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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with AFRICURE PHARMA, ROW2TECH, CLEANCHEM LABS as ADVISOR, earlier assignment was with GLENMARK LIFE SCIENCES LTD, as CONSUlTANT, Retired from GLENMARK in Jan2022 Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 32 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 32 PLUS year tenure till date Feb 2023, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 100 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 100 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, 227 countries, 7 continents, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 38 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 227 countries...... , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc He has total of 32 International and Indian awards

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Drugs for Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension (CTEPH)

<div style=”margin-bottom:5px”> <strong> <a href=”; title=”Drugs for CTEPH – studi farmacologici” target=”_blank”>Drugs for CTEPH – studi farmacologici</a> </strong> from <strong><a href=”; target=”_blank”>CTEPH</a></strong> </div>

Generic versions of high cholesterol drug Lovaza can be developed, rules judge

LOVAZA, a lipid-regulating agent, is supplied as a liquid-filled gel capsule for oral administration. Each 1-gram capsule of LOVAZA (omega-3-acid ethyl esters) contains at least 900 mg of the ethyl esters of omega-3 fatty acids. These are predominantly a combination of ethyl esters of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA – approximately 465 mg) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA – approximately 375 mg).

The structural formula of EPA ethyl ester is:

EPA chemical structure

The empirical formula of EPA ethyl ester is C22H34O2, and the molecular weight of EPA ethyl ester is 330.51.

The structural formula of DHA ethyl ester is:

DHA chemical structure

The empirical formula of DHA ethyl ester is C24H36O2, and the molecular weight of DHA ethyl ester is 356.55.

LOVAZA capsules also contain the following inactive ingredients: 4 mg α-tocopherol (in a carrier of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils including soybean oil), and gelatin, glycerol, and purified water (components of the capsule shell).


A US appeals court ruled on this week that drug companies can develop generic versions of fish oil-derived, high-cholesterol drug Lovaza.

read all at

Lovaza is a brand name prescription drug. The capsule sold by GlaxoSmithKline but developed by Reliant Pharmaceuticals, contains esterified fish oils and is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to lower very high triglyceride levels. It is metabolized intoOmega-3 fatty acids. It is a dietary supplement that has been purified, chemically altered, branded, and been put through the approval process of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA); in these respects it is considered a pharmaceutical. Due to the esterification process during manufacturing there is no risk of contamination[citation needed] by methyl mercuryarsenic,[1] or other pollutants that are often seen in the world’s oceans. Each 1-gram capsule is 38% DHA, 47% EPA, and 17% other fish oils in the form of the ethyl ester.

Lovaza is named Omacor in Europe (and this name was once used in the US).[2]


Lovaza is approved in the U.S. for treatment of patients with very high triglycerides (hypertriglyceridemia).[3]

In the European markets and other major markets outside the US Lovaza is known as Omacor, and is indicated for:

  1. Hypertriglyceridemia. Used as monotherapy, or in combination with a statin for patients with mixed dyslipidemia.
  2. Secondary prevention after myocardial infarction (heart attack)

in addition to other standard therapy (e.g. statins, antiplatelets medicinal products, beta-blockers, and ACE-I).

Lovaza has been demonstrated to reduce triglycerides in patients with high or very high triglycerides. [3]

Lovaza has also been demonstrated to reduce VLDL-cholesterol and non-HDL-cholesterol, and increase HDL-cholesterol. But, it can raise LDL-cholesterol up to 45%.[4] The LDL raising activity correlates with a reduction in ApoB levels, though. Lovaza, through the stimulation of Lipoprotein Lipase, seems to stimulate the production of less atherogenic LDL species. In some patients, it can elevatealanine transaminase levels, so liver enzymes should be checked, periodically.[4]

Effects on significant patient outcomes such as acute myocardial infarction, stroke, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality have been studied in patients who have suffered a myocardial infarction (this is in the US; however, data from GISSI-P showed a combined end-point of all-cause death, non-fatal MI, and non-fatal stroke was significantly reduced by 15%). Lovaza has not been shown to lower the rates of all cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality, or the combination of mortality and non-fatal cardiovascular events.[3]

GlaxoSmithKline‘s patent expired in September 2012. Generic versions may be made available at that time. Other DHA/EPA products containing similar amounts of Omega-3 fatty acids are currently sold over the counter in the United States as dietary supplements.


In July 2012, Amarin Corporation received U.S. FDA marketing approval for Vascepa, also referred to as AMR-101.[5] Vascepa will undoubtedly become a major competitor for Lovaza.[6] In clinicial trials, Vascepa was shown to lower triglycerides; while Lovaza also lowers the triglyceride concentration, Vascepa also lowers LDL-C; Lovaza does not. Lovaza was approved to treat people with very high triglyceride levels (>500 mg/dl), Vascepa is also approved for this market; however the company has also demonstrated that the drug can impact levels in people with high triglyceride (> 200 mg/dl and < 500 mg/dl) levels and will file an sNDA for this indication late in 2012.[7]

In 2011, Ariix started selling an almost identical FDA-Certified Omega3 Ethyl Ester 1000 mg capsule ‘OmegaQ’ fish oil through direct marketing and online auto-ship at a discounted price, creating another major competitor for Lovaza and Amarin’s Vascepa. One capsule contains 295 mg EPA, and 235 mg DHA, but it is unique in that it is combined with 20 mg of the coenzyme CoQ-10, with reported ‘anti-aging’ effects on the cell’s telomeres, which are still under study.

Forms of Lovaza

Lovaza is available as 1-gram soft-gelatin capsules.[8]

Active Ingredient: Omega-3-acid ethyl esters

Inactive Ingredients: Gelatin, glycerol, purified water, alpha-tocopherol (in soybean oil)


  1. NIFES (Nasjonalt institutt for ernærings- og sjømatforskning – Norwegian National Institute for Nutrition and Seafood Research)
  2. University of Utah Pharmacy Services (August 15, 2007) “Omega-3-acid Ethyl Esters Brand Name Changed from Omacor to Lovaza”
  3. GSK Information for Medical Professionals
  4. Pharmacy & Therapeutics (May, 2008) “Omega-3-acid Ethyl Esters (Lovaza) For Severe Hypertriglyceridemia”
  5. “Amarin Prescription Fish-Oil Pill Approved – TheStreet”. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
  6.  “”. Reuters. 26 July 2012. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
  7.  “Amarin’s AMR101 Phase 3 ANCHOR Trial Meets all Primary and Secondary Endpoints with Statistically Significant Reductions in Triglycerides at Both 4 Gram and 2 Gram Doses and Statistically Significant Decrease in LDL-C (NASDAQ:AMRN)”. Amarin. 18 April 2011. Retrieved 26 July 2012.

External links

Synthetic approaches to the 2010 new drugs-Review Article Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, Vol 20, Issue 3,2012, Pg 1155-1174

Synthetic approaches to the 2010 new drugsReview Article
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, Volume 20, Issue 3, 1 February 2012, Pages 1155-1174
Kevin K.-C. Liu, Subas M. Sakya, Christopher J. O’Donnell, Andrew C. Flick, Hong X. Ding

Graphical abstract

Plus the 14 other new drugs marketed in 2010.




US 5,344,932 .

pentanedioic acid

N-[4-[2-(2-amino-4,7-dihydro-4-oxo-3H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]-pyrimidin-5-yl)ethyl] benzoyl]-L-glutamic acid or N-[4-[2-(2-amino-4,7-dihydro-4-oxo-1 H-pyrrolo [2,3-d]-pyrimidin-5-yl)ethyl] benzoyl]-L-glutamic acid


Pemetrexed is a chemotherapy drug used in the treatment of pleural mesothelioma as well as non-small cell lung cancer.Used in combination with cisplatin for the treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma in adults whose disease is unresectable or who otherwise are not candidates for potentially curative surgery. Also used as a monotherapy for the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after prior chemotherapy.Click here to contact Logenex about this product.

Pemetrexed (brand name Alimta) is a chemotherapy drug manufactured and marketed by Eli Lilly and Company. Its indications are the treatment of pleural mesothelioma andnon-small cell lung cancer.

The molecular structure of pemetrexed was developed by 
Edward C. Taylor at Princeton University and clinically developed by Indianapolis based drug maker, Eli Lilly and Company in 2004.

Pemetrexed ball-and-stick.pngPEMETREXED

Pemetrexed is chemically similar to folic acid and is in the class of chemotherapy drugs called folate antimetabolites. It works by inhibiting three enzymes used in purine andpyrimidine synthesis—thymidylate synthase (TS), dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), andglycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase[1][2] (GARFT). By inhibiting the formation of precursor purine and pyrimidine nucleotides, pemetrexed prevents the formation of DNAand RNA, which are required for the growth and survival of both normal cells and cancer cells.

Pemetrexed disodium is chemically described as L-Glutamic acid, N-[4-[2- (2-amino-4,7-dihydro-4-oxo-1 H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-5-yl)ethyl]benzoyl]- disodium salt heptahydrate, represented by the chemical structure of Formula (I).

Figure imgf000002_0001

Formula I

Pemetrexed is an anti-folate anti-neoplastic agent that exerts its action by disrupting folate-dependent metabolic processes essential for cell replication. It is believed to work by inhibiting three enzymes that are required in purine and pyrimidine biosynthesis — thymidylate synthase (TS), dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), and glycinamide ribonucleotide formyl transferase (GARFT). Pemetrexed is available in the market under the brand name ALIMTA®.

Taylor et al., in  describe pemetrexed, its related compounds and pharmaceutically acceptable cation. Chelius et al., in WO 01/14379 A2 disclose pemetrexed disodium crystalline hydrate Form I and process for preparation thereof.

Chelius et al., in WO 01/62760 disclose pemetrexed disodium heptahydrate crystalline Form Il and process for the preparation thereof.

Journal of Organic Process Research & Development, Volume 3, 1999, page 184 describes a process for the preparation of pemetrexed diacid. Busolli et al., in WO200802141 1 disclose process for preparation of pharmaceutically acceptable salt of pemetrexed diacid.

Busolli et al., in WO2008021405A1 disclose seven crystalline forms of pemetrexed diacid designated as Form A, B, C, D, E, F, & G and processes for preparation thereof.

In February 2004, the Food and Drug Administration approved pemetrexed for treatment of malignant Pleural Mesothelioma, a type of tumor of the lining of the lung, in combination with cisplatin[3] for patients whose disease is either unresectable or who are not otherwise candidates for curative surgery.[4] In September 2008, the FDA granted approval as a first-line treatment, in combination with cisplatin, against locally-advanced and metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in patients with non-squamous histology. A Phase III study showed benefits of maintenance use of pemetrexed for non-squamous NSCLC.Activity has been shown in malignant peritoneal mesothelioma.Trials are currently testing it against esophagus and other cancers.


Pemetrexed is also recommended in combination with carboplatin for the first-line treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer.However, the relative efficacy or toxicity of pemetrexed-cisplatin versus pemetrexed-carboplatin has not been established beyond what is generally thought about cisplatin or carboplatin doublet drug therapy

In addition to the brand name Alimta, this drug is also marketed in India by Abbott Healthcare as Pleumet and by Cadila Healthcare asPemecad.

  • Pemetrexed disodium is a multitargeted antifolate agent approved as a single agent for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer, and in combination with cisplatin for the treatment of patient with malignant pleural mesothelioma, under the trade name Alimta®.
    Pemetrexed disodium is available in a number of crystalline forms.
  • Barnett et al, Organic Process Research & Development, 1999, 3, 184-188 discloses synthesis and crystallization of pemetrexed disodium from water-ethanol. The product obtained by the process disclosed herein is the 2.5 hydrate of pemetrexed disodium.
  • United States patent number 7,138,521 discloses a crystalline heptahydrate form of pemetrexed disodium, which has enhanced stability when compared to the known 2.5 hydrate.
  • To date workers have concentrated on producing stable crystalline forms of pemetrexed disodium and there has been no disclosure of any non-crystalline form of this active.
  • We have now found a new form of pemetrexed disodium, which is an amorphous form, as characterized by powder X-ray diffraction. Surprisingly, we have found that it is possible to prepare an amorphous form of pemetrexed disodium and that this form is stable. The amorphous form of the invention is stable contrary to expectations. The amorphous form of pemetrexed disodium of the present invention is stable as it retains it’s amorphous character under a variety of storage conditions. The amorphous form of the present invention is particularly advantageously characterized by a bulk density in the range of 0.15 to 0.35 gm/ml.

N-[4-[2-(2-amino-4,7-dihydro-4-oxo-3H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]-pyrimidin-5-yl)ethyl] benzoyl]-L-glutamic acid or N-[4-[2-(2-amino-4,7-dihydro-4-oxo-1 H-pyrrolo [2,3-d]-pyrimidin-5-yl)ethyl] benzoyl]-L-glutamic acid (also known as


Figure imgf000002_0001

R = H: Pemetrexed; I

R = Na: Pemetrexed Disodium; II is a known compound. Pemetrexed Disodium is an known anticancer agent. It is clinically active in several solid tumors and approved for treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) and metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Pemetrexed Disodium is supplied as a sterile lyophilized powder for intravenous administration.

The compound of formula I including pharmaceutically salts thereof as well as a process for its preparation is at first and specifically disclosed in EP patent no. 0432677 B1. The preparation and isolation of Pemetrexed (compound of formula I) as its Disodium salt (compound of formula II) was described for the first time in WO patent no. 9916742 A1 and in Drugs of the future 1998, 23(5), 498-507 as well as by Charles J. Barnett et al. in Organic Process Research & Development, 1999, 3, 184-188 and by Peter Norman in Current Opinion in Investigational Drugs 2001 , 2(11 ), 1611-1622.

Detailed information about the crystalline form of Pemetrexed Disodium prepared according to the process as described above were not provided but it is reported by Charles J. Barnett et al. in Organic Process Research & Development, 1999, 3, 184-188 that the disodium salt II was obtained as a hygroscopic solid.

The first crystalline form of Pemetrexed Disodium has been described in WO patent no. 0114379 designated Disodium MTA Hydrate Form I (MTA = multi- targeted antifolate, disodium N-[4-[2-(2-amino-4,7-dihydro-4-oxo-3H- pyrrolo[2,3-d]-pyrimidin-5-yl)ethyl]benzoyl]-L-glutamic acid salt). The Disodium MTA Hydrate Form I obtained according to the Examples 2, 3 and 4 contained different amounts of water (Example 2: water = 9.1%; Example 3: water = 17.7%; Example 4: water = 11.7%). The Disodium MTA Hydrate Form I has a typical XRD pattern as shown in Figure 4 (the corresponding 2theta values have been calculated from the provided d-spacing values).

An improved crystalline form of Pemetrexed Disodium has been disclosed in WO patent no. 0162760. It is teached that Pemetrexed Disodium can exist in the form of a heptahydrate (Form II; theoretical amount of water: approx 21%) which is much more stable than the previously known 2.5 hydrate (Form I; theoretical amount of water: 8.7%). The Pemetrexed Disodium Heptahydrate Form (Form II) has a typical XRD pattern as shown in Figure 5 (the corresponding 2theta values have been calculated from the provided d- spacing values).

The Chinese patent no. 1778802 describes a hydrate or trihydrate form of Pemetrexed Disodium. The preparation of Pemetrexed Disodium hydrate or trihydrate includes crystallization from water and water soluble solvent. An overview of the X ray powder diffraction data for Pemetrexed Disodium Hydrate provided in Chinese patent no. 1778802 is shown in Figure 6.

The WO patent no. 2008124485 disclose besides crystalline Forms of the diacid Pemetrexed also amorphous Pemetrexed Disodium as well as a crystalline Form III thereof including a composition containing a major amount of amorphous Form and a minor amount of crystalline Form III of Pemetrexed Disodium. An overview of the X ray powder diffraction data for Pemetrexed Disodium crystalline Form 3 is shown in Figure 7.

EP patent application no. 2072518 disclose a stable amorphous form of Pemetrexed Disodium.

  • According to the more recent US 5,416,211 , which is incorporated herein by reference, pemetrexed can be synthesized from 4-[2-(2-amino-4,7-dihydro-4-oxo-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-5-yl)ethyl]benzoic acid of formula 1, obtained from simple precursors, in accordance with the following Scheme 1:

    Figure imgb0006
  • This second method seems to be used also for the industrial preparation of the active ingredient. In fact, the same type of synthesis scheme is also described in C. J. Barnett, T. W. Wilson and M. E. Kobierski, Org. Proc. Res. & Develop., 1999, 3, 184-188, in which the experimental examples refer to a scale of the order of tens of kgs.




Example 1 Preparation of crude pemetrexed disodium

[0023] N-[4-2-(2-Amino-4, 7-dihydro-4-oxo-

1 H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-5-yl)ethyl]benzoyl]-L-glutamic Acid Diethyl Ester

4-Methylbenzenesulfonic Acid Salt and purified process water (PPW) (about 10 kg) are charged to a suitable vessel under nitrogen. The reactor is cooled to NMT 10Ό under nitrogen. Pre-cooled sodium hydroxide solution (about 1.5 kg )/PPW (about 11.4 kg) are added and the temperature is maintained at NMT 10Ό. The mixture is stirred at NMT 0 until the solid is dissolved. Pre-cooled isopropanol (about 62.8 kg) is added and the mixture temperature is maintained at NMT 5 . Pre-cooled 1 N hydrochloric acid in isopropanol is added to adjust the pH to 6.5 to 9.5, preferably between pH 7.5 to pH 8.5, at NMT 5 . The mixture is warmed to a room temperature (i.e., 15-30Ό, preferably 20-25″C) and stirred. The solids are filtered and washed with isopropanol/PPW. The wet cake is vacuum dried to provide crude pemetrexed disodium (about 2.30 kg).

Example 2 Purification of crude pemetrexed disodium to pemetrexed disodium

[0024] Crude pemetrexed disodium (about 2.1 kg) and PPW (about 23.3 kg) are charged under nitrogen to a suitable vessel at 15 to 30 . Isopropanol (about 28.3 kg) is added slowly to cloud point and stirred. Isopropanol (up to about 55 kg) is charged and stirred. The solids are filtered arid washed with isopropanol/PPW. The wet cake is vacuum dried to provide pemetrexed disodium (about 1.9 kg) (90% Yiled). 1 H NMR (D20): δ 7.51 (2H, d, J=8.0 Hz), 6.98 (2H, d, J=8.0 Hz), 6.12 (1 H, s), 4.26-4.23 (H, m), 3.60-3.54 (4H, m), 2.27-2.23 (2H, m), 2.13-2.08 (1 H, m), 2.00-1.94 (1 H, m)



Example 7

HPLC Analysis method

    • Reagent: Water :milliQ,
      Sodium perchlorate :AR Grade
      Perchloric acid :AR Grade
      Acetonitrile :J.T.Baker gradient
      Trifluroacetic acid :AR Grade
      Buffer solution: 6.1 g of sodium perchlorate into a 1000ml water. Adjust the pH to 3.0 (± 0.1) with perchloric acid.
      Mobile phase A:
      mixture of buffer and acetonitrile in the proportion of (90:10).
      Mobile phase B:
      mixture of buffer and acetonitrile in the proportion of (10 : 90).
      Diluent -1 : mixture of water and acetonitrile in the ratio of 50 : 50.
      Diluent -2: mixture of water and acetonitrile in the ratio of 90 : 10.
      Standard Stock Solution:
      Transfer accurately weighed 1.5 mg impurity-E RS and into a 200 ml volumetric flask. Dissolve in and dilute upto mark with diluent-1.

Blank solution

    • Add 10 ml diluent-2 and 50µl of 3% trifluro acetic acid to a 50 ml volumetric flask, and dilute upto mark with diluent-2.

System suitability solution

    • Transfer about 25 mg accurately weighed pemetrexed disodium sample in to a 50 ml volumetric flask. First add 10ml of diluent-2 and sonicate to dissolve the contents.Then add 50µl of 3% trifluro acetic acid (prepared in water) and add 5 ml of standard stock solution and dilute up to mark with diluent-2.

Sample preparation

    • Transfer about 25 mg accurately weighed pemetrexed disodium sample in to a 50 ml volumetric flask. First add 10ml of diluent-2 and sonicate to dissolve the contents.Then add 50µl of 3% trifluro acetic acid (prepared in water) and dilute up to mark with diluent-2 (500 µg/ml).

Chromatographic system :

    • Use a suitable high pressure liquid chromatography system equipped with Column: 250 mm x 4.6mm containing 5µ packing material (suggested column – Inertsil ODS 3V)
      Detector: UV detector set to 240 nm
      Cooler temp: 5°C.
      Flow rate: about 1.5 ml/min.
    • The system is also equipped to deliver the two phases in a programmed manner as shown in the following table :

Gradient programme :

    • [0082]
      0 92 8
      15 85 15
      30 65 35
      35 65 35
      36 92 8
      40 92 8


  • Inject 20µl of blank and system suitability solution into the chromatograph set to above conditions and record the chromatograms up to 40 min.
    Calculate the resolution between pemetrexed disodium and impurity-E. The resolution should not be less than 3.0. Calculate the Number of theoretical plate and tailing factor for pemetrexed peak. Number of theoretical plate is NLT 4000 and tailing factor is NMT 2.0.
  • Inject 20µl of test solution and calculate the chromatographic purity by area normalisation method.



Synthetic Route for the Preparation of Pemetrexed Disodium

Starting from commercially available materials a novel synthetic route for the synthesis of Pemetrexed-IM8 (the dimethyl ester of Pemetrexed) was developed which was then used for the preparation of Pemetrexed Disodium (Scheme 1).

Figure US20120329819A1-20121227-C00002
Figure US20120329819A1-20121227-C00003

The current synthetic route for the preparation of Pemetrexed IM8 starts with an aldol-condensation reaction of Methyl-4-formylbenzoate (SM1) with 1,1-Dimethoxyacetone (SM2) to give Pemetrexed IM1a. As Pemetrexed IM1a irreversibly converts to its aldol-addition product Pemetrexed IM1b under reaction conditions the reaction mixture is directly submitted to hydrogenation (i.e. without isolation of Pemetrexed IM1a) over Pd/C to give Pemetrexed IM2. As under the hydrogenation conditions not only the double-bond of IM1a is hydrogenated but also some amount of Pemetrexed IM2 is converted to Pemetrexed IM3 (hydrogenation of the carbonyl function to the corresponding secondary alcohol) a solution of NaBH4 is added to the reaction mixture to ensure complete conversion to Pemetrexed IM3. The Pd-catalyst is removed by filtration and the reaction mixture is extracted with toluene. The combined organic layers are evaporated to give crude Pemetrexed IM3 as oil. This oil is dissolved in THF and the alcohol functionality is converted to a mesylate using MsCl and NEt3. The salts are removed by filtration, glacial acetic acid is added and THF is removed by distillation. Upon addition of water Pemetrexed IM4 crystallizes and is isolated by filtration. The dried Pemetrexed IM4 is dissolved in glacial acetic acid and gaseous HCl is added to cleave the dimethoxy acetale and liberate the aldehyde functionality of Pemetrexed IM5. Upon complete deprotection a solution of 2,6-diamino-4-hydroxypyrimidine in aq. NaOH and acetonitrile is added. Upon complete conversion the crystallized Pemetrexed IM6 is isolated by filtration. The saponification of the methyl ester of Pemetrexed IM6 to Pemetrexed IM7 is done using aqueous NaOH. Upon addition of aq. HCl first the Na-salt of Pemetrexed IM7 crystallizes from the reaction mixture. The salt is isolated by filtration, purified by slurry in a mixture of MeOH and water and then converted to Pemetrexed IM7 by pH adjustment in water using aq. HCl. Dried Pemetrexed IM7 (water content not more than 6.0%) is dissolved in DMF, activated using 1,1-carbonyldiimidazolide (CDI) and then reacted with dimethyl-L-glutamate hydrochlorid to give, upon addition of water and filtration, crude Pemetrexed IM8. This intermediate is purified by tosylate salt formation, followed by recrystallization and liberation to give pure Pemetrexed IM8. Starting with the saponification of Pemetrexed IM8 the preparation of different solid forms of Pemetrexed Disodium can be achieved.

Methods For Preparing Pemetrexed Disodium Form IV and Investigation of its Stability

An overview on the possible transformations of Pemetrexed IM8 to Pemetrexed Disodium Form IV is shown in FIG. 20.

Description of Possible Routes for the Preparation of Pemetrexed Disodium Form IV Starting from Pemetrexed IM8

All routes start with saponification of Pemetrexed IM8 in water at IT=20° C. to 30° C. using 3.25 eq of NaOH. Upon complete conversion an aqueous solution of Pemetrexed Disodium with a pH of 13.0 to 13.5 is obtained. Starting from this mixture the desired route can be accessed by addition of HCl to adjust the pH to a certain value (depending on the route, FIG. 20).

Figure US20120329819A1-20121227-C00004

Structures of Pemetrexed (Compound I), Pemetrexed Disodium (Compound II) and Pemetrexed Monosodium (Compound IV)

Surprisingly we found that the crucial feature of all successful transformations to Pemetrexed Disodium Form IV is the presence of Pemetrexed Monosodium during the transformation. Routes starting from pure Pemetrexed Disodium Heptahydrate, Pemetrexed Disodium 2.5 hydrate or Pemetrexed Disodium Form A in the presence of seeding crystals of Pemetrexed Disodium Form IV were not successful and resulted in isolation of Pemetrexed Disodium Form A. The same transformations, if carried out in the presence of 0.15 eq of Pemetrexed Monosodium were successful and after addition of 0.15 eq NaOH allowed the isolation of pure Pemetrexed Disodium Form IV. The use of 0.15 eq HCl instead of 0.15 eq Pemetrexed Monosodium under the same conditions resulted in isolation of Pemetrexed Disodium Form A without any Pemetrexed Disodium Form IV. Transformations via isolated Pemetrexed Monosodium gave complete transformation to Pemetrexed Disodium Form IV if either 1.0 eq NaOH were added slowly (over a period of several hours) to Pemetrexed Monosodium or if initially only 0.85 eq of NaOH (based on Pemetrexed Monosodium) were added, followed by 0.15 eq once the transformation to Pemetrexed Disodium Form IV was complete. Very fast addition (<1 min) of 1.0 eq NaOH resulted in formation of Pemetrexed Disodium Form A containing traces of Pemetrexed Disodium Heptahydrate.

Starting from Pemetrexed (compound I) the transformation to Pemetrexed Disodium Form IV would be possible if initially 1.85 eq of NaOH were added followed by 0.15 eq once the transformation was complete. Alternatively, 2.0 eq of NaOH could be added over a long period of time (i.e several hours) to achieve formation of Pemetrexed Form IV. Fast addition (<1 min) of 2.0 eq of NaOH is assumed to result in formation of Pemetrexed Disodium Form A. All these experiments show the presence of Pemetrexed Monosodium to be crucial during the transformations. This presence can be achieved by either addition of catalytic amounts of Pemetrexed Monosodium to Pemetrexed Disodium, by slow addition over several hours of NaOH to Pemetrexed Monosodium or by portionwise addition of NaOH to Pemetrexed Monosodium. Addition of catalytic amounts of HCl to Pemetrexed Disodium (in situ preparation of Pemetrexed Monosodium) failed to give Pemetrexed Disodium Form IV.

Fast addition of NaOH to Pemetrexed Monosodium results in fast formation of Pemetrexed Disodium, thereby lacking the necessary catalytic amounts of Pemetrexed Monosodium to catalyze the transformation to Pemetrexed Disodium Form IV. EtOH as solvent and water content of EtOH were found to be crucial parameters for the transformation to Pemetrexed Disodium Form IV. So far the transformation has only been observed in EtOH containing 0-4% water (v/v). A water content>4% (v/v) results in formation of Pemetrexed Disodium Heptahydrate. Under the conditions used (EtOH containing 0-4% water (v/v)) both Pemetrexed Disodium Heptahydrate and Pemetrexed Disodium 2.5 hydrate are transformed to Pemetrexed Form A. Therefore the mechanism of the transformation to Pemetrexed Disodium Form IV is assumed to proceed via Pemetrexed Disodium Form A with Pemetrexed Monosodium acting as catalyst for the transformation.

Preparation of Pemetrexed Disodium Heptahydrate

a) Preparation of Pemetrexed Disodium Heptahydrate Starting from Pemetrexed IM8

Pemetrexed Disodium Heptahydrate was prepared by adjustment of the pH of the Pemetrexed Disodium solution after saponification from pH=13 to pH=8 using HCl followed by addition of EtOH (3 times the volume of water) to achieve crystallization. Precipitated Pemetrexed Disodium Heptahydrate was isolated by filtration, washed with a mixture of EtOH and water (4:1 v/v) followed by EtOH. The wet product was dried in vacuo at 200 mbar at 20° C. to 30° C. until water content of the dried product was 20.1% to 22.1%.

b) Conversion of Pemetrexed Disodium Form A to Pemetrexed Disodium Heptahydrate

To a suspension of Pemetrexed Disodium Form A in EtOH was added water until a mixture of EtOH containing 25% water (v/v) was obtained. The resulting suspension was stirred at 20° C. to 30° C. until conversion was complete according to PXRD. Pemetrexed Disodium Heptahydrate was isolated by filtration, washed with EtOH and dried in vacuo at 200 mbar at 20° C. to 30° C. until water content of the dried product was 20.1% to 22.1%.



  1.  McLeod, Howard L.; James Cassidy, Robert H. Powrie, David G. Priest, Mark A. Zorbas, Timothy W. Synold, Stephen Shibata, Darcy Spicer, Donald Bissett, Yazdi K. Pithavala, Mary A. Collier, Linda J. Paradiso, John D. Roberts (Jul-2000).“Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Evaluation of the Glycinamide Ribonucleotide Formyltransferase Inhibitor AG2034”Clinical Cancer Research 6 (7): 2677–84.PMID 10914709. More than one of |work= and |journal=specified (help)
  2.  Avendano, Carmen; Menendez, J. Carlos (April 2008).Medicinal Chemistry of Anticancer Drugs. Amsterdam:Elsevier. p. 37. ISBN 0-444-52824-5.
  3.  Manegold C (August 2003). “Pemetrexed (Alimta, MTA, multitargeted antifolate, LY231514) for malignant pleural mesothelioma”Semin. Oncol. 30 (4 Suppl 10): 32–6.doi:10.1016/S0093-7754(03)00283-5PMID 12917819.
  4.  National Cancer Institute: FDA Approval for Pemetrexed Disodium
US6090168 * Oct 6, 1999 Jul 18, 2000 Eli Lilly And Company Processes and intermediates useful to make antifolates
US7138521 Feb 12, 2001 Nov 21, 2006 Eli Lilly And Company Crystalline of N-[4-[2-(2-Amino-4,7-dihydro-4oxo-3H-pyrrolo[2,3-D]pyrimidin-5-YL)ethyl]benzoyl]-L-glutamic acid and process therefor
US20030216416 * Feb 12, 2001 Nov 20, 2003 Chelius Erik Christopher Novel crystalline of n-[4-[2-(2-amino-4,7-dihydro-4oxo-3h-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-5-yl)ethyl]benzoyl]-l-glutamic acid and process therefor
WO2001014379A2 * Aug 15, 2000 Mar 1, 2001 Erik Christopher Chelius A novel crystalline form of disodium n-[4-[2-(2-amino-4,7-dihydro-4-oxo-3h-pyrrolo[2,3-d]-pyrimidin-5-yl)ethyl]benzoyl]-l-glutamic acid salt and processes therefor
WO2008021405A1 * Aug 14, 2007 Feb 21, 2008 Sicor Inc Crystalline forms of pemetrexed diacid and processes for the preparation thereof
WO2008124485A2 * Apr 3, 2008 Oct 16, 2008 Reddys Lab Ltd Dr Solid forms of pemetrexed

Lundbeck has presented promising data on Brintellix, its recently-filed investigational antidepressant co-developed with Takeda.


9 APRIL 2013

Lundbeck has presented promising data on Brintellix, its recently-filed investigational antidepressant co-developed with Takeda.

Vortioxetine (code name Lu AA21004) is an experimental drug currently under development by Lundbeck and Takeda for the treatment of major depressive disorder(MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).Commercial name chosen is Brintellix.

Regulatory approval for the treatment of MDD for the European market has been filed in September 2012, for the United States in October 2012, and filing for Canada should follow. Filing for the Japanese market is expected in 2013

The Danish drugmaker announced results for the REVIVE study which compared  Brintellix (vortioxetine) with Servier’s Valdoxan (agomelatine), Servier’s  in adults with major depression (MDD) who changed antidepressant after an inadequate response to commonly-prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). Lundbeck noted that as one of the newest antidepressants, agomelatine was chosen as a comparator because of its different mode of action from conventional SSRI/SNRI therapies.

Lundbeck noted that few randomised, double-blind trials looking at MDD patients who were unresponsive to first-line antidepressants have been conducted and “this is one of these few studies which also shows a significant difference between treatments.” On the primary efficacy endpoint for REVIVE, Brintellix was statistically significantly superior to agomelatine by 2.2 points on the Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), a ten-item questionnaire used to measure severity of the disorder.

Brintellix is under review on both sides of the Atlantic and is one of three new products, Lundbeck hopes to launch this year. The other two, which are already approved in some territories, are its once-monthly version of Abilify (aripiprazole) for schizophrenia and the alcohol dependence treatment Selincro (nalmefene); indeed, Lundbeck also presented  new data on the later from three Phase III studies that “consistently show a significant reduction in alcohol consumption” in patients with high-risk drinking levels.

Bayer PAH drug Riociguat gets priority review at FDA

 Skeletal formula of riociguat


CAS NO 625115-55-1

Methyl N-[4,6-Diamino-2-[1-[(2-fluorophenyl)methyl]-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-3-yl]-5-pyrimidinyl]-N-methyl-carbaminate

9 APRIL2013

Bayer has been boosted by the news that regulators in the USA are fast-tracking the German group’s investigational pulmonary arterial hypertension riociguat.

The US Food and Drug Administration has granted priority review to the New Drug Application for riociguat, which Bayer filed in February on both sides of the Atlantic for PAH and a related condition, inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). The FDA bestows a priority review on medicines that offer major advances in care or that provide a treatment where no adequate therapy exists. The agency aims to complete its assessment within eight months from the submission of the NDA, rather than the standard 12 months.

Riociguat (BAY 63-2521) is a novel drug that is currently in clinical development by Bayer. It is a stimulator of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC). At the moment Phase III clinical trialsinvestigate the use of riociguat as a new approach to treat two forms of pulmonary hypertension (PH): chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) andpulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Riociguat constitutes the first drug of a novel class of sGC stimulators

The submissions are based on two Phase III studies and riociguat, the first member of a novel class of compounds called stimulators of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), met its primary endpoint in both trials, a change in exercise capacity after 12- or 16 weeks respectively. The drug was generally well tolerated, with a good safety profile.


If approved, riociguat would be going up against Actelion’s Tracleer (bosentan) and Gilead Sciences/GlaxoSmithKline’s Letairis/Volibris (ambrisentan). Actelion, which has dominated the PAH market, has already filed its follow-up to Tracleer, Opsumit (macitentan).

DRUG REVIEW- Tigecycline

File:Tigecycline structure.svg



Tigecycline is a glycylcycline antibiotic[1][2] developed by Francis Tally[3] and marketed by Wyeth under the brand name Tygacil. It was given a U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) fast-track approval and was approved on June 17, 2005. It was developed in response to the growing prevalence of antibiotic resistance in bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii. The New Delhi metallo-β-Lactamase multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae has also shown susceptibility to tigecycline.[4]

This antibiotic is the first clinically available drug in a new class of antibiotics called the glycylcyclines. It is structurally similar to the tetracyclines in that it contains a central four-ring carbocyclic skeleton and is actually a derivative of minocycline. Tigecycline has a substitution at the D-9 position which is believed to confer broad spectrum activity.

Tigecycline is bacteriostatic and is a protein synthesis inhibitor by binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit of bacteria and thereby blocking entry of Aminoacyl-tRNA into the A site of the ribosome during prokaryotic translation.[5]

Tigecycline is given intravenously and has activity against a variety of gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial pathogens, many of which are resistant to existing antibiotics. Tigecycline successfully completed phase III trials in which it was at least equal to intravenous vancomycin and aztreonam to treat complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI), and to intravenous imipenem and cilastatin to treat complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAI).[6] Tigecycline is active against many Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria and anaerobes – including activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (with MIC values reported at 2mcg/mL) and multi-drug resistant strains of Acinetobacter baumannii. It has no activity against Pseudomonas spp. or Proteus spp. The drug is licenced for the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections as well as intra-abdominal infections.

Tigecycline is given by slow intravenous infusion (30 to 60 minutes). A single dose of 100 mg is given first, followed by 50 mg every twelve hours after that. Patients with impaired liver function need to be given a lower dose. No adjustment is needed for patients with impaired kidney function. It is not licensed for use in children. There is no oral form available.

Tigecycline has similar side effects to the tetracyclines. The most common side effects of tigecycline are diarrhea, nausea and vomiting. Nausea and vomiting is mild or moderate and usually occurs during the first two days of therapy. Other side effects include pain at the injection site, swelling and irritation; increased or decreased heart rate and infections. Also avoid use in children and pregnancy, due to its effects on teeth and bone. As with other antibiotics, overgrowth of organisms that are not susceptible to tigecycline can occur.

Tigecycline showed an increased mortality in patients treated for hospital-acquired pneumonia, especially ventilator-associated pneumonia, but also in patients with complicated skin and skin structure infections, complicated intra-abdominal infections and diabetic foot infection.[7]

It may have potential for use in acute myeloid leukaemia.[8]

  • GAR-936[9]
  • Tygacil


  1. Rose W, Rybak M (2006). “Tigecycline: first of a new class of antimicrobial agents.”. Pharmacotherapy 26 (8): 1099–110. doi:10.1592/phco.26.8.1099. PMID 16863487.
  2.  Kasbekar N (2006). “Tigecycline: a new glycylcycline antimicrobial agent.”. Am J Health Syst Pharm 63 (13): 1235–43. doi:10.2146/ajhp050487. PMID 16790575.
  3.  Projan, Steven J (Jan. 2010). “Francis Tally and the discovery and development of tigecycline: a personal reminiscence”. Clin. Infect. Dis. (United States) 50 Suppl 1: S24–5. doi:10.1086/647941. PMID 20067389.
  4.  Kumarasamy et. al.; Toleman, Mark A; Walsh, Timothy R; Bagaria, Jay; Butt, Fafhana; Balakrishnan, Ravikumar; Chaudhary, Uma; Doumith, Michel et al. (2010). “Emergence of a new antibiotic resistance mechanism in India, Pakistan, and the UK: a molecular, biological, and epidemiological study”. The Lancet Infectious Diseases 10 (9): 597–602. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(10)70143-2. PMC 2933358. PMID 20705517.
  5.  Tigecycline: A Novel Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial: Pharmacology and Mechanism of Action Christine M. Slover, PharmD, Infectious Diseases Fellow, Keith A. Rodvold, PharmD and Larry H. Danziger, PharmD, Professor, Department of Pharmacy Practice, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL
  6.  Scheinfeld N (2005). “Tigecycline: a review of a new glycylcycline antibiotic.”. Journal of Dermatological Treatment 16 (4): 207–12. doi:10.1080/09546630510011810. PMID 16249141.
  8.  Skrtić M, Sriskanthadevan S, Jhas B, Gebbia M, Wang X, Wang Z, Hurren R, Jitkova Y, Gronda M, Maclean N, Lai CK, Eberhard Y, Bartoszko J, Spagnuolo P, Rutledge AC, Datti A, Ketela T, Moffat J, Robinson BH, Cameron JH, Wrana J, Eaves CJ, Minden MD, Wang JC, Dick JE, Humphries K, Nislow C, Giaever G, Schimmer AD (2011) Inhibition of mitochondrial translation as a therapeutic strategy for human acute myeloid leukemia. Cancer Cell 20(5):674-688
  9. Betriu C, Rodríguez-Avial I, Sánchez BA, Gómez M, Picazo JJ (2002). “Comparative in vitro activities of tigecycline (GAR-936) and other antimicrobial agents against Stenotrophomonas maltophilia“. J Antimicrob Chemother 50 (5): 758–59. doi:10.1093/jac/dkf196. PMID 12407139.



Human medicines European Public Assessment Report EPAR : Tygacil, tigecycline, Revision: 16, Authorised

Questions and answers on the review of medicines for which studies have been conducted at Texas-based Cetero Research facility  (12/03/2013)




DRUG REVIEW-Calcitonin,Miacalcin

Chemical structure of miacalcin

Molecular formula of miacalcin is C145H241N43O49S2
• Molecular weight is 3434.8 g/mol

Generic name: Calcitonin

Calcitonin-related polypeptide alpha

NMR solution structure of salmon calcitonin in SDS micelles.[1]

Calcitonin (also known as thyrocalcitonin) is a 32-amino acid linear polypeptidehormone that is produced in humans primarily by the parafollicular cells (also known as C-cells) of the thyroid, and in many other animals in the ultimobranchial body.[2] It acts to reduce blood calcium (Ca2+), opposing the effects of parathyroid hormone (PTH).[3] Calcitonin has been found in fish, reptiles, birds, andmammals. Its importance in humans has not been as well established as its importance in other animals, as its function is usually not significant in the regulation of normal calcium homeostasis.[4] It belongs to calcitonin-like protein family.

After the menopausal period for women, bone loss accelerates very quickly which leads to osteoporosis.Miacalcin is a medication that can treat this type of bone disease. Miacalcin is a hormone that is created by the thyroid gland that is responsible in decreasing the calcium and phosphate in the blood and helps in the building of bones. It does not only help in the formation of bones but also strengthens the bones.

Miacalcin is a medication also distributed under the brand names Fortical. Miacalcin is a prescribed medication used in the treatment of patients with bone diseases such as osteoporosis and Paget’s disease. This medication can also be used in treating severe elevated blood calcium levels.

There are two methods of administering Miacalcin, through injection and nasal spray. The standard dosage for patients with post-menopausal osteoporosis and Paget’s disease is at least 100 to 200 units a day injected into the muscle or equivalent or 1 spray for the nasal spray.

Nasal spray should be administered in one nostril everyday on an alternating basis. Patients must never prolong the use of nasal spray than what is prescribed by the doctor.

Patients need to have enough vitamin D and calcium to help optimize the result of the medication.

If you have missed a dose, never take a double dose because this will cause overdose and is fatal. In case of overdose, seek immediate medical attention.

Basically, side effects are rare and mild. They typically do not post severe risks and are not life threatening. Some patients may experience wamble and sometimes emesis. The wamble is only temporary and will eventually disappear as the patient continues with the medication. Injected Miacalcin can cause skin irritation on the area of injection. On some patients, skin rashes and flushing occurs.

For the nasal spray, the most common side effects include nose bleeding, headaches, rhinorrhea and bone pain. It may also cause stomach upset but this is a rare case.

Some patients may have allergic reactions, which may cause chest pains, trouble in breathing, tingling of hands, difficulties in urinating and skin rashes. If any of the symptoms or side effects occur, it is important to seek immediate medical attention.

Before using the medication, discuss with your doctor any other medical ailments that you have that might conflict with the use of the medicine. It would also be necessary to tell your doctor if you are pregnant, breastfeeding our planning to get pregnant before taking the medication.

Also inform your doctor if you are taking any other prescribed medication or over the counter medicine before taking Miacalcin. Never discontinue using the medication without consulting with your doctor first.

As a prescribed medication it should not be shared to anyone else. Proper storage of the medication should be maintained.

Calcitonin is a polypeptide hormone secreted by the parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland in mammals and by the ultimobranchial gland of birds and fish.

Miacalcin® (calcitonin-salmon) Injection, Synthetic is a synthetic polypeptide of 32 amino acids in the same linear sequence that is found in calcitonin of salmon origin. This is shown by the following graphic formula:

Miacalcin® (calcitonin-salmon) Structural Formula Illustration

It is provided in sterile solution for subcutaneous or intramuscular injection. Each milliliter contains: calcitonin-salmon 200 I.U., acetic acid, USP, 2.25 mg; phenol, USP, 5.0 mg; sodium acetate trihydrate, USP, 2.0 mg; sodium chloride, USP, 7.5 mg; water for injection, USP, qs to 1.0 mL.

The activity of Miacalcin Injection is stated in International Units based on bioassay in comparison with the International Reference Preparation of calcitonin-salmon for Bioassay, distributed by the National Institute for Biological Standards and Control, Holly Hill, London.

PDB 2glhAndreotti G, Méndez BL, Amodeo P, Morelli MA, Nakamuta H, Motta A (August 2006). “Structural determinants of salmon calcitonin bioactivity: the role of the Leu-based amphipathic alpha-helix”. J. Biol. Chem. 281 (34): 24193–203.doi:10.1074/jbc.M603528200PMID 16766525.

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