New Drug Approvals
Follow New Drug Approvals on WordPress.com
DRUG APPROVALS BY DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO

Categories

FLAGS AND HITS

Flag Counter
Join me on Linkedin

View Anthony Melvin Crasto Ph.D's profile on LinkedIn

Join me on Researchgate

Anthony Melvin Crasto Dr.

  Join me on Facebook FACEBOOK   ...................................................................Join me on twitter Follow amcrasto on Twitter     ..................................................................Join me on google plus Googleplus

MYSELF

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D ( ICT, Mumbai) , INDIA 29Yrs Exp. in the feld of Organic Chemistry,Working for GLENMARK PHARMA at Navi Mumbai, INDIA. Serving chemists around the world. Helping them with websites on Chemistry.Million hits on google, NO ADVERTISEMENTS , ACADEMIC , NON COMMERCIAL SITE, world acclamation from industry, academia, drug authorities for websites, blogs and educational contribution, ........amcrasto@gmail.com..........+91 9323115463, Skype amcrasto64 View Anthony Melvin Crasto Ph.D's profile on LinkedIn Anthony Melvin Crasto Dr.

Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

Join 1,976 other followers

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 29 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 29 year tenure till date Aug 2016, Around 30 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 25 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 13 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 212 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

Personal Links

Verified Services

View Full Profile →

Recent Posts

GSK 2330672


Image result for GSK2330672Image result for GSK2330672

GSK 2330672

GSK 672; GSK-2330672

RN: 1345982-69-5
UNII: 386012Z45S

CAS: 1345982-69-5
Chemical Formula: C28H38N2O7S

Molecular Weight: 546.68

Pentanedioic acid, 3-((((3R,5R)-3-butyl-3-ethyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-7-methoxy-1,1-dioxido-5-phenyl-1,4-benzothiazepin-8-yl)methyl)amino)-

Pentanedioic acid, 3-((((3R,5R)-3-butyl-3-ethyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-7-methoxy-1,1-dioxido-5-phenyl-1,4-benzothiazepin-8-yl)methyl)amino)-

3-({[(3R,5R)-3-butyl-3-ethyl-7-(methyloxy)-1 ,1 -dioxido-5-phenyl- 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1 ,4-benzothiazepin-8-yl]methyl}amino)pentanedioic acid

3-[[[(3R,5R)-3-Butyl-3-ethyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-7-methoxy-1,1-dioxido-5-phenyl-1,4-benzothiazepin-8-yl]methyl]amino]pentanedioic acid

  • Originator GlaxoSmithKline
  • Class Antihyperglycaemics
  • Mechanism of Action Sodium-bile acid cotransporter-inhibitors

Highest Development Phases

  • Phase II Primary biliary cirrhosis; Pruritus; Type 2 diabetes mellitus
  • Phase I Cholestasis

Most Recent Events

  • 01 Jan 2017 Phase-II clinical trials in Pruritus in USA (PO) (NCT02966834)
  • 14 Nov 2016 GlaxoSmithKline completes a phase I trial for Cholestasis in Healthy volunteers in Japan (PO, Tablet) (NCT02801981)
  • 11 Nov 2016 Efficacy, safety and pharmacodynamic data from a phase II trial in Primary biliary cirrhosis and Pruritus presented at The Liver Meeting® 2016: 67th Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD-2016)
Inventors Christopher Joseph AquinoJon Loren CollinsDavid John CowanYulin Wu
Applicant Glaxosmithkline Llc

Christopher Aquino

Christopher Joseph Aquino

GSK2330672 , an ileal bile acid transport (iBAT) inhibitor indicated for diabetes type II and cholestatic pruritus, is currently under Phase IIb evaluation in the clinic. The API is a highly complex molecule containing two stereogenic centers, one of which is quaternary

GSK-2330672 is highly potent, nonabsorbable apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter inhibitor for treatment of type 2 diabetes.

More than 200 million people worldwide have diabetes. The World Health Organization estimates that 1 .1 million people died from diabetes in 2005 and projects that worldwide deaths from diabetes will double between 2005 and 2030. New chemical compounds that effectively treat diabetes could save millions of human lives.

Diabetes refers to metabolic disorders resulting in the body’s inability to effectively regulate glucose levels. Approximately 90% of all diabetes cases are a result of type 2 diabetes whereas the remaining 10% are a result of type 1 diabetes, gestational diabetes, and latent autoimmune diabetes of adulthood (LADA). All forms of diabetes result in elevated blood glucose levels and, if left untreated chronically, can increase the risk of macrovascular (heart disease, stroke, other forms of cardiovascular disease) and microvascular [kidney failure (nephropathy), blindness from diabetic retinopathy, nerve damage (diabetic neuropathy)] complications.

Type 1 diabetes, also known as juvenile or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), can occur at any age, but it is most often diagnosed in children, adolescents, or young adults. Type 1 diabetes is caused by the autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing beta cells, resulting in an inability to produce sufficient insulin. Insulin controls blood glucose levels by promoting transport of blood glucose into cells for energy use. Insufficient insulin production will lead to decreased glucose uptake into cells and result in accumulation of glucose in the bloodstream. The lack of available glucose in cells will eventually lead to the onset of symptoms of type 1 diabetes: polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (thirst), constant hunger, weight loss, vision changes, and fatigue. Within 5-10 years of being diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, patient’s insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas are completely destroyed, and the body can no longer produce insulin. As a result, patients with type 1 diabetes will require daily administration of insulin for the remainder of their lives.

Type 2 diabetes, also known as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or adult-onset diabetes, occurs when the pancreas produces insufficient insulin and/or tissues become resistant to normal or high levels of insulin (insulin resistance), resulting in excessively high blood glucose levels. Multiple factors can lead to insulin resistance including chronically elevated blood glucose levels, genetics, obesity, lack of physical activity, and increasing age. Unlike type 1 diabetes, symptoms of type 2 diabetes are more salient, and as a result, the disease may not be diagnosed until several years after onset with a peak prevalence in adults near an age of 45 years. Unfortunately, the incidence of type 2 diabetes in children is increasing.

The primary goal of treatment of type 2 diabetes is to achieve and maintain glycemic control to reduce the risk of microvascular (diabetic neuropathy, retinopathy, or nephropathy) and macrovascular (heart disease, stroke, other forms of cardiovascular disease) complications. Current guidelines for the treatment of type 2 diabetes from the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) [Diabetes Care, 2008, 31 (12), 1 ] outline lifestyle modification including weight loss and increased physical activity as a primary therapeutic approach for management of type 2 diabetes. However, this approach alone fails in the majority of patients within the first year, leading physicians to prescribe medications over time. The ADA and EASD recommend metformin, an agent that reduces hepatic glucose production, as a Tier 1 a medication; however, a significant number of patients taking metformin can experience gastrointestinal side effects and, in rare cases, potentially fatal lactic acidosis. Recommendations for Tier 1 b class of medications include sulfonylureas, which stimulate pancreatic insulin secretion via modulation of potassium channel activity, and exogenous insulin. While both medications rapidly and effectively reduce blood glucose levels, insulin requires 1 -4 injections per day and both agents can cause undesired weight gain and potentially fatal hypoglycemia. Tier 2a recommendations include newer agents such as thiazolidinediones (TZDs pioglitazone and rosiglitazone), which enhance insulin sensitivity of muscle, liver and fat, as well as GLP-1 analogs, which enhance postprandial glucose-mediated insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells. While TZDs show robust, durable control of blood glucose levels, adverse effects include weight gain, edema, bone fractures in women, exacerbation of congestive heart failure, and potential increased risk of ischemic cardiovascular events. GLP-1 analogs also effectively control blood glucose levels, however, this class of medications requires injection and many patients complain of nausea. The most recent addition to the Tier 2 medication list is DPP-4 inhibitors, which, like GLP-1 analogs, enhance glucose- medicated insulin secretion from beta cells. Unfortunately, DPP-4 inhibitors only modestly control blood glucose levels, and the long-term safety of DPP-4 inhibitors remains to be firmly established. Other less prescribed medications for type 2 diabetes include a-glucosidase inhibitors, glinides, and amylin analogs. Clearly, new medications with improved efficacy, durability, and side effect profiles are needed for patients with type 2 diabetes.

GLP-1 and GIP are peptides, known as incretins, that are secreted by L and K cells, respectively, from the gastrointestinal tract into the blood stream following ingestion of nutrients. This important physiological response serves as the primary signaling mechanism between nutrient (glucose/fat) concentration in the

gastrointestinal tract and other peripheral organs. Upon secretion, both circulating peptides initiate signals in beta cells of the pancreas to enhance glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, which, in turn, controls glucose concentrations in the blood stream (For reviews see: Diabetic Medicine 2007, 24(3), 223; Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 2009, 297(1-2), 127; Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes 2001 , 109(Suppl. 2), S288).

The association between the incretin hormones GLP-1 and GIP and type 2 diabetes has been extensively explored. The majority of studies indicate that type 2 diabetes is associated with an acquired defect in GLP-1 secretion as well as GIP action (see Diabetes 2007, 56(8), 1951 and Current Diabetes Reports 2006, 6(3), 194). The use of exogenous GLP-1 for treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes is severely limited due to its rapid degradation by the protease DPP-4. Multiple modified peptides have been designed as GLP-1 mimetics that are DPP-4 resistant and show longer half-lives than endogenous GLP-1 . Agents with this profile that have been shown to be highly effective for treatment of type 2 diabetes include exenatide and liraglutide, however, these agents require injection. Oral agents that inhibit DPP-4, such as sitagliptin vildagliptin, and saxagliptin, elevate intact GLP-1 and modestly control circulating glucose levels (see Pharmacology & Therapeutics 2010, 125(2), 328; Diabetes Care 2007, 30(6), 1335; Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs 2008, 13(4), 593). New oral medications that increase GLP-1 secretion would be desirable for treatment of type 2 diabetes.

Bile acids have been shown to enhance peptide secretion from the

gastrointestinal tract. Bile acids are released from the gallbladder into the small intestine after each meal to facilitate digestion of nutrients, in particular fat, lipids, and lipid-soluble vitamins. Bile acids also function as hormones that regulate cholesterol homeostasis, energy, and glucose homeostasis via nuclear receptors (FXR, PXR, CAR, VDR) and the G-protein coupled receptor TGR5 (for reviews see: Nature Drug Discovery 2008, 7, 672; Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism 2008, 10, 1004). TGR5 is a member of the Rhodopsin-like subfamily of GPCRs (Class A) that is expressed in intestine, gall bladder, adipose tissue, liver, and select regions of the central nervous system. TGR5 is activated by multiple bile acids with lithocholic and deoxycholic acids as the most potent activators {Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 2008, 51(6), 1831 ). Both deoxycholic and lithocholic acids increase GLP-1 secretion from an enteroendocrine STC-1 cell line, in part through TGR5

{Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 2005, 329, 386). A synthetic TGR5 agonist INT-777 has been shown to increase intestinal GLP-1 secretion in vivo in mice {Cell Metabolism 2009, 10, 167). Bile salts have been shown to promote secretion of GLP-1 from colonic L cells in a vascularly perfused rat colon model {Journal of Endocrinology 1995, 145(3), 521 ) as well as GLP-1 , peptide YY (PYY), and neurotensin in a vascularly perfused rat ileum model {Endocrinology 1998, 139(9), 3780). In humans, infusion of deoxycholate into the sigmoid colon produces a rapid and marked dose responsive increase in plasma PYY and enteroglucagon concentrations (Gi/M993, 34(9), 1219). Agents that increase ileal and colonic bile acid or bile salt concentrations will increase gut peptide secretion including, but not limited to, GLP-1 and PYY.

Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver then undergo conjugation of the carboxylic acid with the amine functionality of taurine and glycine. Conjugated bile acids are secreted into the gall bladder where accumulation occurs until a meal is consumed. Upon eating, the gall bladder contracts and empties its contents into the duodenum, where the conjugated bile acids facilitate absorption of cholesterol, fat, and fat-soluble vitamins in the proximal small intestine (For reviews see: Frontiers in Bioscience 2009, 74, 2584; Clinical Pharmacokinetics 2002,

41(10), 751 ; Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 2001 , 32, 407). Conjugated bile acids continue to flow through the small intestine until the distal ileum where 90% are reabsorbed into enterocytes via the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT, also known as iBAT). The remaining 10% are deconjugated to bile acids by intestinal bacteria in the terminal ileum and colon of which 5% are then passively reabsorbed in the colon and the remaining 5% being excreted in feces. Bile acids that are reabsorbed by ASBT in the ileum are then transported into the portal vein for recirculation to the liver. This highly regulated process, called enterohepatic recirculation, is important for the body’s overall maintenance of the total bile acid pool as the amount of bile acid that is synthesized in the liver is equivalent to the amount of bile acids that are excreted in feces.

Pharmacological disruption of bile acid reabsorption with an inhibitor of ASBT leads to increased concentrations of bile acids in the colon and feces, a physiological consequence being increased conversion of hepatic cholesterol to bile acids to compensate for fecal loss of bile acids. Many pharmaceutical companies have pursued this mechanism as a strategy for lowering serum cholesterol in patients with dyslipidemia/hypercholesterolemia (For a review see: Current Medicinal Chemistry 2006, 73, 997). Importantly, ASBT-inhibitor mediated increase in colonic bile acid/salt concentration also will increase intestinal GLP-1 , PYY, GLP-2, and other gut peptide hormone secretion. Thus, inhibitors of ASBT could be useful for treatment of type 2 diabetes, type 1 diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity, short bowel syndrome, Chronic Idiopathic Constipation, Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), Crohn’s disease, and arthritis.

Certain 1 ,4-thiazepines are disclosed, for example in WO 94/18183 and WO 96/05188. These compounds are said to be useful as ileal bile acid reuptake inhibitors (ASBT).

Patent publication WO 201 1/137,135 dislcoses, among other compounds, the following compound. This patent publication also discloses methods of synthesis of the compound.

The preparation of the above compound is also disclosed in J. Med. Chem, Vol 56, pp5094-51 14 (2013).

PATENT

WO 2016020785

EXAMPLES

Patent publication WO 201 1/137,135 dislcoses general methods for preparing the compound. In addition, a detailed synthesis of the compound is disclosed in Example 26. J. Med. Chem, Vol 56, pp5094-51 14 (2013) also discloses a method for synthesising the compound.

The present invention discloses an improved synthesis of the compound.

The synthetic scheme of the present invention is depicted in Scheme 1 .

Treatment of 2-methoxyphenyl acetate with sulfur monochloride followed by ester hydrolysis and reduction with zinc gave rise to thiophenol (A). Epoxide ring opening of (+)-2-butyl-ethyloxirane with thiophenol (A) and subsequent treatment of tertiary alcohol (B) with chloroacetonitrile under acidic conditions gave chloroacetamide (C), which was then converted to intermediate (E) by cleavage of the chloroacetamide with thiourea followed by classical resolution with dibenzoyl-L-tartaric acid.

Benzoylation of intermediate (E) with triflic acid and benzoyl chloride afforded intermediate (H). Cyclization of intermediate (H) followed by oxidation of the sulfide to a sulphone, subseguent imine reduction and classical resolution with (+)-camphorsulfonic acid provided intermediate (G), which was then converted to intermediate (H). Intermediate (H) was converted to the target compound using the methods disclosed in Patent publication WO 201 1/137,135.

Scheme 1

Dibenzoyl-L-tataric acid

The present invention also discloses an alternative method for construction of the quaternary chiral center as depicted in Scheme 2. Reaction of intermediate (A) with (R)-2-ammonio-2-ethylhexyl sulfate (K) followed by formation of di-p-toluoyl-L-tartrate salt furnished intermediate (L).

The present invention also discloses an alternative synthesis of intermediate (H) as illustrated in Scheme 3. Acid catalyzed cyclization of intermediate (F) followed by triflation gave imine (M), which underwent asymmetric reduction with catalyst lr(COD)2BArF and ligand (N) to give intermediate (O). Oxidation of the sulfide in intermediate (O) gave sulphone intermediate (H).

The present invention differs from the synthesis disclosed in WO 201 1/137,135 and J. Med. Chem, Vol56, pp5094-51 14 (2013) in that intermediate (H) in the present invention is prepared via a new, shorter and more cost-efficient synthesis while the synthesis of the target compound from intermediate (H) remains unchanged.

Intermediate A: 3-Hydroxy-4-methoxythiophenol

A reaction vessel was charged with 2-methoxyphenyl acetate (60 g, 0.36 mol), zinc chloride (49.2 g, 0.36 mol) and DME (600 mL). The mixture was stirred and S2CI2 (53.6 g, 0.40 mol) was added. The mixture was stirred at ambient temperature for 2 h. Concentrated HCI (135.4 mL, 1 .63 mol) was diluted with water (60 mL) and added slowly to the rxn mixture, maintaining the temperature below 60 °C. The mixture was stirred at 60 °C for 2 h and then cooled to ambient

temperature. Zinc dust (56.7 g, 0.87 mol) was added in portions, maintaining the temperature below 60 °C. The mixture was stirred at 20-60 °C for 1 h and then concentrated under vacuum to -300 mL. MTBE (1 .2 L) and water (180 mL) were added and the mixture was stirred for 10 min. The layers were separated and the organic layer was washed twice with water (2x 240 mL). The layers were separated and the organic layer was concentrated under vacuum to give an oil. The oil was distilled at 1 10-1 15 °C/2 mbar to give the title compound (42 g, 75%) as colorless oil, which solidified on standing to afford the title compound as a white solid. M.P. 41 -42 °C. 1 H NMR (500 MHz, CDCI3)$ ppm 3.39 (s, 1 H), 3.88 (s, 3H), 5.65 (br. S, 1 H), 6.75 (d, J – 8.3 Hz, 1 H), 6.84 (ddd, J – 8.3, 2.2, 0.6 Hz, 1 H), 6.94 (d, J – 2.2 Hz).

Intermediate E: (R)-5-((2-amino-2-ethylhexyl)thio)-2-methoxyphenol, dibenzoyl-L-tartrate salt

A reaction vessel was charged with 3-hydroxy-4-methoxythiophenol (5.0 g, 25.2 mmol), (+)-2-butyl-2-ethyloxirane (3.56 g, 27.7 mmol) and EtOH (30 mL). The mixture was treated with a solution of NaOH (2.22 g, 55.5 mmol) in water (20 mL), heated to 40 °C and stirred at 40 °C for 5 h. The mixture was cooled to ambient temperature, treated with toluene (25 mL) and stirred for 10 min. The layers were separated and the organic layer was discarded. The aqueous layer was neutralized with 2N HCI (27.8 mL, 55.6 mmol) and extracted with toluene (100 mL). The organic layer was washed with water (25 mL), concentrated in vacuo to give an oil. The oil was treated with chloroacetonitrile (35.9 mL) and HOAc (4.3 mL) and cooled to 0 °C. H2SO4 (6.7 mL, 126 mmol, pre-diluted with 2.3 mL of water) was added at a rate maintaining the temperature below 10 °C. After stirred at 0 °C for 0.5 h, the reaction mixture was treated with 20% aqueous Na2CO3 solution to adjust the pH to

7-8 and then extracted with MTBE (70 ml_). The extract was washed with water (35 ml_) and concentrated in vacuo to give an oil. The oil was then dissolved in EOH (50 ml_) and treated with HOAc (10 ml_) and thiourea (2.30 g, 30.2 mmol). The mixture was heated at reflux overnight and then cooled to ambient temperature. The solids were filtered and washed with EtOH (10 ml_). The filtrate and the wash were combined and concentrated in vacuo, treated with MTBE (140 ml_) and washed successively with 10% aqueous Na2C03 and water. The mixture was concentrated in vacuo to give an oil. The oil was dissolved in MeCN (72 ml_), heated to -50 °C and then dibenzoyl-L-tartaric acid (9.0 g, 25.2 mmol) in acetonitrile (22 ml_) was added slowly. Seed crystals were added at -50 °C. The resultant slurry was stirred at 45-50 °C for 5 h, then cooled down to ambient temperature and stirred at ambient temperature overnight. The solids were filtered and washed with MeCN (2x 22 ml_). The wet cake was treated with MeCN (150 ml_) and heated to 50 °C. The slurry was stirred at 50 °C for 5 h, cooled over 1 h to ambient temperature and stirred at ambient temperature overnight. The solids were collected by filtration, washed with MeCN (2 x 20 ml_), dried under vacuum to give the title compound (5.5 g, 34% overall yield, 99.5% purity, 93.9% ee) as a white solid. 1 H NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 0.78 (m, 6H), 1 .13 (m, 4H), 1 .51 (m, 2H), 1 .58 (q, J – 7.7 Hz, 2H), 3.08 (s, 2H), 3.75 (s, 3H), 5.66 (s, 2H), 6.88 (m, 2H), 6.93 (m, 1 H), 7.49 (m, 4H), 7.63 (m, 2H), 7.94 (m, 4H). EI-LCMS m/z 284 (M++1 of free base).

Intermediate F: (R)-(2-((2-amino-2-ethylhexyl)thio)-4-hydroxy-5-methoxyphenyl)(phenyl)methanone

A suspension of (R)-5-((2-amino-2-ethylhexyl)thio)-2-methoxyphenol, dibenzoyl-L-tartrate salt (29 g, 45.2 mmol) in DCM (435 mL) was treated with water (1 16 mL) and 10% aqueous Na2C03 solution (1 16 mL). The mixture was stirred at ambient temperature until all solids were dissolved (30 min). The layers were separated. The organic layer was washed with water (2 x 60 mL), concentrated under vacuum to give (R)-5-((2-amino-2-ethylhexyl)thio)-2-methoxyphenol (free base) as an off-white solid (13.0 g, quantitative). A vessel was charged with TfOH (4.68 ml, 52.9 mmol) and DCM (30 mL) and the mixture was cooled to 0 °C. 5 g (17.6 mmol) of (R)-5-((2-amino-2-ethylhexyl)thio)-2-methoxyphenol (free base) was dissolved in DCM (10 mL) and added at a rate maintaining the temperature below 10 °C. Benzoyl chloride (4.5 mL, 38.8 mmol) was added at a rate maintaining the temperature below 10 °C. The mixture was then heated to reflux and stirred at reflux for 48 h. The mixture was cooled to 30 °C. Water (20 mL) was added and the mixture was concentrated to remove DCM. EtOH (10 mL) was added. The mixture was heated to 40 ° C, treated with 50% aqueous NaOH solution (10 mL) and stirred at 55 °C. After 1 h, the mixture was cooled to ambient temperature and the pH was adjusted to 6-7 with cone. HCI. The mixture was concentrated in vacuo to remove EtOH. EtOAc (100 mL) was added. The mixture was stirred for 5 min and the layers were separated. The organic layer was washed successively with 10% aqueous Na2CO3 (25 mL) and water (25 mL) and then concentrated in vacuo. The resultant oil was treated with DCM (15 mL). The resultant thick slurry was further diluted with DCM (15 mL) followed by addition of Hexanes (60 mL). The slurry was stirred for 5 min, filtered, washed with DCM/hexanes (1 :2, 2 x 10 mL) and dried under vacuum to give the title compound (7.67 g, 80%) as a yellow solid. 1 NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 0.70 (t, 7.1 Hz, 3 H), 0.81 (t, 7.1 Hz, 3H), 1 .04-1 .27 (m, 8H), 2.74 (s, 2H), 3.73 (s, 3H), 6.91 (s, 1 H), 7.01 (s, 1 H), 7.52 (dd, J – 7.8, 7.2 Hz, 2H), 7.63 (t, J = 7.2 Hz, 1 H), 7.67 (d, J = 7.8 Hz, 2H). EI-LCMS m/z 388 (M++1 ).

Intermediate G: (3R,5R)-3-butyl-3-ethyl-8-hydroxy-7-methoxy-5-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydrobenzo[f][1 ,4]thiazepine 1 ,1 -dioxide, (+)-camphorsulfonate salt

A vessel was charged with (R)-(2-((2-amino-2-ethylhexyl)thio)-4-hydroxy-5-methoxyphenyl)(phenyl)methanone (1 .4 g, 3.61 mmol), toluene (8.4 ml_) and citric acid (0.035 g, 0.181 mmol, 5 mol%). The mixture was heated to reflux overnight with a Dean-Stark trap to remove water. The mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure to remove solvents. Methanol (14.0 ml_) and oxone (2.22 g, 3.61 mmol, 1 .0 equiv) were added. The mixture was stirred at gentle reflux for 2 h. The mixture was cooled to ambient temperature, and filtered to remove solids. The filter cake was washed with small amount of Methanol. The filtrate was cooled to 5 °C, and treated with sodium borohydride (0.410 g, 10.84 mmol, 3.0 equiv.) in small portions. The mixture was stirred at 5 °C for 2 h and then concentrated to remove the majority of solvents. The mixture was quenched with Water (28.0 ml_) and extracted with EtOAc (28.0 ml_). The organic layer was washed with brine, and then concentrated to remove solvents. The residue was dissolved in MeCN (14.0 ml_) and concentrated again to remove solvents. The residue was dissolved in MeCN (7.00 ml_) and MTBE (7.00 ml_) at 40 °C, and treated with (+)-camphorsulfonic acid (0.839 g, 3.61 mmol, 1 .0 equiv.) at 40 °C for 30 min. The mixture was cooled to ambient temperature, stirred for 2 h, and filtered to collect solids. The filter cake was washed with MTBE/MeCN (2:1 , 3 ml_), and dried at 50 °C to give the title compound (0.75 g, 32% overall yield, 98.6 purity, 97% de, 99.7% ee) as white solids. 1 NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) δ ppm 0.63 (s, 3H), 0.88 (t, J – 6.9 Hz, 3H), 0.97 (m, 6H), 1 .29-1 .39 (m, 5H), 1 .80-1 .97 (m, 6H), 2.08-2.10 (m, 1 H), 2.27 (d, J – 17.3 Hz, 1 H), 2.38-2.44 (m, 3H), 2.54 (b, 1 H), 2.91 (b, 1 H), 3.48 (d, J – 15.4 Hz, 1 H), 3.79 (s, 3H), 4.05 (d, J – 17.2 Hz, 1 H), 6.45 (s, 1 H), 6.56 (s, 1 H), 7.51 -7.56 (m, 4H), 7.68 (s, 1 H), 7.79 (b, 2H), 1 1 .46 (b, 1 H). EI-LCMS m/z 404 (M++1 of free base).

Intermediate H: (3R,5R)-3-butyl-3-ethyl-7-methoxy-1 ,1 -dioxido-5-phenyl-2, 3,4,5-tetrahydrobenzo[f][1 ,4]thiazepin-8-yl trifluoromethanesulfonate

Method 1 : A mixture of (3R,5R)-3-butyl-3-ethyl-8-hydroxy-7-methoxy-5-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydrobenzo[f][1 ,4]thiazepine 1 ,1 -dioxide, (+)-camphorsulfonate salt (0.5 g, 0.786 mmol), EtOAc (5.0 mL), and 10% of Na2C03 aqueuous solution (5 mL) was stirred for 15 min. The layers were separated and the aqueous layer was discarded. The organic layer was washed with dilute brine twice, concentrated to remove solvents. EtOAc (5.0 mL) was added and the mixture was concentrated to give a pale yellow solid free base. 1 ,4-Dioxane (5.0 mL) and pyridine (0.13 mL, 1 .57 mmol) were added. The mixture was cooled to 5-10 °C and triflic anhydride (0.199 mL, 1 .180 mmol) was added while maintaining the temperature below 15 °C. The mixture was stirred at ambient temperature until completion deemed by HPLC (1 h). Toluene (5 mL) and water (5 mL) were added. Layers were separated. The organic layer was washed with water, concentrated to remove solvents. Toluene (1 .0 mL) was added to dissolve the residue followed by Isooctane (4.0 mL). The mixture was stirred at rt overnight. The solids was filtered, washed with Isooctane (4.0 mL) to give the title compound (0.34 g, 81 %) as slightly yellow solids. 1 NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) δ ppm 0.86 (t, J – 7.2 Hz, 3H), 0.94 (t, J – 7.6 Hz, 3H), 1 .12-1 .15 (m, 1 H), 1 .22-1 .36 (m, 3H), 1 .48-1 .60 (m, 2H), 1 .86-1 .93 (m, 2H), 2.22 (dt, J = 4.1 Hz, 12 Hz, 1 H), 3.10 (d, J – 14.8 Hz, 1 H), 3.49 (d, J – 14.8 Hz, 1 H), 3.64 (s, 3H), 6.1 1 (s, 1 H), 6.36 (s, 1 H), 7.38-7.48 (m, 5), 7.98 (s, 1 H).

Method 2: A mixture of (R)-3-butyl-3-ethyl-7-methoxy-5-phenyl-2,3-dihydrobenzo[f][1 ,4]thiazepin-8-yl trifluoromethanesulfonate (0.5 g, 0.997 mmol), ligand (N) (0.078 g, 0.1 10 mmol) and lr(COD)2BArF (0.127 g, 0.100 mmol) in DCM (10.0 mL) was purged with nitrogen three times, then hydrogen three times. The mixture was shaken in Parr shaker under 10 Bar of H2 for 24 h. The experiment described above was repeated with 1 .0 g (1 .994 mmol) input of (R)-3-butyl-3-ethyl-7-methoxy-5-phenyl-2,3-dihydrobenzo[f][1 ,4]thiazepin-8-yl

trifluoromethanesulfonate. The two batches of the reaction mixture were combined,

concentrated to remove solvents, and purified by silica gel chromatography

(hexanes:EtOAc =9:1 ) to give the sulfide (O) as slightly yellow oil (0.6 g, 40% yield, 99.7% purity). The oil (0.6 g, 1 .191 mmol) was dissolved in TFA (1 .836 mL, 23.83 mmol) and stirred at 40 °C. H202 (0.268 mL, 2.62 mmol) was added slowly over 30 min. The mixture was stirred at 40 °C for 2 h and then cooled to room temperature. Water (10 mL) and toluene (6.0 mL) were added. Layers were separated and the organic layer was washed successively with aqueous sodium carbonate solution and wate, and concentrated to dryness. Toluene (6.0 mL) was added and the mixture was concentrated to dryness. The residue was dissolved in toluene (2.4 mL) and isooctane (7.20 mL) was added. The mixture was heated to reflux and then cooled to room temperature. The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 30 min. The solid was filtered and washed with isooctane to give the title compound (0.48 g, 75%).

Intermediate L: (R)-5-((2-amino-2-ethylhexyl)thio)-2-methoxyphenol, di-p-toluoyl-L-tartrate salt

To a mixture of (R)-2-amino-2-ethylhexyl hydrogen sulfate (1 1 .1 g, 49.3 mmol) in water (23.1 mL) was added NaOH (5.91 g, 148 mmol). The mixture was stirred at reflux for 2 h. The mixture was cooled to room temperature and extracted with MTBE (30.8 mL). The extract was washed with brine (22 mL), concentrated under vacuum and treated with methanol (30.8 mL). The mixture was stirred under nitrogen and treated with 3-hydroxy-4-methoxythiophenol (7.70 g, 49.3 mmol). The mixture was stirred under nitrogen at room temperature for 1 h. The mixture was concentrated under vacuum, treated with acetonitrile (154 mL) and then heated to 45 °C. To the stirred mixture was added (2R,3R)-2,3-bis((4-methylbenzoyl)oxy)succinic acid (19.03 g, 49.3 mmol). The resultant slurry was

stirred at 45 °C. After 2 h, the slurry was cooled to room temperature and stirred for 5 h. The solids were filtered, washed twice with acetonitrile (30 mL) and dried to give the title compound (28.0 g, 85%) as white solids. 1 NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ (ppm): 0.70-0.75 (m, 6H), 1 .17 (b, 4H), 1 .46-1 .55 (m, 4H), 2.30 (s, 6H), 3.71 (s, 3H), 5.58 (s, 2H), 6.84 (s, 2H), 6.89 (s, 1 H), 7.24 (d, J – 1 1 .6 Hz, 4H), 7.76 (d, J – 1 1 .6 Hz, 4H).

Intermediate M: (R)-3-butyl-3-ethyl-7-methoxy-5-phenyl-2,3

dihydrobenzo[f][1 ,4]thiazepin-8-yl trifluoromethanesulfonate

A flask was charged with (R)-(2-((2-amino-2-ethylhexyl)thio)-4-hydroxy-5-methoxyphenyl)(phenyl)methanone (3.5 g, 9.03 mmol), citric acid (0.434 g, 2.258 mmol), 1 ,4-Dioxane (17.50 mL) and Toluene (17.50 mL). The mixture was heated to reflux with a Dean-Stark trap to distill water azetropically. The mixture was refluxed for 20 h and then cooled to room temperature. EtOAc (35.0 mL) and water (35.0 mL) were added and layers were separated. The organic layer was washed with aqueous sodium carbonate solution and concentrated to remove solvents to give crude imine as brown oil. The oil was dissolved in EtOAc (35.0 mL) and cooled to 0-5 °C. To the mixture was added triethylamine (1 .888 mL, 13.55 mmol) followed by slow addition of Tf2O (1 .831 mL, 10.84 mmol) at 0-5 °C. The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 h. Water was added and layers were separated. The organic layer was washed with brine, dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated under vacuum. The crude triflate was purified by silica gel chromatography

(hexane:EtOAc =90:10) to give the title compound (3.4 g, 75%) as amber oil. 1 NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) δ ppm 0.86 (t, J – 7.2 Hz, 3H), 0.92 (t, J – 7.9 Hz, 3H), 1 .19-1 .34 (m, 4H), 1 .47-1 .71 (m, 4H), 3.25 (s, 2H), 3.75 (s, 3H), 6.75 (s, 1 H), 7.35-7.43 (m, 3H), 7.48 (s, 1 H), 7.54 (d, J – 7.6 Hz, 2H).

PAPER

Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2013), 56(12), 5094-5114.

Abstract Image

The apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) transports bile salts from the lumen of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to the liver via the portal vein. Multiple pharmaceutical companies have exploited the physiological link between ASBT and hepatic cholesterol metabolism, which led to the clinical investigation of ASBT inhibitors as lipid-lowering agents. While modest lipid effects were demonstrated, the potential utility of ASBT inhibitors for treatment of type 2 diabetes has been relatively unexplored. We initiated a lead optimization effort that focused on the identification of a potent, nonabsorbable ASBT inhibitor starting from the first-generation inhibitor 264W94 (1). Extensive SAR studies culminated in the discovery of GSK2330672 (56) as a highly potent, nonabsorbable ASBT inhibitor which lowers glucose in an animal model of type 2 diabetes and shows excellent developability properties for evaluating the potential therapeutic utility of a nonabsorbable ASBT inhibitor for treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes.

PATENT

WO 2011137135

Example 26: 3-({[(3R,5R)-3-butyl-3-ethyl-7-(methyloxy)-1 ,1 -dioxido-5-phenyl- 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1 ,4-benzothiazepin-8-yl]methyl}amino)pentanedioic acid

Figure imgf000082_0001

Method 1 , Step 1 : To a solution of (3R,5R)-3-butyl-3-ethyl-7-(methyloxy)-5- phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1 ,4-benzothiazepine-8-carbaldehyde 1 ,1 -dioxide (683 mg, 1 .644 mmol) in 1 ,2-dichloroethane (20 mL) was added diethyl 3- aminopentanedioate (501 mg, 2.465 mmol) and acetic acid (0.188 mL, 3.29 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 hr then treated with NaHB(OAc)3 (697 mg, 3.29 mmol). The reaction mixture was then stirred at room temperature overnight and quenched with aqueous potassium carbonate solution. The mixture was extracted with DCM. The combined organic layers were washed with H2O, saturated brine, dried (Na2SO4), filtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure to give diethyl 3-({[(3R,5R)-3-butyl-3-ethyl-7-(methyloxy)-1 ,1 -dioxido-5- phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1 ,4-benzothiazepin-8-yl]methyl}amino)pentanedioate (880 mg, 88%) as a light yellow oil: MS-LCMS m/z 603 (M+H)+.

Method 1 , Step 2: To a solution of diethyl 3-({[(3R,5R)-3-butyl-3-ethyl-7- (methyloxy)-l ,1 -dioxido-5-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1 ,4-benzothiazepin-8- yl]methyl}amino)pentanedioate (880 mg, 1 .460 mmol) in a 1 :1 :1 mixture of

THF/MeOH/H2O (30 mL) was added lithium hydroxide (175 mg, 7.30 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight then concentrated under reduced pressure. H2O and MeCN was added to dissolve the residue. The solution was acidified with acetic acid to pH 4-5, partially concentrated to remove MeCN under reduced pressure, and left to stand for 30 min. The white precipitate was collected by filtration and dried under reduced pressure at 50°C overnight to give the title compound (803 mg, 100%) as a white solid: 1 H NMR (MeOH-d4) δ ppm 8.05 (s, 1 H), 7.27 – 7.49 (m, 5H), 6.29 (s, 1 H), 6.06 (s, 1 H), 4.25 (s, 2H), 3.60 – 3.68 (m, 1 H), 3.58 (s, 3H), 3.47 (d, J = 14.8 Hz, 1 H), 3.09 (d, J = 14.8 Hz, 1 H), 2.52 – 2.73 (m, 4H), 2.12 – 2.27 (m, 1 H), 1 .69 – 1 .84 (m, 1 H), 1 .48 – 1 .63 (m, 1 H), 1 .05 – 1 .48 (m, 5H), 0.87 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 3H), 0.78 (t, J = 7.0 Hz, 3H); ES-LCMS m/z 547 (M+H) Method 2: A solution of dimethyl 3-({[(3R,5R)-3-butyl-3-ethyl-7-(methyloxy)-

1 ,1 -dioxido-5-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1 ,4-benzothiazepin-8- yl]methyl}amino)pentanedioate (~ 600 g) in THF (2.5 L) and MeOH (1 .25 L) was cooled in an ice-bath and a solution of NaOH (206 g, 5.15 mol) in water (2.5 L) was added dropwise over 20 min (10-22°C reaction temperature). After stirring 20 min, the solution was concentrated (to remove THF/MeOH) and acidified to pH~4 with concentrated HCI. The precipitated product was aged with stirring, collected by filtration and air dried overnight. A second 600g batch of dimethyl 3-({[(3R,5R)-3- butyl-3-ethyl-7-(methyloxy)-1 ,1 -dioxido-5-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1 ,4- benzothiazepin-8-yl]methyl}amino)pentanedioate was saponified in a similar fashion. The combined crude products (~2 mol theoretical) were suspended in CH3CN (8 L) and water (4 L) and the stirred mixture was heated to 65°C. A solution formed which was cooled to 10°C over 2 h while seeding a few times with an authentic sample of the desired crystalline product. The resulting slurry was stirred at 10°C for 2 h, and the solid was collected by filtration. The filter cake was washed with water and air-dried overnight. Further drying to constant weight in a vacuum oven at 55°C afforded crystalline 3-({[(3R,5R)-3-butyl-3-ethyl-7-(methyloxy)-1 ,1 – dioxido-5-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1 ,4-benzothiazepin-8- yl]methyl}amino)pentanedioic acid as a white solid (790 g).

Method 3: (3R,5R)-3-butyl-3-ethyl-7-(methyloxy)-5-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro- 1 ,4-benzothiazepine-8-carbaldehyde 1 ,1 -dioxide (1802 grams, 4.336 moles) and dimethyl 3-aminopentanedioate (1334 grams, 5.671 moles) were slurried in iPrOAc (13.83 kgs). A nitrogen atmosphere was applied to the reactor. To the slurry at 20°C was added glacial acetic acid (847 ml_, 14.810 moles), and the mixture was stirred until complete dissolution was observed. Solid sodium triacetoxyborohydride (1424 grams, 6.719 moles) was next added to the reaction over a period of 7 minutes. The reaction was held at 20°C for a total of 3 hours at which time LC analysis of a sample indicated complete consumption of the (3R,5R)-3-butyl-3-ethyl- 7-(methyloxy)-5-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1 ,4-benzothiazepine-8-carbaldehyde 1 ,1 – dioxide. Next, water (20.36 kgs) and brine (4.8 kgs) were added to the reactor. The contents of the reactor were stirred for 10 minutes and then settled for 10 minutes. The bottom, aqueous layer was then removed and sent to waste. A previously prepared, 10% (wt/wt) aqueous solution of sodium bicarbonate (22.5 L) was added to the reactor. The contents were stirred for 10 minutes and then settled for 10 minutes. The bottom, aqueous layer was then removed and sent to waste. To the reactor was added a second wash of 10% (wt/wt) aqueous, sodium bicarbonate

(22.5 L). The contents of the reactor were stirred for 10 minutes and settled for 10 minutes. The bottom, aqueous layer was then removed and sent to waste. The contents of the reactor were then reduced to an oil under vacuum distillation. To the oil was added THF (7.15 kgs) and MeOH (3.68 kgs). The contents of the reactor were heated to 55°C and agitated vigorously until complete dissolution was observed. The contents of the reactor were then cooled to 25°C whereupon a previously prepared aqueous solution of NaOH [6.75 kgs of water and 2.09 kgs of NaOH (50% wt wt solution)] was added with cooling being applied to the jacket. The contents of the reactor were kept below 42°C during the addition of the NaOH solution. The temperature was readjusted to 25°C after the NaOH addition, and the reaction was stirred for 75 minutes before HPLC analysis indicated the reaction was complete. Heptane (7.66 kgs) was added to the reactor, and the contents were stirred for 10 minutes and then allowed to settle for 10 minutes. The aqueous layer was collected in a clean nalgene carboy. The heptane layer was removed from the reactor and sent to waste. The aqueous solution was then returned to the reactor, and the reactor was prepared for vacuum distillation. Approximately 8.5 liters of distillate was collected during the vacuum distillation. The vacuum was released from the reactor, and the temperature of the contents was readjusted to 25°C. A 1 N HCI solution (30.76 kgs) was added to the reactor over a period of 40 minutes. The resulting slurry was stirred at 25°C for 10 hours then cooled to 5°C over a period of 2 hours. The slurry was held at 5°C for 4 hours before the product was collected in a filter crock by vacuum filtration. The filter cake was then washed with cold (5°C) water (6 kgs). The product cake was air dried in the filter crock under vacuum for approximately 72 hours. The product was then transferred to three drying trays and dried in a vacuum oven at 50°C for 79 hours. The temperature of the vacuum oven was then raised to 65°C for 85 additional hours. The product was off-loaded as a single batch to give 2568 grams (93.4% yield) of intermediate grade 3-({[(3R,5R)-3- butyl-3-ethyl-7-(methyloxy)-1 ,1 -dioxido-5-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1 ,4- benzothiazepin-8-yl]methyl}amino)pentanedioic acid as an off-white solid.

Intermediate grade 3-({[(3R,5R)-3-butyl-3-ethyl-7-(methyloxy)-1 ,1 -dioxido-5- phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1 ,4-benzothiazepin-8-yl]methyl}amino)pentanedioic acid was dissolved (4690 g) in a mixture of glacial acetic acid (8850 g) and purified water (4200 g) at 70°C. The resulting solution was transferred through a 5 micron polishing filter while maintaining the temperature above 30°C. The reactor and filter were rinsed through with a mixture of glacial acetic acid (980 g) and purified water (470 g). The solution temperature was adjusted to 50°C. Filtered purified water (4230 g) was added to the solution. The cloudy solution was then seeded with crystalline 3-({[(3 5R)-3-butyl-3-ethyl-7-(methyloxy)-1 ,1 -dioxido-5-phenyl-2,3 ,4,5- tetrahydro-1 ,4-benzothiazepin-8-yl]methyl}amino)pentanedioic acid (10 g). While maintaining the temperature at 50°C, filtered purified water was charged to the slurry at a controlled rate (1 1030 g over 130 minutes). Additional filtered purified water was then added to the slurry at a faster controlled rate (20740 g over 100 minutes). A final charge of filtered purified water (3780 g) was made to the slurry. The slurry was then cooled to 10°C at a linear rate over 135 minutes. The solids were filtered over sharkskin filter paper to remove the mother liquor. The cake was then rinsed with filtered ethyl acetate (17280 g) then the wash liquors were removed by filtration. The resulting wetcake was isolated into trays and dried under vacuum at 50°C for 23 hours. The temperature was then increased to 60°C and drying was continued for an additional 24 hours to afford crystalline 3-({[(3R,5R)-3-butyl-3-ethyl- 7-(methyloxy)-1 ,1 -dioxido-5-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1 ,4-benzothiazepin-8- yl]methyl}amino)pentanedioic acid (3740 g, 79.7% yield) as a white solid.

To a slurry of this crystalline 3-({[(3R,5R)-3-butyl-3-ethyl-7-(methyloxy)-1 ,1 – dioxido-5-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1 ,4-benzothiazepin-8- yl]methyl}amino)pentanedioic acid (3660 g) and filtered purified water (3.6 L) was added filtered glacial acetic acid (7530 g). The temperature was increased to 60°C and full dissolution was observed. The temperature was reduced to 55°C, filtered, and treated with purified water (3.2 L). The solution was then seeded with crystalline 3-({[(3R,5R)-3-butyl-3-ethyl-7-(methyloxy)-1 ,1 -dioxido-5-phenyl-2,3,4,5- tetrahydro-1 ,4-benzothiazepin-8-yl]methyl}amino)pentanedioic acid (18 g) to afford a slurry. Filtered purified water was charged to the slurry at a controlled rate (9 L over 140 minutes). Additional filtered purified water was then added to the slurry at a faster controlled rate (18 L over 190 minutes). The slurry was then cooled to

10°C at a linear rate over 225 minutes. The solids were filtered over sharkskin filter paper to remove the mother liquor. The cake was then rinsed with filtered purified water (18 L), and the wash liquors were removed by filtration. The resulting wetcake was isolated into trays and dried under vacuum at 60°C for 18.5 hours to afford a crystalline 3-({[(3R,5R)-3-butyl-3-ethyl-7-(methyloxy)-1 ,1 -dioxido-5-phenyl- 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1 ,4-benzothiazepin-8-yl]methyl}amino)pentanedioic acid (3330 g, 90.8% yield) as a white solid which was analyzed for crystallinity as summarized below.

Paper

CowanD. J.CollinsJ. L.MitchellM. B.RayJ. A.SuttonP. W.SarjeantA. A.BorosE. E.Enzymatic- and Iridium-Catalyzed Asymmetric Synthesis of a Benzothiazepinylphosphonate Bile Acid Transporter Inhibitor J. Org. Chem. 201378 ( 2412726– 12734DOI: 10.1021/jo402311e
Abstract Image

A synthesis of the benzothiazepine phosphonic acid 3, employing both enzymatic and transition metal catalysis, is described. The quaternary chiral center of 3 was obtained by resolution of ethyl (2-ethyl)norleucinate (4) with porcine liver esterase (PLE) immobilized on Sepabeads. The resulting (R)-amino acid (5) was converted in two steps to aminosulfate 7, which was used for construction of the benzothiazepine ring. Benzophenone 15, prepared in four steps from trimethylhydroquinone 11, enabled sequential incorporation of phosphorus (Arbuzov chemistry) and sulfur (Pd(0)-catalyzed thiol coupling) leading to mercaptan intermediate 18S-Alkylation of 18 with aminosulfate 7 followed by cyclodehydration afforded dihydrobenzothiazepine 20. Iridium-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of 20 with the complex of [Ir(COD)2BArF] (26) and Taniaphos ligand P afforded the (3R,5R)-tetrahydrobenzothiazepine 30 following flash chromatography. Oxidation of 30 to sulfone 31 and phosphonate hydrolysis completed the synthesis of 3 in 12 steps and 13% overall yield.

Paper

FigureImage result for GSK2330672
Scheme 1. Current Route to Chiral Intermediate 4 in the Synthesis of GSK2330672

Development of an Enzymatic Process for the Production of (R)-2-Butyl-2-ethyloxirane

Synthetic Biochemistry, Advanced Manufacturing Technologies, API Chemistry, Protein and Cellular Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline, Medicines Research Centre, Gunnels Wood Road, Stevenage SG1 2NY, United Kingdom
§API Chemistry, Synthetic Biochemistry, Advanced Manufacturing Technologies, GlaxoSmithKline, 709 Swedeland Road, King of Prussia, Pennsylvania 19406, United States
# Biotechnology and Environmental Shared Service, Global Manufacturing and Supply, GlaxoSmithKline, Dominion Way, Worthing BN14 8PB, United Kingdom
 Molecular Design, Computational and Modeling Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline, 1250 S. Collegeville Road, Collegeville, Pennsylvania 19426, United States
Org. Process Res. Dev., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acs.oprd.7b00179
Abstract Image

An epoxide resolution process was rapidly developed that allowed access to multigram scale quantities of (R)-2-butyl-2-ethyloxirane 2 at greater than 300 g/L reaction concentration using an easy-to-handle and store lyophilized powder of epoxide hydrolase from Agromyces mediolanus. The enzyme was successfully fermented on a 35 L scale and stability increased by downstream processing. Halohydrin dehalogenases also gave highly enantioselective resolution but were shown to favor hydrolysis of the (R)-2 epoxide, whereas epoxide hydrolase from Aspergillus nigerinstead provided (R)-7 via an unoptimized, enantioconvergent process.

REFERENCES

1: Nunez DJ, Yao X, Lin J, Walker A, Zuo P, Webster L, Krug-Gourley S, Zamek-Gliszczynski MJ, Gillmor DS, Johnson SL. Glucose and lipid effects of the ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter inhibitor GSK2330672: double-blind randomized trials with type 2 diabetes subjects taking metformin. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2016 Jul;18(7):654-62. doi: 10.1111/dom.12656. Epub 2016 Apr 21. PubMed PMID: 26939572.

2: Wu Y, Aquino CJ, Cowan DJ, Anderson DL, Ambroso JL, Bishop MJ, Boros EE, Chen L, Cunningham A, Dobbins RL, Feldman PL, Harston LT, Kaldor IW, Klein R, Liang X, McIntyre MS, Merrill CL, Patterson KM, Prescott JS, Ray JS, Roller SG, Yao X, Young A, Yuen J, Collins JL. Discovery of a highly potent, nonabsorbable apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter inhibitor (GSK2330672) for treatment of type 2 diabetes. J Med Chem. 2013 Jun 27;56(12):5094-114. doi: 10.1021/jm400459m. Epub 2013 Jun 6. PubMed PMID: 23678871.

///////GSK 2330672, phase 2

CCCC[C@@]1(CS(=O)(=O)c2cc(c(cc2[C@H](N1)c3ccccc3)OC)CNC(CC(=O)O)CC(=O)O)CC

Advertisements

GSK 2982772


str1Image result

CAS: 1622848-92-3 (free base),  1987858-31-0 (hydrate)

Chemical Formula: C20H19N5O3

Molecular Weight: 377.404

5-Benzyl-N-[(3S)-5-methyl-4-oxo-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1,5-benzoxazepin-3-yl]-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide

(S)-5-benzyl-N-(5-methyl-4-oxo-2,3,4,5-tetrahydrobenzo[b][l,4]oxazepin-3-yl)-4H-l,2,4- triazole-3-carboxamide

  • 3-(Phenylmethyl)-N-[(3S)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-5-methyl-4-oxo-1,5-benzoxazepin-3-yl]-1H-1,2,4-triazole-5-carboxamide
  • (S)-5-Benzyl-N-(5-methyl-4-oxo-2,3,4,5-tetrahydrobenzo[b][1,4]oxazepin-3-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide

GSK2982772 is a potent and selective receptor Interacting Protein 1 (RIP1) Kinase Specific Clinical Candidate for the Treatment of Inflammatory Diseases. GSK2982772 is, currently in phase 2a clinical studies for psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ulcerative colitis. GSK2982772 potently binds to RIP1 with exquisite kinase specificity and has excellent activity in blocking many TNF-dependent cellular responses. RIP1 has emerged as an important upstream kinase that has been shown to regulate inflammation through both scaffolding and kinase specific functions.

GSK-2982772, an oral receptor-interacting protein-1 (RIP1) kinase inhibitor, is in phase II clinical development at GlaxoSmithKline for the treatment of active plaque-type psoriasis, moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis, and active ulcerative colitis. A phase I trial was also completed for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease using capsule and solution formulations.

  • Originator GlaxoSmithKline
  • Class Antipsoriatics
  • Mechanism of Action Receptor-interacting protein serine-threonine kinase inhibitors

Highest Development Phases

  • Phase II Plaque psoriasis; Rheumatoid arthritis; Ulcerative colitis
  • Phase I Inflammatory bowel diseases

Most Recent Events

  • 15 Dec 2016 Biomarkers information updated
  • 01 Nov 2016 Phase-II clinical trials in Ulcerative colitis (Adjunctive treatment) in USA (PO) (NCT02903966)
  • 01 Oct 2016 Phase-II clinical trials in Rheumatoid arthritis in Poland (PO) (NCT02858492)

PHASE 2 Psoriasis, plaque GSK

Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Agents for
Rheumatoid Arthritis, Treatment of
Antipsoriatics
Inventors Deepak BANDYOPADHYAYPatrick M. EidamPeter J. GOUGHPhilip Anthony HarrisJae U. JeongJianxing KangBryan Wayne KINGShah Ami LakdawalaJr. Robert W. MarquisLara Kathryn LEISTERAttiq RahmanJoshi M. RamanjuluClark A SehonJR. Robert SINGHAUSDaohua Zhang
Applicant Glaxosmithkline Intellectual Property Development Limited

Deepak Bandyopadhyay

Deepak BANDYOPADHYAY

Data Science and Informatics Leader | Innovation Advocate

GSK 

 University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

He is  a data scientist and innovator with experience in both early and late stages of drug development. his current role involves the late stage of drug product development. I’m leading a project to bring GSK’s large molecule process and analytical data onto our big data platform and develop new data analysis and modeling capabilities. Also, working within GSK’s Advanced Manufacturing Technology (AMT) initiative provides plenty of other opportunities to impact how we make medicines.

Previously as a computational chemist (i.e. a data scientist in drug discovery), he worked with scientists from many domains, including chemists, biologists, and other informaticians. he enjoys digging into all the computational aspects of life science research, and solving data challenges by exploiting adjacencies and connections – between diverse fields of knowledge, and the equally diverse scientists trained in them. 

He has supported multiple drug discovery projects at GSK starting from target identification (“how should we modulate disease X?”) through to candidate selection and early clinical development (“let’s see if what we discovered can become a medicine”). Deriving insight by custom data integration is one of my specialties; recently he designed and implemented a platform for integrating data sets from multiple experiments that will be used by GSK screening scientists to find and combine hits. 

A trained computer scientist and cheminformatician, he is  an active member of the algorithms, data science and internal innovation communities at GSK, leading many of these efforts. 

His Ph.D. work introduced new computational geometry techniques for structural bioinformatics and protein function prediction. I have touched on several other subject areas:

* data mining/machine learning (predictive modeling and graph mining), 
* computer graphics and augmented reality (one of the pioneers of projection mapping)
* robotics (keen current interest and future aspiration)

Receptor-interacting protein- 1 (RIP1) kinase, originally referred to as RIP, is a TKL family serine/threonine protein kinase involved in innate immune signaling. RIPl kinase is a RHIM domain containing protein, with an N-terminal kinase domain and a C-terminal death domain ((2005) Trends Biochem. Sci. 30, 151-159). The death domain of RIPl mediates interaction with other death domain containing proteins including Fas and TNFR-1 ((1995) Cell 81 513-523), TRAIL-Rl and TRAIL-R2 ((1997) Immunity 7, 821-830) and TRADD ((1996) Immunity 4, 387-396), while the RHIM domain is crucial for binding other RHFM domain containing proteins such as TRIF ((2004) Nat Immunol. 5, 503-507), DAI ((2009) EMBO Rep. 10, 916-922) and RIP3 ((1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 16871-16875); (1999) Curr. Biol. 9, 539-542) and exerts many of its effects through these interactions. RIPl is a central regulator of cell signaling, and is involved in mediating both pro-survival and programmed cell death pathways which will be discussed below.

The role for RIPl in cell signaling has been assessed under various conditions

[including TLR3 ((2004) Nat Immunol. 5, 503-507), TLR4 ((2005) J. Biol. Chem. 280,

36560-36566), TRAIL ((2012) J .Virol. Epub, ahead of print), FAS ((2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 7925-7933)], but is best understood in the context of mediating signals downstream of the death receptor TNFRl ((2003) Cell 114, 181-190). Engagement of the TNFR by TNF leads to its oligomerization, and the recruitment of multiple proteins, including linear K63-linked polyubiquitinated RIPl ((2006) Mol. Cell 22, 245-257), TRAF2/5 ((2010) J. Mol. Biol. 396, 528-539), TRADD ((2008) Nat. Immunol. 9, 1037-1046) and cIAPs ((2008) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 105, 1 1778-11783), to the cytoplasmic tail of the receptor. This complex which is dependent on RIPl as a scaffolding protein (i.e. kinase

independent), termed complex I, provides a platform for pro-survival signaling through the activation of the NFKB and MAP kinases pathways ((2010) Sci. Signal. 115, re4).

Alternatively, binding of TNF to its receptor under conditions promoting the

deubiquitination of RIPl (by proteins such as A20 and CYLD or inhibition of the cIAPs) results in receptor internalization and the formation of complex II or DISC (death-inducing signaling complex) ((2011) Cell Death Dis. 2, e230). Formation of the DISC, which contains RIPl, TRADD, FADD and caspase 8, results in the activation of caspase 8 and the onset of programmed apoptotic cell death also in a RIPl kinase independent fashion ((2012) FEBS J 278, 877-887). Apoptosis is largely a quiescent form of cell death, and is involved in routine processes such as development and cellular homeostasis.

Under conditions where the DISC forms and RJP3 is expressed, but apoptosis is inhibited (such as FADD/caspase 8 deletion, caspase inhibition or viral infection), a third RIPl kinase-dependent possibility exists. RIP3 can now enter this complex, become phosphorylated by RIPl and initiate a caspase-independent programmed necrotic cell death through the activation of MLKL and PGAM5 ((2012) Cell 148, 213-227); ((2012) Cell 148, 228-243); ((2012) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 109, 5322-5327). As opposed to apoptosis, programmed necrosis (not to be confused with passive necrosis which is not programmed) results in the release of danger associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) from the cell.

These DAMPs are capable of providing a “danger signal” to surrounding cells and tissues, eliciting proinflammatory responses including inflammasome activation, cytokine production and cellular recruitment ((2008 Nat. Rev. Immunol 8, 279-289).

Dysregulation of RIPl kinase-mediated programmed cell death has been linked to various inflammatory diseases, as demonstrated by use of the RIP3 knockout mouse (where RIPl -mediated programmed necrosis is completely blocked) and by Necrostatin-1 (a tool inhibitor of RIPl kinase activity with poor oral bioavailability). The RIP3 knockout mouse has been shown to be protective in inflammatory bowel disease (including Ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease) ((2011) Nature 477, 330-334), Psoriasis ((2011) Immunity 35, 572-582), retinal-detachment-induced photoreceptor necrosis ((2010) PNAS 107, 21695-21700), retinitis pigmentosa ((2012) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 109:36, 14598-14603), cerulein-induced acute pancreatits ((2009) Cell 137, 1100-1111) and Sepsis/systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) ((2011) Immunity 35, 908-918). Necrostatin-1 has been shown to be effective in alleviating ischemic brain injury ((2005) Nat. Chem. Biol. 1, 112-119), retinal ischemia/reperfusion injury ((2010) J. Neurosci. Res. 88, 1569-1576), Huntington’s disease ((2011) Cell Death Dis. 2 el 15), renal ischemia reperfusion injury ((2012) Kidney Int. 81, 751-761), cisplatin induced kidney injury ((2012) Ren. Fail. 34, 373-377) and traumatic brain injury ((2012) Neurochem. Res. 37, 1849-1858). Other diseases or disorders regulated at least in part by RIPl -dependent apoptosis, necrosis or cytokine production include hematological and solid organ malignancies ((2013) Genes

Dev. 27: 1640-1649), bacterial infections and viral infections ((2014) Cell Host & Microbe 15, 23-35) (including, but not limited to, tuberculosis and influenza ((2013) Cell 153, 1-14)) and Lysosomal storage diseases (particularly, Gaucher Disease, Nature Medicine Advance Online Publication, 19 January 2014, doi: 10.1038/nm.3449).

A potent, selective, small molecule inhibitor of RIP1 kinase activity would block RIP 1 -dependent cellular necrosis and thereby provide a therapeutic benefit in diseases or events associated with DAMPs, cell death, and/or inflammation.

str1

Patent

WO 2014125444

Example 12

Method H

(S)-5-benzyl-N-(5-methyl-4-oxo-2,3,4,5-tetrahydrobenzo[b][l,4]oxazepin-3-yl)-4H-l,2,4- triazole-3-carboxamide

A mixture of (S)-3-amino-5-methyl-2,3-dihydrobenzo[b][l,4]oxazepin-4(5H)-one, hydrochloride (4.00 g, 16.97 mmol), 5-benzyl-4H-l,2,4-triazole-3-carboxylic acid, hydrochloride (4.97 g, 18.66 mmol) and DIEA (10.37 mL, 59.4 mmol) in isopropanol (150 mL) was stirred vigorously for 10 minutes and then 2,4,6-tripropyl-l,3,5,2,4,6-trioxatriphosphinane 2,4,6-trioxide (T3P) (50% by wt. in EtOAc) (15.15 mL, 25.5 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred at rt for 10 minutes and then quenched with water and concentrated to remove isopropanol. The resulting crude material is dissolved in EtOAc and washed with 1M HC1, satd. NaHC03 and brine. Organics were concentrated and purified by column chromatography (220 g silica column; 20-90% EtOAc/hexanes, 15 min.; 90%, 15 min.) to give the title compound as a light orange foam (5.37 g, 83%). 1H NMR (MeOH-d4) δ: 7.40 – 7.45 (m, 1H), 7.21 – 7.35 (m, 8H), 5.01 (dd, J = 11.6, 7.6 Hz, 1H), 4.60 (dd, J = 9.9, 7.6 Hz, 1H), 4.41 (dd, J = 11.4, 9.9 Hz, 1H), 4.17 (s, 2H), 3.41 (s, 3H); MS (m/z) 378.3 (M+H+).

Alternative Preparation:

To a solution of (S)-3-amino-5-methyl-2,3-dihydrobenzo[b][l,4]oxazepin-4(5H)-one hydrochloride (100 g, 437 mmol), 5-benzyl-4H-l,2,4-triazole-3-carboxylic acid hydrochloride (110 g, 459 mmol) in DCM (2.5 L) was added DIPEA (0.267 L, 1531 mmol) at 15 °C. The reaction mixture was stirred for 10 min. and 2,4,6-tripropyl-l, 3, 5,2,4,6-trioxatriphosphinane 2,4,6-trioxide >50 wt. % in ethyl acetate (0.390 L, 656 mmol) was slowly added at 15 °C. After stirring for 60 mins at RT the LCMS showed the reaction was complete, upon which time it was quenched with water, partitioned between DCM and washed with 0.5N HCl aq (2 L), saturated aqueous NaHC03 (2 L), brine (2 L) and water (2 L). The organic phase was separated and activated charcoal (100 g) and sodium sulfate

(200 g) were added. The dark solution was shaken for 1 h before filtering. The filtrate was then concentrated under reduced pressure to afford the product as a tan foam (120 g). The product was dried under a high vacuum at 50 °C for 16 h. 1H MR showed 4-5% wt of ethyl acetate present. The sample was dissolved in EtOH (650 ml) and stirred for 30 mins, after which the solvent was removed using a rotavapor (water-bath T=45 °C). The product was dried under high vacuum for 16 h at RT (118 g, 72% yield). The product was further dried under high vacuum at 50 °C for 5 h. 1H NMR showed <1% of EtOH and no ethyl acetate. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-i¾) δ ppm 4.12 (s, 2 H), 4.31 – 4.51 (m, 1 H), 4.60 (t, J=10.36 Hz, 1 H), 4.83 (dt, 7=11.31, 7.86 Hz, 1 H), 7.12 – 7.42 (m, 8 H), 7.42 – 7.65 (m, 1 H), 8.45 (br. s., 1 H), 14.41 (br. s., 1 H). MS (m/z) 378 (M + H+).

Crystallization:

(S)-5-Benzyl-N-(5-methyl-4-oxo-2,3,4,5-tetrahydrobenzo[b][l,4]oxazepin-3-yl)-4H-l,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide (100 mg) was dissolved in 0.9 mL of toluene and 0.1 mL of methylcyclohexane at 60 °C, then stirred briskly at room temperature (20 °C) for 4 days. After 4 days, an off-white solid was recovered (76 mg, 76% recovery). The powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) pattern of this material is shown in Figure 7 and the corresponding diffraction data is provided in Table 1.

The PXRD analysis was conducted using a PANanalytical X’Pert Pro

diffractometer equipped with a copper anode X-ray tube, programmable slits, and

X’Celerator detector fitted with a nickel filter. Generator tension and current were set to 45kV and 40mA respectively to generate the copper Ka radiation powder diffraction pattern over the range of 2 – 40°2Θ. The test specimen was lightly triturated using an agate mortar and pestle and the resulting fine powder was mounted onto a silicon background plate.

Table 1.

Paper

Discovery of a first-in-class receptor interacting protein 1 (RIP1) kinase specific clinical candidate (GSK2982772) for the treatment of inflammatory diseases
J Med Chem 2017, 60(4): 1247

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.6b01751

RIP1 regulates necroptosis and inflammation and may play an important role in contributing to a variety of human pathologies, including immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. Small-molecule inhibitors of RIP1 kinase that are suitable for advancement into the clinic have yet to be described. Herein, we report our lead optimization of a benzoxazepinone hit from a DNA-encoded library and the discovery and profile of clinical candidate GSK2982772 (compound 5), currently in phase 2a clinical studies for psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ulcerative colitis. Compound 5 potently binds to RIP1 with exquisite kinase specificity and has excellent activity in blocking many TNF-dependent cellular responses. Highlighting its potential as a novel anti-inflammatory agent, the inhibitor was also able to reduce spontaneous production of cytokines from human ulcerative colitis explants. The highly favorable physicochemical and ADMET properties of 5, combined with high potency, led to a predicted low oral dose in humans.

J. Med. Chem. 2017, 60, 1247−1261

(S)-5-Benzyl-N-(5-methyl-4-oxo-2,3,4,5-tetrahydrobenzo[b]- [1,4]oxazepin-3-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide (5).

EtOAc solvate. 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) δ ppm 14.41 (br s, 1 H), 8.48 (br s, 1 H), 7.50 (dd, J = 7.7, 1.9 Hz, 1 H), 7.12−7.40 (m, 8 H), 4.83 (dt, J = 11.6, 7.9 Hz, 1 H), 4.60 (t, J = 10.7 Hz, 1 H), 4.41 (dd, J = 9.9, 7.8 Hz, 1 H), 4.12 (s, 2 H), 3.31 (s, 3 H). Anal. Calcd for C20H20N5O3·0.026EtOAc·0.4H2O C, 62.36; H, 5.17; N, 18.09. Found: C, 62.12; H, 5.05; N, 18.04.

Synthesis of (<it>S</it>)-3-amino-benzo[<it>b</it>][1,4]oxazepin-4-one via Mitsunobu and S<INF>N</INF>Ar reaction for a first-in-class RIP1 kinase inhibitor GSK2982772 in clinical trials
Tetrahedron Lett 2017, 58(23): 2306
Harris, P.A.
Identification of a first-in-class RIP1 kinase inhibitor in phase 2a clinical trials for immunoinflammatory diseases
ACS MEDI-EFMC Med Chem Front (June 25-28, Philadelphia) 2017, Abst 

Harris, P.
Identification of a first-in-class RIP1 kinase inhibitor in phase 2a clinical trials for immuno-inflammatory diseases
253rd Am Chem Soc (ACS) Natl Meet (April 2-6, San Francisco) 2017, Abst MEDI 313

1H NMR AND 13C NMR PREDICT

////////////GSK 2982772, phase 2, Plaque psoriasis, Rheumatoid arthritis, Ulcerative colitis

CN3c4ccccc4OC[C@H](NC(=O)c2nnc(Cc1ccccc1)n2)C3=O

Voxilaprevir, فوكسيلابريفير , 伏西瑞韦 , Воксилапревир


Voxilaprevir.svgUNII-0570F37359.pngChemSpider 2D Image | voxilaprevir | C40H52F4N6O9S

Figure imgf000410_0002

Voxilaprevir

  • Molecular FormulaC40H52F4N6O9S
  • Average mass868.934 Da
 1535212-07-7 cas
(1R,18R,20R,24S,27S,28S)-N-[(1R,2R)-2-(Difluoromethyl)-1-{[(1-methylcyclopropyl)sulfonyl]carbamoyl}cyclopropyl]-28-ethyl-13,13-difluoro-7-methoxy-24-(2-methyl-2-propanyl)-22,25-dioxo-2,21-dioxa-4,11,2  ;3,26-tetraazapentacyclo[24.2.1.03,12.05,10.018,20]nonacosa-3(12),4,6,8,10-pentaene-27-carboxamide
Cyclopropanecarboxamide, N-[[[(1R,2R)-2-[5,5-difluoro-5-(3-hydroxy-6-methoxy-2-quinoxalinyl)pentyl]cyclopropyl]oxy]carbonyl]-3-methyl-L-valyl-(3S,4R)-3-ethyl-4-hydroxy-L-prolyl-1-amino-2-(difluoromethyl)-N-[(1-methylcyclopropyl)sulfonyl]-, cyclic (1→2)-ether, (1R,2R)-
(laR,5S,8S,9S,10R,22aR)-5-teri-butyl- V-[(lR,2R)-2-(difluoromethyl)– 1-{ [(1-methylcyclopr opyl)sulfonyl] carbamoyl} cyclopropyl] -9-ethyl- 18,18- difluoro-14-methoxy-3,6-dioxo-l,la,3,4,5,6,9,10,18,19,20,21,22,22a-tetradecahydro-8H-7,10-methanocyclopropa[18,19] [1,10,3,6] dioxadiazacyclononadecino[ll,12-6]quinoxaline-8- carboxamide
(laR,5S,8S,9S,10R,22aR)-5-teri-butyl- V-[(lR,2R)-2-(difluoromethyl)- 1-{ [(1-methylcyclopr opyl)sulfonyl] carbamoyl} cyclopropyl] -9-ethyl- 18,18- difluoro-14-methoxy-3,6-dioxo-l,la,3,4,5,6,9,10,18,19,20,21,22,22a-tetradecahydro-8H-7,10-methanocyclopropa[18,19] [1,10,3,6] dioxadiazacyclononadecino[ll,12-6]quinoxaline-8- carboxamide

8H-7,10-Methanocyclopropa[18,19][1,10,3,6]dioxadiazacyclononadecino[11,12-b]quinoxaline-8-carboxamide, N-[(1R,2R)-2-(difluoromethyl)-1-[[[(1-methylcyclopropyl)sulfonyl]amino]carbonyl]cyclopropyl]-5-(1 ,1-dimethylethyl)-9-ethyl-18,18-difluoro-1,1a,3,4,5,6,9,10,18,19,20,21,22,22a-tetradecahydro-14-methoxy-3,6-dioxo-, (1aR,5S,8S,9S,10R,22aR)-

GS-9857
UNII:0570F37359
Воксилапревир [Russian] [INN]
فوكسيلابريفير [Arabic] [INN]
伏西瑞韦 [Chinese] [INN]

Voxilaprevir is a hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural (NS) protein 3/4A protease inhibitor that is used in combination with sofosbuvirand velpatasvir. The combination has the trade name Vosevi and has received a positive opinion from the European Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use in June 2017.[1]

In July 18, 2017, Vosevi was approved by Food and drug administration.[2]

The hepatitis C virus (HCV), a member of the hepacivirus genera within the Flaviviridae family, is the leading cause of chronic liver disease worldwide (Boyer, N. et al. J Hepatol. 2000, 32, 98-1 12). Consequently, a significant focus of current antiviral research is directed toward the development of improved methods for the treatment of chronic HCV infections in humans (Ciesek, S., von Hahn T., and Manns, MP., Clin. Liver Dis., 201 1 , 15, 597-609; Soriano, V. et al, J. Antimicrob. Chemother., 201 1 , 66, 1573-1686; Brody, H., Nature Outlook, 201 1 , 474, S1 -S7; Gordon, C. P., et al., J. Med. Chem. 2005, 48, 1 -20;

Maradpour, D., et al., Nat. Rev. Micro. 2007, 5, 453-463).

Virologic cures of patients with chronic HCV infection are difficult to achieve because of the prodigious amount of daily virus production in chronically infected patients and the high spontaneous mutability of HCV (Neumann, et al., Science 1998, 282, 103-7; Fukimoto, et al., Hepatology, 1996, 24, 1351 -4;

Domingo, et al., Gene 1985, 40, 1 -8; Martell, et al., J. Virol. 1992, 66, 3225-9). HCV treatment is further complicated by the fact that HCV is genetically diverse and expressed as several different genotypes and numerous subtypes. For example, HCV is currently classified into six major genotypes (designated 1 -6), many subtypes (designated a, b, c, and so on), and about 100 different strains (numbered 1 , 2, 3, and so on).

HCV is distributed worldwide with genotypes 1 , 2, and 3 predominate within the United States, Europe, Australia, and East Asia (Japan, Taiwan, Thailand, and China). Genotype 4 is largely found in the Middle East, Egypt and central Africa while genotype 5 and 6 are found predominantly in South Africa and South East Asia respectively (Simmonds, P. et al. J Virol. 84: 4597-4610, 2010).

The combination of ribavirin, a nucleoside analog, and interferon-alpha (a) (IFN), is utilized for the treatment of multiple genotypes of chronic HCV infections in humans. However, the variable clinical response observed within patients and the toxicity of this regimen have limited its usefulness. Addition of a HCV protease inhibitor (telaprevir or boceprevir) to the ribavirin and IFN regimen improves 12-week post-treatment virological response (SVR12) rates

substantially. However, the regimen is currently only approved for genotype 1 patients and toxicity and other side effects remain.

The use of directing acting antivirals to treat multiple genotypes of HCV infection has proven challenging due to the variable activity of antivirals against the different genotypes. HCV protease inhibitors frequently have compromised in vitro activity against HCV genotypes 2 and 3 compared to genotype 1 (See, e.g., Table 1 of Summa, V. et al., Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 2012, 56, 4161 -4167; Gottwein, J. et al, Gastroenterology, 201 1 , 141 , 1067-1079).

Correspondingly, clinical efficacy has also proven highly variable across HCV genotypes. For example, therapies that are highly effective against HCV genotype 1 and 2 may have limited or no clinical efficacy against genotype 3.

(Moreno, C. et al., Poster 895, 61 st AASLD Meeting, Boston, MA, USA, Oct. 29 – Nov. 2, 2010; Graham, F., et al, Gastroenterology, 201 1 , 141 , 881 -889; Foster, G.R. et al., EASL 45th Annual Meeting, April 14-18, 2010, Vienna, Austria.) In some cases, antiviral agents have good clinical efficacy against genotype 1 , but lower and more variable against genotypes 2 and 3. (Reiser, M. et al.,

Hepatology, 2005, 41 ,832-835.) To overcome the reduced efficacy in genotype 3 patients, substantially higher doses of antiviral agents may be required to achieve substantial viral load reductions (Fraser, IP et al., Abstract #48, HEP DART 201 1 , Koloa, HI, December 201 1 .)

Antiviral agents that are less susceptible to viral resistance are also needed. For example, resistance mutations at positions 155 and 168 in the HCV protease frequently cause a substantial decrease in antiviral efficacy of HCV protease inhibitors (Mani, N. Ann Forum Collab HIV Res., 2012, 14, 1 -8;

Romano, KP et al, PNAS, 2010, 107, 20986-20991 ; Lenz O, Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 2010, 54,1878-1887.)

In view of the limitations of current HCV therapy, there is a need to develop more effective anti-HCV therapies. It would also be useful to provide therapies that are effective against multiple HCV genotypes and subtypes.

Image result

Kyla BjornsonEda CanalesJeromy J. CottellKapil Kumar KARKIAshley Anne KatanaDarryl KatoTetsuya KobayashiJohn O. LinkRuben MartinezBarton W. PhillipsHyung-Jung PyunMichael SangiAdam James SCHRIERDustin SiegelJames G. TAYLORChinh Viet TranMartin Teresa Alejandra TrejoRandall W. VivianZheng-Yu YangJeff ZablockiSheila Zipfel
Applicant Gilead Sciences, Inc.

Kyla Ramey (Bjornson)

Kyla Ramey (Bjornson)

Senior CTM Associate at Gilead Sciences

……………………………………………………………………………….str1

PATENT

WO 2014008285

https://www.google.com/patents/WO2014008285A1?cl=en

26. A compound of Formula IVf:
Figure imgf000410_0002

RELATIVE SIMILAR EXAMPLE WITHOUT DIFLUORO GROUPS, BUT NOT SAME COMPD

Example 1. Preparation of (1 aR,5S,8S,9S,10R,22aR)-5-tert-butyl-N- [(1 R,2R)-2-(difluoromethyl)-1 -{[(1 – methylcyclopropyl)sulfonyl]carbamoyl}cyclopropyl]-9-ethyl-14-methoxy-3,6-dioxo- 1 ,1 a,3,4,5,6,9,10,18,19,20,21 ,22,22a-tetradecahydro-8H-7,10- methanocyclopropa[18,19][1 ,10,3,6]dioxadiazacyclononadecino[1 1 ,12- b]quinoxaline-8-carboxamide.

Figure imgf000182_0001
Figure imgf000183_0001

Step 1 . Preparation of 1-1 : A mixture containing Intermediate B4 (2.03 g, 6.44 mmol), Intermediate E1 (1 .6 g, 5.85 mmol), and cesium carbonate (3.15 g, 9.66 mmol) in MeCN (40 mL) was stirred vigorously at rt under an atmosphere of Ar for 16 h. The reaction was then filtered through a pad of Celite and the filtrate concentrated in vacuo. The crude material was purified by silica gel

chromatography to provide 1-1 as a white solid (2.5 g). LCMS-ESI+ (m/z): [M- Boc+2H]+ calcd for C2oH27CIN3O4: 408.9; found: 408.6.

Step 2. Preparation of 1-2: To a solution 1 -1 (2.5 g, 4.92 mmol) in dioxane

(10 mL) was added hydrochloric acid in dioxane (4 M, 25 mL, 98.4 mmol) and the reaction stirred at rt for 5 h. The crude reaction was concentrated in vacuo to give 1-2 as a white solid (2.49 g) that was used in subsequently without further purification. LCMS-ESI+ (m/z): [M]+ calcd for C2oH26CIN3O4: 407.9; found: 407.9.

Step 3. Preparation of 1-3: To a DMF (35 mL) solution of 1-2 (2.49 g, 5.61 mmol), Intermediate D1 (1 .75 mg, 6.17 mmol) and DIPEA (3.9 mL, 22.44 mmol) was added COMU (3.12 g, 7.29 mmol) and the reaction was stirred at rt for 3 h. The reaction was quenched with 5% aqueous citric acid solution and extracted with EtOAc, washed subsequently with brine, dried over anhydrous MgSO , filtered and concentrated to produce 1 -3 as an orange foam (2.31 g) that was used without further purification. LCMS-ESI+ (m/z): [M]+ calcd for C35H49CIN4O7: 673.3; found: 673.7.

Step 4. Preparation of 1-4: To a solution of 1-3 (2.31 g, 3.43 mmol), TEA (0.72 mL, 5.15 mmol) and potassium vinyltrifluoroborate (0.69 mg, 5.15 mmol) in EtOH (35 mL) was added PdCI2(dppf) (0.25 g, 0.34 mmol, Frontier Scientific). The reaction was sparged with Argon for 15 min and heated to 80 °C for 2 h. The reaction was adsorbed directly onto silica gel and purified using silica gel chromatography to give 1 -4 as a yellow oil (1 .95 g). LCMS-ESI+ (m/z): [M+H]+ calcd for C37H53N4O7: 665.4; found: 665.3.

Step 5. Preparation of 1 -5: To a solution of 1 -4 (1 .95 g, 2.93 mmol) in

DCE (585 ml_) was added Zhan 1 B catalyst (0.215 g, 0.29 mmol, Strem) and the reaction was sparged with Ar for 15 min. The reaction was heated to 80 °C for 1 .5 h, allowed to cool to rt and concentrated. The crude product was purified by silica gel chromatography to produce 1 -5 as a yellow oil (1 .47 g; LCMS-ESI+ (m/z): [M+H]+ calcd for C35H49N4O7: 637.4; found: 637.3).

Step 6. Preparation of 1 -6: A solution of 1 -5 (0.97 g, 1 .52 mmol) in EtOH (15 ml_) was treated with Pd/C (10 wt % Pd, 0.162 g). The atmosphere was replaced with hydrogen and stirred at rt for 2 h. The reaction was filtered through Celite, the pad washed with EtOAc and concentrated to give 1 -6 as a brown foamy solid (0.803 g) that was used subsequently without further purification. LCMS-ESr (m/z): [M+H]+ calcd for C35H5i N4O7: 639.4; found: 639.3.

Step 7. Preparation of 1 -7: To a solution of 1 -6 (0.803 g, 1 .26 mmol) in DCM (10 ml_) was added TFA (5 ml_) and stirred at rt for 3 h. An additional 2 ml_ TFA was added and the reaction stirred for another 1 .5 h. The reaction was concentrated to a brown oil that was taken up in EtOAc (35 ml_). The organic solution was washed with water. After separation of the layers, sat. aqueous NaHCO3 was added with stirring until the aqueous layer reached a pH ~ 7-8. The layers were separated again and the aqueous extracted with EtOAc twice. The combined organics were washed with 1 M aqueous citric acid, brine, dried over anhydrous MgSO4, filtered and concentrated to produce 1 -6 as a brown foamy solid (0.719 g) that was used subsequently without further purification. LCMS-ESr (m/z): [M+H]+ calcd for C3i H43N4O7: 583.3; found: 583.4 .

Step 8. Preparation of Example 1 : To a solution of 1 -7 (0.200 g, 0.343 mmol), Intermediate A10 (0.157 g, 0.515 mmol), DMAP (0.063 g, 0.51 mmol) and DIPEA (0.3 ml_, 1 .72 mmol) in DMF (3 ml_) was added HATU (0.235 g, 0.617 mmol) and the reaction was stirred at rt o/n. The reaction was diluted with MeCN and purified directly by reverse phase HPLC (Gemini, 30-100% MeCN/H2O + 0.1 % TFA) and lyophilized to give Example 1 (1 18.6 mg) as a solid TFA salt. Analytic HPLC RetTime: 8.63 min. LCMS-ESI+ (m/z): [M+H]+ calcd for

C40H55F2N6O9S: 833.4; found: 833.5. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) δ 9.19 (s, 1 H); 7.80 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1 H); 7.23 (dd, J = 8.8, 2.4 Hz, 1 H); 7.15 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1 H); 5.89 (d, J = 3.6 Hz, 1 H); 5.83 (td, JH-F = 55.6 Hz, J = 6.4 Hz, 1 H); 4.56 (d, J = 7.2 Hz, 1 H); 4.40 (s, 1 H) 4.38 (ap d, J = 7.2 Hz, 1 H); 4.16 (dd, J = 12, 4 Hz, 1 H); 3.93 (s, 3H); 3.75 (dt, J = 7.2, 4 Hz, 1 H); 3.00-2.91 (m, 1 H); 2.81 (td, J = 12, 4.4 Hz, 1 H); 2.63-2.54 (m, 1 H); 2.01 (br s, 2H); 1 .88-1 .64 (m, 3H); 1 .66-1 .33 (m, 1 1 H) 1 .52 (s, 3H); 1 .24 (t, J = 7.2 Hz, 3H); 1 .10 (s, 9H); 1 .02-0.96 (m, 2H); 0.96- 0.88 (m, 2H); 0.78-0.68 (m, 1 H); 0.55-0.46 (m, 1 H).

PATENT

US 20150175625

PATENT

US 20150175626

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf;jsessionid=C6BE27513351D0F12E95BC8C04756872.wapp1nA?docId=WO2015100145&recNum=1&maxRec=&office=&prevFilter=&sortOption=&queryString=&tab=PCTDescription

The hepatitis C virus (HCV), a member of the hepacivirus genera within the Flaviviridae family, is the leading cause of chronic liver disease worldwide (Boyer, N. et al. J Hepatol. 2000, 32, 98-112). Consequently, a significant focus of current antiviral research is directed toward the development of improved methods for the treatment of chronic HCV infections in humans (Ciesek, S., von Hahn T., and Manns, MP., Clin. Liver Dis., 2011, 15, 597-609; Soriano, V. et al, J. Antimicrob. Chemother., 2011, 66, 1573-1686; Brody, H., Nature Outlook, 2011, 474, S1-S7; Gordon, C. P., et al, J. Med. Chem. 2005, 48, 1-20; Maradpour, D., et al, Nat. Rev. Micro. 2007, 5, 453-463).

Virologic cures of patients with chronic HCV infection are difficult to achieve because of the prodigious amount of daily virus production in chronically infected patients and the high spontaneous mutability of HCV (Neumann, et al, Science 1998, 282, 103-7; Fukimoto, et al, Hepatology, 1996, 24, 1351-4; Domingo, et al, Gene 1985, 40, 1-8; Martell, et al, J. Virol. 1992, 66, 3225-9). HCV treatment is further complicated by the fact that HCV is genetically diverse and expressed as several different genotypes and numerous subtypes. For example, HCV is currently classified into six major genotypes (designated 1-6), many subtypes (designated a, b, c, and so on), and about 100 different strains (numbered 1, 2, 3, and so on).

HCV is distributed worldwide with genotypes 1, 2, and 3 predominate within the United States, Europe, Australia, and East Asia (Japan, Taiwan, Thailand, and China). Genotype 4 is largely found in the Middle East, Egypt and central Africa while genotype 5 and 6 are found predominantly in South Africa and South East Asia respectively (Simmonds, P. et al. J Virol. 84: [0006] There remains a need to develop effective treatments for HCV infections. Suitable compounds for the treatment of HCV infections are disclosed in U.S. Publication No. 2014-0017198, titled “Inhibitors of Hepatitis C Virus” filed on July 2, 2013 including the compound of formula I:

Example 1. Synthesis of (laR,5S,8S,9S,10R,22aR)-5-teri-butyl- V-[(lR,2R)-2-(difluoromethyl)- 1-{ [(1-methylcyclopr opyl)sulfonyl] carbamoyl} cyclopropyl] -9-ethyl- 18,18- difluoro-14-methoxy-3,6-dioxo-l,la,3,4,5,6,9,10,18,19,20,21,22,22a-tetradecahydro-8H-7,10-methanocyclopropa[18,19] [1,10,3,6] dioxadiazacyclononadecino[ll,12-6]quinoxaline-8- carboxamide (I) by route I

[0195] Compound of formula I was synthesized via route I as shown below:

Synthesis of intermediates for compound of formula I SEE PATENT

US  20150175626

str1

References

Patent ID Patent Title Submitted Date Granted Date
US2014343008 HEPATITIS C TREATMENT 2014-01-30 2014-11-20
US2014212491 COMBINATION FORMULATION OF TWO ANTIVIRAL COMPOUNDS 2014-01-30 2014-07-31
US2014017198 INHIBITORS OF HEPATITIS C VIRUS 2013-07-02 2014-01-16
US2015064253 COMBINATION FORMULATION OF TWO ANTIVIRAL COMPOUNDS 2014-01-30 2015-03-05
US2015150897 METHODS OF TREATING HEPATITIS C VIRUS INFECTION IN SUBJECTS WITH CIRRHOSIS 2014-12-01 2015-06-04
US2015175625 CRYSTALLINE FORMS OF AN ANTIVIRAL COMPOUND 2014-12-18 2015-06-25
US2015175626 SYNTHESIS OF AN ANTIVIRAL COMPOUND 2014-12-18 2015-06-25
US2015175646 SOLID FORMS OF AN ANTIVIRAL COMPOUND 2014-12-08 2015-06-25
US2015175655 INHIBITORS OF HEPATITIS C VIRUS 2013-07-02 2015-06-25
US2015361087 ANTIVIRAL COMPOUNDS 2015-06-09 2015-12-17
Patent ID Patent Title Submitted Date Granted Date
US2016120892 COMBINATION FORMULATION OF TWO ANTIVIRAL COMPOUNDS 2015-09-28 2016-05-05
US2016130300 INHIBITORS OF HEPATITIS C VIRUS 2016-01-15 2016-05-12
Voxilaprevir
Voxilaprevir.svg
Clinical data
Trade names Vosevi (combination with sofosbuvir and velpatasvir)
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChemCID
ChemSpider
UNII
Chemical and physical data
Formula C40H52F4N6O9S
Molar mass 868.94 g·mol−1

FDA approves Vosevi for Hepatitis C

07/18/2017
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Vosevi to treat adults with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes 1-6 without cirrhosis (liver disease) or with mild cirrhosis.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Vosevi to treat adults with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes 1-6 without cirrhosis (liver disease) or with mild cirrhosis. Vosevi is a fixed-dose, combination tablet containing two previously approved drugs – sofosbuvir and velpatasvir – and a new drug, voxilaprevir. Vosevi is the first treatment approved for patients who have been previously treated with the direct-acting antiviral drug sofosbuvir or other drugs for HCV that inhibit a protein called NS5A.

“Direct-acting antiviral drugs prevent the virus from multiplying and often cure HCV. Vosevi provides a treatment option for some patients who were not successfully treated with other HCV drugs in the past,” said Edward Cox, M.D., director of the Office of Antimicrobial Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research.

Hepatitis C is a viral disease that causes inflammation of the liver that can lead to diminished liver function or liver failure. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, an estimated 2.7 to 3.9 million people in the United States have chronic HCV. Some patients who suffer from chronic HCV infection over many years may have jaundice (yellowish eyes or skin) and develop complications, such as bleeding, fluid accumulation in the abdomen, infections, liver cancer and death.

There are at least six distinct HCV genotypes, or strains, which are genetically distinct groups of the virus. Knowing the strain of the virus can help inform treatment recommendations. Approximately 75 percent of Americans with HCV have genotype 1; 20-25 percent have genotypes 2 or 3; and a small number of patients are infected with genotypes 4, 5 or 6.

The safety and efficacy of Vosevi was evaluated in two Phase 3 clinical trials that enrolled approximately 750 adults without cirrhosis or with mild cirrhosis.

The first trial compared 12 weeks of Vosevi treatment with placebo in adults with genotype 1 who had previously failed treatment with an NS5A inhibitor drug. Patients with genotypes 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 all received Vosevi.

The second trial compared 12 weeks of Vosevi with the previously approved drugs sofosbuvir and velpatasvir in adults with genotypes 1, 2 or 3 who had previously failed treatment with sofosbuvir but not an NS5A inhibitor drug.

Results of both trials demonstrated that 96-97 percent of patients who received Vosevi had no virus detected in the blood 12 weeks after finishing treatment, suggesting that patients’ infection had been cured.

Treatment recommendations for Vosevi are different depending on viral genotype and prior treatment history.

The most common adverse reactions in patients taking Vosevi were headache, fatigue, diarrhea and nausea.

Vosevi is contraindicated in patients taking the drug rifampin.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation has been reported in HCV/HBV coinfected adult patients who were undergoing or had completed treatment with HCV direct-acting antivirals, and who were not receiving HBV antiviral therapy. HBV reactivation in patients treated with direct-acting antiviral medicines can result in serious liver problems or death in some patients. Health care professionals should screen all patients for evidence of current or prior HBV infection before starting treatment with Vosevi.

The FDA granted this application Priority Review and Breakthrough Therapydesignations.

The FDA granted approval of Vosevi to Gilead Sciences Inc

//////////Voxilaprevir, فوكسيلابريفير ,  伏西瑞韦 , Воксилапревир , fda 2017, GS 9857, gilead, 1535212-07-7

CCC1C2CN(C1C(=O)NC3(CC3C(F)F)C(=O)NS(=O)(=O)C4(CC4)C)C(=O)C(NC(=O)OC5CC5CCCCC(C6=NC7=C(C=C(C=C7)OC)N=C6O2)(F)F)C(C)(C)C
CC1(CC1)S(=O)(=O)NC(=O)[C@]2(C[C@H]2C(F)F)NC(=O)[C@@H]7[C@H](CC)[C@@H]3CN7C(=O)[C@@H](NC(=O)O[C@@H]6C[C@H]6CCCCC(F)(F)c4nc5ccc(OC)cc5nc4O3)C(C)(C)C

FDA approves Vosevi for Hepatitis C


07/18/2017
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Vosevi to treat adults with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes 1-6 without cirrhosis (liver disease) or with mild cirrhosis.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Vosevi to treat adults with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes 1-6 without cirrhosis (liver disease) or with mild cirrhosis. Vosevi is a fixed-dose, combination tablet containing two previously approved drugs – sofosbuvir and velpatasvir – and a new drug, voxilaprevir. Vosevi is the first treatment approved for patients who have been previously treated with the direct-acting antiviral drug sofosbuvir or other drugs for HCV that inhibit a protein called NS5A.

“Direct-acting antiviral drugs prevent the virus from multiplying and often cure HCV. Vosevi provides a treatment option for some patients who were not successfully treated with other HCV drugs in the past,” said Edward Cox, M.D., director of the Office of Antimicrobial Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research.

Hepatitis C is a viral disease that causes inflammation of the liver that can lead to diminished liver function or liver failure. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, an estimated 2.7 to 3.9 million people in the United States have chronic HCV. Some patients who suffer from chronic HCV infection over many years may have jaundice (yellowish eyes or skin) and develop complications, such as bleeding, fluid accumulation in the abdomen, infections, liver cancer and death.

There are at least six distinct HCV genotypes, or strains, which are genetically distinct groups of the virus. Knowing the strain of the virus can help inform treatment recommendations. Approximately 75 percent of Americans with HCV have genotype 1; 20-25 percent have genotypes 2 or 3; and a small number of patients are infected with genotypes 4, 5 or 6.

The safety and efficacy of Vosevi was evaluated in two Phase 3 clinical trials that enrolled approximately 750 adults without cirrhosis or with mild cirrhosis.

The first trial compared 12 weeks of Vosevi treatment with placebo in adults with genotype 1 who had previously failed treatment with an NS5A inhibitor drug. Patients with genotypes 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 all received Vosevi.

The second trial compared 12 weeks of Vosevi with the previously approved drugs sofosbuvir and velpatasvir in adults with genotypes 1, 2 or 3 who had previously failed treatment with sofosbuvir but not an NS5A inhibitor drug.

Results of both trials demonstrated that 96-97 percent of patients who received Vosevi had no virus detected in the blood 12 weeks after finishing treatment, suggesting that patients’ infection had been cured.

Treatment recommendations for Vosevi are different depending on viral genotype and prior treatment history.

The most common adverse reactions in patients taking Vosevi were headache, fatigue, diarrhea and nausea.

Vosevi is contraindicated in patients taking the drug rifampin.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation has been reported in HCV/HBV coinfected adult patients who were undergoing or had completed treatment with HCV direct-acting antivirals, and who were not receiving HBV antiviral therapy. HBV reactivation in patients treated with direct-acting antiviral medicines can result in serious liver problems or death in some patients. Health care professionals should screen all patients for evidence of current or prior HBV infection before starting treatment with Vosevi.

The FDA granted this application Priority Review and Breakthrough Therapydesignations.

The FDA granted approval of Vosevi to Gilead Sciences Inc

//////////////Vosevi, Gilead Sciences Inc, Priority Review, Breakthrough Therapy designations, fda 2017, sofosbuvir,  velpatasvir , voxilaprevir, Hepatitis B

LOXO 195


LOXO-195
CAS: 2097002-61-2
Chemical Formula: C20H21FN6O

Molecular Weight: 380.4274

2097002-59-8 (RS-isomer)   1350884-56-8 (R racemic)

Synonym: LOXO-195; LOXO 195; LOXO195.

IUPAC: (13E,14E,22R,6R)-35-fluoro-6-methyl-7-aza-1(5,3)-pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidina-3(3,2)-pyridina-2(1,2)-pyrrolidinacyclooctaphan-8-one

10H-5,7-Ethenopyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrido[2,3-k]pyrrolo[2,1-m][1,3,7]triazacyclotridecin-10-one, 17-fluoro-1,2,3,11,12,13,14,18b-octahydro-12-methyl-, (12R,18bR)-

SMILES Code: FC1=CN=C(CC[C@@H](C)NC(C2=C3N(C=CC4=N3)N=C2)=O)C([C@@H]5N4CCC5)=C1

Loxo

Image result for LOXO 195

LOXO-195 is a potent and selective TRK inhibitor capable of addressing potential mechanisms of acquired resistance that may emerge in patients receiving larotrectinib (LOXO-101) or multikinase inhibitors with anti-TRK activity. LOXO-195 demonstrated potent inhibition of TRK fusions, including critical acquired resistance mutations, in enzyme and cellular assays, with minimal activity against other kinases. In diverse TRK fusion mouse models, LOXO-195 inhibited phospho-ERK and caused dramatic tumor growth inhibition, superior to first generation TRK inhibitors, without significant toxicity.

Tropomyosin-related kinase (TRK) is a receptor tyrosine kinase family of

neurotrophin receptors that are found in multiple tissues types. Three members of the TRK proto-oncogene family have been described: TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC, encoded by the NTRKI, NTRK2, and NTRK3 genes, respectively. The TRK receptor family is involved in neuronal development, including the growth and function of neuronal synapses, memory

development, and maintenance, and the protection of neurons after ischemia or other types of injury (Nakagawara, Cancer Lett. 169: 107-114, 2001).

TRK was originally identified from a colorectal cancer cell line as an oncogene fusion containing 5′ sequences from tropomyosin-3 (TPM3) gene and the kinase domain encoded by the 3′ region of the neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 1 gene (NTRKI) (Pulciani et al., Nature 300:539-542, 1982; Martin-Zanca et al., Nature 319:743-748, 1986). TRK gene fusions follow the well-established paradigm of other oncogenic fusions, such as those involving ALK and ROSl, which have been shown to drive the growth of tumors and can be successfully inhibited in the clinic by targeted drugs (Shaw et al., New Engl. J. Med. 371 : 1963-1971, 2014; Shaw et al., New Engl. J. Med. 370: 1189-1197, 2014). Oncogenic TRK fusions induce cancer cell proliferation and engage critical cancer-related downstream signaling pathways such as mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and AKT (Vaishnavi et al., Cancer Discov. 5:25-34, 2015). Numerous oncogenic rearrangements involving

NTRK1 and its related TRK family members NTRK2 and NTRK3 have been described (Vaishnavi et al., Cancer Disc. 5:25-34, 2015; Vaishnavi et al., Nature Med. 19: 1469-1472, 2013). Although there are numerous different 5′ gene fusion partners identified, all share an in-frame, intact TRK kinase domain. A variety of different Trk inhibitors have been developed to treat cancer (see, e.g., U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 62/080,374,

International Application Publication Nos. WO 11/006074, WO 11/146336, WO 10/033941, and WO 10/048314, and U.S. Patent Nos. 8,933,084, 8,791, 123, 8,637,516, 8,513,263, 8,450,322, 7,615,383, 7,384,632, 6, 153,189, 6,027,927, 6,025,166, 5,910,574, 5,877,016, and 5,844,092).

LOXO-195 (TRK inhibitor)


LOXO-195 is a next-generation, selective TRK inhibitor capable of addressing potential mechanisms of acquired resistance that may emerge in patients receiving larotrectinib (LOXO-101) or multikinase inhibitors with anti-TRK activity.

Acquired resistance to targeted therapies has proven to be an important component of long-term cancer care and targeted therapy drug development. LOXO-195 was developed in anticipation of potential resistance to larotrectinib (LOXO-101), and in light of recent published literature regarding emerging mechanisms of resistance to TRK inhibition. With the LOXO-195 program, Loxo Oncology has an opportunity to clinically extend the duration of disease control for patients with TRK-driven cancers.

In May 2017, Loxo Oncology received clearance from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for an Investigational New Drug (IND) application for LOXO-195. Loxo Oncology plans to initiate a multi-center Phase 1/2 study in mid-2017. The primary objective of the trial is to determine the maximum tolerated dose or recommended dose for further study. Key secondary objectives include measures of safety, pharmacokinetics, and anti-tumor activity (i.e. Objective Response Rate and Duration of Response, as determined by RECIST v1.1). The trial will include a dose escalation phase and dose expansion phase.

Loxo

Data presented at the 2016 AACR-NCI-EORTC International Conference on Molecular Targets and Cancer Therapeutics illustrated the potency, specificity, and favorable in vivo properties in animals of LOXO-195, our clinical candidate. Read the poster presented at AACR-NCI-EORTC here.

A research brief published in Cancer Discovery in June 2017 outlines the preclinical rationale for LOXO-195 and clinical proof-of-concept data from the first two patients treated. Read the publication here.

1H NMR PREDICT

13C NMR PREDICT

WO 2017075107

Can·cer, redefined
Lisa M. Jarvis
C&EN Global Enterp, 2017, 95 (27), pp 26–30
Publication Date (Web): July 3, 2017 (Article)
DOI: 10.1021/cen-09527-cover

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/cen-09527-cover

Lisa M. JarvisC&EN201795 (27), pp 26–30July 3, 2017

Abstract Image

When Adrienne Skinner was diagnosed with ampullary cancer, a rare gastrointestinal tumor, in early 2013, it didn’t come as a complete surprise. For nearly a decade, she had known her genes were not in her favor. What she didn’t know was that her genes would also point the way to a cure. Skinner has Lynch syndrome, an inherited disorder caused by a defect in mismatch repair (MMR) genes, which encode for proteins that spot and fix mistakes occurring during DNA replication. People with Lynch syndrome have an up to 70% risk of developing colon cancer. Women with the disorder have similarly high chances of developing endometrial cancer at an early age. The first time Skinner heard about the syndrome was in late 2004, after her sister was diagnosed with colon, ovarian, and endometrial cancers, the telltale trifecta associated with Lynch syndrome. It turned out that Skinner, her sister, and their

/////////LOXO 195, 2097002-61-2

FDA approves new treatment Endari (L-glutamine oral powder) for sickle cell disease


Image result for sickle cell disease
07/07/2017
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Endari (L-glutamine oral powder) for patients age five years and older with sickle cell disease to reduce severe complications associated with the blood disorder.

July 7, 2017

Release

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Endari (L-glutamine oral powder) for patients age five years and older with sickle cell disease to reduce severe complications associated with the blood disorder.

“Endari is the first treatment approved for patients with sickle cell disease in almost 20 years,” said Richard Pazdur, M.D., acting director of the Office of Hematology and Oncology Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research and director of the FDA’s Oncology Center of Excellence. “Until now, only one other drug was approved for patients living with this serious, debilitating condition.”

Sickle cell disease is an inherited blood disorder in which the red blood cells are abnormally shaped (in a crescent, or “sickle,” shape). This restricts the flow in blood vessels and limits oxygen delivery to the body’s tissues, leading to severe pain and organ damage. According to the National Institutes of Health, approximately 100,000 people in the United States have sickle cell disease. The disease occurs most often in African-Americans, Latinos and other minority groups. The average life expectancy for patients with sickle cell disease in the United States is approximately 40 to 60 years.

The safety and efficacy of Endari were studied in a randomized trial of patients ages five to 58 years old with sickle cell disease who had two or more painful crises within the 12 months prior to enrollment in the trial. Patients were assigned randomly to treatment with Endari or placebo, and the effect of treatment was evaluated over 48 weeks. Patients who were treated with Endari experienced fewer hospital visits for pain treated with a parenterally administered narcotic or ketorolac (sickle cell crises), on average, compared to patients who received a placebo (median 3 vs. median 4), fewer hospitalizations for sickle cell pain (median 2 vs. median 3), and fewer days in the hospital (median 6.5 days vs. median 11 days).  Patients who received Endari also had fewer occurrences of acute chest syndrome (a life-threatening complication of sickle cell disease) compared with patients who received a placebo (8.6 percent vs. 23.1 percent).

Common side effects of Endari include constipation, nausea, headache, abdominal pain, cough, pain in the extremities, back pain and chest pain.

Endari received Orphan Drug designation for this use, which provides incentives to assist and encourage the development of drugs for rare diseases.  In addition, development of this drug was in part supported by the FDA Orphan Products Grants Program, which provides grants for clinical studies on safety and/or effectiveness of products for use in rare diseases or conditions.

The FDA granted the approval of Endari to Emmaus Medical Inc.

Image result for Emmaus Medical Inc

Image result for sickle cell disease

/////////////FDA2017, Endari, Orphan Drug designation,  Emmaus Medical Inc., L-glutamine oral powder

Increasing global access to the high-volume HIV drug nevirapine through process intensification


 

Increasing global access to the high-volume HIV drug nevirapine through process intensification

Green Chem., 2017, 19,2986-2991
DOI: 10.1039/C7GC00937B, Paper
Jenson Verghese, Caleb J. Kong, Daniel Rivalti, Eric C. Yu, Rudy Krack, Jesus Alcazar, Julie B. Manley, D. Tyler McQuade, Saeed Ahmad, Katherine Belecki, B. Frank Gupton
Fundamental elements of process intensification were applied to generate efficient batch and continuous syntheses of the high-volume HIV drug nevirapine.

Green Chemistry

Increasing global access to the high-volume HIV drug nevirapine through process intensification

Abstract

Access to affordable medications continues to be one of the most pressing issues for the treatment of disease in developing countries. For many drugs, synthesis of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) represents the most financially important and technically demanding element of pharmaceutical operations. Furthermore, the environmental impact of API processing has been well documented and is an area of continuing interest in green chemical operations. To improve drug access and affordability, we have developed a series of core principles that can be applied to a specific API, yielding dramatic improvements in chemical efficiency. We applied these principles to nevirapine, the first non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in the treatment of HIV. The resulting ultra-efficient (91% isolated yield) and highly-consolidated (4 unit operations) route has been successfully developed and implemented through partnerships with philanthropic entities, increasing access to this essential medication. We anticipate an even broader global health impact when applying this model to other active ingredients.

Preparation of Nevirapine (1).

Preparation of CYCLOR (7), Step 1A: To a solution of CAPIC (2, 15 g, 105 mmole, 1.0 equiv) in diglyme (75 mL) in a 500 mL 3-neck round-bottom flask fitted with overhead stirrer, thermocouple, and addition funnel was added NaH (7.56g, 189 mmole, 1.8 equiv). The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 30 minutes and gradual evolution of H2 gas was observed. The temperature of the reaction mixture was slowly increased to 60 °C (10 °C/hr increments). A preheated (55 °C) solution of MeCAN (5, 21.19 g, 192.2 mmol, 1.05 equiv) in diglyme (22.5 mL) was added over a period of an hour to the reaction mixture kept at 60 °C. The reaction mixture was allowed to stir at 60 °C for 2 hours. If desired, 7 may be isolated at this stage. The reaction mixture is cooled to 0 – 10 °C and the pH is adjusted to pH 7-8 using glacial acetic acid and stirred for an hour. The precipitate is collected by vacuum filtration and dried under vacuum to a constant weight to afford CYCLOR (7) (29.89g, 94%).

1H NMR (300MHz, CHLOROFORM-d)  = 8.44 (dd, J = 1.8, 5.3 Hz, 1 H), 8.21 (d, J = 4.7 Hz, 1 H), 8.15 (br. s., 1 H), 7.87 (dd, J = 2.1, 7.9 Hz, 1 H), 7.54 (s, 1 H), 7.20 (d, J = 5.3 Hz, 1 H), 6.66 (dd, J = 4.7, 7.6 Hz, 1 H), 2.95 – 2.84 (m, 1 H), 2.35 (s, 3 H), 0.91 – 0.77 (m, 2 H), 0.62 – 0.47 (m, 2 H).

13C NMR (75MHz, CHLOROFORM-d)  = 166.8, 159.2, 153.2, 148.3, 146.9, 136.0, 129.9, 125.1, 111.1, 108.4, 77.4, 76.6, 23.8, 18.8, 7.0.

HRMS (ESI) C15H15ClN4O m/z [M+H] + found 303.0998, expected 303.1012.

Preparation of nevirapine (1), Step 1B: In a 150 mL, 3 neck flask, fitted with overhead stirrer, thermocouple and addition funnel, a suspension of NaH (7.14 g, 178.5 mmol, and 1.7 equiv) in diglyme (22.5 ml) was heated to 105 °C and crude CYCLOR (7) reaction mixture from Step 1 (preheated to 80 °C) was added over a period of 30 minutes while maintaining the reaction mixture at 115 °C. The reaction mixture was stirred for 2 hours at 117 °C for ~2 hours then cooled to room temperature. Water (30 mL) was added to quench the excess sodium hydride and the reaction was concentrated in vacuo to remove 60 mL of diglyme. To the resulting suspension was added water (125 mL), cyclohexane (50 mL) and ethanol (15 mL). The pH of the mixture was adjusted to pH 7 using glacial acetic acid (19.5 g, 3.09 mmol) at which precipitate formed. After stirring for 1 hour at 0 °C, the precipitate was collected via vacuum filtration and the filter cake was washed with ethanol: water (1:1 v/v) (2 x 20 mL). The solid was dried between 90-110°C under vacuum to provide nevirapine (25.4 g, 91% over two steps).

1H NMR (400MHz, CDCl3)  = 8.55 (dd, J = 2.0, 4.8 Hz, 1 H), 8.17 (d, J = 5.0 Hz, 1 H), 8.13 (dd, J = 2.0, 7.8 Hz, 1 H), 7.61 (s, 1 H), 7.08 (dd, J = 4.8, 7.8 Hz, 1 H), 6.95 (dd, J = 0.6, 4.9 Hz, 1 H), 3.79 (tt, J = 3.6, 6.8 Hz, 1 H), 2.37 (s, 3 H), 1.07-0.93 (m, 2 H), 0.59-0.50 (m, 1 H), 0.50-0.41 (m, 1 H).

13C NMR (101MHz, CDCl3)  = 168.4, 160.5, 153.9, 152.1, 144.3, 140.3, 138.8, 124.8, 121.9, 120.1, 118.9, 29.6, 17.6, 9.1, 8.8.

HRMS (ESI) C15H14N4O m/z [M+H] + found 267.1239, expected 267.1245.

Purification of nevirapine. To a cooled (0 °C) suspension of nevirapine (10g, 375.5 mmole) in water (43 ml) was added a 10 M solution of HCl (11.6 ml, 117.5 mmole) dropwise. The solution was allowed to stir for 30 minutes and activated carbon (0.3g) was added. After stirring for 30 minutes, the solution was filtered over Celite. The filtrate was transferred to flask and cooled to 0 °C. A 50% solution of NaOH was added dropwise until a pH of 7 is reached. A white precipitate appeared and the solution was stirred for 30 minutes and filtered. The solid was washed with water (3 x 10ml). The wet cake was dried between 90-110°C under vacuum to a constant weight to provide nevirapine (9.6 g, 96%).

/////////////

Cp2TiCl: An Ideal Reagent for Green Chemistry?


Green Chemistry International

 Abstract Image

The development of Green Chemistry inevitably involves the development of green reagents. In this review, we highlight that Cp2TiCl is a reagent widely used in radical and organometallic chemistry, which shows, if not all, at least some of the 12 principles summarized for Green Chemistry, such as waste minimization, catalysis, safer solvents, toxicity, energy efficiency, and atom economy. Also, this complex has proved to be an ideal reagent for green C–C and C–O bond forming reactions, green reduction, isomerization, and deoxygenation reactions of several functional organic groups as we demonstrate throughout the review.

Cp2TiCl: An Ideal Reagent for Green Chemistry?

 Department of Chemical Engineering, Escuela Politécnica Superior, University of…

View original post 2,879 more words

NEW PATENT, PONESIMOD, CRYSTAL PHARMATECH, WO 2017107972


NEW PATENT, PONESIMOD,  CRYSTAL PHARMATECH, WO 2017107972

Novel crystalline forms I, II and III of ponesimod . Useful as a selective sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor-1 (S1P1) receptor agonist, for the treatment of psoriasis. Appears to be first filing from Crystal Pharmatech claiming ponesimod. Johnson & Johnson , following its acquisition of Actelion , is developing ponesimod (phase III clinical trial), a S1P1 agonist, for the treatment of autoimmune disorders.

Applicants: CRYSTAL PHARMATECH CO., LTD. [CN/CN]; B4-101, Biobay, 218 Xinghu Street,
Suzhou Industrial Park Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (CN)
Inventors: CHEN, Minhua; (CN).
ZHANG, Yanfeng; (CN).
LI, Jiaoyang; (CN).
ZHANG, Xiaoyu; (CN)

Most of the family members of the product case ( WO2005054215 ) of ponesimod expire in European countries until November, 2023 and in the US by December, 2024 with US154 extension.

front page image

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2017107972&redirectedID=true

Disclosed are crystalline forms 1, 2, and 3 of a selective S1P1 receptor agonist, namely Ponesimod, and a method for preparing the same. An X-ray powder diffraction pattern of the crystalline form 1 has characteristic peaks at 2 theta values of 18.1° ± 0.2°, 14.6° ± 0.2°, and 11.3° ± 0.2°. An X-ray powder diffraction pattern of the crystalline form 2 has characteristic peaks at 2 theta values of 3.8° ± 0.2°, 10.8° ± 0.2°, and 6.1° ± 0.2°. An X-ray powder diffraction pattern of the crystalline form 3 has characteristic peaks at 2 theta values of 12.2° ± 0.2°, 6.2° ± 0.2°, and 5.6° ± 0.2°. Compared with existing crystalline forms, the present invention has better stability and a greatly increased solubility, and is more suitable for development of a pharmaceutical preparation containing Ponesimod

Ponesimod (compound of formula I) is a selective S1P1 receptor antagonist developed by Actelion. The drug was used to treat moderate to severe chronic plaque psoriasis in the two medium-term trial was successful, and will carry out the treatment of psoriasis in 3 clinical trials.

The present invention discloses a process for the preparation of a compound of formula I, which is disclosed in patent CN 102177144B, which is an amorphous form prepared by the process of CN100567275C, and discloses a process for the preparation of a compound of formula I, crystalline form C, crystalline form III, Type II. The results show that the crystallinity of crystalline form III is poor and it is converted to crystalline form II at room temperature. The crystalline form II is difficult to repeat and prepare a certain amount of propionic acid. The thermodynamics stability of crystalline form A is inferior to that of crystal form C. In contrast, For the crystal form suitable for the development of the drug, the solubility of the crystalline form C is not ideal.

Example 1

 

Preparation of Ponesimod Form 1:

 

48.1 mg of Ponesimod was added to 0.40 mL of 1,4-dioxane and the filtrate was filtered. To the solution was stirred at room temperature, 1.20 mL of n-heptane was added dropwise to precipitate the crystals and stirred overnight. The supernatant was filtered off by centrifugation Liquid to obtain Ponesimod crystal form 1.

Follow “‘2014’ Suzhou International Elite Entrepreneurship Week” with interest Over 88 billion venture capital investment helps your pioneering dreams come true

 

Since 2009, there have been 1267 overseas high-level talent projects settled in Suzhou through International Elite Entrepreneurship Week and 54 talents have been introduced and fostered for the national “Thousand Talents Plan”. Among these 53 talents, Dr. Chen Minhua, the founder of Suzhou Crystal Pharmatech Co., Ltd., was deeply impressed by thoughtful services in Suzhou for innovative pioneering talents when he recalled the development in Suzhou. “Investment and financing services are placed with particular importance. Everything is thoroughly considered for fear that enterprise

In 2010, Chen Minhua quitted his job in a well-known pharmaceutical company in the United States and returned with his core 4-people R&D team. He founded Crystal Pharmatech Co., Ltd. in Suzhou Biobay through the Entrepreneurship Week. Till 2013, Crystal Pharmatech has made profits year by year. The yearly output value in 2013 reached 18 million Yuan, while the profits reached as high as 4 million Yuan. His clients involve half of top 20 pharmaceutical companies globally. Chen Minhua longs to fill the vacancy of drug crystals in China and take the lead in the international drug crystal research. Chen Minhua introduced that government service is an integral part to his growth. “Since it was settled down, Suzhou public sector organized several investment and financing activities and offered training and services in various aspects like the mode of financing, finance docking and enterprise strategic investment, which laid a solid foundation for Crystal Pharmatech’s capital expansion”, said by Chen Minhua.

To help high-level talents solve financial difficulty, Suzhou lays stress on the docking of science & technology and finance. The person in charge of the Municipal Science and Technology Bureau said that Suzhou guides and integrates social capital for equity investment of hi-tech enterprises at the start-up stage via the guiding funds set up by the government and follow-up investment, etc, thus evolving the venture capital investment cluster based on Shahu Equity Investment Center. After the national “Thousand Talents Plan” venture capital investment center was set up, pioneering talents and venture capital are further converging here. As of the end of 2013, there are 270 effective organizations engaged in various venture capital investment in Suzhou that manage the funds in excess of 88 billion Yuan. 30 million Yuan will be appropriated from the municipal science and technology fund budget for the newly established FOF of Angel Investment this year, so as to take avail of social capital for the development of small and medium-sized hi-tech enterprises.

Meanwhile, Suzhou sets up the special compensation fund against credit risks and offers “Kedaitong” with “low threshold and low interest rate”, so as to solve financial difficulty of small and medium-sized hi-tech enterprises and create favorable financing environment for the pioneering work of talents and corporate development. At present, the fund of credit risk pool has reached 500 million Yuan and “Kedaitong” loans of 8.52 billion Yuan have been granted for 1023 small and medium-sized hi-tech enterprises. Particularly, 120 pioneering enterprises that feature independent intellectual property, high content of technology and light assets were backed up with 1.314 billion Yuan, the special risk compensation fund of “Kedaitong”, thus vigorously supporting innovation and pioneering work of leading talents in the science and technology community in Suzhou.

Reporter Qian Yi

Quoted from Suzhou Daily on July 6, 2014

///////////

Imigliptin dihydrochloride, Xuanzhu Pharma Co Ltd, NEW PATENT, WO 2017107945


Imigliptin dihydrochloride, Xuanzhu Pharma Co Ltd, NEW PATENT, WO 2017107945

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2017107945&redirectedID=true

Applicants: XUANZHU PHARMA CO.,LTD. [CN/CN]; 2518, Tianchen Street, National High-tech Development Zone Jinan, Shandong 250101 (CN)
Inventors: SHU, Chutian; (CN).
WANG, Zhenhua; (CN)

str1

The present invention relates to a crystalline form of benzoate of a dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitor, a method for preparing the same, a pharmaceutical composition,and a use thereof. Specifically, the present invention relates to a crystalline form of benzoate of a compound used as a dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitor and represented by formula (1), namely (R)-2-((7-(3-aminopiperidine-1-yl)-3,5-dimethyl-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-imidazo(4,5-b)pyridine-1-yl)methyl)benzonitrile, a method for preparing the same, a pharmaceutical composition, and a use thereof.

Novel crystalline form I of imigliptin dihydrochloride as dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor (DPP-IV) for the treatment of and/or prevention of non-insulin dependent diabetes, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. In June 2017, KBP Biosciences and Xuanzhu Pharma , subsidiaries of Sihuan Pharmaceutical , are developing an imigliptin dihydrochloride (phase II clinical trial), a DPP-IV inhibitor and a hypoglycemic agent,, for the treatment of type II diabetes. Follows on from WO2013007167 , claiming similar composition.

Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibitor is a new generation of oral type 2 diabetes treatment drugs, by enhancing the role of intestinal insulin to play a role, non-insulin therapy drugs. Compared with conventional drugs for the treatment of diabetes, DPP-IV inhibitors do not have weight gain and edema and other adverse reactions.
The compound (R) -2 – ((7- (3-aminopiperidin-1-yl) -3,5-dimethyl-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro- 1H-imidazo [4,5-b] pyridin-1-yl) methyl) benzonitrile (described in the specification as a compound of formula (1), as described in patent application PCT / CN2011 / 000068) Inhibitors of compounds, DPP-IV has a strong inhibitory effect and a high selectivity.
The study of crystal form plays an important role in drug development process. Application No. PCT / CN2012 / 078294 discloses the dihydrochloride crystal form I of the compound of formula (1), in order to meet the requirements of formulation, production and transportation , We further studied the crystal form of the compound of formula (1) in order to find a better crystal form.
Example 1 Preparation of benzoate form I of compound of formula (1)
40 g (0.1 mol) of the compound of the formula (1) was added to a 2 L round bottom flask, suspended in 1428 mL of acetonitrile, and the temperature was raised to 60 ° C. The free solution was dissolved, 14.3 g (0.1 mol) of benzoic acid was added, The precipitate was dried at 60 ° C for 1 hour and then allowed to stand at room temperature. The filter cake was dried in vacuo at 40 ° C for 10 hours and weighed 51.6 g in 97.4% yield. By XRPD test, for the benzoate crystal type Ⅰ.

////////////////Imigliptin dihydrochloride, Xuanzhu Pharma Co Ltd, NEW PATENT, WO 2017107945

CFDA Granted Approval of Phase II/III Clinical Trials for Imigliptin Hydrochloride
2016-08-04 15:25:37 Author:admin

        Phase II/ III Clinical Trials of Imigliptin Hydrochloride (KBP-3853) have been approved by CFDA; the Clinical Approval Numbers are 2016L05997 and 2016L06137.

        As we know, in Phase I study both single and multiple doses of Imigliptin Hydrochloride were safe and well tolerated in healthy volunteers and in Type 2 diabetes patients. Imigliptin Hydrochloride demonstrated good pharmacokinetic (PK) characteristics and exhibited dose-proportional plasma exposure. The potent and long duration inhibition of DPP-4 was validated in the PK/PD study. The results of Phase I study of Imigliptin Hydrochloride warranted its long-term safety and efficacy studies in Phase II/ III.
        Currently, the Imigliptin Hydrochloride team has completed the production of clinical trial drug product, as well as finalized the clinical protocols and the study sites. Phase II clinical trial of Imigliptin Hydrochloride will begin in the near future.
       The approval of Imigliptin Hydrochloride for the phase II/ III clinical trials represents another milestone in the SiHuan/ XuanZhu’s new drug discovery history. We enter into a new clinical stage of the development process, and we have many works remaining before us. It is still an urgent task for us to accelerate the clinical development, and to launch the drug product in the China market as soon as possible.

Paypal Donate

Follow New Drug Approvals on WordPress.com

Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

Join 1,976 other followers

PAYPAL DONATIONS

ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY

Read all about Organic Spectroscopy on ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY INTERNATIONAL 

twitter

DISCLAIMER

I , Dr A.M.Crasto is writing this blog to share the knowledge/views, after reading Scientific Journals/Articles/News Articles/Wikipedia. My views/comments are based on the results /conclusions by the authors(researchers). I do mention either the link or reference of the article(s) in my blog and hope those interested can read for details. I am briefly summarising the remarks or conclusions of the authors (researchers). If one believe that their intellectual property right /copyright is infringed by any content on this blog, please contact or leave message at below email address amcrasto@gmail.com. It will be removed ASAP
Join ApnaCircle, the professional social network chosen by Anthony Melvin Crasto Ph.D and more than 50 million professionals
%d bloggers like this: