The US Food and Drug Administration has granted breakthrough therapy designation to GlaxoSmithKline’s drisapersen for the potential treatment of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. read all at
The compound is in a Phase III trial which is anticipated to complete by the end of 2013.
- “PRO051/GSK2402968”. Prosensa. Retrieved 29 October 2012
- “A Clinical Study to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of GSK2402968 in Subjects With Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD114044)”. ClinicalTrials.gov. Retrieved 29 October 2012.
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Numerous small gallstones made up largely of cholesterol.
A gallstone is a crystalline concretion formed within the gallbladder by accretion of bile components. These calculi are formed in the gallbladder but may distally pass into other parts of the biliary tract such as the cystic duct, common bile duct, pancreatic duct, or the ampulla of Vater. Rarely, in cases of severe inflammation, gallstones may erode through the gallbladder into adherent bowel potentially causing an obstruction termed gallstone ileus.
Presence of gallstones in the gallbladder may lead to acute cholecystitis, an inflammatory condition characterized by retention of bile in the gallbladder and often secondary infection by intestinal microorganisms, predominantly Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, and Bacteroides species.Presence of gallstones in other parts of the biliary tract can cause obstruction of the bile ducts, which can lead to serious conditions such as ascending cholangitis or pancreatitis. Either of these two conditions can be life-threatening and are therefore considered to be medical emergencies
Gallstones may be asymptomatic, even for years. These gallstones are called “silent stones” and do not require treatment.Symptoms commonly begin to appear once the stones reach a certain size (>8 mm). A characteristic symptom of gallstones is a “gallstone attack”, in which a person may experience intense pain in the upper-right side of the abdomen, often accompanied by nausea and vomiting, that steadily increases for approximately 30 minutes to several hours. A patient may also experience referred pain between the shoulder blades or below the right shoulder. These symptoms may resemble those of a “kidney stone attack”. Often, attacks occur after a particularly fatty meal and almost always happen at night, and after drink.
Gallstone risk increases for females (especially before menopause) and for people near or above 40 years; the condition is more prevalent among both North and South Amerindians and among those of European descent than among other ethnicities. A lack of melatonin could significantly contribute to gallbladder stones, as melatonin inhibits cholesterol secretion from the gallbladder, enhances the conversion of cholesterol to bile, and is an antioxidant, which is able to reduce oxidative stress to the gallbladder.Researchers believe that gallstones may be caused by a combination of factors, including inherited body chemistry, body weight, gallbladder motility (movement), and perhaps diet. The absence of such risk factors does not, however, preclude the formation of gallstones.
No clear relationship has been proved between diet and gallstone formation; however, low-fiber and high-cholesterol diets have been suggested as contributing to gallstone formation. Other nutritional factors that may increase risk of gallstones include rapid weight loss; constipation; eating fewer meals per day; and low intake of the nutrients folate, magnesium, calcium, and vitamin C. On the other hand, wine and whole-grained bread may decrease the risk of gallstones. Pigment gallstones are most commonly seen in the developing world. Risk factors for pigment stones include hemolytic anemias (such as sickle-cell disease and hereditary spherocytosis), cirrhosis, and biliary tract infections. People with erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) are at increased risk to develop gallstones. Additionally, prolonged use of proton pump inhibitors has been shown to decrease gallbladder function, potentially leading to gallstone formation
Diet is the fundamental part in the treatment of gall bladder disorders. In cases of acute gall-bladder inflammation, the patient should fast for two or three days, until the acute condition clears. Nothing but water should be taken during the fast. After the fast, the patient should take carrot, beet, grape fruit, lemon and grape juice for a few days. The diet should contain a sufficient amount of lacto-vegetarian, consisting of raw and cooked vegetables, vegetable juices, and a moderate amount of fruit and seeds. Yogurt, cottage cheese and a tablespoon of olive oil twice a day should also be taken.
All meats, eggs, animal fats and processed and denatured fats as well as fried foods should be avoided. The diet should also keep out refined carbohydrates, particularly sugar, sugar products, alcohol, soft drinks, cakes, puddings, ice-cream,and citrus fruits. The patient should eat small meals at regular intervals, rather than three large meals.
Cholesterol gallstones can sometimes be dissolved by oral ursodeoxycholic acid, but it may be necessary for the patient to take this medication for up to two years. Gallstones may recur, however, once the drug is stopped. Obstruction of the common bile duct with gallstones can sometimes be relieved by endoscopic retrograde sphincterotomy (ERS) following endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Gallstones can be broken up using a procedure called extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (often simply called “lithotripsy”), which is a method of concentrating ultrasonic shock waves onto the stones to break them into tiny pieces. They are then passed safely in the feces. However, this form of treatment is suitable only when there is a small number of gallstones.
Cholecystectomy (gallbladder removal) has a 99% chance of eliminating the recurrence of cholelithiasis. Surgery is only indicated in symptomatic patients. The lack of a gallbladder may have no negative consequences in many people. However, there is a portion of the population — between 10 and 15% — who develop a condition called postcholecystectomy syndrome which may cause gastrointestinal distress and persistent pain in the upper-right abdomen, as well as a 10% risk of developing chronic diarrhea.
There are two surgical options for cholecystectomy:
- Open cholecystectomy is performed via an abdomenal incision (laparotomy) below the lower right ribs. Recovery typically requires 3–5 days of hospitalization, with a return to normal diet a week after release and to normal activity several weeks after release.
- Laparoscopic cholecystectomy, introduced in the 1980s, is performed via three to four small puncture holes for a camera and instruments. Post-operative care typically includes a same-day release or a one night hospital stay, followed by a few days of home rest and pain medication. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients can, in general, resume normal diet and light activity a week after release, with some decreased energy level and minor residual pain continuing for a month or two. Studies have shown that this procedure is as effective as the more invasive open cholecystectomy, provided the stones are accurately located by cholangiogram prior to the procedure so that they can all be removed.
- A New Alternative Surgical Technique
A new surgical technique is available to remove Gallstones without excision of gallbladder. This technique is available in China.
- Alternative medicine
A regimen called a “gallbladder flush” or “liver flush” is a popular remedy in alternative medicine.In this treatment, often self-administered, the patient drinks four glasses of pure apple juice (not cider) and eats five apples (or applesauce) per day for five days, then fasts briefly, takes magnesium, and then drinks large quantities of lemon juice mixed with olive oil before bed. The next morning, they painlessly pass a number of green and brown pebbles purported to be stones flushed from the biliary system. Apples are a source of pectin, which has been shown to sequester bile and facilitate its elimination in the stool.
A brief communication in The Lancet presents a case report of such a treatment where the patient released many soft stones. According to the letter, “At the university hospital the stones were recognized as fatty stones”. In another case report, a patient with ultrasonography-confirmed gallstones drank olive oil and lemon juice, suffered diarrhea and intense abdominal pain, and released several gallstones. After that treatment, the gallbladder was empty, as confirmed by ultrasonography.
On the other hand, a couple of case reports challenge whether the stones retrieved from the stool after the “gallbladder flush” really come from the gallbladder. A New Zealand hospital analyzed stones from a typical gallbladder flush and found them to be composed of fatty acids similar to those in olive oil, with no detectable cholesterol or bile salts, demonstrating that they are little more than hardened olive oil. Despite the gallbladder flush, the patient still required surgical removal of multiple true gallstones. A similar case report in The Lancet,accompanied by a simple chemical experiment, concludes that the observed stones from a typical gallbladder flush actually are a consequence of the flush: they form in the stomach under the action of digestive enzymes on the mix of olive oil and lemon.
Finally, drinking an infusion of “Chanca Piedra“, or “Break Stones” (Phyllanthus niruri), a plant that is native to the Amazon, has long been used in South American traditional medicine to maintain kidney, liver, and gallbladder health and to treat gallstones and kidney stones and jaundice.
Other patients have anecdotally reported that symptoms can be temporarily reduced by drinking several glasses of water when experiencing gallstone pain. There is no known evidence backing this claim, and this approach will not eliminate the gallstones or improve the patient’s condition in the long term
Treatment involves removing the stone using ERCP. Typically, the gallbladder is then removed, an operation called cholecystectomy, to prevent a future occurrence of common bile duct obstruction or other complications
FOODS TO AVOID
Regular applications of hot and cold fomentations to the abdomen improve the circulation of the liver and gall-bladder. They also stimulate concentrations of the gall-bladder, thereby improving the flow of bile. A cold hip bath improves the general abdominal tone. The pain of gall-stone colic can be relieved by the application of hot packs or fomentation to the upper abdominal area. A warm water enema at body temperature will help eliminate faecal accumulations if the patient is constipated. Exercise is necessary as physical inactivity can lead to lazy gall-bladder type indigestion which may eventually result in the formation of stones. Yogic asanas which are beneficial in toning up the liver and gall-bladder are:, , , and .
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AZD4694, NAV4694 STRUCTURE
Navidea starts clinical trial for Alzheimer’s diagnostic drug
Business First of Columbus
The Phase 3 trial for the Alzheimer’s agent, at the moment named NAV4694, will compare how well the drugdisplays the buildup of a damaging protein in the brain of patients believed to have Alzheimer’s compared with what’s found in the autopsy. There …
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Navidea Biopharmaceuticals, a Dublin, Ohio biopharmaceutical company focused on precision diagnostics, earlier this week announced the completion of a study of its novel radiopharmaceutical NAV4694 as a biomarker for Alzheimer’s disease (AD).
NAV4694 is designed to aid visual detection and quantification of cerebral beta amyloid in diagnosing Alzheimer’s disease (AD). One hallmark of AD is the accumulation of beta amyloid plaques between nerve cells in the brain.
The study was designed and conducted by Navidea’s partner, AstraZeneca, to assess the safety and of the biomarker during PET scanning in subjects with AD and in healthy volunteers. Efficacy measures included binding parameters and overall image quality. The 16-patient trial was completed at Karolinska Institutet sites in Stockholm, Sweden.
FDA Approves Rixubis – First Recombinant Coagulation Factor IX For Use in Preventing Bleeding Episodes
Rixubis [Coagulation Factor IX (Recombinant)]
June 27, 2013 — The U.S. Food and Drug Administration yesterday approved Rixubis [Coagulation Factor IX (Recombinant)] for use in people with hemophilia B who are 16 years of age and older. Rixubis is indicated for the control and prevention of bleeding episodes, perioperative (period extending from the time of hospitalization for surgery to the time of discharge) management, and routine use to prevent or reduce the frequency of bleeding episodes (prophylaxis).
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The first fluorescent sensor for known date rape drug gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) has been developed in Singapore. It emits orange fluorescence in alcoholic drinks containing GBL when irradiated with a green laser.
Gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) is a readily available industrial solvent that is often used as a date rape drug. There are several detection kits that can show if a drink has been spiked with drugs like gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and ketamine but there are no commercially available sensors to detect GBL.
more info on other drug
Predatory drugs or date rape drugs are responsible for the creation of the most dangerous and pathologic environment that exists around drug use and drug abuse. Predatory drugs are a general class of drug that are primarily used to “render the victim incapable of resisting sexual advances”. (U.S. DEA)
This statement does not imply that the drug makes a person desire sexual activity, but quite the opposite. Predatory drugs leave the victim helpless, possibly unconscious, but certainly without any memory of a crime being committed against him/her. It can not be emphasized enough that giving someone a predatory drug is not only morally reprehensible it is also a serious criminal act. Illicit use of date rape drugs involve some of the most pathologic criminals who are involved with our justice system.
Misspellings: Ketamene, Ketimane, Rohipnol, Rophinol
So called date rape drugs are also found at rave parties, clubs, college parties, and even in high school social environments. They are potent drugs that can cause serious health problems, developmental problems, overdose and death. To further complicate the effects of these drugs, many are produced in illegal labs. Illicit production of drugs means there is no quality control standards. The lack of quality control standards can greatly diminish the purity of the drugs and leaves the user vulnerable to harsh chemicals and possibly overdose. Most of the chemicals found in date rape drugs are not intended for human consumption.
The number of drugs that are considered predatory drugs is increasing. To date, the most commonly used are:
- GHB – GBH’s chemical name is gama hydroxybutyrate and is currently a
schedule 1 drug that has central nervous system depressant effects.
- GBL/1 – GBL is a pro-drug of GHB and produces the same effects.
- 4-BD – The chemical name of 4-BD is 1,4-Butanediol and is used industrially as a solvent. When taken recreationally, it produces the same effects as GHB.
- Ketamine – Ketamine, or special K, as it is known on the streets, is a type of anesthetic known as a dissociative anesthetic and is approved for human and veterinarian use. When taken recreationally, it produces euphoria and hallucinations.
- Rohypnol – The generic name of Rohypnol is flunitrazepam and it is marketed as a potent hypnotic, sedative, and it produces amnesia. It is in the class of drugs known as benzodiazepines.
Some of these drugs are made from industrial strength floor cleansers, lye, and Dranno and can cause brain damage.
The regular use of drugs such as GHB/GBL used to lower inhibitions can create significant side effects. The most common side effects produced by the recreational use of date rape drugs are:
- Psychosis and severe agitation requiring self-protection procedures and sedation
- Mild tachycardia (increased heart rate) and hypertension
- Neurologic effects, including prolonged delirium
- Diaphoresis (profuse sweating), nausea, and vomiting
- Overdose, coma, and death
Because of the memory loss associated with these drugs, the user can be prone to use again and again without memory of severe side effects. Once used regularly, date rate drugs could also lead to serious withdrawal symptoms. These withdrawal symptoms will require medical attention and medication.
Beyond the physical dependence an emotional dependence can quickly develop. Once regular use begins an addict can experience personality changes which may result in aggressive behavior, a disregard for authority, a disregard for personal safety, risky sexual behavior, a loss of boundaries, financial difficulties, problems at school or work, a change in friends, and the loss of interest in normal activities.
No one plans on becoming an addict but the power of drugs on the brain’s functioning, accompanied by the alterations in the neuroreceptors, drives the addiction process. It is not about choice or desire once the body’s systems have been affected. Date rape drugs or predatory drugs are extraordinarily powerful both in their addictive qualities and the serious, negative, health consequences that accompany regular use.
Benzeneacetic acid, α-[[(2R)-2-[(1S)-1-hydroxy-2-(hydroxyamino)-2-oxoethyl]-4-methyl-1-oxopentyl]amino]-, cyclopentyl ester, (αS)-
Cell Therapeutics, Inc. (CTI) (NASDAQ and MTA: CTIC) today issued the following statement regarding the notification of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (the “FDA”) partial clinical hold on tosedostat (IND 075503), the Company’s aminopeptidase inhibitor under development for the treatment of blood-related cancers, that is being studied in an investigator-sponsored trial and not by CTI. CTI’s primary development programs are the ongoing Phase 3 trial of pacritinib, the Company’s JAK2/FLT3 inhibitor being evaluated for patients with myelofibrosis, and the post-approval commitment study of PIXUVRI®(pixantrone).
June 26, 2013
VIVUS, Inc. today announced that the European Commission (EC) has adopted the implementing decision granting marketing authorization for SPEDRA(TM) (avanafil) for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) in the European Union (EU). The approval of the marketing authorization application (MAA) by the EC follows the positive recommendation by the European Medicines Agency’s (EMA) Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) in April 2013.
SPEDRA, a PDE5 inhibitor, is the first new chemical entity (NCE) approved for ED in over a decade. The global market for ED therapies was approximately $5.5 billion in 2012.
STENDRA, or avanafil, is approved by the FDA for the treatment of erectile dysfunction, or ED, in the U.S. VIVUS, through collaboration arrangements with third parties, intends to market and sell STENDRA in the U.S. and under the trade name SPEDRA in the EU and other territories outside the U.S. Avanafil is licensed from Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation (MTPC). VIVUS owns worldwide development and commercial rights to avanafil for the treatment of sexual dysfunction, with the exception of certain Asian Pacific Rim countries.
VIVUS is currently in discussions with potential partners to commercialize STENDRA in the United States and other territories throughout the world.
It is recommended that STENDRA should be taken approximately 30 minutes before sexual activity. STENDRA should not be taken more than once per day. For more information about STENDRA, please visit www.Stendra.com.
Avanir Pharmaceuticals, Inc. today announced that the European Commission has approved NUEDEXTA® (dextromethorphan hydrobromide/quinidine sulfate) in the European Union for the treatment of pseudobulbar affect (PBA), irrespective of underlying neurologic disease or injury.
NUEDEXTA is an oral formulation of dextromethorphan hydrobromide USP and quinidine sulfate USP in a fixed dose combination.
Dextromethorphan hydrobromide is the pharmacologically active ingredient of NUEDEXTA that acts on the central nervous system (CNS). The chemical name is dextromethorphan hydrobromide: morphinan, 3-methoxy-17-methyl-, (9α, 13α, 14α)- hydrobromide monohydrate. Dextromethorphan hydrobromide has the empirical formula C18H25NO•HBr•H2O with a molecular weight of 370.33. The structural formula is:
Quinidine sulfate is a specific inhibitor of CYP2D6-dependent oxidative metabolism used in NUEDEXTA to increase the systemic bioavailability of dextromethorphan. The chemical name is quinidine sulfate: cinchonan-9-ol, 6’-methoxy- (9S) sulfate (2:1), (salt), dihydrate. Quinidine sulfate dihydrate has the empirical formula of (C20H24N2O2)2•H2SO4•2H2O with a molecular weight of 782.96. The structural formula is:
The combination product, NUEDEXTA, is a white to off-white powder. NUEDEXTA is available for oral use as NUEDEXTA which contains 20 mg dextromethorphan hydrobromide and 10 mg quinidine sulfate. The active ingredients are dextromethorphan hydrobromide monohydrate USP and quinidine sulfate dihydrate USP.Inactive ingredients in the capsule are croscarmellose sodium NF, microcrystalline cellulose NF, colloidal silicon dioxide NF, lactose monohydrate NF, and magnesium stearate NF.