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ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY

Read all about Organic Spectroscopy on ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY INTERNATIONAL 

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 29 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 29 year tenure till date Aug 2016, Around 30 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 25 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 13 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 212 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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Posizolid in phase 2 for tuberculosis


Posizolid.png

POSIZOLID

252260-02-9  CAS NO

(5R)-3-[4-[1-[(2S)-2,3-Dihydroxypropanoyl]-3,6-dihydro-2H-pyridin-4-yl]-3,5-difluorophenyl]-5-(1,2-oxazol-3-yloxymethyl)-1,3-oxazolidin-2-one

AstraZeneca (Originator)

 

AZD-2563, AZD-5847

 

Posizolid, Posizolid [INN], SureCN374786, AC1L4U5J, AC1Q6O1X, CHEMBL131854, AZD-2563, AZD-5847   AR-1H7626, A820111
Molecular Formula: C21H21F2N3O7   Molecular Weight: 465.404146

Posizolid is an oxazolidinone antibiotic under investigation by AstraZeneca for the treatment of bacterial infections. At a concentration of 2 mg/L it inhibited 98% of all Gram-positive bacteria tested in vitro.[1]

 

Tuberculosis is a disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtu), which in 1990 was declared a global epidemic by the World Health Organisation (WHO). It affects more than one third of the world’s population resulting in 8 million new patients and 2 million deaths every year. Also there exists a scenario called “Latent TB”, which occurs when germs remain in the body in a quiescent state but without any apparent effect on the health of the individual. In many cases this stage may last for many years or decades. In case of normal human being the chance of activation is 2-23% in a lifetime. However in case of immuno-compromised patients (like HIV) the chances of activation rise to 10% every year.

The current treatment of drug sensitive tuberculosis is at least six months long and requires a combination of isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol in the first two months followed by isoniazid and rifampicin for a period of four months. In recent years, drug resistance to these drugs has increased and the last of drugs for tuberculosis was introduced into clinical practice in the late 1960’s. The evolution of resistance could result in strains against which currently available antitubercular agents will be ineffective and treatment in such cases may last two years with no guarantee of cure. So there is an urgent need to introduce new drugs particularly those with either a novel mechanism of action and/or containing new pharmacophoric groups and new treatment regimens to overcome not only rising drug resistance but also improve the overall treatment duration.

R. Sood et al (Infectious Disorders—Drug Targets 2006, 343-354) report that “Oxazolidinones are a new class of totally synthetic antibacterial agents with wide spectrum of activity against a variety of clinically significant susceptible and resistant bacteria. These compounds have been shown to inhibit translation at the initiation phase of protein synthesis. DuP-721, the first oxazolidinone showed good activity against M. tuberculosis when given orally or parenterally to experimental animals but was not developed further due to lethal toxicity in animal models. Later two oxazolidinones, PNU-100480 and Linezolid, demonstrated promising antimycobacterial activities in the murine model. While Linezolid has been approved for clinical use for broad spectrum area, PNU-100840 was not developed further. DA-7867 showed good in vitro and better in vivo efficacy than Linezolid but was poorly tolerated in rat toxicology studies. The antimycobacterial activity of AZD2563 has not been explored. RBx 7644 had modest antimycobacterial activity whilst RBx 8700 has potent antibacterial and concentration dependent activity against all slow growing mycobacteria. It demonstrated better activity than RBx 7644 against MDR strains of M. tuberculosis along with intracellular activity”.

In published patent application WO-99/64417 we disclose the compound

 

Figure US20120035219A1-20120209-C00001

 

ie. (5R)-3-[4-[1-[(2S)-2,3-dihydroxypropanoyl]-3,6-dihydro-2H-pyridin-4-yl]-3,5-difluoro-phenyl]-5-(isoxazol-3-yloxymethyl)oxazolidin-2-one also known as AZD2563. As reported by R. Sood et al (op cit) the antimycobacterial activity of AZD2563 has not been explored.

In a first aspect of the invention we now provide (5R)-3-[4-[1-[(2S)-2,3-dihydroxypropanoyl]-3,6-dihydro-2H-pyridin-4-yl]-3,5-difluoro-phenyl]-5-(isoxazol-3-yloxymethyl)oxazolidin-2-one or a pharmaceutically-acceptable salt, or an in-vivo-hydrolysable ester thereof, for use in the treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

The compound can form stable acid or basic salts, and in such cases administration of a compound as a salt may be appropriate, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts may be made by conventional methods such as those described following.

Suitable pharmaceutically-acceptable salts include acid addition salts such as methanesulfonate, tosylate, α-glycerophosphate. fumarate, hydrochloride, citrate, maleate, tartrate and hydrobromide. Also suitable are salts formed with phosphoric and sulfuric acid. In another aspect suitable salts are base salts such as an alkali metal salt for example sodium, an alkaline earth metal salt for example calcium or magnesium, an organic amine salt for example triethylamine, morpholine, N-methylpiperidine, N-ethylpiperidine, procaine, dibenzylamine, N,N-dibenzylethylamine, tris-(2-hydroxyethyl)amine, N-methyl d-glucamine and amino acids such as lysine. There may be more than one cation or anion depending on the number of charged functions and the valency of the cations or anions. In one aspect of the invention the pharmaceutically-acceptable salt is the sodium salt.

Synthesis of 5R)-3-[4-[1-[(2S)-2,3-dihydroxypropanoyl]-3,6-dihydro-2H-pyridin-4-yl]-3,5-difluoro-phenyl]-5-(isoxazol-3-yloxymethyl)oxazolidin-2-one (AZD 2563) is disclosed in our published patent application WO-99/64417.

 

……………….

http://www.google.com/patents/WO1999064417A2?cl=en

Example 22: 5(R)-IsoxazoI-3-yloxymethyl-3-(4-(l-(2(S)-hvdroxy-3-phosphoryl- propanovD-l^^S^-tetrahvdropyrid^-vπ^^-difluorophenvDoxazolidin^-one

 

Figure imgf000071_0001

To a stiπed solution of the starting material Reference Example 15 (lOOmg, 0.15mmol) in dioxan (1ml) was added 4M HCl / dioxan (3ml). The solution was stiπed at ambient temperature for 30 mins. and then evaporated. The residue was triturated well with ether giving the title compound as a white powder (80mg, 96%).

NMR (300Mz. DMS0-d6): 2.43 (m, partially obscured), 3.6 – 4.35 (m, 8H), 4.35 – 4.60 (m, 3H), 5.09 (m, IH), 5.85 (s, IH), 6.30 (s, IH), 7.31 (d, 2H), 8.60 (s, IH). MS: ESP+ (M+H) = 546.

…………………….

EP 1082323; JP 2002517498; WO 9964417

The condensation of the protected 3,5-difluoroaniline (I) with 1-benzyl-4-piperidone (II) by means of BuLi in THF gives 4-(1-benzyl-4-hydroxypiperidin-4-yl)-3,5-difluoroaniline (III), which is dehydrated with refluxing conc. HCl to yield the tetrahydropyridine (IV). The reaction of (IV) with benzyl chloroformate in acetone/water affords the carbamate (V), which is cyclized with (R)-glycidyl butyrate (VI) by means of BuLi in THF to provide the oxazolidinone (VII). The condensation of (VII) with isoxazol-3-ol (VIII) by means of PPh3 and DIAD in THF gives the expected ether adduct (IX), which is debenzylated by reaction with 1-chloroethyl chloroformate in dichloromethane, yielding the free tetrahydropyridine derivative (X). The condensation of (X) with (S)-2,3-O-isopropylideneglyceric acid (XI) by means of DEC or DCC and TEA in dichloromethane affords the corresponding acyl tetrahydropyridine (XII), which is finally deprotected with HCl in THF to provide the target dihydroxy compound.

 

………………..

WO 0140236

The condensation of the protected 3,5-difluoroaniline (I) with 1-benzyl-4-piperidone (II) by means of BuLi in THF gives 4-(1-benzyl-4-hydroxypiperidin-4-yl)-3,5-difluoroaniline (III), which is dehydrated with refluxing conc. HCl to yield the tetrahydropyridine (IV). The reaction of (IV) with benzyl chloroformate in acetone/water affords the carbamate (V), which is cyclized with (R)-glycidyl butyrate (VI) by means of BuLi in THF to provide the oxazolidinone (VII). The condensation of (VII) with isoxazol-3-ol (VIII) by means of PPh3 and DIAD in THF gives the expected ether adduct (IX), which is debenzylated by reaction with 1-chloroethyl chloroformate in dichloromethane, yielding the free tetrahydropyridine derivative (X). The condensation of (X) with (S)-2,3-O-isopropylideneglyceric acid (XI) by means of DEC or DCC and TEA in dichloromethane affords the corresponding acyl tetrahydropyridine (XII), which is finally deprotected with HCl in THF to provide the target dihydroxy compound.

 

 

References

  1. Wookey, A.; Turner, P. J.; Greenhalgh, J. M.; Eastwood, M.; Clarke, J.; Sefton, C. (2004). “AZD2563, a novel oxazolidinone: definition of antibacterial spectrum, assessment of bactericidal potential and the impact of miscellaneous factors on activity in vitro”. Clinical Microbiology and Infection 10 (3): 247–254. doi:10.1111/j.1198-743X.2004.00770.xPMID 15008947.

 

  1. AstraZeneca. New tuberculosis drug trial begins in South Africa. Available online: http://www.astrazeneca.com/Research/news/Article/20121210–new-tuberculosis-drug-trial-begins-in-south-africa (accessed on 12 April 2013).
  2. Working Group on New TB Drugs. AZD5847 oxazolidinone. Available online: http://www.newtbdrugs.org/project.php?id=174 (accessed on 12 April 2013).
  3. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). Phase 2a EBA trial of AZD5847. Available online: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01516203 (accessed on 12 April 2013).
  4. Villemagne, B.; Crauste, C.; Flipo, M.; Baulard, A.R.; Déprez, B.; Willand, N. Tuberculosis: The drug development pipeline at a glance. Eur. J. Med. Chem. 201251, 1–16, doi:10.1016/j.ejmech.2012.02.033.
2-10-2012
Compound for the Treatment of Tuberculosis

 

WO1993022298A1 * Apr 28, 1993 Nov 11, 1993 Hiroyuki Kawamura Oxazolidine derivative and pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof
WO1993023384A1 * Apr 21, 1993 Nov 25, 1993 Michael Robert Barbachyn Oxazolidinones containing a substituted diazine moiety and their use as antimicrobials
WO1994022857A1 * Apr 7, 1994 Oct 13, 1994 Masakazu Fukushima Thiazolidine derivative and pharmaceutical composition containing the same
WO1997006791A1 * Aug 13, 1996 Feb 27, 1997 Scripps Research Inst METHODS AND COMPOSITIONS USEFUL FOR INHIBITION OF αvβ5 MEDIATED ANGIOGENESIS
WO1997009328A1 * Aug 13, 1996 Mar 13, 1997 David J Anderson Phenyloxazolidinones having a c-c bond to 4-8 membered heterocyclic rings
EP0645376A1 * Sep 15, 1994 Mar 29, 1995 MERCK PATENT GmbH Substituted 1-phenyl-oxazolidin-2-one derivatives, their preparation and their use as adhesion-receptor antagonists
EP0710657A1 * Oct 19, 1995 May 8, 1996 MERCK PATENT GmbH Antagonists of adhesion receptors
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Radezolid in phase 2, Rib-X Pharmaceuticals


Antibiotics 02 00500 i017

Radezolid

869884-78-6 cas no

http://www.ama-assn.org/resources/doc/usan/radezolid.pdf

869884-78-6, RX-103, RX-1741, RX-O1_667, Radezolid (USAN/INN),  UNII-53PC6LO35W
Molecular Formula: C22H23FN6O3
Molecular Weight: 438.454823

Rib-X Pharmaceuticals

Phase II completed

N-{[(5S)-3-(2-fluoro-4′-{[(1H-1,2,3-triazol-5-ylmethyl)amino]methyl}biphenyl-4-yl)-2-oxo-1,3-oxazolidin-5-yl]methyl}acetamide

(5S)-N-[3-(2-Fluoro-4′-{[(1H-[1,2,3]triazol-4-ylmethyl)-amino]-methyl}-biphenyl-4-yl)-2-oxo-oxazolidin-5-ylmethyl]-acetamide

Rib-X Pharmaceuticals has completed two Phase II clinical trials of radezolid for the treatment of pneumonia and uncomplicated skin infections. The trial completion dates were in 2008 and 2009, but to date the Phase III trials have not been initiated [1-6].

 

Radezolid (INN, codenamed RX-1741) is a novel oxazolidinone antibiotic being developed by Rib-X Pharmaceuticals, Inc. for the treatment of serious multi-drug–resistant infections. Radezolid has completed two phase-II clinical trials. One of these clinical trials was for uncomplicated skin and skin-structure infections (uSSSI) and the other clinical trial was for community acquired pneumonia (CAP).

Oxazolidinone antibiotics are a relatively new class of antibacterial agents with activity against a broad spectrum of gram-positive pathogens. The first member of this new class to be commercialized, linezolid, was approved in 2000. Since that time the development of linezolid resistant organisms has prompted efforts to discover more effective members of the oxazolidinone class.

A new family of biaryl oxazolidinone antibacterials with activity against both linezolid-susceptible and -resistant Gram-positive bacteria, as well as certain Gram-negative bacteria has been reported (see Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 2008, 18, 6175-6178, and PCT Patent Publication WO 2005/019211).

Among the known biaryloxazolidinones is N-[3-(2-fluoro-4′-{[(1H-[1,2,3]triazol-4-ylmethyl)-amino]-methyl}-bipheny- l-4-yl)-2-oxo-oxazolidin-5-ylmethyl]-acetamide, more commonly known as radezolid (RX-1741), currently being developed for multi-drug-resistant infections.

Although a monohydrochloride salt of radezolid was disclosed in PCT Patent Publication WO 2006/133397, there is a continuing need for new salts and polymorphs thereof having improved properties such as solubility to optimize bioavailability on therapeutic administration.

 

Radezolid

Synthesis 1

http://www.google.co.il/patents/WO2005019211A2?hl=iw&cl=en

Scheme A

 

Figure imgf000025_0002

Scheme B illustrates the synthesis of intermediates 7 and 8 of the present invention using Suzuki coupling chemistry between boronic acids and aryl triflates. Boronic ester 6 is treated with an appropriate aryl triflate to yield the BOC-protected biaryl 7. The BOC group of 7 is removed to provide amine 8, an intermediate useful in the synthesis of certain compounds of the present invention.

Scheme B

 

Figure imgf000026_0001

8, R = NH2-HCI Scheme C depicts the synthesis of intermediates 9-13, which are useful in producing certain methoxy-substituted biaryl derivatives of the present invention. Suzuki coupling of boronic ester 6 produces biaryl aldehyde 9, which can be reduced to alcohol 10. Mesylation of 10 yields 11 that can be converted to azide 12. Reduction of azide 12 yields amine 13.

Scheme C

 

Figure imgf000027_0001

Scheme D depicts the synthesis of pyridyl intermediates, which are useful for the synthesis of compounds of the present invention, via similar chemistry to that shown in Scheme C. Coupling of boronic ester 6 to a halopyridine aldehyde produces biaryl aldehyde 14. Aldehyde 14 serves as the precursor to intermediates 15-18 via chemistry described above.

Scheme D

 

Figure imgf000028_0001

Biaryl aldehyde 19 (Scheme E) can be synthesized from a Suzuki coupling of iodide 1 and 4-formylphenylboronic acid. Scheme E illustrates how intermediate aldehydes of type 19, 9, and 14 can be converted via reductive amination chemistry to other amines, such as amines 20-22, which are useful as intermediates for the synthesis of certain compounds of the invention.

Scheme E

 

Figure imgf000028_0002

Scheme F depicts the general synthesis of compounds of type la and lb from amines of type 5, 13, 18, and 20-22. Compounds of type la and lb are synthesized via acylation of amines 5, 13 and 18 and 20-22 with the appropriate acids using, for example, l-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDCI) as the coupling agent. Compounds 4001-4007 were specifically synthesized from amine 5 and the appropriate carboxylic acids. Scheme F

 

Figure imgf000029_0001

Scheme G highlights the synthesis of compounds of general structure II from amines of type 5 and 18. The amine can be acylated with carboxylic acids using EDCI (or other commonly employed peptide coupling reagents known in the art) to afford amides II.

Acid chlorides can be purchased or synthesized and allowed to react with amines 5 and 18, in the presence of bases such as triethylamine, to also produce amides II.

Alternatively, carboxylic acids can be pre-loaded onto a solid polymeric support, such as a tetrafluorophenol containing resin (TFP resin), and reacted with amines to yield amide products of general structure II (such as compounds 4008-4015).

Scheme G

 

Figure imgf000029_0002

Scheme H illustrates the synthesis of compounds of general structure Ilia from amines of type 5, 13, and 18 using reductive amination chemistry. For example, biaryl amine compounds 4016-4028 are synthesized in this manner. Scheme H

 

Figure imgf000030_0001

Scheme I depicts the synthesis of general structure Illb of the present invention from amine intermediate 8. For example, compounds 4029-4031 are synthesized using this reductive amination chemistry.

Scheme I

 

Figure imgf000030_0002

Scheme J shows the synthesis of compounds of general structure IVa and IVb. Amines 20, 21, and 22 can be converted to tertiary amines IVa, such as compounds 4032-4034 and 4036, using standard reductive amination chemistry employed earlier for other derivatives.

This reductive amination chemistry can be employed on biaryl aldehyde intermediates such as 19, 9, and 14 to yield optionally substituted amines of general structure IVb, illustrated by compound 4037.

Scheme J

 

Figure imgf000030_0003

producing compounds of the present invention. Known iodoaryl oxazolidinone intermediate 50 (see U.S. Patent Nos. 5,523,403 and 5,565,571) is coupled to a substituted aryl boronic acid (the Suzuki reaction) to produce biaryl alcohol 51. Mesylate 52, azide 53, and amine 54 are then synthesized using chemistry well known to those skilled in the art. Scheme 1

 

Figure imgf000154_0001

NaN3, DMF, 70 °C

 

Figure imgf000154_0002

 

Figure imgf000154_0003

http://www.google.co.il/patents/WO2005019211A2?hl=iw&cl=en

……………….

NO 2

http://www.google.com/patents/US20100234615

TABLE 1
Compound
Number Structure
1
Figure US20100234615A1-20100916-C00053

Example 1 Synthesis of Compound 1

Compound 1 and its hydrochloride salt are synthesized according to the following Scheme:

 

Figure US20100234615A1-20100916-C00176
Figure US20100234615A1-20100916-C00177

 

4-Methoxybenzyl Azide

1001.

A solution of 4-methoxybenzyl chloride 1000 (51.8 g, 331.0 mmol) in anhydrous DMF (200 mL) was treated with solid sodium azide (21.5 g, 331.0 mmol, 1.0 equiv) at 25° C., and the resulting mixture was stirred at 25° C. for 24 h. When TLC and HPLC/MS showed that the reaction was complete, the reaction mixture was quenched with H2O (400 mL) and ethyl acetate (EtOAc, 400 mL) at room temperature.

The two layers were separated, and the aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (200 mL). The combined organic extracts were washed with H2O (2×200 mL) and saturated NaCl aqueous solution (100 mL), dried over MgSO4, and concentrated in vacuo. The crude 4-methoxybenzyl azide (51.2 g, 53.95 g theoretical, 94.9% yield) was obtained as colorless oil, which by HPLC and 1H NMR was found to be essentially pure and was directly used in the subsequent reaction without further purifications. For 4-methoxybenzyl azide 1001:

1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3) δ 3.84 (s, 3H, ArOCH3), 4.29 (s, 2H, Ar—CH2), 6.96 (d, 2H, J=8.7 Hz), 7.28 (d, 2H, J=7.8 Hz).

C-[1-(4-Methoxy-benzyl)-1H-[1,2,3]triazol-4-yl]-methylamine and C-[3-(4-Methoxy-benzyl)-3H-[1,2,3]triazol-4-yl]-methylamine

(1003 and 1004).

A solution of 4-methoxybenzyl azide 1001 (61.2 g, 375.5 mmol) in toluene (188 mL) was heated with propargylamine 1002 (commercially available, 30.97 g, 38.6 mL, 563.0 mmol, 1.5 equiv) at 25° C., and the resulting reaction mixture was warmed up to gentle reflux at 100-110° C. for 21 h. When TLC and HPLC/MS showed that the reaction was complete, the reaction mixture was cooled down to room temperature before being concentrated in vacuo to remove the excess amount of propargylamine and solvent.

The oily residue was then treated with 30% ethyl acetate-hexane (v/v, 260 mL), and the resulting mixture was warmed up to reflux and stirred at reflux for 30 min before being cooled down to room temperature for 1 h. The pale-yellow solids were then collected by filtration, washed with 30% ethyl acetate-hexane (v/v, 2×100 mL), and dried in vacuo at 40° C. for overnight to afford the crude, cycloaddition product (78.8 g, 81.75 g theoretical, 96.4%) as a mixture of two regioisomers, C-[1-(4-methoxy-benzyl)-1H-[1,2,3]triazol-4-yl]-methylamine and C-[3-(4-methoxy-benzyl)-3H-[1,2,3]triazol-4-yl]-methylamine (1003 and 1004), in a ratio of 1.2 to 1 by 1H NMR.

The crude cycloaddition product was found to be essentially pure and the two regioisomers were not separated before being used directly in the subsequent reaction without further purification. For 1003 and 1004:

1H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 1.82 (br. s, 2H, NH2), 3.72 and 3.73 (two s, 3H, Ar—OCH3), 5.47 and 5.53 (two s, 2H, ArCH2), 6.89 and 6.94 (two d, 2H, J=8.7 Hz, Ar—H), 7.17 and 7.29 (two d, 2H, J=8.7 Hz, Ar—H), 7.58 and 7.87 (two br. s, 1H, triazole-CH); C11H14N4O, LCMS (EI) m/e 219 (M++H) and 241 (M++Na).

4-({tert-Butoxycarbonyl-[1-(4-methoxy-benzyl)-1H-[1,2,3]triazol-4-ylmethyl]-amino}-methyl)-phenylboronic acid and 4-({tert-Butoxycarbonyl-[3-(4-methoxy-benzyl)-3H-[1,2,3]triazol-4-ylmethyl]-amino}-methyl)-phenylboronic acid (1008 and 1009).

Method A. A solution of the regioisomeric C-[1-(4-methoxy-benzyl)-1H-[1,2,3]triazol-4-yl]-methylamine and C-[3-(4-methoxy-benzyl)-3H-[1,2,3]triazol-4-yl]-methylamine (1003 and 1004, 20.0 g, 91.74 mmol) in 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE, 280 mL) was treated with 4-formylphenylboronic acid 1005 (commercially available, 12.39 g, 82.57 mmol, 0.9 equiv) at room temperature, and the resulting reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 10 min. Sodium triacetoxyborohydride (NaB(OAc)3H, 29.2 g, 137.6 mmol, 1.5 equiv) was then added to the reaction mixture in three portions over the period of 1.5 h at room temperature, and the resulting reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for an additional 3.5 h.

When TLC and HPLC/MS showed that the reductive animation reaction was complete, the reaction mixture was concentrated in vacuo. The residue, which contained a regioisomeric mixture of 4-({[1-(4-methoxy-benzyl)-1H-[1,2,3]triazol-4-ylmethyl]-amino}-methyl)-phenylboronic acid and 4-({[3-(4-methoxy-benzyl)-3H-[1,2,3]triazol-4-ylmethyl]-amino}-methyl)-phenylboronic acid as the reductive animation products (1006 and 1007), was then treated with tetrahydrofuran (THF, 100 mL) and water (H2O, 100 mL).

The resulting solution was subsequently treated with solid potassium carbonate (K2CO3, 37.98 g, 275.2 mmol, 3.0 equiv) and di-tert-butyl dicarbonate (BOC2O, 20.02 g, 91.74 mmol, 1.0 equiv) at room temperature and the reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 2 h. When TLC and HPLC/MS showed that the N-BOC protection reaction was complete, the reaction mixture was treated with ethyl acetate (EtOAc, 150 mL) and water (H2O, 100 mL). The two layers were separated, and the aqueous layer was extracted with ethyl acetate (50 mL). The combined organic extracts were washed with H2O (50 mL), 1.5 N aqueous HCl solution (2×100 mL), H2O (100 mL), and saturated aqueous NaCl solution (100 mL), dried over MgSO4, and concentrated in vacuo.

The crude, regioisomeric 4-({tert-butoxycarbonyl-[1-(4-methoxy-benzyl)-1H-[1,2,3]triazol-4-ylmethyl]-amino}-methyl)-phenylboronic acid and 4-({tert-butoxycarbonyl-[3-(4-methoxy-benzyl)-3H-[1,2,3]triazol-4-ylmethyl]-amino}-methyl)-phenylboronic acid (1008 and 1009, 35.98 g, 37.32 g, 96.4%) was obtained as a pale-yellow oil, which solidified upon standing at room temperature in vacuo.

This crude material was directly used in the subsequent reaction without further purification. For 1008 and 1009:

1H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 1.32 and 1.37 (two br. s, 9H, COOC(CH3)3), 3.70, 3.73 and 3.74 (three s, 3H, Ar—OCH3), 4.07-4.39 (m, 4H), 5.49 and 5.52 (two s, 2H), 6.70-8.04 (m, 9H, Ar—H and triazole-CH); C23H29BN4O5, LCMS (EI) m/e 453 (M++H) and 475 (M++Na).

Method B. A solution of the regioisomeric C-[1-(4-methoxy-benzyl)-1H-[1,2,3]triazol-4-yl]-methylamine and C-[3-(4-methoxy-benzyl)-3H-[1,2,3]triazol-4-yl]-methylamine (1003 and 1004, 20.06 g, 92.0 mmol) in tetrahydrofuran (THF, 300 mL) was treated with 4-formylphenylboronic acid (13.11 g, 87.4 mmol, 0.95 equiv) at room temperature, and the resulting reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 10 min. Sodium triacetoxyborohydride (NaB(OAc)3H, 29.25 g, 138.0 mmol, 1.5 equiv) was then added to the reaction mixture in three portions over the period of 1.5 h at room temperature, and the resulting reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for an additional 3.5 h.

When TLC and HPLC/MS showed that the reductive animation reaction was complete, the reaction mixture, which contained a regioisomeric mixture of 4-({[1-(4-methoxy-benzyl)-1H-[1,2,3]triazol-4-ylmethyl]-amino}-methyl)-phenylboronic acid and 4-({[3-(4-methoxy-benzyl)-3H-[1,2,3]triazol-4-ylmethyl]-amino}-methyl)-phenylboronic acid as the reductive animation products (1006 and 1007), was then treated with water (H2O, 200 mL).

The resulting aqueous solution was subsequently heated with solid potassium carbonate (K2CO3, 38.0 g, 276 mmol, 3.0 equiv) and di-tert-butyl dicarbonate (BOC2O, 20.08 g, 92 mmol, 1.0 equiv) at room temperature and the reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 2 h. When TLC and HPLC/MS showed that the N-BOC protection reaction was complete, the reaction mixture was treated with ethyl acetate (EtOAc, 150 mL) and water (H2O, 100 mL). The two layers were separated, and the aqueous layer was extracted with ethyl acetate (50 mL).

The combined organic extracts were washed with H2O (50 mL), 1.5 N aqueous HCl solution (2×100 mL), H2O (100 mL), and saturated aqueous NaCl solution (100 mL), dried over MgSO4, and concentrated in vacuo. The crude, 4-({tert-butoxycarbonyl-[1-(4-methoxy-benzyl)-1H-[1,2,3]triazol-4-ylmethyl]-amino}-methyl)-phenylboronic acid and 4-({tert-butoxycarbonyl-[3-(4-methoxy-benzyl)-3H-[1,2,3]triazol-4-ylmethyl]-amino}-methyl)-phenylboronic acid (1008 and 1009, 38.45 g, 39.50 g, 97.3%) was obtained as a pale-yellow oil, which solidified upon standing at room temperature in vacuo. This crude material was found to be essentially identical in every comparable aspect as the material obtained from Method A and was directly used in the subsequent reaction without further purification.

(5S)-{4′-[5-(Acetylamino-methyl)-2-oxo-oxazolidin-3-yl]-2′-fluoro-biphenyl-4-ylmethyl}-[1-(4-methoxy-benzyl)-1H-[1,2,3]triazol-4-ylmethyl]-carbamic acid tert-butyl ester and (5S)-{4′-[5-(Acetylamino-methyl)-2-oxo-oxazolidin-3-yl]-2′-fluoro-biphenyl-4-ylmethyl}-[1-(4-methoxy-benzyl)-1H-[1,2,3]triazol-5-ylmethyl]-carbamic acid tert-butyl ester

(1011 and 1012).

A suspension of the crude regioisomeric mixture of 4-({tert-butoxycarbonyl-[1-(4-methoxy-benzyl)-1H-[1,2,3]triazol-4-ylmethyl]-amino}-methyl)-phenylboronic acid and 4-({tert-butoxycarbonyl-[3-(4-methoxy-benzyl)-3H-[1,2,3]triazol-4-ylmethyl]-amino}-methyl)-phenylboronic acid (1008 and 1009, 37.62 g, 83.23 mmol) and N-[3-(3-fluoro-4-iodo-phenyl)-2-oxo-oxazolidin-5-ylmethyl]-acetamide (1010, 28.32 g, 74.9 mmol, 0.90 equiv) in toluene (150 mL) was treated with powder K2CO(34.45 g, 249.7 mol, 3.0 equiv), EtOH (50 mL), and H2O (50 mL) at 25° C.,

and the resulting mixture was degassed three times under a steady stream of Argon at 25° C. Pd(PPh3)(866 mg, 0.749 mmol, 0.01 equiv) was subsequently added to the reaction mixture, and the resulting reaction mixture was degassed three times again under a stead stream of Argon at 25° C. before being warmed up to gentle reflux for 18 h. When TLC and HPLC/MS showed the coupling reaction was complete, the reaction mixture was cooled down to room temperature before being treated with H2O (100 mL) and ethyl acetate (100 mL). The two layers were then separated, and the aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (100 mL).

The combined organic extracts were washed with H2O (50 mL), 1.5 N aqueous HCl solution (2×150 mL), H2O (100 mL), and the saturated aqueous NaCl solution (100 mL), dried over MgSO4, and concentrated in vacuo. The residual oil was solidified upon standing at room temperature in vacuo to afford the crude, (5S)-{4′-[5-(acetylamino-methyl)-2-oxo-oxazolidin-3-yl]-2′-fluoro-biphenyl-4-y]methyl}-[1-(4-methoxy-benzyl)-1H-[1,2,3]triazol-4-ylmethyl]-carbamic acid tert-butyl ester (1011) and (5S)-{4′-[5-(acetylamino-methyl)-2-oxo-oxazolidin-3-yl]-2′-fluoro-biphenyl-4-ylmethyl}-[1-(4-methoxy-benzyl)-1H-[1,2,3]triazol-5-ylmethyl]-carbamic acid tert-butyl ester (1012) as a regioisomeric mixture.

This crude product (43.36 g, 49.28 g theoretical, 88%) was used directly in the subsequent reaction without further purification. For the mixture of 1011 and 10121H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 1.35 and 1.38 (two br. s, 9H, COO(CH3)3), 1.85 (s, 3H, COCH3), 3.45 (t, 2H, J=5.4 Hz), 3.73 and 3.76 (two s, 3H, Ar—OCH3), 3.79 (dd, 1H, J=6.6, 9.1 Hz), 4.18 (t, 1H, J=9.1 Hz), 4.35-4.43 (m, 4H), 4.73-4.81 (m, 1H), 5.50 (br. s, 2H), 6.90 and 6.98 (two d, 2H, J=8.7 Hz), 7.28 and 7.32 (two d, 2H, J=8.7 Hz), 7.35 (dd, 2H, J=2.2, 8.6 Hz), 7.42 (dd, 1H, J=2.2, 8.6 Hz), 7.49-7.63 (m, 4H, aromatic-H), 7.90 and 7.99 (two br. s, 1H, triazole-CH), 8.29 (t, 1H, J=5.8 Hz, NHCOCH3); C35H39FN6O6, LCMS (EI) m/e 659 (M++H) and 681 (M++Na).

(5S)-N-{3-[2-Fluoro-4′-({[1-(4-methoxy-benzyl)-1H-[1,2,3]triazol-4-ylmethyl]-amino}-methyl)-biphenyl-4-yl]-2-oxo-oxazolidin-5-ylmethyl}-acetamide Hydrochloride (1013)

and

(5S)-N-{3-[2-Fluoro-4′-({[1-(4-methoxy-benzyl)-1H–[1,2,3]triazol-5-ylmethyl]-amino}-methyl)-biphenyl-4-yl]-2-oxo-oxazolidin-5-ylmethyl}-acetamide Hydrochloride (1014).

A solution of a regioisomeric mixture of (5S)-{4′-[5-(acetylamino-methyl)-2-oxo-oxazolidin-3-yl]-2′-fluoro-biphenyl-4-ylmethyl}-[1-(4-methoxy-benzyl)-1H-[1,2,3]triazol-4-ylmethyl]-carbamic acid tert-butyl ester and (5S)-{4′-[5-(acetylamino-methyl)-2-oxo-oxazolidin-3-yl]-2′-fluoro-biphenyl-4-ylmethyl}-[1-(4-methoxy-benzyl)-1H-[1,2,3]triazol-5-ylmethyl]-carbamic acid tert-butyl ester (1011 and 1012, 37.28 g, 56.65 mmol) in ethyl acetate (EtOAc, 150 mL) and methanol (MeOH, 30 mL) was treated with a solution of 4 N hydrogen chloride in 1,4-dioxane (113.3 mL, 453.2 mmol, 8.0 equiv) at room temperature, and the resulting reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 12 h. When TLC and HPLC/MS showed that the N-BOC deprotection reaction was complete,

the solvents were removed in vacuo. The residue was then suspended in 250 mL of 5% methanol (MeOH) in acetonitrile (CH3CN), and the resulting slurry was stirred at room temperature for 1 h. The solids were then collected by filtration, washed with toluene (2×100 mL) and 5% methanol in acetonitrile (2×50 mL), and dried in vacuo to afford a regioisomeric mixture of the crude, (5S)-N-{3-[2-fluoro-4′-({[1-(4-methoxy-benzyl)-1H-[1,2,3]triazol-4-ylmethyl]-amino}-methyl)-biphenyl-4-yl]-2-oxo-oxazolidin-5-ylmethyl}-acetamide hydrochloride and (5S)-N-{3-[2-fluoro-4′-({[1-(4-methoxy-benzyl)-1H-[1,2,3]triazol-5-ylmethyl]-amino}-methyl)-biphenyl-4-yl]-2-oxo-oxazolidin-5-ylmethyl}-acetamide hydrochloride (1013 and 1014, 30.0 g, 33.68 g theoretical, 89.1% yield) as off-white crystals in a ratio of 1.2 to 1.

This material was found by 1H NMR and HPLC/MS to be essentially pure and was directly used in the subsequent reactions without further purification. For the regioisomeric mixture of 1013 and 1014:

1H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 1.84 (s, 3H, COCH3), 3.44 (t, 2H, J=5.4 Hz), 3.71 and 3.74 (two s, 3H, Ar—OCH3), 3.80 (dd, 1H, J=6.6, 9.1 Hz), 4.17 (t, 1H, J=9.1 Hz), 4.23-4.30 (m, 4H), 4.73-4.80 (m, 1H), 5.58 and 5.70 (two s, 2H), 6.88 and 6.93 (two d, 2H, J=8.7 Hz), 7.15 and 7.32 (two d, 2H, J=8.7 Hz), 7.43 (dd, 2H, J=2.2, 8.6 Hz), 7.52-7.62 (m, 6H, aromatic-H), 8.28 (s, 1H, triazole-CH), 8.32 (t, 1H, J=5.8 Hz, NHCOCH3), 9.91 and 10.32 (two br. s, 2H, ArCH2N+H2); C30H31FN6O4, LCMS (EI) m/e 559 (M++H) and 581 (M++Na).

(5S)-N-[3-(2-Fluoro-4′-{[(1H-[1,2,3]triazol-4-ylmethyl)-amino]-methyl}-biphenyl-4-yl)-2-oxo-oxazolidin-5-ylmethyl]-acetamide hydrochloride (1 hydrochloride salt).

A solution of the crude regioisomeric mixture of (5S)-N-{3-[2-fluoro-4′-({[1-(4-methoxy-benzyl)-1H-[1,2,3]triazol-4-ylmethyl]-amino}-methyl)-biphenyl-4-yl]-2-oxo-oxazolidin-5-ylmethyl}-acetamide hydrochloride and (5S)-1H-{3-[2-fluoro-4′-({[1-(4-methoxy-benzyl)-1H-[1,2,3]triazol-5-ylmethyl]-amino}-methyl)-biphenyl-4-yl]-2-oxo-oxazolidin-5-ylmethyl}-acetamide hydrochloride (1013 and 1014, 29.17 g, 49.07 mmol) in trifluoroacetic acid(TFA, 150 mL) was warmed up to 65-70° C., and the resulting reaction mixture was stirred at 65-70° C. for 12 h. When TLC and HPLC/MS showed that the deprotection reaction was complete, the solvents were removed in vacuo.

The residual solids were then treated with ethyl acetate (EtOAc, 100 mL) and H2O (150 mL) before being treated with a saturated aqueous solution of sodium carbonate (30 mL) at room temperature. The resulting mixture was then stirred at room temperature for 1 h before the solids were collected by filtration, washed with EtOAc (2×50 mL) and H2O (2×50 mL), and dried in vacuo at 40-45° C. to afford the crude, (5S)-N-[3-(2-fluoro-4′-{[(1H-[1,2,3]triazol-4-ylmethyl)-amino]-methyl)-biphenyl-4-yl)-2-oxo-oxazolidin-5-ylmethyl]-acetamide (1 as the free base, 18.9 g, 21.49 g theoretical, 87.9%) as off-white powders, which by HPLC/MS and 1H NMR was found to be one pure regioisomer and this regioisomer was found to be identical as the material obtained from deprotection of 1013 alone by the same method.

For 1 as the free base: 1H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 1.85 (s, 3H, COCH3), 3.44 (t, 2H, J=5.4 Hz), 3.74 (s, 2H), 3.77 (s, 2H), 3.79 (dd, 1H, J=6.4, 9.2 Hz), 4.17 (t, 1H, J=9.1 Hz), 4.72-4.81 (m, 1H), 7.39-7.62 (m, 7H, aromatic-H), 7.73 (s, 1H, triazole-CH), 8.29 (t, 1H, J=5.8 Hz, NHCOCH3), 9.72 (br. s, 2H, ArCH2N+H2), 15.20 (br. s, 1H, triazole-NH); C22H23FN6O3, LCMS (EI) m/e 439 (M++H) and 461 (M++Na).

A suspension of 1 free base (18.0 g, 41.1 mmol) in ethyl acetate (EtOAc, 80 mL), and methanol (MeOH, 20 mL) was treated with a solution of 4.0 N hydrogen chloride in 1,4-dioxane (41.1 mL, 164.4 mmol, 4.0 equiv) at room temperature, and the resulting mixture was stirred at room temperature for 8 h. The solvents were then removed in vacuo, and the residue was further dried in vacuo before being treated with a mixture of 10% methanol in acetonitrile (80 mL). The solids were collected by filtration, washed with 10% MeOH/acetonitrile (2×40 mL), and dried in vacuo to afford 1 hydrochloride salt (18.13 g, 19.50 g theoretical, 93% yield) as off-white crystals.

The crude 1 hydrochloride salt can be recrystallized from acetonitrile and water, if necessary, according to the following procedure: A suspension of the crude 1 hydrochloride salt (50.0 g) in acetonitrile (1250 mL) was warmed up to reflux before the distilled water (H2O, 280 mL) was gradually introduced to the mixture. The resulting clear yellow to light brown solution was then stirred at reflux for 10 min before being cooled down to 45-55° C. The solution was then filtered through a Celite bed at 45-55° C., and the filtrates were gradually cooled down to room temperature before being further cooled down to 0-5° C. in an ice bath for 1 h. The solids were then collected by filtration, washed with acetonitrile (2×50 mL), and dried in vacuo at 40° C. for 24 h to afford the recrystallized 1 hydrochloride salt (42.5 g, 50.0 g theoretical, 85% recovery) as off-white crystals.

For 1: 1H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 1.86 (s, 3H, COCH3), 3.45 (t, 2H, J=5.4 Hz), 3.84 (dd, 1H, J=6.4, 9.2 Hz), 4.19 (t, 1H, J=9.1 Hz), 4.24 (br. s, 2H), 4.31 (br. s, 2H), 4.74-4.79 (m, 1H), 7.44 (dd, 1H, J=2.2, 8.6 Hz), 7.57-7.66 (m, 6H, aromatic-H), 8.17 (s, 1H, triazole-CH), 8.30 (t, 1H, J=5.8 Hz, NHCOCH3), 9.72 (br. s, 2H, ArCH2N+H2), 15.20 (br. s, 1H, triazole-NH);

13C NMR (75 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 22.57, 40.69, 41.50, 47.36, 49.23, 71.85, 105.70 (d, J=28.5 Hz), 114.14 (d, J=2.9 Hz), 122.29 (d, J=13.3 Hz), 128.82 (d, J=3.0 Hz), 130.70, 130.94, 131.0, 131.22, 135.30, 137.92 (br. s), 139.66 (d, J=11.2 Hz), 154.11, 159.13 (d, J=243.5 Hz), 170.19;

C22H23FN6O3—HCl, LCMS (EI) m/e 439 (M++H) and 461 (M++Na).

……………………………..

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960894X0801192X

Full-size image (49 K)

 

 

 

References

  1. Sutcliffe, J.A. Antibiotics in development targeting protein synthesis. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 20111241, 122–152, doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2011.06323.x.
  2. Rib-X. Radezolid. Available online: http://www.rib-x.com/pipeline/radezolid.php#development (accessed on 14 April 2013).
  3. Rib-X Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Safety and efficacy study of oxazolidinone to treat pneumonia. Available online: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00640926 (accessed on 14 April 2013).
  4. Rib-X Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Safety and efficacy study of oxazolidinones to treat uncomplicated skin infections. Available online: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00646958 (accessed on 14 April 2013).
  5. Shaw, K.J.; Barbachyn, M.R. The oxazolidinones: Past, present, and future. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 20111241, 48–70, doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2011.06330.x.
  6. Skripkin, E.; McConnell, T.S.; DeVito, J.; Lawrence, L.; Ippolito, J.A.; Duffy, E.M.; Sutcliffe, J.; Franceschi, F. Rχ-01, a new family of oxazolidinones that overcome ribosome-based linezolid resistance.Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 200852, 3550–3557, doi:10.1128/AAC.01193-07.

 

Cited Patent Filing date Publication date Applicant Title
US6969726 * Jun 2, 2004 Nov 29, 2005 Rib X Pharmaceuticals Inc Biaryl heterocyclic compounds and methods of making and using the same
US20050043317 * Jun 2, 2004 Feb 24, 2005 Jiacheng Zhou Biaryl heterocyclic compounds and methods of making and using the same
9-17-2010
BIARYL HETEROCYCLIC COMPOUNDS AND METHODS OF MAKING AND USING THE SAME
9-17-2010
Process for the synthesis of triazoles
4-28-2010
BIARYL HETEROCYCLIC COMPOUNDS AND METHODS OF MAKING AND USING THE SAME
11-26-2008
Biaryl heterocyclic compounds and methods of making and using the same
10-26-2007
Method for reducing the risk of or preventing infection due to surgical or invasive medical procedures
10-12-2007
Method for reducing the risk of or preventing infection due to surgical or invasive medical procedures
10-12-2007
Method for reducing the risk of or preventing infection due to surgical or invasive medical procedures
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Biaryl heterocyclic compounds and methods of making and using the same

QIDP Designation for Radezolid for Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections, Community-acquired Bacterial Pneumonia

Rib-X Pharmaceuticals announced that the FDA designated radezolid as a Qualified Infectious Disease Product (QIDP) for the indications of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) and community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP).

The QIDP designation will enable Rib-X to benefit from certain incentives for the development of new antibiotics, including an additional five years of market exclusivity, priority review and eligibility for fast-track status, provided under the new Generating Antibiotic Incentives Now (GAIN) program. GAIN was included in the FDA Safety and Innovation Act (FDASIA), formerly known as PDUFA V, which received bipartisan Congressional support and was signed into law by President Obama in July 2012.

Radezolid has completed two Phase 2 clinical trials with an oral formulation in uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections (uSSSI) and in CABP. A Phase 1 study with an IV formulation was recently completed in healthy subjects. Rib-X recently announced data from a positive Phase 1 IV dosing study conducted in healthy subjects and an in vivo long-term safety study vs. linezolid (ZyvoxPfizer).

Radezolid is a next-generation oxazolidinone with a safety profile permitting long-term treatment of resistant infections, including those caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

For more information call (203) 624-5606 or visit www.rib-x.com

 

 

 

BC-3781, LEFAMULIN……A Pleuromutilin by Nabriva (Austria) in phase 2


Antibiotics 02 00500 i025

BC-3781

Topical pleuromutilin antibiotic agent

Gram-positive, including MRSA, PHASE 2 COMPLETED

Nabriva (Austria)

SEE UPDATED POST AT   https://newdrugapprovals.org/2014/10/10/nabrivas-lefamulin-bc-3781-receives-fda-fast-track-status-to-treat-cabp-and-absssi/   ………….C0NTAINS SYNTHESIS

BC-3781
The pleuromutilin BC-3781 belongs to the first generation of pleuromutilins to combine excellent oral
bioavailability with substantial activity against Gram-positive pathogens and atypicals as well as some
Gram-negative pathogens. In particular, BC-3781 is highly active against multi-drug resistant (MDR)
pathogens including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), MDR Streptococcus pneumonia
(i.e. macrolide and quinolone resistance), and vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium. It is
characterized by excellent in vivo activities (e.g. pneumonia model), outstanding PK/PD parameters,
allowing once a day dosing, and a novel mode of action. BC-3781 is being developed for both oral and IV
administration and is intended for the treatment of serious multi-drug resistant skin & skin structure
infections (CSSI) and moderate to severe pneumonia (CAP, HAP etc).

Pleuromutilins have been known since 1951, but only entered the market in 2007 with the approval of retapamulin for topical use. Until today, there are no pleuromutilins for systemic use approved in human clinical practice.

Nabriva is currently working on the development of new compounds is this class. The lead compound, BC-3781, if approved, will be the first pleuromutilin for systemic use in humans.

The compound shows potent in vitro activity against a large collection of staphylococcistreptococci, andE. faecium. When compared to linezolid and vancomycin, the compound shows greater overall potency againstS. aureus [121]. BC-3781 shows improved activity against most bacteria commonly associated with community-acquired respiratory tract infections, the compound is especially potent against S. pneumoniaincluding penicillin resistant strains. It also shows improved activity against H. influenzaM. catarrhalisM. pneumoniae and C. pneumoniae.

BC-3781 is undergoing Phase I clinical trials for CAP and in March of 2011 has completed a Phase II clinical study comparing it to vancomycin for treatment of aBSSSI [119,120,121,122,123]. Nabriva Therapeutics AG announced that the cooperation with Forest Laboratories to develop the compound had elapsed, and that Nabriva retained all rights in BC-3781. The company informed that the product was Phase III ready and that it was seeking partners to continue further development [203].

Nabriva is also developing BC-7013 for topical use against Gram-positive infections and working on the discovery of new pleuromutilins [119,124].

Dr William Prince, CMO Nabriva Therapeutics commented:
“This is the first patient study with a systemic pleuromutilin. It will be an important proof of concept
for an exciting new class of antibiotics. The phase II study builds on our extensive preclinical and
phase I data which have demonstrated that BC-3781 can achieve therapeutically relevant blood and
tissue levels in man with excellent tolerability when administered by either oral or intravenous
routes.”

Dr. David Chiswell, CEO Nabriva Therapeutics commented:
“With a worldwide problem due to antibiotic resistant bacteria, there is a very significant need for
new classes of antibiotics with unique modes of action such as the pleuromutilins. The commercial
prospects for BC-3781 as the leading compound of an exciting new class are excellent, especially as it
has an ideal anti-bacterial spectrum for both skin and respiratory infections and is being developed
with both oral and intravenous formulations”

BC-3781 is highly active against key pathogens, including MRSA, associated with skin infections and
community and hospital acquired pneumonia and is more potent than Linezolid and vancomycin. The
compound’s novel mode of action ensures that it overcomes resistance mechanisms affecting all
approved classes of antibiotics. BC-378

 

About Nabriva Therapeutics
Nabriva Therapeutics is a biotechnology company focused on developing a new class of antibiotics for
the treatment of serious infections caused by resistant pathogens. Nabriva’s lead systemic product,
BC-3781, is being developed for the treatment of serious skin infections and bacterial pneumonia
caused by S. aureus, , S. pneumoniae, H. influenza, Mycoplasma, Legionella and other bacteria,
including drug resistant strains such as MRSA and vancomycin resistant E. faecium. In addition,
Nabriva Therapeutics’ topical pleuromutilin product candidate, BC-7013, is in clinical phase I. Nabriva
Therapeutics has a proven track record in world-class medicinal chemistry, clinical expertise, a
seasoned management team and solid IP. Nabriva Therapeutics is located in Vienna, Austria.

For more information on Nabriva please visit http://www.nabriva.com.

 

REF

http://www.phase4-partners.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/100412.pdf

http://www.glsv-vc.com/downloads/2010-06-02_First%20Patient_PressRelease.pdf

119

Nabriva. Pleuromutilins. Available online: http://www.nabriva.com/programs/pleuromutilins/ (accessed on 7 December 2012).
120

Forest Laboratories. Our pipeline: Solid, and set for further growth. Available online: http://www.frx.com/research/pipeline.aspx (accessed on 13 April 2013).
121

Sader, H.S.; Biedenbach, D.J.; Paukner, S.; Ivezic-Schoenfeld, Z.; Jones, R.N. Antimicrobial activity of the investigational pleuromutilin compound BC-3781 tested against Gram-positive organisms commonly associated with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2012,56, 1619–1623, doi:10.1128/AAC.05789-11.

122
Sader, H.S.; Paukner, S.; Ivezic-Schoenfeld, Z.; Biedenbach, D.J.; Schmitz, F.J.; Jones, R.N. Antimicrobial activity of the novel pleuromutilin antibiotic BC-3781 against organisms responsible for community-acquired respiratory tract infections (CARTIs). J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 201267, 1170–1175, doi:10.1093/jac/dks001.

123
Nabriva Therapeutics AG. Study comparing the safety and efficacy of two doses of BC-3781 vs. vancomycin in patients with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infection (ABSSSI). Available online: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01119105 (accessed on 13 April 2013).

124
Novak, R. Are pleuromutilin antibiotics finally fit for human use? Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 20111241, 71–81, doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2011.06219.x.

 

Valnemulin.svgvalnemulin

 

retapamulin

 

LCB01-0371……..new oxazolidinone in phase 1 has improved activity against Gram-positive pathogens


 

LCB01-0371

3-[3-Fluoro-4-(1-methyl-1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-1,2,4-triazin-4-yl)phenyl]-5(R)-(hydroxymethyl)oxazolidin-2-one

LegoChem Biosciences (South Korea)

Phase I, Gram-positive

308.3082

C14 H17 F N4 O3

LCB01-0371 is being developed by LegoChem Bio. This new oxazolidinone has improved activity against Gram-positive pathogens and has good pharmacokinetic profiles in animals [103].

The compound is under Phase I clinical development to assess the safety and tolerability of the compound. The company is currently recruiting participants to be part of the trial [103,104].

read

LCB01-0371 is a new oxazolidinone with cyclic amidrazone. In vitro activity of LCB01-0371 against 624 clinical isolates was evaluated and compared with those of linezolid, vancomycin, and other antibiotics. LCB01-0371 showed good activity against Gram-positive pathogens. In vivo activity of LCB01-0371 against systemic infections in mice was also evaluated. LCB01-0371 was more active than linezolid against these systemic infections. LCB01-0371 showed bacteriostatic activity against Staphylococcus aureus.

As examples of oxazolidinone compounds including an oxazolidinone ring, 3-phenyl-2-oxazolidinone derivatives having one or two substituent(s) are described in US Patent Nos. 4,948,801, 4,461,773, 4,340,606, 4,476,136, 4,250,318 and 4,128,654, and 3-[(mono-substituted)phenyl]-2-oxazolidinone derivatives represented by Chemical Formula A are described in EP 0312000, J. Med. Chem.32, 1673(1989), J. Med. Chem. 33, 2569 (1990), Tetrahedron Lett. 45,123(1989), and the like.

[Chemical Formula A]

 

Figure PCTKR2009005376-appb-I000002

And, oxazolidinone derivatives represented by Chemical Formula B and Chemical Formula C were synthesized by Pharmacia & Upjohn (WO 93/23384, WO 95/14684 and WO 95/07271). The compound of Chemical Formula B, “linezolid”, is the first oxazolidinone antibiotic and is marketed under the trade name “zyvox” for oral administration and injection, approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, most of synthetic oxazolidinone compounds are associated with some limitations, such as toxicity, low in vivo efficacy and low solubility. As for linezolid, solubility in water is only about 3 mg/mL, which causes its use as injection limited.

[Chemical Formula B]

 

Figure PCTKR2009005376-appb-I000003

[Chemical Formula C]

 

Figure PCTKR2009005376-appb-I000004

WO 93/09103 discloses phenyl oxazolidinone derivatives having a heterocyclic ring, including pyridine, thiazole, indole, oxazole, quinol, etc., at the 4-position of the phenyl group. But, the substituents of the heterocyclic ring are merely simple alkyl or amino group, and the activities are not so excellent.

In order to solve these problems, WO 01/94342 discloses phenyloxazolidinone derivatives having various pyridine or phenyl derivatives at the 4-position of the phenyl group. The synthetic compounds have wide antibacterial spectrum and excellent antibacterial activity. Although the oxazolidinone compounds having various pyridine derivatives at the 4-position of the phenyl group of oxazolidinone have wider antibacterial spectrum and excellent antibacterial activity as compared to linezolid, most of them have aqueous solubility of 30 ㎍/mL or less, and thus have limitation in preparing injections.

TR-700 and TR-701, represented by Chemical Formula D, are developed by Dong-A Pharmaceutical and recently licensed to Trius Therapeutics. TR-701 is a prodrug of TR-700 and it is in the phase II clinical trial. TR-701 solves the solubility problem via formation of prodrug from TR-700, exhibits an antibacterial activity superior to that of linezolid. However, the compound shows higher toxicities (cytotoxicity, MAO profile, myelosuppression, etc.) than linezolid, and, thus, is expected to have many limitations.

[Chemical Formula D]

 

Figure PCTKR2009005376-appb-I000005

As described above, a compound having superior antibacterial activity, satisfactory solubility and lower toxicity is yet to be found.

The inventors of the present invention have synthesized novel oxazolidinone derivatives in order to develop antibiotics having superior antibacterial activity as compared to existing antibiotics and having higher solubility for easier preparation into oral administration and injection formulations. The novel oxazolidinone derivatives according to the present invention have been confirmed to have superior antibacterial activity and significantly improved antibacterial spectrum.

Especially, the cyclic amidoxime or cyclic amidrazone compound presented by the present invention has not been studied before. Whereas acyclic amidoxime or amidrazone is relatively well known, the cyclic amidoxime or cyclic amidrazone compound like those disclosed in the present invention is hardly known. Introduction of the cyclic form results in remarkably improved absorptivity and allows the formation of a salt having an adequate basicity, thereby greatly increasing solubility in water. The increased solubility in water makes it possible to prepare injections without using a prodrug and with little toxicity.

watch outfor synthesis…will be updated

WO 2010036000

http://www.google.com/patents/WO2010036000A2?cl=en

[Scheme 1]

 

Figure PCTKR2009005376-appb-I000029

[Scheme 2]

 

Figure PCTKR2009005376-appb-I000030

[Scheme 3]

 

Figure PCTKR2009005376-appb-I000031

[Scheme 4]

 

Figure PCTKR2009005376-appb-I000032

[Scheme 5]

 

Figure PCTKR2009005376-appb-I000033

*[Scheme 6]

 

Figure PCTKR2009005376-appb-I000034

http://www.google.com/patents/WO2010036000A2?cl=en

[Example 94] Preparation of Compound 94

 

Figure PCTKR2009005376-appb-I000145

Compound 93 (150 mg, 0.51 mmol) was dissolved in methanol (5 mL), formaldehyde (37% aqueous solution, 0.21 mL, 2.55 mmol) and stirred for 1 hour at room temperature after adding acetic acid (0.03 mL, 0.51 mmol) and NaBH3CN (48 mg, 0.77 mmol). The solution was distilled under reduced pressure, dissolved in dichloromethane (100 mL), sequentially washed with saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution and saturated aqueous sodium chloride solution (brine), dried with anhydrous sodium sulfate, concentrated under reduced pressure, and separated by column chromatography to obtain Compound 94(71 mg, 0.23 mmol, 45%).

1H NMR (600 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ= 7.59 (dd, J 1 13.8 Hz, J 2 = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 7.33-7.30 (m, 2H), 6.84 (s, 1H), 5.23 (t, J = 5.4 Hz, 1H), 4.70 (m, 1H), 4.07 (t, J = 9.0 Hz, 1H), 3.82 (m, 1H), 3.71 (t, J = 4.8 Hz, 2H), 3.69-3.54 (m, 2H), 2.87 (t, J = 4.8 Hz, 2H), 2.61 (s, 3H).

LCMS: 309 (M + H+) for C14H17-FN4O3.

[Example 93] Preparation of Compound 93

 

Figure PCTKR2009005376-appb-I000144

Compound 93 (190 mg, 0.65 mmol, 74%) was obtained from Compound 92 as in Example 2.

1H NMR (600 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ= 7.73 (dd, J 1 13.8 Hz, J 2 = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 7.60 (t, J = 9 Hz, 1H), 7.45 (dd, J 1 9.0 Hz, J2 = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 4.75 (m, 1H), 4.11 (t, J = 9.0 Hz, 1H), 3.88 (m, 1H), 3.78 (t, J = 4.8 Hz, 2H), 3.70-3.55 (m, 2H), 3.36 (t, J =4.8 Hz, 2H).

LCMS: 295 (M + H+) for C13H15-FN4O3.

[Example 92] Preparation of Compound 92

 

Figure PCTKR2009005376-appb-I000143

Compound 92 (240 mg, 0.75 mmol, 32%) was obtained from Compound XXIII as in Preparation Example 10.

1H NMR (600 MHz, CDCl3) δ= 8.55 (s, 1H), 7.61 (dd, J 1 13 Hz, J 2 = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 7.25 (dd, J 1 9.0 Hz, J 2 = 2.7 Hz, 1H), 7.14 (t, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 6.90 (s, 1H), 4.79 (m, 1H), 4.04-3.99 (m, 5H), 3.79-3.73 (m, 3H), 2.58 (br, s, 1H).

LCMS: 323 (M + H+) for C14H15-FN4O4.

 

[Preparation Example 17] Preparation of Compound XXIII

 

Figure PCTKR2009005376-appb-I000051

Compound V (26 g, 0.053 mol) was dissolved in dichloromethane (180 mL) and stirred for 10 minutes after slowly adding diisopropylethylamine (DIPEA, 13 mL, 0.079 mol) and benzoyl chloride (Bz-Cl, 7.4 mL, 0.064 mol) sequentially dropwise at 0℃. After heating to room temperature, followed by adding a small amount of DMAP, the solution was stirred for 2 hours. The solution was concentrated under reduced pressure, dissolved in ethyl acetate, sequentially washed with saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution and saturated aqueous sodium chloride solution (brine), dried with anhydrous sodium sulfate, and concentrated under reduced pressure to quantitatively obtain Compound XXII (31 g, 0.053 mol), which was treated with hydrochloric acid as in Preparation Example 9 to quantitatively obtain Compound XXIII.

[Preparation Example 5] Preparation of Compound V

 

Figure PCTKR2009005376-appb-I000039

Compound IV (116 g, 0.22 mol) was dissolved in THF (400 mL) and stirred for 20 minutes after slowly adding n-butyllithium (2.5 M solution in n-hexane, 90 mL, 0.23 mol) dropwise at -78℃. After adding (R)-glycidyl butyrate (31.5 mL, 0.23 mol), followed by stirring for 3 hours while slowly heating to room temperature, the solution was adjusted to pH ~6 with aqueous ammonium chloride solution, and concentrated under reduced pressure. The concentrate was dissolved in 80% ethyl acetate/hexane solution, sequentially washed with water and saturated aqueous sodium chloride solution (brine), dried with anhydrous sodium sulfate, and concentrated under reduced pressure. The concentrate was separated by column chromatography using 40% ethyl acetate/hexane solution to obtain Compound V (45 g, 0.093 mol, 42%) as a colorless oil.

1H NMR (600 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.50-7.48 (m, 1H), 7.30-7.28 (m, 1H), 7.17-7.16 (m, 1H), 4.74-4.70 (m, 1H), 4.03-4.02 (m, 1H), 3.98 (m, 2H), 3.75 (m, 3H), 3.65 (m, 2H), 1.51 (s, 3H), 1.36 (s, 6H), 0.85 (s, 9H), 0.02 (s, 6H).

 

 

[Preparation Example 1] Preparation of Compound I

 

Figure PCTKR2009005376-appb-I000035

After dissolving 3,4-difluoronitrobenzene (158 g, 0.99 mol) in acetonitrile (800 mL) and adding ethanolamine (117 g, 1.9 mol), the mixture was stirred for 4 hours under reflux. The reaction solution was cooled to room temperature, concentrated under reduced pressure, triturated with diethyl ether, and filtered to obtain yellow Compound I (199 g, 0.99 mol, 100%).

1H NMR (400 MHz, chloroform-d1) δ 7.97 (d, 1H, J = 8.8 Hz), 7.87 (dd, 1H, J 1 = 11.6 Hz, J 2 = 2.4 Hz), 6.65 (t, 1H, J = 8.8 Hz), 5.10-4.87 (bs, 1H), 3.97-3.83 (m, 2H), 3.43-3.37 (m, 2H).

 

[Preparation Example 2] Preparation of Compound II

 

Figure PCTKR2009005376-appb-I000036

Compound I (100 g, 0.5 mol), t-butyldimethylsilyl chloride (TBS-Cl, 97 g, 0.65 mol) and imidazole (51 g, 0.75 mol) were dissolved in dichloromethane (700 mL) at 0℃ and stirred overnight after slowly heating to room temperature. The reaction solution was concentrated under reduced pressure, dissolved in ethyl acetate and washed with 0.5 N HCl, washed sequentially with saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution and saturated aqueous sodium chloride solution (brine), dried with anhydrous sodium sulfate, and concentrated under reduced pressure to quantitatively obtain a compound with a tbs group attached to alcohol. This compound was dissolved in THF (500 mL) and 1.2 equivalents of Boc2O and 0.1 equivalent of 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) were added. After stirring for 3 hours at room temperature, ammonia water (30 mL) was added. After stirring further for 20 minutes, the solution was concentrated under reduced pressure. The concentrate was dissolved again in ethyl acetate, sequentially washed with 0.5 N HCl, saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution and saturated aqueous sodium chloride solution (brine), dried with anhydrous sodium sulfate, and concentrated under reduced pressure to quantitatively obtain Compound II.

1H NMR (600 MHz, chloroform-d1) δ 8.06-7.98 (m, 1H), 7.95 (dd, 1H, J 1 = 10.2 Hz, J 2 = 2.4 Hz), 7.57 (t, 1H, J = 7.8 Hz), 3.80 (t, 2H, J = 5.4 Hz), 3.73 (t, 2H, J = 4.8 Hz), 1.42 (s, 9H), 0.81 (s, 9H), 0.01 (s, 6H).

 

[Preparation Example 3] Preparation of Compound III

 

Figure PCTKR2009005376-appb-I000037

Compound II (92 g, 0.22 mol) was dissolved in methanol (600 mL) and stirred for 4 hours under hydrogen balloon after adding Pd/C (6 g). The reaction mixture was filtered using celite and concentrated under reduced pressure to quantitatively obtain Compound III (86 g) as a colorless oil.

1H NMR (400 MHz, chloroform-d1) δ 6.99 (t, 1H, J = 12.0 Hz), 6.44-6.30 (m, 2H), 3.81-3.63 (m, 4H), 3.63-3.52 (m, 2H), 1.50 (s, 3H), 1.35 (s, 6H), 0.86 (s, 9H), 0.03 (s, 6H).

 

[Preparation Example 4] Preparation of Compound IV

 

Figure PCTKR2009005376-appb-I000038

Compound III (86 g, 0.22 mol) was dissolved in dichloromethane (300 mL). After adding aqueous 1 N NaOH solution (300 mL), benzyl chloroformate (Cbz-Cl, 38 mL, 0.27 mol) was slowly added dropwise while stirring. After stirring for 1 hour at room temperature, the organic layer was separated, washed twice with water, dried with anhydrous sodium sulfate, and concentrated under reduced pressure to quantitatively obtain Compound IV (116 g) as a yellow oil.

1H NMR (600 MHz, chloroform-d1) δ 7.44-7.32 (m, 6H), 7.18 (t, 1H, J = 8.1 Hz), 6.96 (d, 1H, J = 8.4 Hz), 6.84-6.66 (bs, 1H), 5.20 (s, 2H), 3.82-3.63 (m, 2H), 3.63-3.58 (m, 2H), 1.51 (s, 3H), 1.35 (s, 6H), 0.86 (s, 9H), 0.02 (s, 6H).

  1. 103         Jeong, J.-W.; Jung, S.-J.; Lee, H.-H.; Kim, Y.-Z.; Park, T.-K.; Cho, Y.-L.; Chae, S.-E.; Baek, S.-Y.; Woo, S.-H.; Lee, H.-S.; et alIn vitro and In vivo activities of LCB01–0371, a new oxazolidinone. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 201054, 5359–5362, doi:10.1128/AAC.00723-10.
  2. 104          LegoChem Biosciences. Multiple ascendoing dose study for LCB01–0371. Available online: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01842516 (accessed on 15 August 2013).
  3. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01842516
  4. http://www.pubfacts.com/author/Yong+Zu+Kim
  5. New oxazolidinones with cyclic amidrazone (I): Structure activity relationship of cyclic amidrazone antibiotics
    49th Intersci Conf Antimicrob Agents Chemother (ICAAC) (September 12-15, San Francisco) 2009, Abst F1-1508
  6. [PDF]

    7. 레고켐(임상).cdr

    New oxazolidinone LCB010371 for MRSA and VRE infection. Young Lag Cho. Company : LegoChem Biosciences, Inc. Website : http://www.legochembio.com.

 

KR100674096B1 * Title not available
KR100713170B1 * Title not available
KR20040035207A * Title not available
US7157456 * Dec 11, 2000 Jan 2, 2007 Bayer Healthcare Ag Substituted oxazolidinones and their use in the field of blood coagulation
WO2011111971A2 * Mar 8, 2011 Sep 15, 2011 Legochem Biosciences,Inc. Method for preparing (r)-3-(3-fluoro-4-(1-methyl-5,6-dihydro-1,2,4-triazin-4(1h)-yl)phenyl)-5-(substituted methyl)oxazolidin-2-one derivatives
WO2012121424A1 * Mar 4, 2011 Sep 13, 2012 (주)레고켐바이오사이언스 Novel oxazolidinone derivative having cyclic amidrazone group and pharmaceutical composition containing same

 

Eperezolid.pngEperezolid

 

Skeletal formula of radezolidradezolid

 

Ranbezolid structure.svg

Ranbezolid

 

Sutezolid structure.svgSutezolid

Skeletal formula of linezolidlinezolid

A safe, cheap and effective method for slow-freezing human stem cells


Lyra Nara Blog

Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) show great potential and versatility in regenerative medicine and new therapeutic approaches to fight disease. Patient-specific, individualized treatments using stem cells have even been generated for a number of diseases. Although further research into hPSCs is needed in order to harness their full potential, preserving the stem cells and storing them in the large numbers required for research has proved difficult.

Teruo Akuta and colleagues at the RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, together with scientists from the Foundation for Biomedical Research and Innovation, have now developed a cost-effective, efficient and reliable slow-freezing method for preserving hPSCs in large numbers with a high survival rate.

Vitrification, which involves the use of cryoprotectants to chill cells to low temperatures without freezing, and conventional slow-freezing techniques are currently used for the cryopreservation of hPSCs. “Vitrification using liquid nitrogen is a highly skilled task,” notes Akuta, “and is not…

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Plazomicin…………against multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli.


 

File:Plazomicin flat.svg

Plazomicin

6′-(hydroxylethyl)-1-(haba)-sisomicin

Plazomicin is a neoglycoside antibiotic with activity against a broad range of Gram-positive and Gram-negive pathogens. Plazomicin showed potent in vitro activity against multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli.

Synonyms:   O-2-Amino-2,3,4,6-tetradeoxy-6-[(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]-α-D-glycero-hex-4-enopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-[3-deoxy-4-C-methyl-3-(methylamino)-β-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1→6)]-N1-[(2S)-4-amino-2-hydroxy-1-oxobutyl]-2-deoxy-D-streptamine; ACHN 490;
CAS Number:   1154757-24-0
Achaogen (USA)Phase II completed
Mol. Formula:   C25H48N6O10
Aminoglycosides, Broad-spectrum,
Mol. Weight:   592.68

To continue the development of plazomicin, the company has received a contract option of US$ 60M from the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) to support a global Phase III clinical study. The study will evaluate plazomicin in treating patients with serious Gram-negative bacterial infections due to carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. The study is expected to start in the fourth quarter of 2013 [4].

 

Achaogen is a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company passionately committed to the discovery, development, and commercialization of novel antibacterials to treat multi-drug resistant, or MDR, gram-negative infections.

Achaogen Inc.jpg

Achaogen (a-KAY-o-jen) is developing plazomicin, its lead product candidate, for the treatment of serious bacterial infections due to MDR Enterobacteriaceae, including carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, or CRE. In 2013, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention identified CRE as a “nightmare bacteria” and an immediate public health threat that requires “urgent and aggressive action.” We expect to initiate a Phase 3 superiority trial of plazomicin in the first quarter of 2014.

CRE are one of many types of MDR gram-negative pathogens threatening patients. Bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosaAcinetobacter baumannii, and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae each pose “serious” resistance threats, according to the CDC, and also drive a great need for new, safe, and effective antibiotics. We have assembled the chemistry and microbiology expertise and capabilities required to develop new agents for the treatment of gram-negative infections. Plazomicin was the first clinical candidate from our gram-negative antibiotic discovery engine. In addition, our research and development pipeline includes two antipseudomonal programs targeting P. aeruginosa—a program to discover and develop small molecule inhibitors of LpxC, which is an enzyme essential for the synthesis of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, and a therapeutic antibody program. We are also pursuing small molecule research programs targeting other essential gram-negative enzymes.

Achaogen has built an exceptional research and development team with deep expertise in the discovery and development of new drugs from research through commercialization. Our executive team has over 60 years of combined industry experience, and a proven track record of leadership, global registration, and lifecycle management for over 20 products. Our facility is located on the shores of the San Francisco Bay, ten minutes from the San Francisco International Airport, and only fifteen minutes from downtown San Francisco.

http://www.google.com/patents/US20100099661

Common Intermediates Sisomicin

 

Figure US20100099661A1-20100422-C00031

 

Amberlite IRA-400 (OH form) (200 g) was washed with MeOH (3×200 m1). To a stirring suspension of the washed resin in MeOH (150 mL) was added sisomicin sulfate (20.0 g, 0.029 mol) and the mixture was stirred overnight. The resin was then filtered and washed with MeOH (100 mL) and the combined organic layers were concentrated to dryness to yield the desired sisomicin (11.57 g, 0.026 mol, 89.6% yield): MS m/e [M+H]+ calcd 448.3, found 448.1.

 

Example 1 6′-(2-Hydroxy-ethyl)-1-(4-amino-2(S)-hydroxy-butyryl)-sisomicin

 

Figure US20100099661A1-20100422-C00074

 

6′-(2-tert-Butyldimethylsililoxy-ethyl)-2′,3,3″-triBoc-1-(N-Boc-4-amino-2(S)-hydroxy-butyryl)-sisomicin

2′,3,3″-triBoc-1-(N-Boc-4-amino-2(S)-hydroxy-butyryl)-sisomicin (0.10 g, 0.105 mmol) was treated with tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy acetaldehyde following Procedure 1-Method A to yield the desired 6′-(2-tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy-ethyl)-2′,3,3″-triBoc-1-(N-Boc-4-amino-2(S)-hydroxy-butyryl)-sisomicin (MS m/e [M+H]+ calcd 1107.6, found 1107.4), which was carried through to the next step without further purification.

 

Figure US20100099661A1-20100422-C00075

 

6′-(2-Hydroxy-ethyl)-1-(4-amino-2(S)-hydroxy-butyryl)-sisomicin

6′ -(2-tert-butyldimethylsililoxy-ethyl)-2′,3,3″-triBoc-1-(N-Boc-4-amino-2(S)-hydroxy-butyryl)-sisomicin (0.105 mmol) was submitted to Procedure 3-Method B for Boc removal to yield a crude, which was purified by RP HPLC Method 1-Column A to yield 6′-(2-hydroxy-ethyl)-1-(4-amino-2(S)-hydroxy-butyryl)-sisomicin: MS m/e [M+H]+ calcd 593.3, found 593.2, [M+Na]+615.3 ; CLND 97.5% purity.

  1. Achaogen. Study for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infection and acute pyelonephritis.Available online: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01096849 (accessed on 11 April 2013).
  2. Zhanel, G.G.; Lawson, C.D.; Zelenitsky, S.; Findlay, B.; Schweizer, F.; Adam, H.; Walkty, A.; Rubinstein, E.; Gin, A.S.; Hoban, D.J.; et al. Comparison of the next-generation aminoglycoside plazomicin to gentamicin, tobramycin and amikacin. Expert Rev. Anti-Infect. Ther. 201210, 459–473, doi:10.1586/eri.12.25.
  3. Endimiani, A.; Hujer, K.M.; Hujer, A.M.; Armstrong, E.S.; Choudhary, Y.; Aggen, J.B.; Bonomo, R.A. ACHN-490, a neoglycoside with potent in vitro activity against multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 200953, 4504–4507.
  4. Achaogen. Achaogen pipeline. Available online: http://www.achaogen.com (accessed on 30 August 2012).
  5. Achaogen. Achaogen Awarded $60M Contract Option by BARDA for the Clinical Development of Plazomicin. Available online: http://www.achaogen.com/news/151/15 (accessed on 19 June 2013).
  6. Achaogen. Achaogen announces all objectives met in Phase 2 Plazomicin complicated urinary tract infections study and start of first-in-human study with ACHN-975. Available online: http://www.achaogen.com/uploads/news/id148/Achaogen_PressRelease_2012–05–15.pdf (accessed on 10 April 2013).
  7. Achaogen. Achaogen Announces Agreement with FDA on a Special Protocol Assessment for a Phase 3 Clinical Trial of Plazomicin to Treat Infections Caused by Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE); Achaogen: San Francisco, CA, USA, 2013.
  8. Comparison of the next-generation aminoglycoside plazomicin to gentamicin, tobramycin and amikacin
  9. 4-23-2010
    ANTIBACTERIAL AMINOGLYCOSIDE ANALOGS

 

 

US8318685 Nov 14, 2011 Nov 27, 2012 Achaogen, Inc. Antibacterial aminoglycoside analogs
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US8377896 Mar 9, 2011 Feb 19, 2013 Isis Pharmaceuticals, Inc Antibacterial 4,6-substituted 6′, 6″ and 1 modified aminoglycoside analogs
US8399419 Mar 9, 2011 Mar 19, 2013 Achaogen, Inc. Antibacterial aminoglycoside analogs
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US8492354 Nov 14, 2011 Jul 23, 2013 Achaogen, Inc. Antibacterial aminoglycoside analogs
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US8524689 Nov 14, 2011 Sep 3, 2013 Achaogen, Inc. Antibacterial aminoglycoside analogs
US8569264 Jan 5, 2012 Oct 29, 2013 Isis Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Antibacterial 4,5-substituted aminoglycoside analogs having multiple substituents
US8653041 Oct 15, 2012 Feb 18, 2014 Achaogen, Inc. Antibacterial aminoglycoside analogs
US8653042 Nov 14, 2011 Feb 18, 2014 Achaogen, Inc. Antibacterial aminoglycoside analogs
US8658606 Nov 14, 2011 Feb 25, 2014 Achaogen, Inc. Antibacterial aminoglycoside analogs

SITAFLOXACIN …………Antibacterial [DNA-gyrase inhibitor]


Sitafloxacin.png

 

7-[(4S)-4-Amino-6-azaspiro[2.4]heptan-6-yl]-8-chloro-6-fluoro-1-[(2S)-2-fluorocyclopropyl]-4-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid

(1R-(1a(S*),2a))-7-(7-Amino-5-azaspiro[2.4]hept-5-yl)-8-chloro-6-fluoro-1-(2-fluorocyclopropyl)-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-3-quinolinecarboxylic Acid

SYNTHESIS……….http://www.drugfuture.com/synth/syndata.aspx?ID=176447

127254-10-8 [RN]

127254-10-8(ACETATE)

127254-12-0 [RN]

163253-35-8 [RN]   MAY BE CORRECT SESQUIHYDRATE

163253-36-9 (HEMIHYDRATE)

163253-37-0 (MONOHYDRATE)

Sitafloxacin isomer II, DU-6859a, STFX, 127254-12-0, 127254-10-8, 163253-35-8
Molecular Formula: C19H18ClF2N3O3   Molecular Weight: 409.814326
  • DU 6859A
  • DU-6859a
  • Sitafloxacin
  • UNII-9TD681796G

Sitafloxacin (INN; also called DU-6859a) is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic[1] that shows promise in the treatment of Buruli ulcer. The molecule was identified by Daiichi Sankyo Co., which brought ofloxacin and levofloxacin to the market. Sitafloxacin is currently marketed in Japan by Daiichi Sankyo under the tradename Gracevit.

 

Sitafloxacin is a new-generation, broad-spectrum oral fluoroquinolone antibiotic.It is very active against many Gram-positive, Gram-negative and anaerobic clinical isolates, including strains resistant to other fluoroquinolones, was recently approved in Japan for the treatment of respiratory and urinary tract infections. Sitafloxacin is active against methicillin-resistant staphylococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae and other streptococci with reduced susceptibility to levofloxacin and other quinolones and enterococci

163253-35-8

  • C19-H18-Cl-F2-N3-O3.3/2H2-O
  • 427.833

AU 8933702; EP 0341493; JP 1990231475; JP 1995300416; JP 1999124367; JP 1999124380; US 5587386; US 5767127
The condensation of 3-chloro-2,4,5-trifluorobenzoylacetic acid ethyl ester (I) with (1R,2S)-N-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-2-fluorocyclopropylamine (III) and ethyl orthoformate (II) in hot acetic anhydride gives (1R,2S)-2-(3-chloro-2,4,5-trifluorobenzoyl)-3-(2-fluorocyclopropylamino)acrylic acid ethyl ester (IV). The cyclization of (IV) by means of NaH yields the quinolone (V), which is hydrolyzed with HCl to the free acid (VI). The condensation of (VI) with 7(S)-(tert-butoxycarbonylamino)-5-azaspiro[2.4]heptane (VII) by means of triethylamine in refluxing acetonitrile affords the protected final product (VIII), which is finally deprotected with trifluoroacetic acid and anisole.

 

The chiral intermediate (1R,2S)-N-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-2-fluorocyclopropylamine (III) is obtained as follows: 1) The cyclization of butadiene (IX) with dibromofluoromethane by means of BuONa, followed by oxidation with KMnO4, esterification with ethanol – sulfuric acid and reduction with tributyltin hydride gives 2-fluorocyclopropanecarboxylic acid ethyl ester as a cis/trans mixture (X), which is separated by crystallization. The cis-racemic-isomer (XI) is hydrolyzed with NaOH to the corresponding acid (XII), which is condensed with (R)-alpha-methylbenzylamine (XIII) by means of diphenyl chlorophosphate to give the mixture of diastereomers (XIV). This mixture is separated by crystallization, yielding pure (1S,2S)-2-fluoro-N-[alpha(R)-methylbenzyl]cyclopropanecarboxamide (XV), which is hydrolyzed with HCl to the corresponding free acid (XVI). Finally, this compound is converted into (III) by treatment with diphenylphosphoryl azide in refluxing tert-butanol.

 

 

b) The intermediate 7(S)-(tert-Butoxycarbonylamino)-5-azaspiro[2.4]heptane (VII) can also be obtained as follows: 1) The cyclopropanation of ethyl acetoacetate (XXXI) with 1,2-dibromoethane (XXXII) by means of K2CO3 in DMF gives 1-acetylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (XXXIII), which is brominated with Br2 in ethanol yielding the bromoacetyl derivative (XXXIV). The cyclization of (XXXI) with (R)-alpha-methylbenzylamine (XIII) by means of triethylamine affords 5-[1(R)-phenylethyl]-5-azaspiro[2.4]heptane-4,7-dione (XXXV), which by reaction with hydroxylamine is converted into the monooxime (XXXVI). The reduction of (XXXVI) with H2 over RaNi in methanol affords 7-amino-5-[1(R)-phenylethyl]-5-azaspiro[2.4]heptan-4-one as a diastereomeric mixture (XXXVII) + (XXXVIII), which is separated by column chromatography. The reduction of the (7S)-isomer (XXXVIII) with LiAlH4 in THF gives 7(S)-amino-5-[1(R)-phenylethyl]-5-azaspiro[2.4]heptane (XXXIX), which is protected in the usual way to the tert-butoxycarbonyl derivative (XL). Finally, this compound is debenzylated to (VII) by hydrogenation with H2 over Pd/C in ethanol.

 

 

The chiral intermediate (1R,2S)-N-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-2-fluorocyclopropylamine (III) is obtained as follows: 1) The cyclization of butadiene (IX) with dibromofluoromethane by means of BuONa, followed by oxidation with KMnO4, esterification with ethanol – sulfuric acid and reduction with tributyltin hydride gives 2-fluorocyclopropanecarboxylic acid ethyl ester as a cis/trans mixture (X), which is separated by crystallization. The cis-racemic-isomer (XI) is hydrolyzed with NaOH to the corresponding acid (XII), which is condensed with (R)-alpha-methylbenzylamine (XIII) by means of diphenyl chlorophosphate to give the mixture of diastereomers (XIV). This mixture is separated by crystallization, yielding pure (1S,2S)-2-fluoro-N-[alpha(R)-methylbenzyl]cyclopropanecarboxamide (XV), which is hydrolyzed with HCl to the corresponding free acid (XVI). Finally, this compound is converted into (III) by treatment with diphenylphosphoryl azide in refluxing tert-butanol.

 

 

b) The intermediate 7(S)-(tert-Butoxycarbonylamino)-5-azaspiro[2.4]heptane (VII) can also be obtained as follows: 2) The reaction of 1-acetylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (XXXIII) with (R)-alpha-methylbenzylamine (XIII) by means of NaOH and ethyl chloroformate gives the corresponding amide (XLI), which by reaction with ethylene glycol and p-toluenesulfonic acid is converted into the ethylene ketal (XLII). The bromination of (XLII) with Br2 in dioxane affords the bromomethyl dioxolane (XLIII), which is finally cyclized to 5-[1(R)-phenylethyl]-5-azaspiro[2.4]heptane-4,7-dione (XXXV), already obtained as an intermediate in the preceding synthesis.

 

 

 

The chiral intermediate (1R,2S)-N-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-2-fluorocyclopropylamine (III) can also be obtained as follows: 3) A study of the influence of different substituents in the cis/trans ratio of the cyclopropanation process has been performed. The general method is as follows: the reaction of benzylamine (XXIII) with acetaldehyde and trichloromethyl chloroformate gives the N-benzyl-N-vinylcarbamoyl chloride (XXIV), which by treatment with alcohol yields the N-vinylcarbamate (XXV). The cyclopropanation of (XXV) with fluorodiiodomethane and diethyl zinc as before preferentially affords the cis-N-(2-fluorocyclopropyl)carbamate (XXVI), which is purified by crystallization. The hydrogenolysis of (XXVI) with H2 over Pd/C in acetic acid gives cis-racemic-2-fluorocyclopropylamine (XXVII), which is submitted to optical resolution with L-menthyl chloroformate to afford pure (1R,2S)-isomer (XXII). Finally, this compound is converted into (III) with tert-butoxycarbonyl anhydride as before.

References

  1.  Anderson, DL. (Jul 2008). “Sitafloxacin hydrate for bacterial infections.”. Drugs Today (Barc) 44 (7): 489–501. doi:10.1358/dot.2008.44.7.1219561.PMID 18806900.
  2. Chem Pharm Bull 1998,46(4),587
  3. J Med Chem 1994,37(20),3344
  4. Drugs Fut 1994,19(9),827
  5. 33rd Intersci Conf Antimicrob Agents Chemother (Oct 17-20, New Orleans) 1993,Abst 975
  6. Tetrahedron Lett 1992,33(24),3487-90

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Bitter Apricot Seed ( Xingren ) 杏仁


 

Xing Ren is the mature seed of Prunus armeniaca L. var. ansu Maxim, P. armeniaca L., P. mandshurica (Maxim.) Koehne or P. sibirica L., family Rosaceae.

Main ingredients
Xing Ren contains 50% of fatty oils (including oleic, linoleic. palmitic, stearic and linolenic acids), as well as amygdalin, amygdalase and prunase. Hydrolysing amygdalin generates benzaldehyde and hydrocyanic acid, which is toxic

Bitter Apricot Seed ( Xingren ) 杏仁

Bitter Apricot Seed ( Xingren ) 杏仁 , also known as xing ren 杏仁,ku xing ren 苦杏仁,kuang xing ren 光杏仁,ku he ren 杏核仁,炒杏仁,jian xing ren 尖杏仁,xing ren xiang 杏仁霜. It belong to the “Rosaceae” family.

Bitter Apricot Seed ( Xingren ) 杏仁 has a warm, bitter and slightly toxic. It is use for treating the lung and large intestine.

Bitter Apricot Seed ( Xingren ) 杏仁 Chinese Herbal Articles was created to help cleanse and rejuvenate your body enable you to stay younger and healthier with chinese herbal recipes.

Pharmaceutical Name: Semen Armeniacae.Botanical Name: 1. Prunus armeniaca L. var. ansu maxim.; 2. Prunus mandshurica(Maxim.) Koehne; 3. Prunus sibirica L.

Common Name: Apricot seed, Bitter apricot seed or kernel.Source of Earliest Record: Shennong Bencao Jing.Part Used & Method for Pharmaceutical

Preparations: The seeds are collected after the apricot ripens in summer. They are then dried in the sun and pounded into pieces.Properties & Taste: Bitter, slightly warm and slightly toxic.Meridians: Lung and large intestine.

Functions: 1. To stop cough and relieve asthma; 2. To moisten the intestines and move stool.Indications & Combinations:1. Cough and asthma: a) cough due to invasion by exogenous pathogenic wind and heat Apricot seed (Xingren) is used with Mulberry leaf (Sangye) and Chrysanthemum flower (Juhua) in the formula Sang Ju Yin; b) cough due to dysfunction of the lungs caused by dryness and heatApricot seed (Xingren) is used with Mulberry leaf (Sangye), Tendrilled fritillary bulb (Chuanbeimu) and Glehnia root (Shashen) in the formula Sang Xing Tang; c) cough and asthma due to accumulated heat in the lungsApricot seed (Xingren) is used with Gypsum (Shigao) and Ephedra (Mahuang) in the formula Ma Xing Shi Gan Tang.2. Constipation due to dryness in the intestines: Apricot seed (Xingren) is used with Hemp seed (Huomaren) and Chinese angelica root (Danggui) in the formula Runchang Wan.Dosage: 3-10 g.Cautions & Contraindications: This herb is slightly toxic, so overdosing should be avoided. It should be used with caution in infants.

Bitter Apricot Seed ( Xingren ) 杏仁

1. Arresting coughing and asthma.
2. Expelling phlegm.
3. Help bowel movements.

Bitter Apricot Seed ( Xingren ) 杏仁 Toxicity & Cautions:

Bitter Apricot Seed ( Xingren ) 杏仁 contain hydrogen cyanide which is a strong toxin. Eating 20 to 30 piece may cause toxic reaction even death. The toxin can be hydrolyzed in cooking and can render it non toxic. It is not recommended for small children.

 

Properties
Taste: bitter; nature: slightly warm; slightly toxic.

 

Channels entered
Lung and Large Intestine.

Functions and indications
Stops coughing and calms wheezing, moistens the Intestines and frees the bowels. It is indicated for coughing and wheezing, sore throat andconstipation.

Common dosage
3-10g, decocted for a short time only.

Precautions and contraindications

  1. As Xing Ren is slightly toxic, large dosages should be avoided, especially when treating infants.
  2. Contraindicated in cases of weak constitution and profuse sweating.

 

Remarks
Ku Xing Ren (Semen Pruni Armeniacae Amarum), or bitter apricot kernel, is normally used for this herb.

In China, people who can afford to buy apricot as a fresh fruit generally throw the stones away. Servants and the less fortunate children gatherthe stones and sell them to collectors who use cheap labor to crack the shells (endocarp) and free the seeds (kernel) with the brown seed coat tightly covering the embryo (two cotyledons with the small radical and plumule).

In Chinese prescriptions, an apricot seed with the brown seed coat intact is called bei-xing-ren (northern apricot seed). All Chinese apothecaries keep a supply of apricot seeds in this state.

Detoxificated apricot seed: The major portion of the annual production of apricot seed is detoxified, processed by being first subjected to boiling water to loosen the seed coat, which can then be rubbed off by hand, followed by soaking the white cotyledons in cold water with several changes to eliminate the bitter element and to detoxify them. Then the detoxified white cotyledons are dried for the market. In Chinese prescriptions, this decoated and detoxified material is called nan-xing-ren (southern apricot seed) or tian-xing-ren (sweet apricot seed), which is also available in apothecaries. However, a greater portion of the detoxified material is used in pastry and for food.

Toxicity
The LD for intravenous injection of amygdalin in mice or rats is 25g/kg; for intraperitoneal injection, it is 8g/kg; and for oraladministration, it is O.6g/kg. Oral administration of 55 pieces (the equivalem of about 60g) of Ku Xing Ren, containing 1.8g of amygdalin, can cause death in humans. The main symptoms oftoxic reaction include a bitter taste in the mouth, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, pain in the abdomen, diarrhoea, agitation, vexation and restlessness, palpitations, and weakness of the limbs, and in severe cases, oppression in the chest, difficulty in breathing, loss of consciousness, a reduction in blood pressure and even coma. Ku Xing Ren should therefore not be used raw and overdosage must be avoided.

Modern Research

  1. Inhibits the respiratory centre to stop coughing and calmwheezing.
  2. Affects digestion by inhibiting the activity of pepsins.
  3. Reduces the level of blood fats.
  4. Inhibits inflammation and alleviates pain.
  5. Inhibits carcinoma

Carrots Cut Men’s Prostate Cancer Risk by 50%:


Carrots Cut Men’s Prostate Cancer Risk by 50%: A new meta-study out of China has just shown that eating one large carrot (100 grams) daily may decrease prostate cancer risk by a stunning 50% in men. The study noted a 5% risk reduction for every 10 grams eaten daily, or full serving eaten weekly. But it’s not the beta-carotene that’s doing it. It’s the alpha-carotene (carrots are the richest source). This is confirmed by another very recent study out of Japan showing that men with the highest intake of alpha-carotene from all sources had 54% less risk of prostate cancer. And yet another study out of the USA showed men with the highest alpha-carotene intake were 51% less likely to have high PSA levels – a marker for prostate cancer. In both those studies, beta-carotene was found to offer no protection. Alpha-carotene is a powerful antioxidant: it’s also been shown to reduce the risk of breast cancer, bladder cancer, lung cancer, and pancreatic cancer in large population studies. Carrots are the single richest source of alpha-carotene in our diets, but pumpkin and winter squash (butternut, hubbard) are also good sources. It makes good sense, then, to get more of these low calorie super-vegetables (preferably organic) in our daily cuisine as part of a well-balanced, healthy diet including plentiful other organic vegetables, fruit and whole foods.<br /><br />
#ProstateCancer #Carrot #Carotene<br /><br />
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24519559
Carrots Cut Men’s Prostate Cancer Risk by 50%
A new meta-study out of China has just shown that eating one large carrot (100 grams) daily may decrease prostate cancer risk by a stunning 50% in men. The study noted a 5% risk reduction for every 10 grams eaten daily, or full serving eaten weekly. But it’s not the beta-carotene that’s doing it. It’s the alpha-carotene (carrots are the richest source). This is confirmed by another very recent study out of Japan showing that men with the highest intake of alpha-carotene from all sources had 54% less risk of prostate cancer. And yet another study out of the USA showed men with the highest alpha-carotene intake were 51% less likely to have high PSA levels – a marker for prostate cancer. In both those studies, beta-carotene was found to offer no protection. Alpha-carotene is a powerful antioxidant: it’s also been shown to reduce the risk of breast cancer, bladder cancer, lung cancer, and pancreatic cancer in large population studies. Carrots are the single richest source of alpha-carotene in our diets, but pumpkin and winter squash (butternut, hubbard) are also good sources. It makes good sense, then, to get more of these low calorie super-vegetables (preferably organic) in our daily cuisine as part of a well-balanced, healthy diet including plentiful other organic vegetables, fruit and whole foods.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24519559

United States Patent and Trademark Office ….. published and made electronically available a new edition of the Manual of Patent Examining Procedure (MPE


Today we published and made electronically available a new edition of the Manual of Patent Examining Procedure (MPEP).

Manual of Patent Examining Procedure
uspto.gov

Manual of Patent Examining Procedure (MPEP)Ninth Edition, March 2014

The USPTO continues to offer an online discussion tool for commenting on selected chapters of the Manual. To participate in the discussion and to contribute your ideas go to: http://uspto-mpep.ideascale.com.

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