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ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY

Read all about Organic Spectroscopy on ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY INTERNATIONAL 

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 29 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 29 year tenure till date Aug 2016, Around 30 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 25 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 13 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 212 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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Therapeutic Effect of Amaranthus hybridus on Diabetic Nephropathy


Diabetes Nephropathy, a chronic metabolic complication of diabetes mellitus, is characterized by elevated levels of serum glucose,creatinine, urea and uric acid in addition to abnormal histopathological changes in kidney. In the recent past, many antidiabetic agents are introduced; still the diabetes and the related nephropathy complication continue to be a major medical problem, not only in developed countries but also in developing countries. Not with standing much research work, the diabetic kidney damages are increasing rapidly and patients with diabetes kidney failure undergo either painful dialysis or kidney transplantation [1] which is both costly and harmful. More and more interest is now growing about plant use as an alternative therapy for protecting kidney damage in patients with diabetes mellitus. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been widely implicated in the pathogenicity of diabetes mellitus and its nephropathy. A number of clinical studies suggest that the antioxidants in medicinal plants are key factors in reducing the incidence of diabetic nephropathy. Traditional medicines and extracts from medicinal plants with antioxidant potential have been extensively used as alternative medicine for better control and management of diabetes nephropathy [2]. However, searching for new antidiabetic drugs with nephroprotective properties from natural plants is currently very important.
Amaranthus hybridus L. (Amaranthaceae) commonly known as ‘Cheera’ in Malayalam, is an erect branched annual herb distributed throughout tropical and temperate regions of India as a common weed in the agricultural fields and wastelands. In traditional medicinal system different parts of the plant Amaranthus hybridus (A. hybridus) have been mentioned to be useful in a variety of diseases. Traditionally, the plant has been used in treating dysentery, diarrhoea, ulcers and hemorrhage of the bowel due to its astringent property [35]. In southern India, the leaves are used in folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes. Leaves possess antibacterial effect, cleansing effect and also help to reduce tissue swelling [5]. In Nigeria, A. hybridus leaves combined with condiments are used to prepare soup [68]. In Congo, their leaves are eaten as spinach or green vegetables [6,9]. These leaves boiled and mixed with a groundnut sauce are eaten as salad in Mozambique and in West Africa [10,11]. The Amaranthus species contains amaranthine, quercetin, and kaempferol glycosides [12].A. hybridus leaves are used as an antidote for snake and scorpion bite [13,14].
Amaranthus species were of great importance in pre-Colombian American people’s diets [15] and A. cruentus and A. hybridus have a high nutritional value [16] (Fernand et al.). The consumption of A. cruentus products is advised for patients with celiac disease and, therefore, also for diabetic persons [17]. A. hybridus has been used traditionally for the treatment of liver infections and knee pain and for its laxative, diuretic, and cicatrisation properties [16].
Furthermore, recent studies established theantihyperglycemic activities of other species of Amaranthus genus as A. spinosus [18] and A. viridis [19,20]. However, based on the literature survey, there is no scientific report proving the anti-hyperglycemic efficacy of this particular species. Therefore, the current study was designed to evaluate the nephroprotective activity of Amaranthus hybridus in STZ induced diabetic rats.

Therapeutic Effect of Amaranthus hybridus on Diabetic Nephropathy

Balasubramanian T* and Karthikeyan M
Department of Pharmacology, Al Shifa College of Pharmacy, Kerala, India
Corresponding Author : Dr. Thirumalaiswamy Balasubramanian
Department of Pharmacology
Al Shifa College of Pharmacy
Poonthavanam Post, Kizhattur Village
Perinthalmanna, Malappuram Dist
Kerala-679 325, India
Tel: +919544496752
E-mail: tbaluanandhi@gmail.com
Received December 29, 2015; Accepted January 07, 2016; Published January 14, 2016
Citation: Balasubramanian T and Karthikeyan M (2016) Therapeutic Effect of Amaranthus hybridus on Diabetic Nephropathy. J Develop Drugs 5:147.doi:10.4172/2329-6631.1000147

SEE

http://www.omicsgroup.org/journals/therapeutic-effect-of-amaranthus-hybridus-on-diabetic-nephropathy-2329-6631-1000147.php?aid=67002

balasubramanian.jpg

Dr. T. Balasubramanian

Karthikeyan M

http://alshifacollegeofpharmacy.com/teaching-faculty.html

Map of Kizhattur Village Perinthalmanna

////////Therapeutic Effect, Amaranthus hybridus,  Diabetic Nephropathy, AYURVEDA

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VASICINE, (peganine)


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Vasicine (peganine) is a quinazoline alkaloid. It is the active compound of Justicia adhatoda, after which the chemical is named.

Vasicine has been compared to theophylline both in vitro and in vivo.[1] It has also been studied in combination with the related alkaloid vasicinone. Both the alkaloids in combination (1:1) showed pronounced bronchodilatory activity in vivo and in vitro.[2] Both alkaloids are also respiratory stimulants.[2] Vasicine has a cardiac–depressant effect, while vasicinone is a weak cardiac stimulant; the effect can be normalized by combining the alkaloids.[2][3] Vasicine is reported to have a uterine stimulant effect.[3]

Vasicine

Synonym Peganine

Biological Sources It is obtained from the leaves of Adhatoda vasica (L.) Nees (Acanthaceae) (Malabar Nut, Adotodai, Paveltia); and the seeds of Peganum harmala L. (Rutaceae) (Harmel, Syrian Rue, African Rue).

Chemical Structure

1, 2, 3, 9-Tetrahydropyrrolo [2, 1-b] quinazoline-3-ol; (C11H12N2O).

Isolation It is isolated from the leaves of Adhatoda vasica* and also from the seeds of Peganum harmala** by adopting the standard methods of isolation described earlier in this chapter.

Characteristic Features

dl-Form: 1. It is obtained as needles from ethanol having mp 210°C.

  1. It sublimes on being subjected to high vacuum.
  2. It is soluble in acetone, alcohol, chloroform; and slightly soluble in water, ether and

benzene.

l-Form: 1. It is obtained as needles from ethanol with mp 212°C.

  1. Its specific rotation [α ]D14-2540(C = 2.4 in CHCl3); [α ]D14–14  62° (C = 2.4 in ethanol).

Note: In dilute HCl it is obtained as its dextrorotatory form.

Identification Tests

  1. Hydrochloride dihydrate derivative is obtained as needles having mp 208°C (dry).
  2. Hydroiodide dihydrate derivative is formed as needles with mp 195°C (dry).
  3. Methiodide derivative is obtained as needles from methanol having mp 187°C.
  4. Acetyl vasicine derivative (C11H11N2O COCH3) is formed as crystals having mp 123°C and bp0.01 230-240°C.

Uses

  1. It is mostly used as an expectorant and bronchodilator.
  2. It also shows oxytocic properties very similar to those exhibited by oxytocin and methyl ergometrine.
  3. Vasicine also shows abortifacient action which is due to the release of prostaglandins.

Biosynthesis of Vasicine Various studies in Peganum harmala have evidently revealed vasicine (peganine) to be derived from the anthranilic acid, while the remaining portion of the structure comprising of a pyrrolidine ring provided by ornithine. The probable mechanism of vasicine skeleton may be explained by virtue of the nucleophilic attack from the N-atom present in anthranilate upon the pyrrolidinium cation, ultimately followed by amide formation. However, interestingly this pathway is not being adopted in Justicia adhatoda.

Vasaka

Vasaka

http://www.himalayawellness.com/products/pharmaceuticals/vasaka.htm

Effective respiratory care

Vasaka (Malabar Nut Tree/Adhatoda zeylanica) is well known in Ayurveda for its beneficial effects in respiratory ailments, particularly as an expectorant in bronchitis. The leaves, flowers, fruits and roots are used extensively for treating cold, cough, whooping-cough, chronic bronchitis and asthma.

Vasaka grows throughout India, up to an altitude of 1,300 meters.

Active constituents:

Vasaka contains the pyrroquinazoline alkaloids, including vasicine, vasicol and vasinone along with other minor constituents. Vasicine and vasinone are the major bioactive constituents of Vasaka which have bronchodilatory and antitussive properties.

The alkaloids present in the plant show significant protection against allergen-induced bronchial obstruction.

Herb Functions:

Respiratory care: Vasaka exhibits anti-inflammatory, antitussive and bronchodilatory action which eases congestion and coughing by helping loosen and thin mucus in airways. Vasaka relieves dyspnea by dilating the airways and improves overall lung functions. The herb is an excellent supportive therapy for symptomatic relief in tuberculosis and pulmonary infections.

Indications

  • Productive cough
  • Bronchitis
  • Bronchial asthma

Contraindications:

None

Recommended dose:

One capsule, twice a day or as directed by your physician

Composition:

Each capsule contains 250mg extract of Vasaka

Note: Since Himalaya’s Pure Herbs are in capsule form, some children below 14 years may find it difficult to swallow them. For this reason, Pure Herbs are recommended for children ages 14 and above.

The information on this page is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Do not use this information to diagnose or treat your problem without consulting your doctor.

 

http://kumarncsirihbt.weebly.com/publications.html

 

 

Adhatoda Vasica (Justicia Adhatoda) – Malabar Nut, Vasa, Vasaka …

Adhatoda Vasica (Justicia Adhatoda) – Malabar Nut, Vasa, Vasaka, Adulsa

 

Presentation “Herbal drugs for health Herbal drugs for health …

slideplayer.com

… प्रयोग – पत्तियाँ खाँसी में Several alkaloids are present in the leaves and the chief principle is a quinazoline alkaloid vasicine

 

References

  1.  Nepali, Kunal; Sharma, Sahil; Ojha, Ritu; Dhar, Kanaya Lal (2012). “Vasicine and structurally related quinazolines”. Medicinal Chemistry Research 22 (1): 1–15. doi:10.1007/s00044-012-0002-5. ISSN 1054-2523.
  2.  Avula, B.; et al. (2008). “Quantitative determination of vasicine and vasicinone in Adhatoda vasica by high performance capillary electrophoresis” (PDF). Die Pharmazie – An International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 63 (1): 20–22. doi:10.1691/ph.2008.7175.
  3. ^ Jump up to:a b Rajani, M; Soni, S; Anandjiwala, Sheetal; Patel, G (2008). “Validation of different methods of preparation of Adhatoda vasica leaf juice by quantification of total alkaloids and vasicine”. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 70 (1): 36. doi:10.4103/0250-474X.40329.ISSN 0250-474X.

 

 

 

Vasicine
Vasicine (peganine).png
Names
IUPAC name

1,2,3,9-Tetrahydropyrrolo[2,1-b]quinazolin-3-ol
Other names

Peganine
Identifiers
6159-56-4
Jmol interactive 3D Image
PubChem 72610
Properties
C11H12N2O
Molar mass 188.23 g·mol−1
Melting point 210 °C (410 °F; 483 K)
Solubility in acetone, alcohol, chloroform Soluble

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ENJOY SOME ANIMATIONS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Experimental Study on Holoptelia Integrifolia Planch. in Relation to Diabetes Mellitus Type 2


 
Holoptelia integrifolia
(Chirabilva)

Experimental Study on Holoptelia Integrifolia  in Relation to Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

International Journal of Pharma Research &Review,Sept2015; 4(9):21-25
ISSN: 2278 – 6074 Surendra Nath et .al, IJPRR 2015; 4( 9 ) 21 Research Article
read

http://www.ijpr.in/Data/Archives/2015/september/2407201501.pdf

see also

http://www.ijddr.in/drug-development/chemistry-and-medicinal-properties-of-holoptelea-integrifolia.pdf

http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/show/31452/?max=8&offset=0&classification=265799&taxon=29684&view=grid

http://www.apjtb.com/zz/2012s2/130.pdf

https://sites.google.com/site/efloraofindia/species/m—z/u/urticaceae/holoptelea/holoptelea-integrifolia

Holoptelea integrifolia

Holoptelea integrifolia Planch. , Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot. III, 10: 259 1848. (Syn. Ulmus integrifolia Roxb.);
entire-leaved elm tree, jungle cork tree, south Indian elm tree • Bengali: নাটা করঞ্জা nata karanja • Gujarati: ચરલ charal, ચરેલ charel, કણઝો kanjho • Hindi: चिलबिल chilbil, कान्जू kanju, पपड़ी papri • Konkani: वांवळो vamvlo • Malayalam: ആവല്‍ aaval • Marathi: ऐनसादडा ainasadada, वावळ or वावळा vavala • Nepalese: sano pangro • Oriya: dhauranjan • Sanskrit: चिरिविल्वः chirivilva • Tamil: ஆயா aya • Telugu: నాలి nali;

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The 10-Hydroxy-2-Decenoic Acid (10-2-HDA) content in Royal Jelly, is said to possess strong inhibition of malignant cell growth, namely transferable AKR leukemia, TA3 breast malignancy


 Developing queen larvae surrounded by royal jelly

Royal jelly is a honey bee secretion that is used in the nutrition of larvae, as well as adult queens.[1] It is secreted from the glands in the hypopharynx of worker bees, and fed to all larvae in the colony, regardless of sex or caste.[2]

When worker bees decide to make a new queen, because the old one is either weakening or dead, they choose several small larvae and feed them with copious amounts of royal jelly in specially constructed queen cells. This type of feeding triggers the development of queen morphology, including the fully developed ovaries needed to lay eggs.[3]

Other Common Names:  Apilak, Gelée Royale, Queen Bee Jelly

Royal Jelly has been called the “Crown Jewel” of the beehive that has become extremely popular since the 1950s as a wonderful source of energy and natural way to increase stamina; perhaps that is the reason why the Queen Bee is so strong and enduring.  It is also thought to be a great nutritional source of enzymes, proteins, sugars and amino acids, but there is no scientific proof to verify the supplement’s efficacy for its use as an overall health tonic.  You’ll have to decide.

History:
Royal Jelly is a thick, milky material that is secreted from the hypopharyngea- salivary glands in the heads of the young nurse bees between the sixth and twelfth days of life, and when honey and pollen are combined and refined within the nurse bee, Royal Jelly is naturally created.  While all larvæ in a colony are fed Royal Jelly, it is the only food that is fed to the Queen Bee throughout her life; other adult bees do not consume it at all.  All female eggs may produce a Queen Bee, but this occurs only when – during the whole development of the larvæ – she is cared for and fed by this material – in large quantities.  As a result of this special nutrition, the Queen develops reproductive organs (while the worker bee develops traits that relate only to work, i.e., stronger mandibles, brood food, wax glands and pollen baskets).  The Queen develops in about fifteen days, while the workers require twenty-one; and finally, the Queen endures for several years, while workers survive only a few months. “10-2 HDA,” thought to be the principle active substance in Royal Jelly, makes the Queen Bee fifty percent larger than the other female worker bees and gives her incredible stamina, ovulation ability and longevity, living four to five years longer than worker bees who only live forty or more days.  Perhaps this is the reason why so many positive qualities have been attributed to Royal Jelly as a truly rare gift of nature, but it should be noted that there is no clinical evidence to support the claims.  There is even great controversy as to the constituents included in the supplement.  Most researchers claim that it includes all the B-vitamins and vitamins A, C, D and E; some disagree.  It does contain proteins, sugars, lipids (essential fatty acids), many essential amino acids, collagen, lecithin, enzymes and minerals, in addition to the very valuable

10-2-HDA (10-Hydroxy-2-Decenoic Acid).  It is said that Royal Jelly may be most effective when combined with honey.  You can decide whether any improvements you derive from Royal Jelly’s use are purely coincidental, but if  (and when) you feel better when using it, just enjoy the benefits.

10-2-HDA (10-Hydroxy-2-Decenoic Acid)

Beneficial Uses:
Many fans claim that Royal Jelly is a great way to increase energy, as well as a remarkable stamina booster.  In addition, it is also considered a means to enhance the immune system and maintain overall health.

Royal Jelly is said to alleviate a variety of problems, such as exhaustion, anxiety, mild depression, insomnia and lack of energy and stamina.   Royal Jelly is also believed to have a calming effect on the nervous system.

Some people maintain that Royal Jelly has helped to improve skin disorders and has slowed down the ageing process.  Royal Jelly’s collagen, lecithin and vitamins A, C, D and E all benefit the skin, helping to moisturize dry skin and soothe dermatitis.

In 1977, scientists at the Beijing Medical University reported that when Royal Jelly was administered to male and female neurasthenia patients, all patients reported very effective (86%) or effective (14%) improvement.  Insomnia was eliminated, quality of sleeping increased and headache and dizziness were alleviated.  It was also said that physical and mental abilities, appetite and working efficiency were improved.

The 10-Hydroxy-2-Decenoic Acid (10-2-HDA) content in Royal Jelly, is said to possess strong inhibition of malignant cell growth, namely transferable AKR leukemia, TA3 breast malignancy, etc., and recent studies indicated immuno-regulation and anti-malignancy activities.  It can promote the growth of T-lymphocyte subsets, Interleukin-2 and the generation of tumor necrosis factor.  Much research is being conducted on this valuable active constituent, which has exhibited positive physiological and pharmacological effects including vasodilative and hypotensive activities, antihypercholesterolemic activity and anti-inflammatory functions.  In addition to these activities, the 10-HDA in Royal Jelly has been suggested to improve menopausal symptoms.

Other benefits attributed to the qualities of Royal Jelly include relief of bronchial asthma, liver, pancreatic and kidney ailments, stomach ulcers and bone fractures.

Contraindications:
Royal Jelly Nutritional Supplement is a natural bee product and may induce allergic reactions in some people and should, therefore, be tested in very small amounts before continued use.  Symptoms of allergy include breathing problems or tightness in your throat or chest, chest pain, skin hives, rash or itchy or swollen skin.

Cultivation

Royal jelly is secreted from the glands in the heads of worker bees, and is fed to all bee larvae, whether they are destined to become drones (males), workers (sterile females), or queens (fertile females). After three days, the drone and worker larvae are no longer fed with royal jelly, but queen larvae continue to be fed this special substance throughout their development. It is harvested by humans by stimulating colonies with movable frame hives to produce queen bees. Royal jelly is collected from each individual queen cell (honey comb) when the queen larvae are about four days old. It is collected from queen cells because these are the only cells in which large amounts are deposited; when royal jelly is fed to worker larvae, it is fed directly to them, and they consume it as it is produced, while the cells of queen larvae are “stocked” with royal jelly much faster than the larvae can consume it. Therefore, only in queen cells is the harvest of royal jelly practical. A well-managed hive during a season of 5–6 months can produce approximately 500 g of royal jelly. Since the product is perishable, producers must have immediate access to proper cold storage (e.g., a household refrigerator or freezer) in which the royal jelly is stored until it is sold or conveyed to a collection center. Sometimes honey or beeswax are added to the royal jelly, which is thought to aid its preservation.

Composition

The overall composition of royal jelly is 67% water, 12.5% crude protein, including small amounts of many different amino acids, and 11% simple sugars (monosaccharides), also including a relatively high amount (5%) of fatty acids. The main acid is the 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid or 10-HDA (about 2 – 3%).It also contains many trace minerals, some enzymes, antibacterial and antibiotic components, pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) and trace amounts of vitamin C,[2] but none of the fat-soluble vitamins, A, D, E and K.[4]

Royalactin

The component of royal jelly that causes a bee to develop into a queen appears to be a single protein that has been called royalactin. Jelly which had been rendered inactive by prolonged storage had a fresh addition of each of the components subject to decay and was fed to bees; only jelly laced with royalactin caused the larvae to become queens.[5] Royalactin also induces similar phenotypical change in the fruitfly (Drosophila melanogaster), marked by increased body size and ovary development.

Epigenetic effects

The honey bee queens and workers represent one of the most striking examples of environmentally controlled phenotypic polymorphism. In spite of their identical clonal nature at the DNA level, they are strongly differentiated across a wide range of characteristics including anatomical and physiological differences, longevity of the queen, and reproductive capacity.[6] Queens constitute the sexual caste and have large active ovaries, whereas workers have only rudimentary, inactive ovaries and are functionally sterile. The queen/worker developmental divide is controlled epigenetically by differential feeding with royal jelly; this appears to be due specifically to the protein royalactin. A female larva destined to become a queen is fed large quantities of royal jelly; this triggers a cascade of molecular events resulting in development of a queen.[3] It has been shown that this phenomenon is mediated by an epigenetic modification of DNA known as CpG methylation.[7] Silencing the expression of an enzyme that methylates DNA in newly hatched larvae led to a royal jelly-like effect on the larval developmental trajectory; the majority of individuals with reduced DNA methylation levels emerged as queens with fully developed ovaries. This finding suggests that DNA methylation in honey bees allows the expression of epigenetic information to be differentially altered by nutritional input.

Uses

Citing various potential health benefits seen in lab studies, royal jelly is collected and sold as a dietary supplement for humans, but the European Food Safety Authority has rejected these claims stating that the current evidence does not support consuming royal jelly will give health benefits in humans.[8] In the United States, both the Federal Trade Commission and the Food and Drug Administration have taken legal action against companies that have used unfounded claims of health benefits to market royal jelly products.[9][10][11][12]

Adverse effects

Royal jelly may cause allergic reactions in humans ranging from hives, asthma, to even fatal anaphylaxis.[13][14][15][16][17][18] The incidence of allergic side effect in people who consume royal jelly is unknown. The risk of having an allergy to royal jelly is higher in people who have other allergies.[13]

The benefits of Royal Jelly are truly extensive. The list of benefits is so extensive that it may actually appear to be ‘too good to be true’ to many of us, myself included. I’m still amazed every time I scan the many studies done on this amazing substance.Royal Jelly is one of the naturally occurring miraculous super foods on the planet that gets very little press!  It packs a powerful health punch and here’s why:Royal Jelly is a substance produced by worker honey bees.  Bee colonies function on a hierarchical system:  Bees all start out as unisex larvae, blank slate bee babies if you will.  Then they break off into 1 of 3 roles within their colony.  The worker bees (females), the drones (males used for reproduction) and The Queen Bee.The workers and drones have a typical life span of 3-4 months, whereas The Queen Been can live for up to 7 years!

What differentiates the role of The Queen Bee from the workers and the drones is quite simply what she is fed!  Keep in mind, she starts off the same as the rest of colony but her diet transforms her into The Queen Bee.  Workers and drones are fed royal jelly when they hatch, followed by pollen and honey for the following 6 days.  The Queen Bee on the other hand, is exclusively fed royal jelly for the entirety of her life- Jelly is one of the naturally occurring miraculous super foods on the planet that gets very little press!  It packs a powerful health punch and here’s why:Royal Jelly is a substance produced by worker honey bees.  Bee colonies function on a hierarchical system:  Bees all start out as unisex larvae, blank slate bee babies if you will.  Then they break off into 1 of 3 roles within their colony.  The worker bees (females), the drones (males used for reproduction) and The Queen Bee.The workers and drones have a typical life span of 3-4 months, whereas The Queen Been can live for up to 7 years!  What differentiates the role of The Queen Bee from the workers and the drones is quite simply what she is fed!  Keep in mind, she starts off the same as the rest of colony but her diet transforms her into The Queen Bee.
 Workers and drones are fed royal jelly when they hatch, followed by pollen and honey for the following 6 days.  The Queen Bee on the other hand, is exclusively fed royal jelly for the entirety of her life- See more at: http://www.collective-evolution.com/2013/06/06/the-royal-benefits-of-royal-jelly/#sthash.DPhCubyY.dpufRoyal Jelly is one of the naturally occurring miraculous super foods on the planet that gets very little press!  It packs a powerful health punch and here’s why:Royal Jelly is a substance produced by worker honey bees.  Bee colonies function on a hierarchical system:  Bees all start out as unisex larvae, blank slate bee babies if you will.  Then they break off into 1 of 3 roles within their colony.  The worker bees (females), the drones (males used for reproduction) and The Queen Bee.The workers and drones have a typical life span of 3-4 months, whereas The Queen Been can live for up to 7 years!  What differentiates the role of The Queen Bee from the workers and the drones is quite simply what she is fed!  Keep in mind, she starts off the same as the rest of colony but her diet transforms her into The Queen Bee.
 Workers and drones are fed royal jelly when they hatch, followed by pollen and honey for the following 6 days.  The Queen Bee on the other hand, is exclusively fed royal jelly for the entirety of her life- See more at: http://www.collective-evolution.com/2013/06/06/the-royal-benefits-of-royal-jelly/#sthash.DPhCubyY.dpufRoyal jelly is a substance that is secreted from the glands of worker bees to feed their larvae and queens. It is thick in texture, milky-white in color, and has been harvested by humans for centuries for its rejuvenating properties. Indeed, it is a fact that queen bees – which are fed royal jelly their entire lives – live approximately 40 times longer than drone or worker bees, largely due to the jelly’s nutritiousness.

Cancer-fighting properties – According to a study published in a 2009 edition of the BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, royal jelly fights cancer by suppressing the blood supply to tumors. When the Japanese researchers tested various royal jelly types on umbilical vein tissue cultures, all of them inhibited the formation of blood vessels, especially those richest in caffeic acid, a compound responsible for the greatest suppressive levels. Moreover, since the fatty components of royal jelly contain estrogenic effects – as proved by a study published in the December 2010 edition of PLoS One – it is possible that royal jelly can treat breast and cervical cancer.
Improves blood health – A study published in the November 2008 edition of the Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin showed that royal jelly can improve insulin resistance and blood pressure. The researchers fed the jelly to rats suffering from high blood pressure and insulin resistance due to a high-fructose diet. After two months, the rats demonstrated noticeably fewer instances of blood vessel constriction, which resulted in lower triglyceride and insulin levels.

Skincare properties – Although Royal jelly is best-known as a health supplement, it is often used in skincare products because it contains DNA and gelatin, two ingredients that aid collagen production (and thus anti-aging activity). For this reason, many people like to apply royal jelly topically and allow it to nourish and invigorate their skin.

Antibacterial components – According to a study published in the July 1990 edition of the Journal of Biological Chemistry, a protein found in royal jelly – unofficially named royalisin – provides numerous antibacterial and antimicrobial properties, and is effective at dealing with certain bacterial cultures at lower levels.

Rich in nutrients – As with other bee products such as bee pollen and propolis, royal jelly’s biggest attraction is probably its impressive concentration of vitamins and minerals. Indeed, an average serving of royal jelly contains seventeen different amino acids (including all eight essential amino acids, making it a complete protein), most of the B-vitamins (which are used for the production and synthesis of energy), and respectable levels of iron and calcium, which are essential for superior blood and bone Health. Royal jelly also contains vitamins A, C, and E, which are important antioxidants that can neutralize free radical activity, thus guarding us from degenerative diseases.

Infertility treatment – It is not a coincidence that worker bees are infertile, while queen bees can lay up to 2,000 eggs per day throughout their extensive 4 to 6 year lifespan. This is because royal jelly stimulates estrogen production, thereby stabilizing menstrual cycles in women, improving sperm morphology in men, and increasing the libido of both sexes.

Notes

  1. ^ Jung-Hoffmann L: Die Determination von Königin und Arbeiterin der Honigbiene. Z Bienenforsch 1966, 8:296-322.
  2. ^ a b Graham, J. (ed.) (1992) The Hive and the Honey Bee (Revised Edition). Dadant & Sons.
  3. ^ a b Maleszka, R, Epigenetic integration of environmental and genomic signals in honey bees: the critical interplay of nutritional, brain and reproductive networks. Epigenetics. 2008, 3, 188-192.
  4. ^ “Value-added products from beekeeping. Chapter 6.”.
  5. ^ Kamakura, M. (2011). “Royalactin induces queen differentiation in honeybees”. Nature 473 (7348): 478–483. doi:10.1038/nature10093. PMID 21516106. edit
  6. ^ Winston, M, The Biology of the Honey Bee, 1987, Harvard University Press
  7. ^ Kucharski R, Maleszka, J, Foret, S, Maleszka, R (2008). “Nutritional Control of Reproductive Status in Honeybees via DNA Methylation”. Science 319 (5871): 1827–1833. doi:10.1126/science.1153069.
  8. ^ “Scientific Opinion”. EFSA Journal 9 (4): 2083. 2011.
  9. ^ “QVC to Pay $7.5 Million to Settle Charges that It Aired Deceptive Claims”. Federal Trade Commission. March 19, 2009.
  10. ^ “Complaint in the Matter of CC Pollen Company et al.”. Federal Trade Commission. March 16, 1993.
  11. ^ “Federal Government Seizes Dozens of Misbranded Drug Products: FDA warned company about making medical claims for bee-derived products”. Food and Drug Administration. Apr 5, 2010.
  12. ^ “Inspections, Compliance, Enforcement, and Criminal Investigations: Beehive Botanicals, Inc”. Food and Drug Administration. March 2, 2007.
  13. ^ a b Leung, R; Ho, A; Chan, J; Choy, D; Lai, CK (March 1997). “Royal jelly consumption and hypersensitivity in the community”. Clin. Exp. Allergy 27 (3): 333–6. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2222.1997.tb00712.x. PMID 9088660.
  14. ^ Takahama H, Shimazu T (2006). “Food-induced anaphylaxis caused by ingestion of royal jelly”. J Dermatol. 33 (6): 424–426. doi:10.1111/j.1346-8138.2006.00100.x. PMID 16700835.
  15. ^ Lombardi C, Senna GE, Gatti B, Feligioni M, Riva G, Bonadonna P, Dama AR, Canonica GW, Passalacqua G (1998). “Allergic reactions to honey and royal jelly and their relationship with sensitization to compositae”. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 26 (6): 288–290.
  16. ^ Thien FC, Leung R, Baldo BA, Weiner JA, Plomley R, Czarny D (1996). “Asthma and anaphylaxis induced by royal jelly”. Clin Exp Allergy 26 (2): 216–222. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2222.1996.tb00082.x. PMID 8835130.
  17. ^ >Leung R, Thien FC, Baldo B, Czarny D (1995). “Royal jelly-induced asthma and anaphylaxis: clinical characteristics and immunologic correlations”. J Allergy Clin Immunol 96 (6 Pt 1): 1004–1007. doi:10.1016/S0091-6749(95)70242-3. PMID 8543734.
  18. ^ Bullock RJ, Rohan A, Straatmans JA (1994). “Fatal royal jelly-induced asthma”. Med J Aust 160 (1): 44.

References

  • Balch, Phyllis A.; Balch, James F. (2000). Prescription for Nutritional Healing, Third Edition. New York: Avery. ISBN 1-58333-077-1.
  • Ammon, R. and Zoch, E. (1957) Zur Biochemie des Futtersaftes der Bienenkoenigin. Arzneimittel Forschung 7: 699-702
  • Blum, M.S., Novak A.F. and Taber III, 5. (1959). 10-Hydroxy-decenoic acid, an antibiotic found in royal jelly. Science, 130 : 452-453
  • Bonomi, A. (1983) Acquisizioni in tema di composizione chimica e di attivita’ biologica della pappa reale. Apitalia, 10 (15): 7-13.
  • Braines, L.N. (1959). Royal jelly I. Inform. Bull. Inst. Pchelovodstva, 31 pp (with various articles)
  • Braines, L.N. (1960). Royal jelly II. Inform. Bull. Inst. Pchelovodstva, 40 pp.
  • Braines, L.N. (1962). Royal jelly III. Inform. Bull. Inst. Pchelovodstva, 40
  • Chauvin, R. and Louveaux, 1. (1956) Etdue macroscopique et microscopique de lagelee royale. L’apiculteur.
  • Cho, Y.T. (1977). Studies on royal jelly and abnormal cholesterol and triglycerides. Amer. Bee 1., 117 : 36-38
  • De Belfever, B. (1958) La gelee royale des abeilles. Maloine, Paris.
  • Destrem, H. (1956) Experimentation de la gelee royale d’abeille en pratique geriatrique (134 cas). Rev. Franc. Geront, 3.
  • Giordani, G. (1961). [Effect of royal jelly on chickens.] Avicoltura 30 (6): 114-120
  • Hattori N, Nomoto H, Fukumitsu H, Mishima S, Furukawa S. [Royal jelly and its unique fatty acid, 10-hydroxy-trans-2-decenoic acid, promote neurogenesis by neural stem/progenitor cells in vitro.] Biomed Res. 2007 Oct;28(5):261-6.
  • Hashimoto M, Kanda M, Ikeno K, Hayashi Y, Nakamura T, Ogawa Y, Fukumitsu H, Nomoto H, Furukawa S. (2005) Oral administration of royal jelly facilitates mRNA expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and neurofilament H in the hippocampus of the adult mouse brain. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2005 Apr;69(4):800-5.
  • Inoue, T. (1986). The use and utilization of royal jelly and the evaluation of the medical efficacy of royal jelly in Japan. Proceeding sof the XXXth International Congress of Apiculture, Nagoya, 1985, Apimondia, 444-447
  • Jean, E. (1956). A process of royal jelly absorption for its incorporation into assimilable substances. Fr. Pat., 1,118,123
  • Jacoli, G. (1956) Ricerche sperimentali su alcune proprieta’ biologiche della gelatina reale. Apicoltore d’Italia, 23 (9-10): 211-214.
  • Jung-Hoffmann L: Die Determination von Königin und Arbeiterin der Honigbiene. Z Bienenforsch 1966, 8:296-322.
  • Karaali, A., Meydanoglu, F. and Eke, D. (1988) Studies on composition, freeze drying and storage of Turkish royal jelly. J. Apic. Res., 27 (3): 182-185.
  • Kucharski R, Maleszka, J, Foret, S, Maleszka, R, Nutritional Control of Reproductive Status in Honeybees via DNA Methylation. Science. 2008 Mar 28;319(5871):1827-3
  • Lercker, G., Capella, P., Conte, L.S., Ruini, F. and Giordani, G. (1982) Components of royal jelly: II. The lipid fraction, hydrocarbons and sterolds. J. Apic. Res. 21(3):178-184.
  • Lercker, G., Vecchi, M.A., Sabatini, A.G. and Nanetti, A. 1984. Controllo chimicoanalitico della gelatina reale. Riv. Merceol. 23 (1): 83-94.
  • Lercker, G., Savioli, S., Vecchi, M.A., Sabatini, A.G., Nanetti, A. and Piana, L. (1986) Carbohydrate Determination of Royal Jelly by High Resolution Gas Chromatography (HRGC). Food Chemistry, 19: 255-264.
  • Lercker, G., Caboni, M.F., Vecchi, M.A., Sabatini, A.G. and Nanetti, A. (1992) Caratterizzazione dei principali costituenti della gelatina reale. Apicoltura 8:11-21.
  • Maleszka, R, Epigenetic integration of environmental and genomic signals in honey bees: the critical interplay of nutritional, brain and reproductive networks. Epigenetics. 2008, 3, 188-192.
  • Nakamura, T. (1986) Quality standards of royal jelly for medical use. proceedings of the XXXth International Congress of Apiculture, Nagoya, 1985 Apimondia (1986) 462-464.
  • Rembold, H. (1965) Biologically active substances in royal jelly. Vitamins and hormones 23:359-382.
  • Salama, A., Mogawer, H.H. and El-Tohamy, M. 1977 Royal jelly a revelation or a fable. Egyptian Journal of Veterinary Science 14 (2): 95-102.
  • Takenaka, T. Nitrogen components and carboxylic acids of royal jelly. In Chemistry and biology of social insects (edited by Eder, J., Rembold, H.). Munich, German Federal Republic, Verlag J. Papemy (1987): 162-163.
  • Wagner, H., Dobler, I., Thiem, I. Effect of royal jelly on the peirpheral blood and survival rate of mice after irradiation of the entire body with X-rays. Radiobiologia Radiotherapia (1970) 11(3): 323-328.
  • Winston, M, The Biology of the Honey Bee, 1987, Harvard University Press
    Disclaimer:
    The information presented herein by this post is intended for educational purposes only. These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA and are not intended to diagnose, cure, treat or prevent disease. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Rosa canina for osteoarthritis


Rosiflex contains a unique natural supplement that is good for joint health. If you are looking forward to a natural way to minimize your joint pain and stiffness, then Rosiflex is the ideal choice for you. Rosiflex is for anyone who wants healthy, flexible and mobile joints for a better quality of life. The unique natural ingredient in Rosiflex has been clinically proven to soothe the inflamed joints and improve joint comfort and flexibility.
What is Rosiflex?
Rosiflex is a Unique Dietary Supplement containing 100% Rosehip powder, made from a species of wild rose, Rosa canina. Rosiflex is available in capsule form with each capsule containing 750 mg (of imported) rosehip powder. Rosehip powder has been shown to decrease joint pain, improve joint health and increase mobility and flexibility in arthritic patients, particularly osteoarthritic patients.

The speciality of Rosiflex is as given below:
  • European supplement now brought to Indian arthritic patients
  • Huge success internationally
  • Effective within 3 weeks
  • Good pain relief
  • Reduces the need for regular pain killers
  • Very Safe, being a herbal supplement
  • Dosage: 2 capsules thrice daily for the initial 3 weeks followed by maintenance dose of 2 capsules twice daily
  • Rosa canina
    Divlja ruza cvijet 270508.jpg
    Photograph showing Rosa canina flowers.
    Scientific classification
    Kingdom: Plantae
    (unranked): Angiosperms
    (unranked): Eudicots
    (unranked): Rosids
    Order: Rosales
    Family: Rosaceae
    Genus: Rosa
    Species: R. canina
    Binomial name
    Rosa canina
    L.
    Synonyms
    See text

 

History:

Click here for a larger image. ROSE HIPS
Rose Hips (also called rose haws) are the pomaceous fruit of the rose plant.  Roses are a group of herbaceous shrubs found in temperate regions throughout both hemispheres and grown in sunny areas or light shade and thrive in well-drained, slightly acid soil.  Probably cultivated first in ancient Persia and carried to Greece and Rome, there are now hundreds of species of this beautiful flower cultivated throughout the world that occupy a vital place in medicine, as well as cosmetics, perfumes, soaps and foods.  The leaves of Rosa canina were once even used as a substitute for tea.  The botanical genus, Rosa, is derived from the Greek, roden, meaning “red” and the Latin, ruber, also meaning “ruby” or “red,” as apparently, the Roses of the ancient Mediterranean region were deep crimson, giving birth to the legend that the flowers sprang from the blood of Adonis.

Roses have a long tradition of medicinal use.  The ancient Romans used Rosa canina (or Dog Rose) for the bites of rabid dogs, and in the first century A.D., the Roman, Pliny, recorded thirty-two different disorders that responded well to Rose preparations.  An oriental species (Rosa laevigata) was mentioned in Chinese medical literature about A.D. 470, and in China, Rose Hips are still used for chronic diarrhea with stomach weakness.

It is typically red to orange but may be dark purple to black in some species.  In Ayurvedic medicine, Roses have long been considered “cooling” to the body and a tonic for the mind, and Native Americans used Rose Hips to treat muscle cramps.  In 1652, the esteemed British herbalist, Nicholas Culpeper, prescribed them for “consumptive persons,” for “tickling rheums,” to “break the stone” (kidneys) and to help digestion.

Long used for medicinal purposes in Great Britain, Rose Hips remained listed in the official British Pharmacopœia well into the 1930s, and were considered an overall cooling tonic, an astringent, a great help for sore throats and a source of the essential vitamin C.  During World War II, there was a shortage of citrus fruit in England, and the British government organized the harvesting of all the Rose Hips in England as a substitute for vitamin C.  This illuminated the importance of Rose Hips as a superior source of the vitamin and began its worldwide popularity.  Rose Hips have a reported sixty times the amount of vitamin C than citrus fruit, and we now know how absolutely essential vitamin C is to the maintenance of good health and the prevention of many diseases.

Rose Hips contain one of the highest measures of vitamin C (about 1700-2000 mgs. per 100 g. in the dried product) than is known in other herbs.  Rose Hips are the fruits of the Rose, the ripe seed receptacles that remain after the petals are removed, and they contain many vitamins and other beneficial supplements, including lycopene, essential fatty acids, beta-carotene, bioflavonoids, pectin, sugar, resin, wax, malates, citrates and other salts, tannin, malic and citrus acids, magnesium, calcium, iron, manganese, sulfur, phosphorus, potassium, selenium, zinc and vitamins A, B-1, B-2, B-3, B-5, C, D, E and K.

Beneficial Uses:
Probably the greatest known use of Rose Hips is as an extraordinary and powerful source of vitamin C, which is most beneficial for the prevention and treatment of infection and a great many common diseases, including the common cold, flu and pneumonia.  It is said to prevent ailments before they happen by using a prophylactic dosage on a daily basis.  Vitamin C is necessary for every cell in our bodies and without it, we would not be able to sustain life.

Natural vitamin C and bioflavonoids are combined in nature, and for efficacy, it is vital that they be used together. Rose Hips are rich in both, and together they help to strengthen body tissues and build and maintain a healthy vascular system and are said to heal and prevent damage to fragile capillaries.  The combination is also thought to enhance the body’s ability to absorb vitamin C in those who have difficulty absorbing it.

Rose Hips, with its abundance of vitamin C, are useful in treating infections of all kinds and have been used for centuries for the relief of diarrhea and dysentery.  It is considered to be a cleansing agent and may be helpful for temporary bladder problems, gallbladder dysfunction, kidney health, general debility and exhaustion.

Current research indicates that large doses of vitamin C in Rose Hips could be helpful in enhancing our immune systems, which may be valuable in warding off infectious invaders and serious malignant disease.

Rose Hips are said to have mild laxative and diuretic properties.

Rosa canina, commonly known as the dog-rose,[1] is a variable climbing wild rose species native to Europe, northwest Africa and western Asia.

It is a deciduous shrub normally ranging in height from 1–5 m, though sometimes it can scramble higher into the crowns of taller trees. Its stems are covered with small, sharp, hooked prickles, which aid it in climbing. The leaves are pinnate, with 5-7 leaflets. The flowers are usually pale pink, but can vary between a deep pink and white. They are 4–6 cm diameter with five petals, and mature into an oval 1.5–2 cm red-orange fruit, or hip.

dried-rose-hipsIt’s that time of year again and the hedgerows are heaving with fruit. But with most people intent on collecting juicy blackberries, the vibrantly coloured and perhaps mystifying rose-hip is often overlooked. Maybe it’s because they are a suspicious red colour or maybe it’s because they’re a fruit that’s never seen in supermarkets. Whatever the reason, the conclusion is the same: there’s more to collect for yourself!

Rose-hips are the fruit of the rose bush and in the summer are found as a swollen green part of the stem just underneath the flower. Every rose left uncut will eventually produce a hip but some will appear in the summer and others later in the autumn depending on species. To my knowledge all rose hips are edible, though some varieties have better flavour than others.

Blessed with a delicate fruity taste and rich in vitamins A, B and C, Rose-hips can be used to make an assortment of products including jellies, syrups, teas, wine and even cosmetics. Both the fruit and the seeds are edible but you should not eat rose-hips whole due to irritating hairs which are found inside the berries. These hairs must be removed either by filtering during the cooking process.

The best variety for making edible products is the hip of the common wild rose, also known as the Dog Rose, Latin name Rosa Canina. It produces small, firm, deep-red hips that are rich in flavour and easy to find and harvest. They are available in the autumn but it’s said the best time to harvest them is directly after a frost. Being that birds favour other foods over these hard seed-laden hips, you can often find them hanging onto bare branches in the darkest days of winter. If you choose to use them to make edible products please know that it’s not necessary to separate the seeds from the red fruit as both have their own nutritious values. But of course beware the hairs mentioned previously and make sure they are excluded from your end product.

Dog-Rose-Hips

Synonyms

From DNA analysis using amplified fragment length polymorphisms of wild-rose samples from a transect across Europe (900 samples from section Caninae, and 200 from other sections), it has been suggested that the following named species are best considered as part of a single Rosa canina species complex, and are therefore synonyms of R. canina:[2]

  • R. balsamica Besser
  • R. caesia Sm.
  • R. corymbifera Borkh.
  • R. dumalis Bechst.
  • R. montana Chaix
  • R. stylosa Desv.
  • R. subcanina (Christ) Vuk.
  • R. subcollina (Christ) Vuk.
  • R. × irregularis Déségl. & Guillon

Cultivation and uses

A botanical illustration showing the various stages of growth by Otto Wilhelm Thomé

The plant is high in certain antioxidants. The fruit is noted for its high vitamin C level and is used to make syrup, tea and marmalade. It has been grown or encouraged in the wild for the production of vitamin C, from its fruit (often as rose-hip syrup), especially during conditions of scarcity or during wartime. The species has also been introduced to other temperate latitudes. During World War II in the United States Rosa canina was planted in victory gardens, and can still be found growing throughout the United States, including roadsides, and in wet, sandy areas up and down coastlines. In Bulgaria, where it grows in abundance, the hips are used to make a sweet wine, as well as tea. In the traditional Austrian medicine Rosa canina fruits have been used internally as tea for treatment of viral infections and disorders of the kidneys and urinary tract.[3]

Forms of this plant are sometimes used as stocks for the grafting or budding of cultivated varieties. The wild plant is planted as a nurse or cover crop, or stabilising plant in land reclamation and specialised landscaping schemes.

Numerous cultivars have been named, though few are common in cultivation. The cultivar Rosa canina ‘Assisiensis’ is the only dog rose without prickles. The hips are used as a flavouring in Cockta, a soft drink made in Slovenia.

Canina meiosis

A tall, climbing Rosa canina shrub

Rose hips

Rose bedeguar gall on a dog rose

The dog roses, the Canina section of the genus Rosa (20-30 species and subspecies, which occur mostly in Northern and Central Europe), have an unusual kind of meiosis that is sometimes called permanent odd polyploidy, although it can occur with even polyploidy (e.g. in tetraploids or hexaploids). Regardless of ploidy level, only seven bivalents are formed leaving the other chromosomes as univalents. Univalents are included in egg cells, but not in pollen.[4][5] Similar processes occur in some other organisms.[6] Dogroses are most commonly pentaploid, i.e. five times the base number of seven chromosomes for the genus Rosa, but may be tetraploid or hexaploid as well.

Names and etymology

The botanical name is derived from the common names ‘dog rose’ or similar in several European languages, including classical Latin and ancient (Hellenistic period) Greek.

It is sometimes considered that the word ‘dog’ has a disparaging meaning in this context, indicating ‘worthless’ (by comparison with cultivated garden roses) (Vedel & Lange 1960). However it also known that it was used in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries to treat the bite of rabid dogs, hence the name “dog rose” may result from this[7] (though it seems just as plausible that the name gave rise to the treatment).

Other old folk names include dogberry and witches’ briar.[citation needed]

Invasive species

Dog rose is an invasive species in the high country of New Zealand. It was recognised as displacing native vegetation as early as 1895[8] although the Department of Conservation does not consider it to be a conservation threat.[9]

Dog rose in culture

The dog rose was the stylized rose of medieval European heraldry, and is still used today.[citation needed] It is also the county flower of Hampshire.[10] Legend states the Thousand-year Rose or Hildesheim Rose, that climbs against a wall of Hildesheim Cathedral dates back to the establishment of the diocese in 815.[11]

 

Rose hip, rose hip and seed and rose hip seed, all were negatively monographed by the German Commission E due to insufficient evidence of effects and effectiveness. Therefore a comprehensive review of the literature was conducted to summarize the pharmacological and clinical effects of Rosa canina L. to reevaluate its usefulness in traditional medicine. For various preparations of rose hip and rose hip and seed, antioxidative and antiinflammatory effects have been demonstrated. Lipophilic constituents are involved in those mechanisms of action. The proprietary rose hip and seed powder Litozin has been employed successfully in a number of exploratory studies in patients suffering from osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and low back pain. However, the sizes of the clinical effects for the different indications need to be determined to assure clinical significance. There is also a rationale behind the use of Litozin as part of a hypocaloric diet based on the rose hip probiotic, stool regulating and smooth muscle-relaxing actions, as well as the rose hip seed lipid-lowering, antiobese and antiulcerogenic effects. Further research is needed to clarify the importance of the reported promising experimental effects in clinical use and to characterize the optimum rose hip seed oil preparation for topical use in the treatment of skin diseases.

Rosiflex Discovery

Rosiflex Discovery

The Rosiflex™ story began in the early 1990s, when Erik Hansen, a farmer from Langeland, Denmark, discovered, quite by chance that rosehips from the Rosa Canina plant appeared to help soothe his aching joints.

Encouraged by this realisation, he developed the first of his rosehip powders. Made from rosehips grown on his own farm, he sold the powder to friends and neighbours after telling them of his own positive experiences.

The response from these early customers was so positive that Erik, and his son Torbjorn, decided to seek scientific verification of what they had found. They contacted scientists at the local hospital to see if they could find what it was in the rosehip that was producing the positive joint-health benefits being reported.

At first, the scientists were sceptical about the claimed benefits of the rosehip fruit – more commonly associated with teas and marmalades than with potential joint-health benefits. They did however agree to begin some scientific studies.

As the results of the testing began to emerge, the researchers became more and more convinced about the Langeland rosehip powder. Since then, several well designed scientific studies involving a couple of hundred people have been undertaken and published in recognised scientific journals.

 

Anti-inflammatory action of Rose hip

Rose hip is a typical daily food supplement traditionally used for its vitamin C content and other active principles to treat several discomforts: respiratory disorders, infectious diseases, gastrointestinal and urinary system illnesses and prophylaxis of vitamin C deficiencies. Rose hips have been eaten as jam or drunken as fruit tea for centuries. Therefore the separated Rose hip peels have always been regarded as everyday food.

In the last ten years it was scientifically documented, that the daily use of food containing rose hip fruits was positive to treat inflammatory joint diseases, in particular osteoarthritis. Several human studies with rose hip powder showed pain reducing properties and could also reduce symptoms such stiffness or even the need for additional medication.
However, the daily amount of 5 g over a period of 12 weeks showed moderate beneficial effects and low compliance demonstrating what the limits of a treatment with rose hip powder are.

Rose hip fruit skin powder contains remarkable active principles able to inhibit pro-inflammatory mediators and oxidative substances as well as enzymes responsible for the degradation of the organic matrix of joints and bones. A marked action on the inhibition of different cytokines has been observed as the interleukin 1β (IL-1β), the interleukin 6 (IL-6) and the alpha tumoral necrosis factor (TNF- α).

However herbal drug powders are usually not as stable and uniform as extracts. Using purification techniques and water as extraction solvent Finzelberg get a new extract, which compared with the rose hip drug powder is 7 fold stronger in their anti-inflammatory activity.

References

  1. ^ “BSBI List 2007” (xls). Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Retrieved 2014-10-17.
  2. ^ De Riek, Jan; De Cock, Katrien; Smulders, Marinus J.M.; Nybom, Hilde (2013). “AFLP-based population structure analysis as a means to validate the complex taxonomy of dogroses (Rosa section Caninae)”. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 67 (3): 547–59. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2013.02.024. PMID 23499615.
  3. ^ Vogl, Sylvia; Picker, Paolo; Mihaly-Bison, Judit; Fakhrudin, Nanang; Atanasov, Atanas G.; Heiss, Elke H.; Wawrosch, Christoph; Reznicek, Gottfried; Dirsch, Verena M.; Saukel, Johannes; Kopp, Brigitte (2013). “Ethnopharmacological in vitro studies on Austria’s folk medicine—An unexplored lore in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of 71 Austrian traditional herbal drugs”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 149 (3): 750–71. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2013.06.007. PMC 3791396. PMID 23770053.
  4. ^ Täckholm, Gunnar (1922) Zytologische Studien über die Gattung Rosa. Acta Horti Bergiani 7, 97-381.
  5. ^ Lim, K Y; Werlemark, G; Matyasek, R; Bringloe, J B; Sieber, V; El Mokadem, H; Meynet, J; Hemming, J; Leitch, A R; Roberts, A V (2005). “Evolutionary implications of permanent odd polyploidy in the stable sexual, pentaploid of Rosa canina L”. Heredity 94 (5): 501–6. doi:10.1038/sj.hdy.6800648. PMID 15770234.
  6. ^ Stock, M.; Ustinova, J.; Betto-Colliard, C.; Schartl, M.; Moritz, C.; Perrin, N. (2011). “Simultaneous Mendelian and clonal genome transmission in a sexually reproducing, all-triploid vertebrate”. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 279 (1732): 1293. doi:10.1098/rspb.2011.1738.
  7. ^ Howard, Michael. Traditional Folk Remedies (Century, 1987); p133
  8. ^ Kirk, T (1895). “The Displacement of Species in New Zealand”. Transactions of the New Zealand Institute 1895 (Wellington: Royal Society of New Zealand) 28. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
  9. ^ Owen, S. J. (1997). Ecological weeds on conservation land in New Zealand: a database. Wellington: Department of Conservation.
  10. ^ “County Flowers | Wild plants”. Plantlife. Retrieved 2012-02-04.
  11. ^ Lucy Gordan. “Hildesheim’s Medieval Church Treasures at the Met”. Inside the Vatican. Archived from the original on 30 April 2014. Retrieved 30 April 2014.

Further reading

  • Flora Europaea: Rosa canina
  • Blamey, M. & Grey-Wilson, C. (1989). Flora of Britain and Northern Europe. Hodder & Stoughton. ISBN 0-340-40170-2.
  • Vedel, H. & Lange, J. (1960). Trees and bushes. Metheun, London.
  • Graham G.S. & Primavesi A.L. (1993). Roses of Great Britain and Ireland. B.S.B.I. Handbook No. 7. Botanical Society of the British Isles, London.

External links

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Contraindications:
As a natural diuretic, Rose Hips Herbal Supplement may increase the efficacy of prescription diuretics and should not be used at the same time.   Make sure your doctor knows if you are taking a blood thinner, such as Coumadin®.

Disclaimer:
The information presented herein by this post is intended for educational purposes only. These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA and are not intended to diagnose, cure, treat or prevent disease. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

Sri Lankan traditional medicine


Sri Lanka has its own indigenous scheme of traditional medicine (Ayurveda).[1][2] This system has been practised for many centuries in the island nation. The Sri Lankan Ayurvedic tradition is a mixture of the Sinhala traditional medicine, Ayurveda and Siddha systems of India, Unani medicine of Greece through the Arabs, and most importantly, theDesheeya Chikitsa, which is the indigenous medicine of Sri Lanka.

History

Sri Lanka developed its own Ayurvedic system based on a series of prescriptions handed down from generation to generation over a period of 3,000 years. The ancient kings, who were also prominent physicians, sustained its survival and longevity. King Buddhadasa (398 AD), the most influential of these physicians, wrote the Sarartha Sangrahaya, a comprehensive manuscript which Sri Lankan physicians still use today for reference.Map of sri lanka 

  1. Sri Lanka

Ancient inscriptions on rock surfaces reveal that organized medical services have existed within the country for centuries. In fact, Sri Lanka claims to be the first country in the world to have established dedicated hospitals. The Sri Lankan mountain Mihintale still has the ruins of what many believe to be the first hospital in the world. Old hospital sites now attract tourists, who marvel at the beautiful ruins. These places have come to symbolize a traditional sense of healing and care, which was so prevalent at that time.

Historically the Ayurvedic physicians enjoyed a noble position in the country’s social hierarchy due to their royal patronage. From this legacy stems a well-known Sri Lankan saying: “If you can not be a king, become a healer.” Along with Buddhism, the interrelationship between Ayurveda and royalty continues to influence politics in Sri Lanka.

Four systems of traditional medicine have been adopted in Sri Lanka: Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Deshiya Chikitsa. The Ayurveda and Deshiya Chikitsa systems use mainly plant and herbal preparations for the treatment of diseases–the former uses about 2000 species, the latter about 500. The plants are used singly or as mixtures.

The traditional systems of medicine have a vast literature, mainly in the form of manuscripts. The principle of the Ayurvedic system is to consider the body as a whole, ailments of different organs not being treated separately as in modern medicine. Similarly, Ayurveda takes into account the actions of the drug in its entirety.

Research therefore must be carried out in hospitals or biological laboratories and not in chemical laboratories where plant extracts are subject inevitably to chemical reactions. Therefore the chemical approach to identify active principles is a complete deviation from the principles of traditional medicine. Research on plants should be carried out for the further development of traditional systems of medicine and not to their detriment.

The threat of extinction of certain species of plants and herbs is stressed, the causes being the destruction of jungles, the greater demand for raw materials for increased manufacture of traditional medicinal preparations, the absence of organised cultivation of medicinal plants, and unscientific harvesting. The compilation of encyclopaedias of plants used in traditional medicine is highly recommended for every country interested in preserving the traditional systems of medicine.

Traditional medicine has been practiced in Sri Lanka for 3,000 years. At present, there are four systems of traditional medical systems in Sri Lanka viz. Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Deshiya Chikitsa (Sri Lankan traditional treatment). The most important among them is Ayurveda, which also forms part of the national health services provided by the government of Sri Lanka including separate ministry for Indigenous Medicine. At present, Ayurveda serves a large proportion of the population with one Ayurvedic physician per 3,000 people in Sri Lanka. About 60 to 70% of the rural population relies on traditional and natural medicine for their primary health care. Therefore Herbal drugs are essential components of traditional medical system in Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka is identified as one of the most biologically diverse countries in Asia with about 20% of the area under forest. It has the highest species diversity per unit area in Asia and is one of the mega biodiversity hot spots. Therefore it is an urgent need to rationally utilize medicinal plants for curative purposes with proper maintenance of biodiversity. The government of Sri Lana has taken several initiatives to develop technology for the effective conservation and efficient utilization of medicinal plants, to coordinate research and developmental activities through the Department of Ayurveda, Bandaranayake Memorial Ayurvedic Research Institute and the Institute of Indigenous Medicine – University of Colombo. But lack of funding and some problems and constraints knowledge of herbal medical systems and its applications to cure illnesses has not been effectively explored fully by Sri Lanka. If this happens successfully, Sri Lanka could gain a very significant competitive edge  in the global market, especially in the herbal medical drugs, beauty care and nutraceuticals.

There is a lot of scope for Sri Lanka to achieve higher rank in global market through export of quality products from medicinal and aromatic plants. But Sri Lanka seems to be lagging behind using advanced technology and standardization procedures in herbal products and is ranked lower in the herbal medicine global market share, while China occupies nearly 30% of the global market with high tech issues. Therefore Sri Lanka need to be focused on the quality assurance with multidisciplinary researches with in the country and collaborative works with other high tech used countries. Further Good laboratory practices (GLP) and Good manufacturing practices (GMPs) are also needed to apply for produce good quality medicinal products in Sri Lanka. Without overcoming these entire measures current scenario is not sufficient to increase the global market share of herbal drug industry and herbal medical practice for Sri Lanka.

Pathirage Kamal Perera, Guest invited speaker, Topic: Current scenario of herbal medicine in Sri Lanka, ASSOCHAM , 4th annual Herbal International Summit cum Exhibition on Medicinal & Aromatic Products, Spices and finished products(hi-MAPS) at NSIC, Okhla Industrial Estate, New Delhi on 14 -15 April,2012.

TRAVEL TO SRILANKA……..http://www.kumc.edu/Documents/history%20of%20med/Abeykoon.pdf

Works Cited 1. Waxler-Morrison NE. “Plural Medicine in Sri Lanka: Do Ayurvedic and Western Medical Practices Differ?” 1988. Web. 27 Jan. 2012. . 2. Glynn, J. R. “Factors That Influence Patients in Sri Lanka in Their Choice between Ayurvedic and Western Medicine.” British Medical Journal 291 (1985): 470-72. . 3. Jeyarajah R. “Factors That Influence Patients in Sri Lanka in Their Choice between Ayurvedic and Western Medicine.” 28 Sept. 1985. Web. 27 Jan. 2012. . 4. Ediriweera ER ER. “Clinical Study on the Efficacy of Chandra Kalka with Mahadalu Anupanaya in the Management of Pakshaghata (Hemiplegia).” Jan. 2011. Web. 27 Jan. 2012. . 5. Mano H. “Mechanisms of Blood Glucose-lowering Effect of Aqueous Extract from Stems of Kothala Himbutu (Salacia Reticulata) in the Mouse.” Jan. 2009. Web. 27 Jan. 2012. . 6. Nordstrom CR. “Exploring Pluralism–the Many Faces of Ayurveda.” 1988. Web. 27 Jan. 2012. . 7. Weerasinghe MC. “Paradox in Treatment Seeking: An Experience from Rural Sri Lanka.” Mar. 2011. Web. 27 Jan. 2012. .

The contacts of mentors and other respective sources

Commissioner of western province, Ministry of Indigenous Medicine, Sri Lanka Name- Dr. Nimal Karunasiri, Designation – Commissioner of Western Province, Ministry of Indigenous Medicine Sri Lanka Address- Ministry of Indigenous Medicine, Sri Lanka Contact information- Tel 01194777675679 Email- Nimalskl@gmail.com

National Ayurvedic Medical College and hospitals Name- Dr. R.A. Jayasinghe Designation – Director of indigenous medicine – Rajagiriya Address- National Ayurvedic Medical College, Rajagiriya, Sri Lanka Contact information- Tel +94775412312

National Ayurvedic research center Name- K.D.S. Ranaweera Designation- Professor Address- Institute Bandaranayaka Memorial Research Institute, Navinna, Sri Lanaka Contact information- Tel +942850302 or 333 /0712413537

Licensed Ayurvedic medical practitioners Name- Dr. H.A.M Sriyani Designation- Doctor of Ayurvedic Medicine Institute- Ayurvedic Hospital Address- Minipe Pradeshiya Saba (provincial level hospital), Hasalaka, Sri Lanka Contact information- Tel- 01194772865364

Name- Dr. H.P Jayadasa Designation- Doctor of Ayurvedic Medicine Institute- Gampaha Ayurvedic dispensary Address- 40. A, Rahula Road, Katubadda, Moratuwa, Sri Lanka Contact information- Tel- 01194777551389

Address of the hospital where the shadowing of doctors and interviewing patients will take placeMinipe Pradeshiya Saba (provincial level hospital) Hasalaka

References

  1.  Plunkett, Richard; Ellemor, Brigitte (2003). Sri Lanka. Lonely Planet. p. 174. ISBN 1-74059-423-1.
  2. Petitjean, Patrick; Jami, Catherine; Moulin, Anne + – Marie (1992). Science and Empires. Springer. p. 112. ISBN 0-7923-1518-9.

Sri Lankan traditional medicine

http://www.indigenousmedimini.gov.lk/

Ayurveda……..Saffron, केसरी కుంకుమ పువ్వు زعفران 사프란


Saffron – valuable stigmas, or threads, are painstakingly plucked, piled, and dried. flower

Saffron (pronounced /ˈsæfrən/ or /ˈsæfrɒn/)[1] is a spice derived from the flower of Crocus sativus, commonly known as the saffron crocus. Crocus is a genus in the family Iridaceae. Saffron crocus grows to 20–30 cm (8–12 in) and bears up to four flowers, each with three vivid crimson stigmas, which are the distal end of a carpel.[2] The styles and stigmas are collected and dried to be used as a seasoning and colouring agent in cooking. Saffron, long among the world’s most costly spices by weight,[3][4][5] is native to Greece orSouthwest Asia[6][4] and was first cultivated in Greece.[7] As a genetically monomorphic clone,[8] it was slowly propagated throughout much of Eurasia and was later brought to parts of North Africa, North America, and Oceania. The saffron crocus, unknown in the wild, probably descends from Crocus cartwrightianus, which originated in Crete;[8] C. thomasii and C. pallasii are other possible precursors.[9][10] The saffron crocus is a triploid that is “self-incompatible” and male sterile; it undergoes aberrant meiosis and is hence incapable of independent sexual reproduction—all propagation is by vegetative multiplication via manual “divide-and-set” of a starter clone or by interspecific hybridisation.[11][10] If C. sativus is a mutant form of C. cartwrightianus, then it may have emerged via plant breeding, which would have selected for elongated stigmas, in late Bronze Age Crete.[12] Saffron’s taste and iodoform– or hay-like fragrance result from the chemicals picrocrocin and safranal.[13][14] It also contains a carotenoid pigment, crocin, which imparts a richgolden-yellow hue to dishes and textiles. Its recorded history is attested in a 7th-century BC Assyrian botanical treatise compiled under Ashurbanipal,[15] and it has been traded and used for over four millennia. Iran now accounts for approximately 90% of the world production of saffron.[16] Saffron is obtained from dried style and stigma of reddish-orange flowers of a plant. Kesar or Saffron is the most expensive spice of world as stigmas of about 60, 000 hand collected flowers provide only half- kilograms of it. Saffron is used as coloring and flavoring ingredient in the preparation of various dishes. It is also used as traditional medicine for many diseases and in cosmetics. Saffron has a distinct aromatic odour and a bitter, pungent taste. Medicinally it is stimulant (stimulates levels of physiological or nervous activity), aphrodisiac, improves digestion and appetite. It increases blood flow in pelvic region on oral intake. Its over-doses is a narcotic poison. Saffron is always used in small doses. It is a popular remedy for promoting menstruation.

 saffron_desibantu

Saffron is the most expensive herb harvested from the stigma of the Crocus sativus flower. It is dark orange and thread like in appearance, with a spicy flavor, nice yellow to orange color and pungent odor.

  •   The plant is grown in India, Spain, France, Italy, the Middle East, and the eastern Mediterranean region.
  • Over 200,000 crocus stigmas must be harvested to produce one pound of saffron.
  • Saffron is harvested by drying the orange stigma which are 3 of them in one Crocus sativus flower over fire.
  • This volume makes the herb extremely expensive and quite often adulterated.
  • Saffron is prescribed as a herbal remedy to stimulate the digestive system, ease colic and stomach discomfort, and minimize gas.
  • It is also used as an emmenagogue, to stimulate and promote menstrual flow in women.
  • Additional human studies have indicated that saffron has powerful antioxidant properties; that is, it helps to protect living tissues from free radicals and other harmful effects of oxidation.
  • Two chemical components of saffron extract, crocetin and crocin, reportedly improved memory and learning skills. These properties indicate that saffron extract may be a useful treatment for neurodegenerative disorders and related memory impairment.
  • In ancient India, robes were traditionally dyed a golden color from the crocin chemical dye that is found in saffron.
  • In fact, after Buddha had died, the Buddhist priests made this golden saffron color their official color of their robes.
  • Saffron was used by Greeks and Romans as a perfume on behalf of its pleasant aroma.
  • Cleopatra used to use saffron as a type of cosmetic. And now a days it is used in face creams as a fairness cream.
  • In the Middle Ages, one could be sentenced to the punishment of being buried alive if they tried to alter saffron by adding in other substances.
  • Romans used to take baths infused with saffron.
  • In order to cure hang-overs, Romans would sleep with expensive pillows that were stuffed with saffron.
  • Saffron is extensively used in Indian Cuisine and Middle Eastern Cuisine.

Scientific classification

  • Kingdom:Plantae
  • Division:Magnoliophyta
  • Class:Liliopsida
  • Order:Asparagales
  • Family:Iridaceae
  • Genus:Crocus
  • Species:C. sativus

Vernacular Names

SANSKRIT:Bhavarakta, Saurab, Mangalya, Kumkum ENGLISH:Saffron, Crocus PERSIAN:Zafrahn;Zipharana;GUJARATI:Keshar, Kesar KANNADA:Kunkuma, Kesari, MALAYALAM:Kunkuma Puvu MARATHI:Keshar PUNJABI:Kesar, Keshar TAMIL:Kungumapuvu TELUGU:Kunkuma Puvvu URDU:Zafran Parts Used:Dried stigmas and tops of the styles of Crocus sativus flowers. Habitat:Saffron is Cultivated in Kashmir, Kishtwar (Jammu) and in Nepal. Commercially, it is grown in Spain, France, Italy, Greece, Turkey, and China. Energetics:Pungent, bitter, Hot in potency

Plant description

Perennial tuber plant;Leaves radical,  linear,  dark green above,  pale green below,  enclosed in a membranous sheath;large Apurple or lilac colored flowers;Corolla in two segments, between which the long styles hang out;Stigmas three, large, nearly an inch long, rolled at the edges, bright orange bitter and warming taste.

Constituents of Saffron

Saffron contains three crystalline colouring matters ?-crocetin, ?-crocetin and ?-crocetin. It also contains essential oil a number of carotenoid pigments. The essential oil obtained from stigmas contains thirty-four or more components, viz. terpenes, terpene alcohols, and esters.

Medicinal Uses of Saffron

Saffron is used as condiment and colouring ingredient in several dishes. It is also used as a medicinal herb in fevers, enlargement of the liver, cough and asthma, anaemia, seminal debility rheumatism and neuralgia. Saffron is nervine tonic, sedative, antispasmodic expectorant, stomachic, diaphoretic and emmenagogue. In low doses Saffron stimulates gastric secretion and thus improves digestion. In large dose it increases flow of blood in pelvic region, stimulate uterine smooth muscles and can cause abortion.

  1. Saffron oral use gives relief in respiratory ailments. In cough and cold a pinch of Saffron is taken with a glass of milk.
  2. In painful urination and other urinary disorder the decoction of Saffron or infused tea should be taken.
  3. In irritation in eyes, crushed saffron should be mixed with honey and this should be applied in eyes.
  4. In looseness of bowels saffron is given children with ghee. It can also be given with half a teaspoon of lemon juice.
  5. For pneumonia in kids, few threads of saffron are added to 10-15 ml juice of bitter gourd leaves and given twice a day.
  6. Saffron is added to meals for regulating the menstrual cycle. It also gives relief in painful menstruation, PMS (premenstrual syndrome) and promotes fertility.
  7. For sexual weakness, about 250 mg of saffron is taken with milk twice a day for one week.
  8. Saffron improves digestion and appetite.
  9. To get relief from dry cough one should drink one hot glass of milk added with turmeric, and few strands of saffron.
  10. Saffron in paste form is applied topically for head-ache.
  11. Its external application is also useful in sores, bruises and skin diseases. It is applied on face for improving complexion and treating hyper-pigmented spots.
  12. It is also used for patchy loss of hair. For this purpose a paste of liquorice (mulethi) made by grinding the pieces in milk with a pinch of saffron is applied over the bald patches in the night before going to bed.
  13. A famous Ayurvedic preparation containing Kesar or saffron is kumkumadi tailam. This medicated saffron/kumkum oil is applied on pimples marks, dark spots, dark circles, wrinkles etc.

The recommended doses of Saffron below one gram. Toxic dose is 1.5g–5 g.

Etymology

Further information: History of saffron

A degree of uncertainty surrounds the origin of the English word, “saffron” although it can be traced to have stemmed immediately from 12th-century Old French term safran, which comes from the Latin word safranum. Safranum comes from the Persian intercessor زعفران, or za’ferân. Old Persian is the first language in which the use of saffron in cooking is recorded, with references dating back thousands of years.

Species

Main article: Crocus sativus

Description

Köhler’s Medicinal Plants:

  corolla
  stamens
  corm
  stigma

The domesticated saffron crocus, Crocus sativus, is an autumn-flowering perennial plant unknown in the wild. Its progenitors are possibly the eastern Mediterranean autumn-flowering Crocus cartwrightianus,[17][10] which is also known as “wild saffron”[18] and originated in Greece.[14] The saffron crocus probably resulted when C. cartwrightianus was subjected to extensive artificial selection by growers seeking longer stigmas. C. thomasii and C. pallasii are other possible sources.[9][10] It is a sterile triploid form, which means that three homologous sets of chromosomes compose each specimen’s genetic complement; C. sativus bears eight chromosomal bodies per set, making for 24 in total.[2] Being sterile, the purple flowers of C. sativus fail to produce viable seeds; reproduction hinges on human assistance: clusters of corms, underground, bulb-like, starch-storing organs, must be dug up, divided, and replanted. A corm survives for one season, producing via this vegetative division up to ten “cormlets” that can grow into new plants in the next season.[17] The compact corms are small, brown globules that can measure as large as 5 cm (2.0 in) in diameter, have a flat base, and are shrouded in a dense mat of parallel fibres; this coat is referred to as the “corm tunic”. Corms also bear vertical fibres, thin and net-like, that grow up to 5 cm above the plant’s neck.[2]

C. sativus.

The plant grows to a height of 20–30 cm (8–12 in), and sprouts 5–11 white and non-photosynthetic leaves known ascataphylls. These membrane-like structures cover and protect the crocus’s 5 to 11 true leaves as they bud and develop. The latter are thin, straight, and blade-like green foliage leaves, which are 1–3 mm in diameter, either expand after the flowers have opened (“hysteranthous”) or do so simultaneously with their blooming (“synanthous”).C. sativus cataphylls are suspected by some to manifest prior to blooming when the plant is irrigated relatively early in the growing season. Its floral axes, or flower-bearing structures, bear bracteoles, or specialised leaves that sprout from the flower stems; the latter are known as pedicels.[2] After aestivating in spring, the plant sends up its true leaves, each up to 40 cm (16 in) in length. In autumn, purple buds appear. Only in October, after most other flowering plants have released their seeds, do its brilliantly hued flowers develop; they range from a light pastel shade of lilac to a darker and more striated mauve.[19] The flowers possess a sweet, honey-like fragrance. Upon flowering, plants average less than 30 cm (12 in) in height.[20] A three-pronged style emerges from each flower. Each prong terminates with a vivid crimson stigma 25–30 mm (0.98–1.18 in) in length.[17]

Cultivation

Saffron bulbs for vegetative reproduction

Crocus sativus thrives in the Mediterranean maquis, an ecotype superficially resembling the North American chaparral, and similar climates where hot and dry summer breezes sweep semi-arid lands. It can nonetheless survive cold winters, tolerating frosts as low as −10 °C (14 °F) and short periods of snow cover.[17][21] Irrigation is required if grown outside of moist environments such as Kashmir, where annual rainfall averages 1,000–1,500 mm (39–59 in); saffron-growing regions in Greece (500 mm or 20 in annually) and Spain (400 mm or 16 in) are far drier than the main cultivating Iranian regions. What makes this possible is the timing of the local wet seasons; generous spring rains and drier summers are optimal. Rain immediately preceding flowering boosts saffron yields; rainy or cold weather during flowering promotes disease and reduces yields. Persistently damp and hot conditions harm the crops,[22] and rabbits, rats, and birds cause damage by digging up corms. Nematodes, leaf rusts, and corm rot pose other threats. Yet Bacillus subtilis inoculation may provide some benefit to growers by speeding corm growth and increasing stigma biomass yield.[23]

Saffron harvesting, Torbat-e Heydarieh, Iran

The plants fare poorly in shady conditions; they grow best in full sunlight. Fields that slope towards the sunlight are optimal (i.e., south-sloping in the Northern Hemisphere). Planting is mostly done in June in the Northern Hemisphere, where corms are lodged 7–15 cm (2.8–5.9 in) deep; its roots, stems, and leaves can develop between October and February.[2] Planting depth and corm spacing, in concert with climate, are critical factors in determining yields. Mother corms planted deeper yield higher-quality saffron, though form fewer flower buds and daughter corms. Italian growers optimise thread yield by planting 15 cm (5.9 in) deep and in rows 2–3 cm (0.79–1.18 in) apart; depths of 8–10 cm (3.1–3.9 in) optimise flower and corm production. Greek, Moroccan, and Spanish growers employ distinct depths and spacings that suit their locales. C. sativus prefers friable, loose, low-density, well-watered, and well-drained clay-calcareous soils with high organic content. Traditional raised beds promote good drainage. Soil organic content was historically boosted via application of some 20–30 tonnes of manure per hectare. Afterwards, and with no further manure application, corms were planted.[24] After a period of dormancy through the summer, the corms send up their narrow leaves and begin to bud in early autumn. Only in mid-autumn do they flower. Harvests are by necessity a speedy affair: after blossoming at dawn, flowers quickly wilt as the day passes.[25] All plants bloom within a window of one or two weeks.[26]Roughly 150 flowers together yield 1 g (0.035 oz) of dry saffron threads; to produce 12 g (0.42 oz) of dried saffron (or 72 g (2.5 oz) moist and freshly harvested), 1 kg (2.2 lb) of flowers are needed; 1 lb (0.45 kg) yields 0.2 oz (5.7 g) of dried saffron. One freshly picked flower yields an average 30 mg (0.0011 oz) of fresh saffron or 7 mg (0.00025 oz) dried.[24]

Spice

Chemistry

Structure of picrocrocin:[27]

  βD-glucopyranose derivative
  safranal moiety

  Picrocrocin is a monoterpene glycoside precursor of safranal. It is found in the spice saffron, which comes from the crocus flower.Picrocrocin has a bitter taste, and is the chemical most responsible for the taste of saffron. During the drying process, picrocrocin liberates the aglycone (HTCC, C10H16O2) due to the action of the enzyme glucosidase. The aglycone is then transformed to safranal by dehydration. Picrocrocin is a degradation product of the carotenoidzeaxanthin. Caballero-Ortega H, Pereda-Miranda R, Abdullaev FI (2007). “HPLC quantification of major active components from 11 different saffron (Crocus sativus L.) sources”. Food Chemistry 100 (3): 1126–1131. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.11.020.

Picrocrocin

Picrocrocin
CAS Registry Number: 138-55-6
CAS Name: (4R)-4-(b-D-Glucopyranosyloxy)-2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexene-1-carboxaldehyde
Additional Names: saffron-bitter
Molecular Formula: C16H26O7
Molecular Weight: 330.37
Percent Composition: C 58.17%, H 7.93%, O 33.90%
Literature References: From stigmas of Crocus sativus L., Iridaceae. Isoln: Kayser, Ber. 17, 2228 (1884). Structure: Kuhn, Winterstein, Ber. 67, 344 (1934). Exerts sex-determining influences in the plant organism: Kuhn, Angew. Chem. 53, 1 (1940). Its moieties are glucose and safranal, q.q.v. Abs config: Buchecker, Eugster, Helv. Chim. Acta 56, 1121 (1973). Synthesis: H. Mayer, J.-M. Santer, Helv. Chim. Acta 63, 1463 (1980).
Properties: Crystals, mp 154-156°. [a]D20 -58° (c = 0.6). Bitter taste. Alkali unstable. Sol in water, alcohol; slightly sol in chloroform, ether. Practically insol in petr ether, benzene.
Melting point: mp 154-156°
Optical Rotation: [a]D20 -58° (c = 0.6)
structure of Picrocrocin

Picrocrocin
Picrocrocin
Picrocrocin
Names
IUPAC names

4-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)- 2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexene- 1-carboxaldehyde
Identifiers
CAS number 138-55-6 Yes
ChemSpider 115678 
Jmol-3D images Image (138-55-6)
PubChem 130796
Properties
C16H26O7
Molar mass 330.37 g/mol
Density 1.31 g/mL
Melting point 154 to 156 °C (309 to 313 °F; 427 to 429 K)
Boiling point 520.4 °C (968.7 °F; 793.5 K)
Except where noted otherwise, data is given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)

The chemical structure of the main bioactive compounds from the dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L. – See more at: http://www.mdpi.com/2304-8158/3/3/403/htm#sthash.iOWsNDGb.dpuf Foods 03 00403 g001 1024

Saffron contains more than 150 volatile and aroma-yielding compounds. It also has many nonvolatile active components,[28] many of which are carotenoids, including zeaxanthin, lycopene, and various α- and β-carotenes. However, saffron’s golden yellow-orange colour is primarily the result of α-crocin. This crocin is trans-crocetin di-(β-D-gentiobiosyl) ester; it bears the systematic (IUPAC) name 8,8-diapo-8,8-carotenoic acid. This means that the crocin underlying saffron’s aroma is a digentiobiose ester of the carotenoid crocetin.[28] Crocins themselves are a series ofhydrophilic carotenoids that are either monoglycosyl or diglycosyl polyene esters of crocetin.[28] Crocetin is a conjugated polyene dicarboxylic acidthat is hydrophobic, and thus oil-soluble. When crocetin is esterified with two water-soluble gentiobioses, which are sugars, a product results that is itself water-soluble. The resultant α-crocin is a carotenoid pigment that may comprise more than 10% of dry saffron’s mass. The two esterified gentiobioses make α-crocin ideal for colouring water-based and non-fatty foods such as rice dishes.[7]

Esterification reaction betweencrocetin and gentiobiose. Components of α–crocin:

  βD-gentiobiose
  crocetin

The bitter glucoside picrocrocin is responsible for saffron’s flavour. Picrocrocin (chemical formula:C 16H 26O 7; systematic name: 4-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-2,6,6- trimethylcyclohex-1-ene-1-carboxaldehyde) is a union of an aldehyde sub-element known as safranal (systematic name: 2,6,6-trimethylcyclohexa-1,3-diene-1-carboxaldehyde) and a carbohydrate. It has insecticidal and pesticidal properties, and may comprise up to 4% of dry saffron. Picrocrocin is a truncated version of the carotenoidzeaxanthin that is produced via oxidative cleavage, and is the glycoside of the terpene aldehyde safranal. The reddish-coloured zeaxanthin is, incidentally, one of the carotenoids naturally present within the retina of the human eye.[29] When saffron is dried after its harvest, the heat, combined with enzymatic action, splits picrocrocin to yield Dglucose and a free safranal molecule.[27] Safranal, a volatile oil, gives saffron much of its distinctive aroma.[13][30] Safranal is less bitter than picrocrocin and may comprise up to 70% of dry saffron’s volatile fraction in some samples.[29] A second element underlying saffron’s aroma is 2-hydroxy-4,4,6-trimethyl-2,5-cyclohexadien-1-one, which produces a scent described as saffron, dried hay-like.[31] Chemists find this is the most powerful contributor to saffron’s fragrance, despite its presence in a lesser quantity than safranal.[31] Dry saffron is highly sensitive to fluctuating pH levels, and rapidly breaks down chemically in the presence of light andoxidising agents. It must, therefore, be stored away in air-tight containers to minimise contact with atmospheric oxygen. Saffron is somewhat more resistant to heat.

Grades and ISO 3632 categories[edit]

Red threads and yellow styles.

Saffron is not all of the same quality and strength. Strength is related to several factors including the amount of style picked along with the red stigma. Age of the saffron is also a factor. More style included means the saffron is less strong gram for gram, because the colour and flavour are concentrated in the red stigmas. Saffron from Iran, Spain and Kashmir is classified into various grades according to the relative amounts of red stigma and yellow styles it contains. Grades of Iranian saffron are: “sargol” (red stigma tips only, strongest grade), “pushal” or “pushali” (red stigmas plus some yellow style, lower strength), “bunch” saffron (red stigmas plus large amount of yellow style, presented in a tiny bundle like a miniature wheatsheaf) and “konge” (yellow style only, claimed to have aroma but with very little, if any, colouring potential). Grades of Spanish saffron are “coupé” (the strongest grade, like Iranian sargol), “mancha” (like Iranian pushal), and in order of further decreasing strength “rio”, “standard” and “sierra” saffron. The word “mancha” in the Spanish classification can have two meanings: a general grade of saffron or a very high quality Spanish-grown saffron from a specific geographical origin. Real Spanish-grown La Mancha saffron has PDO protected status and this is displayed on the product packaging. Spanish growers fought hard for Protected Status because they felt that imports of Iranian saffron re-packaged in Spain and sold as “Spanish Mancha saffron” were undermining the genuine La Mancha brand. Countries producing less saffron do not have specialised words for different grades and may only produce one grade. Artisan producers in Europe and New Zealand have offset their higher labour charges for saffron harvesting by targeting quality, only offering extremely high grade saffron. In addition to descriptions based on how the saffron is picked, saffron may be categorised under the international standard ISO 3632 after laboratory measurement of crocin (responsible for saffron’s colour), picrocrocin (taste), and safranal (fragrance or aroma) content.[32] However, often there is no clear grading information on the product packaging and little of the saffron readily available in UK is labelled with ISO category. This lack of information makes it hard for customers to make informed choices when comparing prices and buying saffron. Under ISO 3632, determination of non-stigma content (“floral waste content”) and other extraneous matter such as inorganic material (“ash“) are also key. Grading standards are set by the International Organization for Standardization, a federation of national standards bodies. ISO 3632 deals exclusively with saffron and establishes three categories: III (poorest quality), II, and I (finest quality). Formerly there was also category IV, which was below category III. Samples are assigned categories by gauging the spice’s crocin and picrocrocin content, revealed by measurements of specific spectrophotometric absorbance. Safranal is treated slightly differently and rather than there being threshold levels for each category, samples must give a reading of 20-50 for all categories. These data are measured through spectrophotometry reports at certified testing laboratories worldwide. Higher absorbances imply greater levels of crocin, picrocrocin and safranal, and thus a greater colouring potential and therefore strength per gram. The absorbance reading of crocin is known as the “colouring strength” of that saffron. Saffron’s colouring strength can range from lower than 80 (for all category IV saffron) up to 200 or greater (for category I). The world’s finest samples (the selected, most red-maroon, tips of stigmas picked from the finest flowers) receive colouring strengths in excess of 250, making such saffron over three times more powerful than category IV saffron. Market prices for saffron types follow directly from these ISO categories. Sargol and coupé saffron would typically fall into ISO 3632 category I. Pushal and mancha would probably be assigned to category II. On many saffron packaging labels, neither the ISO 3632 category nor the colouring strength (the measurement of crocin content) is displayed. However, many growers, traders, and consumers reject such lab test numbers. Some people prefer a more holistic method of sampling batches of threads for taste, aroma, pliability, and other traits in a fashion similar to that practised by experienced wine tasters.[33] However, ISO 3632 grade and colouring strength information allow consumers to make instant comparisons between the quality of different saffron brands, without needing to purchase and sample the saffron. In particular, consumers can work out value for money based on price per unit of colouring strength rather than price per gram, given the wide possible range of colouring strengths that different kinds of saffron can have. Despite attempts at quality control and standardisation, an extensive history of saffron adulteration, particularly among the cheapest grades, continues into modern times. Adulteration was first documented in Europe’s Middle Ages, when those found selling adulterated saffron were executed under the Safranschou code.[34] Typical methods include mixing in extraneous substances like beets, pomegranate fibres, red-dyed silk fibres, or the saffron crocus’s tasteless and odourless yellow stamens. Other methods included dousing saffron fibres with viscid substances like honey or vegetable oil to increase their weight. However, powdered saffron is more prone to adulteration, with turmeric, paprika, and other powders used as diluting fillers. Adulteration can also consist of selling mislabelled mixes of different saffron grades. Thus, in India, high-grade Kashmiri saffron is often sold and mixed with cheaper Iranian imports; these mixes are then marketed as pure Kashmiri saffron, a development that has cost Kashmiri growers much of their income.[35][36]

Types

Saffron from different producer countries, picked and dried in different ways gives rise to different end qualities.

The various saffron crocus cultivars give rise to thread types that are often regionally distributed and characteristically distinct. Varieties (not varieties in the botanical sense) from Spain, including the tradenames “Spanish Superior” and “Creme”, are generally mellower in colour, flavour, and aroma; they are graded by government-imposed standards. Italian varieties are slightly more potent than Spanish. The most intense varieties tend to be Iranian. Various “boutique” crops are available from New Zealand, France, Switzerland, England, the United States, and other countries—some of them organically grown. In the U.S., Pennsylvania Dutch saffron—known for its “earthy” notes—is marketed in small quantities.[37][38] Consumers may regard certain cultivars as “premium” quality. The “Aquila” saffron, or zafferano dell’Aquila, is defined by high safranal and crocin content, distinctive thread shape, unusually pungent aroma, and intense colour; it is grown exclusively on eight hectares in the Navelli Valley of Italy’s Abruzzo region, near L’Aquila. It was first introduced to Italy by a Dominican monk from Inquisition-era Spain. But the biggest saffron cultivation in Italy is in San Gavino Monreale, Sardinia, where it is grown on 40 hectares, representing 60% of Italian production; it too has unusually high crocin, picrocrocin, and safranal content. Another is the “Mongra” or “Lacha” saffron of Kashmir (Crocus sativus ‘Cashmirianus’), which is among the most difficult for consumers to obtain. Repeated droughts, blights, and crop failures in the Indian-controlled areas of Kashmir combine with an Indian export ban to contribute to its prohibitive overseas prices. Kashmiri saffron is recognisable by its dark maroon-purple hue; it is among the world’s darkest, which hints at strong flavour, aroma, and colouring effect.

History

Main article: History of saffron

A detail from the “Saffron Gatherers” fresco of the “Xeste 3” building. It is one of many depicting saffron; they were found at the Bronze Age settlement ofAkrotiri, on the Aegean island of Santorini.

The documented history of saffron cultivation spans more than three millennia.[17] The wild precursor of domesticated saffron crocus wasCrocus cartwrightianus. Human cultivators bred wild specimens by selecting for unusually long stigmas; thus, a sterile mutant form of C. cartwrightianus, C. sativus, likely emerged in late Bronze Age Crete.[12]

Eastern

Buddhist adepts pray in the Hundred Dragons Hall, Buddha Tooth Relic Temple and Museum, Singapore, wearing saffron-coloured robes.

Saffron was detailed in a 7th-century BC Assyrian botanical reference compiled under Ashurbanipal.[15]Documentation of saffron’s use over the span of 4,000 years in the treatment of some 90 illnesses has been uncovered.[39] Saffron-based pigments have indeed been found in 50,000 year-old depictions of prehistoric places in northwest Iran.[40][41] The Sumerians later used wild-growing saffron in their remedies and magical potions.[42] Saffron was an article of long-distance trade before the Minoan palace culture’s 2nd millennium BC peak. Ancient Persians cultivated Persian saffron (Crocus sativus ‘Hausknechtii’) in Derbena, Isfahan, and Khorasan by the 10th century BC. At such sites, saffron threads were woven into textiles,[40] ritually offered to divinities, and used in dyes, perfumes, medicines, and body washes.[43]Saffron threads would thus be scattered across beds and mixed into hot teas as a curative for bouts of melancholy. Non-Persians also feared the Persians’ usage of saffron as a drugging agent and aphrodisiac.[44] During his Asian campaigns, Alexander the Great used Persian saffron in his infusions, rice, and baths as a curative for battle wounds. Alexander’s troops imitated the practice from the Persians and brought saffron-bathing to Greece.[45] Conflicting theories explain saffron’s arrival in South Asia. Kashmiri and Chinese accounts date its arrival anywhere between 2500–900 years ago.[46][47][48] Historians studying ancient Persian records date the arrival to sometime prior to 500 BC,[7] attributing it to a Persian transplantation of saffron corms to stock new gardens and parks.[49] Phoenicians then marketed Kashmiri saffron as a dye and a treatment for melancholy. Its use in foods and dyes subsequently spread throughout South Asia. Buddhist monks wear saffron-coloured robes; however, the robes are not dyed with costly saffron but turmeric, a less expensive dye, or jackfruit.[50] Monks’ robes are dyed the same colour to show equality with each other, and turmeric or ochre were the cheapest, most readily available dyes. Gamboge is now used to dye the robes.[51] Some historians believe that saffron came to China with Mongol invaders from Persia.[52] Yet saffron is mentioned in ancient Chinese medical texts, including the forty-volume pharmacopoeia titled Shennong Bencaojing (神農本草經: “Shennong’s Great Herbal”, also known as Pen Ts’ao or Pun Tsao), a tome dating from 300–200 BC. Traditionally credited to the fabled Yan (“Fire”) Emperor (炎帝) Shennong, it discusses 252 phytochemical-based medical treatments for various disorders.[53] Nevertheless, around the 3rd century AD, the Chinese were referring to saffron as having a Kashmiri provenance. According to Chinese herbalist Wan Zhen, “[t]he habitat of saffron is in Kashmir, where people grow it principally to offer it to the Buddha.” Wan also reflected on how it was used in his time: “The flower withers after a few days, and then the saffron is obtained. It is valued for its uniform yellow colour. It can be used to aromatise wine.”[48]

Wider Near East, Western Europe and the USA

Preserved “safran”, Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde, Karlsruhe, Germany.

The Minoans portrayed saffron in their palace frescoes by 1600–1500 BC; they hint at its possible use as a therapeutic drug.[39][54] Ancient Greek legends told of sea voyages to Cilicia, where adventurers sought what they believed were the world’s most valuable threads.[21] Another legend tells of Crocus and Smilax, whereby Crocus is bewitched and transformed into the first saffron crocus.[40] Ancient perfumers in Egypt, physicians inGaza, townspeople in Rhodes,[55] and the Greek hetaerae courtesans used saffron in their scented waters, perfumes and potpourris, mascaras and ointments, divine offerings, and medical treatments.[44] In late Hellenistic Egypt, Cleopatra used saffron in her baths so that lovemaking would be more pleasurable.[56] Egyptian healers used saffron as a treatment for all varieties of gastrointestinal ailments.[57] Saffron was also used as a fabric dye in such Levantine cities as Sidon and Tyre inLebanon.[58] Aulus Cornelius Celsus prescribes saffron in medicines for wounds, cough, colic, and scabies, and in the mithridatium.[59] Such was the Romans’ love of saffron that Roman colonists took it with them when they settled in southern Gaul, where it was extensively cultivated until Rome’s fall. Competing theories state that saffron only returned to France with 8th-century AD Moors or with the Avignon papacy in the 14th century AD.[60] European saffron cultivation plummeted after the Roman Empire went into eclipse. As with France, the spread of Islamic civilisation may have helped reintroduce the crop to Spain and Italy.[61] The 14th-century Black Death caused demand for saffron-based medicaments to peak, and Europe imported large quantities of threads via Venetian and Genoan ships from southern and Mediterranean lands such as Rhodes. The theft of one such shipment by noblemen sparked the fourteen-week-long Saffron War.[62] The conflict and resulting fear of rampant saffron piracy spurred corm cultivation in Basel; it thereby grew prosperous.[63] The crop then spread to Nuremberg, where endemic and insalubrious adulteration brought on the Safranschou code—whereby culprits were variously fined, imprisoned, and executed.[64] Saffron cultivation was introduced into England in around 1350, the story being that corms were smuggled from the Levant in a special hollow compartment of a pilgrim’s staff .[65]The crop seems to have been initially grown in monastic gardens for medicinal use, only being planted in the less kind conditions of open fields many decades later. Soil and climatic conditions meant that by the sixteenth century, saffron cultivation had centred on Eastern England. The Essex town of Saffron Walden, named for its new speciality crop, emerged as a prime saffron growing and trading centre. However, an important omission in a botanical book published in the 1790s meant that the true extent of saffron growing in the eastern counties has been long overlooked .[66] North Norfolk (especially the area around Walsingham), southern Cambridgeshire and a small area of west Suffolk also produced saffron. Some was also grown in Gloucestershire and other “Westerlie Parts” according to one source. The evidence for this comes from several angles including titherecords, estate records and field names. In Norfolk, customs records show locally grown saffron was exported to the Low Countries .[67] (The crop has recently been re-introduced to Norfolk and award-winning ISO 3632 category I saffron is grown at Burnham Norton. However, an influx of more exotic spices—chocolate, coffee, tea, and vanilla—from newly contacted Eastern and overseas countries caused European cultivation and usage of saffron to decline.[68][69] The last grower in England appears to have been John Knott of Duxford in Cambridgeshire, who delivered his crop to London apothecaries until around 1818 .[70] It would be nearly two centuries before saffron was commercially grown in England again. Only in southern France, Italy, and Spain did the clone significantly endure.[71] Europeans introduced saffron to the Americas when immigrant members of the Schwenkfelder Church left Europe with a trunk containing its corms. Church members had grown it widely in Europe.[37] By 1730, the Pennsylvania Dutch cultivated saffron throughout eastern Pennsylvania. Spanish colonies in the Caribbean bought large amounts of this new American saffron, and high demand ensured that saffron’s list price on the Philadelphia commodities exchange was equal to gold.[72] Trade with the Caribbean later collapsed in the aftermath of the War of 1812, when many saffron-bearing merchant vessels were destroyed.[73] Yet the Pennsylvania Dutch continued to grow lesser amounts of saffron for local trade and use in their cakes, noodles, and chicken or trout dishes.[74] American saffron cultivation survives into modern times, mainly in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania.[37]

Trade and use

Saffron (Crocus sativus L.)
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 1,298 kJ (310 kcal)
65.37 g
Dietary fibre 3.9 g
5.85 g
Saturated 1.586 g
Monounsaturated 0.429 g
Polyunsaturated 2.067 g
11.43 g
Vitamins
Vitamin A 530 IU
Thiamine (B1)
(10%)

0.115 mg

Riboflavin (B2)
(22%)

0.267 mg

Niacin (B3)
(10%)

1.460 mg

Vitamin C
(97%)

80.8 mg

Trace metals
Calcium
(11%)

111 mg

Iron
(85%)

11.10 mg

Magnesium
(74%)

264 mg

Phosphorus
(36%)

252 mg

Potassium
(37%)

1724 mg

Sodium
(10%)

148 mg

Zinc
(11%)

1.09 mg

Other constituents
Water 11.90 g
Selenium 5.6 μg
Folate[N 1] 93 μg
Vitamin B6 1.010 mg
Ash 5.45 g

Edible thread portion only.[75]
Percentages are roughly approximated usingUS recommendations for adults. Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Trade

“Ispanya saffron” at market in Turkey.

Sale of saffron and other spices in Iran

Almost all saffron grows in a belt from Spain in the west to India in the east. The other continents, except Antarctica, produce smaller amounts. Some 300 t (300,000 kg) of dried whole threads and powder are gleaned yearly,[14] of which 50 t (50,000 kg) is top-grade “coupe” saffron.[76] Iran answers for around 90–93% of global production and exports much of it.[16] A few of Iran’s drier eastern and southeastern provinces, including Fars, Kerman, and those in the Khorasan region, glean the bulk of modern global production. In 2005, the second-ranked Greece produced 5.7 t (5,700 kg), while Morocco and Kashmir, tied for third rank, each produced 2.3 t (2,300 kg).[16] In recent years, Afghan cultivation has risen. Azerbaijan, Morocco, and Italy are, in decreasing order, lesser producers. Prohibitively high labour costs and abundant Iranian imports mean that only select locales continue the tedious harvest in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland—among them the Swiss village of Mund, whose annual output is a few kilograms.[14] Microscale production of saffron can be found in Tasmania,[77] China, Egypt, England (the village of Burnham Norton[78]) France, Israel, Mexico, New Zealand, Turkey (mainly around the town of Safranbolu), California, and Central Africa.[4][28] To glean 1 lb (450 g) of dry saffron requires the harvest of 50,000–75,000 flowers; a kilogram requires 110,000–170,000 flowers.[79][80] Forty hours of labour are needed to pick 150,000 flowers.[81] Stigmas are dried quickly upon extraction and (preferably) sealed in airtight containers.[82] Saffron prices at wholesale and retail rates range from US$500 to US$5,000 per pound, or US$1,100–11,000/kg, equivalent to £2,500/€3,500 per pound or £5,500/€7,500 per kilogram. In Western countries, the average retail price in 1974 was $1,000/£500/€700 per pound, or US$2,200/£1,100/€1,550 per kilogram.[4] In February 2013, a retail bottle containing 0.06 ounces could be purchased for $16.26 or the equivalent of $4,336 per pound or as little as about $2,000/pound in larger quantities. A pound contains between 70,000 and 200,000 threads. Vivid crimson colouring, slight moistness, elasticity, and lack of broken-off thread debris are all traits of fresh saffron.

Use

Crushed saffron threads are soaked in hot—but not boiling—water for several minutes prior to use in cuisine. This helps release the beneficial components.

Saffron’s aroma is often described by connoisseurs as reminiscent of metallic honey with grassy or hay-like notes, while its taste has also been noted as hay-like and sweet. Saffron also contributes a luminous yellow-orange colouring to foods. Saffron is widely used in Indian, Persian, European, Arab, and Turkish cuisines. Confectioneries and liquors also often include saffron. Common saffron substitutes include safflower (Carthamus tinctorius, which is often sold as “Portuguese saffron” or “açafrão”), annatto, and turmeric (Curcuma longa). Saffron has also been used as a fabric dye, particularly in China and India, and in perfumery.[83] It is used for religious purposes in India, and is widely used in cooking in many cuisines, ranging from the Milanese risotto of Italy to the bouillabaisse of France to the biryani with various meat accompaniments in South Asia. Saffron also has a long history of use in traditional medicine.[84]

Biomedical research

There is some evidence to suggest that saffron may help alleviate the symptoms of major depressive disorder.[85][86] Preclinical studies indicate that saffron could be a promising candidate for cancer chemoprevention studies.[87] Early studies suggest that it may protect the eye from the direct effects of bright light, and from retinal stress in additional to slowing down macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa.[88] (Most saffron-related research refers to the stigmas, but this is often not made explicit in research papers.) Some studies suggest that saffron may help relieve the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome.[89][90]

Notes

  1.  “Folate” refers only to the naturally occurring form of folic acid; the sample contains no folic acid per se.[75]

Citations

  1.  “Saffron – Definition and More”. Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
  2.  Kafi et al. 2006, p. 23.
  3.  Rau 1969, p. 53.
  4.  Hill 2004, p. 272.
  5.  “World’s COSTLIEST spice blooms in Kashmir”.Rediff. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
  6.  Grigg 1974, p. 287.
  7. McGee 2004, p. 422.
  8.  Rubio-Moraga et al. 2009.
  9. ^ Jump up to:a b Negbi 1999, p. 28.
  10. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Caiola 2003, p. 1.
  11. Jump up^ Negbi 1999, p. 30–31.
  12. ^ Jump up to:a b Negbi 1999, p. 1.
  13. ^ Jump up to:a b McGee 2004, p. 423.
  14. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Katzer 2010.
  15. ^ Jump up to:a b Russo, Dreher & Mathre 2003, p. 6.
  16. ^ Jump up to:a b c Ghorbani 2008, p. 1.
  17.  Deo 2003, p. 1.
  18. Jump up^ Kafi et al. 2006, p. 24.
  19.  Willard 2002, p. 3.
  20. Jump up^ Government of Tasmania 2005.
  21. ^ Jump up to:a b Willard 2002, pp. 2–3.
  22. Jump up^ Deo 2003, p. 2.
  23. Jump up^ Sharaf-Eldin et al. 2008.
  24. ^ Jump up to:a b Deo 2003, p. 3.
  25. Jump up^ Willard 2002, pp. 3–4.
  26. Jump up^ Willard 2002, p. 4.
  27. ^ Jump up to:a b Deo 2003, p. 4.
  28. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Abdullaev 2002, p. 1.
  29. ^ Jump up to:a b Leffingwell 2002, p. 1.
  30. Jump up^ Dharmananda 2005.
  31. ^ Jump up to:a b Leffingwell 2002, p. 3.
  32. Jump up^ Verma & Middha 2010, p. 1–2.
  33. Jump up^ Hill 2004, p. 274.
  34. Jump up^ Willard 2002, pp. 102–104.
  35. Jump up^ Australian Broadcasting Corp. 2003.
  36. Jump up^ Hussain 2005.
  37. ^ Jump up to:a b c Willard 2002, p. 143.
  38. Jump up^ Willard 2002, p. 201.
  39. ^ Jump up to:a b Honan 2004.
  40. ^ Jump up to:a b c Willard 2002, p. 2.
  41. Jump up^ Humphries 1998, p. 20.
  42. Jump up^ Willard 2002, p. 12.
  43. Jump up^ Willard 2002, pp. 17–18.
  44. ^ Jump up to:a b Willard 2002, p. 41.
  45. Jump up^ Willard 2002, pp. 54–55.
  46. Jump up^ Lak 1998b.
  47. Jump up^ Fotedar 1999, p. 128.
  48. ^ Jump up to:a b Dalby 2002, p. 95.
  49. Jump up^ Dalby 2003, p. 256.
  50. Jump up^ Finlay 2003, p. 224.
  51. Jump up^ Hanelt 2001, p. 1352.
  52. Jump up^ Fletcher 2005, p. 11.
  53. Jump up^ Hayes 2001, p. 6.
  54. Jump up^ Ferrence & Bendersky 2004, p. 1.
  55. Jump up^ Willard 2002, p. 58.
  56. Jump up^ Willard 2002, p. 55.
  57. Jump up^ Willard 2002, pp. 34–35.
  58. Jump up^ Willard 2002, p. 59.
  59. Jump up^ Marx 1989.
  60. Jump up^ Willard 2002, p. 63.
  61. Jump up^ Willard 2002, p. 70.
  62. Jump up^ Willard 2002, p. 99.
  63. Jump up^ Willard 2002, p. 101.
  64. Jump up^ Willard 2002, pp. 103–104.
  65. Jump up^ Francis 2011, p. 17.
  66. Jump up^ Francis 2011, p. 21.
  67. Jump up^ Francis 2011, p. 33.
  68. Jump up^ Willard 2002, p. 117.
  69. Jump up^ Willard 2002, pp. 132–133.
  70. Jump up^ Francis 2011, p. 36.
  71. Jump up^ Willard 2002, p. 133.
  72. Jump up^ Willard 2002, p. 138.
  73. Jump up^ Willard 2002, pp. 138–139.
  74. Jump up^ Willard 2002, pp. 142–146.
  75. ^ Jump up to:a b United States Department of Agriculture.
  76. Jump up^ Negbi 1999, p. 2.
  77. Jump up^ Courtney 2002.
  78. Jump up^ “Norfolk Saffron; England’s ‘red gold’”. Our Norfolk. Retrieved 22 January 2015.
  79. Jump up^ Hill 2004, p. 273.
  80.  Rau 1969, p. 35.
  81. Jump up^ Lak 1998a.
  82.  Negbi 1999, p. 8.
  83. Jump up^ Dalby 2002, p. 138.
  84.  Mousavi, S. Z.; Bathaie, S. Z. (2011). “Historical uses of saffron: Identifying potential new avenues for modern research”. Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine 1 (2): 27–66.
  85. Jump up^ Hausenblas HA, Saha D, Dubyak PJ, Anton SD (November 2013). “Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and major depressive disorder: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials”. Journal of Integrative Medicine 11 (6): 377–83. doi:10.3736/jintegrmed2013056.PMID 24299602.
  86.  Lopresti AL, Drummond PD (2014). “Saffron (Crocus sativus) for depression: a systematic review of clinical studies and examination of underlying antidepressant mechanisms of action”. Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental. doi:10.1002/hup.2434.
  87.  Zhang Z, Wang CZ, Wen XD, Shoyama Y, Yuan CS (July 2013). “Role of saffron and its constituents on cancer chemoprevention”. Pharmaceutical Biology 51(7): 920–4. doi:10.3109/13880209.2013.771190.PMC 3971062. PMID 23570520.
  88.  Maccarone, Di Marco & Bisti 2008.
  89.  Moghaddasi 2010.
  90.  Dante G, Facchinetti F (March 2011). “Herbal treatments for alleviating premenstrual symptoms: a systematic review”. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology 32 (1): 42–51.doi:10.3109/0167482X.2010.538102.PMID 21171936.

References

Books

Journal articles

  • Abdullaev, F. I. (2002), “Cancer Chemopreventive and Tumoricidal Properties of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.)”, Experimental Biology and Medicine 227 (1), PMID 11788779, retrieved 11 September 2011
  • Agha-Hosseini, M.; Kashani, L.; Aleyaseen, A.; Ghoreishi, A.; Rahmanpour, H.; Zarrinara, A. R.; Akhondzadeh, S. (2008), “Crocus sativus L. (Saffron) in the Treatment of Premenstrual Syndrome: A Double-Blind, Randomised, and Placebo-Controlled Trial”, BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 115 (4): 515–519, doi:10.1111/j.1471-0528.2007.01652.x, PMID 18271889
  • Akhondzadeh, S.; Sabet, M. S.; Harirchian, M. H.; Togha, M.; Cheraghmakani, H.; Razeghi, S.; Hejazi, S. S.; Yousefi, M.H.; Alimardani, R.; Jamshidi, A.; Zare, F.; Moradi, A. (2010), “Saffron in the Treatment of Patients with Mild to Moderate Alzheimer’s Disease: A 16-week, Randomised, and Placebo-Controlled Trial”, Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 35(5): 581–588, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2710.2009.01133.x, PMID 20831681
  • Assimopoulou, A. N.; Papageorgiou, V. P.; Sinakos, Z. (2005), “Radical Scavenging Activity ofCrocus sativus L. Extract and Its Bioactive Constituents”, Phytotherapy Research 19 (11),doi:10.1002/ptr.1749, PMID 16317646
  • Boskabady, M. H.; Ghasemzadeh Rahbardar, M.; Nemati, H.; Esmaeilzadeh, M. (2010), “Inhibitory Effect of Crocus sativus (Saffron) on Histamine (H1) Receptors of Guinea Pig Tracheal Chains”, Die Pharmazie 65 (4): 300–305, PMID 20432629
  • Caiola, M. G. (2003), “Saffron Reproductive Biology”, Acta Horticulturae (ISHS) 650: 25–37
  • Chang, P. Y.; Kuo, W.; Liang, C. T.; Wang, C. K. (1964), “The Pharmacological Action of 藏红花 (Zà Hóng HuāCrocus sativus L.): Effect on the Uterus and Estrous Cycle”, Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao 11
  • Chryssanthi, D. G.; Dedes, P. G.; Karamanos, N. K.; Cordopatis, P.; Lamari, F. N. (2011), “Crocetin Inhibits Invasiveness of MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells via Downregulation of Matrix Metalloproteinases”, Planta Medica 77 (2): 146–151, doi:10.1055/s-0030-1250178,PMID 20803418
  • Das, I.; Das, S.; Saha, T. (2010), “Saffron Suppresses Oxidative Stress in DMBA-Induced Skin Carcinoma: A Histopathological Study”, Acta Histochemica 112 (4): 317–327,doi:10.1016/j.acthis.2009.02.003, PMID 19328523
  • Davies, N. W.; Gregory, M. J.; Menary, R. C. (2005), “Effect of Drying Temperature and Air Flow on the Production and Retention of Secondary Metabolites in Saffron”, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53 (15): 5969–5975, doi:10.1021/jf047989j,PMID 16028982
  • Deo, B. (2003), “Growing Saffron—The World’s Most Expensive Spice”, Crop and Food Research (New Zealand Institute for Crop and Food Research) (20), archived from the original on 27 December 2005, retrieved 10 January 2006
  • Dharmananda, S. (2005), “Saffron: An Anti-Depressant Herb”, Institute for Traditional Medicine, archived from the original on 26 September 2006, retrieved 10 January 2006
  • Ferrence, S. C.; Bendersky, G. (2004), “Therapy with Saffron and the Goddess at Thera”,Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 47 (2): 199–226, doi:10.1353/pbm.2004.0026,PMID 15259204
  • Ghorbani, M. (2008), “The Efficiency of Saffron’s Marketing Channel in Iran”, World Applied Sciences Journal 4 (4): 523–527, ISSN 1818-4952, retrieved 3 October 2011
  • Gout, B.; Bourges, C.; Paineau-Dubreuil, S. (2010), “Satiereal, a Crocus sativus L. Extract, Reduces Snacking and Increases Satiety in a Randomised Placebo-Controlled Study of Mildly Overweight, Healthy Women”, Nutrition Research 30 (5): 305–313,doi:10.1016/j.nutres.2010.04.008, PMID 20579522
  • Gutheil, W. G.; Reed, G.; Ray, A.; Dhar, A. (2011), “Crocetin: An Agent Derived from Saffron for Prevention and Therapy for Cancer”, Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology,PMID 21466430
  • Hasegawa, J. H.; Kurumboor, S. K.; Nair, S. C. (1995), “Saffron Chemoprevention in Biology and Medicine: A Review”, Cancer Biotherapy 10 (4), PMID 8590890
  • Hausenblas, H. A.; Saha, D.; Dubyakt, P. A.; Anton, P. J. (2013), “Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and major depressive disorder: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials”, Journal of Integrative Medicine 11 (6), doi:10.3736/jintegrmed2013056, PMID 24299602
  • Hosseinzadeh, H.; Karimi, G.; Niapoor, M. (2004), “Antidepressant Effect of Crocus sativus L. Stigma Extracts and Their Constituents, Crocin and Safranal, In Mice”, Acta Horticulturae(International Society for Horticultural Science) (650): 435–445, retrieved 23 November 2009
  • Jessie, S. W.; Krishnakantha, T. P. (2005), “Inhibition of Human Platelet Aggregation and Membrane Lipid Peroxidation by Saffron”, Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 278 (1–2): 59–63, doi:10.1007/s11010-005-5155-9, PMID 16180089
  • Joukar, S.; Najafipour, H.; Khaksari, M.; Sepehri, G.; Shahrokhi, N.; Dabiri, S.; Gholamhoseinian, A.; Hasanzadeh, S. (2010), “The Effect of Saffron Consumption on Biochemical and Histopathological Heart Indices of Rats with Myocardial Infarction”,Cardiovascular Toxicology 10 (1): 66–71, doi:10.1007/s12012-010-9063-1,PMID 20119744
  • Kianbakht, S.; Ghazavi, A. (2011), “Immunomodulatory Effects of Saffron: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial”, Phytotherapy Research,doi:10.1002/ptr.3484, PMID 21480412
  • Lopresti, A. L.; Drummond, P. D. (2014), “Saffron (Crocus sativus) for depression: a systematic review of clinical studies and examination of underlying antidepressant mechanisms of action”,Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental, doi:10.1002/hup.2434
  • Moghaddasi, M. S. (2010), “Saffron Chemicals and Medicine Usage” (PDF), Journal of Medicinal Plant Research 4 (6): 427–430, retrieved 30 September 2011
  • Maccarone, R.; Di Marco, S.; Bisti, S. (2008), “Saffron Supplement Maintains Morphology and Function after Exposure to Damaging Light in Mammalian Retina”, Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 49 (3): 1254–1261, doi:10.1167/iovs.07-0438,PMID 18326756
  • Nair, S. C.; Pannikar, B.; Panikkar, K. R. (1991), “Antitumour Activity of Saffron (Crocus sativus).”, Cancer Letters 57 (2), doi:10.1016/0304-3835(91)90203-T, PMID 2025883
  • Rubio-Moraga, A.; Castillo-López, R.; Gómez-Gómez, L.; Ahrazem, O. (2009), “Saffron is a Monomorphic Species as Revealed by RAPD, ISSR and Microsatellite Analyses”, BMC Research Notes 2: 189, doi:10.1186/1756-0500-2-189, PMC 2758891, PMID 19772674
  • Sharaf-Eldin, M.; Elkholy, S.; Fernández, J. A.; Junge, H.; Cheetham, R.; Guardiola, J.; Weathers, P. (2008), “Bacillus subtilis FZB24 Affects Flower Quantity and Quality of Saffron (Crocus sativus)”, Planta Med 74 (10): 1316–1320, doi:10.1055/s-2008-1081293,PMC 3947403, PMID 18622904
  • Verma, R. S.; Middha, D. (2010), “Analysis of Saffron (Crocus sativus L. Stigma) Components by LC–MS–MS”, Chromatographia 71 (1–2): 117–123, doi:10.1365/s10337-009-1398-z

Miscellaneous

Other

External links

Contraindications, Interactions, and Side Effects (Saffron)

Saffron use in large dose is contraindicated in pregnancy. It may cause contraction of uterus and abortion. Severe side effects may result from ingesting 5 g saffron. No side-effect when used in proper doses.

AYURVEDA……..Dronapushpi (দ্রোনপুষ্পি)


Dronapushpi is Sanskrit name of plant Leucas cephalotes. It is a medicinal herb that grows as a weed in India and many South East Asian countries. The folk use of this herb is for treating scorpion stings, snake bite, cough, fever etc. The whole plant has fever educing and insecticidal properties. The leaves are applied externally on snake bites and scorpion stings. To know more about this medicinal herb,

‘Leucas aspera ‘

‘Leucas aspera ‘. Common Leucas, known as Chhota halkusa in Hindi, Tumba in Malayalam, Tummachettu in Telugu, Ghal ghase in Bengali, Dronapushpi in Sanskrit and Thumbai in Tamil, is a medicinal plant.

 

SYNONYMS

 

  • Ksavapatra
  • Chatrini
  • Palepushpa
  • Guma
  • Nahula
  • Adhicchatra
  • Dvesyamesa
  • Gotamah
  • Putigandhika
  • Kumbhayoni
  • Kutumbaka
  • Drona
  • Swasanaka
  • Palindi
  • Chatrani
  • Chatraka
  • Koodinya
  • Vrakshasaraka
  • Dhirgapatra
  • Supuspa
  • Chitrapatrika

 

TYPES

 

According to Abhidhana ratnamala

  • Two varieties
  • Mahadrona
  • Dronapushpa

According to Raja narahari

  • Drona – Lucas aspera
  • Mahadrona – L. Cephalotus
  • Another species – L. indica

 

PART USED

  • Panchanga

 

FORMULATION

 

  • Plihari vati
  • Gorocanadi vati
  • Nimbadilepa
  • Sahacharadi taila

DOSAGE

 

  • Swarasa-5-10ml.
  • Churna-1-3gm

 

PROPERTIES

 

Rasa: katu, lavana, Madhura.

Guna: Guru, Ruksha, Theekshna

Veerya: Ushna.

Vipaka: Madhura

Doshsgnhtha: Kapha, vata, shamaka.

 

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

  • Its Panchanga contains B-sisstesterol, flavinol, Glycoside.
  • Flowers  contain an essential oil, A bitter principle seeds a contain a fixed oil , caryophyllene, oxide, 26.56% Gama- Fenchene 12.02%, Alpha- cordional 2.13% , 1-hepten 3-01, 6.53%, menthol 6.30%, deca hydro naphthalene 5.15%, and trans –caryophyllene 4.05%.
  • Labdane, Noraladane, laballenic acid lauric acid, glutaric acid, Adipic acid , tridecanoic acid.

 

KARMA

  • Bhedana
  • Kaphagna
  • Amapacaka
  • Kamalahara
  • Shothoghna
  • Shvasagna
  • Krimigana
  • Swedajanana
  • Vata prashamana
  • Samsrana
  • Vishamajvarahara

 

PRAYOGA

  • Kaamala
  • Shotha
  • Shwasa
  • Vishamajvara
  • Kandu
  • Udara shoola
  • Pratisyaya
  • Jvara
  • Shira shoola

THERAPEUTIC USES

 

Vishamajvara– Fresh juice of dronapuspi and tulasi are useful.            [Sharangadhara Samhita madhyamakhanda]

 Kaamala: Anjana with the juice of dronapuspi useful. [Gadanigraha].                                            

Netrarogani: dronapuspi juice is mixed with rice water and used orally as well as topically.                                 [G.N]

Pittajavikara : Hima prepared by sariva, rasani, guduchi,  rakthachandana and dronapuspi.         [Siddhayogasangraha]

Paandu : Hima prepared by dronapuspi and padmaka, sariva drugs are useful.                 [Siddhayogasangraha]

 

PHARMACO THERAPEUTIC ACTION AND USES

 

Lecus cephalotes has been reported to exert hepatoprotective action in carbon tetra chloride induced hepatotoxicity in animals.

Juice of it has been reported to act as an antibilious in herbal therapy for jaundice

It has shown positive test in filariesis

The whole plant powder in the proportion of 70% in the herbal composition is patented to cure epileptic convulsions and cerebral function disorders.

It is also having the properties of antipyretic, stimulant , expectorant, aperients , diaphoretic, insecticidal, emmenagogue, and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti diabetic.

They are useful in colic, dyspepsia arthralgia.

 

FOLKLORE USES

 

  • Plant decoction is used in the treatment of malarial fever .
  • The leaves juice is used topically in psoriasis, skin eruption , and scabies and internally for the treatment of urinary complaints.
  • The flowers are administered in the form of syrup or with honey for cough and cold.
  • The dried inflorescences are smoked and the smoke exhaled through the nose to treat nose bleeds.
  • Dried leaves along with tobacco (1:3) are smoked to treat bleeding as well as itching piles and fresh leaves eaten as a potent herb.

 

CULTIVATION

 

Cultivated fields as a weed , especially after a period of rain . It is collected for use as a leafy vegetable in rural areas . it is cultivated itself for its medicinal uses . And really available in market.

 

RESEARCH STUDIES

 

ANTIBACTERIAL

Leucas cephalotes a common ethanomedicinal plant’s used by folklore of tirupathi andrapradesh for fever and urinary tract infection.  Organic extracts hexane and methanolic extracts showed prominent antibacterial activity .

 

IN VITRO ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY

It is mild stimulant diaphoretic and used for fever

The overall study showed that dronapushpi decoction was beneficial to naveen (new) amavata.

The claim of folk ore amavata probably more beneficial if used with suitable vedanasthapana (analgesic)  drugs

Traditional medicinal uses

Dronapushpi is a weed that grows on wastelands. Medicinally, it has antimicrobial, insecticidal, fever reducing, larvicidal and inflammation reducing properties. It is useful in skin diseases. In malarial fever, the leaves juice is given. In some part of country, the decoction of whole plant is used for curing fever. The juice removes toxins from body. The leaves juice is applied externally for skin diseases and swelling. In cod and cough, the leaves juice is recommended.

Scorpion sting

In scorpion sting the plant is used internally as well externally. The leaves juice (few drops) is mixed with honey and taken orally.

Topically, the leaves juice is applied on place of sting.

Snake bite

The folk remedy is to put few drops of whole plant in nostrils.

Skin diseases, removing blood toxins

Skin diseases mainly occur due to toxins in blood. Dronapushpi plant has ability to flush the toxins from body.

In skin diseases, whole plant of Dronapushpi is used. The plant is dried. Five grams of dried powder is taken with three grams Neem/Margosa leaves in 2 glass water. This is boiled till volume reduce to one fourth. Then it filtered and taken two times a day.

Abnormally heavy bleeding at menstruation

The leaves of plant are taken a handful. These are washed and then ground to make fine paste. This paste is mixed with lemon juice and sesame oil/til oil (edible). The preparation is eaten empty stomach every morning for a week.

 

Asthma, cold, cough

The leaves juice of plant is taken in dose of 1-3 teaspoons.

Excessive thirst

The flowers (2 tablespoon) are boiled in water (150 ml) till volume reduces to half. This is filtered and taken thrice a day.

Cough, leucorrhoea

The leaves of plant are cooked and eaten with rice.

Skin diseases (itching, patchy skin, psoriasis, scabies etc.)

The paste of leaves is applied externally at the affected body areas.

Cough, congestion, blockage of nose, headache due to cough, Sinusitis, Migraine, Phlegm

The juice of leaves is put in nostrils as drops. For this purpose, the leaves juice is extracted and mixed with two times water. Then the diluted juice is put in nostrils (4 dops) for 3-4 days.

The flowers are heated in til/sesame oil and applied on head.

Fever (acute, chronic), Allergy

The decoction of plant (2-3 grams in boiled in two glass water till water reduces to one fourth) is used

This medicinal herb should be used in recommended doses only. It is hot in potency and heats up body. Avoid its use in excess. The leaves juice can be diluted for putting in nose of oral use.

DRONAPUSHPI

 

………..

SHIMOGA,  KARNATAKA, INDIA

Shimoga – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shimoga

Shimoga, officially renamed as Shivamogga, is a city and the district headquarters of Shimoga District in the central part of the state of Karnataka, India. The city …

Map of shimoga city.

 

Shimoga–Talaguppa railway

Kundadri, Shimoga

 

Shimoga Photos – Kudli Temple

 

 

Ornate baluster in Thripuranthakeshwara temple at Balligavi, Shimoga district.jpg

 

sigandur – Shimoga

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Ayurveda………..Medicinal Benefits of Liquorice (Mulethi) (मुलेठी, 甘草, شیرین بیان)


liquorice-root

Licorice or Mulethi is a medicinal herb which is used in various Ayurvedic medicines. Its underground stems and roots are used for medicinal purpose. It has antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective properties.
Mulethi is useful in cough, sore throat, bronchitis, sexual weakness, skin problems, jaundice, hoarseness, vata dosha, ulcers etc. It has demulcent and expectorant properties.

read…………MY OLD ARTICLE

Liquorice, or licorice, (/ˈlɪk(ə)rɪʃ/ lik-(ə-)rish or /ˈlɪk(ə)rɪs/ lik-(ə-)ris)[2] is the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra from which a sweet flavour can be extracted. The liquorice plant is a legume native to southern Europe, India, and parts of Asia. It is not botanically related to anise, star anise, or fennel, which are sources of similar flavouring compounds. The word liquorice / licorice is derived (via the Old French licoresse) from the Greek γλυκύρριζα (glukurrhiza), meaning “sweet root”,[3] from γλυκύς (glukus), “sweet”[4] + ῥίζα (rhiza), “root”,[5][6] the name provided by Dioscorides.[7] It has been traditionally known and used as medicine in Ayurveda for rejuvenation.[8] It is called asadhimadhuram (அதிமதுரம்) in Tamil, irattimadhuram in Malayalam, yastimadhu (यस्टिमधु) in Sanskrit, mulethi (मुलेठी) in Hindi, andjethimadh (જેઠીમધ) in Gujarati language.[9]

Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), locally known as mulethi, has been revered for centuries as a medicinal herb in Ayurveda. Besides possessing numerous medicinal properties, it is also a popular flavoring herb as it is 50 times sweeter than sugar, due to the presence of a compound called glycyrrhizin.

Through research, the anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, analgesic (pain-relieving) and expectorant properties of this is sweet, moist herb have been established worldwide. It is also diuretic, rejuvenating and mildly laxative in nature. These properties have helped Licorice find a place in both Eastern and Western medicine for treating an array of ailments, ranging from cold and cough to arthritis, respiratory, digestive and liver problems.

The Sanskrit name for licorice is Yashtimadhu, which literally means “sweet root”. It is sweet, cool and heavy to digest. The Rasa (taste) of this herb is madhura (sweet), which makes it beneficial for vata and pitta doshas, while it’s Virya (action) is sheetal (cooling), which generally increases kapha when consumed in large doses over long term.

The medicinal property of mulethi is mainly because of the presence of powerful phytochemicals namely flavonoids, chalcones, saponins and xenoestrogens. Glycyrrhizin (salts of glycyrrhizic acid) is a popular saponin found in roots of mulethi that is responsible for the characteristic sweet taste (50 times more sweet than sugar) flavor. Liquiritin, licoflavonol, liquiritigenin, etc are the common chalcones that provide the distinct yellowish color to mulethi; while, the aroma of its root is mainly because of anethole. Here are the ten health benefits of mulethi:

Information

Latin name: Glycyrrhiza glabra
Sanskrit: Madhuyashti
Hindi: Mulhatti, Jethimadh, Mithilakdi
English: Sweetwood, Liquorice, Licorice
Bengali: Jashtimadhu
Gujrati: Jethi Madh
Marathi: Jeshtamadhu
Kannada: Jeshthamadhu
Malayalam: Itarttimadhuram, Erattimadhuram
Tamil: Atimadhuram
Telugu: Atimadhuramu

Anti-microbial activity – Roots of mulethi are very effective in protecting against virus, bacteria and fungi due to the presence of Glycyrrhizin that blocks the microbial growth. The root extract possesses the power to control malaria (as per preliminary research), influenza and also helps in the treatment of herpes resulting in virus suppression and severity of sores.

Anti-inflammatory activity – Liquorice has powerful anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic activity and can be used to treat chronic inflammation like rheumatic problems & arthritis, skin diseases and autoimmune diseases. It is also used for preventing any inflammatory conditions related to eye and also to treat conjunctivitis with the help of glycyrrhizin activity that counteracts negative effects caused by cortisol.

Improves immunity – Root extracts of mulethi aids in increasing the production of lymphocytes and macrophage thereby improving your defense mechanism & preventing microbial attack. It also helps in minimizing immune related allergic reactions and autoimmune complications.

Memory improvement – Roots of licorice exert supportive effect on the adrenal gland and thus indirectly aid in stimulating the brain. It not only decreases the effects of amnesia & improves learning but its antioxidant property (mulethi contains flavonoids) renders a shielding effect on the brain cells.

Anti-ulcer activity – The potent antioxidant and anti-inflamatory properties of licorice makes it the best natural medicinal aid to treat ulcers of stomach, intestine and mouth. The compound carbenoxolone synthesized from glycyrrhizin plays key role in healing mouth and gastric ulcers along with reducing gastric secretions and promoting development of intestinal mucus lining.

Liver protection – Licorice is one of the most common traditional remedy used to treat jaundice. Its antioxidant property is the key for preventing your liver from the action of free radicals and toxic materials. This herb is also reported to exhibit protection against diclofenac induced toxicity and also, in inhibiting damage of liver.

Digestive aid – Roots of licorice are also used to deal with stomach and digestion problems with the help of glycyrrhizin and its compound, carbenoxolone. It is one of the ancient home remedies for relieving constipation, acidity, heartburn, stomach discomfort, inflammation of digestive system and gastro esophageal acid reflux. As a mild laxative, it plays an effective role in bowel movements and also for treatment of allergic cough in addition to maintaining normal pH levels.

Hormonal regulation – The phytoestrogenic compounds present in mulethi roots exert valuable action against women hormonal imbalance problems, menopause symptoms like hot flashes & exhaustion, mood swings, etc. It is also found to help in cortisol production and relieving premenstrual issues like nausea and menstrual cramps. Licorice powder acts as the traditional medicine for nursing mothers to regulate body hormones and aid in milk secretion.

Heart healthy effects – Research studies have proved that licorice roots help in controlling cholesterol levels by increasing the body’s flow of bile and also reducing high blood cholesterol levels. The anti-oxidant property of licorice acts in increasing the blood capillary health, reducing inflammation, prevents blood vessel damage and block development of arterial plaque.

Other effects – Licorice roots work wonders in treatment of depression, diabetes and respiratory tract infection like sore throat (hoarseness of voice), cold and cough, etc in addition to rendering effective skin benefits, oral hygiene and weight loss. It is found to act as a cancer cure remedy, a potent aphrodisiac and a powerful analgesic agent.

Description

It is a herbaceous perennial, growing to 1 m in height, with pinnate leaves about 7–15 cm (3–6 in) long, with 9–17 leaflets. The flowers are 0.8–1.2 cm (1/3 to 1/2 in) long, purple to pale whitish blue, produced in a loose inflorescence. The fruit is an oblong pod, 2–3 cm (1 in) long, containing several seeds.[10] The roots are stoloniferous.[11]

Chemistry

The scent of liquorice root comes from a complex and variable combination of compounds, of which anethole is up to 3% of total volatiles. Much of the sweetness in liquorice comes from glycyrrhizin, which has a sweet taste, 30–50 times the sweetness of sugar. The sweetness is very different from sugar, being less instant, tart, and lasting longer.

The isoflavene glabrene and the isoflavane glabridin, found in the roots of liquorice, are phytoestrogens.[12][13]

Cultivation and uses

Liquorice, which grows best in well-drained soils in deep valleys with full sun, is harvested in the autumn two to three years after planting.[10] Countries producing liquorice include Iran, Afghanistan, the People’s Republic of China, Pakistan, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and Turkey.[14]

The world’s leading manufacturer of liquorice products is M&F Worldwide, which manufactures more than 70% of the worldwide liquorice flavours sold to end users.[15]

Safe dosage

Licorice is available in various forms – root, powder and extracts. Licorice root can be chewed directly while licorice tea (prepared by boiling licorice root in water) is also extremely beneficial as a home remedy.

Daily intake of 5-6 grams of licorice powder is considered safe while 250-500 mg of concentrated extracts can be taken thrice a day. Unsupervised use in high doses is not recommended for long term. People with hypertension or heart disease, pregnant women and breastfeeding mothers should avoid using licorice without prior consulation with an Ayurveda doctor.

plant

Medicine

The compound glycyrrhizin (or glycyrrhizic acid), found in liquorice, has been proposed as being useful for liver protection in tuberculosis therapy, but evidence does not support this use, which may in fact be harmful.[24] Glycyrrhizin has also demonstrated antiviral, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and blood pressure-increasing effects in vitro and in vivo, as is supported by the finding that intravenous glycyrrhizin (as if it is given orally very little of the original drug makes it into circulation) slows the progression of viral and autoimmune hepatitis.[25][26] Liquorice has also demonstrated promising activity in one clinical trial, when applied topically, against atopic dermatitis.[27] Additionally, liquorice has also proven itself effective in treating hyperlipidaemia (a high amount of fats in the blood).[28] Liquorice has also demonstrated efficacy in treating inflammation-induced skin hyperpigmentation.[29][30] Liquorice may also be useful in preventing neurodegenerative disorders and dental caries.[31][32][33]

The antiulcer, laxative, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antitumour and expectorant properties of liquorice have been investigated.[34]

Folk medicine

In traditional Chinese medicine, liquorice (मुलेठी, 甘草, شیرین بیان) is believed to “harmonize” the ingredients in a formula and to carry the formula to the 12 “regular meridians”.[35]

References

  1.  “Glycyrrhiza glabra information from NPGS/GRIN”. http://www.ars-grin.gov. Retrieved 6 March 2008.
  2.  licorice. Merriam-Webster’s Medical Dictionary, © 2007 Merriam-Webster, Inc.
  3.  γλυκύρριζα, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
  4.  γλυκύς, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
  5. Jump up^ ῥίζα, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus<
  6. Jump up^ liquorice, on Oxford Dictionaries
  7. Jump up^ google books Maud Grieve, Manya Marshall – A modern herbal: the medicinal, culinary, cosmetic and economic properties, cultivation and folk-lore of herbs, grasses, fungi, shrubs, & trees with all their modern scientific uses, Volume 2 Dover Publications, 1982 & Pharmacist’s Guide to Medicinal Herbs Arthur M. Presser Smart Publications, 1 Apr 2001 2012-05-19
  8. Jump up^ Balakrishna, Acharya (2006). Ayurveda: Its Principles & Philosophies. New Delhi, India: Divya prakashan. p. 206. ISBN 8189235567.
  9. Jump up^ “Top 10 health benefits of Mulethi or Liquorice”.
  10. ^ Jump up to:a b Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. ISBN 0-333-47494-5
  11. Jump up^ Brown, D., ed. (1995). “The RHS encyclopedia of herbs and their uses”. ISBN 1-4053-0059-0
  12. Jump up^ Somjen, D.; Katzburg, S.; Vaya, J.; Kaye, A. M.; Hendel, D.; Posner, G. H.; Tamir, S. (2004). “Estrogenic activity of glabridin and glabrene from licorice roots on human osteoblasts and prepubertal rat skeletal tissues”. The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 91 (4–5): 241–246. doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2004.04.008. PMID 15336701.
  13. Jump up^ Tamir, S.; Eizenberg, M.; Somjen, D.; Izrael, S.; Vaya, J. (2001). “Estrogen-like activity of glabrene and other constituents isolated from licorice root”. The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology 78 (3): 291–298. doi:10.1016/S0960-0760(01)00093-0. PMID 11595510.
  14. ^ Jump up to:a b c M & F Worldwide Corp., Annual Report on Form 10-K for the Year Ended December 31, 2010.
  15. Jump up^ M & F Worldwide Corp., Annual Report on Form 10-K for the Year Ended December 31, 2001.
  16. Jump up^ Erik Assadourian, Cigarette Production Drops, Vital Signs 2005, at 70.
  17. Jump up^ M & F Worldwide Corp., Annual Report on Form 10-K for the Year Ended December 31, 2005.
  18. ^ Jump up to:a b c Marvin K. Cook, The Use of Licorice and Other Flavoring Material in Tobacco (Apr. 10, 1975).
  19. Jump up^ Boeken v. Phillip Morris Inc., 127 Cal. App. 4th 1640, 1673, 26 Cal. Rptr. 3d 638, 664 (2005).
  20. Jump up^ [1] the online Dutch food composition database]
  21. Jump up^ “Right good food from the Ridings”. AboutFood.com. 25 October 2007.
  22. Jump up^ “Where Liquorice Roots Go Deep”. Northern Echo. Retrieved 9 December 2008.
  23. Jump up^ http://science.howstuffworks.com/life/botany/licorice-info.htm
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38 Toxicology Center[2]

External links

Boswellia serrata, -The cure for osteoarthritis in ayurveda, Shallaki,


Boswellia serrata (Salai) in Kinnarsani WS, AP W2 IMG 5840.jpg

in Kinnerasani Wildlife Sanctuary,Andhra Pradesh, India.

Boswellia serrata, -The cure for osteoarthritis in ayurveda, Shallaki,

Shallaki-Boswellia serrata

In degenerative and inflammatory pathologies invoving joints, there is no other drug as useful as Guggulu. Many international companies today use shallaki for the manufacture of drugs, ayurvedic and allopathic alike.

Family : Berseraceae

Scientific name : Boswellia serrata

Nomenclature in other languages :

Sanskrit : Shallaki, Susrava, Gajabhakshya

Hindi : Salei

Gujarathi : Dhoopa

Bengali : Salei

Tamil : Olibana

English : Indian Olibanum

Distribution : Gujarat, Rajasthan, Bihar are most commonly the residence of this plant.

Botanical description : It’s a resinous tree that grows to a height of 12m. A tree of moderate height , its bark are grey in colour. Upon time the bark sheds off like scales of a snake. The younger branches and leaflets of this tree are very smooth. The leaves which are compound(pinnate) in nature are 20-37 cm long. The leaflets are 2-5cm long and 1-2.5cm wide. The leaflets are oval shaped. The leaves contains 8 pairs or more of the leaflets . The margins of leaflets are serrated. Flowers are many and the inflorescence is terminal raceme, with it seen in the axilla of the leaf and stem. The petals and sepals are hairy and five in number. The stamen are 10 in number, they are diercted inwards. The fruits are seen in 3-4 numbers and are seen as drupes along with cones. The flowering season in April-May.

C hemical constituents and action

The bark contains carbohydrates, glycosides, beta-sitosterol. The resin contains ditrepene alcohol. This is knownn by the name sitosterol. In addition to that 11-keto-b-boswellic acid also has been extracted from the resin.

Ayurvedic Pharmacoepia

Rasa : kashaya, tikta, madhura

Guna : laghu, rooksha

Veerya : sheeta

Vipaka : katu

Medicinal properties :

Alleiviates vata kapha disorders. Also cures chronic skin lesions of all kinds infective and inflammatory, ulcers, wounds, piles, diseases of mouth, diarhhoea, hepatic disorders etc.

Useful parts : Bark, Resin

Therapeutic uses :

-1gm of resin taken in tablet form daily three times cures rheumatic, neurologic complaints and rheumatic fever.

-for gangrenes in diabetes the resin of this palnt may be applied externally and it taken internally as pills regularly

-the resin of this plant when chewed cures bad odour of mouth and mouth ulcers.

Medical uses

In Ayurvedic medicine Indian frankincense (Boswellia serrata) has been used for hundreds of years for treating arthritis.

Extracts of Boswellia serrata have been clinically studied for osteoarthritis and joint function, particularly for osteoarthritis of the knee, with the research showing a slight improvement of both pain and function compared to a placebo. Positive effects of Boswellia in some chronic inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, bronchial asthma, osteoarthritis, ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease have been reported. A Boswellia extract marketed under the name Wokvel has undergone human efficacy, comparative, pharmacokinetic studies. Some see Boswellia serrata as a promising alternative to NSAIDs, warranting further investigation in pharmacological studies and clinical trials.

Topical application

Boswellia serrata has been recently developed for topical use in a patent-pending formula in Sano Relief Gel. Boswellia serrata is used in the manufacture of the supposed anti-wrinkle agent “Boswelox”,which has been criticised as being ineffective.

Potential for anti-cancer activity

Boswellic acid, an extract from Boswellia serrata, has been studied for anti-neoplastic activity, especially in experimental primary and secondary brain tumors, indicating potential efficacy from in vitro and limited clinical research. Boswellic acid is also undergoing an early-stage clinical trial at the Cleveland Clinic.

Active constituents

Boswellic acid and other pentacyclic triterpene acids are present. Beta-boswellic acid is the major constituent.

Mechanism of action

Animal studies performed in India show ingestion of a defatted alcoholic extract of Boswellia decreased polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration and migration, decreased primary antibody synthesis and almost totally inhibited the classical complement pathway.

Properties

Shallaki has potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects that can reduce the pain and inflammation of joints.

Frankincense ‘can ease arthritis’ researches have suggested

Extracts from Boswellia serrata, a similar species to the variety famous for its role in the Christian nativity, were tested on dozens of patients.

Those who received it reported better movement and less pain and stiffness.

The herb has been used for thousands of years in Indian Ayurvedic medicine, reports the journal Arthritis Research and Therapy.
Osteoarthritis is the most common form of the condition, and normally affects the weight bearing joints such as hands, wrists, feet and spine.

Current treatments carry a great many adverse effects, and scientists have been hunting for an alternative.

The investigation into the properties of Boswellia serrata was led by Dr Siba Raychaudhuri at the University of California, Davis.

Eventually they tested an extract of the plant enriched with the chemical – AKBA – thought to be its active ingredient.

Some of the 70 patients with severe arthritis in their knees recruited into the trial were given a low-dose capsule, some a higher dose capsule, and the remainder were given a dummy pill with no active ingredients.

In as little as seven days, patients taking the frankincense drug reported improvements in their pain and stiffness levels compared with the placebo group, and these continued until the 90-day mark, when the study ended.

Alternative therapies

Tests of the fluid within affected joints also revealed falls in levels of enzymes linked to the condition.

Dr Raychaudhuri said: “We have shown that B. serrata enriched with AKBA can be an effective treatment for osteoarthritis of the knee.”

However, UK experts urged caution. Professor Philip Conaghan, from Leeds University, and a spokesman for the Arthritis Research Campaign, said: “Certainly osteoarthritis is in need of new safe analgesics, although many effective therapies that reduce pain such as muscle strengthening exercises, shock-absorbing footwear and weight loss have very few bad side-effects.

“This report on treating knee pain with a chemical derivative of B. serrata is interesting but the patient numbers are small, there were some problems with the reported trial design and we need more information on its medium to long-term safety.”

Boswellia serrata: an overall assessment of in vitro, preclinical, pharmacokinetic and clinical data.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) intake is associated with high prevalence of gastrointestinal or cardiovascular adverse effects. All efforts to develop NSAIDs that spare the gastrointestinal tract and the cardiovasculature are still far from achieving a breakthrough. In the last two decades, preparations of the gum resin of Boswellia serrata (a traditional ayurvedic medicine) and of other Boswellia species have experienced increasing popularity in Western countries. Animal studies and pilot clinical trials support the potential of B. serrata gum resin extract (BSE) for the treatment of a variety of inflammatory diseases like inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and asthma. Moreover, in 2002 the European Medicines Agency classified BSE as an ‘orphan drug’ for the treatment of peritumoral brain oedema. Compared to NSAIDs, it is expected that the administration of BSE is associated with better tolerability, which needs to be confirmed in further clinical trials. Until recently, the pharmacological effects of BSE were mainly attributed to suppression of leukotriene formation via inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) by two boswellic acids, 11-keto-β-boswellic acid (KBA) and acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA). These two boswellic acids have also been chosen in the monograph of Indian frankincense in European Pharmacopoiea 6.0 as markers to ensure the quality of the air-dried gum resin exudate of B. serrata. Furthermore, several dietary supplements advertise the enriched content of KBA and AKBA. However, boswellic acids failed to inhibit leukotriene formation in human whole blood, and pharmacokinetic data revealed very low concentrations of AKBA and KBA in plasma, being far below the effective concentrations for bioactivity in vitro. Moreover, permeability studies suggest poor absorption of AKBA following oral administration. In view of these results, the previously assumed mode of action – that is, 5-LO inhibition – is questionable. On the other hand, 100-fold higher plasma concentrations have been determined for β-boswellic acid, which inhibits microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 and the serine protease cathepsin G. Thus, these two enzymes might be reasonable molecular targets related to the anti-inflammatory properties of BSE. In view of the results of clinical trials and the experimental data from in vitro studies of BSE, and the available pharmacokinetic and metabolic data on boswellic acids, this review presents different perspectives and gives a differentiated insight into the possible mechanisms of action of BSE in humans. It underlines BSE as a promising alternative to NSAIDs, which warrants investigation in further pharmacological studies and clinical trials.

Reference :

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21553931

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boswellia_serrata

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/7535733.stm