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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 29 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 29 year tenure till date Aug 2016, Around 30 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 25 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 13 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 212 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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The greening of peptide synthesis


 

The greening of peptide synthesis

Abstract

The synthesis of peptides by amide bond formation between suitably protected amino acids is a fundamental part of the drug discovery process. However, the required coupling and deprotection reactions are routinely carried out in dichloromethane and DMF, both of which have serious toxicity concerns and generate waste solvent which constitutes the vast majority of the waste generated during peptide synthesis. In this work, propylene carbonate has been shown to be a green polar aprotic solvent which can be used to replace dichloromethane and DMF in both solution- and solid-phase peptide synthesis. Solution-phase chemistry was carried out with Boc/benzyl protecting groups to the tetrapeptide stage, no epimerisation occurred during these syntheses and chemical yields for both coupling and deprotection reactions in propylene carbonate were at least comparable to those obtained in conventional solvents. Solid-phase peptide synthesis was carried out using Fmoc protected amino acids on a ChemMatrix resin and was used to prepare the biologically relevant nonapeptide bradykinin with comparable purity to a sample prepared in DMF.

Graphical abstract: The greening of peptide synthesis
Boc-Ala-Phe-OBn 5a    ref S1
Boc-Ala-OH (324 mg, 1.71 mmol) and HCl.H-Phe-OBn (500 mg, 1.71 mmol) were coupled according to the general coupling procedure. The residue was purified using flash column chromatography (35:65, EtOAc:PE) to give Boc-Ala-Phe-OBn 5a as a white crystalline solid (682 mg, 93%). RF = 0.34 (40:60, EtOAc:PE);
mp 95.6-96.3 °C;
[α]D 23 -27.7 (c 1.0 in MeOH);
IR (Neat) νmax 3347 (m), 3063 (w), 3029 (w), 2928 (m), 2852 (w), 1735 (w), 1684 (w) 1666 (w) and 1521 (s) cm-1;
1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): δ = 7.36-7.31 (m, 3H, ArH), 7.29-7.24 (m, 2H, ArH), 7.26-7.21 (m, 3H, ArH), 7.04-6.97 (m, 2H, ArH), 6.72 (d J 7.7 Hz, 1H, Phe-NH), 5.16-5.10 (m, 1H, Ala-NH), 5.13 (d J 12.1 Hz, 1H, OCH2Ph), 5.07 (d J 12.1 Hz, 1H, OCH2Ph), 4.88 (dt, J 7.7, 5.9 1H, PheNCH), 4.11 (br, 1H, Ala-NCH), 3.13 (dd J 13.9, 6.1 Hz, 1H, CH2Ph), 3.08 (dd J 13.9, 6.1 Hz, 1H, CH2Ph), 1.41 (s, 9H, C(CH3)3), 1.29 (d J 6.6 Hz, 3H, CH3);
13C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3): δ = 172.3 (C=O), 171.2 (C=O), 155.6 (NC=O), 135.7 (ArC), 135.1 (ArC), 129.5 (ArCH), 128.7 (ArCH), 128.6 (ArCH), 127.2 (ArCH), 80.2 (CMe3), 67.4 (OCH2Ph), 53.3 (Phe-NCH), 50.3 (Ala-NCH), 38.0 (CH2Ph), 28.4 (C(CH3)3), 18.5 (CH3);
MS (ESI) m/z 449 [(M+Na)+ , 100]; HRMS (ESI) m/z calculated for C24H30N2O5Na 449.2048 (M+Na)+ , found 449.2047 (0.6 ppm error).
S1 J. Nam, D. Shin, Y. Rew and D. L. Boger, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2007, 129, 8747–8755; Q. Wang, Y. Wang and M. Kurosu, Org. Lett., 2012, 14, 3372–3375.
General procedure for peptide coupling reactions in PC To a suspension of an N-Boc-amino acid (1.0 eq.) and an amino acid or peptide benzyl ester (1.0 eq.) in PC (5 mL mmol-1), at 0 °C, was added a solution of HOBt (1.1 eq.) and i Pr2EtN (3.0 eq.) in a minimal quantity of PC. EDC (1.1 eq.) was added dropwise and the reaction mixture was allowed to stir at room temperature for 16h. The reaction mixture was then diluted using EtOAc (50 mL) and washed with 1M HClaq (3 × 25 mL), saturated Na2CO3 (3 × 25 mL) and H2O (3 × 25 mL). The organic layer was dried (MgSO4 ), filtered and concentrated in vacuo. Any residual PC was removed via short path distillation. Purification details for each peptide and characterising data are given in the supplementary information. General procedure for Boc deprotections in PC An N-Boc-peptide benzyl ester (1.0 eq.) was dissolved in a minimum amount of PC and trifluoroacetic acid (60 eq.) was added. The reaction mixture was allowed to stir for 3h. at room temperature before being concentrated in vacuo. Any residual PC was removed via short path distillation. Characterising data for each deprotected peptide are given in the supplementary information.
Procedure for Boc deprotection of dipeptide 5a using HCl in PC Boc-Ala-Phe-OBn 5a (50 mg, 0.117 mmol) was dissolved in PC (2.34 mL). MeOH (0.40 mL, 9.8 mmol) was added and the solution cooled to 0 o C. Acetyl chloride (0.67 mL, 9.36 mmol) was added dropwise and the solution allowed to stir at room temperature for 2h. Then, PC was removed by short path distillation. The residue was suspended in Et2O and stirred for 5 minutes before being filtered to give HCl.Ala-Ph-OBn as a white solid (32.4 mg, 76%).
Propylene carbonate 1 has been shown to be a green replacement for reprotoxic amide based solvents which are widely used in peptide synthesis. Both solution- and solidphase peptide synthesis can be carried out in propylene carbonate using acid and base labile amine protecting groups respectively. No significant racemisation of the activated amino acids occurs in propylene carbonate and the viability of solid-phase peptide synthesis in propylene carbonate was demonstrated by the synthesis of the nonapeptide bradykinin.
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FDA approves Adlyxin (lixisenatide) 利西拉 to treat type 2 diabetes


 

 

07/28/2016 07:53 AM EDT
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Adlyxin (lixisenatide), a once-daily injection to improve glycemic control (blood sugar levels), along with diet and exercise, in adults with type 2 diabetes.

July 28, 2016

Release

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Adlyxin (lixisenatide), a once-daily injection to improve glycemic control (blood sugar levels), along with diet and exercise, in adults with type 2 diabetes.

“The FDA continues to support the development of new drug therapies for diabetes management,” said Mary Thanh Hai Parks, M.D., deputy director, Office of Drug Evaluation II in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “Adlyxin will add to the available treatment options to control blood sugar levels for those with type 2.”

Type 2 diabetes affects more than 29 million people and accounts for more than 90 percent of diabetes cases diagnosed in the United States. Over time, high blood sugar levels can increase the risk for serious complications, including heart disease, blindness and nerve and kidney damage.

Adlyxin is a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, a hormone that helps normalize blood sugar levels. The drug’s safety and effectiveness were evaluated in 10 clinical trials that enrolled 5,400 patients with type 2 diabetes. In these trials, Adlyxin was evaluated both as a standalone therapy and in combination with other FDA-approved diabetic medications, including metformin, sulfonylureas, pioglitazone and basal insulin. Use of Adlyxin improved hemoglobin A1c levels (a measure of blood sugar levels) in these trials.

In addition, more than 6,000 patients with type 2 diabetes at risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease were treated with either Adlyxin or a placebo in a cardiovascular outcomes trial. Use of Adlyxin did not increase the risk of cardiovascular adverse events in these patients.

Adlyxin should not be used to treat people with type 1 diabetes or patients with increased ketones in their blood or urine (diabetic ketoacidosis).

The most common side effects associated with Adlyxin are nausea, vomiting, headache, diarrhea and dizziness. Hypoglycemia in patients treated with both Adlyxin and other antidiabetic drugs such as sulfonylurea and/or basal insulin is another common side effect. In addition, severe hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis, were reported in clinical trials of Adlyxin.

The FDA is requiring the following post-marketing studies for Adlyxin:

  • Clinical studies to evaluate dosing, efficacy and safety in pediatric patients.
  • A study evaluating the immunogenicity of lixisenatide.

Adlyxin is manufactured by Sanofi-Aventis U.S. LLC, of Bridgewater, New Jersey.

END……………….

 

 

lixisenatide;Lixisenatide|Lixisenatide Acetate;Lixisenatide Acetate
CAS: 320367-13-3
MF: C215H347N61O65S
MW: 4858.53

C215 H347 N61 O65 S

L-Lysinamide, L-histidylglycyl-L-α-glutamylglycyl-L-threonyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-threonyl-L-seryl-L-α-aspartyl-L-leucyl-L-seryl-L-lysyl-L-glutaminyl-L-methionyl-L-α-glutamyl-L-α-glutamyl-L-α-glutamyl-L-alanyl-L-valyl-L-arginyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-isoleucyl-L-α-glutamyl-L-tryptophyl-L-leucyl-L-lysyl-L-asparaginylglycylglycyl-L-prolyl-L-seryl-L-serylglycyl-L-alanyl-L-prolyl-L-prolyl-L-seryl-L-lysyl-L-lysyl-L-lysyl-L-lysyl-L-lysyl-

L-Histidylglycyl-L-α-glutamylglycyl-L-threonyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-threonyl-L-seryl-L-α-aspartyl-L-leucyl-L-seryl-L-lysyl-L-glutaminyl-L-methionyl-L-α-glutamyl-L-α-glutamyl-L-α-glutamyl-L-alanyl-L-valyl-L-arginyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-isoleucyl-L-α-glutamyl-L-tryptophyl-L-leucyl-L-lysyl-L-asparaginylglycylglycyl-L-prolyl-L-seryl-L-serylglycyl-L-alanyl-L-prolyl-L-prolyl-L-seryl-L-lysyl-L-lysyl-L-lysyl-L-lysyl-L-lysyl-L-lysinamide

 

827033-10-3.png

Lixisenatide

Lixisenatide

 

827033-10-3; Lixisenatide [INN]; UNII-74O62BB01U; DesPro36Exendin-4(1-39)-Lys6-NH2;   DesPro36Exendin-4(1-39)-Lys6-NH2
Molecular Formula: C215H347N61O65S
Molecular Weight: 4858.49038 g/mol
IUPAC Condensed

H-His-Gly-Glu-Gly-Thr-Phe-Thr-Ser-Asp-Leu-Ser-Lys-Gln-Met-Glu-Glu-Glu-Ala-Val-Arg-Leu-Phe-Ile-Glu-Trp-Leu-Lys-Asn-Gly-Gly-Pro-Ser-Ser-Gly-Ala-Pro-Pro-Ser-Lys-Lys-Lys-Lys-Lys-Lys-NH2

from PubChem
LINUCS

[][L-Lys-NH2]{[(1+2)][L-Lys]{[(1+2)][L-Lys]{[(1+2)][L-Lys]{[(1+2)][L-Lys]{[(1+2)][L-Lys]{[(1+2)][L-Ser]{[(1+2)][L-Pro]{[(1+2)][L-Pro]{[(1+2)][L-Ala]{[(1+2)][Gly]{[(1+2)][L-Ser]{[(1+2)][L-Ser]{[(1+2)][L-Pro]{[(1+2)][Gly]{[(1+2)][Gly]{[(1+2)][L-Asn]{[(1+2)][L-Lys]{[(1+2)][L-Leu]{[(1+2)][L-Trp]{[(1+2)][L-Glu]{[(1+2)][L-Ile]{[(1+2)][L-Phe]{[(1+2)][L-Leu]{[(1+2)][L-Arg]{[(1+2)][L-Val]{[(1+2)][L-Ala]{[(1+2)][L-Glu]{[(1+2)][L-Glu]{[(1+2)][L-Glu]{[(1+2)][L-Met]{[(1+2)][L-Gln]{[(1+2)][L-Lys]{[(1+2)][L-Ser]{[(1+2)][L-Leu]{[(1+2)][L-Asp]{[(1+2)][L-Ser]{[(1+2)][L-Thr]{[(1+2)][L-Phe]{[(1+2)][L-Thr]{[(1+2)][Gly]{[(1+2)][L-Glu]{[(1+2)][Gly]{[(1+2)][L-His]{}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}

from PubChem
Sequence

HGEGTFTSDLSKQMEEEAVRLFIEWLKNGGPSSGAPPSKKKKKK

from PubChem
PLN

H-HGEGTFTSDLSKQMEEEAVRLFIEWLKNGGPSSGAPPSKKKKKK-[NH2]

from PubChem
HELM

PEPTIDE1{H.G.E.G.T.F.T.S.D.L.S.K.Q.M.E.E.E.A.V.R.L.F.I.E.W.L.K.N.G.G.P.S.S.G.A.P.P.S.K.K.K.K.K.K.[am]}$$$$

Sanofi (formerly sanofi-aventis, formerly Aventis), under license from Zealand Pharma, has developed and launched lixisenatide

Lixisenatide (trade name Lyxumia) is a once-daily injectable GLP-1 receptor agonist for the treatment of diabetes, discovered by Zealand Pharma A/S of Denmark and licensed and developed by Sanofi.[1] Lixisenatide was accepted for review by the US FDA on February 19, 2013, and approved by the European Commission on February 1, 2013.[2] On September 12, 2013, Sanofi delayed the approval process in the US, citing internal data from a cardiovascular risk study. The drug will likely be resubmitted for approval in 2015.

Lixisenatide is a once-daily injectable GLP-1 receptor agonist discovered by Zealand Pharma A/S of Denmark and licensed and developed by Sanofi. As of September 2010 it is in clinical trials for diabetes. Lixisenatide was accepted for review by the US FDA on February 19, 2013, and approved by the European Commission on February 1, 2013. The drug will likely be resubmitted for approval in 2015.

Mechanism of action

GLP-1 is a naturally-occurring peptide that is released within minutes of eating a meal. It is known to suppress glucagon secretion from pancreatic alpha cells and stimulate insulin secretion by pancreatic beta cells. GLP-1 receptor agonists are used as an add-on treatment for type 2 diabetes and their use is endorsed by the European Association for the Study of Diabetes, the American Diabetes Association, the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the American College of Endocrinology.

Physical and chemical properties

Lixisenatixe has been described as “des-38-proline-exendin-4 (Heloderma suspectum)-(1–39)-peptidylpenta-L-lysyl-L-lysinamide”, meaning it is derived from the first 39 amino acids in the sequence of the peptide exendin-4, found in the Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum), omitting proline at position 38 and adding six lysine residues. Its complete sequence is:[3]

H–HisGlyGlu–Gly–ThrPhe–Thr–SerAspLeu–Ser–LysGlnMet–Glu–Glu–Glu–AlaValArg–Leu–Phe–Ile–Glu–Trp–Leu–Lys–Asn–Gly–Gly–Pro–Ser–Ser–Gly–Ala–Pro–Pro–Ser–Lys–Lys–Lys–Lys–Lys–Lys–NH2

PATENT

US 20110313131

http://www.google.co.in/patents/US20110313131

 

PATENT

CN 105713082

The title method comprises the steps of: (1) coupling Fmoc-Lys(Boc)-OH and resin to obtain Fmoc-Lys(Boc)-resin, (2) protecting amino acid with Fmoc, conducting solid-phase synthesis to obtain lixisenatide wholly protected 20-44-peptide resin, (3) conducting solid-phase synthesis to obtain wholly protected 15-19-peptide resin, (4) coupling the wholly protected 20-44-peptide resin and wholly protected 15-19-peptide resin, (5) coupling other amino acids till solid-phase synthesis finishes, (6) cracking lixisenatide peptide resin to obtain crude peptide, and (7) purifying through RP-HPLC.  The method improves crude peptide purity and purifn. yield.

PATENT

CN104211801A

MACHINE TRANSLATION FROM CHINESE, PL BEAR WITH SOME IREGULARITES IN GRAMMAR

利西拉, the English name: Lixisenatide, is a polypeptide containing 44 amino acids, the structural formula is as follows: peptide sequence as follows:

Figure CN104211801AD00031

H-His-Gly-Glu-Gly-Thr-Phe-Thr-Ser-Asp-Leu-Ser-Lys-Gln-Met-Glu-Glu-Glu-Al a-Val-Arg-Leu-Phe-IIe-Glu -Trp-Leu-Lys-Asn-Gly-Gly-Pro-Ser-Ser-Gly-Ala-Pro-Pr O-Ser-Lys-Lys-Lys-Lys-Lys-Lys-NH 2 Li Xila to (Lixisenatide ) by Sanofi-Aventis developed once a day subcutaneously with glucagon-like peptide -I (GLP-I) receptor agonists, for the treatment of type II diabetes, on February 1, 2013 Sanofi Lee Division -Aventis of exenatide is approved EMEA, for the adjuvant treatment of poorly stable dose of basal insulin (or metformin) in the treatment of type II diabetes to improve HbAlc and postprandial blood glucose levels.

CN201210030151. 2 used in a pure solid phase sequential coupling method synthetic peptides. The method amino resin as the carrier, using conventional coupling sequence, the final cut to give Li Xila.

 US6528486 patent for the compound, synthetic methods mentioned it to phase condensation method Fmoc / tBu strategy.

The [0005] W02005058954 synthesis method including the gradual condensation process Fmoc / tBu strategy, Boc strategy of gradual condensation methods and genetic engineering.

The  W02001004156 synthesis method for the gradual condensation process Fmoc / tBu strategy.

 Since Li Xila abroad mostly used to synthesize Fmoc solid phase synthesis method, a gradual shrinking gradually synthesis step more, resulting in more types of product impurities, US 20130284912 Special Report polypeptide impurity: Di-Ser33- Leisy pull and Di-Ala35- Li Xila come, Di-Ser 33- Li Xila come and Di-Ala35- Li Xila to atmosphere amino acid sequence as follows: Di-Ser33- Li Xila to the amino acid sequence: H-His -Gly-Glu-Gly-Thr-Phe-Thr-Ser-Asp-Leu-Ser-Lys-Gln-Met-Glu-Glu-Glu-Al a-Val-Arg-Leu-Phe-IIe-Glu-Trp- Leu-Lys-Asn-Gly-Gly-Pro-Ser-Ser-Ser-Gly-Ala-Pr 〇-Pr〇-Ser-Lys_Lys_Lys_Lys_Lys_LyS-NH2 Di-Ala35- Li Xila to the amino acid sequence: H-His-Gly- Glu-Gly-Thr-Phe-Thr-Ser-Asp-Leu-Ser-Lys-Gln-Met-Glu-Glu-Glu-Al a-Val-Arg-Leu-Phe-IIe-Glu-Trp-Leu-Lys -Asn-Gly-Gly-Pro-Ser-Ser-Gly-Ala-Ala-Pr 〇-Pr〇-Ser-Lys_Lys_Lys_Lys_Lys_LyS-NH2 toxicity of these impurities are impurities larger, and very difficult to separate from the main peak , the presence of the impurities seriously affect 利西拉 to content and the use of safety. Hence the need to find an effective way to remove it and to reach the high standard level of 0.1% or less. The present inventors have found that this impurity is difficult to remove by means of the prior art, although there are ways to remove part of, but removal is not ideal, it is difficult to achieve high quality standards is likely to cause 利西拉 level while reducing their yield.

In summary, the existing Li Xila to the solid phase synthesis, low yield of the synthesis, impurities, in particular, are not well controlled impurity Di-Ser 33- Li Xila come and Di-Ala35 – Li Xila to, does not apply to industrial production

Example i ^ a: Preparation 利西拉 to fine peptide acetate Weigh 利西拉 above 44. 70g to 45L crude peptide was dissolved in water, purified by C18 column, the first purification conditions: mobile phase: A phase: 0 I% TFA; B phase: acetonitrile; gradient program was: 15% B, 60 minutes to 60% B; detection wavelength 220 nm; peak fraction collection purposes. The second purification conditions: mobile phase was: A phase: 0 3% HAC; B phase: acetonitrile; gradient program was: 10% B, 60 minutes to 60% B; detection wavelength 220 nm; peak fraction collection purposes. Desalting conditions: Mobile phase: A phase: an aqueous solution of 20 mmol / L ammonium acetate: acetonitrile = 95: 5; B phase: water: acetonitrile = 95: 5; C phase: 0.03% aqueous solution of acetic acid: acetonitrile = 95 : 5; D phase: 0.03% aqueous solution of acetic acid: acetonitrile = 50: 50; gradient program: mobile phase A isocratic for 15 minutes, convert isocratic mobile phase B for 10 minutes, is converted into the flow Phase C isocratic 10 minutes, converted into a mobile phase D isocratic 25 minutes; detection wavelength 220 nm; peak fraction collection purposes; rotary evaporation concentrated and lyophilized to give Li Xila acetate fine peptide 22. 65g which HPLC spectrum shown in Figure 5, HPLC purity of 99.75% (area normalization method), Di-Ser33- Li Xila come to 0.03% (area normalization method), Di-Ala35- Li Xila to the content of 0.05% (area normalization method). Purification total yield of 51%, total yield 41%. Its mass spectrum as shown in Figure 6, [M + H] + = 4858. 691, 利西拉 precise molecular weight to the theoretical: 4857.53, the sample mass is consistent with the theoretical molecular weight.

PATENT

CN 103709243

MACHINE TRANSLATION FROM CHINESE, PL BEAR WITH SOME IREGULARITES IN GRAMMAR

Example 2: Preparation 利西拉 to crude peptide

利西拉 [0116] Example 24 was prepared to be placed 125.4g peptide resin cleavage reaction to 10ml / g resin ratio added lysis reagent (TFA: thioanisole: EDT: TIS: water = 86: 5 : 5: 3: 1 (V / V)), stirred at room temperature 2.5h. The reaction was purified by frit funnel filtration, the filtrate was collected, the resin was washed 3 times and then a small amount of TFA, the combined filtrates concentrated under reduced pressure. Frozen precipitation in anhydrous ether was added, washed three times with anhydrous diethyl ether, and dried in vacuo to give a white solid powder, i.e. Li Xila to crude peptide 47.lg, by weight of the crude peptide yield 97.2%, HPLC purity 63.8% 0

利西拉 to crude peptide preparation: 27 patients [0117] Example

利西拉 [0118] The Example 25 was prepared to be placed 123.7g peptide resin cleavage reaction to 10ml / g resin ratio added lysis reagent (TFA: thioanisole: EDT: TIS: water = 86: 5 : 5: 3: 1 (V / V)), stirred at room temperature 2.5h. The reaction was purified by frit funnel filtration, the filtrate was collected, the resin was washed 3 times and then a small amount of TFA, the combined filtrates concentrated under reduced pressure. Frozen precipitation in anhydrous ether was added, washed three times with anhydrous diethyl ether, and dried in vacuo to give a white solid powder, i.e. Li Xila to crude peptide 46.9g, yield the crude peptide by weight 96.5%, HPLC purity 64.2% 0

28 Example 2: Preparation 利西拉 to fine peptide acetate

 Example weighed 26 to 27 after 利西拉 to any 30.0g crude peptide was dissolved in 3000ml of water using Waters2545RP-HPLC system, wavelength 230nm, 50 X 250mm column of reverse phase C18 column, 0.2% TFA conventional / acetonitrile mobile phase were fractionated peaks of fractions, refined peptide purity greater than 98.5%. The fine peptide solution using Waters2545RP-HPLC system, 50 X 250mm column was C18 reverse phase column, 0.1% acetic acid / acetonitrile mobile phase transfer salt, the purpose of peak fractions were collected, concentrated by rotary evaporation and lyophilized to give Li Xila acetate fine salt peptide> 9.0g, RP-HPLC purity ≥98.5%. Purification Yield ≥30%, total yield ≥29.0%.

PATENT

CN 102875663

MACHINE TRANSLATION FROM CHINESE, PL BEAR WITH SOME IREGULARITES IN GRAMMAR

http://www.google.at/patents/CN102875663B?cl=en

Example 9

[0239] The crude peptide Li Xila to 4000g (including Li Xila to 1139g) was dissolved with purified water 100L, collected by filtration and the filtrate set aside.

[0240] purification chromatographic conditions:

[0241] HPLC Model: Novasep LC450

 Column: 450X250mm, built-phenyl silane bonded silica gel as stationary phase filler, the filler particle size of 10 μ m0

 flow rate: 5000ml / min.

The detection wavelength: 280nm.

 Mobile phase A phase: 10% 30mM D- 30mM sodium tartrate and disodium hydrogenphosphate in methanol / 90% aqueous (v / v), adjusted to pH 2.5 with phosphoric acid.

[0246] Mobile phase A phase preparation process: Weigh 1280g 2070g D- sodium tartrate and disodium hydrogenphosphate, after an appropriate amount of purified water was dissolved through 0.45 μ m membrane filter, the filtrate collected all 300L tank, added 30L chromatographically pure After methanol was added to the 300L scale purification of water, adjusted to pH 2.5 with phosphoric acid. Repeat preparation run.

[0247] The mobile phase B phase: HPLC grade acetonitrile.

Figure CN102875663BD00132

[0249] sample volume: 250.0g (6250ml).

[0250] Purification: column equilibration the sample so that after 5 minutes, run a gradient purification, monitoring and staging purposes peak fractions were collected. The collected fractions (chromatographic conditions purity testing to the same conditions as above 利西拉 determination to area normalization method measured) purity test, the purity of greater than or equal to 98% of the fractions after removing most of the acetonitrile in turn salt; purity of 70% or more less than 98% of the fraction recovered after removal of most of the acetonitrile and the purification procedure is repeated, again collected purity greater than or equal to 98% of the fraction after removal of most of the acetonitrile are also used to turn salt; purity of less than 70 % of fractions by waste disposal.

[0251] points and 16 injections, repeat the above operation.

[0252] turn salt chromatographic conditions:

[0253] HPLC Model: Novasep LC450

[0254] Column: 450 X 250mm, built-C8 reversed-phase chromatography packing, the particle size of the filler is 10 μ m.

[0255] flow rate: 5000ml / min.

[0256] The detection wavelength: 280nm.

[0257] Mobile phase A phase: 0.2% acetic acid (v / v) solution.

[0258] The mobile phase B phase: HPLC grade acetonitrile.

[0259] gradient

Figure CN102875663BD00141

[0260] sample volume: 2500ml.

[0261] Purification: The column equilibration the sample for 5 minutes, run a gradient purification, monitoring and collecting the target peak fractions. The purpose of the peak fractions were concentrated by rotary evaporation under reduced pressure to 9000ml after lyophilization.

[0262] After the freeze-dried to give a white powder refined peptide 704g. Purity of 98.39%, the impurity content of less than 0.5%. Purification yield 61.8% (in crude Li Xila to content), total yield of 17.6%.

PATENT

CN 102558338

MACHINE TRANSLATION FROM CHINESE, PL BEAR WITH SOME IREGULARITES IN GRAMMAR

Preparation of Fmoc-Lys (Boc) -Lys (Boc) -Lys (Boc) -Lys (Boc) -Rink Amide-MBHAResin:

[0096] To the resulting Fmoc-Lys (Boc) -Lys (Boc) -Lys (Boc) -RinkAmide-MBHAResin mouth of a 20% strength piperidine / DMF solution for 10 minutes, the reaction was drained, washed with DMF Resin 6 (50ml * 6). Weigh Fmoc-Lys (Boc) -〇H3.52g, H0Bt1.01g, HBTU2.84g, TMP1.98ml, DMF50ml added to dissolve slowly with stirring under ice-cooling for 3 minutes, at room temperature for 2 hours, the reaction Ninhydrin detection method completed, pumping off the reaction solution, DMF the resin was washed twice (50mlX2), DCM the resin was washed twice (50mlX2), to give Fmoc-Lys (B oc) -Lys (Boc) -Lys (Boc) -Lys (Boc) -RinkAmide-MBHAResin. As used in the above operation Fmoc-Lys (Boc) -OH: HOBt: HBTU: TMP ratio is 1: 1: 1: 2, wherein Fmoc-Lys (Boc) -OH is the number of moles of Fmoc-RinkAmide-MBHAResin number of moles 3 times.

[0097] Li Xila fully protected side chain was prepared to -Rink Amide-MBHA Resin:

[0098] To the resulting Fmoc-Lys (Boc) -Lys (Boc) -Lys (Boc) -Lys (Boc) -RinkAmide-MBHA Resin added 20% piperidine / DMF solution for 10 minutes, drained reaction solution, washed 6 times with DMF. Weigh Jie 111〇 (3-1 ^ 8 billion (3) -0 13.528, 1 (»Shu 1.018,01 (:!! 1.391111 added 50,111,101 ^ dissolve slowly stirring for 3 minutes in an ice bath, poured into the solid phase resin is mixed with the reaction column, at room temperature for 2 hours, the reaction Ninhydrin detection method is completed, the reaction solution was deprived, DMF the resin was washed twice (50ml X 2), DCM the resin was washed twice (50ml X 2), to give Fmoc-Lys ( Boc) -Lys (Boc) -Lys (Boc) -Lys (Boc) -Lys (Boc) -Rink Amide-MBHAResin above operation used by the Fmoc-Lys (Boc) -〇H:. HOBt: DIC ratio is 1: 1: L2, which Fmoc-Lys (Boc) is three times the number of moles -〇H Fmoc-Rink Amide-MBHA Resin moles of repeat after the coupling step, followed by the completion of the 39 lysine to first. connecting protected amino acids histidine, followed by addition of 20% piperidine / DMF solution for 10 minutes, the reaction was drained, DMF the resin was washed six times (50ml X 6), DCM the resin was washed six times (50ml X 6 ), MeOH contraction of the resin three times with MeOH 50ml, each contraction 5min. After the resin was dried in vacuo to give a full side-chain protected peptide resin to the Li Xila 27. 5g, weight resin 17. 5g.

[0099] Li Xila to crude peptide preparation:

[0100] Weigh side chains fully protected Li Xila to -Rink Amide-MBHA Resin 27. 5 grams, into a round bottom flask.Configuration 275 ml lysis buffer, wherein trifluoroacetic acid: thioanisole: ethanedithiol: anisole, phenol = 93: 4: 1: 1.5: 2 (volume ratio). Lysate in the refrigerator after the pre-freeze 1 hour before Sheng Youli put to Silas to -Rink Amide-MBHA Resin round bottom flask, stirred at room temperature for 2 hours. The reaction mixture was filtered, the resin was washed with 20ml TFA and the combined filtrate.

[0101] The volume of the filtrate was slowly poured into 2,750 ml of diethyl ether frozen (frozen advance ether), a white precipitate appears, at 3000 rpm / centrifuged 5 minutes, the resulting solid was washed twice with ether, then the solid was dried under vacuum to give Li Xila trifluoroacetate crude peptide to 15. 3g.

[0102] Li Xila to large scale production of fine peptide:

[0103] Sample Preparation: The crude peptide was dissolved in water, the sample was completely dissolved by membrane filtration, the filtrate was collected for use.

[0104] Purification conditions: Column: octadecyl silane bonded silica gel as stationary phase column, the column diameter and length: 300_X250mm. Mobile phase: A phase: 35mm〇l / L phosphoric acid solution adjusted with triethylamine to pH 6. 7; B phase: acetonitrile, flow rate: 2200ml / min, Gradient: B%: 12% ~32%, detection wavelength: 280nm . The injection volume was 75g. Purification process: the column with 50% acetonitrile rinse clean after balance sample, sample amount is 75g. Linear gradient 120min, the purpose of collecting peaks will be collected 利西拉 solution was concentrated by rotary evaporation under reduced pressure to about 80mg / ml and reserve the water temperature exceeds 40 ° C without conditions.

[0105] turn salt: turn salt conditions: Column: octadecyl silane bonded silica gel as stationary phase column, the column diameter and length: 300mmX250mm. Mobile phase: A phase: mass concentration of 0.2% aqueous acetic acid; B phase: HPLC grade acetonitrile, flow rate: 2200ml / min, detection wavelength: 280nm. Gradient: B%: 6% ~36%. The injection volume was 48-60g. Salt transfer process: the column with 50% acetonitrile rinse clean after the sample, the sample volume is 1600ml sample solution. Linear gradient 90min, the purpose of collecting peaks collected Li Xila to solutions were concentrated by rotary evaporation to about 80ml / g after go to the appropriate size vials, then freeze-dried to obtain the purity of greater than 99.5% The Li Xila come.

Old post

https://newdrugapprovals.org/2013/09/13/sanofi-to-withdraw-the-lixisenatide-new-drug-application-nda-in-the-u-s-the-company-plans-to-resubmit-the-nda-in-2015-after-completion-of-the-elixa-cv-study/

lixisenatide

Sanofi Provides Update on Lixisenatide New Drug Application in U.S.

Paris, France – September 12, 2013 – Sanofi (EURONEXT: SAN and NYSE: SNY) announced today its decision to withdraw the lixisenatide New Drug Application (NDA) in the U.S., which included early interim results from the ongoing ELIXA cardiovascular (CV) outcomes study. The company plans to resubmit the NDA in 2015, after completion of the ELIXA CV study.

The decision to withdraw the lixisenatide application follows discussions with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regarding its proposed process for the review of interim data. Sanofi believes that potential public disclosure of early interim data, even with safeguards, could potentially compromise the integrity of the ongoing ELIXA study. Sanofi’s decision is not related to safety issues or deficiencies in the NDA………………………read all at

http://www.pharmalive.com/sanofi-pulls-diabetes-drug-nda

 

EU

US20070037807 * 29 Oct 2004 15 Feb 2007 Satoru Oi Pyridine compounds as inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase IV
US20070191436 * 12 Sep 2006 16 Aug 2007 Valerie Niddam-Hildesheim Diastereomeric purification of rosuvastatin
EP0708179A2 * 13 Oct 1995 24 Apr 1996 Eli Lilly And Company Glucagon-like insulinotropic peptide analogs, compositions, and methods of use
Citing Patent Filing date Publication date Applicant Title
CN102584982A * 10 Feb 2012 18 Jul 2012 深圳翰宇药业股份有限公司 Method for purifying solid-phase synthetic coarse liraglutide
WO2013117135A1 * 29 Jan 2013 15 Aug 2013 Hybio Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. Method for purifying solid-phase synthetic crude liraglutide
WO2014077802A1 * 13 Nov 2012 22 May 2014 Ipsen Pharma S.A.S. Purification method of a glp-1 analogue
WO2014118797A1 1 Jul 2013 7 Aug 2014 Neuland Health Sciences Private Limited Purification of organic compounds using surrogate stationary phases on reversed phase columns
CN1839155A 18. Aug. 2004 27. Sept. 2006 诺沃挪第克公司 Purification of glucagon-like peptides
WO2006041945A2 4. Okt. 2005 20. Apr. 2006 Novetide, Ltd. A counterion exchange process for peptides

References

  1.  Christensen, M; Knop, FK; Holst, JJ; Vilsboll, T (2009). “Lixisenatide, a novel GLP-1 receptor agonist for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus”. IDrugs : the investigational drugs journal 12 (8): 503–13. PMID 19629885.
  2.  “Sanofi New Drug Application for Lixisenatide Accepted for Review by FDA”. Drugs.com/PR Newsire. 19 February 2013.
  3.  “International Nonproprietary Names for Pharmaceutical Substances (INN). Recommended INN: List 61” (PDF). WHO Drug Information 23 (1): 66f. 2009.
Lixisenatide
Clinical data
Trade names Lyxumia
License data
Routes of
administration
Subcutaneous injection
Legal status
Legal status
  • UK: POM (Prescription only)
Identifiers
CAS Number 827033-10-3
ATC code A10BX10 (WHO)
PubChem CID 16139342
IUPHAR/BPS 7387
ChemSpider 17295846
ChEBI CHEBI:85662
Chemical data
Formula C215H347N61O65S
Molar mass 4858.49 g/mol

///////FDA 2016, SANOFI, FDA,  approves , Adlyxin, lixisenatide, type 2 diabetes, Sanofi-Aventis U.S. LLC, Bridgewater, New Jersey, Lyxumia,  利西拉, PEPTIDE, 

CCC(C)C(C(=O)NC(CCC(=O)O)C(=O)NC(Cc1c[nH]c2c1cccc2)C(=O)NC(CC(C)C)C(=O)NC(CCCCN)C(=O)NC(CC(=O)N)C(=O)NCC(=O)NCC(=O)N3CCCC3C(=O)NC(CO)C(=O)NC(CO)C(=O)NCC(=O)NC(C)C(=O)N4CCCC4C(=O)N5CCCC5C(=O)NC(CO)C(=O)NC(CCCCN)C(=O)NC(CCCCN)C(=O)NC(CCCCN)C(=O)NC(CCCCN)C(=O)NC(CCCCN)C(=O)NC(CCCCN)C(=O)N)NC(=O)C(Cc6ccccc6)NC(=O)C(CC(C)C)NC(=O)C(CCCNC(=N)N)NC(=O)C(C(C)C)NC(=O)C(C)NC(=O)C(CCC(=O)O)NC(=O)C(CCC(=O)O)NC(=O)C(CCC(=O)O)NC(=O)C(CCSC)NC(=O)C(CCC(=O)N)NC(=O)C(CCCCN)NC(=O)C(CO)NC(=O)C(CC(C)C)NC(=O)C(CC(=O)O)NC(=O)C(CO)NC(=O)C(C(C)O)NC(=O)C(Cc7ccccc7)NC(=O)C(C(C)O)NC(=O)CNC(=O)C(CCC(=O)O)NC(=O)CNC(=O)C(Cc8cnc[nH]8)N

AND

CCC(C)C(C(=O)NC(CCC(=O)O)C(=O)NC(CC1=CNC2=CC=CC=C21)C(=O)NC(CC(C)C)C(=O)NC(CCCCN)C(=O)NC(CC(=O)N)C(=O)NCC(=O)NCC(=O)N3CCCC3C(=O)NC(CO)C(=O)NC(CO)C(=O)NCC(=O)NC(C)C(=O)N4CCCC4C(=O)N5CCCC5C(=O)NC(CO)C(=O)NC(CCCCN)C(=O)NC(CCCCN)C(=O)NC(CCCCN)C(=O)NC(CCCCN)C(=O)NC(CCCCN)C(=O)NC(CCCCN)C(=O)N)NC(=O)C(CC6=CC=CC=C6)NC(=O)C(CC(C)C)NC(=O)C(CCCNC(=N)N)NC(=O)C(C(C)C)NC(=O)C(C)NC(=O)C(CCC(=O)O)NC(=O)C(CCC(=O)O)NC(=O)C(CCC(=O)O)NC(=O)C(CCSC)NC(=O)C(CCC(=O)N)NC(=O)C(CCCCN)NC(=O)C(CO)NC(=O)C(CC(C)C)NC(=O)C(CC(=O)O)NC(=O)C(CO)NC(=O)C(C(C)O)NC(=O)C(CC7=CC=CC=C7)NC(=O)C(C(C)O)NC(=O)CNC(=O)C(CCC(=O)O)NC(=O)CNC(=O)C(CC8=CN=CN8)N

Mifamurtide (Mepact) мифамуртид , ميفامورتيد , 米法莫肽 ,


Mifamurtide.svg

STR1

Mifamurtide (Mepact)

  • MF C59H109N6O19P
  • MW 1237.499
CGP-19835, MFCD09954133, MTP-cephalin, Mtp-PE
Muramyl tripeptide phosphatidylethanolamine
N-(N-Acetylmuramoyl)-L-alanyl-D-α-glutaminyl-N-[(7R)-4-hydroxy-4-oxido-10-oxo-7-[(1-oxohexadecyl)oxy]-3,5,9-trioxa-4-phosphapentacos-1-yl]-L-alaninamide
N-Acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine-L-alanine 2-(1′,2′-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3′-hydroxyphosphoryloxy)ethylamide
(2R,5S,8R,13S,22R)-2-{[(3R,4R,5S,6R)-3-Acetamido-2,5-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-4-yl]oxy}-8-carbamoyl-19-hydroxy-5,13-dimethyl-19-oxido-3,6,11,14,25-pentaoxo-18,20,24-trioxa-4,7,12 ;,15-tetraaza-19λ5-phosphatetracontan-22-yl hexadecanoate
83461-56-7  CAS
838853-48-8 (mifamurtide sodium · xH2O)

Mifamurtide (trade name Mepact, marketed by Takeda) is a drug against osteosarcoma, a kind of bone cancer mainly affecting children and young adults, which is lethal in about a third of cases. The drug was approved in Europe in March 2009.

ChemSpider 2D Image | Mifamurtide | C59H109N6O19P

History

The drug was invented by Ciba-Geigy (now Novartis) in the early 1980s and sold to Jenner Biotherapies in the 1990s. In 2003,IDM Pharma bought the rights and developed it further.[1] IDM Pharma was acquired by Takeda along with mifamurtide in June 2009.[2]

Mifamurtide had already been granted orphan drug status by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2001, and theEuropean Medicines Agency (EMA) followed in 2004. It was approved in the 27 European Union member states plus Iceland, Liechtenstein, and Norway by a centralized marketing authorization in March 2009. The drug was denied approval by the FDA in 2007.[3][4] Mifamurtide has been licensed by the EMA since March, 2009.[5]

Indications

Mifamurtide is indicated for the treatment of high-grade, nonmetastasizing, resectable osteosarcoma following complete surgical removal in children, adolescents, and young adults, aged two to 30 years.[1][6][7] Osteosarcoma is diagnosed in about 1,000 individuals in Europe and the USA per year, most under the age of 30.[8] The drug is used in combination with postoperative, multiagent chemotherapy to kill remaining cancer cells and improve a patient’s chance of overall survival.[6]

In a phase-III clinical trial in about 800 newly diagnosed osteosarcoma patients, mifamurtide was combined with the chemotherapeutic agents doxorubicin and methotrexate, with or without cisplatin and ifosfamide. The mortality could be lowered by 30% versus chemotherapy plus placebo. Six years after the treatment, 78% of patients were still alive. This equals an absolute risk reduction of 8% .[1]

Adverse effects

In a clinical study, mifamurtide was given to 332 subjects (half of whom were under age of 16) and most side effects were found to be mild to moderate in nature. Most patients experience fewer adverse events with subsequent administration.[9][10]Common side effects include fever (about 90%), vomiting, fatigue and tachycardia (about 50%), infections, anaemia, anorexia, headache, diarrhoea and constipation(>10%).[1][11]

Pharmacokinetics

After application of the liposomal infusion, the drug is cleared from the plasma within minutes and is concentrated in lung, liver, spleen, nasopharynx, and thyroid. The terminal half-life is 18 hours. In patients receiving a second treatment after 11–12 weeks, no accumulation effects were observed.[12]

Pharmacodynamics

Mifamurtide is a fully synthetic derivative of muramyl dipeptide (MDP), the smallest naturally occurring immune stimulatory component of cell walls from Mycobacterium species. It has similar immunostimulatory effects as natural MDP with the advantage of a longer half-life in plasma.

NOD2 is a pattern recognition receptor which is found in several kinds of white blood cells, mainly monocytes and macrophages. It recognises muramyl dipeptide, a component of the cell wall of bacteria. Mifamurtide simulates a bacterial infection by binding to NOD2, activating white cells. This results in an increased production of TNF-α, interleukin 1,interleukin 6, interleukin 8, interleukin 12, and other cytokines, as well as ICAM-1. The activated white cells attack cancer cells, but not, at least in vitro, other cells.[13]

Interactions

Consequently, the combination of mifamurtide with these types of drugs is contraindicated. However, mifamurtide can be coadministered with low doses of NSAIDs. No evidence suggests mifamurtide interacts with the studied chemotherapeutics, or with the cytochrome P450 system.[14]

Chemistry

Scheme of a liposome formed by phospholipids in an aqueous solution

Mifamurtide is muramyl tripeptide phosphatidylethanolamine (MTP-PE), a synthetic analogue of muramyl dipeptide. The side chains of the molecule give it a longer elimination half-life than the natural substance. The substance is applied encapsulated into liposomes (L-MTP-PE). Being a phospholipid, it accumulates in the lipid bilayer of the liposomes in the infusion.[15]

Synthesis

One method of synthesis (shown first) is based on N,N’-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) assisted esterification of N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-DisoglutaminylL-alanine with N-hydroxysuccinimide, followed by a condensation with 2-aminoethyl-2,3-dipalmitoylglycerylphosphoric acid in triethylamine (Et3N).[16] A different approach (shown second) uses N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine, hydroxysuccinimide and alanyl-2-aminoethyl-2,3-dipalmitoylglycerylphosphoric acid;[17] that is, the alanine is introduced in the second step instead of the first.

Mifamurtide synthesis.png Mifamurtide synthesis2.png

Synthesis

Mifamurtide is an anticancer agent for the treatment of osteosarcoma, the most common primary malignancy of bone tissue mainly affecting children and adolescents.10

The drug was invented by Ciba-Geigy (now Novartis) in the early 1980s and the agent was subsequently licensed to Jenner Biotherapies in the 1990s.

IDM Pharma bought the rights to the drug from Jenner in April 2003.78 In March 2009, mifamurtide was approved in the 27 European Union member states plus Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway via a centralized marketing authorization.

After the approval, IDM Pharma was acquired by Takeda, which began launching mifamurtide, as Mepact, in February 2010.

Mifamurtide, a fully synthetic lipophilic derivative of muramyl dipeptide (MDP), is muramyl tripeptide phosphatidylethanolamine (MTP-PE), which is formulated as a liposomal infusion.79 Being a phospholipid, mifamurtide accumulates in the lipid bilayer of the liposomes upon infusion.

After application of the liposomal infusion, the drug is cleared from the plasma within minutes. However, it is concentrated in lung, liver, spleen, nasopharynx and thyroid, and the terminal half-life is 18 h, which is longer than the natural substance.

Two synthetic routes have been reported,80,81 and Scheme 16 describes the more processamenable route.

Commercially available 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero- 3-phosphoethanolamine (110) was coupled with N-Boc-L-alanine (111) by means of N-hydroxysuccinimide (112), DCC in DMF to give amide 113, which was followed by hydrogenolysis of the CBZ group to give the corresponding L-alanyl-phosphoric acid 114.

Next, commercially available N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-Disoglutamine (115) was subjected to hydroxybenzotriazole (HOBT) and DIC in DMF to provide the corresponding succinimide ester 116 which was condensed with compound 114 to provide mifamurtide (IX).

No yields were provided for these transformations.

str1

79. Prous, J. R.; Castaner, J. Drugs Future 1989, 14, 220.
80. Baschang, G.; Tarcsay, L.; Hartmann, A.; Stanek, J. EP 0027258 A1, 1980.
81. Brundish, D. E.; Wade, R. J. Labelled Compd. Radiopharm. 1985, 22, 29.

PATENT

https://www.google.com/patents/CN103408635A?cl=en

mifamurtide, the English called mifamurtide, formula C59Hltl9N6O19P, primarily for the treatment of non-metastatic

Resectable osteosarcoma (a rare but the main cause of death for children and young people osteoma), having the formula as follows:

Figure CN103408635AD00051

mifamurtide by certain stimuli such as macrophages and other white blood cells to kill tumor cells. Currently, mifamurtide listed injections into spherical liposome vesicles are muramyl tripeptide (MTP). This lipid trigger macrophages to consume mifamurtide. Once consumed mifamurtide, MTP-stimulated macrophages, in particular we will look for tumors in the liver, spleen and lung macrophages and kill it.

 mifamurtide injection approved for marketing based on the results of phase III clinical study. Taiwan’s National Cancer Institute Cooperative Group (NCI) established by the Children’s Oncology Group (COG) study, complete treatment of this product in patients with osteosarcoma largest research project in the book of about 800 cases. Evaluation of mifamurtide and 3-4 adjuvant chemotherapy (cis molybdenum, doxorubicin, methotrexate, cyclophosphamide with or the same as) the results of combination therapy. Studies have shown that mifamurtide used in combination with chemotherapy can reduce the mortality rate of about 30%, 78% of treated patients survived more than six years.

Shortcomings disclosed the full liquid phase synthesis technology route mifamurtide, but all-liquid phase synthesis: [0006] Currently, mifamurtide universal rely wholly liquid phase synthesis, relevant literature (220 Drugs Futl989, 14, (3)) that the synthesis requires intermediate purification steps cumbersome, time-consuming, and the total yield of the whole liquid phase synthesis is less than 30%, which has been the main factors affecting the productivity of mifamurtide

A method for logging meter synthetic peptide, characterized in that it comprises the following steps: Step 1, under the effect of coupling agent, an amino group, and Fmoc-D-Glu on the amino resin (OPG) -OH main chain carboxyl acylation, a compound of formula I; Step 2, Fmoc removal of the protecting group the compound of formula I, under the effect of coupling with Fmoc-L-Ala-OH acylation, a compound of formula 2; step 3, Fmoc removal of the protecting group the compound of formula 2, in the role of a coupling agent, with a compound of formula 3 for acylation, a compound of formula 4; step 4, PG protecting group removing compound of formula 4, the coupling the role of agent, and HL-Ala-OPG acylation, a compound of formula 5; Step 5, PG protecting group removal compound of formula 5, under the effect of coupling agent, and an amino acid performed on brain phospholipids reaction of a compound of formula 6, and then the resin was added Lysates deaminated compound of formula 7; Step 6, the compound of formula 7 to obtain the removal of benzyl mifamurtide;

Figure CN103408635AC00021
Figure CN103408635AC00031

Wherein Fmoc is the amino protecting group; wherein PG is a carboxy-protecting group for Allyl or Dmab; Resin as the amino resin.

Example: Synthesis of mifamurtide crude peptide

 Example 11 to give the formula hydrogenolysis at atmospheric pressure to 16 hours Example 7 was added to 7.42 g compound 250ml single neck flask, dried 150ml of methanol was added to dissolve 0.4 g of 10% palladium on carbon.Completion of the reaction, palladium-carbon was filtered off, the filtrate was concentrated by rotary evaporation to 65ml, is mifamurtide crude peptide solution. Mifamurtide synthetic crude peptide: 15 [0173] Example

 Example 12 to give the formula hydrogenolysis at atmospheric pressure to 16 hours Example 7 was added to 4.21 g compound 150ml single neck flask, dried 85ml of methanol was added to dissolve 0.2 g of 10% palladium on carbon.Completion of the reaction, palladium-carbon was filtered off, the filtrate was concentrated by rotary evaporation to 37ml, is mifamurtide crude peptide solution.

16 [0175] Example 2: Preparation of mifamurtide

 The embodiment 14 of crude peptide solution obtained in Example 65ml, IOOOml round bottom flask was added, under magnetic stirring, 650ml of anhydrous diethyl ether was added dropwise. Upon completion, at room temperature for crystallization. After filtration and drying the filter cake, the filter cake was again dissolved in 65ml of methanol. This methanol solution was added IOOOml round bottom flask, under magnetic stirring, 650ml of anhydrous diethyl ether was added dropwise. Upon completion, at room temperature for crystallization. Filtered cake was dried in vacuo to give mifamurtide 5.62g, yield 86.5%, purity 99.4%, total yield 74.5%

Preparation of mifamurtide of: 17 Example

 The embodiment of the crude peptide solution obtained in Example 15, 37ml, 500ml round bottom flask was added, under magnetic stirring, 370ml of anhydrous diethyl ether was added dropwise. Upon completion, at room temperature for crystallization. After filtration and drying the filter cake, the filter cake was again dissolved in 37ml of methanol. This solution was added to methanol 500ml round bottom flask, under magnetic stirring, 370ml of anhydrous diethyl ether was added dropwise. Upon completion, at room temperature for crystallization. Filtered, the filter cake was dried under vacuum to give · mifamurtide 3.16g, yield 85.8%, purity 99.5%, 72.2% overall yield.

References

  1.  “Mifamurtide: CGP 19835, CGP 19835A, L-MTP-PE, liposomal MTP-PE, MLV 19835A, MTP-PE, muramyltripeptide phosphatidylethanolamine”. Drugs in R&D 9 (2): 131–5. 2008. doi:10.2165/00126839-200809020-00007. PMID 18298131.
  2.  “First Treatment to Improve Survival in 20 Years Now Available for Patients With Osteosarcoma (Bone Cancer)”. Takeda. November 2009. Retrieved 23 March 2010.
  3.  “IDM Pharma’s MEPACT (Mifamurtide, L-MTP-PE) Receives Approval in Europe for Treatment of Patients with Non-Metastatic, Resectable Osteosarcoma”. PR Newswire. 2009-03-09. Retrieved 2009-11-12.
  4.  “IDM Pharma receives not approvable letter for Mifamurtide for treatment of osteosarcoma”. The Medical News. 2007-08-28. Retrieved 2009-11-12.
  5.  Mepact for Healthcare Professionals, retrieved 2009-11-12
  6. ^ Jump up to:a b EMA (2009-03-06). “Mepact: Product Information. Annex I: Summary of Product Characteristics” (PDF). p. 2. Retrieved 2009-11-12.
  7.  EMA (2009-05-06). “Mepact: European Public Assessment Report. Summary for the public” (PDF). p. 1. Retrieved 2009-11-12.
  8.  Meyers, P. A. (2009). “Muramyl tripeptide (mifamurtide) for the treatment of osteosarcoma”. Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy 9 (8): 1035–1049.doi:10.1586/era.09.69. PMID 19671023.
  9.  Meyers, P. A.; Schwartz, C. L.; Krailo, M. D.; Healey, J. H.; Bernstein, M. L.; Betcher, D.; Ferguson, W. S.; Gebhardt, M. C.; Goorin, A. M.; Harris, M.; Kleinerman, E.; Link, M. P.; Nadel, H.; Nieder, M.; Siegal, G. P.; Weiner, M. A.; Wells, R. J.; Womer, R. B.; Grier, H. E.; Children’s Oncology, G. (2008). “Osteosarcoma: the Addition of Muramyl Tripeptide to Chemotherapy Improves Overall Survival–A Report from the Children’s Oncology Group”.Journal of Clinical Oncology 26 (4): 633–638. doi:10.1200/JCO.2008.14.0095.PMID 18235123.
  10.  Meyers, P. A.; Schwartz, C. L.; Krailo, M.; Kleinerman, E. S.; Betcher, D.; Bernstein, M. L.; Conrad, E.; Ferguson, W.; Gebhardt, M.; Goorin, A. M.; Harris, M. B.; Healey, J.; Huvos, A.; Link, M.; Montebello, J.; Nadel, H.; Nieder, M.; Sato, J.; Siegal, G.; Weiner, M.; Wells, R.; Wold, L.; Womer, R.; Grier, H. (2005). “Osteosarcoma: A Randomized, Prospective Trial of the Addition of Ifosfamide and/or Muramyl Tripeptide to Cisplatin, Doxorubicin, and High-Dose Methotrexate”. Journal of Clinical Oncology 23 (9): 2004–2011. doi:10.1200/JCO.2005.06.031. PMID 15774791.
  11. (EMA 2009, pp. 5–7)
  12.  (EMA 2009, p. 8)
  13.  (EMA 2009, pp. 7–8)
  14. (EMA 2009, p. 4)
  15.  Fidler, I. J. (1982). “Efficacy of liposomes containing a lipophilic muramyl dipeptide derivative for activating the tumoricidal properties of alveolar macrophages in vivo”. Journal of Immunotherapy 1 (1): 43–55.
  16.  Prous, J. R.; Castaner, J. (1989). “ENV 2-3/MTP-PE”. Drugs Fut. 14 (3): 220.
  17.  Brundish, D. E.; Wade, R. (1985). “Synthesis of N-[2-3H]acetyl-D-muramyl-L-alanyl-D-iso-glutaminyl-L-alanyl-2-(1′,2′-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3′-phosphoryl)ethylamide of high specific radioactivity”. J Label Compd Radiopharm 22 (1): 29–35. doi:10.1002/jlcr.2580220105.
CN1055736A * Jan 28, 1986 Oct 30, 1991 E·R·斯奎布父子公司 Process for preparing 4,4-dialkyl-2-azetidinones
CN101709079A * Dec 22, 2009 May 19, 2010 江苏诺泰制药技术有限公司 Synthesis method of romurtide
US4323560 * Oct 6, 1980 Apr 6, 1982 Ciba-Geigy Corporation Novel phosphorylmuramyl peptides and processes for the manufacture thereof
Reference
1 * PROUS, J. ET AL: “ENV 2-3/MTP-PE“, 《DRUGS FUT》, vol. 14, no. 3, 31 March 1989 (1989-03-31), pages 220
2 * 黄胜炎: “抗肿瘤药新品与研发进展“, 《上海医药》, vol. 30, no. 9, 30 September 2009 (2009-09-30), pages 412 – 414
Mifamurtide
Mifamurtide.svg
Systematic (IUPAC) name
2-[(N-{(2R)-[(2-acetamido-2,3-dideoxy-D-glucopyranos-3-yl)oxy]-propanoyl}-L-alanyl-D-isoglutaminyl-L-alanyl)amino]ethyl (2R)-2,3-bis(hexadecanoyloxy)propyl hydrogen phosphate
Clinical data
License data
Pregnancy
category
  • not investigated
Routes of
administration
intravenous liposomal infusion over one hour
Legal status
Legal status
  • ℞ (Prescription only)
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability N/A
Biological half-life minutes (in plasma)
18 hrs (terminal)
Identifiers
CAS Number 83461-56-7 Yes
838853-48-8 (mifamurtide sodium · xH2O)
ATC code L03AX15 (WHO)
PubChem CID 11672602
ChemSpider 9847332
UNII EQD2NNX741 
KEGG D06619 Yes
Chemical data
Formula C59H109N6O19P
Molar mass 1237.499 g/mol

//////////83461-56-7,  838853-48-8,  CGP-19835,  Mepact,  MFCD09954133,  Mifamurtide,  mifamurtide sodium,  MTP-cephalin,  Mtp-PE,  Muramyl tripeptide, phosphatidylethanolamine,  PEPTIDE,  мифамуртид,  ميفامورتيد,  米法莫肽

CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC(=O)OCC(COP(O)(=O)OCCNC(=O)[C@H](C)NC(=O)CC[C@@H](NC(=O)[C@H](C)NC(=O)[C@@H](C)O[C@H]1C(O)[C@@H](CO)O[C@@H](O)[C@@H]1NC(C)=O)C(N)=O)OC(=O)CCCCCCCCCCCCCCC

Pidotimod, 匹多莫德 , пидотимод , بيدوتيمود ,


 

Pidotimod

H-Pyr-Thz-OH

(4R)-3-[(2S)-5-oxopyrrolidine-2-carbonyl]-1,3-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid

CAS 121808-62-6

Thymodolic acid, Pidotimod, Timodolic acid, PGT/1A, Axil, Onaka, Pigitil, Polimod

(4R)-3-(5-oxo-L-prolyl)-l ,3-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid,  ITI 231723.

3-(L-pyroglutamyl)-L-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid

  • 4-Thiazolidinecarboxylic acid, 3-[(5-oxo-2-pyrrolidinyl)carbonyl]-, [R-(R*,S*)]-
  • (4R)-3-[[(2S)-5-Oxo-2-pyrrolidinyl]carbonyl]-4-thiazolidinecarboxylic acid
  • Adimod
  • Axil (pharmaceutical)
  • Pigitil
QA-7522
SMR000466390
Thymodolic acid
Timodolic acid
UNII:785363R681
Pidotimod; 121808-62-6; (R)-3-((S)-5-Oxopyrrolidine-2-carbonyl)thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid; Pidotomod; PGT/1A; Pidotimod [INN];
Molecular Formula: C9H12N2O4S
Molecular Weight: 244.26758 g/mol

Stefano Poli, Corona Lucio Del

POLI INDUSTRIA CHIMICA S.p.A.

Pidotimod is an immunostimulant.[1]

Pidotimod.png 

Pidotimod, whose chemical name is (4R)-3-(5-oxo-L-prolyl)-l ,3-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid, was first disclosed in ITI 231723. It is a synthetic peptide-like molecule provided with an in vitro and in vivo immunomodulating action (Giagulli et al., International Immunopharmacology, 9, 2009, 1366-1373). The immune system assists in maintaining a homeostatic balance between the human body and all foreign substances. An abnormality in this balance may cause a defective or aberrant response towards non-self substances, as well as loss of tolerance toward self-antigens, in such cases, the immune system imbalance exhibits clinically as signs of disease.

Pidotimod has been shown to induce dendritic cell maturation and up-regulate the expression of HLA-DR and co-stimulatory molecules CD83 and CD86, which are integral to communication with adaptive immunity cells. Pidotimod has also been shown to stimulate dendritic cells to release pro-inflammatory molecules such as MCP-1 and TNF-a cytokines, and to inhibit thymocyte apoptosis caused by a variety of apoptosis-inducing molecules. Pidotimod exerts a protective action against infectious processes, although not through direct antimicrobial or antiviral action. Rather, pidotimod stimulates both innate and acquired immunity by enhancing humoral and cell-mediated immunity mechanisms.

Pidotimod, which may be administered as solid or liquid forms, for example, via an oral route, has been shown to increase natural resistance to viral or bacterial infections in animal models. Efficacy demonstrated in patients includes respiratory, urinary and genital infections, in particular recurrent respiratory infections in pediatric patients, respiratory infections in asthmatic patients and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adults and elderly patients.

Besides exhibiting activity to illnesses characterized by immune defects, pidotimod has been reported to be of benefit in to patients with other kinds of diseases, not directly related to immune defects, including gastroenterology diseases such as ulcerative colitis and irritable bowel syndrome, and dermatological diseases such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis where symptoms relating to these diseases have been attenuated. In gastroenterology diseases pidotimod may be administered either by oral or by rectal route. Oral route or topical application, for example in creams or gels containing pidotimod, may be used to treat dermal conditions.

Further use of pidotimod includes treatment of inflammatory diseases, in particular those characterized by an aberrant activation of the non-canonical NF-kB pathway. Diseases implicated by such activation include allergic diseases, autoimmune diseases, and numerous other inflammatory diseases. Allergic diseases include allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, contact dermatitis, eczema and allergic vasculitis.

Autoimmune diseases include alopecia areata, ankylosing spondylitis, autoimmune cardiomyopathy, autoimmune connective tissue diseases, autoimmune enteropathy, autoimmune hepatitis, autoimmune peripheral neuropathy, autoimmune pancreatitis, autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome, autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura, autoimmune urticaria, autoimmune uveitis, celiac disease, chronic fatigue syndrome, cystic fibrosis, hashimoto’s thyroiditis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, IGA nephropathy, juvenile idiopathic arthritis for juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, or Still’s disease) Kawasaki’s disease, lichen planus, lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, rheumatic fever, Sj5gren’s syndrome, spondyloarthropathy, temporal arteritis (or giant cell arteritis), urticarial vasculitis, and vitiligo.

Other inflammatory diseases include Alzheimer’s disease, atherosclerosis, chronic liver diseases, chronic nephropathy, gastritis, glomerulonephritis, hydradenitis suppurativa, hypogammaglobulinemia, interstitial cystitis, lichen sclerosus, liver steatosis, metabolic syndrome, obesity, Parkinson’s disease, pemphigus vulgaris, post-ischemic inflammation, raynaud phenomenon, restless leg syndrome, retroperitoneal fibrosis, and thrombocytopenia.

 

STR1

PATENT

CN 104926922

Synthesis pidotimod

A method for producing pidotimod, characterized in that: comprising the steps of: a) L- thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid: L- cysteine formaldehyde solution was added dropwise, stirred at room temperature, filtered to give L- thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid; (2) metal ion load type cation exchange resin preparation: strongly acidic with hydrochloric acid cation exchange resin is converted to the hydrogen form, the hydrogen form strong acid cation exchange resin was added a solution of a metal ion compound In, 40 ~ 80 ° C for 1 to 6 hours, cooled to room temperature, and dried to obtain a supported metal ion cation exchange resin; (3) Synthesis of pidotimod: the step (1) of L- thiazolidine – 4- carboxylic acid, in step (2) of the load as a catalyst metal ion type cation exchange resin, L- pyroglutamic acid and N, N- dimethylformamide mixed, 40 ~ 80 ° C for 1 to 4 hours, filtered to give a white solid, the white solid was acidified with hydrochloric acid, to give the finished pidotimod.

 

Figure CN104926922AD00042

In four flask IOg L- thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid, 11. 3g g L- pyroglutamic acid, 320mL N, N- dimethylformamide, 12g modified resin, 70 ° C the reaction 2 hours. Filtration, the reaction mixture by rotary evaporation, after removal of part of the solvent, placed in an ice bath to cool, the precipitated solid was suction filtered to give a white solid, this white solid was acidified with 37% hydrochloric acid, was allowed to stand at KTC, crystallization, filtration, a white product 14. 4g, a yield of 78.3%. Measured melting point 192 ~ 194 ° C, [a] 25D = – 150 ° (literature values mp: 192 ~ 194 ° C, [a] 25D = – 150 °).The whole preparation reaction pidotimod total yield of 64%. By HPLC, pidotimod content of 98.5%.

PAPER

Zhang, Yi; Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences 2009, 877(24), PG 2566-2570

http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/19604731

10.1016/j.jchromb.2009.06.038

PATENT

WO2016113242,

Example 14 – Preparation of Pidotimod

Pidotimod was prepared following Example 1 of EP0422566 Al .

PATENT

WO2015036009,

https://www.google.com/patents/WO2015036009A1?cl=en

PATENT

EP276752,

PATENT

http://google.com/patents/EP0422566B1?cl=en

EXAMPLE 1

A solution of 16.78 g (0.084 mole) of ethyl L-thiazolidine-4-carboxylate hydrochloride in 33 ml of water is treated with 16.78 g of potassium carbonate and extracted with 40 ml of ethyl acetate. The organic phase is dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and diluted to 85 ml with ethyl acetate. The solution is stirred and cooled to 0-5°C, then 19.2 g (0.093 mole) of dicyclohexylcarbodiimide dissolved in 20 ml of ethyl acetate and 12 g (0.093 mole) of L-pyroglutamic acid are added thereto. The reaction mixture is stirred for 1 hour at 0-5°C, then 12 hours at room temperature, dicyclohexylurea is filtered, the filtrate is evaporated under vacuum and the oily residue, consisting in ethyl 3-(L-pyroglutamyl)-L-thiazolidine-4-carboxylate is taken up into 25 ml of water. 3.73 g of sodium hydroxide dissolved in 13.3 ml of water are dropped into the resulting solution. After 30 minutes, the reaction mixture is acidified with concentrated hydrochloric acid at 0-5°C, kept for 2 hours at 5°C, then filtered washing with little cool water and dried to obtain 17.8 g (87.6%) of 3-(L-pyroglutamyl)-L-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid, m.p. 193-194°C.

EXAMPLE 2

23 g (0.1 mol) of L-N-t-butoxycarbonylpyroglutamic acid (E. Schröder and E. Klinger, Ann. Chem., 673, 1964, 202) and 16.1 g (0.1 mol) of ethyl L-thiazolidine-4-carboxylate are dissolved in 150 ml of THF, to the solution stirred at 0-5°C, 21 g (0.105 mol) of dicyclohexylcarbodiimide are added and the slurry is stirred for 15 hours at room temperature. The dicyclohexylurea is filtered, the wear filtrate is evaporated u.v. and the oily residue is kept in 40 ml of water. In the solution 6.6 g of potassium hydroxyde in a little water are dropped in 30′ at 15-20°C, the pH is adjusted to 2 with hydrochloric acid at 0-5°C and after 2 hours the precipitated L-pyroglutamyl-L-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid is filtered and dried, giving 88%, mp. 193-4°.

CLIP

Drugs Fut 1991,16(12),1096

Liebigs Ann Chem 1964,673

The synthesis of pidotimod has been carried out using N-tert-butoxycarbonyl-L-pyroglutamic acid as starting material, in order to avoid the formation of diketopiperazine derivatives. L-Glutamic acid (I) was condensed with di-tert-butyl dicarbonate by means of triethylamine in DMF to give N-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-L-glutamic acid (II), which is dissolved in THF and treated with dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) to obtain N-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-L-glutamic anhydride (III). The treatment of anhydride (III) with dicyclohexylamine in THF-ethyl ether affords the dicyclohexylamine salt of N-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-L-pyroglutamic acid (IV), which by acidification with aqueous citric acid yields the corresponding free acid (V). The condensation of equimolecular amounts of N-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-L-pyroglutamic acid (V) with L-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (VIII) by means of DCC in methylene chloride gives the coupled ester (IX), which is hydrolyzed with aqueous NaOH, and the corresponding sodium salt acidified to yield the N-tert-butoxycarbonyl derivative (X). Finally, this compound is deprotected with trifluoroacetic acid to obtain crystalline pidotimod (XI). The intermediate thiazolidine (VIII) has been obtained as follows: Esterification of L-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (VI) with ethanol by means of SOCl2 gives the corresponding ethyl ester hydrochloride (VII), which by treatment with K2CO3 in water yields the free ester (VIII).

 

CLIP

Arzneim-Forsch Drug Res 1994,44(12a),1402

Two new related routes for the synthesis of pidotimod have been reported: 1) The condensation of L-pyroglutamic acid (I) with L-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (II) by means of dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) in methylene chloride gives the corresponding dipeptide ethyl ester (III), which is saponified with aqueous 1N NaOH. 2) By condensation of the activated ester L-pyroglutamic acid pentachlorophenyl ester (IV) with L-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (V) by means of triethylamine in DMF.

PATENT

WO-2016112977

Novel crystalline, amorphous and solid forms of di-pidotimod benzathine (designated as Forms M and H), their hydrates, processes for their preparation and compositions comprising them are claimed. Also claimed is their use for treating viral or bacterial infections, respiratory, urinary and/or genital infections, ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome, psoriasis and atopic dermatitis

Example 14 – Preparation of Pidotimod

Pidotimod was prepared following Example 1 of EP0422566 Al .

NMR

Figure 17 is a Ή solution-state NMR spectrum of Form H

SEE

CN 104447947

Indian Pat. Appl. (2014), IN 2013MU00181 A

WO 2014111957

CN 103897025

 

CN1557303A * Jan 16, 2004 Dec 29, 2004 太阳石(唐山)药业有限公司 Use of Pidotimod in preparation of hepatitis B treating medicine
EP0382180A2 * Feb 7, 1990 Aug 16, 1990 POLI INDUSTRIA CHIMICA S.p.A. Derivatives of thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid, its preparation and pharmaceutical compositions containing it
IT1231723B Title not available
Reference
1 * DATABASE CA [Online] CHEMICAL ABSTRACTS SERVICE, COLUMBUS, OHIO, US; DUAN, RUOZHU ET AL: “Application and prospects of immunostimulants“, XP002722997, retrieved from STN Database accession no. 2006:478774
2 * DATABASE CA [Online] CHEMICAL ABSTRACTS SERVICE, COLUMBUS, OHIO, US; LI, YIPING ET AL: “Effects of pidotimod on immune function of patients with chronic hepatitis C“, XP002722996, retrieved from STN Database accession no. 2007:598452
3 * DATABASE CA [Online] CHEMICAL ABSTRACTS SERVICE, COLUMBUS, OHIO, US; WU, RONGRONG ET AL: “Application of immunomodulatory drugs in treatment of chronic hepatitis B“, XP002722995, retrieved from STN Database accession no. 2010:125278
4 * DATABASE MEDLINE [Online] US NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE (NLM), BETHESDA, MD, US; March 2002 (2002-03), VARGAS CORREA JORGE B ET AL: “[Pidotimod in recurring respiratory infection in children with allergic rhinitis, asthma, or both conditions].“, XP002722994, Database accession no. NLM12092522 & VARGAS CORREA JORGE B ET AL: REVISTA ALERGIA MEXICO (TECAMACHALCO, PUEBLA, MEXICO : 1993) 2002 MAR-APR, vol. 49, no. 2, March 2002 (2002-03), pages 27-32, XP8168769, ISSN: 0002-5151
5 * GOURGIOTIS DIMITRIOS ET AL: “Immune modulator pidotimod decreases the in vitro expression of CD30 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of atopic asthmatic and normal children“, JOURNAL OF ASTHMA, ASTHMA PUBLICATIONS SOCIETY, OSSINING, NY, US, vol. 41, no. 3, 1 January 2004 (2004-01-01), pages 285-287, XP008164025, ISSN: 0277-0903, DOI: 10.1081/JAS-120026085
6 * XIN JIN ET AL: “Sublingual Surprise: A New Variant of Oral Lichen Planus“, THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE, vol. 127, no. 1, 1 January 2014 (2014-01-01), pages 28-30, XP055112640, ISSN: 0002-9343, DOI: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2013.10.002

References

  1.  Du XF, Jiang CZ, Wu CF, Won EK, Choung SY (September 2008). “Synergistic immunostimulating activity of pidotimod and red ginseng acidic polysaccharide against cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression”. Archives of pharmacal research 31 (9): 1153–9.doi:10.1007/s12272-001-1282-6. PMID 18806958.
Pidotimod
Pidotimod.png
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(4R)-3-(5-oxo-L-prolyl)-1,3-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid
Clinical data
AHFS/Drugs.com International Drug Names
Identifiers
ATC code L03AX05 (WHO)
PubChem CID 65944
ChemSpider 59348 Yes
UNII 785363R681 Yes
KEGG D07261 Yes
ChEMBL CHEMBL1488165 
Synonyms (4R)-3-[(2S)-5-oxopyrrolidine-2-carbonyl]-1,3-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid
Chemical data
Formula C9H12N2O4S
Molar mass 244.26758 g/mol

//////////////Pidotimod, Thymodolic acid, Pidotimod, Timodolic acid, PGT/1A, Axil, Onaka, Pigitil, Polimod, H-Pyr-Thz-OH,  121808-62-6, ITI 231723, peptide, QA-7522, SMR000466390, Thymodolic acid, Timodolic acid, UNII:785363R681, 匹多莫德 , пидотимод ,  بيدوتيمود ,

O=C(O)[C@H]2N(C(=O)[C@H]1NC(=O)CC1)CSC2

Mastoparan


STR3

Mastoparan, Peptide (H-INLKALAALAKKIL-NH2)

IUPAC Condensed

H-Ile-Asn-Leu-Lys-Ala-Leu-Ala-Ala-Leu-Ala-Lys-Lys-xiIle-Leu-NH2

LINUCS
[][L-Leu-NH2]{[(1+2)][L-xiIle]{[(1+2)][L-Lys]{[(1+2)][L-Lys]{[(1+2)][L-Ala]{[(1+2)][L-Leu]{[(1+2)][L-Ala]{[(1+2)][L-Ala]{[(1+2)][L-Leu]{[(1+2)][L-Ala]{[(1+2)][L-Lys]{[(1+2)][L-Leu]{[(1+2)][L-Asn]{[(1+2)][L-Ile]{}}}}}}}}}}}}}}
Sequence
INLKALAALAKKXL
HELM

PEPTIDE1{I.N.L.K.A.L.A.A.L.A.K.K.[*N[C@H](C(=O)*)C(C)CC |$_R1;;;;;_R2;;;;$|].L.[am]}$$$$

Mastoparan
Ile – Asn – Leu – Lys – Ala – Leu – Ala – Ala – Leu – Ala – Lys – Lys – Ile – Leu -NH2
(2S)-N-[(2S)-1-[[(2S)-6-amino-1-[[(2S)-1-[[(2S)-1-[[(2S)-1-[[(2S)-1-[[(2S)-1-[[(2S)-1-[[(2S)-6-amino-1-[[(2S)-6-amino-1-[[(2S)-1-[[(2S)-1-amino-4-methyl-1-oxopentan-2-yl]amino]-3-methyl-1-oxopentan-2-yl]amino]-1-oxohexan-2-yl]amino]-1-oxohexan-2-yl]amino]-1-oxopropan-2-yl]amino]-4-methyl-1-oxopentan-2-yl]amino]-1-oxopropan-2-yl]amino]-1-oxopropan-2-yl]amino]-4-methyl-1-oxopentan-2-yl]amino]-1-oxopropan-2-yl]amino]-1-oxohexan-2-yl]amino]-4-methyl-1-oxopentan-2-yl]-2-[[(2S,3S)-2-amino-3-methylpentanoyl]amino]butanediamide
Mastoparan; Mast cell degranulating peptide (Vespula lewisii); NSC351907; CAS 72093-21-1;
Molecular Formula: C70H131N19O15
Molecular Weight: 1478.90744 g/mol
  • 18: PN: WO0181408 SEQID: 37 claimed protein
  • 18: PN: WO2010069074 SEQID: 16 claimed protein
  • L-Leucinamide, L-isoleucyl-L-asparaginyl-L-leucyl-L-lysyl-L-alanyl-L-leucyl-L-alanyl-L-alanyl-L-leucyl-L-alanyl-L-lysyl-L-lysyl-L-isoleucyl-
  • Mastoparan 1
  • NSC 351907

Description

Mastoparan (Vespula lewisii) has been shown to cause an increase in the production of Arachidonic Acid (sc-200770) catalyzed by PLA2 from porcine pancreas and bee venom. This compound also displays toxicity by regulating G proteins via mimicking of G-protein-coupled receptors. Additionally, Mastoparan has been reported as a stimulator of insulin release by pancreatic islets, which acts through GTP-binding proteins and PLA2. In other experiments, this agent has demonstrated the ability to cause exocytosis of rat peritoneal mast cells and also stimulate the accumulation of inositol phosphates in hepatocytes. Additionally, Mastoparan has been noted to act as a mitogen in Swiss 3T3 cells and stimulate pertussis toxin-sensitive Arachidonate release without phosphoinositide breakdown. Mastoparan (Vespula lewisii) is an inhibitor of CaM. Mastoparan (Vespula lewisii) is an activator of Heterotrimeric G Protein and PLA2.
Technical Information
Physical State: Solid
Derived from: Synthetic. Originally isolated from wasp venom (Vespula lewisii)
Solubility: Soluble in water (2.6 mg/ml), and 100% ethanol.
Storage: Store at -20° C
Refractive Index: n20D 1.53
IC50: Na+,K+-ATPase: IC50 = 7.5 µM

Mastoparan is a peptide toxin from wasp venom. It has the chemical structure Ile-Asn-Leu-Lys-Ala-Leu-Ala-Ala-Leu-Ala-Lys-Lys-Ile-Leu-NH2.[2]

The net effect of mastoparan’s mode of action depends on cell type, but seemingly always involves exocytosis. In mast cells, this takes the form of histamine secretion, while in platelets and chromaffin cells release serotonin and catecholamines are found, respectively. Mastoparan activity in the anterior pituitary gland leads to prolactin release.

In the case of histamine secretion, the effect of mastoparan takes place via its interference with G protein activity. By stimulating theGTPase activity of certain subunits, mastoparan shortens the lifespan of active G protein. At the same time, it promotes dissociation of any bound GDP from the protein, enhancing GTP binding. In effect, the GTP turnover of G proteins is greatly increased by mastoparan. These properties of the toxin follow from the fact that it structurally resembles activated G protein receptors when placed in a phospholipid environment. The resultant G protein-mediated signaling cascade leads to intracellular IP3 release and the resultant influx of Ca2+.

In an experimental study conducted by Tsutomu Higashijima and his counterparts, mastoparan was compared to melittin, which is found in bee venom.[2] Mainly, the structure and reaction to phosphate was studied in each toxin. Using Circular Dichroism (CD), it was found that when mastoparan was exposed to methanol, an alpha helical form existed. It was concluded that strong intramolecular hydrogen bonding occurred. Also, two negative bands were present on the CD spectrum. In an aqueous environment, mastoparan took on a nonhelical, unordered form. In this case, only one negative band was observed on the CD spectrum. Adding phosphate buffer to mastoparan resulted in no effect.

Melittin produced a different conformational change than mastoparan. In an aqueous solution, melittin went from a nonhelical form to an alpha helix when phosphate was added to the solution. The binding of melittin to the membrane was believed to result fromelectrostatic interactions, not hydrophobic interactions.

Infections caused by multidrug resistant bacteria are currently an important problem worldwide. Taking into account data recently published by the WHO, lower respiratory infections are the third cause of death in the world with around 3.2 million deaths per year, this number being higher compared to that related to AIDS or diabetes mellitus [1]. It is therefore important to solve this issue, although the perspectives for the future are not very optimistic. During the last 30 years an enormous increase has been observed of superbugs isolated in the clinical setting, especially from the group called ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter spp.) which show high resistance to all the antibacterial agents available [2]. We will focus on Acinetobacter baumannii, the pathogen colloquially called “iraquibacter” for its emergence in the Iraq war. It is a Gram-negative cocobacillus and normally affects people with a compromised immune system, such as patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) [3] and [4]. Together with Escherichia coliand P. aeruginosa, A. baumannii are the most common cause of nosocomial infections among Gram-negative bacilli. The options to treat infections caused by this pathogen are diminishing since pan-drug resistant strains (strains resistant to all the antibacterial agents) have been isolated in several hospitals [5]. The last option to treat these infections is colistin, which has been used in spite of its nephrotoxic effects [6]. The evolution of the resistance of A. baumannii clinical isolates has been established by comparing studies performed over different years, with the percentage of resistance to imipenem being 3% in 1993 increasing up to 70% in 2007. The same effect was observed with quinolones, with an increase from 30 to 97% over the same period of time[7]. In Spain the same evolution has been observed with carbapenems; in 2001 the percentage of resistance was around 45%, rising to more than 80% 10 years later [8]. Taking this scenario into account, there is an urgent need for new options to fight against this pathogen. One possible option is the use of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) [9],[10] and [11], and especially peptides isolated from a natural source [12]. One of the main drawbacks of using peptides as antimicrobial agents is the low stability or half-life in human serum due to the action of peptidases and proteases present in the human body[13], however there are several ways to increase their stability, such as using fluorinated peptides [14] and [15]. One way to circumvent this effect is to study the susceptible points of the peptide and try to enhance the stability by protecting the most protease labile amide bonds, while at the same time maintaining the activity of the original compound. Another point regarding the use of antimicrobial peptides is the mechanism of action. There are several mechanisms of action for the antimicrobial peptides, although the global positive charge of most of the peptides leads to a mechanism of action involving the membrane of the bacteria [16]. AMPs has the ability to defeat bacteria creating pores into the membrane [17], also acting as detergents [18], or by the carpet mechanism [19]. We have previously reported the activity of different peptides against colistin-susceptible and colistin-resistant A. baumannii clinical isolates, showing that mastoparan, a wasp generated peptide (H-INLKALAALAKKIL-NH2), has good in vitro activity against both colistin-susceptible and colistin-resistant A. baumannii [20]. Therefore, the aim of this manuscript was to study the stability of mastoparan and some of its analogues as well as elucidate the mechanism of action of these peptides.

Paper

Volume 101, 28 August 2015, Pages 34–40

Research paper

Sequence-activity relationship, and mechanism of action of mastoparan analogues against extended-drug resistantAcinetobacter baumannii

  • a ISGlobal, Barcelona Ctr. Int. Health Res. (CRESIB), Hospital Clínic – Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
  • b Biomedical Institute of Seville (IBiS), University Hospital Virgen del Rocío/CSIC/University of Seville, Seville, Spain
  • c Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona), Barcelona, Spain
  • d Department of Clinical Microbiology, CDB, Hospital Clinic, School of Medicine, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
  • e Department of Organic Chemistry, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0223523415300933

doi:10.1016/j.ejmech.2015.06.016

Highlights

•The most susceptible position of mastoparan is the peptide bond between isoleucine and asparagine.
•The positive charge present in the N-terminal play an important role in the antimicrobial activity of the peptides.
•Mastoparan and its enantiomer version exhibit a mechanism of action related to the membrane disruption of bacteria.
•Three of the mastoparan analogues synthesized have good activity against highly resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.
•Two of the active analogues showed a significant increase in the human serum stability compared to mastoparan.

Abstract

The treatment of some infectious diseases can currently be very challenging since the spread of multi-, extended- or pan-resistant bacteria has considerably increased over time. On the other hand, the number of new antibiotics approved by the FDA has decreased drastically over the last 30 years. The main objective of this study was to investigate the activity of wasp peptides, specifically mastoparan and some of its derivatives against extended-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. We optimized the stability of mastoparan in human serum since the specie obtained after the action of the enzymes present in human serum is not active. Thus, 10 derivatives of mastoparan were synthetized. Mastoparan analogues (guanidilated at the N-terminal, enantiomeric version and mastoparan with an extra positive charge at the C-terminal) showed the same activity against Acinetobacter baumannii as the original peptide (2.7 μM) and maintained their stability to more than 24 h in the presence of human serum compared to the original compound. The mechanism of action of all the peptides was carried out using a leakage assay. It was shown that mastoparan and the abovementioned analogues were those that released more carboxyfluorescein. In addition, the effect of mastoparan and its enantiomer against A. baumannii was studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These results suggested that several analogues of mastoparan could be good candidates in the battle against highly resistant A. baumannii infections since they showed good activity and high stability.


Graphical abstract

Image for unlabelled figure

References

  1.  PDB: 2CZP; Todokoro Y, Yumen I, Fukushima K, Kang SW, Park JS, Kohno T, Wakamatsu K, Akutsu H, Fujiwara T (August 2006). “Structure of Tightly Membrane-Bound Mastoparan-X, a G-Protein-Activating Peptide, Determined by Solid-State NMR”. Biophys. J. 91 (4): 1368–79. doi:10.1529/biophysj.106.082735. PMC 1518647. PMID 16714348.
  2.  Higashijima T, Uzu S, Nakajima T, Ross EM (May 1988). “Mastoparan, a peptide toxin from wasp venom, mimics receptors by activating GTP-binding regulatory proteins (G proteins)”. J. Biol. Chem. 263 (14): 6491–4. PMID 3129426.

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Patent IDDatePatent TitleUS20160672612016-03-10SERCA INHIBITOR AND CALMODULIN ANTAGONIST COMBINATION

Mastoparan
Mastoparan.png

Solution structure of mastoparan from Vespa simillima xanthoptera.[1]
Identifiers
Symbol Mastoparan_2
Pfam PF08251
InterPro IPR013214
TCDB 1.C.32
OPM superfamily 160
OPM protein 2czp

///////Peptide, Antimicrobial peptide, Mastoparan, Acinetobacter baumannii,  NSC351907,  72093-21-1, NSC 351907

CCC(C)C(C(=O)NC(CC(=O)N)C(=O)NC(CC(C)C)C(=O)NC(CCCCN)C(=O)NC(C)C(=O)NC(CC(C)C)C(=O)NC(C)C(=O)NC(C)C(=O)NC(CC(C)C)C(=O)NC(C)C(=O)NC(CCCCN)C(=O)NC(CCCCN)C(=O)NC(C(C)CC)C(=O)NC(CC(C)C)C(=O)N)N

Difelikefalin


img

Difelikefalin, CR-845; MR-13A-9; MR-13A9

4-amino-1- (D-phenylalanyl-D-phenylalanyl-D-leucyl-D-lysyl) piperidine-4-carboxylic acid

Phase III

C36H53N7O6, 679.40573

Originator Ferring Pharmaceuticals
Developer Cara Therapeutics
Class Analgesic drugs (peptides)
Mechanism Of Action Opioid kappa receptor agonists
Who Atc Codes D04A-X (Other antipruritics), N02A (Opioids)
Ephmra Codes D4A (Anti-Pruritics, Including Topical Antihistamines, Anaesthetics, etc), N2A (Narcotics)
Indication Pain, Osteoarthritis, Pruritus

A kappa opioid receptor agonist potentially for treatment of post-operative pain and uremic pruritus.

Difelikefalin, also known CR845, is a novel and potent kappa opioid receptor agonist. CR845 exhibit low P450 CYP inhibition and low penetration into the brain. CR845 may be useful in the prophylaxis and treatment of pain and inflammation associated with a variety of diseases and conditions .

No. CAS 1024828-77-0

2D chemical structure of 1024828-77-0

Difelikefalin ( INN ) (Developmental Code Names CR845 , FE-202845 ), Also Known As D -Phe- D -Phe- D -Leu- D -Lys- [Ganma- (4-N-Piperidinyl) Amino Carboxylic Acid] (As The Acetate Salt ), Is An Analgesic Opioid Peptide [2] Acting As A Peripherally-Specific , Highly Selective Agonist Of The kappa-Opioid Receptor (KOR). [1] [3] [4] [5] It Is Under Development By Cara Therapeutics As An Intravenous Agent For The Treatment Of Postoperative Pain . [1] [3] [5] An Oral Formulation Has Also Been Developed. [5] Due To Its Peripheral Selectivity, Difelikefalin Lacks The Central Side Effects Like Sedation , Dysphoria , And Hallucinations Of Previous KOR-Acting Analgesics Such As Pentazocine And Phenazocine . [1] [3] In Addition To Use As An Analgesic, Difelikefalin Is Also Being Investigated For The Treatment Of Pruritus (Itching). [1] [3] [4 ] Difelikefalin Has Completed Phase II Clinical Trials For Postoperative Pain And Has Demonstrated Significant And “Robust” Clinical Efficacy, Along With Being Safe And Well-Tolerated. [3] [5] It Is Also In Phase II Clinical Trials For Uremic Pruritus In Hemodialysis Patients. [4]

Difelikefalin Acts As An Analgesic By Activating KORs On Peripheral Nerve Terminals And KORs Expressed By Certain Immune System Cells . [1] Activation Of KORs On Peripheral Nerve Terminals Results In The Inhibition Of Ion Channels Responsible For Afferent Nerve Activity , Causing Reduced Transmission Of Pain Signals , While Activation Of KORs Expressed By Immune System Cells Results In Reduced Release Of Proinflammatory , Nerve-Sensitizing Mediators (Eg, Prostaglandins ). [1]

PATENT

WO 2015198505

κ opioid receptor agonists are known to be useful as therapeutic agents for various pain. Among, kappa opioid receptor agonist with high selectivity for peripheral kappa opioid receptors, are expected as a medicament which does not cause the central side effects. Such as peripherally selective κ opioid receptor agonist, a synthetic pentapeptide has been reported (Patent Documents 1 and 2).
 The following formula among the synthetic pentapeptide (A)
[Formula 1] Being Represented By Compounds Are Useful As Pain Therapeutics. The Preparation Of This Compound, Solid Phase Peptide Synthesis Methods In Patent Documents 1 And 2 Have Been Described.

Document 1 Patent: Kohyo 2010-510966 JP
Patent Document 2: Japanese Unexamined Patent Publication No. 2013-241447
 Compound (1) or a salt thereof and compound (A), for example as shown in the following reaction formula, 4-aminopiperidine-4-carboxylic acid, D- lysine (D-Lys), D- leucine (D-Leu) , it can be prepared by D- phenylalanine (D-Phe) and D- phenylalanine (D-Phe) sequentially solution phase peptide synthesis methods condensation.
[Of 4]

The present invention will next to examples will be described in further detail.
Example
1 (1) Synthesis of Cbz-D-Lys (Boc) -α-Boc-Pic-OMe (3)
to the four-necked flask of 2L, α-Boc-Pic- OMe · HCl [α-Boc-4 – aminopiperidine-4-carboxylic acid methyl hydrochloride] were charged (2) 43.7g (148mmol), was suspended in EtOAc 656mL (15v / w). To the suspension of 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HOBt) 27.2g (178mmol), while cooling with Cbz-D-Lys (Boc) -OH 59.2g (156mmol) was added an ice-bath 1-ethyl -3 – (3-dimethylcarbamoyl amino propyl) was added to the carbodiimide · HCl (EDC · HCl) 34.1g (178mmol). After 20 minutes, stirring was heated 12 hours at room temperature. After completion of the reaction, it was added and the organic layer was 1 N HCl 218 mL of (5.0v / w). NaHCO to the resulting organic layer 3 Aq. 218ML (5.0V / W), Et 3 N 33.0 g of (326Mmol) was stirred for 30 minutes, and the mixture was separated. The organic layer HCl 218ML 1N (5.0V / W), NaHCO 3 Aq. 218mL (5.0v / w), NaClaq . Was washed successively with 218ML (5.0V / W), Na 2 SO 4 dried addition of 8.74g (0.2w / w). Subjected to vacuum filtration, was concentrated under reduced pressure resulting filtrate by an evaporator, and pump up in the vacuum pump, the Cbz-D-Lys (Boc) -α-Boc-Pic-OMe (3) 88.9g as a white solid obtained (96.5% yield, HPLC purity 96.5%).

[0033]
(2) D-Lys (Boc) Synthesis Of -Arufa-Boc-Pic-OMe (4)
In An Eggplant-Shaped Flask Of 2L, Cbz-D-Lys (Boc) -Arufa-Boc-Pic-OMe (3) 88.3g (142mmol) were charged, it was added and dissolved 441mL (5.0v / w) the EtOAc. The 5% Pd / C to the reaction solution 17.7g (0.2w / w) was added, After three nitrogen substitution reduced pressure Atmosphere, Was Performed Three Times A Hydrogen Substituent. The Reaction Solution Was 18 Hours With Vigorous Stirring At Room Temperature To Remove The Pd / C And After The Completion Of The Reaction Vacuum Filtration. NaHCO The Resulting Filtrate 3 Aq. 441ML And (5.0V / W) Were Added For Liquid Separation, And The Organic Layer Was Extracted By The Addition Of EtOAc 200ML (2.3V / W) In The Aqueous Layer. NaHCO The Combined Organic Layer 3 Aq. 441ML And (5.0V / W) Were Added for liquid separation, and the organic layer was extracted addition of EtOAc 200mL (2.3v / w) in the aqueous layer. NaClaq the combined organic layers. 441mL and (5.0v / w) is added to liquid separation, was extracted by the addition EtOAc 200ML Of (2.3V / W) In The Aqueous Layer. The Combined Organic Layer On The Na 2 SO 4 Dried Addition Of 17.7 g of (0.2W / W), Then The Filtrate Was Concentrated Under Reduced Pressure Obtained Subjected To Vacuum Filtration By an evaporator, and pump up in the vacuum pump, D-Lys (Boc) -α-Boc-Pic- OMe (4) to give 62.7g (90.5% yield, HPLC purity 93.6%).
(3) Cbz-D-Leu -D-Lys (Boc) -α-Boc-Pic-OMe synthesis of (5)
in the four-necked flask of 2L, D-Lys (Boc) -α-Boc-Pic-OMe (4) was charged 57.7 g (120 mmol), was suspended in EtOAc 576mL (10v / w). HOBt 19.3g (126mmol) to this suspension, was added EDC · HCl 24.2g (126mmol) while cooling in an ice bath added Cbz-D-Leu-OH 33.4g (126mmol). After 20 minutes, after stirring the temperature was raised 5 hours at room temperature, further the EDC · HCl and stirred 1.15 g (6.00 mmol) was added 16 h. After completion of the reaction, it was added liquid separation 1N HCl 576mL (10v / w) . NaHCO to the resulting organic layer 3 Aq. 576ML (10V / W), Et 3 N 24.3 g of (240Mmol) was stirred for 30 minutes, and the mixture was separated. The organic layer HCl 576ML 1N (10V / W), NaHCO 3 Aq. 576mL (10v / w), NaClaq . Was washed successively with 576ML (10V / W), Na 2 SO 4 dried addition of 11.5g (0.2w / w). After the filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure obtained subjected to vacuum filtration by an evaporator, and pump up in the vacuum pump, the Cbz-D-Leu-D- Lys (Boc) -α-Boc-Pic-OMe (5) 85.8g It was obtained as a white solid (98.7% yield, HPLC purity 96.9%).
(4) D-Leu-D -Lys (Boc) -α-Boc-Pic-OMe synthesis of (6)
in an eggplant-shaped flask of 1L, Cbz-D-Leu- D-Lys (Boc) -α-Boc-Pic -OMe the (5) 91.9g (125mmol) were charged, was added and dissolved 459mL (5.0v / w) the EtOAc. The 5% Pd / C to the reaction solution 18.4g (0.2w / w) was added, After three nitrogen substitution reduced pressure atmosphere, was performed three times a hydrogen substituent. The reaction solution was subjected to 8 hours with vigorous stirring at room temperature to remove the Pd / C and after the completion of the reaction vacuum filtration. NaHCO the resulting filtrate 3 Aq. 200mL (2.2v / w) were added to separate liquid, NaHCO to the organic layer 3 Aq. 200mL (2.2v / w), NaClaq . It was sequentially added washed 200mL (2.2v / w). To the resulting organic layer Na 2 SO 4 dried added 18.4g (0.2w / w), to the filtrate concentrated under reduced pressure obtained subjected to vacuum filtration by an evaporator, and a pump-up with a vacuum pump. The resulting amorphous solid was dissolved adding EtOAc 200mL (2.2v / w), was crystallized by the addition of heptane 50mL (1.8v / w). Was filtered off precipitated crystals by vacuum filtration, the crystals were washed with a mixed solvent of EtOAc 120mL (1.3v / w), heptane 50mL (0.3v / w). The resulting crystal 46.1g to added to and dissolved EtOAc 480mL (5.2v / w), was crystallized added to the cyclohexane 660mL (7.2v / w). Was filtered off under reduced pressure filtered to precipitate crystals, cyclohexane 120mL (1.3v / w), and washed with a mixed solvent of EtOAc 20mL (0.2v / w), and 30 ° C. vacuum dried, D-Leu- as a white solid D-Lys (Boc) -α- Boc-Pic-OMe (6) to give 36.6 g (48.7% yield, HPLC purity 99.9%).
(5) Synthesis of Cbz-D-Phe-D- Leu-D-Lys (Boc) -α-Boc-Pic-OMe (7)
to the four-necked flask of 1L, D-Leu-D- Lys (Boc) -α-Boc-Pic-OMe with (6) 35.8g (59.6mmol) was charged, it was suspended in EtOAc 358mL (10v / w). To this suspension HOBt 9.59g (62.6mmol), Cbz- D-Phe-OH 18.7g was cooled in an ice bath is added (62.6mmol) while EDC · HCl 12.0g (62.6mmol) It was added. After 20 minutes, a further EDC · HCl After stirring the temperature was raised 16 hours was added 3.09 g (16.1 mmol) to room temperature. After completion of the reaction, it was added and the organic layer was 1N HCl 358mL of (10v / w). NaHCO to the resulting organic layer 3 Aq. 358ML (10V / W), Et 3 N 12.1 g of (119Mmol) was stirred for 30 minutes, and the mixture was separated. The organic layer HCl 358ML 1N (10V / W), NaHCO 3 Aq. 358mL (10v / w), NaClaq . Was washed successively with 358ML (10V / W), Na 2 SO 4 dried addition of 7.16g (0.2w / w). After the filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure obtained subjected to vacuum filtration by an evaporator, and pump up in the vacuum pump, Cbz-D-Phe-D -Leu-D-Lys (Boc) -α-Boc-Pic-OMe (7) was obtained 52.5g as a white solid (yield quant, HPLC purity 97.6%).
(6) D-Phe-D -Leu-D-Lys (Boc) synthesis of -α-Boc-Pic-OMe ( 8)
in an eggplant-shaped flask of 2L, Cbz-D-Phe- D-Leu-D-Lys ( Boc) -α-Boc-Pic- OMe (7) the 46.9g (53.3mmol) were charged, the 840ML EtOAc (18V / W), H 2 added to and dissolved O 93.8mL (2.0v / w) It was. The 5% Pd / C to the reaction mixture 9.38g (0.2w / w) was added, After three nitrogen substitution reduced pressure atmosphere, was performed three times a hydrogen substituent. The reaction solution was subjected to 10 hours with vigorous stirring at room temperature to remove the Pd / C and after the completion of the reaction vacuum filtration. NaHCO the resulting filtrate 3 Aq. 235mL (5.0v / w) were added to separate liquid, NaHCO to the organic layer 3 Aq. 235mL (5.0v / w), NaClaq . It was added sequentially cleaning 235mL (5.0v / w). To the resulting organic layer Na 2 SO 4 dried addition of 9.38g (0.2w / w), then the filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure obtained subjected to vacuum filtration by an evaporator, pump up with a vacuum pump to D-Phe -D-Leu-D-Lys ( Boc) -α-Boc-Pic-OMe (7) was obtained 39.7g (yield quant, HPLC purity 97.3%).
351mL was suspended in (10v / w). To this suspension HOBt 7.92g (51.7mmol), Boc-D-Phe-OH HCl HCl
(8) D-Phe-D -Phe-D-Leu-D-Lys-Pic-OMe Synthesis Of Hydrochloric Acid Salt (1)
In An Eggplant-Shaped Flask Of 20ML Boc-D-Phe-D -Phe-D- Leu-D- lys (Boc) -α -Boc- Pic-OMe (9) and 2.00gg, IPA 3.3mL (1.65v / w), was suspended by addition of PhMe 10mL (5v / w). It was stirred at room temperature for 19 hours by addition of 6N HCl / IPA 6.7mL (3.35v / w). The precipitated solid was filtered off by vacuum filtration and dried under reduced pressure to a white solid of D-Phe-D-Phe- D- Leu-D-Lys-Pic- OMe 1.59ghydrochloride (1) (yield: 99 .0%, HPLC purity 98.2%) was obtained.
(9) D-Phe-D -Phe-D-Leu-D-Lys-Pic-OMe Purification Of The Hydrochloric Acid Salt (1)
In An Eggplant-Shaped Flask Of 20ML-D-Phe-D- Phe D-Leu -D-Lys- pic-OMe hydrochloride crude crystals (1) were charged 200mg, EtOH: MeCN = 1: after stirring for 1 hour then heated in a mixed solvent 4.0 mL (20v / w) was added 40 ° C. of 5 , further at room temperature for 2 was time stirring slurry. Was filtered off by vacuum filtration, the resulting solid was dried under reduced pressure a white solid ((1) Purification crystals) was obtained 161 mg (80% yield, HPLC purity 99.2% ).
(10) D-Phe-D -Phe-D-Leu-D-Lys-Pic Synthesis (Using Purified
(1)) Of (A) To A Round-Bottomed Flask Of 10ML D-Phe-D-Phe-D- -D-Lys Leu-Pic-OMe Hydrochloride Salt (1) Was Charged With Purified Crystal 38.5Mg (0.0488Mmol), H 2 Was Added And Dissolved O 0.2ML (5.2V / W). 1.5H Was Stirred Dropwise 1N NaOH 197MyuL (0.197mmol) at room temperature. After completion of the reaction, concentrated under reduced pressure by an evaporator added 1N HCl 48.8μL (0.0488mmol), to obtain a D-Phe-D-Phe- D-Leu-D-Lys- Pic (A) (yield: quant , HPLC purity 99.7%).

D-Phe-D-Phe- D-Leu-D-Lys-Pic-OMe (1) physical properties 1 H NMR (400 MHz, 1M DCl) [delta] ppm by: 0.85-1.02 (yd,. 6 H), 1.34-1.63 ( m, 5 H), 1.65-2.12 ( m, 5 H), 2.23-2.45 (m, 2 H), 2.96-3.12 (m, 4 H), 3.19 (ddt, J = 5.0 & 5.0 & 10.0 Hz), 3.33-3.62 (m, 1 H), 3.68-3.82 (m, 1 H), 3.82-3.95 (m, 4 H), 3.95-4.18 (m, 1 H), 4.25-4.37 (m, 2 H), 4.61-4.77 (M, 2 H), 7.21-7.44 (M, 10 H) 13 C NMR (400MHz, 1M DCl) Deruta Ppm: 21.8, 22.5, 24.8, 27.0, 30.5, 30.8, 31.0, 31.2, 31.7, 37.2 , 37.8, 38.4, 39.0, 39.8, 40.4, 40.6, 41.8, 42.3, 49.8, 50.2, 52.2, 52.6, 54.6, 55.2, 57.7, 57.9, 127.6, 128.4, 129.2, 129.6, 129.7, 129.8 dp 209.5 ℃

Example 2
(Trifluoroacetic Acid (TFA)
Use) (1) D-Phe-D-Phe-D-Leu-D-Lys-Pic-OMe TFA Synthesis Of Salt (1)
TFA 18ML Eggplant Flask Of 50ML (18V / W) , 1- Dodecanethiol 1.6ML (1.6V / W), Triisopropylsilane 0.2ML (0.2V / W), H 2 Sequentially Added Stirring The O 0.2ML (0.2V / W) Did. The Solution To The Boc-D-Phe- D- Phe-D-Leu-D -Lys (Boc) -α-Boc-Pic-OMe the (9) 1.00g (1.01mmol) was added in small portions with a spatula. After completion of the reaction, concentrated under reduced pressure by an evaporator, it was added dropwise the resulting residue in IPE 20mL (20v / w). The precipitated solid was filtered off, the resulting solid was obtained and dried under reduced pressure to D-Phe-D-Phe- D-Leu -D-Lys-Pic-OMe · TFA salt as a white solid (1) (Osamu rate 93.0%, HPLC purity 95.2%).
(2) D-Phe-D -Phe-D-Leu-D-Lys-Pic synthesis of (A)
to a round-bottomed flask of 10mL D-Phe-D-Phe -D-Leu-D-Lys-Pic-OMe TFA were charged salt (1) 83mg (0.0843mmol), was added and dissolved H2O 431μL (5.2v / w). Was 12h stirring dropwise 1N NaOH 345μL (0.345mmol) at room temperature. After completion of the reaction, concentrated under reduced pressure by an evaporator added 1N HCl 84.3μL (0.0843mmol), to obtain a D-Phe-D-Phe- D-Leu-D-Lys-Pic (A) ( yield: quant, HPLC purity 95.4%).
Example
3 (HCl / EtOAc
Use) (1) In An Eggplant-Shaped Flask Of 30ML Boc-D-Phe-D -Phe-D-Leu-D-Lys (Boc) -Arufa-Boc-Pic-OMe (9) 1. It was charged with 00g (1.01mmol ), was added and dissolved EtOAc7.0mL (7.0v / w). 4N HCl / EtOAc 5.0mL (5.0v / w) was added after 24h stirring at room temperature, the precipitated solid was filtered off by vacuum filtration, washed with EtOAc 2mL (2.0v / w). The resulting solid D-Phe-D-Phe- D-Leu-D-Lys-Pic-OMe hydrochloride (1) was obtained 781mg of a white solid was dried under reduced pressure (the 96.7% yield, HPLC purity 95.4%).
(2) D-Phe-D -Phe-D-Leu-D-Lys-Pic (A) Synthesis of
eggplant flask of 10mL D-Phe-D-Phe -D-Leu-D-Lys-Pic-OMe hydrochloride were charged salt (1) 90 mg (0.112 mmol), H 2 was added and dissolved O 0.47mL (5.2v / w). Was 12h stirring dropwise 1N NaOH 459μL (0.459mmol) at room temperature. After completion of the reaction, concentrated under reduced pressure by an evaporator added 1N HCl 0.112μL (0.112mmol), was obtained D-Phe-D-Phe- D-Leu-D-Lys-Pic (A) ( yield: quant, HPLC purity 93.1%).
4 Example
Compound (1) Of The Compound By Hydrolysis Synthesis Of (The A) (Compound (1) Without
Purification) Eggplant Flask 10ML D-Phe-D-Phe -D-Leu-D-Lys-Pic-OMe (1) Charged Hydrochloride Were (Without Pre-Step Purification) 114.5Mg (0.142Mmol), H 2 Was Added And Dissolved O 595MyuL (5.2V / W). Was 14H Stirring Dropwise 1N NaOH 586MyuL (0.586Mmol) At Room Temperature. After Completion Of the reaction, concentrated under reduced pressure by an evaporator added 1N HCl 0.15μL (0.150mmol), was obtained D-Phe-D-Phe- D-Leu-D-Lys-Pic (A) (yield: quant, HPLC purity 95.2 %).
Example 1 Comparative
Path Not Via The Compound (1) (Using Whole Guard Boc-D-Phe-D-Phe-D-Leu-D-Lys (Boc) -Alpha-Boc-Pic-OMe
(A)) (1) D–Boc Phe- D-Phe-D-Leu-D-Lys (Boc) -Arufa-Boc-Pic-OH Synthesis Of
Eggplant Flask Of 30ML Boc-D-Phe-D -Phe-D-Leu-D- Lys (Boc) -α- Boc-Pic -OMe (9) were charged 1.00g (1.00mmol), was added and dissolved MeOH 5.0mL (5.0v / w). After stirring for four days by the addition of 1N NaOH 1.1 mL (1.10mmol) at room temperature, further MeOH 5.0mL (5.0v / w), 1N NaOH 2.0mL the (2.0mmol) at 35 ℃ in addition 3h and the mixture was stirred. After completion of the reaction, 1 N HCl 6.1 mL was added, After distilling off the solvent was concentrated under reduced pressure was separated and the organic layer was added EtOAc 5.0mL (5.0mL) .NaClaq. 5.0mL (5.0v / w) Wash the organic layer was added, the organic layer as a white solid was concentrated under reduced pressure to Boc-D-Phe-D- Phe-D-Leu-D-Lys (Boc) – α-Boc-Pic-OH 975.1mg (99.3% yield, HPLC purity 80.8% )
(2) D-Phe-D -Phe-D-Leu-D-Lys-Pic synthesis of (A)
to a round-bottomed flask of 20mL Boc-D-Phe-D -Phe-D-Leu-D-Lys (Boc) It was charged -α-Boc-Pic-OH ( 10) 959mg (0.978mmol), was added and dissolved EtOAc 4.9mL (5.0v / w). And 4h stirring at room temperature was added dropwise 4N HCl / EtOAc 4.9mL (5.0mL) at room temperature. After completion of the reaction, it was filtered under reduced pressure, a white solid as to give D-Phe-D-Phe- D-Leu-D-Lys-Pic the (A) (96.4% yield, HPLC purity 79.2%) .
 If not via the compound of the present invention (1), the purity of the compound obtained (A) was less than 80%.
PATENT

References

  1.  S. Sinatra Raymond; Jonathan S. Jahr;. J. Michael Watkins-Pitchford (14 October 2010) The Essence Of Analgesia And Analgesics …. Cambridge University Press Pp 490-491 ISBN  978-1-139-49198-3 .
  2.  A Janecka, Perlikowska R, Gach K, Wyrebska A, Fichna J (2010) “Development Of Opioid Peptide Analogs For Pain Relief”.. Curr Pharm Des… 16 (9):. 1126-35 Doi : 10.2174 / 138161210790963869 . PMID  20030621 .
  3. Apfelbaum Jeffrey (8 September 2014). Ambulatory Anesthesia, An Issue Of Anesthesiology Clinics, . Elsevier Health Sciences. Pp. 190-. ISBN  978-0-323-29934-3 .
  4.  Cowan Alan;. Gil Yosipovitch (10 April 2015) Pharmacology Of Itch …. Springer Pp 307- ISBN  978-3-662-44605-8 .
  5.  Allerton Charlotte (2013). Pain Therapeutics: Current And Future Treatment Paradigms …. Royal Society Of Chemistry Pp 56- ISBN  978-1-84973-645-9 .

REFERENCES

1: Cowan A, Kehner GB, Inan S. Targeting Itch With Ligands Selective For kappa Opioid
. Receptors Handb Exp Pharmacol 2015; 226:.. 291-314 Doi:
.. 10.1007 / 978-3-662-44605-8_16 Review PubMed PMID: 25861786.

Difelikefalin
Difelikefalin.svg
Systematic (IUPAC) Name
Amino–4 1- ( D -Phenylalanyl- D -Phenylalanyl- D -Leucyl- D -Lysyl) Piperidine-4-Carboxylic Acid
Clinical data
Of Routes
Administration
Intravenous
Pharmacokinetic Data
Bioavailability Pasento 100 ( IV ) [1]
Metabolism Metabolized Not [1]
Biological half-life Hours 2 [1]
Excretion As Unchanged Excreted
Drug Via Bile And Urine [1]
Identifiers
CAS Number 1024828-77-0
ATC code None
ChemSpider 44208824
Chemical data
Formula C 36 H 53 N 7 O 6
Molar mass 679.85 g / mol

///// Difelikefalin,  CR845 , FE-202845,  Phase III, PEPTIDES

CC (C) C [C @ H] (C (= O) N [C @ H] (CCCCN) C (= O) N1CCC (CC1) (C (= O) O) N) NC (= O) [ C @@ H] (Cc2ccccc2) NC (= O) [C @@ H] (Cc3ccccc3) N

Elpamotide


STR1

STR1

Elpamotide str drawn bt worlddrugtracker

Elpamotide

L-Arginyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-valyl-L-prolyl-L-alpha-aspartylglycyl-L-asparaginyl-L-arginyl-L-isoleucine human soluble (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor) VEGFR2-(169-177)-peptide

MF C47 H76 N16 O13
Molecular Weight, 1073.2164
L-Isoleucine, L-arginyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-valyl-L-prolyl-L-α-aspartylglycyl-L-asparaginyl-L-arginyl-
  • 10: PN: WO2008099908 SEQID: 10 claimed protein
  • 14: PN: WO2009028150 SEQID: 1 claimed protein
  • 18: PN: JP2013176368 SEQID: 18 claimed protein
  • 1: PN: WO2009028150 SEQID: 1 claimed protein
  • 2: PN: WO2010027107 TABLE: 1 claimed sequence
  • 6: PN: WO2013133405 SEQID: 6 claimed protein
  • 8: PN: US8574586 SEQID: 8 unclaimed protein
  • 8: PN: WO2004024766 SEQID: 8 claimed sequence
  • 8: PN: WO2010143435 SEQID: 8 claimed protein

Phase III

A neoangiogenesis antagonist potentially for the treatment of pancreatic cancer and biliary cancer.

OTS-102

CAS No.673478-49-4, UNII: S68632MB2G

Company OncoTherapy Science Inc.
Description Angiogenesis inhibitor that incorporates the KDR169 epitope of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 2 (KDR/Flk-1; VEGFR-2)
Molecular Target Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) (KDR/Flk-1)
Mechanism of Action Angiogenesis inhibitor; Vaccine
Therapeutic Modality Preventive vaccine: Peptide vaccine
  • Originator OncoTherapy Science
  • Class Cancer vaccines; Peptide vaccines
  • Mechanism of Action Cytotoxic T lymphocyte stimulants
  • 16 Jun 2015 No recent reports on development identified – Phase-II/III for Pancreatic cancer (Combination therapy) and Phase-II for Biliary cancer in Japan (SC)
  • 09 Jan 2015 Otsuka Pharmaceutical announces termination of its license agreement with Fuso Pharmaceutical for elpamotide in Japan
  • 01 Feb 2013 OncoTherapy Science and Fuso Pharmaceutical Industries complete a Phase-II trial in unresectable advanced Biliary cancer and recurrent Biliary cancer (combination therapy) in Japan (UMIN000002500)

STR1

Elpamotide str drawn bt worlddrugtracker

Elpamotide , credit kegg

Elpamotide is a neoangiogenesis inhibitor in phase II clinical trials at OncoTherapy Science for the treatment of inoperable advanced or recurrent biliary cancer. Phase III clinical trials was also ongoing at the company for the treatment of pancreas cancer, but recent progress report for this indication are not available at present.

Consisting of VEGF-R2 protein, elpamotide is a neovascular inhibitor with a totally novel mechanism of action. Its antitumor effect is thought to work by inducing strong immunoreaction against new blood vessels which provide blood flow to tumors. The drug candidate only act against blood vessels involved in tumor growth and is associated with few adverse effects.

Gemcitabine is a key drug for the treatment of pancreatic cancer; however, with its limitation in clinical benefits, the development of another potent therapeutic is necessary. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 is an essential target for tumor angiogenesis, and we have conducted a phase I clinical trial using gemcitabine and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 peptide (elpamotide). Based on the promising results of this phase I trial, a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind phase II/III clinical trial has been carried out for pancreatic cancer. The eligibility criteria included locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer. Patients were assigned to either the Active group (elpamotide + gemcitabine) or Placebo group (placebo + gemcitabine) in a 2:1 ratio by the dynamic allocation method. The primary endpoint was overall survival. The Harrington-Fleming test was applied to the statistical analysis in this study to evaluate the time-lagged effect of immunotherapy appropriately. A total of 153 patients (Active group, n = 100; Placebo group, n = 53) were included in the analysis. No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups in the prolongation of overall survival (Harrington-Fleming P-value, 0.918; log-rank P-value, 0.897; hazard ratio, 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.486-1.557). Median survival time was 8.36 months (95% CI, 7.46-10.18) for the Active group and 8.54 months (95% CI, 7.33-10.84) for the Placebo group. The toxicity observed in both groups was manageable. Combination therapy of elpamotide with gemcitabine was well tolerated. Despite the lack of benefit in overall survival, subgroup analysis suggested that the patients who experienced severe injection site reaction, such as ulceration and erosion, might have better survival

The vaccine candidate was originally developed by OncoTherapy Science. In January 2010, Fuso Pharmaceutical, which was granted the exclusive rights to manufacture and commercialize elpamotide in Japan from OncoTherapy Science, sublicensed the manufacturing and commercialization rights to Otsuka Pharmaceutical. In 2015, the license agreement between Fuso Pharmaceutical and OncoTherapy Science, and the license agreement between Fuso Pharmaceutical and Otsuka Pharmaceutical terminated.

WO 2010143435

US 8574586

WO 2012044577

WO 2010027107

WO 2013133405

WO 2009028150

WO 2008099908

WO 2004024766

PATENT

WO2013133405

The injectable formulation containing peptides, because peptides are unstable to heat, it is impossible to carry out terminal sterilization by autoclaving. Therefore, in order to achieve sterilization, sterile filtration step is essential. Sterile filtration step is carried out by passing through the 0.22 .mu.m following membrane filter typically absolute bore is guaranteed. Therefore, in the stage of pre-filtration, it is necessary to prepare a peptide solution in which the peptide is completely dissolved. However, peptides, since the solubility characteristics by its amino acid sequence differs, it is necessary to select an appropriate solvent depending on the solubility characteristics of the peptide. In particular, it is difficult to completely dissolve the highly hydrophobic peptide in a polar solvent, it requires a great deal of effort on the choice of solvent. It is also possible to increase the solubility by changing the pH, or depart from the proper pH range as an injectable formulation, in many cases the peptide may become unstable.
 In recent years, not only one type of peptide, the peptide vaccine formulation containing multiple kinds of peptides as an active ingredient has been noted. Such a peptide vaccine formulation is especially considered to be advantageous for the treatment of cancer.
 The peptide vaccine formulation for the treatment of cancer, to induce a specific immune response to the cancer cells, containing the T cell epitope peptides of the tumor-specific antigen as an active ingredient (e.g., Patent Document 1). Tumor-specific antigens these T-cell epitope peptide is derived, by exhaustive expression analysis using clinical samples of cancer patients, for each type of cancer, specifically overexpressed in cancer cells, only rarely expressed in normal cells It never is one which has been identified as an antigen (e.g., Patent Document 2). However, even in tumor-specific antigens identified in this way, by a variety of having the cancer cells, in all patients and all cancer cells, not necessarily the same as being highly expressed. That is, there may be a case in which the cancer in different patients can be an antigen that is highly expressed cancer in a patient not so expressed. Further, even in the same patient, in the cellular level, cancer cells are known to be a heterogeneous population of cells (non-patent document 1), another even antigens expressed in certain cancer cells in cancer cells may be the case that do not express. Therefore, in one type of T-cell epitope peptide vaccine formulations containing only, there is a possibility that the patient can not be obtained a sufficient antitumor effect is present. Further, even in patients obtained an anti-tumor effect, the cancer cells can not kill may be present. On the other hand, if the vaccine preparation comprising a plurality of T-cell epitope peptide, it is likely that the cancer cells express any antigen. Therefore, it is possible to obtain an anti-tumor effect in a wider patient, the lower the possibility that cancer cells can not kill exists.
 The effect of the vaccine formulation containing multiple types of T-cell epitope peptide as described above, the higher the more kinds of T-cell epitope peptides formulated. However, if try to include an effective amount of a plurality of types of T cell peptide, because the peptide content of the per unit amount is increased, to completely dissolve the entire peptide becomes more difficult. Further, because it would plurality of peptides having different properties coexist, it becomes more difficult to maintain all of the peptide stability.
 For example, in European Patent Publication No. 2111867 (Patent Document 3), freeze-dried preparation of the vaccine formulation for the treatment of cancer comprising a plurality of T-cell epitope peptides have been disclosed. This freeze-dried preparation, in the preparation of peptide solution before freeze drying, each peptide depending on its solubility properties, are dissolved in a suitable solvent for each peptide. Furthermore, when mixing the peptide solution prepared in order to prevent the precipitation of the peptide, it is described that mixing the peptide solution in determined order. Thus, to select a suitable solvent for each peptide, possible to consider the order of mixing each peptide solution is laborious as the type of peptide increases.

In order to avoid difficulties in the formulation preparation, as described above, a vaccine formulation comprising one type of T-cell epitope peptides, methods for multiple types administered to the same patient is also contemplated. However, when administering plural kinds of vaccine preparation, it is necessary to vaccination of a plurality of locations of the body, burden on a patient is increased. Also peptide vaccine formulation, the DTH (Delayed Type Hypersensitivity) skin reactions are often caused called reaction after inoculation. Occurrence of skin reactions at a plurality of positions of the body, increases the discomfort of the patient. Therefore, in order to reduce the burden of patients in vaccination is preferably a vaccine formulation comprising a plurality of T-cell epitope peptide. Further, even when the plurality of kinds administering the vaccine formulation comprising a single type of epitope peptides, when manufacturing each peptide formulation is required the task of selecting an appropriate solvent for each peptide.

Patent Document 1: International Publication No. WO 2008/102557
Patent Document 2: International Publication No. 2004/031413 Patent
Patent Document 3: The European Patent Publication No. 2111867
PATENT
PATENT

///////////Elpamotide, Phase III,  A neoangiogenesis antagonist, pancreatic cancer and biliary cancer, OTS-102, OncoTherapy Science Inc, peptide

CC[C@H](C)[C@@H](C(=O)O)NC(=O)[C@H](CCCNC(=N)N)NC(=O)[C@H](CC(=O)N)NC(=O)CNC(=O)[C@H](CC(=O)O)NC(=O)[C@@H]1CCCN1C(=O)[C@H](C(C)C)NC(=O)[C@H](Cc2ccccc2)NC(=O)[C@H](CCCNC(=N)N)N

Asvasiran sodium (ALN-RSV01)


RNA, (C-U-U-G-A-C-U-U-U-G-C-U-A-A-G-A-G-C-C-DT-DT), COMPLEX WITH RNA (G-G-C-U-C-U-U-A-G-C-A-A-A-G-U-C-A-A-G-DT-DT)

Duplex of guanylyl-(3′->5′)-guanylyl-(3′->5′)-cytidylyl-(3′->5′)-uridylyl-(3′->5′)-cytidylyl-(3′->5′)-uridylyl-(3′->5′)-uridylyl-(3′->5′)-adenylyl-(3′->5′)-guanylyl-(3′->5′)-cytidylyl-(3′->5′)-adenylyl-(3′->5′)-adenylyl-(3′->5′)-adenylyl-(3′->5′)-guanylyl-(3′->5′)-uridylyl-(3′->5′)-cytidylyl-(3′->5′)-adenylyl-(3′->5′)-adenylyl-(3′->5′)-guanylyl-(3′->5′)-thymidylyl-(3′->5′)-thymidine and thymidylyl-(5′->3′)-thymidylyl-(5′->3′)-cytidylyl-(5′->3′)-cytidylyl-(5′->3′)-guanylyl-(5′->3′)-adenylyl-(5′->3′)-guanylyl-(5′->3′)-adenylyl-(5′->3′)-adenylyl-(5′->3′)-uridylyl-(5′->3′)-cytidylyl-(5′->3′)-guanylyl-(5′->3′)-uridylyl-(5′->3′)-uridylyl-(5′->3′)-uridylyl-(5′->3′)-cytidylyl-(5′->3′)-adenylyl-(5′->3′)-guanylyl-(5′->3′)-uridylyl-(5′->3′)-uridylyl-(5′->3′)-cytidine

Asvasiran sodium (ALN-RSV01),

C401H500N150O290P40,

CAS 1386946-83-3, 870094-26-1

Alnylam Pharmaceuticals

  • Originator Alnylam Pharmaceuticals
  • Class Antivirals; Small interfering RNA
  • Mechanism of Action Nucleocapsid protein modulators; RNA interference

Treatment of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Infection

Nucleocapsid protein modulators, RNA interference

  • 05 Nov 2014 Alnylam receives patent allowance for RNAi technology in USA
  • 20 Feb 2014 Suspended – Phase-II for Respiratory syncytial virus infections in USA (Intranasal) (Alnylam Form 10-K filed in February 2014)
  • 20 Feb 2014 Suspended – Phase-I for Respiratory syncytial virus infections in Europe (Intranasal) (Alnylam Form 10-K filed in February 2014)

 

Aerosolised ALN-RSV01 – Alnylam; ALN RSV01; Intranasal ALN-RSV01 – Alnylam

Alnylam, under license from the University of South Alabama, and with Asian licensee Kyowa Hakko Kirin (formerly Kyowa Hakko Kogyo), is developing a nasally administered formulation of asvasiran sodium (ALN-RSV01), an siRNA that targets the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) N gene and inhibits viral replication, for the potential treatment or prevention of RSV infection.

.In June 2007, a phase II trial was initiated; in January 2008, top-line data were reported . In March 2013, development was ongoing . In August 2008, Kyowa planned to file the drug for marketing approval in 2014. In March 2013, Alnylam was planning on seeking to outlicense the program to continue to advance the program in other regions .

Alnylam is also developing second-generation agents.

Ex-Asian licensee, Cubist Pharmaceuticals, in collaboration with Alnylam, was previously developing the program for the potential treatment or prevention of RSV infection . However, in February 2013, the deal was terminated . Alnylam was also developing an inhaled formulation of asvasiran sodium; however, in February 2014, the drug was no longer listed on the company’s development pipeline.

WO-2006074346
WO-2009076679
WO-2006062596
WO-2010048590

WO 2016022464

WO 2015173701

WO 2015026792

WO 2014209983

WO 2014031784

US 20130273037

Nucleic Acids Research (2012), 40(21), 10585-10595

WO 2011163518

Drugs of the Future (2009), 34(10), 781-783

Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases (2008), 21(6), 639-643

Antiviral Research (2008), 77(3), 225-231

John Maraganore, president and chief executive officer of Alnylam Pharmaceuticals,

Delivering Value with Integrated Communications led by Cynthia Clayton, Vice President, Investor Relations and Corporate Communications at Alnylam Pharmaceuticals

From the left, Alnylam COO Barry Greene, Adrian Dede, Lauren Virnoche, CEO

Dr. Rachel Meyers, Senior Vice President, Research at Alnylam Pharmaceuticals

Dr. Dinah Sah, Vice President of Research and the head of the Alnylam HD team

//////Asvasiran sodium, ALN-RSV01, PHASE 2, Alnylam

SOME OTHER CHEMISTRY

Figure 6: GalNAc–siRNA conjugates.

From Delivery materials for siRNA therapeutics

Nature Materials12,967–977(2013)doi:10.1038/nmat3765
23 October 2013

http://www.nature.com/nmat/journal/v12/n11/fig_tab/nmat3765_F6.html

\

http://www.google.com/patents/EP2836595A2?cl=en

AUNP-12 from Aurigene Discovery Technologies Limited


 

 

AUNP-12

AUR-012; Aurigene-012; NP-12, Aurigene; PD-1 inhibitor peptide (cancer), Aurigene; PD-1 inhibitor peptide (cancer), Aurigene/ Pierre Fabre; W-014A

 

Company Aurigene Discovery Technologies Ltd.
Description A programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1; PD-1; CD279) peptide antagonist
Molecular Target Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) (PDCD1) (CD279)
Mechanism of Action Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) antagonist
Therapeutic Modality Peptide
Latest Stage of Development Preclinical
Standard Indication Cancer (unspecified)
Indication Details Treat cancer
Regulatory Designation
Partner Laboratoires Pierre Fabre S.A.

Aurigene Discovery Technologies Limited

INNOVATOR

 

 

  • Programmed Cell Death 1 or PD-1 (also referred to as PDCD1) is a 50 to 55 kD type I membrane glycoprotein (Shinohara T et al, Genomics, 1994, Vol. 23, No. 3, pp. 704-706). PD-1 is a receptor of the CD28 superfamily that negatively regulates T cell antigen receptor signalling by interacting with the specific ligands and is suggested to play a role in the maintenance of self tolerance.
  • PD-1 peptide relates to almost every aspect of immune responses including autoimmunity, tumour immunity, infectious immunity, transplantation immunity, allergy and immunological privilege.
  • The PD-1 protein’s structure comprise of—

      • an extracellular IgV domain followed by
      • a transmembrane region and
      • an intracellular tail
  • The intracellular tail contains two phosphorylation sites located in an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif and an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motif, which suggests that PD-1 negatively regulates TCR signals. Also, PD-1 is expressed on the surface of activated T cells, B cells, and macrophages, (Y. Agata et al., Int Immunol 8, 765, May 1996) suggesting that compared to CTLA-4 ((Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen 4, also known as CD152 (Cluster of differentiation 152) is a protein that also plays an important regulatory role in the immune system), PD-1 more broadly negatively regulates immune responses.
  • PD-1 has two ligands, PD-L1 (Programmed Death Ligand for PDCD1L1 or B7-H1) (Freeman G J et al, Journal of Experimental Medicine, 2000, Vol. 19, No. 7, pp. 1027-1034) and PD-L2 (Programmed Death Ligand 2 or PDCD1L2 or B7-DC) (Latchman Y et al, Nature Immunology, 2001, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 261-267), which are members of the B7 family. PD-L1 is known to be expressed not only in immune cells, but also in certain kinds of tumour cell lines (such as monocytic leukaemia-derived cell lines, mast cell tumour-derived cell lines, hematoma-derived cell lines, neuroblastoma-derived cell lines, and various mammary tumour-derived cell lines) and in cancer cells derived from diverse human cancer tissues (Latchman Y et al, Nature Immunology, 2001, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 261-267) and on almost all murine tumour cell lines, including PA1 myeloma, P815 mastocytoma, and B16 melanoma upon treatment with IFN-γ (Y. Iwai et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99, 12293, Sep. 17, 2002 and C. Blank et al., Cancer Res 64, 1140, February, 2004). Similarly PD-L2 expression is more restricted and is expressed mainly by dendritic cells and a few tumour cell lines. PD-L2 expression has been verified in Hodgkin’s lymphoma cell lines and others. There is a hypothesis that some of the cancer or tumour cells take advantage from interaction between PD-1 and PD-L1 or PD-L2, for suppressing or intercepting T-cell immune responses to their own (Iwai Y et al, Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America, 2002, Vol. 99, No. 19, pp. 12293-12297).
  • Tumour cells and virus (including HCV and HIV) infected cells are known to express the ligand for PD-1 (to create Immunosuppression) in order to escape immune surveillance by host T cells. It has been reported that the PD-1 gene is one of genes responsible for autoimmune diseases like systemic lupus erythematosis (Prokunina et al, Nature Genetics, 2002, Vol. 32, No. 4, 666-669). It has also been indicated that PD-1 serves as a regulatory factor for the onset of autoimmune diseases, particularly for peripheral self-tolerance, on the ground that PD-1-deficient mice develop lupus autoimmune diseases, such as glomerulonephritis and arthritis (Nishimura H et al, International Immunology, 1998, Vol. 10, No. 10, pp. 1563-1572; Nishimura H et al, Immunity, 1999, Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 141-151), and dilated cardiomyopathy-like disease (Nishimura H et al, Science, 2001, Vol. 291, No. 5502, pp. 319-332).
  • Hence, in one approach, blocking the interaction of PD-1 with its ligand (PD-L1, PD-L2 or both) may provide an effective way for specific tumour and viral immunotherapy.
  • Wood et al in U.S. Pat. No. 6,808,710 discloses method for down modulating an immune response comprising contacting an immune cell expressing PD-1 with an antibody that binds to PD-1, in multivalent form, such that a negative signal is transduced via PD-1 to thereby down modulate the immune response. Such an antibody may be a cross-linked antibody to PD-1 or an immobilized antibody to PD-1.
  • Freeman et al in U.S. Pat. No. 6,936,704 and its divisional patent U.S. Pat. No. 7,038,013 discloses isolated nucleic acids molecules, designated B7-4 nucleic acid molecules, which encode novel B7-4 polypeptides, isolated B7-4 proteins, fusion proteins, antigenic peptides and anti-B7-4 antibodies, which co-stimulates T cell proliferation in vitro when the polypeptide is present on a first surface and an antigen or a polyclonal activator that transmits an activating signal via the T-cell receptor is present on a second, different surface.
  • There are some reports regarding substances inhibiting immunosuppressive activity of PD-1, or interaction between PD-1 and PD-L1 or PD-L2, as well as the uses thereof. A PD-1 inhibitory antibody or the concept of a PD-1 inhibitory peptide is reported in WO 01/14557, WO 2004/004771, and WO 2004/056875. On the other hand, a PD-L1 inhibitory antibody or a PD-L1 inhibitory peptide is reported in WO 02/079499, WO 03/042402, WO 2002/086083, and WO 2001/039722. A PD-L2 inhibitory antibody or a PD-L2 inhibitory peptide is reported in WO 03/042402 and WO 02/00730.
  • WO2007005874 describes isolated human monoclonal antibodies that specifically bind to PD-L1 with high affinity. The disclosure provides methods for treating various diseases including cancer using anti-PD-L1 antibodies.
  • US2009/0305950 describes multimers, particularly tetramers of an extracellular domain of PD-1 or PD-L1. The application describes therapeutic peptides.
  • Further, the specification mentions that peptides can be used therapeutically to treat disease, e.g., by altering co-stimulation in a patient. An isolated B7-4 or PD-1 protein, or a portion or fragment thereof (or a nucleic acid molecule encoding such a polypeptide), can be used as an immunogen to generate antibodies that bind B7-4 or PD-1 using standard techniques for polyclonal and monoclonal antibody preparation. A full-length B7-4 or PD-1 protein can be used, or alternatively, the invention provides antigenic peptide fragments of B7-4 or PD-1 for use as immunogens. The antigenic peptide of B7-4 or PD-1 comprises at least 8 amino acid residues and encompasses an epitope of B7-4 or PD-1 such that an antibody raised against the peptide forms a specific immune complex with B7-4 or PD-1. Preferably, the antigenic peptide comprises at least 10 amino acid residues, more preferably at least 15 amino acid residues, even more preferably at least amino acid residues, and most preferably at least 30 amino acid residues.
  • Freeman et al in U.S. Pat. No. 7,432,059 appears to disclose and claim methods of identifying compounds that up modulate T cell activation in the presence of a PD-1-mediated signal. Diagnostic and treatment methods utilizing compositions of the invention are also provided in the patent.
  • Further, Freeman et al in U.S. Pat. No. 7,709,214 appears to cover methods for up regulating an immune response with agents that inhibit the interactions between PD-L2 and PD-1.
  • Despite existence of many disclosures as discussed above, however, a significant unmet medical need still exists due to the lack of effective peptides or modified peptides as therapeutic agents as alternatives in the therapeutic area. It is known that synthetic peptides offer certain advantages over antibodies such as ease of production with newer technologies, better purity and lack of contamination by cellular materials, low immunogenicity, improved potency and specificity. Peptides may be more stable and offer better storage properties than antibodies. Moreover, often peptides possess better tissue penetration in comparison with antibodies, which could result in better efficacy. Peptides can also offer definite advantages over small molecule therapeutics counterparts such as lesser degree of toxicity and lower probability of drug-drug interaction.
  • The present invention therefore may provide the solution for this unmet medical need by offering novel synthetic peptide and its derivatives which are based on the PD1 ectodomain.

 

09338-scitech1-NovartisAcxd
Aurigene team: (from left) Brahma Reddy V, Thomas Antony, Murali Ramachandra, Venkateshwar Rao G, Wesley Roy Balasubramanian, Kishore Narayanan, Samiulla DS, Aravind AB, and Shekar Chelur

 

Patent

http://www.google.com/patents/US20110318373

8. SNTSESFK(SNTSESF)FRVTQLAPKAQIKE-NH2 (SEQ ID NO: 49)

 

Example 2 Synthesis of

Synthesis of Linear Fragment—Fmoc-FRVTQLAPKAQIKE

  • Desiccated CLEAR-Amide resin ((100-200 mesh) 0.4 mmol/g, 0.5 g) was distributed in 2 polyethylene vessels equipped with a polypropylene filter. The linear peptide synthesis on solid phase were carried out automatically, using Symphony parallel synthesizer (PTI) using the synthesis programs mentioned in the table below. Swelling, C-terminal amino acid [Fmoc-Glu(OtBu)-OH] attachment and capping of the peptidyl resin was carried out as per the protocol in Table I. Subsequent amino acid coupling was carried out as mentioned in Table II. The amino acids used in the synthesis were Fmoc Phe-OH, Fmoc-Arg(Pbf)-OH, Fmoc-Val-OH, Fmoc-Thr(OtBu)-OH, Fmoc-Gln(Trt)-OH, Fmoc-Lys(Boc)-OH, Fmoc-Leu-OH, Fmoc-Ala-OH, Fmoc-Pro-OH, Fmoc-Ile-OH. After the completion of Fmoc-Phe-OH coupling the resin was taken out form peptide synthesiser and manual coupling was carried out as follows
  • Fmoc-Phe-OH peptidyl resin from automated synthesiser was pooled in to a glass vessel with frit. The Fmoc group of the peptidyl resin was deprotected by treating it twice with 20% (v/v) piperidine/DMF solution for 5 and 15 min (10 m L). The resin was washed with DMF (6×15 m L), DCM (6×15 m L) and DMF (6×15 m L). Kaiser test on peptide resin aliquot upon completion of Fmoc-deprotection was positive. Fmoc-Lys (Fmoc)-OH (0.48 g; 4 equiv. 0.8 m mol) in dry DMF was added to the deprotected resin and coupling was initiated with DIC (0.15 m L; 5 equiv, 1 m mol) and HOBT (0.08 g; 5 equiv, 0.6 m mol) in DMF. The concentration of each reactant in the reaction mixture was approximately 0.4 M. The mixture was rotated on a rotor at room temperature for 3 h. Resin was filtered and washed with DMF (6×15 mL), DCM (6×15 mL) and DMF (6×15 mL). Kaiser test on peptide resin aliquot upon completion of coupling was negative. The Fmoc group on the peptidyl resin is deprotected by treating it twice with 20% (v/v) piperidine/DMF solution for 5 and 15 min (15 mL). The resin was washed with DMF (6×15 mL), DCM (6×15 mL) and DMF (6×15 mL). Kaiser test on peptide resin aliquot upon completion of Fmoc-deprotection was positive. After the deprotection of Fmoc group on Fmoc-Lys(Fmoc)-attached peptidyl resin the peptide chain growth was carried out from both the free amino terminus suing 8 equivalent excess of amino acid (1.6 m mol, 8 equivalent excess of HOBt (0.22 g, 1.6 m mol) and 10 equivalent excess of DIC (0.32 m L, 2 m mol) relative to resin loading. The coupling was carried out at room temperature for 3 h. The amino acids coupled to the peptidyl resin were; Fmoc-Phe-OH (0.62 g; 8 equiv, 1.6 m mol), Fmoc-Ser (OtBu)-OH (0.62 g; 8 equiv, 1.6 m mol), Fmoc-Glu (OtBu)-OH (0.68 g; 8 equiv, 1.6 m mol), Fmoc-Ser (OtBu)-OH (0.62 g; 8 equiv, 1.6 m mol), Fmoc-Thr (OtBu)-OH (0.64 g; 8 equiv, 1.6 m mol), Fmoc-Asn (Trt)-OH (0.95 g; 8 equiv, 1.6 m mol) and N-terminus amino acids as Boc-Ser (OtBu)-OH (0.41 g; 8 equiv, 1.6 m mol) The peptidyl resin was cleaved as mentioned in procedure for cleavage using cleavage cocktail A to yield (565 mg), 70% yield. The crude material was purified by preparative HPLC on Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C18 column (9.4 mm×250 mm, 5 μm) with buffer A: 0.1% TFA/Water, buffer B: Acetonitrile. The peptide was eluted by gradient elution 0-5 min=5-10% buffer B, 10-20 min=29% buffer B with a flow rate of 7 mL/min. HPLC: (method 1): RT-12 min (96%); LCMS Calculated Mass: 3261.62, Observed Mass: 1631.6 [M/2+H]+; 1088 [M/3+H]+); 816.2[M/4+H]+;

STRUCTURE , READER DISCRETION IS NEEDED

 

aunf12

N2,N6-Bis(L-seryl-L-asparaginyl-L-threonyl-L-seryl-L-alpha-glutamyl-L-seryl-L-phenylalanyl)-L-lysyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-arginyl-L-valyl-L-threonyl-L-glutaminyl-L-leucyl-L-alanyl-L-prolyl-L-lysyl-L-alanyl-L-glutaminyl-L-isoleucyl-L-lysyl-L-alpha-glutamine

C142 H226 N40 O48, 3261.553

 CAS 1353563-85-5,
L-​α-​Glutamine, N2,​N6– ​bis(L-​seryl-​L-​asparaginyl-​L-​threonyl-​L-​seryl-​L-​α-​glutamyl-​L- ​seryl-​L-​phenylalanyl)​-​L-​lysyl-​L-​phenylalanyl-​L-​arginyl-​L-​ valyl-​L-​threonyl-​L-​glutaminyl-​L-​leucyl-​L-​alanyl-​L-​prolyl-​L-​ lysyl-​L-​alanyl-​L-​glutaminyl-​L-​isoleucyl-​L-​lysyl-

aunf12

aunf12

SEE ALSO

CAS 1353564-61-0,
L-​α-​Glutamine, N2,​N6– ​bis(D-​seryl-​L-​asparaginyl-​L-​threonyl-​L-​seryl-​L-​α-​glutamyl-​L- ​seryl-​L-​phenylalanyl)​-​L-​lysyl-​L-​phenylalanyl-​L-​arginyl-​L-​ valyl-​L-​threonyl-​L-​glutaminyl-​L-​leucyl-​L-​alanyl-​L-​prolyl-​L-​ lysyl-​L-​alanyl-​L-​glutaminyl-​L-​isoleucyl-​L-​lysyl-
 CAS 1353563-91-3
D-​α-​Glutamine, N2,​N6– ​bis(D-​seryl-​D-​asparaginyl-​D-​threonyl-​D-​seryl-​D-​α-​glutamyl-​D- ​seryl-​D-​phenylalanyl)​-​D-​lysyl-​D-​phenylalanyl-​D-​arginyl-​D-​ valyl-​D-​threonyl-​D-​glutaminyl-​D-​leucyl-​D-​alanyl-​D-​prolyl-​D-​ lysyl-​D-​alanyl-​D-​glutaminyl-​D-​isoleucyl-​D-​lysyl-

US 2015087581

Compound 8 (SEQ ID NO: 49) SNTSESFK(SNTSESF)FRVTQLAPKAQIKE-NH2Image loading...

Example 2Synthesis of Sequence Shown in SEQ ID NO: 49

Image loading...

Synthesis of Linear Fragment—Fmoc-FRVTQLAPKAQIKE

Desiccated CLEAR-Amide resin ((100-200 mesh) 0.4 mmol/g, 0.5 g) was distributed in 2 polyethylene vessels equipped with a polypropylene filter. The linear peptide synthesis on solid phase were carried out automatically, using Symphony parallel synthesizer (PTI) using the synthesis programs mentioned in the table below. Swelling, C-terminal amino acid [Fmoc-Glu(OtBu)-OH] attachment and capping of the peptidyl resin was carried out as per the protocol in Table I. Subsequent amino acid coupling was carried out as mentioned in Table II. The amino acids used in the synthesis were Fmoc Phe-OH, Fmoc-Arg(Pbf)-OH, Fmoc-Val-OH, Fmoc-Thr(OtBu)-OH, Fmoc-Gln(Trt)-OH, Fmoc-Lys(Boc)-OH, Fmoc-Leu-OH, Fmoc-Ala-OH, Fmoc-Pro-OH, Fmoc-Ile-OH. After the completion of Fmoc-Phe-OH coupling the resin was taken out form peptide synthesiser and manual coupling was carried out as follows.

Fmoc-Phe-OH peptidyl resin from automated synthesiser was pooled in to a glass vessel with frit. The Fmoc group of the peptidyl resin was deprotected by treating it twice with 20% (v/v) piperidine/DMF solution for 5 and 15 min (10 mL). The resin was washed with DMF (6×15 mL), DCM (6×15 mL) and DMF (6×15 mL). Kaiser test on peptide resin aliquot upon completion of Fmoc-deprotection was positive.

Fmoc-Lys (Fmoc)-OH (0.48 g; 4 equiv. 0.8 mmol) in dry DMF was added to the deprotected resin and coupling was initiated with DIC (0.15 mL; 5 equiv, 1 mmol) and HOBT (0.08 g; 5 equiv, 0.6 mmol) in DMF. The concentration of each reactant in the reaction mixture was approximately 0.4 M. The mixture was rotated on a rotor at room temperature for 3 h. Resin was filtered and washed with DMF (6×15 mL), DCM (6×15 mL) and DMF (6×15 mL). Kaiser test on peptide resin aliquot upon completion of coupling was negative. The Fmoc group on the peptidyl resin is deprotected by treating it twice with 20% (v/v) piperidine/DMF solution for 5 and 15 min (15 mL). The resin was washed with DMF (6×15 mL), DCM (6×15 mL) and DMF (6×15 mL). Kaiser test on peptide resin aliquot upon completion of Fmoc-deprotection was positive.

After the deprotection of Fmoc group on Fmoc-Lys(Fmoc)-attached peptidyl resin the peptide chain growth was carried out from both the free amino terminus suing 8 equivalent excess of amino acid (1.6 mmol, 8 equivalent excess of HOBt (0.22 g, 1.6 mmol) and 10 equivalent excess of DIC (0.32 mL, 2 mmol) relative to resin loading. The coupling was carried out at room temperature for 3 h. The amino acids coupled to the peptidyl resin were; Fmoc-Phe-OH (0.62 g; 8 equiv, 1.6 mmol), Fmoc-Ser (OtBu)-OH (0.62 g; 8 equiv, 1.6 mmol), Fmoc-Glu (OtBu)-OH (0.68 g; 8 equiv, 1.6 mmol), Fmoc-Ser (OtBu)-OH (0.62 g; 8 equiv, 1.6 mmol), Fmoc-Thr (OtBu)-OH (0.64 g; 8 equiv, 1.6 mmol), Fmoc-Asn (Trt)-OH (0.95 g; 8 equiv, 1.6 m mol) and N-terminus amino acids as Boc-Ser (OtBu)-OH (0.41 g; 8 equiv, 1.6 mmol) The peptidyl resin was cleaved as mentioned in procedure for cleavage using cleavage cocktail A to yield (565 mg), 70% yield. The crude material was purified by preparative HPLC on Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C18 column (9.4 mm×250 mm, 5 μm) with buffer A: 0.1% TFA/Water, buffer B:Acetonitrile. The peptide was eluted by gradient elution 0-5 min=5-10% buffer B, 10-20 min=29% buffer B with a flow rate of 7 mL/min. HPLC: (method 1): RT—12 min (96%); LCMS Calculated Mass: 3261.62, Observed Mass: 1631.6 [M/2+H]+; 1088 [M/3+H]+;); 816.2[M/4+H]+.

SMILES

O=C(N[C@@H](CCCCNC(=O)[C@H](Cc1ccccc1)NC(=O)[C@H](CO)NC(=O)[C@H](CCC(=O)O)NC(=O)[C@H](CO)NC(=O)[C@@H](NC(=O)[C@H](CC(N)=O)NC(=O)[C@H](CO)N)[C@@H](C)O)C(=O)N[C@@H](Cc2ccccc2)C(=O)N[C@@H](CCCNC(=N)N)C(=O)N[C@@H](C(C)C)C(=O)N[C@@H]([C@@H](C)O)C(=O)N[C@@H](CCC(N)=O)C(=O)N[C@@H](CC(C)C)C(=O)N[C@@H](C)C(=O)N3CCC[C@H]3C(=O)N[C@@H](CCCCN)C(=O)N[C@@H](C)C(=O)N[C@@H](CCC(N)=O)C(=O)N[C@@H]([C@@H](C)CC)C(=O)N[C@@H](CCCCN)C(=O)N[C@@H](CCC(=O)O)C(N)=O)[C@H](Cc4ccccc4)NC(=O)[C@H](CO)NC(=O)[C@H](CCC(=O)O)NC(=O)[C@H](CO)NC(=O)[C@@H](NC(=O)[C@H](CC(N)=O)NC(=O)[C@H](CO)N)[C@@H](C)O

NEXT………..

CAS 1353564-65-4
C142 H226 N40 O48
L-​α-​Glutamine, L-​seryl-​L-​asparaginyl-​L-​threonyl-​L-​seryl-​L-​α-​glutamyl-​L-​seryl-​L-​phenylalanyl-​N6– ​(L-​seryl-​D-​asparaginyl-​L-​threonyl-​L-​seryl-​L-​α-​glutamyl-​L-​ seryl-​L-​phenylalanyl)​-​L-​lysyl-​L-​phenylalanyl-​L-​arginyl-​L-​ valyl-​L-​threonyl-​L-​glutaminyl-​L-​leucyl-​L-​alanyl-​L-​prolyl-​L-​ lysyl-​L-​alanyl-​L-​glutaminyl-​L-​isoleucyl-​L-​lysyl-
Molecular Weight, 3261.55

aunf12

NEXT……….

CAS 1353564-31-4, C142 H226 N40 O48
L-​α-​Glutamine, L-​seryl-​L-​asparaginyl-​L-​threonyl-​L-​seryl-​L-​α-​glutamyl-​L-​seryl-​L-​phenylalanyl-​N6– ​(D-​seryl-​D-​asparaginyl-​D-​threonyl-​D-​seryl-​D-​α-​glutamyl-​D-​ seryl-​D-​phenylalanyl)​-​L-​lysyl-​L-​phenylalanyl-​L-​arginyl-​L-​ valyl-​L-​threonyl-​L-​glutaminyl-​L-​leucyl-​L-​alanyl-​L-​prolyl-​L-​ lysyl-​L-​alanyl-​L-​glutaminyl-​L-​isoleucyl-​L-​lysyl-
USE ALL YOUR DISCRETION……………

 

Clips

Aurigene and Pierre Fabre Pharmaceuticals Announce a Licensing Agreement for a New Cancer Therapeutic in Immuno-oncology: AUNP12, an Immune Checkpoint Modulator Targeting the PD-1 Pathway

Pierre Fabre are thus reinforcing their oncology portfolio which already enjoys a combination of chemotherapies, monoclonal antibodies and immuno-conjugates assets at various development phases

Feb 13, 2014, 03:14 ET from Aurigene and Pierre Fabre Pharmaceuticals

CASTRES, France and BANGALORE, India, February 13, 2014 /PRNewswire/ —

Pierre Fabre, the third largest French pharmaceutical company, and Aurigene, a leading biotech company based in India, today announced that the two companies have entered into a collaborative license, development and commercialization agreement granting Pierre Fabre global Worldwide rights (excluding India) to a new immune checkpoint modulator, AUNP-12.

AUNP-12 offers a breakthrough mechanism of action in the PD-1 pathway compared to other molecules currently in development in the highly promising immune therapy cancer space. AUNP-12 is the only peptide therapeutic in this pathway and could offer more effective and safer combination opportunities with emerging and established treatment regimens.  AUNP-12 will be in development for numerous cancer indications.

Under the terms of this agreement, Aurigene will receive an upfront payment from Pierre Fabre. Aurigene will also receive additional milestone payments based upon the continued development, regulatory progresses and commercialization of AUNP-12.

“We are pleased that Pierre Fabre see the PD-1 program as a strategic asset in their portfolio. Overall, the deal structure, in line with the financial terms that have been seen in this space, demonstrate the importance that Pierre Fabre attach to the program,” said CSN Murthy, CEO, Aurigene.

“The plans that Pierre Fabre have detailed for the development of this differentiated asset highlight the long-term opportunities for this novel cancer therapeutic,” added Murali Ramachandra, Sr VP, Research, Aurigene.

“This agreement, in the field of oncology, is fully consistent with our vision to build Pierre Fabre’s future in prescription drugs, from a combination of cutting-edge internal R&D capabilities and license partnerships with innovative biotech companies like Aurigene,” stated Bertrand Parmentier, CEO, Pierre Fabre.

“With this deal, Pierre-Fabre Pharmaceuticals are reinforcing their portfolio of oncology assets and capitalizing on their proven capabilities in developing biological compounds such as monoclonal antibodies and immuno-conjugates. We have been impressed by the science at Aurigene and encouraged by the differentiated profile reported for AUNP-12,” added Frédéric Duchesne, President, Pierre Fabre Pharmaceuticals.

About immuno-oncology

Immuno-oncology is an emerging field in cancer therapy, where the body’s own immune system is harnessed to fight against cancer. This approach of targeting cancer through immune response has had a breakthrough when robust and sustained responses were obtained only upon blocking the immune checkpoint targets (such as PD-1 and CTLA4). Recent successes in clinical trials performed with such therapies suggest that immunotherapy should be considered alongside surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and targeted therapy as the fifth cornerstone of cancer treatment.

PD-1 (Programmed cell Death 1) is a receptor that negatively regulates T-cell activation by interacting with specific ligands PD-L1 and PD-L2. Tumor cells express these ligands and thereby escape from the action of T-cells.

About AUNP-12

AUNP-12  is a branched 29-amino acid peptide sequence engineered from the PD-L1/ L2 binding domain of PD-1 It blocks the PD-1/PD-L1, PD-1/PD-L2 and PD-L1/CD80 pathways. AUNP-12 is highly effective in antagonizing PD-1 signaling, with desirable in vivo exposure upon subcutaneous dosing. It inhibits tumor growth and metastasis in preclinical models of cancer and is well tolerated with no overt toxicity at any of the tested doses.

About Aurigene

Aurigene is a biotech focused on development of innovative small molecule and peptide therapeutics for Oncology and Inflammation; key focus areas for Aurigene are Immuno-oncology, Epigenetics and the Th17 pathway. Aurigene’s PD-1 program is the first of several peptide-based immune checkpoint programs that are at different stages of Discovery.

Aurigene has partnered with several big pharma and mid-pharma companies in the US and Europe, and has delivered multiple clinical compounds through these partnerships. With over 500 scientists, Aurigene has collaborated with 6 of the top 10 pharma companies.

Aurigene’s pre-clinical pipeline includes (1) Selective and pan-BET Bromodomain inhibitors (2) RoR gamma reverse agonists (3) EZH2 inhibitors (4) NAMPT inhibitors and (5) Several immune check point peptide inhibitor programs.

For more information:  http://aurigene.com/

About Pierre Fabre:

Pierre Fabre is a privately-owned health care company created in 1961 by Mr Pierre Fabre. It is the second largest French independent pharmaceutical group with 2013 sales amounting to about €2 billion (yet to be audited) across 140 countries. The company is structured around two divisions: Pharmaceuticals (Prescription drugs, OTC, Oral care) and Dermo-cosmetics. Prescription drugs are organized around four main franchises: oncology, dermatology, women’s health and neuropsychiatry. Pierre Fabre employs some 10 000 people worldwide, including 1 300 in R&D. The company allocates about 20% of its pharmaceuticals sales to R&D and relies on more than 25 years of experience in the discovery, development and global commercialization of innovative drugs in oncology. Pierre Fabre has a long commitment to oncology and immunology with major R&D centers in France: the Pierre Fabre immunology Centre (CIPF) in Saint Julien en Genevois and the Pierre Fabre Research Institute (IRPF) located on the Toulouse-Oncopole campus  which has been officially recognized as a National Center of Excellence for cancer research since 2012.

 

REFERENCES

http://www.differding.com/data/AUNP_12_A_novel_peptide_therapeutic_targeting_PD_1_immune_checkpoint_pathway_for_cancer_immunotherapy.pdf

http://slideplayer.com/slide/5760496/

P. Sasikumar, R. Shrimali, S. Adurthi, R. Ramachandra, L. Satyam, A. Dhudashiya, D. Samiulla, K. B. Sunilkumar and M. Ramachandra, “A novel peptide therapeutic targeting PD1 immune checkpoint with equipotent antagonism of both ligands and a potential for better management of immune-related adverse events,” Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer, vol. 1, no. Suppl 1,  O24, 2013.

P. G. N. Sasikumar, M. Ramachandra, S. K. Vadlamani, K. R. Vemula, L. K. Satyam, K. Subbarao, K. R. Shrimali and S. Kandepudu (Aurigene Discovery Technologies Ltd, Bangalore, India), “Immunosuppression modulating compounds”, US Patent application US 2011/0318373, 29 Dec 2011.

P. G. Sasikumar, L. K. Satyam, R. K. Shrimali, K. Subbarao, R. Ramachandra, S. Vadlamani, A. Reddy, A. Kumar, A. Srinivas, S. Reddy, S. Gopinath, D. S. Samiulla and M. Ramachandra, “Demonstration of anti-tumor efficacy in multiple preclinical cancer models using a novel peptide inhibitor (Aurigene-012) of the PD1 signaling pathway,” Cancer Research, vol. 72, no. 8 Suppl. 1, Abstract 2850, 2012.

P. G. N. Sasikumar, M. Ramachandra, S. K. Vadlamani, K. R. Shrimali and K. Subbarao, “Therapeutic compounds for immunomodulation” (Aurigene Discovery Technologies Ltd, Bangalore, India), PCT Patent Application WO 2012/168944, 13 Dec 2012.

P. G. N. Sasikumar and M. Ramachandra, “Immunomodulating cyclic compounds from the BC loop of human PD1” (Aurigene Discovery Technologies Ltd, Bangalore, India), PCT Patent Application WO/2013/144704, 3 Oct 2013.

P. G. N. Sasikumar, M. Ramachandra and S. S. S. Naremaddepalli, “Peptidomimetic compounds as immunomodulators” (Aurigene Discovery Technologies Ltd, Bangalore, India), US Patent Application US 2013/0237580, 12 Sep 2013.

A. H. Sharpe, M. J. Butte and S. Oyama (Harvard College), “Modulators of immunoinhibitory receptor PD-1, and methods of use thereof”, PCT Patent Application WO/2011/082400, 7 Jul 2011.

M. Cordingley, “Battle of PD-1 blockade is on”, February 7, 2014 : http://discoveryview.ca/battle-of-pd-1-blockade-is-on/ [Accessed 25 February 2014].

Mr. CSN Murthy

Chief Executive Officer, Aurigene Discovery Technologies Ltd.

Mr. CSN Murthy began his career with ICICI Ventures, India’s first Venture Capital fund. He was subsequently a management consultant to the Pharma and Chemical sectors. Later, he worked in the Business Development and General Management functions in Pharmaceutical companies, including as the Chief Operating Officer of Gland Pharma Ltd. CSN holds a Bachelors degree in Chemical Engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Madras and an MBA from the Indian Institute of Management (IIM), Bangalore.


Dr.Thomas Antony

Associate Research Director, Aurigene Discovery Technologies Ltd.

Dr.Thomas Antony did his Ph.D in Biophysical Chemistry from University of Delhi and had his postdoctoral training at Jawaharlal Nehru University- Delhi, The University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey- USA, and Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry- Germany. He is the recipient of many research fellowships, including Max Planck Fellowship and Humboldt Research Fellowship.  He has more than 20 years of research experience. Dr.Thomas has published 24 research papers and he is the co-author of three international patents. His core area of expertise is in assay development and screening. At Aurigene, Dr.Thomas leads the Biochemistry and Structural Biology Divisions.  He was the coordinator of Aurigene-University of Malaya collaboration programs.


Dr. Kavitha Nellore

Associate Research Director, Aurigene Discovery Technologies Ltd.

Dr. Kavitha Nellore obtained her PhD in Bioengineering from Pennsylvania State University, USA.  During this time, she was a fellow of the Huck’s Institute of Life Sciences specializing in Biomolecular Transport Dynamics. She has been at Aurigene for more than a decade, and is currently leading a group of cell biologists at both Bangalore and Kuala Lumpur. At Aurigene, she leads multiple drug discovery programs in the therapeutic areas of inflammation, oncology and immuno-oncology. She plays a key role in target selection as well as validation efforts to add to Aurigene’s pipeline. Kavitha also played a key role in coordinating the Aurigene-University of Malaya collaboration.

 

/////////AUNP-12,  Aurigene,  Pierre Fabre Pharmaceuticals, Licensing Agreement,  New Cancer Therapeutic,  Immuno-oncology, AUNP 12, Immune Checkpoint Modulator Targeting the PD-1 Pathway, PEPTIDES

 

FEW MORE COMPDS FROM PATENT

C142 H225 N39 O49

L-​Glutamic acid, N2,​N6-​bis(L-​seryl-​L-​asparaginyl-​L-​threonyl-​L-​seryl-​L-​α-​glutamyl-​L-​seryl-​L-​phenylalanyl)​-​L-​lysyl-​L-​phenylalanyl-​L-​arginyl-​L-​valyl-​L-​threonyl-​L-​glutaminyl-​L-​leucyl-​L-​alanyl-​L-​prolyl-​L-​lysyl-​L-​alanyl-​L-​glutaminyl-​L-​isoleucyl-​L-​lysyl-

3262.54, Sequence Length: 29, 22, 7

multichain; modified (modifications unspecified)

SNTSESFK FRVTQ LAPKAQIKE,  1353564-66-5

SNTSESF

C142 H225 N39 O49

L-​Glutamic acid, N2,​N6-​bis(L-​seryl-​L-​asparaginyl-​L-​threonyl-​L-​seryl-​L-​α-​glutamyl-​L-​seryl-​L-​phenylalanyl)​-​L-​lysyl-​L-​phenylalanyl-​L-​arginyl-​L-​valyl-​L-​threonyl-​L-​glutaminyl-​L-​leucyl-​L-​alanyl-​L-​prolyl-​L-​lysyl-​L-​alanyl-​L-​glutaminyl-​L-​isoleucyl-​L-​lysyl-

3262.54

NEXT……………………

SNTSESFK FRVTQ LAPKAQI KE

SNTSESF

CAS  1353564-64-3

C142 H226 N40 O48

L-​α-​Glutamine, L-​seryl-​D-​asparaginyl-​L-​threonyl-​L-​seryl-​L-​α-​glutamyl-​L-​seryl-​L-​phenylalanyl-​N6-​(L-​seryl-​L-​asparaginyl-​L-​threonyl-​L-​seryl-​L-​α-​glutamyl-​L-​seryl-​L-​phenylalanyl)​-​L-​lysyl-​L-​phenylalanyl-​L-​arginyl-​L-​valyl-​L-​threonyl-​L-​glutaminyl-​L-​leucyl-​L-​alanyl-​L-​prolyl-​L-​lysyl-​L-​alanyl-​L-​glutaminyl-​L-​isoleucyl-​L-​lysyl-

MW 3261.55, Sequence Length: 29, 22, 7

multichain; modified

smiles

O=C(N[C@@H](CCCCNC(=O)[C@H](Cc1ccccc1)NC(=O)[C@H](CO)NC(=O)[C@H](CCC(=O)O)NC(=O)[C@H](CO)NC(=O)[C@@H](NC(=O)[C@H](CC(N)=O)NC(=O)[C@@H](N)CO)[C@@H](C)O)C(=O)N[C@@H](Cc2ccccc2)C(=O)N[C@@H](CCCNC(=N)N)C(=O)N[C@@H](C(C)C)C(=O)N[C@@H]([C@@H](C)O)C(=O)N[C@@H](CCC(N)=O)C(=O)N[C@@H](CC(C)C)C(=O)N[C@@H](C)C(=O)N3CCC[C@H]3C(=O)N[C@@H](CCCCN)C(=O)N[C@@H](C)C(=O)N[C@@H](CCC(N)=O)C(=O)N[C@@H]([C@@H](C)CC)C(=O)N[C@@H](CCCCN)C(=O)N[C@@H](CCC(=O)O)C(N)=O)[C@H](Cc4ccccc4)NC(=O)[C@H](CO)NC(=O)[C@H](CCC(=O)O)NC(=O)[C@H](CO)NC(=O)[C@@H](NC(=O)[C@@H](CC(N)=O)NC(=O)[C@@H](N)CO)[C@@H](C)O
NEXT……………..

CAS  1353564-60-9

C142 H226 N40 O48

L-​α-​Glutamine, D-​seryl-​L-​asparaginyl-​L-​threonyl-​L-​seryl-​L-​α-​glutamyl-​L-​seryl-​L-​phenylalanyl-​N6-​(L-​seryl-​L-​asparaginyl-​L-​threonyl-​L-​seryl-​L-​α-​glutamyl-​L-​seryl-​L-​phenylalanyl)​-​L-​lysyl-​L-​phenylalanyl-​L-​arginyl-​L-​valyl-​L-​threonyl-​L-​glutaminyl-​L-​leucyl-​L-​alanyl-​L-​prolyl-​L-​lysyl-​L-​alanyl-​L-​glutaminyl-​L-​isoleucyl-​L-​lysyl-

3261.55

Sequence Length: 29, 22, 7multichain; modified

SNTSESFKFR VTQLAPKAQI KE

NRXT…………………….

. CAS  1353564-61-0

C142 H226 N40 O48

L-​α-​Glutamine, N2,​N6-​bis(D-​seryl-​L-​asparaginyl-​L-​threonyl-​L-​seryl-​L-​α-​glutamyl-​L-​seryl-​L-​phenylalanyl)​-​L-​lysyl-​L-​phenylalanyl-​L-​arginyl-​L-​valyl-​L-​threonyl-​L-​glutaminyl-​L-​leucyl-​L-​alanyl-​L-​prolyl-​L-​lysyl-​L-​alanyl-​L-​glutaminyl-​L-​isoleucyl-​L-​lysyl-

3261.55

Sequence Length: 29, 22, 7multichain; modified

SNTSESFK FRVTQ LAPKAQI KE
SNTSESF

/////////////

Tripeptide Glycyl-L-Prolyl-L-Glutamate (Gly-Pro-Glu or GPE)


Gly-Pro-Glu

Synonym: GPE, Glycyl-prolyl-glutamic acid, (1-3)IGF-1

Pfizer (Originator)
Neuren Pharmaceuticals (Originator)

Glypromate; glycine-proline-glutamate (neuroprotectant), Neuren

  • CAS Number 32302-76-4
  • Empirical Formula C12H19N3O6
  • Molecular Weight 301.30
  • Psychiatric Disorders (Not Specified)
    Neurologic Drugs (Miscellaneous)
    Cognition Disorders, Treatment of
    Antiepileptic Drugs
    Antidepressants Biochem/physiol Actions

Gly-Pro-Glu is a neuroprotective compound and the N-terminal tripeptide of IGF-1. Gly-Pro-Glu is neuroprotective after central administration in animal models of neurodegenerative processes, such as Huntington’s, Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s diseases, and varies acute brain injury animal models. The neuroprotective activity is not related to its affinity to glutamate receptor. Findings indicate that GPE mimics insulin-like growth factor I effects on the somatostatin system through a mechanism independent of β-amyloid clearance that involves modulation of calcium and glycogen synthase kinase 3β signaling.

GPE is a naturally occurring peptide fragment which had been in phase III clinical trials at Neuren Pharmaceuticals for use as prophylactic neuroprotection for patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and valvuloplasty surgery. Although clinical evaluation in Australia continues, phase III trials evaluating the compound in the U.S. were discontinued based on negative results. The compound is found in normal brain tissue and, when injected intravenously, has been shown to act by multiple pathways to protect brain tissue from injury. The drug was originally developed by Pfizer, but rights were transferred to Neuren pursuant to a proprietary agreement between the companies.

When amino acids join together (forming short groups called polypeptides, or much longer chains called proteins) the amine group of one amino acid joins with the carboxyl group of the next, making a peptide bond. These bonds don’t ionise at different pHs, but can be hydrolised — broken — reforming the amino acids. GPE is formed from the amino acids glycine, proline and glutamic acid:

This tripeptide has 3 pH-sensitive groups, each with its own pKa. What the university chemists needed to do was work out what form GPE is in when it is active in the brain, what parts of the molecule are critical to its effectiveness, and how to ‘tweak’ the molecule (by changing the side chains) so that it will remain in the brain for longer than the naturally-occurring substance.   They also needed to make sure the final compound passes through the blood-brain barrier (that prevents most substances in the blood from entering and affecting the brain). If possible, they also wanted a compound that could be taken in pill form without being broken down in the stomach. It was also essential that the compound was safe for people to take!

Neuren Pharmaceuticals

After initial work on GPE at the university, the research was passed to a spin-off research group called Neuren Pharmaceuticals Ltd, which takes compounds discovered by the University of Auckland and develops them into medicines. Neuren developed GPE intoGlypromate® and are working with researchers in the US (including the US Military, who have a keen interest in a medicine that will reduce brain damage after head injuries) to test the compound on patients. There is considerable interest in Glypromate® world-wide, because at present there is nothing that reduces cell death after brain injuries. The chances of winning a race are pretty high when you’re the only competitor!Glypromate® is being tested on heart-bypass patients because up to 70% of bypass patients are affected mentally after their surgery. It’s thought that tiny clots form after the heart is restarted, and that these travel to the brain and cause mini-strokes. Unlike naturally-occurring strokes, or the brain damage caused by accident or war, the bypass surgery is planned, so before and after tests can be done on the patients to see exactly what effect the treatment has. Early results look very promising.

Glypromate is just one of the compounds Neuren is working on. Others may develop into treatments for Multiple Sclerosis, Parkinson’s Disease or Alzheimer’s Disease as well as various kinds of cancer. The company’s links with overseas research groups mean that compounds developed in New Zealand are able to be tested in the US and gain the FDA approval which will allow them to be used in most countries in the world.

The tripeptide Glycyl-L-Prolyl-L-Glutamate (Gly-Pro-Glu or GPE) is a naturally occurring peptide, which is proteolytically cleaved from insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). IGF-1 is a potent neurotrophic factor produced endogenously in damaged regions of the brain. It has been postulated that some of the neuroprotective actions of IGF-1 are mediated by GPE although the precise mechanism of action remains unclear. GPE has a different mode of action to IGF-1 as GPE does not bind to the IGF-1 receptor. Rather, GPE has been shown to bind with low affinity to the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor and also elicit a biological response via other mechanisms. GPE facilitates the release of dopamine through interaction with the NMDA receptor but GPE stimulated acetylcholine release is via an unknown, non-NMDA pathway.

It has been demonstrated that GPE can act as a neuronal rescue agent following brain injury or disease, including hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, NMDA challenge, chemical toxins and in animal models of Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease. Analogs of GPE are thus of interest in the development of novel pharmaceutical agents for the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) injuries and neurodegenerative disorders among others.

CURRENT STATUS

Neuren Pharmaceuticals was developing Glypromate (glycine-proline glutamate), a naturally occurring small-molecule neuroprotectant derived from IGF-1 which inhibits caspase III dependent apoptosis, for the potential treatment of neurodegenerative diseases by iv infusion. By June 2008, a phase III trial had begun . However, in December 2008, the company discontinued further development of the drug after it failed to show an observable effect [972907]. In November 2005, the company was seeking to outlicense the drug [771417].

Neuren is also investigating the Glypromate analog, NNZ-2566 for similar indications.

In August 2006, Neuren expected Glypromate to be eligible for Orphan Drug status for neurodegenerative diseases and planned to apply for Fast Track status for the drug.

SYDNEY, Australia, Sept. 4 /PRNewswire-FirstCall/ — Neuren Pharmaceuticals today announced that physicians from Madigan Army Medical Center (Madigan) in Tacoma, Washington, will conduct an investigator- initiated Phase 2 trial to determine the safety and efficacy of Glypromate(R) in reducing brain injury caused by out of hospital cardiac arrest. The trial will start in mid-2007 and will be managed by The Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine (Jackson Foundation) in consultation with the clinical investigators at Madigan.

The proposed study will be an investigator-initiated study which means that the Investigational New Drug (IND) application will be submitted to the FDA by the Army investigators rather than by Neuren. Neuren will provide the drug product as well as access to preclinical, clinical and regulatory documents related to Glypromate(R). The Company’s only financial commitment will be compensation to the Jackson Foundation for administrative costs incurred in coordinating the study. Neuren will retain all commercial rights to Glypromate(R) in these indications.

Cardiac arrest involves the sudden, complete cessation of heart function and circulation leading rapidly to neurological and other organ system damage. Among patients who survive, the consequences of neurological damage resulting from lack of blood flow and oxygen to the brain represent the primary adverse outcomes. This occurs in up to 80% of survivors and causes cognitive impairment such as occurs in patients undergoing major cardiac surgery, the focus for Neuren’s upcoming Phase 3 study with Glypromate(R). However recovery without residual neurological damage after cardiac arrest is rare.

There are no drugs approved to reduce the neurological damage caused by cardiac arrest. Neuren believes that Glypromate(R) for this indication will be eligible for Orphan Drug designation. Orphan Drug designation provides for a period of market exclusivity following approval as well as possible access to US government grants. In addition, because of the serious nature of neurological impairment resulting from cardiac arrest and the lack of available drug therapy, Neuren intends to apply for Fast Track designation which provides for accelerated clinical development and review.

While the Army’s investigator-initiated trial will focus on out of hospital cardiac arrest, if this trial is successful, Neuren, the Jackson Foundation and the Army investigators are considering additional trials of Glypromate(R) to reduce brain damage resulting from related conditions including in-hospital cardiac arrest and treatment of patients with ventricular fibrillation, the heart rhythm disturbance associated with more than 75% of cardiac arrests.

Under the agreement, the Jackson Foundation will provide support to the Army investigators in clinical trial preparations, protocol development, obtaining human subjects clearance, coordination of patient enrolment, data management and analysis, and preparation of study reports.

Mr David Clarke, CEO of Neuren said: “This is a very important development for Neuren in that it reflects a growing appreciation of the potential for Glypromate(R) to reduce neurological damage. It also, of course, reinforces the value and strength of Neuren’s relationship with the US Army physicians and scientists. Cardiac arrest is a devastating clinical event and one for which a drug to reduce the neurological consequences is clearly needed. The addition of this trial will now give Neuren a very strong and cost effective portfolio of clinical trials in 2007 — a Phase 3 and a Phase 2 for Glypromate(R) and the two Phase 2 trials with NNZ-2566.”

Approximately 300,000 deaths result from cardiac arrest in the US each year, making cardiac arrest one of the leading causes of death. According to the American Heart Association, each year approximately 160,000 people in the US experience sudden cardiac arrest outside of a hospital or in a hospital emergency department.

Neuren estimates that the number of patients in the US that could be treated for out of hospital cardiac arrest and related indications is approximately 400,000 which could represent a potential market of US$800 million.

About Madigan Army Medical Center

Madigan Army Medical Center, located in Tacoma, Washington, is one of the major US Army medical centers, providing clinical care to over 120,000 active, reserve and retired military personnel and dependents. The hospital has a medical staff of more than 1,000 with 200 physicians and nurses in training. Madigan’s Department of Clinical Investigations, which is dedicated to writing, performing, and regulating clinical research, is conducting approximately 200 clinical trials across a wide spectrum of indications from Phase I to IV.

About the Jackson Foundation

The Jackson Foundation is a private, not-for-profit organisation that supports the US military in conducting medical research and clinical trials and has established relationships with more than 160 military medical organisations worldwide. It was founded in 1983, in part, to foster cooperative relationships between the military medical community and the private sector, including pharmaceutical sponsors. The Jackson Foundation manages Phase I – IV clinical trials utilizing an established network of military medical centers across the United States.

About Glypromate(R)

Glypromate(R) is a peptide fragment of IGF-1 and is being developed by Neuren as a potential therapeutic candidate for diseases caused by some forms of chronic or acute brain injury. Glypromate(R) has been shown to act by multiple pathways to protect brain tissue from injury. Neuren has successfully completed a Phase I safety study and a Phase IIa safety and pharmacokinetics study and plans to initiate a Phase III study in late 2006.

About Neuren Pharmaceuticals

Neuren Pharmaceuticals is a biotechnology company developing novel therapeutics in the fields of brain injury and diseases and metabolic disorders. The Neuren portfolio consists of six product families, targeting markets with large unmet needs and limited competition. Neuren has three lead candidates, Glypromate(R) andNNZ-2566, presently in the clinic in development to treat a range of acute neurological conditions, and NNZ-2591, in preclinical development for Parkinson’s and other chronic conditions. Neuren has commercial and development partnerships with the US ArmyWalter Reed Army Institute of Research, Metabolic Pharmaceuticals,UCLA Medical Center and the National Trauma Research Institute in Melbourne.

For more information, please visit Neuren’s website at http://www.neurenpharma.com

Company David Clarke CEO of Neuren T: 1800 259 181 (Australia) T: +64 9 3 367 7167 ext 82308 (New Zealand) M: +64 21 988 052 Media and investor relations Rebecca Piercy Buchan Consulting T: +61 9827 2800 M: +61 422 916 422

CONTACT: David Clarke, CEO of Neuren, 1-800-259-181(Australia), or
+64-9-3-367-7167 ext 82308 (New Zealand), or +64-21-988-052 (mobile); or
Media and investor relations – Rebecca Piercy of Buchan Consulting,
+61-9827-2800, +61-422-916-422 (mobile)

Web site: http://www.neurenpharma.com/

REFERENCES

1 EP 0366638

2 WO 2005042000

3 WO 2008153929

4 WO 2009033805

5 WO 2009033806

Synthesis off isotopically labelled glycyl-L-prolyl-L-glutamic acid (Glypromate(R)) and derivatives
J Label Compd Radiopharm 2006, 49(6): 571

An efficient fmoc solid-phase synthesis of an amphiphile of the neuroprotective agent glycyl-prolyl-glutamic acid
Synlett (Stuttgart) 2014, 25(15): 2221

Intracellular pathways activated by Insulin-like growth factor 1 and its derivates
40th Annu Meet Soc Neurosci (November 13-17, San Diego) 2010, Abst 167.13

EP2667715A1 * Jan 27, 2012 Dec 4, 2013 Neuren Pharmaceuticals Limited Treatment of autism spectrum disorderes using glycyl-l-2-methylprolyl-l-glutamic acid
EP2667715A4 * Jan 27, 2012 Jul 23, 2014 Neuren Pharmaceuticals Ltd Treatment of autism spectrum disorderes using glycyl-l-2-methylprolyl-l-glutamic acid
US8940732 Jan 15, 2010 Jan 27, 2015 Massachusetts Institute Of Technology Diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders and its treatment with an antagonist or inhibitor of the 5-HT2c receptor signaling pathway
US9212204 Jan 26, 2015 Dec 15, 2015 Neuren Pharmaceuticals Limited
WO2005042000A1 * 22 Oct 2004 12 May 2005 David Charles Batchelor Neuroprotective effects of gly-pro-glu following intravenous infusion
WO2005097161A2 * 30 Mar 2005 20 Oct 2005 Peter D Gluckman Gpe and g-2mepe, caffeine and alkanol for treatment of cns injury
WO2006127702A2 * 23 May 2006 30 Nov 2006 Neuren Pharmaceuticals Ltd Analogs of glycyl-prolyl-glutamate
EP0366638A2 * 24 Oct 1989 2 May 1990 KabiGen AB Neuromodulatory peptide
US20020151522 * 13 Mar 2002 17 Oct 2002 Tajrena Alexi Regulation of weight
Reference
1 * ALONSO DE DIEGO, SERGIO A. ET AL: “New Gly-Pro-Glu (GPE) analogues: Expedite solid-phase synthesis and biological activity” BIOORGANIC & MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY LETTERS, vol. 16, no. 5, 2006, – 1392 page 1396, XP002527092
2 * SARA V R ET AL: “IDENTIFICATION OF GLY-PRO-GLU (GPE), THE AMINOTERMINAL TRIPEPTIDE OF INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR 1 WHICH IS TRUNCATED IN BRAIN, AS A NOVEL NEUROACTIVE PEPTIDE” BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOPHYSICAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS, ACADEMIC PRESS INC. ORLANDO, FL, US, vol. 165, no. 2, 15 December 1989 (1989-12-15), pages 766-771, XP000992688 ISSN: 0006-291X

//////Gly-Pro-Glu, GPE, Glycyl-prolyl-glutamic acid,  32302-76-4, Tripeptide,  Glycyl-L-Prolyl-L-Glutamate, Glypromate®, (1-3)IGF-1 , PHASE 3, Glypromate,  glycine-proline-glutamate, neuroprotectant, Neuren

Neuren’s NNZ-2566 shows clinical benefit in Rett syndrome trial

FRAXA Research Foundation Logo

Promising results in Phase 2 clinical trial

by Michael Tranfaglia, MD
FRAXA Medical Director

nnz-2566This isn’t a Fragile X trial, but the Neuren compound, NNZ-2566, that is in trials now for Fragile X has shown significant positive effects in a Phase 2 trial for Rett syndrome.

The results of the trial are interesting, in that improvement was seen a Rett syndrome-specific rating scale compared to placebo, and there was also improvement noted on the CGI-I (Clinical Global Impression of Improvement) and Caregiver Top 3 Concerns. However, there was no effect seen on ABC scores (Aberrant Behavior Checklist) compared to placebo. Many in the Fragile X field have noted the inadequacies of the ABC; indeed, it was never designed or intended to be an outcome measure for clinical trials. In this case, a Rett-specific rating scale called the Motor-Behavior Assessment (MBA) showed a statistically significant and clinically meaningful treatment effect at the highest dose of the Neuren compound compared to placebo.

This is great news for those of us in the Fragile X community for several reasons:

  • It shows that this compound really does something—it seems to have useful properties in actual patients, and that’s not trivial.
  • It demonstrates that disease-specific symptoms can improve significantly on the drug, and that improvement can be measured in a relatively short clinical trial.
  • It shows that a drug can have beneficial effects on core features of a genetically based developmental disorder, even if the more general rating scales (like the ABC) show no change.


This last point is strongly reminiscent of the experience of many families and clinicians in recent Fragile X clinical trials, where the drugs showed no advantage compared to placebo based on rating scales, but genuine improvement was noted in many subjects, with significant deterioration upon discontinuation of the drugs. Thus the calls for improved rating scales which can “capture” these core, disease-specific therapeutic effects. The NeurenFragile X trial is using some Fragile X-specific outcome measures which will hopefully lead to similar positive results.

The fact that this result is good news for Neuren also means that the company should remain financially viable for longer, so that they can continue the development of this compound for a number of indications—more “shots on goal”.

Of course, the usual caveats apply: this was a small study, and these results need to be replicated in a larger Phase 3 trial. Still, there’s a realistic possibility that we may see a similar result in Fragile X!

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