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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK LIFE SCIENCES LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 PLUS year tenure till date June 2021, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 90 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, 233 countries, 7 continents, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 33 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 233 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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Tirzepatide


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Tirzepatide.svg
tirzepatide
ChemSpider 2D Image | tirzepatide | C225H347N47O69
Kilogram-Scale GMP Manufacture of Tirzepatide Using a Hybrid SPPS/LPPS Approach with Continuous Manufacturing | Organic Process Research & Development

Tirzepatide

チルゼパチド

LY3298176,

FormulaC225H348N48O68
CAS2023788-19-2
Mol weight4813.4514

FDA APPROVED 2022/5/13, Mounjaro

ClassAntidiabetic agent
GLP-1 receptor agonist
EfficacyAntidiabetic, Gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor agonist, Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist
  DiseaseType 2 diabetes mellitus

Tirzepatide is an agonist of human glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and human glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptors, whose amino acid residues at positions 2 and 13 are 2-methylAla, and the C-terminus is amidated Ser. A 1,20-icosanedioic acid is attached to Lys at position 20 via a linker which consists of a Glu and two 8-amino-3,6-dioxaoctanoic acids. Tirzepatide is a synthetic peptide consisting of 39 amino acid residues.

C225H348N48O68 : 4813.45
[2023788-19-2]

L-​Serinamide, L-​tyrosyl-​2-​methylalanyl-​L-​α-​glutamylglycyl-​L-​threonyl-​L-​phenylalanyl-​L-​threonyl-​L-​seryl-​L-​α-​aspartyl-​L-​tyrosyl-​L-​seryl-​L-​isoleucyl-​2-​methylalanyl-​L-​leucyl-​L-​α-​aspartyl-​L-​lysyl-​L-​isoleucyl-​L-​alanyl-​L-​glutaminyl-​N6-​[(22S)​-​22,​42-​dicarboxy-​1,​10,​19,​24-​tetraoxo-​3,​6,​12,​15-​tetraoxa-​9,​18,​23-​triazadotetracont-​1-​yl]​-​L-​lysyl-​L-​alanyl-​L-​phenylalanyl-​L-​valyl-​L-​glutaminyl-​L-​tryptophyl-​L-​leucyl-​L-​isoleucyl-​L-​alanylglycylglycyl-​L-​prolyl-​L-​seryl-​L-​serylglycyl-​L-​alanyl-​L-​prolyl-​L-​prolyl-​L-​prolyl-

Other Names

  • L-Tyrosyl-2-methylalanyl-L-α-glutamylglycyl-L-threonyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-threonyl-L-seryl-L-α-aspartyl-L-tyrosyl-L-seryl-L-isoleucyl-2-methylalanyl-L-leucyl-L-α-aspartyl-L-lysyl-L-isoleucyl-L-alanyl-L-glutaminyl-N6-[(22S)-22,42-dicarboxy-1,10,19,24-tetraoxo-3,6,12,15-tetraoxa-9,18,23-triazadotetracont-1-yl]-L-lysyl-L-alanyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-valyl-L-glutaminyl-L-tryptophyl-L-leucyl-L-isoleucyl-L-alanylglycylglycyl-L-prolyl-L-seryl-L-serylglycyl-L-alanyl-L-prolyl-L-prolyl-L-prolyl-L-serinamide

Tirzepatide, sold under the brand name Mounjaro,[1] is a medication used for the treatment type 2 diabetes.[2][3][4] Tirzepatide is given by injection under the skin.[2] Common side effects may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, decreased appetite, constipation, upper abdominal discomfort and abdominal pain.[2]

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are hormones involved in blood sugar control.[2] Tirzepatide is a first-in-class medication that activates both the GLP-1 and GIP receptors, which leads to improved blood sugar control.[2] Tirzepatide was approved for medical use in the United States in May 2022.[2]

SYN

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.oprd.1c00108

Abstract Image

The large-scale manufacture of complex synthetic peptides is challenging due to many factors such as manufacturing risk (including failed product specifications) as well as processes that are often low in both yield and overall purity. To overcome these liabilities, a hybrid solid-phase peptide synthesis/liquid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS/LPPS) approach was developed for the synthesis of tirzepatide. Continuous manufacturing and real-time analytical monitoring ensured the production of high-quality material, while nanofiltration provided intermediate purification without difficult precipitations. Implementation of the strategy worked very well, resulting in a robust process with high yields and purity.

PATENT

  • WO2016111971
  • US2020023040
  • WO2019245893
  • US2020155487
  • US2020155650
  • WO2020159949CN112592387
  • WO2021066600CN112661815
  • WO2021154593
  • US2021338769

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Medical uses

Tirzepatide in indicated to improve blood sugar control in adults with type 2 diabetes, as an addition to diet and exercise.[2]

Contraindications

Tirzepatide should not be used in people with a personal or family history of medullary thyroid cancer or in people with multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 2.[2]

Adverse effects

Preclinical, phase I, and phase II trials have indicated that tirzepatide exhibits similar adverse effects to other established GLP-1 receptor agonists, such as GLP-1 receptor agonist dulaglutide. These effects occur largely within the gastrointestinal tract.[5] The most frequently observed adverse effects are nausea, diarrhoea and vomiting, which increased in incidence with the dosage amount (i.e. higher likelihood the higher the dose). The number of patients who discontinued taking tirzepatide also increased as dosage increased, with patients taking 15 mg having a 25% discontinuation rate vs 5.1% for 5 mg patients and 11.1% for dulaglutide.[6] To a slightly lesser extent, patients also reported reduced appetite.[5] Other side effects reported were dyspepsia, constipation, abdominal pain, dizziness and hypoglycaemia.[7][8]

Pharmacology

Tirzepatide is an analogue of gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), a human hormone which stimulates the release of insulin from the pancreas. Tirzepatide is a linear polypeptide of 39 amino acids which has been chemically modified by lipidation to improve its uptake into cells and its stability to metabolism.[9] The compound is administered as a weekly subcutaneous injection.[10] It completed phase III trials globally in 2021.[11][12]

Mechanism of action

Tirzepatide has a greater affinity to GIP receptors than to GLP-1 receptors, and this dual agonist behaviour has been shown to produce greater reductions of hyperglycemia compared to a selective GLP-1 receptor agonist.[3] Signaling studies have shown that this is due to tirzepatide mimicking the actions of natural GIP at the GIP receptor.[13] However, at the GLP-1 receptor, tirzepatide shows bias towards cAMP (a messenger associated with regulation of glycogen, sugar and lipid metabolism) generation, rather than β-arrestin recruitment. This combination of preference towards GIP receptor and distinct signaling properties at GLP-1 suggest this biased agonism increases insulin secretion.[13] Tirzepatide has also been shown to increase levels of adiponectin, an adipokine involved in the regulation of both glucose and lipid metabolism, with a maximum increase of 26% from baseline after 26 weeks, at the 10 mg dosage.[3]

Chemistry

Structure

Tirzepatide is an analog of the human GIP hormone with a C20 fatty-diacid portion attached, used to optimise the uptake and metabolism of the compound.[9] The fatty-diacid section (eicosanedioic acid) is linked via a glutamic acid and two (2-(2-aminoethoxy)ethoxy)acetic acid units to the side chain of the lysine residue. This arrangement allows for a much longer half life, extending the time between doses, because of its high affinity to albumin.[14]

Synthesis

The synthesis of tirzepatide was first disclosed in patents filed by Eli Lilly and Company.[15] This uses standard solid phase peptide synthesis, with an allyloxycarbonyl protecting group on the lysine at position 20 of the linear chain of amino acids, allowing a final set of chemical transformations in which the sidechain amine of that lysine is derivatized with the lipid-containing fragment.

Large-scale manufacturing processes have been reported for this compound.[16]

History

Indiana-based pharmaceutical company Eli Lilly and Company first applied for a patent for a method of glycemic control using tirzepatide in early 2016.[15] The patent was published late that year. After passing phase 3 clinical trials, Lilly applied for FDA approval in October 2021 with a priority review voucher.[17]

Following the completion of the pivotal SURPASS-2 trial no. NCT03987919, the company announced on 28 April that tirzepatide had successfully met their endpoints in obese and overweight patients without diabetes.[18] Alongside results from the SURMOUNT-1 trial no. NCT04184622, they suggest that tirzepatide may potentially be a competitor for existing diabetic medication semaglutide, manufactured by Novo Nordisk.[19][20]

In industry-funded preliminary trials comparing tirzepatide to the existing diabetes medication semaglutide (an injected analogue of the hormone GLP-1), tirzepatide showed minor improvement of reductions (2.01%–2.30% depending on dosage) in glycated hemoglobin tests relative to semaglutide (1.86%).[21] A 10 mg dose has also been shown to be effective in reducing insulin resistance, with a reduction of around 8% from baseline, measured using HOMA2-IR (computed with fasting insulin).[3] Fasting levels of IGF binding proteins like IGFBP1 and IGFBP2 increased following tirzepatide treatment, increasing insulin sensitivity.[3] A meta-analysis published by Dutta et al. showed that over 1-year clinical use, tirzepatide was observed to be superior to dulaglutide, semaglutide, degludec, and insulin glargine with regards to glycemic efficacy and obesity reduction. Tirzepatide is perhaps the most potent agent developed to date to tackle the global problem of “diabesity“.[22]

Society and culture

Names

Tirzepatide is the international nonproprietary name (INN).[23]

References

  1. Jump up to:a b “Highlights of prescribing information” (PDF). accessdata.fda.gov. FDA. May 2022. Retrieved 14 May 2022.
  2. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i “FDA Approves Novel, Dual-Targeted Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes”U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Press release). 13 May 2022. Retrieved 13 May 2022. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  3. Jump up to:a b c d e Thomas MK, Nikooienejad A, Bray R, Cui X, Wilson J, Duffin K, et al. (January 2021). “Dual GIP and GLP-1 Receptor Agonist Tirzepatide Improves Beta-cell Function and Insulin Sensitivity in Type 2 Diabetes”The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism106 (2): 388–396. doi:10.1210/clinem/dgaa863PMC 7823251PMID 33236115.
  4. ^ Coskun T, Sloop KW, Loghin C, Alsina-Fernandez J, Urva S, Bokvist KB, et al. (December 2018). “LY3298176, a novel dual GIP and GLP-1 receptor agonist for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: From discovery to clinical proof of concept”Molecular Metabolism18: 3–14. doi:10.1016/j.molmet.2018.09.009PMC 6308032PMID 30473097.
  5. Jump up to:a b Min T, Bain SC (January 2021). “The Role of Tirzepatide, Dual GIP and GLP-1 Receptor Agonist, in the Management of Type 2 Diabetes: The SURPASS Clinical Trials”Diabetes Therapy12 (1): 143–157. doi:10.1007/s13300-020-00981-0PMC 7843845PMID 33325008.
  6. ^ Frias JP, Nauck MA, Van J, Kutner ME, Cui X, Benson C, et al. (November 2018). “Efficacy and safety of LY3298176, a novel dual GIP and GLP-1 receptor agonist, in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomised, placebo-controlled and active comparator-controlled phase 2 trial”The Lancet392 (10160): 2180–2193. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32260-8PMID 30293770.
  7. ^ Frias JP, Nauck MA, Van J, Benson C, Bray R, Cui X, et al. (June 2020). “Efficacy and tolerability of tirzepatide, a dual glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist in patients with type 2 diabetes: A 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate different dose-escalation regimens”Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism22 (6): 938–946. doi:10.1111/dom.13979PMC 7318331PMID 31984598.
  8. ^ Dahl D, Onishi Y, Norwood P, Huh R, Bray R, Patel H, Rodríguez Á (February 2022). “Effect of Subcutaneous Tirzepatide vs Placebo Added to Titrated Insulin Glargine on Glycemic Control in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: The SURPASS-5 Randomized Clinical Trial”. JAMA327 (6): 534–545. doi:10.1001/jama.2022.0078PMID 35133415.
  9. Jump up to:a b Ahangarpour M, Kavianinia I, Harris PW, Brimble MA (January 2021). “Photo-induced radical thiol-ene chemistry: a versatile toolbox for peptide-based drug design”. Chemical Society Reviews. Royal Society of Chemistry. 50 (2): 898–944. doi:10.1039/d0cs00354aPMID 33404559S2CID 230783854.
  10. ^ Bastin M, Andreelli F (2019). “Dual GIP-GLP1-Receptor Agonists In The Treatment Of Type 2 Diabetes: A Short Review On Emerging Data And Therapeutic Potential”Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy12: 1973–1985. doi:10.2147/DMSO.S191438PMC 6777434PMID 31686879.
  11. ^ “Tirzepatide significantly reduced A1C and body weight in people with type 2 diabetes in two phase 3 trials from Lilly’s SURPASS program” (Press release). Eli Lilly and Company. 17 February 2021. Retrieved 28 October 2021 – via PR Newswire.
  12. ^ “Lilly : Phase 3 Tirzepatide Results Show Superior A1C And Body Weight Reductions In Type 2 Diabetes”Business Insider. RTTNews. 19 October 2021. Retrieved 28 October 2021.
  13. Jump up to:a b Willard FS, Douros JD, Gabe MB, Showalter AD, Wainscott DB, Suter TM, et al. (September 2020). “Tirzepatide is an imbalanced and biased dual GIP and GLP-1 receptor agonist”JCI Insight5 (17). doi:10.1172/jci.insight.140532PMC 7526454PMID 32730231.
  14. ^ Østergaard S, Paulsson JF, Kofoed J, Zosel F, Olsen J, Jeppesen CB, et al. (October 2021). “The effect of fatty diacid acylation of human PYY3-36 on Y2 receptor potency and half-life in minipigs”Scientific Reports11 (1): 21179. Bibcode:2021NatSR..1121179Odoi:10.1038/s41598-021-00654-3PMC 8551270PMID 34707178.
  15. Jump up to:a b US patent 9474780, Bokvist BK, Coskun T, Cummins RC, Alsina-Fernandez J, “GIP and GLP-1 co-agonist compounds”, issued 2016-10-25, assigned to Eli Lilly and Co
  16. ^ Frederick MO, Boyse RA, Braden TM, Calvin JR, Campbell BM, Changi SM, et al. (2021). “Kilogram-Scale GMP Manufacture of Tirzepatide Using a Hybrid SPPS/LPPS Approach with Continuous Manufacturing”. Organic Process Research & Development25 (7): 1628–1636. doi:10.1021/acs.oprd.1c00108S2CID 237690232.
  17. ^ Sagonowsky, Eric (26 October 2021). “As Lilly gears up for key 2022 launches, Trulicity, Taltz and more drive solid growth”Fierce Pharma. Retrieved 9 April 2022.
  18. ^ Kellaher, Colin (28 April 2022). “Eli Lilly’s Tirzepatide Meets Main Endpoints in Phase 3 Obesity Study >LLY”Dow Jones Newswires. Retrieved 29 April 2022 – via MarketWatch.
  19. ^ Kahan, Scott; Garvey, W. Timothy (28 April 2022). “SURMOUNT-1: Adults achieve weight loss of 16% or more at 72 weeks with tirzepatide”healio.com. Retrieved 29 April 2022.
  20. ^ Taylor, Nick Paul (28 April 2022). “SURMOUNT-able: Lilly’s tirzepatide clears high bar set by Novo’s Wegovy in obesity”FierceBiotech. Retrieved 29 April 2022.
  21. ^ Frías JP, Davies MJ, Rosenstock J, Pérez Manghi FC, Fernández Landó L, Bergman BK, et al. (August 2021). “Tirzepatide versus Semaglutide Once Weekly in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes”. The New England Journal of Medicine385 (6): 503–515. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2107519PMID 34170647S2CID 235635529.
  22. ^ Dutta D, Surana V, Singla R, Aggarwal S, Sharma M (November–December 2021). “Efficacy and safety of novel twincretin tirzepatide a dual GIP and GLP-1 receptor agonist in the management of type-2 diabetes: A Cochrane meta-analysis”. Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism25 (6): 475–489. doi:10.4103/ijem.ijem_423_21.
  23. ^ World Health Organization (2019). “International nonproprietary names for pharmaceutical substances (INN): recommended INN: list 81”. WHO Drug Information33 (1). hdl:10665/330896.

Further reading

External links

  • “Tirzepatide”Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Clinical trial number NCT03954834 for “A Study of Tirzepatide (LY3298176) in Participants With Type 2 Diabetes Not Controlled With Diet and Exercise Alone (SURPASS-1)” at ClinicalTrials.gov
  • Clinical trial number NCT03987919 for “A Study of Tirzepatide (LY3298176) Versus Semaglutide Once Weekly as Add-on Therapy to Metformin in Participants With Type 2 Diabetes (SURPASS-2)” at ClinicalTrials.gov
  • Clinical trial number NCT03882970 for “A Study of Tirzepatide (LY3298176) Versus Insulin Degludec in Participants With Type 2 Diabetes (SURPASS-3)” at ClinicalTrials.gov
  • Clinical trial number NCT03730662 for “A Study of Tirzepatide (LY3298176) Once a Week Versus Insulin Glargine Once a Day in Participants With Type 2 Diabetes and Increased Cardiovascular Risk (SURPASS-4)” at ClinicalTrials.gov
  • Clinical trial number NCT04039503 for “A Study of Tirzepatide (LY3298176) Versus Placebo in Participants With Type 2 Diabetes Inadequately Controlled on Insulin Glargine With or Without Metformin (SURPASS-5)” at ClinicalTrials.gov

CLIP

https://investor.lilly.com/news-releases/news-release-details/fda-approves-lillys-mounjarotm-tirzepatide-injection-first-and

FDA approves Lilly’s Mounjaro™ (tirzepatide) injection, the first and only GIP and GLP-1 receptor agonist for the treatment of adults with type 2 diabetes

May 13, 2022

Download PDF

Mounjaro delivered superior A1C reductions versus all comparators in phase 3 SURPASS clinical trials

While not indicated for weight loss, Mounjaro led to significantly greater weight reductions versus comparators in a key secondary endpoint

Mounjaro represents the first new class of diabetes medicines introduced in nearly a decade and is expected to be available in the U.S. in the coming weeks

INDIANAPOLIS, May 13, 2022 /PRNewswire/ — The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Mounjaro™ (tirzepatide) injection, Eli Lilly and Company’s (NYSE: LLY) new once-weekly GIP (glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide) and GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1) receptor agonist indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes. Mounjaro has not been studied in patients with a history of pancreatitis and is not indicated for use in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

As the first and only FDA-approved GIP and GLP-1 receptor agonist, Mounjaro is a single molecule that activates the body’s receptors for GIP and GLP-1, which are natural incretin hormones.1

“Mounjaro delivered superior and consistent A1C reductions against all of the comparators throughout the SURPASS program, which was designed to assess Mounjaro’s efficacy and safety in a broad range of adults with type 2 diabetes who could be treated in clinical practice. The approval of Mounjaro is an exciting step forward for people living with type 2 diabetes given the results seen in these clinical trials,” said Juan Pablo Frías, M.D., Medical Director, National Research Institute and Investigator in the SURPASS program.

Mounjaro will be available in six doses (2.5 mg, 5 mg, 7.5 mg, 10 mg, 12.5 mg, 15 mg) and will come in Lilly’s well-established auto-injector pen with a pre-attached, hidden needle that patients do not need to handle or see.

The approval was based on results from the phase 3 SURPASS program, which included active comparators of injectable semaglutide 1 mg, insulin glargine and insulin degludec. Efficacy was evaluated for Mounjaro 5 mg, 10 mg and 15 mg used alone or in combination with commonly prescribed diabetes medications, including metformin, SGLT2 inhibitors, sulfonylureas and insulin glargine. Participants in the SURPASS program achieved average A1C reductions between 1.8% and 2.1% for Mounjaro 5 mg and between 1.7% and 2.4% for both Mounjaro 10 mg and Mounjaro 15 mg. While not indicated for weight loss, mean change in body weight was a key secondary endpoint in all SURPASS studies. Participants treated with Mounjaro lost between 12 lb. (5 mg) and 25 lb. (15 mg) on average.1

Side effects reported in at least 5% of patients treated with Mounjaro include nausea, diarrhea, decreased appetite, vomiting, constipation, indigestion (dyspepsia), and stomach (abdominal) pain. The labeling for Mounjaro contains a Boxed Warning regarding thyroid C-cell tumors. Mounjaro is contraindicated in patients with a personal or family history of medullary thyroid carcinoma or in patients with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia syndrome type 2.1

“Lilly has a nearly 100-year heritage of advancing care for people living with diabetes – never settling for current outcomes. We’re not satisfied knowing that half of the more than 30 million Americans living with type 2 diabetes are not reaching their target blood glucose levels,” said Mike Mason, president, Lilly Diabetes. “We are thrilled to introduce Mounjaro, which represents the first new class of type 2 diabetes medication introduced in almost a decade and embodies our mission to bring innovative new therapies to the diabetes community.”

Mounjaro is expected to be available in the United States in the coming weeks. Lilly is committed to helping people access the medicines they are prescribed and will work with insurers, health systems and providers to help enable patient access to Mounjaro. Lilly plans to offer a Mounjaro savings card for people who qualify. Patients or healthcare professionals with questions about Mounjaro can visit www.Mounjaro.com or call The Lilly Answers Center at 1-800-LillyRx (1-800-545-5979).

Tirzepatide is also under regulatory review for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in Europe, Japan and several additional markets. A multimedia gallery is available on Lilly.com.

About the SURPASS clinical trial program
The SURPASS phase 3 global clinical development program for tirzepatide began in late 2018 and included five global registration trials and two regional trials in Japan. These studies ranged from 40 to 52 weeks and evaluated the efficacy and safety of Mounjaro 5 mg, 10 mg and 15 mg as a monotherapy and as an add-on to various standard-of-care medications for type 2 diabetes. The active comparators in the studies were injectable semaglutide 1 mg, insulin glargine and insulin degludec. Collectively, the five global registration trials consistently demonstrated A1C reductions for participants taking Mounjaro across multiple stages of their type 2 diabetes journeys, from an average around five to 13 years of having diabetes.2-8

  • SURPASS-1 (NCT03954834) was a 40-week study comparing the efficacy and safety of Mounjaro 5 mg (N=121), 10 mg (N=121) and 15 mg (N=120) as monotherapy to placebo (N=113) in adults with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with diet and exercise alone. From a baseline A1C of 7.9%, Mounjaro reduced participants’ A1C by a mean of 1.8%* (5 mg) and 1.7%* (10 mg and 15 mg) compared to 0.1% for placebo. In a key secondary endpoint, from a baseline weight of 189 lb., Mounjaro reduced participants’ weight by a mean of 14 lb.* (5 mg), 15 lb.* (10 mg) and 17 lb.* (15 mg) compared to 2 lb. for placebo.2,3
  • SURPASS-2 (NCT03987919) was a 40-week study comparing the efficacy and safety of Mounjaro 5 mg (N=470), 10 mg (N=469) and 15 mg (N=469) to injectable semaglutide 1 mg (N=468) in adults with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with ≥1500 mg/day metformin alone. From a baseline A1C of 8.3%, Mounjaro reduced participants’ A1C by a mean of 2.0% (5 mg), 2.2%* (10 mg) and 2.3%* (15 mg) compared to 1.9% for semaglutide. In a key secondary endpoint, from a baseline weight of 207 lb., Mounjaro reduced participants’ weight by a mean of 17 lb. (5 mg), 21 lb.* (10 mg) and 25 lb.* (15 mg) compared to 13 lb. for semaglutide.4,5
  • SURPASS-3 (NCT03882970) was a 52-week study comparing the efficacy of Mounjaro 5 mg (N=358), 10 mg (N=360) and 15 mg (N=358) to titrated insulin degludec (N=359) in adults with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin with or without an SGLT-2 inhibitor. From a baseline A1C of 8.2%, Mounjaro reduced participants’ A1C by a mean of 1.9%* (5 mg), 2.0%* (10 mg) and 2.1%* (15 mg) compared to 1.3% for insulin degludec. From a baseline weight of 208 lb., Mounjaro reduced participants’ weight by a mean of 15 lb.* (5 mg), 21 lb.* (10 mg) and 25 lb.* (15 mg) compared to an increase of 4 lb. for insulin degludec.6
  • SURPASS-4 (NCT03730662) was a 104-week study comparing the efficacy and safety of Mounjaro 5 mg (N=328), 10 mg (N=326) and 15 mg (N=337) to insulin glargine (N=998) in adults with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with at least one and up to three oral antihyperglycemic medications (metformin, sulfonylureas or SGLT-2 inhibitors), who have increased cardiovascular (CV) risk. The primary endpoint was measured at 52 weeks. From a baseline A1C of 8.5%, Mounjaro reduced participants’ A1C by a mean of 2.1%* (5 mg), 2.3%* (10 mg) and 2.4%* (15 mg) compared to 1.4% for insulin glargine. From a baseline weight of 199 lb., Mounjaro reduced weight by a mean of 14 lb.* (5 mg), 20 lb.* (10 mg) and 23 lb.* (15 mg) compared to an increase of 4 lb. for insulin glargine.7
  • SURPASS-5 (NCT04039503) was a 40-week study comparing the efficacy and safety of Mounjaro 5 mg (N=116), 10 mg (N=118) and 15 mg (N=118) to placebo (N=119) in adults with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes already being treated with insulin glargine, with or without metformin. From a baseline A1C of 8.3%, Mounjaro reduced A1C by a mean of 2.1%* (5 mg), 2.4%* (10 mg) and 2.3%* (15 mg) compared to 0.9% for placebo. From a baseline weight of 210 lb., Mounjaro reduced participants’ weight by a mean of 12 lb.* (5 mg), 17 lb.* (10 mg) and 19 lb.* (15 mg) compared to an increase of 4 lb. for placebo.8

*p<0.001 for superiority vs. placebo or active comparator, adjusted for multiplicity
p<0.05 for superiority vs. semaglutide 1 mg, adjusted for multiplicity

About Mounjaro™ (tirzepatide) injection1
Mounjaro™ (tirzepatide) injection is FDA-approved as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. As the first and only FDA-approved GIP and GLP-1 receptor agonist, Mounjaro is a single molecule that activates the body’s receptors for GIP (glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide) and GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1). Mounjaro will be available in six doses (2.5 mg, 5 mg, 7.5 mg, 10 mg, 12.5 mg, 15 mg) and will come in Lilly’s well-established auto-injector pen with a pre-attached, hidden needle that patients do not need to handle or see.

PURPOSE AND SAFETY SUMMARY WITH WARNINGS
Important Facts About MounjaroTM (mown-JAHR-OH). It is also known as tirzepatide.

  • Mounjaro is an injectable prescription medicine for adults with type 2 diabetes used along with diet and exercise to improve blood sugar (glucose).
  • It is not known if Mounjaro can be used in people who have had inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis). Mounjaro is not for use in people with type 1 diabetes. It is not known if Mounjaro is safe and effective for use in children under 18 years of age.

Warnings
Mounjaro may cause tumors in the thyroid, including thyroid cancer. Watch for possible symptoms, such as a lump or swelling in the neck, hoarseness, trouble swallowing, or shortness of breath. If you have a symptom, tell your healthcare provider.

  • Do not use Mounjaro if you or any of your family have ever had a type of thyroid cancer called medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC).
  • Do not use Mounjaro if you have Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia syndrome type 2 (MEN 2).
  • Do not use Mounjaro if you are allergic to tirzepatide or any of the ingredients in Mounjaro.

Mounjaro may cause serious side effects, including:

Inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis). Stop using Mounjaro and call your healthcare provider right away if you have severe pain in your stomach area (abdomen) that will not go away, with or without vomiting. You may feel the pain from your abdomen to your back.

Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). Your risk for getting low blood sugar may be higher if you use Mounjaro with another medicine that can cause low blood sugar, such as a sulfonylurea or insulin. Signs and symptoms of low blood sugar may include dizziness or light-headedness, sweating, confusion or drowsiness, headache, blurred vision, slurred speech, shakiness, fast heartbeat, anxiety, irritability, or mood changes, hunger, weakness and feeling jittery.

Serious allergic reactions. Stop using Mounjaro and get medical help right away if you have any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction, including swelling of your face, lips, tongue or throat, problems breathing or swallowing, severe rash or itching, fainting or feeling dizzy, and very rapid heartbeat.

Kidney problems (kidney failure). In people who have kidney problems, diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting may cause a loss of fluids (dehydration), which may cause kidney problems to get worse. It is important for you to drink fluids to help reduce your chance of dehydration.

Severe stomach problems. Stomach problems, sometimes severe, have been reported in people who use Mounjaro. Tell your healthcare provider if you have stomach problems that are severe or will not go away.

Changes in vision. Tell your healthcare provider if you have changes in vision during treatment with Mounjaro.

Gallbladder problems. Gallbladder problems have happened in some people who use Mounjaro. Tell your healthcare provider right away if you get symptoms of gallbladder problems, which may include pain in your upper stomach (abdomen), fever, yellowing of skin or eyes (jaundice), and clay-colored stools.

Common side effects
The most common side effects of Mounjaro include nausea, diarrhea, decreased appetite, vomiting, constipation, indigestion, and stomach (abdominal) pain. These are not all the possible side effects of Mounjaro. Talk to your healthcare provider about any side effect that bothers you or doesn’t go away.

Tell your healthcare provider if you have any side effects. You can report side effects at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.

Before using

  • Your healthcare provider should show you how to use Mounjaro before you use it for the first time.
  • Before you use Mounjaro, talk to your healthcare provider about low blood sugar and how to manage it.

 Review these questions with your healthcare provider:

  • Do you have other medical conditions, including problems with your pancreas or kidneys, or severe problems with your stomach, such as slowed emptying of your stomach (gastroparesis) or problems digesting food?
  • Do you take other diabetes medicines, such as insulin or sulfonylureas?
  • Do you have a history of diabetic retinopathy?
  • Are you pregnant or plan to become pregnant or breastfeeding or plan to breastfeed? It is not known if Mounjaro will harm your unborn baby.
  • Do you take birth control pills by mouth? These may not work as well while using Mounjaro. Your healthcare provider may recommend another type of birth control when you start Mounjaro or when you increase your dose.
  • Do you take any other prescription medicines or over-the-counter drugs, vitamins, or herbal supplements?

How to take

  • Read the Instructions for Use that come with Mounjaro.
  • Use Mounjaro exactly as your healthcare provider says.
  • Mounjaro is injected under the skin (subcutaneously) of your stomach (abdomen), thigh, or upper arm.
  • Use Mounjaro 1 time each week, at any time of the day.
  • Do not mix insulin and Mounjaro together in the same injection.
  • If you take too much Mounjaro, call your healthcare provider or seek medical advice promptly.

Learn more
For more information, call 1-800-LillyRx (1-800-545-5979) or go to www.mounjaro.com.

This information does not take the place of talking with your healthcare provider. Be sure to talk to your healthcare provider about Mounjaro and how to take it. Your healthcare provider is the best person to help you decide if Mounjaro is right for you.

MounjaroTM and its delivery device base are trademarks owned or licensed by Eli Lilly and Company, its subsidiaries, or affiliates.

Please click to access full Prescribing Information and Medication Guide.

TR CON CBS MAY2022

About Lilly
Lilly unites caring with discovery to create medicines that make life better for people around the world. We’ve been pioneering life-changing discoveries for nearly 150 years, and today our medicines help more than 47 million people across the globe. Harnessing the power of biotechnology, chemistry and genetic medicine, our scientists are urgently advancing new discoveries to solve some of the world’s most significant health challenges, redefining diabetes care, treating obesity and curtailing its most devastating long-term effects, advancing the fight against Alzheimer’s disease, providing solutions to some of the most debilitating immune system disorders, and transforming the most difficult-to-treat cancers into manageable diseases. With each step toward a healthier world, we’re motivated by one thing: making life better for millions more people. That includes delivering innovative clinical trials that reflect the diversity of our world and working to ensure our medicines are accessible and affordable. To learn more, visit Lilly.com and Lilly.com/newsroom or follow us on FacebookInstagramTwitter and LinkedIn. P-LLY

Lilly Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

This press release contains forward-looking statements (as that term is defined in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995) about Mounjaro™ (tirzepatide 2.5 mg, 5 mg, 7.5 mg, 10 mg, 12.5 mg and 15 mg) injection as a treatment to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes, the timeline for supply of Mounjaro to become available, and certain other milestones and ongoing clinical trials of Mounjaro and reflects Lilly’s current beliefs and expectations. However, as with any pharmaceutical product or medical device, there are substantial risks and uncertainties in the process of research, development and commercialization. Among other things, there can be no guarantee that Mounjaro will be commercially successful, that future study results will be consistent with results to date, or that we will meet our anticipated timelines for the commercialization of Mounjaro. For further discussion of these and other risks and uncertainties, see Lilly’s most recent Form 10-K and Form 10-Q filings with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission. Except as required by law, Lilly undertakes no duty to update forward-looking statements to reflect events after the date of this release.

References

  1. Mounjaro. Prescribing Information. Lilly USA, LLC.
  2. Rosenstock, J, et. al. Efficacy and Safety of Once Weekly Tirzepatide, a Dual GIP/GLP-1 Receptor Agonist Versus Placebo as Monotherapy in People with Type 2 Diabetes (SURPASS-1). Abstract 100-OR. Presented virtually at the American Diabetes Association’s 81st Scientific Sessions; June 25-29.
  3. Rosenstock, J, et. al. (2021). Efficacy and safety of a novel dual GIP and GLP-1 receptor agonist tirzepatide in patients with type 2 diabetes (SURPASS-1): a double-blind, randomised, phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2021;398(10295):143-155. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(21)01324-6.
  4. Frías JP, Davies MJ, Rosenstock J, et al; for the SURPASS-2 Investigators. Tirzepatide versus semaglutide once weekly in patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2021;385(6)(suppl):503-515. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2107519
  5. Frias, J.P. Efficacy and Safety of Tirzepatide vs. Semaglutide Once Weekly as Add-On Therapy to Metformin in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. Abstract 84-LB. Presented virtually at the American Diabetes Association’s 81st Scientific Sessions; June 25-29.
  6. Ludvik B, Giorgino F, Jódar E, et al. Once-weekly tirzepatide versus once-daily insulin degludec as add-on to metformin with or without SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes (SURPASS-3): a randomised, open-label, parallel-group, phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2021;398(10300):583-598. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(21)01443-4
  7. Del Prato S, Kahn SE, Pavo I, et al; for the SURPASS-4 Investigators. Tirzepatide versus insulin glargine in type 2 diabetes and increased cardiovascular risk (SURPASS-4): a randomised, open-label, parallel-group, multicentre, phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2021;398(10313):1811-1824. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(21)02188-7
  8. Dahl D, Onishi Y, Norwood P, et al. Effect of subcutaneous tirzepatide vs placebo added to titrated insulin glargine on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: the SURPASS-5 randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2022;327(6):534-545. doi:10.1001/jama.2022.0078

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https://investor.lilly.com/news-releases/news-release-details/lillys-tirzepatide-delivered-225-weight-loss-adults-obesity-or

Lilly’s tirzepatide delivered up to 22.5% weight loss in adults with obesity or overweight in SURMOUNT-1

April 28, 2022

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Participants taking tirzepatide lost up to 52 lb. (24 kg) in this 72-week phase 3 study

63% of participants taking tirzepatide 15 mg achieved at least 20% body weight reductions as a key secondary endpoint

INDIANAPOLIS, April 28, 2022 /PRNewswire/ — Tirzepatide (5 mg, 10 mg, 15 mg) achieved superior weight loss compared to placebo at 72 weeks of treatment in topline results from Eli Lilly and Company’s (NYSE: LLY) SURMOUNT-1 clinical trial, with participants losing up to 22.5% (52 lb. or 24 kg) of their body weight for the efficacy estimandi. This study enrolled 2,539 participants and was the first phase 3 global registration trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of tirzepatide in adults with obesity, or overweight with at least one comorbidity, who do not have diabetes. Tirzepatide met both co-primary endpoints of superior mean percent change in body weight from baseline and greater percentage of participants achieving body weight reductions of at least 5% compared to placebo for both estimandsii. The study also achieved all key secondary endpoints at 72 weeks.

For the efficacy estimand, participants taking tirzepatide achieved average weight reductions of 16.0% (35 lb. or 16 kg on 5 mg), 21.4% (49 lb. or 22 kg on 10 mg) and 22.5% (52 lb. or 24 kg on 15 mg), compared to placebo (2.4%, 5 lb. or 2 kg). Additionally, 89% (5 mg) and 96% (10 mg and 15 mg) of people taking tirzepatide achieved at least 5% body weight reductions compared to 28% of those taking placebo.

In a key secondary endpoint, 55% (10 mg) and 63% (15 mg) of people taking tirzepatide achieved at least 20% body weight reductions compared to 1.3% of those taking placebo. In an additional secondary endpoint not controlled for type 1 error, 32% of participants taking tirzepatide 5 mg achieved at least 20% body weight reductions. The mean baseline body weight of participants was 231 lb. (105 kg).

“Obesity is a chronic disease that often does not receive the same standard of care as other conditions, despite its impact on physical, psychological and metabolic health, which can include increased risk of hypertension, heart disease, cancer and decreased survival,” said Louis J. Aronne, MD, FACP, DABOM, director of the Comprehensive Weight Control Center and the  Sanford I. Weill Professor of Metabolic Research at Weill Cornell Medicine, obesity expert at NewYork-Presbyterian/Weill Cornell Medical Center and Investigator of SURMOUNT-1. “Tirzepatide delivered impressive body weight reductions in SURMOUNT-1, which could represent an important step forward for helping the patient and physician partnership treat this complex disease.”

For the treatment-regimen estimandiii, results showed:

  • Average body weight reductions: 15.0% (5 mg), 19.5% (10 mg), 20.9% (15 mg), 3.1% (placebo)
  • Percentage of participants achieving body weight reductions of ≥5%: 85% (5 mg), 89% (10 mg), 91% (15 mg), 35% (placebo)
  • Percentage of participants achieving body weight reductions of ≥20%: 30% (5 mg, not controlled for type 1 error), 50% (10 mg), 57% (15 mg), 3.1% (placebo)

The overall safety and tolerability profile of tirzepatide was similar to other incretin-based therapies approved for the treatment of obesity. The most commonly reported adverse events were gastrointestinal-related and generally mild to moderate in severity, usually occurring during the dose escalation period. For those treated with tirzepatide (5 mg, 10 mg and 15 mg, respectively), nausea (24.6%, 33.3%, 31.0%), diarrhea (18.7%, 21.2%, 23.0%), vomiting (8.3%, 10.7%, 12.2%) and constipation (16.8%, 17.1%, 11.7%) were more frequently experienced compared to placebo (9.5% [nausea], 7.3% [diarrhea], 1.7% [vomiting], 5.8% [constipation]).

Treatment discontinuation rates due to adverse events were 4.3% (5 mg), 7.1% (10 mg), 6.2% (15 mg) and 2.6% (placebo). The overall treatment discontinuation rates were 14.3% (5 mg), 16.4% (10 mg), 15.1% (15 mg) and 26.4% (placebo).

Participants who had pre-diabetes at study commencement will remain enrolled in SURMOUNT-1 for an additional 104 weeks of treatment following the initial 72-week completion date to evaluate the impact on body weight and the potential differences in progression to type 2 diabetes at three years of treatment with tirzepatide compared to placebo.

“Tirzepatide is the first investigational medicine to deliver more than 20 percent weight loss on average in a phase 3 study, reinforcing our confidence in its potential to help people living with obesity,” said Jeff Emmick, MD, Ph.D., vice president, product development, Lilly. “Obesity is a chronic disease that requires effective treatment options, and Lilly is working relentlessly to support people with obesity and modernize how this disease is approached. We’re proud to research and develop potentially innovative treatments like tirzepatide, which helped nearly two thirds of participants on the highest dose reduce their body weight by at least 20 percent in SURMOUNT-1.”

Tirzepatide is a novel investigational once-weekly GIP (glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide) receptor and GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1) receptor agonist, representing a new class of medicines being studied for the treatment of obesity. Tirzepatide is a single peptide that activates the body’s receptors for GIP and GLP-1, two natural incretin hormones. Obesity is a chronic, progressive disease caused by disruptions in the mechanisms that control body weight, often leading to an increase in food intake and/or a decrease in energy expenditure. These disruptions are multifactorial and can be related to genetic, developmental, behavioral, environmental and social factors. To learn more, visit Lilly.com/obesity.

Lilly will continue to evaluate the SURMOUNT-1 results, which will be presented at an upcoming medical meeting and submitted to a peer-reviewed journal. Additional studies are ongoing for tirzepatide as a potential treatment for obesity or overweight.

About tirzepatide

Tirzepatide is a once-weekly GIP (glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide) receptor and GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1) receptor agonist that integrates the actions of both incretins into a single novel molecule. GIP is a hormone that may complement the effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists. In preclinical models, GIP has been shown to decrease food intake and increase energy expenditure therefore resulting in weight reductions, and when combined with GLP-1 receptor agonism, may result in greater effects on markers of metabolic dysregulation such as body weight, glucose and lipids. Tirzepatide is in phase 3 development for adults with obesity or overweight with weight-related comorbidity and is currently under regulatory review as a treatment for adults with type 2 diabetes. It is also being studied as a potential treatment for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Studies of tirzepatide in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and in morbidity/mortality in obesity are planned as well.

About SURMOUNT-1 and the SURMOUNT clinical trial program

SURMOUNT-1 (NCT04184622) is a multi-center, randomized, double-blind, parallel, placebo-controlled trial comparing the efficacy and safety of tirzepatide 5 mg, 10 mg and 15 mg to placebo as an adjunct to a reduced-calorie diet and increased physical activity in adults without type 2 diabetes who have obesity, or overweight with at least one of the following comorbidities: hypertension, dyslipidemia, obstructive sleep apnea or cardiovascular disease. The trial randomized 2,539 participants across the U.S., Argentina, Brazil, China, India, Japan, Mexico, Russia and Taiwan in a 1:1:1:1 ratio to receive either tirzepatide 5 mg, 10 mg or 15 mg or placebo. The co-primary objectives of the study were to demonstrate that tirzepatide 10 mg and/or 15 mg is superior in percentage of body weight reductions from baseline and percentage of participants achieving ≥5% body weight reduction at 72 weeks compared to placebo. Participants who had pre-diabetes at study commencement will remain enrolled in SURMOUNT-1 for an additional 104 weeks of treatment following the initial 72-week completion date to evaluate the impact on body weight and potential differences in progression to type 2 diabetes at three years of treatment with tirzepatide compared to placebo.

All participants in the tirzepatide treatment arms started the study at a dose of tirzepatide 2.5 mg once-weekly and then increased the dose in a step-wise approach at four-week intervals to their final randomized maintenance dose of 5 mg (via a 2.5 mg step), 10 mg (via steps at 2.5 mg, 5 mg and 7.5 mg) or 15 mg (via steps at 2.5 mg, 5 mg, 7.5 mg, 10 mg and 12.5 mg).

The SURMOUNT phase 3 global clinical development program for tirzepatide began in late 2019 and has enrolled more than 5,000 people with obesity or overweight across six clinical trials, four of which are global studies. Results from SURMOUNT-2, -3, and -4 are anticipated in 2023.

About Lilly 

Lilly unites caring with discovery to create medicines that make life better for people around the world. We’ve been pioneering life-changing discoveries for nearly 150 years, and today our medicines help more than 47 million people across the globe. Harnessing the power of biotechnology, chemistry and genetic medicine, our scientists are urgently advancing new discoveries to solve some of the world’s most significant health challenges, redefining diabetes care, treating obesity and curtailing its most devastating long-term effects, advancing the fight against Alzheimer’s disease, providing solutions to some of the most debilitating immune system disorders, and transforming the most difficult-to-treat cancers into manageable diseases. With each step toward a healthier world, we’re motivated by one thing: making life better for millions more people. That includes delivering innovative clinical trials that reflect the diversity of our world and working to ensure our medicines are accessible and affordable. To learn more, visit Lilly.com and Lilly.com/newsroom or follow us on FacebookInstagramTwitter and LinkedInP-LLY

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https://www.pu-kang.com/Tirzepatide-results-superior-A1C-and-body-weight-reductions-compared-to-insulin-glargine-in-adults-with-type-2-diabetes-id3348038.html

Tirzepatide results superior A1C and body weight reductions compared to insulin glargine in adults with type 2 diabetes

Tirzepatide results superior A1C and body weight reductions compared to insulin glargine in adults with type 2 diabetes

Newly published data show that participants maintained A1C and weight control up to two years in SURPASS-4, the largest and longest SURPASS trial completed to dateNo increased cardiovascular risk identified with tirzepatide; hazard ratio of 0.74 observed for MACE-4 events

SURPASS-4 is the largest and longest clinical trial completed to date of the phase 3 program studying tirzepatide as a potential treatment for type 2 diabetes. The primary endpoint was measured at 52 weeks, with participants continuing treatment up to 104 weeks or until study completion. The completion of the study was triggered by the accrual of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) to assess CV risk. In newly published data from the treatment period after 52 weeks, participants taking tirzepatide maintained A1C and weight control for up to two years.

The overall safety profile of tirzepatide, assessed over the full study period, was consistent with the safety results measured at 52 weeks, with no new findings up to 104 weeks. Gastrointestinal side effects were the most commonly reported adverse events, usually occurring during the escalation period and then decreasing over time.

“We are encouraged by the continued A1C and weight control that participants experienced past the initial 52 week treatment period and up to two years as we continue to explore the potential impact of tirzepatide for the treatment of type 2 diabetes,” said John Doupis, M.D., Ph.D., Director, Diabetes Division and Clinical Research Center, Iatriko Paleou Falirou Medical Center, Athens, Greece and Senior Investigator for SURPASS-4.

Tirzepatide is a novel investigational once-weekly dual glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist that integrates the actions of both incretins into a single molecule, representing a new class of medicines being studied for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

SURPASS-4 was an open-label global trial comparing the safety and efficacy of three tirzepatide doses (5 mg, 10 mg and 15 mg) to titrated insulin glargine in 2,002 adults with type 2 diabetes with increased CV risk who were treated with between one and three oral antihyperglycemic medicines (metformin, a sulfonylurea or an SGLT-2 inhibitor). Of the total participants randomized, 1,819 (91%) completed the primary 52-week visit and 1,706 (85%) completed the study on treatment. The median study duration was 85 weeks and 202 participants (10%) completed two years.

Study participants had a mean duration of diabetes of 11.8 years, a baseline A1C of 8.52 percent and a baseline weight of 90.3 kg. More than 85 percent of participants had a history of cardiovascular events. In the insulin glargine arm, the insulin dose was titrated following a treat-to-target algorithm with the goal of fasting blood glucose below 100 mg/dL. The starting dose of insulin glargine was 10 units per day, and the mean dose of insulin glargine at 52 weeks was 43.5 units per day.

About tirzepatide
Tirzepatide is a once-weekly dual glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist that integrates the actions of both incretins into a single novel molecule. GIP is a hormone that may complement the effects of GLP-1. In preclinical models, GIP has been shown to decrease food intake and increase energy expenditure therefore resulting in weight reductions, and when combined with a GLP-1 receptor agonist, may result in greater effects on glucose and body weight. Tirzepatide is in phase 3 development for blood glucose management in adults with type 2 diabetes, for chronic weight management and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). It is also being studied as a potential treatment for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).

About SURPASS-4 and the SURPASS clinical trial program
SURPASS-4 (NCT03730662) is a randomized, parallel, open-label trial comparing the efficacy and safety of tirzepatide 5 mg, 10 mg and 15 mg to insulin glargine in adults with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with at least one and up to three oral antihyperglycemic medications (metformin, sulfonylureas or SGLT-2 inhibitors), who have increased cardiovascular (CV) risk. The trial randomized 2,002 study participants in a 1:1:1:3 ratio to receive either tirzepatide 5 mg, 10 mg or 15 mg or insulin glargine. Participants were located in the European Union, North America (Canada and the United States), Australia, Israel, Taiwan and Latin America (Brazil, Argentina and Mexico). The primary objective of the study was to demonstrate that tirzepatide (10 mg and/or 15 mg) is non-inferior to insulin glargine for change from baseline A1C at 52 weeks in people with type 2 diabetes and increased CV risk. The primary and key secondary endpoints were measured at 52 weeks, with participants continuing treatment up to 104 weeks or until study completion. The completion of the study was triggered by the accrual of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Study participants enrolled had to have a mean baseline A1C between 7.5 percent and 10.5 percent and a BMI greater than or equal to 25 kg/m2 at baseline. All participants in the tirzepatide treatment arms started the study at a dose of tirzepatide 2.5 mg once-weekly and then increased the dose in a step-wise approach at four-week intervals to their final randomized maintenance dose of 5 mg (via a 2.5 mg step), 10 mg (via steps at 2.5 mg, 5 mg and 7.5 mg) or 15 mg (via steps at 2.5 mg, 5 mg, 7.5 mg, 10 mg and 12.5 mg). All participants in the titrated insulin glargine treatment arm started with a baseline dose of 10 units per day and titrated following a treat-to-target algorithm to reach a fasting blood glucose below 100 mg/dL.

The SURPASS phase 3 global clinical development program for tirzepatide has enrolled more than 20,000 people with type 2 diabetes across 10 clinical trials, five of which are global registration studies. The program began in late 2018, and all five global registration trials have been completed.

About Diabetes

Approximately 34 million Americans2 (just over 1 in 10) and an estimated 463 million adults worldwide3 have diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is the most common type internationally, accounting for an estimated 90 to 95 percent of all diabetes cases in the United States alone2. Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs when the body does not properly produce or use the hormone insulin.

Clinical data
Trade namesMounjaro
Other namesLY3298176, GIP/GLP-1 RA
License dataUS DailyMedTirzepatide
Routes of
administration
subcutaneous
Drug classAntidiabeticGLP-1 receptor agonist
ATC codeNone
Legal status
Legal statusUS: ℞-only [1][2]
Identifiers
showIUPAC name
CAS Number2023788-19-2
PubChem CID156588324
IUPHAR/BPS11429
DrugBankDB15171
ChemSpider76714503
UNIIOYN3CCI6QE
KEGGD11360
ChEMBLChEMBL4297839
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC225H348N48O68
Molar mass4813.527 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)Interactive image
showSMILES
showInChI

////////////Tirzepatide, FDA 2022, APPROVALS 2022, Mounjaro, PEPTIDE, チルゼパチド ,  LY3298176,

UNIIOYN3CCI6QE

pharma1

chart 1 Structure of GLP-1 & TZP & Exenatide & Somalutide

DAPAGLIFLOZIN


Haworth projection of dapagliflozin.svg
ChemSpider 2D Image | Dapagliflozin | C21H25ClO6

DAPAGLIFLOZIN, BMS-512148

ダパグリフロジン;

(2S,3R,4R,5S,6R)-2-[4-chloro-3-(4-ethoxybenzyl)phenyl]-6-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-3,4,5-triol,

Cas 461432-26-8

Molecular Formula: C21H25ClO6
Molecular Weight: 408.87
Dapagliflozin propanediol.png

Dapagliflozin propandiol monohydrate; 960404-48-2

Molecular Weight502.98
FormulaC21H25ClO6•C3H8O2•H2O

Bristol-Myers Squibb (Originator)
AstraZeneca

TYPE 2 DIABETES,SGLT-2 Inhibitors

launched 2012,  as forxiga in EU, FDA 2014, JAPAN PMDA 2014

Dapagliflozin propanediol monohydrate was first approved by European Medicine Agency (EMA) on November 12, 2012, then approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on January 8, 2014, and approved by Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency of Japan (PMDA) on March 24, 2014. It was co-developed and co-marketed as Forxiga® by Bristol-Myers Squibb and AstraZeneca in EU.

Dapagliflozin propanediol monohydrate is a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Forxiga® is available as tablet for oral use, containing 5 mg or 10 mg of free Dapagliflozin. The recommended starting dose is 5 mg once daily in the morning.

Figure US20120282336A1-20121108-C00006

Dapagliflozin propanediol is a solvate containing 1:1:1 ratio of the dapagliflozin, (S)-(+)-1,2-propanediol, and water.

http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/EPAR_-_Public_assessment_report/human/002322/WC500136024.pdf

US——-In 2011, the product was not recommended for approval by the FDA’s Endocrinologic and Metabolic Drugs Advisory Committee. In 2011, the FDA assigned a complete response letter to the application. A new application was resubmitted in 2013 by Bristol-Myers Squibb and AstraZeneca in the U.S

http://www.fda.gov/downloads/AdvisoryCommittees/CommitteesMeetingMaterials/Drugs/EndocrinologicandMetabolicDrugsAdvisoryCommittee/UCM262996.pdf

WILMINGTON, Del. & PRINCETON, N.J.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--December 12, 2013--


USFDA

Sales:$518.7 Million (Y2015); 
$235.8 Million (Y2014);
$33 Million (Y2013);ATC Code:A10BX09

Approved Countries or AreaUpdate Date:2015-07-29

  • US
  • EU
  • JP
Approval DateApproval TypeTrade NameIndicationDosage FormStrengthCompanyReview Classification
2014-01-08Marketing approvalFarxigaType 2 diabetesTablet5 mg/10 mgAstraZeneca 

More

Approval DateApproval TypeTrade NameIndicationDosage FormStrengthCompanyReview Classification
2012-11-12Marketing approvalForxigaType 2 diabetesTablet, Film coatedEq. 5 mg/10 mg DapagliflozinBristol-Myers Squibb, AstraZeneca 

More

Approval DateApproval TypeTrade NameIndicationDosage FormStrengthCompanyReview Classification
2014-03-24Marketing approvalForxigaType 2 diabetesTablet, Film coated5 mg/10 mgBristol-Myers Squibb, AstraZeneca, Ono 

MoreChemical Structure

AstraZeneca (NYSE:AZN) and Bristol-Myers Squibb Company (NYSE:BMY) today announced the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) Endocrinologic and Metabolic Drugs Advisory Committee (EMDAC) voted 13-1 that the benefits of dapagliflozin use outweigh identified risks and support marketing of dapagliflozin as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The Advisory Committee also voted 10-4 that the data provided sufficient evidence that dapagliflozin, relative to comparators, has an acceptable cardiovascular risk profile.

The FDA is not bound by the Advisory Committee’s recommendation but takes its advice into consideration when reviewing the application for an investigational agent. The Prescription Drug User Fee Act (PDUFA) goal date for dapagliflozin is Jan. 11, 2014.

Figure imgf000002_0001

Dapagliflozin is being reviewed by the FDA for use as monotherapy, and in combination with other antidiabetic agents, as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes. It is a selective and reversible inhibitor of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) that works independently of insulin to help remove excess glucose from the body. Dapagliflozin, an investigational compound in the U.S., was the first SGLT2 inhibitor to be approved anywhere in the world. Dapagliflozin is currently approved under the trade name [Forxiga](TM) for the treatment of adults with type 2 diabetes, along with diet and exercise, in 38 countries, including the European Union and Australia.

http://online.wsj.com/article/PR-CO-20131212-910828.html?dsk=y

PATENTRoute 1

Reference:1. WO03099836A1 / US6515117B2.

2. WO2010048358.

3. J. Med. Chem200851, 1145–1149.

4. WO2004063209A2 / US7375213B2.

5. WO2008002824A1 / US7919598B2.Route 2

Reference:1. WO2010022313 / US8283454B2.Route 3

Reference:1. WO2013068850.Route 4

Reference:1. Org. Lett. 201214, 1480-1483.

PAPER

https://www.future-science.com/doi/10.4155/fmc-2020-0154

Patent

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2016178148A1/en

1. A process for the preparation of dapagliflozin in amorphous form, the process comprising:

(a) reducing a compound of formula II to a compound of formula ΠΙ in the presence of a Lewis acid;

Figure imgf000042_0001

(b) silylating a compound of formula IV with hexamethyldisilazane to form a compound of formula V;

Figure imgf000042_0002

(c) reacting the compound of formula III with the compound of formula V in the presence of a strong base followed by treatment with an acid in the presence of an alcohol to prepare a compound of formula VII, wherein R is an alkyl group selected from C1-5 alkyl;

Figure imgf000042_0003

(d) converting the compound of formula VII to dapagliflozin;

(e) acetylating dapagliflozin to give D-glucitol, l ,5-anhydro-l -C-[4-chloro-3-[(4- ethoxyphenyl)methyl] phenyl]-, 2,3,4,6-tetraacetate, (IS)-, a compound of formula VIII;

Figure imgf000042_0004

(f) optionally, purifying the compound of formula VIII with a solvent selected from halogenated hydrocarbons, alcohols, ethers, or mixtures thereof; (g) hydrolyzing the compound of formula VIII obtained in step (f) to give dapagliflozin;

EXAMPLE 1: Preparation of 5-bromo-2-chlorobenzoyl chloride

To a suspension of 5-bromo-2-chiorobenzoic acid (lOg) in methylene di chloride (40niL), dimethylformamide (0.2g) and thionyl chloride were added and the reaction mixture was refluxed for about 2h. After completion of reaction, the solvent was distilled out. The mass obtained was degassed under vacuum followed by stripping with cyclohexane to give crude 5-bromo-2-chlorobenzoyl chloride (10.8g).

[0189] EXAMPLE 2: Preparation of 5-bromo-2-chloro-4′-ethoxybenzophenone (compound of Formula II)

5-bromo-2-chlorobenzoyl chloride (10.7g) was dissolved in methylene dichloride (40mL) and the reaction mixture was cooled to about -8°C to about -12°C under inert atmosphere. Aluminum chloride (5.65g) was added to the reaction mixture followed by addition of a solution of ethoxybenzene in methylene dichloride. The reaction mixture was stirred for about lh at about -8°C to -12°C and then quenched in dilute hydrochloric acid followed by extraction with methylene dichloride. The organic layer was washed with sodium bicarbonate solution and concentrated. The residue obtained was crystallized from methanol to give 5-bromo-2-chloro-4′-ethoxybenzophenone (8.5g). HPLC purity: 99.34%

[0190] EXAMPLE 3: Preparation of 5-bromo-2-chloro-4′-ethoxydiphenylmethane (compound of formula III)

To a mixture of 5-bromo-2-chloro-4′-ethoxybenzophenone (lOg) and methylene dichloride (50mL), cooled to about 0°C to about 5°C, triethylsilane (11.98g) and titanium chloride (22.3g) were added. The reaction mixture was stirred for about 3h at about 10°C to about 15°C. The reaction mixture was quenched into chilled water. The organic layer was separated, washed with water and sodium bicarbonate solution and concentrated under vacuum followed by stripping with toluene. The residue obtained was stirred with methanol, filtered and dried to give 5-bromo-2-chloro-4′-ethoxydiphenylmethane (9g). HPLC purity: 99.4%

Figure imgf000042_0001

[0191] EXAMPLE 4: Preparation of 2,3,4,6-tetra-0-(trimethylsilyl)-D-glucono-l,5- lactone (compound of Formula V)

To a mixture of D-glucono- 1,5 -lactone (lOg) and iodine (0.28g) in methylene dichloride (80mL), hexamethyldisilazane (36.1g) was added and the reaction mixture was refluxed. After completion of reaction, the reaction mixture was concentrated and degassed to give 2,3,4,6-tetra-0-(trimethylsilyl)-D-glucono-l,5-lactone as liquid (25g). HPLC purity: 95%

Figure imgf000042_0002

[0192] EXAMPLE 5: Preparation of D-glucopyranoside, methyl l-C-[4-chloro-3-[(4- ethoxyphenyl)methyl] phenyl] (compound of Formula VII wherein R is methyl)

To a mixture of 2,3,4,6-tetra-0-(trimethylsilyl)-D-glucono-l ,5-lactone (25g) and 5- bromo-2-chloro-4′-ethoxydiphenylmethane (8.7g) in tetrahydrofuran (174mL), cooled to about -75°C to about -88 °C under nitrogen atmosphere, n-butyl lithium in hexane (50mL) was slowly added. The reaction mixture was stirred at about the same temperature and then mixture of methanol and methanesulphonic acid was added to it. The reaction mixture was quenched into sodium bicarbonate solution and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic layer was separated, washed with saturated sodium chloride solution and concentrated under vacuum to obtain a residue. The residue was purified with a mixture of toluene and cyclohexane. Yield: 1 lg as thick mass with 80-85% HPLC purity.

Figure imgf000042_0003

reacting the compound of formula III with the compound of formula V in the presence of a strong base followed by treatment with an acid in the presence of an alcohol to prepare a compound of formula VII, wherein R is an alkyl group selected from C1-5 alkyl;

[0193] EXAMPLE 6: Preparation of D-glucitol, l,5-anhydro-l-C-[4-chloro-3-[(4- ethoxyphenyl) methyl] phenyl]

To a mixture of D-glucopyranoside, methyl l -C-[4-chloro-3-[(4- ethoxyphenyl)methyl] phenyl] in methylene di chloride (40mL) and acetonitrile (40mL), cooled to about -40°C to about -45°C, triethylsilane (8.74g) was added followed by addition of boron trifluoride etherate (10.67g) maintaining the temperature at about -40°C to about -45°C. The reaction mixture was quenched in sodium bicarbonate solution and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic layer was separated, concentrated and degassed under vacuum to give title compound (1 lg) as thick residue with 80-85% HPLC purity.

[0194] EXAMPLE 7: Preparation of D-Glucitol, l,5-anhydro-l-C-[4-chloro-3-[(4- ethoxyphenyl)methyl]phenyl]-, 2,3,4,6-tetraacetate, (lS)-

To a cooled solution of D-glucitol, l,5-anhydro-l -C-[4-chloro-3-[(4-ethoxyphenyl) methyl] phenyl]- (l lg) in methylene dichloride (55mL) at about 0°C to about 5°C, diisopropylethylamme, dmiethylaminopyridine and acetic anhydride were added and the reaction mixture was stirred. After completion of reaction, the reaction mixture was quenched by adding water. The aqueous layer was separated and extracted with methylene dichloride. The organic layer was separated, washed with sodium bicarbonate solution and concentrated under vacuum to obtain residue which was stripped out with methanol. The residue was purified with methanol and charcoal, followed by diisopropyl ether and methanol crystallization. Yield: lOg; HPLC purity: 99.6%

acetylating dapagliflozin to give D-glucitol, l ,5-anhydro-l -C-[4-chloro-3-[(4- ethoxyphenyl)methyl] phenyl]-, 2,3,4,6-tetraacetate, (IS)-, a compound of formula VIII;

Figure imgf000042_0004

[0195] EXAMPLE 8: Preparation of D-glucitol, l,5-anhydro-l-C-[4-chloro-3-[(4- ethoxyphenyl)methyl] phenyl] (Dapagliflozin)

To a stirred solution of D-glucitol, l,5-anhydro-l-C-[4-chloro-3-[(4- ethoxyphenyl)methyl] phenyl]-, 2,3,4,6-tetraacetate, (IS)-, (lOg) in THF: methanol: water mixture (50mL: 50mL:30mL), sodium hydroxide was added and the reaction mixture was stirred. After completion of reaction, the solvents were distilled out under vacuum and the residue obtained was dissolved in methylene dichloride and washed with water and brine and dried over sodium sulfate. The reaction mixture was concentrated and degassed to give off- white to white solids of D-glucitol, l,5-anhydro-l-C-[4-chloro-3-[(4- ethoxyphenyl)methyl] phenyl]- (dapagliflozin) Yield: 7g (XRD matches with amorphous form) HPLC purity: 99.8%

[0197] EXAMPLE 10: Preparation of D-Glucitol, l,5-anhydro-l-C-[4-chloro-3-[(4- ethoxyphenyl)methyl]phenyl]-, 2,3,4,6-tetraacetate, (IS)- from D-glucono-1,5- lactone (One-pot Synthesis)

To a mixture of D-glucono-l,5-lactone (lOg) in methylene dichloride (80mL), hexamethyldisilazane (36. lg) was added and the reaction mixture was refluxed. After completion of reaction, the reaction mixture was concentrated and degassed. The residue obtained was dissolved in tetrahydrofuran. 5-Bromo-2-chloro-4′-ethoxydiphenylmethane (8.7g) was added to the reaction mixture which was cooled to about -75°C to about-85°C under nitrogen atmosphere. n-Butyl lithium in hexane (50mL) was slowly added to the reaction mixture maintaining the temperature between -75°C to about -85°C. The reaction mixture was stirred at about the same temperature and then mixture of methanol and methanesulphonic acid was added to it. The reaction mixture was quenched into sodium bicarbonate solution and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic layer was separated, washed with saturated sodium chloride solution and concentrated under vacuum to obtain a residue. This residue was purified by a mixture of toluene and cyclohexane. To the product obtained, methylene dichloride and acetonitrile were added and the reaction mixture was cooled to about -40°C to about -45°C. Triethylsilane (8.74g) was added to the reaction mixture followed by addition of boron trifluoride etherate (10.67g) maintaining temperature at about -40°C to about -45°C. The reaction mixture was quenched in sodium bicarbonate solution. The aqueous layer was separated and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic layer was separated, concentrated and degassed under vacuum. The thick residue obtained was dissolved in methylene dichloride and cooled to about 0°C to about 5°C. Diisopropylethylamine, dimethylaminopyridine and acetic anhydride were added to the reaction mixture which was stirred. After completion of reaction, the reaction mixture was quenched by adding water. The aqueous layer was separated and extracted with methylene dichloride. The organic layer was separated, washed with sodium bicarbonate solution and concentrated under vacuum to obtain residue which was stripped out with methanol The residue obtained was recrystallized with methanol and charcoal to give title compound (iOg) with 99.7% HPLC purity.

PAPER

Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, 26(14), 3947-3952; 2018

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0968089618309386?

Abstract

The cardiovascular complications were highly prevalent in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), even at the early stage of T2DM or the state of intensive glycemic control. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the intervention of cardiovascular complications in T2DM. Herein, the new hybrids of NO donor and SGLT2 inhibitor were design to achieve dual effects of anti-hyperglycemic and anti-thrombosis. As expected, the preferred hybrid 2 exhibited moderate SGLT2 inhibitory effects and anti-platelet aggregation activities, and its anti-platelet effect mediated by NO was also confirmed in the presence of NO scavenger. Moreover, compound 2 revealed significantly hypoglycemic effects and excretion of urinary glucose during an oral glucose tolerance test in mice. Potent and multifunctional hybrid, such as compound 2, is expected as a potential candidate for the intervention of cardiovascular complications in T2DM.

Graphical abstract

Scheme 1. Synthesis of target compounds 1-3. Reagents and conditions: (a) TMSCl, NMM, THF, 35 °C; (b) (COCl)2, CH2Cl2, DMF, then phenetole, AlCl3, 0 °C; (c) Et3SiH, BF3·OEt2, CH2Cl2, CH3CN, 25 °C; (d) n-BuLi, THF, toluene, -78 °C, then 2a followed by MeOH, CH3SO3H; (e) Et3SiH, BF3·OEt2, CH2Cl2, CH3CN, -10 °C; (f) Ac2O, pyridine, CH2Cl2, DMAP;

PATENT

Indian Pat. Appl., 2014MU03972, 

PATENT

 Dapagliflozin, also known as SGLT2 inhibitor, chemical name is (2S,3R,4R,5S,6R)-2-[3-(4-ethoxybenzyl)-4-chlorophenyl]-6- Hydroxymethyltetrahydro-2H-pyran-3,4,5-triol, a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, announced by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on January 8, 2014 , approved the use of dapagliflozin for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, the specific structural formula is as follows:
         
        Dapagliflozin works by inhibiting sodium-glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2), a protein in the kidney that allows glucose to be reabsorbed into the blood. This allows excess glucose to be excreted through the urine, thereby improving blood sugar control without increasing insulin secretion.
        At present, there are two main methods for synthesizing dapagliflozin. One uses 5-bromo-2-chlorobenzoic acid as the starting material, which is chlorinated, Falk acylated, reduced, and then combined with 2,3,4 ,6-tetra-0-trimethylsilyl-D-glucopyranosic acid 1,5-lactone is condensed, methyl etherified, and demethoxylated to obtain dapagliflozin. The specific process route is as follows:
         
        The method has expensive starting materials and too many process steps, so it is not suitable for industrial production, and dangerous n-butyllithium needs to be used in the reaction process, so the requirements for experimental conditions are too high;
        Another method is to use o-toluidine as the starting material, undergo bromination, diazotization, chlorination, and alkylation reactions, and then react with 2,3,4,6-tetra-0-trimethylsilyl -D-glucopyranosic acid 1,5-lactone is condensed, then methyl etherified and demethoxylated to obtain dapagliflozin. The specific process route is as follows:
         
        AIBN will be used in this reaction, which will produce highly toxic cyanide, which will seriously pollute the environment, and also requires the use of n-butyllithium, which requires high experimental conditions and is dangerous to operate, and is not suitable for large-scale production.
Example 1
        Weigh 16g (0.8mol) of activated magnesium, add two iodine pellets, heat to 35°C under nitrogen protection, then add 500mL of anhydrous THF to it, without magnesium, and then add 200mL of 10% iodobenzene to it 2000mL of THF solution (total 2000mL: 20g iodobenzene (0.53mol)+2000mL THF), after the color of the solution subsided, add the remaining iodobenzene solution dropwise, react for 5h, and filter to obtain the Grignard reagent THF solution of iodobenzene.
        433.4g (1.1mol) of peracetyl sugar and 1500mL of dichloromethane were added, cooled to 0°C in an ice-water bath, 545.5mL of 33% hydrogen bromide in acetic acid solution (2.2mol) was added dropwise to the reaction flask, and the mixture was gradually heated up The mixture was heated to 25° C. and stirred for 1.5 h. Saturated sodium bicarbonate solution was added to quench the reaction. The aqueous solution was extracted with dichloromethane, dried, and concentrated by rotary evaporation. 423.6 g of white solid were obtained, which was 2,3,4,6-tetraacetyl bromoglucose, and the yield was 93%.
        Weigh 217.83g of 2,3,4,6-tetraacetyl bromoglucose (0.53mol) and dissolve it in 2500mL of toluene, then add 5.6g of europium oxide (3mol%) to it, under nitrogen protection, reduce the temperature to – 20°C, dropwise add the prepared iodobenzene Grignard reagent to it, and control the temperature at -20~-15°C. After the dropwise addition, the temperature is raised to 5°C for reaction for 2h, vacuum concentrated to an oily substance, and then added to it. 2000mL of toluene was dissolved, extracted twice with saturated aqueous sodium chloride solution, the organic phase was dried, concentrated in vacuo to an oily substance, and 1000mL of 3:1 n-hexane/ethyl acetate solution was added to it, heated to dissolve, cooled, and a solid was precipitated out, filtered , and dried to obtain 259.49 g of solid with a yield of 85%.
        The above-mentioned solid was dissolved in 1000mL 2:3:1 tetrahydrofuran/ethanol/water solution, then 40g sodium hydroxide solid (1mol) was added to it, stirred overnight, vacuum concentrated to obtain oil after the reaction was finished, and then 1000mL of ethyl acetate was added thereto. The ester was dissolved, extracted twice with saturated aqueous sodium chloride solution and twice with saturated aqueous sodium thiosulfate solution, dried the organic phase, concentrated in vacuo to an oil, to which was added 200 mL of 1:3 ethyl acetate/acetonitrile solution , heated to dissolve, cooled and recrystallized to obtain 147.1 g of white rice-like crystals with a yield of 80.2% and a purity of 99.2% (determined by high performance liquid chromatography, external standard method).
        IR(cm-1):1689,1612,1588,1523,1455,1253,1089,820。1H NMR(500MHz,CDCl 3 ):δ:7.36(d,J=8.2Hz,1H),7.32(d,J=1.9Hz,1H),7.23(dd,J=8.3,2.0Hz,1H),7.09(d,J=8.6Hz,2H),6.82(d,J=8.6Hz,2H),4.85(s,1H),4.41(s,3H),3.93~4.02(m,5H),3.70(dd,J=11.7,1.3Hz,1H),3.44(dd,J=11.7,5.6Hz,1H),3.26~3.28(m,1H)。LC-MS,m/z:[M+Na]+=431。
        Example 2
        Weigh 26.7g (1.33mol) of activated magnesium, add two iodine pellets, heat to 35°C under nitrogen protection, then add 500mL of anhydrous THF to it, without magnesium, and then add 200mL of 10% iodine to it The THF solution of benzene (2000mL in total: 20g iodobenzene (0.53mol)+2000mL THF), after the color of the solution subsides, add the remaining iodobenzene solution dropwise, react for 5h, and filter to obtain the Grignard reagent THF solution of iodobenzene .
        433.4g (1.1mol) of peracetyl sugar and 1500mL of dichloromethane were added, cooled to 0°C in an ice-water bath, 272.75mL of 33% hydrogen bromide in acetic acid solution (1.1mol) was added dropwise to the reaction flask, and the mixture was gradually heated up The mixture was heated to 25° C. and stirred for 1.5 h. Saturated sodium bicarbonate solution was added to quench the reaction. The aqueous solution was extracted with dichloromethane, dried, and concentrated by rotary evaporation. 381.5 g of white solid were obtained, which was 2,3,4,6-tetraacetyl bromoglucose, and the yield was 83.8%.
        Weigh 217.83g of 2,3,4,6-tetraacetyl bromoglucose (0.53mol) and dissolve it in 5000mL of toluene, then add 5.76g of gadolinium oxide (3mol%) to it, under nitrogen protection, reduce the temperature to – 20°C, dropwise add the prepared iodobenzene Grignard reagent to it, and control the temperature at -20~-15°C. After the dropwise addition, the temperature is raised to 5°C for reaction for 2h, vacuum concentrated to an oily substance, and then added to it. 2000mL of toluene was dissolved, extracted twice with saturated aqueous sodium chloride solution, the organic phase was dried, concentrated in vacuo to an oily substance, and 1000mL of 3:1 n-hexane/ethyl acetate solution was added to it, heated to dissolve, cooled, and a solid was precipitated out, filtered , dried to obtain solid 281.2g, yield 92.1%.
        The above-mentioned solid was dissolved in 1000mL 2:3:1 tetrahydrofuran/ethanol/water solution, then 40g sodium hydroxide solid (1mol) was added to it, stirred overnight, vacuum concentrated to obtain oil after the reaction was finished, and then 1000mL of ethyl acetate was added thereto. The ester was dissolved, extracted twice with saturated aqueous sodium chloride solution and twice with saturated aqueous sodium thiosulfate solution, dried the organic phase, concentrated in vacuo to an oil, to which was added 200 mL of 1:4 ethyl acetate/acetonitrile solution , heated to dissolve, cooled and recrystallized to obtain 150.9 g of white rice-like crystals with a yield of 88.2% and a purity of 99.5% (determined by high performance liquid chromatography, external standard method).
        Example 3
        Weigh 37.4g (1.862mol) of activated magnesium, add two iodine pellets, heat to 35°C under nitrogen protection, then add 500mL of anhydrous THF to it, without magnesium, and then add 200mL of 10% iodine to it The THF solution of benzene (2000mL in total: 20g iodobenzene (0.53mol)+2000mL THF), after the color of the solution subsides, add the remaining iodobenzene solution dropwise, react for 5h, and filter to obtain the Grignard reagent THF solution of iodobenzene .
        433.4g (1.1mol) of peracetyl sugar and 1500mL of dichloromethane were added, cooled to 0°C in an ice-water bath, 818.25mL of 33% hydrogen bromide in acetic acid solution (3.3mol) was added dropwise to the reaction flask, and the mixture was gradually heated up The mixture was heated to 25° C. and stirred for 1.5 h. Saturated sodium bicarbonate solution was added to quench the reaction. The aqueous solution was extracted with dichloromethane, dried, and concentrated by rotary evaporation. 375.3 g of white solid were obtained, which was 2,3,4,6-tetraacetyl bromoglucose, and the yield was 82.4%.
        Weigh 217.83g 2,3,4,6-tetraacetyl bromoglucose (0.53mol) and dissolve it in 7500mL toluene, then add 5.6g europium oxide (3mol%) to it, under nitrogen protection, reduce the temperature to – 20°C, dropwise add the prepared iodobenzene Grignard reagent to it, and control the temperature at -20~-15°C. After the dropwise addition, the temperature is raised to 5°C for reaction for 2h, vacuum concentrated to an oily substance, and then added to it. 2000mL of toluene was dissolved, extracted twice with saturated aqueous sodium chloride solution, the organic phase was dried, concentrated in vacuo to an oily substance, and 1000mL of 3:1 n-hexane/ethyl acetate solution was added to it, heated to dissolve, cooled, and a solid was precipitated out, filtered , and dried to obtain 273.25 g of solid with a yield of 89.5%.
        The above-mentioned solid was dissolved in 1000mL 2:3:1 tetrahydrofuran/ethanol/water solution, then 40g sodium hydroxide solid (1mol) was added to it, stirred overnight, vacuum concentrated to obtain oil after the reaction was finished, and then 1000mL of ethyl acetate was added thereto. The ester was dissolved, extracted twice with saturated aqueous sodium chloride solution and twice with saturated aqueous sodium thiosulfate solution, the organic phase was dried, concentrated in vacuo to an oil, to which was added 200 mL of 1:5 ethyl acetate/acetonitrile solution , heated to dissolve, cooled and recrystallized to obtain 152.7 g of white rice-like crystals with a yield of 82.9% and a purity of 99.4% (determined by high performance liquid chromatography, external standard method).
        Example 4
        Weigh 26.7g (1.33mol) of activated magnesium, add two iodine pellets, heat to 35°C under nitrogen protection, then add 500mL of anhydrous THF to it, without magnesium, and then add 200mL of 10% iodine to it The THF solution of benzene (2000mL in total: 20g iodobenzene (0.53mol)+2000mL THF), after the color of the solution subsides, add the remaining iodobenzene solution dropwise, react for 5h, and filter to obtain the Grignard reagent THF solution of iodobenzene .
        433.4g (1.1mol) of peracetyl sugar and 1500mL of dichloromethane were added, cooled to 0°C in an ice-water bath, 545.5mL of 33% hydrogen bromide in acetic acid solution (2.2mol) was added dropwise to the reaction flask, and the mixture was gradually heated up The mixture was heated to 25° C. and stirred for 1.5 h. Saturated sodium bicarbonate solution was added to quench the reaction. The aqueous solution was extracted with dichloromethane, dried, and concentrated by rotary evaporation. 425.1 g of white solid were obtained, which was 2,3,4,6-tetraacetyl bromoglucose in 94% yield.
        Weigh 217.83g of 2,3,4,6-tetraacetyl bromoglucose (0.53mol) and dissolve it in 5000mL of toluene, then add 5.76g of gadolinium oxide (3mol%) to it, under nitrogen protection, reduce the temperature to – 20°C, dropwise add the prepared iodobenzene Grignard reagent to it, control the temperature at -20~-15°C, after the dropwise addition, raise the temperature to 5°C for 2 hours, concentrate in vacuo to an oily substance, then add to it 2000mL of toluene was dissolved, extracted twice with saturated aqueous sodium chloride solution, the organic phase was dried, concentrated in vacuo to an oily substance, then 1000mL of 3:1 n-hexane/ethyl acetate solution was added to it, heated to dissolve, cooled, and a solid was precipitated out, filtered , and dried to obtain 278.6 g of solid with a yield of 91.2%.
        The above-mentioned solid was dissolved in 1000mL 2:3:1 tetrahydrofuran/ethanol/water solution, then 40g sodium hydroxide solid (1mol) was added to it, stirred overnight, vacuum concentrated to obtain oil after the reaction was completed, and 1000mL of ethyl acetate was added thereto. The ester was dissolved, extracted twice with saturated aqueous sodium chloride solution and twice with saturated aqueous sodium thiosulfate solution, the organic phase was dried, concentrated in vacuo to an oil, to which was added 200 mL of 1:4 ethyl acetate/acetonitrile solution , heated to dissolve, cooled and recrystallized to obtain 155.62 g of white rice-like crystals with a yield of 84.5% and a purity of 99.7% (determined by high performance liquid chromatography, external standard method).

Patent

Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a group of oral medicines used for treating diabetes that have been approved since 2013. SGLT2 inhibitors prevent the kidneys from re-absorbing glucose back into the blood by passing into the bladder. Glucose is re-absorbed back into the blood via the renal proximal tubules. SGLT2 is a protein predominantly expressed in the renal proximal tubules and is likely to be major transporter responsible for this uptake. Glucose-lowering effect of SGLT-2 inhibitors occurs via an insulin-independent mechanism mostly through glucosuria by increasing the urinary excretion of glucose.

It has been shown that the treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with type II diabetes lowers HbAlc, reduces body weight, lowers systemic blood pressure (BP) and induces a small increase in LDL-C and HDL-C levels.

SGLT2 inhibitors inhibit the reabsorption of sodium and glucose from the tubule and hence, more sodium is delivered in the macula densa causing arteriole dilation, reduced intraglomerular pressure and decreased hyperfiltration. SGLT2 inhibitors cause natriuresis and volume depletion, and an increase in circulating levels of renin, angiotensin and aldosterone. They also reduce albuminuria and slow GFR loss through mechanisms that appear independent of glycemia.

Dapagliflozin is a highly potent and reversible SGLT2 inhibitor, which increases the amount of glucose excreted in the urine and improves both fasting and post-prandial plasma glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. Dapagliflozin has also been shown to tend to reduce liver fat content in some studies in a diabetic population.

Dapagliflozin is available on the market in the form of dapagliflozin propanediol monohydrate and is sold under trade name Forxiga or Farxiga in the form of fdm-coated tablets. Further it is available on the market as a combination product with metformin hydrochloride which is sold under trade name Xigduo IR or Xigduo XR in the form of film-coated tablets. In addition, it is available on the market as a combination product with saxagliptin hydrochloride which is sold under trade name Qtem in the form of film-coated tablets. Moreover, it is available on the market as a combination product with saxagliptin hydrochloride and metformin hydrochloride which is sold under trade name Qtemmet XR in the form of film-coated tablets.

Dapagliflozin as a monotherapy and in a combination with other active substances has demonstrated its efficacy in improving glycaemic control and reducing body weight and blood pressure in a broad spectrum of patients with type II diabetes, including those with high baseline HbAlc and the elderly. A sustained reduction in serum uric acid concentration was also observed. Dapagliflozin provides significant improvement in HbAlc, reduction in insulin dose and reduction in body weight in patients with type 1 diabetes as adjunct therapy to adjustable insulin.

Dapagliflozin can be in its free form or any stereoisomer or any pharmaceutically acceptable salt or co crystal complex or a hydrate or a solvate thereof and in any polymorphic forms and any mixtures thereof.

Dapagliflozin as a substance was first disclosed in US 6,515,117. The process for the preparation of dapagliflozin involves the reaction of 4-bromo- 1 -chloro-2-(4-ethoxybenyl)benzene with 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-trimethyl silyl -D-gluconolactone, the obtained compound 3 on demethoxylation yields diastereomeric mixture of Dapagliflozin. Hie diastereomeric mixture of dapagliflozin is further acetylated with acetic anhydride in the presence of pyridine and dimethylaminopyridine yields, then recrystallized from absolute ethanol to yield the desired tetra-acetyJated b-C-glucoside as a white solid. Compound tetra-acetylated b-C-glucoside is treated with lithium hydroxide hydrate which undergoes deprotection to yield the compound dapagliflozin.

Several other documents, patents and applications disclose the process for the preparation of dapagliflozin such as for example WOO 127128, WO03099836, W02004063209, W02006034489,

W02010022313, WO2012019496, W02013064909, W02013068850, W02013079501, WO2014094544, WO2014159151, WO2014206299, W02015040571, WO2015044849, WO2015063726, WO2015132803, WO2015155739, W02016098016, WO2016128995, WO2016178148, WO2017042683, WO2017063617, W02018029611, WO2018029264, WO2018142422.

Prior art documents already provided some compositions of SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin.

W02008116179 discloses immediate release formulation in the form of a stock granulation or in the form of a capsule or a tablet which comprises dapagliflozin propylene glycol hydrate, one or more bulking agent, one or more binder and one or more disintegrant.

WO2011060256 describes the bilayer tablet comprising dapagliflozin having sustained release profde in one layer and metformin in another layer while WO2011060290 describes immediate release formulation of dapagliflozin and metformin.

WO2012163546 discloses the pharmaceutical composition comprising cyclodextrin and dapagliflozin.

Co-crystals of dapagliflozin with lactose are described in WO2014178040.

Solid dispersion compositions comprising amorphous dapagliflozin and at least one polymer are disclosed in W02015011113 and in WO2015128853.

CN103721261 discloses the combination of SGLT2 inhibitor with vitamins such as vitamin B.

Pharmaceutical composition preparation comprising dapagliflozin L-proline and metformin and/or DPP-IV inhibitor is disclosed in WO2018124497.

EP2252289A1 provides a combination of SGLT inhibitor with DPP4 inhibitor showing synergistic effect in increasing plasma active GLP-1 level in a patient over that provided by administration of the SGLT inhibitor or the DPP4 inhibitor alone.

EP2395983A1 relates to a pharmaceutical composition comprising a SGLT2 inhibitor, a DPP4 inhibitor and a third antidiabetic agent which is suitable in the treatment or prevention of one or more conditions selected from type 1 diabetes mellitus, type 2 diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance and hyperglycemia.

Example A: HPLC method

The purity of Dapagliflozine in general may be determined with the following HPLC method: column: XBridge C18, 150×4.6mm, 3.5; flow-rate: 0.9ml/min; column temperature: 50°C, wavelength: UV 225 nm; mobile phase: eluent A: 0.1% H3PO4, Eluent B: methanol; gradient:

Sample preparation: Accurately weigh about 40mg of sample and dissolve in 50 ml of solvent. Calculation: Use area per cent method. Do not integrate solvent peaks.

Example 1: Preparation of 5-bromo-2-chlorobenzoyl chloride

5-bromo-2-chlorobenzoic acid (450 g) was suspended in dichloromethane (2.25 L) and dimethylformamide (0.74 ml). At 15 – 30°C oxalyl chloride (180.3 ml) was slowly added. During addition gas evolution of HC1 and CO2 occurred. The reaction was performed at 20-30°C. The reaction was considered to be complete if 2-chloro-5-bromobenzoic acid was below 1% (area percent purity). The mixture was concentrated at elevated temperature until oily residue was obtained.

Example 2: Preparation of (5-bromo-2-chlorophenyl)(4-ethoxyphenyl)methanone

Dichloromethane (900 ml) was charged into reactor and then aluminum chloride (267.6 g) was added. The reaction mixture was cooled below 5°C and ethoxybenzene (256.1 ml) was slowly added. After complete addition, the mixture was gradually cooled below -5°C. In a separate reactor, 5-bromo-2-chlorobenzoyl chloride (485g) was dissolved in dichloromethane (900 ml). This solution was slowly added to the mixture of aluminum chloride and ethoxybenzene with such rate that temperature was kept below -5°C. After complete addition the mixture was stirred below -5°C until reaction was finished. The reaction was considered to be complete if methyl ester was below 1 % (the reaction mixture is sampled in methanol). After reaction was completed the reaction mixture was slowly added into cooled 1M HC1 solution and flushed with of dichloromethane (450 ml). The organic phase was separated and water phase was washed again with dichloromethane. Organic phases were combined and washed with water and NaHC03 solution. So obtained organic phase was concentrated to oily residue and dissolved in methanol ethyl acetate mixture in 10 to 1 ratio at reflux temperature. The clear solution was gradually cooled down to 35-45 °C and seeded with pure 5-bromo-2-chlorophenyl(4-ethoxyphenyl)methanone. The reaction mass was gradually cooled down to 0-10°C and stirred at that temperature up to 4 hours. The precipitate was isolated and washed with precooled methanol. The product was dried to a final LOD (Loss on drying) content of less than 1.0% with a yield of 564g (87% mass yield).

Example 3: Preparation of 4-bromo-l-chloro-2-(4-ethoxybenzyl)benzene

5-bromo-2-chlorophenyl(4-ethoxyphenyl)methanone (400g) was dissolved in 1.62L tetrahydrofuran. Into solution NaBTL (53.5g ) was added. After addition, the mixture was stirred at ambient temperature for 30-60 min followed by cooling of reaction mixture below -5°C. Aluminum chloride (314g) was added in portion and reaction mixture maintained below 5°C. After addition, the reaction mixture was gradually heated to reflux temperature and stirred until reaction was complete. Reaction mixture was cooled to ambient temperature and mixture of THF/water was slowly added into reaction mixture followed by addition of water and stirred at ambient temperature. Organic phase was collected and washed with saturated NaCl solution. Organic phase was concentrated to oily residue and dissolved in ethanol (800ml) at elevated temperature. Solution was cooled to 25-30°C and seeded with pure 4-bromo-l-chloro-2-(4-ethoxybenzyl)benzene. The reaction mass was gradually cooled to -2 to 10°C and stirred at that temperature. The product was isolated and washed with precooled ethanol and dried until final LOD (Loss on drying) content was less than 1.0%. Yield was 322 g (89%).

Example 4: Preparation of 3R,4S,5S,6R)-2-(4-chloro-3-(4-ethoxybenzyl)phenyl)-6- (hydroxymethyl)-2-methoxytetrahydro-2H-pyran-3,4,5-triol

4-bromo-l-chloro-2-(4-ethoxybenzyl)benzene (97.5g ) and toluene (1.46L) was charge into reactor. Solution was heated to reflux temperature and approximately half of the solvent was distilled out. Tetrahydrofuran (195 mL) was charged into the solution and mixture was cooled below -70°C. Solution of 15% «-Buli in hexane (227.5 ml) was slowly added and temperature was kept below -70°C. After complete addition solution was stirred at temperature below -70°C to complete reaction. Solution of 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-trimethylsilyl-D-gluconolactone (182 g) in toluene (243 mL) was added into reaction mixture at temperature below -70°C. After complete addition, the mixture was stirred below -70°C, warmed to approximately -65°C and then mixture of 57.6 g methanesulfonic acid in 488 ml methanol was added. After addition, the mixture was gradually warmed to ambient temperature and stirred until reaction was complete. After reaction was finished reaction mixture was slowly added into saturated NaHCCL solution (630ml) and stirred. Into quenched mixture 975 ml of heptane and 585 ml methanol was added. The mixture was stirred for additional 15 min. Organic phase was washed with water/methanol mixture several times. Water phases were combined and distilled to remove organic solvents. Into the residual water phase, toluene was added to perform extraction. Organic phases were combined and washed with water. Organic phase was distillated at elevated temperature until oily residue was obtained.

Example 5: Preparation of (2S,3R,4R,5S,6R)-2-(4-chloro-3-(4-ethoxybenzyl)phenyl)-6-(hydroxymethyl) tetrahydro2H-pyran-3,4,5-triol – Dapagliflozin

Dichloromethane (656 mL) was charged into oily residue from step 4 and stirred at ambient temperature until clear solution was obtained. Triethysilane (122 mL) was added into the so obtained solution. Reaction mixture was cooled below -30°C and 94.2 mL of boron trifluoride etherate was slowly added at temperatures below -30°C. After complete addition, the mixture was stirred below -30°C for one hour and gradually warmed to -5 to 0°C until reaction was completed. After reaction was finished saturated NaHCCL solution (468 mL) was slowly added. Reaction mixture was distilled to remove organic solvents followed by addition ethyl acetate into the residue. Organic phase was collected and washed again with saturated NaHC03 and water. So obtained organic phase was distillated at elevated temperature until oily residue is obtained.

Example 6: Preparation of (2R,3R,4R,5S,6S)-2-(acetoxymethyl)-6-(4-chloro-3-(4-ethoxybenzyl)phenyl) tetrahydro-2H-pyran-3,4,5-triyl triacetate.

Oily residual from example 5 was dissolved in dichloromethane (602 mL) at ambient temperature followed by addition of DMAP (6.22g). Reaction mixture was cooled to 0 – 10°C and 144.3 mL of acetic anhydride was added at temperatures below 10°C. Reaction mixture was gradually warmed to ambient temperature and stirred until reaction was completed. Reaction mass was washed with water with saturated NaHC03. Organic phase was collected and concentrated to oily residue to which ethanol (1.68L) was charged and approximately 300 ml ethanol was removed by distillation. The clear solution was gradually cooled to 60-65 °C and seeded. The reaction mass was gradually cooled to 20-25 °C and product was isolated. The product was dried at 50°C in vacuum until LOD (Loss on drying) below 1.0% 123g of product was obtained with yield 71%. HPLC purity: 99.97 %.

Formula 9 Formula 2

(2R,3R,4R,5S,6S)-2-(acetoxymethyl)-6-(4-chloro-3-(4-ethoxybenzyl)phenyl) tetrahydro-2H-pyran-3,4,5-triyl triacetate (740 g) as prepared according to process described in examples 1 to 6 was charged into solution of methanol (2.27L), water (0.74L) and NaOH (23 lg) at 35-45°C and stirred at 35-45°C until reaction was completed. After reaction was finished 1M HC1 (1.63L) was slowly added. Reaction mass was distilled to remove organic solvents and product was extracted by tert-butyl methyl ether. Combined organic phases were washed with water and concentrated at elevated temperature until oily residue was obtained. Content of impurity IMP A was below 0.02%.

Example 7a: Preparation of amorphous dapagliflozin.

Oily residue as prepared according to example 7 comprising approximately 262 g of dapagliflozin was dissolved in toluene (2.5L) at temperature 60-70 °C. Solution of dapagliflozin in toluene was slowly added into heptane (5.3L) at temperature between 10 to 15°C and stirring rate with P/V at 4 W/m3. After complete addition, the suspension was cooled to 0°C and stirred with unchanged stirring rate. Suspension was isolated and washed with precooled heptane. Filtration rate was 14 · 104 m/s. Isolated product was dried in vacuum dryer at temperatures between 25 °C to 50 °C. Content of impurity IMP A was below 0.02% and residual heptane and toluene were 1673 ppm and below 89 ppm.

(2R,3R,4R,5S,6S)-2-(acetoxymethyl)-6-(4-chloro-3-(4-ethoxybenzyl)phenyl) tetrahydro-2H-pyran-3,4,5-triyl triacetate (30 g) of 4 different qualities obtained by the process known in the prior art was charged into solution of methanol (90 mL), water (30 mL) and NaOH (9.36 g) and stirred at 35-45°C until reaction was completed and sampled for HPLC analysis (Sample 1).

After reaction was finished 1M HC1 (66 mL) was slowly added. Reaction mass was distilled to remove organic solvents and product was extracted by tert-butyl methyl ether. To the combined organic phases 68ml of 1M NaOH was added and pH was set to 12.5 to 13.5. Phases were separated and organic phase is washed again with 68ml of water without pH correction. So obtained organic phase was sampled for HPLC analysis (Sample 2) and concentrated at elevated temperature until oily residue was obtained.

Oily residue comprising approximately 21 g of dapagliflozin was dissolved in toluene (210 mL) at temperature 60-70 °C. Solution of dapagliflozin in toluene was slowly added into heptane (420 mL) at temperature between 10 to 15°C and stirring rate with P/V as defined in Table 1. After complete addition, the suspension was cooled to 0°C and stirred with unchanged stirring rate. Suspension was isolated and washed with precooled heptane. Filtration rate was as defined in Table 1. Isolated product was dried in vacuum dryer at temperatures between 25 °C to 50 °C. Amorphous dapagliflozin with content of impurity IMP A as shown in Table 1 and residual heptane and toluene as shown in Table 1 was obtained for each cases.

Table 1 : Process parameters used in the preparation of four different starting materials (cases).

As it is evident from Table 2 the final amorphous dapagliflozin prepared by the extraction process according to the present invention contains less than 0.02% of impurity IMP A irrespective of the level of impurity IMP A present in the starting material.

Table 2: Content of impurity IMP A in the final amorphous dapagliflozin obtained with and without extraction.

Example 9

Oily residue, as obtained by the procedure described in example 8 case 1, containing approximately 2 g of dapagliflozin was dissolved in 1.5ml of isopropyl acetate and 6ml of tert-butyl methyl ether at temperature 50-55 °C. So prepared solution was charged into 25 mL of heptane at 0°C. After complete addition the suspension was stirred at -10 to 0°C. Suspension was isolated and washed with precooled heptane at temperatures between 25°C to 50 °C. 1.5 g of dapagliflozin was obtained with content of impurity IMP A was below 0.02%.

Example 10

Oily residue, as obtained by the procedure described in example 8 case 1, containing approximately 2 g of dapagliflozin was dissolved in 1.5ml of isopropyl acetate and 6ml of tert-butyl methyl ether at temperature 50-55 °C. So prepared solution was charged into 40 mL of heptane at 0°C. After complete addition the suspension was stirred at -10 to 0°C. Suspension was isolated and washed with precooled heptane at temperatures between 25°C to 50 °C. 1.5 g of dapagliflozin was obtained with content of impurity IMP A was below 0.02%.

Example 11

Dapagliflozin (30g) was dissolved in toluene (285mL) at temperature 60-70 °C. Solution of dapagliflozin in toluene was slowly added into heptane (600mL) at 5°C and stirring rate with P/V at 16 W/m3. After complete addition, the suspension was cooled to -10°C and stirred with unchanged stirring rate. Suspension was isolated and washed with precooled heptane. Isolated product was dried in vacuum dryer at temperatures between 25 °C to 50 °C. Content of residual heptane and toluene were 1480 ppm and 732 ppm.

Example 12

Dapagliflozin (30g) was dissolved in toluene (285mL) at temperature 60-70 °C. Solution of dapagliflozin in toluene was slowly added into heptane (600mL) at 20°C and stirring rate with P/V at 16 W/m3. After complete addition, the suspension was cooled to 5°C and stirred with unchanged stirring rate. Suspension was isolated and washed with precooled hcptanc Isolated product was dried in vacuum dryer at temperatures between 25 °C to 50 °C. Content of residual heptane and toluene were 2873 ppm and 639 ppm.

Comparative Example 1

Dapagliflozin (30g) was dissolved in toluene (285mL) at temperature 60-70 °C. Solution of dapagliflozin in toluene was slowly added into heptane (600mL) at -5°C and stirring rate with P/V at 16 W/m3. After complete addition, the suspension was cooled to -15°C and stirred with unchanged stirring rate. Suspension was isolated and washed with precooled heptane. Isolated product was dried in vacuum dryer at temperatures between 25 °C to 50 °C. Content of residual heptane and toluene were 1940 ppm and 1557 ppm.

Comparative Example 2

Dapagliflozin (30g) was dissolved in toluene (285mL) at temperature 60-70 °C. Solution of dapagliflozin in toluene was slowly added into heptane (600mL) at 25°C and stirring rate with P V at 16 W/m3. After complete addition, the suspension was cooled to 20°C and stirred with unchanged stirring rate. Suspension was isolated and washed with precooled heptane. Isolated product was dried in vacuum dryer at temperatures between 25 °C to 50 °C. Content of residual heptane and toluene were 3663 ppm and 2047 ppm.

Comparative Example 3

Dapagliflozin (30g) was dissolved in toluene (285mL) at temperature 60-70 °C. Solution of dapagliflozin in toluene was slowly added into heptane (600mL) at 30°C and stirring rate with P/V at 16 W/m3. After complete addition, the suspension was cooled to 15°C and stirred with unchanged stirring rate. Suspension was isolated and washed with precooled heptane. Isolated product was dried in vacuum dryer at temperatures between 25 °C to 50 °C. Content of residual heptane and toluene were 2425 ppm and 1812 ppm.

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PATENT

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2017206808A1/en

Daggliflozin (English name: Dapagliflozin) is a new Sodium glucose co-transporters 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor developed by Bristol-Myers Squibb and AstraZeneca. Approved by the European Commission on November 14, 2012, and marketed in the United States on January 8, 2014, to improve glycemic control in adult patients with type 2 diabetes by combining diet and exercise; the trade name is Farxiga, currently offering 5 mg and 10 mg tablets. At the same time, a combination of dapagliflozin and metformin hydrochloride has also been marketed.The chemical name of dapagliflozin is (2S,3R,4R,5S,6R)-2-(3-(4-ethoxybenzyl)-4-chlorophenyl)-6-hydroxymethyltetrahydro-2H – pyran-3,4,5-triol, the chemical formula is C 21 H 25 ClO 6 , CAS No. 461432-26-8, the structural formula is shown as 2, clinically used as a pharmaceutical for dapagliflozin (S) -1,2-propanediol monohydrate, the structural formula is as shown in 1.

Figure PCTCN2017086106-appb-000001

The synthesis of β-type C-aryl glycosidic bonds is a key point in the synthetic route during the preparation of dapagliflozin. At present, there are four synthetic methods for the synthesis of dapagliflozin reported in the literature and patents.Route 1: The synthetic route of dapagliflozin reported in patent WO03099836A1 is as follows:

Figure PCTCN2017086106-appb-000002

The route uses 2-chloro-5-bromobenzoic acid (12) as raw material to react with phenethyl ether to form intermediate 11 and then triethylsilane to obtain intermediate 10; intermediate 10 and n-butyl The lithium is reacted at -78 ° C, and then subjected to a nucleophilic addition reaction with the intermediate 9, and then methoxylated to obtain the intermediate 8; the intermediate 8 is subjected to acylation reduction and deprotection to obtain the intermediate 2. The disadvantage of this method is that the β-type C-aryl glycosidic bond synthesis of the compound is carried out at a low temperature of -78 ° C, which is obviously difficult to meet the needs of industrial production; and, through nucleophilic addition, methoxylation, The five-step reaction of acetylation, reduction and hydrolysis can synthesize the β-type C-aryl glycosidic bond. The procedure is relatively long, and the purity of the intermediate 2 is only 94%.Route 2: The synthetic route of dapagliflozin reported in the literature OrgLett.2012, 14, 1480 is as follows:

Figure PCTCN2017086106-appb-000003

The intermediate 14 of the route is reacted with di-n-butyl-n-hexylmagnesium for 48 hours at 0 ° C, and then reacted with zinc bromide to prepare an organozinc reagent by Br/Mg/Zn exchange reaction, and then with intermediate 4 Intermediate 3 was prepared by nucleophilic substitution reaction; finally, intermediate 2 was obtained by deprotection with sodium methoxide. The synthesis method is relatively novel, and the synthesis step is short. However, the research experiment is conducted only as a synthesis method, and the post treatment of the intermediate 3 is performed by column chromatography. The purity of the intermediate 2 produced was not reported. Moreover, the di-n-butyl-n-hexylmagnesium reagent used in the route is not a commonly used reagent, and is not commercially available in China. It can only be prepared by reacting dibutylmagnesium with n-hexyllithium reagent before the test, and the operation is cumbersome and difficult to mass. use.Route 3: The synthetic route of dapagliflozin reported in patent WO2013068850A2 is as follows:

Figure PCTCN2017086106-appb-000004

The route uses 1,6-anhydroglucose (20) as a raw material, protects the 2,4-hydroxyl group by tert-butyldiphenylchlorosilane, and then protects the 3-position hydroxyl group with phenylmagnesium bromide. Intermediate 18. The intermediate 14 is subjected to an Br/Mg/Al exchange reaction to prepare an organoaluminum reagent 16, which is reacted with an intermediate 18 to form an intermediate 15, and finally, deprotected to obtain an intermediate 2. The synthesis method is very novel and is also used as a synthetic methodological study. The purification of the intermediates is carried out by column chromatography. The 1,6-anhydroglucose (20) used in the route is very expensive; and the multi-step reaction in the route uses a format reagent, a preparation format reagent or an organoaluminum reagent, which is cumbersome and cumbersome to perform, and is difficult to scale synthesis. The purity of the intermediate 2 produced was not reported.Route 4: The synthetic route of dapagliflozin reported in patent WO2013152476A1 is as follows:

Figure PCTCN2017086106-appb-000005

The route uses 2-chloro-5-iodobenzoic acid (24) as raw material to form intermediate 22 by Friedel acylation and reduction reaction, and exchange with I-Mg at -5 ° C with isopropyl magnesium chloride lithium chloride. The intermediate 8 is obtained by nucleophilic addition and methoxylation with the intermediate 9, and then the intermediate 2 is obtained by reduction with triethylsilane, and the intermediate 2 is further purified by co-crystallizing with L-valine. Finally, The pure intermediate 2 was obtained by removing L-valine. This route is a modified route of Route 1, which replaces n-butyllithium with isopropylmagnesium chloride chloride to raise the reaction temperature of the reaction from -78 °C to -5 °C. However, the problem of a long step of synthesizing a β-type C-aryl glycosidic bond still exists. The obtained intermediate 2 is not optically pure, and needs to be purified by co-crystallizing with L-valine, and the work amount of post-treatment is increased, and finally the purity of the intermediate 2 is 99.3%.Among the four synthetic routes described above for dapagliflozin, route one and route four are commonly used synthetic methods for β-type C-aryl glycosidic bonds, and the route is long, and the optical purity of the obtained product is not high, and further purification is required. Post processing is cumbersome. Moreover, the reaction required at -78 °C in Route 1 requires high equipment and high energy consumption, which undoubtedly increases the cost. Although both Route 2 and Route 3 are new methods, most of the purification of intermediates used is column chromatography. Such a process is not suitable for scale production in factories; and some of the synthetic routes are used. Reagents are not commercially available or expensive, and there is no advantage in such route costs. Therefore, there is an urgent need to find a new method for the synthesis of dapagliflozin, and to enable industrial production, and the route has a cost advantage.Repeating the procedure reported in the literature in Equation 2, the yield of Intermediate 3 was only 46%. The organic zinc reagent is prepared by Br/Mg/Zn exchange reaction, and the exchange reaction yield is 78%; and the raw material is prepared by X/Li/Zn exchange reaction to prepare an organic zinc reagent, and the exchange reaction yield is 98.5%, which is also the two Different reaction pathways lead to the essential reason for the different yields of intermediate 3. Moreover, the price of commercially available 1.0 mol/L di-n-butyl magnesium n-heptane solution 500 mL is 1380 yuan, and the price of 1.6 mol/L n-hexyl lithium n-hexane solution 500 mL is 950 yuan, and 2.5 mol/L n-butyl lithium. The price of 500 mL of n-hexane solution is only 145 yuan. Therefore, the method for preparing dapagliflozin by preparing an organozinc reagent by X/Li/Zn and then synthesizing the β-type C-aryl glycosidic bond designed by the invention has the advantages of cost, ease of operation and industrialization. Very obvious advantage.In order to solve this problem, the original compound company uses a eutectic method in the production of dapagliflozin to make dapagliflozin together with a solvent or an amino acid compound, since the compound 2 sugar ring structure contains four hydroxyl groups and is easy to absorb moisture and deteriorate. The crystal is made into a relatively stable solid, easy to store, stable and controllable in quality, and easy to prepare. Among them, the marketed dapagliflozin forms a stable eutectic with (S)-1,2-propanediol and water (1). The original crystal form patent (CN101479287B, CN103145773B) reported that all 11 crystal forms are dapagliflozin solvate or dapagliflozin. Crystal. Among them, there are two preparation methods for the da forme (S)-1,2-propanediol monohydrate (1) having a crystal structure of type Ia:Method 1: The preparation method is as follows:

Figure PCTCN2017086106-appb-000006

Compound 7 is deprotected with sodium hydroxide to obtain compound 2, then compound 2 is extracted with isopropyl acetate, (S)-1,2-propanediol ((S)-PG) is added, and seed crystal of compound 1 is added. Then, cyclohexane was added to crystallize and separated to obtain a eutectic of the compound (1) of the type Ia.Method 2: The preparation method is as follows:

Figure PCTCN2017086106-appb-000007

Compound 8 is subjected to reduction of methoxy group by triethylsilane and boron trifluoride diethyl ether complex, and then the reaction solution is extracted with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), and (S)-1,2-propanediol ( (S)-PG), a seed crystal of the compound 1 is added, and then cyclohexane is added to crystallize, and the mixture is separated and dried to obtain a eutectic of the compound (1) of the type Ia.The above two methods for preparing the eutectic are all used in the cyclohexane solvent, which is listed in the appendix of the 2015 edition of the Pharmacopoeia (four parts) as the second type of solvent that should be restricted, with a residual limit of 0.388%. The solvent residue of the final product obtained must reach the specified limit, and the post-treatment process is complicated, time-consuming and labor-intensive, and the production cost is correspondingly increased. The invention finds a suitable solvent on the basis of the synthetic route to prepare a medicinal crystal form, and has obvious advantages in both the method and the process operation steps.The synthetic route is as follows:

Figure PCTCN2017086106-appb-000008

Comparative Example 1, (1S)-2,3,4,6-tetra-O-pivaloyl-1,5-anhydro-1-[3-(4-ethoxyphenylmethyl)-4- Preparation of chlorophenyl]glucosamine (Compound 3)Under nitrogen protection, 1.0 mol/L di-n-butylmagnesium-n-heptane solution (16 mL) was cooled to 0 ° C, and 1.6 mol/L n-hexane lithium n-hexane solution (10 mL) was slowly added dropwise. After the addition was completed, 0 ° C After stirring for 15 h, dry n-butyl ether (2.5 mL) was added to prepare a solution of di-n-butyl-n-hexylmagnesium lithium solution, which was calibrated with iodine and stored for use.Zinc bromide (2.7 g) and lithium bromide (1.04 g) were added with n-butyl ether (20 mL), heated to 50 ° C for 4 h, and cooled for use. 4-(2-Chloro-5-bromo-benzyl) phenyl ether (6.513 g) was added with toluene (8 mL) and n-butyl ether (5 mL) under nitrogen, cooled to 0 ° C, and 0.61 mol/L was added dropwise. n-Butyl-n-hexylmagnesium lithium solution (13.1 mL), after the addition is completed, the reaction was kept at 0 ° C for 48 h, and the above-mentioned alternate zinc bromide and lithium bromide n-butyl ether solution were added, and the reaction was kept at 0 ° C for 1 h, and added 2 , 3,4,6-tetra-O-pivaloyl-α-D-bromoglucopyranose (14.49 g) in toluene (25 mL), heated to 100 ° C to stir the reaction, after TLC detection reaction, add 1 mol / L diluted hydrochloric acid (60 mL), taken after stirring extraction, the organic phase was washed with water (40 mL), then washed with saturated brine (40 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 SO 4, concentrated under reduced pressure, column chromatography (petroleum ether / Ethyl acetate = 20:1) 10.38 g of Compound 3 as a pale yellow oil. Yield: 46%. Purity: 99.02%. The organozinc reagent prepared by the method has an iodine calibration yield of 78%.The calibration method of the concentration of the prepared organic zinc reagent: accurately weighed iodine (1 mmol), placed in a three-necked flask, replaced nitrogen, and added anhydrous 0.5 mol/L LiCl tetrahydrofuran solution (5 mL), stirred and dissolved, and cooled to 0 ° C. The prepared organozinc reagent was slowly added dropwise until the color of the brownish yellow solution disappeared.Example 2 (1S)-2,3,4,6-tetra-O-pivaloyl-1,5-anhydro-1-[3-(4-ethoxyphenylmethyl)-4-chloro Preparation of phenyl]glucitol (compound 3)Zinc bromide (2.25 g) and lithium bromide (0.87 g) were added with n-butyl ether (30 mL), heated to 50 ° C for 2 h, and cooled for use. 4-(2-Chloro-5-iodo-benzyl) phenyl ether (7.45 g) was added with toluene (10 mL) and n-butyl ether (10 mL) under nitrogen, cooled to -20 ° C, and slowly added dropwise 1.6 mol / L-n-hexyl lithium n-hexane solution (14mL), control the internal temperature does not exceed -10 ° C, after the completion of the addition, the temperature is incubated at -20 ° C for 0.5 h, adding the above-mentioned spare zinc bromide and lithium bromide n-butyl ether solution, The reaction was stirred at 20 ° C for 3 h. Add 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-pivaloyl-α-D-bromoglucopyranose (11.59g) toluene (50mL) solution, heat to 120 ° C and stir the reaction for 4h, after TLC detection reaction, was added 1mol / L diluted hydrochloric acid (40 mL), water (20 mL), and extracted, the organic phase was washed with water (40 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 SO 4, concentrated with n-heptane (15mL) and methanol (60 mL) and recrystallized 10.8 g of Compound 3 as a white solid was obtained in a yield: 72.42%. Purity: 99.47%. Melting point: 99.5 to 101.6 °C. (The organic zinc reagent prepared by this method was iodine-calibrated in a yield of 98.5%.) ESI-MS (m/z): 767.30 [M+Na] + . 1 H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ): δ 7.33 (1H, d), 7.14-7.17 (2H, m), 7.05 (2H, d), 6.79-6.81 (2H, dd), 5.39 (1H, t ), 5.21-5.31 (2H, m), 4.33 (1H, d), 4.17-4.20 (1H, dd), 3.94-4.11 (5H, m), 3.79-3.83 (1H, m), 1.39 (3H, t ), 1.20 (9H, s), 1.16 (9H, s), 1.11 (9H, s), 0.86 (9H, s).Example 3, (1S)-2,3,4,6-tetra-O-pivaloyl-1,5-anhydro-1-[3-(4-ethoxyphenylmethyl)-4-chloro Preparation of phenyl]glucitol (compound 3) PrepareZinc bromide (3.38 g) and lithium bromide (1.3 g) were added with n-butyl ether (40 mL), heated to 50 ° C for 2 h, and cooled for use. 4-(2-Chloro-5-iodo-benzyl) phenyl ether (7.45 g) was added with toluene (20 mL) and n-butyl ether (5 mL) under nitrogen, cooled to -50 ° C, and slowly added dropwise 2.5 mol / L-butyllithium hexane solution (8mL), control the internal temperature does not exceed -30 ° C, after the addition is completed, the reaction is kept at -50 ° C for 10 h, adding the above-mentioned alternate zinc bromide and lithium bromide n-butyl ether solution, The reaction was stirred at -20 ° C for 10 h. Add 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-pivaloyl-α-D-bromoglucopyranose (34.77g) toluene (80mL) solution, heat to 100 ° C and stir the reaction for 24h, after TLC detection reaction, was added 1mol / L diluted hydrochloric acid (60 mL), water (50 mL), and extracted, the organic phase was washed with water (40 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 SO 4, concentrated with n-heptane (15mL) and methanol (60 mL) and recrystallized 10.854 g of Compound 3 as a white solid. Yield: 72.81%. Purity: 99.53%.Example 4, (1S)-2,3,4,6-tetra-O-pivaloyl-1,5-anhydro-1-[3-(4-ethoxyphenylmethyl)-4-chloro Preparation of phenyl]glucitol (compound 3)N-butyl ether (50 mL) was added to zinc iodide (3.19 g) and lithium iodide (1.34 g), and the mixture was heated to 50 ° C for 1.5 h, and cooled for use. 4-(2-Chloro-5-iodo-benzyl) phenyl ether (7.45 g) was added with toluene (15 mL) and n-butyl ether (5 mL) under nitrogen, cooled to -60 ° C, and slowly added dropwise 1.6 mol / L-n-hexyl lithium n-hexane solution (13.8mL), control the internal temperature does not exceed -20 ° C, after the addition is completed, the reaction is kept at -60 ° C for 5 h, and the above-mentioned alternate zinc iodide and lithium iodide n-butyl ether solution is added. The reaction was stirred at 25 ° C for 1 h. Add 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-pivaloyl-α-D-bromoglucopyranose (23.2g) toluene (50mL) solution, heat to 140 ° C reflux reaction for 0.5h, after TLC detection reaction was added 1mol / L diluted hydrochloric acid (50 mL), water (50 mL), and extracted, the organic phase was washed with water (40 mL), dried over anhydrous SO 4 Na 2, concentrated by weight of n-heptane (15mL) and methanol (60 mL) Crystallization gave 10.51 g of Compound 3 as a white solid, yield 70.5%. Purity: 99.41%.Example 5, (1S)-2,3,4,6-tetra-O-pivaloyl-1,5-anhydro-1-[3-(4-ethoxyphenylmethyl)-4-chloro Preparation of phenyl]glucitol (compound 3)To the zinc bromide (2.25 g) and lithium bromide (0.87 g), cyclopentyl methyl ether (30 mL) was added, and the mixture was heated to 50 ° C for 3 hours, and cooled for use. 4-(2-Chloro-5-iodo-benzyl) phenyl ether (7.45 g) was added with toluene (10 mL) and cyclopentyl methyl ether (10 mL) under nitrogen, cooled to -5 ° C, and slowly added dropwise. Mol / L n-hexyl lithium n-hexane solution (12.5mL), control the internal temperature does not exceed 0 ° C, after the addition is completed, the reaction is kept at -5 ° C for 3 h, adding the above-mentioned spare zinc bromide and lithium bromide cyclopentyl methyl ether The solution was incubated at -5 ° C for 4 h, and a solution of 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-pivaloyl-α-D-bromoglucopyranose (17.39 g) in toluene (40 mL) was added and heated to 80 ℃ reaction was stirred 6h, after completion of the reaction by TLC, was added 1mol / L diluted hydrochloric acid (50 mL), water (50 mL), and extracted, the organic phase was washed with water (40 mL), dried over anhydrous 2 SO 4 Na, and concentrated under reduced pressure, Recrystallization of n-heptane (15 mL) and methanol (60 mL) gave 8.15 g of Compound 3 as a white solid. Purity: 99.39%.Example 6, (1S)-2,3,4,6-tetra-O-pivaloyl-1,5-anhydro-1-[3-(4-ethoxyphenylmethyl)-4-chloro Preparation of phenyl]glucitol (compound 3)Zinc bromide (4.5 g) and lithium bromide (1.74 g) were added with n-butyl ether (60 mL), heated to 50 ° C for 3 h, and cooled for use. 4-(2-Chloro-5-bromo-benzyl) phenyl ether (6.513 g) was added with toluene (15 mL) and n-butyl ether (5 mL) under nitrogen, cooled to -30 ° C, and slowly added dropwise 2.5 mol / L-butyllithium n-hexane solution (8.4mL), control the internal temperature does not exceed -20 ° C, after the addition is completed, the reaction is kept at -30 ° C for 3 h, and the above-mentioned alternate zinc bromide and lithium bromide n-butyl ether solution is added. The reaction was incubated at -5 ° C for 4 h, and a solution of 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-pivaloyl-α-D-bromoglucopyranose (14.49 g) in toluene (50 mL) was added and heated to 120 ° C for stirring. the reaction 4h, after completion of the reaction by TLC, was added 1mol / L diluted hydrochloric acid (50 mL), water (40 mL), and extracted, the organic phase was washed with water (40 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 SO 4, and concentrated under reduced pressure, n-heptyl Recrystallization of the alkane (15 mL) and methanol (60 mL) gave 10.38 g of Compound 3 as a white solid. Purity: 99.54%.Example 7, (1S)-2,3,4,6-tetra-O-pivaloyl-1,5-anhydro-1-[3-(4-ethoxyphenylmethyl)-4-chloro Preparation of phenyl]glucitol (compound 3)Methyl bromide (40 mL) was added to zinc bromide (2.25 g) and lithium bromide (0.87 g), and the mixture was heated to 50 ° C for 3 h, and cooled for use. 4-(2-Chloro-5-iodo-benzyl) phenyl ether (7.45 g) was added with toluene (15 mL), methyl tert-butyl ether (15 mL), cooled to -40 ° C, and slowly added dropwise. 1.6mol/L n-hexyl lithium n-hexane solution (13.8mL), control the internal temperature does not exceed -30 ° C, after the addition is completed, the reaction is kept at -40 ° C for 4 h, and the above-mentioned alternate zinc bromide and lithium bromide are added. The butyl ether solution was incubated at 5 ° C for 7 h, and a solution of 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-pivaloyl-α-D-bromoglucopyranose (17.39 g) in toluene (50 mL) was added and heated. to 90 deg.] C the reaction was stirred 8h, after completion of the reaction by TLC, was added 1mol / L diluted hydrochloric acid (40 mL), water (40 mL), and extracted, the organic phase was washed with water (40 mL), dried over anhydrous Na 2 SO 4, and concentrated under reduced pressure Recrystallization from n-heptane (15 mL) and methanol (60 mL) gave 9.41 g of Compound 3 as a white solid. Purity: 99.42%. Example 8. Preparation of dapagliflozin (S)-1,2-propanediol monohydrate eutectic (Compound 1)To the compound 3 (37.27 g), methanol (190 mL) was added, and sodium methoxide (10.8 g) was added thereto, and the mixture was heated under reflux for 3 hours. After the TLC reaction was completed, methanol was concentrated, and isopropyl acetate (100 mL) was added to the residue, and water was added. (60 mL), extracted with stirring and the organic phase washed with water (50 mL). (S)-1,2-propanediol (3.8g) and water (0.9g) were added to the organic phase, stirred until it was dissolved, and n-heptane (200 mL) was added, and the mixture was stirred for 2 hours under ice-cooling, suction filtration, filter cake Washing with n-heptane and drying at 30 ° C gave 23.89 g of Compound 1 as a white solid. Yield: 95%. Purity: 99.79%. Melting point: 69.1 to 75.6 °C. The product obtained was subjected to KF = 3.74% (theoretical value: 3.58%). ESI-MS (m/z): 431.22 [M+Na] + . 1 H-NMR (400 MHz, CD 3 OD): δ 7.33 – 7.37 (2H, m), 7.28-7.30 (1H, dd), 7.11 (2H, d), 6.80-6.83 (2H, dd), 4.1 ( 1H, d), 3.98-4.05 (4H, m), 3.88-3.91 (1H, dd), 3.74-3.82 (1H, m), 3.68-3.73 (1H, m), 3.37-3.49 (5H, m), 3.28-3.34 (1H, m), 1.37 (1H, t), 1.15 (3H, d).The crystal form of the obtained product was subjected to thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) by a Universal V4.7A TA instrument, and the TGA curve (Fig. 1) showed a weight loss of about 18.52% from about room temperature to about 240 ° C. The original form Ia crystal form The TGA plot shows a value of 18.7%.The crystal form of the obtained product was subjected to differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) by a Universal V4.7A TA instrument, and the DSC curve (Fig. 2) showed endotherm in the range of about 60 ° C to 85 ° C. The DSC plot shows a range of approximately 50 ° C to 78 ° C.

The crystal form of the obtained product was examined by a Bruker D8advance instrument for powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and the 2X value of the PXRD pattern (Fig. 3) (CuKα).

Figure PCTCN2017086106-appb-000009

There are characteristic peaks at 3.749°, 7.52°, 7.995°, 8.664°, 15.134°, 15.708°, 17.069°, 18.946°, 20.049°, which are completely consistent with the characteristic peaks of the PXRD pattern of the Ia crystal form in the original patent.In combination with the nuclear magnetic data and melting point of the prepared crystal form, the crystal form of the product (Compound 1) obtained by the present invention is consistent with the pharmaceutically acceptable crystalline form Ia reported in the original patent.

Patent Citations

Publication numberPriority datePublication dateAssigneeTitleCN101479287A *2006-06-282009-07-08布里斯托尔-迈尔斯斯奎布公司Crystalline solvates and complexes of (is) -1, 5-anhydro-l-c- (3- ( (phenyl) methyl) phenyl) -d-glucitol derivatives with amino acids as sglt2 inhibitors for the treatment of diabetesCN104496952A *2014-11-282015-04-08深圳翰宇药业股份有限公司Synthesis method of dapagliflozinCN105153137A *2015-09-172015-12-16上海应用技术学院Preparation method of empagliflozinFamily To Family CitationsCN104829572B *2014-02-102019-01-04江苏豪森药业集团有限公司Dapagliflozin novel crystal forms and preparation method thereofCN105399735A *2015-12-292016-03-16上海应用技术学院Empagliflozin intermediate, and preparation method and application thereof* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party

Non-Patent Citations

TitleCHEN DEJIN ET AL., CHINA MASTER’S THESES FULL-TEXT DATABASE, ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY I, vol. B016-731, no. 3, 15 March 2016 (2016-03-15) *LEMAIRE S. ET AL.: “Stereoselective C-glycosylation of furanosyl halides with arylzinc reagents”, PURE APPL. CHEM., vol. 86, no. 3, 4 March 2014 (2014-03-04), pages 329 – 333 *LEMAIRE S. ET AL.: “Stereoselective C-Glycosylation Reactions with Arylzinc Reagents”, ORGANIC LETTERS, vol. 14, no. 6, 2 March 2012 (2012-03-02), pages 1480 – 1483, XP055069093 ** Cited by examiner, † Cited by third partyCLIP

Chemical Synthesis

Dapagliflozin propanediol hydrate, an orally active sodium glucose cotransporter type 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor, was developed by Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS) and AstraZeneca for the once-daily treatment of type 2 diabetes. As opposed to competitor SGLT-2 inhibitors, dapagliflozin was not associated with renal toxicity or long-term deterioration of renal function in phase III clinical trials. The drug exhibits excellent SGLT2 potency with more than 1200 fold selectivity over the SGLT1 enzyme.

Dapagliflozin propanediol monohydrate

PAPER

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12039-020-1747-x

Synthesis of metabolites of dapagliflozin: an SGLT2 inhibitor | SpringerLink
Synthesis of metabolites of dapagliflozin: an SGLT2 inhibitor | SpringerLink
Synthesis of metabolites of dapagliflozin: an SGLT2 inhibitor | SpringerLink

PATENTS

WO 2010138535

WO 2011060256

WO 2012041898

WO 2012163990

WO 2013068850

WO 2012163546

WO 2013068850

WO 2013079501

The IC50 for SGLT2 is less than one thousandth of the IC50 for SGLT1 (1.1 versus 1390 nmol/l), so that the drug does not interfere with the intestinal glucose absorption.[7

dapagliflozin being an inhibitor of sodiumdependent glucose transporters found in the intestine and kidney (SGLT2) and to a method for treating diabetes, especially type II diabetes, as well as hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, Syndrome X, diabetic

complications, atherosclerosis and related diseases, employing such C-aryl glucosides alone or in combination with one, two or more other type antidiabetic agent and/or one, two or more other type therapeutic agents such as hypolipidemic agents.

Approximately 100 million people worldwide suffer from type II diabetes (NIDDM – non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus), which is characterized by hyperglycemia due to excessive hepatic glucose production and peripheral insulin resistance, the root causes for which are as yet unknown. Hyperglycemia is considered to be the major risk factor for the development of diabetic complications, and is likely to contribute directly to the impairment of insulin secretion seen in advanced NIDDM. Normalization of plasma glucose in NIDDM patients would be predicted to improve insulin action, and to offset the development of diabetic complications. An inhibitor of the sodium-dependent glucose transporter SGLT2 in the kidney would be expected to aid in the normalization of plasma glucose levels, and perhaps body weight, by enhancing glucose excretion.

Dapagliflozin can be prepared using similar procedures as described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,515,117 or international published applications no. WO 03/099836 and WO 2008/116179

WO 03/099836 A1 refers to dapagliflozin having the structure according to formula 1 .

Figure imgf000004_0001

formula 1

WO 03/099836 A1 discloses a route of synthesis on pages 8-10, whereby one major step is the purification of a compound of formula 2

Figure imgf000004_0002

formula 2

The compound of formula 2 provides a means of purification for providing a compound of formula 1 since it crystallizes. Subsequently the crystalline form of the compound of formula 2 can be deprotected and converted to dapagliflozin. Using this process, dapagliflozin is obtained as an amorphous glassy off-white solid containing 0.1 1 mol% of EtOAc. Crystallization of a pharmaceutical drug is usually advantageous as it provides means for purification also suitable for industrial scale preparation. However, for providing an active pharmaceutical drug a very high purity is required. In particular, organic impurities such as EtOAc either need to be avoided or further purification steps are needed to provide the drug in a

pharmaceutically acceptable form, i.e. substantially free of organic solvents. Thus, there is the need in the art to obtain pure and crystalline dapagliflozinwhich is substantially free of organic solvents.

WO 2008/002824 A1 discloses several alternative solid forms of dapagliflozin, such as e.g. solvates containing organic alcohols or co-crystals with amino acids such as proline and phenylalanine. For instance, the document discloses crystalline

dapagliflozin solvates which additionally contain water molecules (see e.g.

Examples 3-6), but is silent about solid forms of dapagliflozin which do not contain impurities such as organic alcohols. As described above, it is desirable to provide the pharmaceutical active drug in a substantially pure form, otherwise triggering further expensive and time-consuming purification steps. In contrast, the document relates to dapagliflozin solvates where an alcohol and water are both incorporated into the crystal lattice. Hence, there is the need in the art to obtain pure and crystalline dapagliflozin suitable for pharmaceutical production.

WO 2008/1 16179 A1 refers to an immediate release pharmaceutical composition comprising dapagliflozin and propylene glycol. Propylene glycol is a chiral

substance and (S)-propylene glycol used is very expensive. Consequently, also the immediate release pharmaceutical composition is more expensive.

Crystalline forms (in comparision to the amorphous form) often show desired different physical and/or biological characteristics which may assist in the manufacture or formulation of the active compound, to the purity levels and uniformity required for regulatory approval. As described above, it is desirable to provide the pharmaceutical active drug in a substantially pure form, otherwise triggering further expensive and time-consuming purification steps.

PATENT

WO 2008/ 1 16179 Al seems to disclose an immediate release formulation comprising dapagliflozin and propylene glycol hydrate. WO 2008/ 116195 A2 refers to the use of an SLGT2 inhibitor in the treatment of obesity

http://www.google.com/patents/US20120282336

http://www.tga.gov.au/pdf/auspar/auspar-dapagliflozin-propanediol-monohydrate-130114.pdf

Example 2 Dapagliflozin (S) PGS—(2S,3R,4R,5S,6R)-2-(4-chloro-3-(4-ethoxybenzyl)phenyl)-6-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-3,4,5-triol (S)-propane-1,2-diol hydrate (1:1:1)

Dapagliflozin (S) propylene glycol hydrate (1:1:1) can be prepared using similar procedures as described in published applications WO 08/002824 and WO 2008/116179, the disclosures of which are herein incorporated by reference in their entirety for any purpose. SGLT2 EC50=1.1 nM.

Figure US20120282336A1-20121108-C00006

Example 3 Dapagliflozin (R) PGS—(2S,3R,4R,5S,6R)-2-(4-chloro-3-(4-ethoxybenzyl)phenyl)-6-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-3,4,5-triol (R)-propane-1,2-diol hydrate (1:1:1)

Dapagliflozin (R) propylene glycol hydrate (1:1:1) can be prepared using similar procedures as described in WO 08/002824 and WO 2008/116179, the disclosures of which are herein incorporated by reference in their entirety for any purpose. SGLT2 EC50=1.1 nM.

WO 2008/002824 A1 discloses several alternative solid forms of dapagliflozin, such as e.g. solvates containing organic alcohols or co-crystals with amino acids such as proline and phenylalanine. For instance, the document discloses crystalline

dapagliflozin solvates which additionally contain water molecules (see e.g.

Examples 3-6), but is silent about solid forms of dapagliflozin which do not contain impurities such as organic alcohols. As described above, it is desirable to provide the pharmaceutical active drug in a substantially pure form, otherwise triggering further expensive and time-consuming purification steps. In contrast, the document relates to dapagliflozin solvates where an alcohol and water are both incorporated into the crystal lattice. Hence, there is the need in the art to obtain pure and crystalline dapagliflozin suitable for pharmaceutical production.

WO 2008/1 16179 A1 refers to an immediate release pharmaceutical composition comprising dapagliflozin and propylene glycol. Propylene glycol is a chiral

substance and (S)-propylene glycol used is very expensive. Consequently, also the immediate release pharmaceutical composition is more expensive.

Surprisingly, amorphous dapagliflozin can be purified with the process of the present invention. For instance amorphous dapagliflozin having a purity of 99,0% can be converted to crystalline dapagliflozin hydrate having a purity of 100% (see examples of the present application). Moreover, said crystalline dapagliflozin hydrate does not contain any additional solvent which is desirable. Thus, the process of purifying dapagliflozin according to the present invention is superior compared with the process of WO 03/099836 A1 .

Additionally, the dapagliflozin hydrate obtained is crystalline which is advantageous with respect to the formulation of a pharmaceutical composition. The use of expensive diols such as (S)-propanediol for obtaining an immediate release pharmaceutical composition as disclosed in WO 2008/1 16179 A1 can be avoided

PAPER

In Vitro Characterization and Pharmacokinetics of Dapagliflozin 

dmd.aspetjournals.org/content/…/DMD29165_supplemental_data_.doc

Dapagliflozin (BMS-512148), (2S,3R,4R,5S,6R)-2-(3-(4-Ethoxybenzyl)-4-chlorophenyl)

-6-hydroxymethyl-tetrahydro-2H-pyran-3,4,5-triol. 1H NMR (500 MHz, CD3OD) δ 7.33

(d, J = 6.0, 1H), 7.31 (d, J = 2.2, 1H), 7.31 (dd, J = 2.2, 6.0, 1H), 7.07 (d, J = 8.8, 2H),

6.78 (d, J = 8.8, 2H), 4.07-3.90 (m, 7H), 3.85 (d, J = 10.6, 1H), 3.69 (dd, J = 5.3, 10.6,

1H), 3.42-3.25 (m, 4H), 1.34 (t, J = 7.0, 3H). 13C NMR (125 MHz, CD3OD) δ 158.8,

140.0, 139.9, 134.4, 132.9, 131.9, 130.8, 130.1, 128.2, 115.5, 82.9, 82.2, 79.7, 76.4, 71.9,

64.5, 63.1, 39.2, 15.2.

HRMS calculated for C21H25ClNaO6 (M+Na)+

For C21H25ClO6: C, 61.68; H, 6.16. Found: C, 61.16; H, 6.58.

: 431.1237; found 431.1234. Anal. Calcd

SECOND SETJ. Med. Chem., 2008, 51 (5), pp 1145–1149DOI: 10.1021/jm701272q

1H NMR (500 MHz, CD3OD) δ 7.33 (d, J = 6.0, 1H), 7.31 (d, J = 2.2, 1H), 7.31 (dd, J = 2.2, 6.0, 1H), 7.07 (d, J = 8.8, 2H), 6.78 (d, J = 8.8, 2H), 4.07–3.90 (m, 7H), 3.85 (d, J = 10.6, 1H), 3.69 (dd, J = 5.3, 10.6, 1H), 3.42–3.25 (m, 4H), 1.34 (t, J = 7.0, 3H);

13C NMR (125 MHz, CD3OD) δ 158.8, 140.0, 139.9, 134.4, 132.9, 131.9, 130.8, 130.1, 128.2, 115.5, 82.9, 82.2, 79.7, 76.4, 71.9, 64.5, 63.1, 39.2, 15.2;

HRMS calcd for C21H25ClNaO6 (M + Na)+ 431.1237, found 431.1234. Anal. Calcd for C21H25ClO6: C, 61.68; H, 6.16. Found: C, 61.16; H, 6.58.

HPLC

  • HPLC measurements were performed with an Agilent 1100 series instrument equipped with a UV-vis detector set to 240 nm according to the following method:
    Column: Ascentis Express RP-Amide 4.6 x 150 mm, 2.7 mm;
    Column temperature: 25 °C
    – Eluent A: 0.1 % formic acid in water
    – Eluent B: 0.1 % formic acid in acetonitrile
    – Injection volume: 3 mL
    – Flow: 0.7 mL/min
    – Gradient:Time [min][%] B0.02525.06526.07029.07029.52535.025……………………..Bristol-Myers Squibb and AstraZeneca type 2 diabetes drug dapagliflozin net Dag out chemical synthesis chemical synthesis of type 2 diabetes drug Farxiga_dapagliflozin_Forxiga from Bristol-Myers Sq

PATENT

http://www.google.com/patents/WO2013068850A2?cl=en

EXAMPLE 24 – Synthesis of 2,4-di-6>-ieri-butyldiphenylsilyl-l-C-(4-chloro-3-(4- ethoxybenzyl)phenyl)- -D-glucopyranoside 2,4-di-6>-TBDPS-dapagliflozin; (IVj”))

Figure imgf000073_0002

[0229] l-(5-Bromo-2-chlorobenzyl)-4-ethoxybenzene (1.5 g, 4.6 mmol) and magnesium powder (0.54 g, 22.2 mmol) were placed in a suitable reactor, followed by THF (12 mL) and 1,2- dibromoethane (0.16 mL). The mixture was heated to reflux. After the reaction had initiated, a solution of l-(5-bromo-2-chlorobenzyl)-4-ethoxybenzene (4.5 g, 13.8 mmol) in THF (28 mL) was added dropwise. The mixture was allowed to stir for another hour under reflux, and was then cooled to ambient temperature, and then titrated to determine the concentration. The above prepared 4-chloro-3-[(4-ethoxyphenyl)methyl]phenyl magnesium bromide (31 mL, 10 mmol, 0.32 M in THF) and A1C13 (0.5 M in THF, 8.0 mL, 4.0 mmol) were mixed at ambient temperature to give a black solution, which was stirred at ambient temperature for 1 hour. To a solution of

I, 6-anhydro-2,4-di-6>-ieri-butyldiphenylsilyl- -D-glucopyranose (0.64 g, 1.0 mmol) in PhOMe (3.0 mL) at ambient temperature was added phenylmagnesium bromide (0.38 mL, 1.0 mmol, 2.6 M solution in Et20). After stirring for about 5 min the solution was then added into the above prepared aluminum mixture via syringe, followed by additional PhOMe (1.0 mL) to rinse the flask. The mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure (50 torr) at 60 °C (external bath temperature) to remove low-boiling point ethereal solvents and then PhOMe (6mL) was added. The reaction mixture was heated at 130 °C (external bath temperature) for 8 hours at which time HPLC assay analysis indicated a 51% yield of 2,4-di-6>-ieri-butyldiphenylsilyl-l-C-(4-chloro-3- (4-ethoxybenzyl)phenyl)- -D-glucopyranoside. After cooling to ambient temperature, the reaction was treated with 10% aqueous NaOH (1 mL), THF (10 mL) and diatomaceous earth at ambient temperature, then the mixture was filtered and the filter cake was washed with THF. The combined filtrates were concentrated and the crude product was purified by silica gel column chromatography (eluting with 1:30 EtOAc/77-heptane) affording the product 2,4-di-6>- ieri-butyldiphenylsilyl- 1 – -(4-chloro-3 -(4-ethoxybenzyl)phenyl)- β-D-glucopyranoside (0.30 g, 34%) as a white powder.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) δ 7.56-7.54 (m, 2H), 7.43-7.31 (m, 13H), 7.29-7.22 (m, 6H), 7.07- 7.04 (m, 2H), 7.00 (d, J= 2.0 Hz, IH), 6.87 (dd, J= 8.4, 2.0 Hz, IH), 6.83-6.81 (m, 2H), 4.18 (d, J= 9.6 Hz, IH), 4.02 (q, J= 6.9 Hz, 2H), 3.96 (d, J= 10.8 Hz, 2H), 3.86 (ddd, J= 11.3, 7.7, 1.1 Hz, IH), 3.76 (ddd, J= 8.4, 8.4, 4.8 Hz, IH), 3.56 (ddd, J= 9.0, 6.4, 2.4 Hz, IH), 3.50 (dd, J=

I I.4, 5.4 Hz, IH), 3.44 (dd, J= 9.4, 8.6 Hz, IH), 3.38 (dd, J= 8.8, 8.8 Hz, IH), 1.70 (dd, J= 7.8, 5.4 Hz, IH, OH), 1.42 (t, J= 6.8 Hz, 3H), 1.21 (d, J= 5.2 Hz, IH, OH), 1.00 (s, 9H), 0.64 (s, 9H); 13C NMR (100 MHz, CDC13) δ 157.4 (C), 138.8 (C), 137.4 (C), 136.3 (CH x2), 136.1 (CH x2), 135.2 (CH x2), 135.0 (C), 134.9 (CH x2), 134.8 (C), 134.2 (C), 132.8 (C), 132.0 (C), 131.6 (CH), 131.1 (C), 129.9 (CH x2), 129.7 (CH), 129.6 (CH), 129.5 (CH), 129.4 (CH), 129.2 (CH), 127.58 (CH x2), 127.57 (CH x2), 127.54 (CH x2), 127.31 (CH), 127.28 (CH x2), 114.4 (CH x2), 82.2 (CH), 80.5 (CH), 79.3 (CH), 76.3 (CH), 72.7 (CH), 63.4 (CH2), 62.7 (CH2), 38.2 (CH2), 27.2 (CH3 x3), 26.6 (CH3 x3), 19.6 (C), 19.2 (C), 14.9 (CH3). EXAMPLE 25 -Synthesis of dapagliflozin ((25,3R,4R,55,6/?)-2-[4-chloro-3-(4- ethoxybenzyl)phenyl]-6-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-3,4,5-triol; (Ij))

Figure imgf000075_0001

IVj’ U

[0230] A solution of the 2,4-di-6>-ieri-butyldiphenylsilyl-l-C-(4-chloro-3-(4- ethoxybenzyl)phenyl)- -D-glucopyranoside (60 mg, 0.068 mmol) in THF (3.0 mL) and TBAF (3.0 mL, 3.0 mmol, 1.0 M in THF) was stirred at ambient temperature for 15 hours. CaC03 (0.62 g), Dowex^ 50WX8-400 ion exchange resin (1.86 g) and MeOH (5mL) were added to the product mixture and the suspension was stirred at ambient temperature for 1 hour and then the mixture was filtrated through a pad of diatomaceous earth. The filter cake was rinsed with MeOH and the combined filtrates was evaporated under vacuum and the resulting residue was purified by column chromatography (eluting with 1 : 10 MeOH/DCM) affording dapagliflozin (30 mg).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) δ 7.37-7.34 (m, 2H), 7.29 (dd, J= 8.2, 2.2 Hz, 1H), 7.12-7.10 (m, 2H), 6.82-6.80 (m, 2H), 4.10 (d, J= 9.6 Hz, 2H), 4.04 (d, J= 9.2 Hz, 2H), 4.00 (q, J= 7.1 Hz, 2H), 3.91-3.87 (m, 1H), 3.73-3.67(m, 1H), 3.47-3.40 (m, 3H), 3.31-3.23 (m, 2H), 1.37 (t, J= 7.0 Hz, 3H);

13C NMR (100 MHz, CD3OD) δ 157.4 (C), 138.6 (C), 138.5 (C), 133.1 (C), 131.5 (C), 130.5 (CH), 129.4 (CH x2), 128.7 (CH), 126.8 (CH), 114.0 (CH x2), 80.5 (CH), 80.8 (CH), 78.3 (CH), 75.0 (CH), 70.4 (CH), 63.0 (CH2), 61.7 (CH2), 37.8 (CH2), 13.8 (CH3);

LCMS (ESI) m/z 426 (100, [M+NH4]+), 428 (36, [M+NH4+2]+), 447 (33, [M+K]+).

Example 1 – Synthesis of l,6-anhydro-2,4-di-6>-ieri-butyldiphenylsilyl- -D-glucopyranose (II”)

Figure imgf000054_0001

III II”

[0206] To a suspension solution of l,6-anhydro- -D-glucopyranose (1.83 g, 11.3 mmol) and imidazole (3.07 g, 45.2 mmol) in THF (10 mL) at 0 °C was added dropwise a solution of TBDPSC1 (11.6 mL, 45.2 mmol) in THF (10 mL). After the l,6-anhydro-P-D-gJucopyranose was consumed, water (10 mL) was added and the mixture was extracted twice with EtOAc (20 mL each), washed with brine (10 mL), dried (Na2S04) and concentrated. Column

chromatography (eluting with 1 :20 EtOAc/rc-heptane) afforded 2,4-di-6>-ieri-butyldiphenylsilyl- l,6-anhydro- “D-glucopyranose (5.89 g, 81%).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) δ 7.82-7.70 (m, 8H), 7.49-7.36 (m, 12H), 5.17 (s, IH), 4.22 (d, J= 4.8 Hz, IH), 3.88-3.85 (m, IH), 3.583-3.579 (m, IH), 3.492-3.486 (m, IH), 3.47-3.45 (m, IH), 3.30 (dd, J= 7.4, 5.4 Hz, IH), 1.71 (d, J= 6.0 Hz, IH), 1.142 (s, 9H), 1.139 (s, 9H); 13C NMR (100 MHz, CDCI3) δ 135.89 (CH x2), 135.87 (CH x2), 135.85 (CH x2), 135.83 (CH x2), 133.8 (C), 133.5 (C), 133.3 (C), 133.2 (C), 129.94 (CH), 129.92 (CH), 129.90 (CH), 129.88 (CH), 127.84 (CH2 x2), 127.82 (CH2 x2), 127.77 (CH2 x4), 102.4 (CH), 76.9 (CH), 75.3 (CH), 73.9 (CH), 73.5 (CH), 65.4 (CH2), 27.0 (CH3 x6), 19.3 (C x2).

PATENT

WO 2016147197, DAPAGLIFLOZIN, NEW PATENT, HARMAN FINOCHEM LIMITED

LINK>>> (WO2016147197) A NOVEL PROCESS FOR PREPARING (2S,3R,4R,5S,6R)-2-[4-CHLORO-3-(4-ETHOXYBENZYL)PHENY 1] -6-(HY DROXY METHYL)TETRAHYDRO-2H-PY RAN-3,4,5-TRIOL AND ITS AMORPHOUS FORM

PATENT

PATENT

WO2016018024, CRYSTALLINE COMPOSITE COMPRISING DAPAGLIFLOZIN AND METHOD FOR PREPARING SAME

HANMI FINE CHEMICAL CO., LTD. [KR/KR]; 59, Gyeongje-ro, Siheung-si, Gyeonggi-do 429-848 (KR)

Dapagliflozin, sold under the brand name Farxiga among others, is a medication used to treat type 2 diabetes and, with certain restrictions, type 1 diabetes.[2] It is also used to treat adults with certain kinds of heart failure.[3][4][5]

Common side effects include hypoglycaemia (low blood sugar), urinary tract infections, genital infections, and volume depletion (reduced amount of water in the body).[6] Diabetic ketoacidosis is a common side effect in type 1 diabetic patients.[7] Serious but rare side effects include Fournier gangrene.[8] Dapagliflozin is a sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor and works by removing sugar from the body with the urine.[9]

It was developed by Bristol-Myers Squibb in partnership with AstraZeneca. In 2018, it was the 227th most commonly prescribed medication in the United States, with more than 2 million prescriptions.[10][11]

Medical uses

Dapagliflozin is used along with diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes and to reduce the risk of hospitalization for heart failure among adults with type 2 diabetes and known cardiovascular disease or other risk factors.[12][3] It appears more useful than empagliflozin.[13][verification needed]

In addition, dapagliflozin is indicated for the treatment of adults with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction to reduce the risk of cardiovascular death and hospitalization for heart failure.[3][4][5] It is also indicated to reduce the risk of kidney function decline, kidney failure, cardiovascular death and hospitalization for heart failure in adults with chronic kidney disease who are at risk of disease progression.[14]

In the European Union it is indicated in adults:

  • for the treatment of insufficiently controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus as an adjunct to diet and exercise:
    • as monotherapy when metformin is considered inappropriate due to intolerance;
    • in addition to other medicinal products for the treatment of type 2 diabetes;
  • for the treatment of insufficiently controlled type 1 diabetes mellitus as an adjunct to insulin in patients with BMI ≥ 27 kg/m2, when insulin alone does not provide adequate glycaemic control despite optimal insulin therapy; and
  • for the treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction.[5]

Adverse effects

Since dapagliflozin leads to heavy glycosuria (sometimes up to about 70 grams per day) it can lead to rapid weight loss and tiredness. The glucose acts as an osmotic diuretic (this effect is the cause of polyuria in diabetes) which can lead to dehydration. The increased amount of glucose in the urine can also worsen the infections already associated with diabetes, particularly urinary tract infections and thrush (candidiasis). Rarely, use of an SGLT2 drug, including dapagliflozin, is associated with necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum, also called Fournier gangrene.[15]

Dapagliflozin is also associated with hypotensive reactions. There are concerns it may increase the risk of diabetic ketoacidosis.[16]

Dapagliflozin can cause dehydration, serious urinary tract infections and genital yeast infections.[3] Elderly people, people with kidney problems, those with low blood pressure, and people on diuretics should be assessed for their volume status and kidney function.[3] People with signs and symptoms of metabolic acidosis or ketoacidosis (acid buildup in the blood) should also be assessed.[3] Dapagliflozin can cause serious cases of necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum (Fournier gangrene) in people with diabetes and low blood sugar when combined with insulin.[3]

To lessen the risk of developing ketoacidosis (a serious condition in which the body produces high levels of blood acids called ketones) after surgery, the FDA has approved changes to the prescribing information for SGLT2 inhibitor diabetes medicines to recommend they be stopped temporarily before scheduled surgery. Canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin should each be stopped at least three days before, and ertugliflozin should be stopped at least four days before scheduled surgery.[17]

Symptoms of ketoacidosis include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, tiredness, and trouble breathing.[17]

Use is not recommended in patients with eGFR < 45ml/min/1.73m2, though data from 2021 shows the reduction in the kidney failure risks in people with chronic kidney disease using dapagliflozin.[18]

Mechanism of action

Dapagliflozin inhibits subtype 2 of the sodium-glucose transport proteins (SGLT2) which are responsible for at least 90% of the glucose reabsorption in the kidney. Blocking this transporter mechanism causes blood glucose to be eliminated through the urine.[19] In clinical trials, dapagliflozin lowered HbA1c by 0.6 versus placebo percentage points when added to metformin.[20]

Regarding its protective effects in heart failure, this is attributed primarily to haemodynamic effects, where SGLT2 inhibitors potently reduce intravascular volume through osmotic diuresis and natriuresis. This consequently may lead to a reduction in preload and afterload, thereby alleviating cardiac workload and improving left ventricular function.[21]

Selectivity

The IC50 for SGLT2 is less than one thousandth of the IC50 for SGLT1 (1.1 versus 1390 nmol/L), so that the drug does not interfere with intestinal glucose absorption.[22]

Names

Dapagliflozin is the International nonproprietary name (INN),[23] and the United States Adopted Name (USAN).[24]

There is a fixed-dose combination product dapagliflozin/metformin extended-release, called Xigduo XR.[25][26][27]

In July 2016, the fixed-dose combination of saxagliptin and dapagliflozin was approved for medical use in the European Union and is sold under the brand name Qtern.[28] The combination drug was approved for medical use in the United States in February 2017, where it is sold under the brand name Qtern.[29][30]

In May 2019, the fixed-dose combination of dapagliflozin, saxagliptin, and metformin hydrochloride as extended-release tablets was approved in the United States to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes when used in combination with diet and exercise. The FDA granted the approval of Qternmet XR to AstraZeneca.[31] The combination drug was approved for use in the European Union in November 2019, and is sold under the brand name Qtrilmet.[32]

History

In 2012, the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) issued a positive opinion on the drug.[5]

Dapagliflozin was found effective in several studies in participants with type 2 and type 1 diabetes.[5] The main measure of effectiveness was the level of glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), which gives an indication of how well blood glucose is controlled.[5]

In two studies involving 840 participants with type 2 diabetes, dapagliflozin when used alone decreased HbA1c levels by 0.66 percentage points more than placebo (a dummy treatment) after 24 weeks.[5] In four other studies involving 2,370 participants, adding dapagliflozin to other diabetes medicines decreased HbA1c levels by 0.54-0.68 percentage points more than adding placebo after 24 weeks.[5]

In a study involving 814 participants with type 2 diabetes, dapagliflozin used in combination with metformin was at least as effective as a sulphonylurea (another type of diabetes medicines) used with metformin.[5] Both combinations reduced HbA1c levels by 0.52 percentage points after 52 weeks.[5]

A long-term study, involving over 17,000 participants with type 2 diabetes, looked at the effects of dapagliflozin on cardiovascular (heart and circulation) disease.[5] The study indicated that dapagliflozin’s effects were in line with those of other diabetes medicines that also work by blocking SGLT2.[5]

In two studies involving 1,648 participants with type 1 diabetes whose blood sugar was not controlled well enough on insulin alone, adding dapagliflozin 5 mg decreased HbA1c levels after 24 hours by 0.37% and by 0.42% more than adding placebo.[5]

Dapagliflozin was approved for medical use in the European Union in November 2012.[5] It is marketed in a number of European countries.[33]

Dapagliflozin was approved for medical use in the United States in January 2014.[34][14]

In 2020, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) expanded the indications for dapagliflozin to include treatment for adults with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction to reduce the risk of cardiovascular death and hospitalization for heart failure.[3] It is the first in this particular drug class, sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, to be approved to treat adults with New York Heart Association’s functional class II-IV heart failure with reduced ejection fraction.[3]

Dapagliflozin was shown in a clinical trial to improve survival and reduce the need for hospitalization in adults with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction.[3] The safety and effectiveness of dapagliflozin were evaluated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 4,744 participants.[3] The average age of participants was 66 years and more participants were male (77%) than female.[3] To determine the drug’s effectiveness, investigators examined the occurrence of cardiovascular death, hospitalization for heart failure, and urgent heart failure visits.[3] Participants were randomly assigned to receive a once-daily dose of either 10 milligrams of dapagliflozin or a placebo (inactive treatment).[3] After about 18 months, people who received dapagliflozin had fewer cardiovascular deaths, hospitalizations for heart failure, and urgent heart failure visits than those receiving the placebo.[3]

In July 2020, the FDA granted AstraZeneca a Fast Track Designation in the US for the development of dapagliflozin to reduce the risk of hospitalisation for heart failure or cardiovascular death in adults following a heart attack.[35]

In August 2020, it was reported that detailed results from the Phase III DAPA-CKD trial showed that AstraZeneca’s FARXIGA® (dapagliflozin) on top of standard of care reduced the composite measure of worsening of renal function or risk of cardiovascular (CV) or renal death by 39% compared to placebo (p<0.0001) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) Stages 2-4 and elevated urinary albumin excretion. The results were consistent in patients both with and without type 2 diabetes (T2D)[36]

In April 2021, the FDA expanded the indications for dapagliflozin (Farxiga) to include reducing the risk of kidney function decline, kidney failure, cardiovascular death and hospitalization for heart failure in adults with chronic kidney disease who are at risk of disease progression.[14] The efficacy of dapagliflozin to improve kidney outcomes and reduce cardiovascular death in people with chronic kidney disease was evaluated in a multicenter, double-blind study of 4,304 participants.[14]

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SYN

https://pharmacia.pensoft.net/article/70626/

Synthesis

Dapagliflozin is an approved drug by U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Dapagliflozin is a representative of SGLT-2 inhibitors, actively considered to cure diabetes type 2. Thus, methodology of dapagliflozin synthesis has rarely published (Ellsworth et al. 2002; Meng 2008). Scheme 1 have shown the general synthetic route for the synthesis of dapagliflozin. Gluconolactone 3 which was protected by trimethylsilyl TMS was treated with aryl lithium. Aryl lithium was obtained by reacting aryl bromide 2 (exchange of Li/Br) with n-BuLi. Methyl C-aryl glucoside 4 was produced by treatment of resulting mixture with methane sulfonic acid in the presence of methanol. Compound 4 was subjected to acetylation in the presence of Ac2O, resulted in the formation of 5 followed by reduction of 5 to 6 with the help of Et3SiH and BF3.OEt2. Finally, dapagliflozin 1 was produced via hydrolysis of 6 by LiOH (Deshpande et al. 2008; Meng 2008).

Ellsworth B, Washburn WN, Sher PM, Wu G, Meng W (2002) C-Aryl glucoside SGLT2 inhibitors and method, Google Patents. https://patents.google.com/patent/US6515117B2/en

Meng W, Ellsworth BA, Nirschl AA, McCann PJ, Patel M, Girotra RN, Wu G, Sher PM, Morrison EP, Biller SA, Zahler R, Deshpande PP, Pullockaran A, Hagan DL, Morgan N, Taylor JR, Obermeier MT, Humphreys WG, Khanna A, Discenza L, Robertson JG, Wang A, Han S, Wetterau JR, Janovitz EB, Flint OP, Whaley JM, Washburn WN (2008) “Discovery of dapagliflozin: a potent, selective renal sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. ” Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 51(5): 1145–1149. https://doi.org/10.1021/jm701272q

Deshpande PP, Ellsworth BA, Singh J, Denzel TW, Lai C, Crispino G, Randazzo ME, Gougoutas JZ (2008) Methods of producing C-aryl glucoside SGLT2 inhibitors, Google Patents. https://patents.google.com/patent/US7375213B2/en

Jun et al. has reported a few improvements to the scheme 1. In the improved methodology scheme 2, trimethylsilyl chloride was added to gluconolactone 7 in the presence of N-methylmorpholine and tetrahydrofuran THF (Horton et al. 1981), followed by the formation of persilyated lactone 3. After completing the reaction of aryl bromide 2 with n-BuLi, added to persilyated lactone 3. Intermediate lactol 8 was produced by treating resulting reaction mixture with trifluoroacetic acid in aqueous form. Then ethyl C-aryl glycoside 9 yielded when subsequently compound 8 was subjected to methane-sulfonic acid in ethyl alcohol. Crude product 9 in the form of oil was secured after the screening of solvents. Jun et al. proposed that more than 98% pure 9 was collected as crystalline solvate after the crystallization of crude oil from n-propanol and n-heptane mixture (Yu et al. 2019). Moreover, Wang et al. proposed that a high extent of diastereoselectivity obtained after the reduction of tetra-O-unprotected methyl C-aryl glucoside by utilizing Et3SiH and BF3.Et2O (Wang et al. 2014). The nature of active pharmaceutical ingredient is amorphous foam which is isolated after the reduction of 9. Production of cocrystalline complex facilitate the isolation and purification of API (Deng et al. 2017). It is concluded that more than 99.7% pure dapagliflozin produced in overall 79% yield, after the crystallization of a mixture consists of n-heptane and ethyl acetate (Yu et al. 2019).

Zheng et al. designed the production methodology of dapagliflozin by introducing NO donor group at the last steps of general route of dapagliflozin synthesis (scheme 1). Novel hybrids achieved by the combination of dapagliflozin and NO donor, having excellent dual characteristics of anti-hyperglycemic and anti-thrombosis. The figure 2 represent the modifiable site (4-position) of dapagliflozin.

Horton D, Priebe W (1981) “Synthetic routes to higher-carbon sugars. Reaction of lactones with 2-lithio-, 3-dithiane. ” Carbohydrate Research 94(1): 27–41. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0008-6215(00)85593-7

Yu J, Cao Y, Yu H, Wang JJ (2019) “A Concise and Efficient Synthesis of Dapagliflozin. ” Organic Process Research & Development 23(7): 1458–1461. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.oprd.9b00141

Wang X-j, Zhang L, Byrne D, Nummy L, Weber D, Krishnamurthy D, Yee N, Senanayake CH (2014) “Efficient synthesis of empagliflozin, an inhibitor of SGLT-2, utilizing an AlCl3-promoted silane reduction of a β-glycopyranoside. ” Organic Letters 16(16): 4090–4093. https://doi.org/10.1021/ol501755h

Deng J-H, Lu T-B, Sun CC, J-M Chen (2017) “Dapagliflozin-citric acid cocrystal showing better solid state properties than dapagliflozin. ” European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 104: 255–261. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejps.2017.04.008

Scheme 3 has shown the formation strategy of new hybrids of nitric oxide with dapagliflozin. During the synthesis process, the compound 6 was treated with BBr3 that result in the formation of phenol 10, which was further subjected to condensation with bromoalkane and then undergo hydrolysis and produce 11 intermediates. Target compound was obtained by the reacting 11 with silver nitrate in acetonitrile (Li et al. 2018).

Li Z, Xu X, Deng L, Liao R, Liang R, Zhang B, Zhang LJB (2018) Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of nitric oxide releasing derivatives of dapagliflozin as potential anti-diabetic and anti-thrombotic agents. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry 26(14): 3947–3952. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2018.06.017

Lin et al. fabricated green route (scheme 4) for the production of dapagliflozin. 5-bromo-2-chlorobenzoic acid 12 and gluconolactone were utilized to initiate the synthesis. By taking BF3.Et2O in catalytic amount to produce 13, overall yield of 76% was obtained in one-pot way via considering the Friedel-Craft acylation and ketallization. There was no need to do work-up operations to separate the diaryl ketal 13 as it was easily crystallized from the mixture. Compound 14 was produce as a result of condensation between 13 and 3. Overall yield of 68% of compound 15 was produced by the deprotection of silyl group in ethyl alcohol media. In THF presence, single crystals of 15 was achieved and characterized by XRD-analysis. High yield of dapagliflozin was obtained after the reduction of 15 that was carried out by triethylsilane in the presence of boron trifluoride diethyl etherate in dichloromethane. Upon crystallization from the mixture having heptane and ethyl acetate, greater than 98% pure dapagliflozin was produced by green synthetic pathway (Hu et al. 2019).

Hu L, Zou P, Wei W, Yuan X-M, Qiu X-L, Gou S-H (2019) “Facile and green synthesis of dapagliflozin. ” Synthetic Communications 49(23): 3373–3379. https://doi.org/10.1080/00397911.2019.1666283

PAPER

A Concise and Efficient Synthesis of Dapagliflozin

Cite this: Org. Process Res. Dev.2019, 23, 7, 1458–1461

Publication Date:June 27, 2019

https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.oprd.9b00141

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.oprd.9b00141

file:///C:/Users/Inspiron/Downloads/op9b00141_si_001.pdf  SUPP

Abstract

Abstract Image

A concise and efficient synthesis of the SGLT-2 inhibitor dapagliflozin (1) has been developed. This route involves ethyl C-aryl glycoside 9 as the key intermediate, which is easily crystallized and purified as the crystalline n-propanol solvate with high purity (>98.5%). The tetra-O-unprotected compound 9 could be directly reduced to crude dapagliflozin with high diastereoselectivity. The final pure API product 1 was isolated and purified with high purity (>99.7%). The process has been implemented on a multikilogram scale.

(2S,3R,4R,5S,6R)-2-(4-chloro-3-(4-ethoxybenzyl)phenyl)-6-(hydroxymethyl)tetra-hydro-2Hpyran-3,4,5-triol (1)

Compound 1 has a melting point of 88.3oC.

The MsOH solution should be used immediately to avoid sulfonate formation and we have no data on the presence of sulfonates in the API.

1HNMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ (ppm) 7.32-7.37 (m, 2H), 7.22-7.24 (m, 1H), 7.08-7.10 (m, 2H), 6.80-6.84 (m, 2H), 4.94-4.96 (m, 2H), 4.82-4.83 (d, J=5.6 Hz, 1H), 4.43-4.46 (m, 1H), 3.93-4.02 (m, 5H), 3.68-3.73 (m, 1H), 3.42-3.48 (m, 1H), 3.10-3.28 (m, 4H), 1.27-1.30 (m, 3H).

13C NMR (100 MHz, DMSOd6) δ(ppm) 157.38, 140.14, 138.27, 132.40, 131.69, 131.27, 130.03, 129.13, 127.81, 114.78, 81.67, 81.18, 78.80, 75.19, 70.80, 63.37, 61.86, 38.14, 15.15.

IR(KBr): 3415, 2979, 2918, 1617, 1512, 1475, 1391, 1242, 1103, 1045, 913, 825 cm-1.

MS(m/z):431.12[M + Na]+ .

1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra for Compound

IR and Mass spectra for Compound

DSC spectra for Compound

PAPER

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/ol300220p

rg. Lett.2012, 14, 6, 1480–1483

Publication Date:March 2, 2012

https://doi.org/10.1021/ol300220p

Abstract

Abstract Image

A general, transition-metal-free, highly stereoselective cross-coupling reaction between glycosyl bromides and various arylzinc reagents leading to β-arylated glycosides is reported. The stereoselectivity of the reaction is explained by invoking anchimeric assistance via a bicyclic intermediate. Stereochemical probes confirm the participation of the 2-pivaloyloxy group. Finally, this new method was applied to a short and efficient stereoselective synthesis of Dapagliflozin and Canagliflozin.

CROSS REF J. Med. Chem 2008, 51, 1145

H NMR (360 MHz, MeOD): δ 7.35‐7.28 (m, 3H); 7.09 (d, J=8.4Hz, 2H), 6.80 (d, J=8.8Hz, 2H), 4.09 (d, J=9.5Hz, 1H); 4.03‐3.96 (m, 4H); 3.89‐3.85 (m, 1H); 3.71‐3.66 (m, 1H); 3.45‐3.36 (m, 4H), 3.28‐3.26 (m, 2H); 1.36 (t, J=6.9Hz, 3H).

13CNMR (90 MHz, MeOD): δ 14.80, 38.31, 61.80, 63.38, 69.88, 74.67, 77.93, 79.35, 81.08, 114.48, 126.35, 128.20, 129.01, 129.72, 130.62, 131.14, 134.15, 137.04, 139.01, 157.31.

PAPER 

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/ja00199a028

Research

One study found that it had no benefit on heart disease risk or overall risk of death in people with diabetes.[37] Another study found that in heart failure with a reduced ejection fraction, dapagliflozin reduced the risk of worsening of heart failure or progression to death from cardiovascular causes, irrespective of diabetic status.[38]

References

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  26. ^ “Drug Approval Package: Xigduo XR (dapagliflozin and metformin HCl) Extended-Release Tablets”U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 7 April 2015. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
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  35. ^ “FARXIGA Granted Fast Track Designation in the US for Heart Failure Following Acute Myocardial Infarction Leveraging an Innovative Registry-Based Trial Design”http://www.businesswire.com. 16 July 2020. Retrieved 20 July 2020.
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  37. ^ “Type 2 diabetes. Cardiovascular assessment of dapagliflozin: no advance”Prescrire International29 (211): 23. January 2020. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  38. ^ McMurray JJ, Solomon SD, Inzucchi SE, et al. (November 2019). “Dapagliflozin in Patients with Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction”New England Journal of Medicine381 (21): 1995–2008. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1911303PMID 31535829.

Clinical trials

  • Clinical trial number NCT00528372 for “A Phase III Study of BMS-512148 (Dapagliflozin) in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Who Are Not Well Controlled With Diet and Exercise” at ClinicalTrials.gov
  • Clinical trial number NCT00643851 for “An Efficacy & Safety Study of BMS-512148 in Combination With Metformin Extended Release Tablets” at ClinicalTrials.gov
  • Clinical trial number NCT00859898 for “Study of Dapagliflozin in Combination With Metformin XR to Initiate the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes” at ClinicalTrials.gov
  • Clinical trial number NCT00528879 for “A Phase III Study of BMS-512148 (Dapagliflozin) in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Who Are Not Well Controlled on Metformin Alone” at ClinicalTrials.gov
  • Clinical trial number NCT00660907 for “Efficacy and Safety of Dapagliflozin in Combination With Metformin in Type 2 Diabetes Patients” at ClinicalTrials.gov
  • Clinical trial number NCT00680745 for “Efficacy and Safety of Dapagliflozin in Combination With Glimepiride (a Sulphonylurea) in Type 2 Diabetes Patients” at ClinicalTrials.gov
  • Clinical trial number NCT01392677 for “Evaluation of Safety and Efficacy of Dapagliflozin in Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes Who Have Inadequate Glycaemic Control on Background Combination of Metformin and Sulfonylurea” at ClinicalTrials.gov
  • Clinical trial number NCT00683878 for “Add-on to Thiazolidinedione (TZD) Failures” at ClinicalTrials.gov
  • Clinical trial number NCT00984867 for “Dapagliflozin DPPIV Inhibitor add-on Study” at ClinicalTrials.gov
  • Clinical trial number NCT00673231 for “Efficacy and Safety of Dapagliflozin, Added to Therapy of Patients With Type 2 Diabetes With Inadequate Glycemic Control on Insulin” at ClinicalTrials.gov
  • Clinical trial number NCT02229396 for “Phase 3 28-Week Study With 24-Week and 52-week Extension Phases to Evaluate Efficacy and Safety of Exenatide Once Weekly and Dapagliflozin Versus Exenatide and Dapagliflozin Matching Placebo” at ClinicalTrials.gov
  • Clinical trial number NCT02413398 for “A Study to Evaluate the Effect of Dapagliflozin on Blood Glucose Level and Renal Safety in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes (DERIVE)” at ClinicalTrials.gov
  • Clinical trial number NCT01730534 for “Multicenter Trial to Evaluate the Effect of Dapagliflozin on the Incidence of Cardiovascular Events (DECLARE-TIMI58)” at ClinicalTrials.gov
  • Clinical trial number NCT03036124 for “Study to Evaluate the Effect of Dapagliflozin on the Incidence of Worsening Heart Failure or Cardiovascular Death in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure (DAPA-HF)” at ClinicalTrials.gov
Haworth projection (bottom)
 
Clinical data
Pronunciation/ˌdæpəɡlɪˈfloʊzɪn/ DAP-ə-glif-LOH-zin
Trade namesForxiga, Farxiga, Edistride, others
Other namesBMS-512148; (1S)-1,5-anhydro-1-C-{4-chloro-3-[(4-ethoxyphenyl)methyl]phenyl}-D-glucitol
AHFS/Drugs.comMonograph
License dataEU EMAby INNUS DailyMedDapagliflozinUS FDADapagliflozin
Pregnancy
category
AU: D[1]
Routes of
administration
By mouth (tablets)
Drug classSodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor
ATC codeA10BK01 (WHO)
Legal status
Legal statusAU: S4 (Prescription only)UK: POM (Prescription only)US: ℞-onlyEU: Rx-onlyIn general: ℞ (Prescription only)
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability78% (after 10 mg dose)
Protein binding~91%
MetabolismUGT1A9 (major), CYP (minor)
MetabolitesDapagliflozin 3-O-glucuronide (inactive)
Elimination half-life~12.9 hours
ExcretionUrine (75%), feces (21%)[2]
Identifiers
showIUPAC name
CAS Number461432-26-8 
PubChem CID9887712
IUPHAR/BPS4594
DrugBankDB06292 
ChemSpider8063384 
UNII1ULL0QJ8UC
KEGGD08897 as salt: D09763 
ChEBICHEBI:85078 
ChEMBLChEMBL429910 
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)DTXSID20905104 
ECHA InfoCard100.167.331 
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC21H25ClO6
Molar mass408.88 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)Interactive image
showSMILES
showInChI
  (what is this?)  (verify)

///////////DAPAGLIFLOZIN, ダパグリフロジン, BMS 512148, TYPE 2 DIABETES, SGLT-2 Inhibitors, EU 2012,  forxiga, FDA 2014, JAPAN 2014, DIABETES

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  3.  Trial Details for Trial MB102-020, Bristol-Myers Squibb, May 2009
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  5.  Prous Science: Molecule of the Month November 2007
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  7.  Schubert-Zsilavecz, M, Wurglics, M, Neue Arzneimittel 2008/2009
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  9. Organic Letters , 2012, 14 (6), 1480-1483;3) Zhuo, Biqin and Xing, Xijuan; Process for preparation of Dapagliflozin amino acid cocrystals ;
  10. Faming Zhuanli Shenqing , 102 167 715, 31 Aug 20114) Shao, Hua et al; Total synthesis of SGLT2 inhibitor Dapagliflozin ;
  11. Hecheng Huaxue , 18 (3), 389-392; 20105) Liou, Jason et al; Processes for the preparation of C-Aryl glycoside amino acid complexes as potential SGLT2 Inhibitors ;. PCT Int Appl,.
  12. WO20100223136) Seed, Brian et al; Preparation of Deuterated benzyl-benzene glycosides having an inhibitory Effect on sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter; . PCT Int Appl,.
  13.  WO20100092437) Song, Yanli et al; Preparation of benzylbenzene glycoside Derivatives as antidiabetic Agents ;. PCT Int Appl,.
  14. WO20090265378) Meng, Wei et al; D iscovery of Dapagliflozin: A Potent, Selective Renal Sodium-Dependent Glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitor for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes ;
  15. Journal of Medicinal chemistr y, 2008, 51 (5), 1145 -1149;9) Gougoutas, Jack Z. et al; Solvates Crystalline complexes of amino acid with (1S)-1 ,5-anhydro-LC (3 – ((phenyl) methyl) phenyl)-D-glucitol were prepared as for SGLT2 Inhibitors the treatment of Diabetes ;. PCT Int Appl,.
  16. WO200800282410) Deshpande, Prashant P. et al; Methods of producing C-Aryl glucoside SGLT2 Inhibitors ;..
  17. U.S. Pat Appl Publ,. 20,040,138,439

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Dasiglucagon


Dasiglucagon.png
2D chemical structure of 1544300-84-6
str1

Dasiglucagon

Treatment of Hypoglycemia in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Patients

FormulaC152H222N38O50
CAS1544300-84-6
Mol weight3381.6137

FDA APPROVED,  2021/3/22, Zegalogue

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UNIIAD4J2O47FQ

HypoPal rescue pen

SVG Image
IUPAC CondensedH-His-Ser-Gln-Gly-Thr-Phe-Thr-Ser-Asp-Tyr-Ser-Lys-Tyr-Leu-Asp-Aib-Ala-Arg-Ala-Glu-Glu-Phe-Val-Lys-Trp-Leu-Glu-Ser-Thr-OH
SequenceHSQGTFTSDYSKYLDXARAEEFVKWLEST
HELMPEPTIDE1{H.S.Q.G.T.F.T.S.D.Y.S.K.Y.L.D.[Aib].A.R.A.E.E.F.V.K.W.L.E.S.T}$$$$
IUPACL-histidyl-L-seryl-L-glutaminyl-glycyl-L-threonyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-threonyl-L-seryl-L-alpha-aspartyl-L-tyrosyl-L-seryl-L-lysyl-L-tyrosyl-L-leucyl-L-alpha-aspartyl-alpha-methyl-alanyl-L-alanyl-L-arginyl-L-alanyl-L-alpha-glutamyl-L-alpha-glutamyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-valyl-L-lysyl-L-tryptophyl-L-leucyl-L-alpha-glutamyl-L-seryl-L-threonine

(4S)-4-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-[[2-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S)-6-amino-2-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S,3R)-2-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S,3R)-2-[[2-[[(2S)-5-amino-2-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-amino-3-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)propanoyl]amino]-3-hydroxypropanoyl]amino]-5-oxopentanoyl]amino]acetyl]amino]-3-hydroxybutanoyl]amino]-3-phenylpropanoyl]amino]-3-hydroxybutanoyl]amino]-3-hydroxypropanoyl]amino]-3-carboxypropanoyl]amino]-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propanoyl]amino]-3-hydroxypropanoyl]amino]hexanoyl]amino]-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propanoyl]amino]-4-methylpentanoyl]amino]-3-carboxypropanoyl]amino]-2-methylpropanoyl]amino]propanoyl]amino]-5-carbamimidamidopentanoyl]amino]propanoyl]amino]-5-[[(2S)-1-[[(2S)-1-[[(2S)-1-[[(2S)-6-amino-1-[[(2S)-1-[[(2S)-1-[[(2S)-4-carboxy-1-[[(2S)-1-[[(1S,2R)-1-carboxy-2-hydroxypropyl]amino]-3-hydroxy-1-oxopropan-2-yl]amino]-1-oxobutan-2-yl]amino]-4-methyl-1-oxopentan-2-yl]amino]-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-1-oxopropan-2-yl]amino]-1-oxohexan-2-yl]amino]-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl]amino]-1-oxo-3-phenylpropan-2-yl]amino]-4-carboxy-1-oxobutan-2-yl]amino]-5-oxopentanoic acid

. [16-(2-methylalanine)(S>X),17-L-alanine(R>A),20-L-α-glutamyl(Q>E),21-L-αglutamyl(D>E),24-L-lysyl(Q>K),27-L-α-glutamyl(M>E),28-L-serine(N>S)]human glucagon

L-Threonine, L-histidyl-L-seryl-L-glutaminylglycyl-L-threonyl-L- phenylalanyl-L-threonyl-L-seryl-L-α-aspartyl-L-tyrosyl-L-seryl-L- lysyl-L-tyrosyl-L-leucyl-L-α-aspartyl-2-methylalanyl-L-alanyl-L- arginyl-L-alanyl-L-α-glutamyl-L-α-glutamyl-L-phenylalanyl-L- valyl-L-lysyl-L-tryptophyl-L-leucyl-L-α-glutamyl-L-seryl

ZP-4207

His-Ser-Gln-Gly-Thr-Phe-Thr-Ser-Asp-Tyr-Ser-Lys-Tyr-Leu-Asp-aib-Ala-Arg-Ala-Glu-Glu-Phe-Val-Lys-Trp-Leu-Glu-Ser-Thr

L-Threonine, L-histidyl-L-seryl-L-glutaminylglycyl-L-threonyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-threonyl-L-seryl-L-alpha-aspartyl-L-tyrosyl-L-seryl-L-lysyl-L-tyrosyl-L-leucyl-L-alpha-aspartyl-2-methylalanyl-L-alanyl-L-arginyl-L-alanyl-L-alpha-glutamyl-L-alphaC152 H222 N38 O50L-Threonine, L-histidyl-L-seryl-L-glutaminylglycyl-L-threonyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-threonyl-L-seryl-L-α-aspartyl-L-tyrosyl-L-seryl-L-lysyl-L-tyrosyl-L-leucyl-L-α-aspartyl-2-methylalanyl-L-alanyl-L-arginyl-L-alanyl-L-α-glutamyl-L-α-glutamyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-valyl-L-lysyl-L-tryptophyl-L-leucyl-L-α-glutamyl-L-seryl-Molecular Weight3381.61

Other Names

  • L-Histidyl-L-seryl-L-glutaminylglycyl-L-threonyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-threonyl-L-seryl-L-α-aspartyl-L-tyrosyl-L-seryl-L-lysyl-L-tyrosyl-L-leucyl-L-α-aspartyl-2-methylalanyl-L-alanyl-L-arginyl-L-alanyl-L-α-glutamyl-L-α-glutamyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-valyl-L-lysyl-L-tryptophyl-L-leucyl-L-α-glutamyl-L-seryl-L-threonine
  • Developer Beta Bionics; Zealand Pharma
  • ClassAntihyperglycaemics; Antihypoglycaemics; Peptides
  • Mechanism of ActionGlucagon receptor agonists
  • Orphan Drug StatusYes – Hypoglycaemia; Congenital hyperinsulinism
  • RegisteredHypoglycaemia
  • Phase IIICongenital hyperinsulinism
  • Phase II/IIIType 1 diabetes mellitus
  • 22 Mar 2021Registered for Hypoglycaemia (In children, In adolescents, In adults, In the elderly) in USA (SC) – First global approval
  • 22 Mar 2021Zealand Pharma anticipates the launch of dasiglucagon in USA (SC, Injection) in June 2021
  • 22 Mar 2021Pooled efficacy and safety data from three phase III trials in Hypoglycaemia released by Zealand Pharma

NEW DRUG APPROVALS

one time

$10.00

PATENTS

WO 2014016300

US 20150210744

PAPER

Pharmaceutical Research (2018), 35(12), 1-13

Dasiglucagon, sold under the brand name Zegalogue, is a medication used to treat severe hypoglycemia in people with diabetes.[1]

The most common side effects include nausea, vomiting, headache, diarrhea, and injection site pain.[1]

Dasiglucagon was approved for medical use in the United States in March 2021.[1][2][3] It was designated an orphan drug in August 2017.[4]

Dasiglucagon is under investigation in clinical trial NCT03735225 (Evaluation of the Safety, Tolerability and Bioavailability of Dasiglucagon Following Subcutaneous (SC) Compared to IV Administration).

Medical uses

Dasiglucagon is indicated for the treatment of severe hypoglycemia in people aged six years of age and older with diabetes.[1][2]

Contraindications

Dasiglucagon is contraindicated in people with pheochromocytoma or insulinoma.[1]

References

  1. Jump up to:a b c d e f https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2021/214231s000lbl.pdf
  2. Jump up to:a b “Dasiglucagon: FDA-Approved Drugs”U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Retrieved 22 March 2021.
  3. ^ “Zealand Pharma Announces FDA Approval of Zegalogue (dasiglucagon) injection, for the Treatment of Severe Hypoglycemia in People with Diabetes” (Press release). Zealand Pharma. 22 March 2021. Retrieved 22 March 2021 – via GlobeNewswire.
  4. ^ “Dasiglucagon Orphan Drug Designations and Approvals”U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 10 August 2017. Retrieved 22 March 2021.

External links

  • “Dasiglucagon”Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Clinical trial number NCT03378635 for “A Trial to Confirm the Efficacy and Safety of Dasiglucagon in the Treatment of Hypoglycemia in Type 1 Diabetes Subjects” at ClinicalTrials.gov
  • Clinical trial number NCT03688711 for “Trial to Confirm the Clinical Efficacy and Safety of Dasiglucagon in the Treatment of Hypoglycemia in Subjects With T1DM” at ClinicalTrials.gov
  • Clinical trial number NCT03667053 for “Trial to Confirm the Efficacy and Safety of Dasiglucagon in the Treatment of Hypoglycemia in T1DM Children” at ClinicalTrials.gov
Clinical data
Trade namesZegalogue
AHFS/Drugs.comZegalogue
License dataUS DailyMedDasiglucagon
Routes of
administration
Subcutaneous
Drug classGlucagon receptor agonist
ATC codeNone
Legal status
Legal statusUS: ℞-only [1]
Identifiers
showIUPAC name
CAS Number1544300-84-6
PubChem CID126961379
DrugBankDB15226
UNIIAD4J2O47FQ
KEGGD11359
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC152H222N38O50
Molar mass3381.664 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)Interactive image

///////////Dasiglucagon, FDA 2021,  APPROVALS 2021, Zegalogue, ダシグルカゴン, ZP 4207, ZP-GA-1 Hypoglycemia, Type 1, Type 2 , Diabetes Patients, Zealand Pharma A/S, Orphan Drug Status,  Hypoglycaemia, Congenital hyperinsulinism,  HypoPal rescue pen, DIABETES

#Dasiglucagon, #FDA 2021,  #APPROVALS 2021, #Zegalogue, #ダシグルカゴン, #ZP 4207, ZP-GA-1 #Hypoglycemia, #Type 1, #Type 2 , #Diabetes Patients, #Zealand Pharma A/S, #Orphan Drug Status,  #Hypoglycaemia, #Congenital hyperinsulinism,  #HypoPal rescue pen, #DIABETESSMILES

  • C[C@H]([C@@H](C(=O)N[C@@H](CC1=CC=CC=C1)C(=O)N[C@@H]([C@@H](C)O)C(=O)N[C@@H](CO)C(=O)N[C@@H](CC(=O)O)C(=O)N[C@@H](CC2=CC=C(C=C2)O)C(=O)N[C@@H](CO)C(=O)N[C@@H](CCCCN)C(=O)N[C@@H](CC3=CC=C(C=C3)O)C(=O)N[C@@H](CC(C)C)C(=O)N[C@@H](CC(=O)O)C(=O)NC(C)(C)C(=O)N[C@@H](C)C(=O)N[C@@H](CCCNC(=N)N)C(=O)N[C@@H](C)C(=O)N[C@@H](CCC(=O)O)C(=O)N[C@@H](CCC(=O)O)C(=O)N[C@@H](CC4=CC=CC=C4)C(=O)N[C@@H](C(C)C)C(=O)N[C@@H](CCCCN)C(=O)N[C@@H](CC5=CNC6=CC=CC=C65)C(=O)N[C@@H](CC(C)C)C(=O)N[C@@H](CCC(=O)O)C(=O)N[C@@H](CO)C(=O)N[C@@H]([C@@H](C)O)C(=O)O)NC(=O)CNC(=O)[C@H](CCC(=O)N)NC(=O)[C@H](CO)NC(=O)[C@H](CC7=CNC=N7)N)O

CIGLITAZONE


Ciglitazone.svg

Ciglitazone

U-63287, ADD-3878

  • Molecular FormulaC18H23NO3S
  • Average mass333.445 Da
  • 74772-77-3 [RN]

(±)-5-[4-(1-Methylcyclohexylmethoxy)benzyl]thiazolidine-2,4-dione2,4-Thiazolidinedione, 5-[[4-[(1-methylcyclohexyl)methoxy]phenyl]methyl]-5-[4-(1-methylcyclohexylmethoxy) benzyl]-thiazolidine-2,4-dione

Ciglitazone (INN) is a thiazolidinedione. Developed by Takeda Pharmaceuticals in the early 1980s, it is considered the prototypical compound for the thiazolidinedione class.[1][2][3][4]

Ciglitazone was never used as a medication, but it sparked interest in the effects of thiazolidinediones. Several analogues were later developed, some of which—such as pioglitazone and troglitazone—made it to the market.[2]

Ciglitazone significantly decreases VEGF production by human granulosa cells in an in vitro study, and may potentially be used in ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.[5] Ciglitazone is a potent and selective PPARγ ligand. It binds to the PPARγ ligand-binding domain with an EC50 of 3.0 μM. Ciglitazone is active in vivo as an anti-hyperglycemic agent in the ob/ob murine model.[6] Inhibits HUVEC differentiation and angiogenesis and also stimulates adipogenesis and decreases osteoblastogenesis in human mesenchymal stem cells.[7]

SYN

T. Sohda, K. Mizuno, E. Imamiya, Y. Sugiyama, T. Fujita, and Y. Kawamatsu, Chem. Pharm. Bull., 30, 3580 (1982).

File:Ciglitazone synthesis.svg

SYN

Ciglitazone (CAS NO.: ), with other name of , 5-((4-((1-methylcyclohexyl)methoxy)phenyl)methyl)-, (+-)-, could be produced through many synthetic methods.

Following is one of the reaction routes:

Synthesis of Ciglitazone

The reaction of 1-methylcyclohexylmethanol (II) with 4-chloronitrobenzene (III) by means of NaH in hot DMSO gives 4-(1-methylcyclohexylmethoxylnitrobenzene (III), which is reduced with H2 over Pd/C in methanol yielding 4-(1-methylcyclohexylmethoxylaniline (IV). Diazotation of (IV) with NaNO2 and HCl in water affords a solution of the corresponding diazonium chloride (V), which is condensed with methyl acrylate (VI) by means of Cu2O affording methyl 2-chloro-3-[4-(1-methylcyclohexylmethoxyl)phenyl]propionate (VII). The cyclization of (VII) with thiourea (VIII) by means of sodium acetate in hot 2-methoxyethanol gives 2-imino-5-[4-(1-methylcyclohexylmethoxy)benzyl]thiazolidin-4-one (IX), which is finally hydrolyzed with HCl in refluxing 2-methoxyethanol – water.

Syn

Chem Pharm Bull 1982,30(10),3580

The reaction of 1-methylcyclohexylmethanol (II) with 4-chloronitrobenzene (III) by means of NaH in hot DMSO gives 4-(1-methylcyclohexylmethoxylnitrobenzene (III), which is reduced with H2 over Pd/C in methanol yielding 4-(1-methylcyclohexylmethoxylaniline (IV). Diazotation of (IV) with NaNO2 and HCl in water affords a solution of the corresponding diazonium chloride (V), which is condensed with methyl acrylate (VI) by means of Cu2O affording methyl 2-chloro-3-[4-(1-methylcyclohexylmethoxyl)phenyl]propionate (VII). The cyclization of (VII) with thiourea (VIII) by means of sodium acetate in hot 2-methoxyethanol gives 2-imino-5-[4-(1-methylcyclohexylmethoxy)benzyl]thiazolidin-4-one (IX), which is finally hydrolyzed with HCl in refluxing 2-methoxyethanol – water.

By cyclization of (VIII) with methyl 2-(methanesulfonyloxy)-3-[4-(1-methylcyclohexylmethoxy)phenyl]propionate (X) by means of sodium acetate in hot 2-methoxyethanol, followed by hydrolysis with HCl in ethanol water.

paper

Vijay Kumar Sharma , Anup Barde & Sunita Rattan (2020): A short review on synthetic strategies toward glitazone drugs, Synthetic Communications, DOI: 10.1080/00397911.2020.1821223

Experimental process for synthesis of ciglitazone is fairly robust, albeit pyrophorophic NaH as base is utilized for synthesis of 15.

Scheme 4. Reagents and conditions for the preparation of (R)-ciglitazone 24 (a) (S)-1-phenylethan-1- amine 19 (0.9 mol. equiv.), EtOH, RT, 4 h; (b) 1 N HCl (2 vol.), diethyl ether, RT, 10 min; (c) CH2N2 in diethyl ether (ca. 3% w/w), diethyl ether, 0 C-RT, 30 min; (d) KSCN (1.5 mol. equiv.), DMSO, 90 C, 2 h; (e) 2 N HCl (10 vol.), and EtOH, reflux 4 h.

Chiral synthesis Racemic-ciglitazone 17 was resolved with optically active a-methylbenzylamine (PEA) 19 through asymmetric transformation of optical lability at the C-5 position of TZD ring. 2-chloro-3-(4-((1-methylcyclohexyl)methoxy)phenyl)propanoic acid 18 was resolved using (S)-()-1-Phenylethylamine 19 to isolate (S)-2-chloro-3-(4-((1- methylcyclohexyl) methoxy)phenyl)propanoicacid 21. Esterification followed by substitution with KSCN provided methyl (R)-3-(4-((1-methylcyclohexyl)methoxy)phenyl)-2- thiocyanatopropan-oate 23 which was then hydrolyzed to isolate (R)-ciglitazone 24. Similarly, S-isomer was also isolated with (R)-(þ)-1-phenylethylamine (Scheme 4).

[30]Sohda, T.; Mizuno, K.; Kawamatsu, Y. Studies on Antidiabetic Agents. VI. Asymmetric Transformation of (þ/-)-5-[4-(1-Methylcyclohexylmethoxy)Benzyl]-2,4- Thiazolidinedione (Ciglitazone) with Optically Active 1-Phenylethylamines. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 1984, 32, 4460–4465. DOI: 10.1248/cpb.32.4460.

References

  1. ^ Pershadsingh HA, Szollosi J, Benson S, Hyun WC, Feuerstein BG, Kurtz TW (June 1993). “Effects of ciglitazone on blood pressure and intracellular calcium metabolism”Hypertension21 (6 Pt 2): 1020–3. doi:10.1161/01.hyp.21.6.1020PMID 8505086.
  2. Jump up to:a b Hulin B, McCarthy PA, Gibbs EM (1996). “The glitazone family of antidiabetic agents”Current Pharmaceutical Design2: 85–102.
  3. ^ Imoto H, Imamiya E, Momose Y, Sugiyama Y, Kimura H, Sohda T (October 2002). “Studies on non-thiazolidinedione antidiabetic agents. 1. Discovery of novel oxyiminoacetic acid derivatives”Chem. Pharm. Bull50 (10): 1349–57. doi:10.1248/cpb.50.1349PMID 12372861.
  4. ^ Sohda T, Kawamatsu Y, Fujita T, Meguro K, Ikeda H (November 2002). “[Discovery and development of a new insulin sensitizing agent, pioglitazone]”Yakugaku Zasshi (in Japanese). 122 (11): 909–18. doi:10.1248/yakushi.122.909PMID 12440149.
  5. ^ Shah DK, Menon KM, Cabrera LM, Vahratian A, Kavoussi SK, Lebovic DI (April 2010). “Thiazolidinediones decrease vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production by human luteinized granulosa cells in vitro”Fertil. Steril93 (6): 2042–7. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2009.02.059PMC 2847675PMID 19342033.
  6. ^ Willson, T.M.; Cobb, J.E.; Cowan, D.J.; et al. (1996). “The structure-activity relationship between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonism and the antihyperglycemic activity of thiazolidinediones”. J Med Chem39 (3): 665–668. doi:10.1021/jm950395aPMID 8576907.
  7. ^ Xin, X.; et al. (1999). “Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma ligands are potent inhibitors of angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo;”J. Biol. Chem274 (13): 9116–21. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.13.9116PMID 10085162.
Clinical data
ATC codenone
Identifiers
IUPAC name[show]
CAS Number74772-77-3 
PubChem CID2750
IUPHAR/BPS2711
DrugBankDB09201 
ChemSpider2648 
UNIIU8QXS1WU8G
KEGGD03493 
ChEMBLChEMBL7002 
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)DTXSID0040757 
ECHA InfoCard100.220.474 
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC18H23NO3S
Molar mass333.45 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)Interactive image
SMILES[hide]O=C1NC(=O)SC1Cc3ccc(OCC2(C)CCCCC2)cc3
InChI[hide]InChI=1S/C18H23NO3S/c1-18(9-3-2-4-10-18)12-22-14-7-5-13(6-8-14)11-15-16(20)19-17(21)23-15/h5-8,15H,2-4,9-12H2,1H3,(H,19,20,21) Key:YZFWTZACSRHJQD-UHFFFAOYSA-N 

/////////ciglitazone, U 63287, ADD 3878, DIABETES

GLUCAGON


glucagon

EMA……Ogluo (glucagon), a hybrid medicine for the treatment of severe hypoglycaemia in diabetes mellitus. Hybrid applications rely in part on the results of pre-clinical tests and clinical trials of an already authorised reference product and in part on new data.

On 10 December 2020, the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) adopted a positive opinion, recommending the granting of a marketing authorisation for the medicinal product Ogluo, intended for the treatment of severe hypoglycaemia in diabetes mellitus. The applicant for this medicinal product is Xeris Pharmaceuticals Ireland Limited.

Ogluo will be available as 0.5 and 1 mg solution for injection. The active substance of Ogluo is glucagon, a pancreatic hormone (ATC code: H04AA01); glucagon increases blood glucose concentration by stimulating glycogen breakdown and release of glucose from the liver.

The benefits with Ogluo are its ability to restore blood glucose levels in hypoglycaemic subjects. The most common side effects are nausea and vomiting.

Ogluo is a hybrid medicine1 of GlucaGen/GlucaGen Hypokit; GlucaGen has been authorised in the EU since October 1962. Ogluo contains the same active substance as GlucaGen but is available as a ready-to-use formulation intended for subcutaneous injection.

The full indication is:

Ogluo is indicated for the treatment of severe hypoglycaemia in adults, adolescents, and children aged 2 years and over with diabetes mellitus.

Detailed recommendations for the use of this product will be described in the summary of product characteristics (SmPC), which will be published in the European public assessment report (EPAR) and made available in all official European Union languages after the marketing authorisation has been granted by the European Commission.


1 Hybrid applications rely in part on the results of pre-clinical tests and clinical trials for a reference product and in part on new data.

Glucagon is a peptide hormone, produced by alpha cells of the pancreas. It works to raise the concentration of glucose and fatty acids in the bloodstream, and is considered to be the main catabolic hormone of the body.[3] It is also used as a medication to treat a number of health conditions. Its effect is opposite to that of insulin, which lowers extracellular glucose.[4] It is produced from proglucagon, encoded by the GCG gene.

The pancreas releases glucagon when the amount of glucose in the bloodstream is too low. Glucagon causes the liver to engage in glycogenolysis: converting stored glycogen into glucose, which is released into the bloodstream.[5] High blood-glucose levels, on the other hand, stimulate the release of insulin. Insulin allows glucose to be taken up and used by insulin-dependent tissues. Thus, glucagon and insulin are part of a feedback system that keeps blood glucose levels stable. Glucagon increases energy expenditure and is elevated under conditions of stress.[6] Glucagon belongs to the secretin family of hormones.

Function

Glucagon generally elevates the concentration of glucose in the blood by promoting gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis.[7] Glucagon also decreases fatty acid synthesis in adipose tissue and the liver, as well as promoting lipolysis in these tissues, which causes them to release fatty acids into circulation where they can be catabolised to generate energy in tissues such as skeletal muscle when required.[8]

Glucose is stored in the liver in the form of the polysaccharide glycogen, which is a glucan (a polymer made up of glucose molecules). Liver cells (hepatocytes) have glucagon receptors. When glucagon binds to the glucagon receptors, the liver cells convert the glycogen into individual glucose molecules and release them into the bloodstream, in a process known as glycogenolysis. As these stores become depleted, glucagon then encourages the liver and kidney to synthesize additional glucose by gluconeogenesis. Glucagon turns off glycolysis in the liver, causing glycolytic intermediates to be shuttled to gluconeogenesis.

Glucagon also regulates the rate of glucose production through lipolysis. Glucagon induces lipolysis in humans under conditions of insulin suppression (such as diabetes mellitus type 1).[9]

Glucagon production appears to be dependent on the central nervous system through pathways yet to be defined. In invertebrate animals, eyestalk removal has been reported to affect glucagon production. Excising the eyestalk in young crayfish produces glucagon-induced hyperglycemia.[10]

Mechanism of action

 Metabolic regulation of glycogen by glucagon.

Glucagon binds to the glucagon receptor, a G protein-coupled receptor, located in the plasma membrane of the cell. The conformation change in the receptor activates G proteins, a heterotrimeric protein with α, β, and γ subunits. When the G protein interacts with the receptor, it undergoes a conformational change that results in the replacement of the GDP molecule that was bound to the α subunit with a GTP molecule. This substitution results in the releasing of the α subunit from the β and γ subunits. The alpha subunit specifically activates the next enzyme in the cascade, adenylate cyclase.

Adenylate cyclase manufactures cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP or cAMP), which activates protein kinase A (cAMP-dependent protein kinase). This enzyme, in turn, activates phosphorylase kinase, which then phosphorylates glycogen phosphorylase b (PYG b), converting it into the active form called phosphorylase a (PYG a). Phosphorylase a is the enzyme responsible for the release of glucose 1-phosphate from glycogen polymers. An example of the pathway would be when glucagon binds to a transmembrane protein. The transmembrane proteins interacts with Gɑβ𝛾. Gɑ separates from Gβ𝛾 and interacts with the transmembrane protein adenylyl cyclase. Adenylyl cyclase catalyzes the conversion of ATP to cAMP. cAMP binds to protein kinase A, and the complex phosphorylates phosphorylase kinase.[11] Phosphorylated phosphorylase kinase phosphorylates phosphorylase. Phosphorylated phosphorylase clips glucose units from glycogen as glucose 1-phosphate. Additionally, the coordinated control of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis in the liver is adjusted by the phosphorylation state of the enzymes that catalyze the formation of a potent activator of glycolysis called fructose 2,6-bisphosphate.[12] The enzyme protein kinase A (PKA) that was stimulated by the cascade initiated by glucagon will also phosphorylate a single serine residue of the bifunctional polypeptide chain containing both the enzymes fructose 2,6-bisphosphatase and phosphofructokinase-2. This covalent phosphorylation initiated by glucagon activates the former and inhibits the latter. This regulates the reaction catalyzing fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (a potent activator of phosphofructokinase-1, the enzyme that is the primary regulatory step of glycolysis)[13] by slowing the rate of its formation, thereby inhibiting the flux of the glycolysis pathway and allowing gluconeogenesis to predominate. This process is reversible in the absence of glucagon (and thus, the presence of insulin).

Glucagon stimulation of PKA also inactivates the glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase in hepatocytes.[14]

Physiology

Production

 A microscopic image stained for glucagon

The hormone is synthesized and secreted from alpha cells (α-cells) of the islets of Langerhans, which are located in the endocrine portion of the pancreas. Production, which is otherwise freerunning, is suppressed/regulated by amylin, a peptide hormone co-secreted with insulin from the pancreatic β cells.[15] As plasma glucose levels recede, the subsequent reduction in amylin secretion alleviates its suppression of the α cells, allowing for glucagon secretion.

In rodents, the alpha cells are located in the outer rim of the islet. Human islet structure is much less segregated, and alpha cells are distributed throughout the islet in close proximity to beta cells. Glucagon is also produced by alpha cells in the stomach.[16]

Recent research has demonstrated that glucagon production may also take place outside the pancreas, with the gut being the most likely site of extrapancreatic glucagon synthesis.[17]

Regulation

Secretion of glucagon is stimulated by:

Secretion of glucagon is inhibited by:

Structure

Glucagon is a 29-amino acid polypeptide. Its primary structure in humans is: NH2HisSerGlnGlyThrPheThrSerAspTyrSerLysTyrLeuAspSerArgArgAlaGlnAspPheValGlnTrpLeuMetAsnThrCOOH.

The polypeptide has a molecular mass of 3485 daltons.[25] Glucagon is a peptide (nonsteroid) hormone.

Glucagon is generated from the cleavage of proglucagon by proprotein convertase 2 in pancreatic islet α cells. In intestinal L cellsproglucagon is cleaved to the alternate products glicentin, GLP-1 (an incretin), IP-2, and GLP-2 (promotes intestinal growth).[26]

Pathology

Abnormally elevated levels of glucagon may be caused by pancreatic tumors, such as glucagonoma, symptoms of which include necrolytic migratory erythema,[27] reduced amino acids, and hyperglycemia. It may occur alone or in the context of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1[28]

Elevated glucagon is the main contributor to hyperglycemic ketoacidosis in undiagnosed or poorly treated type 1 diabetes. As the beta cells cease to function, insulin and pancreatic GABA are no longer present to suppress the freerunning output of glucagon. As a result, glucagon is released from the alpha cells at a maximum, causing rapid breakdown of glycogen to glucose and fast ketogenesis.[29] It was found that a subset of adults with type 1 diabetes took 4 times longer on average to approach ketoacidosis when given somatostatin (inhibits glucagon production) with no insulin. Inhibiting glucagon has been a popular idea of diabetes treatment, however some have warned that doing so will give rise to brittle diabetes in patients with adequately stable blood glucose.[citation needed]

The absence of alpha cells (and hence glucagon) is thought to be one of the main influences in the extreme volatility of blood glucose in the setting of a total pancreatectomy.

History

In the 1920s, Kimball and Murlin studied pancreatic extracts, and found an additional substance with hyperglycemic properties. They described glucagon in 1923.[30] The amino acid sequence of glucagon was described in the late 1950s.[31] A more complete understanding of its role in physiology and disease was not established until the 1970s, when a specific radioimmunoassay was developed.[citation needed]

Etymology

Kimball and Murlin coined the term glucagon in 1923 when they initially named the substance the glucose agonist.[32]

References

  1. Jump up to:a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000115263 – Ensembl, May 2017
  2. ^ “Human PubMed Reference:”National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  3. ^ Voet D, Voet JG (2011). Biochemistry (4th ed.). New York: Wiley.
  4. ^ Reece J, Campbell N (2002). Biology. San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings. ISBN 978-0-8053-6624-2.
  5. ^ Orsay J (2014). Biology 1: Molecules. Examkrackers Inc. p. 77. ISBN 978-1-893858-70-1.
  6. ^ Jones BJ, Tan T, Bloom SR (March 2012). “Minireview: Glucagon in stress and energy homeostasis”Endocrinology153 (3): 1049–54. doi:10.1210/en.2011-1979PMC 3281544PMID 22294753.
  7. ^ Voet D, Voet JG (2011). Biochemistry (4th ed.). New York: Wiley.
  8. ^ HABEGGER, K. M., HEPPNER, K. M., GEARY, N., BARTNESS, T. J., DIMARCHI, R. & TSCHÖP, M. H. (2010). “The metabolic actions of glucagon revisited”Nature Reviews. Endocrinology6 (12): 689–697. doi:10.1038/nrendo.2010.187PMC 3563428PMID 20957001.
  9. ^ Liljenquist JE, Bomboy JD, Lewis SB, Sinclair-Smith BC, Felts PW, Lacy WW, Crofford OB, Liddle GW (January 1974). “Effects of glucagon on lipolysis and ketogenesis in normal and diabetic men”The Journal of Clinical Investigation53 (1): 190–7. doi:10.1172/JCI107537PMC 301453PMID 4808635.
  10. ^ Leinen RL, Giannini AJ (1983). “Effect of eyestalk removal on glucagon induced hyperglycemia in crayfish”. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts9: 604.
  11. ^ Yu Q, Shuai H, Ahooghalandari P, Gylfe E, Tengholm A (July 2019). “Glucose controls glucagon secretion by directly modulating cAMP in alpha cells”Diabetologia62 (7): 1212–1224. doi:10.1007/s00125-019-4857-6PMC 6560012PMID 30953108.
  12. ^ Hue L, Rider MH (July 1987). “Role of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate in the control of glycolysis in mammalian tissues”The Biochemical Journal245 (2): 313–24. doi:10.1042/bj2450313PMC 1148124PMID 2822019.
  13. ^ Claus TH, El-Maghrabi MR, Regen DM, Stewart HB, McGrane M, Kountz PD, Nyfeler F, Pilkis J, Pilkis SJ (1984). “The role of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism”. Current Topics in Cellular Regulation23: 57–86. doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-152823-2.50006-4ISBN 9780121528232PMID 6327193.
  14. ^ Feliú JE, Hue L, Hers HG (August 1976). “Hormonal control of pyruvate kinase activity and of gluconeogenesis in isolated hepatocytes”Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America73 (8): 2762–6. Bibcode:1976PNAS…73.2762Fdoi:10.1073/pnas.73.8.2762PMC 430732PMID 183209.
  15. ^ Zhang, Xiao-Xi (2016). “Neuroendocrine Hormone Amylin in Diabetes”World J Diabetes7 (9): 189–197. doi:10.4239/wjd.v7.i9.189PMC 4856891PMID 27162583.
  16. ^ Unger RH, Cherrington AD (January 2012). “Glucagonocentric restructuring of diabetes: a pathophysiologic and therapeutic makeover”The Journal of Clinical Investigation122(1): 4–12. doi:10.1172/JCI60016PMC 3248306PMID 22214853.
  17. ^ Holst JJ, Holland W, Gromada J, Lee Y, Unger RH, Yan H, Sloop KW, Kieffer TJ, Damond N, Herrera PL (April 2017). “Insulin and Glucagon: Partners for Life”Endocrinology158(4): 696–701. doi:10.1210/en.2016-1748PMC 6061217PMID 28323959.
  18. ^ Layden BT, Durai V, Lowe WL (2010). “G-Protein-Coupled Receptors, Pancreatic Islets, and Diabetes”Nature Education3 (9): 13.
  19. ^ Skoglund G, Lundquist I, Ahrén B (November 1987). “Alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenoceptor activation increases plasma glucagon levels in the mouse”. European Journal of Pharmacology143 (1): 83–8. doi:10.1016/0014-2999(87)90737-0PMID 2891547.
  20. ^ Honey RN, Weir GC (October 1980). “Acetylcholine stimulates insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin release in the perfused chicken pancreas”. Endocrinology107 (4): 1065–8. doi:10.1210/endo-107-4-1065PMID 6105951.
  21. ^ Zhang, Xiao-Xi (2016). “Neuroendocrine Hormone Amylin in Diabetes”World J Diabetes7 (9): 189–197. doi:10.4239/wjd.v7.i9.189PMC 4856891PMID 27162583.
  22. ^ Xu E, Kumar M, Zhang Y, Ju W, Obata T, Zhang N, Liu S, Wendt A, Deng S, Ebina Y, Wheeler MB, Braun M, Wang Q (January 2006). “Intra-islet insulin suppresses glucagon release via GABA-GABAA receptor system”. Cell Metabolism3 (1): 47–58. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2005.11.015PMID 16399504.
  23. ^ Krätzner R, Fröhlich F, Lepler K, Schröder M, Röher K, Dickel C, Tzvetkov MV, Quentin T, Oetjen E, Knepel W (February 2008). “A peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-retinoid X receptor heterodimer physically interacts with the transcriptional activator PAX6 to inhibit glucagon gene transcription”. Molecular Pharmacology73 (2): 509–17. doi:10.1124/mol.107.035568PMID 17962386S2CID 10108970.
  24. ^ Johnson LR (2003). Essential Medical Physiology. Academic Press. pp. 643–. ISBN 978-0-12-387584-6.
  25. ^ Unger RH, Orci L (June 1981). “Glucagon and the A cell: physiology and pathophysiology (first two parts)”. The New England Journal of Medicine304 (25): 1518–24. doi:10.1056/NEJM198106183042504PMID 7015132.
  26. ^ Orskov C, Holst JJ, Poulsen SS, Kirkegaard P (November 1987). “Pancreatic and intestinal processing of proglucagon in man”. Diabetologia30 (11): 874–81. doi:10.1007/BF00274797 (inactive 2020-10-11). PMID 3446554.
  27. ^ John AM, Schwartz RA (December 2016). “Glucagonoma syndrome: a review and update on treatment”. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology30 (12): 2016–2022. doi:10.1111/jdv.13752PMID 27422767S2CID 1228654.
  28. ^ Oberg K (December 2010). “Pancreatic endocrine tumors”. Seminars in Oncology37 (6): 594–618. doi:10.1053/j.seminoncol.2010.10.014PMID 21167379.
  29. ^ Fasanmade OA, Odeniyi IA, Ogbera AO (June 2008). “Diabetic ketoacidosis: diagnosis and management”. African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences37 (2): 99–105. PMID 18939392.
  30. ^ Kimball C, Murlin J (1923). “Aqueous extracts of pancreas III. Some precipitation reactions of insulin”J. Biol. Chem58 (1): 337–348.
  31. ^ Bromer W, Winn L, Behrens O (1957). “The amino acid sequence of glucagon V. Location of amide groups, acid degradation studies and summary of sequential evidence”. J. Am. Chem. Soc79 (11): 2807–2810. doi:10.1021/ja01568a038.
  32. ^ “History of glucagon – Metabolism, insulin and other hormones – Diapedia, The Living Textbook of Diabetes”http://www.diapedia.org. Archived from the original on 2017-03-27. Retrieved 2017-03-26.

External links

  • PDBe-KB provides an overview of all the structure information available in the PDB for Human Glucagon
GCG
 
Available structuresPDBHuman UniProt search: PDBe RCSBshowList of PDB id codes
Identifiers
AliasesGCG, GLP1, glucagon, GRPP, GLP-1, GLP2
External IDsOMIM: 138030 HomoloGene: 136497 GeneCards: GCG
hideGene location (Human)Chr.Chromosome 2 (human)[1]Band2q24.2Start162,142,882 bp[1]End162,152,404 bp[1]
hideRNA expression patternMore reference expression data
showGene ontology
Orthologs
SpeciesHumanMouse
Entrez 2641 n/a
Ensembl ENSG00000115263 n/a
UniProt P01275 n/a
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_002054 n/a
RefSeq (protein) NP_002045 n/a
Location (UCSC)Chr 2: 162.14 – 162.15 Mbn/a
PubMed search[2]n/a
Wikidata
View/Edit Human

///////////GLUCAGON, DIABETES, PEPTIDE, HORMONE

VILDAGLIPTIN


Skeletal formula
ChemSpider 2D Image | Vildagliptin | C17H25N3O2

VILDAGLIPTIN

  • Molecular FormulaC17H25N3O2
  • Average mass303.399 Da
  • (2S)-1-{2-[(3-hydroxyadamantan-1-yl)amino]acetyl}pyrrolidine-2-carbonitrile

(2S)-1-[N-(3-Hydroxyadamantan-1-yl)glycyl]pyrrolidine-2-carbonitrile(2S)-1-[N-(3-hydroxytricyclo[3.3.1.13,7]dec-1-yl)glycyl]pyrrolidine-2-carbonitrile274901-16-5[RN]2-Pyrrolidinecarbonitrile, 1-[2-[(3-hydroxytricyclo[3.3.1.13,7]dec-1-yl)amino]acetyl]-, (2S)-(-)-(2S)-1-[[(3-Hydroxytricyclo[3.3.1.1[3,7]]dec-1-yl)amino]acetyl]pyrrolidine-2-carbonitrile
(2S)-1-[N-(3-Hydroxyadamantan-1-yl)glycyl]-2-pyrrolidinecarbonitrile

Vildagliptin was approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) on Sep 26, 2007, and approved by Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency of Japan (PMDA) on Jan 20, 2010, following by China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) on Aug 15, 2011. It was developed and marketed as Galvus® by Novartis in EU.

Vildagliptin is a potent selective inhibitor of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) that improves glycaemic control by increasing islet α-cell and β-cell responsiveness to glucose. It is used to reduce hyperglycemia in type 2 diabete.

Galvus®is available as film-coated tablet for oral use, containing 50 mg free Vildagliptin. The recommended dose of vildagliptin is 100 mg, administered as one dose of 50 mg in the morning and one dose of 50 mg in the evening.Drug Name:VildagliptinResearch Code:LAF-237; DSP-7238; NVP-LAF-237Trade Name:Galvus® / Jalra® / Xiliarx® / Equa®MOA:Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitorIndication:Type 2 diabetesStatus:ApprovedCompany:Novartis (Originator)Sales:$1,140 Million (Y2015); 
$1,224 Million (Y2014);
$1,200 Million (Y2013);
$910 Million (Y2012);
$677 Million (Y2011);ATC Code:A10BH02

Approved Countries or AreaUpdate Date:2015-07-29

Approval DateApproval TypeTrade NameIndicationDosage FormStrengthCompanyReview Classification
2008-11-19Marketing approvalXiliarxType 2 diabetesTablet50 mgNovartis 
2008-11-19Marketing approvalJalraType 2 diabetesTablet50 mgNovartis 
2007-09-26Marketing approvalGalvusType 2 diabetesTablet, Film coated50 mgNovartis 

More

Approval DateApproval TypeTrade NameIndicationDosage FormStrengthCompanyReview Classification
2010-01-20Marketing approvalEquaType 2 diabetesTablet50 mgNovartis 

More

Approval DateApproval TypeTrade NameIndicationDosage FormStrengthCompanyReview Classification
2011-08-15Marketing approval佳维乐/GalvusType 2 diabetesTablet50 mgNovartis 
2011-08-15Marketing approval佳维乐/GalvusType 2 diabetesTablet50 mgNovartis

Vildagliptin, previously identified as LAF237, is a new oral anti-hyperglycemic agent (anti-diabetic drug) of the new dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor class of drugs. Vidagliptin subsequently acts by inhibiting the inactivation of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) by DPP-4. This inhibitory activity ultimately results in a two-fold action where GLP-1 and GIP are present to potentiate the secretion of insulin by beta cells and suppress glucagon secretion by alpha cells in the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. It is currently in clinical trials in the U.S. and has been shown to reduce hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus. While the drug is still not approved for use in the US, it was approved in Feb 2008 by European Medicines Agency for use within the EU and is listed on the Australian PBS with certain restrictions.

Vildagliptin, sold under the brand name Galvus among others, is an oral anti-hyperglycemic agent (anti-diabetic drug) of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor class of drugs. Vildagliptin inhibits the inactivation of GLP-1[2][3] and GIP[3] by DPP-4, allowing GLP-1 and GIP to potentiate the secretion of insulin in the beta cells and suppress glucagon release by the alpha cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas.

Vildagliptin has been shown to reduce hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus.[2]

Combination with metformin

The European Medicines Agency has also approved a combination of vildagliptin and metforminvildagliptin/metformin (Eucreas by Novartis) as an oral treatment for type-2 diabetes.[4]

Adverse effects

Adverse effects observed in clinical trials include nausea, hypoglycemia, tremor, headache and dizziness. Rare cases of hepatoxicity have been reported.[5]

There have been case reports of pancreatitis associated with DPP-4 inhibitors. A group at UCLA reported increased pre-cancerous pancreatic changes in rats and in human organ donors who had been treated with DPP-4 inhibitors.[6][7] In response to these reports, the United States FDA and the European Medicines Agency each undertook independent reviews of all clinical and preclinical data related to the possible association of DPP-4 inhibitors with pancreatic cancer. In a joint letter to the New England Journal of Medicines, the agencies stated that “Both agencies agree that assertions concerning a causal association between incretin-based drugs and pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer, as expressed recently in the scientific literature and in the media, are inconsistent with the current data. The FDA and the EMA have not reached a final conclusion at this time regarding such a causal relationship. Although the totality of the data that have been reviewed provides reassurance, pancreatitis will continue to be considered a risk associated with these drugs until more data are available; both agencies continue to investigate this safety signal.”[8]

PATENT

https://patents.google.com/patent/US20080167479A1/en

  • Vildagliptin is an active pharmaceutical substance with an empirical formula of C17H25N3Oand a molecular weight of 303.40 g/mol. Vildagliptin is the international common accepted name for (2S)-1-[[(3-hydroxytricyclo[3.3.1.13,7]dec-1-yl)amino]acetyl]-2-pyrrolidine carbonitrile and has the structure of formula (I).
  • [0003]Vildagliptin is a dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitor and is disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,166,063 (“the ‘063 patent”), the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference. The ‘063 patent discloses a synthesis of vildagliptin using the synthetic process represented in Scheme 1.
  • [0004]Vildagliptin can exist as the (2S) and (2R) enantiomers. The stereoisomer with the desired biological activity is the (2S) enantiomer. Accordingly, it is desirable to synthesize (2S)-vildagliptin with high stereochemical purity. A process that yields vildagliptin with a high enantiomeric purity is disclosed in International Patent Publication WO 2004/092127, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference. This reference discloses compositions containing from 95% to 99.99% of (2S)-vildagliptin.
  • [0069]This example illustrates the synthesis of the compound of formula (I) in accordance with embodiments of the invention.
  • [0070]Into a 100 mL rounded reaction vessel were charged 3 g (17.37 mmol) of 1-chloroacetyl-2-cyanopyrrolidine, 3.22 g (19.82 mmol) of 1-amino-3-adamantanol, 2.78 g (20.1 mmol) of potassium carbonate, and 30 mL isopropyl acetate. The mixture was refluxed for 4 h, cooled to room temperature, and the salts were filtered and washed with acetonitrile. The mother liquors were evaporated to dryness to obtain an oil which was aged in MEK from which a white solid crystallizes at 0-5° C. The solid was filtered washing the cake with MEK and dried at 40° C. in a vacuum oven until constant weight.
  • [0071]Yield: 36%. Assay: 99.21%. HPLC purity: 97.55% of vildagliptin (measured according to Example 2). HPLC chiral purity: more than 99.99% of vildagliptin (measured according to Example 7).
  • [0072]These results demonstrate that a compound of formula (I) comprising less than 0.01% of (2R)-1-[N-(3-hydroxytricyclo[3.3.1.13,7]dec-1-yl)glycyl]-2-pyrrolidinecarbonitrile (i.e., (2R)-vildagliptin).

Patent

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2015145467A1/en

Vildagliptin is chemically known as (S)-l-[2-(3-Hydroxyadamantan-l-ylamino) acetyl] pyrrolidine-2-carbonitrile and exist as (2S) and (2R) enantiomers. The stereoisomer with the desired biological activity is the (2S) enantiomer, represented by the following structure:

Figure imgf000002_0001

U.S. Patent No. 6,166,063 (“the Ό63 patent”) discloses new class of Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors such as vildagliptin. The ‘063 patent further discloses a process for the preparation of vildagliptin by acylation of L-prolinamide with chloroacetyl chloride in the presence of a base in dichloromethane or tetrahydrofuran as solvent, filtration and subsequent dehydration with trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA) to provide (S) -1- (2- chloroacetyl) pyrrolidin-2-carbonitrile. The carbonitrile intermediate is isolated by distilling out the solvent, co-distillation with ethyl acetate, partitioning between water and ethyl acetate, extraction of the resulting aqueous layer with ethyl acetate followed by aqueous washings of the organic layer and concentrating to obtain carbonitrile intermediate as yellow solid. This is later reacted with about 2 moles of l-aminoadamantane-3-ol in the presence of about 4 moles of potassium carbonate in dichloromethane (DCM) or tetrahydrofuran (THF) for 6 days. Finally, the obtained crude vildagliptin is subjected to chromatography employing SIMS/Biotage Flash chromatography system providing vildagliptin with melting point of 138°C-140°C. The disclosed process is schematically represented as follows:

Figure imgf000003_0001

Amide Carbonitrile

A similar process is described in J. Med. Chem. 2003, 46, 2774-2789, where acylation of L-prolinamide with chloroacetyl chloride is carried out in the presence of potassium carbonate in tetrahydrofuran as solvent and subsequent dehydration with TFAA to provide (S) -1- (2-chloroacetyl) pyrrolidin-2 -carbonitrile. The carbonitrile intermediate was isolated by adding ethyl acetate, distillation of the solvent, partitioning between water and aqueous sodium bicarbonate, extraction of the resulting aqueous layer with ethyl acetate followed by aqueous washings of the organic layer and concentrating to obtain carbonitrile intermediate as yellow- white solid which was reacted with about 2-3 moles of 1- aminoadamantane-3-ol in the presence of about 3 moles of potassium carbonate in DCM or THF for 1-3 days followed by purification from a mixture of ethyl acetate and isopropanol provided Vildagliptin as a white solid.

U.S. Patent No. 6,011,155 discloses a process for the preparation of (S) -1- (2- bromooacetyl) pyrrolidin-2-carbonitrile by acylation of L-prolinamide with bromoacetyl bromide in the presence of triethyl amine and catalytic amount of DMAP in DCM as solvent wherein the resulting (S)-l -(2 -bromoacetyl) pyrrolidin-2-carboxamide is isolated and subsequently dehydrated with TFAA to obtain the carbonitrile intermediate as dark yellow solid.

U.S. Patent application No. 2008/0167479 discloses preparation of Vildagliptin with high chemical and enantiomeric purities wherein (S) -1- (2-chloroacetyl) pyrrolidin-2- carbonitrile is prepared in one step process by acylation of prolinamide with chloroacetyl chloride in a mixture of isopropyl acetate and DMF followed by dehydration with cyanuric chloride to obtain the carbonitrile intermediate as an oil which was crystallized from isopropanol. The resulting carbonitrile intermediate is reacted with l-aminoadamantane-3- ol in the presence of alkali metal carbonates such as potassium carbonate and an optional additive such as I in a solvent comprising at least an ester or ether or nitrile solvent and purification of vildagliptin from methyl ethyl ketone or from a mixture of isopropanol and methyl t-butyl ether.

PCT Publication No. 2010/022690 discloses a process for the preparation of vildagliptin wherein (S)-l -(2-chloroacetyl) pyrrolidin-2-carboxamide intermediate is isolated as a trialkylamine hydrohalide salt in two fractions and. dehydrated with TFAA to obtain (S)-l- (2-chloroacetyl) pyrrolidin-2-carbonitrile as light yellow powder after crystallization from heptane. The resulting carbonitrile intermediate is then reacted with 3-amino-l- adamantanol in the presence of alkali metal carbonate base and an alkali metal iodide as a catalyst in a mixture of organic ketones, ester and polar aprotic solvents. The crude product was subjected to multiple crystallizations in order to achieve high chemical purity of vildagliptin. This publication also disclosed final crystallization of vildagliptin from 2- butanone, toluene, 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran, isopropyl acetate, dimethyl carbonate, isopropanol. This process adds an extra step of isolation of the said carboxamide intermediate, uses mixture of solvents in the preparation of vildagliptin and to multiple crystallizations which makes the process uneconomical on large scale.

PCT Publication No. 2011/101861 discloses a process for the preparation of vildagliptin wherein (S)-l-(2-chloroacetyl) pyrrolidin-2-carboxamide and (S)-l-(2-chloroacetyl) pyrrolidin-2-carbonitrile intermediates are isolated as solids after purification and drying. Further, (S)-l-(2-chloroacetyl) pyrrolidin-2-carbonitrile is then converted to vildagliptin by reacting it with l-aminoadamantane-3-ol in the presence of potassium carbonate and KI in a suitable ether solvent like THF and purifying the obtained vildagliptin from a mixture of ethyl acetate and methanol. This publication also provided an alternate process for the preparation of vildagliptin by reacting 2-(3-hydroxyadamantan-l-yl amino) acid or derivative thereof with pyrrolidine-2-carbonitrile and various solvents from which vildagliptin may be crystallized such as ethyl acetate, 2-butanone, or mixture of ethyl acetate-methanol, ethyl acetate-isopropanol, methanol-DCM, ethyl acetate-cyclohexane and 2-butanone-methyl t-butyl ether.

U.S. Patent No. 7,375,238 discloses a one-pot process for the preparation of vildagliptin without isolation of the carboxamide and carbonitrile intermediates and further involves preparation of Vildagliptin by using potassium carbonate and potassium iodide (KI) as catalysts in 2-butanone solvent. Purification of the crude vildagliptin was carried out from a mixture of isopropanol and methyl t-butyl ether in the presence of 1,8- diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU) base and final recrystallization from 2-butanone afforded pure vildagliptin. This process suffers from certain draw backs such as use of mixture of solvents for the acylation and condensation reactions; use of base and expensive additive such as KI in the condensation reaction.

PCT Publication No. 2011/012322 discloses a process wherein the (S) -1- (2-chloroacetyl) pyrrolidin-2-carbonitrile intermediate is isolated, purified and reacted with 1- aminoadamantane-3-ol in the presence of a phase transfer catalyst, optionally an inorganic base and a solvent selected from nitrile, ketone, ether, ester and mixtures thereof in a two phase reaction system wherein the first phase consist of a liquid phase and the second phase consists of an inorganic base. The final purification of vildagliptin was carried out in 2- butanone solvent.

PCT Publication No. 2013/179300 discloses preparation of vildagliptin from organic solvents such as aromatic hydrocarbons, aliphatic hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, ethers, nitrile, dialkyl formamides, dialkylacetamides, dialkyl sulfoxides in the presence of organic or inorganic base. The resulting crude vildagliptin was purified by acid-base treatment and crystallization from a solvent selected from aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, ketones, esters, nitrile, ether, cyclic ether and alcohol or mixtures thereof.

PCT Publication No. 2012/022994 involves conversion of racemic vildagliptin to (S)- enantiomer via formation of vildagliptin adducts and final purification from ethyl acetate or mixture of ethyl acetate with 1% water.

U.S. Application No. 2006/0210627 discloses crystalline Form A of vildagliptin and its preparation from 2-butanone, isopropanol, acetone or a mixture of isopropanol-ethyl acetate in the presence of DBU base. This publication also discloses amorphous vildagliptin and its preparation by lyophilization from a water solution.

PCT Publication No. 2014/102815 disclosed a process for the preparation of vildagliptin by isolating the carboxamide and carbonitrile intermediates after crystallization and drying. The resulting carbonitrile intermediate is reacted with l-aminoadamantane-3-ol in the presence of organic base or inorganic base in nitrile, ester or alcohol solvent.

IN 3965 MUM/2013 publication discloses a process for the preparation of vildagliptin by preparing and crystallizing (S) -1- (2-chloroacetyl) pyrrolidin-2-carbonitrile intermediate and reacting it with l-aminoadamantane-3-ol in the presence of a potassium carbonate, optionally in presence of suitable catalyst such as KI in ketone solvent or in mixture of ketone with non polar solvents.

C.N. publication No. 102617434 discloses a one pot process for the preparation of Vildagliptin by reacting salt of pyrrolidine carbonitrile such as TFA salt with haloacetyl halide in the presence of a base followed by insiru reaction with l-aminoadamantane-3-ol in the presence of tertrabutyl ammonium iodide in halogenated hydrocarbon or ether as solvent to get vildagliptin which is further crystallized from ethyl acetate-petroleum ether.

C.N. publication No. 103804267 discloses a process for the preparation of vildagliptin by reacting (S)-l -(2 -haloacetyl) pyrrolidin-2-carbonitrile with l-aminoadamantane-3-ol in a mixed system of an organic solvent and water in the presence of a base and phase transfer catalyst followed by crystallization of the obtained crude vildagliptin.

C.N. publication No. 103787944 disclosed dehydration of-1- (2-chloroacetyl) -2- (S) – pyrrolidine carboxamide in the presence of a dehydrating agent and an acid-binding agent in an organic solvent followed by crystallization from mixture of isopropyl ether and ethyl acetate to provide l-(2-chloroacetyl)-2-(S)-pyrrolidine carbonitrile as white or pale yellow solid powder.

Furthermore, several techniques are known in the art for the purification of vildagliptin such as chromatography (US 6,166,063); or acid-base purification (IN 61 /MUM/2012 publication) or via formation of inorganic salt complexes (WO 2011/042765); or by solvent crystallizations such as mixture of ethyl acetate and isopropanol (J. Med. Chem. 2003, 46, 2774-2789); isopropanol and MTBE in the presence of DBU base and final recrystallization from 2-butanone (US 7,375,238); methyl ethyl ketone or from a mixture of isopropanol and MTBE (US 2008/0167479); acetone, 2-butanone, cyclohexanone, ethyl acetate, isopropyl acetate or dimethyl carbonate (IN 61 /MUM/2012 publication); 2- butanone (WO 2011/012322); aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, ketones, esters, nitrile, ether, cyclic ether and alcohol or mixtures thereof (WO 2013/179300); or from ethyl acetate or mixture of ethyl acetate with 1% water (WO 2012/022994).

Most of the processes known in the art for synthesizing vildagliptin are associated with one or more of the following disadvantages:

a) use of toxic TFAA for dehydration which is costly and environmentally harmful, b) lengthy and time consuming condensation process,

c) conventional solvents used in the condensation stage are costly, volatile, flammable, toxic, causing adverse health effects, in, addition to this potentially unsafe peroxide forming solvents such as THF were used, which process is more costlier than the process not having such elements,

d) purification of vildagliptin by chromatographic purification or by formation of inorganic salt complexes or by multiple crystallizations which are tedious, labor intensive, uses high amounts of solvents, require precise monitoring and time consuming and hence not viable for commercial scale operations.

Therefore, the present invention fulfills the need in the art and provides simple, industrially feasible and scalable processes for the preparation and purification of vildagliptin that circumvent disadvantages associated with the prior art process, proved to be advantageous from environmental and industrial point of view and also fulfill purity criteria. These processes allow the final product to be produced in a higher yield and purity by minimizing number of processing steps and reducing the number of solvent usage which is very practical for scale-up production, especially in terms of operating efficiency.

The new processes has a further advantage in recovering the expensive 1- aminoadamantane-3-ol from the reaction mixture and recycling in a simple manner that avoids use of inorganic salt complexes, which is economical and applicable on an industrial scale.

EXAMPLE 1: Preparation of (2S)- 1 -(Chloroacetyl)-2-pyrrolidinecarbonitrile.

To a solution of L-Prolinamide (100 gms) dissolved in DCM (1000 mL) was added triethyl amine (88.6 gms) and DMAP (1.07 gms) at 25-30°C under N2 atmosphere and stirred for 15 min at 25-30°C. This solution was added to a solution of chloroacetyl chloride (98.9 gms) in DCM (500 mL) under N2 atmosphere at -5 to 0°C over 2-3 hr. Raised the reaction mass temperature to 0-5°C and stirred for lhr. After reaction completion, charged phosphorus oxy chloride (201.5 gms) to the reaction mass at 0-5 °C, heated the reaction mass temperature to reflux and stirred for 6hr at same temperature. After reaction completion, allowed to cool to 10-20°C and added DM water (500 mL). Aqueous layer was separated and the organic layer was washed with DM water. To the organic layer DM water (300 mL) was added at 25-30°C and adjusted the reaction mass pH to 6.5-7.5 with -500 mL of sodium bicarbonate solution (-40 g of NaHC03 dissolved in 500 mL of DM Water). Separated the aqueous layer and concentrated the organic layer under vacuum at temperature of 30-40°C to get residual mass. Charged isopropanol (100 mL) and distilled out solvent completely under vacuum at <50°C. The resulting residue was allowed to cool to 30-40°C and charged isopropanol (500 mL). Heated the reaction mass temperature to 40- 45°C, stirred for 30 min at 40-45°C, allowed to cool to 0-5°C, stirred for 2 hr, filtered and washed wet cake with chilled isopropanol (100 mL), dried at 40-45°C for 6 hr to provide 115 gms of (2S)-l-(CMoroace1yl)-2-pyrrolidinecarbonitrile.

HPLC Purity: 99.86%.

Example 2: Preparation of Vildagliptin

To (2S)-l-(Chloroacetyl)-2 -Pyrrolidine carbonitrile (100 gms) dissolved in DM Water (500 mL), charged l-aminoadamantane-3-ol (242.2 g) at 25-35°C. Heated the reaction mass temperature to 40-45°C and stirred for 8-10 hr at 40-45°C. After reaction completion, allowed to cool to 25-30°C and charged DM water (700 mL) and DCM (600 mL). Separated the organic layer and extracted the aqueous layer with DCM. The total organic layer was concentrated under vacuum at temperature 30-40°C to get residual mass. Ethyl acetate (100 mL) was added to the residual mass and distilled completely under vacuum at <50°C. Charged ethyl acetate (500 mL) and refluxed for 1 hr. Allowed to cool to 25-30°C and stirred for 2 hr. Filtered the reaction mass and washed with ethyl acetate (100 mL) then dried at 50-55°C for 6 hr to provide 130 gms of crude vildagliptin.

HPLC Purity: 99.56%.

Dimer impurity content: <0.32%;

R-isomer content (by chiral HPLC): <0.2%;

l-aminoadamantane-3-ol content (by GC): 0.56%.

EXAMPLE 3: Preparation of Vildagliptin (using K2C03 and KI)

To l-aminoadamantane-3-ol (19.4 g) taken in DM Water (50 mL), added potassium carbonate (8.0 gms), potassium iodide (0.1 gm) and stirred for 15 mins at 25-35°C. (2S)-1- (Chloroacetyl)-2-Pyrrolidine carbonitrile (10 gms) was added at 25-35°C and stirred for 15 mins at 25-35°C. Raised the reaction mass temperature to 40-45°C and stirred for 4 hr at 40-45°C. After reaction completion, cooled to 25-30°C and charged DCM (50 mL). Separated the organic layer and extracted the aqueous layer with DCM. The total organic layer was washed with DM water and the resulting organic layer was concentrated under vacuum at temperature <40°C to get residual mass. Charged ethyl acetate (70 mL) to above residual mass and refluxed for 1 hr. Cooled to 25-30°C and stirred for 2 hr. Filtered the reaction mass and wash wet cake with ethyl acetate (10 mL). Suck dried for 30 min, dried initially at 25-35°C for 1 hr and then at 50-55°C for 6 hr to provide 12 gms of crude vildagliptin.

HPLC Purity: 99.11%

Dimer impurity content: 0.50%; R-isomer content (by chiral HPLC): not detected

1- aminoadamantane-3-ol content (by GC): 2.09%.

EXAMPLE 4; Preparation of Vildagliptin (using K2HP04 buffer and KI)

·

To l-aminoadamantane-3-ol (19.4 g) taken in DM Water (100 mL), added K2HP04 (10.1 gms), potassium iodide (0.1 gm) and stirred for 15 rnins at 25-35°C. (2S)-l-(Chloroacetyl)-

2- Pyrrolidine carbonitrile (10 gms) was added at 25-35°C and stirred for 15 mins at 25- 35°C. Raised the reaction mass temperature to 40-45°C and stirred for 8-10 hr at 40-45°C. After reaction completion, cooled to 25-30°C and filtered the reaction mass to remove salts. The resulting filtrate was extracted with DCM, and the resulting organic layer was concentrated initially by atmospheric distillation and later under vacuum at temperature 30- 40°C to get residual mass. Charged ethyl acetate (50 mL) to above residual mass and refluxed for 1 hr. Cooled to 25-30°C and stirred for 2 hr. Filtered the reaction mass and washed the wet cake with ethyl acetate (10 mL). Suck dried for 30 min, dried initially at 25-35°C for 1 hr and then at 50-55°C for 6 hr to provide 12 gms of crude vildagliptin.

HPLC Purity: 96.54%

Dimer impurity content: 2.55%;

R-isomer content (by chiral HPLC): not detected

l-aminoadamantane-3-ol content (by GC): 0.86%.

Example 5: Purification of Vildagliptin.

Vildagliptin crude (100 gms) was dissolved in isopropanol (900 mL) by heating to 50-55°C and stirred for 30 min. Filtered the reaction mass over hyflo bed (10 gms) at 50-55°C and washed the hyflo bed with hot isopropanol (100 mL). Distilled out solvent under vacuum at

35-40°C up to 4 volumes remains and allowed to cool to 20-25°C and stirred for 1 hr at same temperature. Further, allowed to cool to 5-10°C, stirred for 2 hrs, filtered and washed with isopropanol (100 mL). The wet product was dried at 50-55°C under vacuum for 8 hr to provide 80 gms of pure vildagliptin.

HPLC Purity: 99.89%;

Dimer impurity content: <0.1 %;

R-isomer content (by chiral HPLC): not detected

l-aminoadarnantane-3-ol content (by GC): 0.06%.

The purified vildagliptin (I) was analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and is set forth in Figure. 01.

EXAMPLE 6: Preparation of Vildagliptin To a solution of L-Prolinamide (100 gms) dissolved in DCM (1000 mL) was added triethyl amine (88.6 gms) and DMAP (1.07 gms) at 25-30°C under N2 atmosphere and stirred for 15 min at 25-30°C. This solution was added to a solution of chloroacetyl chloride (118.7 gms) in DCM (500 mL) under N2 atmosphere at -5 to 0°C over 2-4 hr. Heated the reaction mass temperature to 10-15°C and stirred until reaction completion, charged phosphorus oxychloride (201.5 gms) to the reaction mass at 0-5°C, heated the reaction mass temperature to reflux and stirred for 6hr at same temperature. After reaction completion, allowed to cool to 5-15°C and slowly added DM water (500 mL). Aqueous layer was separated and the organic layer was washed with DM water. To the organic layer, DM water (300 mL) was added at 25-30°C and adjusted the reaction mass pH to 6.5-7.5 with -200 mL of sodium bicarbonate solution (-16 g of NaHC03 dissolved in 200 mL of DM Water). Separated the aqueous layer and concentrated the organic layer under vacuum at temperature of 30-40°C to get residual mass. The residual mass was dissolved in DM Water (640 mL), charged l-aminoadamantane-3-ol (310.6 g) at 25-35°C. Heated the reaction mass temperature to 40-45 °C and stirred for 9 hr at the same temperature. After reaction completion, allowed to cool to 25-30°C and charged DM water (900 mL) and DCM (1280 mL). Separated the organic layer and extracted the aqueous layer with DCM. The aqueous layer was separated and kept aside for l-aminoadamantane-3-ol recovery. The total organic layer was treated with P.S. 133 carbon, stirred for 30 rnins at 25-30°C and filtered over hyflo bed. The resulting filtrate was concentrated under, vacuum at temperature 30-40°C to get residual mass. To the residual mass, charged ethyl acetate (128 mL) and distilled completely under vacuum at 30-40°C to get semi solid mass. Charged ethyl acetate (640 mL) to the obtained semi solid and refluxed for 1 hr. The reaction mass was allowed to cool to 25-30°C and stirred for 2 hr. Filtered the reaction mass and washed with ethyl acetate (128 mL) to obtain wet cake. Again charged ethyl acetate (512 mL) to the obtained wet cake and refluxed for 1 hr. The reaction mass was allowed to cool to 25- 30°C and stirred for 2 hr. Filtered the reaction mass and washed with ethyl acetate (128 mL) and then dried at 50-55°C for 6 hr to provide 175 gms of crude vildagliptin.

HPLC Purity: 99.66%.

Dimer impurity content: <0.2%;

R-isomer content (by chiral HPLC) : <0.1 %;

l-aminoadamantane-3-ol content (by GC): <0.7%.

DSC: 150.12°C.

EXAMPLE 7: Purification of Vildagliptin. Vildagliptin crude (100 gms) was dissolved in isopropanol (1100 mL) by heating to 50- 55°C and stirred for 30 min. Filtered the solution over hyflo bed at 50-55°C and wash with hot isopropanol (100 mL). Distilled out solvent under vacuum at <55°C up to 5 volumes remains and allowed to cool to 20-25 °C and stirred for 1 hr at same temperature. Further allowed to cool to 10-15 °C, stirred for 2 hrs, filtered and washed with chilled isopropanol (100 mL). The wet product was dried at 50-55°C under vacuum for 8 hr to provide 80 gms of pure vildagliptin. HPLC Purity: >99.8%;

Dimer impurity content: <0.1%;

R-isomeri content (by chiral HPLC) : <0.1%;

l-aminoadamantane-3-ol content (by GC): <0.1%.

DSC: 151.92°C.

Example 8: Recovery of l-aminoadamantane-3-ol of formula (IV).

To aqueous layer (1700 mL) from example 1, 50% C.S.lye (435 mL) was added to adjust the pH to 13.0-14.0 at 25-35°C and stirred for 15 mins at 25-35°C. Raised the reaction mass temperature to 60-70°C and stirred for 3 hrs. Cooled to 25-35°C and added DCM (1700 mL), stirred for 15 min and separated the organic layer. The aqueous layer was extracted with DCM and the total organic layer was distilled out completely under vacuum at <40°C to get semisolid mass. Charged ethyl acetate (150 mL) and distilled out solvent completely under vacuum at <50°C to get semisolid material. Charged ethyl acetate (400 mL), stirred for 30 min at 40-45°C and cooled to 25-35°C. Further allowed to cool to 0- 5°C, stirred for 2hr, filtered the reaction mass at 5-10°C and washed with ethyl acetate (100 mL). The wet product was dried at 50-55°C under vacuum for 8 hr to obtain 140 gms of 1- aminoadamantane-3-ol.

Purity by GC: 99.8 %.PATENTS AND PAPERS

Reference:1. WO2004092127A1.

2. WO0034241A1.

3. J. Med. Chem. 200346, 2774-2789.

4. WO2010022690A2.

5. WO2011012322A2.

6. WO2011101861A1.

Reference:1. Beilstein J. Org. Chem. 20084, 20.

Reference:1. WO2011101861A1.

Reference:1. WO2011101861A1.

Reference:1. WO2011101861A1.

Reference:1. WO2012004210A1.

SYN

File:Vildagliptin synthesis.png - Wikimedia Commons

PAPER

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0040403917309176

An original synthesis of vildagliptin ((S)-1-[2-(3-hydroxyadamantan-1-ylamino)acetyl]pyrrolidine-2-carbonitrile), a powerful DPP-4 inhibitor, was developed. Vildagliptin was assembled from 3-amino-1-adamantanol, glyoxylic acid and l-prolinamide in a 4-step reaction sequence with the isolation of only two intermediates. The procedure is competitive with existing protocols, leading to vildagliptin in 63% overall yield.

A concise and efficient synthesis of vildagliptin - ScienceDirect
A concise and efficient synthesis of vildagliptin - ScienceDirect

PAPER

A Facile and Economical Method to Synthesize Vildagliptin

Author(s): Yu Deng, Anmin Wang, Zhu Tao, Yingjie Chen, Xinmei Pan, Xiangnan Hu

Journal Name: Letters in Organic Chemistry

Volume 11 , Issue 10 , 2014

DOI : 10.2174/1570178611666140922121805

A Facile and Economical Method to Synthesize Vildagliptin | Bentham Science

A mild and economical method to prepare vildagliptin had been reported with a good yield. In this paper, vildagliptin was synthesized from L-proline and 3-amino-1-adamantanol through chloride acetylation, amination, dehydration and substitution. The total yield of the target compound was 59%.

References

  1. ^ WHO International Working Group for Drug Statistics Methodology (August 27, 2008). “ATC/DDD Classification (FINAL): New ATC 5th level codes”. WHO Collaborating Centre for Drug Statistics Methodology. Archived from the original on May 6, 2008. Retrieved September 5, 2008.
  2. Jump up to:a b Ahrén, B; Landin-Olsson, M; Jansson, PA; Svensson, M; Holmes, D; Schweizer, A (2004). “Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 reduces glycemia, sustains insulin levels, and reduces glucagon levels in type 2 diabetes”The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism89 (5): 2078–84. doi:10.1210/jc.2003-031907PMID 15126524.
  3. Jump up to:a b Mentlein, R; Gallwitz, B; Schmidt, WE (1993). “Dipeptidyl-peptidase IV hydrolyses gastric inhibitory polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide-1(7-36)amide, peptide histidine methionine and is responsible for their degradation in human serum”European Journal of Biochemistry / FEBS214 (3): 829–35. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1993.tb17986.xPMID 8100523.
  4. ^ “EU approves Novartis’s Eucreas diabetes drug”. Reuters. February 25, 2008.
  5. ^ “Galvus” (PDF). http://www.ema.europa.eu. Retrieved July 29, 2018.
  6. ^ Matveyenko AV, Dry S, Cox HI, et al. (July 2009). “Beneficial endocrine but adverse exocrine effects of sitagliptin in the human islet amyloid polypeptide transgenic rat model of type 2 diabetes: interactions with metformin”Diabetes58 (7): 1604–15. doi:10.2337/db09-0058PMC 2699878PMID 19403868.
  7. ^ Butler AE, Campbell-Thompson M, Gurlo T, Dawson DW, Atkinson M, Butler PC (July 2013). “Marked expansion of exocrine and endocrine pancreas with incretin therapy in humans with increased exocrine pancreas dysplasia and the potential for glucagon-producing neuroendocrine tumors”Diabetes62 (7): 2595–604. doi:10.2337/db12-1686PMC 3712065PMID 23524641.
  8. ^ Egan, Amy G.; Blind, Eberhard; Dunder, Kristina; De Graeff, Pieter A.; Hummer, B. Timothy; Bourcier, Todd; Rosebraugh, Curtis (2014). “Pancreatic Safety of Incretin-Based Drugs — FDA and EMA Assessment — NEJM” (PDF). New England Journal of Medicine370 (9): 794–7. doi:10.1056/NEJMp1314078PMID 24571751.
Clinical data
Trade namesGalvus, Xiliarx, Jalra, others
Other namesLAF237
AHFS/Drugs.comUK Drug Information
License dataEU EMAby INN
Pregnancy
category
Not recommended
Routes of
administration
By mouth
ATC codeA10BH02 (WHO)
A10BD08 (WHO) (with metformin)[1]
Legal status
Legal statusUK: POM (Prescription only)EU: Rx-onlyIn general: ℞ (Prescription only)
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability85%
Protein binding9.3%
MetabolismMainly hydrolysis to inactive metabolite; CYP450 not appreciably involved
Elimination half-life2 to 3 hours
ExcretionKidney
Identifiers
IUPAC name[show]
CAS Number274901-16-5 
PubChem CID6918537
IUPHAR/BPS6310
DrugBankDB04876 
ChemSpider5293734 
UNIII6B4B2U96P
KEGGD07080 
ChEMBLChEMBL142703 
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)DTXSID80881091 
ECHA InfoCard100.158.712 
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC17H25N3O2
Molar mass303.406 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)Interactive image
Solubility in waterFreely Soluble in water mg/mL (20 °C)
SMILES[hide]N#C[C@H]4N(C(=O)CNC13CC2CC(C1)CC(O)(C2)C3)CCC4
InChI[hide]InChI=1S/C17H25N3O2/c18-9-14-2-1-3-20(14)15(21)10-19-16-5-12-4-13(6-16)8-17(22,7-12)11-16/h12-14,19,22H,1-8,10-11H2/t12?,13?,14-,16?,17?/m0/s1 Key:SYOKIDBDQMKNDQ-XWTIBIIYSA-N 

////////VILDAGLIPTIN, LAF 237,NVP LAF 237, ビルダグリプチン  , GALVUS, EQUA, NOVARTIS, DIABETES

OC12CC3CC(C1)CC(C3)(C2)NCC(=O)N1CCC[C@H]1C#N

Reference:

[1].    Japan, PMDA.

[2].   Drug@EMA, EMEA/H/C/000771 Galvus : EPAR – Scientific Discussion.

[3].   Postgrad. Med. J. 200884, 524-531.

[4].   Diabetes Obes. Metab. 201113, 7-18.

[5].   Diabetes Metab. 201238, 89-101.

[6].   Formulary 200843, 122-124, 131-134.

[7].   Br. J. Diabetes Vasc. Dis. 20088, S10-S18.

[8].   Drugs 201171, 1441-1467.

[9].   The relevance of off-target polypharmacology; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.2012.

[10].   Int. J. Clin. Pract. Suppl. 200862, 8-14.

[11].   Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 200923, 479-486.

A Facile and Economical Method to Synthesize Vildagliptin

Author(s): Yu Deng, Anmin Wang, Zhu Tao, Yingjie Chen, Xinmei Pan and Xiangnan Hu

Volume 11 , Issue 10 , 2014

Page: [780 – 784]Pages: 5

DOI: 10.2174/1570178611666140922121805

Letters in Organic Chemistry

SY-008


Acetic acid;(2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)-2-[[4-[[4-[(E)-4-(2,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undecan-2-yl)but-1-enyl]-2-methylphenyl]methyl]-5-propan-2-yl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl]oxy]-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-3,4,5-triol.png

SY-008

CAS 1878218-66-6

FREE FORM 1480443-32-0

SGLT1 inhibitor (type 2 diabetes),

β-D-Glucopyranoside, 4-[[4-[(1E)-4-(2,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undec-2-yl)-1-buten-1-yl]-2-methylphenyl]methyl]-5-(1-methylethyl)-1H-pyrazol-3-yl, acetate (1:1)

acetic acid;(2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)-2-[[4-[[4-[(E)-4-(2,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undecan-2-yl)but-1-enyl]-2-methylphenyl]methyl]-5-propan-2-yl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl]oxy]-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-3,4,5-triol

4-{4-[(1E)-4-(2,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undec-2-yl)but-1-en-1-yl]-2-methylbenzyl}-5-(propan-2-yl)-1H-pyrazol-3-yl beta-D-glucopyranoside acetate

MF H50 N4 O6 . C2 H4 O2

MW 58.8 g/mol,C35H54N4O8

Originator Eli Lilly

  • Developer Eli Lilly; Yabao Pharmaceutical Group
  • Class Antihyperglycaemics; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action Sodium-glucose transporter 1 inhibitors
  • Phase I Diabetes mellitus
  • 28 Aug 2018 No recent reports of development identified for phase-I development in Diabetes-mellitus in Singapore (PO)
  • 24 Jun 2018 Biomarkers information updated
  • 12 Mar 2018 Phase-I clinical trials in Diabetes mellitus (In volunteers) in China (PO) (NCT03462589)
  • Eli Lilly is developing SY 008, a sodium glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) inhibitor, for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The approach of inhibiting SGLT1 could be promising because it acts independently of the beta cell and could be effective in both early and advanced stages of diabetes. Reducing both glucose and insulin may improve the metabolic state and potentially the health of beta cells, without causing weight gain or hypoglycaemia. Clinical development is underway in Singapore and China.

    As at August 2018, no recent reports of development had been identified for phase-I development in Diabetes-mellitus in Singapore (PO).

Suzhou Yabao , under license from  Eli Lilly , is developing SY-008 , an SGLT1 inhibitor, for the potential oral capsule treatment of type 2 diabetes in China. By April 2019, a phase Ia trial was completed

PATENT

WO 2013169546

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2013169546&recNum=43&docAn=US2013039164&queryString=EN_ALL:nmr%20AND%20PA:(ELI%20LILLY%20AND%20COMPANY)%20&maxRec=4416

The present invention is in the field of treatment of diabetes and other diseases and disorders associated with hyperglycemia. Diabetes is a group of diseases that is characterized by high levels of blood glucose. It affects approximately 25 million people in the United States and is also the 7th leading cause of death in U.S. according to the 201 1 National Diabetes Fact Sheet (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). Sodium-coupled glucose cotransporters (SGLT’s) are one of the transporters known to be responsible for the absorption of carbohydrates, such as glucose. More specifically, SGLTl is responsible for transport of glucose across the brush border membrane of the small intestine. Inhibition of SGLTl may result in reduced absorption of glucose in the small intestine, thus providing a useful approach to treating diabetes.

U.S. Patent No. 7,655,632 discloses certain pyrazole derivatives with human SGLTl inhibitory activity which are further disclosed as useful for the prevention or treatment of a disease associated with hyperglycemia, such as diabetes. In addition, WO 201 1/039338 discloses certain pyrazole derivatives with SGLT1/SGLT2 inhibitor activity which are further disclosed as being useful for treatment of bone diseases, such as osteoporosis.

There is a need for alternative drugs and treatment for diabetes. The present invention provides certain novel inhibitors of SGLTl which may be suitable for the treatment of diabetes.

Accordingly, the present invention provides a compound of Formula II:

Preparation 1

Synthesis of (4-bromo-2-methyl-phenyl)methanol.

Scheme 1, step A: Add borane-tetrahydrofuran complex (0.2 mol, 200 mL, 1.0 M solution) to a solution of 4-bromo-2-methylbenzoic acid (39 g, 0.18 mol) in

tetrahydrofuran (200 mL). After 18 hours at room temperature, remove the solvent under the reduced pressure to give a solid. Purify by flash chromatography to yield the title compound as a white solid (32.9 g, 0.16 mol). 1H NMR (CDCI3): δ 1.55 (s, 1H), 2.28 (s, 3H), 4.61 (s, 2H), 7.18-7.29 (m, 3H).

Alternative synthesis of (4-bromo-2-methyl-phenyl)methanol.

Borane-dimethyl sulfide complex (2M in THF; 1 16 mL, 0.232 mol) is added slowly to a solution of 4-bromo-2-methylbenzoic acid (24.3 g, 0.1 13 mol) in anhydrous tetrahydrofuran (THF, 146 mL) at 3 °C. After stirring cold for 10 min the cooling bath is removed and the reaction is allowed to warm slowly to ambient temperature. After 1 hour, the solution is cooled to 5°C, and water (100 mL) is added slowly. Ethyl acetate (100 mL) is added and the phases are separated. The organic layer is washed with saturated aqueous NaHC03 solution (200 mL) and dried over Na2S04. Filtration and concentration under reduced pressure gives a residue which is purified by filtration through a short pad of silica eluting with 15% ethyl acetate/iso-hexane to give the title compound (20.7 g, 91.2% yield). MS (m/z): 183/185 (M+l-18).

Preparation 2

Synthesis of 4-bromo- l-2-methyl-benzene.

Scheme 1, step B: Add thionyl chloride (14.31 mL, 0.2 mol,) to a solution of (4-bromo-2-methyl-phenyl)methanol (32.9 g, 0.16 mol) in dichloromethane (200 mL) and

-Cl-

dimethylformamide (0.025 mol, 2.0 mL) at 0°C. After 1 hour at room temperature pour the mixture into ice-water (100 g), extract with dichloromethane (300 mL), wash extract with 5% aq. sodium bicarbonate (30 mL) and brine (200 mL), dry over sodium sulfate, and concentrate under reduced pressure to give the crude title compound as a white solid (35.0 g, 0.16 mol). The material is used for the next step of reaction without further purification. XH NMR (CDC13): δ 2.38 (s, 3H), 4.52 (s, 2H), 7.13-7.35 (m, 3H).

Alternative synthesis of 4-bromo- 1 -chloromethyl-2-methyl-benzene. Methanesulfonyl chloride (6.83 mL, 88.3 mmol) is added slowly to a solution of (4-bromo-2-methyl-phenyl)methanol (16.14 g, 80.27 mmol) and triethylamine (16.78 mL; 120.4 mmol) in dichloromethane (80.7 mL) cooled in ice/water. The mixture is allowed to slowly warm to ambient temperature and is stirred for 16 hours. Further

methanesulfonyl chloride (1.24 mL; 16.1 mmol) is added and the mixture is stirred at ambient temperature for 2 hours. Water (80mL) is added and the phases are separated. The organic layer is washed with hydrochloric acid (IN; 80 mL) then saturated aqueous sodium hydrogen carbonate solution (80 mL), then water (80 mL), and is dried over Na2S04. Filtration and concentration under reduced pressure gives a residue which is purified by flash chromatography (eluting with hexane) to give the title compound (14.2 g; 80.5% yield). XH NMR (300.1 1 MHz, CDC13): δ 7.36-7.30 (m, 2H), 7.18 (d, J= 8.1 Hz, 1H), 4.55 (s, 2H), 2.41 (s, 3H).

Preparation 3

Synthesis of 4-[(4-bromo-2-methyl-phenyl)methyl]-5-isopropyl-lH-pyrazol-3-ol.

Scheme 1, step C: Add sodium hydride (8.29 g, 0.21 mol, 60% dispersion in oil) to a solution of methyl 4-methyl-3-oxovalerate (27.1 mL, 0.19 mol) in tetrahydrofuran at 0°C. After 30 min at room temperature, add a solution of 4-bromo- l-chloromethyl-2-methyl-benzene (35.0 g, 0.16 mol) in tetrahydrofuran (50 mL). Heat the resulting mixture at 70 °C overnight (18 hours). Add 1.0 M HC1 (20 mL) to quench the reaction.

Extract with ethyl acetate (200 mL), wash extract with water (200 rnL) and brine (200 mL), dry over a2S04, filter and concentrate under reduced pressure. Dissolve the resulting residue in toluene (200 mL) and add hydrazine monohydrate (23.3 mL, 0.48 mol). Heat the mixture at 120 °C for 2 hours with a Dean-Stark apparatus to remove water. Cool and remove the solvent under the reduced pressure, dissolve the residue with dichloromethane (50 mL) and methanol (50 mL). Pour this solution slowly to a beaker with water (250 mL). Collect the resulting precipitated product by vacuum filtration. Dry in vacuo in an oven overnight at 40 °C to yield the title compound as a solid (48.0 g, 0.16 mol). MS (m/z): 311.0 (M+l), 309.0 (M-l).

Alternative synthesis of 4-r(4-bromo-2-methyl-phenyl)methyl1-5-isopropyl- !H-pyrazol- 3-oL

A solution of 4-bromo- 1 -chloromethyl-2-methyl-benzene (13.16 g, 59.95 mmoles) in acetonitrile (65.8 mL) is prepared. Potassium carbonate (24.86 g, 179.9 mmol), potassium iodide (1 1.94 g, 71.94 mmol) and methyl 4-methyl-3-oxo valerate (8.96 mL; 62.95 mmol) are added. The resulting mixture is stirred at ambient temperature for 20 hours. Hydrochloric acid (2N) is added to give pH 3. The solution is extracted with ethyl acetate (100 ml), the organic phase is washed with brine (100 ml) and dried over Na2S04. The mixture is filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue is dissolved in toluene (65.8 mL) and hydrazine monohydrate (13.7 mL, 0.180 mol) is added. The resulting mixture is heated to reflux and water is removed using a Dean and Stark apparatus. After 3 hours the mixture is cooled to 90 °C and additional hydrazine monohydrate (13.7 mL; 0.180 mol) is added and the mixture is heated to reflux for 1 hour. The mixture is cooled and concentrated under reduced pressure. The resulting solid is triturated with water (200 mL), filtered and dried in a vacuum oven over P2O5 at 60°C. The solid is triturated in iso-hexane (200 mL) and filtered to give the title compound (14.3 g; 77.1% yield). MS (m/z): 309/31 1 (M+l).

Preparation 4

Synthesis of 4-(4-bromo-2-methylbenzyl)-5-(propan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra- O-benzoyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside.

Scheme 1, step D: To a 1L flask, add 4-[(4-bromo-2-methyl-phenyl)methyl]-5-isopropyl-lH-pyrazol-3-ol (20 g, 64.7 mmol), alpha-D-glucopyranosyl bromide tetrabenzoate (50 g, 76 mmol), benzyltributylammonium chloride (6 g, 19.4 mmol), dichloromethane (500 mL), potassium carbonate (44.7 g, 323 mmol) and water (100 mL). Stir the reaction mixture overnight at room temperature. Extract with dichloromethane (500mL). Wash extract with water (300 mL) and brine (500 mL). Dry organic phase over sodium sulfate, filter, and concentrate under reduced pressure. Purify the residue by flash chromatography to yield the title compound (37 g, 64 mmol). MS (ml 2): 889.2 (M+l), 887.2 (M-l).

Preparation 5

Synthesis of 4- {4-[( lis)-4-hydroxybut- 1 -en- 1 -yl]-2-methylbenzyl} -5-(propan-2-yl)- 1H- pyrazol-3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzoyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside.

Scheme 1, step E: Add 3-buten-l-ol (0.58 mL, 6.8 mmol) to a solution of 4-(4-bromo-2-methylbenzyl)-5-(propan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzoyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3 g, 3.4 mmol) in acetonitrile (30 mL) and triethylamine (20 mL). Degas the solution with nitrogen over 10 minutes. Add tri-o-tolylphosphine (205 mg, 0.67 mmol) and palladium acetate (76 mg, 0.34 mmol). Reflux at 90 °C for 2 hours. Cool to room temperature and concentrate to remove the solvent under the reduced pressure. Purify the residue by flash chromatography to yield the title compound (2.1 g, 2.4 mmol). MS (m/z): 878.4 (M+l).

Preparation 6

Synthesis of 4-{4-[(l£)-4-oxybut-l-en-l-yl]-2-methylbenzyl}-5-(propan-2-yl)-lH- pyrazol-3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzoyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside.

Scheme 1, step F: Add 3,3,3-triacetoxy-3-iodophthalide (134 mg, 0.96 mmol) to a solution of 4-{4-[(l£)-4-hydroxybut-l-en-l-yl]-2-methylbenzyl}-5-(propan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzoyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (280 mg, 0.32 mmol) and sodium bicarbonate (133.8 mg, 1.6 mmol) in dichloromethane (20 mL) at 0 °C. After 15 minutes at room temperature, quench the reaction with saturated aqueous sodium thiosulfate (10 mL). Extract with dichloromethane (30 mL). Wash extract with water (30 mL) and brine (40 mL). Dry organic phase over sodium sulfate, filter, and concentrate under reduced pressure. Purify the resulting residue by flash chromatography to yield the title compound (270 mg, 0.31 mmol). MS (m/z): 876.5 (M+l), 874.5 (M-l).

Preparation 7

Synthesis of tert-butyl 2- {(3JE)-4-[3-methyl-4-({5-(propan-2-yl)-3-[(2,3,4,6-tetra-0-benzoyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-lH-pyrazol-4-yl}methyl)phenyl]but-3-en-l-yl}-2,9- diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate.

Scheme 1, step G: Add sodium triacetoxyborohydride (98 mg, 0.46 mmol) to a solution of 4- {4-[(lis)-4-oxybut- 1 -en-1 -yl]-2-methylbenzyl} -5-(propan-2-yl)- lH-pyrazol-3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzoyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (270 mg, 0.31 mmol) and tert-butyl 2,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate hydrochloride (179 mg, 0.62 mmol) in 1,2-dichloroethane (5 mL). After 30 minutes at room temperature, quench the reaction with saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate (10 mL). Extract with dichloromethane (30 mL). Wash extract with water (30 mL) and brine (40 mL), dry organic phase over sodium sulfate, filter and concentrate under reduced pressure. Purify the resulting residue by flash chromatography to yield the title compound (275 mg, 0.25 mmol).

MS (m/z): 1115.6 (M+1).

Preparation 8

Synthesis of 4-{4-[(l£)-4-(2,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undec-2-yl)but-l-en-l-yl]-2- methylbenzyl}-5-(propan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzoyl-beta-D- glucopyranoside dihydrochloride.

Scheme 1, step H: Add hydrogen chloride (4.0 M solution in 1,4-dioxane, 0.6 mL, 2.4 mmol) to a solution of tert-butyl 2-{(3is)-4-[3-methyl-4-({5-(propan-2-yl)-3-[(2,3,4,6-tetra-0-benzoyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-lH-pyrazol-4-yl}methyl)phenyl]but-3-en-l-yl}-2,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate (275 mg, 0.25 mmol) in dichloromethane (5 mL). After overnight (18 hours) at room temperature, concentrate to remove the solvent under reduced pressure to yield the title compound as a solid (258 mg, 0.24 mmol). MS (m/z): 1015.6 (M+l).

Example 1

Synthesis of 4-{4-[(l£)-4-(2,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undec-2-yl)but-l-en-l-yl]-2- methylbenzyl} -5-(propan-2-yl)- lH-pyrazol-3-yl beta-D-glucopyranoside.

Scheme 1, step I: Add sodium hydroxide (0.5 mL, 0.5 mmol, 1.0 M solution) to a solution of 4-{4-[(l£)-4-(2,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undec-2-yl)but-l-en-l-yl]-2-methylbenzyl}-5-(propan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzoyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside dihydrochloride (258 mg, 0.24 mmol) in methanol (2 mL). After 2 hours at 40 °C, concentrate to remove the solvent under reduced pressure to give a residue, which is purified by preparative HPLC method: high pH, 25% B for 4 min, 25-40 B % for 4 min @ 85 mL/min using a 30 x 75 mm, 5 um C18XBridge ODB column, solvent A – 1¾0 w NH4HCO3 @ pH 10, solvent B – MeCN to yield the title compound as a solid (46 mg, 0.08 mmol). MS (m/z): 598.8 (M+l), 596.8 (M-l).

 Preparation 9

Synthesis of 4-(4-bromo-2-methylbenzyl)-5-(propan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra- O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside.

Scheme 2, step A: To a 1 L flask, add 4-[(4-bromo-2-methyl-phenyl)methyl]-5-isopropyl-lH-pyrazol-3-ol (24 g, 77.6 mmol), 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl bromide (50.4 g, 116 mmol), benzyltributylammomum chloride (5 g, 15.5 mmol), dichloromethane (250 mL), potassium carbonate (32 g, 323 mmol) and water (120 mL). Stir the reaction mixture overnight at room temperature. Extract with dichloromethane (450 mL). Wash extract with water (300 mL) and brine (500 mL). Dry organic phase over sodium sulfate, filter, and concentrate under reduced pressure. Purify the resulting residue by flash chromatography to yield the title compound (36.5 g, 57 mmol). MS (m/z): 638.5 (M+l), 636.5 (M-l).

Alternative synthesis of 4-(4-bromo-2-methylbenzyl)-5-(propan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl

2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside.

Reagents 4-[(4-bromo-2-methyl-phenyl)methyl]-5-isopropyl-lH-pyrazol-3-ol (24.0 g, 77.6 mmol), 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl bromide (50.4 g, 116 mmol), benzyltributylammonium chloride (4.94 g, 15.52 mmol), potassium carbonate

(32.18 g, 232.9 mmol), dichloromethane (250 mL) and water (120 mL) are combined and the mixture is stirred at ambient temperature for 18 hours. The mixture is partitioned between dichloromethane (250 mL) and water (250 mL). The organic phase is washed with brine (250 mL), dried over Na2S04, filtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure. The resulting residue is purified by flash chromatography (eluting with 10% ethyl acetate in dichloromethane to 70% ethyl acetate in dichloromethane) to give the title compound (36.5 g, 74% yield). MS (m/z): 639/641 (M+l).

Preparation 10

Synthesis of 4- {4-[( lis)-4-hydroxybut- 1 -en- 1 -yl]-2-methylbenzyl} -5-(propan-2-yl)- 1H- pyrazol-3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside.

Scheme 2, step B: Add 3-buten-l-ol (6.1 mL, 70 mmol) to a solution of 4-(4-bromo-2-methylbenzyl)-5-(propan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (15 g, 23.5 mmol) in acetonitrile (200 mL) and triethylamine (50 mL). Degas the solution with nitrogen over 10 minutes. Add tri-o-tolylphosphine (1.43 g, 4.7 mmol) and palladium acetate (526 mg, 2.35 mmol). After refluxing at 90 °C for 2 hours, cool, and concentrate to remove the solvent under the reduced pressure. Purify the resulting residue by flash chromatography to yield the title compound (7.5 g, 11.9 mmol). MS (m/z): 631.2 (M+l), 629.2 (M-l).

Preparation 11

Synthesis of 4-{4-[(l£)-4-oxybut-l-en-l-yl]-2-methylbenzyl}-5-(propan-2-yl)-lH- pyrazol-3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside.

Scheme 2, step C: Add 3,3,3-triacetoxy-3-iodophthalide (2.1g, 4.76 mmol) to a solution of 4-{4-[(l£)-4-hydroxybut-l-en-l-yl]-2-methylbenzyl}-5-(propan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside ( 1.5 g, 2.38 mmol) and sodium bicarbonate (2 g, 23.8 mmol) in dichloromethane (50 mL) at 0 °C. After 15 minutes at room temperature, quench the reaction with saturated aqueous sodium thiosulfate (10 mL). Extract with dichloromethane (30 mL), wash extract with water (30 mL) and brine (40 mL). Dry organic phase over sodium sulfate, filter, and concentrate under reduced pressure. Purify the resulting residue by flash chromatography to yield the title compound (0.95 g, 1.51 mmol). MS (m/z): 628.8(M+1), 626.8 (M-l).

Preparation 12

Synthesis of tert-butyl 2-{(3JE)-4-[3-methyl-4-({5-(propan-2-yl)-3-[(2,3,4,6-tetra-0- acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-lH-pyrazol-4-yl}methyl)phenyl]but-3-en-l-yl}-2,9- diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate.

Scheme 2, Step D: Add sodium triacetoxyborohydride (303 mg, 1.4 mmol) to a solution of 4- {4-[(lis)-4-oxybut- 1 -en-1 -yl]-2-methylbenzyl} -5-(propan-2-yl)- lH-pyrazol-3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (600 mg, 0.95 mmol) and tert-butyl 2,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate hydrochloride (333 mg, 1.2 mmol) in 1,2-dichloroethane (30 mL). After 30 minutes at room temperature, quench the reaction with saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate (15 mL). Extract with dichloromethane (60 mL). Wash extract with water (30 mL) and brine (60 mL). Dry organic phase over sodium sulfate, filter, and concentrate under reduced pressure. Purify the resulting residue by flash chromatography to yield the title compound (500 mg, 0.58 mmol).

MS (m/z): 866.8, 867.8 (M+l), 864.8, 865.8 (M-l).

Preparation 13

Synthesis oftert-butyl 2-{(3E)-4-[3-methyl-4-({5-(propan-2-yl)-3-[(2,3,4,6-tetra-0-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-lH-pyrazol-4-yl}methyl)phenyl]but-3-en-l-yl}-2,8- diazaspiro[4.5]decane-8-carboxylate.

The title compound is prepared essentially by the method of Preparation 12. S (m/z): 852.8, 853.6 (M+l), 850.8, 851.6 (M-l).

Preparation 14

Synthesis oftert-butyl 9-{(3E)-4-[3-methyl-4-({5-(propan-2-yl)-3-[(2,3,4,6-tetra-0-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-lH-pyrazol-4-yl}methyl)phenyl]but-3-en-l-yl}-3,9- diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-3-carboxylate.

The title compound is prepared essentially by the method of Preparation 12. S (m/z): 866.8, 867.6 (M+l), 864.8, 865.6 (M-l).

Preparation 15

Synthesis of 4-{4-[(l£)-4-(2,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undec-2-yl)but-l-en-l-yl]-2- methylbenzyl}-5-(propan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D- glucopyranoside dihydrochloride.

Scheme 2, step E: Add hydrogen chloride (4.0 M solution in 1,4-dioxane, 1.5 mL, 5.8 mmol) to a solution of tert-butyl 2-{(3£)-4-[3-methyl-4-({5-(propan-2-yl)-3-[(2,3,4,6-tetra-0-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]- lH-pyrazol-4-yl} methyl)phenyl]but-3 -en- 1 -yl}-2,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate (500 mg, 0.58 mmol) in dichloromethane (20 mL). After 2 hours at room temperature, concentrate to remove the solvent under reduced pressure to yield the title compound as a solid (480 mg, 0.57 mmol).

MS (m/z): 767.4 (M+l).

Preparation 16

Synthesis of 4-{4-[(lE)-4-(2,8-diazaspiro[4.5]dec-2-yl)but-l-en-l-yl]-2-methylbenzyl}-5- (propan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside

dihydrochloride.

The title compound is prepared essentially by the method of Preparation 15. MS (m/z): 752.8, 753.8 (M+1), 750.8 (M-1).

First alternative synthesis of Example 1

First alternative synthesis of 4-{4-[(l£)-4-(2,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undec-2-yl)but-l-en- 2-methylbenzyl}-5-(propan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl beta-D-glucopyranoside.

Scheme 2, step F: Add methanol (5 mL), triethylamine (3 mL), and water (3 mL) to 4-{4-[(l£)-4-(2,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undec-2-yl)but-l-en-l-yl]-2-methylbenzyl}-5-(propan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside dihydrochloride (480 mg, 0.24 mmol). After 18 hours (overnight) at room temperature, concentrate to dryness under reduced pressure. Purify the resulting residue by preparative HPLC method: high pH, 25% B for 4 min, 25-40 B % for 4 min @ 85 mL/min using a 30 x 75 mm, 5 urn C18XBridge ODB column, solvent A – H20 w NH4HCO3 @ pH 10, solvent B – MeCN to yield the title compound as a solid (50 mg, 0.08 mmol).

MS (m/z): 598.8 (M+1), 596.8 (M-1). 1H MR (400.31 MHz, CD3OD): δ 7.11 (d, J=1.3

Hz, 1H), 7.04 (dd, J=1.3,8.0 Hz, 1H), 6.87 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, 1H), 6.36 (d, J= 15.8 Hz, 1H), 6.16 (dt, J= 15.8, 6.3 Hz, 1H), 5.02 (m, 1H), 3.81 (d, J= 11.7 Hz, 1H), 3.72 (d, J= 16.8 Hz, 1H), 3.68 (d, J= 16.8 Hz, 1H) , 3.64 (m, 1H), 3.37-3.29 (m, 4H), 2.79 (m, 1H), 2.72 (t, J= 5.8 Hz, 4H), 2.44-2.33 (m, 6H), 2.30 (s, 3H), 2.26 ( broad s, 2H), 1.59 (m, 2H), 1.50 (m, 2H), 1.43 (m, 2H), 1.36 (m, 2H), 1.1 1 (d, J= 7.0 Hz, 3H), 1.10 (d, J= 7.0 Hz, 3H).

Example 2

Synthesis of 4- {4-[(lE)-4-(2,8-diazaspiro[4.5]dec-2-yl)but-l-en-l-yl]-2-methylbi

(propan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl beta-D-glucopyranoside.

O H

The title compound is prepared essentially by the method of the first alternative synthesis of Example 1. MS (m/z): 584.7 (M+l), 582.8 (M-l).

Example 3

Synthesis of 4- {4-[( 1 E)-4-(3 ,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undec-3 -yl)but- 1 -en- 1 -yl]-2- methylbenzyl} -5-(propan-2-yl)- lH-pyrazol-3-yl beta-D-glucopyranoside.

The title compound is prepared essentially by first treating the compound of Prearation 14 with HC1 as discussed in Preparation 15 then treating the resulting hydrochloride salt with triethyl amine as discussed in the first alternative synthesis of Example 1. MS (m/z): 598.8, 599.8 (M+l), 596.8, 597.8 (M-l).

Example 1 Preparation 17

Synthesis of tert-butyl 4-but-3- nyl-4,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate.

Scheme 3, step A: Cesium carbonate (46.66 g, 143.21 mmol) is added to a suspension of tert-butyl 4,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate hydrochloride (16.66 g, 57.28 mmoles) in acetonitrile (167 mL). The mixture is stirred for 10 minutes at ambient temperature then 4-bromobutyne (6.45 mL, 68.74 mmol) is added. The reaction is heated to reflux and stirred for 18 hours. The mixture is cooled and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue is partitioned between water (200 mL) and ethyl acetate (150 mL). The phases are separated and the aqueous layer is extracted with ethyl acetate (100 mL). The combined organic layers are washed with water (200 mL), then brine (150 mL), dried over MgSC^, filtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure to give the title compound (17.2 g, 98% yield). iH MR (300.11 MHz, CDC13): δ 3.43-3.31 (m, 4H),

2.53-2.48 (m, 2H), 2.37-2.29 (m, 4H), 2.20 (s, 2H), 1.94 (t, J= 2.6 Hz, 1H), 1.44 (s, 17H).

Preparation 18

Synthesis of tert-butyl 4-[(£)-4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-l,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)but-3-enyl]- 4,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate.

Scheme 3, step B: Triethylamine (5.62 mmoles; 0.783 mL), 4,4,5, 5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolane (8.56 mL, 59.0 mmol) and zirconocene chloride (1.45 g, 5.62 mmoles) are added to tert-butyl 4-but-3-ynyl-4,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate (17.21 g, 56.16 mmoles). The resulting mixture is heated to 65 °C for 3.5 hours. The mixture is cooled and dissolved in dichloromethane (150 mL). The resulting solution is passed through a ~4cm thick pad of silica gel, eluting with dichloromethane (2 x 200 mL). The filtrate is concentrated under reduced pressure to give the title compound (21.2 g, 87% yield), !H NMR (300.1 1 MHz, CDC13): δ 6.65-6.55 (m, 1H), 5.49-5.43 (m, 1H),

3.42-3.29 (m, 4H), 2.40-2.27 (m, 6H), 2.25-2.08 (m, 2H), 1.70 – 1.13 (m, 29H).

Preparation 19

Synthesis of tert-butyl 2-{(3JE)-4-[3-methyl-4-({5-(propan-2-yl)-3-beta-D- glucopyranosyl)oxy]- lH-pyrazol-4-yl} methyl)phenyl]but-3 -en- 1 -yl} -2,9- diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate.

Scheme 3, step C: A solution of 4-(4-bromo-2-methylbenzyl)-5-(propan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (20 g, 31.3 mmol), tert-butyl 4-[(£)-4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-l,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)but-3-enyl]-4,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate (16.3 g, 37.5 mmol) and potassium carbonate (12.97 g, 93.82 mmol) in tetrahydrofuran (200 mL) and water (40 mL) is degassed for 15 min by bubbling nitrogen gas through it. Pd(OAc)2 (140 mg, 625 μιηοΐ) and 2-dicyclohexylphosphino-2′,4′,6′-tri-i-propyl-l, r-biphenyl (0.596 g, 1.25 mmol) are added and the reaction is heated to reflux for 16 h. The solution is cooled to ambient temperature and methanol (200 mL) is added. After 30 minutes the solvent is removed under reduced pressure. The mixture is partitioned between ethyl acetate (500 mL) and brine (500 ml) adding aqueous MgS04 (1M; 500 ml) to aid the phase separation. The layers are separated and the organic layer is dried over MgS04 and filtered through a 10 cm pad of silica gel, eluting with ethyl acetate (-1.5 L). The filtrate is discarded and the silica pad is flushed with 5% MeOH in THF (2 L). The methanolic filtrate is concentrated under reduced pressure to give the title compound (20. lg, 92%).

MS (m/z): 699 (M+l).

Second alternative Synthesis of Example 1

Second alternative synthesis of 4- {4-[(l£)-4-(2,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undec-2-yl)but-l-en-l- yl]-2-methylbenzyl}-5-(propan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl beta-D-glucopyranoside.

Scheme 3, step D: Trifluoroacetic acid (32.2 mL; 0.426 mol) is added to a solution of tert-butyl 2- {(3JE)-4-[3-methyl-4-({5-(propan-2-yl)-3-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-lH-pyrazol-4-yl}methyl)phenyl]but-3-en-l-yl}-2,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate (14.87 g; 21.28 mmol) in dichloromethane (149 mL) cooled in iced water. The solution is allowed to warm to room temperature. After 30 minutes, the mixture is slowly added to ammonia in MeOH (2M; 300 mL), applying cooling as necessary to maintain a constant temperature. The solution is stirred at room temperature for 15 min. The mixture is concentrated under reduced pressure and the residue is purified using SCX-2 resin. The basic filtrate is concentrated under reduced pressure and the residue is triturated/sonicated in ethyl acetate, filtered and dried. The resulting solid is dissolved in MeOH (200ml) and concentrated in vacuo. This is repeated several times give the title compound (12.22 g, yield 96%). MS (m/z): 599 (M+l). [a]D20 = -12 ° (C=0.2, MeOH).

PATENT

WO 2015069541

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2015069541A1

4-{4-[(1 E)-4-(2,9-DIAZASPIRO[5.5]UNDEC-2-YL)BUT-1 -EN-1

-YL]-2-METHYLBENZYL}-5-(PROPAN-2-YL)-1 H-PYRAZOL-3-YL

BETA-D- GLUCOPYRANOSIDE ACETATE

The present invention relates to a novel SGLT1 inhibitor which is an acetate salt of a pyrazole compound, to pharmaceutical compositions comprising the compound, to methods of using the compound to treat physiological disorders, and to intermediates and processes useful in the synthesis of the compound.

The present invention is in the field of treatment of diabetes and other diseases and disorders associated with hyperglycemia. Diabetes is a group of diseases that is characterized by high levels of blood glucose. It affects approximately 25 million people in the United States and is also the 7th leading cause of death in U.S. according to the 2011 National Diabetes Fact Sheet (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). Sodium-coupled glucose cotransporters (SGLT’s) are one of the transporters known to be responsible for the absorption of carbohydrates, such as glucose. More specifically, SGLT1 is responsible for transport of glucose across the brush border membrane of the small intestine. Inhibition of SGLT1 may result in reduced absorption of glucose in the small intestine, thus providing a useful approach to treating diabetes.

U.S. Patent No. 7,655,632 discloses certain pyrazole derivatives with human SGLT1 inhibitory activity which are further disclosed as useful for the prevention or treatment of a disease associated with hyperglycemia, such as diabetes. In addition, WO 2011/039338 discloses certain pyrazole derivatives with SGLT1/SGLT2 inhibitor activity which are further disclosed as being useful for treatment of bone diseases, such as osteoporosis.

There is a need for alternative drugs and treatment for diabetes. The present invention provides an acetate salt of a pyrazole compound, which is an SGLT1 inhibitor, and as such, may be suitable for the treatment of certain disorders, such as diabetes. Accordingly, the present invention provides a compound of Formula I:

Figure imgf000003_0001

or hydrate thereof.

Figure imgf000008_0001

Preparation 1

(4-bromo-2-methyl-phenyl)methanol

Figure imgf000009_0001

Scheme 1, step A: Add borane-tetrahydrofuran complex (0.2 mol, 200 mL, 1.0 M solution) to a solution of 4-bromo-2-methylbenzoic acid (39 g, 0.18 mol) in

tetrahydrofuran (200 mL). After 18 hours at room temperature, remove the solvent under the reduced pressure to give a solid. Purify by flash chromatography to yield the title compound as a white solid (32.9 g, 0.16 mol). !H NMR (CDCI3): δ 1.55 (s, 1H), 2.28 (s, 3H), 4.61 (s, 2H), 7.18-7.29 (m, 3H).

Alternative synthesis of (4-bromo-2-methyl-phenyl)mefhanol.

Borane-dimethyl sulfide complex (2M in THF; 116 mL, 0.232 mol) is added slowly to a solution of 4-bromo-2-methylbenzoic acid (24.3 g, 0.113 mol) in anhydrous tetrahydrofuran (THF, 146 mL) at 3 °C. After stirring cold for 10 min the cooling bath is removed and the reaction is allowed to warm slowly to ambient temperature. After 1 hour, the solution is cooled to 5°C, and water (100 mL) is added slowly. Ethyl acetate (100 mL) is added and the phases are separated. The organic layer is washed with saturated aqueous NaHC03 solution (200 mL) and dried over Na2S04. Filtration and concentration under reduced pressure gives a residue which is purified by filtration through a short pad of silica eluting with 15% ethyl acetate/iso-hexane to give the title compound (20.7 g, 91.2% yield). MS (m/z): 183/185 (M+l-18).

Preparation 2

4-bromo- 1 -chloromethyl -2 -methyl -benzene

Figure imgf000009_0002

Scheme 1, step B: Add thionyl chloride (14.31 mL, 0.2 mol,) to a solution of (4- bromo-2 -methyl -phenyl)methanol (32.9 g, 0.16 mol) in dichloromethane (200 mL) and dimethylformamide (0.025 mol, 2.0 mL) at 0°C. After 1 hour at room temperature pour the mixture into ice-water (100 g), extract with dichloromethane (300 mL), wash extract with 5% aq. sodium bicarbonate (30 mL) and brine (200 mL), dry over sodium sulfate, and concentrate under reduced pressure to give the crude title compound as a white solid (35.0 g, 0.16 mol). The material is used for the next step of reaction without further purification. !H NMR (CDC13): δ 2.38 (s, 3H), 4.52 (s, 2H), 7.13-7.35 (m, 3H).

Alternative synthesis of 4-bromo-l-chloromethyl-2-methyl -benzene. Methanesulfonyl chloride (6.83 mL, 88.3 mmol) is added slowly to a solution of (4-bromo-2-methyl-phenyl)methanol (16.14 g, 80.27 mmol) and triethylamine (16.78 mL; 120.4 mmol) in dichloromethane (80.7 mL) cooled in ice/water. The mixture is allowed to slowly warm to ambient temperature and is stirred for 16 hours. Further

methanesulfonyl chloride (1.24 mL; 16.1 mmol) is added and the mixture is stirred at ambient temperature for 2 hours. Water (80mL) is added and the phases are separated. The organic layer is washed with hydrochloric acid (IN; 80 mL) then saturated aqueous sodium hydrogen carbonate solution (80 mL), then water (80 mL), and is dried over Na2S04. Filtration and concentration under reduced pressure gives a residue which is purified by flash chromatography (eluting with hexane) to give the title compound (14.2 g; 80.5% yield). !H NMR (300.11 MHz, CDC13): δ 7.36-7.30 (m, 2H), 7.18 (d, J= 8.1 Hz, 1H), 4.55 (s, 2H), 2.41 (s, 3H).

Preparation 3

4- [(4-bromo-2-methyl-phenyl)methyl] -5 -isopropyl- lH-pyrazol-3 -ol

Figure imgf000010_0001

Scheme 1, step C: Add sodium hydride (8.29 g, 0.21 mol, 60% dispersion in oil) to a solution of methyl 4-methyl-3-oxovalerate (27.1 mL, 0.19 mol) in tetrahydrofuran at 0°C. After 30 min at room temperature, add a solution of 4-bromo-l-chloromethyl-2- methyl-benzene (35.0 g, 0.16 mol) in tetrahydrofuran (50 mL). Heat the resulting mixture at 70 °C overnight (18 hours). Add 1.0 M HC1 (20 mL) to quench the reaction. Extract with ethyl acetate (200 mL), wash extract with water (200 mL) and brine (200 mL), dry over Na2S04, filter and concentrate under reduced pressure. Dissolve the resulting residue in toluene (200 mL) and add hydrazine monohydrate (23.3 mL, 0.48 mol). Heat the mixture at 120 °C for 2 hours with a Dean-Stark apparatus to remove water. Cool and remove the solvent under the reduced pressure, dissolve the residue with dichloromethane (50 mL) and methanol (50 mL). Pour this solution slowly to a beaker with water (250 mL). Collect the resulting precipitated product by vacuum filtration. Dry in vacuo in an oven overnight at 40 °C to yield the title compound as a solid (48.0 g, 0.16 mol). MS (m/z): 311.0 (M+l), 309.0 (M-l). Alternative synthesis of 4-[(4-bromo-2-methyl-phenyl)methyl] -5 -isopropyl- lH-pyrazol-

3-ol.

A solution of 4-bromo-l-chloromethyl-2-methyl-benzene (13.16 g, 59.95 mmoles) in acetonitrile (65.8 mL) is prepared. Potassium carbonate (24.86 g, 179.9 mmol), potassium iodide (11.94 g, 71.94 mmol) and methyl 4-methyl-3-oxovalerate (8.96 mL; 62.95 mmol) are added. The resulting mixture is stirred at ambient temperature for 20 hours. Hydrochloric acid (2N) is added to give pH 3. The solution is extracted with ethyl acetate (100 ml), the organic phase is washed with brine (100 ml) and dried over Na2S04. The mixture is filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue is dissolved in toluene (65.8 mL) and hydrazine monohydrate (13.7 mL, 0.180 mol) is added. The resulting mixture is heated to reflux and water is removed using a Dean and Stark apparatus. After 3 hours the mixture is cooled to 90 °C and additional hydrazine monohydrate (13.7 mL; 0.180 mol) is added and the mixture is heated to reflux for 1 hour. The mixture is cooled and concentrated under reduced pressure. The resulting solid is triturated with water (200 mL), filtered and dried in a vacuum oven over P2Os at 60°C. The solid is triturated in iso-hexane (200 mL) and filtered to give the title compound (14.3 g; 77.1% yield). MS (m/z): 309/311 (M+l).

Preparation 4

4-(4-bromo-2-methylbenzyl)-5-(propan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzoyl- beta-D-glucopyranoside

Figure imgf000012_0001

Scheme 1, step D: To a 1L flask, add 4-[(4-bromo-2-methyl-phenyl)methyl]-5- isopropyl-lH-pyrazol-3-ol (20 g, 64.7 mmol), alpha-D-glucopyranosyl bromide tetrabenzoate (50 g, 76 mmol), benzyltributylammonium chloride (6 g, 19.4 mmol), dichloromethane (500 mL), potassium carbonate (44.7 g, 323 mmol) and water (100 mL). Stir the reaction mixture overnight at room temperature. Extract with dichloromethane (500mL). Wash extract with water (300 mL) and brine (500 mL). Dry organic phase over sodium sulfate, filter, and concentrate under reduced pressure. Purify the residue by flash chromatography to yield the title compound (37 g, 64 mmol). MS (m/z): 889.2 (M+l), 887.2 (M-l).

Preparation 5

4- {4- [(lis)-4-hydroxybut- 1 -en- 1 -yl] -2-methylbenzyl } -5 -(propan-2-yl)- lH-pyrazol-3-yl

2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzoyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside

Figure imgf000012_0002

Scheme 1, step E: Add 3-buten-l-ol (0.58 mL, 6.8 mmol) to a solution of 4-(4- bromo-2-methylbenzyl)-5 -(propan-2-yl)- lH-pyrazol-3 -yl 2,3 ,4,6-tetra-O-benzoyl-beta-D- glucopyranoside (3 g, 3.4 mmol) in acetonitrile (30 mL) and triethylamine (20 mL). Degas the solution with nitrogen over 10 minutes. Add tri-o-tolylphosphine (205 mg, 0.67 mmol) and palladium acetate (76 mg, 0.34 mmol). Reflux at 90 °C for 2 hours. Cool to room temperature and concentrate to remove the solvent under the reduced pressure. Purify the residue by flash chromatography to yield the title compound (2.1 g, 2.4 mmol). MS (m/z): 878.4 (M+l).

Preparation 6

4-{4-[(l£)-4-oxybut-l-en-l-yl]-2-methylbenzyl}-5-(propan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl

2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzoyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside

Figure imgf000013_0001

Scheme 1, step F: Add 3,3,3-triacetoxy-3-iodophthalide (134 mg, 0.96 mmol) to a solution of 4-{4-[(l£)-4-hydroxybut-l-en-l-yl]-2-methylbenzyl}-5-(propan-2-yl)-lH- pyrazol-3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzoyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (280 mg, 0.32 mmol) and sodium bicarbonate (133.8 mg, 1.6 mmol) in dichloromethane (20 mL) at 0 °C. After 15 minutes at room temperature, quench the reaction with saturated aqueous sodium thiosulfate (10 mL). Extract with dichloromethane (30 mL). Wash extract with water (30 mL) and brine (40 mL). Dry organic phase over sodium sulfate, filter, and concentrate under reduced pressure. Purify the resulting residue by flash chromatography to yield the title compound (270 mg, 0.31 mmol). MS (m/z): 876.5 (M+l), 874.5 (M-l).

Preparation 7

tert-butyl 2-{(3JE)-4-[3-methyl-4-({5-(propan-2-yl)-3-[(2,3,4,6-tetra-0-benzoyl-beta-D- glucopyranosyl)oxy]-lH-pyrazol-4-yl}methyl)phenyl]but-3-en-l-yl} -2,9- diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate

Figure imgf000014_0001

Scheme 1, step G: Add sodium triacetoxyborohydride (98 mg, 0.46 mmol) to a solution of 4-{4-[(l£)-4-oxybut-l-en-l-yl]-2-methylbenzyl}-5-(propan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol- 3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzoyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (270 mg, 0.31 mmol) and tert-butyl 2,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate hydrochloride (179 mg, 0.62 mmol) in 1,2- dichloroethane (5 mL). After 30 minutes at room temperature, quench the reaction with saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate (10 mL). Extract with dichloromethane (30 mL). Wash extract with water (30 mL) and brine (40 mL), dry organic phase over sodium sulfate, filter and concentrate under reduced pressure. Purify the resulting residue by flash chromatography to yield the title compound (275 mg, 0.25 mmol).

MS (m/z): 1115.6 (M+l).

Preparation 8

4- {4- [( l£)-4-(2,9-diazaspiro [5.5]undec-2-yl)but- 1 -en- 1 -yl] -2-methylbenzyl} -5-(propan- 2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzoyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside dihydrochloride

Figure imgf000014_0002

Scheme 1, step H: Add hydrogen chloride (4.0 M solution in 1,4-dioxane, 0.6 mL, 2.4 mmol) to a solution of tert-butyl 2-{(3£)-4-[3-methyl-4-({5-(propan-2-yl)-3- [(2,3,4,6-tetra-0-benzoyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-lH-pyrazol-4- yl}methyl)phenyl]but-3-en-l-yl}-2,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate (275 mg, 0.25 mmol) in dichloromethane (5 mL). After overnight (18 hours) at room temperature, concentrate to remove the solvent under reduced pressure to yield the title compound as a solid (258 mg, 0.24 mmol). MS (m/z): 1015.6 (M+l).

Figure imgf000016_0001

Preparation 9

4-(4-bromo-2-methylbenzyl)-5-(propan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl- beta-D-glucopyranoside.

Figure imgf000017_0001

Scheme 2, step A: To a 1 L flask, add 4-[(4-bromo-2-methyl-phenyl)mefhyl]-5- isopropyl-lH-pyrazol-3-ol (24 g, 77.6 mmol), 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-alpha-D- glucopyranosyl bromide (50.4 g, 116 mmol), benzyltributylammonium chloride (5 g, 15.5 mmol), dichloromethane (250 mL), potassium carbonate (32 g, 323 mmol) and water (120 mL). Stir the reaction mixture overnight at room temperature. Extract with dichloromethane (450 mL). Wash extract with water (300 mL) and brine (500 mL). Dry organic phase over sodium sulfate, filter, and concentrate under reduced pressure. Purify the resulting residue by flash chromatography to yield the title compound (36.5 g, 57 mmol). MS (m/z): 638.5 (M+l), 636.5 (M-l).

Alternative synthesis of 4-(4-bromo-2-methylbenzyl)-5-(propan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl

2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside.

Reagents 4-[(4-bromo-2-methyl-phenyl)methyl]-5-isopropyl-lH-pyrazol-3-ol (24.0 g, 77.6 mmol), 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl bromide (50.4 g, 116 mmol), benzyltributylammonium chloride (4.94 g, 15.52 mmol), potassium carbonate (32.18 g, 232.9 mmol), dichloromethane (250 mL) and water (120 mL) are combined and the mixture is stirred at ambient temperature for 18 hours. The mixture is partitioned between dichloromethane (250 mL) and water (250 mL). The organic phase is washed with brine (250 mL), dried over Na2S04, filtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure. The resulting residue is purified by flash chromatography (eluting with 10% ethyl acetate in dichloromethane to 70% ethyl acetate in dichloromethane) to give the title compound (36.5 g, 74% yield). MS (m/z): 639/641 (M+l). Preparation 10

4- {4- [(lis)-4-hydroxybut- 1 -en- 1 -yl] -2-methylbenzyl } -5 -(propan-2-yl)- lH-pyrazol-3-yl

2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside

Figure imgf000018_0001

Scheme 2, step B: Add 3-buten-l-ol (6.1 mL, 70 mmol) to a solution of 4-(4- bromo-2-methylbenzyl)-5 -(propan-2-yl)- 1 H-pyrazol-3 -yl 2,3 ,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D- glucopyranoside (15 g, 23.5 mmol) in acetonitrile (200 mL) and triethylamine (50 mL). Degas the solution with nitrogen over 10 minutes. Add tri-o-tolylphosphine (1.43 g, 4.7 mmol) and palladium acetate (526 mg, 2.35 mmol). After refluxing at 90 °C for 2 hours, cool, and concentrate to remove the solvent under the reduced pressure. Purify the resulting residue by flash chromatography to yield the title compound (7.5 g, 11.9 mmol) MS (m/z): 631.2 (M+l), 629.2 (M-l).

Preparation 11

4-{4-[(l£)-4-oxybut-l-en-l-yl]-2-methylbenzyl}-5-(propan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl

2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside

Figure imgf000018_0002

Scheme 2, step C: Add 3,3,3-triacetoxy-3-iodophthalide (2.1g, 4.76 mmol) to a solution of 4-{4-[(l£)-4-hydroxybut-l-en-l-yl]-2-methylbenzyl}-5-(propan-2-yl)-lH- pyrazol-3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside ( 1.5 g, 2.38 mmol) and sodium bicarbonate (2 g, 23.8 mmol) in dichloromethane (50 mL) at 0 °C. After 15 minutes at room temperature, quench the reaction with saturated aqueous sodium thiosulfate (10 mL). Extract with dichloromethane (30 mL), wash extract with water (30 mL) and brine (40 mL). Dry organic phase over sodium sulfate, filter, and concentrate under reduced pressure. Purify the resulting residue by flash chromatography to yield the title compound (0.95 g, 1.51 mmol). MS (m/z): 628.8(M+1), 626.8 (M-l).

Preparation 12a

tert-butyl 2-{(3JE)-4-[3-methyl-4-({5-(propan-2-yl)-3-[(2,3,4,6-tetra-0-acetyl-beta-D- glucopyranosyl)oxy] -lH-pyrazol-4-yl}methyl)phenyl]but-3-en- 1 -yl} -2,9- diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate

Figure imgf000019_0001

Scheme 2, Step D: Add sodium triacetoxyborohydride (303 mg, 1.4 mmol) to a solution of 4-{4-[(l£)-4-oxybut-l-en-l-yl]-2-methylbenzyl}-5-(propan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol- 3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (600 mg, 0.95 mmol) and tert-butyl 2,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate hydrochloride (333 mg, 1.2 mmol) in 1,2- dichloroethane (30 mL). After 30 minutes at room temperature, quench the reaction with saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate (15 mL). Extract with dichloromethane (60 mL). Wash extract with water (30 mL) and brine (60 mL). Dry organic phase over sodium sulfate, filter, and concentrate under reduced pressure. Purify the resulting residue by flash chromatography to yield the title compound (500 mg, 0.58 mmol).

MS (m/z): 866.8, 867.8 (M+l), 864.8, 865.8 (M-l).

Preparation 13

4- {4- [( l£)-4-(2,9-diazaspiro [5.5]undec-2-yl)but- 1 -en- 1 -yl] -2-methylbenzyl} -5-(propan- 2-yl)- lH-pyrazol-3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside dihydrochloride

Figure imgf000020_0001

Scheme 2, step E: Add hydrogen chloride (4.0 M solution in 1,4-dioxane, 1.5 mL, 5.8 mmol) to a solution of tert-butyl 2-{(3£)-4-[3-methyl-4-({5-(propan-2-yl)-3-[(2,3,4,6- tetra-0-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy] – lH-pyrazol-4-yl} methyl)phenyl]but-3 -en- 1 – yl}-2,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate (500 mg, 0.58 mmol) in dichloromethane (20 mL). After 2 hours at room temperature, concentrate to remove the solvent under reduced pressure to yield the title compound as a solid (480 mg, 0.57 mmol).

MS (m/z): 767.4 (M+l).

Scheme 3

Figure imgf000021_0001

Preparation 14

tert-butyl 4-but-3-ynyl-4,9-diazas iro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate

Figure imgf000021_0002

Scheme 3, step A: Cesium carbonate (46.66 g, 143.21 mmol) is added to a suspension of tert-butyl 4,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate hydrochloride (16.66 g, 57.28 mmoles) in acetonitrile (167 mL). The mixture is stirred for 10 minutes at ambient temperature then 4-bromobutyne (6.45 mL, 68.74 mmol) is added. The reaction is heated to reflux and stirred for 18 hours. The mixture is cooled and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue is partitioned between water (200 mL) and ethyl acetate (150 mL). The phases are separated and the aqueous layer is extracted with ethyl acetate (100 mL). The combined organic layers are washed with water (200 mL), then brine (150 mL), dried over MgS04, filtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure to give the title compound (17.2 g, 98% yield). lH NMR (300.11 MHz, CDC13): δ 3.43-3.31 (m, 4H), 2.53-2.48 (m, 2H), 2.37-2.29 (m, 4H), 2.20 (s, 2H), 1.94 (t, J= 2.6 Hz, 1H), 1.44 (s, 17H).

Preparation 15

tert-butyl 4-[(£)-4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-l,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)but-3-enyl]-4,9- diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate

Figure imgf000022_0001

Scheme 3, step B: Triethylamine (5.62 mmoles; 0.783 mL), 4,4,5,5-tetramethyl- 1,3,2-dioxaborolane (8.56 mL, 59.0 mmol) and zirconocene chloride (1.45 g, 5.62 mmoles) are added to tert-butyl 4-but-3-ynyl-4,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate (17.21 g, 56.16 mmoles). The resulting mixture is heated to 65 °C for 3.5 hours. The mixture is cooled and dissolved in dichloromethane (150 mL). The resulting solution is passed through a ~4cm thick pad of silica gel, eluting with dichloromethane (2 x 200 mL). The filtrate is concentrated under reduced pressure to give the title compound (21.2 g, 87% yield). 1H NMR (300.11 MHz, CDCI3): δ 6.65-6.55 (m, 1H), 5.49-5.43 (m, 1H), 3.42-3.29 (m, 4H), 2.40-2.27 (m, 6H), 2.25-2.08 (m, 2H), 1.70 – 1.13 (m, 29H).

Preparation 16

tert-butyl 2-{(3£’)-4-[3-methyl-4-({5-(propan-2-yl)-3-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-lH- pyrazol-4-yl} methyl)phenyl]but-3 -en- 1 -yl} -2,9-diazaspiro [5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate

Figure imgf000023_0001

Scheme 3, step C: A solution of 4-(4-bromo-2-methylbenzyl)-5-(propan-2-yl)- lH-pyrazol-3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (20 g, 31.3 mmol), tert- butyl 4-[(£)-4-(4,4,5 ,5 -tetramethyl- 1 ,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)but-3 -enyl] -4,9- diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate (16.3 g, 37.5 mmol) and potassium carbonate (12.97 g, 93.82 mmol) in tetrahydrofuran (200 mL) and water (40 mL) is degassed for 15 min by bubbling nitrogen gas through it. Pd(OAc)2 (140 mg, 625 μιηοΐ) and 2- dicyclohexylphosphino-2′,4′,6′-tri-i -propyl- Ι, -biphenyl (0.596 g, 1.25 mmol) are added and the reaction is heated to reflux for 16 h. The solution is cooled to ambient temperature and methanol (200 mL) is added. After 30 minutes the solvent is removed under reduced pressure. The mixture is partitioned between ethyl acetate (500 mL) and brine (500 ml) adding aqueous MgS04 (1M; 500 ml) to aid the phase separation. The layers are separated and the organic layer is dried over MgS04 and filtered through a 10 cm pad of silica gel, eluting with ethyl acetate (-1.5 L). The filtrate is discarded and the silica pad is flushed with 5% MeOH in THF (2 L). The methanolic filtrate is concentrated under reduced pressure to give the title compound (20. lg, 92%).

MS (m/z): 699 (M+l).

Figure imgf000024_0001
Figure imgf000024_0002

Preparation 17

tert-butyl 4- [(E)-4- [4- [(3 -hydroxy-5-isopropyl- 1 H-pyrazol-4-yl)methyl] -3 -methyl- phenyl]but-3-enyl]-4,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate

Figure imgf000024_0003

Scheme 4, step A: Add tert-butyl 4-[(£)-4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-l,3,2- dioxaborolan-2-yl)but-3-enyl]-4,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate (35.8 kg, 82.4 mol) in methanol (130 L) to a solution of (4-[(4-bromo-2-methyl-phenyl)methyl]-5- isopropyl-lH-pyrazol-3-ol (23.9 kg, 77.3 mol) in methanol (440 L) at room temperature. Add water (590 L) and tripotassium phosphate (100 kg, 471.7 mol) and place the reaction under nitrogen atmosphere. To the stirring solution, add a suspension of

tris(dibenzylideneacetone) dipalladium (1.42 kg, 1.55 mol) and di-tert- butylmethylphosphonium tetrafluoroborate (775 g, 3.12 mol) in methanol (15 L). The resulting mixture is heated at 75 °C for 2 hours. Cool the mixture and filter over diatomaceous earth. Rinse the the filter cake with methanol (60 L), and concentrate the filtrate under reduced pressure. Add ethyl acetate (300 L), separate the layers, and wash the organic layer with 15% brine (3 x 120 L). Concentrate the organic layer under reduced pressure, add ethyl acetate (300 L), and stir the mixture for 18 to 20 hours. Add heptane (300 L), cool the mixture to 10 °C, and stir the mixture for an additional 18 to 20 hours. Collect the resulting solids by filtration, rinse the cake with ethyl acetate/heptane (2:3, 2 x 90 L), and dry under vacuum at 40°C to give the title compound (29.3 kg, 70.6% yield) as a white solid. lH NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD): δ 7.14 (s, 1H), 7.07 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, 1H), 6.92 (d, J= 7.6 Hz, 1H), 6.39 (d, J= 16.0 Hz, 1H), 6.25-6.12 (m, 1H), 3.63 (s, 2H), 3.45-3.38 (bs, 3H), 3.34 (s, 3 H), 3.33 (s, 3H), 2.85-2.75 (m, 1H), 2.49-2.40 (m, 5 H), 2.33 (s, 3H), 1.68-1.62 (m, 2H), 1.60-1.36 (m, 15H), 1.11 (s, 3H), 1.10 (s, 3H).

Preparation 12b

Alterternative preparation of tert-butyl 2-{(3£)-4-[3-methyl-4-({5-(propan-2-yl)-3- [(2,3,4,6-tetra-0-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-lH-pyrazol-4-yl}methyl)phenyl]but- 3-en-l-yl}-2,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate.

Figure imgf000025_0001

Scheme 4, step B: Combine tert-butyl 4-[(E)-4-[4-[(3-hydroxy-5-isopropyl-lH- pyrazol-4-yl)methyl] -3-methyl-phenyl]but-3 -enyl] -4,9-diazaspiro [5.5]undecane-9- carboxylate (17.83 kg, 33.2 moles), acetonitrile (180 L), and benzyltributylammonium chloride (1.52 kg, 4.87 moles) at room temperature. Slowly add potassium carbonate (27.6 kg, 199.7 moles) and stir the mixture for 2 hours. Add 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-alpha- D-glucopyranosyl bromide (24.9 kg, 60.55 mol), warm the reaction mixture to 30°C and stir for 18 hours. Concentrate the mixture under reduced pressure and add ethyl acetate (180 L), followed by water (90 L). Separate the layers, wash the organic phase with 15% brine (3 x 90 L), concentrate the mixture, and purify using column chromatography over silica gel (63 kg, ethyl acetate/heptanes as eluent (1 :2→1 :0)) to provide the title compound (19.8 kg, 94% purity, 68.8% yield) as a yellow foam, !H NMR (400 MHz, CDC13): δ 7.13 (s, 1H), 7.03 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, 1H), 6.78 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, 1H), 6.36 (d, J= 16.0,

1H), 6.25-6.13 (m, 1H), 5.64 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, 1H), 5.45-5.25 (m, 2H), 5.13-4.95 (m, 2H), 4.84-4.76 (m, 1H), 4.25-4.13 (m, 2H), 4.10-4.00 (m, 2H), 3.90-3.86 (m, 1H), 3.58-3.50 (m, 2H), 3.40-3.22 (m, 4H), 2.89-2.79 (m, 1H), 2.10-1.90 (m, 18 H), 1.82 (s, 3H), 1.62- 0.82 (m, 22H).

Preparation 18

2-{(3JE)-4-[3-methyl-4-({5-(propan-2-yl)-3-[(2,3,4,6-tetra-0-acetyl-beta-D- glucopyranosyl)oxy]-lH-pyrazol-4-yl}methyl)phenyl]but-3-en-l-yl} -2,9- diazaspiro[5.5]undecane

Figure imgf000026_0001

Scheme 4, step C: Combine tert-butyl 2-{(3JE)-4-[3-methyl-4-({5-(propan-2-yl)- 3-[(2,3,4,6-tetra-0-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-lH-pyrazol-4- yl}methyl)phenyl]but-3-en-l-yl}-2,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate (19.6 kg, 22.6 moles) with dichloromethane (120 L) and cool to 0°C. Slowly add trifluoroacetic acid (34.6 L, 51.6 kg, 452 moles) and stir for 9 hours. Quench the reaction with ice water (80 L), and add ammonium hydroxide (85-90 L) to adjust the reaction mixture to pH (8- 9). Add dichloromethane (120 L), warm the reaction mixture to room temperature, and separate the layers. Wash the organic layer with water (75 L), brine, and concentrate under reduced pressure to provide the title compound (16.2 kg, 95.0% purity, 93% yield) as a yellow solid. lH NMR (400 MHz, CDC13): δ 7.08 (s, IH), 6.99 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, IH),

6.76 (d, J= 7.6 Hz, IH), 6.38 (d, J=15.6 Hz, IH), 6.00-5.83 (m, IH), 5.31 (d, J= 7.6 Hz, IH), 5.25-5.13 (m, 4H), 4.32 (dd, J= 12.8, 9.2 Hz, IH), 4.14 (d, J= 11.2 Hz, IH), 3.90 (d, J= 10.0 Hz, IH), 3.75-3.50 (m, 3H), 3.30-3.00 (m, 5 H), 2.85-2.75 (m, IH), 2.70-2.48 (m, 3H), 2.25 (s, IH), 2.13-1.63 (m, 19H), 1.32-1.21 (m, IH), 1.14 (s, 3H), 1.13 (s, 3H), 1.12 (s, 3H), 1.10 (s, 3H).

Example 1

Hydrated crystalline 4- {4-[(l£)-4-(2,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undec-2-yl)but- 1 -en- 1 -yl]-2- methylbenzyl} -5-(propan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl beta-D-glucopyranoside acetate

First alternative preparation of 4-{4-[(l£’)-4-(2.9-diazaspiro[5.5]undec-2-yl)but-l-en-l- yl]-2-methylbenzyl| -5-(propan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl beta-D-glucopyranoside (free base).

Figure imgf000027_0001

Scheme 1, step I: Add sodium hydroxide (0.5 mL, 0.5 mmol, 1.0 M solution) to a solution of 4- {4-[( l£)-4-(2,9-diazaspiro [5.5]undec-2-yl)but- 1 -en- 1 -yl] -2-methylbenzyl} – 5-(propan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzoyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside dihydrochloride (258 mg, 0.24 mmol) in methanol (2 mL). After 2 hours at 40°C, concentrate to remove the solvent under reduced pressure to give a residue, which is purified by preparative HPLC method: high pH, 25% B for 4 min, 25-40 B % for 4 min @ 85 mL/min using a 30 x 75 mm, 5 μιη C18XBridge ODB column, solvent A – H.0 with NH4HCO3 @ pH 10, solvent B – MeCN to yield the title compound (free base) as a solid (46 mg, 0.08 mmol). MS (m/z): 598.8 (M+l), 596.8 (M-l).

Second alternative preparation of 4-{4-r(l-£’)-4-(2.9-diazaspiror5.51undec-2-yl)but-l-en- 1 -yl] -2-methylbenzyl I -5 -(propan-2-yl)- lH-pyrazol-3 -yl beta-D-glucopyranoside (free base).

Figure imgf000028_0001

Scheme 2, step F: Add methanol (5 mL), triethylamine (3 mL), and water (3 mL) to 4- {4-[( lJE)-4-(2,9-diazaspiro [5.5]undec-2-yl)but- 1 -en- 1 -yl] -2-methylbenzyl } -5 – (propan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside dihydrochloride (480 mg, 0.24 mmol). After 18 hours (overnight) at room temperature, concentrate to dryness under reduced pressure. Purify the resulting residue by preparative HPLC method: high pH, 25% B for 4 min, 25-40 B % for 4 min @ 85 mL/min using a 30 x 75 mm, 5 μιη C18XBridge ODB column, solvent A – H20 with NH4HCO3 @ pH 10, solvent B – MeCN to yield the title compound (free base) as a solid (50 mg, 0.08 mmol).

MS (m/z): 598.8 (M+l), 596.8 (M-l). 1H NMR (400.31 MHz, CD3OD): δ 7.11 (d, J=1.3

Hz, 1H), 7.04 (dd, J=l .3,8.0 Hz, 1H), 6.87 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, 1H), 6.36 (d, J= 15.8 Hz, 1H), 6.16 (dt, J= 15.8, 6.3 Hz, 1H), 5.02 (m, 1H), 3.81 (d, J= 11.7 Hz, 1H), 3.72 (d, J= 16.8 Hz, 1H), 3.68 (d, J= 16.8 Hz, 1H) , 3.64 (m, 1H), 3.37-3.29 (m, 4H), 2.79 (m, 1H), 2.72 (t, J= 5.8 Hz, 4H), 2.44-2.33 (m, 6H), 2.30 (s, 3H), 2.26 ( broad s, 2H), 1.59 (m, 2H), 1.50 (m, 2H), 1.43 (m, 2H), 1.36 (m, 2H), 1.11 (d, J= 7.0 Hz, 3H), 1.10 (d, J= 7.0 Hz, 3H).

Third alternative preparation of 4-{4-[(l£,)-4-(2,9-diazaspiro[5.51undec-2-yl)but-l-en-l- yll-2-methylbenzyl|-5-(propan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl beta-D-glucopyranoside.

Scheme 3, step D: Trifluoroacetic acid (32.2 mL; 0.426 mol) is added to a solution of tert-butyl 2-{(3JE)-4-[3-methyl-4-({5-(propan-2-yl)-3-beta-D- glucopyranosyl)oxy]-lH-pyrazol-4-yl}methyl)phenyl]but-3-en-l-yl}-2,9- diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate (14.87 g; 21.28 mmol) in dichloromethane (149 mL) cooled in iced water. The solution is allowed to warm to room temperature. After 30 minutes, the mixture is slowly added to ammonia in MeOH (2M; 300 mL), applying cooling as necessary to maintain a constant temperature. The solution is stirred at room temperature for 15 min. The mixture is concentrated under reduced pressure and the residue is purified using SCX-2 resin. The basic filtrate is concentrated under reduced pressure and the residue is triturated/sonicated in ethyl acetate, filtered and dried. The resulting solid is dissolved in MeOH (200mL) and concentrated in vacuo. This is repeated several times to give the title compound (free base) (12.22 g, yield 96%). MS (m/z): 599 (M+l); [a]D 20 = -12 ° (C=0.2, MeOH).

Preparation of final title compound, hydrated crystalline 4-{4-|YlE)-4-(2.9- diazaspiro [5.5|undec-2-yl)but- 1 -en- 1 -yl] -2-methylbenzyl I -5-(propan-2-vD- 1 H-pyrazol-3 – yl beta-D-glucopyranoside acetate.

Figure imgf000029_0001

4- {4- [(1 E)-4-(2,9-diazaspiro [5.5]undec-2-yl)but- 1 -en- 1 -yl] -2-methylbenzyl } -5 – (propan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl beta-D-glucopyranoside (902 mg) is placed in a round bottom flask (100 mL) and treated with wet ethyl acetate (18 mL). [Note – wet ethyl acetate is prepared by mixing ethyl acetate (100 mL) and dionized water (100 mL). After mixing, the layers are allowed to separate, and the top wet ethyl acetate layer is removed for use. Acetic acid is a hydrolysis product of ethyl acetate and is present in wet ethyl acetate.] The compound dissolves, although not completely as wet ethyl acetate is added. After several minutes, a white precipitate forms. An additional amount of wet ethyl acetate (2 mL) is added to dissolve remaining compound. The solution is allowed to stir uncovered overnight at room temperature during which time the solvent partially evaporates. The remaining solvent from the product slurry is removed under vacuum, and the resulting solid is dried under a stream of nitrogen to provide the final title compound as a crystalline solid. A small amount of amorphous material is identified in the product by solid-state NMR. This crystalline final title compound may be used as seed crystals to prepare additional crystalline final title compound.

Alternative preparation of final title compound, hvdrated crystalline 4-{4-[(lE)-4-(2.,9- diazaspiro [5.5]undec-2-yl)but- 1 -en- 1 -yl] -2-methylbenzyl I -5-(propan-2-yl)- 1 H-pyrazol-3 – yl beta-D-glucopyranoside acetate.

Under a nitrogen atmosphere combine of 4-{4-[(lE)-4-(2,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undec- 2-yl)but- 1 -en- 1 -yl] -2-methylbenzyl} -5-(propan-2-yl)- 1 H-pyrazol-3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O- acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2.1 kg, 2.74 mol), methanol (4.4 L), tetrahydrofuran (4.2 L), and water (210 mL). Add potassium carbonate (460 g, 3.33 moles) and stir for four to six hours, then filter the reaction mixture to remove the solids. Concentrate the filtrate under reduced pressure, then add ethanol (9.0 L) followed by acetic acid (237 mL, 4.13 mol) and stir at room temperature for one hour. To the stirring solution add wet ethyl acetate (10 L, containing approx. 3 w/w% water) slowly over five hours, followed by water (500 mL). Stir the suspension for twelve hours and add wet ethyl acetate (4.95 L, containing approx. 3 w/w% water) over a period of eight hours. Stir the suspension for twelve hours and add additional wet ethyl acetate (11.5 L, containing approx. 3 w/w% water) slowly over sixteen hours. Stir the suspension for twelve hours, collect the solids by filtration and rinse the solids with wet ethyl acetate (3.3 L, containing approx. 3 w/w% water). Dry in an oven under reduced pressure below 30°C to give the title compound as an off-white crystalline solid (1.55 kg, 2.35 mol, 96.7% purity, 72.4 w/w% potency, 68.0% yield based on potency). HRMS (m/z): 599.3798 (M+l).

PATENT

CN105705509

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=CN175101669&tab=PCTDESCRIPTION

The present invention is in the field of treatment of diabetes and other diseases and conditions associated with hyperglycemia. Diabetes is a group of diseases characterized by high blood sugar levels. It affects approximately 25 million people in the United States, and according to the 2011 National Diabetes Bulletin, it is also the seventh leading cause of death in the United States (US Department of Health and Human Resources Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). Sodium-coupled glucose cotransporters (SGLT’s) are one of the transporters known to be responsible for the uptake of carbohydrates such as glucose. More specifically, SGLT1 is responsible for transporting glucose across the brush border membrane of the small intestine. Inhibition of SGLT1 can result in a decrease in glucose absorption in the small intestine, thus providing a useful method of treating diabetes.

Alternative medicines and treatments for diabetes are needed. The present invention provides an acetate salt of a pyrazole compound which is an SGLT1 inhibitor, and thus it is suitable for treating certain conditions such as diabetes.

U.S. Patent No. 7,655,632 discloses certain pyrazole derivatives having human SGLT1 inhibitory activity, which are also disclosed for use in the prevention or treatment of diseases associated with hyperglycemia, such as diabetes. Moreover, WO 2011/039338 discloses certain pyrazole derivatives having SGLT1/SGLT2 inhibitor activity, which are also disclosed for use in the treatment of bone diseases such as osteoporosis.


PATENT

WO-2019141209

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2019141209&tab=FULLTEXT&_cid=P10-JYNZF2-05384-1

Diabetes is a group of lifelong metabolic diseases characterized by multiple causes of chronic hyperglycemia. Long-term increase in blood glucose can cause damage to large blood vessels and microvessels and endanger the heart, brain, kidney, peripheral nerves, eyes, feet and so on. According to the statistics of the World Health Organization, there are more than 100 complications of diabetes, which is the most common complication, and the incidence rate is also on the rise. The kidney plays a very important role in the body’s sugar metabolism. Glucose does not pass through the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane in the body, and must rely on the glucose transporter on the cell membrane. Sodium-coupled glucose co-transporters (SGLTs) are one of the transporters known to be responsible for the uptake of carbohydrates such as glucose. More specifically, SGLT1 is responsible for transporting glucose across the brush border membrane of the small intestine. Inhibition of SGLT1 results in a decrease in glucose absorption in the small intestine and can therefore be used in the treatment of diabetes.
Ellerelli has developed a novel SGLTs inhibitor for alternative drugs and treatments for diabetes. CN105705509 discloses the SGLTs inhibitor-pyrazole compound, which has the structure shown in the following formula (1):
str1
It is well known for drug production process has strict requirements, the purity of pharmaceutical active ingredients will directly affect the safety and effectiveness of drug quality. Simplified synthetic route optimization, and strictly control the purity of the intermediates has a very important role in improving drug production, quality control and optimization of the dosage form development.
CN105705509 discloses a method for synthesizing a compound of the formula (1), wherein the intermediate compound 2-{(3E)-4-[3-methyl4-({5-(propyl-2-yl)) is obtained by the step B in Scheme 4. -3-[(2,3,4,6-tetra-acetyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-1H-pyrazol-4-yl}methyl)phenyl]but-3- Tert-butyl-1-enyl}-2,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate (Compound obtained in Preparation Example 12b) was obtained as a yellow foam, yield 68.6%, purity 94 %, this step involves silica gel column purification, low production efficiency, high cost, and poor quality controllability; the intermediate 2-{(3E)-4-[3-methyl 4-({5- (prop-2-yl)-3-[(2,3,4,6-tetra-acetyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy)-1H-pyrazol-4-yl}methyl) Phenyl]but-3-en-1-yl}-2,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undecane (Compound obtained in Preparation Example 18) as a yellow solid with a purity of 95.0%; The resulting intermediate compounds were all of low purity. Moreover, CN105705509 produces a compound of formula (1) having a purity of 96.7% as described in the publications of the publications 0141 and 0142. The resulting final compound is not of high purity and is not conducive to subsequent drug preparation.

Process for preparing pyranoglucose-substituted pyrazole compound, used as a pharmaceutical intermediate in SGLT inhibitor for treating diabetes.

Example 1
626 g of the compound of the formula (16), 6 L of acetonitrile, 840 g of cesium carbonate and 1770 g of 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-pivaloyl-α-D-glucosyl bromide (formula (17) The compound is sequentially added to the reaction vessel, heated to 40 ° C to 45 ° C, and reacted for 4 to 5 hours, then cooled to 20 to 25 ° C, filtered, and the obtained solid is rinsed once with acetonitrile; the filter cake is dissolved with 8 L of ethyl acetate and 10 L of water. After the liquid separation, the organic phase was concentrated to about 3 L, 10 L of acetonitrile was added, and the mixture was stirred for 12 h to precipitate a solid, which was filtered. The filter cake was rinsed with acetonitrile and dried under vacuum at 60 ° C for 24 h to give white crystals, 652 g of compound of formula (9c). The yield was 61%, the HPLC purity was 98.52%, and the melting point was 180.0-182.1 °C. 1 H NMR (400 MHz, MeOD) (see Figure 1): δ 7.10 (s, 1H), 7.03 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 6.86 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 6.39 (d, J=15.6,1H), 6.19-6.12 (m,1H), 5.59 (d, J=8.4 Hz, 1H), 5.40-5.35 (t, J=9.6 Hz, 1H), 5.17-5.06 (m, 2H) , 4.18-4.14 (dd, J = 12.4 Hz, 4.4 Hz, 1H), 4.10-4.06 (dd, J = 12.4 Hz, 1.6 Hz, 1H), 3.92-3.89 (dd, J = 10 Hz, 2.4 Hz, 1H) , 3.64-3.54 (dd, J=20 Hz, 16.8 Hz, 2H), 3.31-3.30 (m, 4H), 2.86-2.79 (m, 1H), 2.37-2.29 (m, 11H), 1.63-1.38 (m, 17H), 1.15-1.05 (m, 42H). MS (m/z): 1035.7 (M+H).
640 g of the compound of the formula (9c) and 6.4 L of ethyl acetate were successively added to the reaction vessel, and the temperature was lowered to 15 ° C to 20 ° C. 1176 g of p-toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate was added in portions for 2 to 3 hours; after the reaction was over, 3.5 L of a 9% potassium hydroxide aqueous solution was added, and the mixture was stirred for 10 minutes, and the aqueous phase was discarded. The organic phase was washed successively with 3.5 L of 9% and 3.5 L of 3% aqueous potassium hydroxide and concentrated to 2.5 L. 21L of n-heptane was added to the residue, and the mixture was stirred for 12 hours; filtered, and the filter cake was rinsed with n-heptane; the filter cake was dried under vacuum at 60 ° C for 24 h to obtain white crystals, p-toluene of the compound of formula (10c). The sulfonate salt was 550 g, the yield was 80%, the purity was 97.59%, and the melting point was 168.0-169.2 °C. 1 H NMR (400 MHz, MeOD) (see Figure 2): δ 7.72 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 2H), 7.24 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 2H), 7.10 (s, 1H), 7.03 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 6.86 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 6.39 (d, J = 15.6, 1H), 6.19-6.12 (m, 1H), 5.60 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H) ), 5.41-5.37 (t, J = 9.6 Hz, 1H), 5.17-5.06 (m, 2H), 4.18-4.14 (dd, J = 12.4 Hz, 4.0 Hz, 1H), 4.10-4.07 (d, J = 11.6Hz, 1H), 3.94-3.91 (dd, J=7.2Hz, 2.8Hz, 1H), 3.64-3.54 (dd, J=20.0Hz, 16.8Hz, 2H), 3.31-3.30 (m, 4H), 2.86 -2.79 (m, 1H), 2.49-2.29 (m, 14H), 1.78-1.44 (m, 8H), 1.15-1.05 (m, 42H). MS (m/z): 935.7 (M+H).
82.6 g of potassium hydroxide, 5.5 L of absolute ethanol and 550 g of the p-toluenesulfonate of the compound of the formula (10c) were sequentially added to the reaction vessel, and stirred at 45 to 50 ° C for about 4 hours. The temperature was lowered to 20 to 25 ° C, filtered, and the solid was rinsed with ethanol. The filtrate and the eluent were combined, and 65 g of acetic acid was added thereto, followed by stirring for 15 min. The reaction solution was concentrated under reduced pressure to about 1.5 L, and then 52 g of acetic acid was added. After stirring for 20 min, 4.5 L of ethyl acetate containing 3% water and 160 mL of purified water were added dropwise. After the dropwise addition, continue stirring for 3 to 4 hours. Filter and filter cake was rinsed with ethyl acetate containing 3% water. The solid was transferred to a reaction kettle, 500 mL of water was added and stirred for 18 h. After filtration, the filter cake was washed successively with water and an ethanol/ethyl acetate mixed solvent. The filter cake was dried under vacuum at 35 to 40 ° C for 4 hours to obtain a white solid, 245 g of compound of formula (1), yield 75%, purity 99.55%. 1 H NMR (400 MHz, MeOD) (see Figure 3): δ 7.11 (s, 1H), 7.05 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1H), 6.89 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 6.39 (d, J=16.0,1H), 6.20-6.13 (dt, J=15.6 Hz, 6.8 Hz, 1H), 5.03-5.01 (m, 1H), 3.83 (d, J=11.2, 1H), 3.71-3.59 (m, 3H), 3.35-3.30 (m, 4H), 3.09-3.06 (t, J = 6 Hz, 4H), 2.87-2.77 (m, 1H), 2.49-2.31 (m, 6H), 2.30 (s, 3H), 2.26(s, 2H), 1.90 (s, 3H), 1.78 (m, 2H), 1.68 (m, 2H), 1.65 (m, 2H), 1.44-1.43 (m, 2H), 1.13 (d, J = 6.8 Hz, 3H), 1.11 (d, J = 6.8 Hz, 3H), MS (m/z): 599.5 (M+H).
Example 2
5.00 kg of the maleate salt of the compound of the formula (16), 40 L of tetrahydrofuran, 5.47 kg of potassium phosphate and 11.67 kg of 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-pivaloyl-α-D-glucosyl bromide The compound (formula (17)) is sequentially added to the reaction vessel, heated to 40 to 45 ° C, and reacted for 4 to 5 hours, then cooled to 15 to 25 ° C, filtered, and the solid was rinsed once with tetrahydrofuran. The filter cake was dissolved in 36 L of ethyl acetate and 20 L of water and then separated. The organic phase was concentrated to ca. 18 L, 64 L acetonitrile was added and stirred for 15 h. Filtration, the filter cake was rinsed with acetonitrile, and dried under vacuum at 60 ° C for 24 h to give white crystals of the compound of formula (9c), 4.50 kg, yield 57%, HPLC purity 99.19%.
4.45 kg of the compound of the formula (9c) and 45 L of butyl acetate were sequentially added to the reaction vessel, and the temperature was lowered to 15 ° C to 20 ° C. 4.13 kg of methanesulfonic acid was added in portions and the reaction was carried out for 2 to 3 hours. 22 L of a 9% aqueous potassium hydroxide solution was added, stirred for 10 min, and the liquid phase was discarded. The organic phase was washed successively with 10 L of 9%, 4.5 L of 10% and 2 L of 2.5% aqueous potassium hydroxide and concentrated to 15 L. 68 L of n-heptane was added to the residue, and the mixture was stirred for further 12 h. Filtered and the filter cake was rinsed once with n-heptane. The solid was dried under vacuum at 60 ° C for 24 h to obtain white crystals. The methanesulfonic acid salt of the compound of formula (10c) was 4.37 kg, yield 99%, purity 97.94%.
0.73 kg of potassium hydroxide, 43 L of methanol and 4.30 kg of the compound of the formula (10c) were sequentially added to the reaction vessel, and stirred at 45 to 50 ° C for 4 hours. The temperature was lowered to 20 to 25 ° C, filtered, and 0.56 kg of acetic acid was added to the filtrate, and the mixture was stirred for 15 minutes. The reaction solution was concentrated to about 15 L under reduced pressure, and 0.40 g of acetic acid was added. After stirring for 10 min, 39 L of 3% water in ethyl acetate and 1.3 L of purified water were added dropwise. After the dropwise addition, stirring was continued for about 2 hours. Filter and filter cake was rinsed once with ethyl acetate containing 3% water. The solid was transferred to a reaction kettle, and 3.5 L of water was added and stirred for 18 h. After filtration, the filter cake was washed successively with water and an ethanol/ethyl acetate mixed solvent. The cake was vacuum dried at 35 to 40 ° C to give a white solid. Compound (1) (1), 1.84 g, yield 67%, purity 99.65%.
Patent ID Title Submitted Date Granted Date
US9573970 4–5-(PROPAN-2-YL)-1H-PYRAZOL-3-YL BETA-D GLUCOPYRANOSIDE ACETATE 2014-10-30 2016-07-28

/////////////SY-008 , SY 008 , SY008, ELI LILY, PHASE 1, GLT1 inhibitor, type 2 diabetes, Yabao Pharmaceutical, CHINA, DIABETES

CC(=O)O.Cc5cc(\C=C\CCN2CCCC1(CCNCC1)C2)ccc5Cc3c(nnc3C(C)C)O[C@@H]4O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@H]4O

Cc5cc(\C=C\CCN2CCCC1(CCNCC1)C2)ccc5Cc3c(nnc3C(C)C)O[C@@H]4O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@H]4
O

ACLIMOSTAT


img

Image result for Aclimostat

Aclimostat
CAS: 2082752-83-6
Chemical Formula: C26H42N2O6
Molecular Weight: 478.63
Elemental Analysis: C, 65.25; H, 8.85; N, 5.85; O, 20.06

ZGN-1061; ZGN1061; ZGN 1061; Aclimostat,

UNII-X150A3JK8R

X150A3JK8R

(3R,4S,5S,6R)-5-Methoxy-4-[(2R,3R)-2-methyl-3-(3- methylbut-2-en-1-yl)oxiran-2-yl]-1-oxaspiro[2.5]octan-6-yl 3-[2-(morpholin-4-yl)ethyl]azetidine-1-carboxylate

1-Azetidinecarboxylic acid, 3-[2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl]-, (3R,4S,5S,6R)-5-methoxy-4-[(2R,3R)-2-methyl-3-(3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-2-oxiranyl]-1-oxaspiro[2.5]oct-6-yl ester

3R,4S,5S,6R)-5-methoxy-4-((2R,3R)-2-methyl-3-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)oxiran-2-yl)-1- oxaspiro[2.5]octan-6-yl 3-(2-morpholinoethyl)azetidine-1-carboxylate

ZAFGEN,  PHASE 2,  DIABETES

Aclimostat, also known as ZGN-1061, is an anti-diabetic, anti-obesity MetAP2 inhibitor.

Over 1.1 billion people worldwide are reported to be overweight. Obesity is estimated to affect over 90 million people in the United States alone. Twenty-five percent of the population in the United States over the age of twenty is considered clinically obese. While being overweight or obese presents problems (for example restriction of mobility, discomfort in tight spaces such as theater or airplane seats, social difficulties, etc.), these conditions, in particular clinical obesity, affect other aspects of health, i.e., diseases and other adverse health conditions associated with, exacerbated by, or precipitated by being overweight or obese. The estimated mortality from obesity-related conditions in the United States is over 300,000 annually (O’Brien et al. Amer J Surgery (2002) 184:4S-8S; and Hill et al. (1998) Science, 280:1371). [0003] There is no curative treatment for being overweight or obese. Traditional pharmacotherapies for treating an overweight or obese subject, such as serotonin and noradrenergic re-uptake inhibitors, noradrenergic re-uptake inhibitors, selective serotonin re- uptake inhibitors, intestinal lipase inhibitors, or surgeries such as stomach stapling or gastric banding, have been shown to provide minimal short-term benefits or significant rates of relapse, and have further shown harmful side-effects to patients. [0004] MetAP2 encodes a protein that functions at least in part by enzymatically removing the amino terminal methionine residue from certain newly translated proteins such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (Warder et al. (2008) J. Proteome Res.7:4807). Increased expression of the MetAP2 gene has been historically associated with various forms of cancer. Molecules inhibiting the enzymatic activity of MetAP2 have been identified and have been explored for their utility in the treatment of various tumor types (Wang et al. (2003) Cancer Res.63:7861) and infectious diseases such as microsporidiosis, leishmaniasis, and malaria (Zhang et al. (2002) J. Biomed. Sci.9:34). Notably, inhibition of MetAP2 activity in obese and obese-diabetic animals leads to a reduction in body weight in part by increasing the oxidation of fat and in part by reducing the consumption of food (Rupnick et al. (2002) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99:10730).

[0005] Such MetAP2 inhibitors may be useful as well for patients with excess adiposity and conditions related to adiposity including type 2 diabetes, hepatic steatosis, and

cardiovascular disease (via e.g. ameliorating insulin resistance, reducing hepatic lipid content, and reducing cardiac workload). Accordingly, compounds capable of modulating MetAP2 are needed to address the treatment of obesity and related diseases as well as other ailments favorably responsive to MetAP2 modulator treatment.

Synthesis

CONTD……………….

contd………………….

Tetrahedron, 73(30), 4371-4379; 2017

WO 2017027684

PATENT

WO 2017027684

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2017027684A1/en

Example 1

(3R,4S,5S,6R)-5-methoxy-4-((2R,3R)-2-methyl-3-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)oxiran-2-yl)-1- oxaspiro[2.5]octan-6-yl 3-(2-morpholinoethyl)azetidine-1-carboxylate

Figure imgf000117_0001

[00312] To a mixture of 4-(2-(azetidin-3-yl)ethyl)morpholine, trifluoroacetate (2.33 g, 3.7 mmol) in CH3CN (150 mL) was added DIPEA (2.9 mL, 17 mmol) drop-wise at 0-5oC. The mixture was then stirred at 0-5oC for 10 min, and carbonate Intermediate 1 (1.3 g, 2.9 mmol) was added to the mixture in portions at 0oC under a N2atmosphere. The reaction mixture was stirred at 25oC for 16 hrs. TLC (PE : EtOAc = 3 : 1) showed that the reaction was complete. The solvent was removed under vacuum below 40oC. The residue was diluted with DCM (60 mL), and the DCM solution was washed with ammonium acetate buffer (pH~4, 15 mL x 2). The combined aqueous layers were back-extracted with DCM (20 mL x 2). The combined organic layers were washed with aq. NaHCO3 solution (15 mL x 2, 5% wt), dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated. Purification by silica gel column chromatography (DCM: MeOH=100: 0~60: 1), followed by preparative HPLC (Method A, H2O (0.1% FA) / CH3CN) gave the title compound (1.15 g) as a light yellow syrup. LC-MS: m/z = 479 [M+H]+1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 5.43 (br, 1H), 5.13 (t, J = 7.6 Hz, 1H), 3.87-4.15 (m, 2H), 3.63-3.65 (m, 4H), 3.52- 3.56 (m, 3H), 3.49 (s, 3H), 2.90 (d, J = 4.4 Hz, 1H), 2.46-2.54 (m, 3H), 2.19-2.36 (m, 7H), 1.97-2.13 (m, 2H), 1.78-1.89 (m, 5H), 1.73 (s, 3H), 1.62 (s, 3H), 1.13 (s, 3H), 0.99 (d, J = 13.6 Hz, 1H).

REFERENCES

1: Malloy J, Zhuang D, Kim T, Inskeep P, Kim D, Taylor K. Single and multiple dose evaluation of a novel MetAP2 inhibitor: Results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2018 Aug;20(8):1878-1884. doi: 10.1111/dom.13305. Epub 2018 Apr 23. PubMed PMID: 29577550; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6055687.

2: Burkey BF, Hoglen NC, Inskeep P, Wyman M, Hughes TE, Vath JE. Preclinical Efficacy and Safety of the Novel Antidiabetic, Antiobesity MetAP2 Inhibitor ZGN-1061. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2018 May;365(2):301-313. doi: 10.1124/jpet.117.246272. Epub 2018 Feb 28. PubMed PMID: 29491038.

//////////////Aclimostat, ZGN-1061, ZAFGEN,  PHASE 2,  DIABETES

 O=C(N1CC(CCN2CCOCC2)C1)O[C@H](CC3)[C@@H](OC)[C@H]([C@@]4(C)O[C@@H]4C/C=C(C)\C)[C@]53CO5

SRT 1720


img

SRT-1720 diHCl

CAY10559

CAS: 1001645-58-4 (di HCl) , 925434-55-5 (free base)   1001645-58-4 (HCl)
Chemical Formula: C25H25Cl2N7OS
Molecular Weight: 542.483
Elemental Analysis: C, 55.35; H, 4.65; Cl, 13.07; N, 18.07; O, 2.95; S, 5.91

SRT-1720 HCl, SRT-1720 hudrochloride; SRT1720; SRT-1720; SRT 1720; CAY10559; CAY-10559; CAY 10559; SIRT-1933; SIRT 1933; SIRT1933.

 N-(2-(3-(piperazin-1-ylmethyl)imidazo[2,1-b]thiazol-6-yl)phenyl)quinoxaline-2-carboxamide dihydrochloride

SRT1720.svg

  • Molecular FormulaC25H23N7OS
  • Average mass469.561 Da

SRT-1720, also known as CAY10559 and is a drug developed by Sirtris Pharmaceuticals intended as a small-molecule activator of the sirtuin subtype SIRT1. It has similar activity in the body to the known SIRT1 activator resveratrol, but is 1000x more potent. In animal studies it was found to improve insulin sensitivity and lower plasma glucose levels in fat, muscle and liver tissue, and increased mitochondrial and metabolic function. A study of SRT1720 conducted by the National Institute on Aging found that the drug may extend the lifespan of obese mice by 44% .

SRT1720 is an experimental drug that was studied by Sirtris Pharmaceuticals intended as a small-molecule activator of the sirtuinsubtype SIRT1. The compound has been studied in animals, but safety and efficacy in humans have not been established.

Animal research

In animal models of obesity and diabetes SRT1720 was found to improve insulin sensitivity and lower plasma glucose levels in fat, muscle and liver tissue, and increase mitochondrial and metabolic function.[1] In mice rendered obese and diabetic by feeding a high-fat, high-sugar diet, a study performed at the National Institute of Aging found that feeding chow infused with the highest dose of SRT1720 beginning at one year of age increased mean lifespan by 18%, and maximum lifespan by 5%, as compared to other short-lived obese, diabetic mice; however, treated animals still lived substantially shorter lives than normal-weight mice fed normal chow with no drug.[2] In a later study, SRT1720 increased mean lifespan of obese, diabetic mice by 21.7%, similar to the earlier study, but there was no effect on maximum lifespan in this study.[3] In normal-weight mice fed a standard rodent diet, SRT1720 increased mean lifespan by just 8.8%, and again had no effect on maximum lifespan.[3]

Since the discovery of SRT1720, the claim that this compound is a SIRT1 activator has been questioned[4][5][6] and further defended.[7][8]

Although SRT1720 is not currently undergoing clinical development, a related compound, SRT2104, is currently in clinical development for metabolic diseases.[9]

PAPER

Letters in Drug Design & Discovery, 10(9), 793-797; 2013

The Identification of the SIRT1 Activator SRT2104 as a Clinical Candidate

Author(s): Pui Yee Ng, Jean E. Bemis, Jeremy S. Disch, Chi B. Vu, Christopher J. Oalmann, Amy V. Lynch,David P. Carney, Thomas V. Riera, Jeffrey Song, Jesse J. Smith, Siva Lavu, Angela Tornblom, Meghan Duncan, Marie Yeager, Kristina Kriksciukaite, Akanksha Gupta, Vipin Suri, Peter J. Elliot, Jill C. Milne, Joseph J. Nunes, Michael R. Jirousek, George P. Vlasuk, James L. Ellis, Robert B. Perni.

Journal Name: Letters in Drug Design & Discovery

Volume 10 , Issue 9 , 2013

Paper

Milne, J.C.; Lambert, P.D.; Schenk, S.; Carney, D.P.; Smith, J.J.; Gagne, D.J.; Jin, L.; Boss, O.; Perni, R.B.; Vu, C.B.; Bemis, J.E.; Xie, R.; Disch, J.S.; Ng, P.Y.; Nunes, J.J.; Lynch, A.V.; Yang, H.; Galonek, H.; Israelian, K.; Choy, W.; Iffland, A.; Lavu, S.; Medvedik, O.; Sinclair, D.A.; Olefsky, J.M.; Jirousek, M.R.; Elliott, P.J.; Westphal, C.H.
Small molecule activators of SIRT1 as therapeutics for the treatment of type 2 diabetes
Nature 2007, 450(7170): 712

PATENT

WO 2007019417

WO 2007019416

WO 2007019345

WO 2007019344

WO 2007019346

WO 2008115518

PAPER

Vu, Chi B.; Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 2009, VOL 52(5), PG 1275-1283 

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jm8012954

Abstract Image

A series of imidazo[1,2-b]thiazole derivatives is shown to activate the NAD+-dependent deacetylase SIRT1, a potential new therapeutic target to treat various metabolic disorders. This series of compounds was derived from a high throughput screening hit bearing an oxazolopyridine core. Water-solubilizing groups could be installed conveniently at either the C-2 or C-3 position of the imidazo[1,2-b]thiazole ring. The SIRT1 enzyme activity could be adjusted by modifying the amide portion of these imidazo[1,2-b]thiazole derivatives. The most potent analogue within this series, namely, compound 29, has demonstrated oral antidiabetic activity in the ob/ob mouse model, the diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model, and the Zucker fa/fa rat model.

Discovery of Imidazo[1,2-b]thiazole Derivatives as Novel SIRT1 Activators

Sirtris Pharmaceuticals, 200 Technology Square, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139
J. Med. Chem.200952 (5), pp 1275–1283
DOI: 10.1021/jm8012954

* To whom correspondence should be addressed. Phone: (617)-252-6920, extension 2129. Fax: (617)-252-6924. E-mail: cvu@sirtrispharma.com., †

Present address: Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of California—San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093.

Preparation of N-(2-(3-(Piperazin-1-ylmethyl)imidazo[2,1-b]thiazol-6-yl)phenyl)quinoxaline-2-carboxamide (29)

Essentially the same procedure as detailed in the preparation of 3,4,5-trimethoxy-N-(2-(3-(piperazin-1-ylmethyl)imidazo[2,1-b]thiazol-6-yl)phenyl)benzamide was employed except that 2-quinoxaloyl chloride was used.
Mp: dec (HCl salt), 221.4 °C (freebase).
 1H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 9.60 (br s, 1 H), 8.88 (d, 1 H, J = 8 Hz), 8.60 (br s, 1 H), 8.50 (s, 1 H), 8.0−8.30 (m, 5 H), 7.78 (d, 1 H, J = 8 Hz), 7.10−7.33 (m, 4 H), 3.90 (br s, 2 H), 3.00−3.10 (m, 4H), 2.60−2.80 (m, 4 H).
13C NMR (100 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 47.49, 49.88, 111.45, 120.47, 121.84, 124.02, 127.04, 128.10, 129.20, 129.23, 131.39, 132.15, 135.39, 139.54, 143.03, 143.80, 144.36, 144.62, 147.76, 161.57.
High resolution MS, calcd for C25H23N7OS [M + H]+ 470.1763; found, 470.1753.

References

  1. ^ Milne JC; Lambert PD; Schenk S; Carney DP; Smith JJ; Gagne DJ; Jin L; Boss O; Perni RB; Vu CB; Bemis JE; Xie R; Disch JS; Ng PY; Nunes JJ; Lynch AV; Yang H; Galonek H; Israelian K; Choy W; Iffland A; Lavu S; Medvedik O; Sinclair DA; Olefsky JM; Jirousek MR; Elliott PJ; Westphal CH (November 2007). “Small molecule activators of SIRT1 as therapeutics for the treatment of type 2 diabetes”Nature450(7170): 712–6. doi:10.1038/nature06261PMC 2753457PMID 18046409.
  2. ^ Minor RK; Baur JA; Gomes AP; Ward TM; Csiszar A; Mercken EM; Abdelmohsen K; Shin YK; Canto C; Scheibye-Knudsen M; Krawczyk M; Irusta PM; Martín-Montalvo A; Hubbard BP; Zhang Y; Lehrmann E; White AA; Price NL; Swindell WR; Pearson KJ; Becker KG; Bohr VA; Gorospe M; Egan JM; Talan MI; Auwerx J; Westphal CH; Ellis JL; Ungvari Z; Vlasuk GP; Elliott PJ; Sinclair DA; de Cabo R (Aug 2011). “SRT1720 improves survival and healthspan of obese mice”Scientific Reports1 (70): 70. doi:10.1038/srep00070PMC 3216557PMID 22355589. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
  3. Jump up to:a b Mitchell SJ; Martin-Montalvo A; Mercken EM; et al. (Feb 2014). “The SIRT1 Activator SRT1720 Extends Lifespan and Improves Health of Mice Fed a Standard Diet”Cell Reports6 (4): 836–43. doi:10.1016/j.celrep.2014.01.031PMC 4010117PMID 24582957. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
  4. ^ Pacholec M; Chrunyk BA; Cunningham D; Flynn D; Griffith DA; Griffor M; Loulakis P; Pabst B; Qiu X; Stockman B; Thanabal V; Varghese A; Ward J; Withka J; Ahn K (January 2010). “SRT1720, SRT2183, SRT1460, and resveratrol are not direct activators of SIRT1”J Biol Chem285 (11): 8340–8351. doi:10.1074/jbc.M109.088682PMC 2832984PMID 20061378.
  5. ^ Beher D; Wu J; Cumine S; Kim KW; Lu SC; Atangan L; Wang M (December 2009). “Resveratrol is not a direct activator of SIRT1 enzyme activity”. Chem Biol Drug Des74 (6): 619–24. doi:10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00901.xPMID 19843076.
  6. ^ Zarse, K.; Schmeisser, S.; Birringer, M.; Falk, E.; Schmoll, D.; Ristow, M. (2010). “Differential Effects of Resveratrol and SRT1720 on Lifespan of AdultCaenorhabditis elegans”. Hormone and Metabolic Research42 (12): 837–839. doi:10.1055/s-0030-1265225PMID 20925017.
  7. ^ Callaway E (2010-08-16). “GlaxoSmithKline strikes back over anti-ageing pills: Drugs do work as thought, says pharmaceutical giant”Naturedoi:10.1038/news.2010.412.
  8. ^ Dai H; Kustigian L; Carney D; Case A; Considine T; Hubbard BP; Perni RB; Riera TV; Szczepankiewicz B; Vlasuk GP; Stein RL (August 2010). “SIRT1 activation by small molecules – kinetic and biophysical evidence for direct interaction of enzyme and activator”J Biol Chem285 (43): 32695–32703. doi:10.1074/jbc.M110.133892PMC 2963390PMID 20702418.
  9. ^ “Sirtuin Pipeline”Sirtris Pharmaceuticals.
SRT1720
SRT1720.svg
Identifiers
PubChem CID
IUPHAR/BPS
ChemSpider
CompTox Dashboard(EPA)
Chemical and physical data
Formula C25H23N7OS
Molar mass 469.560 g/mol g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)

////////////SRT-1720 DI HCl, obesity, diabetes, SRT 1720,  Sirtris Pharmaceuticals,  CAY10559,  CAY 10559, Preclinical

O=C(NC1=CC=CC=C1C2=CN3C(SC=C3CN4CCNCC4)=N2)C5=NC6=CC=CC=C6N=C5.[H]Cl.[H]Cl

Astellas Pharma Inc. new Glucokinase Activator, ASP ? for Type 2 Diabetes


str1

ASP ?

(2R)-2-(4-cyclopropanesulfonyl-3-cyclopropylphenyl)-N-[5-(hydroxymethyl)pyrazin-2-yl]-3-[(R)-3-oxocyclopentyl]propanamide

CAS 1174229-89-0
MW C25 H29 N3 O5 S
Benzeneacetamide, 3-cyclopropyl-4-(cyclopropylsulfonyl)-N-[5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-pyrazinyl]-α-[[(1R)-3-oxocyclopentyl]methyl]-, (αR)-
Molecular Weight, 483.58
[α]D20 −128.7 (c 1.00, MeOH);
1H NMR (DMSO-d6, 400 MHz) δ 11.07 (s, 1H), 9.20 (d, J = 1.4 Hz, 1H), 8.41 (d, J = 1.4 Hz, 1H), 7.79 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 1H), 7.41 (dd, J = 8.2, 1.8 Hz, 1H), 7.15 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 5.52 (t, J = 5.7 Hz, 1H), 4.56 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 2H), 4.04 (t, J = 7.6 Hz, 1H), 3.03–2.97 (m, 1H), 2.79 (tt, J = 8.4, 5.1 Hz, 1H), 2.25–1.81 (m, 8H), 1.53–1.47 (m, 1H), 1.17–1.12 (m, 2H), 1.08–1.02 (m, 4H), 0.89–0.84 (m, 2H);
13C NMR (DMSO-d6, 101 MHz) δ 218.5, 171.8, 152.1, 147.3, 145.7, 143.2, 140.3, 138.2, 134.8, 129.0, 125.3, 125.1, 62.5, 49.9, 44.4, 38.4, 38.2, 34.8, 32.1, 29.1, 12.4, 10.8, 10.7, 5.8;
FTIR (ATR, cm–1) 3544, 3257, 1727, 1692, 1546, 1507, 1363, 1285, 1149, 719;
HRMS (ESI) m/z [M + Na]+ calcd for C25H29N3O5S 506.1726, found 506.1747.
Anal. Calcd for C25H29N3O5S: C, 62.09; H, 6.04; N, 8.69. Found: C, 61.79; H, 6.19; N, 8.62.

To Astellas Pharma,Inc.

Inventors Masahiko Hayakawa, Yoshiyuki Kido, Takahiro Nigawara, Mitsuaki Okumura, Akira Kanai, Keisuke Maki, Nobuaki Amino
Applicant Astellas Pharma Inc.

Image result for Process Chemistry Labs., Astellas Pharma Inc., 160-2 Akahama, Takahagi-shi, Ibaraki 318-0001, Japan

Synthesis

contd…………………………..

PATENT

WO2009091014

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf;jsessionid=56E9927692EF5105140FE1CD1FD14A5D.wapp1nC?docId=WO2009091014&recNum=114&maxRec=374&office=&prevFilter=&sortOption=&queryString=FP%3A%28astellas+pharma%29&tab=FullText

str1

PAPER

A Practical and Scalable Synthesis of a Glucokinase Activator via Diastereomeric Resolution and Palladium-Catalyzed C–N Coupling Reaction

Process Chemistry Labs., Astellas Pharma Inc., 160-2 Akahama, Takahagi-shi, Ibaraki 318-0001, Japan
Astellas Research Technologies Co., Ltd., 21 Miyukigaoka, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8585, Japan
§ Department of Applied Chemistry and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoicho, Inageku, Chiba 263-8522, Japan
Org. Process Res. Dev., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acs.oprd.6b00415
 Abstract Image

Here we describe the research and development of a process for the practical synthesis of glucokinase activator (R)-1 as a potential drug for treating type-2 diabetes. The key intermediate, chiral α-arylpropionic acid (R)-2, was synthesized in high diastereomeric excess through the diasteromeric resolution of 7 without the need for a chiral resolving agent. The counterpart 2-aminopyrazine derivative 3 was synthesized using a palladium-catalyzed C–N coupling reaction. This efficient process was demonstrated at the pilot scale and yielded 19.0 kg of (R)-1. Moreover, an epimerization process to obtain (R)-7 from the undesired (S)-7 was developed.

Hayakawa, M.; Kido, Y.; Nigawara, T.; Okumura, M.; Kanai, A.; Maki, K.; Amino, N. PCT Int. Appl. WO/2009/091014 A1 20090723,2009.

https://www.astellas.com/en/ir/library/pdf/3q2017_rd_en.pdf

///////////1174229-89-0, ASTELLAS, Glucokinase Activator, TYPE 2 DIABETES, PRECLINICAL, ASP ?, WO 2009091014Masahiko Hayakawa, Yoshiyuki Kido, Takahiro Nigawara, Mitsuaki Okumura, Akira Kanai, Keisuke Maki, Nobuaki AminoWO2009091014,

O=C(Nc1cnc(cn1)CO)[C@H](C[C@@H]2CC(=O)CC2)c3ccc(c(c3)C4CC4)S(=O)(=O)C5CC5

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