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Tirzepatide.svg
tirzepatide
ChemSpider 2D Image | tirzepatide | C225H347N47O69
Kilogram-Scale GMP Manufacture of Tirzepatide Using a Hybrid SPPS/LPPS Approach with Continuous Manufacturing | Organic Process Research & Development

Tirzepatide

チルゼパチド

LY3298176,

FormulaC225H348N48O68
CAS2023788-19-2
Mol weight4813.4514

FDA APPROVED 2022/5/13, Mounjaro

ClassAntidiabetic agent
GLP-1 receptor agonist
EfficacyAntidiabetic, Gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor agonist, Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist
  DiseaseType 2 diabetes mellitus

Tirzepatide is an agonist of human glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and human glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptors, whose amino acid residues at positions 2 and 13 are 2-methylAla, and the C-terminus is amidated Ser. A 1,20-icosanedioic acid is attached to Lys at position 20 via a linker which consists of a Glu and two 8-amino-3,6-dioxaoctanoic acids. Tirzepatide is a synthetic peptide consisting of 39 amino acid residues.

C225H348N48O68 : 4813.45
[2023788-19-2]

L-​Serinamide, L-​tyrosyl-​2-​methylalanyl-​L-​α-​glutamylglycyl-​L-​threonyl-​L-​phenylalanyl-​L-​threonyl-​L-​seryl-​L-​α-​aspartyl-​L-​tyrosyl-​L-​seryl-​L-​isoleucyl-​2-​methylalanyl-​L-​leucyl-​L-​α-​aspartyl-​L-​lysyl-​L-​isoleucyl-​L-​alanyl-​L-​glutaminyl-​N6-​[(22S)​-​22,​42-​dicarboxy-​1,​10,​19,​24-​tetraoxo-​3,​6,​12,​15-​tetraoxa-​9,​18,​23-​triazadotetracont-​1-​yl]​-​L-​lysyl-​L-​alanyl-​L-​phenylalanyl-​L-​valyl-​L-​glutaminyl-​L-​tryptophyl-​L-​leucyl-​L-​isoleucyl-​L-​alanylglycylglycyl-​L-​prolyl-​L-​seryl-​L-​serylglycyl-​L-​alanyl-​L-​prolyl-​L-​prolyl-​L-​prolyl-

Other Names

  • L-Tyrosyl-2-methylalanyl-L-α-glutamylglycyl-L-threonyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-threonyl-L-seryl-L-α-aspartyl-L-tyrosyl-L-seryl-L-isoleucyl-2-methylalanyl-L-leucyl-L-α-aspartyl-L-lysyl-L-isoleucyl-L-alanyl-L-glutaminyl-N6-[(22S)-22,42-dicarboxy-1,10,19,24-tetraoxo-3,6,12,15-tetraoxa-9,18,23-triazadotetracont-1-yl]-L-lysyl-L-alanyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-valyl-L-glutaminyl-L-tryptophyl-L-leucyl-L-isoleucyl-L-alanylglycylglycyl-L-prolyl-L-seryl-L-serylglycyl-L-alanyl-L-prolyl-L-prolyl-L-prolyl-L-serinamide

Tirzepatide, sold under the brand name Mounjaro,[1] is a medication used for the treatment type 2 diabetes.[2][3][4] Tirzepatide is given by injection under the skin.[2] Common side effects may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, decreased appetite, constipation, upper abdominal discomfort and abdominal pain.[2]

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are hormones involved in blood sugar control.[2] Tirzepatide is a first-in-class medication that activates both the GLP-1 and GIP receptors, which leads to improved blood sugar control.[2] Tirzepatide was approved for medical use in the United States in May 2022.[2]

SYN

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.oprd.1c00108

Abstract Image

The large-scale manufacture of complex synthetic peptides is challenging due to many factors such as manufacturing risk (including failed product specifications) as well as processes that are often low in both yield and overall purity. To overcome these liabilities, a hybrid solid-phase peptide synthesis/liquid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS/LPPS) approach was developed for the synthesis of tirzepatide. Continuous manufacturing and real-time analytical monitoring ensured the production of high-quality material, while nanofiltration provided intermediate purification without difficult precipitations. Implementation of the strategy worked very well, resulting in a robust process with high yields and purity.

PATENT

  • WO2016111971
  • US2020023040
  • WO2019245893
  • US2020155487
  • US2020155650
  • WO2020159949CN112592387
  • WO2021066600CN112661815
  • WO2021154593
  • US2021338769

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Medical uses

Tirzepatide in indicated to improve blood sugar control in adults with type 2 diabetes, as an addition to diet and exercise.[2]

Contraindications

Tirzepatide should not be used in people with a personal or family history of medullary thyroid cancer or in people with multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 2.[2]

Adverse effects

Preclinical, phase I, and phase II trials have indicated that tirzepatide exhibits similar adverse effects to other established GLP-1 receptor agonists, such as GLP-1 receptor agonist dulaglutide. These effects occur largely within the gastrointestinal tract.[5] The most frequently observed adverse effects are nausea, diarrhoea and vomiting, which increased in incidence with the dosage amount (i.e. higher likelihood the higher the dose). The number of patients who discontinued taking tirzepatide also increased as dosage increased, with patients taking 15 mg having a 25% discontinuation rate vs 5.1% for 5 mg patients and 11.1% for dulaglutide.[6] To a slightly lesser extent, patients also reported reduced appetite.[5] Other side effects reported were dyspepsia, constipation, abdominal pain, dizziness and hypoglycaemia.[7][8]

Pharmacology

Tirzepatide is an analogue of gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), a human hormone which stimulates the release of insulin from the pancreas. Tirzepatide is a linear polypeptide of 39 amino acids which has been chemically modified by lipidation to improve its uptake into cells and its stability to metabolism.[9] The compound is administered as a weekly subcutaneous injection.[10] It completed phase III trials globally in 2021.[11][12]

Mechanism of action

Tirzepatide has a greater affinity to GIP receptors than to GLP-1 receptors, and this dual agonist behaviour has been shown to produce greater reductions of hyperglycemia compared to a selective GLP-1 receptor agonist.[3] Signaling studies have shown that this is due to tirzepatide mimicking the actions of natural GIP at the GIP receptor.[13] However, at the GLP-1 receptor, tirzepatide shows bias towards cAMP (a messenger associated with regulation of glycogen, sugar and lipid metabolism) generation, rather than β-arrestin recruitment. This combination of preference towards GIP receptor and distinct signaling properties at GLP-1 suggest this biased agonism increases insulin secretion.[13] Tirzepatide has also been shown to increase levels of adiponectin, an adipokine involved in the regulation of both glucose and lipid metabolism, with a maximum increase of 26% from baseline after 26 weeks, at the 10 mg dosage.[3]

Chemistry

Structure

Tirzepatide is an analog of the human GIP hormone with a C20 fatty-diacid portion attached, used to optimise the uptake and metabolism of the compound.[9] The fatty-diacid section (eicosanedioic acid) is linked via a glutamic acid and two (2-(2-aminoethoxy)ethoxy)acetic acid units to the side chain of the lysine residue. This arrangement allows for a much longer half life, extending the time between doses, because of its high affinity to albumin.[14]

Synthesis

The synthesis of tirzepatide was first disclosed in patents filed by Eli Lilly and Company.[15] This uses standard solid phase peptide synthesis, with an allyloxycarbonyl protecting group on the lysine at position 20 of the linear chain of amino acids, allowing a final set of chemical transformations in which the sidechain amine of that lysine is derivatized with the lipid-containing fragment.

Large-scale manufacturing processes have been reported for this compound.[16]

History

Indiana-based pharmaceutical company Eli Lilly and Company first applied for a patent for a method of glycemic control using tirzepatide in early 2016.[15] The patent was published late that year. After passing phase 3 clinical trials, Lilly applied for FDA approval in October 2021 with a priority review voucher.[17]

Following the completion of the pivotal SURPASS-2 trial no. NCT03987919, the company announced on 28 April that tirzepatide had successfully met their endpoints in obese and overweight patients without diabetes.[18] Alongside results from the SURMOUNT-1 trial no. NCT04184622, they suggest that tirzepatide may potentially be a competitor for existing diabetic medication semaglutide, manufactured by Novo Nordisk.[19][20]

In industry-funded preliminary trials comparing tirzepatide to the existing diabetes medication semaglutide (an injected analogue of the hormone GLP-1), tirzepatide showed minor improvement of reductions (2.01%–2.30% depending on dosage) in glycated hemoglobin tests relative to semaglutide (1.86%).[21] A 10 mg dose has also been shown to be effective in reducing insulin resistance, with a reduction of around 8% from baseline, measured using HOMA2-IR (computed with fasting insulin).[3] Fasting levels of IGF binding proteins like IGFBP1 and IGFBP2 increased following tirzepatide treatment, increasing insulin sensitivity.[3] A meta-analysis published by Dutta et al. showed that over 1-year clinical use, tirzepatide was observed to be superior to dulaglutide, semaglutide, degludec, and insulin glargine with regards to glycemic efficacy and obesity reduction. Tirzepatide is perhaps the most potent agent developed to date to tackle the global problem of “diabesity“.[22]

Society and culture

Names

Tirzepatide is the international nonproprietary name (INN).[23]

References

  1. Jump up to:a b “Highlights of prescribing information” (PDF). accessdata.fda.gov. FDA. May 2022. Retrieved 14 May 2022.
  2. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i “FDA Approves Novel, Dual-Targeted Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes”U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Press release). 13 May 2022. Retrieved 13 May 2022. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  3. Jump up to:a b c d e Thomas MK, Nikooienejad A, Bray R, Cui X, Wilson J, Duffin K, et al. (January 2021). “Dual GIP and GLP-1 Receptor Agonist Tirzepatide Improves Beta-cell Function and Insulin Sensitivity in Type 2 Diabetes”The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism106 (2): 388–396. doi:10.1210/clinem/dgaa863PMC 7823251PMID 33236115.
  4. ^ Coskun T, Sloop KW, Loghin C, Alsina-Fernandez J, Urva S, Bokvist KB, et al. (December 2018). “LY3298176, a novel dual GIP and GLP-1 receptor agonist for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: From discovery to clinical proof of concept”Molecular Metabolism18: 3–14. doi:10.1016/j.molmet.2018.09.009PMC 6308032PMID 30473097.
  5. Jump up to:a b Min T, Bain SC (January 2021). “The Role of Tirzepatide, Dual GIP and GLP-1 Receptor Agonist, in the Management of Type 2 Diabetes: The SURPASS Clinical Trials”Diabetes Therapy12 (1): 143–157. doi:10.1007/s13300-020-00981-0PMC 7843845PMID 33325008.
  6. ^ Frias JP, Nauck MA, Van J, Kutner ME, Cui X, Benson C, et al. (November 2018). “Efficacy and safety of LY3298176, a novel dual GIP and GLP-1 receptor agonist, in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomised, placebo-controlled and active comparator-controlled phase 2 trial”The Lancet392 (10160): 2180–2193. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32260-8PMID 30293770.
  7. ^ Frias JP, Nauck MA, Van J, Benson C, Bray R, Cui X, et al. (June 2020). “Efficacy and tolerability of tirzepatide, a dual glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist in patients with type 2 diabetes: A 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate different dose-escalation regimens”Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism22 (6): 938–946. doi:10.1111/dom.13979PMC 7318331PMID 31984598.
  8. ^ Dahl D, Onishi Y, Norwood P, Huh R, Bray R, Patel H, Rodríguez Á (February 2022). “Effect of Subcutaneous Tirzepatide vs Placebo Added to Titrated Insulin Glargine on Glycemic Control in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: The SURPASS-5 Randomized Clinical Trial”. JAMA327 (6): 534–545. doi:10.1001/jama.2022.0078PMID 35133415.
  9. Jump up to:a b Ahangarpour M, Kavianinia I, Harris PW, Brimble MA (January 2021). “Photo-induced radical thiol-ene chemistry: a versatile toolbox for peptide-based drug design”. Chemical Society Reviews. Royal Society of Chemistry. 50 (2): 898–944. doi:10.1039/d0cs00354aPMID 33404559S2CID 230783854.
  10. ^ Bastin M, Andreelli F (2019). “Dual GIP-GLP1-Receptor Agonists In The Treatment Of Type 2 Diabetes: A Short Review On Emerging Data And Therapeutic Potential”Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy12: 1973–1985. doi:10.2147/DMSO.S191438PMC 6777434PMID 31686879.
  11. ^ “Tirzepatide significantly reduced A1C and body weight in people with type 2 diabetes in two phase 3 trials from Lilly’s SURPASS program” (Press release). Eli Lilly and Company. 17 February 2021. Retrieved 28 October 2021 – via PR Newswire.
  12. ^ “Lilly : Phase 3 Tirzepatide Results Show Superior A1C And Body Weight Reductions In Type 2 Diabetes”Business Insider. RTTNews. 19 October 2021. Retrieved 28 October 2021.
  13. Jump up to:a b Willard FS, Douros JD, Gabe MB, Showalter AD, Wainscott DB, Suter TM, et al. (September 2020). “Tirzepatide is an imbalanced and biased dual GIP and GLP-1 receptor agonist”JCI Insight5 (17). doi:10.1172/jci.insight.140532PMC 7526454PMID 32730231.
  14. ^ Østergaard S, Paulsson JF, Kofoed J, Zosel F, Olsen J, Jeppesen CB, et al. (October 2021). “The effect of fatty diacid acylation of human PYY3-36 on Y2 receptor potency and half-life in minipigs”Scientific Reports11 (1): 21179. Bibcode:2021NatSR..1121179Odoi:10.1038/s41598-021-00654-3PMC 8551270PMID 34707178.
  15. Jump up to:a b US patent 9474780, Bokvist BK, Coskun T, Cummins RC, Alsina-Fernandez J, “GIP and GLP-1 co-agonist compounds”, issued 2016-10-25, assigned to Eli Lilly and Co
  16. ^ Frederick MO, Boyse RA, Braden TM, Calvin JR, Campbell BM, Changi SM, et al. (2021). “Kilogram-Scale GMP Manufacture of Tirzepatide Using a Hybrid SPPS/LPPS Approach with Continuous Manufacturing”. Organic Process Research & Development25 (7): 1628–1636. doi:10.1021/acs.oprd.1c00108S2CID 237690232.
  17. ^ Sagonowsky, Eric (26 October 2021). “As Lilly gears up for key 2022 launches, Trulicity, Taltz and more drive solid growth”Fierce Pharma. Retrieved 9 April 2022.
  18. ^ Kellaher, Colin (28 April 2022). “Eli Lilly’s Tirzepatide Meets Main Endpoints in Phase 3 Obesity Study >LLY”Dow Jones Newswires. Retrieved 29 April 2022 – via MarketWatch.
  19. ^ Kahan, Scott; Garvey, W. Timothy (28 April 2022). “SURMOUNT-1: Adults achieve weight loss of 16% or more at 72 weeks with tirzepatide”healio.com. Retrieved 29 April 2022.
  20. ^ Taylor, Nick Paul (28 April 2022). “SURMOUNT-able: Lilly’s tirzepatide clears high bar set by Novo’s Wegovy in obesity”FierceBiotech. Retrieved 29 April 2022.
  21. ^ Frías JP, Davies MJ, Rosenstock J, Pérez Manghi FC, Fernández Landó L, Bergman BK, et al. (August 2021). “Tirzepatide versus Semaglutide Once Weekly in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes”. The New England Journal of Medicine385 (6): 503–515. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2107519PMID 34170647S2CID 235635529.
  22. ^ Dutta D, Surana V, Singla R, Aggarwal S, Sharma M (November–December 2021). “Efficacy and safety of novel twincretin tirzepatide a dual GIP and GLP-1 receptor agonist in the management of type-2 diabetes: A Cochrane meta-analysis”. Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism25 (6): 475–489. doi:10.4103/ijem.ijem_423_21.
  23. ^ World Health Organization (2019). “International nonproprietary names for pharmaceutical substances (INN): recommended INN: list 81”. WHO Drug Information33 (1). hdl:10665/330896.

Further reading

External links

  • “Tirzepatide”Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Clinical trial number NCT03954834 for “A Study of Tirzepatide (LY3298176) in Participants With Type 2 Diabetes Not Controlled With Diet and Exercise Alone (SURPASS-1)” at ClinicalTrials.gov
  • Clinical trial number NCT03987919 for “A Study of Tirzepatide (LY3298176) Versus Semaglutide Once Weekly as Add-on Therapy to Metformin in Participants With Type 2 Diabetes (SURPASS-2)” at ClinicalTrials.gov
  • Clinical trial number NCT03882970 for “A Study of Tirzepatide (LY3298176) Versus Insulin Degludec in Participants With Type 2 Diabetes (SURPASS-3)” at ClinicalTrials.gov
  • Clinical trial number NCT03730662 for “A Study of Tirzepatide (LY3298176) Once a Week Versus Insulin Glargine Once a Day in Participants With Type 2 Diabetes and Increased Cardiovascular Risk (SURPASS-4)” at ClinicalTrials.gov
  • Clinical trial number NCT04039503 for “A Study of Tirzepatide (LY3298176) Versus Placebo in Participants With Type 2 Diabetes Inadequately Controlled on Insulin Glargine With or Without Metformin (SURPASS-5)” at ClinicalTrials.gov

CLIP

https://investor.lilly.com/news-releases/news-release-details/fda-approves-lillys-mounjarotm-tirzepatide-injection-first-and

FDA approves Lilly’s Mounjaro™ (tirzepatide) injection, the first and only GIP and GLP-1 receptor agonist for the treatment of adults with type 2 diabetes

May 13, 2022

Download PDF

Mounjaro delivered superior A1C reductions versus all comparators in phase 3 SURPASS clinical trials

While not indicated for weight loss, Mounjaro led to significantly greater weight reductions versus comparators in a key secondary endpoint

Mounjaro represents the first new class of diabetes medicines introduced in nearly a decade and is expected to be available in the U.S. in the coming weeks

INDIANAPOLIS, May 13, 2022 /PRNewswire/ — The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Mounjaro™ (tirzepatide) injection, Eli Lilly and Company’s (NYSE: LLY) new once-weekly GIP (glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide) and GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1) receptor agonist indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes. Mounjaro has not been studied in patients with a history of pancreatitis and is not indicated for use in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

As the first and only FDA-approved GIP and GLP-1 receptor agonist, Mounjaro is a single molecule that activates the body’s receptors for GIP and GLP-1, which are natural incretin hormones.1

“Mounjaro delivered superior and consistent A1C reductions against all of the comparators throughout the SURPASS program, which was designed to assess Mounjaro’s efficacy and safety in a broad range of adults with type 2 diabetes who could be treated in clinical practice. The approval of Mounjaro is an exciting step forward for people living with type 2 diabetes given the results seen in these clinical trials,” said Juan Pablo Frías, M.D., Medical Director, National Research Institute and Investigator in the SURPASS program.

Mounjaro will be available in six doses (2.5 mg, 5 mg, 7.5 mg, 10 mg, 12.5 mg, 15 mg) and will come in Lilly’s well-established auto-injector pen with a pre-attached, hidden needle that patients do not need to handle or see.

The approval was based on results from the phase 3 SURPASS program, which included active comparators of injectable semaglutide 1 mg, insulin glargine and insulin degludec. Efficacy was evaluated for Mounjaro 5 mg, 10 mg and 15 mg used alone or in combination with commonly prescribed diabetes medications, including metformin, SGLT2 inhibitors, sulfonylureas and insulin glargine. Participants in the SURPASS program achieved average A1C reductions between 1.8% and 2.1% for Mounjaro 5 mg and between 1.7% and 2.4% for both Mounjaro 10 mg and Mounjaro 15 mg. While not indicated for weight loss, mean change in body weight was a key secondary endpoint in all SURPASS studies. Participants treated with Mounjaro lost between 12 lb. (5 mg) and 25 lb. (15 mg) on average.1

Side effects reported in at least 5% of patients treated with Mounjaro include nausea, diarrhea, decreased appetite, vomiting, constipation, indigestion (dyspepsia), and stomach (abdominal) pain. The labeling for Mounjaro contains a Boxed Warning regarding thyroid C-cell tumors. Mounjaro is contraindicated in patients with a personal or family history of medullary thyroid carcinoma or in patients with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia syndrome type 2.1

“Lilly has a nearly 100-year heritage of advancing care for people living with diabetes – never settling for current outcomes. We’re not satisfied knowing that half of the more than 30 million Americans living with type 2 diabetes are not reaching their target blood glucose levels,” said Mike Mason, president, Lilly Diabetes. “We are thrilled to introduce Mounjaro, which represents the first new class of type 2 diabetes medication introduced in almost a decade and embodies our mission to bring innovative new therapies to the diabetes community.”

Mounjaro is expected to be available in the United States in the coming weeks. Lilly is committed to helping people access the medicines they are prescribed and will work with insurers, health systems and providers to help enable patient access to Mounjaro. Lilly plans to offer a Mounjaro savings card for people who qualify. Patients or healthcare professionals with questions about Mounjaro can visit www.Mounjaro.com or call The Lilly Answers Center at 1-800-LillyRx (1-800-545-5979).

Tirzepatide is also under regulatory review for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in Europe, Japan and several additional markets. A multimedia gallery is available on Lilly.com.

About the SURPASS clinical trial program
The SURPASS phase 3 global clinical development program for tirzepatide began in late 2018 and included five global registration trials and two regional trials in Japan. These studies ranged from 40 to 52 weeks and evaluated the efficacy and safety of Mounjaro 5 mg, 10 mg and 15 mg as a monotherapy and as an add-on to various standard-of-care medications for type 2 diabetes. The active comparators in the studies were injectable semaglutide 1 mg, insulin glargine and insulin degludec. Collectively, the five global registration trials consistently demonstrated A1C reductions for participants taking Mounjaro across multiple stages of their type 2 diabetes journeys, from an average around five to 13 years of having diabetes.2-8

  • SURPASS-1 (NCT03954834) was a 40-week study comparing the efficacy and safety of Mounjaro 5 mg (N=121), 10 mg (N=121) and 15 mg (N=120) as monotherapy to placebo (N=113) in adults with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with diet and exercise alone. From a baseline A1C of 7.9%, Mounjaro reduced participants’ A1C by a mean of 1.8%* (5 mg) and 1.7%* (10 mg and 15 mg) compared to 0.1% for placebo. In a key secondary endpoint, from a baseline weight of 189 lb., Mounjaro reduced participants’ weight by a mean of 14 lb.* (5 mg), 15 lb.* (10 mg) and 17 lb.* (15 mg) compared to 2 lb. for placebo.2,3
  • SURPASS-2 (NCT03987919) was a 40-week study comparing the efficacy and safety of Mounjaro 5 mg (N=470), 10 mg (N=469) and 15 mg (N=469) to injectable semaglutide 1 mg (N=468) in adults with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with ≥1500 mg/day metformin alone. From a baseline A1C of 8.3%, Mounjaro reduced participants’ A1C by a mean of 2.0% (5 mg), 2.2%* (10 mg) and 2.3%* (15 mg) compared to 1.9% for semaglutide. In a key secondary endpoint, from a baseline weight of 207 lb., Mounjaro reduced participants’ weight by a mean of 17 lb. (5 mg), 21 lb.* (10 mg) and 25 lb.* (15 mg) compared to 13 lb. for semaglutide.4,5
  • SURPASS-3 (NCT03882970) was a 52-week study comparing the efficacy of Mounjaro 5 mg (N=358), 10 mg (N=360) and 15 mg (N=358) to titrated insulin degludec (N=359) in adults with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin with or without an SGLT-2 inhibitor. From a baseline A1C of 8.2%, Mounjaro reduced participants’ A1C by a mean of 1.9%* (5 mg), 2.0%* (10 mg) and 2.1%* (15 mg) compared to 1.3% for insulin degludec. From a baseline weight of 208 lb., Mounjaro reduced participants’ weight by a mean of 15 lb.* (5 mg), 21 lb.* (10 mg) and 25 lb.* (15 mg) compared to an increase of 4 lb. for insulin degludec.6
  • SURPASS-4 (NCT03730662) was a 104-week study comparing the efficacy and safety of Mounjaro 5 mg (N=328), 10 mg (N=326) and 15 mg (N=337) to insulin glargine (N=998) in adults with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with at least one and up to three oral antihyperglycemic medications (metformin, sulfonylureas or SGLT-2 inhibitors), who have increased cardiovascular (CV) risk. The primary endpoint was measured at 52 weeks. From a baseline A1C of 8.5%, Mounjaro reduced participants’ A1C by a mean of 2.1%* (5 mg), 2.3%* (10 mg) and 2.4%* (15 mg) compared to 1.4% for insulin glargine. From a baseline weight of 199 lb., Mounjaro reduced weight by a mean of 14 lb.* (5 mg), 20 lb.* (10 mg) and 23 lb.* (15 mg) compared to an increase of 4 lb. for insulin glargine.7
  • SURPASS-5 (NCT04039503) was a 40-week study comparing the efficacy and safety of Mounjaro 5 mg (N=116), 10 mg (N=118) and 15 mg (N=118) to placebo (N=119) in adults with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes already being treated with insulin glargine, with or without metformin. From a baseline A1C of 8.3%, Mounjaro reduced A1C by a mean of 2.1%* (5 mg), 2.4%* (10 mg) and 2.3%* (15 mg) compared to 0.9% for placebo. From a baseline weight of 210 lb., Mounjaro reduced participants’ weight by a mean of 12 lb.* (5 mg), 17 lb.* (10 mg) and 19 lb.* (15 mg) compared to an increase of 4 lb. for placebo.8

*p<0.001 for superiority vs. placebo or active comparator, adjusted for multiplicity
p<0.05 for superiority vs. semaglutide 1 mg, adjusted for multiplicity

About Mounjaro™ (tirzepatide) injection1
Mounjaro™ (tirzepatide) injection is FDA-approved as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. As the first and only FDA-approved GIP and GLP-1 receptor agonist, Mounjaro is a single molecule that activates the body’s receptors for GIP (glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide) and GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1). Mounjaro will be available in six doses (2.5 mg, 5 mg, 7.5 mg, 10 mg, 12.5 mg, 15 mg) and will come in Lilly’s well-established auto-injector pen with a pre-attached, hidden needle that patients do not need to handle or see.

PURPOSE AND SAFETY SUMMARY WITH WARNINGS
Important Facts About MounjaroTM (mown-JAHR-OH). It is also known as tirzepatide.

  • Mounjaro is an injectable prescription medicine for adults with type 2 diabetes used along with diet and exercise to improve blood sugar (glucose).
  • It is not known if Mounjaro can be used in people who have had inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis). Mounjaro is not for use in people with type 1 diabetes. It is not known if Mounjaro is safe and effective for use in children under 18 years of age.

Warnings
Mounjaro may cause tumors in the thyroid, including thyroid cancer. Watch for possible symptoms, such as a lump or swelling in the neck, hoarseness, trouble swallowing, or shortness of breath. If you have a symptom, tell your healthcare provider.

  • Do not use Mounjaro if you or any of your family have ever had a type of thyroid cancer called medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC).
  • Do not use Mounjaro if you have Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia syndrome type 2 (MEN 2).
  • Do not use Mounjaro if you are allergic to tirzepatide or any of the ingredients in Mounjaro.

Mounjaro may cause serious side effects, including:

Inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis). Stop using Mounjaro and call your healthcare provider right away if you have severe pain in your stomach area (abdomen) that will not go away, with or without vomiting. You may feel the pain from your abdomen to your back.

Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). Your risk for getting low blood sugar may be higher if you use Mounjaro with another medicine that can cause low blood sugar, such as a sulfonylurea or insulin. Signs and symptoms of low blood sugar may include dizziness or light-headedness, sweating, confusion or drowsiness, headache, blurred vision, slurred speech, shakiness, fast heartbeat, anxiety, irritability, or mood changes, hunger, weakness and feeling jittery.

Serious allergic reactions. Stop using Mounjaro and get medical help right away if you have any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction, including swelling of your face, lips, tongue or throat, problems breathing or swallowing, severe rash or itching, fainting or feeling dizzy, and very rapid heartbeat.

Kidney problems (kidney failure). In people who have kidney problems, diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting may cause a loss of fluids (dehydration), which may cause kidney problems to get worse. It is important for you to drink fluids to help reduce your chance of dehydration.

Severe stomach problems. Stomach problems, sometimes severe, have been reported in people who use Mounjaro. Tell your healthcare provider if you have stomach problems that are severe or will not go away.

Changes in vision. Tell your healthcare provider if you have changes in vision during treatment with Mounjaro.

Gallbladder problems. Gallbladder problems have happened in some people who use Mounjaro. Tell your healthcare provider right away if you get symptoms of gallbladder problems, which may include pain in your upper stomach (abdomen), fever, yellowing of skin or eyes (jaundice), and clay-colored stools.

Common side effects
The most common side effects of Mounjaro include nausea, diarrhea, decreased appetite, vomiting, constipation, indigestion, and stomach (abdominal) pain. These are not all the possible side effects of Mounjaro. Talk to your healthcare provider about any side effect that bothers you or doesn’t go away.

Tell your healthcare provider if you have any side effects. You can report side effects at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.

Before using

  • Your healthcare provider should show you how to use Mounjaro before you use it for the first time.
  • Before you use Mounjaro, talk to your healthcare provider about low blood sugar and how to manage it.

 Review these questions with your healthcare provider:

  • Do you have other medical conditions, including problems with your pancreas or kidneys, or severe problems with your stomach, such as slowed emptying of your stomach (gastroparesis) or problems digesting food?
  • Do you take other diabetes medicines, such as insulin or sulfonylureas?
  • Do you have a history of diabetic retinopathy?
  • Are you pregnant or plan to become pregnant or breastfeeding or plan to breastfeed? It is not known if Mounjaro will harm your unborn baby.
  • Do you take birth control pills by mouth? These may not work as well while using Mounjaro. Your healthcare provider may recommend another type of birth control when you start Mounjaro or when you increase your dose.
  • Do you take any other prescription medicines or over-the-counter drugs, vitamins, or herbal supplements?

How to take

  • Read the Instructions for Use that come with Mounjaro.
  • Use Mounjaro exactly as your healthcare provider says.
  • Mounjaro is injected under the skin (subcutaneously) of your stomach (abdomen), thigh, or upper arm.
  • Use Mounjaro 1 time each week, at any time of the day.
  • Do not mix insulin and Mounjaro together in the same injection.
  • If you take too much Mounjaro, call your healthcare provider or seek medical advice promptly.

Learn more
For more information, call 1-800-LillyRx (1-800-545-5979) or go to www.mounjaro.com.

This information does not take the place of talking with your healthcare provider. Be sure to talk to your healthcare provider about Mounjaro and how to take it. Your healthcare provider is the best person to help you decide if Mounjaro is right for you.

MounjaroTM and its delivery device base are trademarks owned or licensed by Eli Lilly and Company, its subsidiaries, or affiliates.

Please click to access full Prescribing Information and Medication Guide.

TR CON CBS MAY2022

About Lilly
Lilly unites caring with discovery to create medicines that make life better for people around the world. We’ve been pioneering life-changing discoveries for nearly 150 years, and today our medicines help more than 47 million people across the globe. Harnessing the power of biotechnology, chemistry and genetic medicine, our scientists are urgently advancing new discoveries to solve some of the world’s most significant health challenges, redefining diabetes care, treating obesity and curtailing its most devastating long-term effects, advancing the fight against Alzheimer’s disease, providing solutions to some of the most debilitating immune system disorders, and transforming the most difficult-to-treat cancers into manageable diseases. With each step toward a healthier world, we’re motivated by one thing: making life better for millions more people. That includes delivering innovative clinical trials that reflect the diversity of our world and working to ensure our medicines are accessible and affordable. To learn more, visit Lilly.com and Lilly.com/newsroom or follow us on FacebookInstagramTwitter and LinkedIn. P-LLY

Lilly Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

This press release contains forward-looking statements (as that term is defined in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995) about Mounjaro™ (tirzepatide 2.5 mg, 5 mg, 7.5 mg, 10 mg, 12.5 mg and 15 mg) injection as a treatment to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes, the timeline for supply of Mounjaro to become available, and certain other milestones and ongoing clinical trials of Mounjaro and reflects Lilly’s current beliefs and expectations. However, as with any pharmaceutical product or medical device, there are substantial risks and uncertainties in the process of research, development and commercialization. Among other things, there can be no guarantee that Mounjaro will be commercially successful, that future study results will be consistent with results to date, or that we will meet our anticipated timelines for the commercialization of Mounjaro. For further discussion of these and other risks and uncertainties, see Lilly’s most recent Form 10-K and Form 10-Q filings with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission. Except as required by law, Lilly undertakes no duty to update forward-looking statements to reflect events after the date of this release.

References

  1. Mounjaro. Prescribing Information. Lilly USA, LLC.
  2. Rosenstock, J, et. al. Efficacy and Safety of Once Weekly Tirzepatide, a Dual GIP/GLP-1 Receptor Agonist Versus Placebo as Monotherapy in People with Type 2 Diabetes (SURPASS-1). Abstract 100-OR. Presented virtually at the American Diabetes Association’s 81st Scientific Sessions; June 25-29.
  3. Rosenstock, J, et. al. (2021). Efficacy and safety of a novel dual GIP and GLP-1 receptor agonist tirzepatide in patients with type 2 diabetes (SURPASS-1): a double-blind, randomised, phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2021;398(10295):143-155. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(21)01324-6.
  4. Frías JP, Davies MJ, Rosenstock J, et al; for the SURPASS-2 Investigators. Tirzepatide versus semaglutide once weekly in patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2021;385(6)(suppl):503-515. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2107519
  5. Frias, J.P. Efficacy and Safety of Tirzepatide vs. Semaglutide Once Weekly as Add-On Therapy to Metformin in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. Abstract 84-LB. Presented virtually at the American Diabetes Association’s 81st Scientific Sessions; June 25-29.
  6. Ludvik B, Giorgino F, Jódar E, et al. Once-weekly tirzepatide versus once-daily insulin degludec as add-on to metformin with or without SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes (SURPASS-3): a randomised, open-label, parallel-group, phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2021;398(10300):583-598. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(21)01443-4
  7. Del Prato S, Kahn SE, Pavo I, et al; for the SURPASS-4 Investigators. Tirzepatide versus insulin glargine in type 2 diabetes and increased cardiovascular risk (SURPASS-4): a randomised, open-label, parallel-group, multicentre, phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2021;398(10313):1811-1824. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(21)02188-7
  8. Dahl D, Onishi Y, Norwood P, et al. Effect of subcutaneous tirzepatide vs placebo added to titrated insulin glargine on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: the SURPASS-5 randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2022;327(6):534-545. doi:10.1001/jama.2022.0078

CLIP

https://investor.lilly.com/news-releases/news-release-details/lillys-tirzepatide-delivered-225-weight-loss-adults-obesity-or

Lilly’s tirzepatide delivered up to 22.5% weight loss in adults with obesity or overweight in SURMOUNT-1

April 28, 2022

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Participants taking tirzepatide lost up to 52 lb. (24 kg) in this 72-week phase 3 study

63% of participants taking tirzepatide 15 mg achieved at least 20% body weight reductions as a key secondary endpoint

INDIANAPOLIS, April 28, 2022 /PRNewswire/ — Tirzepatide (5 mg, 10 mg, 15 mg) achieved superior weight loss compared to placebo at 72 weeks of treatment in topline results from Eli Lilly and Company’s (NYSE: LLY) SURMOUNT-1 clinical trial, with participants losing up to 22.5% (52 lb. or 24 kg) of their body weight for the efficacy estimandi. This study enrolled 2,539 participants and was the first phase 3 global registration trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of tirzepatide in adults with obesity, or overweight with at least one comorbidity, who do not have diabetes. Tirzepatide met both co-primary endpoints of superior mean percent change in body weight from baseline and greater percentage of participants achieving body weight reductions of at least 5% compared to placebo for both estimandsii. The study also achieved all key secondary endpoints at 72 weeks.

For the efficacy estimand, participants taking tirzepatide achieved average weight reductions of 16.0% (35 lb. or 16 kg on 5 mg), 21.4% (49 lb. or 22 kg on 10 mg) and 22.5% (52 lb. or 24 kg on 15 mg), compared to placebo (2.4%, 5 lb. or 2 kg). Additionally, 89% (5 mg) and 96% (10 mg and 15 mg) of people taking tirzepatide achieved at least 5% body weight reductions compared to 28% of those taking placebo.

In a key secondary endpoint, 55% (10 mg) and 63% (15 mg) of people taking tirzepatide achieved at least 20% body weight reductions compared to 1.3% of those taking placebo. In an additional secondary endpoint not controlled for type 1 error, 32% of participants taking tirzepatide 5 mg achieved at least 20% body weight reductions. The mean baseline body weight of participants was 231 lb. (105 kg).

“Obesity is a chronic disease that often does not receive the same standard of care as other conditions, despite its impact on physical, psychological and metabolic health, which can include increased risk of hypertension, heart disease, cancer and decreased survival,” said Louis J. Aronne, MD, FACP, DABOM, director of the Comprehensive Weight Control Center and the  Sanford I. Weill Professor of Metabolic Research at Weill Cornell Medicine, obesity expert at NewYork-Presbyterian/Weill Cornell Medical Center and Investigator of SURMOUNT-1. “Tirzepatide delivered impressive body weight reductions in SURMOUNT-1, which could represent an important step forward for helping the patient and physician partnership treat this complex disease.”

For the treatment-regimen estimandiii, results showed:

  • Average body weight reductions: 15.0% (5 mg), 19.5% (10 mg), 20.9% (15 mg), 3.1% (placebo)
  • Percentage of participants achieving body weight reductions of ≥5%: 85% (5 mg), 89% (10 mg), 91% (15 mg), 35% (placebo)
  • Percentage of participants achieving body weight reductions of ≥20%: 30% (5 mg, not controlled for type 1 error), 50% (10 mg), 57% (15 mg), 3.1% (placebo)

The overall safety and tolerability profile of tirzepatide was similar to other incretin-based therapies approved for the treatment of obesity. The most commonly reported adverse events were gastrointestinal-related and generally mild to moderate in severity, usually occurring during the dose escalation period. For those treated with tirzepatide (5 mg, 10 mg and 15 mg, respectively), nausea (24.6%, 33.3%, 31.0%), diarrhea (18.7%, 21.2%, 23.0%), vomiting (8.3%, 10.7%, 12.2%) and constipation (16.8%, 17.1%, 11.7%) were more frequently experienced compared to placebo (9.5% [nausea], 7.3% [diarrhea], 1.7% [vomiting], 5.8% [constipation]).

Treatment discontinuation rates due to adverse events were 4.3% (5 mg), 7.1% (10 mg), 6.2% (15 mg) and 2.6% (placebo). The overall treatment discontinuation rates were 14.3% (5 mg), 16.4% (10 mg), 15.1% (15 mg) and 26.4% (placebo).

Participants who had pre-diabetes at study commencement will remain enrolled in SURMOUNT-1 for an additional 104 weeks of treatment following the initial 72-week completion date to evaluate the impact on body weight and the potential differences in progression to type 2 diabetes at three years of treatment with tirzepatide compared to placebo.

“Tirzepatide is the first investigational medicine to deliver more than 20 percent weight loss on average in a phase 3 study, reinforcing our confidence in its potential to help people living with obesity,” said Jeff Emmick, MD, Ph.D., vice president, product development, Lilly. “Obesity is a chronic disease that requires effective treatment options, and Lilly is working relentlessly to support people with obesity and modernize how this disease is approached. We’re proud to research and develop potentially innovative treatments like tirzepatide, which helped nearly two thirds of participants on the highest dose reduce their body weight by at least 20 percent in SURMOUNT-1.”

Tirzepatide is a novel investigational once-weekly GIP (glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide) receptor and GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1) receptor agonist, representing a new class of medicines being studied for the treatment of obesity. Tirzepatide is a single peptide that activates the body’s receptors for GIP and GLP-1, two natural incretin hormones. Obesity is a chronic, progressive disease caused by disruptions in the mechanisms that control body weight, often leading to an increase in food intake and/or a decrease in energy expenditure. These disruptions are multifactorial and can be related to genetic, developmental, behavioral, environmental and social factors. To learn more, visit Lilly.com/obesity.

Lilly will continue to evaluate the SURMOUNT-1 results, which will be presented at an upcoming medical meeting and submitted to a peer-reviewed journal. Additional studies are ongoing for tirzepatide as a potential treatment for obesity or overweight.

About tirzepatide

Tirzepatide is a once-weekly GIP (glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide) receptor and GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1) receptor agonist that integrates the actions of both incretins into a single novel molecule. GIP is a hormone that may complement the effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists. In preclinical models, GIP has been shown to decrease food intake and increase energy expenditure therefore resulting in weight reductions, and when combined with GLP-1 receptor agonism, may result in greater effects on markers of metabolic dysregulation such as body weight, glucose and lipids. Tirzepatide is in phase 3 development for adults with obesity or overweight with weight-related comorbidity and is currently under regulatory review as a treatment for adults with type 2 diabetes. It is also being studied as a potential treatment for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Studies of tirzepatide in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and in morbidity/mortality in obesity are planned as well.

About SURMOUNT-1 and the SURMOUNT clinical trial program

SURMOUNT-1 (NCT04184622) is a multi-center, randomized, double-blind, parallel, placebo-controlled trial comparing the efficacy and safety of tirzepatide 5 mg, 10 mg and 15 mg to placebo as an adjunct to a reduced-calorie diet and increased physical activity in adults without type 2 diabetes who have obesity, or overweight with at least one of the following comorbidities: hypertension, dyslipidemia, obstructive sleep apnea or cardiovascular disease. The trial randomized 2,539 participants across the U.S., Argentina, Brazil, China, India, Japan, Mexico, Russia and Taiwan in a 1:1:1:1 ratio to receive either tirzepatide 5 mg, 10 mg or 15 mg or placebo. The co-primary objectives of the study were to demonstrate that tirzepatide 10 mg and/or 15 mg is superior in percentage of body weight reductions from baseline and percentage of participants achieving ≥5% body weight reduction at 72 weeks compared to placebo. Participants who had pre-diabetes at study commencement will remain enrolled in SURMOUNT-1 for an additional 104 weeks of treatment following the initial 72-week completion date to evaluate the impact on body weight and potential differences in progression to type 2 diabetes at three years of treatment with tirzepatide compared to placebo.

All participants in the tirzepatide treatment arms started the study at a dose of tirzepatide 2.5 mg once-weekly and then increased the dose in a step-wise approach at four-week intervals to their final randomized maintenance dose of 5 mg (via a 2.5 mg step), 10 mg (via steps at 2.5 mg, 5 mg and 7.5 mg) or 15 mg (via steps at 2.5 mg, 5 mg, 7.5 mg, 10 mg and 12.5 mg).

The SURMOUNT phase 3 global clinical development program for tirzepatide began in late 2019 and has enrolled more than 5,000 people with obesity or overweight across six clinical trials, four of which are global studies. Results from SURMOUNT-2, -3, and -4 are anticipated in 2023.

About Lilly 

Lilly unites caring with discovery to create medicines that make life better for people around the world. We’ve been pioneering life-changing discoveries for nearly 150 years, and today our medicines help more than 47 million people across the globe. Harnessing the power of biotechnology, chemistry and genetic medicine, our scientists are urgently advancing new discoveries to solve some of the world’s most significant health challenges, redefining diabetes care, treating obesity and curtailing its most devastating long-term effects, advancing the fight against Alzheimer’s disease, providing solutions to some of the most debilitating immune system disorders, and transforming the most difficult-to-treat cancers into manageable diseases. With each step toward a healthier world, we’re motivated by one thing: making life better for millions more people. That includes delivering innovative clinical trials that reflect the diversity of our world and working to ensure our medicines are accessible and affordable. To learn more, visit Lilly.com and Lilly.com/newsroom or follow us on FacebookInstagramTwitter and LinkedInP-LLY

CLIP

https://www.pu-kang.com/Tirzepatide-results-superior-A1C-and-body-weight-reductions-compared-to-insulin-glargine-in-adults-with-type-2-diabetes-id3348038.html

Tirzepatide results superior A1C and body weight reductions compared to insulin glargine in adults with type 2 diabetes

Tirzepatide results superior A1C and body weight reductions compared to insulin glargine in adults with type 2 diabetes

Newly published data show that participants maintained A1C and weight control up to two years in SURPASS-4, the largest and longest SURPASS trial completed to dateNo increased cardiovascular risk identified with tirzepatide; hazard ratio of 0.74 observed for MACE-4 events

SURPASS-4 is the largest and longest clinical trial completed to date of the phase 3 program studying tirzepatide as a potential treatment for type 2 diabetes. The primary endpoint was measured at 52 weeks, with participants continuing treatment up to 104 weeks or until study completion. The completion of the study was triggered by the accrual of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) to assess CV risk. In newly published data from the treatment period after 52 weeks, participants taking tirzepatide maintained A1C and weight control for up to two years.

The overall safety profile of tirzepatide, assessed over the full study period, was consistent with the safety results measured at 52 weeks, with no new findings up to 104 weeks. Gastrointestinal side effects were the most commonly reported adverse events, usually occurring during the escalation period and then decreasing over time.

“We are encouraged by the continued A1C and weight control that participants experienced past the initial 52 week treatment period and up to two years as we continue to explore the potential impact of tirzepatide for the treatment of type 2 diabetes,” said John Doupis, M.D., Ph.D., Director, Diabetes Division and Clinical Research Center, Iatriko Paleou Falirou Medical Center, Athens, Greece and Senior Investigator for SURPASS-4.

Tirzepatide is a novel investigational once-weekly dual glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist that integrates the actions of both incretins into a single molecule, representing a new class of medicines being studied for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

SURPASS-4 was an open-label global trial comparing the safety and efficacy of three tirzepatide doses (5 mg, 10 mg and 15 mg) to titrated insulin glargine in 2,002 adults with type 2 diabetes with increased CV risk who were treated with between one and three oral antihyperglycemic medicines (metformin, a sulfonylurea or an SGLT-2 inhibitor). Of the total participants randomized, 1,819 (91%) completed the primary 52-week visit and 1,706 (85%) completed the study on treatment. The median study duration was 85 weeks and 202 participants (10%) completed two years.

Study participants had a mean duration of diabetes of 11.8 years, a baseline A1C of 8.52 percent and a baseline weight of 90.3 kg. More than 85 percent of participants had a history of cardiovascular events. In the insulin glargine arm, the insulin dose was titrated following a treat-to-target algorithm with the goal of fasting blood glucose below 100 mg/dL. The starting dose of insulin glargine was 10 units per day, and the mean dose of insulin glargine at 52 weeks was 43.5 units per day.

About tirzepatide
Tirzepatide is a once-weekly dual glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist that integrates the actions of both incretins into a single novel molecule. GIP is a hormone that may complement the effects of GLP-1. In preclinical models, GIP has been shown to decrease food intake and increase energy expenditure therefore resulting in weight reductions, and when combined with a GLP-1 receptor agonist, may result in greater effects on glucose and body weight. Tirzepatide is in phase 3 development for blood glucose management in adults with type 2 diabetes, for chronic weight management and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). It is also being studied as a potential treatment for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).

About SURPASS-4 and the SURPASS clinical trial program
SURPASS-4 (NCT03730662) is a randomized, parallel, open-label trial comparing the efficacy and safety of tirzepatide 5 mg, 10 mg and 15 mg to insulin glargine in adults with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with at least one and up to three oral antihyperglycemic medications (metformin, sulfonylureas or SGLT-2 inhibitors), who have increased cardiovascular (CV) risk. The trial randomized 2,002 study participants in a 1:1:1:3 ratio to receive either tirzepatide 5 mg, 10 mg or 15 mg or insulin glargine. Participants were located in the European Union, North America (Canada and the United States), Australia, Israel, Taiwan and Latin America (Brazil, Argentina and Mexico). The primary objective of the study was to demonstrate that tirzepatide (10 mg and/or 15 mg) is non-inferior to insulin glargine for change from baseline A1C at 52 weeks in people with type 2 diabetes and increased CV risk. The primary and key secondary endpoints were measured at 52 weeks, with participants continuing treatment up to 104 weeks or until study completion. The completion of the study was triggered by the accrual of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Study participants enrolled had to have a mean baseline A1C between 7.5 percent and 10.5 percent and a BMI greater than or equal to 25 kg/m2 at baseline. All participants in the tirzepatide treatment arms started the study at a dose of tirzepatide 2.5 mg once-weekly and then increased the dose in a step-wise approach at four-week intervals to their final randomized maintenance dose of 5 mg (via a 2.5 mg step), 10 mg (via steps at 2.5 mg, 5 mg and 7.5 mg) or 15 mg (via steps at 2.5 mg, 5 mg, 7.5 mg, 10 mg and 12.5 mg). All participants in the titrated insulin glargine treatment arm started with a baseline dose of 10 units per day and titrated following a treat-to-target algorithm to reach a fasting blood glucose below 100 mg/dL.

The SURPASS phase 3 global clinical development program for tirzepatide has enrolled more than 20,000 people with type 2 diabetes across 10 clinical trials, five of which are global registration studies. The program began in late 2018, and all five global registration trials have been completed.

About Diabetes

Approximately 34 million Americans2 (just over 1 in 10) and an estimated 463 million adults worldwide3 have diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is the most common type internationally, accounting for an estimated 90 to 95 percent of all diabetes cases in the United States alone2. Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs when the body does not properly produce or use the hormone insulin.

Clinical data
Trade namesMounjaro
Other namesLY3298176, GIP/GLP-1 RA
License dataUS DailyMedTirzepatide
Routes of
administration
subcutaneous
Drug classAntidiabeticGLP-1 receptor agonist
ATC codeNone
Legal status
Legal statusUS: ℞-only [1][2]
Identifiers
showIUPAC name
CAS Number2023788-19-2
PubChem CID156588324
IUPHAR/BPS11429
DrugBankDB15171
ChemSpider76714503
UNIIOYN3CCI6QE
KEGGD11360
ChEMBLChEMBL4297839
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC225H348N48O68
Molar mass4813.527 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)Interactive image
showSMILES
showInChI

////////////Tirzepatide, FDA 2022, APPROVALS 2022, Mounjaro, PEPTIDE, チルゼパチド ,  LY3298176,

UNIIOYN3CCI6QE

pharma1

chart 1 Structure of GLP-1 & TZP & Exenatide & Somalutide


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DR ANTHONY CRASTO

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK LIFE SCIENCES LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 PLUS year tenure till date June 2021, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 90 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, 233 countries, 7 continents, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 33 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 233 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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