane in THF, followed by hydroxylation with H2O2/NaOH, gives (1S-trans)-2-(benzyloxymethyl)-3-cyclopenten-1-ol (IV), which is regioselectively epoxidized with tert-butyl hydroperoxide and vanadyl acetylacetonate in 2,2,4-trimethylpentane, yielding [1S-(1alpha,2alpha,3beta,5alpha)-2-(benzyloxymethyl)-6-oxabicyclo[3.1.0]hexan-3-ol (V). The protection of (V) with benzyl bromide and NaH affords the corresponding ether (VI), which is condensed with 6-O-benzylguanine (VII) by means of LiH in DMF to give the guanine derivative (VIII). The protection of the amino group of (VIII) with 4-methoxyphenyl(diphenyl)chloromethane (IX), TEA and DMAP in dichloromethane gives intermediate (X), which is oxidized at the free hydroxyl group with methylphosphonic acid, DCC and oxalic acid in DMSO or Dess Martin periodinane in dichloromethane, yielding the cyclopentanone derivative (XI). The reaction of (XI) with (i) Zn/TiCl4/CH2Br2 complex in THF/CH2Cl2, (ii) activated Zn/PbCl2/CH2I2/TiCl4 in THF/CH2Cl2 (2), (iii) Nysted reagent/TiCl4 in THF/CH2Cl2 or (iv) Tebbe reagent in toluene affords the corresponding methylene derivative (XII), which is partially deprotected with 3N HCl in hot THF, providing the dibenzylated compound (XI). Finally, this compound is treated with BCl3 in dichloromethane

PAPER

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 1997,7(2),127

BMS-200475, a novel carbocyclic 2′-deoxyguanosine analog with potent and selective anti-hepatitis B virus activity in vitro

BMS-200475, a novel carbocyclic analog of 2′-deoxyguanosine, is a potent inhibitor of hepatitis B virus in vitro (ED50 = 3 nM) with relatively low cytotoxicity (CC50 = 21–120 μM). A practical 10-step asymmetric synthesis was developed affording BMS-200475 in 18% overall chemical yield and >99% optical purity. The enantiomer of BMS-200475 as well as the adenine, thymine, and iodouracil analogs are much less active.

BMS-200475, a novel carbocyclic analog of 2′-deoxyguanosine, is a potent inhibitor of hepatitis B virus in vitro (ED50 = 3nM) with relatively low cytotoxicity (CC50 = 21–120 μM).

PATENT

https://patents.google.com/patent/US20140220120

Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrogram: The range of wave numbers is measured by using the Nicolet NEXUS 670 FT-IR spectrometer with KBr pellet method, and the range of wave numbers is about 400 to 4000 cm−1. FIG. 3 is a Fourier transform infrared spectrogram of the sample. The infrared spectrogram shows that there are groups in the molecular structure of the sample, such as NH, NH2, HN—C═O, C═C, OH.

PAPER

Total Synthesis of Entecavir

 Departament de Química Orgànica and Institut de Biomedicina de la Universitat de Barcelona (IBUB), Facultat de Química, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, 08028-Barcelona, Spain
 R&D Department, Esteve Química S.A., Caracas 17-19, 08030-Barcelona, Spain
§ CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y la Nutrición (CIBERobn), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
J. Org. Chem.201378 (11), pp 5482–5491
DOI: 10.1021/jo400607v
*Tel.: +34 934021248. Fax: +34 933397878. E-mail: jfarras@ub.eduxariza@ub.edu.
Abstract Image

Entecavir (BMS-200475) was synthesized from 4-trimethylsilyl-3-butyn-2-one and acrolein. The key features of its preparation are: (i) a stereoselective boron–aldol reaction to afford the acyclic carbon skeleton of the methylenecylopentane moiety; (ii) its cyclization by a Cp2TiCl-catalyzed intramolecular radical addition of an epoxide to an alkyne; and (iii) the coupling with a purine derivative by a Mitsunobu reaction.

STR1

2-Amino-9-((1S,3R,4S)-4-hydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)-2-methylenecyclopentyl)-1H-purin-6(9H)-one Monohydrate (1)

1 (2.102 g, 64% overall yield, 99.47% HPLC purity) with a 6.7% water content (as determined by Karl Fischer titration). Mp 248 °C. [α]D25 +35.0 (c 0.4, H2O). IR (ATR): 3445, 3361, 3296, 3175, 3113, 2951, 2858, 2626, 1709 cm–1.

1H NMR (DMSO-d6, 400 MHz) δ: 10.59 (s, 1H), 7.66 (s, 1H), 6.42 (bs, 2H), 5.36 (ddt, J = 10.6, 7.8, 2.7 Hz, 1H), 5.10 (dd, J = 2.7, 2.2 Hz, 1H), 4.87 (d, J = 3.1 Hz, 1H), 4.84 (t, J = 5.3 Hz, 1H), 4.56 (t, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 4.23 (m, 1H), 3.53 (m, 2H), 2.52 (m, 1H), 2.22 (ddd, J = 12.6, 10.8, 4.6 Hz, 1H), 2.04 (ddt, J = 12.6, 7.7, 1.9 Hz, 1H).

13C NMR (DMSO-d6, 101 MHz) δ: 156.9, 153.5, 151.5, 151.3, 136.0, 116.2, 109.3, 70.4, 63.1, 55.2, 54.1, 39.2. HRMS (ESI): m/z calcd for C12H16N5O3+ [M + H]+ 278.1253; found 278.1262.

PATENTS

JP5788398B2 *2009-10-122015-09-30ハンミ・サイエンス・カンパニー・リミテッドNovel production methods and intermediates used to entecavir
US8481728B22010-02-162013-07-09Scinopharm Taiwan, Ltd.Process for preparing entecavir and its intermediates
CA2705953A1 *2010-05-312011-11-30Alphora Research Inc.Carbanucleoside synthesis and intermediate compounds useful therein
CN106928227A2010-07-152017-07-07浙江奥翔药业股份有限公司Synthetic method of entecavir and intermediate compound thereof
EP2474548A12010-12-232012-07-11Esteve Química, S.A.Preparation process of an antiviral drug and intermediates thereof
EP2597096A12011-11-242013-05-29Esteve Química, S.A.Process for preparing entecavir and intermediates thereof
WO2014175974A32013-03-132015-04-09Elitech Holding B.V.Artificial nucleic acids derived from 2-((nucleobase)methyl)butane-1,3-diol
WO2015051900A12013-10-082015-04-16Pharmathen S.A.Process for the preparation of entecavir through novel intermediates
WO2015051903A1 *2013-10-082015-04-16Pharmathen S.A.A novel process for the preparation of chiral cyclopentanone intermediates
CN103675185B *2013-12-102015-10-07上海景峰制药股份有限公司The method of one kind TU entecavir tablet all-trans isomer by high performance liquid chromatography
KR101647061B12014-04-022016-08-10서강대학교산학협력단Path Generation Method and apparatus for Unmanned Autonomous Vehicle
CN105037363B *2015-07-132016-08-24山东罗欣药业集团股份有限公司En one kind of new synthetic method of compound entecavir
* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party, ‡ Family to family citation

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US5220003A1993-06-15Process for the synthesis of 2',3'-dideoxynucleosides
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WO1996017816A11996-06-13Processes and intermediates for preparing macrocycles
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Corey et al.1991An effective system for epoxide-initiated cation-olefin cyclization
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ApplicationPriority dateFiling dateTitle
KR20080134756A2008-12-262008-12-26Process for preparing entecavir and intermediates used therein
PCT/KR2009/0077862008-12-262009-12-24Novel intermediate and process for preparing entecavir using same

References

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  16. Jump up^ “DailyMed – BARACLUDE- entecavir tablet, film coated BARACLUDE- entecavir solution”dailymed.nlm.nih.govArchived from the original on 2016-11-09. Retrieved 2016-11-10.
  17. Jump up^ Sims KA, Woodland AM (December 2006). “Entecavir: a new nucleoside analog for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B infection”Pharmacotherapy26 (12): 1745–57. doi:10.1592/phco.26.12.1745PMID 17125436.[permanent dead link]closed access publication – behind paywall
  18. Jump up^ “Entecavir: Indications, Side Effects, Warnings – Drugs.com”http://www.drugs.comArchived from the original on 2016-11-07. Retrieved 2016-11-07.
  19. Jump up^ Slusarchyk, W. A., A. K. Field, J. A. Greytok, P. Taunk, A. V. Tooumari, M. G. Young, and R. Zahler. 4-Hydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)-2-methylcyclopentyl purines and pyrimidines, a novel class of anti-herpesvirus agents. Abstract from the Fifth International Conference on Antiviral Research. Antivir Res 1992.17(Suppl. 1):98
  20. Jump up to:a b Bisacchi, G. S.; Chao, S. T.; Bachard, C.; Daris, J. P.; Innaimo, S. F.; Jacobs, J. A.; Kocy, O.; Lapointe, P.; Martel, A.; Merchant, Z.; Slusarchyk, W. A.; Sundeen, J. E.; Young, M. G.; Colonno, R.; Zahler, R. (1997). “BMS-200475, a novel carbocyclic 29-deoxyguanosine analog with potent and selective antihepatitis B virus activity in vitro”. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett7: 127–132. doi:10.1016/s0960-894x(96)00594-x.
  21. Jump up^ Innaimo, S F; Seifer, M; Bisacchi, G S; Standring, D N; Zahler, R; Colonno, R J (1997). “Identification of BMS-200475 as a Potent and Selective Inhibitor of Hepatitis B Virus. Antimicrob”. Agents Chemother41 (7): 1444–1448.
  22. Jump up^ Seifer, M.; Hamatake, R. K.; Colonno, R. J.; Standring, D. N. (1998). “In vitro inhibition of hepadnavirus polymerases by the triphosphates of BMS-200475 and lobucavir. Antimicrob”. Agents Chemother42: 3200–3208.
  23. Jump up^ Yamanaka, G.; Wilson, T.; Innaimo, S.; Bisacchi, G. S.; Egli, P.; Rinehart, J. K.; Zahler, R.; Colonno, R. J. (1999). “Metabolic studies on BMS-200475, a new antiviral compound active against hepatitis B virus. Antimicrob”. Agents Chemother43: 190–193.
  24. Jump up^ Colonno, R. J.; Genovesi, E. V.; Medina, I.; Lamb, L.; Durham, S. K.; Huang, M. L.; Corey, L.; Littlejohn, M.; Locarnini, S.; Tennant, B. C.; Rose, B.; Clark, J. M. (2001). “Long-term entecavir treatment results in sustained antiviral efficacy and prolonged life span in the woodchuck model of chronic hepatitis infection”. J. Infect. Dis184: 1236–1245. doi:10.1086/324003.
  25. Jump up^ Levine, S.; Hernandez, D.; Yamanaka, G.; Zhang, S.; Rose, R.; Weinheimer, S.; Colonno, R. J. (2002). “Efficacies of entecavir against lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B virus replication and recombinant polymerases in vitro. Antimicrob”. Agents Chemother46: 2525–2532. doi:10.1128/aac.46.8.2525-2532.2002.
  26. Jump up^ Chang, T. T. (2006). “A comparison of entecavir and lamivudine for HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B”. N. Engl. J. Med354: 1001–1010. doi:10.1056/nejmoa051285.
  27. Jump up^ Lai CL, Shouval D, Lok AS, Chang TT, Cheinquer H, Goodman Z, DeHertogh D, Wilber R, Zink RC, Cross A, Colonno R, Fernandes L (9 March 2006). “Entecavir versus Lamivudine for Patients with HBeAg-Negative Chronic Hepatitis B”. The New England Journal of Medicine354 (10): 1011–20. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa051287PMID 16525138.
  28. Jump up^ Sherman, M.; Yurdaydin, C.; Sollano, J.; Silva, M.; Liaw, Y. F.; Cianciara, J.; Boron-Kaczmarska, A.; Martin, P.; Goodman, Z.; Colonno, R. J.; Cross, A.; Denisky, G.; Kreter, B.; Hindes, R. (2006). “Entecavir for the treatment of lamivudine-refractory, HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B”. Gastroenterology130: 2039–2049. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2006.04.007.
  29. Jump up^ “Orange Book: Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations”http://www.accessdata.fda.gov. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 2015-08-29.
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External links

Entecavir
Entecavir structure.svg
Entecavir ball-and-stick model.png
Clinical data
Pronunciation /ɛnˈtɛkəvɪər/ en-TEK-a-vir or en-TE-ka-veer
Trade names Baraclude[1]
AHFS/Drugs.com Monograph
MedlinePlus a605028
License data
Pregnancy
category
  • AU: B3
  • US: C (Risk not ruled out)
Routes of
administration
by mouth
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability n/a (≥70)[2]
Protein binding 13% (in vitro)
Metabolism negligible/nil
Biological half-life 128–149 hours
Excretion Renal 62–73%
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
ChEMBL
ECHA InfoCard 100.111.234
Chemical and physical data
Formula C12H15N5O3
Molar mass 277.279 g/mol
3D model (JSmol)
Melting point 220 °C (428 °F) value applies to entecavir monohydrate and is a minimum value[3]

///////////////Entecavir, энтекавир إينتيكافير 恩替卡韦 , BMS-200475,  SQ-200475, エンテカビル, 

NC1=NC(=O)C2=C(N1)N(C=N2)[C@H]1C[C@H](O)[C@@H](CO)C1=C

NMR PREDICT

1H NMR AND 13C NMR

STR1

STR2 str3

13C PREDICT VALUES

GLIMEPIRIDE


ChemSpider 2D Image | Glimepiride | C24H34N4O5S

glimepiride.png

Glimepiride.svg

Glimepiride

  • Molecular FormulaC24H34N4O5S
  • Average mass490.616 Da
  • HOE 490
    UNII:6KY687524K
3-Ethyl-N-{2-[4-({(E)-hydroxy[(trans-4-methylcyclohexyl)imino]methyl}sulfamoyl)phenyl]ethyl}-4-methyl-2-oxo-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-1-carboximidic acid
93479-97-1 [RN]
1-{[4-(2-{[(3-ethyl-4-methyl-2-oxo-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)carbonyl]amino}ethyl)phenyl]sulfonyl}-3-(trans-4-methylcyclohexyl)urea
3-Ethyl-4-methyl-N-[2-(4-{[(trans-4-methylcyclohexyl)carbamoyl]sulfamoyl}phenyl)ethyl]-2-oxo-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-1-carboxamide
1H-Pyrrole-1-carboxamide, 3-ethyl-2,5-dihydro-4-methyl-N-[2-[4-[[[[(trans-4-methylcyclohexyl)amino]carbonyl]amino]sulfonyl]phenyl]ethyl]-2-oxo-
Amarel [Trade name]
Amaryl [Trade name]
Endial [Trade name]

Glimepiride (original trade name Amaryl) is an orally available medium-to-long-acting sulfonylurea antidiabetic drug. It is sometimes classified as either the first third-generation sulfonylurea,[1] or as second-generation.[2]

Glimepiride is a Sulfonylurea. The chemical classification of glimepiride is Sulfonylurea Compounds.

Glimepiride is a long-acting, third-generation sulfonylurea with hypoglycemic activity. Compared to other generations of sulfonylurea compounds, glimepiride is very potent and has a longer duration of action. This agent is metabolized by CYP2C9 and shows peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) agonistic activity.

Glimepiride is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is the first III generation sulphonyl urea it is a very potent sulphonyl urea with long duration of action. The mechanism of action of glimepiride in lowering blood glucose appears to be dependent on stimulating the release of insulin from functioning pancreatic beta cells, and increasing sensitivity of peripheral tissues to insulin. Glimepiride likely binds to ATP-sensitive potassium channel receptors on the pancreatic cell surface, reducing potassium conductance and causing depolarization of the membrane. Membrane depolarization stimulates calcium ion influx through voltage-sensitive calcium channels. This increase in intracellular calcium ion concentration induces the secretion of insulin.

Indications

Glimepiride is indicated to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus; its mode of action is to increase insulin production by the pancreas. It is not used for type 1 diabetes because in type 1 diabetes the pancreas is not able to produce insulin.[3]

Contraindications

Its use is contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to glimepiride or other sulfonylureas.

Adverse effects

Side effects from taking glimepiride include gastrointestinal tract (GI) disturbances, occasional allergic reactions, and rarely blood production disorders including thrombocytopenialeukopenia, and hemolytic anemia. In the initial weeks of treatment, the risk of hypoglycemia may be increased. Alcohol consumption and exposure to sunlight should be restricted because they can worsen side effects.[3]

Pharmacokinetics

Two generic oral tablets of glimepiride, 2 mg each

Gastrointestinal absorption is complete, with no interference from meals. Significant absorption can occur within one hour, and distribution is throughout the body, 99.5% bound to plasma protein. Metabolism is by oxidative biotransformation, it is hepatic and complete. First, the medication is metabolized to M1 metabolite by CYP2C9. M1possesses about ​13 of pharmacological activity of glimepiride, yet it is unknown if this results in clinically meaningful effect on blood glucose. M1 is further metabolized to M2metabolite by cytosolic enzymes. M2 is pharmacologically inactive. Excretion in the urine is about 65%, and the remainder is excreted in the feces.

Mechanism of action

Like all sulfonylureas, glimepiride acts as an insulin secretagogue.[4] It lowers blood sugar by stimulating the release of insulin by pancreatic beta cells and by inducing increased activity of intracellular insulin receptors.

Not all secondary sufonylureas have the same risks of hypoglycemia. Glibenclamide (glyburide) is associated with an incidence of hypoglycemia of up to 20–30%, compared to as low as 2% to 4% with glimepiride. Glibenclamide also interferes with the normal homeostatic suppression of insulin secretion in reaction to hypoglycemia, whereas glimepiride does not. Also, glibenclamide diminishes glucagon secretion in reaction to hypoglycemia, whereas glimepiride does not.[5]

Image result for SYNTHESIS Glimepiride

Image result for SYNTHESIS Glimepiride

Interactions

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (such as salicylates), sulfonamideschloramphenicolcoumadin and probenecid may potentiate the hypoglycemic action of glimepiride. Thiazides, other diuretics, phothiazides, thyroid products, oral contraceptives, and phenytoin tend to produce hyperglycemia.

 

SYNTHESIS

EP 0031058; US 4379785, Arzneim-Forsch Drug Res 1988,38(8),1079

The condensation of 3-ethyl-4-methyl-3-pyrrolin-2-one (I) with 2-phenylethyl isocyanate (II) at 150 C gives 3-ethyl-4-methyl-2-oxo-N-(2-phenylethyl)-3-pyrrolin-1-carboxamide (III), which is sulfonated with chlorosulfonic acid at 40 C to yield the corresponding benzenesulfonyl chloride (IV). The reaction of (IV) with concentrated NH4OH affords the sulfonamide (V), which is finally condensed with 4-methylcyclohexyl isocyanate (VI) in acetone.

clip

Image result for SYNTHESIS Glimepiride

CLIP

Image result for SYNTHESIS Glimepiride

Following is one of the synthesis routes: 3-Ethyl-4-methyl-3-pyrrolin-2-one could be condensed (I) with 2-phenylethyl isocyanate (II) at 150 C to produce 3-ethyl-4-methyl-2-oxo-N-(2-phenylethyl)-3-pyrrolin-1-carboxamide (III), which is sulfonated with chlorosulfonic acid at 40 C to yield the corresponding benzenesulfonyl chloride (IV). The reaction of (IV) with concentrated NH4OH affords the sulfonamide (V), which is finally condensed with 4-methylcyclohexyl isocyanate (VI) in acetone.

CLIP

http://science24.com/paper/6906

Image result for SYNTHESIS Glimepiride

PAPER

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S073170850500378X

Image result for SYNTHESIS Glimepiride

PATENT

https://www.google.com/patents/US20070082943

  • Glimepiride, according to U.S. Pat. No. 4,379,785 (EP 031058) issued to Hoechst is prepared via reaction of 4-[2-(3-Ethyl-4-methyl-2-carbonyl pyrrolidine amido) ethyl] benzene sulfonamide (IV) with trans-4-methylcyclohexyl isocyanate (VIII). U.S. Pat. No. 4,379,785 (EP 031058) (hereafter referred to as the ‘785 patent) discloses heterocyclic substituted sulfonyl ureas, particularly 3-Ethyl-2,5-dihydro-4-methyl-N-[2-[4-[[[[(trans-4-methyl cyclohexyl)amino]carbonyl]amino]sulfonyl]phenyl]ethyl]-2-oxo-1H-pyrrole-1-carboxamide i.e. Glimepiride (I). The ‘785 patent teaches the preparation of Glimepiride starting from 3-Ethyl-4-methyl-3-pyrolidine-2-one (II) and 2-phenyl ethyl isocyanate to give [2-(3-Ethyl-4-methyl-2-carbonyl pyrrolidine amido) ethyl] benzene (III). The [2-(3-Ethyl-4-methyl-2-carbonyl pyrrolidine amido) ethyl] benzene is converted to the 4-[2-(3-Ethyl-4-methyl-2-carbonyl pyrrolidine amido) ethyl] benzene sulfonamide (IV), by reacting with chlorosulphonic acid, followed by treatment with ammonia solution. This intermediate compound (IV) is then finally reacted with trans-4-methylcyclohexyl isocyanate (VIII) prepared from trans-4-methyl cyclohexylamine HCl (VII) to form Glimepiride.
  • [0004]
    Glimepiride can also be synthesized by reaction of N-[[4-[2-(3-ethyl-4-methyl-2-oxo-3-pyrroline-1-carboxamido)-ethyl]phenyl]sulphonyl]methylurethane (IX) with trans-4-methyl cyclohexyl amine (VII) as reported by R. Weyer, V. Hitzel in Arzneimittel Forsch 38, 1079 (1988).
  • [0005]
    trans-4Methylcyclohexyl isocyanate (VIII) is prepared from trans-4-methyl cyclohexyl amine HCl (VII), by phosgenation.
  • [0006]
    H. Ueda et. al., S.T.P Pharma Sciences, 13(4) 281-286, 2003 discloses a novel polymorph of Glimepiride, Form II obtained by recrystallisation from a solvent mixture of ethanol and water. It also discloses that earlier known form is Form I. Reported solvents for obtaining Form I are methanol, acetonitrile, chloroform, butyl acetate, benzene and toluene.
  • [0007]
    An alternative route is disclosed in WO03057131(Sun Pharmaceutical), where 3-ethyl-4-methyl-2,5-dihydro-N-(4-nitrophenyloxycarbonyl)-pyrrole-2-one is treated with 4-(2-aminoethyl)-benzene sulphonamide to obtain 4-[2-(3-Ethyl-4-methyl-2-carbonyl pyrrolidine amido) ethyl] benzene sulfonamide (IV) which was then converted to Glimepiride (I). However, nonavailability of raw material and the yield being poor, the process as described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,379,785 is preferred.
  • [0008]
    To obtain Glimepiride of highest purity, following intermediates should be of highest quality:
  • [0009]
    a) 4-[2-(3-Ethyl-4-methyl-2-carbonyl pyrrolidine amido) ethyl] benzene sulfonamide (IV) with lowest possible content of ortho and meta isomers.
  • [0010]
    b) Trans-4-methyl cyclohexyl amine (VII) and its respective isocyanate (VIII) should have lowest content of the cis isomer.
  • [0011]
    The preparation of the 4-[2-(3-Ethyl-4-methyl-2-carbonyl pyrrolidine amido) ethyl] benzene sulfonamide is well disclosed in the patent U.S. Pat. No. 4,379,785. It is prepared by condensation of 3-ethyl-4-methyl-3-pyrrolidine-2-one of Formula (II) with 2-phenyl ethyl isocyanate. The condensed product is then chlorosulphonated with chlorosulphonic acid followed by ammonolysis with liq. ammonia to give compound of Formula (IV). The purity is not well documented in the patents, and by following the patented process, ˜85 to 88% of desired para isomer is obtained. This is evident as the chlorosulphonation is ortho-para directing.
  • [0012]
    Hence, there is a need to develop purification process to maintain undesired ortho and meta isomers below 0.1%.
  • [0013]
    The other key intermediate trans-4-methylcyclohexyl amine HCl (VII) should preferably have lowest possible content of the cis isomer. The commonly used procedure is reduction of 4-methyl cyclohexanone oxime (V) with sodium in alcohol, preferably ethanol.
  • [0014]
    T. P. Johnston, et. al., J. Med. Chem., 14, 600-614 (1971); H. Booth, et. al., J. Chem. Soc (B) 1971, 1047-1050 and K. Ramalingam et. al., Indian Journal of Chem Vol. 40, 366-369 (April 1972) all report the abovementioned reduction. The amine obtained via this process typically contains between 8 to 10% of the cis isomer. However, use of high excess sodium metal (25 eqv.) for reduction makes process commercially and environmentally unviable. Also, the purification of trans amine from the mixture via the distillation is very difficult as the boiling points differ only by about 2° C. Also there is an inherent drawback of said free amine as, it immediately forms carbonate salt. Further purification of the amine to reduce the cis content via crystallization of its salt is not sufficiently documented. Prior art describes purification of crude trans-4-methylcyclohexylamine HCl by crystallization of its hydrochloride but the yield and purity are not sufficiently discussed. A description of such purification is provided in J. Med. Chem, 14, 600-614 (1971), wherein trans-4-methylcyclohexylamine HCl is obtained by triple crystallization in acetonitrile of the crude hydrochloride (m.p. 260° C.) in 27% yield.
  • [0015]
    WO 2004073585 (Zentiva) describes a process for preparation of trans-4-methylcyclohexylamine HCl wherein the highlights of the invention are the use of sodium metal and purification via the pivalic acid salt. However drawbacks of the process are use of sodium metal, which is hazardous and pivalic acid which is expensive. The overall yield is ˜40%.
  • [0016]
    Thus considering the current stringent pharmacopieal requirements for cis content, there is a need for obtaining Glimepiride having cis impurity content well below 0.15% by a cost effective process.
  • [0017]
    Key factors in the production of Glimepiride are:
  • [0018]
    a) Substantial purity of trans-4-methyl cyclohexyl amine HCl (VII) with the lowest possible content of the cis isomer.
  • [0019]
    b) Substantial purity of 4-[2-(3-Ethyl-4-methyl-2-carbonyl pyrrolidine amido) ethyl] benzene sulfonamide (IV) with the lowest possible content of the ortho and meta isomer.
  • [0020]
    The purity of intermediate compound of Formula (IV) when prepared by the process disclosed in ‘785 patent, was found to be 82 to 85% by HPLC.
    • schemes I to III.

      Figure US20070082943A1-20070412-C00001
      Figure US20070082943A1-20070412-C00002
      Figure US20070082943A1-20070412-C00003
    • [0037]
      The purification of trans-4-methyl cyclohexylamine HCl (VII) is accomplished by using an appropriate solvent combination. The mixture of cis/ trans stereoisomers (i.e. 50:50) were dissolved in diluted methanol and the desired trans isomer is coprecipitated by adding acetone to it. The process is repeated with different proportions of the solvent mixture to get the trans-4-Methyl cyclohexylamine HCl (VII) >99.5% with cis isomer less than 0.15%. The overall yield from 4-methyl cyclohexanone is ˜30%. The purification has been achieved using a solvent mixture of alcohol and ketone. A preferred alcohol for dissolution is an aliphatic one wherein carbon chain may be preferably C1-C4. Preferably methanol is used to dissolve the crude trans-4-Methyl cyclohexylamine HCl. The ratio of substrate:methanol:acetone is fixed at 1:1.5:6 for achieving the desired purity. The cosolvent used for precipitation is an aliphatic ketone. The preferred ketone is acetone. The precipitation is carried out at a temperature between 20 to 50° C., preferably between 30 to 50° C. and most preferably at about 40° C. The addition of acetone is carried out over a period of 2 to 6 hrs, more preferably for about 2 to 4 hrs and most preferably in about 3 hrs. The compound thus obtained has a purity >95% by gas chromatography.
    • [0038]
      The enriched trans-4-Methyl cyclohexylamine HCl (VII) (>95%) is further purified using different proportions of the same solvent mixture. The enriched trans isomer is dissolved in alcohol and reprecipitated using an aliphatic ketone. The ratio of substrate:methanol:acetone ratio is fixed at 1:1.5:13.6 for obtaining purity greater than 99.8%.

Image result for SYNTHESIS Glimepiride

    • EXAMPLE 1trans-4-Methyl cyclohexylamine HCl (VII)

    • [0053]
      1.5 Kg of crude 4-Methyl cyclohexyloxime (V) was dissolved in 8.33 L Methanol. To this 0.15 Kg Raney nickel was added. Then the mixture was hydrogenated at 4-5 Kg/cmpressure at 50 to 55° C. After the absorption of Hceases, the reaction mass is cooled down and filtered. From resulting reaction mixture, methanol was distilled completely. Crude concentrated oil obtained is cooled to 15 to 20° C. to which methanolic hydrochloric acid (12 to 13%) is added slowly, when the product i.e. 4-Methylcyclohexylamine HCl precipitates out. The yield obtained 1.5 Kg of crude 4-methyl cyclohexylamine HCl (85%) with ˜50% content of trans isomer. The crude 4-Methyl cyclohexylamine HCl 1.5 Kg (wet) was further purified in methanol/acetone mixture. The crude 4-methyl cyclohexylamine HCl (1.5 Kg) was dissolved in 2.25 L of methanol at 25 to 30° C. Slowly started addition of 13.5 L of acetone over a period of 3 hrs. The trans-4-methyl cyclohexylamine HCl precipitated out. Yield 0.6 Kg. The purity achieved of trans isomer is >95%. The cis isomer at this stage is ˜2 to 3%.
    • [0054]
      The trans-4-methyl cyclohexylamine HCl (0.6 Kg) thus obtained is again taken in 0.9 L of methanol and is dissolved completely at 25 to 30° C. 8.1 L acetone is added slowly over a period of 3 hrs when pure trans isomer precipitates out completely. The purity achieved at this stage is >99.8% and cis isomer well below 0.15%. The yield thus obtained after the second purification is 0.48 Kg of trans-4-Methyl cyclohexylamine HCl (27.2% yield calculated on the starting oxime). Purity of the desired trans isomer is greater than 99.8% by G.C.
    • [0055]
      Melting point of the trans-4-methyl cyclohexylamine HCl thus obtained is 262° C. to 263° C.

EXAMPLE 2Preparation of 4-[2-(3-Ethyl-4-methyl-2-carbonyl pyrrolidine amido) ethyl] benzene sulfonamide (IV)

    • [0056]
      3-Ethyl-4-methyl-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-2-one (II) (1.0 Kg) and β-phenylethyl isocyanate (1.488 Kg) were mixed in anhydrous toluene (4.0 L) and refluxed for 4 hrs. The toluene was distilled off and hexane (8.0 L) was added to the reaction mixture at 50° C. The product precipitated is cooled to 0 to 5° C. to obtain the solid compound viz. 4-[2-(3-Ethyl-4-methyl-2-carbonyl pyrrolidine amido) ethyl] benzene (2.17 Kg). It was filtered & washed with 2.0 L of hexane.
    • [0057]
      To a cooled (15 to 25° C.) solution of chlorosulfonic acid (2.8 L), 4-[2-(3-Ethyl-4-methyl-2-carbonyl pyrrolidine amido)ethyl] benzene (2.0 Kg) was added in small portions over a period of 2 to 3 hrs. Further it was stirred for 30 min at this temperature and then temperature was gradually raised to 30 to 35° C. The reaction mass is stirred further for 2 hrs. The reaction mixture was then quenched into ice-water and stirred for 1 hr and filtered to obtain the product 4-[2-(3-Ethyl-4-methyl-2-carbonyl pyrrolidine amido)ethyl] benzene sulfonyl chloride (2.0 kg). To a cooled (15 to 20° C.) solution of diluted ammonia (1.4 L) 4-[2-(3-Ethyl-4-methyl-2-carbonyl pyrrolidine amido) ethyl] benzene sulfonyl chloride was added in small portion over 1 to 2 hrs. The reaction mixture was then heated to 70° C. for 2 hrs when ammonolysis is complete. The product converted is then stirred for 1 hr at R.T. and filtered and dried at 90 to 100° C. to obtain crude 4-[2-(3-Ethyl-4-methyl-2-carbonyl pyrrolidine amido) ethyl] benzene sulfonamide (2.2 Kg) having HPLC purity in the range of 82 to 88%. The crude compound 4-[2-(3-Ethyl-4-methyl-2-carbonyl pyrrolidine amido) ethyl] benzene sulfonamide (2.2 Kg) is then purified from mixture of organic solvents chosen from Methanol, Acetone & toluene.

EXAMPLE 3APurification of 4-[2-(3-Ethyl-4-methyl-2-carbonyl pyrrolidine amido)ethyl] benzene sulfonamide (IV)

    • [0058]
      1st Purification
    • [0059]
      In a reaction vessel containing Toluene (12.0 L), 4-[2-(3-Ethyl-4-methyl-2-carbonyl pyrrolidine amido) ethyl] benzene sulfonamide (2.0 Kg) was charged at 25 to 30° C. Slowly the temperature was raised to 60 to 65° C. and methanol (5.0 L) was added via the dosing tank slowly when the product dissolved completely. Refluxed it for 0.5 hr. Charcoalised and filtered the product in another reaction vessel. Distill off toluene/methanol mixture till total recovery about 65% under vacuum. White crystalline product precipitated out. After the recovery, cool the reaction mass to 15 to 20° C. The resulting crystallized solid product was filtered and washed two times with chilled acetone (about 2 L) each. The resulting product was dried at 90 to 100° C. in air oven till constant weight to obtain about 1.4 Kg of 4-[2-(3-Ethyl-4-methyl-2-carbonyl pyrrolidine amido)ethyl] benzene sulfonamide with greater than 95% HPLC purity.

EXAMPLE 3BPurification of 4-[2-(3-Ethyl-4-methyl-2-carbonyl pyrrolidine amido)ethyl] benzene sulfonamide (IV)

    • [0060]
      2nd Purification
    • [0061]
      In a reaction vessel containing Acetone (8.4 L), (1.4 Kg) of 1st purified 4-[2-(3-Ethyl-4-methyl-2-carbonyl pyrrolidine amido)ethyl] benzene sulfonamide was charged at 25 to 30° C. slowly and the temperature was raised to 55 to 60° C. Methanol was added (5.6 L) via the dose tank at this reflux temperature to dissolve it completely. Refluxed it for further 30 min. Distilled off acetone/ methanol mixture till total recovery about 65 to 70%. White crystalline product precipitated out. After the recovery slowly cooled the product to 15 to 20° C. The resultant solid product was filtered, washed two times with chilled acetone (1.4 L) each. The 4-[2-(3-Ethyl-4-methyl-2-carbonyl pyrrolidine amido) ethyl] benzene sulfonamide was dried at 90 to 100° C. in air oven till constant weight to obtain about 1.12 Kg of 4-[2-(3-Ethyl-4-methyl-2-carbonyl pyrrolidine amido)ethyl] benzene sulfonamide (IV) with greater than 99.5% purity with other isomers i.e. ortho and meta well below 0.2% respectively.

EXAMPLE 4Preparation of 3-Ethyl-2,5-dihydro-4-methyl-N-[2-[4-[[[[(trans-4-methyl cyclohexyl)amino]carbonyl]amino]sulfonyl]phenyl]ethyl]-2-oxo-1 H-pyrrole-1-carboxamide (I).

    • [0062]
      In a reaction vessel containing (24.2 L) Acetone, 4-[2-(3-Ethyl-4-methyl-2-carbonyl pyrrolidine amido)ethyl] benzene sulfonamide (1.0 Kg) and potassium carbonate (0.46 Kg) was added and refluxed at about 55 to 60° C. for 1 hr. trans-4-Methyl-cyclohexyl isocyanate was obtained by method known in art from trans-4-methyl-cyclohexylamine. A solution of trans-4-methyl-cyclohexyl isocyanate (0.515 Kg) in toluene (5 L) was prepared and added to the above reaction mixture. This reaction mixture is refluxed for 12 hrs, then cooled. To this cooled reaction mass charge 27 L of water. The reaction mass was filtered and the pH was adjusted to 5.5 to 6.0 by adding acetic acid at about 20 to 25° C. The solid obtained was filtered and washed with water. The 3-Ethyl-2,5-dihydro-4-methyl-N-[2-[4-[[[[(trans-4-methyl cyclohexyl)amino]carbonyl]amino]sulfonyl]phenyl]ethyl]-2-oxo-1H-pyrrole-1-carboxamide (I) obtained is then dried at 90 to 100° C. till constant weight. Yield of the product is 86.3%.

EXAMPLE 5Purification of 3-Ethyl-2,5-dihydro-4-methyl-N-[2-[4-[[[[(trans-4-methyl cyclohexyl)amino]carbonyl]amino]sulfonyl]phenyl]ethyl]-2-oxo-1H-pyrrole-1-carboxamide (I)

  • [0063]
    In a reaction vessel containing 6.0 L methanol and 1.0 Kg crude Glimepiride, dry ammonia gas was purged at 20 to 25° C. till all Glimepiride dissolves and a clear solution is obtained. This homogeneous mass was then charcoalised, filtered and finally neutralized with Glacial acetic acid to pH 5.5 to 6.0, till the entire product precipitates out. The pure Glimepiride was then filtered and dried at 65° C. to 70° C. till constant weight. Yield obtained was ˜90%.

CLIP

  • Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 100(11):4700-9
  • DOI
  • 10.1002/jps.22662

Image result for GLIMEPIRIDE NMR

Magnified 1H NMR spectra of (a) glimepiride and its solid dispersions with hyperbranched polymers containing the (b) hydroxyl and (c) the tertiary amino functional groups.

Magnified 13C NMR spectra of (a) glimepiride and its solid dispersions with hyperbranched polymers containing (b) the hydroxyl and (c) the tertiary amino functional groups.

The difference spectra of the solid dispersions of glimepiride and the hyperbranched polymer containing (a) the hydroxyl groups and (b) the tertiary amino groups. The difference spectra were obtained by subtraction of the spectra of the pure hyperbranched polymers from the spectra of the solid dispersions. The ATR spectra of the pure hyperbranched polymers were recorded on samples that were prepared under the same conditions as solid dispersions, only without the presence of the glimepiride drug.

Patents

  1. US6150383
  2. US6211205
  3. US6303640
  4. US6329404
  5. US8071130
  6. US7538125
  7. US7700128
  8. US7358366

FDA Orange Book Patents

FDA Orange Book Patents: 1 of 3 (FDA Orange Book Patent ID)
Patent 7358366
Expiration Apr 19, 2020. 7358366*PED expiration date: Oct 19, 2020
Applicant SB PHARMCO
Drug Application
  1. N021700 (Prescription Drug: AVANDARYL. Ingredients: GLIMEPIRIDE
  2. ROSIGLITAZONE MALEATE)
FDA Orange Book Patents: 2 of 3 (FDA Orange Book Patent ID)
Patent 8071130
Expiration Jun 8, 2028
Applicant TAKEDA PHARMS USA
Drug Application
  1. N021925 (Prescription Drug: DUETACT. Ingredients: GLIMEPIRIDE
  2. PIOGLITAZONE HYDROCHLORIDE)
  3. N021925 (Prescription Drug: DUETACT. Ingredients: GLIMEPIRIDE
  4. PIOGLITAZONE HYDROCHLORIDE)
FDA Orange Book Patents: 3 of 3 (FDA Orange Book Patent ID)
Patent 7700128
Expiration Jan 30, 2027
Applicant TAKEDA PHARMS USA
Drug Application
  1. N021925 (Prescription Drug: DUETACT. Ingredients: GLIMEPIRIDE
  2. PIOGLITAZONE HYDROCHLORIDE)
  3. N021925 (Prescription Drug: DUETACT. Ingredients: GLIMEPIRIDE
  4. PIOGLITAZONE HYDROCHLORIDE)

CLIP

STR2

Journal of  China Pharmaceutical University       1999 , 30(3):163 ~ 165

Ethyl acetoacetate (2) Preparation of literature more, such as with ethyl iodide or ethyl bromide as ethyl reagents will produce a double ethylation or oxyethylation, it is difficult to separate. We use dimethylamine and ethyl acetoacetate reaction enamine, then diethyl sulfate as ethylating agent, you can reduce the side reactions, product purity, the yield up to 80%. Preparation of cyanohydrin (3) Hydrochloric acid anhydrous literature, toxicity, difficult to operate, we use solid sodium cyanide and sodium bisulfite in the aqueous phase reaction, get 3, easy to operate. In the literature 1-acetyl-3- Ethyl-4-methyl-3-pyrrolin-2-one (4) was purified by high vacuum distillation and then hydrolyzed to give 3-ethyl- In the distillation of the product easy to loss, after the change to the crude hydrolysis, two-step yield of 33%. Reported in the literature 5 and phenethyl isocyanate (6) without solvent direct reaction of 3-ethyl-4-methyl-2-oxo-3-pyrroline-1 – N- (2 – phenethyl) A Amide (7), the experiment found that the reaction heat when the heating easy to red material, we add toluene as a solvent, the reaction is smooth, easy to post-treatment. 6 preparation, the general method is to use phosgene, but phosgene often Temperature of gas, highly toxic, difficult to operate, we use triphosgene instead of triphosgene as a yellow solid, easy to transport, weighing, laboratory convenience. We refer to the process of domestic glyburide, 7 chlorosulfonated, ammoniated sulfonamide (9), two-step yield of 77%. The last 9 reacts with trans-4-methylcyclohexylisocyanate to form glimepiride (1). Ethyl acetoacetate as the starting material, eight-step total yield of 11.5%.

Journal of  China Pharmaceutical University       1999 , 30(3):163 ~ 165

Glimepi ride (1) trade name Amary l, chemical name 1- [4- [2- (3-ethyl-4-methyl-2-oxo-3-pyrroline-1-carboxamido ) Ethyl] phenylsulfonyl] -3- (trans-4-methylcyclohexyl) urea, a new sulfonylurea hypoglycemic agent developed by Hoechst AG in Germany and listed in the Netherlands and Switzerland in 1995, In 1996 the United States FDA approval

  • 1 Campbell RK.Glimepiride :Role  of  a  new   sulfonylurea  in  the t reatment of type 2  diabetes mellitus .An n Pharmacother ,  1998 , 32 :1044
  • 2 Hans P ,   Joachim  K .Synt hesis  of  oxyopsopy rrolecarboxyli c acid

and  further  investigations  in  the  pyrrolone  series.Ann  Chem ,

1964 , 680 :60

  • 3 Glimepiride.Dr ugs F ut , 1992 , 17(9):774
  • 4 Corson BB,   Dodge  RA ,   Harris  SA ,   et  al .M andeli c acid.Org Syn ,  1941 ,   Coll Vol 1 :329
  • 5 M aurice WG ,  Roy  VD,   Brian  I ,   et  a l .A new  synt hesis  of iso- cyanates .J  Chem Soc ,  Perkin  Ⅰ ,  1976 :141
  • 6 天津医药工业研究所.糖尿病药物-优降糖的新合成法.医药工业, 1974 , 4 :11
  • 7 Weyer R, Gei sen K , Hitzel V ,   et  al .Heterocyclic subst ituted sul- f onyl ureas and their  use .Ger O f fen ,  1979 :2951135 A 1
Cited Patent Filing date Publication date Applicant Title
US4379785 * Dec 17, 1980 Apr 12, 1983 Hoechst Aktiengesellschaft Heterocyclic substituted sulfonyl ureas, and their use

References

  1. Jump up^ Hamaguchi T, Hirose T, Asakawa H, et al. (December 2004). “Efficacy of glimepiride in type 2 diabetic patients treated with glibenclamide”. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 66 Suppl 1: S129–32. doi:10.1016/j.diabres.2003.12.012PMID 15563963.
  2. Jump up^ Davis SN (2004). “The role of glimepiride in the effective management of Type 2 diabetes”. J. Diabetes Complicat18 (6): 367–76. doi:10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2004.07.001PMID 15531188.
  3. Jump up to:a b “Glimepiride: MedlinePlus Drug Information”nih.gov.
  4. Jump up^ Nissen SE, Nicholls SJ, Wolski K, et al. (April 2008). “Comparison of pioglitazone vs glimepiride on progression of coronary atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes: the PERISCOPE randomized controlled trial”. JAMA299 (13): 1561–73. doi:10.1001/jama.299.13.1561PMID 18378631.
  5. Jump up^ Davis, Stephen N. (2005). “60. Insulin, oral hypoglycemic agents, and the pharmacology of the endocrine pancreas”. In Brunton, Laurence L.; Lazo, John S.; Parker, Keith L. (eds.). Goodman & Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. New York: McGraw-Hill. p. 1636. ISBN 0-07-142280-3.

External links

Title: Glimepiride
CAS Registry Number: 93479-97-1
CAS Name: 3-Ethyl-2,5-dihydro-4-methyl-N-[2-[4-[[[[(trans-4-methylcyclohexyl)amino]carbonyl]amino]sulfonyl]phenyl]ethyl]-2-oxo-1H-pyrrole-1-carboxamide
Additional Names: N-[4-[2-(3-ethyl-4-methyl-2-oxo-3-pyrroline-1-carboxamido)-ethyl]-benzenesulfonyl]-N¢-4-methylcyclohexylurea; 1-[4-[2-(3-ethyl-4-methyl-2-oxo-3-pyrroline-1-carboxamido)ethyl]phenylsulfonyl]-3-(4-methylcyclohexyl)urea
Manufacturers’ Codes: HOE-490
Trademarks: Amaryl (Aventis)
Molecular Formula: C24H34N4O5S
Molecular Weight: 490.62
Percent Composition: C 58.75%, H 6.99%, N 11.42%, O 16.31%, S 6.54%
Literature References: Sulfonylurea. Prepn: R. Weyer et al., DE 2951135eidem, US 4379785 (1981, 1983 both to Hoechst). Synthesis: R. Weyer, V. Hitzel, Arzneim.-Forsch. 38, 1079 (1988). Pharmacology: K. Geisen, ibid., 1120. Effects on insulin and glucagon secretion: V. Leclercq-Meyer et al., Biochem. Pharmacol. 42, 1634 (1991). HPLC determn in biological fluids: K. H. Lehr, P. Damm, J. Chromatogr. 526, 497 (1990). Clinical pharmacokinetics: K. Ratheiser et al., Arzneim.-Forsch. 43, 856 (1993). Toxicity study: U. Schollmeier et al., ibid. 1038. Series of articles on pharmacology and clinical efficacy: Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 28Suppl., S115-S149 (1995).
Properties: mp 207°.
Melting point: mp 207°
Therap-Cat: Antidiabetic.
Keywords: Antidiabetic; Sulfonylurea Derivatives.
Glimepiride
Glimepiride.svg
Clinical data
Trade names Amaryl
AHFS/Drugs.com Monograph
MedlinePlus a696016
License data
Pregnancy
category
  • US: C (Risk not ruled out)
Routes of
administration
Oral (tablets)
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
  • US: ℞-only
  • In general: ℞ (Prescription only)
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 100%
Protein binding >99.5%
Metabolism Complete hepatic (1st stage through CYP2C9)
Biological half-life 5–8 hours
Excretion Urine (~60%), feces (~40%)
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
IUPHAR/BPS
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
ChEMBL
ECHA InfoCard 100.170.771
Chemical and physical data
Formula C24H34N4O5S
Molar mass 490.617 g/mol
3D model (JSmol)

///////////Amaryl, glimepiride, glymepiride, HOE 490

CCC1=C(CN(C1=O)C(=O)NCCC2=CC=C(C=C2)S(=O)(=O)NC(=O)NC3CCC(CC3)C)C

OXCARBAZEPINE


Oxcarbazepine

Image result for oxcarbazepine

Oxcarbazepine

  • Molecular FormulaC15H12N2O2
  • Average mass252.268 Da
  • 10-Oxo-10,11-dihydro-dibenzo[b,f]azepine-5-carboxylic acid amide
    28721-07-5 [RN]
    5H-Dibenz[b,f]azepine-5-carboxamide, 10,11-dihydro-10-oxo-

Image result for oxcarbazepine synthesis shodhganga

UV Spectroscopy The UV absorption spectrum of carbamazepine in methanol shown in Fig. 1 was recorded using Shimadzu UV–vis Spectrometer 1601 PC. The compound exhibited maxima at 288 and 259 nm. Clarke reported the following: methanol—237 and 285 nm (A 1%, 1 cm¼490) [1].

1 A.C. Moffat (Ed.), Clarke’s Isolation and Identification of Drugs, second ed.,
The Pharmaceutical Press, London, 1986, p. 428.

Vibrational Spectroscopy The FT-infrared absorption spectrum of carbamazepine was obtained in a KBr pellet using a Perkin-Elmer FT-infrared spectrophotometer. FTinfrared spectrum is shown in Fig. 2, where the principal peaks are observed at 3465, 3157, 1675, 1604, 1594, 1488, 1381, 1307, 870, 800, 762, and 724 cm1 .

1 H NMR Spectra The proton nuclear resonance (1 H NMR) spectra of carbamazepine were obtained using a Bruker instrument operating at 500 MHz. Standard Bruker software was used to execute the recording of the 1D and 2D spectra. The sample was dissolved in DMSO-d6 and all resonance bands were referencedto tetramethylsilane (TMS) as internal standard. The entire proton spectra are shown in Figs. 3 and 4. A singlet resonates at δ 5.54 representing the two protons of the amino group. An additional singlet which resonates at δ 6.99 ppm is assigned to the olefinic protons at positions 10 and 11. The two multiplets which resonate at δ 7.30–7.34 and δ 7.41–7.43 ppm are assigned to the aromatic protons of the two phenyl rings.

13C NMR Spectra A noise-modulated, broadband decoupling 13C NMR spectrum (Fig. 5) showed 11 carbon absorptions in accordance with what is anticipated for the structure of carbamazepine. Carbon resonance bands at δ 127.1, 129.0, 129.2, 129.3, 129.8, 130.3, 131.0, and 134.8 ppm account for the CH functions. A carbon band at δ 140.6 ppm represents the ethylene carbons. The carbonyl carbon resonates at δ 156.3 ppm. A DEPT experiment (Fig. 6) permitted the identification and confirmation of the methyl and methine carbons. Another confirmation was obtained through the HSQC experiment (Fig. 7).

SYN 1

http://www.drugfuture.com/synth/syndata.aspx?ID=117845

DD 153835; EP 0028028; JP 1045366; JP 1045367; JP 1045368; US 4452738; US 4540514; US 4559174; US 4579683

The nitration of 5-cyano 5H-dibenz[f,b]azepine (IV) with NaNO2 in acetic anhydride – acetic acid gives 5-cyano 10-nitro-5H-dibenz[b, f]azepine (V), which is then treated with BrF3 and powdered Fe in hot acetic acid.

SYN2

DE 2011087

The reaction of 10-methoxy-5H-dibenz[b,f]azepine (I) with phosgene in hot toluene gives 10-methoxy-5H-dibenz[b,f]azepine-5-carbonyl chloride (II), which is treated with NH3 in refluxing ethanol to afford 10-methoxy-5H-dibenz[b,f]azepine-5-carboxamide (III). Finally, this compound is hydrolyzed with refluxing 2N HCl.

SYN 3

WO 9621649

This compound has been obtained by two related ways: 1. The hydrolysis of 10-methoxy-5H-dibenzo[b,f]azepine (I) with refluxing 2N HCl gives 10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[b,f]azepin-5-one (II), which is then treated with chlorosulfonyl isocyanate in chloroform to yield the target carboxamide. 2. The reaction of 10-methoxy-5H-dibenzo[b,f]azepine (I) with potassium cyanate in hot sulfuric acid also gives the target carboxamide. In this reaction sodium cyanate can also be used instead of the potassium salt. Other strong acids such as trichloroacetic acid or anhydrous HCl in acetic acid can be used instead of sulfuric acid.

SYN 4

The reaction of 10-methoxy-5H-dibenz[b,f]azepine (I) with phosgene in hot toluene gives 10-methoxy-5H-dibenz[b,f]azepine-5-carbonyl chloride (II), which is treated with NH3 in refluxing ethanol to afford 10-methoxy-5H-dibenz[b,f]azepine-5-carboxamide (III). Finally, this compound is hydrolyzed with refluxing 2N HCl.

SYN 5

WO 0156992

A new process for the preparation of oxcarbamazepine has been reported: Reaction of 1-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-indol-2-one (I) with NaOH in refluxing THF gives 2-[2-(phenylamino)phenyl]acetic acid (II), which is condensed with dimethyl carbonate (III) by means of butyl lithium in the same solvent to yield 2-[2-[N-(methoxycarbonyl)-N-phenylamino]phenyl]acetic acid (IV). Cyclization of compound (IV) by means of polyphosphoric acid (PPA) at 100 C, followed by treatment of the reaction mixture with hot methanol (65 C) affords 10-methoxy-5H-dibenzo[b,f]azepine-5-carboxylic acid methyl ester (V), which is treated with NaOH in polyethyleneglycol at 100 C to provide 10-methoxy-5H-dibenzo[b,f]azepine (VI). Reaction of (VI) with sodium

SYN 6

Tetrahedron Lett 2001,42(3),385

Syntheses of intermediate (V), 5-benzyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenz[b,f]azepin-10-one: Cyclization of either 2-[N-benzyl-N-(2-methylphenyl)amino]-N,N-dimethylbenzamide (I), 2-[N-benzyl-N-(2-methylphenyl)amino]-N,N-diethylbenzamide (II), 2-[N-benzyl-N-(2-methylphenyl)amino]-N,N-diisopropylbenzamide (III) or the morpholine derivative (IV) by means of LDA and TMEDA in THF

Syntheses of intermediate (VIII), 5-(4-methoxybenzyl)-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenz[b,f]azepin-10-one: Cyclization of 2-[N-(4-methoxybenzyl)-N-(2-methylphenyl)amino]-N,N-dimethylbenzamide (VI) or 2-[N-(4-methoxybenzyl)-N-(2-methylphenyl)amino]-N,N-diethylbenzamide (VII)) by means of LDA and TMEDA in THF.

Syntheses of intermediate (XI), 5-allyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenz[b,f]azepin-10-one: Cyclization of 2-[N-allyl-N-(2-methylphenyl)amino]-N,N-dimethylbenzamide (IX) or 2-[N-allyl-N-(2-methylphenyl)amino]-N,N-diethylbenzamide (X) by means of LDA and TMEDA in THF.

Finally, deprotection of either intermediate (V) with TMS-Cl and NaI, intermediate (VIII) with TiCl4 or intermediate (XI) with Rh(PPh3)3Cl give, in all cases, 10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenz[b,f]azepin-10-one (XII), which is finally treated with chlorosulfonyl isocyanate to afford oxcarbazepine.

PATENT

Image result for oxcarbazepine synthesis shodhganga

https://www.google.com/patents/US6670472

Oxcarbazepine is an anticonvulsant drug (as described in U.S. Pat. No. 3,642,775), and has been proposed for use as an anti-epileptical agent in the treatment of AIDS-related neural disorders (as described in PCT patent specification no. WO 94/20110); and for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease and/or Parkinsonian syndromes (as described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,658,900 and European patent specification no. 678 026).

Various processes for preparing oxcarbazepine have been described in the prior art. For example, U.S. Pat. No. 3,642,775 describes the preparation of oxcarbazepine from 10-methoxyiminostilbene (Scheme-1), which is first phosgenated in toluene, followed by amidation (ethanol and ammonia) and hydrolysis in an acidic medium to furnish the desired product. The main drawback of this process is the use of phosgene (COCl2), a toxic and hazardous substance.

Canadian patent specification no. 1 112 241 describes an alternative preparation of oxcarbazepine from the catalysed re-arrangement of 10,11-epoxycarbamazepine, which itself may be prepared from carbamazepine by reaction with m-chloroperbenzoic acid (CPBA) (Scheme-2). However, the drawbacks of this process are: use of carbamazepine, an expensive raw material; and converting this into its corresponding epoxide in poor yields and quality.

Figure US06670472-20031230-C00001
Figure US06670472-20031230-C00002

Another process, disclosed in European patent specification no. 028 028, starts from 5-cyanoiminostilbene through nitration, reduction and hydrolysis stages (Scheme-3). However, the drawback of the process is in the preparation of the 5-cyanoiminostilbene itself, which can be made from iminostilbene and cyanogen chloride. The latter is also toxic, hazardous and difficult to handle.

Figure US06670472-20031230-C00003

Another alternative is described in Swiss patent specification no. 642 950 and comprises hydrolysis, using concentrated sulphuric acid, of the corresponding chloride (10-chloro-5H-dibenz[b,f]azepin-5carboxamide) to form the oxcarbazepine.

More recently, a process has been described in PCT patent specification no. WO 96/21649 (Scheme-4), which starts with 10-methoxyiminostilbene and treats it with an alkali or alkaline earth metal cyanate and acid to produce 10-methoxycarbamazepine which, on acid hydrolysis, furnishes oxcarbazepine. Alternatively, 10-methoxyiminostilbene is first hydrolysed to produce 10-oxo-iminodibenzyl (10-keto-iminodibenzyl) which, upon condensation with chlorosulphonyl isocyanate followed by hydrolysis, furnishes oxcarbazepine. Chlorosulphonyl isocyanate is a very costly, highly moisture-sensitive and toxic reagents which is the main drawback of this latter process.

The biggest problem with the former process is that 10-methoxyiminostilbene undergoes two kinds of competitive reactions when an alkali metal cyanate and an acid are added. The enol-ether moiety of the compound undergoes hydrolysis to give the corresponding ketone (“oxo” compound), which does not undergo a carboxamidation reaction with HOCN, whereas the imino function of the intact 10-methoxyiminostilbene does undergo a carboxamidation reaction. Therefore, the end result is that a mixture of oxcarbazepine, oxo-iminodibenzyl and impurities are obtained, after hydrolysis, making the subsequent crystallization process highly tedious and uneconomical.

Figure US06670472-20031230-C00004

The acids that are used in this reaction (Scheme-4), according to the Examples of WO 96/21649, include acetic acid, mono-, di- and tri-chloroacetic acids, dry HCl and concentrated sulphuric acid etc. The general description teaches that concentrated mineral acids are to be used, optionally in solution in the organic acids. Nevertheless, all these acids produce substantial quantities of side products, ie oxo-iminodibenzyl and impurities formed therefrom. Due to this, although the conversion is high, the selectivity leading to the carboxamidation reaction is poor.

Furthermore, international patent specification no. WO 01/56992 describes the use of acetic acid in the absence of an additional solvent in this process, which is stated to result in an improved yield. Nothing about the purity of the end-product (oxcarbazepine) is mentioned, however, and the specific example given shows that the yield thereof is less than or equal to 78% after hydrolysis with water and sulphuric acid in the absence of a solvent such as toluene.

All the known methods therefore suffer from disadvantages, in particular, the requirement to use “environmentally unfriendly” reactants, and/or result in poor yields due to side reactions as mentioned above. In particular, the method described in WO 01/56992 precludes the use of a solvent, which imposes unfavourable limitations on the subsequent processing of the intermediate in the preparation of the end-product.

We have surprisingly found that reaction of 10-methoxyiminostilbene with cyanic acid (HOCN) in the presence of a mild acidic reagent, especially an aromatic acid, enables the disadvantages of the prior art preparation of 10-methoxycarbamazepine to be overcome. In particular, it allows for the use of a solvent in the subsequent reaction steps, which has advantages as will be further described hereinbelow

Accordingly, the present invention provides a process for the preparation of 10-methoxycarbamazepine, which process comprises reacting 10-methoxyiminostilbene with HOCN in a solvent therefor in the presence of a mild acidic reagent. It is important that the mild acidic reagent be chosen so that the enol-ether function is not rapidly hydrolysed. Accordingly, this reagent is preferably a weak acid, such as an aromatic acid. Preferred aromatic acids include weak, non-aliphatic organic acids, such as benzoic acid and substituted benzoic acids; suitable substituents being halo, especially chloro eg para-chlorobenzoic acid. Suitably, the acid has a pKa value in the range of from about 10−4 to 10−5.

Furthermore, the mild acidic reagent is preferably relatively insoluble in the solvent, especially at room temperature but also preferably at the temperature of the reaction, compared to other acids, such as acetic acid. Suitably, the mild acidic reagent has a solubility in the solvent of less than 75%, preferably less than 50% and more preferably less than 25% in the solvent. Especially preferred is when the mild acidic reagent has a solubility of less than about 10-12%, even at elevated temperatures, such as at the temperature of the reaction, and particularly preferred is when the mild acidic reagent has a solubility of less than about 1% at room/ambient Temperature. In this context, it is to be understood that ‘room temperature’ is less than 35° C. and more usually about 20-25° C., such as 21-22° C. Of all the aromatic acids, benzoic acid is the most suitable acid in terms of selectivity (by ‘selectivity’ in this context is meant preference for the carboxamidation reaction over the enol-ether hydrolysis).

Excess molar quantity of the weak acid is preferably used in comparison to the 10-methoxyiminostilbene starting material; for example, in the range of from 2 to 10 molar excess, more preferably about 5 to 8 times, eg 6-7 times, benzoic acid is most preferably employed in the reaction. Most of the acidic reagent can be easily recovered and re-used, such as up to 90-95% can be re-cycled. Such acids less readily hydrolyse the enol-ether moiety present in the 10-methoxyiminostilbene, while nevertheless being able readily to catalyse the reaction between the 10-methoxyiminostilbene and the HOCN.

In another aspect, the present invention provides a process for the preparation of 10-methoxycarbamazepine, which process comprises reacting 10-methoxyiminostilbene with HOCN in the absence of a strong acid. In particular, the present invention provides a process for the preparation of 10-methoxycarbamazepine, which process comprises reacting 10-methoxyiminostilbene with HOCN in the absence of an acid having a high solubility in the solvent. In this context, a strong acid is one that would rapidly hydrolyse the enol-ether function of the starting material, such as aliphatic organic acids (including acetic acid, which also has a high solubility in solvents such as toluene) and mineral acids. For example, when aliphatic acids, such as acetic acid, monochloro-acetic acid, ethylhexanoic acid and phenylacetic acid etc, were used in the reaction, the percentage formation of 10-methoxycarbamazepine was very poor, varying from 26% to 51%. Worse still, when mineral acids, such as hydrochloric acid and sulphuric acid, were tried, the percentage formation of 10-methoxycarbamazepine was even more poor (˜1%). In all the above reactions (ie when aliphatic acids or mineral acids were used), a significant percentage of 10-oxo-iminostilbene and impurities were formed. Table 1 below shows the results, using sodium cyanate in all reactions and 10 volumes of toluene per part of 10-methoxyiminostilbene.

TABLE 1
HPLC Analysis
% of 10- % of
Reflux Conversion methoxycarba- Oxo- Total % of Unreacted
Acid used (hours) (%) mazepine IDB Impurity 10-methoxy ISB
Hydrochloric acid 4 89.63 0.24 70.19 19.19 10.37
Sulphuric acid 4 99.48 1.12 93.67 4.69 0.52
Acetic acid 12 59.05 26.22 12.97 19.86 40.95
Monochloro-acetic acid 12 96.32 51.5 24.00 20.82 3.68
Ethylhexanoic acid 22 44.14 22.86 12.93 8.35 55.86
Benzoic acid 12 98.00 75.50 9.10 13.40 2.00
p-Chlorobenzoic acid 12 99.66 56.44 20.00 23.22 0.34
o-Chlorobenzoic acid 12 98.13 31.25 54.77 12.11 1.87
2,4-Dichlorobenzoic acid 6 98.48 55.45 30.04 12.99 1.52
Phenylacetic acid 6 72.88 34.38 18.36 20.14 27.12

On the contrary, when the aromatic acids such as mentioned above are used, the selectivity of the main reaction (ie the carboxamidation reaction as compared to hydrolysis of the enol-ether moiety) can increase to more than 75%. This results in improved efficiency and eventually in simpler methods of purification of the end product oxcarbazepine, resulting in easier commercialization of the process.

The carboxamidation of the 10-methoxyiminostilbene according to the present invention is preferably carried out in an organic medium, most preferably under reflux conditions. The organic medium is suitably an aromatic hydrocarbon solvent or an aliphatic chlorinated solvent, such as benzene, toluene, xylene, dichloromethane, chloroform and dichloroethane etc, including others described in relation to the Scheme-4 synthesis mentioned above and in WO 96/21649. The solvent(s) used in the carboxamidation reaction also play an important role in the selectivity and completion of reaction. We have found that toluene is the best solvent both in terms of selectivity and completion of reaction. It is important that the solvent is chosen such that the starting material and the HOCN are both soluble therein. Furthermore, as indicated above, it is important that the weak acid is relatively insoluble therein.

The HOCN reacts with the imino function to produce desired intermediate, 10-methoxycarbamazepine, which can afford the pharmacologically active end-product, ie oxcarbazepine, after hydrolysis.

The HOCN may be generated in situ by reaction of an alkali metal cyanate with the mild acidic reagent. Suitable cyanates include sodium and potassium, preferably sodium, cyanates. However, other methods of generating the HOCN, such as from cyanuric acid (as described in the Merck Index or by Linhard in Anorg Allgem Chem 236 200 (1938)) or other means may be used. Nevertheless, we have found that the method using sodium cyanate and an aromatic organic acid, especially benzoic acid, is commercially the most viable. In the preferred method of this invention, therefore, the mild acidic reagent is also capable of reacting with an alkali metal cyanate to produce cyanic acid (HOCN).

Accordingly, the present invention in a preferred aspect provides a process for the preparation of 10-methoxycarbamazepine, which process comprises reacting 10-methoxyiminostilbene with an alkali metal cyanate and a mild acidic reagent, as defined above.

Accordingly, the present invention further provides an improved method for preparing oxcarbazepine from 10-methoxystilbene, wherein the improvement comprises preparing the intermediate 10-methoxycarbamazepine according to the method described above.

The intermediate 10-methoxycarbamazepine is then preferably hydrolysed with an acid, more preferably a dilute mineral acid, such as hydrochloric and sulphuric acids, especially hydrochloric acid (HCI) to furnish oxcarbazepine. Finally, the oxcarbazepine thus obtained may be purified in a mixture of solvent systems selected from both a protic solvent with either an aromatic hydrocarbon solvent or a halogenated aliphatic solvent and an aromatic hydrocarbon solvent with a halogenated aliphatic solvent. Preferably, the mixed solvent system is one wherein the oxcarbazepine is soluble at elevated temperatures, suitably in the range of from 45 to 75° C., but crystallizes therefrom upon cooling. The oxcarbazepine may not be appreciably soluble in any of these solvents individually, but may be soluble in the mixture at elevated temperature. Examples of suitable mixtures include those such as methanol:toluene; dichloromethane:toluene; dichloroethane:toluene; dichloromethane:methanol; and dichloroethane:methanol.

Hydrolysis of the methoxycarbamazepine is preferably carried out in a biphasic system chosen such that the oxcarbazepine is substantially insoluble in both phases, whereas the by-products or impurities are soluble in at least one of the phases. The biphasic system comprises an organic phase and an aqueous phase in which the organic phase preferably comprises the solvent used in the carboxylation reaction eg toluene. Preferably, an excess of this solvent, compared with the amount of impurity or by-product to be produced, is used in the process of this invention. The preferred aqueous phase comprises an aqueous solution of the acid for the hydrolysis step and is therefore most preferably dilute hydrochloric acid. The advantage of this biphasic system is that oxcarbazepine formed in the reaction is thrown out from both the solvents, whereas the impurities remain soluble in the toluene.

Accordingly, the present invention further provides an improved method of hydrolyzing 10-methoxycarbazepine, which improvement comprises carrying out the hydrolysis in a biphasic system as described above.

Especially preferred is when both improved processes of the invention are used, consecutively. The improved processes of the invention enable the oxcarbazepine thereby produced to be purified in a single step.

An especially preferred method according to this invention comprises reaction of 10-methoxy-5H-dibenz[b,f]azepine with benzoic acid and sodium cyanate in toluene at reflux temperature to give 10-methoxy-5H-dibenz[b,f]azepine carboxamide as a major product (such as about 75%), along with 10-oxo-iminodibenzyl and other impurities. The reaction mixture is thereafter filtered and washed with water, and the toluene layer taken as such for hydrolysis in a biphasic system (aqueous hydrochloric acid/toluene) to furnish oxcarbazepine, which is purified just once (whereas twice at least is needed when the prior art process is carried out) in a mixture of methanol and dichloromethane (Scheme-5).

Figure US06670472-20031230-C00005

10-methoxyiminostilbene, the key starting material in the following Examples, maybe prepared according to the process disclosed in Belgian patent specification no. 597 793 and Swiss patent specification no. 392 515.

EXAMPLE A Using Monochloro-Acetic Acid and Sodium CyanateA mixture of 100 gms of 10-methoxyiminostilbene in 1000 mL of toluene containing 106 gms of monochloro-acetic acid and 73 gms of sodium cyanate were heated to 40° C. under stirring and maintained for 4 hours. After completion of the reaction (monitored by HPLC and/or TLC), the mixture was cooled to room temperature, filtered and washed with 5% sodium carbonate solution followed by water. The toluene layer was then added to 1000 mL of 2N hydrochloric acid, and the mixture was heated to 75-80° C. and maintained for 2 hours under good agitation. It was then cooled to 0-5° C. and maintained for 2 hours, and the product oxcarbazepine was separated by filtration. This was then purified twice in toluene:methanol followed by methanol:dichloromethane solvent mixture to furnish 28 gms of pure oxcarbazepine.

EXAMPLE 1 Using benzoic acid and sodium cyanateA mixture of 100 gms of 10-methoxyiminostilbene in 2000 mL of toluene containing 274 gms of benzoic acid and 370 gms of sodium cyanate were heated to reflux temperature under stirring and maintained for 12 hours. The reaction mixture was then cooled to room temperature and filtered. The clear toluene filtrate was washed with 5% sodium carbonate solution followed by water. The toluene layer was then added to 1000 mL of 2N hydrochloric acid and the mixture was heated at 75-90° C. for a period of 2 hours under good agitation. It was then cooled to 0-5° C., maintained for 2 hours and the product oxcarbazepine was separated by filtration. This was then purified once in a dichloromethane:methanol mixture to furnish 46 gms of pure oxcarbazepine. Purity was determined by HPLC to be 99.45%.

EXAMPLE 2 Using para-chlorobenzoic acid and sodium cyanateA mixture of 100 gms of 10-methoxyiminostilbene in 1000 mL of toluene containing 351 gms of para-chlorobenzoic acid and 370 gms of sodium cyanate were heated to reflux and refluxed for 12 hours. The reaction mixture was then cooled to room temperature and filtered. The clear toluene filtrate was then washed with 5% sodium carbonate solution followed by water. The toluene layer was then added to 1000 mL of 2N hydrochloric acid and the mixture was heated at 75-80° C. for a period of 2 hours under good agitation. It was then cooled to 0-5° C., maintained for 2 hours and the product oxcarbazepine was separated by filtration. This was then purified once in a dichloromethane methanol mixture to furnish 44 gms of pure oxcarbazepine.

EXAMPLE 3 Alternative Use of benzoic acid and sodium cyanateThe method of Example 1 was repeated, but using 1000 ml toluene; 164 g benzoic acid and 44 g of sodium cyanate, which were heated to 85-90° C. for 14 hours with the 10-methoxyiminostilbene to result in 55 gms of pure oxcarbazepine, found to be 99.45% pure by HPLC.

EXAMPLE 4 Using 2,4-dichloro benzoic acid and sodium cyanateA mixture of 100 gms of 10-methoxyiminostilbene in 1000 mL of toluene containing 430 gms of 2,4-dichlorobenzoic acid and 370 gms of sodium cyanate were heated to reflux and refluxed for 6 hours. The reaction mixture was then cooled to room temperature and filtered. The clear toluene filtrate was then washed with 5% sodium carbonate solution followed by water. The toluene layer was then added to 1000 mL of 2N hydrochloric acid and the mixture was heated at 75-80° C. for a period of 2 hours under good agitation. It was then cooled to 0-5° C., maintained for 2 hours and the product oxcarbazepine was separated by filtration. This was then purified once in a dichloromethane:methanol mixture to furnish 40 gms of pure oxcarbazepine.

EXAMPLE 5 Using benzoic acid and potassium cyanateThe method was carried out according to that described in Example 1, but replacing sodium cyanate with potassium cyanate (461.5 gm) and reflux maintained for 24 hrs to complete consumption of starting material. Following the similar process for hydrolysis and purification produced 32.00 gm of pure oxcarbazepine. Purity was determined according to Example 1 and found 98.80%.

EXAMPLE 6The method was carried out according to that described in Example 1, but replacing 2N hydrochloric with 2N sulphuric acid (1000 mL). Following a similar process of carboxamidation and purification produced 25.00 gm of pure oxcarbazepine. Purity was determined according to Example 1 and found 98.50%.

EXAMPLE 7 Hydrolysis Step Using 2N monochloro-acetic acidThe method was carried out according to that described in Example 1, but replacing 2N hydrochloric acid with 2N monochloro-acetic acid (1000 mL). The reaction mixture was heated to 75° C. to 80° C. and maintained for 24 hrs (after which 20% of unreacted methoxy ISB was found to be present). Under similar conditions for the carboxamidation reaction and purification step, this comparative Example produced 20.00 gm of pure oxcarbazepine. Purity was determined according to Example 1 and found to be 98.00%.

EXAMPLE 8 Purification Using toluene:methanol solvent systemThe method was carried out according to that described in Example 1, but replacing dichloromethane with toluene. Following a similar process of carboxamidation and hydrolysis produced 47.0 gm of pure oxcarbazepine. Purity was determined according to Example 1 and found 98.50%.

EXAMPLE 9 Purification Using toluene:dichloromethane solvent systemThe method was carried out according to that described in Example 1, but replacing methanol with toluene. Following a similar process of carboxamidation and hydrolysis produced 45.00 gm of pure oxcarbazepine. Purity was determined according to Example 1 and found to be 98.00%.

Cited Patent Filing date Publication date Applicant Title
WO1996021649A1 Jan 3, 1996 Jul 18, 1996 Trifarma, S.R.L. A PROCESS FOR THE PREPARATION OF 10-OXO-10,11-DIHYDRO-5H-DIBENZ(b,f)AZEPIN-5-CARBOXAMIDE
WO2001056992A2 Feb 7, 2001 Aug 9, 2001 Novartis Ag Dibenzo (b,f) azepine intermediates
Citing Patent Filing date Publication date Applicant Title
US7091339 Jun 13, 2003 Aug 15, 2006 Taro Pharmaceuticals Usa, Inc. Method of preparing a 5H-dibenz(b,f)azepine-5-carboxamide
US7125987 Jun 16, 2005 Oct 24, 2006 Apotex Pharmachem Inc. Process for the preparation of oxcarbazepine and related intermediates
US7183272 Feb 12, 2002 Feb 27, 2007 Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. Crystal forms of oxcarbazepine and processes for their preparation
US7459553 Mar 11, 2005 Dec 2, 2008 Glenmark Generics Ltd. Process for the preparation of carboxamide compounds
US7722898 Apr 13, 2007 May 25, 2010 Supernus Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Modified-release preparations containing oxcarbazepine and derivatives thereof
US7723514 Jun 29, 2006 May 25, 2010 Taro Pharmaceuticals U.S.A., Inc. Method of preparing a 5H-dibenz(b,f)azepine-5-carboxamide
US8530647 May 6, 2009 Sep 10, 2013 Mylan Laboratories Limited Process for the preparation of oxcarbazepine
US20030004154 * Feb 12, 2002 Jan 2, 2003 Judith Aronhime New crystal forms of oxcarbazepine and processes for their preparation
US20040044200 * Jun 13, 2003 Mar 4, 2004 Daniella Gutman Method of preparing a 5H-dibenz(b,f)azepine-5-carboxamide
US20050203297 * Mar 11, 2005 Sep 15, 2005 Sivakumar Bobba V. Process for the preparation of carboxamide compounds
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US20060241292 * Jun 29, 2006 Oct 26, 2006 Taro Pharmaceuticals Usa, Inc Method of preparing a 5H-dibenz(b,f)azepine-5-carboxamide
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US20110065917 * May 6, 2009 Mar 17, 2011 Matrix Laboratories Ltd process for the preparation of oxcarbazepine
WO2009139001A2 * May 6, 2009 Nov 19, 2009 Matrix Laboratories Ltd An improved process for the preparation of oxcarbazepine
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WO2014049550A1 Sep 26, 2013 Apr 3, 2014 Ranbaxy Laboratories Limited Process for the preparation of oxcarbazepine and its use as intermediate in the preparation of eslicarbazepine acetate
Title: Oxcarbazepine
CAS Registry Number: 28721-07-5
CAS Name: 10,11-Dihydro-10-oxo-5H-dibenz[b,f]azepine-5-carboxamide
Additional Names: oxacarbazepine
Manufacturers’ Codes: GP-47680
Trademarks: Trileptal (Novartis)
Molecular Formula: C15H12N2O2
Molecular Weight: 252.27
Percent Composition: C 71.42%, H 4.79%, N 11.10%, O 12.68%
Literature References:
Ketoderivative of carbamazepine, q.v. Prepn: W. Schindler, DE 2011087 (1970 to Geigy); idem, US3642775 (1972 to Ciba-Geigy).
Improved prepn: D. Kaufmann et al., Tetrahedron Lett. 45, 5275 (2004). Metabolism: H. Schütz et al., Xenobiotica 16, 769 (1986).
Hyponatremic effects: O. A. Nielsen et al., Epilepsy Res. 2, 269 (1988). Determn of oxcarbazepine and main metabolites by GC in plasma: G. E. Von Unruh, W. D. Paar, J. Chromatogr. 345, 67 (1985); by HPLC: A. A. Elyas, V. D. Goldberg, ibid. 528, 473 (1990). Clinical evaluation in treatment of epilepsy: M. Dam et al., Epilepsy Res. 3, 70 (1989); in management of trigeminal neuralgia: J. M. Zakrzewska, P. N. Patsalos, J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 52, 472 (1989). Review of pharmacology and therapeutic efficacy: A. Beydoun, E. Kutluay, Expert Opin. Pharmacother. 3, 59-71 (2001).
Properties: Crystals from ethanol, mp 215-216°.
Melting point: mp 215-216°
Therap-Cat: Anticonvulsant.
Keywords: Anticonvulsant.

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TRIENTINE HYDROCHLORIDE, 塩酸トリエンチン , 曲恩汀


Skeletal formula of triethylenetetramine

TRIENTINE

  • Molecular Formula C6H18N4
  • Average mass 146.234 Da

112-24-3 CAS

曲恩汀, KD-034, MK-0681, MK-681, TECZA, TETA, TJA-250

1,2-Ethanediamine, N1,N2-bis(2-aminoethyl)-
1,8-diamino-3,6-diazaoctane
Image result for TRIENTINE

TRIENTINE HYDROCHLORIDE

  • Molecular Formula C6H19ClN4
  • Average mass 182.695 Da

38260-01-4 CAS

Launched – 1986 VALEANT, WILSONS DISEASE

Image result for MSD

Image result for VALEANT

塩酸トリエンチン
Trientine Hydrochloride

C6H18N4▪2HCl : 219.16
[38260-01-4]

Aton Pharma, a subsidiary of Valeant Pharmaceuticals, has developed and launched Syprine, a capsule formulation of trientine hydrochloride, for treating Wilson disease.

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Triethylenetetramine, abbreviated TETA and trien and also called trientine (INN), is an organic compound with the formula [CH2NHCH2CH2NH2]2. This oily liquid is colorless but, like many amines, assumes a yellowish color due to impurities resulting from air-oxidation. It is soluble in polar solvents. The branched isomer tris(2-aminoethyl)amine and piperazine derivatives may also be present in commercial samples of TETA.[1]

Trientine hydrochloride is a metal antagonist that was first launched by Merck, Sharp & Dohme in the U.S. in 1986 under the brand name Syprine for the oral treatment of Wilson’s disease.

Orphan drug designation has also been assigned in the U.S. for the treatment of patients with Wilson’s disease who are intolerant or inadequately responsive to penicillamine and in the E.U. by Univar for the treatment of Wilson’s disease

 Trientine hydrochloride pk_prod_list.xml_prod_list_card_pr?p_tsearch=A&p_id=90373

By condensation of ethylenediamine (I) with 1,2-dichloroethane (II)

Trientine hydrochloride is N,N’-bis (2-aminoethyl)-1,2-ethanediamine dihydrochloride. It is a white to pale yellow crystalline hygroscopic powder. It is freely soluble in water, soluble in methanol, slightly soluble in ethanol, and insoluble in chloroform and ether.

The empirical formula is C6H18N4·2HCI with a molecular weight of 219.2. The structural formula is:

NH2(CH2)2NH(CH2)2NH(CH2)2NH2•2HCI

Trientine hydrochloride is a chelating compound for removal of excess copper from the body. SYPRINE (Trientine Hydrochloride) is available as 250 mg capsules for oral administration. Capsules SYPRINE contain gelatin, iron oxides, stearic acid, and titanium dioxide as inactive ingredients.

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Production

TETA is prepared by heating ethylenediamine or ethanolamine/ammonia mixtures over an oxide catalyst. This process gives a variety of amines, which are separated by distillation and sublimation.[2]

Uses

The reactivity and uses of TETA are similar to those for the related polyamines ethylenediamine and diethylenetriamine. It was primarily used as a crosslinker (“hardener”) in epoxy curing.[2]

The hydrochloride salt of TETA, referred to as trientine hydrochloride, is a chelating agent that is used to bind and remove copper in the body to treat Wilson’s disease, particularly in those who are intolerant to penicillamine. Some recommend trientine as first-line treatment, but experience with penicillamine is more extensive.[3]

Coordination chemistry

TETA is a tetradentate ligand in coordination chemistry, where it is referred to as trien.[4] Octahedral complexes of the type M(trien)Cl3 can adopt several diastereomeric structures, most of which are chiral.[5]

Trientine, chemically known as triethylenetetramine or N,N’-bis(2-aminoethyl)-l,2-ethanediamine belongs to the class of polyethylene polyamines. Trientine dihydrochloride is a chelating agent which is used to bind and remove copper in the body in the treatment of Wilson’s disease.

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Trientine dihydrochloride (1)

Trientine dihydrochloride formulation, developed by Aton with the proprietary name SYPRINE, was approved by USFDA on November 8, 1985 for the treatment of patients with Wilson’s disease, who are intolerant to penicillamine. Trientine dihydrochloride, due to its activity on copper homeostasis, is being studied for various potential applications in the treatment of internal organs damage in diabetics, Alzheimer’s disease and cancer.

Various synthetic methods for preparation of triethylenetetramine (TETA) and the corresponding dihydrochloride salt have been disclosed in the prior art.

U.S. 4,806,517 discloses the synthesis of triethylenetetramine from ethylenediamine and monoethanolamine using Titania supported phosphorous catalyst while U.S. 4,550,209 and U.S. 5,225,599 disclose catalytic condensation of ethylenediamine and ethylene glycol for the synthesis of linear triethylenetetramine using catalysts like zirconium trimethylene diphosphonate, or metatungstate composites of titanium dioxide and zirconium dioxide.

U.S. 4,503,253 discloses the preparation of triethylenetetramine by reaction of an alkanolamine compound with ammonia and an alkyleneamine having two primary amino groups in the presence of a catalyst, such as supported phosphoric acid wherein the support is comprised of silica, alumina or carbon.

The methods described above for preparation of triethylenetetramine require high temperatures and pressure. Further, due to the various possible side reactions and consequent associated impurities, it is difficult to control the purity of the desired amine.

CN 102924289 discloses a process for trientine dihydrochloride comprising reduction of Ν,Ν’-dibenzyl-,N,N’-bis[2-(l,3-dioxo-2H-isoindolyl)ethyl]ethanediamine using hydrazine hydrate to give N,N’-dibenzyl-,N,N’-bis(2-aminoethyl)ethanediamine, which, upon condensation with benzyl chloroformate gave N,N’-dibenzyl-,N,N’-bis[2-(Cbz-amino)ethyl]ethanediamine, and further reductive deprotection to give the desired compound.

CS 197,093 discloses a process comprising reaction of triethylenetetramine with concentrated hydrochloric acid to obtain the crystalline tetrahydrochlonde salt. Further reaction of the salt with sodium ethoxide in solvent ethanol, filtration of the solid sodium chloride which is generated in the process, followed by slow cooling and crystallization of the filtrate provided the dihydrochloride salt. Optionally, aqueous solution of the tetrahydrochloride salt was passed through a column of an anion exchanger and the eluate containing free base was treated with a calculated amount of the tetrahydrochloride, evaporated, and the residue was crystallized from aqueous ethanol to yield the dihydrochloride salt.

The process is quite circuitous and cumbersome, requiring use of strong bases, filtration of sodium chloride and results in yields as low as 60%.

US 8,394,992 discloses a method for preparation of triethylenetetramine dihydrochloride wherein tertiary butoxycarbonyl (boc) protected triethylenetetramine is first converted to its tetrahydrochloride salt using large excess of hydrochloric acid in solvent isopropanol, followed by treatment of the resulting tetrahydrochloride salt with a strong base like sodium alkoxide to produce the amine free base (TETA) and sodium chloride salt in anhydrous conditions. The free amine is extracted with tertiary butyl methyl ether (TBME), followed by removal of sodium chloride salt and finally the amine free base TETA is treated with hydrochloric acid in solvent ethanol to give trientine hydrochloride salt.

PATENT

WO-2017046695

str1

EXAMPLES

Example 1: Preparation of 2-([2-[cyanomethyl]-t-butyloxycarbonylamino]ethyl- 1-butyloxy carbonylamino)acetonitrile (5)

Potassium carbonate (481.9 g) was added to a stirred mixture of ethylenediamine (100.0 g) in acetonitrile (800 ml) and cooled to around 10°C. Chloroacetonitrile (263.8 g) was gradually added at same temperature and stirred at 25-30°C, till completion of the reaction, as monitored by HPLC. The mixture was cooled to 5-15°C and Boc-anhydride (762. lg) was added to it, followed by stirring at the same temperature. The temperature was raised to 25-30°C and the mass was stirred till completion of the reaction, as monitored by HPLC.

The reaction mass was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated. Toluene was added to the residue, and the mixture was heated to around 70°C followed by cooling and filtration to give 2-([2-[cyanomethyl)-t-butyloxycarbonylamino]ethyl-t-butyloxycarbonylamino) acetonitrile (5).

Yield: 506.8 g

% Yield: 89.9 %

Example 2: Preparation of t-butyl( N-2-aminoethyl)N-([2-[(2-aminoethyl)t-butyloxy)carbonylamino] ethyl) carbamate (6)

Raney nickel (120.0 g) in isopropanol (100 ml) was charged into an autoclave, followed by a mixture of Compound 5 (200 g) in isopropanol (400 ml). Cooled ammonia solution prepared by purging ammonia gas in 1400 ml isopropanol, equivalent to 125 g ammonia was gradually charged to the autoclave and the reaction was carried out around 15-25°C under hydrogen pressure of 2-5 Kg/cm2.

After completion of the reaction, as monitored by HPLC, the mass was filtered, concentrated, and methyl tertiary butyl ether was added to the residue. The mixture was heated to around 50°C, followed by cooling of the mass, stirring, optional seeding with compound 6 and filtration to give tertiary butyl-(N-2-aminoethyl)N-([2-[(2-aminoethyl)-(tert-butyloxy) carbonylamino] ethyl) carbamate.

Yield: 174 g

%Yield: 85 %

Example 3: Preparation of triethylenetetramine dihydrochloride (1)

Concentrated hydrochloric acid (121.5 g) was gradually added to a stirred mixture of tertiary-butyl-N-(2-aminoethyl)-N-2-[(2-aminoethyl)-(tert-butoxy) carbonyl] amino] ethyl} carbamate (Compound 6, 200.0 g) and water (1400 ml) at 20-30°C. The reaction mixture was heated in the temperature range of 100-105°C till completion of the reaction, as monitored by HPLC, with optionally distilling out water, if so required.

The reaction mass was concentrated and ethanol (600 ml) was added to the residue, followed by heating till a clear solution was obtained. The reaction mixture was gradually cooled with stirring, filtered and dried to provide triethylenetetramine dihydrochloride (1).

Yield: 88.9 g, (70 %)

Purity : > 99%

Patent

https://www.google.com/patents/US8394992

Trientine was said to be used in the synthesis of benzylidene-(2-{3-[2-(benzylidene-amino)-ethyl]-2-phenyl-imidazolidin-1-yl}-ethyl)-amine in French Patent No. FR2810035 to Guilard et al. Cetinkaya, E., et al., “Synthesis and characterization of unusual tetraminoalkenes,” J. Chem. Soc. 5:561-7 (1992), is said to be directed to synthesis of benzylidene-(2-{3-[2-(benzylidene-amino)-ethyl]-2-phenyl-imidazolidin-1-yl}-ethyl)-amine from trientine, as is Araki T., et al., “Site-selective derivatization of oligoethyleneimines using five-membered-ring protection method,” Macromol., 21:1995-2001 (1988). Triethylenetetramine may reportedly also be used in the synthesis of N-methylated triethylenetetramine, as reported in U.S. Pat. No. 2,390,766, to Zellhoefer et al.

Synthesis of polyethylenepolyamines, including triethylenetetramines, from ethylenediamine and monoethanolamine using pelleted group IVb metal oxide-phosphate type catalysts was reported by Vanderpool et al. in U.S. Pat. No. 4,806,517. Synthesis of triethylenetetramine from ethylenediamine and ethanolamine was also proposed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,550,209, to Unvert et al. U.S. Pat. No. 5,225,599, to King et al. is said to be directed to the synthesis of linear triethylene tetramine by condensation of ethylenediamine and ethylene glycol in the presence of a catalyst. Joint production of triethylenetetramine and 1-(2-aminoethyl)-aminoethyl-piperazine was proposed by Borisenko et al. in U.S.S.R. Patent No. SU1541204. U.S. Pat. No. 4,766,247 and European Patent No. EP262562, both to Ford et al., reported the preparation of triethylenetetramine by reaction of an alkanolamine compound, an alkaline amine and optionally either a primary or secondary amine in the presence of a phosphorous containing catalyst, for example phosphoric acid on silica-alumina or Group IIIB metal acid phosphate, at a temperature from about 175° C. to 400° C. under pressure. These patents indicate that the synthetic method used therein was as set forth in U.S. Pat. No. 4,463,193, to Johnson. The Ford et al. ‘247 patent is also said to be directed to color reduction of polyamines by reaction at elevated temperature and pressure in the presence of a hydrogenation catalyst and a hydrogen atmosphere. European Patent No. EP450709 to King et al. is said to be directed to a process for the preparation of triethylenetetramine and N-(2-aminoethyl)ethanolamine by condensation of an alkylenamine and an alkylene glycol in the presence of a condensation catalyst and a catalyst promoter at a temperature in excess of 260° C.

Russian Patent No. RU2186761, to Zagidullin, proposed synthesis of diethylenetriamine by reaction of dichloroethane with ethylenediamine. Ethylenediamine has previously been said to have been used in the synthesis of N-carboxylic acid esters as reported in U.S. Pat. No. 1,527,868, to Hartmann et al.

Japanese Patent No. 06065161 to Hara et al. is said to be directed to the synthesis of polyethylenepolyamines by reacting ethylenediamine with ethanolamine in the presence of silica-treated Nb205 supported on a carrier. Japanese Patent No. JP03047154 to Watanabe et al., is said to be directed to production of noncyclic polyethylenepolyamines by reaction of ammonia with monoethanolamine and ethylenediamine. Production of non-cyclic polyethylenepolyamines by reaction of ethylenediamine and monoethanolamine in the presence of hydrogen or a phosphorous-containing substance was said to be reported in Japanese Patent No. JP03048644. Regenerative preparation of linear polyethylenepolyamines using a phosphorous-bonded catalyst was proposed in European Patent No. EP115,138, to Larkin et al.

A process for preparation of alkyleneamines in the presence of a niobium catalyst was said to be provided in European Patent No. 256,516, to Tsutsumi et al. U.S. Pat. No. 4,584,405, to Vanderpool, reported the continuous synthesis of essentially noncyclic polyethylenepolyamines by reaction of monoethanolamine with ethylenediamine in the presence of an activated carbon catalyst under a pressure between about 500 to about 3000 psig., and at a temperature of between about 200° C. to about 400° C. Templeton, et al., reported on the preparation of linear polyethylenepolyamides asserted to result from reactions employing silica-alumina catalysts in European Patent No. EP150,558.

Production of triethylenetetramine dihydrochloride was said to have been reported in Kuhr et al., Czech Patent No. 197,093, via conversion of triethylenetetramine to crystalline tetrahydrochloride and subsequently to triethylenetetramine dihydrochloride. “A study of efficient preparation of triethylenetetramine dihydrochloride for the treatment of Wilson’s disease and hygroscopicity of its capsule,” Fujito, et al., Yakuzaigaku, 50:402-8 (1990), is also said to be directed to production of triethylenetetramine.

Preparation of triethylenetetramine salts used for the treatment of Wilson’s disease was said to be reported in “Treatment of Wilson’s Disease with Triethylene Tetramine Hydrochloride (Trientine),” Dubois, et al., J. Pediatric Gastro. & Nutrition, 10:77-81 (1990); “Preparation of Triethylenetetramine Dihydrochloride for the Treatment of Wilson’s Disease,” Dixon, et al., Lancet, 1(1775):853 (1972); “Determination of Triethylenetetramine in Plasma of Patients by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography,” Miyazaki, et al., Chem. Pharm. Bull., 38(4):1035-1038 (1990); “Preparation of and Clinical Experiences with Trien for the Treatment of Wilson’s Disease in Absolute Intolerance of D-penicillamine,” Harders, et al., Proc. Roy. Soc. Med., 70:10-12 (1977); “Tetramine cupruretic agents: A comparison in dogs,” Allen, et al., Am. J. Vet. Res., 48(1):28-30 (1987); and “Potentiometric and Spectroscopic Study of the Equilibria in the Aqueous Copper(II)-3,6-Diazaoctane-1,8-diamine System,” Laurie, et al., J.C.S. Dalton, 1882 (1976).

Preparation of Triethylenetetramine Salts by Reaction of Alcohol Solutions of Amines and acids was said to be reported in Polish Patent No. 105793, to Witek. Preparation of triethylenetetramine salts was also asserted in “Polycondensation of polyethylene polyamines with aliphatic dicarboxylic acids,” Witek, et al., Polimery, 20(3):118-119 (1975).

Baganz, H., and Peissker, H., Chem. Ber., 1957; 90:2944-2949; Haydock, D. B., and Mulholland, T. P. C., J. Chem. Soc., 1971; 2389-2395; and Rehse, K., et al., Arch. Pharm., 1994; 393-398, report on Strecker syntheses. Use of Boc and other protecting groups has been described. See, for example, Spicer, J. A. et al., Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, 2002; 10: 19-29; Klenke, B. and Gilbert, I. H., J. Org. Chem., 2001; 66: 2480-2483.

FIG. 6 shows an 1H-NMR spectrum of a triethylenetetramine hydrochloride salt in D2O, as synthesized in Example 3. NMR values include a frequency of 400.13 Mhz, a 1H nucleus, number of transients is 16, points count of 32768, pulse sequence of zg30, and sweep width of 8278.15 H

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CLIP

http://jpdb.nihs.go.jp/jp17e/JP17e_1.pdf

Method of purification: Dissolve Trientine Hydrochloride in water while warming, and recrystallize by addition of ethanol (99.5). Or dissolve Trientine Hydrochloride in water while warming, allow to stand after addition of activated charcoal in a cool and dark place for one night, and filter. To the filtrate add ethanol (99.5), allow to stand in a cool and dark place, and recrystallize. Dry the crystals under reduced pressure not exceeding 0.67 kPa at 409C until ethanol odor disappears.

References

  1.  “Ethyleneamines” (PDF). Huntsman. 2007.
  2. ^ Jump up to:a b Eller, K.; Henkes, E.; Rossbacher, R.; Höke, H. (2005). “Amines, Aliphatic”. Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a02_001.
  3. Jump up^ Roberts, E. A.; Schilsky, M. L. (2003). “A practice guideline on Wilson disease” (pdf). Hepatology. 37 (6): 1475–1492. doi:10.1053/jhep.2003.50252. PMID 12774027.
  4. Jump up^ von Zelewsky, A. (1995). Stereochemistry of Coordination Compounds. Chichester: John Wiley. ISBN 047195599X.
  5.  Utsuno, S.; Sakai, Y.; Yoshikawa, Y.; Yamatera, H. (1985). “Three Isomers of the Trans-Diammine-[N,N′-bis(2-Aminoethyl)-1,2-Ethanediamine]-Cobalt(III) Complex Cation”. Inorganic Syntheses. 23: 79–82. doi:10.1002/9780470132548.ch16.
Triethylenetetramine
Skeletal formula of triethylenetetramine
Ball and stick model of triethylenetetramine
Spacefill model of triethylenetetramine
Names
Other names

N,N’-Bis(2-aminoethyl)ethane-1,2-diamine; TETA; Trien; Trientine (INN); Syprine (brand name)
Identifiers
3D model (Jmol)
605448
ChEBI
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.003.591
EC Number 203-950-6
27008
KEGG
MeSH Trientine
RTECS number YE6650000
UNII
UN number 2259
Properties
C6H18N4
Molar mass 146.24 g·mol−1
Appearance Colorless liquid
Odor Fishy, ammoniacal
Density 982 mg mL−1
Melting point −34.6 °C; −30.4 °F; 238.5 K
Boiling point 266.6 °C; 511.8 °F; 539.7 K
Miscible
log P 1.985
Vapor pressure <1 Pa (at 20 °C)
1.496
Thermochemistry
376 J K−1 mol−1 (at 60 °C)
Pharmacology
A16AX12 (WHO)
Hazards
GHS pictograms The corrosion pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) The exclamation-mark pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)
GHS signal word DANGER
H312, H314, H317, H412
P273, P280, P305+351+338, P310
Corrosive C
R-phrases R21, R34, R43, R52/53
S-phrases (S1/2), S26, S36/37/39, S45
Flash point 129 °C (264 °F; 402 K)
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
  • 550 mg kg−1 (dermal, rabbit)
  • 2.5 g kg−1 (oral, rat)
Related compounds
Related amines
Related compounds
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).

///////////////TRIENTINE, 112-24-3, 曲恩汀 , KD-034 , MK-0681, MK-681, TECZA, TETA, TJA-250, Orphan drug

NCCNCCNCCN

Calcifediol, カルシフェジオール


Skeletal formula of calcifediol

Calcifediol

カルシフェジオール

Ro 8-8892
U 32070E
(3b,5Z,7E)-9,10-Secocholesta-5,7,10(19)-triene-3,25-diol
(3S,5Z,7E,20R)-9,10-Secocholesta-5,7,10-trien-3,25-diol [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
(3S,5Z,7E,20R)-9,10-Secocholesta-5,7,10-triene-3,25-diol [ACD/IUPAC Name]
(3S,5Z,7E,20R)-9,10-Sécocholesta-5,7,10-triène-3,25-diol [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
19356-17-3 [RN]
1H-indene-1-pentanol, octahydro-4-[(2Z)-2-[(5S)-5-hydroxy-2-methylenecyclohexylidene]ethylidene]-a,a,e,7a-tetramethyl-, (eR,1R,3aS,4E,7aR)-
25(OH)D3
25-(OH)Vitamin D3
25-hydroxy Vitamin D3
25-HYDROXYCHOLECALCIFEROL-D6
25-hydroxycholecalciferolmonohydrate
25-hydroxyvitamin D
3-{2-[1-(5-Hydroxy-1,5-dimethyl-hexyl)-7a-methyl-octahydro-inden-4-ylidene]-ethylidene}-4-methylene-cyclohexanol
4-[(2Z)-2-[(5S)-5-hydroxy-2-methylenecyclohexylidene]ethylidene]octahydro-?,?,?,7a-tetramethyl-(?R,1R,3aS,4E,7aR)-1H-indene-1-pentanol
Molecular form.: C₂₇H₄₄O₂
Appearance: White to Off-White Solid
Melting Point: 75-93ºC
Mol. Weight: 400.64

Calcifediol (INN), also known as calcidiol, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, or 25-hydroxyvitamin D (abbreviated 25(OH)D),[1] is a prehormone that is produced in the liver by hydroxylation of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) by the enzyme cholecalciferol 25-hydroxylase which was isolated by Michael F. Holick. Physicians worldwide measure this metabolite to determine a patient’s vitamin D status.[2] At a typical daily intake of vitamin D3, its full conversion to calcifediol takes approximately 7 days.[3]

Calcifediol is then converted in the kidneys (by the enzyme 25(OH)D-1α-hydroxylase) into calcitriol (1,25-(OH)2D3), a secosteroid hormone that is the active form of vitamin D. It can also be converted into 24-hydroxycalcidiol in the kidneys via 24-hydroxylation.[4][5]

Calcifediol.png

Blood test

In medicine, a 25-hydroxy vitamin D (calcifediol) blood test is used to determine how much vitamin D is in the body.[6] The blood concentration of calcifediol is considered the best indicator of vitamin D status.[7]

This test can be used to diagnose vitamin D deficiency, and it is indicated in patients with high risk for vitamin D deficiency and when the results of the test would be used as supporting evidence for beginning aggressive therapies.[8] Patients with osteoporosis, chronic kidney disease, malabsorption, obesity, and some other infections may be high risk and thus have greater indication for this test.[8] Although vitamin D deficiency is common in some populations including those living at higher latitudes or with limited sun exposure, the 25(OH)D test is not indicated for entire populations.[8] Physicians may advise low risk patients to take over-the-counter vitamin D in place of having screening.[8]

It is the most sensitive measure,[9] though experts have called for improved standardization and reproducibility across different laboratories.[7] According to MedlinePlus, the normal range of calcifediol is 30.0 to 74.0 ng/mL.[6] The normal range varies widely depending on several factors, including age and geographic location. A broad reference range of 20–150 nmol/L (8-60 ng/ml) has also been suggested,[10] while other studies have defined levels below 80 nmol/L (32 ng/ml) as indicative of vitamin D deficiency.[11]

US labs generally report 25(OH)D levels as ng/mL. Other countries often use nmol/L. Multiply ng/mL by 2.5 to convert to nmol/L.

Clinical significance

Increasing calcifediol levels are associated with increasing fractional absorption of calcium from the gut up to levels of 80 nmol/L (32 ng/mL).[citation needed]Urinary calcium excretion balances intestinal calcium absorption and does not increase with calcifediol levels up to ~400 nmol/L (160 ng/mL).[12]

A study by Cedric F. Garland and Frank C. Garland of the University of California, San Diego analyzed the blood from 25,000 volunteers from Washington County, Maryland, finding that those with the highest levels of calcifediol had a risk of colon cancer that was one-fifth of typical rates.[13] However, randomized controlled trials failed to find a significant correlation between vitamin D supplementation and the risk of colon cancer.[14]

A 2012 registry study of the population of Copenhagen, Denmark, found a correlation between both low and high serum levels and increased mortality, with a level of 50–60 nmol/L being associated with the lowest mortality. The study did not show causation.[15][16]

Nmr

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/cctc.201402795/epdf?r3_referer=wol&tracking_action=preview_click&show_checkout=1&purchase_referrer=onlinelibrary.wiley.com&purchase_site_license=LICENSE_DENIED

Regioselective Hydroxylation in the Production of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D by Coprinopsis cinerea Peroxygenase
ChemCatChem (2015), 7, (2), 283-290

1H NMR 500 MHz, CDCl3: δ= 0.55 (3 H, s, 18-H), 0.94 (1H, d, J= 6.5 Hz, 21-H), 1.06 (1H, m, 22-H), 1.22 (3 H, s, 26-H), 1.22 (3 H, s, 27-H), 1.23 (1H, m, 23-H), 1.27 (1H, m, 16-H), 1.28 (1H, m, 14-H), 1.29 (1H, m, 12-H), 1.37 (1H, m, 22-H), 1.38 (1H, m, 20-H), 1.39 (1H, m, 24-H), 1.42 (1H, m, 23-H), 1.44 (1H, m, 24-H), 1.47 (2 H, m, 11-H), 1.53 (1H, m, 15-H), 1.66 (1H, m, 15-H), 1.67 (1H, m, 2-H), 1.67 (1H, m, 9-H), 1.87 (1H, m, 16-H), 1.92 (1H, m, 2-H), 1.98 (1H, m, 17-H), 2.06 (1H, m, 12-H), 2.17 (1H, m, 1-H), 2.40 (1H, m, 1-H), 2.57 (1H, dd, J= 3.7, 13.1Hz, 4-H), 2.82 (1H, m, 9-H), 3.95 (1H, bm, 3-H), 4.82 (1H, m, 19-H), 5.05 (1H, m, 19-H), 6.03 (1H, d, J=11.2 Hz, 7-H), 6.23 ppm (1H, d, J= 11.2 Hz, 6-H).

13 C NMR 500 MHz, CDCl3: δ = 12.2 (C-18), 19.0 (C-21), 21.0 (C-23), 22.4 (C-11), 23.7 (C-15), 27.8 (C-16), 29.2 (C-9), 29.4 (C-27), 29.5 (C-26), 32.1 (C-1), 35.3 (C-2), 36.3 (C-20), 36.6 (C-22), 40.7 (C-12), 44.6 (C-24), 46.0 (C-13), 46.1 (C-4), 56.5 (C-17), 56.7 (C-14), 69.4 (C-3), 71.3 (C-25), 112.6 (C-19), 117.7 (C-7), 122.2 (C-6), 135.2 (C-5), 142.4 (C-8), 145.3 ppm (C-10).

PAPER

From Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry, 10(27), 5205-5211; 2012

http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2012/ob/c2ob25511a#!divAbstract

An efficient, two-stage, continuous-flow synthesis of 1α,25-(OH)2-vitamin D3 (activated vitamin D3) and its analogues was achieved. The developed method afforded the desired products in satisfactory yields using a high-intensity and economical light source, i.e., a high-pressure mercury lamp. In addition, our method required neither intermediate purification nor high-dilution conditions.

Graphical abstract: Continuous-flow synthesis of activated vitamin D3 and its analogues

1H NMR(400 MHz, CDCl3): δ 8.13 (m, 2H), 7.68 (m, 2H), 6.64 (d, J = 8.3 Hz, 1H), 6.25 (d, J = 8.3 Hz, 1H), 5.19 (m, 2H), 3.93 (dd, J = 12.7, 8.2, 1H), 3.88 (dd, J = 14.6, 4.9 Hz, 1H), 3.58 (m, 1H), 1.02 (s, 3H), 1.02 (d, J = 6.8 Hz, 3H), 0.90 (d, J = 6.8 Hz, 3H), 0.86 (s, 9H), 0.80-0.84 (m, 9H), 0.09 (s, 3H), 0.00 (s, 3H)

13C NMR  (100 MHz, CDCl3): δ 161.8, 159.6, 138.5, 135.3, 132.6, 132.5, 132.1, 130.6, 130.2, 128.7, 127.0, 126.5, 77.2, 68.5, 67.4, 67.1, 56.5, 50.6, 49.0, 44.2, 42.7, 40.4, 39.9, 39.3, 35.6, 34.7, 33.0, 30.5, 28.2, 25.9, 24.5, 21.9, 20.8, 19.9, 19.7, 18.5, 18.0, 17.4, 13.3, -4.4, -4.9

IR (neat): 2957, 2872, 1653, 1603, 1462, 1311, 1093, 837, 762 cm-1

str1

Interactive pathway map

Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles. [§ 1]

[[File:

VitaminDSynthesis_WP1531

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VitaminDSynthesis_WP1531

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|{{{bSize}}}px|alt=Vitamin D Synthesis Pathway]

Vitamin D Synthesis Pathway edit

  1. Jump up^ The interactive pathway map can be edited at WikiPathways: “VitaminDSynthesis_WP1531”.

References

  1. Jump up^ “Nomenclature of Vitamin D. Recommendations 1981. IUPAC-IUB Joint Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature (JCBN)” reproduced at the Queen Mary, University of London website. Retrieved 21 March 2010.
  2. Jump up^ Holick, MF; Deluca, HF; Avioli, LV (1972). “Isolation and identification of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol from human plasma”. Archives of Internal Medicine. 129 (1): 56–61. doi:10.1001/archinte.1972.00320010060005. PMID 4332591.
  3. Jump up^ Am J Clin Nutr 2008;87:1738–42 PMID 18541563
  4. Jump up^ Bender, David A.; Mayes, Peter A (2006). “Micronutrients: Vitamins & Minerals”. In Victor W. Rodwell; Murray, Robert F.; Harper, Harold W.; Granner, Darryl K.; Mayes, Peter A. Harper’s Illustrated Biochemistry. New York: Lange/McGraw-Hill. pp. 492–3. ISBN 0-07-146197-3. Retrieved December 10, 2008 through Google Book Search.
  5. Jump up^ Institute of Medicine (1997). “Vitamin D”. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Washington, D.C: National Academy Press. p. 254. ISBN 0-309-06403-1.
  6. ^ Jump up to:a b “25-hydroxy vitamin D test: Medline Plus”. Retrieved 21 March 2010.
  7. ^ Jump up to:a b Heaney, Robert P (Dec 2004). “Functional indices of vitamin D status and ramifications of vitamin D deficiency”. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 80 (6): 1706S–9S. PMID 15585791.
  8. ^ Jump up to:a b c d American Society for Clinical Pathology, “Five Things Physicians and Patients Should Question”, Choosing Wisely: an initiative of the ABIM Foundation, American Society for Clinical Pathology, retrieved August 1, 2013, which cites
      • Sattar, N.; Welsh, P.; Panarelli, M.; Forouhi, N. G. (2012). “Increasing requests for vitamin D measurement: Costly, confusing, and without credibility”. The Lancet. 379 (9811): 95–96. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(11)61816-3. PMID 22243814.
      • Bilinski, K. L.; Boyages, S. C. (2012). “The rising cost of vitamin D testing in Australia: Time to establish guidelines for testing”. The Medical Journal of Australia. 197 (2): 90. doi:10.5694/mja12.10561. PMID 22794049.
      • Lu, Chuanyi M. (May 2012). “Pathology consultation on vitamin D testing: Clinical indications for 25(OH) vitamin D measurement [Letter to the editor]”. American Journal Clinical Pathology. American Society for Clinical Pathology (137): 831–832., which cites
        • Arya, S. C.; Agarwal, N. (2012). “Pathology Consultation on Vitamin D Testing: Clinical Indications for 25(OH) Vitamin D Measurement”. American Journal of Clinical Pathology. 137 (5): 832. doi:10.1309/AJCP2GP0GHKQRCOE. PMID 22523224.
      • Holick, M. F.; Binkley, N. C.; Bischoff-Ferrari, H. A.; Gordon, C. M.; Hanley, D. A.; Heaney, R. P.; Murad, M. H.; Weaver, C. M. (2011). “Evaluation, Treatment, and Prevention of Vitamin D Deficiency: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline”. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 96 (7): 1911–1930. doi:10.1210/jc.2011-0385. PMID 21646368.
  9. Jump up^ Institute of Medicine (1997), p. 259
  10. Jump up^ Bender, David A. (2003). “Vitamin D”. Nutritional biochemistry of the vitamins. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-80388-8. Retrieved December 10, 2008 through Google Book Search.
  11. Jump up^ Hollis BW (February 2005). “Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels indicative of vitamin D sufficiency: implications for establishing a new effective dietary intake recommendation for vitamin D”. J Nutr. 135 (2): 317–22. PMID 15671234.
  12. Jump up^ Kimball; et al. (2004). “Safety of vitamin D3 in adults with multiple sclerosis”. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 86 (3): 645–51. PMID 17823429.
  13. Jump up^ Maugh II, Thomas H. “Frank C. Garland dies at 60; epidemiologist helped show importance of vitamin D: Garland and his brother Cedric were the first to demonstrate that vitamin D deficiencies play a role in cancer and other diseases.”, Los Angeles Times, August 31, 2010. Accessed September 4, 2010.
  14. Jump up^ Wactawski-Wende, J; Kotchen, JM, Women’s Health Initiative Investigators (Mar 9, 2006). “Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of colorectal cancer.”. N Engl J Med. 354 (7): 684–96. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa055222. PMID 16481636. Retrieved December 28, 2013.
  15. Jump up^ “Too much vitamin D can be as unhealthy as too little” (Press release). University of Copenhagen. May 29, 2012. Retrieved 2015-05-27.
  16. Jump up^ Durup, D.; Jørgensen, H. L.; Christensen, J.; Schwarz, P.; Heegaard, A. M.; Lind, B. (May 9, 2012). “A Reverse J-Shaped Association of All-Cause Mortality with Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in General Practice: The CopD Study”. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. Endocrine Society. 97 (8): 2644–2652. doi:10.1210/jc.2012-1176. Retrieved 2015-05-27.
Calcifediol
Skeletal formula of calcifediol
Ball-and-stick model of the calcifediol molecule
Names
IUPAC names

(6R)-6-[(1R,3aR,4E,7aR)-4-[(2Z)-2-[(5S)-5-
Hydroxy-2-methylidene-cyclohexylidene]
ethylidene]-7a-methyl-2,3,3a,5,6,7-hexahydro-
1H-inden-1-yl]-2-methyl-heptan-2-ol
Other names

25-Hydroxyvitamin D3
25-Hydroxycholecalciferol
Calcidiol
Identifiers
19356-17-3 Yes
3D model (Jmol) Interactive image
ChEBI CHEBI:17933 
ChEMBL ChEMBL1222 Yes
ChemSpider 4446820 
DrugBank DB00146 Yes
ECHA InfoCard 100.039.067
6921
MeSH Calcifediol
PubChem 5283731
UNII T0WXW8F54E Yes
Properties
C27H44O2
Molar mass 400.64 g/mol
Pharmacology
A11CC06 (WHO)
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).

 

Title: Calcifediol
CAS Registry Number: 19356-17-3
CAS Name: (3b,5Z,7E)-9,10-Secocholesta-5,7,10(19)-triene-3,25-diol
Additional Names: 25-hydroxyvitamin D3; 25-hydroxycholecalciferol; 25-HCC
Manufacturers’ Codes: U-32070E
Trademarks: Dedrogyl (DESMA); Didrogyl (Bruno); Hidroferol (FAES)
Molecular Formula: C27H44O2
Molecular Weight: 400.64
Percent Composition: C 80.94%, H 11.07%, O 7.99%
Literature References: The principal circulating form of vitamin D3, formed in the liver by hydroxylation at C-25: Ponchon, DeLuca, J. Clin. Invest. 48, 1273 (1969). It is the intermediate in the formation of 1a,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, q.v., the biologically active form of vitamin D3 in the intestine. Identification in rat as an active metabolite of vitamin D3: Lund, DeLuca, J. Lipid Res. 7, 739 (1966); Morii et al., Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 120, 513 (1967). Evaluation of biological activity in comparison with vitamin D3: Blunt et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 61, 717 (1968); ibid. 1503. Isoln from porcine plasma and establishment of structure: Blunt et al., Biochemistry 7, 3317 (1968). Synthesis: Blunt, DeLuca, ibid. 8, 671 (1969). Review of isoln, identification and synthesis: DeLuca, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 22, 412 (1969). Review of bioassays: J. G. Haddad Jr., Basic Clin. Nutr. 2, 579-597 (1980).
Properties: uv max (ethanol): 265 nm (e 18000) (Blunt, DeLuca).
Absorption maximum: uv max (ethanol): 265 nm (e 18000) (Blunt, DeLuca)
Therap-Cat: Calcium regulator.
Keywords: Calcium Regulator.

/////////Calcifediol, カルシフェジオール

CC(CCCC(C)(C)O)C1CCC2C1(CCCC2=CC=C3CC(CCC3=C)O)C

Balsalazide


Balsalazide structure.svg

Balsalazide

80573-04-2; Colazal; Balsalazide Disodium; AC1NSFNR; P80AL8J7ZP;
Molecular Formula: C17H15N3O6
Molecular Weight: 357.322 g/mol

(3E)-3-[[4-(2-carboxyethylcarbamoyl)phenyl]hydrazinylidene]-6-oxocyclohexa-1,4-diene-1-carboxylic acid

 DISODIUMDIHYDRATE

CAS Number 150399-21-6
Weight Average: 437.316
Monoisotopic: 437.08110308
Chemical Formula C17H17N3Na2O8

Balsalazide is an anti-inflammatory drug used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. It is sold under the brand names Giazo, Colazal in the US and Colazide in the UK. It is also sold in generic form in the US by several generic manufacturers.

It is usually administered as the disodium salt. Balsalazide releases mesalazine, also known as 5-aminosalicylic acid, or 5-ASA,[1] in the large intestine. Its advantage over that drug in the treatment of ulcerative colitis is believed to be the delivery of the active agent past the small intestine to the large intestine, the active site of ulcerative colitis.

Balsalazide is an anti-inflammatory drug used in the treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease. It is sold under the name “Colazal” in the US and “Colazide” in the UK. The chemical name is (E)-5-[[-4-(2-carboxyethyl) aminocarbonyl] phenyl]azo] –2-hydroxybenzoic acid. It is usually administered as the disodium salt. Balsalazide releases mesalazine, also known as 5-aminosalicylic acid, or 5-ASA, in the large intestine. Its advantage over that drug in the treatment of Ulcerative colitis is believed to be the delivery of the active agent past the small intestine to the large intestine, the active site of ulcerative colitis.

Balsalazide disodium and its complete synthesis was first disclosed by Chan[18] in 1983, assigned to Biorex Laboratories Limited, England, claiming product ‘Balsalazide’ and process of its preparation. The synthesis involves converting 4-nitrobenzoyl chloride (6) to 4- nitrobenzoyl-β-alanine (7), hydrogenating with Pd/C (5%) in ethanol and isolating by adding diethyl ether to produce 4-aminobenzoyl-β-alanine (8). Thereafter, 4-aminobenzoyl-β-alanine (8) was treated with hydrochloric acid and sodium nitrite to generate N-(4-diazoniumbenzoyl)- β-alanine hydrochloride salt (9) which was reacted at low temperature with disodium salicylate to furnish Balsalazide disodium insitu which was added to dilute hydrochloric acid at low temperature to produce Balsalazide (1) (Scheme-1.1). Thus obtained Balsalazide was recrystallized with hot ethanol and converted to pharmaceutically acceptable salt (disodium salt).

Optimization of this diazonium salt based process was performed by Huijun et al[19] and reported the preparation of the title compound in 64.6% overall yield. Zhenhau et al[20] have synthesized 1 from 4-nitrobenzoic acid (12) via chlorination, condensation, hydrogenation, diazotization, coupling and salt formation with overall yield 73%. Li et al[21] have given product in 73.9% total yield starting from 4-nitrobenzoyl chloride (6), where as Yuzhu et al[22] confirmed chemical structure of Balsalazide disodium by elemental analysis, UV, IR, 1H-NMR and ESI-MS etc. Shaojie et al[23] have also followed same process for its preparation. Yujie et al[24] synthesized 1 in this way; preparation of 4-nitrobenzoyl-β-alanine (7) under microwave irradiation of 420 W at 52oC for 10sec., reduction in ethyl acetate in the presence of Pd/C catalyst then diazotization, coupling and salt formation. Eckardt et al[25] have developed a process for the preparation of Balsalazide which comprises, conversion of 4-aminobenzoyl-β-alanine (8) to 4-ammoniumbenzoyl-β-alanine sulfonate salt using a sulfonic acid in water. This was treated with aq. sodium nitrite solution at low temperature to generate 4-diazoniumbenzoyl-β-alanine sulfonate salt (11) which was quenched with aq. disodium salicylate to furnish Balsalazide disodium solution. This was further acidified to allow isolation of 1 and then conversion to disodium salt (Scheme-1.2) in 76% yield.

http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/101297/10/10_chapter%201.pdf

IR (KBr, cm-1 ): 3371 and 3039 (OH and NH), 1705 and 1699 (C=O), 1634 (C=O amide), 1590 and 1538 (C=C aromatic), 1464 and 1404 (aliphatic C-H), 1229 (C-N), 1073 (C-O), 773 and 738 (Ar-H out of plane bend). 1H NMR (DMSO-d6, 300 MHz, δ ppm): 2.54 (t, 2H), 3.50 (m, 2H), 6.95 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 7.87 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 2H), 8.02 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 2H), 7.95 (dd, J = 8.8 Hz and 2.5 Hz, 1H), 8.34 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 1H), 8.68 (t, J = 5.5 Hz, 1H), 12.12 (brs, 1H). MS m/z (ESI): 356 [(M-H)- ], Calculated; m/z 357.

Synthesis

Balsalazide synthesis: Biorex Laboratories, GB 2080796 (1986).

  1. Starting material is 4-aminohippuric acid, obtained by coupling para-aminobenzoic acid and glycine.
  2. That product is then treated with nitrous acid to give the diazonium salt.
  3. Reaction of this species with salicylic acid proceeds at the position para to the phenol to give balsalazide.

Sodium balsalazide (Balsalazide sodium)

Brief background information

Salt ATC Formula MM CAS
A07EC04 C 17 H 13 N 3 Na 2 O 6 401.29 g / mol 82101-18-6
(E) is the free acid A07EC04 C 17 H 15 N 3 O 6 357.32 g / mol 80573-04-2A

Application

  • resolvent

Classes substance

  • β-alanine (3-aminopropionic acid)
    • m-aminobenzoic acid and esters and amides thereof
      • p-aminobenzoic acid and esters and amides thereof
        • azobenzene
          • salicylic acid

Synthesis Way

Synthesis of a)


Trade names

A country Tradename Manufacturer
United Kingdom Kolazid Shire
Italy Balzid Menarini
USA Kolazal Salix
Ukraine no no

Formulations

  • capsules in 750 mg (as disodium salt)

PATENT

https://www.google.com/patents/US7271253

Balsalazide disodium (1) represents an effective gastrointestinal anti-inflammatory compound useful as a medicament for the treatment of diseases such as ulcerative colitis. It is delivered intact to the colon where it is cleaved by bacterial azoreduction thereby generating 5-aminosalicylic acid as the medicinally active component.

Figure US07271253-20070918-C00001

To date, relatively few patents or literature articles have dealt with the preparation of Balsalazide or the disodium salt. For instance, U.S. Pat. No. 4,412,992 (Biorex, 1983) is the first patent that we uncovered that claims the compound Balsalazide and a strategy of how to prepare it which strategy is depicted in Scheme 1.

Figure US07271253-20070918-C00002

Optimization of this diazonium-based process is detailed in Shan et al., Zhongguo Yaowu Huaxue Zazhi, 11, 110 (2001) and Shi et al., Zhongguo Yiyao Gongye Zazhi, 34, 537 (2003).

Problems arise with the above strategy and the optimization process.

It is well-documented in the literature, for instance in Thermochimica Acta, 225, 201-211 (1993), that diazonium salts can be involved in serious accidents in their use. A possible cause of some of the diazonium salt related accidents is that, for one reason or another, an intermediate material appeared in crystalline form in the vessel of the reaction. As a result, a potentially severe drawback of the above processes occurs. Since the intermediate hydrochloride salt of 4-aminobenzoyl-β-alanine has poor solubility in water, it may pose a safety-risk in the subsequent diazotation reaction.

Also, it is well-known that certain diazonium salts possess high mechanical and heat sensitivity and that their decomposition goes through the liberation of non-condensable nitrogen gas which results in the possibility of runaway reactions and explosions. Obviously this safety consideration becomes more pertinent upon further scale-up.

Therefore, for commercial production of Balsalazide disodium, there was a need to develop a scalable and intrinsically better process

Example 1 Batch Process

N-(4-Aminobenzoyl)-β-alanine (100 g) was suspended in water (1300 mL) and methanesulfonic acid (115.4 g) was added to this mixture. The mixture was cooled to 10° C. and a solution of sodium nitrite (34.46 g) in water (200 mL) was added at a rate such that the temperature stayed below 12° C. The mixture was stirred for 30 min and added to an ice-cold solution of salicylic acid (69.65 g), sodium hydroxide (40.35 g) and sodium carbonate (106.9 g) in 1 L water at 7-12° C. After 3 hours at 10° C., the mixture was heated to 60-65° C. and acidified to pH 4.0-4.5 by the addition of hydrochloric acid. After a further 3 hours at 60-65° C., the mixture was cooled to ambient temperature, filtered, washed with water and dried in vacuo to yield Balsalazide. Yield ca. 90%. Balsalazide was transformed into its disodium salt in ca. 85% yield by treatment with aqueous NaOH solution followed by crystallization from n-propanol/methanol.

1H-NMR (400 MHz; D2O): δ=8.04 ppm (s); 7.67 ppm (d; J=8.2 Hz); 7.62 ppm (d, J=9.2 Hz); 7.53 ppm (d; J=8.2 Hz); 6.84 ppm (d; J=8.9 Hz); 3.57 ppm (t, J=7.1 Hz); 2.53 ppm (t; J=7.2 Hz).

Example 2 Continuous Process

For the continuous operation, a conventional dual-head metering pump (Ratiomatic by FMI) was used to deliver the mesylate solution and the aqueous sodium nitrite solution. The schematic diagram shown in FIG. 4 represents a set-up used for the continuous process. The first pump-head was set at 13.9 g/min whereas the second was set at 2.1 g/min. These flow rates offered a residence time of 9.4 min. The yield of the coupled intermediate from this residence time was 93%. The working solutions were prepared as follow:

The mesylate solution was prepared by the addition into a 2 L 3-necked round bottom flask, of N-(4-aminobenzoyl) β-alanine (120 g) followed by of DI water (1560 g) and methanesulfonic acid (177.5 g) (Batch appearance: clear solution). The first pump-head was primed with this solution and the flow rate was adjusted to 13.9 g/min.

The sodium nitrite solution was prepared by dissolving of sodium nitrite (41.8 g) in of DI water (240 g) (Batch appearance: clear solution). The second pump-head was primed with this solution and the flow rate adjusted to 2.1 g/min.

The quenching solution (sodium salicylate) was made by adding salicylic acid (139.3 g) to DI water (900 g) followed by of sodium carbonate (106.9 g) and 50% aqueous sodium hydroxide (80 g).

The diazotation reaction was performed in a 500 ml jacketed flow reactor with a bottom drain valve. The drain valve was set at 16 g/min. For reactor start-up, the flow reactor was charged with 150 mL of DI water as a working volume and cooled to the reactions initial temperature of 0-5° C. Concomitantly, the additions of the mesylate and sodium nitrite solutions were started and the bottom valve of the flow reactor was opened. During the diazotization, the flow rate of both solutions remained fixed and the temperature was kept below 12° C. and at the end of additions the pumps were stopped while the remaining contents in the flow reactor were drained into the quenching salicylic acid solution. Analysis of the contents in the quenching reactor indicated no signs of uncoupled starting material (diazonium compound). The reactor contents were heated to 60-65° C. for 2-3 hrs before adjusting the pH to precipitate the coupling product. This provided 191.5 g of product.

Cited Patent Filing date Publication date Applicant Title
US4412992 Jul 8, 1981 Nov 1, 1983 Biorex Laboratories Limited 2-Hydroxy-5-phenylazobenzoic acid derivatives and method of treating ulcerative colitis therewith
US6458776 * Aug 29, 2001 Oct 1, 2002 Nobex Corporation 5-ASA derivatives having anti-inflammatory and antibiotic activity and methods of treating diseases therewith
Reference
1 Chai, et al., Huaxi Yaoxue Zazhi, Jiangsu Institute of Materia Medica, Nanjing, China, 2004, 19(6), 431-433.
2 Shan, et al., Zhongguo Yaowu Huaxue Zazhi, Institute of Materia Medica, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing China, 2001, 11(2), 110-111.
3 Shi, et al., Zhongguo Yiyao Gongya Zazhi, Shanghai Institute of Pharmaceutical Industry, Shanghai, China, 2003, 34(11), 537-538.
4 Su, et al., Huaxue Gongye Yu Gongcheng (Tianjin, China), College of Chemistry and Chemical Eng., Donghua Univ., Shanghai, China, 2005, 22(4), 313-315.
5 Ullrich, et al., Decomposition of aromataic diazonium compounds, Thermochimica Acta, 1993, 225, 201-211.

References

  • Prakash, A; Spencer, CM: Drugs (DRUGAY) 1998 56 83- 89.
  • DE 3128819 (Biorex the Lab .; appl 07/21/1981;. GB -prior 07/21/1980, 07.07.1981.).

References

  1. Jump up^ Kruis, W.; Schreiber, I.; Theuer, D.; Brandes, J. W.; Schütz, E.; Howaldt, S.; Krakamp, B.; Hämling, J.; Mönnikes, H.; Koop, I.; Stolte, M.; Pallant, D.; Ewald, U. (2001). “Low dose balsalazide (1.5 g twice daily) and mesalazine (0.5 g three times daily) maintained remission of ulcerative colitis but high dose balsalazide (3.0 g twice daily) was superior in preventing relapses”. Gut. 49 (6): 783–789. doi:10.1136/gut.49.6.783. PMC 1728533Freely accessible. PMID 11709512.
1 to 5 of 5
Patent ID Patent Title Submitted Date Granted Date
US8232265 Multi-functional ionic liquid compositions for overcoming polymorphism and imparting improved properties for active pharmaceutical, biological, nutritional, and energetic ingredients 2007-04-26 2012-07-31
US2011319267 AROMATIC CARBOXYLIC ACID DERIVATIVES FOR TREATMENT AND PROPHYLAXIS OF GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASES INCLUDING COLON CANCERS 2011-12-29
US2007213304 Use of Aminosalicylates in Diarrhoea-Predominent Irritable Bowel Syndrome 2007-09-13
US7119079 Bioadhesive pharmaceutical compositions 2004-07-22 2006-10-10
US6699848 Bioadhesive anti-inflammatory pharmaceutical compositions 2004-03-02
Balsalazide
Balsalazide structure.svg
Clinical data
Trade names Colazal, Giazo
AHFS/Drugs.com Monograph
MedlinePlus a699052
Pregnancy
category
  • US: B (No risk in non-human studies)
ATC code A07EC04 (WHO)
Legal status
Legal status
  • UK: POM (Prescription only)
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability <1%
Protein binding ≥99%
Biological half-life 12hr
Identifiers
CAS Number 80573-04-2 Yes
PubChem (CID) 5362070
DrugBank DB01014 Yes
ChemSpider 10662422 Yes
UNII P80AL8J7ZP Yes
ChEBI CHEBI:267413 Yes
ChEMBL CHEMBL1201346 
ECHA InfoCard 100.117.186
Chemical and physical data
Formula C17H15N3O6
Molar mass 357.318 g/mol
3D model (Jmol) Interactive image

CLICK ON IMAGE

Title: Balsalazide
CAS Registry Number: 80573-04-2
CAS Name: 5-[(1E)-[4-[[(2-Carboxyethyl)amino]carbonyl]phenyl]azo]-2-hydroxybenzoic acid
Additional Names: (E)-5-[[p-[(2-carboxyethyl)carbamoyl]phenyl]azo]-2-salicylic acid
Molecular Formula: C17H15N3O6
Molecular Weight: 357.32
Percent Composition: C 57.14%, H 4.23%, N 11.76%, O 26.87%
Literature References: Analog of sulfasalazine, q.v. Prodrug of 5-aminosalicylic acid where carrier molecule is 4-aminobenzoyl-b-alanine. Prepn: R. P. K. Chan, GB 2080796; idem, US 4412992 (1982, 1983 both to Biorex). Toxicology study and clinical metabolism: idem et al., Dig. Dis. Sci. 28, 609 (1983). Review of pharmacology and clinical efficacy in ulcerative colitis: A. Prakash, C. M. Spencer, Drugs 56, 83 (1998).
Properties: Crystals from hot ethanol, mp 254-255°.
Melting point: mp 254-255°
Derivative Type: Disodium salt dihydrate
CAS Registry Number: 150399-21-6; 82101-18-6 (anhydrous)
Manufacturers’ Codes: BX-661A
Trademarks: Colazal (Salix); Colazide (Shire)
Molecular Formula: C17H13N3Na2O6.2H2O
Molecular Weight: 437.31
Percent Composition: C 46.69%, H 3.92%, N 9.61%, Na 10.51%, O 29.27%
Properties: Orange to yellow microcrystalline powder, mp >350°. Nonhygroscopic. Freely sol in water, isotonic saline; sparingly sol in methanol, ethanol. Practically insol in organic solvents.
Melting point: mp >350°
Therap-Cat: Anti-inflammatory (gastrointestinal).
Keywords: Anti-inflammatory (Gastrointestinal); Anti-inflammatory (Nonsteroidal); Salicylic Acid Derivatives.

//////

O=C(O)c1cc(ccc1O)/N=N/c2ccc(cc2)C(=O)NCCC(O)=O

O.O.[Na+].[Na+].OC1=CC=C(C=C1C([O-])=O)\N=N\C1=CC=C(C=C1)C(=O)NCCC([O-])=O

P.S. : The views expressed are my personal and in no-way suggest the views of the professional body or the company that I represent.

Happy New Year's Eve from Google!

Glenmark Launches First and Only Generic Version of Zetia® (Ezetimibe) in the United States


Glenmark launches generic version of Zetia in US

Illustration Image Courtesy…..link

“We have launched ezetimibe, the first and only generic version of Zetia (Merck) in the United States for the treatment of high cholesterol,”……….http://health.economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/pharma/glenmark-launches-generic-version-of-zetia-in-us-market/55951453

see……..http://us-glenmarkpharma.com/wp-content/uploads/Glenmark-launches-first-and-only-generic-version-of-Zetia%C2%AE-in-the-United-States.pdf

SEE…..http://www.zeebiz.com/companies/news-glenmark-launches-generic-version-of-cholesterol-drug-zetia-in-us-market-9092

 

http://www.glenmarkpharma.com/

Glenmark Launches First and Only Generic Version of Zetia® in the United States 

Mumbai, India; December 12, 2016: Glenmark Pharmaceuticals Inc., USA today announced the availability of ezetimibe, the first and only generic version of ZETIA® (Merck) in the United States for the treatment of high cholesterol. The availability of ezetimibe is the result of a licensing partnership with Par Pharmaceutical, an Endo International plc operating company, with whom Glenmark will share profits. Glenmark and its partner, Endo will be entitled to 180 days of generic drug exclusivity for ezetimibe as provided for under section 505(j)(5)(B)(iv) of the FD&C Act.

Ezetimibe is indicated as adjunctive therapy to diet for the reduction of elevated total cholesterol (total-
C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and apolipoprotein B (Apo B) in patients with primary
(heterozygous familial and non-familial) hyperlipidemia.
According to IMS Health data for the 12-month period ending October 2016, annual U.S. sales of Zetia®
10 mg were approximately $2.3 billion.
“Glenmark has a deep heritage of bringing safe, effective and affordable medicines to patients around
the world,” said Robert Matsuk, President of North America and Global API at Glenmark
Pharmaceuticals Ltd. “Our partnership with Par to bring the first generic version of ZETIA® to market
only underscores our joint commitment to bridging the gap between patients and the medicines they
need most.”
“We, along with our partners at Glenmark, are proud to be able to offer patients managing their
cholesterol levels the first generic version of ZETIA®,” said Tony Pera, President of Par Pharmaceutical.
“Par remains committed to providing patients access to high quality and affordable medicines.”
Glenmark’s current portfolio consists of 111 products authorized for distribution in the U.S. marketplace
and 64 ANDA’s pending approval with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. In addition to these
internal filings, Glenmark continues to identify and explore external development partnerships to
supplement and accelerate the growth of its existing pipeline and portfolio.

About Glenmark Pharmaceuticals Ltd.:
Glenmark Pharmaceuticals Ltd. (GPL) is a research-driven, global, integrated pharmaceutical organization headquartered at Mumbai, India. It is ranked among the top 80 Pharma & Biotech companies of the world in terms of revenue (SCRIP 100 Rankings published in the year 2016). Glenmark is a leading player in the discovery of new molecules both NCEs (new chemical entity) and NBEs (new biological entity). Glenmark has several molecules in various stages of clinical development and is primarily focused in the areas of Inflammation [asthma/COPD, rheumatoid arthritis etc.] and Pain [neuropathic pain and inflammatory pain]. The company has a significant presence in the branded generics markets across emerging economies including India. GPL along with its subsidiaries operate 17 manufacturing facilities across four countries and has five R&D centers. The Generics business of Glenmark services the requirements of the US and Western European markets. The API business sells its products in over 80 countries including the US, EU, South America and India………http://www.glenmarkpharma.com/

str0
About Endo International plc:
Endo International plc (NASDAQ / TSX: ENDP) is a global specialty pharmaceutical company focused on improving patients’ lives while creating shareholder value. Endo develops, manufactures, markets and distributes quality branded and generic pharmaceutical products as well as over-the-counter medications though its operating companies. Endo has global headquarters in Dublin, Ireland, and U.S. headquarters in Malvern, PA. Learn more at http://www.endo.com

OLD CLIP

Dec 08, 2016, 08.16 PM | Source: CNBC-TV18 Glenmark to launch cholesterol drug Zetia in US on Dec 12 Glenmark was the first to file for the generic version of Zetia and it means that after the launch on December 12, only Glenmark and Merck will sell generic Zetia in the US market for the next 6 months. Glenmark   is launching cholesterol drug Zetia with 6 months exclusivity in the US on December 12. The company has partnered with Par Pharma on the drug and has a 50:50 profit sharing agreement with Par on Zetia. Glenmark was the first to file for the generic version of Zetia and it means that after the launch on December 12, only Glenmark and Merck will sell generic Zetia in the US market for the next 6 months. Total revenue estimated to be generated is around USD 400-500 million and post profit sharing with Par, Glenmark should make around USD 200-250 million.

Read more at: http://www.moneycontrol.com/news/business/glenmark-to-launch-cholesterol-drug-zetiausdec-12_8087701.html?utm_source=ref_article

////////////Glenmark,  Launches,  First,  Only,  Generic Version,  Zetia®,  United States, ezetimibe, par pharmaceutical, cholesterol, Endo International plc

Зопиклон , Zopiclone, زوبيكلون , 佐匹克隆


Zopiclone structure.svg

ZOPICLONE

зопиклон
زوبيكلون
佐匹克隆
(±)-Zopiclone
1-Piperazinecarboxylic acid, 4-methyl-, 6-(5-chloro-2-pyridinyl)-6,7-dihydro-7-oxo-5H-pyrrolo[3,4-b]pyrazin-5-yl ester
256-138-9 [EINECS]
43200-80-2 [RN]

Structural formula

UV- Spectrum

Conditions : Concentration – 1 mg / 100 ml
The solvent designation schedule methanol 

water 

0.1М HCl

0.1M NaOH

maximum absorption There 

decay

303 nm 304 nm 277 nm 

237 nm

362 364 199

390

e 10500 10500 5800

11300

IR – spectrum

Wavelength (μm)
Wave number (cm -1 )

MASS spectrum

Range
10 largest peaks:
Peak 42 56 99 112 139 143 217 245 246 247
Value 155 231 280 283 209 999 279 719 156 250

References

  • UV and IR Spectra. H.-W. Dibbern, R.M. Muller, E. Wirbitzki, 2002 ECV

  • NIST/EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Library 2008

  • Handbook of Organic Compounds. NIR, IR, Raman, and UV-Vis Spectra Featuring Polymers and Surfactants, Jr., Jerry Workman. Academic Press, 2000.

  • Handbook of ultraviolet and visible absorption spectra of organic compounds, K. Hirayama. Plenum Press Data Division, 1967.

Brief background information

Salt ATC formula MM CASE
N05CF01 17 H 17 ClN 6 O 3 388.82 g / mol 43200-80-2

Application

  • sedative

  • hypnotic

Classes substance

  • chlorine compounds

    • oxo

      • Esters of 1-piperazinecarboxylate

        • pyridines

          • Pirrolo [3,4-b] piraziny

Synthesis Way

Синтез a)

Trade names

country Tradename Manufacturer
Germany Optydorm DOLORGIET
Somnosan Hormos
Ksimovan Sanofi-Aventis
Zop HEXAL
Zopi-cigar Actavis
various generic drugs
France imovane SanofiAventis
Noktireks Sanofi-Synthélabo
United Kingdom Snowman SanofiAventis
Italy imovane SanofiAventis
tion THERE
Japan Amoʙan Sanofi-Aventis; Chugai; Mitsubishi
Ukraine imovane Sanofi Winthrop Indastria, France
various generic drugs

Formulations

  • coated tablets 7.5 mg;

  • Tablets 7.5 mg, 10 mg

References

  • DOS 2 300 491 (Rhône-Poulenc; appl. 5.1.1973; F-prior. 7.1.1972, 9.9.1972).

  • US 3 862 149 (Rhône-Poulenc; 21.1.1975; F-prior. 7.1.1972, 9.9.1972).

Two major zopiclone metabolites.

Two major zopiclone metabolites.

CAS Registry No.: 43200-80-2
Molecular Formula: C17H17ClN6O3 Molecular Weight: 388.8
ChemicalStructure
Compound Name:
zopiclone

1-piperazinecarboxylic acid, 4-methyl-, 6-(5-chloro-2-pyridinyl)-6,7-dihydro-7-oxo-5H-pyrrolo(3,4-b)pyrazin-5-yl ester

4-methyl-1-piperazinecarboxylic acid 6-(5-chloro-2-pyridinyl)-6,7-dihydro-7-oxo-5H-pyrrolo(3,4-b)-pyrazin-5-yl ester

4-methyl-1-piperazinecarboxylic acid-6-(5-chloro-2-pyridinyl)-6,7-dihydro-7-oxo-5H-pyrrolo(3,4-b)-pyrazin-5-yl ester

6-(5-chloro-2-pyridyl)-6,7-dihydro-7-oxo-5H-pyrrolo(3,4-b)pyrazin-5-yl 4-methyl-1-piperazinecarboxylate

6-(5-chloro-pyridin-2-yl)-5((4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)carbonyloxy)-7-oxo-6,7-dihydro-5H-pyrrolo(3,4-b)pyrazine

6-(5-chloropyridin-2-yl)-7-oxo-6,7-dihydro-5H-pyrrolo(3,4-b)pyrazin-5-yl 4-methylpiperazine-1-carboxylate

amoban (R)

imovane

Zopiclone (Imovance), 4-methyl-1-piperzinecarboxylic acid 6-(5-chloro-2- pyridinyl)-6,7-dihydro-7-oxo-5H-pyrrolo[3,4-b]pyrazin-5-yl ester (Figure 1) is one of the non benzodiazepine sedative-hypnotics of the cyclopyrrolone class, sold by Rhone-Poulene Company in France since 1987. Although structurally unrelated to benzodiazepines, its pharmacological profile is similar, exhibiting sedative-hypnotic, anxiolytic, myorelaxant, and anticonvulsant activity.[1] Other than the first generation barbiturates and the second-generation benzodiazepines, zopiclone, which is widely used in Europe as well as other regions worldwide,[2,3] as a representative of the third generation sedative-hypnotic drugs, has been shown to be free from residual effects on performance and psychological function the day after intake and from the risks of accumulation because of its short elimination half-life (3.5 to 6.5 hours).[3,4] It is indicated for the short term treatment of insomnia, transient, situational or chronic insomnia, and insomnia secondary to psychiatric disturbances.[3]

REFERENCES 1. Mann, K.; Bauer, H.; Hiemke, C.; Ro¨schke, J.; Wetzel, H.; Benkert, O. Acute, subchronic and discontinuation effects of zopiclone on sleep EEG and nocturnal melatonin secretion. Eur. Neuropsychopharm. 1996, 6 (3), 163– 168. Structure Elucidation of Sedative-Hypnotic Zopiclone 359 Downloaded by [Dalhousie University] at 22:10 19 December 2012

2. Le´ger, D.; Janus, C.; Pellois, A.; Quera-Salva, M.A.; Dreyfus, J.P. Sleep, morning alertness and quality of life in subjects treated with zopiclone and in good sleepers. study comparing 167 patients and 381 good sleepers. Eur. Psychiat. 1995, 10 (973) Suppl. 3, 99s – 102s.

3. Piperaki, S.; Parissi-Poulou, M. Enantiomeric separation of zopiclone, its metabolites and products of degradation on a b-cyclodextrin bonded phase. J. Chromatogr. A 1996, 729 (1 – 2), 19 – 28

Spectral Data Analyses and Structure Elucidation of Sedative‐Hypnotic Zopiclone

Pages 349-360 | Received 10 Sep 2006, Accepted 18 Oct 2006, Published online: 13 Oct 2010

Zopiclone
Zopiclone structure.svg
Zopiclone ball-and-stick.png
Systematic (IUPAC) name

(RS)-6-(5-chloropyridin-2-yl)-7-oxo-6,7-dihydro-5H-pyrrolo[3,4-b]pyrazin-5-yl 4-methylpiperazine-1-carboxylate

Clinical data
Trade names Imovane, Zimovane
AHFS/Drugs.com International Drug Names
Pregnancy
category
  • AU: C
  • US: C (Risk not ruled out)
Routes of
administration
Oral tablets, 3.75 mg (UK), 5 or 7.5 mg
Legal status
Legal status
  • AU: S4 (Prescription only)
  • UK: Class C (POM)
  • US: Schedule IV
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 75-80%[1]
Protein binding 52–59%
Metabolism Hepatic through CYP3A4and CYP2E1
Biological half-life ~5 hours (3.5–6.5 hours)

~7–9 hours for over 65

Excretion Urine (80%)
Identifiers
CAS Number 43200-80-2 Yes
ATC code N05CF01 (WHO)
PubChem CID 5735
IUPHAR/BPS 7430
DrugBank DB01198 Yes
ChemSpider 5533 Yes
UNII 03A5ORL08Q Yes
KEGG D01372 Yes
ChEBI CHEBI:32315 Yes
ChEMBL CHEMBL135400 Yes
PDB ligand ID ZPC (PDBeRCSB PDB)
Chemical data
Formula C17H17ClN6O3
Molar mass 388.808 g/mol
3D model (Jmol) Interactive image

////////////

MICONAZOLE NITRATE , Миконазол , ミコナゾール硝酸塩


Miconazole            C18H14Cl4N2O    416.13             [22916478]

Miconazole Nitrate            C18H14Cl4N2O.HNO3              479.14             [22832877]

ミコナゾール硝酸塩 JP16
Miconazole Nitrate

C18H14Cl4N2O▪HNO3 : 479.14
[22832-87-7]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


click on above image for clear view











MORE GRAPHS

13C






1D 1H, n/a spectrum for Miconazole

2D [1H,1H]-TOCSY  BELOW

2D [1H,1H]-TOCSY, n/a spectrum for Miconazole

1D DEPT90

1D DEPT90, n/a spectrum for Miconazole

1D DEPT135

1D DEPT135, n/a spectrum for Miconazole

 

2D [1H,13C]-HSQC

2D [1H,13C]-HSQC, n/a spectrum for Miconazole

2D [1H,13C]-HMBC

2D [1H,13C]-HMBC, n/a spectrum for Miconazole

2D [1H,1H]-COSY

2D [1H,1H]-COSY, n/a spectrum for Miconazole

2D [1H,13C]-HMQC

2D [1H,13C]-HMQC, n/a spectrum for Miconazole
Miconazole is an imidazole antifungal agent, developed by Janssen Pharmaceutica, commonly applied topically to the skin or tomucous membranes to cure fungal infections. It works by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, a critical component of fungal cell membranes. It can also be used against certain species of Leishmania protozoa which are a type of unicellular parasites that also contain ergosterol in their cell membranes. In addition to its antifungal and antiparasitic actions, it also has some antibacterialproperties. It is marketed in various formulations under various brand names.

Miconazole is also used in Ektachrome film developing in the final rinse of the Kodak E-6 process and similar Fuji CR-56 process, replacing formaldehydeFuji Hunt also includes miconazole as a final rinse additive in their formulation of the C-41RA rapid access color negative developing process.
It is on the World Health Organization’s List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system.[1]

ALTERNATIVE ROUTES beginning with the racemic raw material will likely be more costly or more time-consuming to develop, Cox says. Crystallization might be tricky because the stereogenic center does not have a group that can readily undergo acid-base chemistry. Catalytic asymmetric chemistry will necessitate converting the raw material to an appropriate substrate and identifying effective, as well as usable, chemical catalysts or biocatalysts.
What happens to the unwanted enantiomer also depends on the economics. Reracemizing and feeding the racemate back into the process is ideal but not always practical. In the miconazole case, the raw material costs $32 per kg. It is unlikely that reracemizing would be less costly in this example, Cox explains.
People should not forget that the goal of chiral technologies–enantiopure product–also may be achieved with chemistry that already exists, notes David R. Dodds, founder of Dodds & Associates LLC, Manlius, N.Y., a consulting service for biotechnology and chemical companies. Process chemists seek the most robust, most productive, and least expensive synthetic route and aim to find it as fast as possible. Any reaction that can help reach this goal is useful. It is the overall process cost that will dictate which reactions will be used. And that cost covers not only reagents but also waste streams, utilities, equipment use, unit operations, and downstream requirements. Thus, it may be more commercially attractive to replace an elegant but expensive single reaction with several more mundane ones that have a lower total cost, he says. Such a situation is likely to arise when an asymmetric step requires an expensive chiral catalyst or chiral auxiliary.

Brief background information

 

Salt ATC Formula MM CAS
A01AB09 
A07AC01 
D01AC02 
G01AF04 
J02AB01 
S02AA13
18 H 14 Cl 4 N 2 O 416.14 g / mol 22916-47-8
mononitrate A01AB09 
A07AC01 
D01AC02 
G01AF04 
J02AB01 
S02AA13
18 H 14 Cl 4 N 2 O ⋅ HNO 3 479.15 g / mol 22832-87-7

Using

 

  • antifungal agent for topical use
  • antimycotic agent

Classes substance

 

  • Imidazoles, 1- (hlorfenetil) imidazoles

synthesis Way

 

Synthesis of a)

trade names

 

A country Tradename Manufacturer
Germany Castellani Hollborn
Daktar McNeil
Derma-Mikotral Rosen Pharma
Fungur HEXAL
Gyno-Daktar Janssen-Cilag, 1974
Gyno-Mikotral Rosen Pharma
Infektozoor Mundgel Infectopharm
Mikobeta betapharm
Mikotar Dermapharm
Mikoderm Engelhard
Mikotin Ardeypharm
Vobamik Almirall Hermal
France Daktapin Janssen-Cilag
Gyno-Daktapin Janssen-Cilag
Loramik Bioalliance
United Kingdom Gyno-Daktapin Janssen-Cilag
Italy Daktapin Janssen-Cilag
Mikonal Ecobi
Mikotef LPB
Miderm Mendelejeff
Nizakol PS Pharma
Pivanazolo Medestea
Prilagin Sofar
Japan Florid Mochida
USA Fungoid Pedinol
Ukraine GІNEZOL 7 Sagmel, Іnk., USA
MІKONAZOL-Darnitsa CJSC “Farmatsevtichna FIRMA” Darnitsa “, m. Kyiv, Ukraine
MІKOGEL BAT “Kiїvmedpreparat”, m. Kyiv, Ukraine
various generic drugs

Formulations

 

  • ampoule 200 mg / 20 ml;
  • cream 1%, 2 g / 100 g 20 mg / g;
  • losyon 1%;
  • ointment 1%;
  • 2% oral gel;
  • Powder 2 g / 100 g 20 mg / g (in the form mononitrate);
  • solution of 20 mg / ml;
  • 100 mg suppositories;
  • Tablets of 250 mg (free base form);
  • vaginal cream 20 mg / g;
  • bottles of 400 mg / 40 ml

references

 

  1. Synthesis of a)
    • DAS 1,940,388 (Janssen; appl 8.8.1969;. USA-prior 19.8.1968, 23.7.1969.).
    • US 3,717,655 (Janssen; 20.2.1973; appl 19.8.1968.).
    • US 3,839,574 (Janssen; 1.10.1974; prior 23.7.1969.).

Miconazole nitrate was prepared by Godefori et
al
[5­
7]. Imidazole 1 was coupled with
brominated 2,4‑dichloroacetophenone 2 and the resulting ketonic product 3
was reduced with sodium borohydride to its corresponding alcohol 4. The
latter compound 4 was then coupled with 2,4-dichlorotoluene by sodium borohydride
in hexamethylphosphoramide (an aprotic solvent) which was then extracted with
nitric acid to give miconazole nitrate.

 

 

2-     Miconazole was also
prepared by Molina Caprile [8] as follows:
Phenyl methyl ketone 1 was brominated to give
1-phenyl-2-bromoethanone 2. Compound 2 was treated with
methylsulfonic acid to yield the corresponding methylsulfonate 3.
Etherification of 3 gave the a‑benzyloxy derivative 4 and compound 4 was
then chlorinated to give the 2,4‑dichlorinated derivative in both aromatic ring
systems 5. Compound 5 reacted with imidazole in dimethylformamide
to give miconazole 6 [7] which is converted to miconazole nitrate.

 

3-     Ye
et al reported that the reduction of 2,4-dichlorophenyl-2-chloroethanone
1 with potassium borohydride in dimethylformamide to give 90% a‑chloromethyl-2,4-dichlorobenzyl
alcohol 2. Alkylation of imidazole with compound 2 in dimethyl­formamide
in the presence of sodium hydroxide and triethylbenzyl ammonium chloride, gave
1-(2,4‑dichlorophenyl-2-imidazolyl)ethanol 3 and etherification of 3
with 2,4-dichlorobenzyl chloride under the same condition, 62% yield of
miconazole [9].
4-     Liao
and Li enantioselectively synthesized and studied the antifungal activity of
optically active miconazole and econazole. The key step was the
enantioselective reduction of 2‑chloro-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)ethanone catalyzed
by chiral oxazaborolidine [10].
5-     Yanez
et al reported the synthesiz of miconazole and analogs through a
carbenoid intermediate. The process involves the intermolecular insertion of
carbenoid species to imidazole from a‑diazoketones with copper acetylacetonate as the key
reaction of the synthetic route [11].
5-11 as 1-7
1.             E.F. Godefori and J. Heeres, Ger. Pat. 1,940,388
(1970).
2.
E.F. Godefori and J. Heeres, U.S. Pat. 3,717,655
(1973).
3.
E.F. Godefori, J. Heeres, J. van Cutsem and P.A.J.
Janssen, J. Med. Chem., 12, 784 (1969).
4.
F. Molina Caprile, Spanish Patent ES 510870 A1
(1983).
5.
B. Ye, K. Yu and Q. Huang, Zhongguo Yiyao Gongye
Zazhi
, 21, 56 (1990).
6.
Y.W. Liao and H.X. Li, Yaoxue Xuebao, 28,
22 (1993).
7.
E.C. Yanez, A.C. Sanchez, J.M.S. Becerra, J.M.
Muchowski and C.R. Almanza, Revista de la Sociedad Quimica de Mexico, 48,
49 (2004).

MiconazoleTitle: Miconazole

CAS Registry Number: 22916-47-8
CAS Name: 1-[2-(2,4-Dichlorophenyl)-2-[(2,4-dichlorophenyl)methoxy]ethyl]-1H-imidazole
Additional Names: 1-[2,4-dichloro-b-[(2,4-dichlorobenzyl)oxy]phenethyl]imidazole
Molecular Formula: C18H14Cl4N2O
Molecular Weight: 416.13
Percent Composition: C 51.95%, H 3.39%, Cl 34.08%, N 6.73%, O 3.84%
Literature References: Prepn: E. F. Godefroi et al., J. Med. Chem. 12, 784 (1969); E. F. Godefroi, J. Heeres, DE 1940388;eidem, US 3717655 (1970, 1973 to Janssen). Clinical evaluation: Brugmans et al., Arch. Dermatol. 102, 428 (1970); Godts et al.,Arzneim.-Forsch. 21, 256 (1971). Review: P. Janssen, W. Van Bever, in Pharmacological and Biochemical Properties of Drug Substances vol. 2, M. E. Goldberg, Ed. (Am. Pharm. Assoc., Washington, DC, 1979) pp 333-354; R. C. Heel et al., Drugs 19, 7-30 (1980).
Derivative Type: Nitrate
CAS Registry Number: 22832-87-7
Manufacturers’ Codes: R-14889
Trademarks: Aflorix (Gramon); Albistat (Ortho); Andergin (ISOM); Brentan (Janssen); Conoderm (C-Vet); Conofite (Mallinckrodt); Daktar (Janssen); Daktarin (Janssen); Deralbine (Andromaco); Dermonistat (Ortho); Epi-Monistat (Cilag); Florid (Mochida); Fungiderm (Janssen); Fungisdin (Isdin); Gyno-Daktarin (Janssen); Gyno-Monistat (Cilag-Chemie); Micatin (J & J); Miconal Ecobi (Ecobi); Micotef (LPB); Monistat (Cilag-Chemie); Prilagin (Gambar); Vodol (Andromaco)
Molecular Formula: C18H14Cl4N2O.HNO3
Molecular Weight: 479.14
Percent Composition: C 45.12%, H 3.16%, Cl 29.60%, N 8.77%, O 13.36%
Properties: Crystals, mp 170.5° (Godefroi, Heeres, 1970); 184-185° (Godefroi).
Melting point: mp 170.5° (Godefroi, Heeres, 1970); 184-185° (Godefroi)
Derivative Type: (+)-Form nitrate
Properties: mp 135.3°. [a]D20 +59° (methanol).
Melting point: mp 135.3°
Optical Rotation: [a]D20 +59° (methanol)
Derivative Type: (-)-Form nitrate
Properties: mp 135°. [a]D20 -58° (methanol).
Melting point: mp 135°
Optical Rotation: [a]D20 -58° (methanol)
Therap-Cat: Antifungal (topical).
Therap-Cat-Vet: Antifungal (topical).
Keywords: Antifungal (Synthetic); Imidazoles.

References

  1. Jump up^ “WHO Model List of EssentialMedicines” (PDF)World Health Organization. October 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
  2. Jump up^ British National Formulary ’45’ March 2003
  3. Jump up^ “Strange Beauty: Monistat Effectively Increases Hair Growth?”. Black Girl With Long Hair. Retrieved 12 April 2012.
  4. Jump up^ Ju, Jiang; Tsuboi, Ryoji; Kojima, Yuko; Ogawa, Hideoki (2005). “Topical application of ketoconazole stimulates hair growth in C3H/HeN mice”Journal of dermatology32: 243–247.
  5. Jump up^ S., Venturoli; O. Marescalchi; F. M. Colombo; S. Macrelli; B. Ravaioli; A. Bagnoli; R. Paradisi; C. Flamigni (April 1999). “A Prospective Randomized Trial Comparing Low Dose Flutamide, Finasteride, Ketoconazole, and Cyproterone Acetate-Estrogen Regimens in the Treatment of Hirsutism”The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism84 (4): 1304–1310. doi:10.1210/jc.84.4.1304. Retrieved 12 April 2012.
  6. Jump up^ Duret C, Daujat-Chavanieu M, Pascussi JM, Pichard-Garcia L, Balaguer P, Fabre JM, Vilarem MJ, Maurel P, Gerbal-Chaloin S (2006). “Ketoconazole and miconazole are antagonists of the human glucocorticoid receptor: consequences on the expression and function of the constitutive androstane receptor and the pregnane X receptor”. Mol. Pharmacol70 (1): 329–39. doi:10.1124/mol.105.022046PMID 16608920.
  7. Jump up^ Najm, Fadi J.; Madhavan, Mayur; Zaremba, Anita; Shick, Elizabeth; Karl, Robert T.; Factor, Daniel C.; Miller, Tyler E.; Nevin, Zachary S.; Kantor, Christopher (2015-01-01).“Drug-based modulation of endogenous stem cells promotes functional remyelination in vivo”Nature522 (7555). doi:10.1038/nature14335.
  8. Jump up^ United States Patent 5461068

External links

Medical

Photographic

 

Miconazole
Miconazole2DCSD.svg
Miconazole ball-and-stick.png
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(RS)-1-(2-(2,4-Dichlorobenzyloxy)-2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl)-1H-imidazole
Clinical data
Trade names Desenex, Monistat, Zeasorb-AF
AHFS/Drugs.com Monograph
MedlinePlus a601203
Pregnancy
category
  • AU: A
  • US: C (Risk not ruled out)
  • In Australia, it is category A when used topically. In the US, the pregnancy category is C for oral and topical treatment.
Routes of
administration
topicalvaginalsublabial,oral
Legal status
Legal status
  • AU: S2 (Pharmacy only)
  • UK: POM (Prescription only)
  • US: OTC
  • Schedule 2 in Australia for topical formulations, schedule 3 (Aus) for vaginal use and for oral candidiasis, otherwise schedule 4 in Australia
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability n/a
Metabolism n/a
Biological half-life n/a
Excretion n/a
Identifiers
CAS Number 22916-47-8 Yes
ATC code A01AB09 (WHO)A07AC01 (WHO)D01AC02 (WHO)G01AF04 (WHO)J02AB01 (WHO)S02AA13 (WHO)
PubChem CID 4189
IUPHAR/BPS 2449
DrugBank DB01110 Yes
ChemSpider 4044 Yes
UNII 7NNO0D7S5M Yes
KEGG D00416 Yes
ChEBI CHEBI:6923 Yes
ChEMBL CHEMBL91 Yes
Chemical data
Formula C18H14Cl4N2O
Molar mass 416.127 g/mol
Chirality Racemic mixture

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