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ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY

Read all about Organic Spectroscopy on ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY INTERNATIONAL 

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK LIFE SCIENCES LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 PLUS year tenure till date June 2021, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 90 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, 233 countries, 7 continents, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 33 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 233 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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XL 114, AUR 104 and XL 102, AUR 102 (NO CONCLUSIONS, ONLY PREDICTIONS)


NO CONCLUSIONS, ONLY PREDICTIONS

FOR BOTH, JUST PREDICTION

 

 

 

 

PREDICTIONS

or

front page image

 

Figure imgf000002_0001

 

Figure imgf000024_0001

 

N[C@@H](CO)c1nc(on1)[C@@H](NC(=O)N[C@H](C(=O)O)C(C)O)CC(N)=O

 

(2S)-2-[[(1S)-3-Amino-1-[3-[(1R)-1-amino-2-hydroxyethyl]-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]-3-oxopropyl]carbamoylamino]-3-hydroxybutanoic acid.png

 

SVG Image

 

(2S)-2-[[(1S)-3-amino-1-[3-[(1R)-1-amino-2-hydroxyethyl]-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]-3-oxopropyl]carbamoylamino]-3-hydroxybutanoic acid

 

CAS 2305027-62-5

 

C12 H20 N6 O7, 360.32Threonine, N-[[[(1S)-3-amino-1-[3-[(1R)-1-amino-2-hydroxyethyl]-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]-3-oxopropyl]amino]carbonyl]-, (2S,3ξ)-N[C@@H](CO)c1nc(on1)[C@@H](NC(=O)N[C@H](C(=O)O)C(C)O)CC(N)=O 

ALSO SEE

 

Figure imgf000003_0002

 

str1

 

(2S,3R)-2-[[(1S)-3-Amino-1-[3-[(1R)-1-amino-2-hydroxyethyl]-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]-3-oxopropyl]carbamoylamino]-3-hydroxybutanoic acid.png

 

1673534-76-3C12 H20 N6 O7, 360.32
L-Threonine, N-[[[(1S)-3-amino-1-[3-[(1R)-1-amino-2-hydroxyethyl]-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]-3-oxopropyl]amino] 
(2S,3R)-2-[[(1S)-3-amino-1-[3-[(1R)-1-amino-2-hydroxyethyl]-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]-3-oxopropyl]carbamoylamino]-3-hydroxybutanoic acidN-[[[(1S)-3-Amino-1-[3-[(1R)-1-amino-2-hydroxyethyl]-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]-3-oxopropyl]amino]carbonyl]-L-threonine

 

CAS 1673534-76-3

 

PD-1-IN-1 free base, EX-A1918, CS-6240NSC-799645CA-170 (AUPM-170)|PDL1 inhibitorHY-101093, PD-1-IN-1

 

N[C@@H](CO)c1nc(on1)[C@@H](NC(=O)N[C@H](C(=O)O)[C@@H](C)O)CC(N)=O

 

XL 114, AUR 104

A novel covalent inhibitor of FABP5 for cancer therapy

XL 102 AUR 102

A potent, selective and orally bioavailable inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase 7 (CDK7)

NO CONCLUSIONS, ONLY PREDICTIONS

 

PREDICTIONS MORE

 

(2R,3R)-2-[[(1S)-3-Amino-1-[3-[(1R)-1-amino-2-hydroxyethyl]-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]-3-oxopropyl]carbamoylamino]-3-hydroxybutanoic acid.png

 

SVG Image

 

(2R,3R)-2-[[(1S)-3-amino-1-[3-[(1R)-1-amino-2-hydroxyethyl]-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]-3-oxopropyl]carbamoylamino]-3-hydroxybutanoic acid

 

C12H20N6O7, 360.32

 

(2S,3S)-2-[[(1S)-3-Amino-1-[3-[(1S)-1-amino-2-hydroxyethyl]-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]-3-oxopropyl]carbamoylamino]-3-hydroxybutanoic acid.png

 

SVG Image

 

(2S,3S)-2-[[(1S)-3-amino-1-[3-[(1S)-1-amino-2-hydroxyethyl]-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]-3-oxopropyl]carbamoylamino]-3-hydroxybutanoic acid

XL102, AUR 102

XL102 is a potent, selective and orally bioavailable covalent inhibitor of CDK7, which is an important regulator of the cellular transcriptional and cell cycle machinery. CDK7 helps regulate cell cycle progression, with overexpression observed in multiple cancers, such as breast, prostate and ovarian cancers. In preclinical studies, XL102 revealed potent anti-proliferative activity, induced cell death in a large panel of cancer cell lines and caused tumor growth inhibition and regression in xenograft models, demonstrating its potential as a targeted antitumor agent.

In late 2020, Exelixis exercised its option to in-license XL102 (formerly AUR102) from Aurigene per the companies’ July 2019 collaboration, option and license agreement. Exelixis has assumed responsibility for the future clinical development, manufacturing and commercialization of XL102. Aurigene retains limited development and commercial rights for India and Russia.

 

SYN

 

 

CD47/SIRPa axis is established as a critical regulator of myeloid cell activation and serves as an immune checkpoint for macrophage mediated phagocytosis. Because of its frequent upregulation in several cancers, CD47 contributes to immune evasion and cancer progression. CD47 regulates phagocytosis primarily through interactions with SIRPla expressed on macrophages. Blockade of SIRPla/CD47 has been shown to dramatically enhance tumor cell phagocytosis and dendritic cells maturation for better antigen presentation leading to substantially improved antitumor responses in preclinical models of cancer (M. P. Chao et al. Curr Opin Immunol. 2012 (2): 225-232). Disruption of CD47-SIRPa interaction is now being evaluated as a therapeutic strategy for cancer with the use of monoclonal antibodies targeting CD47 or SIRPa and engineered receptor decoys.

 

CD47 is expressed on virtually all non-malignant cells, and blocking the CD47 or the loss of CD47 expression or changes in membrane distribution can serve as markers of aged or damaged cells, particularly on red blood cells (RBC). Alternatively, blocking SIRPa also allows engulfment of targets that are not normally phagocytosed, for those cells where pre-phagocytic signals are also present. CD47 is a broadly expressed transmembrane glycoprotein with a single Ig-like domain and five membrane- spanning regions, which functions as a cellular ligand for SIRPa with binding mediated through the NH2-terminal V-like domain of SIRPa. SIRPa is expressed primarily on myeloid cells, including macrophages, granulocytes, myeloid dendritic cells (DCs), mast cells, and their precursors, including hematopoietic stem cells.

 

CD47 is also constitutively upregulated on a number of cancers such as Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL), Acute myeloid leukemia (AML), breast, colon, glioblastoma, glioma, ovarian, bladder and prostate cancers, etc. Overexpression of CD47 by tumor cells, which efficiently helps them to escape immune surveillance and killing by innate immune cells. However, in most of the tumor types, blockade of the CD47-SIRPa interaction as a single agent may not be capable of inducing significant phagocytosis and antitumor immunity, necessitating the need to combine with other therapeutic agents. The concomitant engagement of activating receptors such as Fc-receptors (FcRs) or other prophagocytic receptors (collectively known as “eat-me” signals) may be necessary for exploiting the maximum potential of the CD-47-SIPRa pathway blockade.

 

The role of engagement of prophagocytic receptors is proved by inefficiency to trigger phagocytosis either by anti-CD47 F(ab) fragments, single chain variable fragments of CD-47 or non-Fc portion- containing SIRPa proteins in blocking of the CD47-SIRPa interaction. When activating prophagocytic receptors are engaged, as evident in the case of using Fc portion-containing blocking anti-CD47 antibodies, CD47- SIRPa blockade is able to trigger more efficient phagocytosis. Combining CD47-SIRPa blocking agents with therapeutic antibodies (Fc-containing) targeting tumor antigens stimulate activating Fc receptors (FcRs) leading to efficient phagocytosis. The Fc portion of therapeutic antibody targeting tumor antigen also induces antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), which also adds to the therapeutic efficacy. Hence antibodies selected from the group consisting of rituximab, herceptin, trastuzumab, alemtuzumab, bevacizumab, cetuximab and panitumumab, daratumumab due to its tumor targeting nature and ADCC, can trigger more efficient phagocytosis.

 

Earlier approaches to disrupt CD47- SIRPa interaction utilized monoclonal antibodies targeting CD47 or SIRPa and engineered receptor decoys fused to Fc fragment. However, a concern with this approach is that CD47 is highly expressed on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic normal cells. Hence along with tumor cells CD47-SIRPa blocking agents containing Fc-portion may also target many normal cells potentially leading to their elimination by macrophages. The interaction of blocking antibodies with normal cells is considered as a major safety issue resulting in anemia, thrombocytopenia, and leukopenia. These agents may also affect solid tissues rich in macrophages such as liver, lung, and brain. Hence it may be ideal to block the CD47- SIRPa interaction by agents devoid of Fc portion, such as small

 

molecules, peptides, Fab fragments etc. while activating prophagocytic receptors in tumor cells by appropriate combinations to induce efficient phagocytosis of tumor cells.

 

Apart from Fc Receptors, a number of other prophagocytic receptors are also reported to promote engulfment of tumor cells in response to CD47-SIRPa blockade by triggering the phagocytosis. These include receptors for SLAMF7, Mac-l, calreticulin and possibly yet to identified receptors. B cell tumor lines such as Raji and other diffuse large B cell lymphoma express SLAMF7 and are implicated in triggering prophagocytic signals during CD47-SIRPa blockade.

 

Therapeutic agents known to activate prophagocytic receptors are also therefore ideal partners for use in combination with CD47-SIRPa blocking agents to achieve efficient phagocytosis. These agents include proteasome inhibitors (bortezomib, ixazomib and carfilzomib), Anthracyclines (Doxorubicin, Epirubicin, Daunorubicin, Idarubicin, Mitoxantrone) Oxaliplatin, Cyclophosphamide, Bleomycin, Vorinostat, Paclitaxel, 5-Fluorouracil, Cytarabine, BRAF inhibitory drugs (Dabrafenib, Vemurafenib), PI3K inhibitor, Docetaxel, Mitomycin C, Sorafenib, Tamoxifen and oncolytic viruses.

 

Apart from the specific agents known to have effect on‘eat me’ signals other agents including Abiraterone acetate, Afatinib, Aldesleukin, Aldesleukin, Alemtuzumab, Anastrozole, Axitinib, Belinostat, Bendamustine, Bicalutamide, Blinatumomab, Bosutinib, Brentuximab, Busulfan, Cabazitaxel, Capecitabine, Carboplatin, Carfilzomib, Carmustine, Ceritinib, Clofarabine, Crizotinib, Dacarbazine, Dactinomycin, Dasatinib, Degarelix, Denileukin, Denosumab, Enzalutamide, Eribulin, Erlotinib, Everolimus, Exemestane, Exemestane, Fludarabine, Fulvestrant, Gefitinib, Goserelin, Ibritumomab, Imatinib, Ipilimumab, Irinotecan, Ixabepilone, Lapatinib, Lenalidomide, Letrozole, Leucovorin, Leuprolide, Lomustine, Mechlorethamine, Megestrol, Nelarabine, Nilotinib, Nivolumab, Olaparib, Omacetaxine, Palbociclib, Pamidronate, Panitumumab, Panobinostat, Pazopanib, Pegaspargase, Pembrolizumab, Pemetrexed Disodium, Pertuzumab, Plerixafor, Pomalidomide, Ponatinib, Pralatrexate, Procarbazine, Radium 223, Ramucirumab, Regorafenib, rIFNa-2b, Romidepsin, Sunitinib, Temozolomide, Temsirolimus, Thiotepa, Tositumomab, Trametinib, Vinorelbine, Methotrexate, Ibrutinib, Aflibercept, Toremifene, Vinblastine, Vincristine, Idelalisib, Mercaptopurine and Thalidomide could potentially have effect on‘eat me’ signal pathway on combining with CD-47-SIRPa blocking agents.

 

In addition to the therapeutic agents mentioned above, other treatment modalities that are in use in cancer therapy also activate prophagocytic receptors, and thus can be combined with CD47-SIRPa blocking agents to achieve efficient phagocytosis. These include Hypericin-based photodynamic therapy (Hyp-PDT), radiotherapy, High-hydrostatic pressure, Photofrin-based PDT and Rose Bengal acetate -based PDT.

 

However, there is an unmet need for combining small molecule CD-47-SIRPa pathway inhibitors with agents capable of stimulating activating receptors such as Fc-receptors (FcRs) or other prophagocytic receptors, or combining with other treatment modalities that are in use in cancer therapy to activate prophagocytic receptors for exploiting the maximum potential of the CD-47- SIRPa pathway blockade.

 

CLIP

 

Exelixis In-Licenses Second Anti-Cancer Compound from Aurigene Following FDA Acceptance of Investigational New Drug Application for Phase 1 Clinical Trial in Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

 

– Robust preclinical data support Exelixis’ clinical development of XL114, with phase 1 trial in Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma expected to begin in the coming months –

 

– Exelixis will make an option exercise payment of $10 million to Aurigene –

 

https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20211014005549/en/Exelixis-In-Licenses-Second-Anti-Cancer-Compound-from-Aurigene-Following-FDA-Acceptance-of-Investigational-New-Drug-Application-for-Phase-1-Clinical-Trial-in-Non-Hodgkin%E2%80%99s-LymphomaOctober 14, 2021 08:00 AM Eastern Daylight Time

 

ALAMEDA, Calif.–(BUSINESS WIRE)–Exelixis, Inc. (Nasdaq: EXEL) and Aurigene Discovery Technologies Limited (Aurigene) today announced that Exelixis has exercised its exclusive option under the companies’ July 2019 agreement to in-license XL114 (formerly AUR104), a novel anti-cancer compound that inhibits the CARD11-BCL10-MALT1 (CBM) signaling pathway, which promotes lymphocyte survival and proliferation. Exelixis has now assumed responsibility for the future clinical development, commercialization and global manufacturing of XL114. Following the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) recent acceptance of its Investigational New Drug (IND) application, Exelixis will soon initiate a phase 1 clinical trial evaluating XL114 monotherapy in patients with Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL). At the American Association of Cancer Research Annual Meeting in April of this year, Aurigene presented preclinical data (Abstract 1266) demonstrating that XL114 exhibited potent anti-proliferative activity in a large panel of cancer cell lines ranging from hematological cancers to solid tumors with excellent selectivity over normal cells. In addition, oral dosing of XL114 resulted in significant dose-dependent tumor growth inhibition in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and colon carcinoma models.

 

“We are pleased that our agreement with Aurigene has generated a second promising compound that warrants advancement into clinical development and believe the collaboration will continue to play an important role in expanding our pipeline”

 

XL114 is the second molecule that Exelixis in-licensed from Aurigene under the companies’ July 2019 collaboration, option and license agreement. Exelixis previously exercised its option to in-license XL102, a potent, selective and orally bioavailable inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase 7 (CDK7), from Aurigene in December 2020 and initiated a phase 1 trial of XL102 as a single agent and in combination with other anti-cancer agents in patients with advanced or metastatic solid tumors in January 2021.

 

“We are pleased that our agreement with Aurigene has generated a second promising compound that warrants advancement into clinical development and believe the collaboration will continue to play an important role in expanding our pipeline,” said Peter Lamb, Ph.D., Executive Vice President, Scientific Strategy and Chief Scientific Officer, Exelixis. “XL114 has shown potent anti-proliferative activity in lymphoma cell lines that have aberrant activation of the CBM signaling pathway and may have a differentiated profile and potential as a best-in-class molecule that could improve outcomes for patients with Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and other hematologic cancers.”

 

XL114 was identified to have anti-proliferative activity in cell lines with constitutive activation of CBM signaling, including activated B-cell-like DLBCL (ABC-DLBCL), mantle cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma cell lines. Further characterization of XL114 in cell-based assays demonstrated a functional role in B-cell (BCR) signaling pathways. Additionally, XL114 showed dose-dependent tumor growth inhibition in an ABC-DLBCL mouse xenograft tumor model. In preclinical development, XL114 also demonstrated a high degree of selectivity against a broad safety pharmacology panel of enzymes and receptors. While the precise molecular mechanism underlying XL114’s function in repressing BCR signaling and MALT1 activation has yet to be characterized, the fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5) has been identified as a prominent XL114-binding target.

 

“XL114 is the second molecule that Exelixis has opted to in-license under our July 2019 agreement, underscoring the significant potential of our approach to the discovery and preclinical development of innovative cancer therapies that target novel mechanisms of action,” said Murali Ramachandra, Ph.D., Chief Executive Officer, Aurigene. “Exelixis has a track record of success in the clinical development and commercialization of anti-cancer therapies that provide patients with important new treatment options, and we are pleased that the continued advancement of XL114 will be supported by the company’s extensive clinical, regulatory and commercialization infrastructure.”

 

Under the terms of the July 2019 agreement, Exelixis made an upfront payment of $10 million for exclusive options to obtain an exclusive license from Aurigene to three preexisting programs, including the compounds now known as XL102 and XL114. In addition, Exelixis and Aurigene initiated three Aurigene-led drug discovery programs on mutually agreed upon targets, in exchange for an additional upfront payment of $2.5 million per program. The collaboration was expanded in 2021 to include three additional early discovery programs. Exelixis is also contributing research funding to Aurigene to facilitate discovery and preclinical development work on all nine programs. Exelixis may exercise its option for a program at any time up until the first IND for the program becomes effective. Having exercised options on two programs thus far (XL102 and XL114), if and when Exelixis exercises a future option, it will make an option exercise payment to Aurigene and assume responsibility for that program’s future clinical development and commercialization including global manufacturing. To exercise its option for XL114, Exelixis will make an option exercise payment to Aurigene of $10 million. Once Exelixis exercises its option for a program, Aurigene will be eligible for clinical development, regulatory and sales milestones, as well as royalties on future potential sales of the compound. Under the terms of the agreement, Aurigene retains limited development and commercial rights for India and Russia.

 

About Aurigene

 

Aurigene Discovery Technologies Limited is a development stage biotech company engaged in discovery and clinical development of novel and best-in-class therapies to treat cancer and inflammatory diseases and a wholly owned subsidiary of Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories Ltd. (BSE: 500124, NSE: DRREDDY, NYSE: RDY, NSEIFSC: DRREDDY). Aurigene is focused on precision-oncology, oral immune checkpoint inhibitors, and the Th-17 pathway. Aurigene’s programs currently in clinical development include an oral ROR-gamma inhibitor AUR101 for moderate to severe psoriasis in phase 2 under a U.S. FDA IND and a PD-L1/VISTA antagonist CA-170 for non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer in phase 2b/3 in India. Additionally, Aurigene has multiple compounds at different stages of pre-clinical development. Aurigene has also partnered with several large and mid-pharma companies in the U.S. and Europe and has multiple programs in clinical development. For more information, please visit Aurigene’s website at www.aurigene.com.

 

About Exelixis

 

Founded in 1994, Exelixis, Inc. (Nasdaq: EXEL) is a commercially successful, oncology-focused biotechnology company that strives to accelerate the discovery, development and commercialization of new medicines for difficult-to-treat cancers. Following early work in model system genetics, we established a broad drug discovery and development platform that has served as the foundation for our continued efforts to bring new cancer therapies to patients in need. Our discovery efforts have resulted in four commercially available products, CABOMETYX® (cabozantinib), COMETRIQ® (cabozantinib), COTELLIC® (cobimetinib) and MINNEBRO® (esaxerenone), and we have entered into partnerships with leading pharmaceutical companies to bring these important medicines to patients worldwide. Supported by revenues from our marketed products and collaborations, we are committed to prudently reinvesting in our business to maximize the potential of our pipeline. We are supplementing our existing therapeutic assets with targeted business development activities and internal drug discovery – all to deliver the next generation of Exelixis medicines and help patients recover stronger and live longer. Exelixis is a member of the Standard & Poor’s (S&P) MidCap 400 index, which measures the performance of profitable mid-sized companies. In November 2020, the company was named to Fortune’s 100 Fastest-Growing Companies list for the first time, ranking 17th overall and the third-highest biopharmaceutical company. For more information about Exelixis, please visit www.exelixis.com, follow @ExelixisInc on Twitter or like Exelixis, Inc. on Facebook.

CLIP

https://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/81/13_Supplement/1266

Abstract 1266: Discovery and preclinical evaluation of a novel covalent inhibitor of FABP5 for cancer therapy

Dinesh ChikkannaLeena Khare SatyamSunil Kumar PnaigrahiVinayak KhairnarManoj PothugantiLakshmi Narayan KazaNarasimha Raju KalidindiVijaya Shankar NatarajAditya Kiran GattaNarasimha Rao KrishnamurthySandeep PatilDS SamiullaKiran AithalVijay Kamal AhujaNirbhay Kumar TiwariKB CharamannnaPravin PiseThomas AnthonyKavitha NelloreSanjeev GiriShekar ChelurSusanta Samajdar and Murali Ramachandra
 
 
Proceedings: AACR Annual Meeting 2021; April 10-15, 2021 and May 17-21, 2021; Philadelphia, PA

Abstract

Dysregulated fatty acid metabolism is thought to be a hallmark of cancer, wherein fatty acids function both as an energy source and as signals for enzymatic and transcriptional networks contributing to malignancy. Fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5) is an intracellular protein that facilitates transport of fatty acids and plays a role in regulating the expression of genes associated with cancer progression such as cell growth, survival, and metastasis. Overexpression of FABP5 has been reported to contribute to an aggressive phenotype and a poor survival correlation in several cancers. Therefore, inhibition of FABP5 is considered as a therapeutic approach for cancers. Phenotypic screening of a library of covalent compounds for selective sensitivity of cancer cells followed by medicinal chemistry optimization resulted in the identification of AUR104 with desirable properties. Chemoproteomic-based target deconvolution revealed FABP5 as the cellular target of AUR104. Covalent adduct formation with Cys43 of FABP5 by AUR104 was confirmed by mass spectrometry. Target occupancy studies using a biotin-tagged AUR104 demonstrated potent covalent binding to FABP5 in both cell-free and cellular conditions. Ligand displacement assay with a fluorescent fatty acid probe confirmed the competitive binding mode of AUR104 with fatty acids. Binding at the fatty acid site and covalent bond formation with Cys43 were also demonstrated by crystallography. Furthermore, AUR104 showed a high degree of selectivity against a broad safety pharmacology panel of enzymes and receptors. AUR104 exhibited potent anti-proliferative activity in a large panel of cell lines derived from both hematological and solid cancers with a high degree of selectivity over normal cells. Anti-proliferative activity in lymphoma cell lines correlated with inhibition of MALT1 pathway activity, cleavage of RelB/Bcl10 and secretion of cytokines, IL-10 and IL-6. AUR104 displayed desirable drug-like properties and dose-dependent oral exposure in pharmacokinetic studies. Oral dosing with AUR104 resulted in dose-dependent anti-tumor activity in DLBCL (OCI-LY10) and NSCLC (NCI-H1975) xenograft models. In a repeated dose MTD studies in rodents and non-rodents, AUR104 showed good tolerability with an exposure multiple of >500 over cellular EC50 for up to 8 hours. In summary, we have identified a novel covalent FABP5 inhibitor with optimized properties that showed anti-tumor activity in in vitro and in vivo models with acceptable safety profile. The data presented here strongly support clinical development of AUR104.

Citation Format: Dinesh Chikkanna, Leena Khare Satyam, Sunil Kumar Pnaigrahi, Vinayak Khairnar, Manoj Pothuganti, Lakshmi Narayan Kaza, Narasimha Raju Kalidindi, Vijaya Shankar Nataraj, Aditya Kiran Gatta, Narasimha Rao Krishnamurthy, Sandeep Patil, DS Samiulla, Kiran Aithal, Vijay Kamal Ahuja, Nirbhay Kumar Tiwari, KB Charamannna, Pravin Pise, Thomas Anthony, Kavitha Nellore, Sanjeev Giri, Shekar Chelur, Susanta Samajdar, Murali Ramachandra. Discovery and preclinical evaluation of a novel covalent inhibitor of FABP5 for cancer therapy [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2021; 2021 Apr 10-15 and May 17-21. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2021;81(13_Suppl):Abstract nr 1266.

Clip

https://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/78/13_Supplement/3852.short

 

Proceedings: AACR Annual Meeting 2018; April 14-18, 2018; Chicago, ILExperimental and Molecular TherapeuticsAbstract 3852: Combination efficacy and safety profile of an orally bioavailable small molecule agent targeting CD47/SIRPα axis

Girish Daginakatte, Sasikumar Pottayil, Gundala Chennakrishna, Wesley Roy Balasubramanian, Sudarshan Naremaddepalli, Archana Bhumireddy, Sandeep Patil, Kavitha Nellore, Priyabrata Chand, Kiran Aithal, Amit Dhudashiya, Samiulla DS, Rajesh Eswarappa and Murali Ramachandra 


DOI: 10.1158/1538-7445.AM2018-3852 Published July 2018

 

Citation Format: Girish Daginakatte, Sasikumar Pottayil, Gundala Chennakrishna, Wesley Roy Balasubramanian, Sudarshan Naremaddepalli, Archana Bhumireddy, Sandeep Patil, Kavitha Nellore, Priyabrata Chand, Kiran Aithal, Amit Dhudashiya, Samiulla DS, Rajesh Eswarappa, Murali Ramachandra. Combination efficacy and safety profile of an orally bioavailable small molecule agent targeting CD47/SIRPα axis [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2018; 2018 Apr 14-18; Chicago, IL. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2018;78(13 Suppl):Abstract nr 3852.

 

Abstract

 

Introduction: Most of the immunotherapies currently approved in the clinic target immune checkpoint proteins that suppress T-cell responses. There is growing evidence that the innate immune system also plays an important role in the initiation and propagation of enduring antitumor responses. Targeting CD47-SIRPα axis is emerging as one of the promising new immunotherapy approaches that targets innate immune response. A number of clinical trials are in progress to evaluate CD47/SIRPα blocking therapies. Most of these molecules are either anti-CD47 antibodies or SIRPα-Fc recombinant proteins. We are developing a novel small molecule CD47 antagonist, AUR-104, as therapeutic agent for solid and hematalogical cancers. AUR-104 is a CD47 antagonist that disrupts CD47- SIRPα interaction and enhances phagocytosis of tumor cells. AUR-104 exhibits good drug-like properties and demonstrates antitumor activity in several pre-clinical tumor models. Here, we report the anti-tumor efficacy of AUR-104 in combination with tumor specific antibodies in pre-clinical models of cancer and also present the safety profile of AUR-104 in rodents.

 

Materials and Methods: Syngeneic murine tumor models: MC38 colon carcinoma cells were subcutaneously implanted in C57BL/6J mice while A20 B-cell lymphoma cells were implanted in BALB/c mice. Tumor bearing mice were treated with AUR-104 (30 mg/kg, b.i.d, and po) as a single agent or in combination with anti-PD1 antibody (100 µg/animal) or anti-PDL1 antibody (200 µg/animal). Tumor volumes were recorded with calliper’s measurement over period of treatment.

 

A single dose maximum tolerated dose (MTD) study in BALB/c mouse followed by a 14-day repeat dose toxicity study in BALB/c mouse: Adult male and female BALB/c, are dosed with AUR-104 at ascending doses up to the limit dose. End points monitored include clinical observations, toxicokinetic parameters, body weights, food consumption, hematology, clinical pathology investigations, organ weights and histopathology of selected tissues.

 

Results: AUR-104 combination treatment with anti-PD1 antibody significantly enhanced anti-tumor efficacy in MC38 colon carcinoma model. Combination study with anti-PDL1 antibody in A20 tumor model is in progress. Preliminary observations from efficacy studies indicate that AUR-104 combination treatments with antibodies are well tolerated without any signs of toxicity. Advance in vitro safety evaluation and in vivo 14 day repeat day toxicity study in mice are being initiated. In summary, AUR-104 plus anti-PD1 antibody was a well-tolerated drug combination that exhibited a much greater in vivo antitumor response as compared to the single agent treatments. These results demonstrate the therapeutic potential of CD47 antagonist AUR-104 in combination with other tumor specific antibodies for the treatment of cancer.

Patent

US20200147054 – COMBINATION OF SMALL MOLECULE CD-47 INHIBITORS WITH OTHER ANTI-CANCER AGENTS

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=US294690878&tab=NATIONALBIBLIO

Muralidhara Ramachandra
Pottayil Govindan Nair Sasikumar
Girish Chandrappa Daginakatte
Kiran Aithal Balkudru

 

PATENT

 

WO 2020095256

 

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2020095256

 

 

Example- 1: The synthetic procedures for the preparation of compounds described in the present invention were described in co-pending Indian provisional patent application 201841001438 dated 12* Jan 2018, which is converted as PCT application

 

PCT/IB2019/050219, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety.

 

str1

 

PATENT

 

WO 2018178947

 

 

PATENT

 

WO 2019138367

 

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2019138367

 

PATENT

 

WO 2019073399

 

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2019073399A1/en

 

Priority to IN201741036169

 

Example 4 of WO 2015/033299

 

Figure imgf000002_0001

 

Figure imgf000003_0002

 

PATENT

 

https://patents.google.com/patent/BR112020014202A2/en

 

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PATENT

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2019142126&_fid=IN306692801

The present invention relates to substituted alkynylene compounds represented by compound of formula (I) pharmaceutically acceptable salts and stereoisomers thereof. The present invention further provides the methods of preparation of compound of formula (I) and therapeutic uses thereof as anti-cancer agents.

Patent

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=US248874724&tab=PCTDESCRIPTION

Example 1

(((S)-4-amino-1-(3-((S)-1,5-diaminopentyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl)-4-oxobutyl)carbamoyl)-L-proline (Compound 1)

      
 (MOL) (CDX)

Synthesis of Compound 1 b

      
 (MOL) (CDX)
      Ethylchloroformate (2.47 mL, 25.9 mmol) and NMM (2.9 mL, 25.9 mmol) were added to a solution of compound 1a (6.0 g, 17.3 mmol) in THF (60 mL) and stirred at −20° C. for 20 min. After 20 minutes 25% of aq.ammonia (24 mL) was added to the active mixed anhydride resulting from the reaction and the reaction mass was stirred at 0-5° C. for 30 min. The completeness of the reaction was confirmed by TLC analysis. The volatiles were evaporated under reduced pressure and partitioned between water and ethyl acetate. The organic layer was washed with NaHCO solution followed by citric acid solution and brine solution. The separated organic layer was dried over Na 2SO 4, filtered and evaporated under reduced pressure to yield 5.6 g of compound 1 b. LCMS: 346.4 [M+H] +.

Synthesis of Compound 1C

      
 (MOL) (CDX)
      Trifluroacetic anhydride (6.85 mL, 48.6 mmol) was added to a solution of compound 1b (5.6 g, 16.2 mmol), pyridine (7.84 mL, 97.2 mmol) in DCM (60 mL) at 0° C. and stirred at room temperature for an hour. The completion of the reaction was confirmed by TLC analysis. The volatiles were evaporated under reduced pressure and partitioned between water and CH 2Cl 2. The organic layer was washed with NaHCO solution followed by citric acid and brine solution. The separated organic layer was dried over Na 2SO 4, filtered and evaporated under reduced pressure to yield 5.42 g of compound 1c, which was used for next step directly.

Synthesis of Compound 1d

      
 (MOL) (CDX)
      Hydroxylamine hydrochloride (3.43 g, 49.5 mmol), water (10 mL) and K 2CO (4.54 g, 32.9 mmol) were added to a solution of compound 1c (5.4 g, 16.5 mmol) in EtOH (60 mL) and stirred at room temperature for overnight. The completion of the reaction was confirmed by TLC analysis. After the completion of reaction, the compound from the water was extracted by using the CH 2Cl followed washing the organic layer with water, brine and concentrated under reduced pressure to yield 5.8 g of compound 1d. LCMS: 361.3 [M+H] +.

Synthesis of Compound 1f

      
 (MOL) (CDX)
      HOBt (3.24 g, 24.0 mmol) and DIC (3.36 mL, 24.0 mmol) were added to a solution of Fmoc-Gln(Trt)-OH (compound 1e) (9.83 g, 16.1 mmol) in DMF (100 mL) at 0° C. and stirred for 15 min. Compound 1d (5.8 g, 16.1 mmol) was added to the reaction mass at the same temperature and the resulting mixture was stirred for an hour at the same temperature, followed by stirring at room temperature for an additional 2 h. The completion of the reaction was confirmed by TLC analysis. The reaction mixture was quenched with ice water; precipitated white solid was filtered; washed with water (150 mL) and dried under high under reduced pressure to yield 8.62 g of compound 1f. LCMS: 953.7 [M+H] +.

Synthesis of Compound 1g

      
 (MOL) (CDX)
      Acetic acid (5 mL) was added to a solution of compound 1f (5.0 g, 5.0 mmol) in acetonitrile (50 ml) at room temperature and the reaction mass was refluxed at 85° C. for 12 h. The completion of the reaction was confirmed by TLC analysis. The volatiles were evaporated under reduced pressure to obtain crude semi solid which was diluted with water and ethyl acetate. The organic layer was washed with NaHCO solution followed by citric acid and brine solution. The organic layer was dried over Na 2SO 4; filtered and evaporated under reduced pressure to obtain crude solid. Compound was purified using column chromatography to yield 4.3 g of title compound. LCMS: 935.6 [M+H] +.

Synthesis of Compound 1h

      
 (MOL) (CDX)
      Compound 1g (4.3 g, 4.5 mmol) was added to a solution of 20% piperidine in DMF (20 mL) at 0° C. and the reaction mass was stirred at same temperature for an hour. The completion of the reaction was confirmed by TLC analysis. After completion, the reaction mixture was quenched with ice-cold water and the resulting white precipitate was filtered and dried under vacuum. The crude product obtained was diluted with hexane, stirred and filtered to yield 3.0 g of compound 1h. LCMS: 713.4 [M+H] +.

Synthesis of Compound 1i

      
 (MOL) (CDX)
      Pyridine (0.33 mL, 4.2 mmol) was added to a solution of compound 1h (1.5 g, 2.1 mmol) in CH 2Cl (15 mL) and the resulting solution was stirred at room temperature for 10 min. 4-nitrophenyl chloroformate (0.84 g, 4.2 mmol) in CH 2Cl (15 mL) was added to the above mixture and the resultant mixture was stirred at room temperature for an hour. After completion of reaction (confirmed by TLC), it was diluted with CH 2Cl (50 mL) and washed with water (100 mL×2), 1N HCl (100 mL×2), water followed by brine solution (100 mL×2). The organic layer was dried over Na 2SO 4; filtered and evaporated under reduced pressure to yield 0.72 g compound 1i, which was taken to the next step without any further purification. LCMS: 878.9 [M-100].

Synthesis of compound 1j

      
 (MOL) (CDX)
      TEA (0.34 mL, 2.46 mm) was added to a solution of H-Pro-O tBu.HCl (0.21 g, 1.23 mmol) and compound 1i (0.72 g, 0.82 mmol) in THF (10 mL) at room temperature and stirred for 12 h. The volatiles were evaporated and portioned between ethyl acetate and water. The reaction mixture was diluted with ice cold water and extracted with EtOAc. The Organic layer was separated and dried over Na 2SO and concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude compound obtained was purified by column chromatography and compound elutes in 50% of ethyl acetate in hexane. Yield: 0.5 g of compound 1j. LCMS: 910.6 [M+H] +.

Synthesis of Compound 1

      
 (MOL) (CDX)
      Compound 1j (0.5 g, 0.55 mmol) was added to a cocktail mixture (10 m L) of TFA:TIPS:H 2O (95:2.5:2.5) and was stirred at room temperature for 3 h. The resulting reaction mixture was evaporated under reduced pressure, diluted with diethyl ether and filtered to yield 0.2 g of crude compound 1. The crude solid material was purified by preparative HPLC method described under experimental conditions. LCMS: 412.2 [M+H] +. HPLC t (min): 9.6.

 

Example 2

(S)-4-(3-((S)-1-amino-4-guanidinobutyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl)-4-(3-((S)-1-carboxy-2-phenylethyl) ureido)butanoic acid (Compound 7)

      
 (MOL) (CDX)

Synthesis of Compound 2b

      
 (MOL) (CDX)
      Ethylchloroformate (1.75 mL, 18.23 mmol) and NMM (2.0 mL, 18.23 mmol) were added into a solution of compound 2a (8.0 g, 15.18 mmol) in THF (45 mL) and the resulting mixture was stirred at −20° C. for 20 min. After 20 minutes 25% of aqueous ammonia (25 mL) was added to the active mixed anhydride generated and stirred at 0-5° C. for 30 min. The completeness of the reaction was confirmed by TLC analysis. The volatiles were evaporated under reduced pressure and partitioned between water and ethyl acetate. The organic layer was washed with NaHCO solution followed by citric acid solution and brine solution. The separated organic layer was dried over Na 2SO 4, filtered and evaporated under reduced pressure to yield 7.1 g of compound 2b. LCMS: 526.3 [M+H] +.

Synthesis of Compound 2c

      
 (MOL) (CDX)
      Trifluroacetic anhydride (TFAA) (2.83 mL, 20.26 mmol) was added to a solution of compound 2b (7.1 g, 13.51 mmol) in pyridine (7.08 g, 87.80 mmol) and the resulting mixture was stirred at room temperature for 2 h. The completion of the reaction was confirmed by TLC analysis. The volatiles were evaporated under reduced pressure and partitioned between water and ethyl acetate. The organic layer was washed with citric acid and brine solution. The separated organic layer was dried over Na 2SO 4, filtered and evaporated under reduced pressure. The crude solid was purified via column chromatography (60-120 silicagel) to yield 5.8 g of compound 2c. LCMS: 508.3 [M+H] +.

Synthesis of Compound 2d

      
 (MOL) (CDX)
      Hydroxylamine hydrochloride (1.56 g, 22.50 mmol), water (30 mL) and potassium carbonate (3.11 g, 11.25 mmol) were added to a solution of compound 2c (5.8 g, 11.25 mmol) in EtOH (60 mL) and stirred at 90° C. for 3 h. The completion of the reaction was confirmed by TLC analysis. The volatiles were evaporated under reduced pressure and partitioned between water and ethyl acetate. The organic layer was washed with brine solution, dried over Na 2SO then filtered and evaporated under reduced pressure, the solid obtained was washed with 20% ethyl acetate to yield 6.1 g of compound 2d. LCMS: 541.3 [M+H] +.

Synthesis of Compound 2f

      
 (MOL) (CDX)
      HOBt (2.28 g, 16.9 mmol) and DIC (2.62 mL, 16.9 mmol) were added to a solution of Fmoc-Glu(O tBu)-OH (compound 2e) (4.0 g, 9.02 mmol) in DMF (60 mL) at 0° C. and the resulting mixture was stirred for 15 min. Then compound 2d (6.1 g, 11.28 mmol) was added to the above mixture at the same temperature and the reaction mixture was continued stirring for an hour and then at room temperature for 2 h. The completion of the reaction was confirmed by TLC analysis. The reaction mixture was quenched with ice cold water, the precipitated white solid was filtered, washed with water (150 mL) and dried under high under reduced pressure. The solid was taken into 10% MeOH in DCM and washed the organic layer with 10% NaHCO 3, water and brine solution. The organic layer was dried over Na 2SO and concentrated under reduced pressure to yield 8.0 g of compound 2f. LCMS: 948.7 [M+H] +.

Synthesis of Compound 2g

      
 (MOL) (CDX)
      Acetic acid (7 mL) was added to a solution of compound 2f (7.0 g, 7.38 mmol) in THF (70 ml) at room temperature and the resulting mixture was refluxed at 70° C. for 12 h. The completion of the reaction was confirmed by TLC analysis. The volatiles were evaporated under reduced pressure to obtain crude semi solid which was diluted with water and ethyl acetate. The organic layer was washed with NaHCO solution followed by brine solution. The organic layer was dried over Na 2SO 4, filtered and evaporated under reduced pressure to get crude solid. The compound was purified by column chromatography (60-120 silicagel) to yield 5.4 g of compound 2g. LCMS: 930.5 [M+H] +.

Synthesis of Compound 2h

      
 (MOL) (CDX)
      Compound 2g (5.4 g, 5.80 mmol) was added to a solution of 50% piperidine in DMF (20 mL) at 0° C. and stirred at same temperature for 2 h. The completion of the reaction was confirmed by TLC analysis. The reaction mass was quenched with water (100 mL), the resulted precipitate was filtered. The solid obtained was dissolved in ethyl acetate and washed the organic layer with 10% NaHCO 3, water and brine. The organic layer was dried over Na 2SO and concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude product obtained was diluted with hexane and the resulted precipitate was filtered followed by washing with hexane to obtain 3.0 g of compound 2h. LCMS 708.6 [M+H] +.

Synthesis of Compound 2i

      
 (MOL) (CDX)
      Pyridine (0.75 mL, 9.3 mmol) was added to a solution of H-Phe-O tBu.HCl (2.0 g, 7.75 mmol) in CH 2Cl (20 mL) was added pyridine and the resulting solution was stirred at room temperature for 10 min. To this reaction mixture a solution of 4-nitrophenyl chloroformate (1.87 g, 9.30 mmol) in CH 2Cl (20 mL) was added and the resultant mixture was stirred at room temperature for 3 h. After completion of reaction (confirmed by TLC) it was diluted with CH 2Cl (50 mL) and washed with water (100 mL×2), 10% citric acid (100 mL×2), water (100 mL), followed by brine solution (100 mL). The organic layer was dried over Na 2SO 4, filtered and evaporated under reduced pressure to yield 1.7 g compound 2i, which was taken to the next step without any further purification.

Synthesis of Compound 2j

      
 (MOL) (CDX)
      TEA (0.29 mL, 2.1 mmol) was added to a solution of compound 2h (1.0 g, 1.41 mmol) and compound 2i (0.54 g, 1.41 mmol) in THF (10 mL) at room temperature and stirred for 3 h. The volatiles were evaporated and portioned between EtOAc and water. The reaction mixture was diluted with ice cold water and extracted with EtOAc followed by washing with 10% K 2CO (100 mL×4), water and brine solution. Organic layer separated and dried over Na 2SO and concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude product obtained was diluted with hexane and the resulted precipitate was filtered followed by washing with hexane yielded 0.98 g of compound 2j. LCMS: 955.6 [M+H] +.

Synthesis of Compound 7

      
 (MOL) (CDX)
      Compound 2j (0.5 g, 5.2 mmol) was added to cocktail mixture (5 m L) of trifluoroacetic: TIPS: water (95:2.5:2.5). The cleavage solution was stirred at room temperature for 3 h. The resulting reaction mixture was evaporated under reduced pressure, diluted with diethyl ether and filtered to yield 0.34 g of crude compound 2. The crude solid material was purified by preparative HPLC method as described under experimental conditions. LCMS: 491.1 [M+H] +. HPLC t R: (min): 11.1

PATENT

 

WO 2015/033299

 

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2015033299A1/en?oq=WO+2015%2f033299

 

Pottayil Govindan Nair SasikumarMuralidhara RamachandraSeetharamaiah Setty Sudarshan Naremaddepalli

 

Figure imgf000024_0001

 

Example 1: Synthesis of Compound 1

 

Figure imgf000019_0001

 

Step la:

 

Figure imgf000019_0002

 

Ethylchloroformate (1.5 g, 13.78 mniol) and N-Methylmorpholine ( 1.4 g, 13.78 mmol) were added to a solution of compound la (3 g, 11.48 mmol) in THE (30 mL) arid stirred at -20 °C. After 20 min. Liquid ammonia (0.77 g, 45.92 mmol) was added to the active mixed anhydride formed in- situ and stirred at 0-5 °C for 20 min. The completeness of the reaction was confirmed by TLC analysis. The reaction mixture was evaporated under reduced pressure and partitioned between water and ethyl acetate. Organic layer was washed with NaHCOs, citric acid, brine solution, dried over Na2S04 and evaporated under reduced pressure to get 2.9 g of compound lb (Yield: 96.3%). LCMS: 261.0 ( Vi+H ; .

 

Step lb:

 

Figure imgf000020_0001

 

1 b 1cTrifluroacetic anhydride (9.7 g, 46.0 mmol) was added to a solution of compound lb (8 g, 30.7 mmol) in pyridine (24.3 g, 307.0 mmol) and stirred at room temperature for 3 h. The completeness of the reaction was confirmed by TLC analysis. The reaction mixture was evaporated under reduced pressure and partitioned between water and ethyl acetate. Organic layer was washed with NaHCO?,, citric acid, brine solution, dried over Na2-S04 and evaporated under reduced pressure to afford 7 g of compound lc (Yield: 94.0%). LCMS: 187.2 (M-¾u )+.

 

Step lc:

 

Figure imgf000020_0002

 

1 c 1dHydroxylamine hydrochloride (3 g, 43.37 mmol) and potassium carbonate (6 g, 43.37 mmol) were added to a solution of compound lc (7 g, 28.91 mmol) in EtOH (70 m L) and stirred at 90 °C for 2 h. The completeness of the reaction was confirmed by TLC analysis. The reaction mixture was evaporated under reduced pressure and partitioned between water and ethyl acetate. Organic layer was washed with brine solution, dried over Na2S04 and evaporated under reduced pressure. The crude compound was purified by silica gel column chromatography (Eluent: 0-5% ethyl acetate in hexane) to get 4.2 g of compound Id (Yield: 52.8%). LCMS: 276.4 (M+H)+.Step Id:

 

Figure imgf000021_0001

 

Deoxo-Fluor® (1.83 g, 8.3 mmol) was added to a solution of Fmoc-Asn(Trt)-OH (4.5 g, 7.5 mmol) in CH2Q2 (50 mL) and stirred at 0 °C for 3 h. Then CH2CI2 was evaporated and triturated with hexane, decanted and evaporated under vacuum to get the corresponding acid fluoride. NMM (1.17 g, 1 1.6 mmol) and compound Id (1.6 g, 5.8 mmol) in THF were added to the acid fluoride and stirred at room temperature for 12 h. Then THF was evaporated and sodium acetate (0.72 g, 8.7 mmol) was added followed by EtOH (50 mL). The reaction mixture was stirred at 90 °C for 2 h. The completeness of the reaction was confirmed by TLC analysis. The reaction mixture was evaporated under reduced pressure and partitioned between water and ethyl acetate. Organic layer was washed with NaHCOa, citric acid, brine solution, dried over Na2S04 and evaporated under reduced pressure, which was further purified by silica gel column chromatography (Eluent: 0-5% ethyl acetate in hexane) to afford 2.8 g of compound le (Yield: 44.4%). LCMS: 836.4 (M+Hf .Step le:

 

Ph3

 

Figure imgf000021_0002

 

To compound le (2.3 g, 2.7 mmol) in CH2CI2 (10 mL) diethyiarnine (10 mL) was added and the reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 30 min. The resulting solution was concentrated in vacuum to get gummy residue. The crude compound was purified by neutral alumina column chromatography (Eluent: 0-50% ethyl acetate in hexane then 0-5% methanol in chloroform) to get 1.4 g of If (Yield: 90 %). LCMS: 636.5 (M+Na)+.

 

Figure imgf000022_0001

 

1f 1To a solution of compound If (0.45 g) in CH2CI2 (5 mL), trifluoroacetic acid (5 mL) and catalytic amount of triisopropylsilane were added and stirred for 3 h at room temperature to remove the acid sensitive protecting groups. The resulting solution was concentrated in vacuum to afford 0.29 g of crude compound 1 which was purified using prep-HPLC method described under experimental conditions. \H NMR (DMSQ-d6, 400 MHz): δ 2.58 (m, 2H), 3.53 (m, 3H), 3.91 (t, 1H), 4.36 (t, 1H), 6.91 (s, 1H), 7.45 (s, 1H); 1 C NMR (DMSO-de, 400 MHz): δ 20.85, 45.71 , 50.23, 65.55, 171.03, 171 .41, 181.66. LCMS: 216.2 (Μ+ΗΓ; HPLC: tR = 13.1 min.Example 2: Synthesis of Co

 

Figure imgf000022_0002

 

Step 2a:

 

Figure imgf000022_0003

 

1f2a

 

The urea linkage was carried out by the coupling compound If (2.7 g, 4.39 mmoi) in THF (30 mL) at room temperature with compound 2b (1.67 g, 4.39 mmoi). The coupling was initiated by the addition of TEA (0.9 g, 8.78 mmoi) in THF (10 m L) and the resultant mixture was stirred at room temperature. After completion of 20 h, THF was evaporated from the reaction mass, and partitioned between water and ethyl acetate. Organic layer was washed with water, brine, dried over Na2S04 and evaporated under reduced pressure to get compound 2a, which was further purified by silica gel column chromatography (Fluent: 0-50% ethyl acetate in hexane) to afford 3.46 g of compound 2a (Yield: 92.10%). LCMS 857.4 (M+H)+.

 

Figure imgf000023_0001

 

2aTo a solution of compound 2a (0.22 g, 0.25 mmol) in 0¾ί¾ (5 m L), trifluoroaeetic acid (5 mL) and catalytic amount of triisopropyisilane were added and stirred for 3h at room, temperature. The resulting solution was concentrated under reduced pressure to obtain 0.35 g of crude compound. The crude solid material was purified using preparative- HPLC method described under experimental conditions. LCMS: 347.1 (M+H)+; HPLC: tR = 12.9 min.

 

Synthesis of

 

Figure imgf000023_0002

 

2bTo the compound H-Ser(tBu)-OiBu (2 g, 9.2 mmol) in C I I■(.{■ (20 mL), triethylamine (1.39 g, 13.8 mmol) was added and the solution was stirred at room temperature for 5-10 min. To this mixture, solution of 4-Nitrophenyl chioro formate (2.22 g, 11.04 mmol) in CH2CI2 was added and the resultant mixture was stirred at room temperature for 30 min. The completion of the reaction was confirmed by TLC analysis. After completion of reaction, reaction mixture was diluted with CH2CI2 and washed with water and 5.0 M citric acid solution, dried over Na2SC>4 and evaporated under reduced pressure to get crude compound 2b, which was further purified by silica gel column chromatography (Eiuent: 0-20% ethyl acetate in hexane) to yield 2.1 g (58.9%) of 2b.Example 3: Synthesis of Compound 3

 

Figure imgf000023_0003

 

The compound was synthesised using similar procedure as depicted in Example 1 (compound 1) and D-amino acids are linked up in reverse order. Boc-D-Thr(‘Bu)-OH was used in place of Boc-Ser(‘Bu)-OH (compound la, Example 1) and Fmoc-D- Asn(trt)-OH in place of Fmoc-Asn(trt)-OH to yield 0.15 g crude material of the title compound 3. LCMS: 230.1 (M+H)+.Example 4: Synthesis of Co

 

Figure imgf000024_0001

 

The compound was synthesised using similar procedure as depicted in Example 2 for synthesising compound 2 using

 

Figure imgf000024_0002

 

instead of H-Ser(‘Bu)-0’Bu (in synthesis of compound 2b) to yield 0.35 g crude material of the title compound. The crude solid material was purified using preparative HPLC described under experimental conditions. LCMS: 361.2 (M+H)+, HPLC: tR = 12.19 min.Example 5: Synthesis of

 

Figure imgf000024_0003

 

The compound was synthesised using similar procedure as depicted in Example 4 (compound 4) using D-amino acids are linked up in reverse order. Boc-D-Thr(‘Bu)-OH was used in place of Boc-Ser(‘Bu)-OH, Fmoc-D-Asn(trt)-OH in place of Fmoc-Asn(trt)- OH and H-D-Ser(‘Bu)-0’Bu was used in place of H-Thr^Bu^O’Bu to yield 0.3 g crude material of the title compound. The cmde solid material was purified using preparative HPLC described under experimental conditions. LCMS: 361.3 (M+H)+. HPLC: tR = 13.58 min.Example 6: Synthesis of Compound 6

 

Figure imgf000024_0004

 

The compound was synthesised using similar procedure as depicted in Example 2 by using H-Thr(‘Bu)-OMe instead of H-Ser(‘Bu)-0’Bu (in synthesis of compound 2b) to yield 0.2 g crude material of the title compound. The crude solid material was purified using preparative HPLC described under experimental conditions. LCMS: 375.1 (M+H)+, HPLC: tR = 1.84 min.Example 7: Synthesis of Compound 7

 

Figure imgf000025_0001

 

Step 7a:

 

Figure imgf000025_0002

 

1f7aThe compound 7a was synthesised using similar procedure as for compound 2a (Example 2, step 2a) using H-Thr(‘Bu)-OMe instead of H-Ser(‘Bu)-OtBu to get crude material which was further purified by silica gel column chromatography (Eluent: 0-50% ethyl acetate in he ane) to get 2.0 g of compound 7a (Yield: 74 %). LCMS: 829.2 (M+H)+.Step 7b:

 

Figure imgf000025_0003

 

7a 7bTo a solution of compound 7a (0.35 g, 4.0 mmol) in THF (5 mL) was added lithium hydroxide (0.026 g, 0.63 mmol) at 0 °C and the mixture was stirred for 2 h at room temperature. The completion of the reaction was confirmed by TLC analysis. THF was evaporated from the reaction mass, and partitioned between water and ethyl acetate. Organic layer was washed with citric acid, brine solution, dried over Na2S04 and evaporated under reduced pressure to afford 7b, which was further purified by silica gel column chromatography (Eluent: 0-5% methanol in DCM) to get 0.3 g of product 7b (Yield: 86.7%). LCMS 815.2 (M+H)+.

 

Step 7c:

 

Figure imgf000026_0001

 

7b 7Compound 7b (0.295 g, 0.39 mmol) was anchored to Rink amide resin (0.7 g, 0.55 mmol/g) using HOBT (0.072 g, 0.54 mmol) and DIC (0.068 g, 0.54 mmol) method in DMF (10 mL). The resin was stirred for 12 h at room temperature. The resin was washed with DCM, DMF and DCM and dried. The target compound was cleaved from the rink amide resin using TFA (5 mL) and catalytic amount of TIPS. The resin was allowed to remain at room temperature for 2 h with occasional stirring. After 2 h, TFA and TIPS were evaporated under nitrogen atmosphere and the resulting residue was washed with diethyl ether to yield 0.1 g crude material of the title compound 7. The crude solid material was purified using preparative HPLC described under experimental conditions. LCMS: 360.0 (M+H)+, HPLC: tR = 13.88 min.Example 8: Synthesis of

 

Figure imgf000026_0002

 

The compound was synthesised using similar procedure as depicted in Example 2 (compound 2) using Fmoc-Glu(0’Bu)-OH instead of Fmoc-Asn(Trt)-OH to get 0.4 g crude material of the title compound. The crude solid material was purified using preparative HPLC described under experimental conditions. LCMS: 362.1 (M+H)+. HPLC: tR = 13.27 min. 

PATENThttps://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2019061324&tab=FULLTEXT

 

 

Patenthttps://patents.google.com/patent/WO2019067678A1/enPATENThttps://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2019061324

 

 

PATENThttps://patents.google.com/patent/WO2018073754A1/en
PATENThttps://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2019087087
PAPERSScientific Reports (2019), 9(1), 1-19. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-48826-6

 

figure1

 

 

 

Chemical structures of PD-L1 inhibitors developed by Aurigene (Aurigene-1) and Bristol-Meyers Squibb (BMSpep-57, BMS-103, and BMS-142). Chemical structures were generated using ChemDraw Professional 15. PATENT
https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2019087087

 

L-threonine’ mentioned in compound of formula (I) thereof can be represented by any one of the following formulae:

 

 

Publication Number  Title Priority Date  Grant Date
US-2020289477-A1 Conjoint therapies for immunomodulation 2017-11-06  
WO-2019073399-A1 CRYSTALLINE FORMS OF 1,2,4-OXADIAZOLE SUBSTITUTED IN POSITION 3 2017-10-11  
AU-2018341583-A1 Crystal forms of immunomodulators 2017-09-29  
WO-2019061324-A1 CRYSTALLINE FORMS OF IMMUNOMODULATORS 2017-09-29  
WO-2019067678-A1 CRYSTALLINE FORMS OF IMMUNOMODULATORS 2017-09-29

 

Publication Number  Title Priority Date  Grant Date
US-2020247766-A1 Crystal forms of immunomodulators 2017-09-29  
US-2020061030-A1 Dual inhibitors of vista and pd-1 pathways 2016-10-20  
WO-2018073754-A1 Dual inhibitors of vista and pd-1 pathways 2016-10-20  
US-2020361880-A1 1,2,4-Oxadiazole and Thiadiazole Compounds as Immunomodulators 2015-03-10  
EP-3041827-B1 1,2,4-oxadiazole derivatives as immunomodulators 2013-09-06 2018-04-18

 

Publication Number  Title Priority Date  Grant Date
EP-3363790-B1 1,2,4-oxadiazole derivatives as immunomodulators 2013-09-06 2020-02-19
US-10173989-B2 1,2,4-oxadiazole derivatives as immunomodulators 2013-09-06 2019-01-08
US-10590093-B2 1,2,4-oxadiazole derivatives as immunomodulators 2013-09-06 2020-03-17
US-2015073024-A1 1,2,4-Oxadiazole Derivatives as Immunomodulators 2013-09-06  
US-2017101386-A1 1,2,4-Oxadiazole Derivatives as Immunomodulators 2013-09-06

 

Publication Number  Title Priority Date  Grant Date
US-2018072689-A1 1,2,4-Oxadiazole Derivatives as Immunomodulators 2013-09-06  
US-2019144402-A1 1,2,4-Oxadiazole Derivatives as Immunomodulators 2013-09-06  
US-2020199086-A1 1,2,4-Oxadiazole Derivatives as Immunomodulators 2013-09-06  
US-9771338-B2 1,2,4-oxadiazole derivatives as immunomodulators 2013-09-06 2017-09-26
WO-2015033299-A1 1,2,4-oxadiazole derivatives as immunomodulators 2013-09-06

 

////////////Investigational New Drug Application,  Phase 1,  Clinical Trial, Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma, XL 114, AUR 104, aurigene, Exelixis 

 

N[C@@H](CO)c1nc(on1)[C@@H](NC(=O)N[C@H](C(=O)O)C(C)O)CC(N)=O

 

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/result.jsf?inchikey=HFOBENSCBRZVSP-WHFCDURNSA-N

 

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PIROXICAM


Skeletal formula of piroxicam
ChemSpider 2D Image | Piroxicam | C15H13N3O4S

PIROXICAM

  • Molecular FormulaC15H13N3O4S
  • Average mass331.346 Da

1,1-Dioxyde de 4-hydroxy-2-méthyl-N-(2-pyridinyl)-2H-1,2-benzothiazine-3-carboxamide

13T4O6VMAM

252-974-3[EINECS]

2H-1,2-Benzothiazine-3-carboxamide, 4-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-2-pyridinyl-, 1,1-dioxide

36322-90-4[RN]37134

-Hydroxy-2-methyl-3-(pyrid-2-yl-carbamoyl)-2H-1,2-benzothiazine 1,1-dioxide

Piroxicam 
CAS Registry Number: 36322-90-4 
CAS Name: 4-Hydroxy-2-methyl-N-2-pyridinyl-2H-1,2-benzothiazine-3-carboxamide 1,1-dioxide 
Additional Names: 3,4-dihydro-2-methyl-4-oxo-N-2-pyridyl-2H-1,2-benzothiazine-3-carboxamide 1,1-dioxide 
Manufacturers’ Codes: CP-16171 
Trademarks: Artroxicam (Coli); Baxo (Toyama); Bruxicam (Bruschettini); Caliment (Apotex); Erazon (Krka); Feldene (Pfizer); Flogobene (Farge); Geldene (Pfizer); Improntal (Kabi); Larapam (Lagap); Pirkam (DAK); Piroflex (Lagap); Reudene (ABC); Riacen (Chiesi); Roxicam (Gramon); Roxiden (Pulitzer); Sasulen (Andreu); Solocalm (Microsules); Zunden (Luitpold)Molecular Formula: C15H13N3O4S 
Molecular Weight: 331.35 
Percent Composition: C 54.37%, H 3.95%, N 12.68%, O 19.31%, S 9.68% 
Literature References: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory with long half-life. Prepn (keto form): J. Lombardino, DE1943265idem,US3591584 (1970, 1971 to Pfizer).Synthesis and biological properties: J. Lombardino, E. Wiseman, J. Med. Chem.15, 848 (1972); J. Lombardino et al.,ibid.16, 493 (1973). Pharmacology: E. Wiseman et al.,Arzneim.-Forsch.26, 1300 (1976). Evaluation of ulcerogenic effects: G. Palacios et al.,Methods Find. Exp. Clin. Pharmacol.9, 353 (1987). Clinical pharmacology: L. Martinez et al.,ibid.10, 729 (1988). Review:eidem, in Pharmacological and Biochemical Properties of Drug Substancesvol. 3, M. E. Goldberg, Ed. (Am. Pharm. Assoc., Washington, DC, 1981) pp 324-346. Review of pharmacology and therapeutic efficacy: R. N. Brogden et al.,Drugs22, 165-187 (1981); eidem,ibid.28, 292-323 (1984). Symposium on clinical efficacy and safety: Am. J. Med.81, Suppl. 5B, 1-55 (1986). Comprehensive description: M. Mihalic et al.,Anal. Profiles Drug Subs.15, 509-531 (1986). 
Properties: Crystals from methanol, mp 198-200°. pKa 6.3 (2:1 dioxane-water). LD50 orally in mice: 360 mg/kg (Wiseman). 
Melting point: mp 198-200° 
pKa: pKa 6.3 (2:1 dioxane-water) 
Toxicity data: LD50 orally in mice: 360 mg/kg (Wiseman) 
Derivative Type: Cinnamic acid ester 
CAS Registry Number: 87234-24-0 
Additional Names: Piroxicam cinnamate; cinnoxicam 
Manufacturers’ Codes: SPA-S-510 
Trademarks: Sinartrol (SPA); Zelis (Proter); Zen (Prophin) 
Molecular Formula: C24H19N3O5S 
Molecular Weight: 461.49 
Percent Composition: C 62.46%, H 4.15%, N 9.11%, O 17.33%, S 6.95% 
Derivative Type: Compd with b-cyclodextrinCAS Registry Number: 121696-62-6 
Trademarks: Brexin (Chiesi); Cicladol (Master); Cycladol (Promedica) 
Molecular Formula: C57H83N3O39S 
Molecular Weight: 1466.33 
Percent Composition: C 46.69%, H 5.71%, N 2.87%, O 42.55%, S 2.19% 
Therap-Cat: Anti-inflammatory. 
Keywords: Anti-inflammatory (Nonsteroidal); Thiazinecarboxamides.

  • EINECS:252-974-3
  • LD50:250 mg/kg (M, p.o.);
    216 mg/kg (R, p.o.);
    108 mg/kg (dog, p.o.)

Piroxicam is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) of the oxicam class used to relieve the symptoms of painful inflammatory conditions like arthritis.[3][4] Piroxicam works by preventing the production of endogenous prostaglandins] which are involved in the mediation of pain, stiffness, tenderness and swelling.[3] The medicine is available as capsulestablets and (not in all countries) as a prescription-free gel 0.5%.[5] It is also available in a betadex formulation, which allows a more rapid absorption of piroxicam from the digestive tract.[3] Piroxicam is one of the few NSAIDs that can be given parenteral routes.

It was patented in 1968 by Pfizer and approved for medical use in 1979.[6] It became generic in 1992,[7] and is marketed worldwide under many brandnames.[1]

Medical uses

It is used in the treatment of certain inflammatory conditions like rheumatoid and osteoarthritis, primary dysmenorrhoea, postoperative pain; and act as an analgesic, especially where there is an inflammatory component.[3] The European Medicines Agency issued a review of its use in 2007 and recommended that its use be limited to the treatment of chronic inflammatory conditions, as it is only in these circumstances that its risk-benefit ratio proves to be favourable.[5][8]

Adverse effects

See also: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug

As with other NSAIDs the principal side effects include: digestive complaints like nausea, discomfort, diarrhoea and bleeds or ulceration of the stomach, as well as headache, dizziness, nervousness, depression, drowsiness, insomnia, vertigo, hearing disturbances (such as tinnitus), high blood pressureoedema, light sensitivity, skin reactions (including, albeit rarely, Stevens–Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis) and rarely, kidney failurepancreatitisliver damage, visual disturbances, pulmonary eosinophilia and alveolitis.[5] Compared to other NSAIDs it is more prone to causing gastrointestinal disturbances and serious skin reactions.[5]

In October 2020, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) required the drug label to be updated for all nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications to describe the risk of kidney problems in unborn babies that result in low amniotic fluid.[9][10] They recommend avoiding NSAIDs in pregnant women at 20 weeks or later in pregnancy.[9][10]

Mechanism of action

See also: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug

Piroxicam is an NSAID and, as such, is a non-selective COX inhibitor possessing both analgesic and antipyretic properties.[5]

Chemical properties

Piroxicam exists as alkenol tautomer in organic solvents and as zwitterionic form in water.[11]

History

The project that produced piroxicam began in 1962 at Pfizer; the first clinical trial results were reported in 1977, and the product launched in 1980 under the brand name “Feldene”.[7][12] Major patents expired in 1992[7] and the drug is marketed worldwide under many brandnames.[1]

NMR

piroxicam usp 36322-90-4 wiki
piroxicam usp 36322-90-4 wiki

SYN

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/jp1084444

Influence of Structure on the Spectroscopic Properties of the Polymorphs of Piroxicam

SYN

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S092420310400058X?via%3

PATENT

CN 101210013

https://patents.google.com/patent/CN101210013A/enIn the glassed steel reaction vessels of 2000L, add first ethyl ester thing 140Kg, dimethylbenzene 1500L, silica gel 10Kg.Be warming up to 100 ℃ of amino pyrrole 52Kg of adding 2-, continue to be warming up to the solvent refluxing temperature, keep refluxing slowly, steam the ethanol of reaction generation and the mixture of dimethylbenzene simultaneously, TLC follows the tracks of reaction, and reaction in 4.5-5 hour finishes.Underpressure distillation, the control temperature in the kettle is no more than 70 ℃, when the system volume be about cumulative volume 1/3 the time stop distillation, be cooled to normal temperature, stir 6-8h and filter, be i.e. crude product.Crude product adds methyl alcohol 1500L and adds the 15Kg gac, refluxes 30 minutes, filters, and is cooled to normal temperature, stirs 6-8h, methyl alcohol drip washing, 60-70 ℃ is dried by the fire 3-5h, measure product 140.5Kg, yield 85%.Press Cp2005 version standard detection, outward appearance; Off-white color, content 〉=99%.Methanol mother liquor reclaims methyl alcohol to overall 1/3 o’clock, and cooling stirring at normal temperature 6-8h filters and collects product, oven dry measure product 10Kg, yield 5.7%, this product meet the Cp2005 version and require to add up to yield.Add up to yield 90.7%.PAPER Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society, 26(11), 1771-1775; 2005 

SYN

File:Piroxicam synthesis.svg - Wikimedia Commons
CAS-RNFormulaChemical NameCAS Index Name
504-29-0C5H6N22-aminopyridine2-Pyridinamine
79-04-9C2H2Cl2Ochloroacetyl chlorideAcetyl chloride, chloro-
29209-30-1C11H11NO5S3,4-dihydro-2-methyl-4-oxo-2H-1,2-benzothiazine-3-carboxylic acid methyl ester 1,1-dioxide2H-1,2-Benzothiazine-3-carboxylic acid, 3,4-dihydro-2-methyl-4-oxo-, methyl ester, 1,1-dioxide
29209-29-8C10H9NO5S3-methoxycarbonyl-4-oxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,2-benzothiazine 1,1-dioxide2H-1,2-Benzothiazine-3-carboxylic acid, 3,4-dihydro-4-oxo-, methyl ester, 1,1-dioxide
  1. Drebushchak, V. A.; Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 2006, V84(3), P643-649 
  2.  Gehad, G. Mohamed; Vibrational Spectroscopy 2004, V36(1), P97-104 
  3.  Pajula, Katja; Molecular Pharmaceutics 2010, V7(3), P795-804 
  4.  Wassvik, Carola M.; European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2006, V29(3-4), P294-305
  5.  Wassvik, Carola M.; Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 2008, V51(10), P3035-3039
  6.  Zayed, M. A.; Spectrochimica Acta, Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 2004, V60A(12), P2843-2852 
  7.  Zia-ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society 2005, V26(11), P1771-1775 
  8.  “Drugs – Synonyms and Properties” data were obtained from Ashgate Publishing Co. (US) 
  9.  Stulzer, H. K.; Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal 2008, V42(4), P215-219 CAPLUS
  10.  Drebushchak, V. A.; Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 2006, V86(2), P303-309 
  11.  Hughes, Laura D.; Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling 2008, V48(1), P220-232 
  12.  Laban, Gunter; DD 260398 A3 1988 
  13.  Svoboda, Jiri; Collection of Czechoslovak Chemical Communications 1986, V51(5), P1133-9 
  14. (26) Perillo, Isabel A.; Journal of Heterocyclic Chemistry 1983, V20(1), P155-60 
  15.  Zak, Bohumil; CS 276217 B6 1992 CAPLUS
  16.  Dalla Croce, Piero; Journal of Chemical Research, Synopses 1986, (4), P150-1
  17.  Vemavarapu, Chandra; Powder Technology 2009, V189(3), P444-453 
  18.  Sanghavi, N. M.; Indian Journal of Technology 1989, V27(2), P93-5 
  19.  “PhysProp” data were obtained from Syracuse Research Corporation of Syracuse, New York (US)
  20. Mohamed, Gehad G.; Spectrochimica Acta, Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 2004, V60A(13), P3141-3154 
  21.  Zayed, M. A.; Spectrochimica Acta, Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 2006, V64A(1), P216-232 
  22.  Habibi-Yangjeh, Aziz; Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society 2008, V29(4), P833-841 
  23. Mahlin, Denny; Molecular Pharmaceutics 2011, V8(2), P498-506 
  24.  Kozjek, Franc; Acta Pharmaceutica Jugoslavica 1985, V35(4), P275-81 
  25.  Laban, Gunter; DD 258532 A3 1988 
  26.  Caira, Mino R.; Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 1998, V87(12), P1608-1614 
  27.  Mohamed, Gehad G.; Spectrochimica Acta, Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 2005, V62A(4-5), P1165-1171 
  28.  Lin, Yannan; Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 2010, V51(4), P979-984 

References

  1. Jump up to:a b c Drugs.com Drugs.com international listings for piroxicamPage accessed July 3, 2015
  2. ^ https://www.ema.europa.eu/documents/psusa/piroxicam-list-nationally-authorised-medicinal-products-psusa/00002438/202004_en.pdf
  3. Jump up to:a b c d e f g Brayfield, A, ed. (14 January 2014). “Piroxicam”Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference. London, UK: Pharmaceutical Press. Retrieved 24 June 2014.
  4. ^ “TGA Approved Terminology for Medicines, Section 1 – Chemical Substances” (PDF). Therapeutic Goods Administration, Department of Health and Ageing, Australian Government. July 1999: 97.
  5. Jump up to:a b c d e Joint Formulary Committee (2013). British National Formulary (BNF) (65 ed.). London, UK: Pharmaceutical Press. pp. 665, 673–674ISBN 978-0-85711-084-8.
  6. ^ Fischer, Jnos; Ganellin, C. Robin (2006). Analogue-based Drug Discovery. John Wiley & Sons. p. 519. ISBN 9783527607495.
  7. Jump up to:a b c Lombardino, JG; Lowe, JA 3rd (2004). “The role of the medicinal chemist in drug discovery–then and now”. Nat Rev Drug Discov3 (10): 853–62. doi:10.1038/nrd1523PMID 15459676S2CID 11225541.. See: [1] Box 1: Discovery of piroxicam (1962–1980)
  8. ^ “COMMITTEE FOR MEDICINAL PRODUCTS FOR HUMAN USE (CHMP) OPINION FOLLOWING AN ARTICLE 31(2) REFERRAL PIROXICAM CONTAINING MEDICINAL PRODUCTS” (PDF). European Medicines Agency. London, UK: European Medicines Agency. 20 September 2007. Retrieved 24 June 2014.
  9. Jump up to:a b “FDA Warns that Using a Type of Pain and Fever Medication in Second Half of Pregnancy Could Lead to Complications”U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Press release). 15 October 2020. Retrieved 15 October 2020. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  10. Jump up to:a b “NSAIDs may cause rare kidney problems in unborn babies”U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 21 July 2017. Retrieved 15 October 2020. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  11. ^ Ivanova D, Deneva V, Nedeltcheva D, Kamounah FS, Gergov G, Hansen PE, Kawauchi S, Antonov L (2015). “Tautomeric transformations of piroxicam in solution: a combined experimental and theoretical study”RSC Advances5 (40): 31852–31860. doi:10.1039/c5ra03653d.
  12. ^ Weintraub M, Jacox RF, Angevine CD, Atwater EC (1977). “Piroxicam (CP 16171) in rheumatoid arthritis: a controlled clinical trial with novel assessment techniques”. Journal of Rheumatology4 (4): 393–404. PMID 342691.

Further reading

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Clinical data
Pronunciation/paɪˈrɒksɪˌkæm/
Trade namesFeldene, others[1]
Other namesPiroksikam, piroxikam
AHFS/Drugs.comMonograph
MedlinePlusa684045
Pregnancy
category
AU: C
Routes of
administration
By mouth
ATC codeM01AC01 (WHOM02AA07 (WHO), S01BC06 (WHO)
Legal status
Legal statusAU: S4 (Prescription only)CA℞-onlyUK: POM (Prescription only)US: ℞-onlyEU: Rx-only [2]
Pharmacokinetic data
Protein binding99%[3]
MetabolismLiver-mediated hydroxylation and glucuronidation[3]
Elimination half-life50 hours[3]
ExcretionUrine, faeces
Identifiers
showIUPAC name
CAS Number36322-90-4 
PubChem CID54676228
IUPHAR/BPS7273
DrugBankDB00554 
ChemSpider10442653 
UNII13T4O6VMAM
KEGGD00127 
ChEBICHEBI:8249 
ChEMBLChEMBL527 
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)DTXSID5021170 
ECHA InfoCard100.048.144 
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC15H13N3O4S
Molar mass331.35 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)Interactive image
showSMILES
showInChI
  (verify)

///////////PIROXICAM

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PIRACETAM


Piracetam.svg

Piracetam

  • ATC:N06BX03
  • MW:142.16 g/mol
  • CAS-RN:7491-74-9
  • InChI Key:GMZVRMREEHBGGF-UHFFFAOYSA-N
  • InChI:InChI=1S/C6H10N2O2/c7-5(9)4-8-3-1-2-6(8)10/h1-4H2,(H2,7,9)
  • EINECS:231-312-7
  • LD50:9200 mg/kg (M, i.v.); 2 g/kg (M, p.o.)

CAS Registry Number: 7491-74-9 
CAS Name: 2-Oxo-1-pyrrolidineacetamide 
Additional Names: 2-pyrrolidoneacetamide; 2-pyrrolidinoneacetamide; 2-ketopyrrolidine-1-ylacetamide; 1-acetamido-2-pyrrolidinone 
Manufacturers’ Codes: UCB-6215 
Trademarks: Avigilen (Riemser); Axonyl (Pfizer); Cerebroforte (Azupharma); Encetrop (Alpharma); Gabacet (Sanofi-Synthelabo); Geram (UCB); Nootrop (UCB); Nootropil (UCB); Nootropyl (UCB); Norzetam (UCB); Normabraïn (UCB); Piracebral (Hexal); Piracetrop (Holsten); Sinapsan (Rodleben)Molecular Formula: C6H10N2O2 
Molecular Weight: 142.16 
Percent Composition: C 50.69%, H 7.09%, N 19.71%, O 22.51% 
Literature References: Prepn: H. Morren, NL6509994eidem,US3459738 (1966, 1969 both to U.C.B.). Pharmacology: Giurgea et al.,Arch. Int. Pharmacodyn. Ther.166, 238 (1967); Giurgea, Moyersoons, ibid.188, 401 (1970); Giurgea et al.,Psychopharmacologia20, 160 (1971). Metabolism and biochemical studies: Gobert, J. Pharm. Belg.27, 281 (1972). Clinical studies: W. J. Oosterveld, Arzneim.-Forsch.30, 1947 (1980); G. Chouinard et al.,Psychopharmacol. Bull.17, 129 (1981); in dyslexia: M. Di Ianni et al.,J. Clin. Psychopharmacol.5, 272 (1985).Properties: Crystals from isopropanol, mp 151.5-152.5°. 
Melting point: mp 151.5-152.5° 
Therap-Cat: Nootropic. 
Keywords: Nootropic.

Piracetam is in the racetams group, with chemical name 2-oxo-1-pyrrolidine acetamide. It is a derivative of the neurotransmitter GABA[5] and shares the same 2-oxo-pyrrolidone base structure with pyroglutamic acid. Piracetam is a cyclic derivative of GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid). Related drugs include the anticonvulsants levetiracetam and brivaracetam, and the putative nootropics aniracetam and phenylpiracetam.Piracetam is a drug marketed as a treatment for myoclonus[3] and a cognitive enhancer.[4] Evidence to support its use is unclear, with some studies showing modest benefits in specific populations and others showing minimal or no benefit.[5][6] Piracetam is sold as a medication in many European countries. Sale of piracetam is not illegal in the United States, although it is not regulated nor approved by the FDA so it must be marketed as a dietary supplement.[4]

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Efficacy

Dementia

A 2001 Cochrane review concluded that there was not enough evidence to support piracetam for dementia or cognitive problems.[6] A 2005 review found some evidence of benefit in older subjects with cognitive impairment.[5] In 2008, a working group of the British Academy of Medical Sciences noted that many of the trials of piracetam for dementia were flawed.[7]

There is no good evidence that piracetam is of benefit in treating vascular dementia.[8]

Depression and anxiety

Some sources suggest that piracetam’s overall effect on lowering depression and anxiety is higher than on improving memory.[9] However, depression is reported to be an occasional adverse effect of piracetam.[10]

Other

Piracetam may facilitate the deformability of erythrocytes in capillary which is useful for cardiovascular disease.[5][3]

Peripheral vascular effects of piracetam have suggested its use potential for vertigodyslexiaRaynaud’s phenomenon and sickle cell anemia.[5][3] There is no evidence to support piracetam’s use in sickle cell crisis prevention[11] or for fetal distress during childbirth.[12] There is no evidence for benefit of piracetam with acute ischemic stroke,[13] though there is debate as to its utility during stroke rehabilitation.[14][15]

Anti-vasospasm

Piracetam has been found to diminish erythrocyte adhesion to vascular wall endothelium, making any vasospasm in the capillary less severe. This contributes to its efficacy in promoting microcirculation, including to the brain and kidneys.[5][3]

Side effects

Symptoms of general excitability, including anxietyinsomniairritabilityheadacheagitationnervousnesstremor, and hyperkinesia, are occasionally reported.[10][16][17] Other reported side effects include somnolenceweight gainclinical depressionweakness, increased libido, and hypersexuality.[10]

According to a 2005 review, piracetam has been observed to have the following side effects: hyperkinesia, weight gain, nervousness, somnolence, depression and asthenia.[5]

Piracetam reduces platelet aggregation as well as fibrinogen concentration, and thus is contraindicated to patients suffering from cerebral hemorrhage.[5][3]

Toxicity

Piracetam does not appear to be acutely toxic at the doses used in human studies.[6][18][19]

The LD50 for oral consumption in humans has not been determined.[20] The LD50 is 5.6 g/kg for rats and 20 g/kg for mice, indicating extremely low acute toxicity.[21] For comparison, in rats the LD50 of vitamin C is 12 g/kg and the LD50 of table salt is 3 g/kg.

Mechanisms of action

Piracetam’s mechanism of action, as with racetams in general, is not fully understood. The drug influences neuronal and vascular functions and influences cognitive function without acting as a sedative or stimulant.[5] Piracetam is a positive allosteric modulator of the AMPA receptor, although this action is very weak and its clinical effects may not necessarily be mediated by this action.[22] It is hypothesized to act on ion channels or ion carriers, thus leading to increased neuron excitability.[20] GABA brain metabolism and GABA receptors are not affected by piracetam[23]

Piracetam improves the function of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine via muscarinic cholinergic (ACh) receptors[citation needed], which are implicated in memory processes.[24] Furthermore, piracetam may have an effect on NMDA glutamate receptors, which are involved with learning and memory processes. Piracetam is thought to increase cell membrane permeability.[24][25] Piracetam may exert its global effect on brain neurotransmission via modulation of ion channels (i.e., Na+, K+).[20] It has been found to increase oxygen consumption in the brain, apparently in connection to ATP metabolism, and increases the activity of adenylate kinase in rat brains.[26][27] Piracetam, while in the brain, appears to increase the synthesis of cytochrome b5,[28] which is a part of the electron transport mechanism in mitochondria. But in the brain, it also increases the permeability of some intermediates of the Krebs cycle through the mitochondrial outer membrane.[26]

Piracetam inhibits N-type calcium channels. The concentration of piracetam achieved in central nervous system after a typical dose of 1200 mg (about 100 μM)[29] is much higher than the concentration necessary to inhibit N-type calcium channels (IC50 of piracetam in rat neurons was 3 μM).[30]

History

Piracetam was first made some time between the 1950s and 1964 by Corneliu E. Giurgea.[31] There are reports of it being used for epilepsy in the 1950s.[32]

Society and culture

In 2009 piracetam was reportedly popular as a cognitive enhancement drug among students.[33]

Legal status

Piracetam is an uncontrolled substance in the United States meaning it is legal to possess without a license or prescription.[34]

Regulatory status

In the United States, piracetam is not approved by the Food and Drug Administration.[1] Piracetam is not permitted in compounded drugs or dietary supplements in the United States.[35] Nevertheless, it is available in a number of dietary supplements.[4]

In the United Kingdom, piracetam is approved as a prescription drug Prescription Only Medicine (POM) number is PL 20636/2524[36] for adult with myoclonus of cortical origin, irrespective of cause, and should be used in combination with other anti-myoclonic therapies.[37]

In Japan piracetam is approved as a prescription drug.[38]

Piracetam has no DIN in Canada, and thus cannot be sold but can be imported for personal use in Canada.[39]

In Hungary, piracetam was a prescription-only medication, but as of 2020, no prescription is required and piracetam is available as an over-the-counter drug under the name Memoril Mite, and is available in 600 mg pills.

According to the literature reports, the synthetic route of piracetam can be divided into four synthetic methods: α-pyrrolidone method, glycine method, succinic anhydride method and one-step synthesis method:[0009] I. α-pyrrolidone method, 2-pyrrolidone is a lactam, which can react with a strong base (sodium hydride or potassium hydride, sodium methoxide) to generate pyrrolidone metal salt, which can be further combined with halogenated ester or halogen Substitute amide reaction to generate N-alkylated product.[0010] In 1966, a method for preparing piracetam by reacting pyrrolidone and chloroacetamide in 1,4-dioxane with sodium hydrogen as a strong base was reported. The specific synthetic route is shown in Scheme 1:[0011]

Figure CN104478779AD00032

[0012] In this process, due to the high price of dioxane, industrial production is still difficult. On the basis of the above process, Xu Yungen used dimethyl sulfoxide as the solvent and sodium methoxide as the acid binding agent to synthesize piracetam in the presence of the phase transfer catalyst benzyltriethylammonium chloride. Due to the difficulty of solvent recovery, the cost of this route is relatively high.[0013] In 1981, Zhou Renxing et al. used sodium methoxide as a strong base to extract methanol in toluene by fractional distillation to convert pyrrolidone into the corresponding sodium salt, and then react with ethyl chloroacetate. The resulting ethyl pyrrolidone ethyl acetate was subjected to ammonolysis. Piracetam can be produced. The specific synthetic route is shown in Scheme 2.[00141

Figure CN104478779AD00041

[0015] Because the ammonolysis is carried out in a methanol solution of ammonia, the calculated amount of ethanol generated during the ammonolysis contaminates the methanol solution of ammonia used, which affects the recycling of the methanol solution of ammonia, and is therefore not conducive to process production.[0016] 2. Glycine method, glycine and its derivatives can be used as starting materials for the synthesis of pyroacetamide. Glycine can be prepared by γ-chlorination butylation, amination and cyclization.[0017] According to a British patent report in 1979, glycine trimethylsilyl ester was first condensed with γ-chlorobutyryl chloride, and the corresponding acid chloride was subjected to ammonolysis, and finally cyclized to produce piracetam. The specific synthesis method is as Scheme 3 Shown[0018]

Figure CN104478779AD00042

[0019] In this type of synthesis route, some raw materials are not easily available, which restricts industrial production.[0020] 3. Succinic acid method, succinic acid is heated and dehydrated to generate succinic anhydride, succinic anhydride then reacts with glycine to generate an aminolysis product, and the aminolysis product is reduced by sodium tetrafluoroborate, and piracetam can be synthesized by aminolysis , The specific synthetic route is shown in SCheme4. [0021]

Figure CN104478779AD00043

[0022] Because sodium tetrafluoroborate is used as a reducing agent, it is expensive, and it is difficult to expand the scale of industrial production. Succinimide generates sodium salt under the action of metal sodium, and its sodium salt reacts with chloroacetamide to generate N-alkylated product. The alkylated product can be electrolytically reduced to obtain piracetam. Since electrolytic reduction is still in the research stage in our country, the production cost of this method is relatively high.[0023] 4. One-step synthesis method, using ethyl 4-chloro-n-butyrate in the presence of sodium bicarbonate, using anhydrous ethanol as a solvent, and glycinamide hydrochloride under heating and refluxing to obtain piracetam in one step, The specific synthetic route is shown in S Cheme5.[0024]

Figure CN104478779AD00044

[0025] In this route, glycinamide hydrochloride is very easy to absorb moisture and agglomerate to affect the reaction rate, and the reaction is not easy to control, so it is difficult to achieve industrial production.

SYN

File:Piracetam synthesis02.svg - Wikimedia Commons
File:Piracetam synthesis01.svg

SYN

http://www.cjph.com.cn/EN/abstract/abstract373.shtml

With absolute ethanol as the solvent, ethyl 4-chloro-n-butanoate and glycinamide hydrochloride were refluxed for 20 h in the presence of sodium bicarbonate to obtain central stimulant piracetam. After recrystallization from isopropanol, the yield was about 58% with a purity of 99.6%.

CN104478779A - 促智药吡拉西坦的合成新方法 - Google Patents

SYN

CAS-RNFormulaChemical NameCAS Index Name
79-07-2C2H4ClNO2-chloroacetamideAcetamide, 2-chloro-
105-39-5C4H7ClO2ethyl chloroacetateAcetic acid, chloro-, ethyl ester
61516-73-2C8H13NO3ethyl 2-oxo-1-pyrrolidineacetate1-Pyrrolidineacetic acid, 2-oxo-, ethyl ester
616-45-5C4H7NO2-pyrrolidone2-Pyrrolidinone

PATENT

https://patents.google.com/patent/CN104478779A/zh

Figure CN104478779AD00051

Example 1[0036] A method for synthesizing piracetam, which includes the following steps:[0037] Preparation of α-pyrrolidone sodium salt: A 1000 mL three-necked flask was equipped with mechanical stirring, a constant pressure dropping funnel and a thorn-shaped fractionating column. The upper end of the fractionation column is connected with a thermometer, a condenser and a 500mL receiving flask. Under mechanical stirring, 46 mL (0.60 mol) of α-pyrrolidone and 250 mL of toluene were sequentially added to the three-necked flask. When the temperature of the reaction system reached 70°C, a methanol solution of sodium methoxide (28.4% (w/w); 114.0 g; 0.60 mol) was added dropwise under reduced pressure, and the distillate was collected. After the dropwise addition is completed, the temperature is increased, and the normal pressure is distilled until the distillate is completely distilled out, and the reaction is completed.[0038] Preparation of α-pyrrolidone methyl acetate: remove the fractionation device, connect a thermometer and a condenser, and connect a dropping funnel above the condenser. When the temperature of the reaction system drops to 60°C, a toluene solution of 58 mL (0.66 mol) of methyl chloroacetate is slowly added dropwise, and the reaction temperature is controlled to 80-100°C. Oh。 After the addition is complete, the insulation reaction is 5. Oh. Cool to room temperature, filter with suction, and distill the filtrate under reduced pressure. Collect the fraction (18mmHg) at 100~105°C to obtain α-pyrrolidone methyl acetate, and measure its content by HPLC (area normalization method). [C18 column (4.6mmX 200mm, 5 μm) was used for purity determination; acetonitrile-dipotassium hydrogen phosphate/phosphate buffer solution (10:90) was used as the mobile phase (the pH value of phosphoric acid was adjusted to 6.0); the flow rate was 1 . OmL/min; detection wavelength is 205nm; injection volume is 20yL][0039] Preparation of Piracetam: Put about 130 mL of methanol in a 500 mL three-necked flask, and vent ammonia to saturation. The obtained ammonia/methanol solution was mixed with 100. Og α-pyrrolidone methyl acetate and placed in a reaction kettle, reacted at 50~65°C for 10 h, allowed to cool, filtered with suction, and the filter cake was dried.[0040] The purification of piracetam: 25.50g crude piracetam and 100mL isopropanol were sequentially added in a 500mL three-necked flask, heated to reflux for 40min, activated carbon was added, reflux stirring, hot filtration, and the resulting properties were all white As a powdery solid, the filter cake was dried overnight at 50°C in a vacuum drying oven to obtain 20.85 g of a white solid with a yield of 81.76% (calculated as α-pyrrolidone, the same below).Example 2[0042] Preparation of α-pyrrolidone sodium salt: A 1000 mL three-necked flask was equipped with mechanical stirring, a constant pressure dropping funnel and a thorn-shaped fractionating column. The upper end of the fractionation column is connected with a thermometer, a condenser and a 500mL receiving flask. Under mechanical stirring, 46 mL (0.60 mol) of α-pyrrolidone and 250 mL of toluene were sequentially added to the three-necked flask. When the temperature of the reaction system reached 100°C, a methanol solution of sodium methoxide (28.4% (w/w)); 114. Og; 0.60 mol) was added dropwise under reduced pressure, and the distillate was collected. After the addition is complete, add toluene, increase the temperature, and distill at normal pressure until the distillate is completely distilled out, and the reaction is complete.[0043] Preparation of α-pyrrolidone methyl acetate: remove the fractionation device, connect a thermometer and a condenser, and connect a dropping funnel above the condenser. When the temperature of the reaction system drops to 60°C, a mixed solution of 63 mL (0.72 mol) of methyl chloroacetate and 30 mL of toluene is slowly added dropwise, and the reaction temperature is controlled to 80-100°C. Oh。 After the addition is complete, the insulation reaction is 5. Oh. Cool to room temperature, filter with suction, and distill the filtrate under reduced pressure. Collect the fraction (18mmHg) at 100~105°C to obtain methyl α-pyrrolidone acetate, and measure its content by HPLC (area normalization method). [C18 column (4.6mmX 200mm, 5 μm) was used for purity determination; acetonitrile-dipotassium hydrogen phosphate/phosphate buffer solution (10:90) was used as the mobile phase (the pH value of phosphoric acid was adjusted to 6.0); the flow rate was 1 .OmL/ min; detection wavelength is 205nm; injection volume is 20 μL][0044] Preparation of Piracetam: Put about 130 mL of methanol in a 250 mL three-necked flask, and ventilate ammonia to saturation. The obtained ammonia/methanol solution was mixed with 50.0 g of α-pyrrolidone methyl acetate and placed in a reaction kettle, reacted at 50~65°C for 12 hours, allowed to cool, filtered with suction, and the filter cake was dried.[0045] Purification of piracetam: 25.50g crude piracetam and 75mL methanol were sequentially added to a 500mL three-necked flask, heated to reflux for 40min, added activated carbon 0.5g, refluxed for 1h, hot filtered, magnetically stirred Under the conditions, the activated carbon was filtered out, and the properties were all white powdery solids, and the filter cake was dried overnight at 50°C in a vacuum drying oven to obtain 21.02g of white solids with a yield of 82.42%.Embodiment 3[0047] Preparation of α-pyrrolidone sodium salt: A 1000 mL three-necked flask was equipped with mechanical stirring, a constant pressure dropping funnel and a thorn-shaped fractionating column. The upper end of the fractionating column is connected with a thermometer, a condenser and a 1000 mL receiving bottle. Under mechanical stirring, 46 mL (0.60 mol) of α-pyrrolidone and 250 mL of toluene were sequentially added to the three-necked flask. When the temperature of the reaction system reached 70°C, a methanol solution of sodium methoxide (28.4% (w/w)); 114. Og; 0.60 mol) was added dropwise under reduced pressure, and the distillate was collected. After the dropwise addition is completed, the temperature is increased, and the normal pressure is distilled until the distillate is completely distilled out, and the reaction is completed.[0048] Preparation of α-pyrrolidone methyl acetate: remove the fractionation device, connect a thermometer and a condenser, and connect a dropping funnel above the condenser. A mixed solution of 79 mL (0.90 mol) of methyl chloroacetate and 50 mL of toluene was slowly added dropwise, and the reaction temperature was controlled to 70-90°C. Oh。 After the addition is complete, the insulation reaction is 5. Oh. Cool to room temperature, filter with suction, and distill the filtrate under reduced pressure. Collect the fraction (18mmHg) at 100~105°C to obtain methyl α-pyrrolidone acetate, and measure its content by HPLC (area normalization method). [C 18 column (4.6mmX 200mm, 5 μm) was used for purity determination; acetonitrile-dipotassium hydrogen phosphate/phosphate buffer solution (10:90) was used as the mobile phase (the pH value of phosphoric acid was adjusted to 6.0); the flow rate was 1.0mL/min; The detection wavelength is 205nm; The injection volume is 20 μL)[0049] Preparation of Piracetam: Put about 130 mL of methanol in a 250 mL three-necked flask, and vent ammonia to saturation. The obtained ammonia/methanol solution was mixed with 100. Og α-pyrrolidone methyl acetate and placed in a reaction kettle, reacted at 50~65°C for 14h, allowed to cool, filtered with suction, and the filter cake was dried.[0050] Purification of piracetam: 25.50g crude piracetam and 125mL ethanol were sequentially added in a 500mL three-necked flask, heated to reflux for 40min, added activated carbon 0.5g, refluxed for 1h, hot filtered, magnetically stirred Activated carbon was filtered off under conditions to obtain white powdery solids in all properties, and the filter cake was dried overnight at 50°C in a vacuum drying oven to obtain 20.24 g of white solids with a yield of 79.37%.Example 4[0052] Preparation of α-pyrrolidone sodium salt: A 1000 mL three-necked flask was equipped with mechanical stirring, a constant pressure dropping funnel and a thorn-shaped fractionating column. The upper end of the fractionation column is connected with a thermometer, a condenser and a 500mL receiving flask. Under mechanical stirring, 46 mL (0.60 mol) of α-pyrrolidone and 250 mL of toluene were sequentially added to the three-necked flask. When the temperature of the reaction system reached 60°C, a methanol solution of sodium methoxide (28.4% (w/w); 114.0 g; 0.60 mol) was added dropwise under reduced pressure, and the distillate was collected. After the dropwise addition is completed, the temperature is increased, and the normal pressure is distilled until the distillate is completely distilled out, and the reaction is completed.[0053] Preparation of α-pyrrolidone methyl acetate: remove the fractionation device, connect a thermometer and a condenser, and connect a dropping funnel above the condenser. A mixed solution of 105 mL (1.20 mol) of methyl chloroacetate and 70 mL of toluene was slowly added dropwise, and the reaction temperature was controlled to be 60~70°C. Oh。 After the addition is complete, the insulation reaction is 5. Oh. Cool to room temperature, filter with suction, and distill the filtrate under reduced pressure. Collect the fraction (18mmHg) at 100~105°C to obtain methyl α-pyrrolidone acetate, and measure its content by HPLC (area normalization method). [C 18 column (4.6mmX 200mm, 5 μm) was used for purity determination; acetonitrile-dipotassium hydrogen phosphate/phosphate buffer solution (10:90) was used as the mobile phase (the pH value of phosphoric acid was adjusted to 6.0); the flow rate was 1.0mL/min; The detection wavelength is 205nm; The injection volume is 20 μL)[0054] Preparation of Piracetam: Put about 130 mL of methanol in a 500 mL three-necked flask, and ventilate ammonia to saturation. The obtained ammonia/methanol solution was mixed with 100. Og α-pyrrolidone methyl acetate and placed in a reaction kettle, reacted at 50~65°C for 16h, allowed to cool, filtered with suction, and the filter cake was dried.[0055] The purification of piracetam: 25.50g crude piracetam and 100mL methanol were sequentially added into a 500mL three-necked flask, heated to reflux for 40min, added activated carbon, refluxed for dissolution, hot filtered, and the properties were all white powders The solid, the filter cake was dried overnight at 50°C in a vacuum drying oven to obtain 20.69 g of a white solid, with a yield of 81. 13%.[0056] Chemical analysis of the white crystals synthesized in each of the foregoing examples, and the obtained physical property values are as follows, thereby confirming that the synthesized product is piracetam.[0057] Melting point: 151.6-152. (TC[0058] ESI-MS m / z: 165. 06 [M + Na] +[0059] 1H-NMR (400MHz, DMS〇-d6, ppm) δ : 7. 38 (s, 1H), 7. 09 (s, 1H), 3. 74 (s, 2H), 3. 36 (t, J =7. 08Hz, 2H), 2. 23 (t, J = 7. 84Hz, 2H), I. 93 (m, 2H).[0060] 13C-NMR(100MHz, DMS0-d6, ppm) δ : 17. 80, 30. 42, 45. 28, 47. 74, 170. 21,174. 90. 
PATENTCN110903230A *2019-12-042020-03-24Beijing Yuekang Kechuang Pharmaceutical Technology Co., Ltd.An industrialized preparation method of Pramiracetam sulfate 
PATENTCN104478779A2015-04-01New synthetic method of nootropic drug Piracetam

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  36. ^http://www.mhra.gov.uk/home/groups/spcpil/documents/spcpil/con1547788739542.pdf
  37. ^ “Nootropil Tablets 800 mg”(emc).
  38. ^ “UCB’s piracetam approved in Japan”The Pharma Letter. 25 November 1999.
  39. ^ “Guidance Document on the Import Requirements for Health Products under the Food and Drugs Act and its Regulations (GUI-0084)”. Health Canada / Health Products and Food Branch Inspectorate. 1 June 2010. Retrieved 15 December 2019.

External links

Gouliaev AH, Senning A (May 1994). “Piracetam and other structurally related nootropics”. Brain Research. Brain Research Reviews19 (2): 180–222. doi:10.1016/0165-0173(94)90011-6PMID 8061686S2CID 18122566.

Clinical data
Trade namesBreinox, Dinagen, Lucetam, Nootropil, Nootropyl, Oikamid, Piracetam and many others
AHFS/Drugs.comInternational Drug Names
Routes of
administration
By mouth, parenteral, or vaporized
ATC codeN06BX03 (WHO)
Legal status
Legal statusAU: S4 (Prescription only)CA: UnscheduledUK: POM (Prescription only)US: Unscheduled (Not permitted as drug or supplement[1])
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability~100%
Onset of actionSwiftly following administration. Food delays time to peak concentration by 1.5 h approximately to 2–3 h since dosing.[2]
Elimination half-life4–5 h
ExcretionUrinary
Identifiers
showIUPAC name
CAS Number7491-74-9 
PubChem CID4843
IUPHAR/BPS4288
DrugBankDB09210
ChemSpider4677 
UNIIZH516LNZ10
KEGGD01914 
ChEMBLChEMBL36715 
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)DTXSID5044491 
ECHA InfoCard100.028.466 
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC6H10N2O2
Molar mass142.158 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)Interactive image
Melting point152 °C (306 °F)
showSMILES
showInChI
  (verify)

///////////UCB 6215, Nootropic, PIRACETAM

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MEROPENEM


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Meropenem | C17H25N3O5S - PubChem
Meropenem
Meropenem.svg

Meropenem

CAS number96036-03-2

IUPAC Name(4R,5S,6S)-3-{[(3S,5S)-5-(dimethylcarbamoyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl]sulfanyl}-6-[(1R)-1-hydroxyethyl]-4-methyl-7-oxo-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]hept-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid

WeightAverage: 383.463
Monoisotopic: 383.151491615

Chemical FormulaC17H25N3O5S

  • Antibiotic SM 7338
  • ICI 194660
  • SM 7338

CAS Registry Number: 96036-03-2 
CAS Name: (4R,5S,6S)-3-[[(3S,5S)-5-[(Dimethylamino)carbonyl]-3-pyrrolidinyl]thio]-6-[(1R)-1-hydroxyethyl]-4-methyl-7-oxo-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]hept-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid 
Additional Names: (1R,5S,6S)-2-[(3S,5S)-5-(dimethylaminocarbonyl)pyrrolidin-3-ylthio]-6-[(R)-1-hydroxyethyl]-1-methylcarbapen-2-em-3-carboxylic acid 
Molecular Formula: C17H25N3O5S 
Molecular Weight: 383.46 
Percent Composition: C 53.25%, H 6.57%, N 10.96%, O 20.86%, S 8.36% 
Literature References: Carbapenem antibiotic. Prepn: M. Sunagawa et al.,EP126587; M. Sunagawa, US4943569 (1984, 1990 both to Sumitomo). 
Structure-activity study: M. Sunagawa et al.,J. Antibiot.43, 519 (1990).Crystal structure: K. Yanagi et al.,Acta Crystallogr.C48, 1737 (1992).HPLC determn in serum and bronchial secretions: M. Ehrlich et al., J. Chromatogr. B751, 357 (2001). Pharmacokinetics: R. Wise et al.,Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.34, 1515 (1990).Series of articles on antimicrobial activity, metabolism: J. Antimicrob. Chemother.24, Suppl. A, 1-320 (1989); and clinical performance: ibid.36, Suppl. A, 1-223 (1995).Review of clinical experience in intensive care: M. Hurst, H. M. Lamb, Drugs59, 653-680 (2000). 
Derivative Type: Trihydrate 
CAS Registry Number: 119478-56-7 
Manufacturers’ Codes: ICI-194660; SM-7338 
Trademarks: Meronem (AstraZeneca); Meropen (Sumitomo); Merrem (AstraZeneca) 
Properties: White to pale yellow crystalline powder. Sparingly sol in water; very slightly sol in hydrated ethanol. Practically insol in acetone, ether. 
Therap-Cat: Antibacterial. 
Keywords: Antibacterial (Antibiotics); ?Lactams; Carbapenems.

Product Ingredients

INGREDIENTUNIICASINCHI KEY
Meropenem sodiumNot Available211238-34-5UBQRNADYCUXRBD-NACOAMSHSA-N
Meropenem trihydrateFV9J3JU8B1119478-56-7CTUAQTBUVLKNDJ-OBZXMJSBSA-N

International/Other BrandsAronem (ACI) / Aropen (Aristopharma) / Carbanem (Sanofi-Aventis) / Erope (Lincoln) / Fulspec (Acme) / I-penam (Incepta) / Merenz (Admac) / Merofit (FHC) / Meronem (AstraZeneca) / Meronis (Neiss) / Meropen (Swiss Parenterals) / Merotec (Zuventus) / Merrem I.V. (AstraZeneca) / Monan (AstraZeneca) / Ropenem (Drug International) / Zeropenem (Sanofi-Aventis)

Synthesis Reference

Yoon Seok Song, Sung Woo Park, Yeon Jung Yoon, Hee Kyoon Yoon, Seong Cheol Moon, Byung Goo Lee, Soo Jin Choi, Sun Ah Jun, “METHOD FOR PREPARING MEROPENEM USING ZINC POWDER.” U.S. Patent US20120065392, issued March 15, 2012.

US20120065392

SYN

Carbapenem antibiotic. Prepn: M. Sunagawa et al., EP 126587; M. Sunagawa, US 4943569 (1984, 1990 both to Sumitomo). Structure-activity study: M. Sunagawa et al., J. Antibiot. 43, 519 (1990).

File:Meropenem synthesis.svg

SYN

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2012062035A1/enCarbapenem, a type of β-lactam antibiotic, is known for its broad spectrum of antibacterial activity and strong antibacterial activity, such as meropenem (Me r0 p e nem), imine South (Imipenem) and Biabenem, etc., play an important role in the cure of severe infections.

Figure imgf000003_0001

Meropenem Imipenem For the synthetic methods of the Peinan type, the previous studies have mainly synthesized the corresponding Peinan side chain compound and the parent nucleus MAP, respectively, and then condensed and removed the protecting group to obtain the Peinan product. Such as US patentsUSP4933333, starting from 4-acetoxyazetidinone (4AA), obtained a matrix MAP after several steps of reaction. The mother nucleus is then condensed and deprotected from the side chain to obtain meropenem. However, this method is cumbersome, the synthesis step is long, and the total yield is low, and the noble metal catalyst is inevitably used in the synthesis of the compound (9).

Figure imgf000003_0002

MAP (10) Meropenem The Chinese invention patent document CN200810142137.5 has introduced a method for synthesizing meropenem.

Figure imgf000004_0001

 (XII) (I)(TBD S = Si (CH 3 ) 2 C (CH 3) 3; PNB = p-N0 2 -C 6 H 4 CH 2; PNZ = 2 -C 6 H 4 CH 2 OCO N0 p-) This method of Scheme Short, easy to operate, easy to get raw materials, but there are some areas for improvement.

Figure imgf000004_0002

Example 11) (3R, 4S)-3-[(R)-l-(tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy)ethyl]-4-[(2,S, 4’R)- 1- (allyl Synthesis of oxycarbonylxiaodimethylaminocarbonylpyrrolidinothio]-2-azetidinone (II) In a 500 ml reaction flask, add 22.6 g (0.075 mol) of (3S,4S)-3-[( R) l-(tert-Butyldimethylsilyloxy)ethyl]-4-[(R)-1-carbonylethyl]-2-azetidinone (IV), 17.1 g (0.083 mol) Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) in 100 ml of acetone and 0.76 g of 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP), 20.3 g (0.078 mol) of (2S, 4R)-2-dimethylamine was added dropwise with stirring. A solution of carbonyl-4-mercapto (i-propoxycarbonyl)pyrrolidine (V) in 125 ml of acetone was reacted at room temperature for 14 hours. Filtration, collecting the filtrate, concentrating, adding 200 ml of toluene thereto, using 200 ml of a 5 % acetic acid solution, 200 ml of a saturated sodium hydrogencarbonate solution and 150 ml of saturation Washed with brine, dried over anhydrous magnesium sulfate and evaporated to dryness <mjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj 4-[(2,8, 4, ) small (propoxycarbonyl dimethyl dimethylaminocarbonyl)pyrrolidinyl]-2-azetidinone (II), directly without further treatment Invest in the next step.1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDC 13): </ RTI> <RTIgt; m), 2.816-2.849 (lH, s), 2.935-2.953 (3H, m), 3.027-079 (3H, d), 3.378-3.401 (lH, m), 3.792-3.796 (1H, d), 3.807- 3.953 (lH, m), 4.042-4.160 (3H, m), 4.492-4.570 (2H, m), 4.670-4.739 (lH, m), 5.164-5.295 (1H, m), 5.807-5.921 (lH, m ), 6.214(1H, s). Example 22) (31,48)-3-[(1 )-1-(tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy)ethyl]-4-[(2,8,4,1 )- 1- (allyl Synthesis of oxycarbonyl-1-dimethylaminocarbonylpyrrolidinothio]-1-(zincpropoxyl)-2-azetidinone (III) In a 1000 ml reaction flask, add 34.8 g (0.064) Mol) (3R, 4S)-3-[(R)-l-(tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy)ethyl]-4-[(2,S, 4,R)-1-(allyl Oxycarbonyl-1-pyrimidinylcarbonyl)pyrrolidinylthio]-2-azetidinone (11), 15.0 ml of triethylamine and 350 ml of toluene, control temperature below -10 °C, add 18.9 g (0.128 mol) p-nitrobenzyl chloroacetate (VI), heated to 0 ° C (-20 ° 5 ° C can be) reaction l ~ 3h. Then slowly add 250 ml of ice water and stir for 10 min. The layers were static and the organic phase was washed three times with saturated sodium bicarbonate solution, 200 ml each time. Dry over anhydrous magnesium sulfate, filtered, and evaporated to dryness to give white crystals, 4,7g (0.0622mol, yield 97.3%) (3R, 4S)-3-[(R) small (tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy)ethyl ]-4-[(2,S, 4,R)-1-(allyloxycarbonyldimethyldimethylaminocarbonyl)pyrrolidinylsulfur]sodium (sweetoxypropanoyl)-2-azetidinone (III), the product was directly put into the next step without further purification.Mp: 33-34 °C1H-NMR (300 MHz, CDC 13):0.819(9H, s), 1.167(3H, d), 1.188(4H, d), 1.693(5H, s), 1.850-1.926(1H, m), 2.631-2.700(1H, m), 2.941-2.960( 3H,d), 3.029-3.080(3H,d), 3.357-3.433(lH, m), 3.506-3.545(2H, m), 3.918-3.968(1H, m), 4.054-4.123 (2H, m), 4.270-4.291(lH, m), 4.391(lH,s), 4.518-4.568(2H, m), 4.588-4.779(3H, m), 5.178-5.416(3H, m), 5.861-5.982(2H,m ). Example 33) (5R,6S,8R,2’S, 4,S)-[(R)-1-(tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy)ethyl]-3-[4-(1-allyloxycarbonyl) -1- dimethylaminocarbonylpyrrolidinothio]-6-(1-allyloxycarbonylethoxy)-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]-hept-2-en-7-one- Synthesis of 2-carboxylate (W) In a 500 ml reaction flask, 40; 7 g (0.0622 mol) of (3R, 4S)-3-[(R)-l-(tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy) was added. Ethyl]-4-[(2,S,4,R)-1-(indolyloxycarbonyl-1-dimethylaminocarbonyl)pyrrolidinylsulfate]small (sweetoxypropanoyl)-2-nitrogen Heterocyclic butanone (III) and 150 ml of toluene, 22 ml of trimethyl phosphite (furrowing lg of hydroquinone) were added under nitrogen. After reacting at 60 ° C for 16 hours, the solvent was evaporated under reduced pressure. It was recrystallized by adding 300 ml of ethyl acetate, and the solid was collected, and vacuum-dried at 40 ° C to obtain 32.8 g (0.0528 mol, yield: 85.0%) (5R, 6S, 8R, 2’S, 4,S)-[(R)- 1-(tert-Butyldimethylsilyloxy)ethyl]-3-[4-(1-allyloxycarbonyl-1-dimethylaminocarbonyl)pyrrolidinyl] -6-(1-ene Propoxycarbonyl ethoxy) small azabicyclo[3.2.0]-hept-2-en-7-one-2-carboxylate (oxime).1H-NMR (300 MHz, CDC 13):0.82(9H, s), 1.24(6H, d), 1.26(3H, s), 1.36(3H, s), 1.94(1H, m), 2.69(1 H, m), 2.97-3.11(6H, m ), 3.15-3.74(4H, m), 4.35(2H,m), 4.37-4.67(5H, m), 5.24-5.28(4H, m), 5.84(1H, m). Example 44) (5R, 6S, 8R, 2, S, 4’S)-[(R)小(hydroxy)ethyl]-3-[4-(1-allyloxycarbonylsuccinylcarbonyl)pyrrolidinyl Synthesis of thio]-6-(1-allyloxycarbonylethoxy)-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]-hept-2-en-7-one-2-carboxylate (Vffl) at room temperature , in a 2000ml reaction flask, add 32.8g (0.0528mol) (5R,6S,8R,2’S,4,S)-[(R)-1-(tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy)ethyl] 3-[4-(1-allyloxycarbonyl-1-dimethylaminocarbonyl)pyrrolidinyl]-6-(1-indolyloxycarbonylethoxy)-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0 -Hept-2-ene-7-one-2-carboxylate (W), 27.4 ml of acetic acid, 41.3 g of fluorohydrogenamine and 1000 ml of dichloromethane, stirred at room temperature for 48 h. After completion of the reaction, 500 ml of a saturated aqueous solution of sodium hydrogencarbonate was added to the reaction mixture, and the mixture was stirred for 10 minutes, and the methylene chloride layer was separated and dried over anhydrous magnesium sulfate to give a white solid (26.2 g (0.0517 mol, yield 98.0). %) (5R, 6S, 8R, 2’S, 4’S)-[(R)小(hydroxy)ethyl]-3-[4-(1-allyloxycarbonylsuccinylcarbonyl)pyr Rhodium thio] -6-(l-allyloxycarbonylethoxy)-1-azabicyclo[3. 2. 0]-hept-2-en-7-one-2-carboxylate (ring The product was directly charged to the next step without further purification.1H-NMR (300 MHz, CDC 13):1.26(3H, s), 1.36(3H, s), 1.94(1H, m), 2.67(1H, m), 2.97-3.11(6H, m), 3.2-3.7(4H, m) ; 4.25(2H, m), 4.47-4.87 (5H, m), 5.15-5.50 (4H, m), 5.94 (2H, m). Example 55) (5R,6S,8R,2,S,4,S)-3-[4-dimethylaminocarbonyl)pyrrolidinyl]-6-(l-hydroxyethyl)-1-aza Synthesis of bicyclo[3.2.0]-hept-2-en-7-one-2-carboxylate (I) To the reaction flask, 26.2 g (0.0517 mol) (5R, 6S, 8R, 2’S, 4’S) was added. – [(R)-l-(hydroxy)ethyl]-3-[4-(1-allyloxycarbonyl-1-dimethylaminocarbonyl)pyrrolidinyl] -6-(1-allyloxy Carbonyl ethoxy)-1-azabicyclo[3. 2. 0]-hept-2-en-7-one-2-carboxylate (VDI), 21.3 g (0.152 mol) dimethylcyclohexane The ketone and 550 ml of ethyl acetate were heated to 30 ° C, and a solution of 1.0 g (0.865 mmol) of tetratriphenylphosphine palladium in 150 ml of dichloromethane was added dropwise thereto, and the mixture was reacted at room temperature for 3 h under nitrogen atmosphere. After adding 300 ml of water to the reaction mixture, the aqueous layer was separated, the aqueous layer was washed with ethyl acetate, and then, 500 ml of tetrahydrofuran was added dropwise with stirring in an ice bath, and the crystals were stirred, and the crystals were collected and dried in vacuo to give pale yellow crystals of 13.4 g (0.0352 md, Yield 68.1%) (5R,6S,8R,2,S,4,S)-3-[4-(2-dimethylaminocarbonyl)pyrrolidinylthio]-6-(1-hydroxyethyl) 1-Azabicyclo[3.2.0]-hept-2-en-7-one-2-carboxylic acid trihydrate (I)-Meropectin.IR max KBr cm- 1 : 1755, 1627, 1393, 1252, 1130NMR (D20, 300Hz): 1.25 (3H, d), 1.81-1.96 (1H, m), 2.96 (3H, s), 3.03 (3H, s), 3.14-3.20 (3H, m), 3.31-3.41 (2H, m), 3.62- 3.72 (1H, m), 3.90-4.00 (1H, m), 4.14-4.26 (2H, m), 4.63 (1H, t). Example 6 6) (5R,6S,8R,2’S,4’S)-3-[4-(2-Dimethylaminocarbonyl)pyrrolidinylthio]-6-(l-hydroxyethyl)-1-azabicyclo[ Synthesis of 3.2.0]-hept-2-en-7-one-2-carboxylate (I)21.3 g (0.152 mol) of dimethylcyclohexanedione in Example 5 was replaced with 45.1 g (0.155 mol) of tributyltin hydride, and 0.125 g (0.108 mmol) of tetrakistriphenylphosphine palladium was added dropwise, and the other amount was added. And the same method, the obtained 16.2g (0.0426mol, 82.5%) (5R,6S,8R,2’S,4’S)-3-[4-(2-dimethylaminocarbonyl)pyrrolidinyl Sulfur]-6-(l-hydroxyethyl)-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]-hept-2-en-7-one-2-carboxylic acid trihydrate (1) ~ meropenem. Example 7 7) (5R,6S,8R,2,S,4,S)-3-[4-(2-dimethylaminocarbonyl)pyrrolidinyl]-6-(1-hydroxyethyl)-1- Synthesis of azabicyclo[3.2.0]-hept-2-en-7-one-2-carboxylate (I) To the reaction flask, 26.2 g (0.0517 mol) of (5R, 6S, 8R, 2, S, 4’S)-[(R)-l-(hydroxy)ethyl]-3-[4-(1-allyl was added) Oxycarbonyl-1-ylaminocarbonylcarbonylpyrrolidinothio]-6-(1-allyloxycarbonylethoxy)azaabicyclo[3. 2.]-hept-2-ene-7- Ketone-2-carboxylate 01), 6.0 g (0.0387 mol) of N, N-dimethylbarbituric acid and 500 ml of dichloromethane, and 6.0 g (5.2 mmol) of tetratriphenylphosphine was added dropwise thereto. A solution of palladium in 100 ml of dichloromethane was reacted at room temperature for 5 h under nitrogen. After adding 300 ml of water to the reaction mixture, the aqueous layer was separated, and the aqueous layer was washed with ethyl acetate. THF was evaporated and evaporated, and the crystals were evaporated, and crystals were collected, and the crystals were dried in vacuo to give 15.7 g (0.0413 mol, yield: 80.1%). 5R, 6S, 8R, 2,S,4,S) – 3-[4-(2-Dimethylaminocarbonyl)pyrrolidinylthio]-6-(1-hydroxyethyl)-1-azabicyclo [3. 2. 0] -Hept-2-ene-7-keto-2-carboxylic acid trihydrate (I)-Meropectin. 
ClaimsHide Dependent 

Rights requesta synthetic method of meropenem, characterized in that the specific reaction route of the synthetic method

Figure imgf000011_0001

 The reaction steps are as follows:1) The compound of the formula (IV) and the compound of the formula (V) are dissolved in an organic solvent and then subjected to a condensation reaction to obtain a compound of the formula (Π), the reaction time is 2 to 24 hours, and the reaction temperature is 0 to 40 ° C. ;2) The compound of the formula (Π) and the compound of the formula (VI) are dissolved in toluene, ethyl acetate or tetrahydrofuran and reacted with a base to form a compound of the formula (III), and the reaction time is ! ~ 3 hours, the reaction temperature is -20~5 °C;3) The compound of the formula (III) is dissolved in cyclohexanyl, n-glyoxime, n-octyl, toluene or xylene, and a Wittig ring-closing reaction is carried out under the action of an organophosphorus reagent to obtain a compound of the formula (VD), the organophosphorus reagent Is triphenylphosphine, tri-n-butylphosphine, triethyl phosphite or trimethyl phosphite;4) The compound of the formula (VII) is dissolved in methanol, tetrahydrofuran, acetone, n-pentane, n-hexane, diethyl ether, acetonitrile, dichloromethane, chloroform or ethyl acetate to hydrolyze the silyl ether bond under the action of an acid to obtain a formula (W). a compound; the acid is dilute hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid, tetrabutylammonium fluoride, benzyltributylammonium fluoride, hydrofluoric hinge or vinegar The acid, the molar ratio of the acid to the compound of the formula (W) is 5 to 15: 1; the temperature of the hydrolysis reaction is 0 to 40 ° C, and the reaction time is 8 to 24 hours;5) a compound of the formula (W) dissolved in one or more of methanol, ethanol, tert-butanol, isobutanol, isopropanol, tetrahydrofuran, dioxanthene, acetone, dichloromethane, chloroform and water After the solvent is formed, the allylic group is hydrogenated by a palladium catalyst to obtain the target product (1). The molar ratio of the palladium catalyst to the compound of the formula 1) is 0.0001 to 0.5:1; the reaction temperature is 0 to 40 ° C. , the reaction time is 2~24h.2. A method for synthesizing meropenem according to claim 1, wherein the molar ratio of the compound of the formula (IV) to the compound of the formula (V) is 1.05 to 1.0: 1, the condensing agent and The molar ratio of the compound of the formula (IV) is 1.50 to 1.05:1.The method for synthesizing meropenem according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the condensing agent is a carbodiimide reagent or hydrazine, Ν’-carbonyldiimidazole; and the organic solvent is acetone. , acetonitrile, toluene, tetrahydrofuran, chloroform or dimethylformamide.The method for synthesizing meropenem according to claim 1, wherein the molar ratio of the compound of the formula (VI) to the compound of the formula (VI) is from 1.5 to 2.5:1, the base and the The molar ratio of the compound of the formula (VI) is from 1.2 to 2:1.The method for synthesizing meropenem according to claim 1, wherein the molar ratio of the organophosphorus reagent to the compound of formula (III) in step 3) is 2-8: 1; The reaction temperature is 25 to 100 £ ^, and the reaction time is 10 to 24 hours.The method for synthesizing meropenem according to claim 3, wherein the carbodiimide reagent is dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, diisopropylcarbodiimide or 1-( 3-dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide.7. A method for synthesizing meropenem according to claim 1, wherein the base in step 2) is an inorganic base or an organic base; when it is an inorganic base, it is sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate or Sodium bicarbonate; when it is an organic base, it is pyridine, triethylamine, diisopropylethylamine or 2,6-lutidine.The method for synthesizing meropenem according to claim 1, wherein the palladium catalyst is palladium acetate, palladium chloride, palladium nitrate, bistriphenylphosphine palladium chloride or tetrakistriphenylphosphine. palladium.9. A method for synthesizing meropenem according to claim 1, wherein the protecting group acceptor in step 5) is morpholine, dimethylcyclohexanedione, tributyltin hydride, N, N-dimethylbarbituric acid, -ethylhexanoic acid or hexanoic acid. 
 SYN 

Reference: Nadenik, Peter; Storm, Ole; Kremminger, Peter. Meropenem intermediate in crystalline form. WO 2005118586. (Assignee Sandoz AG, Switz)

SYN 2

Reference: Nishino, Keita; Koga, Teruyoshi. Improved process for producing carbapenem compound. WO 2007111328. (Assignee Kaneka Corporation, Japan)

SYN 3

Reference: Manca, Antonio; Monguzzi, Riccardo Ambrogio. Process for synthesizing carbapenem using Raney nickel. EP 2141167. (Assignee ACS Dobfar S.p.A., Italy)

SYN 4 

Reference: Tseng, Wei-Hong; Chang, Wen-Hsin; Chang, Chia-Mao; Yeh, Chia-Wei; Kuo, Yuan-Liang. Improved process for the preparation of carbapenem using carbapenem intermediates and recovery of carbapenem. EP 2388261. (Assignee Savior Lifetec Corp., Taiwan)

STR5 

Reference: Gnanaprakasam, Andrew; Ganapathy, Veeramani; Syed Ibrahim, Shahul Hameed; Karthikeyan, Murugesan; Sivasamy, Thangavel; Michael, Sekar Jeyaraj; Arulmoli, Thangavel; Das, Gautam Kumar. Preparation of meropenem trihydrate. WO 2012160576. (Assignee Sequent Anti Biotics Private Limited, India)

SYN 6 

Reference: Gnanprakasam, Andrew; Ganapathy, Veeramani; Syed Ibrahim, Shahul Hameed; Karthikeyan, Murugesan; Sivasamy, Thangavel; Sekar, Jeyaraj; Arulmoli, Thangavel. Preparation of meropenem trihydrate. IN 2011CH01780. (Assignee Sequent Scientific Limited, India)

SYN7 

Reference: Senthikumar, Udayampalayam Palanisamy; Sureshkumar, Kanagaraj; Babu, Kommoju Nagesh; Sudhan, Henry Syril; Kamaraj, Ponraj Pravin; Suresh, Thangaiyan. An improved process for the preparation of carbapenem antibiotic. WO 2013150550. (Assignee Orchid Chemicals & Pharmaceuticals Limited, India)

SYN 8 

Reference: Ong, Winston Zapanta; Nowak, Pawel Wojciech; Kim, Jinsoo; Enlow, Elizabeth M.; Bourassa, James; Cu, Yen; Popov, Alexey; Chen, Hongming. Meropenem derivatives and uses thereof. WO 2014144285. (Assignee Kala Pharmaceuticals, Inc., USA)

SYN9 

Reference: Cookson, James; McNair, Robert John; Satoskar, Deepak Vasant. Preparation of a carbapenem antibiotic by hydrogenation in the presence of a heterogeneous catalyst. WO 2015145161. (Assignee Johnson Matthey Public Limited Company, UK)

SYN 10 

Reference: Gruenewald, Elena; Weidlich, Stephan; Jantke, Ralf. Process for the deprotection of a carbapenem by heterogeneous catalytic hydrogenation with hydrogen in the presence of an organic amine. WO 2018010974. (Assignee Evonik Degussa GmbH, Germany)

SYN 11 

Some improvements in total synthesis of meropenem; Hu, Lai-Xing; Liu, Jun; Jin, Jie; Zhongguo Yiyao Gongye Zazhi; Volume 31; Issue 7; Pages 290-292; Journal; 2000 
synhttps://www.researchgate.net/figure/Synthesis-of-MRPD-starting-from-meropenem_fig9_283306781

Synthesis of MRPD starting from meropenem.

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Meropenem is an ultra-broad spectrum injectable antibiotic used to treat a wide variety of infections, including meningitis and pneumonia. It is a beta-lactam and belongs to the subgroup of carbapenem, similar to imipenem and ertapenem. Meropenem was originally developed by Sumitomo Pharmaceuticals. It is marketed outside Japan by AstraZeneca with the brand names Merrem and Meronem. Other brand names include Zwipen (India, Marketed by Nucleus) Mepem (Taiwan) Meropen (Japan, Korea) and Neopenem (NEOMED India) . It gained FDA approval in July 1996. It penetrates well into many tissues and body fluids including the cerebrospinal fluid, bile, heart valves, lung, and peritoneal fluid.

Meropenem, sold under the brandname Merrem among others, is an intravenous β-lactam antibiotic used to treat a variety of bacterial infections.[1] Some of these include meningitisintra-abdominal infectionpneumoniasepsis, and anthrax.[1]

Common side effects include nausea, diarrhea, constipation, headache, rash, and pain at the site of injection.[1] Serious side effects include Clostridium difficile infectionseizures, and allergic reactions including anaphylaxis.[1] Those who are allergic to other β-lactam antibiotics are more likely to be allergic to meropenem as well.[1] Use in pregnancy appears to be safe.[1] It is in the carbapenem family of medications.[1] Meropenem usually results in bacterial death through blocking their ability to make a cell wall.[1] It is more resistant to breakdown by β-lactamase producing bacteria.[1]

Meropenem was patented in 1983.[2] It was approved for medical use in the United States in 1996.[1] It is on the World Health Organization’s List of Essential Medicines.[3] The World Health Organization classifies meropenem as critically important for human medicine.[4]

Medical uses

The spectrum of action includes many Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (including Pseudomonas) and anaerobic bacteria. The overall spectrum is similar to that of imipenem, although meropenem is more active against Enterobacteriaceae and less active against Gram-positive bacteria. It works against extended-spectrum β-lactamases, but may be more susceptible to metallo-β-lactamases.[5] Meropenem is frequently given in the treatment of febrile neutropenia. This condition frequently occurs in patients with hematological malignancies and cancer patients receiving anticancer drugs that suppress bone marrow formation. It is approved for complicated skin and skin structure infections, complicated intra-abdominal infections and bacterial meningitis.

In 2017 the FDA granted approval for the combination of meropenem and vaborbactam to treat adults with complicated urinary tract infections.[6]

Administration

Meropenem is administered intravenously as a white crystalline powder to be dissolved in 5% monobasic potassium phosphate solution. Dosing must be adjusted for altered kidney function and for haemofiltration.[7]

As with other ß-lactams antibiotics, the effectiveness of treatment depends on the amount of time during the dosing interval that the meropenem concentration is above the minimum inhibitory concentration for the bacteria causing the infection.[8] For ß-lactams, including meropenem, prolonged intravenous administration is associated with lower mortality than bolus intravenous infusion in persons with whose infections are severe, or caused by bacteria that are less sensitive to meropenem, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa.[8][9]

Side effects

The most common adverse effects are diarrhea (4.8%), nausea and vomiting (3.6%), injection-site inflammation (2.4%), headache (2.3%), rash (1.9%) and thrombophlebitis (0.9%).[10] Many of these adverse effects were observed in severely ill individuals already taking many medications including vancomycin.[11][12] Meropenem has a reduced potential for seizures in comparison with imipenem. Several cases of severe hypokalemia have been reported.[13][14] Meropenem, like other carbapenems, is a potent inducer of multidrug resistance in bacteria.

Pharmacology

Mechanism of action

Meropenem is bactericidal except against Listeria monocytogenes, where it is bacteriostatic. It inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis like other β-lactam antibiotics. In contrast to other beta-lactams, it is highly resistant to degradation by β-lactamases or cephalosporinases. In general, resistance arises due to mutations in penicillin-binding proteins, production of metallo-β-lactamases, or resistance to diffusion across the bacterial outer membrane.[10] Unlike imipenem, it is stable to dehydropeptidase-1, so can be given without cilastatin.

In 2016, a synthetic peptide-conjugated PMO (PPMO) was found to inhibit the expression of New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase, an enzyme that many drug-resistant bacteria use to destroy carbapenems.[15][16]

Society and culture

Meropenem vial

Trade names

CountryNameMaker
IndiaInzapenumDream India
  Aurobindo Pharma
 PenmerBiocon
 MeronirNirlife
 MerowinStrides Acrolab
 AktimerAktimas Biopharmaceuticals
 NeopenemNeomed
 MexopenSamarth life sciences
 MeropeniaSYZA Health Sciences LLP
 IvpenemMedicorp Pharmaceuticals
 Merofit 
 LykapiperLyka Labs
 WinmeroParabolic Drugs
Bangladesh
 MerojectEskayef Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
 MeroconBeacon Pharmaceuticals
IndonesiaMerofenKalbe
BrazilZylpenAspen Pharma
Japan, KoreaMeropen 
AustraliaMerem 
TaiwanMepem 
GermanyMeronem 
NigeriaZironemLyn-Edge Pharmaceuticals
USMeronemAstraZeneca
MerosanSanbe Farma
 MerobatInterbat
 Zwipen 
 Carbonem 
 RonemOpsonin Pharma, BD
 Neopenem 
 MeroconContinental
 CarnemLaderly Biotech
 PenroBosch
 MerozaGerman Remedies
 MerotrolLupin)
 MeromerOrchid Chemicals
 MepenoxBioChimico
 MeromaxEurofarma
 RopenMacter
 mirageadwic
 MeropexApex Pharma Ltd.
 MerostarkylHefny Pharma Group[17]

References

  1. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j “Meropenem”. The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Retrieved 8 December 2017.
  2. ^ Fischer, Janos; Ganellin, C. Robin (2006). Analogue-based Drug Discovery. John Wiley & Sons. p. 497. ISBN 9783527607495.
  3. ^ World Health Organization (2019). World Health Organization model list of essential medicines: 21st list 2019. Geneva: World Health Organization. hdl:10665/325771. WHO/MVP/EMP/IAU/2019.06. License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
  4. ^ World Health Organization (2019). Critically important antimicrobials for human medicine (6th revision ed.). Geneva: World Health Organization. hdl:10665/312266ISBN 9789241515528.
  5. ^ AHFS Drug Information (2006 ed.). American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. 2006.
  6. ^ Commissioner, Office of the (24 March 2020). “Press Announcements – FDA approves new antibacterial drug”http://www.fda.gov.
  7. ^ Bilgrami, I; Roberts, JA; Wallis, SC; Thomas, J; Davis, J; Fowler, S; Goldrick, PB; Lipman, J (July 2010). “Meropenem dosing in critically ill patients with sepsis receiving high-volume continuous venovenous hemofiltration” (PDF). Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy54 (7): 2974–8. doi:10.1128/AAC.01582-09PMC 2897321PMID 20479205.
  8. Jump up to:a b Yu Z, Pang X, Wu X, Shan C, Jiang S (2018). “Clinical outcomes of prolonged infusion (extended infusion or continuous infusion) versus intermittent bolus of meropenem in severe infection: A meta-analysis”PLOS ONE13 (7): e0201667. Bibcode:2018PLoSO..1301667Ydoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0201667PMC 6066326PMID 30059536.
  9. ^ Vardakas KZ, Voulgaris GL, Maliaros A, Samonis G, Falagas ME (January 2018). “Prolonged versus short-term intravenous infusion of antipseudomonal β-lactams for patients with sepsis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials”. Lancet Infect Dis18 (1): 108–120. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(17)30615-1PMID 29102324.
  10. Jump up to:a b Mosby’s Drug Consult 2006 (16 ed.). Mosby, Inc. 2006.
  11. ^ Erden, M; Gulcan, E; Bilen, A; Bilen, Y; Uyanik, A; Keles, M (7 March 2013). “Pancytopenýa and Sepsýs due to Meropenem: A Case Report” (PDF). Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research12 (1). doi:10.4314/tjpr.v12i1.21.
  12. ^ “Meropenem side effects – from FDA reports”. eHealthMe.
  13. ^ Margolin, L (2004). “Impaired rehabilitation secondary to muscle weakness induced by meropenem”. Clinical Drug Investigation24(1): 61–2. doi:10.2165/00044011-200424010-00008PMID 17516692S2CID 44484294.
  14. ^ Bharti, R; Gombar, S; Khanna, AK (2010). “Meropenem in critical care – uncovering the truths behind weaning failure”Journal of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology26 (1): 99–101.
  15. ^ “New molecule knocks out superbugs’ immunity to antibiotics”newatlas.com. 20 January 2017. Retrieved 2017-01-25.
  16. ^ K., Sully, Erin; L., Geller, Bruce; Lixin, Li; M., Moody, Christina; M., Bailey, Stacey; L., Moore, Amy; Michael, Wong; Patrice, Nordmann; M., Daly, Seth (2016). “Peptide-conjugated phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer (PPMO) restores carbapenem susceptibility to NDM-1-positive pathogens in vitro and in vivo”Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy72 (3): 782–790. doi:10.1093/jac/dkw476PMC 5890718PMID 27999041.
  17. ^ “Hefny Pharma Group”hefnypharmagroup.info. Retrieved 2018-05-22.

External links

  • “Meropenem”Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
Clinical data
Trade namesMerrem, others
AHFS/Drugs.comMonograph
Pregnancy
category
AU: B2
Routes of
administration
Intravenous
ATC codeJ01DH02 (WHO)
Legal status
Legal statusAU: S4 (Prescription only)UK: POM (Prescription only)US: ℞-only
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability100%
Protein bindingApproximately 2%
Elimination half-life1 hour
ExcretionRenal
Identifiers
showIUPAC name
CAS Number119478-56-7 
PubChem CID441130
DrugBankDB00760 
ChemSpider389924 
UNIIFV9J3JU8B1
KEGGD02222 
ChEBICHEBI:43968 
ChEMBLChEMBL127 
PDB ligandMEM (PDBeRCSB PDB)
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)DTXSID7045526 
ECHA InfoCard100.169.299 
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC17H25N3O5S
Molar mass383.46 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)Interactive image
showSMILES
showInChI
  (verify)

Patent

Publication numberPriority datePublication dateAssigneeTitleUS4888344A *1986-07-301989-12-19Sumitomo Pharmaceuticals Company, LimitedCarbapenem compound in crystalline form, and its production and useCN101348486A *2008-08-292009-01-21深圳市海滨制药有限公司Preparation of meropenemCN101962383A *2010-11-122011-02-02上海巴迪生物医药科技有限公司Synthesis method of meropenemFamily To Family CitationsJPS6475488A *1987-09-171989-03-22Sumitomo PharmaProduction of beta-lactam compound* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party

 

Publication numberPriority datePublication dateAssigneeTitleFamily To Family CitationsCN101962383A *2010-11-122011-02-02上海巴迪生物医药科技有限公司Synthesis method of meropenemCN102250096B *2011-09-052016-04-06江西华邦药业有限公司A kind of preparation method of meropenemCN104072523B *2014-07-142017-10-24上海上药新亚药业有限公司The preparation method of BiapenemCN108191869A *2018-01-222018-06-22重庆天地药业有限责任公司The purification process of Meropenem 
PublicationPublication DateTitleEP0007973B11984-02-01Process for the preparation of thienamycin and intermediatesUS4631150A1986-12-23Process for the preparation of penemsWO2012062035A12012-05-18Synthesis method for meropenemWO2010022590A12010-03-04Method for preparation of meropenemUS4443373A1984-04-17Process for the production of antibiotic penemsWO2008035153A22008-03-27Process for the preparation of beta-lactam antibioticEP0167154B11990-01-03Process for preparing 4-acetoxy-3-hydroxyethylazetizin-2-one derivativesKR101059339B12011-08-24Method for preparing carbapenem compound for oral administrationKR100886347B12009-03-03Process for stereoselective preparation of 4-BMA using a chiral auxiliaryUS4841043A1989-06-20Stereoselective synthesis of 1-β-alkyl carbapenem antibiotic intermediatesUS4772683A1988-09-20High percentage beta-yield synthesis of carbapenem intermediatesJP2000344774A2000-12-12Production of carbapenem compoundAU745980B22002-04-11Titanium catalyzed preparation of carbapenem intermediatesUS5700930A1997-12-234-substituted azetidinones as precursors to 2-substituted-3-carboxy carbapenem antibiotics and a method of producing themJP2002338572A2002-11-27Method for producing carbapenemsJP3684339B22005-08-17Method for producing carbapenem compoundsEP0066301B11986-01-22Intermediates for the preparation of thienamycin and process for preparing the sameWO2001053305A12001-07-26Processes for the preparation of carbapenem derivativesAU737502B22001-08-23Preparation of beta-methyl carbapenem intermediatesJP3213734B22001-10-02New β-lactam compoundsJP2004107289A2004-04-08Method for producing vinyl sulfide compoundJPH085853B21996-01-24Lactam compound and its manufacturing methodJPH0827168A1996-01-30Carbapenem intermediate fieldEP0204440A11986-12-10Azetidine derivatives productionWO1994021638A11994-09-29Process for the preparation of condensed carbapeneme derivatives

 

ApplicationPriority dateFiling dateTitleCN 2010105416652010-11-122010-11-12Synthesis method of meropenemCN201010541665.52010-11-12
Nmrhttps://www.researchgate.net/figure/1HNMR-spectra-of-meropenem-hydrolysis-catalyzed-by-NDM-1-Ecoli-cells-Only-1H-signals-of_fig3_272515470

1H NMR spectra of meropenem hydrolysis catalyzed by NDM-1 E. coli cells. Only 1H signals of methyl groups are shown. Signals from meropenem and the hydrolyzed product are colored in green and red, respectively.
NMR spectra monitoring meropenem hydrolysis catalyzed by NDM-1. a¹H NMR spectrum of hydrolyzed meropenem recorded before and 6 or 20 min after NDM-1 addition to the reaction system. b Part of a ROESY spectrum of the hydrolysis product. Diagonal and cross peaks are shown in blue and red, respectively. Proton signal assignments are labeled beside the peaks. The chemical shifts of H2, H1, H5, and H10 are highlighted by dashed lines

NMRNMR spectra monitoring meropenem hydrolysis catalyzed by NDM-1. a¹H NMR spectrum of hydrolyzed meropenem recorded before and 6 or 20 min after NDM-1 addition to the reaction system. b Part of a ROESY spectrum of the hydrolysis product. Diagonal and cross peaks are shown in blue and red, respectively. Proton signal assignments are labeled beside the peaks. The chemical shifts of H2, H1, H5, and H10 are highlighted by dashed linesSEEhttps://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/23/11/2738/htm

Molecules 23 02738 g001 550

Figure 1. FT-IR spectra of unirradiated and irradiated (25 kGy) meropenem.

Molecules 23 02738 g002 550

Figure 2. Raman spectra of unirradiated and irradiated (A-25 kGy) meropenem.

Molecules 23 02738 g006 550

Figure 6. XRPD diffractograms of unirradiated and irradiated (25 kGy) meropenem.

Molecules 23 02738 g007 550

Figure 7. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curves of non-irradiated and irradiated (A-25 kGy, B-400 kGy) meropenem. The arrows indicate the changes in the DSC spectrum after irradiation.

Molecules 23 02738 g009 550

Figure 9. FT-IR spectra of unirradiated and irradiated (400 kGy) meropenem. The arrows indicate the changes in the FT-IR spectrum after irradiation.

Molecules 23 02738 g010 550

Figure 10. Raman spectra of unirradiated and irradiated (400 kGy) meropenem. The arrow indicates the change in the Raman spectrum after irradiation.

//////////////MeropenemMerrem,  intravenous β-lactam antibiotic, bacterial infections,  meningitisintra-abdominal infectionpneumoniasepsis,  anthrax, Antibiotic SM 7338, ICI 194660, SM 7338, ANTIBACTERIALS

[H][C@]1([C@@H](C)O)C(=O)N2C(C(O)=O)=C(S[C@@H]3CN[C@@H](C3)C(=O)N(C)C)[C@H](C)[C@]12[H]

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RTS,S/AS01, RTS,S Mosquirix


 The World Health Organization (WHO) has announced that the Government of Malawi has immunized the first children with RTS,S/AS01 (RTS,S), the world’s first malaria vaccine, according to the World Record Academy.

Sequence:

1MMAPDPNANP NANPNANPNA NPNANPNANP NANPNANPNA NPNANPNANP51NANPNANPNA NPNANPNANP NANPNANPNA NPNKNNQGNG QGHNMPNDPN101RNVDENANAN NAVKNNNNEE PSDKHIEQYL KKIKNSISTE WSPCSVTCGN151GIQVRIKPGS ANKPKDELDY ENDIEKKICK MEKCSSVFNV VNSRPVTNME201NITSGFLGPL LVLQAGFFLL TRILTIPQSL DSWWTSLNFL GGSPVCLGQN251SQSPTSNHSP TSCPPICPGY RWMCLRRFII FLFILLLCLI FLLVLLDYQG301MLPVCPLIPG STTTNTGPCK TCTTPAQGNS MFPSCCCTKP TDGNCTCIPI351PSSWAFAKYL WEWASVRFSW LSLLVPFVQW FVGLSPTVWL SAIWMMWYWG401PSLYSIVSPF IPLLPIFFCL WVYI

RTS,S/AS01 (RTS,S)

RTS,S/AS01, Mosquirix

Cas 149121-47-1

203-400-Antigen CS (Plasmodium falciparum strain NF54 reduced), 203-L-methionine-204-L-methionine-205-L-alanine-206-L-proline-207-L-aspartic acid-210-L-alanine-211-L-asparagine-313-L-asparagine-329-L-glutamic acid-330-L-glutamine-333-L-lysine-336-L-lysine-339-L-isoleucine-373-L-glutamic acid-396-L-arginine-397-L-proline-398-L-valine-399-L-threonine-400-L-asparagine-, (400→1′)-protein with antigen (hepatitis B virus subtype adw small surface reduced) (9CI) 

Other Names

  • Malaria vaccine RTS,S
  • Mosquirix
  • RTS,S

Protein Sequence

Sequence Length: 424

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc. Object name is khvi-16-03-1669415-g002.jpg

Figure 2.

Graphical depiction of circumsporozoite (CSP) and RTS,S structures. CSP comprises an N-terminal region containing a signal peptide sequence and Region I that binds heparin sulfate proteoglycans and has embedded within it a conserved five amino acid (KLKQP) proteolytic cleavage site sequence; a central region containing four-amino acid (NANP/NVDP) repeats; and a C-terminal region containing Region II [a thrombospondin (TSP)-like domain] and a canonical glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor addition sequence. The region of the CSP included in the RTS,S vaccine includes the last 18 NANP repeats and C-terminus exclusive of the GPI anchor addition sequence. Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) monomers self-assemble into virus-like particles and approximately 25% of the HBsAg monomers in RTS,S are genetically fused to the truncated CSP and serve as protein carriers. The CSP fragment in RTS,S contains three known T-cell epitopes: a highly variable CD4 + T-cell epitope before the TSP-like domain (TH2R), a highly variable CD8 + T-cell epitope within the TSP-like domain (TH3R), and a conserved “universal” CD4 + T cell epitope (CS.T3) at the C-terminus. (Figure courtesy of a recent publication16 and open access,
PATENTWO 2009080715

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2009080715A2/tr

XAMPLES

Example 1Recipe for component for a single pediatric dose of RTS, S malaria vaccine (2 vial formulation)Component AmountRTS,S 25μgNaCl 2.25mgPhosphate buffer (NaZK2) 1OmMMonothioglycerol 125μgWater for Injection Make volume to 250 μLThe above is prepared by adding RTS, S antigen to a mix of Water for Injection, NaCl 150OmM, phosphate buffer (NaZK2) 50OmM (pH 6.8 when diluted x 50) and an aqueous solution of monothioglycerol at 10%. Finally pH is adjusted to 7.0 ± 0.1.This may be provided as a vial together with a separate vial of adjuvant, for example a liposomal formulation of MPL and QS21Component Amount l,2-di-oleoyl-5/?-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) 500 μgCholesterol 125 μgMPL 25 μgQS21 25 μgNaCl 2.25mg Phosphate buffer (NaZK2) 1 OmMWater for Injection Make volume to250 μLFor administration the adjuvant formulation is added to the component formulation, for example using a syringe, and then shaken. Then the dose is administered in the usual way. The pH of the final liquid formulation is about 6.6 +/- 0.1.Example IAA final pediatric liquid formulation (1 vial) according to the invention may be prepared according to the following recipe.Component AmountRTS,S 25μgNaCl 4.5mgPhosphate buffer (NaZK2) 1OmMMonothioglycerol 125μg1 ,2-di-oleoyl-5/?-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) 500 μgCholesterol 125 μgMPL 25 μgQS21 25 μgWater for Injection Make volume to500 μLThe pH of the above liquid formulation is either adjusted to 7.0 +/- 0.1 (which is favorable for antigen stability, but not favorable at all for the MPL stability), or to 6.1 +/- 0.1 (which is favorable for MPL stability, but not favorable at all for RT S, S stability). Therefore this formulation is intended for rapid use after preparation.The above is prepared by adding RTS, S antigen to a mix of Water for Injection, NaCl 150OmM, phosphate buffer (NaZK2) 50OmM (pH 6.8 when diluted x 50) and an aqueous solution of monothioglycerol at 10%. Then a premix of liposomes containing MPL with QS21 is added, and finally pH is adjusted. Example IBA final adult dose (1 vial formulation) for the RTS, S according to the invention may be prepared as follows:Component AmountRTS,S 50μgNaCl 4.5mgPhosphate buffer (NaZK2) 1OmMMonothioglycerol 250μg1 ,2-di-oleoyl-5/?-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) 1000 μgCholesterol 250 μgMPL 50 μgQS21 50 μgWater for Injection Make volume to500 μLExample 1CExample 1C may prepared by putting Example 1, IA or IB in an amber vial, for example flushed with nitrogen before filing.

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WHO recommends groundbreaking malaria vaccine for children at risk

Historic RTS,S/AS01 recommendation can reinvigorate the fight against malaria6 October 2021https://www.who.int/news/item/06-10-2021-who-recommends-groundbreaking-malaria-vaccine-for-children-at-risk

The World Health Organization (WHO) is recommending widespread use of the RTS,S/AS01 (RTS,S) malaria vaccine among children in sub-Saharan Africa and in other regions with moderate to high P. falciparum malaria transmission. The recommendation is based on results from an ongoing pilot programme in Ghana, Kenya and Malawi that has reached more than 800 000 children since 2019.

“This is a historic moment. The long-awaited malaria vaccine for children is a breakthrough for science, child health and malaria control,” said WHO Director-General Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus. “Using this vaccine on top of existing  tools to prevent malaria could save tens of thousands of young lives each year.”

Malaria remains a primary cause of childhood illness and death in sub-Saharan Africa. More than 260 000 African children under the age of five die from malaria annually.

In recent years, WHO and its partners have been reporting a stagnation in progress against the deadly disease.

“For centuries, malaria has stalked sub-Saharan Africa, causing immense personal suffering,” said Dr Matshidiso Moeti, WHO Regional Director for Africa. “We have long hoped for an effective malaria vaccine and now for the first time ever, we have such a vaccine recommended for widespread use. Today’s recommendation offers a glimmer of hope for the continent which shoulders the heaviest burden of the disease and we expect many more African children to be protected from malaria and grow into healthy adults.”

WHO recommendation for the RTS,S malaria vaccine

Based on the advice of two WHO global advisory bodies, one for immunization and the other for malaria, the Organization recommends that:

WHO recommends that in the context of comprehensive malaria control the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine be used for the prevention of P. falciparum malaria in children living in regions with moderate to high transmission as defined by WHO.  RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine should be provided in a schedule of 4 doses in children from 5 months of age for the reduction of malaria disease and burden.

Summary of key findings of the malaria vaccine pilots

Key findings of the pilots informed the recommendation based on data and insights generated from two years of vaccination in child health clinics in the three pilot countries, implemented under the leadership of the Ministries of Health of Ghana, Kenya and Malawi. Findings include:

  • Feasible to deliver: Vaccine introduction is feasible, improves health and saves lives, with good and equitable coverage of RTS,S seen through routine immunization systems. This occurred even in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • Reaching the unreached: RTS,S increases equity in access to malaria prevention.
    • Data from the pilot programme showed that more than two-thirds of children in the 3 countries who are not sleeping under a bednet are benefitting from the RTS,S vaccine.
    • Layering the tools results in over 90% of children benefitting from at least one preventive intervention (insecticide treated bednets or the malaria vaccine).
  • Strong safety profile: To date, more than 2.3 million doses of the vaccine have been administered in 3 African countries – the vaccine has a favorable safety profile.
  • No negative impact on uptake of bednets, other childhood vaccinations, or health seeking behavior for febrile illness. In areas where the vaccine has been introduced, there has been no decrease in the use of insecticide-treated nets, uptake of other childhood vaccinations or health seeking behavior for febrile illness.
  • High impact in real-life childhood vaccination settings: Significant reduction (30%) in deadly severe malaria, even when introduced in areas where insecticide-treated nets are widely used and there is good access to diagnosis and treatment.
  • Highly cost-effective: Modelling estimates that the vaccine is cost effective in areas of moderate to high malaria transmission.

Next steps for the WHO-recommended malaria vaccine will include funding decisions from the global health community for broader rollout, and country decision-making on whether to adopt the vaccine as part of national malaria control strategies.

Financial support

Financing for the pilot programme has been mobilized through an unprecedented collaboration among three key global health funding bodies: Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance; the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria; and Unitaid.

Note to editors:

  • The malaria vaccine, RTS,S, acts against P. falciparum, the most deadly malaria parasite globally, and the most prevalent in Africa.
  • The Malaria Vaccine Implementation Programme is generating evidence and experience on the feasibility, impact and safety of the RTS,S malaria vaccine in real-life, routine settings in selected areas of Ghana, Kenya and Malawi.
  • Pilot malaria vaccine introductions are led by the Ministries of Health of Ghana, Kenya and Malawi.
  • The pilot programme will continue in the 3 pilot countries to understand the added value of the 4th vaccine dose, and to measure longer-term impact on child deaths.
  • The Malaria Vaccine Implementation Programme is coordinated by WHO and supported by in-country and international partners, including PATH, UNICEF and GSK, which is donating up to 10 million doses of the vaccine for the pilot.
  • The RTS,S malaria vaccine is the result of 30 years of research and development by GSK and through a partnership with PATH, with support from a network of African research centres.
  • The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation provided catalytic funding for late-stage development of RTS,S between 2001 and 2015.

RTS,S/AS01 (trade name Mosquirix) is a recombinant protein-based malaria vaccine. In October 2021, the vaccine was endorsed by the World Health Organization (WHO) for “broad use” in children, making it the first malaria vaccine candidate, and first vaccine to address parasitic infection, to receive this recommendation.[3][4][5]

The RTS,S vaccine was conceived of and created in the late 1980s by scientists working at SmithKline Beecham Biologicals (now GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) Vaccines) laboratories in Belgium.[6] The vaccine was further developed through a collaboration between GSK and the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research in the U.S. state of Maryland[7] and has been funded in part by the PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Its efficacy ranges from 26 to 50% in infants and young children.

Approved for use by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) in July 2015,[1] it is the world’s first licensed malaria vaccine and also the first vaccine licensed for use against a human parasitic disease of any kind.[8] On 23 October 2015, WHO’s Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization (SAGE) and the Malaria Policy Advisory Committee (MPAC) jointly recommended a pilot implementation of the vaccine in Africa.[9] This pilot project for vaccination was launched on 23 April 2019 in Malawi, on 30 April 2019 in Ghana, and on 13 September 2019 in Kenya.[10][11]

Background

Main article: Malaria vaccine

Potential malaria vaccines have been an intense area of research since the 1960s.[12] SPf66 was tested extensively in endemic areas in the 1990s, but clinical trials showed it to be insufficiently effective.[13] Other vaccine candidates, targeting the blood-stage of the malaria parasite’s life cycle, have also been insufficient on their own.[14] Among several potential vaccines under development that target the pre-erythrocytic stage of the disease, RTS,S has shown the most promising results so far.[15]

Approval history

The EMA approved the RTS,S vaccine in July 2015, with a recommendation that it be used in Africa for babies at risk of getting malaria. RTS,S was the world’s first malaria vaccine to get approval for this use.[16][8] Preliminary research suggests that delayed fractional dosing could increase the vaccine’s efficacy up to 86%.[17][18]

On 17 November 2016, WHO announced that the RTS,S vaccine would be rolled out in pilot projects in three countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The pilot program, coordinated by WHO, will assess the extent to which the vaccine’s protective effect shown in advanced clinical trials can be replicated in real-life settings. Specifically, the programme will evaluate the feasibility of delivering the required four doses of the vaccine; the impact of the vaccine on lives saved; and the safety of the vaccine in the context of routine use.[19]

Vaccinations by the ministries of health of Malawi, Ghana, and Kenya began in April and September 2019 and target 360,000 children per year in areas where vaccination would have the highest impact. The results are planned to be used by the World Health Organization to advise about a possible future deployment of the vaccine.[10][11][20] In 2021 it was reported that the vaccine together with other anti-malaria medication when given at the most vulnerable season could reduce deaths and illness from the disease by 70%.[21][22]

Funding

RTS,S has been funded, most recently, by the non-profit PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative (MVI) and GlaxoSmithKline with funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.[23] The RTS,S-based vaccine formulation had previously been demonstrated to be safe, well tolerated, immunogenic, and to potentially confer partial efficacy in both malaria-naive and malaria-experienced adults as well as children.[24]

Components and mechanism

 

The RTS,S vaccine is based on a protein construct first developed by GlaxoSmithKline in 1986. It was named RTS because it was engineered using genes from the repeat (‘R’) and T-cell epitope (‘T’) of the pre-erythrocytic circumsporozoite protein (CSP) of the Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite together with a viral surface antigen (‘S’) of the hepatitis B virus (HBsAg).[7] This protein was then mixed with additional HBsAg to improve purification, hence the extra “S”.[7] Together, these two protein components assemble into soluble virus-like particles similar to the outer shell of a hepatitis B virus.[25]

A chemical adjuvant (AS01, specifically AS01E) was added to increase the immune system response.[26] Infection is prevented by inducing humoral and cellular immunity, with high antibody titers, that block the parasite from infecting the liver.[27]

The T-cell epitope of CSP is O-fucosylated in Plasmodium falciparum[28][29] and Plasmodium vivax,[30] while the RTS,S vaccine produced in yeast is not.

References

  1. Jump up to:a b “Mosquirix H-W-2300”European Medicines Agency (EMA). Retrieved 4 March 2021.
  2. ^ “RTS,S Malaria Vaccine: 2019 Partnership Award Honoree”YouTube. Global Health Technologies Coalition. Retrieved 6 October 2021.
  3. ^ Davies L (6 October 2021). “WHO endorses use of world’s first malaria vaccine in Africa”The Guardian. Retrieved 6 October2021.
  4. ^ Drysdale C, Kelleher K. “WHO recommends groundbreaking malaria vaccine for children at risk” (Press release). Geneva: World Health Organization. Retrieved 6 October 2021.
  5. ^ Mandavilli A (6 October 2021). “A ‘Historical Event’: First Malaria Vaccine Approved by W.H.O.” New York Times. Retrieved 6 October 2021.
  6. ^ “HYBRID PROTEIN BETWEEN CS FROM PLASMODIUM AND HBsAG”.
  7. Jump up to:a b c Heppner DG, Kester KE, Ockenhouse CF, Tornieporth N, Ofori O, Lyon JA, et al. (March 2005). “Towards an RTS,S-based, multi-stage, multi-antigen vaccine against falciparum malaria: progress at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research”Vaccine23 (17–18): 2243–50. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2005.01.142PMID 15755604Archived from the original on 23 July 2018.
  8. Jump up to:a b Walsh F (24 July 2015). “Malaria vaccine gets ‘green light'”BBC NewsArchived from the original on 21 July 2020. Retrieved 25 July 2015.
  9. ^ Stewart S (23 October 2015). “Pilot implementation of first malaria vaccine recommended by WHO advisory groups” (Press release). Geneva: World Health OrganizationArchived from the original on 19 September 2021.
  10. Jump up to:a b Alonso P (19 June 2019). “Letter to partners – June 2019”(Press release). Wuxi: World Health Organization. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  11. Jump up to:a b “Malaria vaccine launched in Kenya: Kenya joins Ghana and Malawi to roll out landmark vaccine in pilot introduction” (Press release). Homa Bay: World Health Organization. 13 September 2019. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  12. ^ Hill AV (October 2011). “Vaccines against malaria”Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences366 (1579): 2806–14. doi:10.1098/rstb.2011.0091PMC 3146776PMID 21893544.
  13. ^ Graves P, Gelband H (April 2006). Graves PM (ed.). “Vaccines for preventing malaria (SPf66)”The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2): CD005966. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005966PMC 6532709PMID 16625647.
  14. ^ Graves P, Gelband H (October 2006). Graves PM (ed.). “Vaccines for preventing malaria (blood-stage)”The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (4): CD006199. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006199PMC 6532641PMID 17054281.
  15. ^ Graves P, Gelband H (October 2006). Graves PM (ed.). “Vaccines for preventing malaria (pre-erythrocytic)”The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (4): CD006198. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006198PMC 6532586PMID 17054280.
  16. ^ “First malaria vaccine receives positive scientific opinion from EMA”European Medicines Agency. 24 July 2015. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
  17. ^ Birkett A (16 September 2016). “A vaccine for malaria elimination?”PATH.
  18. ^ Regules JA, Cicatelli SB, Bennett JW, Paolino KM, Twomey PS, Moon JE, et al. (September 2016). “Fractional Third and Fourth Dose of RTS,S/AS01 Malaria Candidate Vaccine: A Phase 2a Controlled Human Malaria Parasite Infection and Immunogenicity Study”The Journal of Infectious Diseases214 (5): 762–71. doi:10.1093/infdis/jiw237PMID 27296848.
  19. ^ “Malaria: The malaria vaccine implementation programme (MVIP)”.
  20. ^ “WHO | MVIP countries: Ghana, Kenya and Malawi”.
  21. ^ Chandramohan D, Zongo I, Sagara I, Cairns M, Yerbanga RS, Diarra M, et al. (September 2021). “Seasonal Malaria Vaccination with or without Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention”The New England Journal of Medicine385 (11): 1005–1017. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2026330PMID 34432975.
  22. ^ Roxby P (26 August 2021). “Trial suggests malaria sickness could be cut by 70%”BBC NewsArchived from the original on 3 October 2021. Retrieved 26 August 2021.
  23. ^ Stein R (18 October 2011). “Experimental malaria vaccine protects many children, study shows”Washington Post.
  24. ^ Regules JA, Cummings JF, Ockenhouse CF (May 2011). “The RTS,S vaccine candidate for malaria”Expert Review of Vaccines10 (5): 589–99. doi:10.1586/erv.11.57PMID 21604980S2CID 20443829.
  25. ^ Rutgers T, Gordon D, Gathoye AM, Hollingdale M, Hockmeyer W, Rosenberg M, De Wilde M (September 1988). “Hepatitis B Surface Antigen as Carrier Matrix for the Repetitive Epitope of the Circumsporozoite Protein of Plasmodium Falciparum”Nature Biotechnology6 (9): 1065–1070. doi:10.1038/nbt0988-1065S2CID 39880644.
  26. ^ RTS,S Clinical Trials Partnership (July 2015). “Efficacy and safety of RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine with or without a booster dose in infants and children in Africa: final results of a phase 3, individually randomised, controlled trial”Lancet386 (9988): 31–45. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60721-8PMC 5626001PMID 25913272.
  27. ^ Foquet L, Hermsen CC, van Gemert GJ, Van Braeckel E, Weening KE, Sauerwein R, et al. (January 2014). “Vaccine-induced monoclonal antibodies targeting circumsporozoite protein prevent Plasmodium falciparum infection”The Journal of Clinical Investigation124 (1): 140–4. doi:10.1172/JCI70349PMC 3871238PMID 24292709.
  28. ^ Swearingen KE, Lindner SE, Shi L, Shears MJ, Harupa A, Hopp CS, et al. (April 2016). “Interrogating the Plasmodium Sporozoite Surface: Identification of Surface-Exposed Proteins and Demonstration of Glycosylation on CSP and TRAP by Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics”PLOS Pathogens12 (4): e1005606. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1005606PMC 4851412PMID 27128092.
  29. ^ Lopaticki S, Yang AS, John A, Scott NE, Lingford JP, O’Neill MT, et al. (September 2017). “Protein O-fucosylation in Plasmodium falciparum ensures efficient infection of mosquito and vertebrate hosts”Nature Communications8 (1): 561. Bibcode:2017NatCo…8..561Ldoi:10.1038/s41467-017-00571-yPMC 5601480PMID 28916755.
  30. ^ Swearingen KE, Lindner SE, Flannery EL, Vaughan AM, Morrison RD, Patrapuvich R, et al. (July 2017). “Proteogenomic analysis of the total and surface-exposed proteomes of Plasmodium vivax salivary gland sporozoites”PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases11 (7): e0005791. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0005791PMC 5552340PMID 28759593.

Further reading

  • Wilby KJ, Lau TT, Gilchrist SE, Ensom MH (March 2012). “Mosquirix (RTS,S): a novel vaccine for the prevention of Plasmodium falciparum malaria”. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy46 (3): 384–93. doi:10.1345/aph.1Q634PMID 22408046.
  • Asante KP, Abdulla S, Agnandji S, Lyimo J, Vekemans J, Soulanoudjingar S, et al. (October 2011). “Safety and efficacy of the RTS,S/AS01E candidate malaria vaccine given with expanded-programme-on-immunisation vaccines: 19 month follow-up of a randomised, open-label, phase 2 trial”. The Lancet. Infectious Diseases11 (10): 741–9. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(11)70100-1PMID 21782519.

External links

Vaccine description
TargetP. falciparum; to a lesser extent Hepatitis B
Vaccine typeProtein subunit
Clinical data
Trade namesMosquirix
Routes of
administration
intramuscular injection (0.5 mL)[1]
Legal status
Legal statusIn general: ℞ (Prescription only)

A poster advertising trials of the RTS,S vaccine[2]

malaria vaccine is a vaccine that is used to prevent malaria. The only approved vaccine as of 2021, is RTS,S, known by the brand name Mosquirix.[1] It requires four injections.[1]

Research continues with other malaria vaccines. The most effective malaria vaccine is R21/Matrix-M, with a 77% efficacy rate shown in initial trials, and significantly higher antibody levels than with the RTS,S vaccine.[2] It is the first vaccine that meets the World Health Organization‘s (WHO) goal of a malaria vaccine with at least 75% efficacy.[3][2]

Approved vaccines

RTS,S

Main article: RTS,S

RTS,S (developed by PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative (MVI) and GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) with support from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation) is the most recently developed recombinant vaccine. It consists of the P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein (CSP) from the pre-erythrocytic stage. The CSP antigen causes the production of antibodies capable of preventing the invasion of hepatocytes and additionally elicits a cellular response enabling the destruction of infected hepatocytes. The CSP vaccine presented problems in the trial stage, due to its poor immunogenicity. RTS,S attempted to avoid these by fusing the protein with a surface antigen from hepatitis B, hence creating a more potent and immunogenic vaccine. When tested in trials an emulsion of oil in water and the added adjuvants of monophosphoryl A and QS21 (SBAS2), the vaccine gave protective immunity to 7 out of 8 volunteers when challenged with P. falciparum.[4]

RTS,S/AS01 (commercial name Mosquirix),[5] was engineered using genes from the outer protein of P. falciparum malaria parasite and a portion of a hepatitis B virus plus a chemical adjuvant to boost the immune response. Infection is prevented by inducing high antibody titers that block the parasite from infecting the liver.[6] In November 2012, a Phase III trial of RTS,S found that it provided modest protection against both clinical and severe malaria in young infants.[7]

As of October 2013, preliminary results of a Phase III clinical trial indicated that RTS,S/AS01 reduced the number of cases among young children by almost 50 percent and among infants by around 25 percent. The study ended in 2014. The effects of a booster dose were positive, even though overall efficacy seems to wane with time. After four years reductions were 36 percent for children who received three shots and a booster dose. Missing the booster dose reduced the efficacy against severe malaria to a negligible effect. The vaccine was shown to be less effective for infants. Three doses of vaccine plus a booster reduced the risk of clinical episodes by 26 percent over three years, but offered no significant protection against severe malaria.[8]

In a bid to accommodate a larger group and guarantee a sustained availability for the general public, GSK applied for a marketing license with the European Medicines Agency (EMA) in July 2014.[9] GSK treated the project as a non-profit initiative, with most funding coming from the Gates Foundation, a major contributor to malaria eradication.[10]

On 24 July 2015, Mosquirix received a positive opinion from the European Medicines Agency (EMA) on the proposal for the vaccine to be used to vaccinate children aged 6 weeks to 17 months outside the European Union.[11][12][1] A pilot project for vaccination was launched on 23 April 2019, in Malawi, on 30 April 2019, in Ghana, and on 13 September 2019, in Kenya.[13][14]

In October 2021, the vaccine was endorsed by the World Health Organization for “broad use” in children, making it the first malaria vaccine to receive this recommendation.[15][16][17]

Agents under development

A completely effective vaccine is not available for malaria, although several vaccines are under development. Multiple vaccine candidates targeting the blood-stage of the parasite’s life cycle have been insufficient on their own.[18] Several potential vaccines targeting the pre-erythrocytic stage are being developed, with RTS,S the only approved option so far.[19][7]

R21/Matrix-M

The most effective malaria vaccine is R21/Matrix-M, with 77% efficacy shown in initial trials. It is the first vaccine that meets the World Health Organization’s goal of a malaria vaccine with at least 75% efficacy.[3] It was developed through a collaboration involving the University of Oxford, the Kenya Medical Research Institute, the London School of Hygiene & Tropical MedicineNovavax, the Serum Institute of India, and the Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé in NanoroBurkina Faso. The R21 vaccine uses a circumsporozoite protein (CSP) antigen, at a higher proportion than the RTS,S vaccine. It includes the Matrix-M adjuvant that is also utilized in the Novavax COVID-19 vaccine.[20]

A Phase II trial was reported in April 2021, with a vaccine efficacy of 77% and antibody levels significantly higher than with the RTS,S vaccine. A Phase III trial is planned with 4,800 children across four African countries. If the vaccine is approved, over 200 million doses can be manufactured annually by the Serum Institute of India.[2]

Nanoparticle enhancement of RTS,S

In 2015, researchers used a repetitive antigen display technology to engineer a nanoparticle that displayed malaria specific B cell and T cell epitopes. The particle exhibited icosahedral symmetry and carried on its surface up to 60 copies of the RTS,S protein. The researchers claimed that the density of the protein was much higher than the 14% of the GSK vaccine.[21][22]

PfSPZ vaccine

Main article: PfSPZ Vaccine

The PfSPZ vaccine is a candidate malaria vaccine developed by Sanaria using radiation-attenuated sporozoites to elicit an immune response. Clinical trials have been promising, with trials taking place in Africa, Europe, and the US protecting over 80% of volunteers.[23] It has been subject to some criticism regarding the ultimate feasibility of large-scale production and delivery in Africa, since it must be stored in liquid nitrogen.

The PfSPZ vaccine candidate was granted fast track designation by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in September 2016.[24]

In April 2019, a phase 3 trial in Bioko was announced, scheduled to start in early 2020.[25]

saRNA vaccine against PMIF

A patent was published in February 2021 for a Self-amplifying RNA (saRNA) vaccine that targets the protein PMIF, which is produced by the plasmodium parasite to inhibit the body’s T-cell response. The vaccine has been tested in mice and is described as, “probably the highest level of protection that has been seen in a mouse model” according to Richard Bucala, co-inventor of the vaccine. There are plans for phase one tests in humans later in 2021.[26]

Other developments

  • SPf66 is a synthetic peptide based vaccine developed by Manuel Elkin Patarroyo team in Colombia, and was tested extensively in endemic areas in the 1990s. Clinical trials showed it to be insufficiently effective, with 28% efficacy in South America and minimal or no efficacy in Africa.[27]
  • The CSP (Circum-Sporozoite Protein) was a vaccine developed that initially appeared promising enough to undergo trials. It is also based on the circumsporozoite protein, but additionally has the recombinant (Asn-Ala-Pro15Asn-Val-Asp-Pro)2-Leu-Arg(R32LR) protein covalently bound to a purified Pseudomonas aeruginosa toxin (A9). However at an early stage a complete lack of protective immunity was demonstrated in those inoculated. The study group used in Kenya had an 82% incidence of parasitaemia whilst the control group only had an 89% incidence. The vaccine intended to cause an increased T-lymphocyte response in those exposed, this was also not observed.[citation needed]
  • The NYVAC-Pf7 multi-stage vaccine attempted to use different technology, incorporating seven P.falciparum antigenic genes. These came from a variety of stages during the life cycle. CSP and sporozoite surface protein 2 (called PfSSP2) were derived from the sporozoite phase. The liver stage antigen 1 (LSA1), three from the erythrocytic stage (merozoite surface protein 1, serine repeat antigen and AMA-1) and one sexual stage antigen (the 25-kDa Pfs25) were included. This was first investigated using Rhesus monkeys and produced encouraging results: 4 out of the 7 antigens produced specific antibody responses (CSP, PfSSP2, MSP1 and PFs25). Later trials in humans, despite demonstrating cellular immune responses in over 90% of the subjects, had very poor antibody responses. Despite this following administration of the vaccine some candidates had complete protection when challenged with P.falciparum. This result has warranted ongoing trials.[citation needed]
  • In 1995 a field trial involving [NANP]19-5.1 proved to be very successful. Out of 194 children vaccinated none developed symptomatic malaria in the 12-week follow up period and only 8 failed to have higher levels of antibody present. The vaccine consists of the schizont export protein (5.1) and 19 repeats of the sporozoite surface protein [NANP]. Limitations of the technology exist as it contains only 20% peptide and has low levels of immunogenicity. It also does not contain any immunodominant T-cell epitopes.[28]
  • A chemical compound undergoing trials for treatment of tuberculosis and cancer—the JmJc inhibitor ML324 and the antitubercular clinical candidate SQ109—is potentially a new line of drugs to treat malaria and kill the parasite in its infectious stage. More tests still need to be carried out before the compounds would be approved as a viable treatment.[29]

Considerations

The task of developing a preventive vaccine for malaria is a complex process. There are a number of considerations to be made concerning what strategy a potential vaccine should adopt.

Parasite diversity

P. falciparum has demonstrated the capability, through the development of multiple drug-resistant parasites, for evolutionary change. The Plasmodium species has a very high rate of replication, much higher than that actually needed to ensure transmission in the parasite’s life cycle. This enables pharmaceutical treatments that are effective at reducing the reproduction rate, but not halting it, to exert a high selection pressure, thus favoring the development of resistance. The process of evolutionary change is one of the key considerations necessary when considering potential vaccine candidates. The development of resistance could cause a significant reduction in efficacy of any potential vaccine thus rendering useless a carefully developed and effective treatment.[30]

Choosing to address the symptom or the source

The parasite induces two main response types from the human immune system. These are anti-parasitic immunity and anti-toxic immunity.

  • “Anti-parasitic immunity” addresses the source; it consists of an antibody response (humoral immunity) and a cell-mediated immune response. Ideally a vaccine would enable the development of anti-plasmodial antibodies in addition to generating an elevated cell-mediated response. Potential antigens against which a vaccine could be targeted will be discussed in greater depth later. Antibodies are part of the specific immune response. They exert their effect by activating the complement cascade, stimulating phagocytic cells into endocytosis through adhesion to an external surface of the antigenic substances, thus ‘marking’ it as offensive. Humoral or cell-mediated immunity consists of many interlinking mechanisms that essentially aim to prevent infection entering the body (through external barriers or hostile internal environments) and then kill any micro-organisms or foreign particles that succeed in penetration. The cell-mediated component consists of many white blood cells (such as monocytesneutrophilsmacrophageslymphocytesbasophilsmast cellsnatural killer cells, and eosinophils) that target foreign bodies by a variety of different mechanisms. In the case of malaria both systems would be targeted to attempt to increase the potential response generated, thus ensuring the maximum chance of preventing disease.[citation needed]
  • “Anti-toxic immunity” addresses the symptoms; it refers to the suppression of the immune response associated with the production of factors that either induce symptoms or reduce the effect that any toxic by-products (of micro-organism presence) have on the development of disease. For example, it has been shown that Tumor necrosis factor-alpha has a central role in generating the symptoms experienced in severe P. falciparum malaria. Thus a therapeutic vaccine could target the production of TNF-a, preventing respiratory distress and cerebral symptoms. This approach has serious limitations as it would not reduce the parasitic load; rather it only reduces the associated pathology. As a result, there are substantial difficulties in evaluating efficacy in human trials.

Taking this information into consideration an ideal vaccine candidate would attempt to generate a more substantial cell-mediated and antibody response on parasite presentation. This would have the benefit of increasing the rate of parasite clearance, thus reducing the experienced symptoms and providing a level of consistent future immunity against the parasite.

Potential targets

See also: PfSPZ Vaccine

Parasite stageTarget
SporozoiteHepatocyte invasion; direct anti-sporozite
HepatozoiteDirect anti-hepatozoite.
Asexual erythrocyticAnti-host erythrocyte, antibodies blocking invasion; anti receptor ligand, anti-soluble toxin
GametocytesAnti-gametocyte. Anti-host erythrocyte, antibodies blocking fertilisation, antibodies blocking egress from the mosquito midgut.

By their very nature, protozoa are more complex organisms than bacteria and viruses, with more complicated structures and life cycles. This presents problems in vaccine development but also increases the number of potential targets for a vaccine. These have been summarised into the life cycle stage and the antibodies that could potentially elicit an immune response.

The epidemiology of malaria varies enormously across the globe, and has led to the belief that it may be necessary to adopt very different vaccine development strategies to target the different populations. A Type 1 vaccine is suggested for those exposed mostly to P. falciparum malaria in sub-Saharan Africa, with the primary objective to reduce the number of severe malaria cases and deaths in infants and children exposed to high transmission rates. The Type 2 vaccine could be thought of as a ‘travellers’ vaccine’, aiming to prevent all cases of clinical symptoms in individuals with no previous exposure. This is another major public health problem, with malaria presenting as one of the most substantial threats to travellers’ health. Problems with the available pharmaceutical therapies include costs, availability, adverse effects and contraindications, inconvenience and compliance, many of which would be reduced or eliminated entirely if an effective (greater than 85–90%) vaccine was developed.[citation needed]

The life cycle of the malaria parasite is particularly complex, presenting initial developmental problems. Despite the huge number of vaccines available, there are none that target parasitic infections. The distinct developmental stages involved in the life cycle present numerous opportunities for targeting antigens, thus potentially eliciting an immune response. Theoretically, each developmental stage could have a vaccine developed specifically to target the parasite. Moreover, any vaccine produced would ideally have the ability to be of therapeutic value as well as preventing further transmission and is likely to consist of a combination of antigens from different phases of the parasite’s development. More than 30 of these antigens are being researched[when?] by teams all over the world in the hope of identifying a combination that can elicit immunity in the inoculated individual. Some of the approaches involve surface expression of the antigen, inhibitory effects of specific antibodies on the life cycle and the protective effects through immunization or passive transfer of antibodies between an immune and a non-immune host. The majority of research into malarial vaccines has focused on the Plasmodium falciparum strain due to the high mortality caused by the parasite and the ease of a carrying out in vitro/in vivo studies. The earliest vaccines attempted to use the parasitic circumsporozoite protein (CSP). This is the most dominant surface antigen of the initial pre-erythrocytic phase. However, problems were encountered due to low efficacy, reactogenicity and low immunogenicity.[citation needed]

  • The initial stage in the life cycle, following inoculation, is a relatively short “pre-erythrocytic” or “hepatic” phase. A vaccine at this stage must have the ability to protect against sporozoites invading and possibly inhibiting the development of parasites in the hepatocytes (through inducing cytotoxic T-lymphocytes that can destroy the infected liver cells). However, if any sporozoites evaded the immune system they would then have the potential to be symptomatic and cause the clinical disease.
  • The second phase of the life cycle is the “erythrocytic” or blood phase. A vaccine here could prevent merozoite multiplication or the invasion of red blood cells. This approach is complicated by the lack of MHC molecule expression on the surface of erythrocytes. Instead, malarial antigens are expressed, and it is this towards which the antibodies could potentially be directed. Another approach would be to attempt to block the process of erythrocyte adherence to blood vessel walls. It is thought that this process is accountable for much of the clinical syndrome associated with malarial infection; therefore a vaccine given during this stage would be therapeutic and hence administered during clinical episodes to prevent further deterioration.
  • The last phase of the life cycle that has the potential to be targeted by a vaccine is the “sexual stage”. This would not give any protective benefits to the individual inoculated but would prevent further transmission of the parasite by preventing the gametocytes from producing multiple sporozoites in the gut wall of the mosquito. It therefore would be used as part of a policy directed at eliminating the parasite from areas of low prevalence or to prevent the development and spread of vaccine-resistant parasites. This type of transmission-blocking vaccine is potentially very important. The evolution of resistance in the malaria parasite occurs very quickly, potentially making any vaccine redundant within a few generations. This approach to the prevention of spread is therefore essential.
  • Another approach is to target the protein kinases, which are present during the entire lifecycle of the malaria parasite. Research is underway on this, yet production of an actual vaccine targeting these protein kinases may still take a long time.[31]
  • Report of a vaccine candidate capable to neutralize all tested strains of Plasmodium falciparum, the most deadly form of the parasite causing malaria, was published in Nature Communications by a team of scientists from the University of Oxford in 2011.[32] The viral vector vaccine, targeting a full-length P. falciparum reticulocyte-binding protein homologue 5 (PfRH5) was found to induce an antibody response in an animal model. The results of this new vaccine confirmed the utility of a key discovery reported from scientists at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, published in Nature.[33] The earlier publication reported P. falciparum relies on a red blood cell surface receptor, known as ‘basigin’, to invade the cells by binding a protein PfRH5 to the receptor.[33] Unlike other antigens of the malaria parasite which are often genetically diverse, the PfRH5 antigen appears to have little genetic diversity. It was found to induce very low antibody response in people naturally exposed to the parasite.[32] The high susceptibility of PfRH5 to the cross-strain neutralizing vaccine-induced antibody demonstrated a significant promise for preventing malaria in the long and often difficult road of vaccine development. According to Professor Adrian Hill, a Wellcome Trust Senior Investigator at the University of Oxford, the next step would be the safety tests of this vaccine. At the time (2011) it was projected that if these proved successful, the clinical trials in patients could begin within two to three years.[34]
  • PfEMP1, one of the proteins known as variant surface antigens (VSAs) produced by Plasmodium falciparum, was found to be a key target of the immune system’s response against the parasite. Studies of blood samples from 296 mostly Kenyan children by researchers of Burnet Institute and their cooperators showed that antibodies against PfEMP1 provide protective immunity, while antibodies developed against other surface antigens do not. Their results demonstrated that PfEMP1 could be a target to develop an effective vaccine which will reduce risk of developing malaria.[35][36]
  • Plasmodium vivax is the common malaria species found in India, Southeast Asia and South America. It is able to stay dormant in the liver and reemerge years later to elicit new infections. Two key proteins involved in the invasion of the red blood cells (RBC) by P. vivax are potential targets for drug or vaccine development. When the Duffy binding protein (DBP) of P. vivax binds the Duffy antigen (DARC) on the surface of RBC, process for the parasite to enter the RBC is initiated. Structures of the core region of DARC and the receptor binding pocket of DBP have been mapped by scientists at the Washington University in St. Louis. The researchers found that the binding is a two-step process which involves two copies of the parasite protein acting together like a pair of tongs which “clamp” two copies of DARC. Antibodies that interfere with the binding, by either targeting the key region of the DARC or the DBP will prevent the infection.[37][38]
  • Antibodies against the Schizont Egress Antigen-1 (PfSEA-1) were found to disable the parasite ability to rupture from the infected red blood cells (RBCs) thus prevent it from continuing with its life cycle. Researchers from Rhode Island Hospital identified Plasmodium falciparum PfSEA-1, a 244 kd malaria antigen expressed in the schizont-infected RBCs. Mice vaccinated with the recombinant PfSEA-1 produced antibodies which interrupted the schizont rupture from the RBCs and decreased the parasite replication. The vaccine protected the mice from lethal challenge of the parasite. Tanzanian and Kenyan children who have antibodies to PfSEA-1 were found to have fewer parasites in their blood stream and milder case of malaria. By blocking the schizont outlet, the PfSEA-1 vaccine may work synergistically with vaccines targeting the other stages of the malaria life cycle such as hepatocyte and RBC invasion.[39][40]

Mix of antigenic components

Increasing the potential immunity generated against Plasmodia can be achieved by attempting to target multiple phases in the life cycle. This is additionally beneficial in reducing the possibility of resistant parasites developing. The use of multiple-parasite antigens can therefore have a synergistic or additive effect.

One of the most successful vaccine candidates in clinical trials[which?][when?] consists of recombinant antigenic proteins to the circumsporozoite protein.[41] (This is discussed in more detail below.)[where?]

Delivery system

 

The selection of an appropriate system is fundamental in all vaccine development, but especially so in the case of malaria. A vaccine targeting several antigens may require delivery to different areas and by different means in order to elicit an effective response. Some adjuvants can direct the vaccine to the specifically targeted cell type—e.g. the use of Hepatitis B virus in the RTS,S vaccine to target infected hepatocytes—but in other cases, particularly when using combined antigenic vaccines, this approach is very complex. Some methods that have been attempted include the use of two vaccines, one directed at generating a blood response and the other a liver-stage response. These two vaccines could then be injected into two different sites, thus enabling the use of a more specific and potentially efficacious delivery system.

To increase, accelerate or modify the development of an immune response to a vaccine candidate it is often necessary to combine the antigenic substance to be delivered with an adjuvant or specialised delivery system. These terms are often used interchangeably in relation to vaccine development; however in most cases a distinction can be made. An adjuvant is typically thought of as a substance used in combination with the antigen to produce a more substantial and robust immune response than that elicited by the antigen alone. This is achieved through three mechanisms: by affecting the antigen delivery and presentation, by inducing the production of immunomodulatory cytokines, and by affecting the antigen presenting cells (APC). Adjuvants can consist of many different materials, from cell microparticles to other particulated delivery systems (e.g. liposomes).

Adjuvants are crucial in affecting the specificity and isotype of the necessary antibodies. They are thought to be able to potentiate the link between the innate and adaptive immune responses. Due to the diverse nature of substances that can potentially have this effect on the immune system, it is difficult to classify adjuvants into specific groups. In most circumstances they consist of easily identifiable components of micro-organisms that are recognised by the innate immune system cells. The role of delivery systems is primarily to direct the chosen adjuvant and antigen into target cells to attempt to increase the efficacy of the vaccine further, therefore acting synergistically with the adjuvant.

There is increasing concern that the use of very potent adjuvants could precipitate autoimmune responses, making it imperative that the vaccine is focused on the target cells only. Specific delivery systems can reduce this risk by limiting the potential toxicity and systemic distribution of newly developed adjuvants.

Studies into the efficacy of malaria vaccines developed to date[when?] have illustrated that the presence of an adjuvant is key in determining any protection gained against malaria. A large number of natural and synthetic adjuvants have been identified throughout the history of vaccine development. Options identified thus far for use combined with a malaria vaccine include mycobacterial cell walls, liposomes, monophosphoryl lipid A and squalene.

History

Individuals who are exposed to the parasite in endemic countries develop acquired immunity against disease and death. Such immunity does not however prevent malarial infection; immune individuals often harbour asymptomatic parasites in their blood. This does, however, imply that it is possible to create an immune response that protects against the harmful effects of the parasite.

Research shows that if immunoglobulin is taken from immune adults, purified and then given to individuals who have no protective immunity, some protection can be gained.[42]

Irradiated mosquitoes

In 1967, it was reported that a level of immunity to the Plasmodium berghei parasite could be given to mice by exposing them to sporozoites that had been irradiated by x-rays.[43] Subsequent human studies in the 1970s showed that humans could be immunized against Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum by exposing them to the bites of significant numbers of irradiated mosquitos.[44]

From 1989 to 1999, eleven volunteers recruited from the United States Public Health ServiceUnited States Army, and United States Navy were immunized against Plasmodium falciparum by the bites of 1001–2927 mosquitoes that had been irradiated with 15,000 rads of gamma rays from a Co-60 or Cs-137 source.[45] This level of radiation is sufficient to attenuate the malaria parasites so that, while they can still enter hepatic cells, they cannot develop into schizonts nor infect red blood cells.[45] Over a span of 42 weeks, 24 of 26 tests on the volunteers showed that they were protected from malaria.[46]

References

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  2. Jump up to:a b c “Malaria vaccine becomes first to achieve WHO-specified 75% efficacy goal”EurekAlert!. 23 April 2021. Retrieved 24 April2021.
  3. Jump up to:a b Roxby P (23 April 2021). “Malaria vaccine hailed as potential breakthrough”BBC News. Retrieved 24 April 2021.
  4. ^ “RTS,S malaria candidate vaccine reduces malaria by approximately one-third in African infants”malariavaccine.org. Malaria Vaccine Initiative Path. Archived from the original on 23 March 2013. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
  5. ^ “Commercial name of RTS,S”. Archived from the original on 5 April 2012. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
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  10. ^ Kelland K (7 October 2013). “GSK aims to market world’s first malaria vaccine”Reuters. Retrieved 9 December 2013.
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  12. ^ “GSK’s malaria candidate vaccine, Mosquirix (RTS,S), receives positive opinion from European regulators for the prevention of malaria in young children in sub-Saharan Africa” (Press release). GSK. 24 July 2015. Archived from the original on 28 July 2015. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
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  17. ^ Mandavilli A (6 October 2021). “A ‘Historical Event’: First Malaria Vaccine Approved by W.H.O.” The New York Times. Retrieved 6 October 2021.
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  20. ^ Lowe D (23 April 2021). “Great Malaria Vaccine News”Science Translational Medicine. Retrieved 24 April 2021.
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  23. ^ “Nature report describes complete protection after 10 weeks with three doses of PfSPZ- CVac” (Press release). 15 February 2017.
  24. ^ “SANARIA PfSPZ VACCINE AGAINST MALARIA RECEIVES FDA FAST TRACK DESIGNATION” (PDF). Sanaria Inc. 22 September 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 October 2016. Retrieved 23 January 2017.
  25. ^ Butler D (April 2019). “Promising malaria vaccine to be tested in first large field trial”. Naturedoi:10.1038/d41586-019-01232-4PMID 32291409.
  26. ^ “First vaccine to fully immunize against malaria builds on pandemic-driven RNA tech”academictimes.com. 25 February 2021. Retrieved 1 March 2021.
  27. ^ Graves P, Gelband H (April 2006). “Vaccines for preventing malaria (SPf66)”The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews(2): CD005966. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005966PMC 6532709PMID 16625647.
  28. ^ Ratanji KD, Derrick JP, Dearman RJ, Kimber I (April 2014). “Immunogenicity of therapeutic proteins: influence of aggregation”Journal of Immunotoxicology11 (2): 99–109. doi:10.3109/1547691X.2013.821564PMC 4002659PMID 23919460.
  29. ^ Reuters Staff (15 January 2021). “South African scientists discover new chemicals that kill malaria parasite”Reuters. Retrieved 2 February 2021.
  30. ^ Kennedy DA, Read AF (December 2018). “Why the evolution of vaccine resistance is less of a concern than the evolution of drug resistance”Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America115 (51): 12878–12886. doi:10.1073/pnas.1717159115PMC 6304978PMID 30559199.
  31. ^ Zhang VM, Chavchich M, Waters NC (March 2012). “Targeting protein kinases in the malaria parasite: update of an antimalarial drug target”Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry12 (5): 456–72. doi:10.2174/156802612799362922PMID 22242850. Archived from the original on 30 May 2013. Retrieved 23 March2020.
  32. Jump up to:a b Douglas AD, Williams AR, Illingworth JJ, Kamuyu G, Biswas S, Goodman AL, et al. (December 2011). “The blood-stage malaria antigen PfRH5 is susceptible to vaccine-inducible cross-strain neutralizing antibody”Nature Communications2 (12): 601. Bibcode:2011NatCo…2..601Ddoi:10.1038/ncomms1615PMC 3504505PMID 22186897.
  33. Jump up to:a b Crosnier C, Bustamante LY, Bartholdson SJ, Bei AK, Theron M, Uchikawa M, et al. (November 2011). “Basigin is a receptor essential for erythrocyte invasion by Plasmodium falciparum”Nature480 (7378): 534–7. Bibcode:2011Natur.480..534Cdoi:10.1038/nature10606PMC 3245779PMID 22080952.
  34. ^ Martino M (21 December 2011). “New candidate vaccine neutralizes all tested strains of malaria parasite”fiercebiotech.com. FierceBiotech. Retrieved 23 December 2011.
  35. ^ Parish T (2 August 2012). “Lifting malaria’s deadly veil: Mystery solved in quest for vaccine”. Burnet Institute. Retrieved 14 August2012.
  36. ^ Chan JA, Howell KB, Reiling L, Ataide R, Mackintosh CL, Fowkes FJ, et al. (September 2012). “Targets of antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in malaria immunity”The Journal of Clinical Investigation122 (9): 3227–38. doi:10.1172/JCI62182PMC 3428085PMID 22850879.
  37. ^ Mullin E (13 January 2014). “Scientists capture key protein structures that could aid malaria vaccine design”. fiercebiotechresearch.com. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
  38. ^ Batchelor JD, Malpede BM, Omattage NS, DeKoster GT, Henzler-Wildman KA, Tolia NH (January 2014). “Red blood cell invasion by Plasmodium vivax: structural basis for DBP engagement of DARC”PLOS Pathogens10 (1): e1003869. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1003869PMC 3887093PMID 24415938.
  39. ^ Mullin E (27 May 2014). “Antigen Discovery could advance malaria vaccine”. fiercebiotechresearch.com. Retrieved 22 June2014.
  40. ^ Raj DK, Nixon CP, Nixon CE, Dvorin JD, DiPetrillo CG, Pond-Tor S, et al. (May 2014). “Antibodies to PfSEA-1 block parasite egress from RBCs and protect against malaria infection”Science344(6186): 871–7. Bibcode:2014Sci…344..871Rdoi:10.1126/science.1254417PMC 4184151PMID 24855263.
  41. ^ Plassmeyer ML, Reiter K, Shimp RL, Kotova S, Smith PD, Hurt DE, et al. (September 2009). “Structure of the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein, a leading malaria vaccine candidate”The Journal of Biological Chemistry284 (39): 26951–63. doi:10.1074/jbc.M109.013706PMC 2785382PMID 19633296.
  42. ^ “Immunoglobulin Therapy & Other Medical Therapies for Antibody Deficiencies”Immune Deficiency Foundation. Retrieved 30 September 2019.
  43. ^ Nussenzweig RS, Vanderberg J, Most H, Orton C (October 1967). “Protective immunity produced by the injection of x-irradiated sporozoites of plasmodium berghei”. Nature216 (5111): 160–2. Bibcode:1967Natur.216..160Ndoi:10.1038/216160a0PMID 6057225S2CID 4283134.
  44. ^ Clyde DF (May 1975). “Immunization of man against falciparum and vivax malaria by use of attenuated sporozoites”. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene24 (3): 397–401. doi:10.4269/ajtmh.1975.24.397PMID 808142.
  45. Jump up to:a b Hoffman SL, Goh LM, Luke TC, Schneider I, Le TP, Doolan DL, et al. (April 2002). “Protection of humans against malaria by immunization with radiation-attenuated Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites”The Journal of Infectious Diseases185 (8): 1155–64. doi:10.1086/339409PMID 11930326.
  46. ^ Hoffman SL, Goh LM, Luke TC, Schneider I, Le TP, Doolan DL, et al. (April 2002). “Protection of humans against malaria by immunization with radiation-attenuated Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites”The Journal of Infectious Diseases185 (8): 1155–64. doi:10.1086/339409PMID 11930326.

Further reading

External links

Screened cup of malaria-infected mosquitoes which will infect a volunteer in a clinical trial
Vaccine description
TargetMalaria
Vaccine typeProtein subunit
Clinical data
Trade namesMosquirix
Routes of
administration
Intramuscular[1]
ATC codeNone
Legal status
Legal statusEU: Rx-only [1]
Identifiers
CAS Number149121-47-1
ChemSpidernone

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https://ec.europa.eu/environment/chemicals/reach/reach_en.htm#:~:text=REACH%20(EC%201907%2F2006),authorisation%20and%20restriction%20of%20chemicals.

REACH (EC 1907/2006)aims to improve the protection of human health and the environment through the better and earlier identification of the intrinsic properties of chemical substances. This is done by the four processes of REACH, namely the registration, evaluation, authorisation and restriction of chemicals. REACH also aims to enhance innovationand competitiveness of the EU chemicals industry.

“No data no market”: the REACH Regulation places responsibility on industry to manage the risks from chemicals and to provide safety information on the substances. Manufacturers and importers are required to gather information on the properties of their chemical substances, which will allow their safe handling, and to register the information in a central database in theEuropean Chemicals Agency (ECHA)in Helsinki. The Agency is the central point in the REACH system: it manages the databases necessary to operate the system, co-ordinates the in-depth evaluation of suspicious chemicals and is…

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Tisotumab vedotin


Pipeline – Tisotumab Vedotin – Seagen
A first-in-human antibody–drug conjugate: Hope for patients with advanced solid tumours? | Immunopaedia

Tisotumab vedotin

チソツマブベドチン (遺伝子組換え)Immunoglobulin G1, anti-(human blood-coagulation factor III) (human monoclonal HuMax-TF heavy chain), disulfide with human monoclonal HuMax-TF κ-chain, dimer, tetrakis(thioether) with N-[[[4-[[N-[6-(3-mercapto-2,5-dioxo-1-pyrrolidinyl)-1-oxohexyl]-L-valyl-N5-(aminocarbonyl)-L-ornithyl]amino]phenyl]methoxy]carbonyl]-N-methyl-L-valyl-N-[(1S,2R)-4-[(2S)-2-[(1R,2R)-3-[[(1R,2S)-2-hydroxy-1-methyl-2-phenylethyl]amino]-1-methoxy-2-methyl-3-oxopropyl]-1-pyrrolidinyl]-2-methoxy-1-[(1S)-1-methylpropyl]-4-oxobutyl]-N-methyl-L-valinamide 

  • HuMax-TF-ADC
  • Immunoglobulin G1, anti-(human tissue factor) (human monoclonal HuMax-TF heavy chain), disulfide with human monoclonal HuMax-TF κ-chain, dimer, tetrakis(thioether) with N-[[[4-[[N-[6-(3-mercapto-2,5-dioxo-1-pyrrolidinyl)-1-oxohexyl]-L-valyl-N5-(aminocarbonyl)-L-ornithyl]amino]phenyl]methoxy]carbonyl]-N-methyl-L-valyl-N-[(1S,2R)-4-[(2S)-2-[(1R,2R)-3-[[(1R,2S)-2-hydroxy-1-methyl-2-phenylethyl]amino]-1-methoxy-2-methyl-3-oxopropyl]-1-pyrrolidinyl]-2-methoxy-1-[(1S)-1-methylpropyl]-4-oxobutyl]-N-methyl-L-valinamide

Protein Sequence

Sequence Length: 1324, 448, 448, 214, 214multichain; modified (modifications unspecified)

FormulaC6418H9906N1710O2022S44.(C68H106N11O15)n
EfficacyAntineoplastic
  DiseaseCervical cancer
CommentAntibody-drug conjugateCAS:1418731-10-8
  • HuMax-TF-ADC
  • Tisotumab vedotin
  • Tisotumab vedotin [WHO-DD]
  • UNII-T41737F88A
  • WHO 10148

US FDA APPROVED 2021/9/20 , TIVDAK

25 Great American USA Animated Flags Gifs

FDA grants accelerated approval to tisotumab vedotin-tftv for recurrent or metastatic cervical cancer………..  https://www.fda.gov/drugs/resources-information-approved-drugs/fda-grants-accelerated-approval-tisotumab-vedotin-tftv-recurrent-or-metastatic-cervical-cancer

On September 20, 2021, the Food and Drug Administration granted accelerated approval to tisotumab vedotin-tftv (Tivdak, Seagen Inc.), a tissue factor-directed antibody and microtubule inhibitor conjugate, for adult patients with recurrent or metastatic cervical cancer with disease progression on or after chemotherapy.

Approval was based on innovaTV 204, an open-label, multicenter, single-arm clinical trial (NCT03438396). Efficacy was evaluated in 101 patients with recurrent or metastatic cervical cancer who had received no more than two prior systemic regimens in the recurrent or metastatic setting, including at least one prior platinum-based chemotherapy regimen. Sixty-nine percent of patients had received bevacizumab as part of prior systemic therapy. Patients received tisotumab vedotin-tftv 2 mg/kg every 3 weeks until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

The main efficacy outcome measures were confirmed objective response rate (ORR) as assessed by an independent review committee (IRC) using RECIST v1.1 and duration of response (DOR). The ORR was 24% (95% CI: 15.9%, 33.3%) with a median response duration of 8.3 months (95% CI: 4.2, not reached).

The most common adverse reactions (≥25%), including laboratory abnormalities, were hemoglobin decreased, fatigue, lymphocytes decreased, nausea, peripheral neuropathy, alopecia, epistaxis, conjunctival adverse reactions, hemorrhage, leukocytes decreased, creatinine increased, dry eye, prothrombin international normalized ratio increased, activated partial thromboplastin time prolonged, diarrhea, and rash. Product labeling includes a boxed warning for ocular toxicity.

The recommended dose is 2 mg/kg (up to a maximum of 200 mg for patients ≥100 kg) given as an intravenous infusion over 30 minutes every 3 weeks until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

View full prescribing information for Tivdak.

This review used the Assessment Aid, a voluntary submission from the applicant to facilitate the FDA’s assessment.

This application was granted priority review. A description of FDA expedited programs is in the Guidance for Industry: Expedited Programs for Serious Conditions-Drugs and Biologics.

A fully human monoclonal antibody specific for tissue factor conjugated to the microtubule-disrupting agent monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) via a protease-cleavable valine-citrulline linker.

Tisotumab vedotin, sold under the brand name Tivdak is a human monoclonal antibody used to treat cervical cancer.[1]

Tisotumab vedotin was approved for medical use in the United States in September 2021.[1][2]

Tisotumab vedotin is the international nonproprietary name (INN).[3]

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References

  1. Jump up to:a b c d https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2021/761208s000lbl.pdf
  2. ^ “Seagen and Genmab Announce FDA Accelerated Approval for Tivdak (tisotumab vedotin-tftv) in Previously Treated Recurrent or Metastatic Cervical Cancer”. Seagen. 20 September 2021. Retrieved 20 September 2021 – via Business Wire.
  3. ^ World Health Organization (2016). “International nonproprietary names for pharmaceutical substances (INN): recommended INN: list 75”. WHO Drug Information30 (1): 159–60. hdl:10665/331046.

External links

Monoclonal antibody
TypeWhole antibody
SourceHuman
TargetTissue factor (TF)
Clinical data
Trade namesTivdak
Other namesTisotumab vedotin-tftv
License dataUS DailyMedTisotumab_vedotin
Pregnancy
category
Contraindicated[1]
Routes of
administration
Intravenous
Drug classAntineoplastic
ATC codeNone
Legal status
Legal statusUS: ℞-only [1]
Identifiers
CAS Number1418731-10-8
UNIIT41737F88A
KEGGD11814

//////////Tisotumab vedotin, チソツマブベドチン (遺伝子組換え) , FDA 2021, APPROVALS 2021, Antineoplastic, CERVICAL CANCER, CANCER, MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY, UNII-T41737F88A, WHO 10148

JBI-802 BY JUBILANT


 

EXAMPLE

O=C(OC)/C=C/c1ccc(CNC2CC2c2ccc(F)cc2)cc1

EXAMPLE ONLY NOT CONFIRMED

JBI-802

  • Myeloid Leukemia Therapy
  • Solid Tumors Therapy

Epigenetic Modifier Modulators

  • Histone Deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) Inhibitors
  • Lysine-Specific Histone Demethylase 1A (KDM1A; LSD1) Inhibitors

Jubilant Therapeutics Announces Successful Completion of Pre-IND Meeting with FDA for its Novel Dual LSD1 and HDAC6 Inhibitor JB1-802

https://markets.businessinsider.com/news/stocks/jubilant-therapeutics-announces-successful-completion-of-pre-ind-meeting-with-fda-for-its-novel-dual-lsd1-and-hdac6-inhibitor-jb1-802-1030834551
PRESS RELEASE PR Newswire

Sep. 30, 2021, 10:23 AM

BEDMINSTER, NJ, Sept. 30, 2021 /PRNewswire/ — Jubilant Therapeutics Inc., a biopharmaceutical company advancing small molecule precision therapeutics to address unmet medical needs in oncology and autoimmune diseases, today announced the successful completion of a pre-IND (Investigational New Drug) meeting with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regarding the development plan, clinical study design and dosing strategy for the Phase I/II trial of JB1-802, a dual inhibitor of LSD1 and HDAC6, for the treatment of small cell lung cancer, treatment-induced neuro-endocrine prostate cancer and other mutation-defined neuroendocrine tumors.

Jubilant Therapeutics LogoA pre-IND meeting provides the drug development sponsor an opportunity for an open communication with the FDA to discuss the IND development plan and to obtain the agency’s guidance regarding planned clinical evaluation of the sponsor’s new drug candidate. After reviewing the preclinical data provided, plans for additional data generation and the Phase I/II clinical trial protocol, the FDA addressed Jubilant Therapeutics’ questions, provided guidance and aligned with the sponsor on the proposed development plan for JBI-802.

“We appreciate the FDA’s guidance as we endeavor to find an innovative new treatment for high unmet-need tumors with devastatingly low survival rates,” said Hari S Bhartia, Chairman, Jubilant Therapeutics Inc.

“We are pleased with the outcome of the pre-IND meeting with the FDA and plan to submit the IND application by the end of 2021,” said Syed Kazmi, Chief Executive Officer, Jubilant Therapeutics Inc.

About Jubilant TherapeuticsJubilant Therapeutics Inc. is a patient-centric biopharmaceutical company advancing potent and selective small molecule modulators to address unmet medical needs in oncology and autoimmune diseases. Its advanced discovery engine integrates structure-based design and computational algorithms to discover and develop novel, precision therapeutics against both first-in-class and validated but intractable targets in genetically defined patient populations. The Company plans to file an IND later this year for the first in class dual inhibitor of LSD1/HDAC6, followed by two additional INDs in 2022 with novel modulators of PRMT5 and PAD4 in oncology and inflammatory indications. Jubilant Therapeutics is headquartered in Bedminster NJ and guided by globally renowned key opinion leaders and scientific advisory board members. For more information, please visit www.jubilanttx.com or follow us on Twitter @JubilantTx and LinkedIn.

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SOURCE Jubilant Therapeutics Inc.

Mohd Zainuddin

Mohd Zainuddin

Director at Jubilant Therapeutics Inc

PATENT

IN 201641016129

PATENT

US20200308110 – CYCLOPROPYL-AMIDE COMPOUNDS AS DUAL LSD1/HDAC INHIBITORS

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=US306969204&tab=NATIONALBIBLIO&_cid=P21-KUANET-85789-2ApplicantsJubilant Epicore LLC
Inventors

Sridharan RAJAGOPAL
Mahanandeesha S. HALLUR
Purushottam DEWANG
Kannan MURUGAN
Durga Prasanna KUMAR C.H.
Pravin IYER
Chandrika MULAKALA
Dhanalakshmi SIVANANDHAN
Sreekala NAIR
Mohd ZAINUDDIN
Subramanyam Janardhan TANTRY
Chandru GAJENDRAN
Sriram RAJAGOPAL
Priority Data201641016129 09.05.2016 IN

Sridharan Rajagopal

Sridharan Rajagopal

Vice President-Head of Medicinal Chemistry at Jubilant Therapeutics Inc

Dhanalakshmi Sivanandhan

Dhanalakshmi Sivanandhan

Vice President at Jubilant Therapeutics Inc

Mahanandeesha Hallur

Mahanandeesha Hallur

Associate Director at Jubilant Biosys

Sreekala Nair

Sreekala Nair

Chandrika Mulakala

Chandrika Mulakala

  

Pravin Iyer

Pravin Iyer

Purushottam (M.) Dewang

Purushottam (M.) Dewang

ERRORS CALL ME , +919321316780

AND TO ADD TOO

SCHEMBL19590792.png

 EXAMPLE

CAS 2152635-16-8

C20 H20 F N O22-​Propenoic acid, 3-​[4-​[[[2-​(4-​fluorophenyl)​cyclopropyl]​amino]​methyl]​phenyl]​-​, methyl ester, (2E)​-Molecular Weight, 325.38

Patent

WO2017195216

I-3methyl (E)-3-(4-(((tert-butoxycarbonyl)(2-(4-((4-fluorobenzyl)oxy)phenyl) cyclopropyl)amino)methyl)phenyl)acrylate

Figure imgf000167_0001

The compound was synthesized using amine B6 and (E)-3-(4-Formyl-phenyl)-acrylic acid methyl esterfoUowing the procedure for the synthesis of 1-2. LC-MS m/z calcd for C32H34FN05, 531.2; found 532.2 [M+H]+.

Figure imgf000166_0003
Publication NumberTitlePriority DateGrant Date
EP-3455204-A1Cyclopropyl-amide compounds as dual lsd1/hdac inhibitors2016-05-09
WO-2017195216-A1Cyclopropyl-amide compounds as dual lsd1/hdac inhibitors2016-05-09
US-2020308110-A1Cyclopropyl-amide compounds as dual lsd1/hdac inhibitors2016-05-09
wdt-16

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Step 2: (E)-3-[4-({tert-Butoxycarbonyl-[2-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-cyclopropyl]-amino}-methyl)-phenyl]-acrylic acid methyl ester (I-2)


(MOL)(CDX)
      To a stirred solution of (E)-3-(4-{[2-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-cyclopropylamino]-methyl}-phenyl)-acrylic acid methyl ester (XLVI, 0.25 g, 0.76 mmol) in tetrahydrofuran and water mixture (6 mL, 1:1) was added sodium bicarbonate (0.087 g, 2.3 mmol) and Boc anhydride (0.22 mL, 0.92 mmol) at room temperature and the resulting mixture was stirred at that temperature for 2 h. The progress of the reaction was monitored by TLC. The reaction mixture was diluted with ethylacetate and the organic portion was washed with water and brine solution, dried over sodium sulphate and concentrated under reduced pressure to get the crude product which was purified by column chromatography using ethylacetate-hexane gradient to afford the titled product as sticky oil (I-2, 0.19 g, 58%). LC-MS m/z calcd for C 2528FNO 4, 425.2; found 326.3 [M-Boc+1] +.
      The following compounds were synthesized using procedure for the synthesize of I-2

REFJBI-802, novel dual inhibitor of LSD1-HDAC6 for treatment of cancerSivanandhan, D.; Rajagopal, S.; Nair, S.; et al.Annu Meet Am Assoc Cancer Res (AACR) · 2020-06-22 / 2020-06-24 · Virtual, N/A · Abst 1756Synthesis and optimization of a novel series of LSD1-HDAC dual inhibitors led to the discovery of JBI-802 as the lead compound, with IC50 of 0.05 mcM against LSD1 and isoform selective HDAC6/8 activity, with IC50 of 0.011 and 0.098 mcM for HDAC6 and HDAC8, respectively. The candidate also showed excellent selectivity against other HDACs, with approximately 77-fold selectivity for HDAC6. In vitro, JBI-802 showed strong antiproliferative activity on selected cell lines, including acute myeloid leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, lymphoma and certain solid tumors, such as small cell lung cancer and sarcoma. In vivo, JBI-802 demonstrated strong efficacy in erythroleukemia xenograft model, leading to prolonged survival of mice bearing HEL92.1.7 tumors. The candidate showed excellent dose-response and superior efficacy compared to single agents in this model, with ED50 of approximately 6.25 mg/kg twice-daily by oral administration. When evaluated in CT-26 syngeneic model, JBI-802 showed promising activity as single agent and in the combination of JBI-802 plus anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) monoclonal antibody (MAb), with approximately 80% tumor growth inhibition observed for the combination. Exploratory toxicology studies showed that JBI-802 was well tolerated at efficacious doses. Further preclinical IND-enabling studies are currently underway for this molecule, which is to be developed as a clinical candidate for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia and other tumor types. 

REFNovel dual inhibitor of LSD1-HDAC6/8 for treatment of cancerDhanalakshmi, S.; Rajagopal, S.; Sadhu, N.; et al.62nd Annu Meet Am Soc Hematol · 2020-12-05 / 2020-12-08 · Virtual, N/A · Abst 3378 Blood 2020, 136(Suppl. 1) 


REFJubilant Therapeutics Presents Preclinical Data at the American Association for Cancer Research, Reveals Unique Dual-Action Anti-Cancer Mechanism Underscoring First-in-Class Pipeline Asset in Hematological Tumors 
Jubilant Therapeutics Press Release 2020, June 22

////////////////JB1-802, JUBILANT, CANCER,  PRECLINICAL

EXTRAS…………

PATENTWO2021062327 – FUSED PYRIMIDINE COMPOUNDS, COMPOSITIONS AND MEDICINAL APPLICATIONS THEREOFhttps://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2021062327&_cid=P21-KUAMRR-83330-1PCT/US2020/052953

Priority Data

201941039277 27.09.2019 IN

Inventors

  • VENKATESHAPPA, Chandregowda
  • SIVANANDHAN, Dhanalakshmi
  • RAJAGOPAL, Sridharan
  • ROTH, Bruce
  • PANDEY, Anjali
  • SAXTON, Tracy
  • HALLUR, Gurulingappa
  • MADHYASTHA, Naveena
  • SADHU M, Naveen

Lung cancer accounts for the greatest number of cancer deaths, and approximately 85% of lung cancer cases are non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The development of targeted therapies for lung cancer has primarily focused on tumors displaying specific oncogenic drivers, namely mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK). Three generations of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been developed for cancers with the most frequently observed EGFR mutations, however, other oncogenic drivers in the EGFR family of receptor tyrosine kinases have received less research and development focus and several oncogenic drivers, including insertions in the exon 20 gene of EGFR, have no currently approved therapeutics to treat their cancers.

[0003] The mutation, amplification and/or overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), another member of the human epidermal growth factor receptor family of receptor tyrosine kinases, has been implicated in the oncogenesis of several cancers, including lung, breast, ovarian, and gastric cancers. Although targeted therapies such as trastuzumab and lapatinib have shown clinical efficacy especially in breast tumors, their utility in lung cancer has been limited. It is likely that this variation is due to tissue-specific factors, including the low potency of kinase inhibitors like lapatinib for the mutagenic alterations in HER2 that are observed in the lung cancer patient population, including insertions in the exon 20 gene of HER2.

[0004] Given that many patients with mutations in EGFR and HER2 do not derive clinical benefit from currently available therapies against these targets, there remains a significant unmet need for the development of novel therapies for the treatment of cancers associated with EGFR and HER2 mutations.

Compound 49: (E)-N-(3-(3-benzyl-7-((1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)amino)-2-oxo-3,4-dihydropyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)phenyl)-4-(dimethylamino)but-2-enamide

Step 1: Synthesis of (E)-4-(dimethylamino)but-2-enoyl chloride

[0280] To a stirred mixture of acetonitrile (2 mL) and DMF (2 drop) under N2 atmosphere was added N,N-dimethylamino crotonic acid hydrochloride (0.1 g, 0.77 mmol). After 10 min, this solution was cooled to 0-5 °C. Oxalyl chloride (0.122 g, 0.968 mmol) was added and the reaction mixture was maintained at 0-5 °C for 30 min. It was allowed to warm to RT and stirring was continued for 2 h. It was then heated to 40 °C for 5 min and again brought to RT and stirred for 10 min. Formation of product was confirmed by TLC and the reaction mass was used as such to the next step without any workup.

Step-2: Synthesis of (E)-N-(3-(3-benzyl-7-((1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)amino)-2-oxo-3,4-dihydropyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)phenyl)-4-(dimethylamino)but-2-enamide (Compound 49)

[0281] 1-(3-Aminophenyl)-3-benzyl-7-((1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)amino)-3,4-dihydropyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one (0.11g, 0.7 mmol) in DMP (2 mL) was cooled to -15 °C and then (E)-4-(dimethylamino)but-2-enoylchloride was added. The reaction mixture was stirred for 1 h at -15 °C to RT. After the completion of reaction, the reaction mass was quenched with ice water, sodium bicarbonate solution and extracted with DCM (100 mL x 2). The combined organic layer was washed with cold water (3 x 50 mL), brine solution (10 mL), dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and evaporated under reduced pressure to obtain crude product. The crude product was purified by prep HPLC to get pure product (E)-N-(3-(3-benzyl-7-((1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)amino)-2-oxo-3,4-dihydropyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)phenyl)-4-(dimethylamino)but-2-enamide (Compound 49, 0.022 g, 16 % yield) as white solid.1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 10.21 (s, 1H), 9.32 (s, 1H), 8.06 (s, 1H), 7.76 (bs, 1H) 7.65 (s, 1H), 7.48 (bs, 1H), 7.39-7.29 (m, 5H), 7.03 (d, J = 7.2 Hz, 2H), 6.74-6.68 (m, 1H), 6.62 (s, 1H), 6.25 (d, J = 15.2 Hz, 1H), 4.62 (s, 2H), 4.37 (s, 2H), 3.47 (s, 3H), 3.03 (d, J = 5.6 Hz, 2H), 2.15 (s, 6H); LCMS Calcd for [M+H] + 538.2, found 538.5

Compound 50: (E)-N-(3-(3-benzyl-7-((1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)amino)-2-oxo-3,4-dihydropyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)phenyl)-3-chloroacrylamide

Step-1: Synthesis of (Z)-3-chloroacrylic acid

[0282] To a stirred solution propiolic acid (2 g, 28.5 mmol) in DMF (15 mL) under N2 atmosphere was added thionyl chloride (4.07 g, 34.2 moles) slowly and the reaction mixture was maintained at 25 °C for 1 h. The reaction was monitored by TLC, after the completion of reaction, the residue was poured into ice and the resulting aqueous solution was extracted with ether (3 x100 mL). The organic layer was washed with brine (20 mL), dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and evaporated under reduced pressure to obtain crude product. The crude product was purified to get pure product (Z)-3-chloroacrylic acid (1.9 g, 62.9 % yield). LCMS Calcd for [M-H] +, 104.98, found 105.1

Step-2: Synthesis of (Z)-3-chloroacryloyl chloride

[0283] To a stirred solution of acetonitrile (3 mL) and DMF (3 drop) under N2 atmosphere was added of (Z)-3-chloroacrylic acid (0.2 g, 1.87 mmol). After 10 min this solution was cooled 0-5 °C. Oxalyl chloride (0.122 g, 0.968 mmol) was added and the reaction mixture was maintained at 0-5 °C for 30 min. It was allowed to warm to RT and stirring was continued for 2 h to get (Z)-3-chloroacryloyl chloride. Formation of product was confirmed by TLC and the reaction mass was used as such to the next step without any workup.

Step-3: Synthesis of (E)-3-((3-(3-benzyl-7-((1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)amino)-2-oxo-3,4-dihydropyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)phenyl)amino)acryloyl chloride (Compound 50)

[0284] A solution of 1-(3-Aminophenyl)-3-benzyl-7-((1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)amino)-3,4-dihydropyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one (0.11 g, 0.7 mmol) in DMP (2 mL) was cooled to -15 °C and then (Z)-3-chloroacryloyl chloride was added. The reaction mixture was stirred for 1 h at -15 °C to RT. The reaction was monitored by TLC. After the completion of reaction, reaction mass was quenched with ice water and sodium bicarbonate solution. The aqueous layer was e 0.028 g, 22% yield) as a white solid.1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 10.35 (s, 1H), 9.32 (s, 1H), 8.06 (s, 1H), 7.74 (s, 1H), 7.59 (s, 1H), 7.51 (s, 1H), 7.41-7.35 (m, 5H), 7.30-7.29 (m, 1H), 7.08-7.02 (m, 2H), 6.62-6.58 (m, 2H), 4.62 (s, 2H), 4.37 (s, 2H), 3.47 (s, 3H); LCMS Calcd for [M+H] + 515.1, LCMS found 515.2

Compound 51: (E)-N-(3-(7-((3-chloro-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)amino)-3-phenyl-2-thioxo-3,4-dihydropyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)phenyl)-4-(dimethylamino)but-2-enamide

Step-1: Synthesis of 2,4-dichloro-5-(chloromethyl)pyrimidine

[0285] Title compound was prepared in a similar manner to general procedure I.5-(hydroxymethyl)pyrimidine-2,4-diol (15 g, 106 mmol) gave 2,4-dichloro-5-(chloromethyl)pyrimidine (11.50 g, 55% yield) as a white solid.1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): δ 8.66 (s, 1H), 4.65 (s, 2H).

Step-2: Synthesis of 2,4-dichloro-5-(iodomethyl)pyrimidine

[0286] Title compound was prepared in a similar manner to general procedure J.2,4-dichloro-5-(chloromethyl)pyrimidine (11.50 g, 58.20 mmol) on treatment with NaI (10.50 g, 69.0 mmol) in acetone (100 mL) resulted in 2,4-dichloro-5-(iodomethyl)pyrimidine (15.20 g, 91% yield). The solid was immediately taken up in toluene and stored under refrigeration.1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): δ 8.60 (s, 1H), 4.39 (s, 2H).

Step-3: Synthesis of N-((2,4-dichloropyrimidin-5-yl)methyl)aniline

[0287] A solution of iodo compound (18, 7.0 g, 24.20 mmol) in toluene (50 mL) was cooled to 0 °C and aniline (2.20 g, 24.20 mmol) was added. The reaction mixture was stirred for 30 min at 0 °C. Then a solution of sodium hydroxide (1.30 g, 32.50 mmol) in water (5 ml) was added and reaction mixture was stirred for 16 h at RT. The reaction was monitored by TLC. After completion of the reaction, water (25 mL) was added and extracted with ethyl acetate (2 x 100 mL). The organic layer was washed with brine solution, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and evaporated under reduced pressure to obtain the crude residue. The crude compound was purified by silica gel column chromatography to afford the title compound as a white solid (10 g, 81% yield). LCMS Calcd for [M+H] + 254.11, found 254.09

Step-4: Synthesis of tert-butyl (3-((2-chloro-5-((phenylamino)methyl)pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)phenyl)carbamate

[0288] To a stirred solution of N-((2,4-dichloropyrimidin-5-yl)methyl)aniline (4.0 g, 15.08 mmol) in IPA (30 mL), tert-butyl (3-aminophenyl)carbamate (4.90 g, 23.0 mmol) and DIPEA (8.20 mL, 47 mmol) were added. The reaction mixture was heated at 100 °C for 16 h in a sealed tube. Solvent was then evaporated and the crude thus obtained was purified by flash column chromatography to afford the title compound as off white solid (2.50 g, 37% yield). LCMS Calcd for [M+H] + 425.92, found 426.35

Step-5: Synthesis of tert-butyl (3-(7-chloro-3-phenyl-2-thioxo-3,4-dihydropyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)phenyl)carbamate

[0289] To a solution of tert-butyl (3-((2-chloro-5-((phenylamino)methyl)pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)phenyl)carbamate (1.50 g, 3.50 mmol) in THF (35 mL) was added DIPEA (2.40 mL, 14.10 mmol) and thiophosgene (0.27 g, 3.50 mmol) at 0 °C. The reaction mixture was stirred at RT for 24 h with TLC monitoring. After completion of the reaction, sodium bicarbonate solution was added. The reaction mixture was partitioned between DCM (2 x 100 mL) and water (50 mL). The organic layer was washed with brine (10 mL), dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and evaporated under reduced pressure to obtain crude product. The crude product was purified by silica gel column chromatography to afford the title compound as a yellow solid (1.36 g, 82% yield). LCMS Calcd for [M+H] + 467.97, found 468.27

Step-6: Synthesis of tert-butyl (3-(7-((3-chloro-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)amino)-3-phenyl-2-thioxo-3,4-dihydropyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)phenyl)carbamate

[0290] To a solution of tert-butyl (3-(7-chloro-3-phenyl-2-thioxo-3,4-dihydropyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)phenyl)carbamate (1.30 g, 2.78 mmol) in IPA (15 mL) was added 3-

chloro-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-amine (0.44 g, 3.34 mmol) and TFA (1 mL). The reaction mixture was heated for 16 h at 110 °C. Reaction was monitored by TLC. After the completion of reaction, the reaction mixture was concentrated, water (10 mL) and saturated sodium bicarbonate (20 mL) solution were added to the residue and extracted with DCM (3 x 200 mL). The combined organic layer was washed with brine solution, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and evaporated under reduced pressure to obtain the title compound (1.30 g) that was used as such for the next step without further purification. LCMS Calcd for [M+H] + 563.08, found 562.90

Step-7: Synthesis of 1-(3-aminophenyl)-7-((3-chloro-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)amino)-3-phenyl-3,4-dihydropyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidine-2(1H)-thione

[0291] To an ice-cold solution of tert-butyl (3-(7-((3-chloro-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)amino)-3-phenyl-2-thioxo-3,4-dihydropyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)phenyl)carbamate (1.30 g, 2.30 mmol) in DCM (20 mL) and MeOH (10 mL) was added 4N HCl in dioxane (5 mL). The reaction mixture was stirred for 16 h at RT. The reaction was monitored by TLC. After completion of the reaction, the solvent was evaporated followed by addition of water (10 mL) and saturated sodium bicarbonate (20 mL) solution and extraction with DCM (3 x 200 mL). The combined organic layer was washed with brine solution, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and evaporated under reduced pressure to obtain crude product. The crude product was purified by silica gel column chromatography to afford the title compound as a brown solid (0.20 g). LCMS Calcd for [M+H] + 462.96, found 463.0. Purity: 68%

Step-8: Synthesis of (E)-N-(3-(7-((3-chloro-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)amino)-3-phenyl-2-thioxo-3,4-dihydropyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)phenyl)-4-(dimethylamino)but-2-enamide (Compound 51)

[0292] To an ice-cold solution of 1-(3-aminophenyl)-7-((3-chloro-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)amino)-3-phenyl-3,4-dihydropyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidine-2(1H)-thione (0.18 g, 0.39 mmol) and trans-N,N-dimethylaminocrotonic acid hydrochloride (0.077 g, 0.47 mmol) in dichloromethane (10 mL) was added triethyl amine (1.2 mmol) followed by drop wise addition of propylphosphonic anhydride (T3P) (0.26 g, 0.97 mmol). The mixture was stirred at RT for 6 h. Completion of the reaction was monitored by TLC. The reaction mixture was portioned between 5% methanol in dichloromethane and saturated bicarbonate solution. The organic phase was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated. The crude obtained was purified by silica gel chromatography to afford the title compound as off white solid (Compound 51, 0.010 g, 5% yield).1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 10.36 (bs, 1H), 8.97 (bs, 1H), 8.25 (s, 1H), 7.72 (bs, 2H), 7.48-7.42 (m, 5H), 7.36-7.32 (m, 1H), 7.03 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1H), 6.76-6.60 (m, 2H), 6.30 (d, J = 14.8 Hz, 1H), 4.95 (s, 2H), 3.50 (s, 3H), 3.12 (bs, 2H), 2.21 (s, 6H); LCMS Calcd for [M+H] + 574.10, found 574.41

Scheme 28: Preparation of (E)-N-(3-(3-benzyl-7-((1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)amino)-2-oxo-3,4-dihydropyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)phenyl)-4-(dimethylamino)but-2-enamide (Compound 52):

 Step 1: Preparation of ethyl 4-((3-((tert-butoxycarbonyl) amino) phenyl) amino)-2-(methylthio) pyrimidine-5-carboxylate (106):

[0293] Title compound (106) was prepared as off-white solid (142 g; Yield: 74%) in a manner substantially similar to procedure mentioned in General procedure O.1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): ^ 10.36 (s, 1H), 8.77 (d, 1H), 7.89 (s, 1H), 7.35 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 7.25-7.22 (m, 1H), 7.03 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 6.51 (s, 1H), 4.35 (q, J = 7.2 Hz, 2H), 2.54 (s, 3H), 1.51 (s, 9H), 1.42-1.38 (m, 3H). LCMS: [M+H]+ 405.21, 89.28%.

Step 2: Preparation of tert-butyl (3-((5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-(methylthio)pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)phenyl)carbamate (107):

[0294] Title compound was prepared in a manner substantially similar to procedure mentioned in General procedure P. The crude was triturated with dichloromethane afforded 107 as off white solid (40.0 g; Yield: 31%).1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): ^ 8.09 (s, 1H), 7.86 (m, 2H),

7.36 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 7.25-7.15 (m, 1H), 6.95 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 6.55 (s, 1H), 4.59 (s, 2H), 2.50 (s, 3H), 1.51 (s, 9H). LCMS: [M+H]+ 363.05, 91.24%.

Step 3: Preparation of tert-butyl (3-((5-formyl-2-(methylthio)pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)phenyl)carbamate (108):

[0295] Title compound (108) was prepared as a pale yellow solid (31.0 g; Yield: 78%) in a manner substantially similar to procedure mentioned in General procedure Q.1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): ^ 10.59 (s, 1H), 9.75 (s, 1H), 8.42 (s, 1H), 7.97 (s, 1H), 7.35 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 7.04 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 6.59 (s, 1H), 3.48 (s, 1H), 2.58 (s, 3H), 1.52 (s, 9H). LCMS: [M+H]+ 361.30, 97.51%.

Step 4: Preparation of tert-butyl (E)-(3-((5-((benzylimino)methyl)-2(methylthio)pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)phenyl)carbamate (110):

[0296] Title compound (110) was prepared as a yellow solid (28 g; Yield: 72%) in a manner substantially similar to procedure mentioned in General procedure R.1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): ^ 12.15 (s, 1H), 8.31 (s, 1H), 8.16 (s, 1H), 7.91 (s, 1H), 7.41 (m, 4H), 7.35-7.33 (m, 1H), 7.32-7.29 (m, 1H), 7.26-7.22 (m, 1H), 7.03 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 6.46 (s, 1H), 4.84 (s, 2H), 2.59 (s, 3H), 1.52 (s, 9H). LCMS: [M+H]+ 450.38; 99.66%.

Step 5: Preparation of tert-butyl (3-((5-((benzylamino)methyl)-2-(methylthio)pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)phenyl)carbamate (111):

[0297] Title compound (111) was prepared as a pale yellow solid (40 g; Yield: 80%) in a manner substantially similar to procedure mentioned in General procedure S. LCMS: [M+H]+ 452.44; 83.57%

Step 6: Preparation of tert-butyl (3-(3-benzyl-7-(methylthio)-2-oxo-3,4-dihydropyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)phenyl)carbamate (112):

[0298] Title compound was prepared in a manner substantially similar to procedure mentioned in General procedure T. The crude was triturated with diethyl ether afforded 112 as off white solid (12 g; Yield: 28%).1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): ^ 8.03 (s, 1H), 7.50 (s, 1H), 7.37 (m, 6H), 7.26 (m, 1H), 6.96 (m, 1H), 6.59 (s, 1H), 4.69 (s, 2H), 4.34 (s, 2H), 2.16 (s, 3H), 1.50 (s, 9H). LCMS: [M+H]+ 478.16; 95.62%.

Step 7: Preparation of tert-butyl (3-(3-benzyl-7-(methylsulfonyl)-2-oxo-3,4-dihydropyrimido [4,5-d]pyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)phenyl)carbamate (113):

[0299] Title compound was prepared in a manner substantially similar to procedure mentioned in General procedure U. The crude was triturated with diethyl ether afforded 113 as an off white solid (8.0 g; Yield: 76%).1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): ^ 8.39 (s, 1H), 7.63 (s, 1H), 7.40 (m, 6H), 7.17 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 6.95 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 6.61 (s, 1H), 4.71 (s, 2H), 4.48 (s, 2H), 2.97 (s, 3H), 1.49 (s, 9H). LCMS: [M+H]+ 510.31, 93.69%.

Step 8: Preparation of tert-butyl (3-(3-benzyl-7-((1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)amino)-2-oxo-3,4-dihydropyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)phenyl)carbamate (114):

[0300] Title compound was prepared in a manner substantially similar to General procedure V, tert-butyl (3-(3-benzyl-7-(methylsulfonyl)-2-oxo-3,4-dihydropyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)phenyl)carbamate (113) and 1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-3-amine (41) gave (tert-butyl (3-(3-benzyl-7-((1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)amino)-2-oxo-3,4-dihydropyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)phenyl)carbamate (114) as a brown solid (Yield: 77%), which was used directly for the next step without any further purification. MS: [M+H]+ 527.46.

Step 9: Preparation of 1-(3-aminophenyl)-3-benzyl-7-((1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)amino)-3,4-dihydropyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one (115):

[0301] Title compound was prepared in a manner substantially similar to General procedure W, tert-butyl (3-(3-benzyl-7-((1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)amino)-2-oxo-3,4-dihydropyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)phenyl)carbamate (114) gave 1-(3-aminophenyl)-3-benzyl-7-((1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)amino)-3,4-dihydropyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one (115) as a brown solid (Yield: 93%), which was used directly for the next step. MS: [M+H]+ 427.44.

Step 10: Preparation of (E)-N-(3-(3-benzyl-7-((1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)amino)-2-oxo-3,4-dihydropyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)phenyl)-4-(dimethylamino)but-2-enamide (Compound 52):

[0302] Title compound was prepared in a manner substantially similar General procedure X, 1-(3-aminophenyl)-3-benzyl-7-((1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)amino)-3,4-dihydropyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one (115) and trans-N,N-dimethylaminocrotonic acid hydrochloride gave (E)-N-(3-(3-benzyl-7-((1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)amino)-2-oxo-3,4-dihydropyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)phenyl)-4-(dimethylamino)but-2-enamide Compound 52, as a white solid (48 mg; Yield: 13%), after prep-HPLC purification.1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): δ 10.17 (s, 1H), 9.51 (s, 1H), 8.08 (s, 1H), 7.72 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 7.60 (s, 1H), 7.43-7.35 (m, 5H), 7.33-7.29 (m, 1H), 7.10 (s, 1H), 7.01 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 6.75-6.69 (m, 1H), 6.27 (d, J = 15.3 Hz, 1H), 5.51 (s, 1H), 4.62 (s, 2H), 4.39 (s, 2H), 3.59 (s, 3H), 3.06 (d, J = 4.8 Hz, 2H), 2.17 (s, 6H). MS: [M+H]+ 538.32.

Scheme 30: Alternative Preparation of (E)-N-(3-(7-((3-chloro-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4- yl)amino)-2-oxo-3-phenyl-3,4-dihydropyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)phenyl)-4- (dimethylamino)but-2-enamide (Compound 35):

Step 1: Preparation of 5-(hydroxymethyl)pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione (119):

[0308] An ice-cold solution of pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione (118) (10 g, 89.21 mmol) and paraformaldehyde (9.63 g, 107.05 mmol) in aqueous potassium hydroxide (132 mL, 0.5 M,

66.74 mmol) was heated at 55 °C for 14 hours. After completion of starting material (TLC), the reaction mixture was cooled to 0 °C and the pH was adjusted to 6 with 12N hydrochloric acid, the resulting white precipitate was filtered through sintered funnel and washed with diethyl ether afforded 119 as a white solid (6.3 g, Yield: 50%) which was used directly for the next step.1H-NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6): ^ 10.98 (bs, 1H), 10.64 (bs, 1H), 7.24 (s, 1H), 4.78 (m, 1H), 4.12 (d, J = 12.8 Hz, 2H). LCMS: [M+H]+ 143.04 (99.92% purity).

Step 2: Preparation of 2,4-dichloro-5-(chloromethyl)pyrimidine (120):

[0309] To an ice-cold solution of 5-(hydroxymethyl)pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione (119) (10 g, 70.36 mmol) in toluene (25 mL) was added phosphoryl chloride (14 mL, 140.72 mmol) then N,N-diisopropylethylamine (37 mL, 211 mmol). The reaction mixture was heated at 120 °C for 16 hours. After the complete disappearance of starting material on TLC, the reaction mixture was quenched slowly with sodium bicarbonate solution and extracted with ethyl acetate (3 x 200 mL). The combined organic layer was washed with brine, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filtered and evaporated under reduced pressure afforded 120 as a brown solid (12 g, Yield: 86%) which was used directly for the next step.1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): ^ 8.66 (s, 1H), 4.64 (s, 2H). MS: [M+H]+ 197.0

Step 3: Preparation of 2,4-dichloro-5-(iodomethyl)pyrimidine (121):

[0310] To a solution of 2,4-dichloro-5-(chloromethyl)pyrimidine (120) (8.0 g, 40.51 mmol in acetone (40 mL) was added sodium iodide (9.71 g, 64.82 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 30 min and heated to reflux for 2 hours. After completion of reaction (TLC monitoring), the reaction mixture cooled to room temperature. The resulting white precipitate was filtered through sintered funnel and washed with acetone. The filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure afforded 121 as a brown solid (10 g, Yield: 85%) which was used directly for the next step.1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): ^ 8.60 (s, 1H), 4.39 (s, 2H). Step 4: Preparation of N-((2,4-dichloropyrimidin-5-yl)methyl)aniline (122):

[0311] To an ice-cold solution of 2, 4-dichloro-5-(iodomethyl)pyrimidine (121) (5.0 g, 17.30 mmol) in acetone (50 mL) was added potassium carbonate (5.26 g, 38.06 mmol) and aniline (1.93 g, 20.76 mmol). The resulting reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 16 hours. After completion the reaction (as per TLC monitoring), the resulting white precipitate was filtered through sintered funnel and washed with acetone. The filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure and crude was purified by column chromatography on silica gel (100-200 mesh) using 15% ethyl acetate-hexane as an eluent afforded 122 as a brown solid (2.5 g, Yield: 57%).1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): ^ 8.61 (s, 1H), 7.07 (t, J = 7.6 Hz, 2H), 6.58 (m, 3H), 6.30 (bs, 1H), 4.33 (m, 2H). LCMS: [M+H]+ 254.03 (99.01% purity).

Step 5: Preparation of tert-butyl (3-(7-chloro-2-oxo-3-phenyl-3,4-dihydropyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)phenyl)carbamate (123):

[0312] To an ice-cold solution of N-((2,4-dichloropyrimidin-5-yl)methyl)aniline (122) (500 mg, 1.96 mmol), in isopropanol (5 mL) was added N,N-diisopropylethylamine (1.47 mL, 8.42 mmol) and tert-butyl (3-aminophenyl)carbamate (105) (409 mg, 1.96 mmol). The resulting reaction mixture was heated at 100 °C for 16 hours in a sealed tube. After completion of reaction (TLC monitoring), the solvent was then evaporated under reduced pressure and resulting crude was purified by column chromatography on silica gel (100-200 mesh) using 30% ethyl acetate-hexane as an eluent afforded 123 as a brown solid (500 mg, Yield: 60%).1H-NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 9.41 (s, 1H), 8.96 (s, 1H), 8.10 (s, 1H), 7.73 (s, 1H), 7.25 (m, 2H), 7.12 (m, 3H), 6.61 (m, 3H), 6.14 (t, J = 7.2 Hz, 1H), 4.26 (m, 2H) and 1.53 (s, 9H). LCMS: [M+H]+ 426.14 (93% purity).

Step 6: Preparation of tert-butyl (3-(7-chloro-2-oxo-3-phenyl-3,4-dihydropyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)phenyl)carbamate (124):

[0313] To an ice-cold solution of tert-butyl (3-(7-chloro-2-oxo-3-phenyl-3,4-dihydropyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)phenyl)carbamate (123) (500 mg, 1.17 mmol) in tetrahydrofuran (6 mL) was added N,N-diisopropylethylamine (0.81 ml, 4.68 mmol) and triphosgene (139 mg, 0.46 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 3 hours. After completion of the reaction (TLC monitoring), aqueous triethylamine solution was added and extracted with dichloromethane (3 times). The combined organic layer was washed with brine and dried over sodium sulfate and evaporated under reduced pressure to obtain the crude residue. The crude was purified by column chromatography on silica gel (100-200 mesh) using 30% ethyl acetate-hexane as an eluent afforded 124 as a brown solid (450 mg, Yield: 85%).1H-NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 9.54 (s, 1H), 8.43 (s, 1H), 7.58 (s, 1H), 7.44 (m, 4H), 7.29 (t, J = 7.2 Hz, 3H), 6.94 (s, 1H), 5.0 (s, 2H) and 1.47 (s, 9H). LCMS: [M+H]+ 452.27 (99% purity).

Step 7: Preparation of tert-butyl (3-(7-((3-chloro-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)amino)-2-oxo-3-phenyl-3,4-dihydropyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)phenyl)carbamate (125):

[0314] Title compound was prepared in a manner substantially similar to procedure mentioned in General procedure V, (tert-butyl(3-(7-chloro-2-oxo-3-phenyl-3,4-dihydropyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)phenyl)carbamate (124) and 3-chloro-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-amine (44) gave tert-butyl (3-(7-((3-chloro-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)amino)-2-oxo-3-phenyl-3,4-dihydropyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)phenyl)carbamate (125) as a brown solid in 70% yield, which was used directly for the next step. MS: [M+H]+ 547.17.

Step 8: Preparation of 1-(3-aminophenyl)-7-((3-chloro-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)amino)-3-phenyl-3,4-dihydropyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one (126):

[0315] Title compound was prepared in a manner substantially similar to procedure mentioned in General procedure W, tert-butyl (3-(7-((3-chloro-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)amino)-2-oxo-3-phenyl-3,4-dihydropyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)phenyl)carbamate (125) gave 1-(3-aminophenyl)-7-((3-chloro-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)amino)-3-phenyl-3,4-dihydropyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one (126) as a brown solid (800 mg, Yield: 82%) which was used directly for the next step. MS: [M+H]+ 447.08.

Step 9: Preparation of (E)-N-(3-(7-((3-chloro-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)amino)-2-oxo-3-phenyl-3,4-dihydropyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)phenyl)-4-(dimethylamino)but-2-enamide (Compound 35):

[0316] Title compound was prepared in a manner substantially similar to procedure mentioned in General procedure X, 1-(3-aminophenyl)-7-((3-chloro-1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)amino)-3-phenyl-3,4-dihydropyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one (126) and trans-N,N-dimethylaminocrotonic acid hydrochloride gave the titled compound, which was purified by prep-HPLC purification to afforded the title compound Compound 35 as a white solid (285 mg, Yield: 23%).1H-NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 10.27 (bs, 1H), 8.86 (s, 1H), 8.21 (s, 1H), 7.73 (s, 2H), 7.51-7.40 (m, 5H), 7.30-7.25 (m, 1H), 7.09 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1H), 6.76-6.70 (m, 2H), 6.29 (d, J = 15.4 Hz, 1H), 4.88 (s, 2H), 3.50 (s, 3H), 3.05 (d, J = 4.8 Hz, 2H) and 2.16 (s, 6H). MS:

[M+H]+ 558.16.

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