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ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY

Read all about Organic Spectroscopy on ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY INTERNATIONAL 

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 29 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 29 year tenure till date Aug 2016, Around 30 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 25 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 13 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 212 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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(±)-Integrifolin, Compound from plants keeps human cancer cells from multipying


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CAS 89647-87-0

MFC15 H18 O4, MW 262.30
Azuleno[4,5-b]furan-2(3H)-one, decahydro-4,8-dihydroxy-3,6,9-tris(methylene)-, (3aR,4R,6aR,8S,9aR,9bR)-
  • Azuleno[4,5-b]furan-2(3H)-one, decahydro-4,8-dihydroxy-3,6,9-tris(methylene)-, [3aR-(3aα,4β,6aα,8β,9aα,9bβ)]-
  • (3aR,4R,6aR,8S,9aR,9bR)-Decahydro-4,8-dihydroxy-3,6,9-tris(methylene)azuleno[4,5-b]furan-2(3H)-one
  • 8-epi-Deacylcynaropicrin
  • 8β-Hydroxyzaluzanin C
  • Integrifolin (guaianolide)

STR1Integrifolin

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PATENT

WO 2011085979

Paper

Two New Amino Acid-Sesquiterpene Lactone Conjugates from Ixeris dentata

BLOG POST FROM CHEMISTRY VIEWS, WILEY

thumbnail image: Total Synthesis of (±)-IntegrifolinSTR1STR1STR1

(±)-Integrifolin

Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

Total Synthesis of (±)-Integrifolin

Compound from plants keeps human cancer cells from multipying

Read more at Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

Weight control is an important concern of human beings, both for medical (pharmaceutical and/or nutraceutical) as well as non-therapeutic, e.g. cosmetic, reasons. More importantly, excessive accumulation of body fat (i.e. obesity (= adiposity), especially with excessive fat in the ventral region and surrounding the viscera) can be dangerous and has been linked to health problems such as type II diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, atherosclerosis (where more than two of the preceding disorders are present, the condition is often called “Metabolic Syndrome” or “syndrome X”), hyperlipidemia, coronary heart disease, stroke, breast and colon cancer, sleep apnoea, gallbladder disease, reproductive disorders such as polycystic ovarian syndrome, gastroesophageal reflux disease, increased incidence of complications of general anesthesia, fatty liver, gout or thromboembolism (see, e.g., Kopelman, Nature 404: 635-43 (2000)). Obesity reduces life-span and carries a serious risk of the co-morbidities listed above, as well disorders such as infections, varicose veins,

acanthosis nigricans, eczema, exercise intolerance, insulin resistance, hypertension hypercholesterolemia, cholelithiasis, orthopedic injury, and thromboembolic disease (Rissanen et al, Br. Med. J. 301 : 835-7 (1990)). Obesity is one of the main factors in the development of cardiovascular diseases. As a side effect the levels of cholesterol, blood pressure, blood sugar and uric acid in obese people are usually higher than those of persons of normal weight. The morbidity from coronary heart disease among the overweight people is increased as well. Among the people aged 40-50, mortality will rise about 1% when body weight increases by 0.5 kg and the death rate will increase 74% when body weight exceeds 25% of the standard. The prevalence of obesity in the United States has more than doubled since the turn of the last century (whole population) and more than tripled within the last 30 years among children aged from 6 to 11. This problem more and more becomes a disease risk also in Europe. In Germany, particularly many people have been found to suffer from overweight recently, already 25% of the young people, children and adolescents there are affected by obesity and related disorders. Furthermore, being overweight is considered by the majority of the Western population as unattractive.

Overweight and obesity result from an imbalance between the calories consumed and the calories used by the body. When the calories consumed exceed the calories burned, the body is in positive energy balance and over time weight gain will occur. The excess calories are stored in the fat cells. When the calories burned exceed the calories consumed, the body is in negative energy balance and over time weight loss will occur.

Determinants of obesity include social factors, psychological factors, genetic factors, developmental factors and decreased physical activity. Some components of a comprehensive weight loss programs include medical assessment, behavioural and dietary modification, nutrition education, mental and cognitive restructuring, increased physical activity, and long term follow-up.

An increasing interest by consumers in the maintenance or reduction of their body weight can be found. This leads to a demand for products useful for these purposes. Preferred are such food products which can conveniently be consumed as part of the daily diet, for example meal replacer products, such as meal replacer bars and beverages. These are usually designed for use as a single-serving food product to replace one or two meals a day.

An issue is that often a saturating effect is missed when such products are consumed, resulting in hunger feelings only a relatively short time after consummation or even in the lack of a saturation feeling already directly after consummation.

Summing up, there remains a need for new safe and effective compositions for promoting weight loss and/or loss of body fat in subjects such as humans. The problem to be solved by the present invention is therefore to find compositions or compounds useful in the treatment of obesity; and/or for improving the total cholesterol HDIJLDL ratio.

Phytochemistry provides a large pool of compounds and compositions to be looked at whether they are able to solve this problem.

The present invention provides methods and compositions useful in the control, treatment and prevention of obesity and obesity-related conditions, disorders, and diseases; and/or and/or for improving the total cholesterol HDL/LDL ratio.

Rosinski, G., et al., Endocrinological Frontiers in Phyiological Insect Ecology, Wroclow Technical University Press, Wroclow 1989, describe that certain tricyclic sequiterpene lactones, such as grossheimin and repin, showed inhibition of larval growth and antifeeding activity in Mealworm (Tenebrio σιοΐϊίοή. Grossheimin shows no anti-feeding but little decrease of absorption of digested food constituents and a little decrease in efficiency in digesting. Repin exhibit low effects at all. Both compounds show no effect on lipid levels in blood.

Shimoda, H., et al, Bioinorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 13 (2003), 223-228, describe that methanolic extracts from Artichoke (Cynara sclolymus L.) with cynaropicrin, aguerin B and grossheimin as components and certain sesquiterpene glycosides suppress serum triglyceride elevation in olive oil-loaded mice. Some of these compounds exhibit a moderate short term (2 hours after olive oil administration) anti-hyperlipidemic activity presented as a lowering of the serum triglyceride (serum TG) concentrations, the long term (6 hours) show in the case of cynaropicrin and aguerine B an increase of the serum TG. Furthermore the authors present data of the gastric emptying (GE) of a methanolic ectract of artichoke. They determine a significantly inhibited GE. However, as shown below, this mechanism is not an explanation for the anti obesity effect shown in the present invention (see Example 1 ).

Fritzsche, J., et al., Eur. Food Res. Technol. 215, 149-157 (2002) describe the effect of certain isolated artichoke leaflet extract components with cholesterol lowering potential. Ahn, E.M-., et al, Arch Pharm. res. 29(1 1 ), 937-941 , 2006, shows ACAT inhibitory activity for two sesquiterpene lactones. KR 20040070985 also shows an effect of certain sesquiterpene lactone derivatives on cholesterol biosynthesis involved enzymes. Gebhard, R., Phytother. Res. 16, 368-372 (2002) and J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 286(3), 1 122-1 128 (1998), shows

enforcement of cholesterol biosynthesis inhibition in HepG2 cells by artichoke extracts. WO 2007/006391 also claims reduction in cholesterol by certain Cynara scolymus variety extracts.

Other reported activities of tricyclic sesquiterpene lactones are antioxidant activity (European Food Research & Technology (2002), 215(2): 149-157), inhibitors of NF kb (Food Style 21 (2007), 1 1 (6): 54-56; JP 2006-206532), serum triglyceride increase-inhibitory effect (Kagaku Kogyo (2006), 57(10): 740-745), hypoglycaemic effect (J. Trad. Med. (2003), 20(2): 57-61), bitter taste (DE 2654184). Any beneficial effects are included in this invention by reference.

None of the documents suggest that a control and treatment of obesity and body fat in warmblooded animals might be possible.

http://www.chemistryviews.org/details/ezine/9412451/Total_Synthesis_of_-Integrifolin.html?elq_mid=10181&elq_cid=1558306

Cynaropicrin, a tricyclic sesquiterpene lactone causes in vivo a strong weight loss. More surprisingly it was found that this effect is not correlated to a decrease in food intake. The weight balance is not affected by reduction of assimilation efficiency; the decrease of body fat and body weight is presumably caused by effects on energy metabolism. Surprisingly, it was found in addition that cynaropicrin also allows for improving the total cholesterol HDL7LDL ratio

Tricyclic sequiterpene lactones or known ingredients of plants of the subclass Asterides, especially from the family of Asteraceae, more specifically from species of the genera of the list consisting of Achilea, Acroptilon, Agranthus, Ainsliaea, Ajania, Amberboa, Andryala, Artemisia, Aster, Bisphopanthus, Brachylaena, Calea, Calycocorsus, Cartolepsis, Centaurea, Cheirolophus, Chrysanthemum, Cousinia, Crepis, Cynara, Eupatorium, Greenmaniella, Grossheimia, Hemistaptia, Ixeris, Jurinea, Lapsana, Lasiolaena, Liatris, Lychnophora, Macroclinidium, Mikania, Otanthus, Pleiotaxis, Prenanthes, Pseudostifftia, Ptilostemon,

Rhaponticum, Santolina, Saussurea, Serratula, Sonchus, Stevia, Taeckholmia, Tanacetum, Tricholepis, Vernonia, Volutarella, Zaluzania; even more specifically from species of the list consisting of Achillea clypeolata, Achillea collina, Acroptilon repens, Agrianthus pungens, Ainsliaea fragrans, Ajania fastigiata, Ajania fruticulosa, Amberboa lippi, Amberboa muricata, Amberboa ramose**, Amberboa tubuliflora and other Amberboa spp.*, Andryala integrifolia, Andryala pinnatifida, Artemisia absinthium, Artemisia cana, Artemisia douglasiana, Artemisia fastigiata, Artemisia franserioides, Artemisia montana, Artemisia sylvatica, Artemisia

tripartita, Aster auriculatus, Bishopanthus soliceps, Brachylaena nereifolia, Brachylaena perrieri, Calea jamaicensis, Calea solidaginea, Calycocorsus stipitatus, Cartolepsis intermedia, Centaurea babylonica, Centaurea bella, Centaurea canariensis*, Centaurea clementei, Centaurea conicum, Centaurea dealbata, Centaurea declinata, Centaurea glastifolia, Centaurea hermanii, Centaurea hyrcanica, Centaurea intermedia, Centaurea janeri, Centaurea kalscyi, Centaurea kandavanensis, Centaurea kotschyi, Centaurea linifolia, Centaurea macrocephala, Centaurea musimomum, Centaurea nicolai, Centaurea pabotii, Centaurea pseudosinaica, Centaurea repens, Centaurea salonitana, Centaurea scoparia, Centaurea sinaica, Centaurea solstitialis, Centaurea tweediei and other Centaurea spp. *, Cheirolophus uliginosus, Chrysanthemum boreale, Cousin ia canescens, Cousinia conifera, Cousinia picheriana, Cousinia piptocephala, Crepis capillaris, Crepis conyzifolia, Crepis crocea, Crepis japonica, Crepis pyrenaica, Crepis tectorum, Crepis virens, Crepis zacintha, Cynara alba, Cynara algarbiensis, Cynara auranitica, Cynara baetica, Cynara cardunculus, Cynara cornigera, Cynara cyrenaica, Cynara humilis, Cynara hystrix, Cynara syriaca, Cynara scolymus**, Cynara sibthorpiana and other Cynara spp.*, Eupatorium anomalum,

Eupatorium chinense, Eupatorium lindleyanum, Eupatorium mohrii, Eupatorium

rotundifolium, Eupatorium semialatum, Greenmaniella resinosa, Grossheimia

macrocephala** and other Grossheimia spp. *, Hemisteptia lyrata, Ixeris chinensis, Ixeris debilis, Ixeris dentata, Ixeris repens, Ixeris stolonifera, Jurinea carduiformis, Jurinea derderioides, Jurinea maxima, Lapsana capillaris, Lapsana communis, Lasiolaena morii, Lasiolaena santosii, Liatris chapmanii, Liatris gracilis, Liatris pycnostachya, Lychnophora blanchetii, Macroclinidium trilobum, Mikania hoehnei, Otanthus maritimus, Pleiotaxis rugosa, Prenanthes acerifolia, Pseudostifftia kingii, Ptilostemon diacanthus, Ptilostemon

gnaphaloides, Rhaponticum serratuloides, Santolina jamaicensis, Saussurea affinis,

Saussurea elegans, Saussurea involucrata, Saussurea laniceps, Saussurea neopulchella** and other Sauusurea spp. *, Serratula strangulata, Sonchus arborea, Stevia sanguinea, Taeckholmia arborea, Taeckholmia pinnata, Tanacetum fruticulosum, Tanacetum

parthenium, Tricholepis glaberrima** and other Tricholepsis spp. *, Vernonia arkansana, Vernonia nitidula, Vernonia noveboracensis, Vernonia profuga, Vernonia sublutea,

Volutarella divaricata, Zaiuzania resinosa; and can potentially be isolated from any part of the plants. Those genera and/or species marked with an asterisk (*) and especially those species marked with two asterisks (**) are especially preferred.

Appropriate plant material can be obtained from various sources, e.g. from:

Alfred Galke GmbH, Gittelde/Harz, Germany; Miiggenburg Pflanzliche Rohstoffe, Bad Bramstedt, Germany; Friedrich Nature Discovery, Euskirchen, Germany; VitaPlant AG, Uttwil, Switzerland; Amoros Nature SL, Hostalric, Spain.

(±)-Integrifolin

Banksia integrifolia

Coast Banksia

Family: Proteaceae

Banksia integrifolia is a tall shrub or small tree 6 – 16m tall. It is common in sandy coastal areas, but also grows in the forests of tablelands. The light grey bark is hard and rough.

Mature leaves 5 -10 cm long, are stiff, entire (untoothed), dull dark green above and hairy-white underneath. They are generally lanceolate. Younger leaves are irregularly toothed and shorter than the mature leaves. The species name ‘integrifolia’ means whole-leaved.

The pale yellow flower spikes of Banksia integrifolia range from 7-14cm long and 7cm wide. The bent styles emerge from individual flowers on the spike, straightening and spreading.

A short time after flowering, the seed pods protrude cleanly from the woody cone and open to shed black, papery, winged seeds.

Banksia integrifolia flowers from January to June.

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https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/cpb1958/33/8/33_8_3361/_pdf

PAPER

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/chem.201601275/abstract

Total Synthesis of (±)-Integrifolin

  • DOI: 10.1002/chem.201601275

///////(±)-Integrifolin,  human cancer cells,  multipying

C=C1C(=O)O[C@@H]2[C@H]3C(=C)[C@@H](O)C[C@H]3C(=C)C[C@@H](O)[C@@H]12

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Dandelion, Burdock, and Cancer


burdockburdock
Dandelion root and burdock root are my two most commonly prescribed herbs when chronic conditions require anti-inflammatory, blood purifying alterativ…
dandeliondandelion

Dandelion root and burdock root are my two most commonly prescribed herbs when chronic conditions require anti-inflammatory, blood purifying alteratives for gentle detoxification. This includes conditions such as arthritis and cancer. I’ve studied literally hundreds of herbs from around the world, and considering cost, availability, palatability (no small matter, as people with chronic disease like cancer need to be able to take their herbs at least three times a day for months) – there are probably no two more simple and powerful anticancer herbs on the planet than dandelion and burdock.*

After prescribing both of these in strong dose clinically for years with great results (patients feel better, or experience slowing or even complete remission of some cancers), I learned that many professional British medical herbalists also use the same two-herb combination for conditions requiring blood, lymphatic and liver detoxification.


http://www.planetherbs.com/michaels-blog/dandelion-burdock-and-cancer.html

ASPARAGUS AND THE SMELL


ASPARAGUS

Asparagusic acid

Asparagusic acid is the organosulfur with the formula S2(CH2)2CHCO2H. The molecule contains both carboxylic acid and disulfide functional groups. It is present in the vegetable asparagus and may be the metabolic precursor to other odorous thiol compounds.

The material was originally isolated from an aqueous extract of asparagus.

Biosynthetic studies revealed that asparagusic acid is derived from isobutyric acid. This colorless solid has a melting point (m.p.) of 75.7–76.5 °C. The corresponding dithiol (m.p. 59.5–60.5 °C) is also known; it is called dihydroasparagusic acid or dimercaptoisobutyric acid.

File:Asparagusic-acid-3D-balls.png3D MODEL

Over the past forty years several papers have been published on the subject, and several studies undertaken, to try and determine the chemical compounds responsible, and though there is still no definitive verdict as to the manner in which these compounds are formed, it has been suggested that they all form from asparagusic acid.

Asparagus Chemistry

Asparagusic acid is, unsurprisingly considering the name, a chemical found exclusively in asparagus, and absent in other related vegetables.

The asparagus-pee molecules that you smell come mostly from the breakdown of a molecule known as asparagusic acid, which is present naturally in asparagus. When your body breaks down asparagusic acid it forms a wide variety of chemicals, all of which contain sulfur!

This has made it an obvious candidate for being the origin of the peculiar effect that asparagus has on urine. It has been suggested by recent studies that it could be metabolised in the body to produce the volatile compounds found in the urine after consuming the vegetable.

Steamed asparagus prepared with roasted pine nuts

Many chemicals that contain sulfur atoms smell horrible in similar ways, and I have no idea why this is. This is one chemical/biological mystery that, much to my chagrin, remains unsolved in my head (internet people, if the reason is known, please help!).

Aside from sulfur, the thing that all these smelly asparagus-pee chemicals have in common is that they are “light” enough (a.k.a. they are “volatile”, which means they have a relatively low boiling point) that they can float up into the air and into your nose. That is partly why asparagus doesn’t smell like asparagus-pee, because asparagusic acid is not volatile (remember that word). In fact, asparagusic acid boils above 300 °C (>600 °F), so there is no way any of it gets into your nose!

Asparagus has been used as a vegetable and medicine, owing to its delicate flavour, diuretic properties, and more. It is pictured as an offering on an Egyptian frieze dating to 3000 BC. Still in ancient times, it was known in Syria and in Spain. Greeks and Romans ate it fresh when in season and dried the vegetable for use in winter; Romans would even freeze it high in the Alps, for the Feast of Epicurus. Emperor Augustus tossed off the “Asparagus Fleet” for hauling the vegetable, and coined the expression “faster than cooking asparagus” for quick action. A recipefor cooking asparagus is in the oldest surviving book of recipes, Apicius’s third-century AD De re coquinaria, Book III.

The ancient Greek physician Galen (prominent among the Romans) mentioned asparagus as a beneficial herb during the second century AD, but after the Roman empire ended, asparagus drew little medieval attention. until al-Nafzawi‘s The Perfumed Garden. That piece of writing celebrates its (scientifically unconfirmed) aphrodisiacal power, a supposed virtue that the IndianAnanga Ranga attributes to “special phosphorus elements” that also counteract fatigue. By 1469, asparagus was cultivated in French monasteries. Asparagus appears to have been hardly noticed in England until 1538, and in Germany until 1542.

The finest texture and the strongest and yet most delicate taste is in the tips. The points d’amour (“love tips”) were served as a delicacy to Madame de Pompadour. Asparagus became available to the New World around 1850, in the United States.

German botanical illustration of asparagus

Chemistry

Asparagus foliage turns bright yellow in autumn

Certain compounds in asparagus are metabolized to yield ammonia and various sulfur-containing degradation products, including various thiols andthioesters, which give urine a characteristic smell.

Some of the volatile organic compounds responsible for the smell are:

Subjectively, the first two are the most pungent, while the last two (sulfur-oxidized) give a sweet aroma. A mixture of these compounds form a “reconstituted asparagus urine” odor. This was first investigated in 1891 by Marceli Nencki, who attributed the smell to methanethiol. These compounds originate in the asparagus as asparagusic acid and its derivatives, as these are the only sulfur-containing compounds unique to asparagus. As these are more present in young asparagus, this accords with the observation that the smell is more pronounced after eating young asparagus. The biological mechanism for the production of these compounds is less clear.

The onset of the asparagus urine smell is remarkably rapid. The smell has been reported to be detectable 15 to 30 minutes after ingestion.

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to analyse the ‘headspace’ of urine produced after consumption of asparagus. The headspace is the gas space immediately above the liquid surface, which is occupied by light, volatile compounds in the liquid, and analysis of this is useful in identifying odour-causing compounds. The analysis of the post-asparagus urine showed the presence of several compounds that were not present, or present in negligible amounts, in normal urine. The primary compounds present, in quantities a thousand times greater than in normal urine, were methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide. The compounds dimethyl sulfide and dimethyl sulfone were also present and it was suggested that they modify the aroma to give it a ‘sweet’ edge.

Asparagus
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 85 kJ (20 kcal)
Carbohydrates 3.88 g
– Sugars 1.88 g
– Dietary fibre 2.1 g
Fat 0.12 g
Protein 2.2 g
Vitamin A equiv. 38 μg (5%)
– beta-carotene 449 μg (4%)
– lutein and zeaxanthin 710 μg
Thiamine (vit. B1) 0.143 mg (12%)
Riboflavin (vit. B2) 0.141 mg (12%)
Niacin (vit. B3) 0.978 mg (7%)
Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.274 mg (5%)
Vitamin B6 0.091 mg (7%)
Folate (vit. B9) 52 μg (13%)
Choline 16 mg (3%)
Vitamin C 5.6 mg (7%)
Vitamin E 1.1 mg (7%)
Vitamin K 41.6 μg (40%)
Calcium 24 mg (2%)
Iron 2.14 mg (16%)
Magnesium 14 mg (4%)
Manganese 0.158 mg (8%)
Phosphorus 52 mg (7%)
Potassium 202 mg (4%)
Sodium 2 mg (0%)
Zinc 0.54 mg (6%)

Link to USDA Database entry
Percentages are roughly approximated
using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

 

 

US HERBS –DAMIANA, reported to be an aphrodisiac, stimulant, mood elevator


Damiana

Damiana (Turnera diffusa) is reported to be an aphrodisiac, stimulant, mood elevator, and “tonic,” and has been in use in the United States since 1874. Despite a paucity of research, it has reported testosterogenic activity, which may account for its traditional use by the Mayan people of Central America for enhancing sexual function in men and women.

Turnera diffusa, known as damiana, is a shrub native to southwestern Texas in the United States,[3] Central AmericaMexicoSouth America, and the Caribbean. It belongs to the family Passifloraceae.[2]

Damiana is a relatively small shrub that produces small, aromatic flowers. It blossoms in early to late summer and is followed by fruits that taste similar to figs. The shrub is said to have a strong spice-like odor somewhat like chamomile, due to the essential oils present in the plant.[4] The leaves have traditionally been made into a tea and an incense which was used by native people of Central and South America for its relaxing effects. Spanish missionaries first recorded that the Mexican Indians drank Damiana tea mixed with sugar for use as an aphrodisiac.

Damiana has long been claimed to have a stimulating effect on libido, and its use as an aphrodisiac has continued into modern times. More recently, some corroborating scientific evidence in support of its long history of use has emerged. Several animal testing studies have shown evidence of increased sexual activity in rats of both sexes. Damiana has been shown to be particularly stimulating for sexually exhausted or impotent male rats[5][6]as well as generally increased sexual activity in rats of both sexes.[7] It has also been shown that damiana may function as an aromatase inhibitor, which has been suggested as a possible method of action for its reputed effects.[8]

Damiana might be effective as an anxiolytic.[9]

Damiana is an ingredient in a traditional Mexican liqueur, which is sometimes used in lieu of Triple Sec in margaritas. Mexican folklore claims that it was used in the “original” margarita. The damiana margarita is popular in the Los Cabos region of Mexico.[10][11]

Damiana was included in several 19th century patent medicines, such as Pemberton’s French Wine Coca. The leaves were omitted from that product’s non-alcoholic counterpart, Coca-Cola.[12]

Damiana contains damianin; tetraphyllin B; gonzalitosin I; arbutin; tricosan-2-one; p-cymeneβ-sitosterol1,8-cineoleapigenin;[9] α-pineneβ-carotene;β-pineneeucalyptoltanninsthymol;[13] and hexacosanol.[14]

As of 2006, damiana’s constituents have not been identified for their effects attributed to the whole herb.[15] Damiana’s anxiolytic properties might be due to apigenin.[14]

Legality

USA

In the state of Louisiana, Damiana is considered a “prohibited plant” along with 39 other plants by Louisiana State Act 159, effective 8 August 2005. Any combination of any of the parts, leaves, stems, stalks, seeds, materials, compounds, salts, derivatives, mixtures, preparations, or any resin extracted from any part of the plant is illegal to possess or distribute for human consumption in the state of Louisiana. This was due in part to an increase in the number of synthetic cannabis overdoses from a variety of chemically-infused plant material formulations, most of which contained Damiana as a primary ingredient.[16][17][18]

UK

A product known as “Black Mamba”, labelled as containing “100% Damiana”, has been on sale in the UK; ill effects from its use have been reported.[19] MP Graham Jones has called for the substance to be made illegal.[20] “Black Mamba” is a combination of damiana and various synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists, including JWH-018.[21] Synthetic cannabis has caused adverse side effects in a number of users.[22] Damiana is considered safe when consumed in its natural form.[23]

During Prime Minister’s questions on Wednesday the 7th of March 2012 MP Nadhim Zahawi asked for action to be taken in relation to “Black Mamba”, the Prime Minister responded:

“We are determined to stamp out these so-called legal highs. The Home Office is aware of this particular drug. We now have the drugs early warning system which brings these things to our attention, but as he says, a decision needs swiftly to be made and I will make sure that happens.” [24]

Black Mamba is now illegal in the UK.

Turnera diffusa is the botanical name of the plant more commonly known as damiana. The Turnera genus is made up of over 10 species, which are in turn part of the Turneraceae family. The Turneraceae family itself is made up of over 100 species and 10 genera.
The plant has also been referred to as Turnera aphrodisiac or Turnera diffusa var. aphrodisiaca. These references to aphrodisiac in the name, are based on the fact that Turnera diffusa has a long history of being used as an aphrodisiac.
When taken as a tea or smoked, the leaves are said to act upon the reproductive organs of both sexes. With men it is consumed to treat impotence, and with women it is consumed to treat frigidity. The leaves have also been used as a flavoring in liqueurs, a substitute for tea, and for other medical, recreational, or spiritual purposes.
Scientific Classification Of Turnera diffusa
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Turneraceae
Genus: Turnera
Species: Turnera diffusa
Turnera diffusa is thought to have originated in Central America. It can now be found growing wild in Central America, Mexico, South America, West Indies, and parts of the south-western USA. Plants require a hot climate and they can be found in their greatest concentrations in Baja California and Northern Mexico.
Turnera diffusa grows into a small perennial (lives more than two years) shrub that can reach a height of 3-6 feet tall. The leaves have an aroma similar to that of lemon. The stems are upright with small yellow flowers that produce sweet smelling fruit.
A drink made with damiana has been used in central Mexico for thousands of years as an aphrodisiac, and for centuries, the spiritual and mystical application of damiana have long been recorded in Central American folk lore.
The Mayan Indians utilized the leaves of the Turnera diffusa plant by making them into a drink and adding sugar to sweeten it. Then it was drunk for its power to enhance lovemaking. It was also consumed in some Latin American countries as a dietary supplement.
For medical purposes, in addition to being utilized as an aphrodisiac and for treating conditions related to the reproductive organs, Turnera diffusa has been used as an anti depressant, cough suppressant, diuretic, laxative, and as a tonic.
Other medical applications include being used to treat asthma, bronchitis, neurosis, and gastrointestinal problems such as dysentery. It can also relieve or reduce headaches.
In Germany, damiana is consumed mainly to relieve excess mental activity and other nervous disorders. In the UK, the application of damiana has been primarily focused on the sexual factors, but it has also been used to treat constipation, depression, and dyspepsia (disturbed digestion).
Damiana can provide antibacterial benefit when applied to the body or taken internally. Scientific testing has shown that damiana can be effective with certain weight loss treatments, and has been beneficial in reducing blood sugar.

How To Use Damiana (Turnera diffusa)
The most common way of ingesting damiana as an aphrodisiac or for medical purposes is to make it into a tea and drink it. To make damiana tea, take 2 grams of dry plant material and crush it into a powder. Add the powder to some water and heat at sub-boiling temperatures for 15-30 minutes.
When ready, separate the plant material from the water with a strainer (or something that will do the same job), then drink the water. You can increase the amount of damiana up to 3 or 4 grams when making tea, but larger doses may cause headaches and/or stomach aches.
Instead of mixing damiana with other herbs, some people prefer to take damiana (by itself) in high dosages to experience a sense of euphoria. The recreational uses of damiana have been noted in cultures that routinely soak the leaves in warm water and drink it as a tea.
For maximum psychoactive effect, rather than ingest large amounts of damiana by itself, drink some damiana tea. After drinking the tea, wait for 30-60 minutes and smoke a mixture of 1/4 gram marijuana and 1/4 gram damiana. Most people feel a stronger marijuana stone with physically energetic effects.
Marijuana users that consume the substance daily may go through withdrawl when deprived of herb. Damiana tea can ease the discomfort of marijuana withdrawl for some people. The tea is especially good before bed, it can make falling asleep easier when marijuana isn’t available.

  1.  Turnera diffusaIntegrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2011-01-29.
  2.  “Taxon: Turnera diffusa Willd.”Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2009-05-11. Retrieved 2012-01-03.
  3.  Everitt, J. H.; Dale Lynn Drawe; Robert I. Lonard (2002). Trees, Shrubs, and Cacti of South Texas. Texas Tech University Press. p. 208. ISBN 978-0-89672-473-0.
  4.  Gildemeister, Eduard; Friedrich Hoffmann (1922). Edward Kremers, ed. The Volatile Oils. Volume 3 (2 ed.). Wiley. p. 183.
  5.  Arletti, R., Benelli, A., Cavazzuti, E., Scarpetta, G., & Bertolini, A. (September 1998), “Stimulating property of Turnera diffusa and Pfaffia paniculata extracts on the sexual behavior of male rats”,Psychopharmacology 143: 15–19, PMID 10227074
  6.  Estrada-Reyesb, K.R., Ortiz-Lópeza, P., Gutiérrez-Ortíza, J., & Martínez-Mota, L. (June 2009), “Turnera diffusa Wild (Turneraceae) recovers sexual behavior in sexually exhausted males”, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 123: 423–429
  7.  Kumar, S., Madaan, R., & Sharma, A. (2009), “Evaluation of Aphrodisiac Activity of Turnera aphrodisiaca”, International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research 1: 1–4
  8.  Zhao, J., Dasmahapatra, A.K., Khan, S.I., & Khan, I.A. (December 2008), “Anti-aromatase activity of the constituents from damiana (Turnera diffusa)”, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 120: 387–393,doi:10.1016/j.jep.2008.09.016PMID 18948180
  9.  Kumar, Suresh (February 9, 2005). “Anti-anxiety Activity Studies on Homoeopathic Formulations of Turnera aphrodisiaca Ward”. Hindawi Publishing Corporation. doi:10.1093/ecam/neh069.PMC PMC1062162. Retrieved February 17, 2013.
  10.  Damiana Liqueur at Damiana.net
  11.  Perry, Charles (2007-06-20). “The unexpected thrill”Los Angeles Times.
  12.  Pendergrast, Mark (2000). For God, Country, and Coca Cola: The Definitive History of the Great American Soft Drink and the Company That Makes It (2 ed.). Basic Books. pp. 24–30. ISBN 978-0-46505-468-8.
  13.  Balch, Phyllis A. (2002). Prescription for Nutritional Healing: the A to Z Guide to Supplements (2 ed.). Penguin. p. 233. ISBN 978-1-58333-143-9.
  14.  “Pharmacological evaluation of Bioactive Principle of Turnera aphrodisiaca”Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2008, doi:10.4103/0250-474X.49095PMC PMC3040867
  15.  “Pharmacognostic Standardization of Turnera aphrodisiaca Ward”Journal of Medicinal Food 9 (2), 2006, doi:10.1089/jmf.2006.9.254PMID 16822212
  16.  Legislature of Louisiana: Regular Session, 2010; Act No. 565; House Bill No. 173
  17.  Richards, Brandon. “Fake pot now illegal in Louisiana.” KPLCtv.com. (2010): n. page. Web. 3 Nov. 2011.
  18.  “Damiana Legal Status.” Erowid. N.p., 30 Oct 2011. Web. 3 Nov 2011.
  19.  “Legal high fears as teens taken ill”The Sun. 2011-10-21.
  20.  “Call for ban on ‘legal high’ Black Mamba backed by MP Graham Jones”The Lancashire Telegraph. 2011-12-08.
  21.  Black Mamba Spice: A Cannabinoid Cocktail
  22.  Fake Weed, Real Drug: K2 Causing Hallucinations in Teens | LiveScience
  23.  DAMIANA: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings – WebMD
  24.  David Cameron MP, Prime Minister of the UK, House of Commons, 7th March 2012.

Research Suggests Fatty Acids Could Aid Cancer Prevention and Treatment



http://scicasts.com/cancer-research/6382-research-suggests-fatty-acids-could-aid-cancer-prevention-and-treatment

This shows untreated cancer keratonicytes. Image: Queen Mary, University of London

London, UK (Scicasts) – Omega-3 fatty acids, contained in oily fish such as salmon and trout, selectively inhibit growth and induce cell death in early and late-stage oral and skin cancers, according to new research from scientists at Queen Mary, University of London.

In vitro tests showed omega-3 fatty acids induced cell death in malignant and pre-malignant cells at doses which did not affect normal cells, suggesting they have the potential to be used in both the treatment and prevention of certain skin and oral cancers. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids cannot be made by humans in large quantities and so we must acquire them from our diet.

http://scicasts.com/cancer-research/6382-research-suggests-fatty-acids-could-aid-cancer-prevention-and-treatment

Eating Broccoli Reduces Risk of Cardiovascular Disease, Promotes Heart Health


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by Elizabeth Renter , MY SCIENCE ACADEMY

It’s not good enough to know that vegetables like broccoli are healthful; we need to know specifically what sort of benefits they deliver, how they deliver those benefits and how we can make the most of them.

read all at

http://myscienceacademy.org/2013/06/07/eating-broccoli-reduces-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-promotes-heart-health/

US HERBS- FIGHT CANCER WITH BROCCOLI


An example of the superfoods is the broccoli. Broccoli belongs to the cruciferous group of vegetables. Naturally, broccoli is an an excellent source of vitamins, minerals and fiber. These are elements from Nature that have been extensively studied.

Epidemiological studies provideevidence that the consumption of this vegetable protects against cancer. The protection against cancer is mainly derived from altering estrogen metabolism and antioxidant properties, enhancing detoxification, decreasing carcinogen coumpound activation, slowing tumor growth and inducing cancer cell apoptosis (death). Such attributes qualify broccoli as a superfood.

American Institute of Cancer Research estimates that a daily intake of three servings would potentially reduce cancer rates by 20%.

Broccoli contains certain chemicals that may reduce the risk of colorectal or other cancers, although it is not clear which individual compounds may be responsible for the protective effects. While research in this area continues, the best advice at this time to reduce cancer risk is to eat a wide variety of vegetables. It is reasonable to include broccoli as part of a balanced diet.

roccoli has been around for more than 2,000 years but has only been commercially grown in the United States since the 1920s. Today, more than 90% of the broccoli harvested in the United States comes from California, although it is also grown in other parts of the country.

About 2 decades ago, researchers first suggested a possible link between diets high in cruciferous vegetables (a group of plants including cauliflower, cabbage, broccoli, and Brussels sprouts)) and a lower risk of cancer. However, it was not until the 1990s that certain chemicals found in broccoli were identified as possible cancer-preventing compounds. In 1997, a study was published that noted broccoli sprouts had higher levels of one of these compounds than mature broccoli.

Broccoli is a plant in the cabbage family, whose large flower head is used as a vegetable. The word broccoli, from the Italian plural of broccolo, refers to “the flowering top of a cabbage”. Broccoli is usually boiled or steamed but may be eaten raw and has become popular as a raw vegetable in hors d’œuvre trays. The leaves may also be eaten.

Broccoli is classified in the Italica cultivar group of the species Brassica oleracea. Broccoli has large flower heads, usually green in color, arranged in a tree-like structure on branchessprouting from a thick, edible stalk. The mass of flower heads is surrounded by leaves. Broccoli most closely resembles cauliflower, which is a different cultivar group of the same species.

Broccoli was derived from cultivated leafy cole crops in the Northern Mediterranean in about the 6th century BCE. Since the Roman Empire, broccoli has been considered a uniquely valuable food among Italians. Broccoli was brought to England from Antwerp in the mid-18th century by Peter Scheemakers. Broccoli was first introduced to the United States by Italian immigrants but did not become widely known there until the 1920s

Broccoli is high in vitamin C and dietary fiber; it also contains multiple nutrients with potent anti-cancer properties, such as diindolylmethane and small amounts of selenium. A single serving provides more than 30 mg of vitamin C and a half-cup provides 52 mg of vitamin C. The 3,3′-Diindolylmethane found in broccoli is a potent modulator of theinnate immune response system with anti-viral, anti-bacterial and anti-cancer activity. Broccoli also contains the compound glucoraphanin, which can be processed into an anti-cancer compound sulforaphane, though the benefits of broccoli are greatly reduced if the vegetable is boiled. Broccoli is also an excellent source of indole-3-carbinol, a chemical which boosts DNA repair in cells and appears to block the growth of cancer cells.

Boiling broccoli reduces the levels of suspected anti-carcinogenic compounds, such as sulforaphane, with losses of 20–30% after five minutes, 40–50% after ten minutes, and 77% after thirty minutes. However, other preparation methods such as steaming,microwaving, and stir frying had no significant effect on the compounds.

Broccoli has the highest levels of carotenoids in the brassica family.[17] It is particularly rich in lutein and also provides a modest amount of beta-carotene.

A high intake of broccoli has been found to reduce the risk of aggressive prostate cancer. Broccoli consumption may also help prevent heart disease.

Broccoli sprouts are often suggested for their health benefits

Broccoli, raw (edible parts)
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 141 kJ (34 kcal)
Carbohydrates 6.64 g
– Sugars 1.7 g
– Dietary fiber 2.6 g
Fat 0.37 g
Protein 2.82 g
Water 89.3 g
Vitamin A equiv. 31 μg (4%)
– beta-carotene 361 μg (3%)
– lutein and zeaxanthin 1403 μg
Thiamine (vit. B1) 0.071 mg (6%)
Riboflavin (vit. B2) 0.117 mg (10%)
Niacin (vit. B3) 0.639 mg (4%)
Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.573 mg (11%)
Vitamin B6 0.175 mg (13%)
Folate (vit. B9) 63 μg (16%)
Vitamin C 89.2 mg (107%)
Vitamin E 0.78 mg (5%)
Vitamin K 101.6 μg (97%)
Calcium 47 mg (5%)
Iron 0.73 mg (6%)
Magnesium 21 mg (6%)
Manganese 0.21 mg (10%)
Phosphorus 66 mg (9%)
Potassium 316 mg (7%)
Zinc 0.41 mg (4%)
Link to USDA Database entry
Percentages are relative to
US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

 

Broccoli is considered a good source of nutrients because it is rich in vitamin C, carotenoids (vitamin A-like substances), fiber, calcium, and folate. Broccoli is also a source of many substances called phytochemicals, or plant chemicals, that may have anticancer properties. For example, broccoli contains several compounds called isothiocyanates, including sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol (I3C), which have been touted as possible anti-cancer agents in recent years. Early studies have shown these substances may act as anti-oxidants and may boost detoxifying enzymes in the body. Some studies have also suggested they may alter the levels of estrogen in the body, which might affect breast cancer risk.The chemical composition of broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables is complex, which makes it hard to determine which compound or combination of compounds may provide protection against cancer. Eating a wide variety of plant-based foods may be the best way to get the necessary components.Some researchers suggest that small amounts of broccoli sprouts may protect against the risk of cancer as effectively as much larger amounts of the mature vegetable. We are not aware of any clinical studies that have been done in humans to verify this claim.Another substance in broccoli, indole-3-carbinol (I3C), seems to alter estrogen levels and may also raise levels of protective enzymes in the body. Several studies of cancer cells growing in laboratory dishes or flasks have shown it may slow or stop the growth of breast, prostate, and other cancer cells. Some early studies in animals have shown similar results. Small studies in humans have found it may prevent the development of pre-cancerous growths in the cervix, as well as growths called papillomas in the throat. Again, larger studies are needed to find out what benefits I3C may have against cancer.

THE MOLECULES

The active molecules are Indole-3-carbinol (1H-indol-3-ylmethanol IUPAC name) OR I3C and isothiocyanates (mostly sulforaphane: 1-Isothiocyanato-4-methylsulfinylbutane).

Indole-3-carbinol has a indole with a hydroxymethyl group that represents the hydrophilic group.

Sulfurofane is a isothiocyanate, it means that it has a –N=C=S chemical group, formed by substituting sulfur for oxygen in the isocyanate group, bounded to a big alkyl chain containing a sulfinyl S=O group.

Both indole-3-carbinol and sulphoraphane derive from glucosinolates. Glucosinolates are a class of organic compounds that contain sulfur and nitrogen and are derived from glucose and an amino acid. They occur as secondary metabolites of almost all plants of the order Brassicales.

GENERAL EFFECTS ON HEALTH

I3C has been shown to have a chemopreventive action on several human cancers. The first and greatest effects concern breast and cervical estrogen-dependant cancer. Later, many researches managed to relate I3C with the prevention from colon, lung and prostate cancer too.
Given that, I3C can be considered a general protector against many kinds of neoplasy. At the same time other groups found that it could also play a role in improving Systemic Lupus Erythematosus patient conditions.

The micronutrient indole-3-carbinol: implications for disease and chemoprevention, 2000

Sulforaphane, like I3C, is useful against many types of cancer. Moreover, it has antimicrobial properties, as it appears to help eradicate Helicobacter Pylori from the stomach.

Molecular targets of dietary phenethyl isothiocyanate and sulforaphane for cancer

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