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ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 29 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 29 year tenure till date Aug 2016, Around 30 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 25 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 13 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 212 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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Increasing global access to the high-volume HIV drug nevirapine through process intensification


 

Increasing global access to the high-volume HIV drug nevirapine through process intensification

Green Chem., 2017, 19,2986-2991
DOI: 10.1039/C7GC00937B, Paper
Jenson Verghese, Caleb J. Kong, Daniel Rivalti, Eric C. Yu, Rudy Krack, Jesus Alcazar, Julie B. Manley, D. Tyler McQuade, Saeed Ahmad, Katherine Belecki, B. Frank Gupton
Fundamental elements of process intensification were applied to generate efficient batch and continuous syntheses of the high-volume HIV drug nevirapine.

Green Chemistry

Increasing global access to the high-volume HIV drug nevirapine through process intensification

Abstract

Access to affordable medications continues to be one of the most pressing issues for the treatment of disease in developing countries. For many drugs, synthesis of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) represents the most financially important and technically demanding element of pharmaceutical operations. Furthermore, the environmental impact of API processing has been well documented and is an area of continuing interest in green chemical operations. To improve drug access and affordability, we have developed a series of core principles that can be applied to a specific API, yielding dramatic improvements in chemical efficiency. We applied these principles to nevirapine, the first non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in the treatment of HIV. The resulting ultra-efficient (91% isolated yield) and highly-consolidated (4 unit operations) route has been successfully developed and implemented through partnerships with philanthropic entities, increasing access to this essential medication. We anticipate an even broader global health impact when applying this model to other active ingredients.

Preparation of Nevirapine (1).

Preparation of CYCLOR (7), Step 1A: To a solution of CAPIC (2, 15 g, 105 mmole, 1.0 equiv) in diglyme (75 mL) in a 500 mL 3-neck round-bottom flask fitted with overhead stirrer, thermocouple, and addition funnel was added NaH (7.56g, 189 mmole, 1.8 equiv). The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 30 minutes and gradual evolution of H2 gas was observed. The temperature of the reaction mixture was slowly increased to 60 °C (10 °C/hr increments). A preheated (55 °C) solution of MeCAN (5, 21.19 g, 192.2 mmol, 1.05 equiv) in diglyme (22.5 mL) was added over a period of an hour to the reaction mixture kept at 60 °C. The reaction mixture was allowed to stir at 60 °C for 2 hours. If desired, 7 may be isolated at this stage. The reaction mixture is cooled to 0 – 10 °C and the pH is adjusted to pH 7-8 using glacial acetic acid and stirred for an hour. The precipitate is collected by vacuum filtration and dried under vacuum to a constant weight to afford CYCLOR (7) (29.89g, 94%).

1H NMR (300MHz, CHLOROFORM-d)  = 8.44 (dd, J = 1.8, 5.3 Hz, 1 H), 8.21 (d, J = 4.7 Hz, 1 H), 8.15 (br. s., 1 H), 7.87 (dd, J = 2.1, 7.9 Hz, 1 H), 7.54 (s, 1 H), 7.20 (d, J = 5.3 Hz, 1 H), 6.66 (dd, J = 4.7, 7.6 Hz, 1 H), 2.95 – 2.84 (m, 1 H), 2.35 (s, 3 H), 0.91 – 0.77 (m, 2 H), 0.62 – 0.47 (m, 2 H).

13C NMR (75MHz, CHLOROFORM-d)  = 166.8, 159.2, 153.2, 148.3, 146.9, 136.0, 129.9, 125.1, 111.1, 108.4, 77.4, 76.6, 23.8, 18.8, 7.0.

HRMS (ESI) C15H15ClN4O m/z [M+H] + found 303.0998, expected 303.1012.

Preparation of nevirapine (1), Step 1B: In a 150 mL, 3 neck flask, fitted with overhead stirrer, thermocouple and addition funnel, a suspension of NaH (7.14 g, 178.5 mmol, and 1.7 equiv) in diglyme (22.5 ml) was heated to 105 °C and crude CYCLOR (7) reaction mixture from Step 1 (preheated to 80 °C) was added over a period of 30 minutes while maintaining the reaction mixture at 115 °C. The reaction mixture was stirred for 2 hours at 117 °C for ~2 hours then cooled to room temperature. Water (30 mL) was added to quench the excess sodium hydride and the reaction was concentrated in vacuo to remove 60 mL of diglyme. To the resulting suspension was added water (125 mL), cyclohexane (50 mL) and ethanol (15 mL). The pH of the mixture was adjusted to pH 7 using glacial acetic acid (19.5 g, 3.09 mmol) at which precipitate formed. After stirring for 1 hour at 0 °C, the precipitate was collected via vacuum filtration and the filter cake was washed with ethanol: water (1:1 v/v) (2 x 20 mL). The solid was dried between 90-110°C under vacuum to provide nevirapine (25.4 g, 91% over two steps).

1H NMR (400MHz, CDCl3)  = 8.55 (dd, J = 2.0, 4.8 Hz, 1 H), 8.17 (d, J = 5.0 Hz, 1 H), 8.13 (dd, J = 2.0, 7.8 Hz, 1 H), 7.61 (s, 1 H), 7.08 (dd, J = 4.8, 7.8 Hz, 1 H), 6.95 (dd, J = 0.6, 4.9 Hz, 1 H), 3.79 (tt, J = 3.6, 6.8 Hz, 1 H), 2.37 (s, 3 H), 1.07-0.93 (m, 2 H), 0.59-0.50 (m, 1 H), 0.50-0.41 (m, 1 H).

13C NMR (101MHz, CDCl3)  = 168.4, 160.5, 153.9, 152.1, 144.3, 140.3, 138.8, 124.8, 121.9, 120.1, 118.9, 29.6, 17.6, 9.1, 8.8.

HRMS (ESI) C15H14N4O m/z [M+H] + found 267.1239, expected 267.1245.

Purification of nevirapine. To a cooled (0 °C) suspension of nevirapine (10g, 375.5 mmole) in water (43 ml) was added a 10 M solution of HCl (11.6 ml, 117.5 mmole) dropwise. The solution was allowed to stir for 30 minutes and activated carbon (0.3g) was added. After stirring for 30 minutes, the solution was filtered over Celite. The filtrate was transferred to flask and cooled to 0 °C. A 50% solution of NaOH was added dropwise until a pH of 7 is reached. A white precipitate appeared and the solution was stirred for 30 minutes and filtered. The solid was washed with water (3 x 10ml). The wet cake was dried between 90-110°C under vacuum to a constant weight to provide nevirapine (9.6 g, 96%).

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Enantioselective synthesis of a cyclobutane analogue of Milnacipran


(1R,2S)-2-(Aminomethyl)-N,N-diethyl-1 phenylcyclobutanecarboxamide (19)

1 H NMR (CDCl3) δ 7.36–7.33 (m, 4H), 7.25–7.21 (m, 1H), 3.51–3.43 (qd, J = 13.8 Hz, 6.8 Hz, 1H), 3.15–2.87 (m, 7H), 2.81–2.72 (m, 2H), 2.23–2.14 (m, 1H), 2.04–1.97 (m, 1H), 1.62 (tdd, J = 10.5 Hz, 5.7 Hz, 2.6 Hz, 1H), 1.07 (t, J = 7.1 Hz, 3H), 0.35 (t, J = 7.1 Hz, 3H) ppm;

13C NMR (CDCl3) δ 172.7, 143.3, 128.8, 126.4, 125.3, 54.6, 44.4, 42.4, 41.0, 39.5, 31.1, 19.0, 12.2, 12.0 ppm;

IR (neat) 3364, 1622, 1437, 905, 728 cm−1 ;

[α] 20 D +1.5 (c 0.5, CHCl3) (lit.5 [α]D +0.84);

ESI-MS (ES+ ) 261 [M + H]+ ; HRMS m/z calcd for C16H25N2O: 261.1958, found: 261.1961;

chiral HPLC (CHIRALCEL OJ-RH 150 × 4.6 mm, H2O/MeOH 35 : 65, flow rate 1 mL min−1 , detection at 254 nm), tmajor = 8.5 min, tminor = 6.7 min, er 95 : 5. Of note, compound 19 was acetylated with acetic anhydride/NEt3 prior to HPLC analysis.

5 S. Cuisiat, A. Newman-Tancredi, O. Vitton and B. Vacher, WO patent, 112597, 2010

Enantioselective synthesis of a cyclobutane analogue of Milnacipran

Org. Chem. Front., 2017, Advance Article
DOI: 10.1039/C7QO00140A, Research Article
Dinh-Vu Nguyen, Edmond Gravel, David-Alexandre Buisson, Marc Nicolas, Eric Doris
An optically active cyclobutane analogue of Milnacipran was synthesized from phenylacetonitrile, and its cis-stereochemistry was controlled by an epimerization step.

Enantioselective synthesis of a cyclobutane analogue of Milnacipran

aService de Chimie Bioorganique et de Marquage (SCBM), CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France

Abstract

The asymmetric synthesis of a cyclobutane analogue of the antidepressant drug Milnacipran is reported. The optically active derivative incorporates a central cyclobutane ring in lieu of the cyclopropane unit classically found in Milnacipran. The two stereogenic centres borne by the cyclobutane were sequentially installed starting from phenylacetonitrile.

Graphical abstract: Enantioselective synthesis of a cyclobutane analogue of Milnacipran
//////////Enantioselective, cyclobutane analogue  Milnacipran

Review, Continuous Processing


Continuous Processing

Continuous production is a flow production method used to manufacture, produce, or process materials without interruption. Continuous production is called a continuous process or a continuous flow process because the materials, either dry bulk or fluids that are being processed are continuously in motion, undergoing chemical reactions or subject to mechanical or heat treatment. Continuous processing is contrasted with batch production.

Continuous usually means operating 24 hours per day, seven days per week with infrequent maintenance shutdowns, such as semi-annual or annual. Some chemical plants can operate for more than one or two years without a shutdown. Blast furnaces can run four to ten years without stopping.[1]

Production workers in continuous production commonly work in rotating shifts.

Processes are operated continuously for practical as well as economic reasons. Most of these industries are very capital intensive and the management is therefore very concerned about lost operating time.

Shutting down and starting up many continuous processes typically results in off quality product that must be reprocessed or disposed of. Many tanks, vessels and pipes cannot be left full of materials because of unwanted chemical reactions, settling of suspended materials or crystallization or hardening of materials. Also, cycling temperatures and pressures from starting up and shutting down certain processes (line kilns, boilers, blast furnaces, pressure vessels, etc.) may cause metal fatigue or other wear from pressure or thermal cycling.

In the more complex operations there are sequential shut down and start up procedures that must be carefully followed in order to protect personnel and equipment. Typically a start up or shut down will take several hours.

Continuous processes use process control to automate and control operational variables such as flow rates, tank levels, pressures, temperatures and machine speeds.[2]

Semi-continuous processes

Many processes such as assembly lines and light manufacturing that can be easily shut down and restarted are today considered semi-continuous. These can be operated for one or two shifts if necessary.

History

The oldest continuous flow processes is the blast furnace for producing pig iron. The blast furnace is intermittently charged with ore, fuel and flux and intermittently tapped for molten pig iron and slag; however, the chemical reaction of reducing the iron and silicon and later oxidizing the silicon is continuous.

Semi-continuous processes, such as machine manufacturing of cigarettes, were called “continuous” when they appeared.

Many truly continuous processes of today were originally batch operations.

The Fourdrinier paper machine, patented in 1799, was one of the earliest of the industrial revolution era continuous manufacturing processes. It produced a continuous web of paper that was formed, pressed, dried and reeled up in a roll. Previously paper had been made in individual sheets.

Another early continuous processes was Oliver Evans‘es flour mill (ca. 1785), which was fully automated.

Early chemical production and oil refining was done in batches until process control was sufficiently developed to allow remote control and automation for continuous processing. Processes began to operate continuously during the 19th century. By the early 20th century continuous processes were common.

Shut-downs

In addition to performing maintenance, shut downs are also when process modifications are performed. These include installing new equipment in the main process flow or tying-in or making provisions to tie-in sub-processes or equipment that can be installed while the process is operating.

Shut-downs of complicated processes may take weeks or months of planning. Typically a series of meetings takes place for co-ordination and planning. These typically involve the various departments such as maintenance, power, engineering, safety and operating units.

All work is done according to a carefully sequenced schedule that incorporates the various trades involved, such as pipe-fitters, millwrights, mechanics, laborers, etc., and the necessary equipment (cranes, mobile equipment, air compressors, welding machines, scaffolding, etc.) and all supplies (spare parts, steel, pipe, wiring, nuts and bolts) and provisions for power in case power will also be off as part of the outage. Often one or more outside contractors perform some of the work, especially if new equipment is installed.

Safety

Safety meetings are typically held before and during shutdowns. Other safety measures include providing adequate ventilation to hot areas or areas where oxygen may become depleted or toxic gases may be present and checking vessels and other enclosed areas for adequate levels of oxygen and insure absence of toxic or explosive gases. Any machines that are going to be worked on must be electrically disconnected, usually through the motor starter, so that it cannot operate. It is common practice to put a padlock on the motor starter, which can only be unlocked by the person or persons who is or are endangered by performing the work. Other disconnect means include removing couplings between the motor and the equipment or by using mechanical means to keep the equipment from moving. Valves on pipes connected to vessels that workers will enter are chained and locked closed, unless some other means is taken to insure that nothing will come through the pipes.

Continuous processor (equipment)

Continuous Production can be supplemented using a Continuous Processor. Continuous Processors are designed to mix viscous products on a continuous basis by utilizing a combination of mixing and conveying action. The Paddles within the mixing chamber (barrel) are mounted on two co-rotating shafts that are responsible for mixing the material. The barrels and paddles are contoured in such a way that the paddles create a self-wiping action between themselves minimizing buildup of product except for the normal operating clearances of the moving parts. Barrels may also be heated or cooled to optimize the mixing cycle. Unlike an extruder, the Continuous Processor void volume mixing area is consistent the entire length of the barrel ensuring better mixing and little to no pressure build up. The Continuous Processor works by metering powders, granules, liquids, etc. into the mixing chamber of the machine. Several variables allow the Continuous Processor to be versatile for a wide variety of mixing operations:[3]

  1. Barrel Temperature
  2. Agitator speed
  3. Fed rate, accuracy of feed
  4. Retention time (function of feed rate and volume of product within mixing chamber)

Continuous Processors are used in the following processes:

  • Compounding
  • Mixing
  • Kneading
  • Shearing
  • Crystallizing
  • Encapsulating

The Continuous Processor has an unlimited material mixing capabilities but, it has proven its ability to mix:

  • Plastics
  • Adhesives
  • Pigments
  • Composites
  • Candy
  • Gum
  • Paste
  • Toners
  • Peanut Butter
  • Waste Products

EXAMPLE…………….

Abstract Image

In the development of a new route to bendamustine hydrochloride, the API in Treanda, the key benzimidazole intermediate 5 was generated via catalytic heterogeneous hydrogenation of an aromatic nitro compound using a batch reactor. Because of safety concerns and a site limitation on hydrogenation at scale, a continuous flow hydrogenation for the reaction was investigated at lab scale using the commercially available H-Cube. The process was then scaled successfully, generating kilogram quantities on the H-Cube Midi. This flow process eliminated the safety concerns about the use of hydrogen gas and pyrophoric catalysts and also showed 1200-fold increase in space–time yield versus the batch processing.

Improved Continuous Flow Processing: Benzimidazole Ring Formation via Catalytic Hydrogenation of an Aromatic Nitro Compound

Org. Process Res. Dev., 2014, 18 (11), pp 1427–1433
Figure

EXAMPLE…………….


Correia et al. have published a three-step flow synthesis of rac-Effavirenz. This short synthetic route begins with cryogenic trifluoroacetylation of 1,4-dichlorobenzene. After quench and removal of morpholine using silica gel, this intermediate could either be isolated, or the product stream could be used directly in the next alkynylation step. Nucleophilic addition of lithium cyclopropylacetylide to the trifluoroacetate gave the propargyl alcohol intermediate in 90% yield in under 2 min residence time. This reaction was temperature-sensitive, and low temperatures were required to minimize decomposition. Again silica gel proved effective in the quench of the reaction. However, residual alkyne and other byproducts were difficult to remove. Thus, isolation of this intermediate was performed to minimize the impact of impurities on the final copper catalyzed cyanate installation/cyclization step to afford Effavirenz. Optimization of this step in batch mode for both copper source and ligand identified Cu(NO3)2 and CyDMEDA in a 1:4 molar ratio (20 mol % and 80 mol %, respectively) produced the product in 60% yield. Adaptation of this procedure to flow conditions resulted in poor conversion due to slow in situ reduction of the Cu(II) to Cu(I). Thus, a packed bed reactor of NaOCN and Cu(0) was used. Under these conditions, the ligand and catalyst loading could be reduced without compromising yield. Due to solubility limitations of Cu(NO3)2, Cu(OTf)2 was used with CyDMEDA in 1:2 molar ratio (5 mol % and 10 mol % loading, respectively). Under these optimized conditions, rac-Effavirenz was obtained in 62% isolated yield in reaction time of 1 h. This three-step process provides 45% overall yield of rac-Effavirenz and represents the shortest synthesis of this HIV drug reported to date
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1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3, ppm) δ9.45 (s, 1H), 7.49 (s, 1H), 7.35 (dd, J = 8.5, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 6.86 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 1H), 1.43-1.36 (m, 1H); 0.93-0.85 (m, 4H);
STR1
13C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3, ppm) δ 149.2, 133.2, 131.7, 129.2, 127.8, 122.1 (q, JC-F = 286 Hz), 116.3, 115.1, 95.9, 79.6 (q, JC-F = 35 Hz), 66.1, 8.8, 0.6;
STR1
19F NMR (376 MHz, CDCl3, ppm) δ -80.98.
1 T. J. Connolly; A. W.-Y Chan; Z. Ding; M. R. Ghosh; X. Shi; J. Ren, E. Hansen; R. Farr; M. MacEwan; A. Alimardanov; et al, PCT Int. Appl. WO 2009012201 A2 20090122, 2009.
2 (a) Z. Dai, X. Long, B. Luo, A. Kulesza, J. Reichwagen, Y. Guo, (Lonza Ltd), PCT Int. Appl. WO2012097510, 2012; (b) D. D. Christ; J. A. Markwalder; J. M. Fortunak; S. S. Ko; A. E. Mutlib; R. L. Parsons; M. Patel; S. P. Seitz, PCT Int. Appl. WO 9814436 A1 19980409, 1998 (c) C. A. Correia; D. T. McQuade; P. H. Seeberger, Adv. Synth. Catal. 2013, 355, 3517−3521.
Angewandte Chemie International Edition
( Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2015,54, 4945−4948).

Volume 54, Issue 16April 13, 2015 Pages 4945–4948

A Concise Flow Synthesis of Efavirenz

  • DOI: 10.1002/anie.201411728
SUPP INFO
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 NEXT EXAMPLE…………….

 

Wang et al. developed a flow process that uses metal catalyzed hydrogenation of NAB (2-nitro-2′-hydroxy-5′-methylazobenzene) to BTA (2-(2′-hydroxy-5′-methylphenyl)benzotriazole), a commonly used ultraviolet absorber. The major challenge in this process was to optimize the reduction of the diazo functionality over the nitro group and control formation of over reduction side products. The initial screen of metals adsorbed onto a γ-Al2O3 support indicated Pd to be superior to the other metals and also confirmed that catalyst preparation plays an important role in selectivity. To better understand the characteristics of the supported metal catalyst systems, the best performing were analyzed by TEM, XRD, H2-TPR, and N2 adsorption–desorption. Finally, solvents and bases were screened ultimately arriving at the optimized conditions using toluene, 2 equiv n-butylamine over 1% Pd/Al2O3, which provided 90% yield BTA in process with 98% conversion. The process can run over 200 h without a decrease in performance
( ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng. 2015, 3,1890−1896)
.
Abstract Image

The synthesis of 2-(2′-hydroxy-5′-methylphenyl)benzotriazole from 2-nitro-2′-hydroxy-5′-methylazobenzene over Pd/γ-Al2O3 in a fixed-bed reactor was investigated. Pd/γ-Al2O3 catalysts were prepared by two methods and characterized by XRD, TEM, H2-TPR, and N2 adsorption–desorption. Employed in the above reaction, the palladium catalyst impregnated in hydrochloric acid exhibited much better catalytic performance than that impregnated in ammonia–water, which was possibly attributed to the better dispersion of palladium crystals on γ-Al2O3. This result demonstrated that the preparation process of the catalyst was very important. Furthermore, the reaction parameters were optimized. Under the optimized conditions (toluene, NAB/triethylamine molar ratio 1:2, 60 °C, 2.5 MPa hydrogen pressure, 0.23 h–1 liquid hourly space velocity), about 90% yield of 2-(2′-hydroxy-5′-methylphenyl)benzotriazole was obtained. Finally, the time on stream performance of the catalyst was evaluated, and the reaction could proceed effectively over 200 h without deactivation of the catalyst.

Construction of 2-(2′-Hydroxy-5′-methylphenyl)benzotriazole over Pd/γ-Al2O3 by a Continuous Process

ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng., 2015, 3 (8), pp 1890–1896
DOI: 10.1021/acssuschemeng.5b00507
Publication Date (Web): July 06, 2015

NEXT EXAMPLE…………….

 

Continuous Flow-Processing of Organometallic Reagents Using an Advanced Peristaltic Pumping System and the Telescoped Flow Synthesis of (E/Z)-Tamoxifen

continuous flow processing of organometallic reagents

A new enabling technology for the pumping of organometallic reagents such as n-butyllithium, Grignard reagents, and DIBAL-H is reported, which utilises a newly developed, chemically resistant, peristaltic pumping system. Several representative examples of its use in common transformations using these reagents, including metal–halogen exchange, addition, addition–elimination, conjugate addition, and partial reduction, are reported along with examples of telescoping of the anionic reaction products. This platform allows for truly continuous pumping of these highly reactive substances (and examples are demonstrated over periods of several hours) to generate multigram quantities of products. This work culminates in an approach to the telescoped synthesis of (E/Z)-tamoxifen using continuous-flow organometallic reagent-mediated transformations.

https://www.vapourtec.com/flow-chemistry-resource-centre/publications-citing-vapourtec/continuous-flow-processing-of-organometallic-reagents-using-an-advanced-peristaltic-pumping-system-and-the-telescoped-flow-synthesis-of-ez-tamoxifen/

NEXT EXAMPLE…………….

 

Multi-step Continuous Flow Pyrazole Synthesis via a Metal-free Amine-redox Process

A versatile multi-step continuous flow synthesis for the preparation of substituted pyrazoles is presented.

The automated synthesis utilises a metal-free ascorbic acid mediated reduction of diazonium salts prepared from aniline starting materials followed by hydrolysis of the intermediate hydazide and cyclo-condensation with various 1,3-dicarbonyl equivalents to afford good yields of isolated functionalised pyrazole products.

The synthesis of the COX-2 selective NSAID was demonstrated using this approach.

NEXT EXAMPLE…………….

 

Synthesis of a Precursor to Sacubitril Using Enabling Technologies

Continuous flow methodologyhas been used to enhance several steps in the synthesis of a precursor to Sacubitril.

In particular, a key carboethoxyallylation benefited from a reducedprocessing time and improved reproducibility, the latter attributable toavoiding the use of a slurry as in the batch procedure. Moreover, in batchexothermic formation of the organozinc species resulted in the formation ofside products, whereas this could be avoided in flow because heat dissipationfrom a narrow packed column of zinc was more efficient

NEXT EXAMPLE…………….

 

RAFT RAFT (Reversible Addition Fragmentation chain Transfer), a type of controlled radical polymerization, was invented by CSIRO in 1998 but developed in partnership with DuPont over a long term collaboration. Conventional polymerisation is fast but gives a wide distribution of polymer chain lengths. (known as a high polydispersity index ). RAFT is more versatile than other living polymerization techniques, such as atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) or nitroxide-mediated polymerization (NMP), it not only leads to polymers with a low polydispersity index and a predetermined molecular weight, but it permits the creation of complex architectures, such as linear block copolymers, comblike, star, brush polymers and dendrimers. Monomers capable of polymerizing by RAFT include styrenes, acrylates, acrylamides, and many vinyl monomers. CSIRO is the owner of the RAFT patents and is actively commercialising the technology. There are 12 licences in force and CSIRO is pursuing interest in a number of fields including human health, agriculture, animal health and personal care. RAFT is the dominant polymerization technique for the creation of polymer-protein or polymer-drug conjugates, permitting (for example) the combination of a polymer exhibiting high solubility with a drug molecule with poor solubility.. Though RAFT can be carried out in batch, it also lends itself to continuous flow processing, as this processing method offers an easy and reproducible scale-up route of the oxygen sensitive RAFT process. The possibility to effectively exclude oxygen using continuous flow reactors in combination with inline degassing methods offers advantages over batch processing at scales beyond the laboratory environment. Challenges associated with the high viscosity of the polymer product solution can be controlled using pressuriseable continuous flow reactor systems. http://www.csiro.au/products/RAFT.html
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Examples………..

Cyclohexaneperoxycarboxylic acid (6,  has been developed as a safe, inexpensive oxidant, with demonstrated utility in a Baeyer−Villiger rearrangement.34 Solutions of cyclohexanecarboxylic acid in hexane and 50% aqueous H2O2 were continuously added to 45% H2SO4 at 50−70 °C and slightly reduced pressure. The byproduct H2O was removed azeotropically, and the residence time in the reactor was 3 h. Processing was adjusted to maintain a concentration of 6 at 17−19%, below the detonable level, and the product was kept as a stable solution in hexane. These operations enhanced the safety margin in preparing 6.

figure

Scheme .  Generation of cyclohexaneperoxycarboxylic acid

Examples………..

Abstract Image

The conversion of a batch process to continuous (flow) operation has been investigated. The manufacture of 4,d-erythronolactone at kilogram scale was used as an example. Fully continuousprocessing was found to be impracticable with the available plant because of the difficulty in carrying out a multiphase isolation step continuously, so hybrid batch–continuous options were explored. It was found that very little additional laboratory or process safety work other than that required for the batch process was required to develop the hybrid process. A hybrid process was chosen because of the difficulty caused by the precipitation of solid byproduct during the isolation stage. While the project was a technical success, the performance benefits of the hybrid process over the batch were not seen as commercially significant for this system.

Multikilogram Synthesis of 4-d-Erythronolactone via Batch andContinuous Processing

Org. Process Res. Dev., 2012, 16 (5), pp 1003–1012

Examples………..

Abstract Image

Continuous Biocatalytic Processes

Org. Process Res. Dev., 2009, 13 (3), pp 607–616
Figure
Scheme . Biotransformation of sodium l-glutamate to γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by single-step α-decarboxylation with glutamate decarboxylase

PICS…………..

References

  1.  American Iron and Steel Institute
  2.  Benett, Stuart (1986). A History of Control Engineering 1800-1930. Institution of Engineering and Technology. ISBN 978-0-86341-047-5.
  3.  Ziegler, Gregory R.; Aguilar, Carlos A. (2003). “Residence Time Distribution in a Co-rotating, Twin-screw Continuous Mixer by the Step Change Method”. Journal of Food Engineering(Elsevier) 59 (2-3): 1–7.

Sources and further reading

  • R H Perry, C H Chilton, C W Green (Ed), Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook (7th Ed), McGraw-Hill (1997), ISBN 978-0-07-049841-9
  • Major industries typically each have one or more trade magazines that constantly feature articles about plant operations, new equipment and processes and operating and maintenance tips. Trade magazines are one of the best ways to keep informed of state of the art developments.

FDA approved a switchover from batch to the new technology for production of HIV drug Prezista, Darunavir on a line at its plant in Gurabo, Puerto Rico


Above is an Illustration example,

FDA urges companies to get on board with continuous manufacturing

The FDA gave Johnson & Johnson’s ($JNJ) Janssen drug unit the thumbs up last week for the continuous manufacturing process that it has been working on for 5 years. The agency approved a switchover from batch to the new technology for production of HIV drug Prezista on a line at its plant in Gurabo, Puerto Rico……http://www.fiercepharma.com/manufacturing/fda-urges-companies-to-get-on-board-continuous-manufacturing

Darunavir
Darunavir structure.svg
Darunavir ball-and-stick animation.gif

SEE……http://www.en-cphi.cn/news/show-29367.html

Just after opening a refurbished manufacturing facility in Cape Town, South Africa earlier this year, pharma giant Johnson & Johnson ($JNJ) recently opened the doors to its Global Public Health Africa Operations office there.

The company has invested $21 million (300 million rand) in the facilities. The global public health facility will focus on HIV, tuberculosis and maternal, newborn and child health, South Africa – The Good News reported.

“This (investment) tells us that South Africa has the capability to provide a facility for world-class manufacturing,” Rob Davies, minister of the Department of Trade and Industry told the publication.

Johnson & Johnson, which has operated in South Africa for more than 86 years, planned to close the Cape Town manufacturing plant by the end of 2008 but was persuaded to keep the facility open for local manufacturing to serve sub-Saharan business. By 2015, the plant was cited by J&J as the most-improved in cost competitiveness from 30 company plants worldwide.

Earlier this month, the FDA gave J&J’s Janssen drug unit the go-ahead to proceed with the continuous manufacturing process it’s been working on for 5 years. The agency approved a switchover from batch to the new technology for production of HIV drug Prezista, Darunavir on a line at its plant in Gurabo, Puerto Rico.

AN EXAMPLE NOT RELATED TO DARUNAVIR

References

May 20-21, 2014    (Link to 2016 Meeting Website)

Continuous Bioprocessing

https://iscmp.mit.edu/white-papers/white-paper-4

READ

Achieving Continuous Manufacturing: Technologies and Approaches for Synthesis, Work-Up and Isolation of Drug Substance

https://iscmp.mit.edu/white-papers/white-paper-1

//////

 

 

//////FDA, HIV drug,  Prezista, Darunavir, Gurabo, Puerto Rico

Canagliflozin , New patent, WO 2016016774, SUN PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRIES LIMITED


250px

 

WO2016016774, CRYSTALLINE FORMS OF CANAGLIFLOZIN

SUN PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRIES LIMITED [IN/IN]; Sun House, Plot No. 201 B/1 Western Express Highway Goregaon (E) Mumbai, Maharashtra 400 063 (IN)

SANTRA, Ramkinkar; (IN).
NAGDA, Devendra, Prakash; (IN).
THAIMATTAM, Ram; (IN).
ARYAN, Satish, Kumar; (IN).
SINGH, Tarun, Kumar; (IN).
PRASAD, Mohan; (IN).
GANGULY, Somenath; (IN).
WADHWA, Deepika; (IN)

The present invention relates to crystalline forms of canagliflozin, processes for their preparation, and their use for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. A crystalline Form R1of canagliflozin emihydrate. The crystalline Form R1 of canagliflozin hemihydrate of claim 1, characterized by an X-ray powder diffraction peaks having d-spacing values at about 3.1, 3.7, 4.6, and 8.9 A

The present invention relates to crystalline forms of canagliflozin, processes for their preparation, and their use for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Canagliflozin hemihydrate, chemically designated as (l<S)-l,5-anhydro-l-[3-[[5-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-thienyl]methyl]-4-methylphenyl]-D-glucitol hemihydrate, is indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Its chemical structure is represented by Formula I.

Formula I

U.S. Patent Nos. 7,943,582 and 8,513,202 disclose crystalline forms of canagliflozin hemihydrate.

PCT Publication No. WO 2009/035969 discloses a crystalline form of

canagliflozin, designated as I-S.

PCT Publication No. WO 2013/064909 discloses crystalline complexes of canagliflozin with L-proline, D-proline, and L-phenylalanine, and the processes for their preparation.

PCT Publication No. WO 2014/180872 discloses crystalline non-stoichiometric hydrates of canagliflozin (HxA and HxB), and the process for their preparation.

PCT Publication No. WO 2015/071761 discloses crystalline Forms B, C, and D of canagliflozin.

Chinese Publication Nos. CN 103980262, CN 103936726, CN 103936725, CN 103980261, CN 103641822, CN 104230907, CN 104447722, CN 104447721, and CN 104130246 disclose different crystalline polymorphs of canagliflozin.

In the pharmaceutical industry, there is a constant need to identify critical physicochemical parameters of a drug substance such as novel salts, polymorphic forms, and co-crystals, that affect the drug’s performance, solubility, and stability, and which may play a key role in determining the drug’s market acceptance and success.

The discovery of new forms of a drug substance may improve desirable processing properties of the drug, such as ease of handling, storage stability, and ease of purification. Accordingly, the present invention provides novel crystalline forms of canagliflozin having enhanced stability over known crystalline forms of canagliflozin.

 

EXAMPLES

Example 1 : Preparation of a crystalline Form Rl of canagliflozin hemihydrate

Amorphous canagliflozin (5 g) was suspended in an aqueous solution of sodium formate (80 mL of a solution prepared by dissolving 137.7 g of sodium formate in 180 mL of de-ionized water). The suspension was stirred at room temperature for 20 hours to obtain a reaction mixture. De-ionized water (100 mL) was added to the reaction mixture, and then the reaction mixture was stirred for 1.5 hours. De-ionized water (50 mL) was added to the reaction mixture, and then the reaction mixture was stirred for 30 minutes. The reaction mixture was filtered, then washed with de-ionized water (300 mL), and then dried under vacuum for 12 hours to obtain a solid. The solid was further dried under vacuum at 60°C for 6 hours.

Yield: 4.71 g

Example 2: Preparation of a crystalline Form R2 of canagliflozin monohydrate

Amorphous canagliflozin (5 g) was suspended in an aqueous solution of sodium formate (80 mL of a solution prepared by dissolving 137.7 g of sodium formate in 180 mL of de-ionized water). The suspension was stirred at room temperature for 20 hours to obtain a reaction mixture. De-ionized water (100 mL) was added to the reaction mixture, and then the reaction mixture was stirred for 1.5 hours. De-ionized water (50 mL) was added to the reaction mixture, and then the reaction mixture was stirred for 30 minutes. The reaction mixture was filtered, then washed with de-ionized water (300 mL), and then dried under vacuum for 12 hours at room temperature.

Yield: 4.71 g

Example 3 : Preparation of a crystalline Form R2 of canagliflozin monohydrate

Canagliflozin hemihydrate (0.15 g; Form Rl obtained as per Example 1) was suspended in de-ionized water (3 mL). The suspension was stirred at room temperature for 24 hours. The reaction mixture was filtered, then dried at room temperature under vacuum for 5 hours.

Yield: 0.143 g

Example 4: Preparation of a crystalline Form R3 of canagliflozin hydrate

Amorphous canagliflozin (100 g) was suspended in an aqueous solution of sodium formate (1224 g of sodium formate in 1600 mL of de-ionized water). The suspension was stirred at room temperature for 20 hours to obtain a reaction mixture. De-ionized water

(2000 mL) was added to the reaction mixture, and then the reaction mixture was stirred for one hour. De-ionized water (1000 mL) was added to the reaction mixture, and then the reaction mixture was stirred for another one hour. The reaction mixture was filtered, then washed with de-ionized water (6000 mL), and then dried under vacuum for 30 minutes to obtain a solid. The solid was then dried under vacuum at 30°C to 35°C until a water content of 8% to 16% was attained.

Yield: 100 g

Sun Pharma's Dilip Shanghvi has become the stuff of legends

From top left: Abhay Gandhi (CEO-India Business-Sun Pharma), Kal Sundaram (CEO-TARO). Middle row (L-R): Israel Makov (chairman, Sun Pharma), Dilip Shanghvi (Founder and MD, Sun Pharma) Uday Baldota (CFO, Sun Pharma). Bottom: Kirti Ganorkar (Senior VP, Business development, Sun Pharma)

 

./////////////Canagliflozin , New patent, WO 2016016774, SUN PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRIES LIMITED

Continuous ruthenium-catalyzed methoxycarbonylation with supercritical carbon dioxide


 

Catal. Sci. Technol., 2016, Advance Article
DOI: 10.1039/C5CY01883H, Paper
Stefan Christiaan Stouten, Timothy Noel, Qi Wang, Matthias Beller, Volker Hessel
The methoxycarbonylation of cyclohexene with carbon dioxide over a ruthenium catalyst was realized in a micro flow system under supercritical conditions.
Continuous ruthenium-catalyzed methoxycarbonylation with supercritical carbon dioxide
The methoxycarbonylation of cyclohexene with carbon dioxide over a ruthenium catalyst was realized in a micro flow system under supercritical conditions. Instead of the toxic and flammable carbon monoxide, this process utilizes carbon dioxide, thereby avoiding issues with bulk transportation of carbon monoxide as well as eliminating the need for safety precautions associated with the use of carbon monoxide. Obtained was a 77% yield of the ester product at 180 °C, 120 bar and with a 90 min residence time, which is over five times faster than for the same reaction performed under subcritical conditions in batch. An important factor for the performance of the system was to have a sufficiently polar supercritical mixture, allowing the catalyst to dissolve well. The optimal temperature for the reaction was 180 °C, as the activity of the system dropped considerably at higher temperatures, most likely due to catalyst deactivation.

Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry

ir. S.C. (Stefan) Stouten –

Stouten, ir. S.C.
Address:
Technische Universiteit Eindhoven
P.O. Box 513
5600 MB EINDHOVEN
Department:
Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry
Section:
Micro Flow Chemistry and Process Technology
Positioncategory:
doctoral candidate (PhD) (PhD Stud.)
Position:
doctoral candidate
Room:
STW 0.
Email:
s.stouten@tue.nl

 

 

 

Volker Hessel

prof.dr. V. (Volker) Hessel

Hessel, prof.dr. V.
Address:
Technische Universiteit Eindhoven
P.O. Box 513
5600 MB EINDHOVEN
Chair:
Micro Flow Chemistry and Process Technology
Department:
Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry
Section:
Micro Flow Chemistry and Process Technology
Positioncategory:
Professor (HGL)
Position:
Full Professor
Room:
STW 1.45
Tel:
+31 40-247 2973
Tel (internal):
2973
Email:
v.hessel@tue.nl

////////Continuous,  ruthenium-catalyzed,  methoxycarbonylation, supercritical carbon dioxide, flow reactor

Ezetimibe NMR


syn2

Ezetimibe

 

 

 

 

Institute of Organic Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw, Poland
J. Org. Chem., 2013, 78 (14), pp 7048–7057
Figure

Ezetimibe (1)

 ezetimibe 1 (1.08 g, 80%) as a white solid.
Mp 164–166 °C [lit.(11) 155–157 °C];
99% ee;
[α]20D −28.1 (c 0.15, MeOH) [lit.(11) −32.6 (c 0.34, MeOH)];
1H NMR (600 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 9.49 (1H, s), 7.28–7.24 (2H, m), 7.19–7.16 (4H, m), 7.11–7.07 (4H, m), 6.75–6.71 (2H, m), 5.25 (1H, d, J 4.3 Hz), 4.77 (1H, d, J 2.2 Hz), 4.49–4.59 (1H, m), 3.07–3.04 (1H, m) 1.84–1.66 (4H, m);
13C NMR (150 MHz, CDCl3) δ 167.8, 162.3, and 160.7 (d, JC–F 240.3 Hz), 159.3, 157.9, 157.7, 142.5, 134.4, 128.7, 128.3, 128.0, 127.9, 118.7, and 118.6 (d, JC–F 8.1 Hz), 116.3, 116.2, 115.2, and 115.0 (d, JC–F 20.7 Hz), 71.5, 60.0, 59.9, 36.8, 24.9;
HRMS (EI, TOF) m/z calcd for C24H21F2NO3 [M] 409.1489 found 409.1478. Anal. Calcd for C24H21F2NO3: C 70.41, H 5.17, F 9.28, N 3.42. Found: C 70.46, H 5.23, F 9.24, N 3.34.

(3S,4S)-4-(4-(Benzyloxy)phenyl)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-((S)-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-3′-hydroxypropyl)azetidin-2-one (20)

Method 1

To a cooled (0 °C) solution of lactone 19 (2.0 g, 4 mmol) in 160 mL of dry diethyl ether was added 12 mL of 1 M solution of t-BuMgCl in diethyl ether. After 2 h, 30 mL of aq NH4Cl was added. The aqueous layer was extracted with ether (160 mL), the organic layer was washed with satd NaHCO3 (50 mL) and dried (MgSO4), and the solvent was removed under reduced pressure. Crude product 20 (1.64 g, 82%) obtained as a yellowish solid was used in the next step without further purification. An analytic sample was obtained by chromatography on silica gel (hexanes/ethyl acetate 7:3). Mp 130–133 °C [lit.(11) 132–134 °C]; [α]20D −42.2 (c 1.2, CHCl3); 1H NMR (600 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.42–7.20 (11H, m), 7.02–6.90 (6H, m), 5,04 (2H, s), 4.72–4.68 (1H, m), 4.55 (1H, d J 2.2 Hz), 3.07 (1H, dt J 7.1, 2.2 Hz), 2.05–1.93 (3H, m) 1.89–1.82 (2H, m); 13C NMR (150 MHz, CDCl3) δ 167.6, 163.0, and 161.4 (d, JC–F 244.2 Hz), 159.8 and 158.1 (d, JC–F 241.8 Hz), 159.0, 140.0, 139.9, 136.6, 133.9, and 133.8 (d, JC–F 2.9 Hz), 129.6, 128.6, 128.1, 127.5, 127.4 and 127.4, (d, JC–F 8.0 Hz), 127.2, 118.4, 118.3, 115.8, 115.8, and 115.7 (d, JC–F 22.0 Hz), 115.5, 115.4, and 115.3 (d, JC–F 21.3 Hz), 73.3, 70.1, 61.1, 60.3, 36.5, 25.0; HRMS (ESI, TOF) m/z calcd for C31H27F2NO3Na [M + Na]+ 522.1851, found 522.1862; IR (KBr) v 3441, 1743, 1609, 1510 cm–1. Anal. Calcd for C31H27F2NO3: C 74.53, H 5.45, N 2.80, F 7.61. Found: C 74.40, H 5.53, N 2.74, F 7.56.
Abstract Image
Org. Process Res. Dev., 2009, 13 (5), pp 907–910
DOI: 10.1021/op900039z
Figure

Preparation of 1-(4-Fluorophenyl)-3-(R)-[3-(4-fluorophenyl)-3(S)-hydroxypropyl]-4(S)-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-azetidinone 1 (Ezetimibe)

 of compound 1. 1H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6, δ) 1.72−1.84 (m, 4H), 3.08 (m, 1H), 4.45 (m, 1H), 4.8 (d, 1H, J = 2.0 Hz), 5.25 (d, 1H, J = 4.8), 6.75 (d, 2H, J = 8.4 Hz), 7.05−7.4 (m, 10H, Ar), 9.48 (s, 1H); IR: 3270.0, 2918, 1862, 1718.4, 1510 cm−1. MS: m/z 409.2 (M+). Anal. Calcd for C15H17NO5: C, 70.41; H, 5.17; N, 3.42. Found: C, 70.38; H, 5.27; N, 3.34.

Preparation of (3R,4S)-1-(4-Fluorophenyl)-3-[3-(4-fluorophenyl)-3(S)-hydroxypropyl]-4-(4-benzyloxyphenyl)-2-azetidinone 10

compound 9 as a white solid. 1H NMR (200 MHz, DMSO-d6, δ) 1.6−1.9 (m, 4H), 2.0−2.2 (bs, 1H), 3.0−3.2 (m, 1H), 4.4−4.6 (m, 1H), 4.74 (m, 1H), 5.05 (s, 2H), 6.95−7.9 (m, 17H, Ar); IR: 3492, 2922, 2852, 1719 cm−1; MS: m/z 499.3 (M+).
 ….

Synthesis of ezetimibe and desfluoro ezetimibe impurity.

Scheme 1.

Synthesis of ezetimibe and desfluoro ezetimibe impurity.

Comparison of 1H, 13C and 19F NMRs of ezetimibe and desfluoro ezetimibe ...

Fig. 4.Structures of ezetimibe, desfluoro impurity and intermediates.

Fig. 2.

Structures of ezetimibe, desfluoro impurity and intermediates.

 

 

Comparison of 1H, 13C and 19F NMRs of ezetimibe and desfluoro ezetimibe impurity.

Table 2.1H and 13C NMR assignments for Eze-1 and desfluoro Eze-1.

Positiona 1H–δ ppm


13C–δ ppm (DEPT)


Eze-1b Desfluoro Eze-1b Eze-1b Desfluoro Eze-1b
1 10.15 (br, OH) 10.13 (br, OH)
2 161.3 (C) 161.3 (C)
3 6.87 (d, J=8.5 Hz, 2H) 6.87 (dd, J=8.4, 1.8 Hz, 2H) 116.3 (2CH) 116.3 (2CH)
4 7.74 (d, J=8.5 Hz, 2H) 7.75 (dd, J=8.4, 1.8 Hz, 2H) 131.4 (2CH) 131.4 (2CH)
5 128.1 (C) 128.2 (C)
6 8.43 (s, 1H) 8.43 (s, 1H) 160.8 (CH) 160.8 (CH)
7 149.0 (d, 4J=2.6 Hz, C) 152.7 (C)
8 7.15–7.26 (m, 4H) 7.36 (dd, J=8.1, 7.5 Hz, 2H) 123.3 (d, 3J=8.4 Hz, 2CH) 121.6 (2CH)
9 7.17 (d, J=7.8 Hz, 2H) 116.5 (d, 2J=22 Hz, 2CH) 129.8 (2CH)
10 7.18 (t, J=6.3 Hz, 1H) 160.8 (d, 1J=242 Hz, C) 126.0 (CH)
Assignments: s: singlet; d: doublet; t: triplet; m: multiplet; br: broad singlet. Mean values used for coupled signals.

aNumbering of all compounds shown in Fig. 2 and copies of NMR spectra are presented in Appendix A.
bSolvent is DMSO-d6.

 

R-Enantiomer in Ezetimibe

R-Enantiomer in Ezetimibe

ABOVE 1H NMR OF R ENANTIOMER

Isolation and Characterization of R-Enantiomer in Ezetimibe

by K Chimalakonda – ‎2013 – ‎Related articles
HPLC1H and 13C NMR. The purity of isolated R-Isomer is about 98%. Keywords: Isolation; Characterization; (R)-Isomer; Ezetimibe; Supercritical Fluid  …
 

http://file.scirp.org/Html/10-2200417_36901.htm

1H NMR VALUES FOR R ENANTIOMER

 
13C NMR OF R ENANTIOMER
 
 



13C NMR VALUES OF R ENANTIOMER



 
 
 
IR OF R ENANTIOMER

Ezetimibe for reference
Ezetimibe
Ezetimibe
Ezetimibe.svg
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(3R,4S)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-[(3S)-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-hydroxypropyl]-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)azetidin-2-one
Clinical data
Trade names Zetia
AHFS/Drugs.com monograph
MedlinePlus a603015
Legal status
Routes Oral
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 35–65%
Protein binding >90%
Metabolism Intestinal wall, hepatic
Half-life 19–30 hours
Excretion Renal 11%, faecal 78%
Identifiers
CAS number 163222-33-1 Yes
ATC code C10AX09
PubChem CID 150311
DrugBank DB00973
ChemSpider 132493 Yes
UNII EOR26LQQ24 Yes
KEGG D01966 Yes
ChEBI CHEBI:49040 Yes
ChEMBL CHEMBL1138 Yes
Chemical data
Formula C24H21F2NO3 
Molecular mass 409.4 g·mol−1
Physical data
Melting point 164 to 166 °C (327 to 331 °F)
 Yes (what is this?)  (verify)

1H NMR OF R ENANTIOMER PREDICTED

Ezetimibe NMR spectra analysis, Chemical CAS NO. 163222-33-1 NMR spectral analysis, Ezetimibe H-NMR spectrum

13C NMR OF R ENANTIOMER PREDICTED

Ezetimibe NMR spectra analysis, Chemical CAS NO. 163222-33-1 NMR spectral analysis, Ezetimibe C-NMR spectrum
cosy

.

Ezetimibe has the chemical name 1-(4-fluorophenyl)-3(R)-[3-(4-fluorophenyl)-3(S)-hydroxypropyl]-4(S)-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-azetidinone (hereinafter referred to by its adopted name “ezetimibe”) and is structurally represented by Formula I.
Figure US20070049748A1-20070301-C00001
Ezetimibe is in a class of lipid lowering compounds that selectively inhibit the intestinal absorption of cholesterol and related phytosterols. It is commercially available in products sold using the trademark ZETIA as a tablet for oral administration containing 10 mg of ezetimibe, and in combination products with simvastatin using the trademark VYTORIN.
U.S. Pat. No. 6,096,883 discloses generically and specifically ezetimibe and its related compounds along with their pharmaceutical compositions. The patent also describes a process for the preparation of ezetimibe.
The process described in the patent involves the use of methyl-4-(chloroformyl) butyrate and also involves isolation of the compound (3R,4S)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-[3-(chloroformyl)-3-oxo-propyl]-4-(4-benzyloxyphenyl)-2-azetidinone as an intermediate. Chlorinated compounds are unstable and difficult to handle in large scale productions. The process described in the patent also involves the purification of intermediates using column chromatography, thus making the process difficult to be scaled up.
Processes for preparation of ezetimibe and its intermediates have also been described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,207,822, 5,856,473, 5,739,321, and 5,886,171, International Application Publication No. WO 2006/050634, and in Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 1998, 41, 973-980, Journal of Organic Chemistry 1999, 64, 3714-3718, and Tetrahedron Letters, 44(4), 801-804.

http://www.google.com/patents/US20070049748

EXAMPLE 10 PREPARATION OF 1-(4-FLUOROPHENYL)-3(R)-[3-(4-FLUOROPHENYL)-3(S)-HYDROXYPROPYL]-4(S)-(4-HYDROXYPHENYL)-2-AZETIDINONE (FORMULA I)

50 g of (3R,4S)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-[3-(4-fluorophenyl)-3(s)-hydroxypropyl]-4-(4-benzyloxyphenyl)-2-azetidinone and 475 ml of methanol were taken into a round bottom flask. A mixture of 15 g of 5% palladium on carbon and 25 ml of water was added to it. The reaction mass was flushed with hydrogen gas and a hydrogen pressure of 3 to 5 kg/cm2 was applied. The reaction mass was stirred for 3 hours. Reaction completion was checked using thin layer chromatography. After the reaction was completed, the pressure was released and the reaction mass was filtered through perlite. The filter bed was washed with 100 ml of methanol. The filtrate was distilled completely at 70° C., and 400 ml of isopropanol was added to it. The reaction mass was heated to 45° C. and maintained for 10 minutes. The reaction mass was then allowed to cool to 28° C. 400 ml of water was added to the reaction mass and stirred for 1 hour, 20 minutes. The separated compound was filtered and washed with 100 ml of water. The wet cake was taken into another round bottom flask and 500 ml of chlorobenzene and 40 ml of methanol were added to it. The reaction mass was heated to 65° C. and maintained for 15 minutes. 25 ml of water was added to the reaction mass and stirred for 2 hours. The separated compound was filtered and washed with 100 ml of chlorobenzene. The wet cake was taken into another round bottom flask and 375 ml of chlorobenzene, and 30 ml of methanol were added to it. The reaction mass was heated to 62° C. and maintained for 10 minutes. The reaction mass was then cooled to 28° C. and 20 ml of water was added to it. The reaction mass was stirred for 20 minutes and then filtered and washed with 100 ml of chlorobenzene. The wet cake was taken into another round bottom flask and 400 ml of isopropanol was added to it. The reaction mass was heated to 46° C. and maintained for 15 minutes. 800 ml of water was added to the reaction mass at 45 to 46° C. and stirred for one hour. The separated solid was filtered and washed with water. The process of recrystallization in a combination of isopropanol and water was repeated and the obtained compound was dried at 70° C. for 5 hours to get 19.8 g of the title compound. (Yield 49.2%)
Purity by HPLC: 99.68%.

EXAMPLE 11 PURIFICATION OF 1-(4-FLUOROPHENYL)-3(R)-[3-(4-FLUOROPHENYL)-3(S)-HYDROXYPROPYL]-4(S)-(4-HYDROXYPHENYL)-2-AZETIDINONE (FORMULA I)

15.0 g of ezetimibe obtained above and 120 ml of isopropanol were taken into a round bottom flask and the reaction mass was heated to 48° C. The reaction mass was filtered through a perlite bed in the hot condition to make the solution particle free. The filtrate was taken into another round bottom flask and heated to 47° C. 240 ml of water was added at 47° C. After completion of the addition, the reaction mass was maintained at 47° C. for 1 hour. The separated solid was filtered and washed with 30 ml of water. The wet compound was dried at 70° C. for 8 hours to get 13.4 g of the title compound. (Yield 89%)
Purity by HPLC: 99.92.
benzyl ezetimibe impurity: less than 0.0003 area-%,
benzyl ezetimibe diol impurity: 0.004 area-%,
lactam cleaved alcohol impurity: 0.003 area-%,
lactam cleaved acid impurity: 0.01 area-%,
ezetimibe diol impurity: less than 0.0007 area-%.
Residual solvent content by gas chromatography:
Isopropyl alcohol: 1454 ppm
All other solvents: Less than 100 ppm.
WO1997045406A1 * May 28, 1997 Dec 4, 1997 Schering Corp 3-hydroxy gamma-lactone based enantioselective synthesis of azetidinones
WO2004099132A2 May 5, 2004 Nov 18, 2004 Ram Chander Aryan Process for the preparation of trans-isomers of diphenylazetidinone derivatives
WO2008032338A2 * Sep 10, 2007 Mar 20, 2008 Reddy Maramreddy Sahadeva Improved process for the preparation of ezetimibe and its intermediates
EP0720599A1 Sep 14, 1994 Jul 10, 1996 Schering Corporation Hydroxy-substituted azetidinone compounds useful as hypocholesterolemic agents
US20070049748 Aug 25, 2006 Mar 1, 2007 Uppala Venkata Bhaskara R Preparation of ezetim
Citing Patent Filing date Publication date Applicant Title
US7470678 Jul 1, 2003 Dec 30, 2008 Astrazeneca Ab Diphenylazetidinone derivatives for treating disorders of the lipid metabolism
US7842684 Apr 25, 2007 Nov 30, 2010 Astrazeneca Ab Diphenylazetidinone derivatives possessing cholesterol absorption inhibitor activity
US7863265 Jun 19, 2006 Jan 4, 2011 Astrazeneca Ab N-{[4-((2R,3R)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-{[(2R or S)-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-hydroxyethyl]thio}-4-oxoazetidin-2-yl)phenoxy]acetyl}glycyl-D-lysine, used as anticholesterol agents
US7871998 Dec 21, 2004 Jan 18, 2011 Astrazeneca Ab Diphenylazetidinone derivatives possessing cholesterol absorption inhibitory activity
US7893048 Jun 21, 2006 Feb 22, 2011 Astrazeneca Ab 2-azetidinone derivatives as cholesterol absorption inhibitors for the treatment of hyperlipidaemic conditions
US7906502 Jun 21, 2006 Mar 15, 2011 Astrazeneca Ab 2-azetidinone derivatives as cholesterol absorption inhibitors for the treatment of hyperlipidaemic conditions
US8013150 * Feb 17, 2006 Sep 6, 2011 Msn Laboratories Ltd. Process for the preparation of ezetimibe
US8383810 Dec 12, 2011 Feb 26, 2013 Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. Process for the synthesis of azetidinones
US20110130378 * May 26, 2009 Jun 2, 2011 Lek Pharmaceuticals D.D. Ezetimibe process and composition
US20110183956 * Jul 29, 2009 Jul 28, 2011 Janez Mravljak Process for the synthesis of ezetimibe and intermediates useful therefor
EP2128133A1 May 26, 2008 Dec 2, 2009 Lek Pharmaceuticals D.D. Ezetimibe process and composition
WO2008096372A2 * Feb 6, 2008 Aug 14, 2008 Pranav Gupta Process for preparing highly pure ezetimibe using novel intermediates
WO2009150038A1 May 26, 2009 Dec 17, 2009 Lek Pharmaceuticals D.D. Process for the preparation of ezetimibe and composition containing it
WO2009157019A2 * Jun 23, 2009 Dec 30, 2009 Ind-Swift Laboratories Limited Process for preparing ezetimibe using novel allyl intermediates
WO2005021497A2 * Aug 27, 2004 Mar 10, 2005 Eduardo J Martinez Tethered dimers and trimers of 1,4-diphenylazetidn-2-ones
WO2006127893A2 * May 25, 2006 Nov 30, 2006 Microbia Inc Processes for production of 4-(biphenylyl)azetidin-2-one phosphonic acids
WO2008096372A2 * Feb 6, 2008 Aug 14, 2008 Pranav Gupta Process for preparing highly pure ezetimibe using novel intermediates
US20070049748 * Aug 25, 2006 Mar 1, 2007 Uppala Venkata Bhaskara R Preparation of ezetimibe
/////

Process Development for Low Cost Manufacturing


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Process Development for Low Cost Manufacturing on 23-24 nov 2015 , Hyderabad, INDIA

23.11.2015 – 24.11.2015

 

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Chemical process research and development is recognised as a key function during the commercialisation of a new product particularly in the generic and contract manufacturing arms of the chemical, agrochemical and pharmaceutical industries.

The synthesis and individual processes must be economic, safe and must generate product that meets the necessary quality requirements.

This 2-day course presented by highly experienced process chemists will concentrate on the development and optimisation of efficient processes to target molecules with an emphasis on raw material cost, solvent choice, yield improvement, process efficiency and work up, and waste minimisation.

Process robustness testing and reaction optimisation via stastical methods will also be covered.

A discussion of patent issues and areas where engineering and technology can help reduce operating costs.

The use of engineering and technology solutions to reduce costs will be discussed and throughout the course the emphasis will be on minimising costs and maximising returns.

 

    • Young Chemists who have just started work in industry as development chemists
    • Organic Chemists/Medicinal Chemists in Research and Development who would like to gain an appreciation of development and scale up and who are perhaps contemplating moving into chemical development.
    • Development and Production Chemists in industry who would like to improve their efficiency and gain an insight into alternative approaches to chemical development.
    • Chemical Engineers who wish to understand a chemist’s approach to chemical development of batch processes. (Engineers would, however, need a good grounding in organic chemistry)
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    • Introduction
      Route selection, raw material choice
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      • Using the cheapest raw materials and reagents, back integration of raw material supply
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      • Solvent choice for reaction and work up

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      • Reaction understanding
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      Process optimisation
      • Reaction quench
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      • Product isolation (crystallisation, filtration and drying)

      Statistical methods of optimisation
      • Design of experiments
      • Factorial and fractional factorial design
      • Response surface analysis
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      Regulatory and Quality issues
      • Impurity control and tracking
      • Process validation and QbD
      • Vessel cleaning

      Patent issues
      • Patents basics
      • Patent definition
      • Where patents are in force
      • How to work around patents

      Use of technology and engineering
      • Flow chemistry
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      At the end of the course participants will have gained:

      • A logical investigative approach to chemical development and optimisation
      • An insight into the factors involved in development and scaleup
      • A preliminary knowledge of statistical methods of optimisation
      • Improved ability to decide which parts of the chemical process to examine in detail.
      • Ideas for efficient resource allocation
      • Improved troubleshooting and problem solving ability
      • A basic outline of the patent system
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    • https://scientificupdate.co.uk/images/eventlist/brochures/7649_su_23-24_nov_2015_doe_hyderabad(v2f)_1433342973.pdf

///////////

Indian Generics 2016


The generic APIs market is expected to continue to rise faster than the branded/innovative APIs, by 7.7%/year to reach $30.3 billion in 2016. Asia-Pacific is expected to show the fastest growth rates (10.8%/year). The 24 fastest growing markets will include 11 in Asia-Pacific, seven in Eastern Europe and CIS, four in Africa-Middle East and two in Latin America (Figure ).

Figure  – Top growth markets for generic APIs to 2016

By 2016, China will account for 27.7% of the global generic API merchant market, while the US will have fallen to 23.8%; the mature markets as a whole will see their share fall from 41.8% in 2012 to 36.9%. India will be the third largest, with a 7.2% share.

 

 

 

सुकून उतना ही देना प्रभू, जितने से जिंदगी चल जाये।औकात बस इतनी देना,कि औरों का भला हो जाये।………..P.S. : The views expressed are my personal and in no-way suggest the views of the professional body or the company that I represent.

 

सुकून उतना ही देना प्रभू, जितने से जिंदगी चल जाये। औकात बस इतनी देना, कि औरों का भला हो जाये।
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कि औरों का भला हो जाये।

 

TOFACITINIB 的合成, トファシチニブ, Тофацитиниб, توفاسيتين يب SPECTRAL VISIT


Tofacitinib Citrate, 的合成

托法替布,  トファシチニブクエン酸塩, Тофацитиниба Цитрат

 3-{(3R,4R)-4-methyl-3-[methyl-(7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-amino]-piperidin-1-yl}-3-oxo-propionitrile citrate salt

CAS : 540737-29-9

ROTATION +

Tofacitinib; Tasocitinib;

477600-75-2 base ; CP-690550;

3-((3R,4R)-4-methyl-3-(methyl(7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)piperidin-1-yl)-3-oxopropanenitrile;

3-{(3R,4R)-4-methyl-3-rmethyl-(7H-pyrrolor2,3-dlpyrimidin-4-yl)-amino1- piperidin-1-yl}-3-oxo-propionitrile mono citrate salt

CP 690550 Tofacitinib; CP-690550; CP-690550-10; Xeljanz; Jakvinus; Tofacitinib citrate

Trademarks: Xeljanz; Jakvinus

MF: C16H20N6O

CAS : 477600-75-2 BASE ; 540737-29-9(citrate) 3-[(3R,4R)-4-methyl-3-[methyl(7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)amino]piperidin-1-yl]-3-oxopropanenitrile

Molecular Weight: 312.369

SMILES: C[C@@H]1CCN(C[C@@H]1N(C)C2=NC=NC3=C2C=CN3)C(=O)CC#N

Activity: Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis; RA Treatment, JAK Inhibitor; Protein Kinase Inhibitor; JAK3 Inhibitor; Janus Kinase 3 Inhibitor; JAK-STAT Signaling Pathway; JAK1 Kinase Inhibitor; Selective Immunosuppressants

Status: Launched 2012

Originator: Pfizer
Pfizer Inc’s oral JAK inhibitor tofacitinib was approved on November 6, 2012 by US FDA for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
सुकून उतना ही देना प्रभू, जितने से जिंदगी चल जाये।औकात बस इतनी देना,कि औरों का भला हो जाये।………..P.S. : The views expressed are my personal and in no-way suggest the views of the professional body or the company that I represent.

Tofacitinib (trade names Xeljanz and Jakvinus, formerly tasocitinib,[1] CP-690550[2]) is a drug of the janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor class, discovered and developed by Pfizer. It is currently approved for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in the United States,Russia, Japan and many other countries, is being studied for treatment of psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease, and other immunological diseases, as well as for the prevention of organ transplant rejection.

An Improved and Efficient Process for the Preparation of Tofacitinib Citrate

Publication Date (Web): November 17, 2014 (Article)
DOI: 10.1021/op500274j
 
MS m/z 313 (M+ + 1);
mp 201–202 °C;  
1H NMR (CDCl3) δ 8.34 (s, 1H), δ 7.38 (d, 1H, J = 2.4 Hz), δ 6.93 (d, 1H, J = 2.4 Hz), δ 4.97 (m, 1H), δ 3.93–4.03 (m, 4H), δ 3.66 (m, 1H), δ 3.50 (m, 4H), δ 2.91 (d, 2H, J = 15.6 Hz), δ 2.80 (t, 2H, J = 12.8 Hz), δ 2.55 (m, 1H), δ 1.99 (m, 1H), δ 1.77 (m, 1H), δ 1.13–1.18 (m, 3H).
Print
09338-acsnews1-pfizercxd
TEAMWORK
Part of the Pfizer group responsible for Xeljanz: Front row, from left: Sally Gut Ruggeri, Chakrapani Subramanyam, Eileen Elliott Mueller, and Frank Busch. Second row, from left: Matthew Brown, Mark Flanagan, and Robert Dugger. Back row, from left: Elizabeth Kudlacz and Douglas Ball.
Credit: Pfizer
Mark Flanagan, who was on the team at Pfizer that discovered Xeljanz, (tofacitinib citrate), an oral treatment for rheumatoid arthritis, remembers testing the drug in a rat model and seeing the drug decrease the level of inflammation in the rats’ footpads. “What we look for is physical measurements of the size of the joint. In the control animals, there was quite a bit of inflammation in the joints, whereas animals treated with different doses of the drug showed a dose-dependent decrease in the size of the joint. “Tofacitinib showed robust efficacy in the first such study run. I can remember the excitement that this data generated on the team,” he says.

Tofacitinib, chemically known as (3R,4R)-4-methyl-3-(methyl-7H-pyrrolo [2,3- d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino)-B-oxo-l -piperidinepi panenitrile, is represented Formula I. Tofacitinib citrate, a janus kinase inhibitor, is approved as XELJANZ® tablets for treatment .of rheumatoid arthritis.

Figure imgf000002_0001

Various intermediates and processes for preparation of tofacitinib are disclosed in patents like US7301 023 and US8232394.

Figure imgf000020_0001

Formula I or isomers or a mixture of isomers thereof by following any method provided in the prior art, for example, by following Example 14 of U.S. Patent No. RE41,783 or by following Example 6 of U.S. Patent No. 7,301,023. Tofacitinib of Formula I or isomers of tofacitinib or a mixture of isomers thereof may be converted into a salt by following any method provided in the prior art, for example, by following Example 1 of U.S. Patent No. 6,965,027 or by following Example 1 or Example 8 of PCT Publication No. WO 2012/135338. The potential significance of JAK3 inhibition was first discovered in the laboratory of John O’Shea, an immunologist at the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).[5] In 1994, Pfizer was approached by the NIH to form a public-private partnership in order to evaluate and bring to market experimental compounds based on this research.[5] Pfizer initially declined the partnership but agreed in 1996, after the elimination of an NIH policy dictating that the market price of a product resulting from such a partnership would need to be commensurate with the investment of public taxpayer revenue and the “health and safety needs of the public.”[5] The drug discovery, preclinical development, and clinical development of tofacitinib took place exclusively at Pfizer.[6] In November 2012, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved tofacitinib for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Once on the market, rheumatologists complained that the $2,055 a month wholesale price was too expensive, though the price is 7% less than related treatments.[6] A 2014 study showed that tofacitinib treatment was able to convert white fat tissues into more metabolically active brown fat, suggesting it may have potential applications in the treatment of obesity.[7] It is an inhibitor of the enzyme janus kinase 1 (JAK1) and janus kinase 3 (JAK 3) , which means that it interferes with the JAK-STAT signaling pathway, which transmits extracellular information into the cell nucleus, influencing DNA transcription.[3] Recently it has been shown in a murine model of established arthritis that tofacitinib rapidly improved disease by inhibiting the production of inflammatory mediators and suppressing STAT1-dependent genes in joint tissue. This efficacy in this disease model correlated with the inhibition of both JAK1 and 3 signaling pathways, suggesting that tofacitinib may exert therapeutic benefit via pathways that are not exclusive to inhibition of JAK3.[4]

Preparation of 3-{(3R,4R)-4-methyl-3-[methyl-(7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-amino]-piperidin-1-yl}-3-oxo-propionitrile citrate salt (Tofacitinib citrate, Xeljanz, CP-690550-10)
To a round-bottomed flask fitted with a temperature probe, condenser, nitrogen source, and heating mantle, methyl-[(3R,4R)-4-methyl-piperidin-3-yl]-(7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-amine (5.0 g, 20.4 mmol) was added followed by 1-butanol (15 mL), ethyl cyanoacetate (4.6 g, 40.8 mmol), and DBU (1.6 g, 10.2 mmol). The resulting amber solution was stirred at 40 °C for 20 h. Upon reaction completion, citric acid monohydrate (8.57 g, 40.8 mmol) was added followed by water (7.5 mL) and 1-butanol (39.5 mL). The mixture was heated to 81 °C and held at that temperature for 30 min. The mixture was then cooled slowly to 22 ºC and stirred for 2 h. The slurry was filtered and washed with 1-butanol (20 mL). The filter cake was dried in a vacuum oven at 80 °C to afford 9.6 g (93%) of tofacitinib citrate as an off-white solid.
1H NMR (500 MHz, d6-DMSO): δ 8.14 (s, 1H), 7.11 (d, J=3.6 Hz, 1H), 6.57 (d, J=3.6 Hz, 1H), 4.96 (q, J=6.0 Hz, 1H), 4.00-3.90 (m, 2H), 3.80 (m, 2H), 3.51 (m, 1H), 3.32 (s, 3H), 2.80 (Abq, J=15.6 Hz, 2H), 2.71 (Abq, J=15.6 Hz, 2H), 2.52-2.50 (m, 1H), 2.45-2.41 (m, 1H), 1.81 (m, 1H), 1.69-1.65 (m, 1H), 1.04 (d, J=6.9 Hz, 3H).
सुकून उतना ही देना प्रभू, जितने से जिंदगी चल जाये।औकात बस इतनी देना,कि औरों का भला हो जाये।………..P.S. : The views expressed are my personal and in no-way suggest the views of the professional body or the company that I represent.
PAPER
3-((3R,4R)-4-Methyl-3-(methyl(7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)piperidin-1-yl)-3-oxopropanenitrile (1) Monocitrate
J. Med. Chem., 2010, 53 (24), pp 8468–8484
DOI: 10.1021/jm1004286
1monocitrate as a white crystalline solid (mp = 201 dec).
LRMS: m/z 313.2 (MH+).
1H NMR (400 MHz) (D2O) δ HOD: 0.92 (2 H, d, J = 7.2 Hz), 0.96 (1 H, d, J = 7.6 Hz), 1.66 (1 H, m), 1.80 (1 H, m), 2.37 (1 H, m), 2.58 (2 H, 1/2 ABq, J = 15.4 Hz), 2.70 (2 H, 1/2 ABq, J = 15.4 Hz), 3.23 (2 H, s), 3.25 (1 H, s), 3.33 (1 H, m), 3.46 (1 H, m), 3.81 (4 H, m), 4.55 (1 H, m), 6.65 (1 H, d, J = 3.2 Hz), 7.20 (1 H, t, J = 3.2 Hz), 8.09 (1 H, m).
Anal. Calcd for C22H28N6O8: C, 52.38; H, 5.59; N, 16.66. Found: C, 52.32; H, 5.83; N, 16.30. For additional characterization of the monocitrate salt of 1 see WO 03/048162.
NMR PREDICT
References:
Weiling Cai, James L. Colony,Heather Frost, James P. Hudspeth, Peter M. Kendall, Ashwin M. Krishnan,Teresa Makowski, Duane J. Mazur, James Phillips, David H. Brown Ripin, Sally Gut Ruggeri, Jay F. Stearns, and Timothy D. White; Investigation of Practical Routes for the Kilogram-Scale Production of cis-3-Methylamino-4-methylpiperidinesOrganic Process Research & Development 2005, 9, 51−56
Ripin, D. H.B.; 3-amino-piperidine derivatives and methods of manufacture, US patent application publication, US 2004/0102627 A1
Ruggeri, Sally, Gut;Hawkins, Joel, Michael; Makowski, Teresa, Margaret; Rutherford, Jennifer, Lea; Urban,Frank,John;Pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine derivatives: their intermediates and synthesis, PCT pub. No. WO 2007/012953 A 2, US20120259115 A1, United States Patent US8232393. Patent Issue Date: July 31, 2012
Kristin E. Price, Claude Larrive´e-Aboussafy, Brett M. Lillie, Robert W. McLaughlin, Jason Mustakis, Kevin W. Hettenbach, Joel M. Hawkins, and Rajappa Vaidyanathan; Mild and Efficient DBU-Catalyzed Amidation of Cyanoacetates, Organic Letters, 2009, vol.11, No.9, 2003-2006
MORE NMR PREDICT

tofacitinib Molbase str

Tofacitinib TOFA  1H proton NMR spectra

tofacitinib 1h values

13C NMR PREDICT  TOFA  13C NMR spectra

 

 

SEE…….https://newdrugapprovals.org/2015/07/24/tofacitinib-%E7%9A%84%E5%90%88%E6%88%90-spectral-visit/

 

 

COSY PREDICT COSY NMR prediction सुकून उतना ही देना प्रभू, जितने से जिंदगी चल जाये।औकात बस इतनी देना,कि औरों का भला हो जाये।………..P.S. : The views expressed are my personal and in no-way suggest the views of the professional body or the company that I represent.

SEE………http://orgspectroscopyint.blogspot.in/2014/12/tofacitinib-citrate.html

 

NMR PICTURE FROM THE NET

tofacitinib ABMOLE NMR BASE

 

PAPER

Volume 54, Issue 37, 11 September 2013, Pages 5096–5098

Asymmetric total synthesis of Tofacitinib

  • a Laboratory of Asymmetric Synthesis, Chemistry Institute of Natural Resources, University of Talca, P.O. Box 747, Talca, Chile
  • b Laboratory of Natural Products, Department of Chemistry, University of Antofagasta, P.O. Box 170, Antofagasta, Chile

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tetlet.2013.07.042

Abstract

A novel stereoselective synthesis of Tofacitinib (CP-690,550), a Janus tyrosine kinase (JAK3) specific inhibitor, has been achieved starting from (5S)-5-hydroxypiperidin-2-one in 10 steps from 2 with a 9.5% overall yield. The potentiality of this synthetic route is the obtention of tert-butyl-(3S,4R)-3-hydroxy-4-methylpiperidine-1-carboxylate (6b) as a new chiral precursor involved in the synthesis of CP690,550, in a three-step reaction, without epimerizations, rather than the 5 or more steps used in described reactions to achieve this compound from analogues of 6b.


Graphical abstract

Image for unlabelled figure

…………………. Tofacitinib synthesis: US2001053782A1

Tofacitinib synthesis: WO2002096909A1
 
Tofacitinib synthesis: Org Process Res Dev 2014, 18(12), 1714-1720 (also from a chinese publication, same procedure just slight changes in reagents/conditions)
 
References:
1. Blumenkopf, T. A.; et. al. Pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine compounds. US2001053782A1
2. Flanagan, M. E.; et. al. Optical resolution of (1-benzyl-4-methylpiperidin-3-yl) -methylamine and the use thereof for the preparation of pyrrolo 2,3-pyrimidine derivatives as protein kinases inhibitors. WO2002096909A1
3. Das, A.; et. al. An Improved and Efficient Process for the Preparation of Tofacitinib Citrate. Org Process Res Dev2014, 18(12), 1714-1720.

 

PATENT https://www.google.co.in/patents/WO2003048162A1?cl=en The crystalline form of the compound of this invention 3-{4-methyl-3-[methyl- (7H-pyrrolot2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-amino]-piperidin-1-yl}-3-oxo-propionitrile mono citrate salt is prepared as described below. Scheme 1

Figure imgf000005_0001
Figure imgf000005_0002

Scheme 2

Figure imgf000006_0001
Figure imgf000006_0002
Figure imgf000006_0003
Figure imgf000006_0004

Example 1 3-{(3R,4R)-4-methyl-3-rmethyl-(7H-pyrrolor2,3-dlpyrimidin-4-yl)-amino1- piperidin-1-yl}-3-oxo-propionitrile mono citrate salt Ethanol (13 liters), (3R, 4R)-methyl-(4-methyl-piperidin-3-yl)-(7H-pyrrolo[2,3- d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-amine (1.3 kg), cyano-acetic acid 2,5-dioxo-pyrrolidin-1-yl ester (1.5 kg), and triethylamine (1.5 liters) were combined and stirred at ambient temperature. Upon reaction completion (determined by High Pressure Liquid Chromotography (HPLC) analysis, approximately 30 minutes), the solution was filtered, concentrated and azeotroped with 15 liters of methylene chloride. The reaction mixture was washed sequentially with 12 liters of 0.5 N sodium hydroxide solution, 12 liters of brine and 12 liters of water. The organic layer was concentrated and azeotroped with 3 liters of acetone (final pot temperature was 42°C). The resulting solution was cooled to 20°C to 25°C followed by addition of 10 liters of acetone. This solution was filtered and then aqueous citric acid (0.8 kg in 4 liters of water) added via in-line filter. The reaction mixture was allowed to granulate. The slurry was cooled before collecting the solids by filtration. The solids were dried to yield 1.9 kg (71 %) (3R, 4R)- 3-{4-Methyl-3-[methyl-(7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-amino]-piperidin-1-yl}-3-oxo- propionitrile mono citrate. This material was then combined with 15 liters of a 1:1 ratio of ethanol/water and the slurry was agitated overnight. The solids were filtered and dried to afford 1.7 kg (63% from (3R, 4R)-methyl-(4-methyl-piperidin-3-yl)-(7H- pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-amine) of the title compound as a white crystalline solid. 1H NMR (400 MH2)(D20) δ HOD: 0.92 (2H, d, J = 7.2 Hz), 0.96 (1H, d, J = 7.6 Hz), 1.66 (1H, m), 1.80 (1H, m), 2.37 (1H, m), 2.58 (2H, 1/2 ABq, J = 15.4 Hz), 2.70 (2H, 3 ABq, J = 154 Hz), 3.23 (2H, s), 3.25 (1H, s), 3.33 (1H, m), 3.46 (1H, m), 3.81 (4H, m), 4.55 (1 H, m), 6.65 (1 H, d, J = 3.2 Hz), 7.20 (1 H, t, J = 3.2 Hz), 8.09 (1 H, m).

 

Patent

http://www.google.co.in/patents/EP1913000A2?cl=en Example 10 Preparation of methyl-[(3R, 4R)-4-methyl-piperidin-3-yl]-(7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-amine:

KEY INTERMEDIATE

To a clean, dry, nitrogen-purged 2 L hydrogenation reactor were charged 20 wt% Pd(OH)2/C (24.0 g, 50% water wet), water (160 ml), isopropanol (640 ml), (1-benzyl-4-methyl-piperidin-3-yI)-methyi- (7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-amine (160.0 g, 0.48 mol), and acetic acid (28.65 g, 0.48 mol). The reactor was purged with three times at 50 psi with nitrogen and three times at 50 psi with hydrogen. Once purging was complete, the reactor was heated to 45-55°C and pressurized to 50 psi with hydrogen through a continuous feed. The hydrogen uptake was monitored until no hydrogen was consumed for 1 hour. The reactor was cooled to 20-300C and purged three times at 50 psi with nitrogen. The reaction mixture was filtered through wet Celite and the filtrate was sent to a clean, dry, nitrogen-purged vessel. A solution of sodium hydroxide (39.33 g) in water (290 ml) was charged and the mixture was stirred for a minimum of 1 hour then heated to 75-900C. The isopropanol was removed by distillation. The reaction mixture was cooled to 20-30°C and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (1.6 L) was added. The aqueous layer was drained off and the 2-methyltetrahydrofuran was displaced with toluene (1.6 L). The distillation was continued until the final volume was 800 ml. The slurry was cooled to 20-30°C and held for a minimum of 7 hours. The resulting solids were isolated by filtration and washed with toluene (480 ml). After drying under vacuum between 40-50DC for a minimum of 24 hours with a slight nitrogen bleed 102.3 g (87.3%) of the title compound were isolated. Mp 158.6-159.8°C. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3): δ 11.38 (bs, 1H), 8.30 (s, 1H), 7.05 (d, J=3.5 Hz, 1H), 6.54 (d, J=3.5 Hz, 1H), 4.89-4.87 (m, 1H), 3.39 (s, 3H), 3.27 (dd, J=12.0, 9.3 Hz, 1 H), 3.04 (dd, J=12.0, 3.9 Hz, 1H), 2.94 (td, J=12.6, 3.1 Hz, 1H0, 2.84 (dt, J=12.6, 4.3 Hz, 1H), 2.51-2.48 (m, 1H), 2.12 (bs, 2H), 1.89 (ddt, J=13.7, 10.6, 4 Hz, 1 H), 1.62 (dq, J=13.7, 4Hz, 1 H), 1.07 (d, J=7.3 Hz, 3H). 13C NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3): δ 157.9, 152.0, 151.0, 120.0, 103.0, 102.5, 56.3, 46.2, 42.4, 34.7, 33.4, 32.4, 14.3. KEY INT

 

Example 11 Preparation of 3-{(3R, 4R)-4-methyl-3-[methyl-(7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-amino]-piperidin-1-yl}-3- oxo-propionitrile….TOFACITINIB BASE

 

To a clean, dry, nitrogen-purged 1.0 L reactor were charged methyl-(4-methyl-piperidin-3-yI)-(7H- pyrroIo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-amine (32.0 g, 0.130 mol), toluene (160 ml), ethyl cyanoacetate (88.53 g, 0.783 mol) and triethyl amine (26.4 g, 0.261 mol). The reaction was heated to 1000C and held for 24 hours. The reaction was washed with water (160 ml). The organic layer concentrated to a volume of 10 ml and water (20 ml) was added. The residual toluene was removed by distillation and the mixture was cooled to room temperature. Acetone (224 ml) was added followed by citric acid (27.57 g, 0.144 mol) in water (76 ml). The resulting slurry was stirred for 7 hours. The solids were isolate by filtration, washed with acetone (96 ml), and dried under vacuum to afford 42.85 g (65.3%) of the title compound. Example 13 Preparation of 3-{(3R, 4R)~4-methyl-3-[methyl-(7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-amino]-piperidin-1-yl}-3-oxo- propionitrile citrate salt:…………..TOFACITINIB CITRATE To a clean, dry, nitrogen-purged 500 ml reactor were charged methyl-(4-methyl-piperidin-3-yl)-(7H- pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-amine (25.0 g, 0.102 mol) and methylene chloride (250 ml). The mixture was stirred at room temperature for a minimum of 2.5 hours. To a clean, dry, nitrogen-purged 1 L reactor were charged cyanoacetic acid (18.2 g, 0.214 mol), methylene chloride (375 ml), and triethyl amine (30.1 ml, 0.214 mol). The mixture was cooled to -15.0— 5.00C over one hour and trimethylacetyl chloride (25.6 ml, 0.204 mol) was added at a rate to maintain the temperature below O0C. The reaction was held for a minimum of 2.5 hours, then the solution of the amine was added at a rate that maintained the temperature below O0C. After stirring for 1 hour, the mixture was warmed to room temperature and 1 M sodium hydroxide (125 ml) was added. The organic layer was washed with water (125 ml) The methylene chloride solution.was displaced with acetone until a volume of 500 ml and a temperature of 55-650C had been achieved. Water (75 ml) was charged to the mixture while maintaining the temperature at 55-65°C. A solution of citric acid (20.76 g, 0.107 mol) in water (25.0) was charged and the mixture was cooled to room temperature. The reactor was stirred for a minimum of 5 hours and then the resulting solids were isolated by filtration and washed with acetone (2×75 ml), which was sent to the filter. The salt was charged into a clean, dry, nitrogen-purged 1L reactor with 2B ethanol (190 ml) and water (190 ml). The slurry was heated to 75-850C for a minimum of 4 hours. The mixture was cooled to 20-300C and stirred for an additional 4 hours. The solids were isolated by filtration and washed with 2B ethanol (190 ml). After drying in a vacuum oven at 500C with a slight nitrogen bleed, 34.6 g (67.3%) of the title compound were isolated. 1H NMR (500 MHz, CZ6-DMSO): δ 8.14 (s, 1 H), 7.11 (d, J=3.6 Hz, 1 H), 6.57 (d, J=3.6 Hz, 1 H), 4.96 (q, J=6.0 Hz, 1 H), 4.00-3.90 (m, 2H), 3.80 (m, 2H), 3.51 (m, 1 H), 3.32 (s, 3H), 2.80 (Abq, J=15.6 Hz, 2H), 2.71 (Abq, J=15.6 Hz, 2H), 2.52-2.50 (m, 1 H), 2.45-2.41 (m, 1 H), 1.81 (m, 1 H), 1.69-1.65 (m, 1 H), 1.04 (d, J=6.9 Hz, 3H)

 

 

PAPER

Org. Lett., 2009, 11 (9), pp 2003–2006
DOI: 10.1021/ol900435t

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/ol900435t Figure

 

PATENT

http://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/advances-in-the-inhibitors-of-janus-kinase-2161-0444.1000540.php?aid=29799   …………….. सुकून उतना ही देना प्रभू, जितने से जिंदगी चल जाये।औकात बस इतनी देना,कि औरों का भला हो जाये।………..P.S. : The views expressed are my personal and in no-way suggest the views of the professional body or the company that I represent.

Clinical trials

Rheumatoid arthritis

Phase II clinical trials tested the drug in rheumatoid arthritis patients that had not responded to DMARD therapy. In a tofacitinib monotherapy study, the ACR score improved by at least 20% (ACR-20) in 67% of patients versus 25% who received placebo; and a study that combined the drug with methotrexate achieved ACR-20 in 59% of patients versus 35% who received methotrexate alone. In a psoriasis study, the PASI score improved by at least 75% in between 25 and 67% of patients, depending on the dose, versus 2% in the placebo group.[8] The most important side effects in Phase II studies were increased blood cholesterol levels (12 to 25 mg/dl LDL and 8 to 10 mg/dl HDL at medium dosage levels) andneutropenia.[8] Phase III trials testing the drug in rheumatoid arthritis started in 2007 and are scheduled to run until January 2015.[9] In April 2011, four patients died after beginning clinical trials with tofacitinib. According to Pfizer, only one of the four deaths was related to tofacitinib.[10] By April 2011, three phase III trials for RA had reported positive results.[11] In November 2012, the U.S. FDA approved tofacitinib “to treat adults with moderately to severely active rheumatoid arthritis who have had an inadequate response to, or who are intolerant of, methotrexate.”[12]

Psoriasis

As of April 2011 a phase III trial for psoriasis is under way.[11]

Alopecia

In June 2014, scientists at Yale successfully treated a male patient afflicted with alopecia universalis. The patient was able to grow a full head of hair, eyebrows, eyelashes, facial, armpit, genitalia and other hair. No side effects were reported in the study.[13]

Ulcerative colitis

The OCTAVE study of Tofacitinib in Ulcerative Colitis started in 2012. It is currently enrolling patients, though the NIH trials page states that they expect the trial to close in June 2015.[14]

Vitiligo

In a June 2015 study, a 53-year-old woman with vitiligo showed noticeable improvement after taking tofacitinib for five months.[15]

Development of Safe, Robust, Environmentally Responsible Processes for New Chemical Entities

– Dr. V. Rajappa, Director & Head-Process R&D, Bristol-Myers Squibb, India

A PRESENTATION

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  1. Herper, Matthew (2 March 2011). “Why Pfizer’s Biggest Experimental Drug Got A Name Change”. Forbes. Retrieved 3 March 2011.
  2.  Kremer, J. M.; Bloom, B. J.; Breedveld, F. C.; Coombs, J. H.; Fletcher, M. P.; Gruben, D.; Krishnaswami, S.; Burgos-Vargas, R. N.; Wilkinson, B.; Zerbini, C. A. F.; Zwillich, S. H. (2009). “The safety and efficacy of a JAK inhibitor in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: Results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled phase IIa trial of three dosage levels of CP-690,550 versus placebo”. Arthritis & Rheumatism 60 (7): 1895–1905. doi:10.1002/art.24567. PMID 19565475. edit
  3.  “Tasocitinib”. Drugs in R&D 10 (4): 271–284. 2010. doi:10.2165/11588080-000000000-00000. PMC 3585773. PMID 21171673. edit
  4.  Ghoreschi, K.; Jesson, M. I.; Li, X.; Lee, J. L.; Ghosh, S.; Alsup, J. W.; Warner, J. D.; Tanaka, M.; Steward-Tharp, S. M.; Gadina, M.; Thomas, C. J.; Minnerly, J. C.; Storer, C. E.; Labranche, T. P.; Radi, Z. A.; Dowty, M. E.; Head, R. D.; Meyer, D. M.; Kishore, N.; O’Shea, J. J. (2011). “Modulation of Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses by Tofacitinib (CP-690,550)”. J Immunol. 186 (7): 4234–4243. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1003668. PMC 3108067. PMID 21383241. edit
  5. ^ Jump up to:a b c “Seeking Profit for Taxpayers in Potential of New Drug”, Jonathan Weisman, New York Times, March 18, 2013
  6. Ken Garber (9 January 2013). “Pfizer’s first-in-class JAK inhibitor pricey for rheumatoid arthritis market”. Nature Biotechnology 31 (1): 3–4. doi:10.1038/nbt0113-3. PMID 23302910.
  7. Jump up^ Moisan A, et al. White-to-brown metabolic conversion of human adipocytes by JAK inhibition. Nature Cell Biology, 8 December 2014. DOI 10.1038/ncb3075
  8.  “EULAR: JAK Inhibitor Effective in RA But Safety Worries Remain”. MedPage Today. June 2009. Retrieved 9 February 2011.
  9.  Clinical trial number NCT00413699 for “Long-Term Effectiveness And Safety Of CP-690,550 For The Treatment Of Rheumatoid Arthritis” at ClinicalTrials.gov
  10.  Matthew Herper. “Pfizer’s Key Drug Walks A Tightrope”. Forbes.
  11.  “Two Phase III Studies Confirm Benefits of Pfizer’s Tofacitinib Against Active RA”. 28 Apr 2011.
  12.  “FDA approves Xeljanz for rheumatoid arthritis”. 6 Nov 2012.
  13.  “Hairless man grows full head of hair in yale arthritis drug trial”. 19 Jun 2014.
  14.  https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01465763?term=A3921094&rank=1
  15. “This Drug Brought Pigment Back for Woman with Vitiligo”. TIME. June 27, 2015. Retrieved June 29, 2015.
  16. Nordqvist, Christian (27 April 2013). “Pfizer’s Arthritis Drug Xeljanz (tofacitinib) Receives A Negative Opinion In Europe”. Medical News Today. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
  17. “”XALEJANZ PRESCRIBING INFORMATION @ Labeling.Pfizer.com””.

SEE………http://orgspectroscopyint.blogspot.in/2014/12/tofacitinib-citrate.html

Tofacitinib
Tofacitinib2DACS.svg
Systematic (IUPAC) name
3-[(3R,4R)-4-methyl-3-[methyl(7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)amino]piperidin-1-yl]-3-oxopropanenitrile
Clinical data
Trade names Xeljanz, Jakvinus
AHFS/Drugs.com entry
Licence data US FDA:link
Pregnancy category
  • US: C (Risk not ruled out)
Legal status
Routes of administration Oral
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 74%
Protein binding 40%
Metabolism Hepatic (via CYP3A4 andCYP2C19)
Biological half-life 3 hours
Excretion Urine
Identifiers
CAS Registry Number 477600-75-2
ATC code L04AA29
PubChem CID: 9926791
IUPHAR/BPS 5677
DrugBank DB08183
ChemSpider 8102425
UNII 87LA6FU830
ChEBI CHEBI:71200 Yes
ChEMBL CHEMBL221959
Synonyms CP-690550
Chemical data
Formula C16H20N6O
Molecular mass 312.369 g/mol

सुकून उतना ही देना प्रभू, जितने से जिंदगी चल जाये।औकात बस इतनी देना,कि औरों का भला हो जाये।………..P.S. : The views expressed are my personal and in no-way suggest the views of the professional body or the company that I represent.

 

 

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