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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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Talazoparib, MDV3800


Talazoparib.svg

Talazoparib, BMN-673, MDV-3800

(2S,3S)-methyl-7-fluoro-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-(1-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-yl)-4-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline-5-carboxylate

(8S,9R)-5-fluoro-8-(4-fluorophenyl)-9-(1-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-yl)-8,9-dihydro-2H-pyrido[4,3,2-de]phthalazin-3(7H)-one

(8S,9R)-5-Fluoro-8-(4-fluorophenyl)-9-(1-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-yl)-2,7,8,9-tetrahydro-3H-pyrido[4,3,2-de]phthalazin-3-one

CAS 1207456-01-6
Chemical Formula: C19H14F2N6O
Exact Mass: 380.11972

BMN673, BMN673, BMN-673, LT673, LT 673, LT-673,  Talazoparib

BioMarin Pharmaceutical Inc

phase 3

Poly ADP ribose polymerase 2 inhibitor; Poly ADP ribose polymerase 1 inhibitor

cancer

(85,9R)-5-fluoro-8-(4-fluorophenyl)-9-(l-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5-yl)-8,9-dihydro-2H-pyrido[4,3,2-de]phthalazin-3(7H)-one toluenesulfonate salt

CAS 1373431-65-2(Talazoparib Tosylate)

1H NMR DMSOD6

str1

13C NMR DMSOD6

str1

HMBC NMR

str1

HSQC NMR

str1

Talazoparib (BMN-673) is an investigational drug that acts as a PARP inhibitor. It is in clinical trials for various cancers.

Talazoparib.png

Medivation, under license from BioMarin Pharmaceuticals, following its acquisition of LEAD Therapeutics, is developing a PARP-1/2 inhibitor, talazoparib, for treating cancer, particularly BRCA-mutated breast cancer. In February 2016, talazoparib was reported to be in phase 3 clinical development

Talazoparib, also known as BMN-673, is an orally bioavailable inhibitor of the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) with potential antineoplastic activity (PARP1 IC50 = 0.57 nmol/L). BMN-673 selectively binds to PARP and prevents PARP-mediated DNA repair of single strand DNA breaks via the base-excision repair pathway. This enhances the accumulation of DNA strand breaks, promotes genomic instability and eventually leads to apoptosis. PARP catalyzes post-translational ADP-ribosylation of nuclear proteins that signal and recruit other proteins to repair damaged DNA and is activated by single-strand DNA breaks. BMN-673 has been proven to be highly active in mouse models of human cancer and also appears to be more selectively cytotoxic with a longer half-life and better bioavailability as compared to other compounds in development. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.

Talazoparib is C19H14F2N6O.

Talazoparib tosylate is C26H22F2N6O4S.[1]

Approvals and indications

None yet.

Mechanism of action

Main article: PARP inhibitor

Clinical trials

After trials for advanced hematological malignancies and for advanced or recurrent solid tumors.[2] it is now in phase 3 for metastatic germline BRCA mutated breast cancer.[3] Trial estimated to complete in June 2016.[4]

As of January 2016 it in 14 active clinical trials.[5]

WO2010017055,  WO2015069851, WO 2012054698, WO 2011130661, WO 2013028495, US 2014323725, WO 2011097602

PAPER

Discovery and Characterization of (8S,9R)-5-Fluoro-8-(4-fluorophenyl)-9-(1-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-yl)-2,7,8,9-tetrahydro-3H-pyrido[4,3,2-de]phthalazin-3-one (BMN 673, Talazoparib), a Novel, Highly Potent, and Orally Efficacious Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase-1/2 Inhibitor, as an Anticancer Agent

BioMarin Pharmaceutical Inc., 105 Digital Drive, Novato, California 94949, United States
J. Med. Chem.201659 (1), pp 335–357
DOI: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.5b01498
Publication Date (Web): December 10, 2015
Copyright © 2015 American Chemical Society
*Phone: 1-415-506-3319. E-mail: bwang@bmrn.com.

Abstract

Abstract Image

We discovered and developed a novel series of tetrahydropyridophthlazinones as poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) 1 and 2 inhibitors. Lead optimization led to the identification of (8S,9R)-47 (talazoparib; BMN 673; (8S,9R)-5-fluoro-8-(4-fluorophenyl)-9-(1-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-yl)-2,7,8,9-tetrahydro-3H-pyrido[4,3,2-de]phthalazin-3-one). The novel stereospecific dual chiral-center-embedded structure of this compound has enabled extensive and unique binding interactions with PARP1/2 proteins. (8S,9R)-47 demonstrates excellent potency, inhibiting PARP1 and PARP2 enzyme activity with Ki = 1.2 and 0.87 nM, respectively. It inhibits PARP-mediated PARylation in a whole-cell assay with an EC50 of 2.51 nM and prevents proliferation of cancer cells carrying mutant BRCA1/2, with EC50 = 0.3 nM (MX-1) and 5 nM (Capan-1), respectively. (8S,9R)-47 is orally available, displaying favorable pharmacokinetic (PK) properties and remarkable antitumor efficacy in the BRCA1 mutant MX-1 breast cancer xenograft model following oral administration as a single-agent or in combination with chemotherapy agents such as temozolomide and cisplatin. (8S,9R)-47 has completed phase 1 clinical trial and is currently being studied in phase 2 and 3 clinical trials for the treatment of locally advanced and/or metastatic breast cancer with germline BRCA1/2 deleterious mutations.

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.5b01498

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/suppl/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.5b01498/suppl_file/jm5b01498_si_001.pdf

Preparation of (8S,9R)-5-Fluoro-8-(4-fluorophenyl)-9-(1-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-yl)-2,7,8,9-tetrahydro-3H-pyrido[4,3,2-de]phthalazin-3-one Tosylate Salt ((8S,9R)-47 Tosylate Salt)

A suspension of (8S,9R)-47 (BMN 673) (400 mg, 1.05 mmol) in a mixture of acetone (27 mL) and THF (13 mL) was heated to reflux until the suspension became clear. TsOH (220 mg, 1.16 mmol) was then added to the solution. White solids started to precipitate out from the solution shortly after the addition of TsOH. After stirring at 25 °C for 30 min, the mixture was filtered to collect the white crystal solids, which were washed with a mixture of acetone (10 mL) and 1,4-dioxane (4 mL) and then dried under vacuum at 45 °C for 3 days. This afforded the product as a white crystalline solid (540 mg, yield 93%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ (ppm) 2.29 (s, 3H), 3.67 (s, 3H), 4.97–5.06 (m, 2H), 6.91–6.94 (dd, J1 = 2.0 Hz, J2 = 10.8 Hz, 1H), 7.06–7.19 (m, 5H), 7.19–7.51 (m, 4H), 7.74 (s, 1H), 7.87 (s, 1H), 10.32 (brs, 1H), 12.36 (s, 1H). LC-MS (ESI)m/z: 381 (M + H)+. Anal. Calcd for C19H14F2N6O·toluene sulfonic acid: C, 56.52; H, 4.01; N, 15.21. Found: C, 56.49; H, 3.94; N, 15.39.

(8S,9R)-5-Fluoro-8-(4-fluorophenyl)-9-(1-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-yl)-2,7,8,9-tetrahydro-3H-pyrido[4,3,2-de]phthalazin-3-one (8S,9R)-47 or BMN 673 and (8R,9S)-5-Fluoro-8-(4-fluorophenyl)-9-(1-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-yl)-2,7,8,9-tetrahydro-3H-pyrido[4,3,2-de]phthalazin-3-one (8R,9S)-47

Compound 47 was dissolved in DMF, and chiral resolution was performed using supercritical-fluid chromatography (SFC) with a CHIRALPAK IA chiral column and methanol (20% with 0.1% DEA) and CO2 (80%) as the eluents. Yield 90%. For (8S,9R)-47 (BMN 673): retention time 8.8 min and ee 99.3%. For (8R,9S)-47: retention time 10.2 min and ee 99.2%.
Alternatively, compound (8S,9R)-47 could also be made using (2S,3R)-60a as a starting material and employing the same procedure described for the conversion of 60a to 47.
The optical rotation for both (8S,9R)-47 and (8R,9S)-47 was measured using a RUDOLPH (AUTOPOL V) automatic polarimeter at a concentration of 6.67 mg/mL in MeOH/MeCN/DMF = 0.5:0.5:1 at 20 °C. The specific rotation for (8S,9R)-47 was +92.2°, whereas it was −93.4° for (8R,9S)-47.

PATENT

WO-2016019125

WO2016019125

The compound (85,9R)-5-fluoro-8-(4-fluorophenyl)-9-(l-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5-yl)-8,9-dihydro-2H-pyrido[4,3,2-de]phthalazin-3(7H)-one toluenesulfonate salt (Compound (A))

Compound (A)

is an inhibitor of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP). Methods of making it are described in WO2010017055, WO2011097602, and WO2012054698. However, the disclosed synthetic routes require chiral chromatography of one of the synthetic intermediates in the route to make Compound (A), methyl 7-fluoro-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-(l -methyl- lH-1, 2,4-triazol-5-yl)-4-oxo- 1 ,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline-5-carboxylate (Intermediate (A)),

Intermediate (A)

to yield the chirally pure (2S,35)-methyl 7-fluoro-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-(l-methyl-lH- 1,2,4-triazol-5-yl)-4-oxo-l,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline-5-carboxylate (Compound (1))

Compound (1).

Using conventional chiral chromatography is often solvent and time intensive.

Use of more efficient chromatography methods, such as simulated moving bed (SMB) chromatography still requires the use of expensive chiral chromatography resins, and is not practical on a large scale to purify pharmaceutical compounds. Also, maintaining

Compound (1) in solution for an extended time period during chromatography can lead to epimerization at the 9-position and cleavage of the methyl ester group in Compound (1). Replacing the chromatography step with crystallization step(s) to purify Compound (1) is desirable and overcomes these issues. Therefore, it is desirable to find an alternative to the use of chiral chromatography separations to obtain enantiomeric Compound (1).

Scheme 1 below describes use of Ac49 as a coformer acid for the preparation of Compound (la) and for the chiral resolution of Compound (1).

Scheme 1

Compound (1 )

Example 2 – Preparation of Compound (1) Using Scheme 1

Step la

Intermediate (A) (5 g, 12.5 mmol) was dissolved in 9: 1 v/v MIBK/ethanol (70 mL, 14 vol.) at 50 °C with stirring and dissolution was observed in less than about 5 minutes. [(lS)-en<io]-(+)-3-bromo-10-camphor sulfonic acid monohydrate (4.1 g, 12.5 mmol) was added and dissolution was observed in about 10-20 minutes. Seeding was then performed with Compound (la) (95% e.e., 5 mg, 0.1% w.) and the system was allowed to equilibrate for about 1 hour at 50 °C, was cooled to about 20 °C at 0.15 °C/min, and then equilibrated at 20 °C for 2 hours. The solid phase was isolated by filtration, washed with ethanol, and dried at about 50 °C and 3 mbar for about 2 to 3 hours to yield Compound (la) as a 0.6 molar equiv. EtOH solvate and 0.6 molar equiv. hydrate (93.4% e.e.).

Step lb

Compound (la) was then suspended in MIBK/ethanol 95/5% by volume (38 mL, 10 vol.) at 50 °C with stirring. After about 2 hours at 50 °C, the suspension was cooled to about 5 °C for 10 to 15 hours. The solid phase was recovered by filtration and dried at about 50 °C and 3 mbar for about 3 hours. Compound (la) (97.4% e.e.) was recovered. Step 2

000138] Compound (1) was released by suspending Compound (la) (3.9 g, 5.5 mmoi), without performing the optional reslurrying in Step 1, in 20 mL of water at room temperature and treating with 5M sodium hydroxide in water (1.3 mL, 1.2 mol). The mixture was kept at room temperature for about 15 hours and the solid was isolated by filtration and dried at 50 °C and 3 mbar for about 3 hours. Compound (1) was recovered (94.4% e.e.).

Example 3 – Large Scale Preparation of Compound (1) Using Scheme 1

The procedure of Example 1 was followed using 3.3 kg of Intermediate (A) and the respective solvent ratios to provide 95.7% e.e. in Step la; 99.2% e.e. in Step lb; and 99.2% e.e. in Step 2.

Example 4 – Alternative Preparation of Compound (1) Using Scheme 1

Step la

Intermediate (A) (751 mg, 1.86 mmol)) was dissolved in 9: 1 v/v

MIBK/ethanol (7.5 mL, 10 vol.) at 50 °C with stirring. [(15)-eni o]-(+)-3-bromo-10-camphor sulfonic acid monohydrate (620 mg, 1.88 mmol, 1 equiv.) was added. Formation of a precipitate was observed at about 1 hour at 50 °C. The system was then cooled to about 5 °C at 0.1 °C/min, and then equilibrated at 5 °C for about 60 hours. The solid phase was isolated by filtration and dried at about 50 °C and 3 mbar for about 2 hours to yield

Compound (la)(92% e.e.). See Figures 1-4 for XRPD (Figure 1), chiral HPLC (Figure 2), Ή NMR (Figure 3), and TGA/DSC analyses (Figure 4). The XRPD pattern from the material in Example 3 is similar to that in Example 1 with some slight shifts in the positions of specific diffraction peaks (highlighted by black arrows in Figure l). The ‘H NIVIR was consistent with a mono-salt of Compound (la) containing 0.5 molar equivalent of EtOH and 0.6% by weight residual MIBK. The TGA analysis showed a stepwise mass loss of 3.5% between 25 and 90 °C (potentially representing loss of the 0.5 molar equivalent of EtOH) and a gradual mass loss of 1.2% between 90 and 160 °C (potentially representing the loss of adsorbed water). The DSC analysis had a broad endotherm between 25 and 90 °C

representing desolvation and an endotherm at 135 °C representing melt/degradation.

Step lb

Compound (la) (100.3 mg, 0.141 mmol) was re-suspended in 95:5 v/v MIBK EtOH (1 mL, 10 vol.) at 50 °C and stirred for 1 hour before cooling to 5 °C at

0.1 °C/min. The solid (99.4% e.e.) was recovered by filtration after 1 night at 5 °C. Shifts in the XRPD diffraction peaks were no longer detected (Figure 5; compare Figure 1). Figure 6 shows the chiral HPLC for Compound (la).

Step 2

Compound (la) (100.2 mg, 0.141 mmol) from Step la was suspended in water (2 mL, 20 vol.) at 50 °C and 5 M NaOH in water (34 μL·, 1.2 molar equiv) was added. The resulting suspension was kept at 50 °C for one night, cooled to room temperature

(uncontrolled cooling) and filtered to yield Compound (1) (92% e.e.). The chiral purity was not impacted by this step and no [(15)-enJo]-(+)-3-bromo-10-camphor sulfonic acid was detected by NMR. Figure 7 compares the XRPD of Compound (1) in Step 2 with

Intermediate (A), the starting material of Step 1. Figure 8 shows the NMR of Compound (1) in Step 2 with Intermediate (A), the starting material of Step 1.

Example 5 – Alternative Preparation of Compound (1) Using Scheme 1 Step la

000144] Intermediate (A) (1 equiv.) was added with stirring to a solution of MIBK (12-13 vol), ethanol (1-1.5 vol), and water (0.05-0.10 vol) and the reaction was heated within 15 minutes to an internal temperature of about 48 °C to about 52 °C . [(lS)-endo]-(+)-3-bromo- 10-camphor sulfonic acid (1 equiv) was added and the reaction was stirred for about 5-10 mins at an internal temperature of about 48 °C to about 52 °C until dissolution occurred. Seed crystals of Compound (la) were added and the reaction was allowed to proceed for 1 hour at an internal temperature of about 48 °C to about 52 °C. The reaction was cooled at a rate of 0.15 °C /min to about 19-21 °C. The suspension was stirred for 2 hours at an internal temperature of about 19 °C to 21 °C and then was collected by filtration and washed twice with ethanol. The product was characterized by 1H NMR and 13C NMR (Figures 13a and 13b), IR Spectrum (Figure 14), DSC (Figure 15), and chiral HPLC (Figure 16).

Step 2a

To Compound (la) (1 equiv.) was added acetone (1.1 vol), IPA (0.55 vol), and methanol (0.55 vol) and the reaction was heated to an internal temperature of about 38 °C to 42 °C. Aqueous ammonia (25%) (1.3 equiv) was added and the reaction was stirred for about 10 minutes. The pH of the reaction was confirmed and the next step performed if > 7. Water was added (0.55 vol), the reaction was cooled to an internal temperature of about 35 °C, seed crystals of Compound (1) were added, and the reaction was stirred for about 10 mins. Water was added (3.3 vol) dropwise within about 30 minutes, the suspension was cooled within 30 minutes to an internal temperature of about 0 °C to 5 °C, and the reaction was stirred for 15 minutes. The solid was collected by filtration and washed three times with water.

Step 2b

To the product of Step 2a) was added acetone (4 vol), ΓΡΑ (1 vol), and methanol (1 vol) and the reaction was heated to an internal temperature of about 38 °C to 42 °C resulting in a clear solution. Water (2 vol) and seed crystals of Compound (1) were added and the system was stirred for about 15 minutes at an internal temperature of about 35 °C. Water (342 mL) was added dropwise in about 30 minutes. The suspension was then cooled in 30 min to an internal temperature of about 0 °C to 5 °C and was stirred for an additional 15 minutes. The solid was collected by filtration, washed twice with water, and chiral purity was determined. If > 99% e.e., then the solid was dried at an internal temperature of about 60 °C under reduced pressure to yield Compound (1). The product was characterized by Ή NMR (Figure 19), 13C NMR (Figure 20), IR (Figure 21), DSC (Figure 22), chiral HPLC (Figure 23).

Scheme 2 below describes use of Acl 10 as a coformer acid for the preparation of Compound (lb) and the chiral resolution of Compound (1).

Intermediate (A)

Compound (1 b)

Intermediate (A)

Compound (1 b)

Compound (1 )

Example 6 – Preparation of Compound (1) Using Scheme 2

Step la

Intermediate (A) (102 mg, 0.256 mmol) was dissolved in MIBK (1 mL, 10 vol.) at 65 °C with stirring. (lS)-phenylethanesulfonic acid, prepared using procedures known to one of skill in the art, in MIBK (3.8 M, 80 μί, 1 molar equiv.) was added and a suspension was observed after 30 minutes at 65 °C. The system was kept at 65 °C for another 30 minutes before cooling to 5 °C at 0.1 C/min. After one night at 5 °C, the solid was filtered, dried at 50 °C, 3 mbar pressure for about 2 hours to yield Compound (lb). See Figures 9-12 for XRPD (Figure 9), chiral HPLC (Figure 10), Ή NMR (Figure 11), and TGA/DSC analyses (Figures 12a and 12b). The XRPD diffraction pattern of the solid obtained in Example 5 differed from the XRPD pattern obtained with the solid from in the salt screen of Example 1 and was consistent with the production of different solids in Examples 1 and 5. The Ή NMR was consistent with the mono-salt with a 0.3% by weight residue of dioxane. In Figure 12a, the thermal behavior was consistent with a non-solvated form exhibiting a melt/degradation at 201 °C. Figure 12b compares the melt pattern of Compound (lb) in Example 5 with Compound (lb) in Example 1.

Steps lb and 2 can be carried out using procedures similar to those used in Examples 2-5.

Example 7 – Polymorphism of Compound (la)

Compound (1) (92% e.e., 10 mg, mmol) was placed in 1.5 mL vials and the solvents (1 mL or less) of Table 3 were added at 50 °C until dissolution was achieved. [(1S)-eni o]-(+)-3-bromo-10-camphorsulfonic acid was added as a solid at 50 °C. The samples were kept at 50 °C for about 1 hour prior to being cooled to room temperature overnight

(uncontrolled cooling rate). Clear solutions were successively cooled to 4 °C, -20 °C and evaporated at room temperature. Any gum obtained after evaporation was re-suspended in diethyl ether. The solid phases generated were characterized by XRPD and if relevant, by Ή NMR and TGA/DSC.

Table 3. Compound (la) Polymorphism Conditions

C.S. means clear solution and Susp. means suspension. “A” means the XRPD diffraction pattern was new but similar to that for Ac49 in

Example 1. “B” means the XRPD diffraction pattern was the same as that for Ac49 in Example 1. “M.E.” means molar equiv.

Page 38 of 64

NAI- 1500460480V I

Each of the seven solvents in which solvates were observed (heterosolvates not included) were mixed with MIBK (90% vol). Solutions of Intermediate (A) were prepared in the solvent mixtures (10 vol) at 50 C and [(15)-en<io]-(+)-3-bromo-10-camphor sulfonic acid (1 molar equivalent) was added. The resulting clear solutions were cooled to 5 °C at 0.2 C/min. Surprisingly, no crystallization was reported in any sample. Seeding was performed with a few crystals of each solvate at about 25 °C. The solid phases were analyzed by XRPD and the liquid phases were analyzed by chiral HPLC. See Table 4 for a summary of the results (where “Dias 2” is the (2R, 3R) diastereomer of Compound (la)) .

Table 4. Compound (la) Solvate Analysis

As seen in Table 4 above, the ethanol/MIBK system yielded 93% pure Compound (la) which demonstrates that Compound (la) does crystallize in a very pure form as an ethanolate solvate.

Other objects, features and advantages of the compounds, methods and compositions described herein will become apparent from the following description. It should be understood, however, that the description and the specific examples, while indicating specific embodiments, are given by way of illustration only, since various changes and modifications within the spirit and scope of the present description will become apparent from this detailed description.

All publications including patents, patent applications and published patent applications cited herein are hereby incorporated by reference for all purposes.

PATENT

US 2011196153

http://www.google.co.ve/patents/US20110237581

STR1.jpg

Patent

US 2011237581

PATENTSTR1.jpg

PATENT

http://www.google.com/patents/WO2015069851A1?cl=en

SYNTHETIC EXAMPLES

Example 1

\ , 

(1 a) (2) (3) (la) (5)

To a flask was added N-methyl-l,2,4-triazole (la)(249.3 g, 3.0 mol, 1 equiv.),

2-methyl-THF (1020 mL, about 1 :4 m/v), and DMF (2)(230.2 g, 3.15 mol, 1.05 equiv.), in any order. The solution was cooled to an internal temperature of about -5 to 0 °C. To the flask was added LiHMDS (3) as a 20% solution in 2-methyl-THF (3012 g, 3.6 mol, 1.2 equiv.) dropwise within about 60 minutes. During the addition of the LiHMDS (3), the desired Compound (la) was precipitated as the 2-methyl-THF solvate, and the flask was cooled to about -30 °C. The reaction was stirred for about 30 minutes at an internal temperature of about -5 to 0 °C.

The precipitated crystals were removed from the reaction mixture by filtration and washed with 2-methyl-THF. The product, Compound (la) as the 2-methyl-THF solvate, was dried under vacuum at an internal temperature of about 60 °C (about 72.5% as measured by NMR) to yield Compound (la).

Example 2

As shown in Example 2, the Compounds of Formula I are useful in the synthesis of more complex compounds. See General Scheme 1 for a description of how the first step can be accomplished. Compounds of Formula I can be reacted with compound (6) to yield Compounds of Formula II. In Example 2, Compound (la) can be reacted with

Compound (6) to yield Compound (7). The remaining steps are accomplished using procedures known to one of ordinary skill in the art, for example, as disclosed in

WO2010017055 and WO2011097602 to yield Compound (12).

PATENT

US 2014323725/http://www.google.com/patents/WO2011097602A1

5-fluoro-8-(4-fluorophenyl)-9-(l-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5-yl)-8,9- dihydro-2H-pyrido[4,3,2-Je]phthalazin-3(7H)-one, as shown in formula (1), and its enantiomer compounds, as shown in formulas (la) and (lb):

Figure imgf000003_0001

Example 1

(Z)-6-Fluoro-3-(( 1 -methyl- IH- 1 ,2,4-triazol-5 -yl)methylene)-4-nitroisobenzofuran- 1 (3H)-one (3)

Figure imgf000013_0001

[0053] To a 80 L jacketed glass reactor equipped with a chiller, mechanical stirrer, thermocouple, and nitrogen inlet/outlet, at 15 – 25 °C, anhydrous 2-methyl-tetrahydrofuran (22.7 kg), 6-fluoro-4- nitroisobenzofuran-l(3H)-one (2) (2.4 kg, 12.2 mol, 1.00 eq.), and 2-methyl-2H-l,2,4-triazole-3- carbaldehyde (49.6 – 52.6 % concentration in dichloromethane by GC, 3.59 – 3.38 kg, 16.0 mol, 1.31 eq.) were charged consecutively. Triethylamine (1.50 kg, 14.8 mol, 1.21 eq.) was then charged into the above reaction mixture. The reaction mixture was stirred for another 10 minutes. Acetic anhydride (9.09 – 9.10 kg, 89.0 – 89.1 mol, 7.30 eq.) was charged into the above reaction mixture at room temperature for 20 – 30 minutes. The reaction mixture was heated from ambient to reflux temperatures (85 – 95 °C) for 80 – 90 minutes, and the mixture was refluxed for another 70 – 90 minutes. The reaction mixture was monitored by HPLC, indicating compound (2) was reduced to < 5 %. The resulting slurry was cooled down to 5 – 15 °C for 150 – 250 minutes. The slurry was aged at 5 – 15 °C for another 80 – 90 minutes. The slurry was filtered, and the wet cake was washed with ethyl acetate (2L x 3). The wet cake was dried under vacuum at 40 – 50 °C for 8 hours to give 2.65 – 2.76 kg of (Z)-6-fluoro-3-((l -methyl-lH-l ,2,4-triazol-3- yl)methylene)-4-nitroisobenzofuran-l(3H)-one (3) as a yellow solid (2.66 kg, yield: 75.3 %, purity: 98.6 – 98.8 % by HPLC). LC-MS (ESI) m/z: 291 (M+l)+. Ή-ΝΜΡ (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ (ppm): 3.94 (s, 3H), 7.15 (s, 1H), 8.10 (s, 1H), 8.40-8.42 (dd, Jx = 6.4 Hz, J2 = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 8.58-8.61 (dd, Jx = 8.8 Hz, J2 = 2.4 Hz, 1H).

Example 2

Methyl 5- enzoate (4)

Figure imgf000014_0001

Example 2A

[0054] (¾-6-Fluoro-3-((l-methyl-lH-l,2,4-taazol-3-yl)m (3) (177 g, 0.6 mol, 1.0 eq.), and HC1 (2 N in methanol, 3 L, 6 mol, 10 eq.) were charged into a 5 L 3-neck flask equipped with mechanical stirrer, thermometer, and nitrogen inlet/outlet. The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 25 hours. The reaction mixture was monitored by HPLC, indicating 0.8 % compound (3) remained. The reaction mixture was concentrated under vacuum at 40 °C to dryness, and methyl 5-fluoro-2-(2-(l -methyl- lH-l,2,4-triazole-3-yl)acetyl)-3-nitrobenzoate hydrochloride (4) was obtained as a yellow solid (201 g, yield: 93.4 %). It was used for the next step without further purification. LC-MS (ESI) m/z: 323 (M+l)+ ¾-NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-J6) δ (ppm): 3.89 (s, 3H), 3.92 (s, 3H), 4.60 (s, 2H), 7.85 (s, 1H), 8.25-8.28 (dd, Jx = 8.4 Hz, J2 = 2.8 Hz, 2H), 8.52-8.54 (dd, Jx = 8.4 Hz, J2 = 2.8 Hz, 2H).

Example 2B

An alternative workup procedure to that illustrated in Example 2A follows. Instead of evaporating the reaction mixture to dryness, it was condensed to 2 volumes, followed by solvent exchange with 12 volumes of THF, and then 12 volumes of heptane. The slurry mixture was concentrated to 2 volumes and filtered to give the product. As such, 1.8 kilograms of (Z)-6-fluoro-3-((l-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-3- yl)methylene)-4-nitroisobenzofuran-l(3H)-one (3) gave 2.15 kilograms (yield 96.4 %) of the product methyl 5-fluoro-2-(2-(l -methyl- lH-l,2,4-triazole-3-yl)acetyl)-3-nitrobenzoate hydrochloride (4).

Example 3

Methyl 7-fluoro-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-(l-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5-yl)-4-oxo-l,2,3,4- tetrahydroquinoline-5 -carboxylate (5)

Figure imgf000015_0001

Example 3A

To a suspension of methyl 5-fluoro-2-(2-(l-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5-yl)acetyl)-3-nitrobenzoate (4) (5 g, 15.5 mmol, leq.) and 4-fluorobenzaldehyde (3.6 g, 29 mmol, 1.87 eq.) in a mixture of solvents tetrahydrofuran (30 mL) and MeOH (5 mL) was added titanium(III) chloride (20 % w/w solution in 2N Hydrochloric acid) (80 mL, 6 eq.) dropwise with stirring at room temperature. The reaction mixture was allowed to stir at 30~50°C for 2 hours. The mixture was then diluted with water (160 mL), and the resulting solution was extracted with ethyl acetate (100 mL x 4). The combined organic layers were washed with saturated NaHC03 (50 mL x 3) and aqueous NaHS03 (100 mL x 3), dried by Na2S04, and concentrated to dryness. This afforded a crude solid, which was washed with petroleum ether (120 mL) to obtain the title compound as a yellow solid (5.9 g, yield: 95 %, purity: 97 %). LC-MS (ESI) m/z: 399 (M+l)+. ^-NMR (400 MHz, CDCla) δ (ppm): 3.58 (s, 3H), 3.87 (s, 3H), 4.16-4.19 (d, J2=13.2 Hz, 1H), 4.88 (s, 1H), 5.37-5.40 (d, J2=13.2 Hz, 1H), 6.47-6.53 (m, 2H) , 6.97-7.01 (m, 2H), 7.37-7.41 (m, 2H), 7.80 (s, 1H).

Example 3B

An alternative workup procedure to that illustrated in Example 3A follows. After the completion of the reaction, the mixture was extracted with isopropyl acetate (20 volumes x 4) without water dilution. The product was isolated by solvent exchange of isopropyl acetate with heptanes followed by re-slurry with MTBE and filtration. As such, 3 kilograms of methyl 5-fluoro-2-(2-(l-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5- yl)acetyl)-3-nitrobenzoate (4) afforded 2.822 kilograms of the title compound (5) (yield 81 %).

Example 3C

To a stirred solution of methyl 5-fluoro-2-(2-(l-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5-yl)acetyl)-3- nitrobenzoate (4) (580 mg, 2 mmol) and 4-fluorobenzaldehyde (488 mg, 4 mmol) in methanol (0.75 mL) and tetrahydrofuran (4.5 mL) was added concentrated HC1 solution (w/w 37 %, 6 mL), then reductive powdered Fe (672 mg, 12 mmol) was added slowly to the reaction system. After the addition was complete, the resulting mixture was heated to 60 °C and kept at this temperature for 3 hours. After the disappearance of the starting material (4) as monitored by LC-MS, the reaction mixture was partitioned between ethyl acetate (30 mL) and water (30 mL) and the aqueous phase was extracted with ethyl acetate (20 mL x 3). The combined organic phase was dried with Na2S04, concentrated in vacuo and purified by column chromatography (ethyl acetate: petroleum ether = 1 : 1) to give the title compound (5) as a pale yellow solid (300 mg, yield 40 %). LC-MS (ESI) m/z: 399 (M+l)+LH-NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) δ (ppm): 3.58 (s, 3H), 3.87 (s, 3H), 4.17 (d, 1H), 4.87 (s, 1H), 5.38 (d, 1H), 6.50 (dd, 2H), 6.99 (dd, 2H), 7.38 (dd, 2H), 7.80 (s, 1H).

Example 3D

To a stirred solution of methyl 5-fluoro-2-(2-(l-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5-yl)acetyl)-3- nitrobenzoate (4) (580 mg, 2 mmol) and 4-fluorobenzaldehyde (488 mg, 4 mmol) in methanol (0.75 mL) and tetrahydrofuran (4.5 mL) was added SnCl2 (2.28 g, 12 mmol) and concentrated HC1 (w/w 37 %, 6 mL), the resulting mixture was reacted at 45 °C for 3 hours, until LC-MS indicating the disappearance of the starting material (4) and about 50 % formation of the product. The mixture was then partitioned between ethyl acetate (30 mL) and water (30 mL) and the aqueous phase was extracted with ethyl acetate (20 mL x 3). The combined organic phase was dried with Na2S04, concentrated in vacuo and purified by column chromatography (ethyl acetate: petroleum ether = 1 : 1) to give the title compound (5) as a pale yellow solid (10 mg, yield 1.3 %). LC-MS (ESI) m/z: 399 (M+l)+LH-NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) δ (ppm): 3.58 (s, 3H), 3.87 (s, 3H), 4.17 (d, 1H), 4.87 (s, 1H), 5.38 (d, 1H), 6.50 (dd, 2H), 6.99 (dd, 2H), 7.38 (dd, 2H), 7.80 (s, 1H).

Example 3E

A solution of methyl 5-fluoro-2-(2-(l-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5-yl)acetyl)-3-nitrobenzoate (4) (580 mg, 2 mmol) and 4-fluorobenzaldehyde (488 mg, 4 mmol) in methanol (20 mL) and acetic acid (1 mL) was stirred at room temperature for 24 hours under hydrogen (1 barr) in the presence of a catalytic amount of 10 % Pd/C (212 mg, 0.2 mmol). After the reaction was complete, the catalyst was removed by filtration through a pad of Celite, the solvent was removed in vacuo, and the residue was purified by column chromatography (ethyl acetate: petroleum ether = 1 : 1) to give the title compound (5) as a pale yellow solid (63 mg, yield 8 %). LC-MS (ESI) m/z: 399 (M+l)+ . 1HNMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ (ppm): 3.56 (s, 3H), 3.86 (s, 3H), 7.02 (dd, 2H), 7.21 (dd, 2H), 7.90 (s, 1H), 8.08 (s, 1H), 8.26 (dd, 1H), 8.56 (dd, 1H).

Example 4

5-Fluoro-8-(4-fluorophenyl)-9-(l-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5-yl)-8,9-dihydro-2H-pyrido[4,3,2-

Figure imgf000016_0001

 Methyl 7-fluoro-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-(l -methyl-lH-l ,2,4-triazol-5-yl)-4-oxo-l,2,3,4- tetrahydroquinoline-5-carboxylate (5) (150 g, 0.38 mol, 1.0 eq.) and methanol (1.7 L) were charged into a 3 L 3-neck flask equipped with a mechanical stirrer, thermometer, and nitrogen inlet/outlet. The resulted suspension was stirred at room temperature for 15 minutes. Hydrazine hydrate (85 % of purity, 78.1 g, 1.33 mol, 3.5 eq.) was charged dropwise into the above reaction mixture within 30 minutes at ambient temperature. The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight. The reaction was monitored by HPLC, showing about 2 % of compound (5) left. The obtained slurry was filtered. The wet cake was suspended in methanol (2 L) and stirred at room temperature for 3 hours. The above slurry was filtered, and the wet cake was washed with methanol (0.5 L). The wet cake was then dried in vacuum at 45 – 55 °C for 12 hours. This afforded the title compound as a pale yellow solid (112 g, yield: 78.1 %, purity: 95.98 % by HPLC). LC-MS (ESI) m/z: 381 (M+l)+. ^-NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-J6) δ (ppm): 3.66 (s, 3H), 4.97-5.04 (m, 2H), 6.91-6.94 (dd, Jx = 2.4, J2 = 11.2 Hz, 1H), 7.06-7.09 (dd, Jx = 2.4, J2 = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 7.14-7.18 (m, 3H), 7.47-7.51 (m, 2H), 7.72 (s, 1H), 7.80 (s, 1H), 12.35 (s, 1H).

Example 5

5 -Amino-7-flu in- 1 (2H)-one

Figure imgf000017_0001

To a solution of 6-fluoro-3-((l-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-3-yl)methylene)-4-nitroiso-benzofuran- l(3H)-one (3) (4.0 g, 135 mmol) in THF (100 mL) was added hydrazine monohydrate (85 %) (6 mL) at room temperature under nitrogen atmosphere. The mixture was stirred for 2 hours, then acetic acid (6 mL) was added and the mixture was heated to and kept at 60 °C for 18 hours. The resulting mixture was diluted with water (100 mL) and extracted with ethyl acetate (100 mL x 3). The organic layer was dried over anhydrous Na2S04 and evaporated to dryness to afford the title compound as a yellow solid (1.6 g, yield 42 %). LC-MS (ESI) m/z: 275(M+1)+.

Example 6

(£’)-7-fluoro-5-(4-fluorobenzylideneamino)-4-((l -methyl- IH- 1 ,2,4-triazol-5-yl)methyl)phthalazin- 1 (2H)- one

Figure imgf000018_0001

(7)

To a suspended of 5-amino-7-fluoro-4-((l-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-3-yl)methyl) phthalazin- l(2H)-one (7) (1.6 g, 5.8 mmol) in acetonitrile (50 mL) was added 4-fluorobenzaldehyde (2.2 g, 17.5 mmol). The mixture was stirred under reflux under nitrogen for 48 hours. The precipitate was filtered and washed with a mixture of solvents (ethyl acetate/hexane, 1 :1, 10 mL). After drying in vacuum, it afforded the title compound as a yellow solid (1.2 g, yield 52 %). LC-MS (ESI) m/z: 381(M+1)+.

Example 7

5-Fluoro-8 4-fluorophenyl)-9 l-methyl H-l,2,4-triazol-5-yl)-8,9-dihydro-2H^yrido[4,3,2-

Figure imgf000018_0002

(8) (1 )

To a suspension of (£’)-7-fluoro-5-(4-fluorobenzylideneamino)-4-((l-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5- yl)methyl)phthalazin-l(2H)-one (8) (2.0 g, 5.3 mmol) in THF (80 mL) was added cesium carbonate (3.4 g, 10.6 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at 55 °C for 4 hours and cooled down to room temperature. The mixture was diluted with water (50 ml) and extracted with ethyl acetate (50 mL x 3). The combined organic layers were dried over anhydrous Na2S04 and evaporated to dryness to afford the title compound as a white solid (1.6 g, yield 80 %). LC-MS (ESI) m/z: 381(M+1)+. ^-NMR (400 MHz, DMSO- ) δ (ppm): 3.66 (s, 3H), 4.97-5.04 (m, 2H), 6.91-6.94 (dd, Jx = 2.4, J2 = 11.2 Hz, 1H), 7.06-7.09 (dd, Ji = 2.4, J2 = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 7.14-7.18 (m, 3H), 7.47-7.51 (m, 2H), 7.72 (s, 1H), 7.80 (s, 1H), 12.35 (s, 1H).

Example 8

(£)-Methyl 5-fluoro-2-(3-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(l-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5-yl)acryloyl)-3-nitrobenzoate

(9)

Figure imgf000019_0001

To a stirred solution of methyl 5-fluoro-2-(2-(l-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5-yl)acetyl)-3- nitrobenzoate (4) (580mg, 2 mmol) and 4-fluorobenzaldehyde (488 mg, 4 mmol) in dimethylsulfoxide (2 mL) was added L-proline (230 mg, 2 mmol). The resulting mixture was kept with stirring at 45 °C for 48 hours. The reaction system was then partitioned between ethyl acetate (50 mL) and water (30 mL), and the organic phase was washed with water (20 mL x 3), dried with Na2S04, concentrated in vacuo, and purified by column chromatography (ethyl acetate: petroleum ether = 1 :3) to give the title compound (9) as a pale yellow foam (340 mg, yield 40 %). LC-MS (ESI) m/z: 429 (M+l)+. ^-NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-dg); δ (ppm): 3.56 (s, 3H), 3.86 (s, 3H), 7.02 (dd, 2H), 7.21 (dd, 2H), 7.90 (s, IH), 8.08 (s, IH), 8.26 (dd, IH), 8.56 (dd, IH).

Example 9

Methyl 7-fluoro-2-(4-fluorophenyl)- 1 -hydroxy-3-( 1 -methyl- IH- 1 ,2,4-triazol-5-yl)-4-oxo- 1 ,2,3,4- tetrahydroquinoline-5 -carboxylate (10)

Figure imgf000019_0002

To a solution of (£)-Methyl 5-fluoro-2-(3-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(l-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5- yl)acryloyl)-3-nitrobenzoate (9) (200 mg, 0.467 mmol) in methanol (20 mL) was added 10 % Pd/C (24 mg). After the addition, the mixture was stirred under H2 (1 atm) at room temperature for 0.5 h. The reaction system was then filtered and evaporated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by chromatography (ethyl acetate: petroleum ether = 1 :1) to give the title compound (10) (110 mg, yield 57 %) as an off-white foam. LC-MS (ESI) m/z: 415 (M+H)+. ¾-NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ (ppm): 3.53 (s, 3H), 3.73 (s, 3H), 5.08 (d, 2H), 5.27 (d, 2H), 6.95 (dd, IH), 7.08 (dd, 2H), 7.15 (dd, IH), 7.42 (dd, 2H), 7.77 (s, IH), 9.92 (s, IH). Example 10

Methyl 7-fluoro-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-(l-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5-yl)-4-oxo-l,2,3,4-

Figure imgf000020_0001

(10) (5)

To a stirred solution of methyl 7-fluoro-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-l-hydroxy-3-(l-methyl-lH-l,2,4- triazol-5-yl)-4-oxo-l, 2,3, 4-tetrahydroquinoline-5 -carboxylate (10) (41.4 mg, 0.1 mmol) in methanol (5 mL) was added concentrated HCl solution (w/w 37 %, 1 mL) and reductive powdered Fe (56 mg, 1 mmol). The reaction mixture was refluxed for 3 hours. After the disappearance of compound (10) as monitored by LC-MS, the reaction system was partitioned between ethyl acetate (20 mL) and water (20 mL) and then the aqueous phase was extracted with ethyl acetate (10 mL x 3). The combined organic phase was dried with Na2S04, concentrated in vacuo and purified by column chromatography (ethyl acetate: petroleum ether = 1 :1) to give the title compound (5) as a pale yellow solid (12 mg, yield 30 %). LC-MS (ESI) m/z: 399 (M+l)+. ¾-NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) δ (ppm): 3.58 (s, 3H), 3.87 (s, 3H), 4.17 (d, 1H), 4.87 (s, 1H), 5.38 (d, 1H), 6.50 (dd, 2H), 6.99 (dd, 2H), 7.38 (dd, 2H), 7.80 (s, 1H).

Example 11

Methyl 7-fluoro-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-(l-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5-yl)-4-oxo-l,2,3,4-

Figure imgf000020_0002

To a solution of (£)-Methyl 5-fluoro-2-(3-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(l-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5- yl)acryloyl)-3-nitrobenzoate (9) (214 mg, 0.5 mmol) in methanol (5 mL) was added concentrated HCl solution (w/w 37 %, 1 mL), then reductive Fe powder (140 mg, 2.5 mmol) was added slowly to the reaction system. After the addition was complete the resulting mixture was refluxed for 24 hours. The reaction mixture was then filtered, concentrated, neutralized with saturated NaHC03 (20 mL), and extracted with ethyl acetate (10 mL x 3). The residue was purified by chromatography (ethyl acetate: petroleum ether = 1 : 1) to give the title compound (5) (30 mg, yield 15 %) as an off-white foam. LC-MS (ESI) m/z: 399 (M+H)+. ^-NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ (ppm): 3.56 (s, 3H), 3.86 (s, 3H), 7.02 (dd, 2H), 7.21 (dd, 2H), 7.90 (s, 1H), 8.08 (s, 1H), 8.26 (dd, 1H), 8.56 (dd, 1H).

Example 12

(8R,9S)-5-fluoro-8-(4-fluorophenyl)-9-(l-me

Je]phthalazin-3(7H)-one (la) and (8S,9R)-5-fluoro-8-(4-fluorophenyl)-9-(l-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5-

Figure imgf000021_0001

(1) (la) (lb)

A chiral resolution of 5-fluoro-8-(4-fluorophenyl)-9-(l-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5-yl)-8,9- dihydro-2H-pyrido[4,3,2-Je]phthalazin-3(7H)-one (1) (52.5 g) was carried out on a super-fluid chromatography (SFC) unit using a CHIRALPAK IA column and C02/methanol/diethylamine

(80/30/0.1) as a mobile phase. This afforded two enantiomers with retention times of 7.9 minute (23.6 g, recovery 90 %, > 98 % ee) and 9.5 minute (20.4 g, recovery 78 %, > 98 % ee) as analyzed with a CHIRALPAK IA 0.46 cm x 15 cm column and C02/methanol/diethylamine (80/30/0.1) as a mobile phase at a flow rate of 2 g/minute.

Example 13

(2R,3R)-methyl 7-fluoro-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-(l-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5-yl)-4-oxo-l,2,3,4- tetrahydroquinoline-5-carboxylate (6a) and (2S,3S)-methyl 7-fluoro-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-(l-methyl-lH-

Figure imgf000021_0002

(5) (6a) (6b)

Example 13A

The chiral resolution of compound (5) was carried out on a SFC unit with a CHIRALPAK®IC 3 cm (I.D.) x 25 cm, 5 μηι column, using C02/MeOH (80/20) as a mobile phase at a flow rate of 65 g/ minute while maintaining the column temperature at 35 °C and with a detection UV wavelength of 254 nm. As such, a racemate of compound (5) (5 g) in methanol solution was resolved, which resulted in two enantiomers with a retention times of 2.35 minute (2.2 g, 88 % recovery, >98 % ee) and 4.25 minute (2.3 g, 92 % recovery, >98 % ee), respectively when analyzed using CHIRALPAK®IC 0.46 cm x 15 cm column and CO2/MeOH(80/20) as a mobile phase at a flow rate of 2 mL/ minute.

Example 13B

The chiral resolution of compound (5) was carried out on a SFC unit with a CHIRALPAK®IC 5cm (I.D.) x 25 cm, 5 μηι column, using C02/MeOH (75/25) as a mobile phase at a flow rate of 200 mL/ minute while maintaining the column temperature at 40 °C and with a detection UV wavelength of 255 nm. As such, a racemate of compound (5) (1.25 kg) in methanol solution was resolved, which resulted in two enantiomers in about 83 % yield and 97.4 % purity.

Example 13C

Alternatively, the separation can also be achieved on a Simulated Moving Bed (SMB) unit with a CHIRALPAK®IC column and acetonitrile as a mobile phase. The retention times for the two enantiomers are 3.3 and 4.1 minutes, respectively. In certain embodiments, the productivity can be greater than 6 kg Feed/day/kg CSP.

Example 14

(8R,9S)-5-fluoro-8 4-fluorophenyl)-9<l-me

Je]phthalazin-3(7H)-one (la) and (8S,9R)-5-fluoro-8-(4-fluorophenyl)-9-(l-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5- (lb)

Figure imgf000022_0001

Example 14A

To a solution of (2R,3R)-methyl 7-fluoro-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-(l-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5-yl)- 4-oxo-l,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline-5-carboxylate (6a) or (2S,3S)-methyl 7-fluoro-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-(l- methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5-yl)-4-oxo-l,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline-5-carboxylate (6b) (400 mg, 1.0 mmol) in ethanol (8.0 mL) was added hydrazine monohydrate (85 %, 2.0 mL), and the solution stirred at room temperature for 2 hours. The resulting solution was then concentrated to a volume of 2 mL and filtered, and the resultant cake washed with ethanol (1 mL). After drying in vacuum at 50°C, this afforded the title compound as a white solid (209 mg, yield 55 %). LC-MS (ESI) m/z: 381(M+1)+. ^-NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-dg): δ (ppm): 3.681 (s, 3H), 4.99-5.06 (m, 2H), 6.92-6.96 (m, 1H), 7.08-7.11 (m, 1H), 7.16-7.21 (t, J= 8.8 Hz, 2H), 7.49-7.53 (m, 2H), 7.75 (s, 1H), 7.83 (s, 1H), 12.35 (s, 1H).

Example 14B

To a solution of (2R,3R)-methyl 7-fluoro-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-(l-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5-yl)- 4-oxo-l,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline-5-carboxylate (6a) or (2S,3S)-methyl 7-fluoro-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-(l- methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5-yl)-4-oxo-l,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline-5-carboxylate (6b) (446 g) in acetonitrile (10 volume) was added hydrazine monohydrate (2.9 eq.), and the solution stirred at room temperature for 2 hours. The resulting solution was then concentrated to a volume of 2 mL and filtered. The crude product was re-slurried with water (3~5 volumes) at 15-16 °C. After drying in vacuum at 50 °C, this affords the title compound as a white solid (329 g, yield 77%, 99.93% purity). LC-MS (ESI) m/z:

381(M+1)+; ¾-NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ (ppm): 3.681 (s, 3H), 4.99-5.06 (m, 2H), 6.92-6.96 (m, 1H), 7.08-7.11 (m, 1H), 7.16-7.21 (t, J= 8.8 Hz, 2H), 7.49-7.53 (m, 2H), 7.75 (s, 1H), 7.83 (s, 1H), 12.35 (s, 1H).

Talazoparib (BMN-673) is an orally available poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitor currently in development by Pfizer for the treatment of advanced breast cancer patients with germline BRCA mutations.[1] Talazoparib is similar to the first in class PARP inhibitor, olaparib.[2][3] However, talazoparib is thought to be more potent than olaparib.[3]

Mechanism of action

Talazoparib acts as an inhibitor of poly ADP ribose polymerase(PARP) which aids in single strand DNA repair. Cells that have BRCA1/2mutations are susceptible to the cytotoxic effects of PARP inhibitors because of an accumulation of DNA damage.[1] Talazoparib is theorized to have a higher potency than olaparib due to the additional mechanism of action called PARP trapping. PARP trapping is the mechanism of action where the PARP molecule is trapped on the DNA, which interferes with the cells ability to replicate. Talazoparib is found to be ~100 fold more efficient in PARP trapping than olaparib.[4] However, this increased potency may not translate directly to clinical effectiveness as many other factors must be considered.[3][4]

Commercialization

Talazoparib was originally developed by BioMarin Pharmaceutical Inc. However, Medivation Inc. acquired all worldwide rights to talazoparib in August 2015 to expand their global oncology franchise.[5] Medivation acquired talazoparib for $410 million with additional payments of up to $160 million in royalties and milestones. Under this agreement, Medivation assumed all financial responsibilities for the continued development, regulatory, and commercialization of talazoparib.[5][6]

Clinical trials

As of January 2016, talazoparib is in 14 active clinical trials [7] including a new arm of I-SPY 2.[8] These trials cover a variety of cancers types and combination therapies. The most notable clinical trials are the ABRAZO and EMBRACA studies.

ABRAZO

ABRAZO is a phase II study for the safety and efficacy of treatment of BRCA breast cancer patients with Talazoparib monotherapy. This study is for patients who have failed at least two prior chemotherapy treatments for metastatic breast cancer or been previously treated with a platinum regimen.[6][9][10] The original target enrollment for the study was 70 patients but Biomarin expanded the trial to 140 patients.[9][10] The estimated completion date is December 2016.[10]

EMBRACA

EMBRACA is a phase III study for the treatment of BRCA breast cancer patients with Talazoparib.[11][12][13] This trial is an open-label, randomized, parallel, 2-arm, multi-center comparison of talazaporib against physician’s preference for the treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer. Patients must also have received prior chemotherapy regimens for metastatic breast cancer.[12][13] Patients participating in this study are randomly selected for either talazoparib or physician’s choice of chemotherapy at a 2:1 ratio to talazoparib.[6] The target enrollment for the study was 430 patients [12][13] and the estimated completion date is June 2017.[13]

References

  1. Jump up to:a b Medivation Inc. “Talazoparib”.
  2. Jump up^ FDA (19 December 2014). “FDA approves Lynparza to treat advanced ovarian cancer”FDA News Release.
  3. Jump up to:a b c Jessica Brown, Stan Kaye, Timothy Yap (29 March 2016). “PARP inhibitors: the race is on”British Journal of Cancer114: 713–5. doi:10.1038/bjc.2016.67PMC 4984871Freely accessiblePMID 27022824.
  4. Jump up to:a b Yuqiao Shen, Mika Aoyagi-Scharber, Bing Wang (June 2015). “Trapping Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase”Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.
  5. Jump up to:a b Biomarin (24 August 2015). “Medivation to Expand Global Oncology Franchise With the Acquisition of All Worldwide Rights to Talazoparib (BMN 673), a Potent PARP Inhibitor, From BioMarin”.
  6. Jump up to:a b c Silus Inman (25 August 2015). “Medivation Acquires BioMarin’s PARP Inhibitor Talazoparib”.
  7. Jump up^ BMN 673 trials registered
  8. Jump up^ I-SPY 2 TRIAL: Neoadjuvant and Personalized Adaptive Novel Agents to Treat Breast Cancer (I-SPY 2)
  9. Jump up to:a b “BioMarin Provides Program Update for Talazoparib in Metastatic Breast Cancer”. 20 July 2015.
  10. Jump up to:a b c “A Phase 2, 2-Stage, 2-Cohort Study of Talazoparib (BMN 673), in Locally Advanced and/or Metastatic Breast Cancer Patients With BRCA Mutation (ABRAZO Study)”ClinicalTrials.gov.
  11. Jump up^ “EMBRACA CLINICAL STUDY IS NOW ENROLLING”.
  12. Jump up to:a b c “A Study Evaluating Talazoparib (BMN 673), a PARP Inhibitor, in Advanced and/or Metastatic Breast Cancer Patients With BRCA Mutation (EMBRACA Study)”ClinicalTrials.gov.
  13. Jump up to:a b c d “BioMarin Initiates Phase 3 BMN 673 Trial for Metastatic gBRCA Breast Cancer”Benzinga.

External links

nmr……http://www.medkoo.com/uploads/product/Talazoparib__BMN-673_/qc/BMN673-QC-BBC20130523-Web.pdf

Patent                       Submitted                        Granted

PROCESSES OF SYNTHESIZING DIHYDROPYRIDOPHTHALAZINONE DERIVATIVES [US2014323725]2014-06-022014-10-30

CRYSTALLINE (8S,9R)-5-FLUORO-8-(4-FLUOROPHENYL)-9-(1-METHYL-1H-1,2,4-TRIAZOL-5-YL)-8,9-DIHYDRO-2H-PYRIDO[4,3,2-DE]PHTHALAZIN-3(7H)-ONE TOSYLATE SALT [US2014228369]2014-04-142014-08-14

Crystalline (8S,9R)-5-fluoro-8-(4-fluorophenyl)-9-(1-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-yl)-8,9-dihydro-2H-pyrido[4,3,2-de]phthalazin-3(7H)-one tosylate salt [US8735392]2011-10-202014-05-27

DIHYDROPYRIDOPHTHALAZINONE INHIBITORS OF POLY(ADP-RIBOSE)POLYMERASE (PARP) [US8012976]2010-02-112011-09-06

DIHYDROPYRIDOPHTHALAZINONE INHIBITORS OF POLY(ADP-RIBOSE)POLYMERASE (PARP) FOR USE IN TREATMENT OF DISEASES ASSOCIATED WITH A PTEN DEFICIENCY [US2014066429]2013-08-212014-03-06

METHODS AND COMPOSITIONS FOR TREATMENT OF CANCER AND AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE [US2013184342]2013-03-132013-07-18

WO2012054698A1 Oct 20, 2011 Apr 26, 2012 Biomarin Pharmaceutical Inc. Crystalline (8s,9r)-5-fluoro-8-(4-fluorophenyl)-9-(1-methyl-1h-1,2,4-triazol-5-yl)-8,9-dihydro-2h-pyrido[4,3,2-de]phthalazin-3(7h)-one tosylate salt
WO2015069851A1 Nov 6, 2014 May 14, 2015 Biomarin Pharmaceutical Inc. Triazole intermediates useful in the synthesis of protected n-alkyltriazolecarbaldehydes
US8420650 Mar 31, 2011 Apr 16, 2013 Biomarin Pharmaceutical Inc. Dihydropyridophthalazinone inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP)
US8541403 Feb 3, 2011 Sep 24, 2013 Biomarin Pharmaceutical Inc. Dihydropyridophthalazinone inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) for use in treatment of diseases associated with a PTEN deficiency
US8735392 Oct 20, 2011 May 27, 2014 Biomarin Pharmaceutical Inc. Crystalline (8S,9R)-5-fluoro-8-(4-fluorophenyl)-9-(1-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-yl)-8,9-dihydro-2H-pyrido[4,3,2-de]phthalazin-3(7H)-one tosylate salt
US8765945 Feb 8, 2011 Jul 1, 2014 Biomarin Pharmaceutical Inc. Processes of synthesizing dihydropyridophthalazinone derivatives
US8999987 Mar 6, 2013 Apr 7, 2015 Biomarin Pharmaceutical Inc. Dihydropyridophthalazinone inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP)
US9018201 Aug 21, 2013 Apr 28, 2015 Biomarin Pharmaceuticial Inc. Dihydropyridophthalazinone inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) for use in treatment of diseases associated with a PTEN deficiency

SEE………..http://orgspectroscopyint.blogspot.in/2016/02/talazoparib.html

http://apisynthesisint.blogspot.in/2016/02/talazoparib.html

Talazoparib
Talazoparib.svg
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(8S,9R)-5-Fluoro-8-(4-fluorophenyl)-9-(1-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-yl)-2,7,8,9-tetrahydro-3H-pyrido[4,3,2-de]phthalazin-3-one
Clinical data
Legal status
  • Investigational
Chemical data
Formula C19H14F2N6O
Molar mass 380.35 g/mol
Talazoparib
Talazoparib.svg
Legal status
Legal status
  • Investigational
Identifiers
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEMBL
Chemical and physical data
Formula C19H14F2N6O
Molar mass 380.35 g/mol
3D model (JSmol)

/////////////BMN 673, talazoparib, phase 3, BMN673, BMN673, BMN-673, LT673, LT 673, LT-673, Poly ADP ribose polymerase 2 inhibitor, Poly ADP ribose polymerase 1 inhibitor, cancer, MDV-3800 , MDV 3800

Cn1c(ncn1)[C@H]2c3c4c(cc(cc4N[C@@H]2c5ccc(cc5)F)F)c(=O)[nH]n3

O=C1NN=C2C3=C1C=C(F)C=C3N[C@H](C4=CC=C(F)C=C4)[C@H]2C5=NC=NN5C

Talazoparib tosylate タラゾパリブトシル酸塩;

str1

1373431-65-2.png

Talzenna

fda 2018/10/16

CAS: 1373431-65-2
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Nitisinone, ニチシノン


ChemSpider 2D Image | Nitisinone | C14H10F3NO5DB00348.pngNitisinone.svg

Nitisinone

ニチシノン

Orfadin

Launched – 2002, NTBC
SC-0735
SYN-118

2-(alpha,alpha,alpha-Trifluoro-2-nitro-p-tuluoyl)-1,3-cyclohexanedione

2-(2-Nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)cyclohexane-1,3-dione 

Priority,  Orphan

Formula
C14H10F3NO5
CAS
104206-65-7
Mol weight
329.2281
1,3-Cyclohexanedione, 2-[2-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoyl]-
104206-65-7 [RN]
2-(2-Nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)-1,3-cyclohexanedione
Orfadin®|SC-0735
QB-0882
SC0735
UNII:K5BN214699
UNII-K5BN214699
Research Code:SC-0735
Trade Name:Orfadin®
MOA:4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase inhibitor
Indication:Hereditary tyrosinemia
Company:Swedish Orphan Biovitrum AB (SOBI) (Originator)

Nitisinone is a synthetic reversible inhibitor of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase. It is used in the treatment of hereditary tyrosinemia type 1. It is sold under the brand name Orfadin.

Nitisinone was first approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on January 18, 2002, then approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) on February 21, 2005. It was developed and marketed as Orfadin® by Swedish Orphan Biovitrum AB (SOBI) in the US .

The mechanism of action of nitisinone involves reversibile inhibition of 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase(HPPD). It is indicated for use as an adjunct to dietary restriction of tyrosine and phenylalanine in the treatment of hereditary tyrosinemia type 1 (HT-1).

Orfadin® is available as capsule for oral use, containing 2, 5 or 10 mg of free Nitisinone. The recommended initial dose is 1 mg/kg/day divided into two daily doses. Maximum dose is 2 mg/kg/day.

Nitisinone was launched in 2002 by Swedish Orphan (now Swedish Orphan Biovitrum) in a capsule formulation as an adjunct to dietary restriction of tyrosine and phenylalanine in the treatment of hereditary tyrosinemia type I. In 2015, this product was launched in Japan for the same indication. The same year, an oral suspension formulation for pediatric patients was registered in the E.U., and launch took place in the United Kingdom shortly after. This formulation was approved in 2016 in the U.S. for the same indication. In 2016, nitisinone tablet formulation developed by Cycle Pharmaceuticals was approved in Canada (this formulation is also available also in the U.S.).

Indication

Used as an adjunct to dietary restriction of tyrosine and phenylalanine in the treatment of hereditary tyrosinemia type 1.

Associated Conditions

EU

Image result for EU

http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/EPAR_-_Public_assessment_report/human/004281/WC500236080.pdf

Nitisinone MendeliKABS

22 June 2017 EMA/CHMP/502860/2017

Product name, strength, pharmaceutical form: Orfadin • Marketing authorisation holder: Swedish Orphan Biovitrum International AB • Date of authorisation: 21/02/2005

Procedure No. EMEA/H/C/004281/0000

During the meeting on 22 June 2017, the CHMP, in the light of the overall data submitted and the scientific discussion within the Committee, issued a positive opinion for granting a Marketing authorisation to Nitisinone MendeliKABS.

The chemical name of nitisinone is 2-[2-Nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoyl]-1,3-cyclohexanedione corresponding to the molecular formula C14H10F3NO5. It has a relative molecular mass of 329.23 g/mol and the following structure: Figure 1. Structure of nitisinone.

Nitisinone appears as off-white to yellowish non-hygroscopic fine crystalline powder. It is practically insoluble in unbuffered water. It is freely soluble in dichloromethane, sparingly soluble in ethyl alcohol, slightly soluble in isopropyl alcohol and 70% aqueous isopropyl alcohol and in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer, very slightly soluble in pH 4.5 acetate buffer and practically insoluble at pH 1.1. Solubility in acidified aqueous media depends on the acid counter ion. Solubility increases with increasing pH. Its pKa was found to be around 10. Nitisinone is achiral and does not show polymorphism.

ALSO

2005

http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/EPAR_-_Scientific_Discussion/human/000555/WC500049192.pdf

Nitisinone is a white to yellowish-white crystalline powder poorly soluble in water. The active substance is a weak acid and it is highly soluble in the pH range 4.5-7.2 in phosphate buffer solutions. Nitisinone has the chemical name 2-(2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)-cyclohexane-1,3-dione. It does not show polymorphism.

US FDA

https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/nda/2016/206356Orig1s000ChemR.pdf

Company:  Swedish Orphan Biovitrum AB
Application No.:  206356Orig1
Approval Date: April 22, 2016

Nitisinone (INN), also known as NTBC (an abbreviation of its full chemical name) is a medication used to slow the effects of hereditary tyrosinemia type 1. Since its first use for this indication in 1991, it has replaced liver transplantation as the first-line treatment for this rare condition. It is also being studied in the related condition alkaptonuria. It is marketed under the brand name Orfadin by the company Swedish Orphan Biovitrum (Sobi); it was first brought to market by Swedish Orphan International. It was originally developed as a candidate herbicide.

Uses

Nitisinone is used to treat hereditary tyrosinemia type 1, in combination with restriction of tyrosine in the diet.[1][2][3]

Since its first use for this indication in 1991, it has replaced liver transplantation as the first-line treatment for this rare condition.[4] I It is marketed under the brand name Orfadin.

It has been demonstrated that treatment with nitisinone can reduce urinary levels of homogentisic acid in alkaptonuria patients by 95%.[5] A series of clinical trials run by DevelopAKUre to determine whether nitisinone is effective at treating the ochronosis suffered by patients with alkaptonuria are ongoing.[6] If the trials are successful, DevelopAKUre will try to get nitisinone licensed for use by alkaptonuria patients.[7]

Mechanism of action

The mechanism of action of nitisinone involves reversibile inhibition of 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD).[8][9] This is a treatment for patients with Tyrosinemia type 1 as it prevents the formation of maleylacetoacetic acid and fumarylacetoacetic acid, which have the potential to be converted to succinyl acetone, a toxin that damages the liver and kidneys.[4] This causes the symptoms of Tyrosinemia type 1 experienced by untreated patients.[10]

Alkaptonuria is caused when an enzyme called homogentisic dioxygenase (HGD) is faulty, leading to a buildup of homogenisate.[11]Alkaptonuria patients treated with nitisinone produce far less HGA than those not treated (95% less in the urine),[5] because nitisinone inhibits HPPD, resulting in less homogenisate accumulation. Clinical trials are ongoing to test whether nitisinone can prevent ochronosisexperienced by older alkaptonuria patients.[6]

Adverse effects

Nitisinone has several negative side effects; these include but are not limited to: bloated abdomen, dark urine, abdominal pain, feeling of tiredness or weakness, headache, light-colored stools, loss of appetite, weight loss, vomiting, and yellow-colored eyes or skin.[12]

Research

Nitisinone is being studied as a treatment for alkaptonuria.[13]

Research at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has demonstrated that nitisinone can reduce urinary levels of HGA by up to 95% in patients with alkaptonuria. The primary parameter of the NIH trial was range of hip motion, for which the results were inconclusive.[citation needed]

Research done using alkaptonuric mice has shown that mice treated with nitisinone experience no ochronosis in knee joint cartilage. In contrast, all of the mice in the untreated control group developed ochronotic knee joints.[14]

The efficacy of Nitisinone is now being studied in a series international clinical trials called DevelopAKUre.[15] The studies will recruit alkaptonuria patients in Europe.[16] A larger number of patients will be recruited in these trials than in the previous NIH trial.[17] The trials are funded by the European Commission.[18]

Nitisinone has been shown to increase skin and eye pigmentation in mice, and has been suggested as a possible treatment for oculocutaneous albinism.[19][20]

History

Nitisinone was discovered as part of a program to develop a class of herbicides called HPPD inhibitors. It is a member of the benzoylcyclohexane-1,3-dione family of herbicides, which are chemically derived from a natural phytotoxin, leptospermone, obtained from the Australian bottlebrush plant (Callistemon citrinus).[21] HPPD is essential in plants and animals for catabolism, or breaking apart, of tyrosine.[22] In plants, preventing this process leads to destruction of chlorophyll and the death of the plant.[22] In toxicology studies of the herbicide, it was discovered that it had activity against HPPD in rats[23] and humans.[24]

In Type I tyrosinemia, a different enzyme involved in the breakdown of tyrosine, fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase is mutated and doesn’t work, leading to very harmful products building up in the body.[1] Fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase acts on tyrosine after HPPD does, so scientists working on making herbicides in the class of HPPD inhibitors hypothesized that inhibiting HPPD and controlling tyrosine in the diet could treat this disease. A series of small clinical trials attempted with one of their compounds, nitisinone, were conducted and were successful, leading to nitisinone being brought to market as an orphan drug Swedish Orphan International,[8] which was later acquired by Swedish Orphan Biovitrum (Sobi).

Sobi is now a part of the DevelopAKUre consortium. They are responsible for drug supply and regulatory support in the ongoing clinical trials that will test the efficiacy of nitisinone as a treatment for alkaptonuria.[25] It is hoped that if the trials are successful, nitisinone could also be licensed for treatment of alkaptonuria.[7]

Generic versions

There is no generic version of Orfadin in G7 countries. Prior to the market authorization of MDK-Nitisinone in Canada, the only Nitisinone product available globally was Orfadin.[26]Until recently, Nitisinone was not approved in Canada where it was distributed for over 20 years via a Health Canada Special Access Program. In September 2016, MendeliKABS was granted approval of a Priority New Drug Submission (PNDS) by Health Canada for a bioequivalent generic version of Orfadin capsules (MDK-Nitisinone). In November 2016 Cycle Pharma was also granted approval of a PNDS by Health Canada for Nitisinone tablets that are bioequivalent to Orfadin capsules.[27] SOBI was granted approval of a PNDS in December 2016.[28]

PAPER

1H NMR, 13C NMR, and Computational DFT Studies of the Structure of 2-Acylcyclohexane-1,3-diones and Their Alkali Metal Salts in Solution

Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warszawa, Poland
J. Org. Chem.200671 (12), pp 4636–4641
DOI: 10.1021/jo060583g
Abstract Image

1H and 13C NMR spectra of 2-acyl-substituted cyclohexane-1,3-diones (acyl = formyl, 1; 2-nitrobenzoyl, 2; 2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl, 3) and lithium sodium and potassium salts of 1have been measured. The compound 3, known as NTBC, is a life-saving medicine applied in tyrosinemia type I. The optimum molecular structures of the investigated objects in solutions have been found using the DFT method with B3LYP functional and 6-31G** and/or 6-311G(2d,p) basis set. The theoretical values of the NMR parameters of the investigated compounds have been calculated using GIAO DFT B3LYP/6-311G(2d,p) method. The theoretical data obtained for compounds 13 have been exploited to interpret their experimental NMR spectra in terms of the equilibrium between different tautomers. It has been found that for these triketones an endo-tautomer prevails. The differences in NMR spectra of the salts of 1 can be rationalized taking into account the size of the cation and the degree of salt dissociation. It seems that in DMSO solution the lithium salt exists mainly as an ion pair stabilized by the chelation of a lithium cation with two oxygen atoms. The activation free energy the of formyl group rotation for this salt has been estimated to be 51.5 kJ/mol. The obtained results suggest that in all the investigated objects, including the free enolate ions, all atoms directly bonded to the carbonyl carbons lie near the same plane. Some observations concerning the chemical shift changes could indicate strong solvation of the anion of 1 by water molecules. Implications of the results obtained in this work for the inhibition mechanism of (4-hydroxyphenyl) pyruvate dioxygenase by NTBC are commented upon.

2-(2-Nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)cyclohexane-1,3-dione (NTBC; 3). The compound was prepared in the same manner as 2. The synthesis of an appropriate benzoic acid derivative was started from the transformation of commercially available 2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylaniline into benzonitrile by the classical Sandmeyer method. Then the nitrile was hydrolyzed in 65% sulfuric acid to give 2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoic acid.13 The obtained triketone 3 had a mp of 140−142 °C (lit.14 141−143 °C). For NMR data, see Supporting Information….. https://pubs.acs.org/doi/suppl/10.1021/jo060583g/suppl_file/jo060583gsi20060420_080852.pdf

NMR data for 2-(2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)cyclohexane-1,3-dione, 3, in CDCl3

1 H NMR: 16.25 (s, 1H, OH), 8.47 (ddq, 1H, H10, J10,12=1.7 Hz, J10,13=0.4 Hz, J10,F=0.7 Hz), 7.94 (ddq, 1H, H12, J12,13=8.0 Hz, J12,F=0.7 Hz), 7.39 (ddq, 1H, H13, J13,F=0.8 Hz), 2.81 (t-like m, 2H, H4, H4’, JH4,H4’= -18.8 Hz, JH4,H5=5.4 Hz, JH4,H5’=7.3 Hz, JH4,H6=0.7 Hz, JH4,H6’= -0.8 Hz), 2.37 (tlike m, 2H, H6, H6’, JH6,H6’= -16.5 Hz, JH6,H5=4.6 Hz, JH6,H5’=8. 5 Hz), 2.04 (pentet-like m, 2H, H5, H5’, JH5,H5’= -13.6 Hz.

13C NMR: 196.3 (s, C(O)Ph), 195.8 (s, C3), 194.1 (s, C1), 145.5 (s, C9), 139.7 (s, C8), 132.0 (q, C11, J11,F=34.3 Hz), 130.8 (q, C12 J12,F=3.5 Hz), 127.7 (s, C13), 122.6 (q, CF3, JC,F=272.9 Hz), 121.1 (q, C10, J10,F=3.9 Hz), 112.7 (s, C2), 37.3 (s, C6) 31.6 (s, C4), 19.1 (s, C5).

str1 str2

PATENT

EP 186118

US 4780127

File:Nitisinone synthesis.svg

 Nitisinone pk_prod_list.xml_prod_list_card_pr?p_tsearch=A&p_id=228471

The condensation of cyclohexane-1,3-dione (I) with 2-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoyl chloride by means of TEA in dichloromethane gives the target Nitisinone.EP 0186118
JP 1986152642, US 4774360, US 4780127

Image result for nitisinone synthesis

Nitisinone

    • Synonyms:NTBC, SC 0735
    • ATC:A16AX04
  • Use:treatment of inherited tyrosinemia type I
  • Chemical name:2-[2-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoyl]-1,3-cyclohexanedione
  • Formula:C14H10F3NO5
  • MW:329.23 g/mol
  • CAS-RN:104206-65-7

Substance Classes

Synthesis Path

Substances Referenced in Synthesis Path

CAS-RN Formula Chemical Name CAS Index Name
504-02-9 C6H8O2 cyclohexane-1,3-dione 1,3-Cyclohexanedione
81108-81-8 C8H3ClF3NO3 2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl chloride

Trade Names

Country Trade Name Vendor Annotation
D Orfadin Orphan Europe
USA Orfadin Swedish Orphan ,2002

Formulations

  • cps. 2 mg

References

    • WO 9 300 080 (ICI; 7.1.1993; appl. 18.6.1992; GB-prior. 24.6.1991).
    • US 4 774 360 (Stauffer Chemical; 27.9.1988; appl. 29.6.1987).
  • synergistic herbicidal combination:

    • WO 9 105 469 (Hoechst AG; 2.5.1991; appl. 12.10.1990; D-prior. 18.10.1989).
  • preparation of benzoylcyclohexanedione herbicides:

    • US 4 780 127 (Stauffer Chemical; 25.10.1988; appl. 30.6.1986; USA-prior. 25.3.1982).
  • certain 2-(2-nitrobenzoyl)-1,3-cyclohexanediones:

    • EP 186 118 (Stauffer Chemical; 2.7.1986; appl. 18.12.1985; USA-prior. 20.12.1984).
  • stable herbicidal compositions:

    • WO 9 727 748 (Zeneca; 7.8.1997; appl. 3.2.1997; USA-prior. 2.2.1996).

PATENT

US9783485B1

https://patents.google.com/patent/US9783485B1/en

NTBC is a drug marketed by Swedish Orphan Biovitrum International AB under the brand name Orfadin® and it is used to slow the effects of hereditary tyrosinemia type 1 (HT-1) in adult and pediatric patients. It has been approved by FDA and EMA in January 2002 and February 2005 respectively.

HT-1 disease is due to a deficiency of the final enzyme of the tyrosine catabolic pathway fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase. NTBC is a competitive inhibitor of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD), an enzyme which precedes fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase. By inhibiting the normal catabolism of tyrosine in patients with HT-1, NTBC prevents the accumulation of the toxic intermediates maleylacetoacetate and fumarylacetoacetate, that in patients with HT-1 are converted to the toxic metabolites succinylacetone and succinylacetoacetate, the former inhibiting the porphyrin synthesis pathway leading to the accumulation of 5-aminolevulinate.

Usefulness of NTBC in the treatment of further diseases has also been documented. A non-comprehensive list is reported hereinafter.

Effectiveness of Orfadin® in the treatment of diseases where the products of the action of HPPD are involved (e.g., HT-1) has been described notably in EP0591275B1 corresponding to U.S. Pat. No. 5,550,165B1. Synthesis of NTBC is also described in this patent.

WO2011106655 reports a method for increasing tyrosine plasma concentrations in a subject suffering from oculocutaneous/ocular albinism, the method comprising administering to the subject a pharmaceutically acceptable composition comprising NTBC in the range of between about 0.1 mg/kg/day to about 10 mg/kg/day.

U.S. Pat. No. 8,354,451B2 reports new methods of combating microbial infections due to fungi or bacteria by means of administration to a subject of a therapeutically active amount of NTBC.

WO2010054273 discloses NTBC-containing compositions and methods for the treatment and/or prevention of restless leg syndrome (RLS).

EP1853241B1 claims the use of NTBC in the treatment of a neurodegenerative disease, notably Parkinson disease.

Introne W. J., et al., disclosed usefulness of nitisinone in the treatment of alkaptonuria (Introne W. J., et al., Molec. Genet. Metab., 2011, 103, 4, 307). The key step of the synthesis reported in EP0591275B1 (now propriety of Swedish Orphan Biovitrum International AB, SE), involves the reaction of 2-nitro-4-trifluromethylbenzoyl chloride and cyclohexane-1,3-dione in the presence of triethylamine and then use of acetone cyanohydrin in order to promote the rearrangement of the key intermediate enol ester. After washing and extraction from CH2Cl2, the crude product is recrystallized from ethyl acetate to get the desired 2-(2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)-1,3-cyclohexanedione as a solid having a melting point of 88-94° C.

Another patent (U.S. Pat. No. 4,695,673) filed in name of Stauffer Chemical Company disclosed a process of synthesis of acylated 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds in which the intermediate enol ester is isolated prior to its rearrangement into the final product, said rearrangement making use of a cyanohydrin compound derived from alkali metal, methyl alkyl ketone, benzaldehyde, cyclohexanone, C2-C5aliphatic aldehyde, lower alkyl silyl or directly by using hydrogen cyanide.

Yet another patent (U.S. Pat. No. 5,006,158) filed in name of ICI Americas Inc. disclosed a process similar to the one disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,695,673 wherein the intermediate enol ester was isolated prior to its rearrangement into the final product by use of potassium cyanide. Said reaction can optionally be done by concomitant use of a phase transfer catalyst such as Crown ethers. The preferred solvent for conducting such a reaction is 1,2-dichloroethane.

Still a further patent (EP0805791) filed in name of Zeneca Ltd disclosed an alternative synthesis of nitisinone involving the reaction of 1,3-cyclohexanedione and variously substituted benzoyl chloride in the presence of sodium or potassium carbonate in CH3CN or DMF. Best yields were obtained using CH3CN as solvent and sodium carbonate as the base. Reaction was performed at 55-57° C. in 17 hours.

It is well known that one of the problems of the actual drug formulation (i.e., Orfadin® capsules) is its chemical instability. Indeed, even if Orfadin® has to be stored in a refrigerator at a temperature ranging from 2° C. to 8° C., its shelf life is of only 18 months. After first opening, the in-use stability is a single period of 2 months at a temperature not above 25° C., after which it must be discarded. It will be evident that such storage conditions have an impact in the distribution chain of the medicine, in terms of costs and also in terms of logistics for the patient. Therefore, there is an urgent need of more stable formulations, both from a logistic supply chain point of view, and from the patient compliance point of view. Since the formulation of Orfadin® contains only the active ingredient and starch as excipient, relative instability may be attributed to the active pharmaceutical ingredient itself; in other words it can derive from the way it is synthesized and/or the way it is extracted from the reaction mixture, and/or the way it is finally crystallized. Furthermore, some impurities may contribute to render the final product less stable overtime. Consequently, it is of major importance to identify a process of synthesis and/or a crystallization method that enable the reliable production of a highly pure and stable product.

Impurities as herein-above mentioned can derive either from the final product itself (through chemical degradation) or directly from the starting materials/solvents used in the process of synthesis. Regarding the latter option, it is therefore primordial to ascertain that at each step, impurities are completely removed in order not to get them at the final stage, also considering that some of them could potentially be cyto/genotoxic.

The impurities correlated to nitisinone can be either derived from the starting materials themselves (i.e., impurities 1 and 2) or obtained as side products during the process of synthesis and/or under storage conditions (i.e., impurities 3 to 5) and are the following:

    • 2-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl) benzoic acid (Impurity no 1),
    • 1,3-cyclohexanedione (CHD) (Impurity no 2),
    • 4-(trifluoromethyl)salicylic acid (Impurity no 3),
    • 2-[3-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoyl]-1,3-cyclohexanedione (Impurity no 4), and
    • 6-trifluoromethyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-xanthene-1,9-dione (Impurity no 5).
Figure US09783485-20171010-C00001


Impurity-2, impurity-3, and impurity-5 have been previously reported in WO2015101794. Strangely, impurity-4 has never been reported, even if it is an obvious side-product which can easily be formed during the coupling reaction between 1,3-cyclohexanedione and 2-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl) benzoic acid, the latter being not 100% pure but containing some amount of regioisomer 3-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl) benzoic acid.

Potential genotoxicity of impurity no 4 which possesses an aromatic nitro moiety was assessed using in-silico techniques and resulted to be a potential genotoxic impurity. According to the FDA ICH M7 guidelines, daily intake of a mutagenic impurity (Threshold of Toxicological Concern, TTC) in an amount not greater than 1.5 μg per person is considered to be associated with a negligible risk to develop cancer over a lifetime of exposure. Consequently, assuming a daily dose of 2 mg/kg, for a person weighing 70 kg, the maximum tolerated impurity content of such a compound would be of about 11 ppm, as calculated according to the equation underneath.

concentration ⁢ ⁢ limit ⁢ ⁢ ( ppm ) = T ⁢ ⁢ T ⁢ ⁢ C ⁡ ( µg / day ) Dose ⁡ ( g / day )

It is therefore of paramount importance to ensure that the process of synthesis of nitisinone and the purification steps of the same give rise to an API devoid of such impurity no 4, or at least far below the threshold of 11 ppm as indicated above. The skilled person will understand that total absence of said impurity is highly desirable.

It is well known in the pharmaceutical field that investigation of potential polymorphism of a solid API is of crucial importance and is also recommended by major regulatory authorities such as FDA.

Notwithstanding the fact that nitisinone has been used for years to treat HT-1 patients, it appears that no NTBC formulation fully satisfies the requisites of stability and/or compliance standard for the patients. Therefore, there is an unmet medical need of long-term pure and stable formulations.

Example 1

Thionyl chloride (162 g, 1.36 mol) was added dropwise into a suspension of 2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoic acid (228 g, 0.97 mol) in toluene (630 g) at 80° C. The thus obtained solution was kept under stirring at 80° C. for 20 hours, and then cooled to 50° C. The volatiles were removed under reduced pressure in order to get the expected 2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl chloride as an oil. The latter, cooled to 25° C. was added dropwise to a suspension of 1,3-cyclohexanedione (109 g, 0.97 mol) and potassium carbonate (323 g, 2.33 mol) in CH3CN (607 g). After 18 h the mixture was diluted with water (500 ml) and slowly acidified to about pH=1 with HCl 37%. The mixture was then warmed to about 55° C. and the phases were separated. The organic layer was washed with a 10% aqueous solution of sodium chloride and then, concentrated under reduced pressure at a temperature below 55° C. to reach a volume of 380 ml. The thus obtained mixture was stirred at 55° C. for 1 h and then cooled to 0° C. in 16 to 18 h. The resulting solid was filtered and rinsed several times with pre-cooled (0° C.) toluene. The wet solid was dried at 60° C. under vacuum for 6 h to provide nitisinone (164 g) as a white to yellowish solid with a purity of 98.4% as measured by HPLC and a content of potentially genotoxic impurity no 4 of 6.1 ppm measured by HPLC/MS.

Example 2

Nitisinone as obtained from example 1 (164 g) was added to a 3/1 (w/w) mixture of CH3CN/toluene (volume of solvent: 638 ml). The mixture was warmed gently to about 55° C. under stirring until solids were completely dissolved. The solution was then concentrated under reduced pressure maintaining the internal temperature below 50° C. to reach a volume of 290 ml. Then, more toluene (255 g) was added and the solution was concentrated again under reduced pressure until the residual volume reached 290 ml. The solution was heated to about 55° C. for 1 h and successively cooled slowly in 10 to 12 h to 10° C. The resulting solid was filtered and rinsed several times with pre-cooled (0° C.) toluene. The wet solid was dried at about 60° C. under vacuum for 4 h to provide nitisinone (136 g) as a white to yellowish solid, with a purity of 99.94% and a 99.8% assay measured by HPLC and a d(90) particle size between 310 and 350 μm. The content of potential genotoxic impurity no 4 resulted below 1 ppm.

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Nitisinone – WikiVisually

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4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase – Proposed Reaction Mechanism of HPPD

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References

  1. Jump up to:a b National Organization for Rare Disorders. Physician’s Guide to Tyrosinemia Type 1Archived 2014-02-11 at the Wayback Machine.
  2. Jump up^ “Nitisinone (Oral Route) Description and Brand Names”. Mayoclinic.com. 2015-04-01. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
  3. Jump up^ Sobi Orfadin® (nitisinone)
  4. Jump up to:a b McKiernan, Patrick J (2006). “Nitisinone in the Treatment of Hereditary Tyrosinaemia Type 1”. Drugs66 (6): 743–50. doi:10.2165/00003495-200666060-00002PMID 16706549.
  5. Jump up to:a b Introne, Wendy J.; Perry, Monique B.; Troendle, James; Tsilou, Ekaterini; Kayser, Michael A.; Suwannarat, Pim; O’Brien, Kevin E.; Bryant, Joy; Sachdev, Vandana; Reynolds, James C.; Moylan, Elizabeth; Bernardini, Isa; Gahl, William A. (2011). “A 3-year randomized therapeutic trial of nitisinone in alkaptonuria”Molecular Genetics and Metabolism103(4): 307–14. doi:10.1016/j.ymgme.2011.04.016PMC 3148330Freely accessiblePMID 21620748.
  6. Jump up to:a b “About DevelopAKUre | DevelopAKUre”. Developakure.eu. 2014-06-20. Archived from the original on 2015-05-12. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
  7. Jump up to:a b “A Potential Drug – Nitisinone”. Akusociety.org. Archived from the original on 2015-05-05. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
  8. Jump up to:a b Lock, E. A.; Ellis, M. K.; Gaskin, P.; Robinson, M.; Auton, T. R.; Provan, W. M.; Smith, L. L.; Prisbylla, M. P.; Mutter, L. C.; Lee, D. L. (1998). “From toxicological problem to therapeutic use: The discovery of the mode of action of 2-(2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)-1,3-cyclohexanedione (NTBC), its toxicology and development as a drug”. Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease21 (5): 498–506. doi:10.1023/A:1005458703363PMID 9728330.
  9. Jump up^ Kavana, Michael; Moran, Graham R. (2003). “Interaction of (4-Hydroxyphenyl)pyruvate Dioxygenase with the Specific Inhibitor 2-[2-Nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoyl]-1,3-cyclohexanedione†”. Biochemistry42 (34): 10238–45. doi:10.1021/bi034658bPMID 12939152.
  10. Jump up^ “Newborn Screening”. Newbornscreening.info. 2013-05-14. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
  11. Jump up^ “What is Alkaptonuria?”. Akusociety.org. Archived from the original on 2015-04-05. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
  12. Jump up^ “Nitisinone (Oral Route) Side Effects”. Mayoclinic.com. 2015-04-01. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
  13. Jump up^ Phornphutkul, Chanika; Introne, Wendy J.; Perry, Monique B.; Bernardini, Isa; Murphey, Mark D.; Fitzpatrick, Diana L.; Anderson, Paul D.; Huizing, Marjan; Anikster, Yair; Gerber, Lynn H.; Gahl, William A. (2002). “Natural History of Alkaptonuria”. New England Journal of Medicine347 (26): 2111–21. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa021736PMID 12501223.
  14. Jump up^ Preston, A. J.; Keenan, C. M.; Sutherland, H.; Wilson, P. J.; Wlodarski, B.; Taylor, A. M.; Williams, D. P.; Ranganath, L. R.; Gallagher, J. A.; Jarvis, J. C. (2013). “Ochronotic osteoarthropathy in a mouse model of alkaptonuria, and its inhibition by nitisinone”. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases73 (1): 284–9. doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2012-202878PMID 23511227.
  15. Jump up^ “DevelopAKUre”. Developakure.eu. 2014-06-20. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
  16. Jump up^ “2012-005340-24”. Clinicaltrialsregister.eu. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
  17. Jump up^ “The Programme | DevelopAKUre”. Developakure.eu. 2014-06-20. Archived from the original on 2015-05-12. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
  18. Jump up^ “European Commission : CORDIS : Search : Simple”. Cordis.europa.eu. 2012-05-30. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
  19. Jump up^ Onojafe, Ighovie F.; Adams, David R.; Simeonov, Dimitre R.; Zhang, Jun; Chan, Chi-Chao; Bernardini, Isa M.; Sergeev, Yuri V.; Dolinska, Monika B.; Alur, Ramakrishna P.; Brilliant, Murray H.; Gahl, William A.; Brooks, Brian P. (2011). “Nitisinone improves eye and skin pigmentation defects in a mouse model of oculocutaneous albinism”Journal of Clinical Investigation121 (10): 3914–23. doi:10.1172/JCI59372PMC 3223618Freely accessiblePMID 21968110Lay summary – ScienceDaily (September 26, 2011).
  20. Jump up^ “Nitisinone for Type 1B Oculocutaneous Albinism – Full Text View”. ClinicalTrials.gov. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
  21. Jump up^ G. Mitchell, D.W. Bartlett, T.E. Fraser, T.R. Hawkes, D.C. Holt, J.K. Townson, R.A. Wichert Mesotrione: a new selective herbicide for use in maize Pest Management Science, 57 (2) (2001), pp. 120–128
  22. Jump up to:a b Moran, Graham R. (2005). “4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase”. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics433 (1): 117–28. doi:10.1016/j.abb.2004.08.015PMID 15581571.
  23. Jump up^ Ellis, M.K.; Whitfield, A.C.; Gowans, L.A.; Auton, T.R.; Provan, W.M.; Lock, E.A.; Smith, L.L. (1995). “Inhibition of 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate Dioxygenase by 2-(2-Nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)-cyclohexane-1,3-dione and 2-(2-Chloro-4-methanesulfonylbenzoyl)-cyclohexane-1,3-dione”. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology133 (1): 12–9. doi:10.1006/taap.1995.1121PMID 7597701.
  24. Jump up^ Lindstedt, Sven; Odelhög, Birgit (1987). “4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase from human liver”. In Kaufman, Seymour. Metabolism of Aromatic Amino Acids and Amines. Methods in Enzymology. 142. pp. 139–42. doi:10.1016/S0076-6879(87)42021-1ISBN 978-0-12-182042-8PMID 3037254.
  25. Jump up^ “Others | DevelopAKUre”. Developakure.eu. 2014-06-20. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
  26. Jump up^ Pr MDK-Nitisinone Summary Basis of Decisions, Health Canada 2016. http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/dhp-mps/prodpharma/sbd-smd/drug-med/sbd-smd-2016-mdk-nitisinone-190564-eng.php
  27. Jump up^ Pr Nitisinone Tablets Regulatory Decision Summary Health Canada, 2016. http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/dhp-mps/prodpharma/rds-sdr/drug-med/rds-sdr-nitisinone-tab-193770-eng.php
  28. Jump up^ PrOrfadin Regulatory Decision Summary Health Canada, 2016. http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/dhp-mps/prodpharma/rds-sdr/drug-med/rds-sdr-orfadin-193226-eng.php

External links

Nitisinone
Nitisinone.svg
Clinical data
AHFS/Drugs.com Consumer Drug Information
License data
Routes of
administration
Oral
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Elimination half-life Approximately 54 h
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
IUPHAR/BPS
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
ChEMBL
ECHA InfoCard 100.218.521 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
Formula C14H10F3NO5
Molar mass 329.228 g/mol
3D model (JSmol)
Title: Nitisinone
CAS Registry Number: 104206-65-7
CAS Name: 2-[2-Nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoyl]-1,3-cyclohexanedione
Additional Names: NTBC
Trademarks: Orfadin (Swedish Orphan )
Molecular Formula: C14H10F3NO5
Molecular Weight: 329.23
Percent Composition: C 51.07%, H 3.06%, F 17.31%, N 4.25%, O 24.30%
Literature References: Herbicidal triketone that inhibits 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD), an enzyme involved in plastoquinone biosynthesis in plants and in tyrosine catabolism in mammals. Prepn: C. G. Carter, EP 186118 (1986 to Stauffer); idem, US 5006158 (1991 to ICI). Inhibition of HPPD in plants: M. P. Prisbylla et al., Brighton Crop Prot. Conf. – Weeds 1993, 731; in rats: M. K. Ellis et al., Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 133, 12 (1995). LC determn in plasma: M. Bielenstein et al., J. Chromatogr. B 730,177 (1999). Clinical evaluation in hereditary tyrosinemia type I: S. Lindstedt et al., Lancet 340, 813 (1992). Review of toxicology and therapeutic development: E. A. Lock et al, J. Inherited Metab. Dis. 21, 498-506 (1998); of clinical experience: E. Holme, S. Lindstedt, ibid. 507-517.
Properties: Solid, mp 88-94°.
Melting point: mp 88-94°
Therap-Cat: In treatment of inherited tyrosinemia type I.

////////////////Nitisinone, ニチシノン , Orfadin, FDA 2002, NTBC  , SC-0735  , SYN-118 , JAPAN 2015, JAP 2015, EU 2005, Priority,  Orphan

[O-][N+](=O)C1=C(C=CC(=C1)C(F)(F)F)C(=O)C1C(=O)CCCC1=O

Nusinersen sodium, ヌシネルセンナトリウム


ヌシネルセンナトリウム
Nusinersen Sodium

C234H323N61Na17O128P17S17 : 7500.89
[1258984-36-9 , ヌシネルセン]

Nusinersen sodium

C234H323N61O128P17S17.17Na, 7500.8854

UNII 4CHB7QQU1Q

ISIS 396443

Nusinersen sodium was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on Dec 23, 2016, and approved by the European Medicines Agency’s (EMA) on May 30, 2017, and approved by Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency of Japan (PMDA) on July 3, 2017.

JAPAN APPROVAL

2017/7/3 Nusinersen sodium Spinraza Biogen Japan

An antisense oligonucleotide that induces survival motor neuron (SMN) protein expression, it was approved by the U.S. FDA in December, 2016 as Spinraza for the treatment of children and adults with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). It is adminstrated as direct intrathecal injection.Nusinersen sodium colored.svg

FREE FORM CAS: 1258984-36-9

Image result for nusinersen

CAS1258984-36-9

MFC234H340N61O128P17S17

ISIS-396443, ISIS-SMNRx, IONIS-SMNRx

RNA, (2′-0-(2-methoxyethyi))(p-thio)(m5u-c-a-c-m5u-m5u-m5u-c-a-m5ua- a-m5 u-g-c-m5u-g-g)

RNA, (2′-0-(2-METHOXYETHYI))(P-THIO)(M5U-C-A-C-M5U-M5U-M5U-C-A-M5UA- A-M5 U-G-C-M5U-G-G)

All-P-ambo-2′-O-(2-methoxyethyl)-5-methyl-P-thiouridylyl-(3’¨5′)-2′-O-(2-methoxyethyl)-5-methyl-P-thiocytidylyl-(3’¨5′)-2′-O-(2-methoxyethyl)-P-thioadenylyl-(3’¨5′)-2′-O-(2-methoxyethyl)-5-methyl-P-thiocytidylyl-(3’¨5′)-2′-O-(2-methoxyethyl)-5-methyl-P-thiouridylyl-(3’¨5′)-2′-O-(2-methoxyethyl)-5-methyl-P-thiouridylyl-(3’¨5′)-2′-O-(2-methoxyethyl)-5-methyl-P-thiouridylyl-(3’¨5′)-2′-O-(2-methoxyethyl)-5-methyl-P-thiocytidylyl-(3’¨5′)-2′-O-(2-methoxyethyl)-P-thioadenylyl-(3’¨5′)-2′-O-(2-methoxyethyl)-5-methyl-P-thiouridylyl-(3’¨5′)-2′-O-(2-methoxyethyl)-P-thioadenylyl-(3’¨5′)-2′-O-(2-methoxyethyl)-P-thioadenylyl-(3’¨5′)-2′-O-(2-methoxyethyl)-5-methyl-P-thiouridylyl-(3’¨5′)-2′-O-(2-methoxyethyl)-P-thioguanylyl-(3’¨5′)-2′-O-(2-methoxyethyl)-5-methyl-P-thiocytidylyl-(3’¨5′)-2′-O-(2-methoxyethyl)-5-methyl-P-thiouridylyl-(3’¨5′)-2′-O-(2-methoxyethyl)-P-thioguanylyl-(3’¨5′)-2′-O-(2-methoxyethyl)guanosine

ISIS-SMNRx is a drug that is designed to modulate the splicing of the SMN2 gene to significantly increase the production of functional SMN protein. The US regulatory agency has granted Orphan Drug Designation with Fast Track Status to nusinersen for the treatment of patients with SMA. The European regulatory agency has granted Orphan Drug Designation to nusinersen for the treatment of patients with SMA.

Nusinersen,[1] marketed as Spinraza,[3] is a medication used in treating spinal muscular atrophy (SMA),[4] a rare neuromuscular disorder. In December 2016, it became the first approved drug used in treating this disorder. Nusinersen has orphan drugdesignation in the United States and the European Union.[5]

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FDA

FDA approves first drug for spinal muscular atrophy

New therapy addresses unmet medical need for rare disease

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Spinraza (nusinersen), the first drug approved to treat children and adults with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a rare and often fatal genetic disease affecting muscle strength and movement. Spinraza is an injection administered into the fluid surrounding the spinal cord.

Read more.

For Immediate Release

December 23, 2016

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Spinraza (nusinersen), the first drug approved to treat children and adults with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a rare and often fatal genetic disease affecting muscle strength and movement. Spinraza is an injection administered into the fluid surrounding the spinal cord.

“There has been a long-standing need for a treatment for spinal muscular atrophy, the most common genetic cause of death in infants, and a disease that can affect people at any stage of life,” said Billy Dunn, M.D., director of the Division of Neurology Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “As shown by our suggestion to the sponsor to analyze the results of the study earlier than planned, the FDA is committed to assisting with the development and approval of safe and effective drugs for rare diseases and we worked hard to review this application quickly; we could not be more pleased to have the first approved treatment for this debilitating disease.”

SMA is a hereditary disease that causes weakness and muscle wasting because of the loss of lower motor neurons controlling movement. There is wide variability in age of onset, symptoms and rate of progression. Spinraza is approved for use across the range of spinal muscular atrophy patients.

The FDA worked closely with the sponsor during development to help design and implement the analysis upon which this approval was based. The efficacy of Spinraza was demonstrated in a clinical trial in 121 patients with infantile-onset SMA who were diagnosed before 6 months of age and who were less than 7 months old at the time of their first dose. Patients were randomized to receive an injection of Spinraza, into the fluid surrounding the spinal cord, or undergo a mock procedure without drug injection (a skin prick). Twice the number of patients received Spinraza compared to those who underwent the mock procedure. The trial assessed the percentage of patients with improvement in motor milestones, such as head control, sitting, ability to kick in supine position, rolling, crawling, standing and walking.

The FDA asked the sponsor to conduct an interim analysis as a way to evaluate the study results as early as possible; 82 of 121 patients were eligible for this analysis. Forty percent of patients treated with Spinraza achieved improvement in motor milestones as defined in the study, whereas none of the control patients did.

Additional open-label uncontrolled clinical studies were conducted in symptomatic patients who ranged in age from 30 days to 15 years at the time of the first dose, and in presymptomatic patients who ranged in age from 8 days to 42 days at the time of first dose. These studies lacked control groups and therefore were more difficult to interpret than the controlled study, but the findings appeared generally supportive of the clinical efficacy demonstrated in the controlled clinical trial in infantile-onset patients.

The most common side effects found in participants in the clinical trials on Spinraza were upper respiratory infection, lower respiratory infection and constipation. Warnings and precautions include low blood platelet count and toxicity to the kidneys (renal toxicity). Toxicity in the nervous system (neurotoxicity) was observed in animal studies.

The FDA granted this application fast track designation and priority review. The drug also received orphan drug designation, which provides incentives to assist and encourage the development of drugs for rare diseases.

The sponsor is receiving a rare pediatric disease priority review voucher under a program intended to encourage development of new drugs and biologics for the prevention and treatment of rare pediatric diseases. A voucher can be redeemed by a sponsor at a later date to receive priority review of a subsequent marketing application for a different product. This is the eighth rare pediatric disease priority review voucher issued by the FDA since the program began.

Spinraza is marketed by Biogen of Cambridge, Massachusetts and was developed by Ionis Pharmaceuticals of Carlsbad, California.

Medical use

The drug is used to treat spinal muscular atrophy associated with a mutation in the SMN1 gene. It is administered directly to the central nervous system (CNS) using intrathecal injection.[2]

In clinical trials, the drug halted the disease progression. In around 60% of infants affected by type 1 spinal muscular atrophy, the drug also significantly improved motor function.[2]

Image result for Nusinersen sodium

Side effects

Like other antisense drugs, there is a risk of abnormalities in blood clotting and a reduction in platelets as well as a risk of kidney damage.[2]

In clinical trials, people treated with nusinersen had an increased risk of upper and lower respiratory infections and congestion, ear infections, constipation, pulmonary aspiration, teething, and scoliosis. One infant in a clinical trial had severe lowering of salt levels and several had rashes. There is a risk that growth of infants and children might be stunted. In older clinical trial subjects, the most common adverse events were headache, back pain, and adverse effects from the spinal injection.[2]

Some people may develop antibodies against the drug; as of December 2016 it was unclear what effect this might have on efficacy or safety.[2]

Pharmacology

Spinal muscular atrophy is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the SMN1 gene which codes for survival motor neuron (SMN) protein. Patients survive owing to low amounts of the SMN protein produced from the SMN2 gene. Nusinersen modulates alternate splicing of the SMN2 gene, functionally converting it into SMN1 gene, thus increasing the level of SMN protein in the CNS.[6]

The drug distributes to CNS and to peripheral tissues.[2]

The half-life is estimated to be 135 to 177 days in CSF and 63 to 87 days in blood plasma. The drug is metabolized via exonuclease (3’- and 5’)-mediated hydrolysis and does not interact with CYP450 enzymes.[2] The primary route of elimination is likely by urinary excretion for nusinersen and its metabolites.[2]

Chemistry

Nusinersen is an antisense oligonucleotide in which the 2’-hydroxy groups of the ribofuranosyl rings are replaced with 2’-O-2-methoxyethyl groups and the phosphate linkages are replaced with phosphorothioate linkages.[2][6]

History

Nusinersen was discovered in a collaboration between Adrian Krainer at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory and Ionis Pharmaceuticals (formerly called Isis Pharmaceuticals).[7][8][9][10] Partial work was done at the University of Massachusetts Medical School funded by Cure SMA.[11]

Starting in 2012, Ionis partnered with Biogen on development and in 2015 Biogen acquired an exclusive license to the drug for a US$75 million license fee, milestone payments up to US$150 million, and tiered royalties thereafter; Biogen also paid the costs of development subsequent to taking the license.[12] The license to Biogen included licenses to intellectual property that Ionis had acquired from Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory and University of Massachusetts.[13]

In November 2016, the new drug application was accepted under the FDA’s priority review process on the strength of the Phase III trial and the unmet need, and was also accepted for review at the European Medicines Agency (EMA) at that time.[14][15] It was approved by the FDA in December 2016 and by EMA in May 2017 as the first drug to treat spinal muscular atrophy.[16][17] Subsequently, nusinersen was approved to treat SMA in Canada (July 2017),[18] Japan (July 2017),[19] Brasil (August 2017)[20] and Switzerland (September 2017).[21]

Controversy

Spinraza list price is US$125,000 per injection which puts the treatment cost at US$750,000 in the first year and US$375,000 annually after that. According to the New York Times, this places Spinraza “among the most expensive drugs in the world”.[15]

As of October 2017, Spinraza is reimbursed by health insurance providers in the United States and by the public healthcare systems in France (SMA type 1 and 2 patients only), Germany (all patients), Iceland (all patients), Italy (all patients) and Japan (SMA type 1 only).[3]

In October 2017, the authorities in Denmark recommended Spinraza for use only in a small subset of patients with SMA type 1 (young babies) and refused to offer it as a standard treatment in all other SMA patients quoting an “unreasonably high price” compared to the clinical effect.[22] Norwegian authorities rejected the funding in October 2017 because the price of the medicine was “unethically high”.[23] In February 2018 the funding was approved for patients under 18 years old.[23]

In January 2018 public funding of Spinraza was approved in Israel.

Nusinersen (formerly, IONIS-SMNRx, ISIS-SMNRx), intended to be marketed as Spinraza,[1] is an investigational drug for spinal muscular atrophy developed by Ionis Pharmaceuticals and Biogen with financial support from SMA Foundation and Cure SMA. It is a proprietary antisense oligonucleotide that modulates alternate splicing of the SMN2 gene, functionally converting it into SMN1 gene.

The drug is administered directly to the central nervous system using intrathecal injection once every 3–4 months.

Nusinersen has orphan drug designation in the United States and the European Union.[2]

In August 2016, a phase III trial in type 1 SMA patients was ended early due to positive efficacy data, with Biogen deciding to file for regulatory approval for the drug.[3]Consequently, the company submitted a New Drug Application to the FDA in September 2016[4] and a marketing authorisation application to the European Medicines Agency, under the centralised procedure,[5] in the following month. The company also announced an expanded access programme of nusinersen in type 1 SMA in selected countries.

In November 2016, a phase III clinical trial in type 2 SMA patients was halted after an interim analysis indicated the drug’s efficacy also in this SMA type.[6]

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P.S. : The views expressed are my personal and in no-way suggest the views of the professional body or the company that I represent.

References

  1. Jump up to:a b “International Nonproprietary Names for Pharmaceutical Substances (INN). Recommended International Nonproprietary Names: List 74” (PDF). World Health Organization. pp. 413–14. Retrieved 13 March 2017.
  2. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k “Nusinersen US Label” (PDF). FDA. December 2016. For updates see FDA index page for NDA 209531
  3. Jump up to:a b “Nusinersen”. AdisInsight. Retrieved 1 January 2017.
  4. Jump up^ Ottesen, Eric W. (2017-01-01). “ISS-N1 makes the first FDA-approved drug for spinal muscular atrophy”Translational Neuroscience8 (1): 1–6. doi:10.1515/tnsci-2017-0001ISSN 2081-6936PMC 5382937Freely accessiblePMID 28400976.
  5. Jump up^ “Nusinersen”. UK Specialist Pharmacy Service. Retrieved 31 December 2016.
  6. Jump up to:a b Zanetta, C; Nizzardo, M; Simone, C; Monguzzi, E; Bresolin, N; Comi, GP; Corti, S (1 January 2014). “Molecular Therapeutic Strategies for Spinal Muscular Atrophies: Current and Future Clinical Trials”. Clinical Therapeutics36 (1): 128–40. doi:10.1016/j.clinthera.2013.11.006PMID 24360800.
  7. Jump up^ Garber, K (11 October 2016). “Big win possible for Ionis/Biogen antisense drug in muscular atrophy”. Nature Biotechnology34 (10): 1002–1003. doi:10.1038/nbt1016-1002PMID 27727217.
  8. Jump up^ Wadman, Meredith (23 December 2016). “Updated: FDA approves drug that rescues babies with fatal neurodegenerative disease”Science.
  9. Jump up^ Offord, Catherine (December 1, 2016). “Oligonucleotide Therapeutics Near Approval”The Scientist.
  10. Jump up^ Tarr, Peter (24 December 2016). “CSHL FDA approval of life-saving SMA drug is hailed by its researcher-inventor at CSHL”Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.
  11. Jump up^ “Therapeutic Approaches”http://www.curesma.org. Cure SMA. Retrieved 1 January 2017.
  12. Jump up^ “Biogen Shells Out $75M to Develop Ionis’ Nusinersen after Positive Phase III Results”Genetic Engineering News, August 1, 2016
  13. Jump up^ “Press release: Biogen and Ionis Pharmaceuticals Report Nusinersen Meets Primary Endpoint at Interim Analysis of Phase 3 ENDEAR Study in Infantile-Onset Spinal Muscular Atrophy | Biogen Media”Biogen. August 1, 2016.
  14. Jump up^ “Regulatory Applications for SMA Therapy Nusinersen Accepted in US, EU”. BioNews Services, LLC. Retrieved 2016-11-15.
  15. Jump up to:a b Katie Thomas (December 30, 2016). “Costly Drug for Fatal Muscular Disease Wins F.D.A. Approval”New York Times.
  16. Jump up^ Grant, Charley (2016-12-27). “Surprise Drug Approval Is Holiday Gift for Biogen”Wall Street JournalISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2016-12-27.
  17. Jump up^ “Spinraza (nusinersen)”European Medicines Agency. Retrieved 2017-10-27.
  18. Jump up^ “Biogen’s SPINRAZA™ (nusinersen) Receives Notice of Compliance from Health Canada for the Treatment of 5q Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA)”Cision. 2017-07-04.
  19. Jump up^ “Biogen to launch Spinraza in Japan soon”. 2017-07-10.
  20. Jump up^ “Remédio inédito para atrofia muscular espinhal é liberado” (in Portuguese). 2017-08-25.
  21. Jump up^ “Spinraza – Zulassung nun auch in der Schweiz” (in German). SMA Schweiz. 2017-09-30.
  22. Jump up^ Medicinrådet siger nej til lægemiddel til børn med muskelsvind: ‘Urimeligt’ dyrt Retrieved October 13 2017.
  23. Jump up to:a b Dette er uforståelig og utrolig urettferdig

Further reading

  • Finkel, Richard S; Chiriboga, Claudia A; Vajsar, Jiri; Day, John W; Montes, Jacqueline; De Vivo, Darryl C; Yamashita, Mason; Rigo, Frank; Hung, Gene; Schneider, Eugene; Norris, Daniel A; Xia, Shuting; Bennett, C Frank; Bishop, Kathie M (2016). “Treatment of infantile-onset spinal muscular atrophy with nusinersen: A phase 2, open-label, dose-escalation study”. The Lancet388 (10063): 3017. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31408-8.
Nusinersen
Nusinersen sodium colored.svg
Clinical data
Trade names Spinraza
Synonyms IONIS-SMNRx, ISIS-SMNRx
AHFS/Drugs.com Multum Consumer Information
License data
Routes of
administration
Injection into cerebrospinal fluid
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Metabolism Exonuclease (3’- and 5’)-mediated hydrolysis
Biological half-life 135–177 days (in CSF), 63–87 days (in plasma)
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
Chemical and physical data
Formula C234H323N61Na17O128P17S17[2]
Molar mass 7501 Da[2]
3D model (JSmol)

////////////////Nusinersen sodium, Spinraza, ヌシネルセンナトリウム, FDA 2016, EU 2017, JAPAN 2017

CC1=CN(C(=O)NC1=O)C2C(C(C(O2)CO)OP(=S)(O)OCC3C(C(C(O3)N4C=C(C(=NC4=O)N)C)OCCOC)OP(=S)(O)OCC5C(C(C(O5)N6C=NC7=C6N=CN=C7N)OCCOC)OP(=S)(O)OCC8C(C(C(O8)N9C=C(C(=NC9=O)N)C)OCCOC)OP(=S)(O)OCC1C(C(C(O1)N1C=C(C(=O)NC1=O)C)OCCOC)OP(=S)(O)OCC1C(C(C(O1)N1C=C(C(=O)NC1=O)C)OCCOC)OP(=S)(O)OCC1C(C(C(O1)N1C=C(C(=O)NC1=O)C)OCCOC)OP(=S)(O)OCC1C(C(C(O1)N1C=C(C(=NC1=O)N)C)OCCOC)OP(=S)(O)OCC1C(C(C(O1)N1C=NC2=C1N=CN=C2N)OCCOC)OP(=S)(O)OCC1C(C(C(O1)N1C=C(C(=O)NC1=O)C)OCCOC)OP(=S)(O)OCC1C(C(C(O1)N1C=NC2=C1N=CN=C2N)OCCOC)OP(=S)(O)OCC1C(C(C(O1)N1C=NC2=C1N=CN=C2N)OCCOC)OP(=S)(O)OCC1C(C(C(O1)N1C=C(C(=O)NC1=O)C)OCCOC)OP(=S)(O)OCC1C(C(C(O1)N1C=NC2=C1N=C(NC2=O)N)OCCOC)OP(=S)(O)OCC1C(C(C(O1)N1C=C(C(=NC1=O)N)C)OCCOC)OP(=S)(O)OCC1C(C(C(O1)N1C=C(C(=O)NC1=O)C)OCCOC)OP(=O)(OCC1C(C(C(O1)N1C=NC2=C1N=C(NC2=O)N)OCCOC)OP(=S)(O)OCC1C(C(C(O1)N1C=NC2=C1N=C(NC2=O)N)OCCOC)O)S)OCCOC

FDA approves first drug Spinraza (nusinersen), for spinal muscular atrophy


New FDA Logo Blue

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FDA approves first drug for spinal muscular atrophy

New therapy addresses unmet medical need for rare disease

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Spinraza (nusinersen), the first drug approved to treat children and adults with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a rare and often fatal genetic disease affecting muscle strength and movement. Spinraza is an injection administered into the fluid surrounding the spinal cord.

Read more.

For Immediate Release

December 23, 2016

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Spinraza (nusinersen), the first drug approved to treat children and adults with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a rare and often fatal genetic disease affecting muscle strength and movement. Spinraza is an injection administered into the fluid surrounding the spinal cord.

“There has been a long-standing need for a treatment for spinal muscular atrophy, the most common genetic cause of death in infants, and a disease that can affect people at any stage of life,” said Billy Dunn, M.D., director of the Division of Neurology Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “As shown by our suggestion to the sponsor to analyze the results of the study earlier than planned, the FDA is committed to assisting with the development and approval of safe and effective drugs for rare diseases and we worked hard to review this application quickly; we could not be more pleased to have the first approved treatment for this debilitating disease.”

SMA is a hereditary disease that causes weakness and muscle wasting because of the loss of lower motor neurons controlling movement. There is wide variability in age of onset, symptoms and rate of progression. Spinraza is approved for use across the range of spinal muscular atrophy patients.

The FDA worked closely with the sponsor during development to help design and implement the analysis upon which this approval was based. The efficacy of Spinraza was demonstrated in a clinical trial in 121 patients with infantile-onset SMA who were diagnosed before 6 months of age and who were less than 7 months old at the time of their first dose. Patients were randomized to receive an injection of Spinraza, into the fluid surrounding the spinal cord, or undergo a mock procedure without drug injection (a skin prick). Twice the number of patients received Spinraza compared to those who underwent the mock procedure. The trial assessed the percentage of patients with improvement in motor milestones, such as head control, sitting, ability to kick in supine position, rolling, crawling, standing and walking.

The FDA asked the sponsor to conduct an interim analysis as a way to evaluate the study results as early as possible; 82 of 121 patients were eligible for this analysis. Forty percent of patients treated with Spinraza achieved improvement in motor milestones as defined in the study, whereas none of the control patients did.

Additional open-label uncontrolled clinical studies were conducted in symptomatic patients who ranged in age from 30 days to 15 years at the time of the first dose, and in presymptomatic patients who ranged in age from 8 days to 42 days at the time of first dose. These studies lacked control groups and therefore were more difficult to interpret than the controlled study, but the findings appeared generally supportive of the clinical efficacy demonstrated in the controlled clinical trial in infantile-onset patients.

The most common side effects found in participants in the clinical trials on Spinraza were upper respiratory infection, lower respiratory infection and constipation. Warnings and precautions include low blood platelet count and toxicity to the kidneys (renal toxicity). Toxicity in the nervous system (neurotoxicity) was observed in animal studies.

The FDA granted this application fast track designation and priority review. The drug also received orphan drug designation, which provides incentives to assist and encourage the development of drugs for rare diseases.

The sponsor is receiving a rare pediatric disease priority review voucher under a program intended to encourage development of new drugs and biologics for the prevention and treatment of rare pediatric diseases. A voucher can be redeemed by a sponsor at a later date to receive priority review of a subsequent marketing application for a different product. This is the eighth rare pediatric disease priority review voucher issued by the FDA since the program began.

Spinraza is marketed by Biogen of Cambridge, Massachusetts and was developed by Ionis Pharmaceuticals of Carlsbad, California.

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CAS1258984-36-9

MFC234H340N61O128P17S17

ISIS-396443, ISIS-SMNRx, IONIS-SMNRx

RNA, (2′-0-(2-methoxyethyi))(p-thio)(m5u-c-a-c-m5u-m5u-m5u-c-a-m5ua- a-m5 u-g-c-m5u-g-g)

RNA, (2′-0-(2-METHOXYETHYI))(P-THIO)(M5U-C-A-C-M5U-M5U-M5U-C-A-M5UA- A-M5 U-G-C-M5U-G-G)

All-P-ambo-2′-O-(2-methoxyethyl)-5-methyl-P-thiouridylyl-(3’¨5′)-2′-O-(2-methoxyethyl)-5-methyl-P-thiocytidylyl-(3’¨5′)-2′-O-(2-methoxyethyl)-P-thioadenylyl-(3’¨5′)-2′-O-(2-methoxyethyl)-5-methyl-P-thiocytidylyl-(3’¨5′)-2′-O-(2-methoxyethyl)-5-methyl-P-thiouridylyl-(3’¨5′)-2′-O-(2-methoxyethyl)-5-methyl-P-thiouridylyl-(3’¨5′)-2′-O-(2-methoxyethyl)-5-methyl-P-thiouridylyl-(3’¨5′)-2′-O-(2-methoxyethyl)-5-methyl-P-thiocytidylyl-(3’¨5′)-2′-O-(2-methoxyethyl)-P-thioadenylyl-(3’¨5′)-2′-O-(2-methoxyethyl)-5-methyl-P-thiouridylyl-(3’¨5′)-2′-O-(2-methoxyethyl)-P-thioadenylyl-(3’¨5′)-2′-O-(2-methoxyethyl)-P-thioadenylyl-(3’¨5′)-2′-O-(2-methoxyethyl)-5-methyl-P-thiouridylyl-(3’¨5′)-2′-O-(2-methoxyethyl)-P-thioguanylyl-(3’¨5′)-2′-O-(2-methoxyethyl)-5-methyl-P-thiocytidylyl-(3’¨5′)-2′-O-(2-methoxyethyl)-5-methyl-P-thiouridylyl-(3’¨5′)-2′-O-(2-methoxyethyl)-P-thioguanylyl-(3’¨5′)-2′-O-(2-methoxyethyl)guanosine

ISIS-SMNRx is a drug that is designed to modulate the splicing of the SMN2 gene to significantly increase the production of functional SMN protein. The US regulatory agency has granted Orphan Drug Designation with Fast Track Status to nusinersen for the treatment of patients with SMA. The European regulatory agency has granted Orphan Drug Designation to nusinersen for the treatment of patients with SMA.

Image result for nusinersen

Nusinersen (formerly, IONIS-SMNRx, ISIS-SMNRx), intended to be marketed as Spinraza,[1] is an investigational drug for spinal muscular atrophy developed by Ionis Pharmaceuticals and Biogen with financial support from SMA Foundation and Cure SMA. It is a proprietary antisense oligonucleotide that modulates alternate splicing of the SMN2 gene, functionally converting it into SMN1 gene.

The drug is administered directly to the central nervous system using intrathecal injection once every 3–4 months.

Nusinersen has orphan drug designation in the United States and the European Union.[2]

In August 2016, a phase III trial in type 1 SMA patients was ended early due to positive efficacy data, with Biogen deciding to file for regulatory approval for the drug.[3]Consequently, the company submitted a New Drug Application to the FDA in September 2016[4] and a marketing authorisation application to the European Medicines Agency, under the centralised procedure,[5] in the following month. The company also announced an expanded access programme of nusinersen in type 1 SMA in selected countries.

In November 2016, a phase III clinical trial in type 2 SMA patients was halted after an interim analysis indicated the drug’s efficacy also in this SMA type.[6]

Image result for nusinersen

Image result for nusinersen

Image result for nusinersen

References

P.S. : The views expressed are my personal and in no-way suggest the views of the professional body or the company that I represent.

//////////spinraza, nusinersen, fda 2016, Biogen, Cambridge, Massachusetts,  Ionis Pharmaceuticals of Carlsbad, California. spinal muscular atrophy, ISIS-396443, ISIS-SMNRx, IONIS-SMNRx, 1258984-36-9

FDA grants accelerated approval to new treatment for advanced ovarian cancer , Rubraca(rucaparib)


 

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The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today granted accelerated approval to Rubraca (rucaparib) to treat women with a certain type of ovarian cancer. Rubraca is approved for women with advanced ovarian cancer who have been treated with two or more chemotherapies and whose tumors have a specific gene mutation (deleterious BRCA) as identified by an FDA-approved companion diagnostic test.

Read more.

For Immediate Release

December 19, 2016

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today granted accelerated approval to Rubraca (rucaparib) to treat women with a certain type of ovarian cancer. Rubraca is approved for women with advanced ovarian cancer who have been treated with two or more chemotherapies and whose tumors have a specific gene mutation (deleterious BRCA) as identified by an FDA-approved companion diagnostic test.

“Today’s approval is another example of the trend we are seeing in developing targeted agents to treat cancers caused by specific mutations in a patient’s genes,” said Richard Pazdur, M.D., director of the Office of Hematology and Oncology Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research and acting director of the FDA’s Oncology Center of Excellence. “Women with these gene abnormalities who have tried at least two chemotherapy treatments for their ovarian cancer now have an additional treatment option.”

The National Cancer Institute estimates that 22,280 women will be diagnosed with ovarian cancer in 2016 and an estimated 14,240 will die of this disease. Approximately 15 to 20 percent of patients with ovarian cancer have a BRCA gene mutation.

BRCA genes are involved with repairing damaged DNA and normally work to prevent tumor development. However, mutations of these genes may lead to certain cancers, including ovarian cancers. Rubraca is a poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitor that blocks an enzyme involved in repairing damaged DNA. By blocking this enzyme, DNA inside the cancerous cells with damaged BRCA genes may be less likely to be repaired, leading to cell death and possibly a slow-down or stoppage of tumor growth.

Today, the FDA also approved the FoundationFocus CDxBRCA companion diagnostic for use with Rubraca, which is the first next-generation-sequencing (NGS)-based companion diagnostic approved by the agency. The NGS test detects the presence of deleterious BRCA gene mutations in the tumor tissue of ovarian cancer patients. If one or more of the mutations are detected, the patient may be eligible for treatment with Rubraca.

The safety and efficacy of Rubraca were studied in two, single-arm clinical trials involving 106 participants with BRCA-mutated advanced ovarian cancer who had been treated with two or more chemotherapy regimens. BRCA gene mutations were confirmed in 96 percent of tested trial participants with available tumor tissue using the FoundationFocus CDxBRCA companion diagnostic. The trials measured the percentage of participants who experienced complete or partial shrinkage of their tumors (overall response rate). Fifty-four percent of the participants who received Rubraca in the trials experienced complete or partial shrinkage of their tumors lasting a median of 9.2 months.

Common side effects of Rubraca include nausea, fatigue, vomiting, low levels of red blood cells (anemia), abdominal pain, unusual taste sensation (dysgeusia), constipation, decreased appetite, diarrhea, low levels of blood platelets (thrombocytopenia) and trouble breathing (dyspnea).  Rubraca is associated with serious risks, such as bone marrow problems (myelodysplastic syndrome), a type of cancer of the blood called acute myeloid leukemia and fetal harm.

The agency approved Rubraca under its accelerated approval program, which allows approval of a drug to treat a serious or life-threatening disease or condition based on clinical data showing the drug has an effect on a surrogate (substitute) endpoint that is reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit. The sponsor is continuing to study this drug in patients with advanced ovarian cancer who have BRCA gene mutations and in patients with other types of ovarian cancer. The FDA also granted the Rubraca application breakthrough therapy designation and priority review status. Rubraca also received orphan drug designation, which provides incentives such as tax credits, user fee waivers and eligibility for exclusivity to assist and encourage the development of drugs intended to treat rare diseases.

Rubraca is marketed by Clovis Oncology, Inc. based in Boulder, Colorado. The FoundationFocus CDxBRCA companion diagnostic is marketed by Foundation Medicine, Inc. of Cambridge, Massachusetts.

////////////Rubraca, rucaparib, Clovis Oncology, Boulder, Colorado, fda 2016, cancer, ovarian

FDA approves Eucrisa (crisaborole) for eczema


New FDA Logo Blue

News Release

FDA approves Eucrisa for eczema

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Eucrisa (crisaborole) ointment to treat mild to moderate eczema (atopic dermatitis) in patients two years of age and older.

Read more.

For Immediate Release

December 14, 2016

Release

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Eucrisa (crisaborole) ointment to treat mild to moderate eczema (atopic dermatitis) in patients two years of age and older.

Atopic dermatitis, a chronic inflammatory skin disease, is often referred to as “eczema,” which is a general term for the several types of inflammation of the skin. Atopic dermatitis is the most common of the many types of eczema and onset typically begins in childhood and can last through adulthood. The cause of atopic dermatitis is a combination of genetic, immune and environmental factors. In atopic dermatitis, the skin develops red, scaly and crusted bumps, which are extremely itchy. Scratching leads to swelling, cracking, “weeping” clear fluid, and finally, coarsening and thickening of the skin.

“Today’s approval provides another treatment option for patients dealing with mild to moderate atopic dermatitis,” said Amy Egan, deputy director of the Office of Drug Evaluation III in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER).

Eucrisa, applied topically twice daily, is a phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE-4) inhibitor, although its specific mechanism of action in atopic dermatitis is not known.

The safety and efficacy of Eucrisa were established in two placebo-controlled trials with a total of 1,522 participants ranging in age from two years of age to 79 years of age, with mild to moderate atopic dermatitis. Overall, participants receiving Eucrisa achieved greater response with clear or almost clear skin after 28 days of treatment.

Serious side effects of Eucrisa include hypersensitivity reactions. Eucrisa should not be used in patients who have had a hypersensitivity reaction to Eucrisa’s active ingredient, crisaborole. The most common side effect of Eucrisa is application site pain, including burning or stinging.

Eucrisa is manufactured by Palo Alto, California-based Anacor Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

SEE

SYNTHESIS

https://newdrugapprovals.org/2015/10/30/%D0%BA%D1%80%D0%B8%D1%81%D0%B0%D0%B1%D0%BE%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%BB-%D9%83%D8%B1%D9%8A%D8%B3%D8%A7%D8%A8%D9%88%D8%B1%D9%88%D9%84-crisaborole-an-2728/

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Glenmark Launches First and Only Generic Version of Zetia® (Ezetimibe) in the United States


Glenmark launches generic version of Zetia in US

Illustration Image Courtesy…..link

“We have launched ezetimibe, the first and only generic version of Zetia (Merck) in the United States for the treatment of high cholesterol,”……….http://health.economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/pharma/glenmark-launches-generic-version-of-zetia-in-us-market/55951453

see……..http://us-glenmarkpharma.com/wp-content/uploads/Glenmark-launches-first-and-only-generic-version-of-Zetia%C2%AE-in-the-United-States.pdf

SEE…..http://www.zeebiz.com/companies/news-glenmark-launches-generic-version-of-cholesterol-drug-zetia-in-us-market-9092

 

http://www.glenmarkpharma.com/

Glenmark Launches First and Only Generic Version of Zetia® in the United States 

Mumbai, India; December 12, 2016: Glenmark Pharmaceuticals Inc., USA today announced the availability of ezetimibe, the first and only generic version of ZETIA® (Merck) in the United States for the treatment of high cholesterol. The availability of ezetimibe is the result of a licensing partnership with Par Pharmaceutical, an Endo International plc operating company, with whom Glenmark will share profits. Glenmark and its partner, Endo will be entitled to 180 days of generic drug exclusivity for ezetimibe as provided for under section 505(j)(5)(B)(iv) of the FD&C Act.

Ezetimibe is indicated as adjunctive therapy to diet for the reduction of elevated total cholesterol (total-
C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and apolipoprotein B (Apo B) in patients with primary
(heterozygous familial and non-familial) hyperlipidemia.
According to IMS Health data for the 12-month period ending October 2016, annual U.S. sales of Zetia®
10 mg were approximately $2.3 billion.
“Glenmark has a deep heritage of bringing safe, effective and affordable medicines to patients around
the world,” said Robert Matsuk, President of North America and Global API at Glenmark
Pharmaceuticals Ltd. “Our partnership with Par to bring the first generic version of ZETIA® to market
only underscores our joint commitment to bridging the gap between patients and the medicines they
need most.”
“We, along with our partners at Glenmark, are proud to be able to offer patients managing their
cholesterol levels the first generic version of ZETIA®,” said Tony Pera, President of Par Pharmaceutical.
“Par remains committed to providing patients access to high quality and affordable medicines.”
Glenmark’s current portfolio consists of 111 products authorized for distribution in the U.S. marketplace
and 64 ANDA’s pending approval with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. In addition to these
internal filings, Glenmark continues to identify and explore external development partnerships to
supplement and accelerate the growth of its existing pipeline and portfolio.

About Glenmark Pharmaceuticals Ltd.:
Glenmark Pharmaceuticals Ltd. (GPL) is a research-driven, global, integrated pharmaceutical organization headquartered at Mumbai, India. It is ranked among the top 80 Pharma & Biotech companies of the world in terms of revenue (SCRIP 100 Rankings published in the year 2016). Glenmark is a leading player in the discovery of new molecules both NCEs (new chemical entity) and NBEs (new biological entity). Glenmark has several molecules in various stages of clinical development and is primarily focused in the areas of Inflammation [asthma/COPD, rheumatoid arthritis etc.] and Pain [neuropathic pain and inflammatory pain]. The company has a significant presence in the branded generics markets across emerging economies including India. GPL along with its subsidiaries operate 17 manufacturing facilities across four countries and has five R&D centers. The Generics business of Glenmark services the requirements of the US and Western European markets. The API business sells its products in over 80 countries including the US, EU, South America and India………http://www.glenmarkpharma.com/

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About Endo International plc:
Endo International plc (NASDAQ / TSX: ENDP) is a global specialty pharmaceutical company focused on improving patients’ lives while creating shareholder value. Endo develops, manufactures, markets and distributes quality branded and generic pharmaceutical products as well as over-the-counter medications though its operating companies. Endo has global headquarters in Dublin, Ireland, and U.S. headquarters in Malvern, PA. Learn more at http://www.endo.com

OLD CLIP

Dec 08, 2016, 08.16 PM | Source: CNBC-TV18 Glenmark to launch cholesterol drug Zetia in US on Dec 12 Glenmark was the first to file for the generic version of Zetia and it means that after the launch on December 12, only Glenmark and Merck will sell generic Zetia in the US market for the next 6 months. Glenmark   is launching cholesterol drug Zetia with 6 months exclusivity in the US on December 12. The company has partnered with Par Pharma on the drug and has a 50:50 profit sharing agreement with Par on Zetia. Glenmark was the first to file for the generic version of Zetia and it means that after the launch on December 12, only Glenmark and Merck will sell generic Zetia in the US market for the next 6 months. Total revenue estimated to be generated is around USD 400-500 million and post profit sharing with Par, Glenmark should make around USD 200-250 million.

Read more at: http://www.moneycontrol.com/news/business/glenmark-to-launch-cholesterol-drug-zetiausdec-12_8087701.html?utm_source=ref_article

////////////Glenmark,  Launches,  First,  Only,  Generic Version,  Zetia®,  United States, ezetimibe, par pharmaceutical, cholesterol, Endo International plc

ZINPLAVA (BEZLOTOXUMAB), Approved FDA


Image result for BEZLOTOXUMAB

BEZLOTOXUMAB

Biologic License Application (BLA): 761046
Company: MERCK SHARP DOHME

Drug Name(s):
• ZINPLAVA (BEZLOTOXUMAB)

http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2016/761046s000lbl.pdf

http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/appletter/2016/761046Orig1s000ltr.pdf

Drug
Name
Active Ingredient Approval Date FDA-approved use on approval date
Zinplava bezlotoxumab 10/21/2016 To reduce the recurrence of Clostridium difficile infection in patients aged 18 years or older
Drug Trials Snapshot

Image result for BEZLOTOXUMAB

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Bezlotoxumab
Monoclonal antibody
Type ?
Source Human
Target Clostridium difficile
Clinical data
ATC code none
Identifiers
CAS Number 1245634-25-6
ChemSpider none
Chemical and physical data
Formula C6464H9974N1726O2014S46
Molar mass 145.6 kg/mol

Bezlotoxumab (proprietary name Zinplava) is a human monoclonal antibody designed for the prevention of recurrence ofClostridium difficile infection.[1]

Actoxumab and bezlotoxumab are fully human monoclonal antibodies which bind Clostridium difficile (C diff) toxins A and B, respectively.

This drug, along with actoxumab, was developed through Phase II efficacy trials by a partnership between Medarex Inc and MassBiologics of the University of Massachusetts Medical School.[2] The project was then licensed to Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp for further development and commercialization.[3]

A Phase III trial only showed a benefit from bezlotoxumab; the combination of actoxumab and bezlotoxumab worked no better to prevent recurrence of C.difficile associated diarrhea than bezlotoxumab alone.[4]

Progress towards FDA approval

On June 9, 2016, the US FDA’s Antimicrobial Drugs Advisory Committee (formerly known as the Anti-Infective Drugs Advisory Committee)[5] met to discuss bezlotoxumab and voted to recommend approval of Merck’s license application by a vote of 10 to 5, generally expressing a willingness to accept that the trials had proven that bezlotoxumab decreased recurrence of C.diff overall while tempering this acceptance with a robust discussion of whether or not the drug provide more marked benefit in some patient groups and concern over a potential safety signal in the group treated with bezlotoxumab. The data suggested that bezlotoxumab might have the most benefit in sicker, high-risk patients but did show a statistical benefit in all patient subgroups. Although the patient population as a whole contained many very sick individuals and thus there were many adverse events in both the subjects receiving placebo and those receiving bezlotoxumab, the panel focused on a small number of serious events in patients with pre-existing congestive heart failure. In this subset the patients receiving bezlotoxumab appeared to have a higher rate of negative outcomes than the placebo group, although there many have been imbalance in how sick the patients in those groups were.[6][7]

The Prescription Drug User Fee Act (PDUFA) action date for the FDA’s review of bezlotoxumab is July 23, 2016.[8]

Bezlotoxumab gained FDA approval in October 2016: “indicated to reduce the recurrence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in patients 18 years of age or older who are receiving antibiotics for CDI and are at high risk for recurrence.”[9]

Mechanism of TcdB neutralization

By x-ray crystallized structure of N-terminal of Clostridium difficile toxin B (TcdB), the toxin was identified to consist of three domains: a GTD, a cysteine protease and a combined repetitive oligopeptides, CROP domain. The CROP domain consists of four different peptide units, B1, B2, B3 and B4. Bezlotoxumab specifically inhibits the CROP domain of TcdB. It recognizes a specific epitope on toxin TcdB and has high affinity for that region. The GTD domain does not interact with bezlotoxumab, but appears to interact with B1, which is representative of the entire CROP domain. Bezlotoxumab interacts with either B2 andB3 or the overlapping residues region between the two domains. The B4 fragment does not interact with the specific portion of the CROP domain. Characterization of peptide B1 as full CROP domain of TcdB suggests that the antibody specifically react with the B2 region of the CROP domain, leading to the conclusion that TcdB epitope lies within the N-terminus of the CROP domain.[10]

Image result for BEZLOTOXUMABImage result for BEZLOTOXUMABImage result for BEZLOTOXUMAB

References

  1. Jump up^ “Statement On A Nonproprietary Name Adopted By The USAN Council – Bezlotoxumab” (PDF). American Medical Association.
  2. Jump up^ Lowy I, Molrine DC, Leav BA, Blair BM, Baxter R, Gerding DN, Nichol G, Thomas WD, Leney M, Sloan S, Hay CA, Ambrosino DM (January 2010). “Treatment with monoclonal antibodies against Clostridium difficile toxins”. N. Engl. J. Med. 362 (3): 197–205. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0907635. PMID 20089970.
  3. Jump up^ “Merck & Co., Inc., Medarex, Inc. and Massachusetts Biologic Laboratories Sign Exclusive Licensing Agreement for Investigational Monoclonal Antibody Combination for Clostridium Difficile Infection”. Press Release. Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. April 21, 2009.
  4. Jump up^ http://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20150920005053/en/Pivotal-Phase-3-Studies-Bezlotoxumab-Merck%E2%80%99s-Investigational
  5. Jump up^ http://www.fda.gov/AdvisoryCommittees/CommitteesMeetingMaterials/Drugs/Anti-InfectiveDrugsAdvisoryCommittee/default.htm
  6. Jump up^ http://www.medpagetoday.com/Washington-Watch/FDAGeneral/58433?xid=nl_mpt_DHE_2016-06-10&eun=g411987d0r
  7. Jump up^ http://www.fda.gov/AdvisoryCommittees/CommitteesMeetingMaterials/Drugs/Anti-InfectiveDrugsAdvisoryCommittee/ucm505289.htm
  8. Jump up^ FDA Advisory Panel Gives Nod to Zinplava. June 2016
  9. Jump up^ FDA Approves Zinplava for Recurrent C. difficile. Oct 25 2016
  10. Jump up^ Orth P, Hernandez LD, Reichert P, Sheth PR, Beaumont M, Yang XY, Murgolo N, Ermakov G, DiNunzio E, Racine F, Karczewskl J, Secore S, Ingram RN, Mayhood T, Strickland C, Therien AG (June 27, 2014). “Mechanism of Action and Epitopes of Clostridium difficile Toxin B-neutralizing Antibody Bezlotoxumab Revealed by X-ray Crystallography”. Biological Chemistry. 289 (26): 18008–18021. doi:10.1074/jbcM114.560748.
Bezlotoxumab
Monoclonal antibody
Type ?
Source Human
Target Clostridium difficile
Clinical data
ATC code none
Identifiers
CAS Number 1245634-25-6
ChemSpider none
Chemical and physical data
Formula C6464H9974N1726O2014S46
Molar mass 145.6 kg/mol

///////BEZLOTOXUMAB, FDA 2016,  MERCK SHARP DOHME

FDA approves Intrarosa for postmenopausal women experiencing pain during sex


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FDA approves Intrarosa for postmenopausal women experiencing pain during sex

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Intrarosa (prasterone) to treat women experiencing moderate to severe pain during sexual intercourse (dyspareunia), a symptom of vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA), due to menopause. Intrarosa is the first FDA approved product containing the active ingredient prasterone, which is also known as dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).

Read more

http://www.fda.gov/newsevents/newsroom/pressannouncements/UCM529641.htm?source=govdelivery&utm_medium=email&utm_source=govdelivery

For Immediate Release

November 17, 2016

Release

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Intrarosa (prasterone) to treat women experiencing moderate to severe pain during sexual intercourse (dyspareunia), a symptom of vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA), due to menopause. Intrarosa is the first FDA approved product containing the active ingredient prasterone, which is also known as dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).

During menopause, levels of estrogen decline in vaginal tissues, which may cause a condition known as VVA, leading to symptoms such as pain during sexual intercourse.

“Pain during sexual intercourse is one of the most frequent symptoms of VVA reported by postmenopausal women,” said Audrey Gassman, M.D., deputy director of the Division of Bone, Reproductive, and Urologic Products (DBRUP) in the Office of Drug Evaluation III in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER). “Intrarosa provides an additional treatment option for women seeking relief of dyspareunia caused by VVA.”

Efficacy of Intrarosa, a once-daily vaginal insert, was established in two 12-week placebo-controlled clinical trials of 406 healthy postmenopausal women, 40 to 80 years of age, who identified moderate to severe pain during sexual intercourse as their most bothersome symptom of VVA. Women were randomly assigned to receive Intrarosa or a placebo vaginal insert. Intrarosa, when compared to placebo, was shown to reduce the severity of pain experienced during sexual intercourse.

The safety of Intrarosa was established in four 12-week placebo-controlled trials and one 52-week open-label trial. The most common adverse reactions were vaginal discharge and abnormal Pap smear.

Although DHEA is included in some dietary supplements, the efficacy and safety of those products have not been established for diagnosing, curing, mitigating, treating or preventing any disease.

Intrarosa is marketed by Quebec-based Endoceutics Inc.

The FDA, an agency within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, protects the public health by assuring the safety, effectiveness, and security of human and veterinary drugs, vaccines and other biological products for human use, and medical devices. The agency also is responsible for the safety and security of our nation’s food supply, cosmetics, dietary supplements, products that give off electronic radiation, and for regulating tobacco products.

Dehydroepiandrosterone
Dehydroepiandrosteron.svg
Dehidroepiandrosterona3D.png
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(3S,8R,9S,10R,13S,14S)-3-hydroxy-10,13-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,7,8,9,11,12,14,15,16-dodecahydrocyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-one; (1S,2R,5S,10R,11S,15S)-5-Hydroxy-2,15-dimethyltetracyclo[8.7.0.02,7.011,15]heptadec-7-en-14-one
Clinical data
Routes of
administration
Oral
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Metabolism Hepatic
Biological half-life 12 hours
Excretion Urinary:?%
Identifiers
CAS Number 53-43-0 Yes
ATC code A14AA07 (WHO)
G03EA03 (WHO) (combination with estrogen)
PubChem CID 5881
IUPHAR/BPS 2370
DrugBank DB01708 Yes
ChemSpider 5670 Yes
UNII 459AG36T1B Yes
ChEBI CHEBI:28689 Yes
ChEMBL CHEMBL90593 Yes
Synonyms (3β)-3-Hydroxyandrost-5-en-17-one
Chemical data
Formula C19H28O2
Molar mass 288.424 g/mol
3D model (Jmol) Interactive image
 //////////////////
 FDA,  approves,  Intrarosa, postmenopausal women, pain during sex, prasterone, dehydroepiandrosterone,  (DHEA).

Page Last Updated: 11/17/2016
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FDA approves Amjevita, a biosimilar to Humira


New FDA Logo Blue

FDA approves Amjevita, a biosimilar to Humira

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Amjevita (adalimumab-atto) as a biosimilar toHumira (adalimumab) for multiple inflammatory diseases.

Read more.

FDA approves Amjevita, a biosimilar to Humira

For Immediate Release

September 23, 2016

Release

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Amjevita (adalimumab-atto) as a biosimilar to Humira (adalimumab) for multiple inflammatory diseases.

Amjevita is approved for the following indications in adult patients:

  • moderately to severely active rheumatoid arthritis;
  • active psoriatic arthritis;
  • active ankylosing spondylitis (an arthritis that affects the spine);
  • moderately to severely active Crohn’s disease;
  • moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis; and
  • moderate to severe plaque psoriasis.

Amjevita is also indicated for moderately to severely active polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in patients four years of age and older.

Health care professionals should review the prescribing information in the labeling for detailed information about the approved uses.

“This is the fourth FDA-approved biosimilar. The biosimilar pathway is still a new frontier and one that we expect will enhance access to treatment for patients with serious medical conditions,” said Janet Woodcock, M.D., director of the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research.

Biological products are generally derived from a living organism and can come from many sources, including humans, animals, microorganisms or yeast. A biosimilar is a biological product that is approved based on a showing that it is highly similar to an already-approved biological product and has no clinically meaningful differences in terms of safety, purity and potency (i.e., safety and effectiveness) from the reference product, in addition to meeting other criteria specified by law.

The FDA’s approval of Amjevita is based on review of evidence that included structural and functional characterization, animal study data, human pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics data, clinical immunogenicity data and other clinical safety and effectiveness data that demonstrates Amjevita is biosimilar to Humira. It has been approved as a biosimilar, not as an interchangeableproduct.

The most serious known side effects with Amjevita are infections and malignancies. The most common expected adverse reactions with Amjevita are infections and injection site reactions.

Like Humira, the labeling for Amjevita contains a Boxed Warning to alert health care professionals and patients about an increased risk of serious infections leading to hospitalization or death. The Boxed Warning also notes that lymphoma and other malignancies, some fatal, have been reported in children and adolescent patients treated with tumor necrosis factor blockers, including adalimumab products. The drug must be dispensed with a patient Medication Guide that describes important information about its uses and risks.

Amjevita is manufactured by Amgen, Inc., of Thousand Oaks, California. Humira was approved in December 2002 and is manufactured by AbbVie Inc. of North Chicago, Illinois.

Image result for humira structure

 

 

Adalimumab
Adalimumab structure.png
Farmaceutische gegevens
t1/2 10–20 dagen
Databanken
CAS-nummer 331731-18-1
ATC-code L04AB04
DrugBank BTD00049
Farmacotherapeutisch Kompas Adalimumab
Chemische gegevens
Molaire massa 144190.3 g/mol

///////FDA, Amjevita, biosimilar, Humira, FDA 2016

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