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ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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Triheptanoin


Skeletal formula of triheptanoin

Triheptanoin

Approved US FDA 30/6/2020 Dojolvi UX 007

Triheptanoin is a source of heptanoate fatty acids, which can be metabolized without the enzymes of long chain fatty acid oxidation.4 In clinical trials, patients with long chain fatty acid oxidation disorders (lc-FAODs) treated with triheptanoin are less likely to develop hypoglycemia, cardiomyopathy, rhabdomyolysis, and hepatomegaly.1,2 Complications in lc-FAOD patients are reduced from approximately 60% to approximately 10% with the addition of triheptanoin.2

Triheptanoin was granted FDA approval on 30 June 2020.4

Triheptanoin, sold under the brand name Dojolvi, is a medication for the treatment of children and adults with molecularly confirmed long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorders (LC-FAOD).[1][2][3]

The most common adverse reactions include abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and nausea.[1][2][3]

Triheptanoin was approved for medical use in the United States in June 2020.[4][2][3]

Triheptanoin is a triglyceride that is composed of three seven-carbon (C7:0) fatty acids. These odd-carbon fatty acids are able to provide anaplerotic substrates for the TCA cycle. Triheptanoin is used clinically in humans to treat inherited metabolic diseases, such as pyruvate carboxylase deficiency and carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency. It also appears to increase the efficacy of the ketogenic diet as a treatment for epilepsy.

Since triheptanoin is composed of odd-carbon fatty acids, it can produce ketone bodies with five carbon atoms, as opposed to even-carbon fatty acids which are metabolized to ketone bodies with four carbon atoms. The five-carbon ketones produced from triheptanoin are beta-ketopentanoate and beta-hydroxypentanoate. Each of these ketone bodies easily crosses the blood–brain barrier and enters the brain.

Medical uses

Dojolvi is indicated as a source of calories and fatty acids for the treatment of children and adults with molecularly confirmed long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorders (LC-FAOD).[1][2]

History

Triheptanoin was designated an orphan drug by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2006, 2008, 2014, and 2015.[5][6][7][8] Triheptanoin was also designated an orphan drug by the European Medicines Agency (EMA).[9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16]

Triheptanoin was approved for medical use in the United States in June 2020.[4][2]

The FDA approved triheptanoin based on evidence from three clinical trials (Trial 1/NCT018863, Trial 2/NCT022141 and Trial 3/NCT01379625).[3] The trials enrolled children and adults with LC-FAOD.[3] Trials 1 and 2 were conducted at 11 sites in the United States and the United Kingdom, and Trial 3 was conducted at two sites in the United States.[3]

Trial 1 and Trial 2 were used to evaluate the side effects of triheptanoin.[3] Both trials enrolled children and adults diagnosed with LC-FAOD.[3] In Trial 1, participants received triheptanoin for 78 weeks.[3] Trial 2 enrolled participants from other trials who were already treated with triheptanoin (including those from Trial 1) as well as participants who were never treated with triheptanoin before.[3] Trial 2 is still ongoing and is planned to last up to five years.[3]

The benefit of triheptanoin was evaluated in Trial 3 which enrolled enrolled children and adults with LC-FAOD.[3] Half of the participants received triheptanoin and half received trioctanoin for four months.[3] Neither the participants nor the investigators knew which treatment was given until the end of the trial.[3] The benefit of triheptanoin in comparison to trioctanoin was assessed by measuring the changes in heart and muscle function.[3]

Names

Triheptanoin is the international nonproprietary name.[17]

SYN

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ejlt.201100425

Synthesis of triheptanoin and formulation as a solid diet for rodents -  Semak - 2012 - European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology - Wiley  Online Library

References

  1. Jump up to:a b c d “Dojolvi- triheptanoin liquid”DailyMed. 30 June 2020. Retrieved 24 September2020.
  2. Jump up to:a b c d e “Ultragenyx Announces U.S. FDA Approval of Dojolvi (UX007/triheptanoin), the First FDA-Approved Therapy for the Treatment of Long-chain Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders”. Ultragenyx Pharmaceutical. 30 June 2020. Retrieved 30 June 2020 – via GlobeNewswire.
  3. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o “Drug Trials Snapshots: Dojolvi”U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 30 June 2020. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
  4. Jump up to:a b “Dojolvi: FDA-Approved Drugs”U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  5. ^ “Triheptanoin Orphan Drug Designations and Approvals”U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 26 May 2006. Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  6. ^ “Triheptanoin Orphan Drug Designations and Approvals”U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 1 February 2008. Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  7. ^ “Triheptanoin Orphan Drug Designations and Approvals”U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 21 October 2014. Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  8. ^ “Triheptanoin Orphan Drug Designations and Approvals”U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 15 April 2015. Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  9. ^ “EU/3/12/1081”European Medicines Agency (EMA). Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  10. ^ “EU/3/12/1082”European Medicines Agency (EMA). Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  11. ^ “EU/3/15/1495”European Medicines Agency (EMA). Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  12. ^ “EU/3/15/1508”European Medicines Agency (EMA). Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  13. ^ “EU/3/15/1524”European Medicines Agency (EMA). Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  14. ^ “EU/3/15/1525”European Medicines Agency (EMA). Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  15. ^ “EU/3/15/1526”European Medicines Agency (EMA). Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  16. ^ “EU/3/16/1710”European Medicines Agency (EMA). Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  17. ^ World Health Organization (2019). “International nonproprietary names for pharmaceutical substances (INN): recommended INN: list 82”. WHO Drug Information33 (3): 694. hdl:10665/330879. License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.

Further reading

External links

  • “Triheptanoin”Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Clinical trial number NCT01379625 for “Study of Triheptanoin for Treatment of Long-Chain Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorder (Triheptanoin)” at ClinicalTrials.gov
Clinical data
Trade namesDojolvi
Other namesUX007
AHFS/Drugs.comProfessional Drug Facts
License dataUS DailyMedTriheptanoin
Pregnancy
category
US: N (Not classified yet)
Routes of
administration
By mouth
Drug classGlycerolipids
ATC codeNone
Legal status
Legal statusUS: ℞-only [1]
Identifiers
IUPAC name[show]
CAS Number620-67-7 
PubChem CID69286
DrugBankDB11677
ChemSpider62497 
UNII2P6O7CFW5K
KEGGD11465
ChEMBLChEMBL4297585
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)DTXSID40862306 
ECHA InfoCard100.009.681 
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC24H44O6
Molar mass428.610 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)Interactive image
SMILES[hide]CCCCCCC(=O)OCC(COC(=O)CCCCCC)OC(=O)CCCCCC
InChI[hide]InChI=1S/C24H44O6/c1-4-7-10-13-16-22(25)28-19-21(30-24(27)18-15-12-9-6-3)20-29-23(26)17-14-11-8-5-2/h21H,4-20H2,1-3H3 Key:PJHKBYALYHRYSK-UHFFFAOYSA-N 

//////////Triheptanoin, Dojolvi,  UX 007, FDA 2020, 2020 APPROVALS

Prescription Products

NAMEDOSAGESTRENGTHROUTELABELLERMARKETING STARTMARKETING END  
DojolviLiquid0.96 g/1mLOralUltragenyx Pharmaceutical Inc.2020-07-01Not applicableUS flag

MILVEXIAN


2D chemical structure of 1802425-99-5

MILVEXIAN

ミルベクシアン;

Molecular Formula,C28-H23-Cl2-F2-N9-O2

Molecular Weight, 626.4441

BMS-986177, JNJ-70033093; JNJ-3093, WHO 11401

CAS 1802425-99-5

(5R,9S)-9-(4-(5-Chloro-2-(4-chloro-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)phenyl)-6-oxopyrimidin-1(6H)-yl)-21-(difluoromethyl)-5-methyl-21H-3-aza-1(4,2)-pyridina-2(5,4)-pyrazolacyclonaphan-4-one

Prevention and Treatment of Thromboembolic Disorders

Milvexian, also known as BMS-986177, is a blood coagulation factor XIa inhibitor.Bristol-Myers Squibb , in collaboration with  Janssen , is developing milvexian (BMS-986177, JNJ-70033093; JNJ-3093), an antithrombotic factor XIa (FXIa) inhibitor, for the oral prevention and treatment of thrombosis.

PATENT

WO-2020210629

Process for preparing milvexian as FXIa and/or plasma kallikrein inhibitors useful for treating deep vein thrombosis, stroke, and atherosclerosis.

(9i?,13ri)-13-{4-[5-chloro-2-(4-chloro- 1 //- 1 2.3-triazol- 1 -yl)phenyl |-6-o\o- 1 6-dihydropyri midin- 1 -yl }-3-(difluoromethyl)-9-methyl-3,4,7,15-tetraazatricyclo[12.3.1.02 (5]octadeca-l(18),2(6),4,14,16-pentaen-8-one, has the structure of Formula (I):

PATENT

WO2020210613

PATENT

WO2016053455

PATENT

product case WO2016053455 novel macrocyclic compounds are FXIa and/or plasma kallikrein inhibitors.

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2016053455

Scheme 1

4M HCI or TFA

1c 1a

Scheme 2

2d

Scheme 3

EXAMPLES

Example 1. Preparation of (9i?,135)-13-{4-[5-chloro-2-(4-chloro-lH-l,2,3-triazol-l-yl)phenyl]-6-oxo- 1 ,6-dihydropyrimidin- 1 -yl} -3-(difluoromethyl)-9-methyl-3,4,7, 15-tetraazatricyclo[ 12.3.1.026] -8-one trifluoroacetate

1A. Preparation of l-(difluoromethyl)-4-nitro-lH-pyrazole

CS2CO3 (14.41 g, 44.2 mmol) was suspended in a solution of 4-nitro-lH-pyrazole (5.00 g, 44.2 mmol) and DMF (40 mL). After heating to 120 °C for 5 min, solid sodium 2-chloro-2,2-difluoroacetate (13.48 g, 88 mmol) was added in 10 equal portions over 20 min. The reaction was complete after 10 min of additional heating. The mixture was added to a separatory funnel containing 100 mL water and extracted with Et20 (2 x 50 mL). The combined organic layers were concentrated. Purification by normal-phase chromatography eluting with a gradient of hexanes/EtOAc yielded l-(difluoromethyl)-4-nitro-lH-pyrazole (6.99 g, 42.9 mmol, 97% yield) as a clear, colorless oil. 1H NMR (500MHz, CDCI3) δ 8.58 (s, 1H), 8.22 (s, 1H), 7.39 – 7.05 (t, J= 60 Hz, 1H).

IB. Preparation of (S)-tert-butyl (l-(4-(l-(difluoromethyl)-4-nitro-lH-pyrazol-5-yl)pyridin-2-yl)but-3 -en- 1 -yl)carbamate

To a N2 flushed, 500 mL RBF was added {S)-tert-bvXy\ (l-(4-chloropyridin-2-yl)but-3-en-l-yl)carbamate, prepared as described in Example 3, (10 g, 35.4 mmol), 1-(difluoromethyl)-4-nitro-lH-pyrazol (6.34 g, 38.9 mmol) and dioxane (100 mL). The solution was bubbled with N2 for 5 min. Then Pd(OAc)2 (0.40 g, 1.7 mmol),

di(adamantan-l-yl)(butyl)phosphine (1.27 g, 3.5 mmol), K2CO3 (14.7 g, 106 mmol) and PvOH (1.08 g, 10.61 mmol) were added. The reaction mixture was bubbled with N2 for 5 min then the reaction mixture was heated to 100 °C for 3 h. After this time, the solution was cooled to rt and water (200 mL) was added. The reaction mixture was then extracted with EtOAc (2 x 200 mL). The combined organic extracts were washed with water (200 mL), brine (200 mL), dried over Na2S04, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by normal phase chromatography eluting with a gradient of hexanes/EtOAc afforded (S)-tert-butyl ( 1 -(4-( 1 -(difluoromethyl)-4-nitro- lH-pyrazol-5 -yl)pyridin-2-yl)but-3 -en- 1 -yl)carbamate (12.91 g, 31.5 mmol, 89% yield) as a slightly yellow oil. MS(ESI) m/z: 410.4 [M+H]+. 1H NMR (400MHz, CDC13) δ 8.80 (dd, J=5.1, 0.7 Hz, 1H), 8.36 (s, 1H), 7.34 (s, 1H), 7.31 (dd, J=5.1, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 7.27 – 6.91 (t, J=58 Hz, 1H), 5.79 – 5.63 (m, 1H), 5.16 – 5.03 (m, 2H), 4.92 (d, J=5.9 Hz, 1H), 2.67 (t, J=6.4 Hz, 2H), 1.46 (br. s., 9H).

1C. Preparation of 
(l-(4-(4-amino-l -(difluoromethyl)- lH-pyrazol-5-yl)pyridin-2-yl)but-3 -en- 1 -yl)carbamate

To a 100 mL, 3-necked RBF was added a solution of (S)-tert-butyl (l-(4-(l-(difluoromethyl)-4-nitro-lH-pyrazol-5-yl)pyridin-2-yl)but-3-en-l-yl)carbamate (0.78 g, 1.90 mmol) in MeOH (12 mL) and a solution of NH4C1 (1.02 g, 19 mmol) in water (3 mL). To the solution was added Fe (0.53 g, 9.49 mmol). The reaction mixture was heated to 65 °C for 3 h. Water (50 mL) was added. After cooling to rt, the mixture was filtered through a CELITE® pad and rinsed with MeOH (200 mL). The filtrate was concentrated in vacuo. The residue was partitioned between EtOAC (100 mL) and water (100 mL). The organic phase was separated, washed with water (100 mL), brine (100 mL), dried over Na2S04, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by normal phase chromatography eluting with a gradient of DCM/MeOH yielded (S)-tert-butyl (l-(4-(4-amino- 1 -(difluoromethyl)- lH-pyrazol-5 -yl)pyridin-2-yl)but-3 -en- 1 -yl)carbamate (0.585 g, 1.54 mmol, 81% yield) as an oil. MS(ESI) m/z: 380.1 [M+H]+. 1H NMR (400MHz,

CDC13) δ 8.70 (dd, J=5.0, 0.7 Hz, 1H), 7.43 (s, 1H), 7.36 (s, 1H), 7.32 (dd, J=5.1, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 7.28 – 6.97 (t, J=58 Hz, 1H), 5.80 – 5.66 (m, 1H), 5.65 – 5.53 (m, 1H), 5.13 – 5.03 (m, 2H), 4.87 (br. s., 1H), 3.22 (br. s., 2H), 2.65 (t, J=6.5 Hz, 2H), 1.52 – 1.37 (m, 9H).

ID. Preparation of tert-butyl ((5)-l-(4-(l-(difiuoromethyl)-4-((i?)-2-methylbut-3-enamido)- lH-pyrazol-5-yl)pyridin-2-yl)but-3-en- 1 -yl)carbamate

To a N2 flushed, 3 -necked, 250 mL RBF was added a solution of {S)-tert-bvXy\ (1-(4-(4-amino-l-(difluoromethyl)-lH-pyrazol-5-yl)pyridin-2-yl)but-3-en-l-yl)carbamate (5 g, 13.18 mmol) and EtOAc (50 ml). The solution was cooled to -10 °C and (R)-2-methylbut-3-enoic acid, as prepared in Example 2, (1.72 g, 17.13 mmol), pyridine (4.26 ml, 52.7 mmol). and T3P® (23.54 ml, 39.5 mmol) were added. The cooling bath was removed and the solution was allowed to warm to rt and then stir over a period of 20 h. Water (30 mL) and EtOAc (30 mL) were added and the mixture was stirred for 30 min. The organic phase was separated and the aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (30 mL). The combined organic extracts were washed with brine (50 mL), dried over

Na2SC”4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by normal phase

chromatography eluting with a gradient of hexanes/EtOAc gave tert-butyl ((5)-l-(4-(l-(difluoromethyl)-4-((i?)-2-methylbut-3-enamido)-lH-pyrazol-5-yl)pyridin-2-yl)but-3-en-l-yl)carbamate (5.69 g, 12.33 mmol, 94% yield). MS(ESI) m/z: 462.2 [M+H]+. 1H NMR (400MHz, CDC13) δ 8.75 (dd, J=5.0, 0.6 Hz, 1H), 8.37 (s, 1H), 7.32 (t, J=59 Hz, 1H), 7.28 (br. s., 1H), 7.20 (s, 1H), 5.97 – 5.85 (m, 1H), 5.78 – 5.65 (m, 1H), 5.56 – 5.44 (m, 1H), 5.28 – 5.19 (m, 2H), 5.12 (d, J=2.0 Hz, 2H), 4.91 – 4.82 (m, 1H), 3.20 – 3.11 (m, 1H), 2.72 – 2.62 (m, 2H), 1.48 – 1.43 (s, 9H), 1.33 (d, J=6.8 Hz, 3H).

IE. Preparation of tert-butyl N-[(9i?,10E,135)-3-(difluoromethyl)-9-methyl-8-oxo-3,4,7,15-tetraazatricyclo[12.3.1.026]octadeca-l(18),2(6),4,10,14,16-hexaen-13-yl] carbamate

To a N2 flushed, 2 L, 3 -necked, RBF was added a solution of tert-butyl ((S)-l-(4-(1 -(difluoromethyl)-4-((i?)-2-methylbut-3 -enamido)- lH-pyrazol-5 -yl)pyridin-2-yl)but-3 -en-l-yl)carbamate (3 g, 6.50 mmol) in EtOAc (1300 ml). The solution was sparged with argon for 15 min. Grubbs II (1.38 g, 1.63 mmol) was added in one portion. The reaction mixture was heated to reflux for 24 h. After cooling to rt, the solvent was removed and the residue was purified by normal phase chromatography eluting with a gradient of DCM/MeOH to yield tert-butyl N-[(9R, 10E, 135)-3-(difluoromethyl)-9-methyl-8-oxo-3,4,7,15-tetraazatricyclo[12.3.1.026]octadeca-l(18),2(6),4,10,14,16-hexaen-13-yl]carbamate (2.13 g, 4.91 mmol, 76% yield) as a tan solid. MS(ESI) m/z: 434.4 [M+H]+. 1H NMR (400MHz, CDC13) δ 8.71 (d, J=5.1 Hz, 1H), 7.78 (s, 1H), 7.44 – 7.40 (m, 1H), 7.36 (br. s., 1H), 7.27 (t, J=58 Hz, 1H), 6.87 (s, 1H), 6.49 – 6.39 (m, 1H), 5.78 (s, 1H), 4.80 (br. s., 2H), 3.18 – 3.08 (m, 1H), 3.08 – 2.98 (m, 1H), 2.06 – 1.93 (m, 1H), 1.51 (s, 9H), 1.19 (d, J=6.6 Hz, 3H).

IF. Preparation of tert-butyl N-[(9i?,135)-3-(difluoromethyl)-9-methyl-8-oxo-3,4,7,15-tetraazatricyclo[12.3.1.026]octadeca-l(18),2(6),4,14,16-pentaen-13-yl]carbamate

Pd/C (0.60 g, 0.570 mmol) was added to a 250 mL Parr hydrogenation flask containing a solution of tert-butyl N-[(9i?,10E,135)-3-(difluoromethyl)-9-methyl-8-oxo-3,4,7,15-tetraazatricyclo[12.3.1.026]octadeca-l(18),2(6),4,10,14,16-hexaen-13-yljcarbamate (2.46 g, 5.68 mmol) in EtOH (100 mL). The flask was purged with N2 and pressurized to 55 psi of H2 allowed to stir for 18 h. The reaction was filtered through CELITE® and concentrated to yield tert-butyl N-[(9i?,135)-3-(difluoromethyl)-9-methyl-8-oxo-3,4,7,15-tetraazatricyclo[12.3.1.026]octadeca-l(18),2(6),4,14,16-pentaen-13-yl]carbamate (2.17 g, 88% yield) as a tan solid. MS(ESI) m/z: 436.3 [M+H]+. 1H NMR (400MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 9.32 (s, 1H), 8.71 (d, J=5.0 Hz, 1H), 7.96 (t, J=58 Hz, 1H), 7.43 (s, 1H), 7.32 (d, J=4.8 Hz, 1H), 7.22 (d, J=7.3 Hz, 1H), 4.66 (d, J=8.3 Hz, 1H), 2.62 (br. s., 1H), 1.88 (d, J=12.8 Hz, 1H), 1.77 – 1.59 (m, 2H), 1.42 – 1.28 (m, 9H), 1.15 (d, J=18.2 Hz, 2H), 0.83 (d, J=7.0 Hz, 3H).

I G. Preparation of (9R, 13S)-l 3-amino-3-(difiuoromethyl)-9-methyl-3,4,7, 15-tetraazatricyclo[ 12.3.1.026]octadeca- 1(18),2(6),4, 14,16-pentaen-8-one

4 N HC1 in dioxane (3.88 mL, 15.5 mmol) was added to a solution of tert-butyl N-[(9R, 13S)-3-(difluoromethyl)-9-methyl-8-oxo-3,4,7, 15-tetraazatricyclo[12.3.1.026] octadeca-l(18),2(6),4,14,16-pentaen-13-yl]carbamate (2.25 g, 5.2 mmol) in MeOH (10 mL). The reaction was allowed to stir at rt for 2 h. The reaction was cooled in an ice bath, and 7 N NH3 in MeOH (13.3 mL, 93.0 mmol) was added. After 5 min, the reaction was diluted with CH2C12 (80 mL) and the solid that formed was filtered. The filtrate was concentrated to yield (9i?,135)-13-amino-3-(difluoromethyl)-9-methyl-3,4,7,15-tetraazatricyclo[12.3.1.026]octadeca-l(18),2(6),4,14,16-pentaen-8-one (1.3 g, 3.88 mmol, 75% yield). MS(ESI) m/z: 336.3 [M+H]+. 1H NMR (400MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 9.33 (s, 1H), 8.71 (d, J=5.0 Hz, 1H), 7.94 (t, J=58 Hz, 1H), 7.85 (s, 1H), 7.40 (s, 1H), 7.32 (d, J=5.0 Hz, 1H), 4.01 (dd, J=10.2, 5.1 Hz, 1H), 2.63 – 2.53 (m, 1H), 1.90 – 1.69 (m, 2H), 1.53 -1.36 (m, 2H), 1.16 – 1.00 (m, 1H), 0.85 (d, J=7.0 Hz, 3H).

1H. Preparation of (9i?,135)-13-{4-[5-chloro-2-(4-chloro-lH-l,2,3-triazol-l-yl)phenyl]-6-oxo- 1 ,6-dihydropyrimidin- 1 -yl} -3-(difluoromethyl)-9-methyl-3 ,4,7, 15-tetraazatricyclo [12.3.1.026]octadeca- 1 ( 18),2(6),4, 14,16-pentaen-8-one.

To a 100 mL flask containing a white suspension of 6-(5-chloro-2-(4-chloro-lH-l,2,3-triazol-l-yl)phenyl)pyrimidin-4-ol (0.83 g, 2.7 mmol), as prepared in Example 4 in ACN (36 mL) was added HATU (1.12 g, 3.0 mmol) and DBU (0.53 mL, 3.5 mmol). The resulting clear, yellow solution was stirred at rt. After 5 min, (9i?,135)-13-amino-3-(difluoromethyl)-9-methyl-3,4,7,15-tetraazatricyclo[12.3.1.026]octadeca-l(18),2(6),4,14,16-pentaen-8-one (0.9 g, 2.68 mmol) was added and the resulting suspension was stirred at rt for 3 h. The reaction was then concentrated and purified by normal phase silica gel chromatography, eluting with a gradient of 0% to 100% EtOAc in hexanes to yield (9i?,135)-13-{4-[5-chloro-2-(4-chloro-lH-l,2,3-triazol-l-yl)phenyl]-6-oxo- 1 ,6-dihydropyrimidin- 1 -yl} -3-(difluoromethyl)-9-methyl-3 ,4,7, 15-tetraazatricyclo [12.3.1.026]octadeca-l(18),2(6),4,14,16-pentaen-8-one (0.87 g, 50% yield) as a white solid. MS(ESI) m/z: 626.2 [M+H]+. 1H NMR (500MHz, CD3OD) δ 8.91 – 8.83 (m, 1H), 8.78 – 8.71 (m, 1H), 8.33 (s, 1H), 7.88 (d, J=2.5 Hz, 1H), 7.74 (s, 2H), 7.69 – 7.67 (m, 1H), 7.65 (s, 1H), 7.63 (t, J=58 Hz, 1H), 7.52 – 7.50 (m, 1H), 6.36 (d, J=0.8 Hz, 1H),

6.06 – 5.95 (m, 1H), 2.76 – 2.65 (m, 1H), 2.36 – 2.21 (m, 1H), 2.08 – 1.93 (m, 2H), 1.63 -1.53 (m, 1H), 1.53 – 1.42 (m, 1H), 0.99 (d, J=6.9 Hz, 3H). Analytical HPLC (Method A): RT = 8.87 min, purity = 99.7%.


///////////MILVEXIAN, BMS 986177, JNJ 70033093,  JNJ 3093, WHO 11401, ミルベクシアン ,

C[C@@H]1CCC[C@H](N2C=NC(=CC2=O)c3cc(Cl)ccc3n4cc(Cl)nn4)c5cc(ccn5)c6c(NC1=O)cnn6C(F)F

Cetuximab sarotalocan sodium


Cetuximab Sarotalocan Sodium (Genetical Recombination)



Cetuximab Sarotalocan Sodium is an antibody-drug-conjugate (molecular weight: 156,000-158,000) consisting of tetrasodium salt of Sarotalocan (6-({[3-({(OC-6-13)-bis({3-[bis(3-sulfopropyl)(3-sulfonatopropyl)azaniumyl]propyl}dimethylsilanolato-κOO‘)[(phtalocyaninato(2-)κN29N30N31N32)-1-yl]silicon}oxy)propoxy]carbonyl}amino)hexanoyl (C70H96N11O24S6Si3; molecular weight: 1,752.22)) attached to an average of 2-3 Lys residues of Cetuximab.

[2166339-33-7 , Cetuximab sarotalocan]

Cetuximab sarotalocan sodium

Enarodustat


Enarodustat (JAN).png
Enarodustat Chemical Structure

Enarodustat

エナロデュスタット

JTZ 951

FormulaC17H16N4O4
CAS1262132-81-9
Mol weight340.3333

PMDA 2020/9/25 APPROVED ENAROY

Anti-anemic, Hypoxia inducible factor-prolyl hydroxylase (HIF-PH) inhibitor

Originator Japan Tobacco
Developer Japan Tobacco; JW Pharmaceutical
Class Acetic acids; Amides; Antianaemics; Pyridones; Small molecules; Triazoles
Mechanism of Action Hypoxia-inducible factor-proline dioxygenase inhibitors

Preregistration Anaemia

27 Dec 2019 Japan Tobacco and SalubrisBio enter into a development and marketing agreement for enarodustat (JTZ 951) in China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan for Anaemia
29 Nov 2019 Preregistration for Anaemia in Japan (PO)
31 Oct 2019 Phase I development in Anaemia is ongoing in USA

Enarodustat is a potent and orally active factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor, with an EC50 of 0.22 μM. Enarodustat has the potential for renal anemia treatment

PATENT

WO 2011007856

PAPER

ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters (2017), 8(12), 1320-1325

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsmedchemlett.7b00404

Abstract

Abstract Image

Inhibition of hypoxia inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) represents a promising strategy for the discovery of a next generation treatment for renal anemia. We identified several 5,6-fused ring systems as novel scaffolds of the PHD inhibitor on the basis of pharmacophore analysis. In particular, triazolopyridine derivatives showed potent PHD2 inhibitory activities. Examination of the predominance of the triazolopyridines in potency by electrostatic calculations suggested favorable π–π stacking interactions with Tyr310. Lead optimization to improve the efficacy of erythropoietin release in cells and in vivo by improving cell permeability led to the discovery of JTZ-951 (compound 14), with a 5-phenethyl substituent on the triazolopyridine group, which increased hemoglobin levels with daily oral dosing in rats. Compound 14 was rapidly absorbed after oral administration and disappeared shortly thereafter, which could be advantageous in terms of safety. Compound 14 was selected as a clinical candidate.

(7-Hydroxy-5-phenethyl-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyridine-8-carbonyl)glycine (14)

To a solution of SI-5 (2.28 g, 6.19 mmol) in EtOH (9.1 mL) was added 2N NaOH aq. (12.4 mL, 24.8 mmol) at room temperature. After stirring at 90 °C for 2 h, 6N HCl aq. (4.1 mL, 24.6 mmol). This was allowed to gradually cool with stirring and crystals were precipitated. The crystals were collected by filtration to give the title compound 14 (2.16 g, 103% yield). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-D6) δ: 14.22 (s, 1H), 12.98 (br s, 1H), 9.84 (t, J = 5.6 Hz, 1H), 8.58 (s, 1H), 7.33– 7.18 (m, 5H), 6.80 (s, 1H), 4.22 (d, J = 5.6 Hz, 2H), 3.40 (t, J = 7.7 Hz, 2H), 3.12 (t, J = 7.7 Hz, 2H). 13C NMR (126 MHz, CDCl3) δ: 170.28, 167.70, 165.32, 152.95, 148.53, 146.49, 140.05, 128.33, 128.20, 126.17, 106.72, 95.56, 41.00, 31.95, 31.72. HRMS m/z: [M+H]+ calcd for C17H17N4O4, 341.1244; found, 341.1243. Anal. (C17H16N4O4) calcd C 59.99%, H 4.74%, N 16.46%; found C 60.02%, H, 4.78%, N, 16.42%. Melting point: 186 °C Purity: 100.0%.

PATENT

 WO 2018097254

PATENT

US 20200017492

/////////////Enarodustat, 2020 APPROVALS, JAPAN 2020, エナロデュスタット  , JTZ 951, ENAROY, 2020 APPROVALS, 

Sofpironium bromide


Sofpironium bromide.png

File:Sofpironium bromide.jpg

Sofpironium bromide

ソフピロニウム臭化物

BBI 4000

[(3R)-1-(2-ethoxy-2-oxoethyl)-1-methylpyrrolidin-1-ium-3-yl] (2R)-2-cyclopentyl-2-hydroxy-2-phenylacetate;bromide

Formula
C22H32NO5. Br
CAS
1628106-94-4
BASE 1628251-49-9
Mol weight
470.3972

PMDA APPROVED JAPAN 2020/9/25, Ecclock

Anhidrotic

Sofpironium Bromide

1-ambo-(3R)-3-{[(R)-(Cyclopentyl)hydroxy(phenyl)acetyl]oxy}-1-(2-ethoxy-2-oxoethyl)-1-methylpyrrolidinium bromide

C22H32BrNO5 : 470.4
[1628106-94-4]

SYN

PATENT

WO 2018026869

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2018026869A1/en

Certain glycopyrronium salts and related compounds, as well as processes for making and methods of using these glycopyrronium salts and related compounds, are known. See, for example, US Patent No. 8,558,008, which issued to assignee Dermira, Inc. See also, for example, US Patent No. 2,956,062, which issued to assignee Robins Co Inc. A H. See also, for example, International Patent Application Publication Nos. WO 98/00132 Al and WO 2009/00109A1, both of which list applicant Sepracor, Inc., as well as US Patent Nos. 6,063,808 and 6,204,285, both of which issued to assignee Sepracor, Inc. Certain methods of treating hyperhidrosis using glycopyrronium salts and related compounds are known. See, for example GB 1,080,960. Certain forms of applying glycopyrrolate compounds to a subject are known. See, for example US Patent Nos. 6,433,003 and 8,618,160, both of which issued to assignee Rose U; also US Patent Nos. 7,060,289; 8,252,316; and 8,679,524, which issued to PurePharm, Inc.

[0004] One glycopyrronium salt which is useful in certain medical applications is the following compound:

Figure imgf000003_0001

[0005] As illustrated above, the absolute configuration at the three asymmetric chiral positions is 2R3’R1’RS. This means that the carbon indicated with the number, 2, has the stereochemical R configuration. The carbon indicated with the number, 3′, also has the stereochemical R configuration. The quatemary ammonium nitrogen atom, indicated with a positive charge, may have either the R or the S stereochemical configuration. As drawn, the compound above is a mixture of two diastereoisomers.

[0006] Certain processes for making glycopyrronium salts are known. However, these processes are not as safe, efficient, stereospecific, or stereoselective as the new processes disclosed herein, for example with respect to large-scale manufacturing processes. Certain publications show that higher anticholinergic activity is attributed to the 2R3’R configuration. However, to date, processes for making the 2R3’R isomers, as well as the 2R3’R1’R isomers are low yielding, involve too many reaction steps to be economically feasible, use toxic materials, and/or are not sufficiently stereospecific or stereoselective with respect to the products formed.

EXAMPLE 2

[0179] The below synthetic description refers to the numbered compounds illustrated in FIG. 2. Numbers which refer to these compounds in FIG. 2 are bolded and underlined in this Example.

[0180] Synthesis of R(-)-Cyclopentylmandelic acid (4)

[0181] R(-)-cyclopentylmandelic acid (compound 4) can be synthesized starting with

R(-)-mandelic acid (compound 1) according to Example 1.

[0182] Step 1 : Making Compound 2.

[0183] R(-)-mandelic acid (1) was suspended in hexane and mixed with pivaldehyde and a catalytic amount of trifluoromethanesulfonic acid at room temperature to form a mixture. The mixture was warmed to 36 °C and then allowed to react for about 5 hours. The mixture was then cooled to room temperature and treated with 8% aqueous sodium bicarbonate. The aqueous layer was removed and the organic layer dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate. After filtration and removal of the solvent under vacuum, the crude product was recrystallized to give (5R)-2-(tert-butyl)-5-phenyl-l,3-dioxolan-4-one (compound 2) in 88% yield (per S-enantiomer yield).

[0184] Step 2: Making Compound 3.

[0185] Compound 2 was reacted with lithium hexamethyl disilazide (LiHMDS) in hexane at -78 °C under stirring for one hour. Next, cyclopentyl bromide was added to the reaction mixture including compound 2 and LiHMDS . The reaction was kept cool for about four (4) hours and then slowly warmed to room temperature and allowed to react for at least twelve (12) more hours. The resulting mixture was then treated with 10% aqueous ammonium chloride. The aqueous layer was discarded and the organic layer dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate. The solvent was removed under vacuum and the residue recrystallized from hexane to give pure product (5R)-2-(tert-butyl)-5-cyclopentyl-5-phenyl- l,3-dioxolan-4-one (3) in 63% yield (per S-enantiomer yield).

[0186] Step 3: Making Compound 4.

[0187] R(-)-cyclopentylmandelic acid (compound 4) was prepared by providing compound 3 in aqueous methanolic potassium hydroxide at 65 °C for four hours. After cooling this mixture to room temperature and removing the methanol under vacuum, the aqueous solution was acidified with aqueous hydrochloric acid. The aqueous solution was then extracted twice with ethyl acetate and the organic phase dried with anhydrous sodium sulfate. After removing the solvent and performing a recrystallization, pure R(-)- cyclopentylmandelic acid (compound 4) was obtained in 62% yield (based on S-enantiomer yield).

[0188] Next, a racemic mixture of l -methyl-3-pyrridinol (20) was provided:

Figure imgf000045_0001

[0189] Synthesis of 2R3 ‘R-glycopyrrolate base (8)

[0190] Step 4: Making Compound 8.

[0191] Enantiomerically pure R(-)-cyclopentylmandelic acid (4) was coupled to racemic l-methyl-3-pyrridinol (20) using 1, 1 -carbonyldiimideazole (CDI) activated esterification to make an enantiomerically pure mixture of the following erythro- and threo- glycopyrrolate bases (compounds 8 and 21, respectively):

Figure imgf000045_0002

[0192] The 2R3’R-glycopyrrolate base (compound 8) was then resolved using the 5- nitroisophthalate salt procedure in Finnish Patent 49713, to provide enantiomerically pure 2R3 Έ. {erythro) as well as pure 2R3 ‘S {threo). In this example, the 2R3 ‘S {threo) was discarded. The 2R3 Έ. {erythro) was separated as stereomerically pure compound 8.

[0193] Step 6: Making Compound 9.

[0194] The glycopyrrolate base, compound 8, was treated in dry acetonitrile with methyl bromoacetate at room temperature under stirring for three (3) hours. The crude product was dissolved in a small volume of methylene chloride and poured into dry ethyl ether to obtain a precipitate. This procedure was repeated three times to provide (3R)-3-((R)- 2-cyclopentyl-2-hydroxy-2-phenylacetoxy)-l -(2-ethoxy-2-oxoethyl)-l-methylpyrrolidin-l – ium bromide, also known as 3′(R)-[R-Cyclopentylphenylhydroxyacetoy]- -ethyl- l ‘methoxycarbonylpyrrolidinium bromide (compound 9) in 89% yield. Compound 9 included the following stereoisomers:

Figure imgf000046_0001

E

Synthesis of 9a, 9b, 13a, and 13b.

Synthesis of 9a, 9b, 13a, and 13b.

Publication Number Title Priority Date Grant Date
US-2019161443-A1 Processes for making, and methods of using, glycopyrronium compounds 2016-08-02

ClinicalTrials.gov

CTID Title Phase Status Date
NCT02058264 A Safety, Tolerability and Preliminary Efficacy Study of BBI-4000 in Subjects With Axillary Hyperhidrosis Phase 1 Completed 2014-09-11

NIPH Clinical Trials Search of Japan

CTID Title Phase Status Date
JapicCTI-184249 A repeatedly applied study of BBI-4000 in patients with primary hyperhidrosis complete 2018-12-13
JapicCTI-184003 A long term safety study of BBI-4000 gel in patients with primary axillary hyperhidrosis complete 2018-06-15
JapicCTI-183948 A confirmatory study of BBI-4000 gel in patients with primary axillary hyperhidrosis complete 2018-05-07
UMIN000020546 A skin irritation study of BBI-4000 in healthy adult males (phase 1) Complete: follow-up complete 2016-01-18

////////////Sofpironium bromide, Ecclock, 2020 APPROVALS, JAPAN 2020, Anhidrotic, ソフピロニウム臭化物 , BBI 4000

CCOC(=O)C[N+]1(CCC(C1)OC(=O)C(C2CCCC2)(C3=CC=CC=C3)O)C.[Br-]

Tetrahydrobiopterin,


Kuvan (Saproterin Dihydrochloride Tablets): Uses, Dosage, Side Effects, Interactions, Warning

Sapropterin

Sapropterin dihydrochloride, Dapropterin dihydrochloride, R-THBP, 6R-BH4, SUN-0588, Phenoptin, Biopten, Biobuden, Bipten

Approval:US: Dec’07, EU: Dec’08

Approval:US: Dec’07, EU: Dec’08

IUPAC Name

(6R)-2-amino-6-[(1R,2S)-1,2-dihydroxypropyl]-3,4,5,6,7,8-hexahydropteridin-4-one

SMILES

[H][C@@]1(CNC2=C(N1)C(=O)NC(N)=N2)[C@@H](O)[C@H](C)O
сапроптерин [Russian] [INN]
سابروبتيرين [INN]
沙丙蝶呤 [Chinese] [INN]
  • 17528-72-2
  • 27070-47-9
  • Sun 0588
  • 6R-BH4
  • R-THBP
  • Sapropterin
  • Sapropterina
  • sapropterinum
  • Tetrahydrobiopterin
Title: Sapropterin
CAS Registry Number: 62989-33-7
CAS Name: (6R)-2-Amino-6-[(1R,2S)-1,2-dihydroxypropyl]-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-4(1H)-pteridinone
Additional Names: (6R)-L-erythro-tetrahydrobiopterin; dapropterin; R-THBP; 6R-BH4
Molecular Formula: C9H15N5O3
Molecular Weight: 241.25
Percent Composition: C 44.81%, H 6.27%, N 29.03%, O 19.90%
Literature References: Natural cofactor of the aromatic amino acid hydroxylases required for catecholamine and serotonin biosynthesis. Identification of cofactor activity: S. Kaufman, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 50, 1085 (1963). Prepn of (6R,S)-BH4: B. Schircks et al., Helv. Chim. Acta 61, 2731 (1978). Chromatographic separation of diastereoisomers: S. W. Bailey, J. E. Ayling, J. Biol. Chem. 253, 1598 (1978). Absolute configuration of natural isomer: W. L. F. Armarego et al., Aust. J. Chem. 35, 785 (1982). Stereospecific synthesis: S. Matsuura et al., Heterocycles 23, 3115 (1985); H. Sakai, T. Kanai, EP 191335eidem, US 4713454 (1986, 1987 both to Shiratori; Suntory). Bioavailability: G. Kapatos, S. Kaufman, Science 212, 955 (1981). Effect on neurotransmitter monoamine biosynthesis: S. Miwa et al., Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 239, 234 (1985). LC determn in biological samples: Y. Tani, T. Ishihara, Life Sci. 46, 373 (1990). Therapeutic potential in hyperphenylalaninemia: S. Kaufman, J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol, Suppl., 601 (1992).
Properties: pK¢ 5.05. uv max (0.1 N HCl): 265 nm (e 14000).
pKa: pK¢ 5.05
Absorption maximum: uv max (0.1 N HCl): 265 nm (e 14000)
Derivative Type: Dihydrochloride
CAS Registry Number: 69056-38-8
Manufacturers’ Codes: SUN-0588
Trademarks: Biopten (Maruho)
Molecular Formula: C9H15N5O3.2HCl
Molecular Weight: 314.17
Percent Composition: C 34.41%, H 5.45%, N 22.29%, O 15.28%, Cl 22.57%
Properties: Crystals from HCl, mp 245-246° (dec). [a]D25 -6.81° (c = 0.665 in 0.1 M HCl). uv max (2 M HCl): 264 nm (e 16770).
Melting point: mp 245-246° (dec)
Optical Rotation: [a]D25 -6.81° (c = 0.665 in 0.1 M HCl)
Absorption maximum: uv max (2 M HCl): 264 nm (e 16770)
Therap-Cat: In treatment of hyperphenylalaninemia.
Keywords: Enzyme Cofactor
INGREDIENT UNII CAS INCHI KEY
Sapropterin dihydrochloride RG277LF5B3 69056-38-8 RKSUYBCOVNCALL-NTVURLEBSA-N

Experimental Properties

PROPERTY VALUE SOURCE
melting point (°C) 250-255 °C (hydrochloride salt) Not Available
water solubility >20 mg/mL (dichloride salt) Not Available
logP -1.7 Not Available

Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4THB), also known as sapropterin (INN),[2][3] is a cofactor of the three aromatic amino acid hydroxylase enzymes,[4] used in the degradation of amino acid phenylalanine and in the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitters serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), melatonindopaminenorepinephrine (noradrenaline), epinephrine (adrenaline), and is a cofactor for the production of nitric oxide (NO) by the nitric oxide syntheses.[5] Chemically, its structure is that of a (dihydropteridine reductase) reduced pteridine derivative (Quinonoid dihydrobiopterin).[6]

Medical use

Tetrahydrobiopterin is available as a tablet for oral administration in the form of sapropterin dihydrochloride (BH4*2HCL).[7][8][9] It was approved for use in the United States as a tablet in December 2007[10][11] and as a powder in December 2013.[12][11] It was approved for use in the European Union in December 2008,[9] Canada in April 2010,[11] and Japan in July 2008.[11] It is sold under the brand names Kuvan and Biopten.[9][8][11] The typical cost of treating a patient with Kuvan is US$100,000 per year.[13] BioMarin holds the patent for Kuvan until at least 2024, but Par Pharmaceutical has a right to produce a generic version by 2020.[14]

Sapropterin is indicated in tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency caused by GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH) deficiency, or 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase (PTPS) deficiency.[15] Also, BH4*2HCL is FDA approved for use in phenylketonuria (PKU), along with dietary measures.[16] However, most people with PKU have little or no benefit from BH4*2HCL.[17]

Sapropterin (tetrahydrobiopterin or BH4) is a cofactor in the synthesis of nitric oxide. It is also essential in the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine by the enzyme phenylalanine-4-hydroxylase; the conversion of tyrosine to L-dopa by the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase; and conversion of tryptophan to 5-hydroxytryptophan via tryptophan hydroxylase.

Sapropterin commonly known as tetrahydrobiopterin (THB or BH4) developed by BioMarin and marketed as Sapropterin dihydrochloride under the brand name of KUVAN®. It is indicated for the treatment of phenylketonuria (PKU) and tetrahydrobiopterin deficiencies. Sapropterin dihydrochloride is chemically known as (6R)-2-amino-6-[(lR, 2S)-1, 2- dihydroxypropyl]-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-4(lH)-pteridinone dihydrochloride and structurally represented as below.

Figure imgf000002_0001

Sapropterin dihydrochloride

Due to its vital role in the conversion of L-tyrosine into L-DOPA, which is the precursor for dopamine, a deficiency in tetrahydrobiopterin can cause severe neurological disorders unrelated to toxic build-up of L-phenylalanine; dopamine is a crucial neurotransmitter, and is the precursor of norepinephrine and epinephrine. Thus, a deficiency of tetrahydrobiopterin can result in phenylketonuria (PKU) from L-phenylalanine concentrations or hyperphenylalaninemia (HP A), as well as monoamine and nitric oxide neurotransmitter deficiency or chemical imbalance. The chronic presence of PKU can result in severe brain damage, including symptoms of mental retardation, speech impediments like stuttering, slurring, seizures or convulsions and behavioural abnormalities.

In an article published in Bio Chem J 347 (1): 1-16, tetrahydrobiopterin is reported to be biosynthesized from guanosine triphosphate (GTP) by three chemical reactions mediated by the enzymes GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH), 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase (PTPS), and sepiapterin reductase (SR).

Preparation of Sapropterin is reported with a mixture of R & S isomers in Helv. Chim. Acta, 60, 1977, 211-214, by catalytic reduction of L-biopterin of formula (2). Similar process with slight modifications is also published in Hel. Chim. Acta, 61, 1978, 2731- 2738.

Figure imgf000003_0001

(2)

In another publication reported in Helv. Chim. Acta, 62, 1979, 2577-2580, separation of the diastereomers (6R) and (6S)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-L-biopterin is reported by fractional crystallization of corresponding tetraacetyl derivative followed by hydrolysis using aq. HC1.

In another process published in Heterocycles, 23(12), 1985, 3115-3120, Sapropterin dihydrochloride of formula (1) is prepared by catalytic hydrogenation of L- biopterin of formula (2) in the presence of Pt02 under latm hydrogen pressure in 0.1 M potassium phosphate buffer at pH 11.8 for 18hr followed by filtration and recrystallization from 8M HC1. With slight modifications in the above reaction conditions like using platinum black, aq. base solutions like tetraethylammonium hydroxide or triethylamine etc. under 100 Kg/cm2 hydrogen pressure / 0° C / pH 12.0 / 1000 rpm / 20h/3N HCl-EtOH with 85% yield is disclosed in US4713454. In another process disclosed in US4595752, L-biopterin of formula (2) is catalytically reduced in the presence of platinum oxide in aq. base / acid solutions like (10% aq. potassium carbonate, aq. sodium carbonate, aq. potassium acetate and 0.1 N aq. HCl) under bubbling of hydrogen gas for 5-30hr at room temperature followed by filtration and isolated as HCl salt of formula (1) using aq. HCl and ethanol to obtain Sapropterin dihydrochloride.

In another approach disclosed in WO2005049614, racemic isomers of Sapropterin dihydrochloride are prepared from L-neopterin.

In another process disclosed in WO2009088979, the diacetyl biopterin is hydrolysed in the presence of aq. diethyl amine-n-butanol mixture at 40°C for 16hr at pH >11.5 followed by hydrogenation in the presence of platinum black using 50 bar hydrogen pressure at 25 °C. Product of formula (1) isolated as HCl salt from ethanol or butanol.

In another process disclosed in US20130197222, Sapropterin dihydrochloride of formula (1) is prepared starting from condensation of crotonoic acid.

The process for preparation of key intermediate, L-biopterin of formula (2) is cited in the following references.

In an article published in J. Am. Chem. Soc, 1955, 77, 3167-3168, L-biopterin of formula (2) is reported to be first isolated from human urine. The melting point reported to be 250-280°C. In another article published in J. Am. Chem. Soc, 1956, 78, 5868-5871, L-biopterin of formula (2) is prepared starting from L-rhamnose. A slight modification in the reaction conditions mentioned above is disclosed in US3505329.

In the article published in Helv. Chim. Acta, 1969, 52, 1225-1228, L-biopterin of formula (2) along with 7-biopterin is synthesized by condensing 2, 4, 5-triamino-6-oxo-l, 6-dihydropyrimidine dihydrochloride with (1 -benzyl- l-phenyl-hydrazino)-5-desoxy-L- ribulose followed by oxidation of the tetrahydro derivative.

Later in the year 1974, in an article, J. Am. Chem. Soc, 1974, 96, 6781-6782, L-biopterin is reported to be prepared starting from L-rhamnose. In another approach published in Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn., 1975, 48(12), 3767-3768, L- biopterin of formula (2) is prepared from 2, 4, 5-triamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine dihydrochloride is reacted with hydrazone derivative in aq. methanol at reflux temperature.

In another process disclosed in US5043446 (1989), L-biopterin process is claimed to be synthesized starting from D-ribose. Similar approach with slight variations in the process, later published in Liebigs Ann. Chem., 1989, 1267-1269.

In another approach published in Agric. Biol. Chem., 1989, 53, 2095-2100, L-biopterin is synthesized starting from (S)-ethyl lactate. Prior to this publication the methodology is claimed by the same authors in JP01-221380 (1989).

In another approach disclosed in US5037981 (1990), L-biopterin is synthesized from 2- methylfuran.

In the article, Synthesis, 1992, 303-308, L-biopterin is synthesized from (4S)-4(3P- Acetoxy-5-androsten-17P-ylcarbonyloxy)-2-pentynol.

In the approach published in J. Org. Chem., 1996, 61, 8698-8700, L-biopterin is synthesized from L-tartaric acid.

In the patent US7361759 (2005), L-biopterin of formula (2) is made from L-rhamnose diethyl mercaptal.

US 20120157671 application discloses the preparation of compound of formula (4a) is by reacting D-ribose of formula (3) with acetone in the presence of sulphuric acid at room temperature followed by neutralization with sodium carbonate and concentrated under vacuum.

Sapropterin | Nature Reviews Drug Discovery

Pharmaceutics 12 00323 g004 550

https://www.mdpi.com/1999-4923/12/4/323/htm

Synthesis Reference

Steven S. Gross, “Blocking utilization of tetrahydrobiopterin to block induction of nitric oxide synthesis.” U.S. Patent US5502050, issued October, 1984.

US5502050

SYN

SYN

Synthetic Reference

Hong, Hao; Gage, James; Chen, Chaoyong; Lu, Jiangping; Zhou, Yan; Liu, Shuangyong. Method for synthesizing sapropterin dihydrochloride. Assignee Asymchem Laboratories (Tianjin) Co., Ltd., Peop. Rep. China; Asymchem Life Science (Tianjin) Co., Ltd.; Tianjin Asymchem Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.; Asymchem Laboratories (Fuxin) Co., Ltd.; Jilin Asymchem Laboratories Co., Ltd. WO 2013152609. (2013).

syn 1

EP 0191335. Aust J Chem 1984,37(2),355-66, Chem Lett 1984,5(5),735-8

Helv Chim Acta 1979,62(8),2577-80

This compound can be prepared in two related ways: 1) The catalytic hydrogenation of biopterin (I) with H2 over PtO2 aqueous K2HPO4 at pH 11.4 or aq. (Et)4NOH at pH 12 yields a solution which is acidified with HCl. After evaporation, the residue is crystallized in ethanol – HCl. 2) The acetylation of biopterin (I) with refluxing acetic anhydride gives the triacetyl derivative (II), which is hydrogenated with H2 over PtO2 in trifluoroacetic acid, yielding the (6RS)-mixture of triacetyl derivatives (III). Acetylation of (III) with refluxing acetic anhydride affords the tetracetyl (6RS)-derivative (IV), which by fractional crystallization or column chromatography of the dihydrochloride in methanol gives the desired compound as pure (6R)-isomer.

PATENT

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2016189542A1/en

formula 1).

Figure imgf000015_0004

The present invention is shown in below scheme- 1

Figure imgf000016_0001

Experimental Section: Example-1: Preparation of (6R)-2-amino-6-[(lR, 2S)-1, 2-dihydroxypropyl]-5,6,7,8- tetrahydro-4(lH)-pteridinone dihydrochloride of formula (1):

Step (i): Preparation of 2, 3-O-isopropylidene-D-ribose of formula (4a)

Into a 5L, 4 necked round-bottomed flask equipped with a mechanical stirrer, a thermometer socket, and a condenser, were charged acetone (3.0 L), D-ribose (300.0 gm, 2.0 mole) and p-toluene sulfonic acid (11.5 gm). The solution was stirred and maintained at 20-25°C for 2.5-3.0hrs. After completion of reaction, the reaction mixture was neutralized with aq. base solution and filtered. The filtrate was evaporated to dryness to get 375.0 gm (98.8% by theory) of 2, 3-O-isopropylidene-D-ribose of formula (4a) as light brown colour oily residue. Purity: >95% by GC. Step (ii): Preparation of l-deoxy-3, 4-O-isopropylidene-D-allitol of formula (5a)

Into a 5L, 4 necked round-bottomed flask equipped with a mechanical stirrer, a thermometer socket, and a condenser, was charged, 2.0L, 3M methyl magnesium chloride and cooled to 10° C. To this stirred solution, a solution of 200gm of 2,3-0- isopropylidene-D-ribose of formula (4a) dissolved in 200 mL tetrahydrofuran was added. After completion of reaction, the reaction mixture was quenched with ammonium chloride, extracted with ethyl acetate and separated. The solvent was evaporated to dryness under vacuum to get 185gm of l-deoxy-3, 4-O-isopropylidene-D-allitol of formula (5a) as dark brown colour oily residue. The crude product was purified by crystallization from ethyl acetate/hexane mixture to get 130g (60% by theory) as white crystalline solid. Purity: >98% by GC.

JR (λ Cm-1, KBr disc): 3317.64, 2993.69-2976.90, 2926.08, 2873.26 (m) -CH3, 1074.35; 1 HNMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6, EDl®j&¾ : (H2¾H3, J=6.8Hz, 3H),

1.148 (s, CH3, 3H), 1.290 (s,CH3), 3.415-3.357 (m, CH, 1H), 3.652-3.571 (m, CH2, 2H), 3.812-3.803 (d, 2 X CH, 2H), 4.00-3.969 (q, CH, 1H), 4.504-4.476 (t, ΟΗ, ΙΗ), 4.504- 4.476 (d, OH, 1H), 5.381-5.371 (d, OH, 1H): 13 CNMR (100 MHz, DMSO-d6, □ (ppm): 20.59, 25.35, 27.73, 63.18, 64.61 , 69.77, 76.82, 81.40, 107.31 ; Mass: 206.42 [M], 205.41 [M-l]. DSC (° C): 77.58° C Step (iii): Preparation of 5-deoxy-2, 3-O-isopropylidene-D-ribose of formula (6a)

Into a 5L 4 necked round-bottomed flask equipped with a mechanical stirrer, a thermometer socket, and a condenser, were charged, 1.6 L of water and 270 gm of sodium meta periodate. The solution was cooled to 10-20°C. To the stirred solution, a solution of 200 gm of l-deoxy-3, 4-O-isopropylidene-D-allitol of formula (5a) dissolved in 1.4 L of isopropyl ether at 25°C. After addition, the reaction mixture was maintained at 25-30° C for l-2h. After completion of reaction, the layers were separated and the organic layer was washed with water, aq. sodium bicarbonate and separated. The excess solvent was removed by distillation under vacuum to get 145 gm (85.4% by theory) of 5- deoxy-2, 3-O-isopropylidene-D-ribose of formula (6a) as yellow oil. Purity: >98% by GC.

Step (iv & v): Preparation of 5-deoxy-L-ribose phenyl hydrazone of formula (8) a) Step (iv): Preparation of 5-deoxy-L-ribose of formula (7)

Into a 2L 4 necked round-bottomed flask equipped with a mechanical stirrer, a thermometer socket, and a condenser, were charged 600ml of water and 200gm of 5- deoxy-2, 3-O-isopropylidene-D-ribose of formula (6a). To the stirred reaction mixture, 180gm of resin was charged and stirred for 8-10 h at 10-15° C. After completion of reaction, the resin was recovered and the filtrate was clarified by activated charcoal and filtered. The filtrate was distilled off under vacuum and the resulting 5-deoxy-L-ribose of formula (7) present water was directly used in the next step without further isolation and purification. The purity of 5-deoxy-L-ribose of formula (7) present in water was above 95% by TLC.

b) Step (v): Preparation of 5-deoxy-L-ribose phenyl hydrazone of formula (8)

Into a 2L 4 necked round-bottomed flask equipped with a mechanical stirrer, a thermometer socket, and a condenser, were charged the above aq. solution of 5-deoxy-L- ribose of formula (7), 5.0 mL of acetic acid. To the stirred solution, 125g of phenyl hydrazine was charged and stirred the reaction mixture for l-2h at 25-35° C. After completion of reaction, the reaction product was filtered and washed with isopropyl ether. The wet product was dried to get 190g (73.9% by theory) of 5-deoxy-L-ribose phenyl hydrazone of formula (8) as yellow colour crystalline powder. Purity: >99.0% by HPLC. Step (VI toX): Preparation of L-erythro-biopterin of formula (2)

a) Step (vi): Preparation of triacetoxy-5-deoxy-L-ribose phenylhydrazone of formula (9)

Into a 10L 4 necked round-bottomed flask equipped with a mechanical stirrer, a thermometer socket, and a guard tube, were charged 5L of ethyl acetate, 500g of 5- deoxy-L-ribose phenyl hydrazone of formula (8) and 54gm of 4-dimethylaminopyridine. The reaction mixture was cooled to 25-30° C and was added 730gm of acetic anhydride drop wise. The reaction mixture was maintained under stirring for 2-3h. After completion of reaction, the reaction mixture was washed with water, aq. sodium carbonate and water, and separated. The organic layer was used in the next stage without further isolation and purification.

b) Step (vii): Preparation of 1,2-diacetyl-biopterin of formula (10)

Into a 20L 4 necked round-bottomed flask equipped with a mechanical stirrer, a thermometer socket, addition funnel, and a condenser, were charged, the above organic layer containing triacetoxy-5-deoxy-phenyl hydrazone of formula (9) obtained in step (vi), 3.0 L methanol and 4-hydroxy-2,5,6-triaminopyrimidine base (generated from 600 gm of corresponding sulphate salt) and salt (generated from 350 gm of tetra butyl ammonium bromide and 154g of 70% perchloric acid) and 5.3L water under stirring and heated and maintained at 35-40°C for 6-8h. The reaction mixture was then cooled to 20- 25°C and added 1.0 Kg 35% aq. hydrogen peroxide drop wise. The reaction mixture was maintained for 36-40h under stirring at 25-30°C and resulting product was filtered under suction. The wet product was washed with water and utilized in the next step without further purification.

c) Step (viii): Preparation oi -erythro biopterin of formula (2)

Into a 10L 4-necked round-bottomed flask equipped with a mechanical stirrer, condenser, thermometer socket, and addition funnel, were charged 1.35 L of aq. potassium hydroxide and the above wet product obtained from step (vii). The reaction mixture was heated to 45-50° C and maintained form 2-3h and filtered. The pH of the filtrate was adjusted to neutral and the resulting product was filtered and dried to get 205 g of crude L-erythro-biopterin of formula (2) as dark brown solid. Purity: >90% by HPLC

d) Step (ix): Preparation of potassium salt oi -erythro biopterin of formula (11a) Into a 10L 4 necked round-bottomed flask equipped with a mechanical stirrer, thermometer socket, and a glass stopper, were charged 650 mL water followed by HOg of potassium hydroxide and dissolved under stirring. The potassium hydroxide solution was cooled to 25-30° C and the above crude L-erythro-biopterin of formula (2) was charged under stirring. The resulting solution was then clarified using activated carbon and filtered. The potassium salt was regenerated from the solution by the addition of 8.5L of isopropyl alcohol. The resulting salt was filtered and washed with isopropyl alcohol. The wet product of formula (11a) was utilized in the next step without further purification.

e) Step (x): Preparation of pure L-er thro biopterin of formula (2) from potassium salt of L-erythro biopterin of formula (2)

Into a 5L 4 necked round-bottomed flask equipped with mechanical stirrer, thermometer socket, and addition funnel, were charged 3.2 L of water and the above wet potassium salt of formula (11a). The reaction mixture was stirred to dissolve completely. The resulting solution was clarified using activated carbon and filtered. The pH of the filtrate was adjusted to 6.0-7.0 to get pure L-erythro-biopterin of formula (2). The product was filtered and washed with water followed by isopropyl alcohol followed by isopropyl ether to get 130g of highly pure L-erythro biopterin of formula (2) with > 98% HPLC purity Appearance: pale brown coloured solid.

1H NMR (3N DC1) 5(ppm): 1.569-1.585(d, 3H), 4.596-4.657(p, 1H), 5.325-5.337(d, 1H), 9.355(s, 1H); Mass: 238.29(M+1), 239.22(M+2).

Step (xi): Preparation of Sapropterin dihydrochloride of formula (1)

Into a 5L 4 necked round-bottomed flask equipped with mechanical stirrer, and thermometer socket, were charged 1.8L of water, 250g of L-erythro-biopterin of formula (2) followed by 800mL of 20% aq. potassium carbonate solution under stirring. The solution was then added 90g of platinum oxide catalyst. The reaction mixture was then transferred into an autoclave and pressurized with 40 bar hydrogen gas and hydrogenated at room temperature for 24-30h under stirring. After completion of reaction, the catalyst was filtered off and the pH of the filtrate was acidified with concentrated hydrochloric acid. The water was evaporated under vacuum and the resulting crude Sapropterin dihydrochloride of formula (1) was isolated as pale yellow colour solid by addition of isopropanol/l-pentanol mixture. The product was dried in a vacuum oven to get 250g of crude Sapropterin dihydrochloride of formula (1). Step (xii): Purification of Sapropterin dihydrochloride of formula (1)

Into a 2L 4 necked round-bottomed flask equipped with a mechanical stirrer, thermometer socket, and reflux condenser, were charged 1L water and 250g of Sapropterin dihydrochloride of formula (1). The contents were stirred to dissolve completely. The clear solution was treated with activated charcoal and filtered. The filtrate was distilled off completely under vacuum to afford pale yellow solid. The product was isolated from isopropanol/l-pentanol mixture to get 225.0 g (90%) pure Sapropterin dihydrochloride of formula (1) as pale yellow to off-white solid. HPLC purity is >99.9%.

Example 2: Preparation of triacetoxy-5-deoxy-L-ribose phenylhydrazone of formula

(9)

Into a 10L 4 necked round-bottomed flask equipped with a mechanical stirrer, a thermometer socket, and a guard tube, were charged 50mL of ethyl acetate, 5.0g of 5- deoxy-L-ribose phenyl hydrazone of formula (8) and 0.54g of N, N-dimethylamino pyridine. The reaction mixture was cooled to 15-20°C and was added 7.2gm of acetic anhydride drop wise. The reaction mixture was maintained under stirring for 6-8h. After completion of reaction, the reaction mixture was washed with water, aq. sodium carbonate and water, and separated. The organic layer was distilled under reduced pressure and product was isolated from n-hexane to get 6.2g of triacetoxy-5 -deoxy-L- ribose phenylhydrazone of formula (9) 79.4% yield.

Appearance: Orange coloured solid.

Melting point: 70-75 °C.

1HNMR (CDC13): 1.275-1.29 l(d, 3H), 2.039(s, 3H), 2.085-2.095(d, 6H), 5.083-5.144(m, 1H), 5.390-5.416(t, 1H), 5.589-5.619(t, 1H), 6.849-6.886(t, 1H), 6.922-6.937(t, 1H), 6.966-6.987(d, 2H), 7.221-7.242(d, 2H), 7.563(s, 1H(D20 exchangeable).

13CNMR (CDC13): 15.325, 20.816-21.053, 68.482, 71.717, 73.043, 112.759, 120.510, 129.212, 132.105, 144.049, 169.496, 169.948. Example 3: Preparation of potassium salt of L-erythro biopterin of formula (11)

Into a 1.0L 4 necked round-bottomed flask equipped with a mechanical stirrer, thermometer socket, and a glass stopper, were charged 75 mL water followed by 3.7g of potassium hydroxide and dissolved under stirring. The potassium hydroxide solution was cooled to 25-30° C and 15.0g of crude L-erythro-biopterin of formula (2) was charged under stirring. The resulting solution was then clarified using activated carbon and filtered. The potassium salt was regenerated from the solution by the addition of 500mL of ethanol. The resulting salt was filtered and washed with ethanol and dried to get 9.1g of potassium salt of L-erythro biopterin of formula (11) with 52.3% yield. HPLC <98% Appearance: Brown coloured solid.

1H NMR (D20): 1.187-1.203(d, 3H), 4.158-4.220(p, 1H), 4.731-4.745(d, 1H), 8.623(s, 1H).

13C NMR (D20): 18.198, 70.645, 76.703, 128.811, 147.875, 149.410, 156.504, 164.774, 173.731.

Mass: 276.23(M+1), 277.21(M+2), 238.29(M-K+1); DSC (° C): 313.12°

Example 4: Preparation of Sapropterin dihydrochloride of formula (1)

Into a 5L 4 necked round-bottomed flask equipped with mechanical stirrer, and thermometer socket, were charged 1.8L of water, 250g of L-erythro-biopterin of formula (2) followed by 800ml of 20% aq. potassium hydroxide solution under stirring. The solution was then added 90gm of platinum oxide catalyst. The reaction mixture was then transferred into an autoclave and pressurized with 50 bar hydrogen gas and hydrogenated at room temperature for 24-30h under stirring. After completion of reaction, the catalyst was recovered by filtration and the filtrate was acidified with concentrated hydrochloric acid. The water was evaporated under vacuum and the resulting crude Sapropterin dihydrochloride of formula (1) was isolated as pale yellow colour solid by addition of ethanol- 1 -pentanol mixture. The product was dried in a vacuum oven to get 250g of crude Sapropterin dihydrochloride of formula (1). Example 5: Purification of Sapropterin dihydrochloride of formula (1)

Into a 2L 4 necked round-bottomed flask equipped with a mechanical stirrer, thermometer socket, and reflux condenser, were charged 1L water and 250g of Sapropterin dihydrochloride of formula (1). The contents were stirred to dissolve completely and the clear solution was treated with activated charcoal and filtered. The filtrate was distilled off completely under vacuum to afford pale yellow solid. The product 225.0 g (90%) was isolated ethanol- 1 -pentanol mixture as pure Sapropterin dihydrochloride of formula (1) as pale yellow to off-white solid. HPLC purity is >99.9%.

syn

str1 str2

str1 str2 str3

PATENT

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2016101211A1/en

was developed by Merck and was launched in the United States and the European Union in 2007 and 2008 under the trade name Kuvan. This product can be used to treat hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA) caused by tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) deficiency. The structure is as follows:

Figure PCTCN2014094961-appb-000001

The chemical name is: (6R)-2-amino-6-[(1R,2S)-1,2-dihydroxypropyl]-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-4(1H)-fluorenone Dihydrochloride.

The oxaprozin hydrochloride can be obtained by hydrogenation of L-erythrobiopterin. The literature Liebigs Ann. Chem. 1989, 1267-1269 reports the preparation of L-erythrobiopterin starting from L-ribose. The preparation route is as follows:

Figure PCTCN2014094961-appb-000002

Although the method is simple and easy to perform, it is a better preparation route, but the disadvantage is that the starting material L-ribose price is higher, thus causing the cost of sapropium hydrochloride to be high.

The literature for the preparation of L-erythrobiopteris is reported by the documents Helv. Chim. Acta, 1985, 1639-1643, US2011218339A, etc. The product of the acetylation reaction of the steroid compound 6 with 2,4,5-triaminopyrimidinone Cyclization in a methanol/water/pyridine system followed by aromatization with an iodine reagent to give an acetylated L- Red-type biopterin, followed by hydrolysis and deacetylation to obtain L-erythrobiopterin. The reaction equation is as follows:

Figure PCTCN2014094961-appb-000003

Among them, compound 6 is used as a key intermediate, and many methods for its preparation are reported. The method reported in J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1974, 6781-6782, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1976, 2301-2307, etc., uses L-rhamnose as a raw material, and reacts with ethanethiol to form a corresponding shrinkage. Sulfuraldehyde, oxidizing thiol to sulfone with an oxidizing agent, removing a carbon under alkaline conditions to obtain 5-deoxy-L-arabinose, and reacting 5-deoxy-L-arabinose with phenylhydrazine to obtain a key intermediate formula 6 . The synthetic route is as follows:

Figure PCTCN2014094961-appb-000004

Although this method has been improved and improved many times, the ethanethiol used has a special malodor and requires the use of a deodorizing device, and its lower boiling point also causes inconvenience to the production.

Document J. Org. Chem. 1996, 8699-8700 reports that L-tartaric acid is used as a starting material, which is protected by hydroxyl group, carboxyl group, reduction, addition, deprotection to obtain 5-deoxy-L-ribose, 5-deoxy- The condensation of L-arabinose with phenylhydrazine gives key intermediates. The synthetic route is as follows:

Figure PCTCN2014094961-appb-000005

The reducing agent used in the route of the acid chloride to reduce the aldehyde is bis(triphenylphosphine) copper borohydride (I), which has a high price and is not favorable for the control of industrialization cost. The reaction temperature of the format reagent with carbonyl addition and lactone reduction is -78 ° C, and the energy consumption in industrial production is high. In addition, the post-treatment of the multi-step reaction uses silica gel column color The spectrum is purified and it is difficult to achieve industrialization. Therefore, this route has great disadvantages in terms of cost and operability in industrial production.

Document CN201010151443.2 reports the use of L-arabinose as a starting material to obtain L-erythrobioptery through a multi-step reaction. The preparation route is as follows:

Figure PCTCN2014094961-appb-000006

In reproducing the preparation method, we have found that the intermediate 2 is directly subjected to reduction and desulfonation reaction to prepare the intermediate 2, which has the disadvantages of low yield, low product purity, and difficulty in purification of the product. Therefore, it is necessary to find a simple, feasible and low-cost preparation route.

 scheme synthetic route includes the following steps:

Figure PCTCN2014094961-appb-000012

Example 1: Preparation of Product 1

To the reaction flask was added 10 L of anhydrous methanol, and 1.5 kg of the starting material L-arabinose was added under mechanical stirring. 250 g of concentrated sulfuric acid was added dropwise under a water bath, and the reaction was stirred for 20-24 hours. The reaction was monitored by TLC, and 350 g of sodium carbonate was added to the reaction system. Stir until pH = 7-8 and filter. The filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure at 35 ° C to 40 ° C to dryness to yield 1.64 kg of oil, yield -100%.

Example 2: Preparation of product 2

The product 1, 4 L of pyridine and 5 L of acetonitrile were added to the reaction flask and dissolved by mechanical stirring. The mixture was cooled by stirring, and a solution of 1.8 kg of p-toluenesulfonyl 5 L acetonitrile was added dropwise at a temperature of 0 to 5 ° C. After completion of the dropwise addition, the reaction was stirred at room temperature 20-25 ° C for 4 hours. The TLC monitors the reaction.

After concentration, 12 L of ethyl acetate and 5 L of water were added to the concentrated residue, and the layers were stirred. The organic layer was washed with 1 mol/L hydrochloric acid, saturated sodium hydrogen carbonate and saturated brine and dried. Filtration and concentration of the filtrate gave 1.7 kg of pale yellow oil, yield 56.3%.

Example 3: Preparation of product 3

1.2 kg of product 2 was added to a 10 L reaction flask, dissolved with 6 L of methyl ethyl ketone, and 840 g of sodium iodide was added with stirring. After the addition, the temperature was refluxed for 12 hours, and the reaction was completed by TLC. The mixture was cooled to room temperature, filtered, and the filtrate was evaporated. It was dissolved in ethyl acetate, washed with water, and the aqueous layer was evaporated. The combined organic layers were washed with EtOAc EtOAc m.

Example 4: Preparation of product 4

To a 20 L reaction flask was added 900 g of product 3, 332 g of triethylamine dissolved in 9 L of methanol, 45 g of 10% Pd/C, vacuumed, hydrogenated twice, and hydrogenated at a constant temperature of 25-30 ° C for 16 hours. The reaction was completed by TLC, filtered, and the filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure to give a residue. 4 L of ethyl acetate was added to the residue to precipitate a white solid. The mixture was stirred at 0 ° C for 30 min, and filtered. The filtrate was added to 2 L of a 0.4 mol/L sulfuric acid solution and the layers were separated. The aqueous layer was washed once with 50 mL of ethyl acetate to give an aqueous solution of product 4 (approximately 250 g).

Example 5: Preparation of product 5

The aqueous solution of product 4 was added to the reaction flask, and the reaction was heated at 75 ° C for 3 hours, and the reaction was completed by TLC (DCM: MeOH = 10:1). After cooling to room temperature, it was washed with 100 mL of ethyl acetate, and the aqueous layer was separated to give the product 5, i.e., about 213 g of aqueous solution of 5-deoxy-L-arabinose, which was directly reacted in the next step.

Example 6: Preparation of product 6

To the reaction flask, 2.5 L of ethyl acetate and 170 g of phenylhydrazine were added under nitrogen, and an aqueous solution of the product 5 was added dropwise with stirring at a temperature of 5 to 10 ° C (protected from light). The reaction was kept for 1 hour, and then the temperature was raised to 20-25 ° C for 30 min. The reaction was completed by TLC and the layers were separated. The aqueous layer was extracted with ethyl acetate and organic layers were combined. The organic layer was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and filtered.

The ethyl acetate solution of product 6 was added to the reaction flask under nitrogen, and 8 L of petroleum ether was slowly added with stirring. After the addition was completed, the mixture was cooled to -5 – 10 ° C and stirred for 1 hour, and filtered to give a beige solid. Drying under reduced pressure at 30-35 ° C gave a dry product of about 250 g, yield 71.4%.

Example 7: Preparation of product 7

To the reaction flask was added 2.5 L of ethyl acetate and 250 g of product 6. 30 g of DMAP was added with stirring. 400 ml of acetic anhydride was added dropwise at a temperature of 15 ° C, and the reaction was stirred at a temperature of 20-25 ° C for 3 hours. The reaction was monitored by TLC, and a hydrochloric acid solution was added at a temperature of 15 ° C to separate the layers. The organic layer was washed with saturated hydrochloric acid and saturated sodium hydrogen sulfate. The organic phase was separated, dried and filtered to give 371 g, m.

Example 8: Preparation of product 9

To the reaction flask was added 220 g of product 8, 2.2 L of purified water. Under stirring, 500 g of a product 7 in 5 L of methanol and 150 g of anhydrous lithium perchlorate dissolved in 1.5 L of water were added. After the addition was completed, the reaction was stirred at a temperature of 30 to 32 ° C for 20 hours. The reaction is completed and filtered. The filtrate was temperature-controlled at 15 ° C to 20 ° C, and 1 L of 30% hydrogen peroxide was added dropwise. After the addition, the reaction was kept at 20 ° C for 6 hours, and the solid was precipitated, filtered, and dried by blasting at 35-40 ° C to obtain 215 g of a brownish yellow product 9 in a yield of 47%.

Example 9: Preparation of product 10

To the reaction flask, 80 g of product 9, 400 ml of purified water, 300 ml of n-butanol, and 80 ml of diethylamine were added, and the mixture was stirred and heated to 45-50 ° C for 16 hours. After the TLC reaction is completed, the layers are separated, and the aqueous layer is separated to obtain an aqueous solution of the product 10, which is directly reacted in the next step.

Example 10: Preparation of Product I

An aqueous solution of product 10 was added to the autoclave, and 50 ml of triethylamine and 2 g of platinum dioxide were added thereto with stirring. The pressure was evacuated, the hydrogen was replaced three times, the pressure was controlled to 1.5 MPa, and the reaction was stirred at 35 ° C for 20 hours. After filtration, the filtrate was added to 30 ml of n-butanol for 5 min, and the mixture was allowed to stand to give an aqueous solution of product I. 200 ml of concentrated hydrochloric acid was added dropwise at a temperature of 10 ° C, and the aqueous solution was concentrated under reduced pressure to dryness. 500 ml of 95% ethanol was added to the crude product, and the mixture was heated to 55-60 ° C for 1 hour, then cooled to 35 ° C for 2 hours, filtered, and the filter cake was dried to give the product I35 g.

Example 11: Preparation of product 9′

To the reaction flask was added 1.25 L of ethyl acetate and 125 g of product 9. 15 g of DMAP was added with stirring. 200 ml of acetic anhydride was added dropwise at a temperature of 15 ° C, and the reaction was stirred at a temperature of 20-25 ° C for 3 hours. The reaction was monitored by TLC, and a hydrochloric acid solution was added at a temperature of 15 ° C to separate the layers. The organic layer was washed with saturated hydrochloric acid and saturated sodium hydrogen sulfate. The organic phase was separated, dried and concentrated to give 12,5 g of oil.

Example 12: Preparation of product 10

The product 9′ prepared in Example 11 was added to the reaction flask, 600 ml of purified water, 450 ml of n-butanol, and 120 ml of diethylamine were added, and the mixture was stirred and heated to 45-50 ° C for 16 hours. After the TLC reaction is completed, the layers are separated, and the aqueous layer is separated to obtain an aqueous solution of the product 10, which is directly reacted in the next step.

Example 13: Preparation of Product I

An aqueous solution of the product 10 prepared in Example 12 was added to the hydrogenation vessel, and 80 ml of triethylamine, 3 g of platinum dioxide was added thereto with stirring, and vacuum was applied thereto, and the pressure was controlled to 1.5 MPa, and the reaction was stirred at 35 ° C for 20 hours. After filtration, the filtrate was added to 45 ml of n-butanol for 5 min, and the mixture was allowed to stand to give an aqueous solution of product I. After cooling at 10 ° C, 300 ml of concentrated hydrochloric acid was added dropwise, and the aqueous solution was concentrated under reduced pressure to dryness. 750 ml of 95% ethanol was added to the crude product, and the mixture was heated to 55-60 ° C for 1 hour, then cooled to 35 ° C for 2 hours, filtered, and the filter cake was dried to give the product I 48.9 g.

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https://patents.google.com/patent/US9365573B2/en

Sapropterin dihydrochloride, chemical name (6R)-2-amino-6-[(1R,2S)-1,2-dihydroxypropyl]-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-4(1H)-pteridinone dihydrochloride, molecular formula C9H15N5O3.2HCl, and CAS registry number 69056-38-28, is a synthetic product of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) dihydrochloride. BHis a cofactor of Phenylalanine Hydroxylase (PAH). Tyrosine is acquired from Phenylalanine (Phe) through hydroxylation under the action of PAH which is low in activity or even inactive in PKU patients, while BHis able to activate PAH, promote normal oxidative metabolism of Phe in the bodies of the patients, and reduce the Phe levels in the bodies of some patients. On Dec. 16, 2007, the sapropterin dihydrochloride tablets produced by BioMarin Pharmaceutical Inc. in USA were approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for marketing for treatment of PKU. Because of the effective activity of sapropterin dihydrochloride, it is extremely necessary to select a route applicable to industrial production with high product purity.

At present, BHis mainly synthesized by the following methods reported in literatures:

1. Preparation using 4-hydroxy-2,5,6-triaminopyrimidine (TAP) and 5-deoxy-L-arabinose as raw materials, please see literature E. L. Patterson et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 78, 5868(1956).

2. Preparation using TAP and 5-deoxy-L-arabinose phenylhydrazone as raw materials, please see literature Matsuura et al., Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn., 48,3767 (1975);

3. Preparation by reaction of raw materials hydroxyl-protected TAP and 4-acetyl-2,3-epoxypentanal through oxidation of iodine and a dehydroxylation protecting group, please see literature Matsuura et al., Chemistry of Organic Synthesis, MI/g. 46. No. 6, P570(1988).

These traditional methods for preparing BH4 have the following major disadvantages: raw materials are expensive, arabinose which can be hardly acquired is used as a carbon atom radical for asymmetric synthesis; there are multiple steps in reactions with low yield, and low product purity, 5-deoxy-L-arabinose is easily degraded in a reaction solution, and products of the synthesis routes above have low stereoselectivity. To sum up, the traditional synthesis methods are not applicable to mass industrial production. Therefore, a synthesis route, which is applicable to industrial production with high product purity, high yield and high stereoselectivity, needs to be searched urgently.

tep 10: add 0.7 kg (0.05 g/g) of palladium 5% on carbon in the presence of the methanol solution containing 1.5 kg of acetylamino-7,8-dihydropteridine

Figure US09365573-20160614-C00106


obtained in Step 9, introduce hydrogen until the pressure of the reaction kettle is 0.8±0.05 MPa, control the temperature of the system at 25±5° C. and the pressure at 0.8±0.05 MPa, react for 82 hours, after reacting thoroughly, perform quenching in 31.9 kg (9 eq) of dilute hydrochloric acid having a concentration of 15%, and perform suction filtration and drying to the system to obtain a target product, i.e. a crude product of sapropterin dihydrochloride

Figure US09365573-20160614-C00107


recrystallize and purify the crude product by 29 L (20 ml/g) of methanol at 35±5° C. to obtain 0.8 kg of a pure product, with a yield of 45%, a purity of 98.3% and an enantiomeric excess of 99.1%.

Embodiment 5: main raw material:

Figure US09365573-20160614-C00108


and X═O

Step 1: add 836 kg (0.3 eq) of a tetrahydrofuran solution contaning a samarium catalyst having a concentration of 4%, 29.2 kg (0.3 eq) of (R)-(+)-1,1′-bi-2-naphthol, 28.4 kg (0.3 eq) of triphenylphosphine oxide, and 600 kg (10 kg/kg) of a 4 A molecular sieve to a 3000 L reaction kettle, after stirring uniformly, control the system temperature at 20±5° C., add 117.4 kg (2 eq) of meta-chloroperoxybenzoic acid, add 60 kg (1 eq) of benzyl crotonate

Figure US09365573-20160614-C00109


to the system after adding meta-chloroperoxybenzoic acid, react for 32 hours while preserving the temperature, add 19.6 kg (0.3 eq) of citric acid to the system to stop the reaction, and perform centrifugation, concentration and rectification to the system to obtain 40.5 kg of (2S,3R)-2,3-epoxy-benzyl butyrate

Figure US09365573-20160614-C00110


with a yield of 62%;

Step 2: add 36.8 kg (3 eq) of acetone, and 5.4 kg (0.6 eq) of lithium chloride to a 500 L enamel vessel, control the temperature at 15±5° C., add 40.5 kg (1 eq) of (2S,3R)-2,3-epoxy-benzyl butyrate

Figure US09365573-20160614-C00111


react for 7 hours while preserving the temperature, add 422 kg (2 eq) of a potassium bicarbonate aqueous solution having a concentration of 10%, and perform liquid separation, extraction and concentration to the system to obtain 44 kg of (4S,5S)-2,2,5-trimethyl-acetonide-benzyl butyrate

Figure US09365573-20160614-C00112


with a yield of 82%;

Step 3: add 352 L (8 ml/g) of ethanol, and 44 kg (1 eq) of (4S,5S)-2,2,5-trimethyl-2,3-acetonide-benzyl butyrate

Figure US09365573-20160614-C00113


to a 1000 L reaction kettle, increase the temperature to 37±5° C., add 4.8 kg (1.5 eq) of pure water and 53.2 kg (1.5 eq) of a sodium hydroxide aqueous solution having a concentration of 20%, react for 6 hours while preserving the temperature, perform centrifugation, dissolve a filter cake in 352 L (8 ml/g) of ethanol, add 71.0 kg (3 eq) of L-α-amphetamine, preserve the temperature at 22±5° C. for 4 hours, and perform centrifugation and drying to obtain 32.4 kg of (4S,5S)-2,2,5-trimethyl-2,3-acetonide-phenylacetylamino butyrate

Figure US09365573-20160614-C00114


with a yield of 62%;

Step 4: add 48 L (6 ml/g) of 1,4-dioxane, 8 kg (1 eq) of (4S,5S)-2,2,5-trimethyl-2,3-acetonide-phenylacetylamino butyrate

Figure US09365573-20160614-C00115


to a 72 L reaction bottle, then add a dilute sulphuric acid aqueous solution having a concentration of 10% to the system to regulate the pH at 2.5±0.5, control the temperature at −5±5° C., react for 1 hour, perform liquid separation to obtain an organic phase, add 7.0 kg of (2.0 eq) N,N-diisopropylethylamine to the organic phase, and concentrate the system to obtain 4.1 kg of (4S,5S)-2,2,5-trimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-methanoic acid

Figure US09365573-20160614-C00116


with a yield of 93.5%;

Step 5: add 49 L (12 ml/g) of 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, 4.1 kg of 1,3-dioxolan-4-methanoic acid

Figure US09365573-20160614-C00117


and 13.1 kg (4 eq) of N,N-diisopropylethylamine to a 100 L reaction bottle, reduce the temperature to −22±5° C., add 5.5 kg (2.0 eq) of ethyl chloroformate, react for 1.8 hours while preserving the temperature, introduce a diazomethane gas for 1.8 hours, add 18.5 kg (4.5 eq) of a hydrochloride ethanol solution having a concentration of 20%, react for 1.8 hours, add potassium bicarbonate to regulate the pH value to 8.5±0.5, and perform extraction, liquid separation and concentration to obtain 4.1 kg of (4S,5S)-2,2,5-trimethyl-5-chloroacetyl-1,3-dioxolane

Figure US09365573-20160614-C00118


with a yield of 83.7%;

Step 6: add 49 L (12 ml/g) of acetone, 4.1 kg of (4S,5S)-2,2,5-trimethyl-5-chloroacetyl-1,3-dioxolane

Figure US09365573-20160614-C00119


3.4 kg (2.5 eq) of sodium azide, and 1.8 kg (0.5 eq) of potassium iodide to a 72 L bottle, react the system for 26 hours while preserving the temperature at 34±5° C., perform filtering and concentration to obtain an acetone solution containing 3.9 kg of (4S,5S)-2,2,5-trimethyl-5-(2-azidoacetyl)-1,3-dioxolane

Figure US09365573-20160614-C00120


with a yield of 91.5%;

Step 7: add 46.4 L (12 ml/g) of methyl tert-butyl ether and 1.2 kg (0.3 g/g) of Raney nickel to a 100 L reaction kettle, introduce hydrogen until the system pressure is 0.8±0.1 MPa, regulate the pH of the system to 3±0.5 with concentrated sulfuric acid, add an acetonitrile solution containing 3.9 kg (1 eq) of (4S,5S)-2,2,5-trimethyl-5-(2-azidoacetyl)-1,3-dioxolane

Figure US09365573-20160614-C00121


react at 27±5° C. for 8.5 hours, perform suction filtration and concentration to obtain 2.3 kg of (3S,4S)-1-amino-3,4-dihydroxy-2-pentanone

Figure US09365573-20160614-C00122


with a yield of 89%;

Step 8: add 23 L (10 ml/g) of propanol, 6.9 L (3 ml/g) of pure water, 0.9 kg of (0.3 eq) of potassium iodide, 4.8 kg (1.2 eq) of compound A (2-amino-6-chloro-5-nitro-3H-pyrimidin-4-one), 2.3 kg (1 eq) of (3S,4S)-1-amino-3,4-dihydroxy-2-pentanone

Figure US09365573-20160614-C00123


and 10.5 kg (6 eq) of diisopropylamine to a 50 L reaction bottle, react the system for 7 hours while preserving the temperature at 72±5° C., then add a potassium dihydrogen phosphate-dipotassium phosphate aqueous solution to regulate the pH of the system to 7.5±0.5; and filter the system to obtain 2.5 kg of 2-acetylamino-5-nitro-6-((3S,4S)-3,3-dihydroxy-2-oxo-pentylamino)-pyrimidin-4-one

Figure US09365573-20160614-C00124


with a yield of 44%;

Step 9: add 1.25 kg (1 eq) of 2-acetylamino-5-nitro-6((3S,4S)-3,3-dihydroxy-2-oxo-pentylamino)-pyrimidin-4-one

Figure US09365573-20160614-C00125


50 L (40 ml/g) of ethanol and 0.5 kg (0.4 g/g) of 10% palladium on carbon to a 100 L autoclave, introduce hydrogen until the reaction system pressure is 0.8±0.05 MPa, control the temperature of the system at 27±5° C. and the pressure at 0.8±0.05 MPa, react for 24 hours, filter the system, and regulate the pH to 11±0.5 to obtain an ethanol solution containing 1.1 kg of acetylamino-7,8-dihydropteridine

Figure US09365573-20160614-C00126


which is used directly in the next step;

Step 10: add 0.44 kg (0.4 g/g) of palladium 10% on carbon in the presence of the ethanol solution containing 1.1 kg of acetylamino-7,8-dihydropteridine

Figure US09365573-20160614-C00127


obtained in Step 9, introduce hydrogen until the pressure of the reaction kettle is 0.8±0.05 MPa, control the temperature of the system at 25±5° C. and the pressure at 0.8±0.05 MPa, react for 80 hours, after reacting thoroughly, perform quenching in 20 kg (8 eq) of dilute hydrochloric acid having a concentration of 15%, and perform suction filtration and drying to the system to obtain a target product, i.e. a crude product of sapropterin dihydrochloride

Figure US09365573-20160614-C00128


recrystallize and purify the crude product by 21.4 L (20 ml/g) of ethanol at 35±5° C. to obtain 0.4 kg of a pure product, with a yield of 46.2%, a purity of 98.5% and an enantiomeric excess of 99.2%.

Embodiment 6: main raw material:

Figure US09365573-20160614-C00129


and X═N

Step 1: add 522 kg (0.05 eq) of a tetrahydrofuran solution containing a samarium catalyst having a concentration of 2%, 9.1 kg (0.05 eq) of (R)-(+)-1,1′-bi-2-naphthol, 8.9 kg (0.05 eq) of triphenylphosphine oxide, and 567 kg (7 kg/kg) of a 4 A molecular sieve to a 3000 L reaction kettle, after stirring uniformly, control the system temperature at 8±5° C., add 57.4 kg (0.eq) of a tert-butyl hydroperoxide toluene solution having a concentration of 50%, add 81.1 kg (1 eq) of (E)-N-isopropylbut-2-enamide

Figure US09365573-20160614-C00130


to the system after adding the tert-butyl hydroperoxide toluene solution, react for 34 hours while preserving the temperature, add 6.1 kg (0.05 eq) of citric acid to the system to stop the reaction, and perform centrifugation, concentration and rectification to the system to obtain 56.1 kg of (2S,3R)-2,3-epoxy-diisopropylamido butyrate

Figure US09365573-20160614-C00131


with a yield of 61.5%;

Step 2: add 11.4 kg (0.5 eq) of acetone, and 8.8 kg (0.1 eq) of zinc bromide to a 500 L enamel vessel, control the temperature at 20±5° C., add 56.1 kg (1 eq) of (2S,3R)-2,3-epoxy-diisopropylamido butyrate

Figure US09365573-20160614-C00132


react for 8.5 hours while preserving the temperature, add 329 kg (2 eq) of a sodium bicarbonate aqueous solution having a concentration of 10%, and perform liquid separation, extraction and concentration to the system to obtain 64.7 kg of (4S,5S)-2,2,5-trimethyl-2,3-acetonide-diisopropylamido butyrate

Figure US09365573-20160614-C00133


with a yield of 82%;

Step 3: add 259 L (4 ml/g) of tetrahydrofuran, and 64.7 kg (1 eq) of (4S,5S)-2,2,5-trimethyl-2,3-acetonide-diisopropylamido butyrate

Figure US09365573-20160614-C00134


to a 1000 L reaction kettle, increase the temperature to 27±5° C., add 2.9 kg (0.5 eq) of pure water and 29.9 kg (0.5 eq) of a methanol solution of sodium methoxide having a concentration of 29.9%, react for 4 hours while preserving the temperature, perform centrifugation, dissolve a filter cake in 194 L (3 ml/g) of tetrahydrofuran, add 39 kg (1 eq) of L-α-phenylethylamine, preserve the temperature at 18±5° C. for 3.5 hours, and perform centrifugation and drying to obtain 54.3 kg of 1-phenyltehanamine (4S,5S)-2,2,5-trimethyl-1,3-dioxolane-4-carboxylate

Figure US09365573-20160614-C00135


with a yield of 60%;

Step 4: add 30 L (3 ml/g) of 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, 10 kg (1 eq) of 1-phenyltehanamine (4S,5S)-2,2,5-trimethyl-1,3-dioxolane-4-carboxylate

Figure US09365573-20160614-C00136


to a 72 L reaction bottle, then add a dilute phosphoric acid aqueous solution having a concentration of 10% to the system to regulate the pH at 1.5±0.5, control the temperature at −5±5° C., react for 1 hour, perform liquid separation to obtain an organic phase, add 3.7 kg of (0.8 eq) N,N-diisopropylethylamine to the organic phase, and concentrate the system to obtain 5.3 kg of (4S,5S)-2,2,5-trimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-methanoic acid

Figure US09365573-20160614-C00137


with a yield of 92.5%;

Step 5: add 42 L (8 ml/g) of 1,4-dioxane, 5.3 kg of 1,3-dioxolan-4-methanoic acid

Figure US09365573-20160614-C00138


and 8.5 kg (2 eq) of N,N-diisopropylethylamine to a 100 L reaction bottle, reduce the temperature to −10±5° C., add 4 kg (21.0 eq) of propyl chloroformate, react for 2 hours while preserving the temperature, introduce a diazomethane gas for 2 hours, add 12 kg (2 eq) of a hydrochloride ethanol solution having a concentration of 20%, react for 2 hours, add sodium hydroxide to regulate the pH value to 7.5±0.5, and perform extraction, liquid separation and concentration to obtain 5.1 kg of (4S,5S)-2,2,5-trimethyl-5-chloroacetyl-1,3-dioxolane

Figure US09365573-20160614-C00139


with a yield of 81%; Step 6: add 41 L (8 ml/g) of tetrahydrofuran, 5.1 kg of (4S,5S)-2,2,5-trimethyl-5-chloroacetyl-1,3-dioxolane

Figure US09365573-20160614-C00140


3.1 kg (1 eq) of azidotrimethylsilane, and 0.5 kg (0.1 eq) of sodium iodide to a 72 L bottle, react the system for 30 hours while preserving the temperature at 12±5° C., perform filtering and concentration to obtain an acetone solution containing 4.6 kg of (4S,5S)-2,2,5-trimethyl-5-(2-azidoacetyl)-1,3-dioxolane

Figure US09365573-20160614-C00141


with a yield of 87.5%;

Step 7: add 28 L (6 ml/g) of 1,4-dioxane and 0.23 kg (0.05 g/g) of palladium 10% on carbon to a 50 L reaction kettle, introduce hydrogen until the system pressure is 0.8±0.1 MPa, regulate the pH of the system to 3±0.5 with acetic acid, add an acetonitrile solution containing 4.6 kg (1 eq) of (4S,5S)-2,2,5-trimethyl-5-(2-azidoacetyl)-1,3-dioxolane

Figure US09365573-20160614-C00142


react at 27±5° C. for 8.5 hours, react for 8.5 hours, perform suction filtration and concentration to obtain 2.7 kg of (3S,4S)-1-amino-3,4-dihydroxy-2-pentanone

Figure US09365573-20160614-C00143


with a yield of 87.7%;

Step 8: add 16.3 L (6 ml/g) of isopropanol, 2.7 L (1 g/g) of pure water, 0.4 kg of (0.1 eq) of sodium iodide, 4.8 kg (1.0 eq) of compound A (2-amino-6-chloro-5-nitro-3H-pyrimidin-4-one), 2.7 kg (1 eq) of (3S,4S)-1-amino-3,4-dihydroxy-2-pentanone

Figure US09365573-20160614-C00144


and 8.7 kg (4 eq) of sodium carbonate to a 50 L reaction bottle, react the system for 7 hours while preserving the temperature at 45±5° C., then add an ammonium formate-ammonia aqueous solution to regulate the pH of the system to 6.5±0.5; and filter the system to obtain 2.85 kg of 2-acetylamino-5-nitro-6((3S,4S)-3,3-dihydroxy-2-oxo-pentylamino)-pyrimidin-4-one

Figure US09365573-20160614-C00145


with a yield of 42.5%;

Step 9: add 2 kg (1 eq) of 2-acetylamino-5-nitro-6-((3S,4S)-3,3-dihydroxy-2-oxo-pentylamino)-pyrimidin-4-one

Figure US09365573-20160614-C00146


60 L (30 ml/g) of ethanol and 0.2 kg (0.1 g/g) of platinum dioxide to a 100 L autoclave, introduce hydrogen until the reaction system pressure is 0.6±0.05 MPa, control the temperature of the system at 20±5° C. and the pressure at 0.6±0.05 MPa, react for 20 hours, filter the system, and regulate the pH to 11±0.5 to obtain an ethanol solution containing 1.7 kg of acetylamino-7,8-dihydropteridine

Figure US09365573-20160614-C00147


which is used directly in the next step;

Step 10: add 0.2 kg (0.1 g/g) of platinum dioxide in the presence of the ethanol solution containing 1.7 kg of acetylamino-7,8-dihydropteridine

Figure US09365573-20160614-C00148


obtained in Step 9, introduce hydrogen until the pressure of the reaction kettle is 0.6±0.05 MPa, control the temperature of the system at 15±5° C. and the pressure at 0.6±0.05 MPa, react for 75 hours, after reacting thoroughly, perform quenching in 30 kg (5 eq) of dilute hydrochloric acid having a concentration of 10%, and perform suction filtration and drying to the system to obtain a target product, i.e. a crude product of sapropterin dihydrochloride

Figure US09365573-20160614-C00149


recrystallize and purify the crude product by 17 L (10 ml/g) of butanone at 15±5° C. to obtain 0.6 kg of a pure product, with a yield of 43%, a purity of 98.4% and an enantiomeric excess of 98.9%.

Thus, it can be seen that synthesis of a sapropterin dihydrochloride compound and an intermediate thereof disclosed in a method of the present disclosure can obtain a target product with a high purity, a high enantiomeric excess, and a high yield. The synthesis method uses readily-available raw materials, significantly reduces a synthesis route of sapropterin dihydrochloride. The technological conditions are stable, and there is less pollution in the whole operation process, hence providing an effective scheme for mass industrial production of sapropterin dihydrochloride.

The above are only preferred embodiments of the present disclosure and should not be used to limit the present disclosure. For those skilled in the art, the present disclosure may have various modifications and changes. Any modifications, equivalent replacements, improvements and the like within the spirit and principle of the present disclosure shall fall within the scope of protection of the present disclosure.

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USA
Patent No. Patent Type Assignee Patent Expiry
(Pediatric exclusivity)
Estimated Expiry Status
US 4,713,454 Process Shiratori Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. (Narashino, JP) Suntory Limited (Osaka, JP) NA 23-JAN-06 Expired

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  25. ^ Gori T, Burstein JM, Ahmed S, Miner SE, Al-Hesayen A, Kelly S, Parker JD (September 2001). “Folic acid prevents nitroglycerin-induced nitric oxide synthase dysfunction and nitrate tolerance: a human in vivo study”Circulation104 (10): 1119–23. doi:10.1161/hc3501.095358PMID 11535566.
  26. ^ “Search results for Kuvan”ClinicalTrials.gov. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  27. ^ “BioMarin Initiates Phase 3b Study to Evaluate the Effects of Kuvan on Neurophychiatric Symptoms in Subjects with PKU”. BioMarin Pharmaceutical Inc. 17 August 2010.
  28. ^ Burton B, Grant M, Feigenbaum A, Singh R, Hendren R, Siriwardena K, et al. (March 2015). “A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study of sapropterin to treat ADHD symptoms and executive function impairment in children and adults with sapropterin-responsive phenylketonuria”Molecular Genetics and Metabolism114 (3): 415–24. doi:10.1016/j.ymgme.2014.11.011PMID 25533024.
  29. ^ Fernell E, Watanabe Y, Adolfsson I, Tani Y, Bergström M, Hartvig P, et al. (May 1997). “Possible effects of tetrahydrobiopterin treatment in six children with autism–clinical and positron emission tomography data: a pilot study”. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology39 (5): 313–8. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8749.1997.tb07437.xPMID 9236697S2CID 12761124.
  30. ^ Frye RE, Huffman LC, Elliott GR (July 2010). “Tetrahydrobiopterin as a novel therapeutic intervention for autism”Neurotherapeutics7 (3): 241–9. doi:10.1016/j.nurt.2010.05.004PMC 2908599PMID 20643376.
  31. ^ Channon KM (November 2004). “Tetrahydrobiopterin: regulator of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in vascular disease”. Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine14 (8): 323–7. doi:10.1016/j.tcm.2004.10.003PMID 15596110.
  32. ^ Alp NJ, Mussa S, Khoo J, Cai S, Guzik T, Jefferson A, et al. (September 2003). “Tetrahydrobiopterin-dependent preservation of nitric oxide-mediated endothelial function in diabetes by targeted transgenic GTP-cyclohydrolase I overexpression”The Journal of Clinical Investigation112 (5): 725–35. doi:10.1172/JCI17786PMC 182196PMID 12952921.
  33. ^ Khoo JP, Zhao L, Alp NJ, Bendall JK, Nicoli T, Rockett K, et al. (April 2005). “Pivotal role for endothelial tetrahydrobiopterin in pulmonary hypertension”Circulation111 (16): 2126–33. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000162470.26840.89PMID 15824200.
  34. ^ Cunnington C, Van Assche T, Shirodaria C, Kylintireas I, Lindsay AC, Lee JM, et al. (March 2012). “Systemic and vascular oxidation limits the efficacy of oral tetrahydrobiopterin treatment in patients with coronary artery disease”Circulation125 (11): 1356–66. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.111.038919PMC 5238935PMID 22315282.
  35. ^ Romanowicz J, Leonetti C, Dhari Z, Korotcova L, Ramachandra SD, Saric N, et al. (August 2019). “Treatment With Tetrahydrobiopterin Improves White Matter Maturation in a Mouse Model for Prenatal Hypoxia in Congenital Heart Disease”Journal of the American Heart Association8 (15): e012711. doi:10.1161/JAHA.119.012711PMC 6761654PMID 31331224.
  36. ^ Kraft VA, Bezjian CT, Pfeiffer S, Ringelstetter L, Müller C, Zandkarimi F, et al. (January 2020). “GTP Cyclohydrolase 1/Tetrahydrobiopterin Counteract Ferroptosis through Lipid Remodeling”ACS Central Science6 (1): 41–53. doi:10.1021/acscentsci.9b01063PMC 6978838PMID 31989025.

Further reading

External links

Tetrahydrobiopterin
INN: sapropterin
(6R)-Tetrahydrobiopterin structure.png
Clinical data
Trade names Kuvan, Biopten
Other names Sapropterin hydrochloride (JAN JP), Sapropterin dihydrochloride (USAN US)
AHFS/Drugs.com Monograph
MedlinePlus a608020
License data
Pregnancy
category
  • AU: B1[1]
  • US: C (Risk not ruled out)[1]
Routes of
administration
By mouth
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
  • AU: S4 (Prescription only)
  • CA℞-only
  • US: ℞-only
  • In general: ℞ (Prescription only)
Pharmacokinetic data
Elimination half-life 4 hours (healthy adults)
6–7 hours (PKU patients)
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
IUPHAR/BPS
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
ChEMBL
PDB ligand
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
ECHA InfoCard 100.164.121 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
Formula C9H15N5O3
Molar mass 241.251 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)

////////Sapropterin, сапроптерин سابروبتيرين , 沙丙蝶呤 , Tetrahydrobiopterin,

Sapropterin Tablets - FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses

Abametapir アバメタピル , абаметапир , أباميتابير , 阿巴甲吡 ,


Abametapir skeletal.svg

Abametapir

アバアバメタピル , абаметапир , أباميتابير 阿巴甲吡 ,

5,5′-dimethyl-2,2′-bipyridine, 6,6′-Bi-3-picoline

  • BRN 0123183
  • HA 44
  • HA-44
  • HA44
Formula
C12H12N2
CAS
1762-34-1
Mol weight
184.2371

Xeglyze, FD APPROVED 24/7/2020

Pediculicide, Metalloproteinase inhibitor
  Disease
Head lice infestation
  • Originator Hatchtech
  • DeveloperDr Reddys Laboratories; Hatchtech
  • ClassAntiparasitics; Heterocyclic compounds; Pyridines; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of ActionChelating agents; Metalloprotease inhibitors
  • Registered Pediculosis
  • 27 Jul 2020Registered for Pediculosis (In adolescents, In children, In infants, In adults) in USA (Topical)
  • 18 Jun 2020FDA assigns PDUFA action date of 12/08/2020 for Abametapir for Pediculosis (Dr Reddy’s Laboratories website, June 2020)
  • 31 Mar 2019Abametapir is still in preregistration phase for Pediculosis in USA

Abametapir is a novel pediculicidal metalloproteinase inhibitor used to treat infestations of head lice.4 The life cycle of head lice (Pediculus capitis) is approximately 30 days, seven to twelve of which are spent as eggs laid on hair shafts near the scalp.2 Topical pediculicides generally lack adequate ovicidal activity,2 including standard-of-care treatments such as permethrin, and many require a second administration 7-10 days following the first to kill newly hatched lice that resisted the initial treatment. The necessity for follow-up treatment may lead to challenges with patient adherence, and resistance to agents like permethrin and pyrethrins/piperonyl butoxide may be significant in some areas.3

Investigations into novel ovicidal treatments revealed that several metalloproteinase enzymes were critical to the egg hatching and survival of head lice, and these enzymes were therefore identified as a potential therapeutic target.1 Abemetapir is an inhibitor of these metalloproteinase enzymes, and the first topical pediculicide to take advantage of this novel target. The improved ovicidal activity (90-100% in vitro) of abemetapir allows for a single administration, in contrast to many other topical treatments, and its novel and relatively non-specific mechanism may help to curb the development of resistance to this agent.1

Abametapir was first approved for use in the United States under the brand name Xeglyze on July 27, 2020.6

Abametapir, sold under the brand name Xeglyze, is a medication used for the treatment of head lice infestation in people six months of age and older.[1][2]

The most common side effects include skin redness, rash, skin burning sensation, skin inflammation, vomiting, eye irritation, skin itching, and hair color changes.[2]

Abametapir is a metalloproteinase inhibitor.[1] Abametapir was approved for medical use in the United States in July 2020.[1][3]

Medical uses

Abametapir is indicated for the topical treatment of head lice infestation in people six months of age and older.[1][2]

History

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved abametapir based on evidence from two identical clinical trials of 699 participants with head lice.[2] The trials were conducted at fourteen sites in the United States.[2]

The benefit and side effects of abametapir were evaluated in two clinical trials that enrolled participants with head lice who were at least six months old.[2]

About half of all enrolled participants was randomly assigned to abametapir and the other half to placebo.[2] Abametapir lotion or placebo lotion were applied once as a ten-minute treatment to infested hair.[2] The benefit of abametapir in comparison to placebo was assessed after 1, 7 and 14 days by comparing the counts of participants in each group who were free of live lice.[2]

SYN

Ronald Harding, Lewis David Schulz, Vernon Morrison Bowles, “Pediculicidal composition.” WIPO Patent WO2015107384A2, published July, 2015.

References

  1. Jump up to:a b c d e “Xeglyze (abametapir) lotion, for topical use” (PDF)U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories. Inc. Retrieved 25 July 2020.
  2. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i “Drug Trial Snapshot: Xeglyze”U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 24 July 2020. Retrieved 6 August 2020.  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  3. ^ “Abametapir: FDA-Approved Drugs”U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Retrieved 25 July 2020.

Further reading

External links

  • “Abametapir”Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
Abametapir
Abametapir skeletal.svg
Clinical data
Trade names Xeglyze
Other names Ha44
AHFS/Drugs.com Professional Drug Facts
License data
Pregnancy
category
  • US: N (Not classified yet)
Routes of
administration
Topical
Drug class PediculicideMetalloproteinase inhibitor
ATC code
  • None
Legal status
Legal status
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEMBL
PDB ligand
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
ECHA InfoCard 100.157.434 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
Formula C12H12N2
Molar mass 184.242 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)

///////Abametapir, 2020 APPROVALS, FDA 2020, Xeglyze, アバメタピル , абаметапир , أباميتابير 阿巴甲吡 , BRN 0123183, HA 44, head lice

CC1=CC=C(N=C1)C1=CC=C(C)C=N1

Bulevirtide acetate


Bulevirtide acetate

(N-Myristoyl-glycyl-L-threonyl-L-asparaginyl-L-leucyl-L-seryl-L-valyl-Lprolyl-L-asparaginyl-L-prolyl-L-leucyl-glycyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-prolyl-L-aspartyl-L-histidyl-Lglutaminyl-L-leucyl-L-aspartyl-L-prolyl-L-alanyl-L-phenylalanyl-glycyl-L-alanyl-L-asparaginyl-L-seryl-Lasparaginyl-L-asparaginyl-Lprolyl-L-aspartyl-L-tryptophanyl-L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-asparaginyl-L-prolylL-asparaginyl-L-lysyl-L-aspartyl-L-histidyl-L-tryptophanyl-L-prolyl-L-glutamyl-L-alanyl-L-asparaginyl-L-lysylL-valylglycinamide, acetate salt.

molecular formula C248H355N65O72,

molecular mass is 5398.9 g/mol

ブレビルチド酢酸塩;

APROVED 2020/7/31, EU, Hepcludex

MYR GmbH

Antiviral, Entry inhibitor
  Disease
Hepatitis delta virus infection

Bulevirtide is a 47-amino acid peptide with a fatty acid, a myristoyl residue, at the N-terminus and an amidated C-terminus. The active substance is available as acetate salt. The counter ion acetate is bound in ionic form to basic groups of the peptide molecule and is present in a non-stoichiometric ratio. The chemical name of bulevirtide is (N-Myristoyl-glycyl-L-threonyl-L-asparaginyl-L-leucyl-L-seryl-L-valyl-Lprolyl-L-asparaginyl-L-prolyl-L-leucyl-glycyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-prolyl-L-aspartyl-L-histidyl-Lglutaminyl-L-leucyl-L-aspartyl-L-prolyl-L-alanyl-L-phenylalanyl-glycyl-L-alanyl-L-asparaginyl-L-seryl-Lasparaginyl-L-asparaginyl-Lprolyl-L-aspartyl-L-tryptophanyl-L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-asparaginyl-L-prolylL-asparaginyl-L-lysyl-L-aspartyl-L-histidyl-L-tryptophanyl-L-prolyl-L-glutamyl-L-alanyl-L-asparaginyl-L-lysylL-valylglycinamide, acetate salt. It corresponds to the molecular formula C248H355N65O72, its relative molecular mass is 5398.9 g/mol

Bulevirtide appears as a white or off-white hygroscopic powder. It is practically insoluble in water and soluble at concentrations of 1 mg/ml in 50% acetic acid and about 7 mg/ml in carbonate buffer solution at pH 8.8, respectively. The structure of the active substance (AS) was elucidated by a combination of infrared spectroscopy (IR), mass spectrometry (MS), amino acid analysis and sequence analysis Other characteristics studied included ultraviolet (UV) spectrum, higher order structure (1D- and 2D- nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR)) and aggregation (Dynamic Light Scattering). Neither tertiary structure nor aggregation states of bulevirtide have been identified. With regard to enantiomeric purity, all amino acids are used in L-configuration except glycine, which is achiral by nature. Two batches of bulevirtide acetate were evaluated for enanatiomeric purity and no relevant change in configuration during synthesis was detected.

Bulevirtide is manufactured by a single manufacturer. It is a chemically synthesised linear peptide containing only naturally occurring amino acids. The manufacturing of this peptide is achieved using standard solidphase peptide synthesis (SPPS) on a 4-methylbenzhydrylamine resin (MBHA resin) derivatised with Rink amide linker in order to obtain a crude peptide mixture. This crude mixture is purified through a series of washing and preparative chromatography steps. Finally, the purified peptide is freeze-dried prior to final packaging and storage. The process involves further four main steps: synthesis of the protected peptide on the resin while side-chain functional groups are protected as applicable; cleavage of the peptide from the resin, together with the removal of the side chain protecting groups to obtain the crude peptide; purification; and lyophilisation. Two chromatographic systems are used for purification. No design space is claimed. Resin, Linker Fmoc protected amino acids and myristic acid are starting materials in line with ICH Q11. Sufficient information is provided on the source and the synthetic route of the starting materials. The active substance is obtained as a nonsterile, lyophilised powder. All critical steps and parameters were presented and clearly indicated in the description of the manufacturing process. The process description includes also sufficient information on the type of equipment for the SPPS, in-process controls (IPCs). The circumstances under which reprocessing might be performed were clearly presented. No holding times are proposed. Overall the process is sufficiently described.

The finished product is a white to off white lyophilised powder for solution for injection supplied in single-use vials. Each vial contains bulevirtide acetate equivalent to 2 mg bulevirtide. The composition of the finished product was presented. The powder is intended to be dissolved in 1 ml of water for injection per vial. After reconstitution the concentration of bulevirtide net peptide solution in the vial is 2 mg/ml. The components of the formulation were selected by literature review and knowledge of compositions of similar products available on the market at that time, containing HCl, water, mannitol, sodium carbonate, sodium hydrogen carbonate and sodium hydroxide. All excipients are normally used in the manufacture of lyophilisates. The quality of the excipients complies with their respective Ph. Eur monographs. The intrinsic properties of the active substance and the compounding formulation do not support microbiological growth as demonstrated by the stability data. No additional preservatives are therefore needed.

https://www.ema.europa.eu/en/documents/assessment-report/hepcludex-epar-public-assessment-report_en.pdf

Hepcludex is an antiviral medicine used to treat chronic (long-term) hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection in adults with compensated liver disease (when the liver is damaged but is still able to work), when the presence of viral RNA (genetic material) has been confirmed by blood tests.

HDV is an ‘incomplete’ virus, because it cannot replicate in cells without the help of another virus, the hepatitis B virus. Because of this, patients infected with the virus always also have hepatitis B.

HDV infection is rare, and Hepcludex was designated an ‘orphan medicine’ (a medicine used in rare diseases) on 19 June 2015. For further information on the orphan designation, see EU/3/15/1500.

Hepcludex contains the active substance bulevirtide.

Bulevirtide, sold under the brand name Hepcludex, is an antiviral medication for the treatment of chronic hepatitis D (in the presence of hepatitis B).[2]

The most common side effects include raised levels of bile salts in the blood and reactions at the site of injection.[2]

Bulevirtide works by attaching to and blocking a receptor (target) through which the hepatitis delta and hepatitis B viruses enter liver cells.[2] By blocking the entry of the virus into the cells, it limits the ability of HDV to replicate and its effects in the body, reducing symptoms of the disease.[2]

Bulevirtide was approved for medical use in the European Union in July 2020.[2]

Medical uses

Bulevirtide is indicated for the treatment of chronic hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection in plasma (or serum) HDV-RNA positive adult patients with compensated liver disease.[2][3]

Pharmacology

Mechanism of action

Bulevirtide binds and inactivates the sodium/bile acid cotransporter, blocking both viruses from entering hepatocytes.[4]

The hepatitis B virus uses its surface lipopeptide pre-S1 for docking to mature liver cells via their sodium/bile acid cotransporter (NTCP) and subsequently entering the cells. Myrcludex B is a synthetic N-acylated pre-S1[5][6] that can also dock to NTCP, blocking the virus’s entry mechanism.[7]

The drug is also effective against hepatitis D because the hepatitis D virus is only infective in the presence of a hepatitis B virus infection.[7]

References

  1. ^ Deterding, K.; Wedemeyer, H. (2019). “Beyond Pegylated Interferon-Alpha: New Treatments for Hepatitis Delta”. Aids Reviews21 (3): 126–134. doi:10.24875/AIDSRev.19000080PMID 31532397.
  2. Jump up to:a b c d e f g “Hepcludex EPAR”European Medicines Agency (EMA). 26 May 2020. Retrieved 12 August 2020. Text was copied from this source which is © European Medicines Agency. Reproduction is authorized provided the source is acknowledged.
  3. ^ “Summary of opinion: Hepcludex” (PDF)European Medicines Agency. 28 May 2020.
  4. ^ Francisco, Estela Miranda (29 May 2020). “Hepcludex”European Medicines Agency. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  5. ^ Volz T, Allweiss L, Ben MBarek M, Warlich M, Lohse AW, Pollok JM, et al. (May 2013). “The entry inhibitor Myrcludex-B efficiently blocks intrahepatic virus spreading in humanized mice previously infected with hepatitis B virus”. Journal of Hepatology58 (5): 861–7. doi:10.1016/j.jhep.2012.12.008PMID 23246506.
  6. ^ Abbas Z, Abbas M (August 2015). “Management of hepatitis delta: Need for novel therapeutic options”World Journal of Gastroenterology21 (32): 9461–5. doi:10.3748/wjg.v21.i32.9461PMC 4548107PMID 26327754.
  7. Jump up to:a b Spreitzer H (14 September 2015). “Neue Wirkstoffe – Myrcludex B”. Österreichische Apothekerzeitung (in German) (19/2015): 12.

External links

Bulevirtide
Clinical data
Trade names Hepcludex
Other names MyrB, Myrcludex-B[1]
License data
Routes of
administration
Subcutaneous injection
ATC code
  • None
Legal status
Legal status
  • EU: Rx-only [2]
Identifiers
CAS Number
DrugBank
UNII
KEGG
ChEMBL

/////////Bulevirtide acetate, ブレビルチド酢酸塩 , orphan designation, MYR GmbH, PEPTIDE, EU 2020, 2020 APPROVALS

Nifurtimox


Nifurtimox.svg

Nifurtimox

Formula
C10H13N3O5S
CAS
23256-30-6
Mol weight
287.2923

FDA APPROVED, 2020/8/6, LAMPIT

Antiprotozoal
  Disease
Chagas disease

IUPAC Name

3-methyl-4-[(E)-[(5-nitrofuran-2-yl)methylidene]amino]-1lambda6-thiomorpholine-1,1-dione

SMILES

CC1CS(=O)(=O)CCN1\N=C\C1=CC=C(O1)[N+]([O-])=O
SYN
Danong Chen, Glenn Rice. 2013. Novel formulations of nitrofurans including nifurtimox with enhanced activity with lower toxicity.US20150140089A1
  • OriginatorBayer
  • ClassAntiprotozoals; Nitrofurans; Small molecules; Thiamorpholines; Thiazines
  • Mechanism of ActionDNA damage modulators
  • RegisteredChagas disease
  • 07 Aug 2020Registered for Chagas disease (In adolescents, In children, In infants) in USA (PO)
  • 31 Jan 2020Preregistration for Chagas disease (In infants, In children, In adolescents) in USA (PO)
  • 29 Jan 2020Bayer completes a phase I trial in Chagas disease in Argentina (PO) (NCT03334838)
Title: Nifurtimox
CAS Registry Number: 23256-30-6
CAS Name: 3-Methyl-N-[(5-nitro-2-furanyl)methylene]-4-thiomorpholinamine 1,1-dioxide
Additional Names: 4-[(5-nitrofurfurylidene)amino]-3-methylthiomorpholine-1,1-dioxide; tetrahydro-3-methyl-4-[(5-nitrofurfurylidene)amino]-2H-1,4-thiazine 1,1-dioxide; 1-[(5-nitrofurfurylidene)amino]-2-methyltetrahydro-1,4-thiazine 4,4-dioxide
Manufacturers’ Codes: Bay 2502
Trademarks: Lampit (Bayer)
Molecular Formula: C10H13N3O5S
Molecular Weight: 287.29
Percent Composition: C 41.81%, H 4.56%, N 14.63%, O 27.85%, S 11.16%
Literature References: Prepn from 5-nitrofurfural and 4-amino-3-methyltetrahydro-1,4-thiazine 1,1-dioxide: Herlinger et al., DE 1170957 corresp to US 3262930 (1964 and 1966 to Bayer). Series of articles on pharmacology and clinical findings: Arzneim.-Forsch. 22, 1563-1642 (1972). Toxicity data: K. Hoffmann, ibid. 1590.
Properties: Orange-red crystals from dil acetic acid, mp 180-182°. LD50 in mice, rats (mg/kg): 3720, 4050 by gavage (Hoffmann).
Melting point: mp 180-182°
Toxicity data: LD50 in mice, rats (mg/kg): 3720, 4050 by gavage (Hoffmann)
Therap-Cat: Antiprotozoal (Trypanosoma).
Keywords: Antiprotozoal (Trypanosoma).

Nifurtimox, sold under the brand name Lampit, is a medication used to treat Chagas disease and sleeping sickness.[1][4] For sleeping sickness it is used together with eflornithine in nifurtimox-eflornithine combination treatment.[4] In Chagas disease it is a second-line option to benznidazole.[5] It is given by mouth.[1]

Common side effects include abdominal pain, headache, nausea, and weight loss.[1] There are concerns from animal studies that it may increase the risk of cancer but these concerns have not be found in human trials.[5] Nifurtimox is not recommended in pregnancy or in those with significant kidney or liver problems.[5] It is a type of nitrofuran.[5]

Nifurtimox came into medication use in 1965.[5] It is on the World Health Organization’s List of Essential Medicines.[4] It is not available commercially in Canada.[1] It was approved for medical use in the United States in August 2020.[3] In regions of the world where the disease is common nifurtimox is provided for free by the World Health Organization (WHO).[6]

Chagas disease, caused by a parasite known as Trypanosoma cruzi (T.cruzi), is a vector-transmitted disease affecting animals and humans in the Americas. It is commonly known as American Trypanosomiasis.11

The CDC estimates that approximately 8 million people in Central America, South America, and Mexico are infected with T. cruzi, without symptoms. If Chagas disease is left untreated, life-threatening sequelae may result.11

Nifurtimox, developed by Bayer, is a nitrofuran antiprotozoal drug used in the treatment of Chagas disease. On August 6 2020, accelerated FDA approval was granted for its use in pediatric patients in response to promising results from phase III clinical trials. Continued approval will be contingent upon confirmatory data.10 A convenient feature of Bayer’s formulation is the ability to divide the scored tablets manually without the need for pill-cutting devices.10

Medical uses

Nifurtimox has been used to treat Chagas disease, when it is given for 30 to 60 days.[7][8] However, long-term use of nifurtimox does increase chances of adverse events like gastrointestinal and neurological side effects.[8][9] Due to the low tolerance and completion rate of nifurtimox, benznidazole is now being more considered for those who have Chagas disease and require long-term treatment.[5][9]

In the United States nifurtimox is indicated in children and adolescents (birth to less than 18 years of age and weighing at least 2.5 kilograms (5.5 lb) for the treatment of Chagas disease (American Trypanosomiasis), caused by Trypanosoma cruzi.[2]

Nifurtimox has also been used to treat African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), and is active in the second stage of the disease (central nervous system involvement). When nifurtimox is given on its own, about half of all patients will relapse,[10] but the combination of melarsoprol with nifurtimox appears to be efficacious.[11] Trials are awaited comparing melarsoprol/nifurtimox against melarsoprol alone for African sleeping sickness.[12]

Combination therapy with eflornithine and nifurtimox is safer and easier than treatment with eflornithine alone, and appears to be equally or more effective. It has been recommended as first-line treatment for second-stage African trypanosomiasis.[13]

Pregnancy and breastfeeding

Use of nifurtimox should be avoided in pregnant women due to limited use.[5][8][14] There is limited data shown that nifurtimox doses up to 15 mg/kg daily can cause adverse effects in breastfed infants.[15] Other authors do not consider breastfeeding a contraindication during nifurtimox use.[15]

Side effects

Side effects occur following chronic administration, particularly in elderly people. Major toxicities include immediate hypersensitivity such as anaphylaxis and delayed hypersensitivity reaction involving icterus and dermatitis. Central nervous system disturbances and peripheral neuropathy may also occur.[8]

Contraindications

Nifurtimox is contraindicated in people with severe liver or kidney disease, as well as people with a background of neurological or psychiatric disorders.[5][16][20]

Mechanism of action

Nifurtimox forms a nitro-anion radical metabolite that reacts with nucleic acids of the parasite causing significant breakdown of DNA.[8] Its mechanism is similar to that proposed for the antibacterial action of metronidazole. Nifurtimox undergoes reduction and creates oxygen radicals such as superoxide. These radicals are toxic to T. cruzi. Mammalian cells are protected by presence of catalaseglutathioneperoxidases, and superoxide dismutase. Accumulation of hydrogen peroxide to cytotoxic levels results in parasite death.[8]

Manufacturing and availability

A bottle of nifurtimox

Nifurtimox is sold under the brand name Lampit by Bayer.[3] It was previously known as Bayer 2502.

Nifurtimox is only licensed for use in Argentina and Germany,[citation needed] where it is sold as 120-mg tablets. It was approved for medical use in the United States in August 2020.[3]

Research

Nifurtimox is in a phase-II clinical trial for the treatment of pediatric neuroblastoma and medulloblastoma.[21]

SYN

Nifurtimox

Synthesis of Essential Drugs

2006, Pages 559-582

Nifurtimox, 1,1-dioxide 4-[(5-nitrofuryliden)amino]-3-methylthiomorpholine (37.4.7), is made by the following scheme. Interaction of 2-mercaptoethanol with propylene oxide in the presence of potassium hydroxide gives (2-hydroxyethyl)-(2-hydroxypropylsul-fide) (37.4.3), which undergoes intramolecular dehydration using potassium bisulfate to make 2-methyl-1,4-oxithiane (37.4.4). Oxidation of this using hydrogen peroxide gives 2-methyl-1,4-oxithian-4,4-dioxide (37.4.5), which when reacted with hydrazine transforms to 4-amino-3-methyltetrahydro-1,4-thiazin-1,1-dioxide (37.4.6). Reacting this with 5-nitrofurfurol gives the corresponding hydrazone—the desired nifurtimox [58,59].

58. H. Herlinger, K.H. Heinz, S. Petersen, M.Bock, Ger. Pat. 1.170.957 (1964).

59. H. Herlinger, K.H. Heinz, S. Petersen, M. Bock, U.S. Pat. 3.262.930 (1966)

References

  1. Jump up to:a b c d e f “Nifurtimox (Systemic)”Drugs.com. 1995. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 3 December 2016.
  2. Jump up to:a b “Lampit (nifurtimox) tablets, for oral use” (PDF)U.S. Food and Drug Administration(FDA). Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals Inc. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  3. Jump up to:a b c d “Lampit: FDA-Approved Drugs”U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  4. Jump up to:a b c World Health Organization (2019). World Health Organization model list of essential medicines: 21st list 2019. Geneva: World Health Organization. hdl:10665/325771. WHO/MVP/EMP/IAU/2019.06. License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
  5. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h Bern, Caryn; Montgomery, Susan P.; Herwaldt, Barbara L.; Rassi, Anis; Marin-Neto, Jose Antonio; Dantas, Roberto O.; Maguire, James H.; Acquatella, Harry; Morillo, Carlos (2007-11-14). “Evaluation and Treatment of Chagas Disease in the United States”JAMA298 (18): 2171–81. doi:10.1001/jama.298.18.2171ISSN 0098-7484PMID 18000201.
  6. ^ “Trypanosomiasis, human African (sleeping sickness)”World Health Organization. February 2016. Archived from the original on 4 December 2016. Retrieved 7 December2016.
  7. ^ Coura JR, de Castro SL (2002). “A critical review of Chagas disease chemotherapy”Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz97 (1): 3–24. doi:10.1590/S0074-02762002000100001PMID 11992141.
  8. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h “Nifurtimox Drug Information, Professional”http://www.drugs.comArchivedfrom the original on 2016-11-08. Retrieved 2016-11-09.
  9. Jump up to:a b Jackson, Yves; Alirol, Emilie; Getaz, Laurent; Wolff, Hans; Combescure, Christophe; Chappuis, François (2010-11-15). “Tolerance and Safety of Nifurtimox in Patients with Chronic Chagas Disease”Clinical Infectious Diseases51 (10): e69–e75. doi:10.1086/656917ISSN 1058-4838PMID 20932171.
  10. ^ Pepin J, Milord F, Mpia B, et al. (1989). “An open clinical trial of nifurtimox for arseno-resistant T. b. gambiense sleeping sickness in central Zaire”. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg83(4): 514–7. doi:10.1016/0035-9203(89)90270-8PMID 2694491.
  11. ^ Bisser S, N’Siesi FX, Lejon V, et al. (2007). “Equivalence Trial of Melarsoprol and Nifurtimox Monotherapy and Combination Therapy for the Treatment of Second-Stage Trypanosoma brucei gambiense Sleeping Sickness”J Infect Dis195 (3): 322–329. doi:10.1086/510534PMID 17205469.
  12. ^ Pepin J (2007). “Combination Therapy for Sleeping Sickness: A Wake-Up Call”J Infect Dis195 (3): 311–13. doi:10.1086/510540PMID 17205466.
  13. ^ Priotto G, Kasparian S, Mutombo W, et al. (July 2009). “Nifurtimox-eflornithine combination therapy for second-stage African Trypanosoma brucei gambiensetrypanosomiasis: a multicentre, randomised, phase III, non-inferiority trial”. Lancet374(9683): 56–64. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)61117-Xhdl:10144/72797PMID 19559476.
  14. ^ Schaefer, Christof; Peters, Paul W. J.; Miller, Richard K. (2014-09-17). Drugs During Pregnancy and Lactation: Treatment Options and Risk Assessment. Academic Press. ISBN 9780124079014Archived from the original on 2017-09-08.
  15. Jump up to:a b “Nifurtimox use while Breastfeeding | Drugs.com”http://www.drugs.comArchived from the original on 2016-11-08. Retrieved 2016-11-07.
  16. Jump up to:a b c “Parasites – American Trypanosomiasis (also known as Chagas Disease)”U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)Archived from the original on 2016-11-06. Retrieved 2016-11-09.
  17. Jump up to:a b Forsyth, Colin J.; Hernandez, Salvador; Olmedo, Wilman; Abuhamidah, Adieb; Traina, Mahmoud I.; Sanchez, Daniel R.; Soverow, Jonathan; Meymandi, Sheba K. (2016-10-15). “Safety Profile of Nifurtimox for Treatment of Chagas Disease in the United States”Clinical Infectious Diseases63 (8): 1056–1062. doi:10.1093/cid/ciw477ISSN 1537-6591PMC 5036918PMID 27432838.
  18. ^ Castro, José A.; de Mecca, Maria Montalto; Bartel, Laura C. (2006-08-01). “Toxic side effects of drugs used to treat Chagas’ disease (American trypanosomiasis)”. Human & Experimental Toxicology25 (8): 471–479. doi:10.1191/0960327106het653oaISSN 0960-3271PMID 16937919.
  19. Jump up to:a b Estani, Sergio Sosa; Segura, Elsa Leonor (1999-09-01). “Treatment of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in the undetermined phase. Experience and current guidelines of treatment in Argentina”Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz94: 363–365. doi:10.1590/S0074-02761999000700070ISSN 0074-0276PMID 10677756.
  20. ^ “Chagas disease”World Health OrganizationArchived from the original on 2014-02-27. Retrieved 2016-11-08.
  21. ^ Clinical trial number NCT00601003 for “Study of Nifurtimox to Treat Refractory or Relapsed Neuroblastoma or Medulloblastoma” at ClinicalTrials.gov. Retrieved on July 10, 2009.

External links

  • “Nifurtimox”Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
Nifurtimox
Nifurtimox.svg
Nifurtimox 3D.png
Clinical data
Trade names Lampit[1]
Other names Bayer 2502[1]
AHFS/Drugs.com Drugs.com archive
Lampit
License data
Routes of
administration
By mouth
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability Low
Metabolism Liver (Cytochrome P450 oxidase (CYP) involved)
Elimination half-life 2.95 ± 1.19 hours
Excretion Kidney, very low
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
ChEMBL
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
ECHA InfoCard 100.041.377 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
Formula C10H13N3O5S
Molar mass 287.29 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
Chirality Racemic mixture
Melting point 180 to 182 °C (356 to 360 °F)

///////////Nifurtimox, LAMPIT, 2020 APPROVALS, FDA 2020, ニフルチモックス, CHAGAS DISEASE, ANTI PROTOZOAL

Imlifidase


MDSFSANQEI RYSEVTPYHV TSVWTKGVTP PANFTQGEDV FHAPYVANQG WYDITKTFNG
KDDLLCGAAT AGNMLHWWFD QNKDQIKRYL EEHPEKQKIN FNGEQMFDVK EAIDTKNHQL
DSKLFEYFKE KAFPYLSTKH LGVFPDHVID MFINGYRLSL TNHGPTPVKE GSKDPRGGIF
DAVFTRGDQS KLLTSRHDFK EKNLKEISDL IKKELTEGKA LGLSHTYANV RINHVINLWG
ADFDSNGNLK AIYVTDSDSN ASIGMKKYFV GVNSAGKVAI SAKEIKEDNI GAQVLGLFTL
STGQDSWNQT N

Imlifidase

イムリフィダーゼ;

Formula
C1575H2400N422O477S6
CAS
1947415-68-0
Mol weight
35070.8397

EMA APPROVED, 2020/8/25, Idefirix

Pre-transplant treatment to make patients with donor specific IgG eligible for kidney transplantation
Immunosuppressant, Immunoglobulin modulator (enzyme)

Imlifidase is under investigation in clinical trial NCT02854059 (IdeS in Asymptomatic Asymptomatic Antibody-Mediated Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP) Patients).

Imlifidase, brand name Idefirix, is a medication for the desensitization of highly sensitized adults needing kidney transplantation, but unlikely to receive a compatible transplant.[1]

Imlifidase is a cysteine protease derived from the immunoglobulin G (IgG)‑degrading enzyme of Streptococcus pyogenes.[1] It cleaves the heavy chains of all human IgG subclasses (but no other immunoglobulins), eliminating Fc-dependent effector functions, including CDC and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC).[1] Thus, imlifidase reduces the level of donor specific antibodies, enabling transplantation.[1]

The benefits with imlifidase are its ability to convert a positive crossmatch to a negative one in highly sensitized people to allow renal transplantation.[1] The most common side effects are infections and infusion related reactions.[1]

In June 2020, the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) recommended the approval of Imlifidase.[1][2]

Medical uses

Per the CHMP recommendation, imlifidase will be indicated for desensitization treatment of highly sensitized adult kidney transplant people with positive crossmatch against an available deceased donor.[1] The use of imlifidase should be reserved for people unlikely to be transplanted under the available kidney allocation system including prioritization programmes for highly sensitized people.[1]

History

Imlifidase was granted orphan drug designations by the European Commission in January 2017, and November 2018,[3][4] and by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in both February and July 2018.[5][6]

In February 2019, Hansa Medical AB changed its name to Hansa Biopharma AB.[4]

References

  1. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i “Imlifidase: Pending EC decision”European Medicines Agency (EMA). 25 June 2020. Retrieved 26 June 2020.  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  2. ^ “New treatment to enable kidney transplant in highly sensitised patients”European Medicines Agency (Press release). 26 June 2020. Retrieved 26 June 2020.  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  3. ^ “EU/3/16/1826”European Medicines Agency (EMA). 12 January 2017. Retrieved 27 June 2020.  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  4. Jump up to:a b “EU/3/18/2096”European Medicines Agency (EMA). 13 February 2019. Retrieved 27 June 2020.  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  5. ^ “Imlifidase Orphan Drug Designation and Approval”U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 3 July 2018. Retrieved 27 June 2020.
  6. ^ “Imlifidase Orphan Drug Designation and Approval”U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 14 February 2018. Retrieved 27 June 2020.

Further reading

External links

  • “Imlifidase”Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
Imlifidase
Clinical data
Pronunciation im lif’ i dase
Trade names Idefirix
Other names HMED-IdeS
Routes of
administration
Intravenous
ATC code
Identifiers
CAS Number
DrugBank
UNII
KEGG
ChEMBL
Chemical and physical data
Formula C1575H2400N422O477S6
Molar mass 35071.36 g·mol−1

//////////Imlifidase, Idefirix, PEPTIDE, イムリフィダーゼ , 2020 APPROVALS, EMA 2020, EU 2020

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