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Plazomicin…………against multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli.



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File:Plazomicin flat.svg



Plazomicin is a neoglycoside antibiotic with activity against a broad range of Gram-positive and Gram-negive pathogens. Plazomicin showed potent in vitro activity against multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli.

Synonyms:   O-2-Amino-2,3,4,6-tetradeoxy-6-[(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]-α-D-glycero-hex-4-enopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-[3-deoxy-4-C-methyl-3-(methylamino)-β-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1→6)]-N1-[(2S)-4-amino-2-hydroxy-1-oxobutyl]-2-deoxy-D-streptamine; ACHN 490;
CAS Number:   1154757-24-0
Achaogen (USA)Phase II completed
Mol. Formula:   C25H48N6O10
Aminoglycosides, Broad-spectrum,
Mol. Weight:   592.68

To continue the development of plazomicin, the company has received a contract option of US$ 60M from the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) to support a global Phase III clinical study. The study will evaluate plazomicin in treating patients with serious Gram-negative bacterial infections due to carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. The study is expected to start in the fourth quarter of 2013 [4].


Achaogen is a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company passionately committed to the discovery, development, and commercialization of novel antibacterials to treat multi-drug resistant, or MDR, gram-negative infections.

Achaogen Inc.jpg

Achaogen (a-KAY-o-jen) is developing plazomicin, its lead product candidate, for the treatment of serious bacterial infections due to MDR Enterobacteriaceae, including carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, or CRE. In 2013, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention identified CRE as a “nightmare bacteria” and an immediate public health threat that requires “urgent and aggressive action.” We expect to initiate a Phase 3 superiority trial of plazomicin in the first quarter of 2014.

CRE are one of many types of MDR gram-negative pathogens threatening patients. Bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosaAcinetobacter baumannii, and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae each pose “serious” resistance threats, according to the CDC, and also drive a great need for new, safe, and effective antibiotics. We have assembled the chemistry and microbiology expertise and capabilities required to develop new agents for the treatment of gram-negative infections. Plazomicin was the first clinical candidate from our gram-negative antibiotic discovery engine. In addition, our research and development pipeline includes two antipseudomonal programs targeting P. aeruginosa—a program to discover and develop small molecule inhibitors of LpxC, which is an enzyme essential for the synthesis of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, and a therapeutic antibody program. We are also pursuing small molecule research programs targeting other essential gram-negative enzymes.

Achaogen has built an exceptional research and development team with deep expertise in the discovery and development of new drugs from research through commercialization. Our executive team has over 60 years of combined industry experience, and a proven track record of leadership, global registration, and lifecycle management for over 20 products. Our facility is located on the shores of the San Francisco Bay, ten minutes from the San Francisco International Airport, and only fifteen minutes from downtown San Francisco.

Common Intermediates Sisomicin


Figure US20100099661A1-20100422-C00031


Amberlite IRA-400 (OH form) (200 g) was washed with MeOH (3×200 m1). To a stirring suspension of the washed resin in MeOH (150 mL) was added sisomicin sulfate (20.0 g, 0.029 mol) and the mixture was stirred overnight. The resin was then filtered and washed with MeOH (100 mL) and the combined organic layers were concentrated to dryness to yield the desired sisomicin (11.57 g, 0.026 mol, 89.6% yield): MS m/e [M+H]+ calcd 448.3, found 448.1.


Example 1 6′-(2-Hydroxy-ethyl)-1-(4-amino-2(S)-hydroxy-butyryl)-sisomicin


Figure US20100099661A1-20100422-C00074



2′,3,3″-triBoc-1-(N-Boc-4-amino-2(S)-hydroxy-butyryl)-sisomicin (0.10 g, 0.105 mmol) was treated with tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy acetaldehyde following Procedure 1-Method A to yield the desired 6′-(2-tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy-ethyl)-2′,3,3″-triBoc-1-(N-Boc-4-amino-2(S)-hydroxy-butyryl)-sisomicin (MS m/e [M+H]+ calcd 1107.6, found 1107.4), which was carried through to the next step without further purification.


Figure US20100099661A1-20100422-C00075



6′ -(2-tert-butyldimethylsililoxy-ethyl)-2′,3,3″-triBoc-1-(N-Boc-4-amino-2(S)-hydroxy-butyryl)-sisomicin (0.105 mmol) was submitted to Procedure 3-Method B for Boc removal to yield a crude, which was purified by RP HPLC Method 1-Column A to yield 6′-(2-hydroxy-ethyl)-1-(4-amino-2(S)-hydroxy-butyryl)-sisomicin: MS m/e [M+H]+ calcd 593.3, found 593.2, [M+Na]+615.3 ; CLND 97.5% purity.

  1. Achaogen. Study for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infection and acute pyelonephritis.Available online: (accessed on 11 April 2013).
  2. Zhanel, G.G.; Lawson, C.D.; Zelenitsky, S.; Findlay, B.; Schweizer, F.; Adam, H.; Walkty, A.; Rubinstein, E.; Gin, A.S.; Hoban, D.J.; et al. Comparison of the next-generation aminoglycoside plazomicin to gentamicin, tobramycin and amikacin. Expert Rev. Anti-Infect. Ther. 201210, 459–473, doi:10.1586/eri.12.25.
  3. Endimiani, A.; Hujer, K.M.; Hujer, A.M.; Armstrong, E.S.; Choudhary, Y.; Aggen, J.B.; Bonomo, R.A. ACHN-490, a neoglycoside with potent in vitro activity against multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 200953, 4504–4507.
  4. Achaogen. Achaogen pipeline. Available online: (accessed on 30 August 2012).
  5. Achaogen. Achaogen Awarded $60M Contract Option by BARDA for the Clinical Development of Plazomicin. Available online: (accessed on 19 June 2013).
  6. Achaogen. Achaogen announces all objectives met in Phase 2 Plazomicin complicated urinary tract infections study and start of first-in-human study with ACHN-975. Available online:–05–15.pdf (accessed on 10 April 2013).
  7. Achaogen. Achaogen Announces Agreement with FDA on a Special Protocol Assessment for a Phase 3 Clinical Trial of Plazomicin to Treat Infections Caused by Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE); Achaogen: San Francisco, CA, USA, 2013.
  8. Comparison of the next-generation aminoglycoside plazomicin to gentamicin, tobramycin and amikacin
  9. 4-23-2010



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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with AFRICURE PHARMA, ROW2TECH, NIPER-G, Department of Pharmaceuticals, Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers, Govt. of India as ADVISOR, earlier assignment was with GLENMARK LIFE SCIENCES LTD, as CONSUlTANT, Retired from GLENMARK in Jan2022 Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 32 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 32 PLUS year tenure till date Feb 2023, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 100 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 100 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, 227 countries, 7 continents, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 38 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 227 countries...... , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc He has total of 32 International and Indian awards

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