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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D ( ICT, Mumbai) , INDIA 29Yrs Exp. in the feld of Organic Chemistry,Working for GLENMARK PHARMA at Navi Mumbai, INDIA. Serving chemists around the world. Helping them with websites on Chemistry.Million hits on google, NO ADVERTISEMENTS , ACADEMIC , NON COMMERCIAL SITE, world acclamation from industry, academia, drug authorities for websites, blogs and educational contribution, ........amcrasto@gmail.com..........+91 9323115463, Skype amcrasto64 View Anthony Melvin Crasto Ph.D's profile on LinkedIn Anthony Melvin Crasto Dr.

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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LRH-1 agonism favours an immune-islet dialogue which protects against diabetes mellitus


Sreeni Labs Private Limited

SREENI LABS CONTRIBUTION
Customer requested Sreeni Labs to make BL001 first on  few mg scale. Sreeni labs synthesized and supplied in a short time with full characterization data. Later, customer requested us to make it on several gram scale and we synthesized and delivered as custom synthesis project.

LRH-1 agonism favours an immune-islet dialogue which protects against diabetes mellitus

NATURE COMMUNICATIONS | (2018) 9:1488 |DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-03943-0 | http://www.nature.com/naturecommunications

Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is due to the selective destruction of islet beta cells by
immune cells. Current therapies focused on repressing the immune attack or stimulating beta
cell regeneration still have limited clinical efficacy. Therefore, it is timely to identify innovative
targets to dampen the immune process, while promoting beta cell survival and function. Liver
receptor homologue-1 (LRH-1) is a nuclear receptor that represses inflammation in digestive
organs, and protects pancreatic islets against apoptosis. Here, we show that BL001, a small
LRH-1 agonist, impedes hyperglycemia progression and the immune-dependent inflammation
of pancreas in murine models of T1DM, and beta cell apoptosis in islets of type 2 diabetic
patients, while increasing beta cell mass and insulin secretion. Thus, we suggest that LRH-1
agonism favors a dialogue between immune and islet cells, which could be druggable to
protect against diabetes mellitus.

 

//////////////SREENI LABS

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FDA approves new drug Doptelet (avatrombopag) for patients with chronic liver disease who have low blood platelets and are undergoing a medical procedure


Avatrombopag.png

Avatrombopag

https://newdrugapprovals.org/2015/08/24/avatrombopag/

FDA approves new drug for patients with chronic liver disease who have low blood platelets and are undergoing a medical procedure

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Doptelet (avatrombopag) tablets to treat low blood platelet count (thrombocytopenia) in adults with chronic liver disease who are scheduled to undergo a medical or dental procedure. This is the first drug approved by the FDA for this use.Continue reading.

May 21, 2018

Release

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Doptelet (avatrombopag) tablets to treat low blood platelet count (thrombocytopenia) in adults with chronic liver disease who are scheduled to undergo a medical or dental procedure. This is the first drug approved by the FDA for this use.

“Patients with chronic liver disease who have low platelet counts and require a procedure are at increased risk of bleeding,” said Richard Pazdur, M.D., director of the FDA’s Oncology Center of Excellence and acting director of the Office of Hematology and Oncology Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “Doptelet was demonstrated to safely increase the platelet count. This drug may decrease or eliminate the need for platelet transfusions, which are associated with risk of infection and other adverse reactions.”

Platelets (thrombocytes) are colorless cells produced in the bone marrow that help form blood clots in the vascular system and prevent bleeding. Thrombocytopenia is a condition in which there is a lower-than-normal number of circulating platelets in the blood. When patients have moderately to severely reduced platelet counts, serious or life-threatening bleeding can occur, especially during invasive procedures. Patients with significant thrombocytopenia typically receive platelet transfusions immediately prior to a procedure to increase the platelet count.

The safety and efficacy of Doptelet was studied in two trials (ADAPT-1 and ADAPT-2) involving 435 patients with chronic liver disease and severe thrombocytopenia who were scheduled to undergo a procedure that would typically require platelet transfusion. The trials investigated two dose levels of Doptelet administered orally over five days as compared to placebo (no treatment). The trial results showed that for both dose levels of Doptelet, a higher proportion of patients had increased platelet counts and did not require platelet transfusion or any rescue therapy on the day of the procedure and up to seven days following the procedure as compared to those treated with placebo.

The most common side effects reported by clinical trial participants who received Doptelet were fever, stomach (abdominal) pain, nausea, headache, fatigue and swelling in the hands or feet (edema). People with chronic liver disease and people with certain blood clotting conditions may have an increased risk of developing blood clots when taking Doptelet.

This product was granted Priority Review, under which the FDA’s goal is to take action on an application within six months where the agency determines that the drug, if approved, would significantly improve the safety or effectiveness of treating, diagnosing or preventing a serious condition.

The FDA granted this approval to AkaRx Inc.

 

//////////////Doptelet, avatrombopag, fda 2018, akarx, priority review,

FDA Approves Tavalisse (fostamatinib disodium hexahydrate) for Chronic Immune Thrombocytopenia — Med-Chemist


Rigel Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Tavalisse (fostamatinib disodium hexahydrate) for the treatment of thrombocytopenia in adult patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) who have had an insufficient response to a previous treatment. Tavalisse is an oral spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) inhibitor that targets the underlying autoimmune cause of the…

via FDA Approves Tavalisse (fostamatinib disodium hexahydrate) for Chronic Immune Thrombocytopenia — Med-Chemist

Mibefradil, a new class of compound to study TRPM7 channel function — Sussex Drug Discovery Centre


Transient receptor potential (TRPM) is a family of non-selective cation channels that are widely expressed in mammalian cells. TRP channels are composed of six transmembrane domains and the family consists of eight different channels, TRPM1–TRPM8. TRPM7 is compromised of an ion channel moiety essential for the ion channel function, which serves to increase intracellular calcium […]

via Mibefradil, a new class of compound to study TRPM7 channel function — Sussex Drug Discovery Centre

Dark Chocolate improves vision with 2 hours — ClinicalNews.Org


Dark Chocolate improves vision with 2 hours Contrast sensitivity and visual acuity were significantly higher 2 hours after consumption of a dark chocolate bar compared with a milk chocolate bar, but the duration of these effects and their influence in real-world performance await further testing. Rabin JC, Karunathilake N, Patrizi K. Effects of Milk vs […]

via Dark Chocolate improves vision with 2 hours — ClinicalNews.Org

FDA approves new uses for two drugs Tafinlar (dabrafenib) and Mekinist (trametinib) administered together for the treatment of BRAF-positive anaplastic thyroid cancer


Image result for Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation.

 

FDA approves new uses for two drugs Tafinlar (dabrafenib) and Mekinist (trametinib) administered together for the treatment of BRAF-positive anaplastic thyroid cancer

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Tafinlar (dabrafenib) and Mekinist (trametinib), administered together, for the treatment of anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) that cannot be removed by surgery or has spread to other parts of the body (metastatic), and has a type of abnormal gene, BRAF V600E (BRAF V600E mutation-positive). Continue reading.

May 4, 2018

Release

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Tafinlar (dabrafenib) and Mekinist (trametinib), administered together, for the treatment of anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) that cannot be removed by surgery or has spread to other parts of the body (metastatic), and has a type of abnormal gene, BRAF V600E (BRAF V600E mutation-positive).

“This is the first FDA-approved treatment for patients with this aggressive form of thyroid cancer, and the third cancer with this specific gene mutation that this drug combination has been approved to treat,” said Richard Pazdur, M.D., director of the FDA’s Oncology Center of Excellence and acting director of the Office of Hematology and Oncology Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “This approval demonstrates that targeting the same molecular pathway in diverse diseases is an effective way to expedite the development of treatments that may help more patients.”

Thyroid cancer is a disease in which cancer cells form in the tissues of the thyroid gland. Anaplastic thyroid cancer is a rare, aggressive type of thyroid cancer. The National Institutes of Health estimates there will be 53,990 new cases of thyroid cancer and an estimated 2,060 deaths from the disease in the United States in 2018. Anaplastic thyroid cancer accounts for about 1 to 2 percent of all thyroid cancers.

Both Tafinlar and Mekinist are also approved for use, alone or in combination, to treat BRAF V600 mutation-positive metastatic melanoma. Additionally, Tafinlar and Mekinist are approved for use, in combination, to treat BRAF V600E mutation-positive, metastatic non-small cell lung cancer.

The efficacy of Tafinlar and Mekinist in treating ATC was shown in an open-label clinical trial of patients with rare cancers with the BRAF V600E mutation. Data from trials in BRAF V600E mutation-positive, metastatic melanoma or lung cancer and results in other BRAF V600E mutation-positive rare cancers provided confidence in the results seen in patients with ATC. The trial measured the percent of patients with a complete or partial reduction in tumor size (overall response rate). Of 23 evaluable patients, 57 percent experienced a partial response and 4 percent experienced a complete response; in nine (64 percent) of the 14 patients with responses, there were no significant tumor growths for six months or longer.

The side effects of Tafinlar and Mekinist in patients with ATC are consistent with those seen in other cancers when the two drugs are used together. Common side effects include fever (pyrexia), rash, chills, headache, joint pain (arthralgia), cough, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, myalgia (muscle pain), dry skin, decreased appetite, edema, hemorrhage, high blood pressure (hypertension) and difficulty breathing (dyspnea).

Severe side effects of Tafinlar include the development of new cancers, growth of tumors in patients with BRAF wild-type tumors, serious bleeding problems, heart problems, severe eye problems, fever that may be severe, serious skin reactions, high blood sugar or worsening diabetes, and serious anemia.

Severe side effects of Mekinist include the development of new cancers; serious bleeding problems; inflammation of intestines and perforation of the intestines; blood clots in the arms, legs or lungs; heart problems; severe eye problems; lung or breathing problems; fever that may be severe; serious skin reactions; and high blood sugar or worsening diabetes.

Both Tafinlar and Mekinist can cause harm to a developing fetus; women should be advised of the potential risk to the fetus and to use effective contraception.

The FDA granted Priority Review and Breakthrough Therapy designation for this indication. Orphan Drug designation, which provides incentives to assist and encourage the development of drugs for rare diseases, was also granted for this indication.

The FDA granted this approval to Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation.

 

///////////////Tafinlar, dabrafenib,  Mekinist, trametinib, fda 2018, Priority Review,  Breakthrough Therapy designation, Orphan Drug designation,  Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation,

What are the drugs of the future? — All About Drugs


A cartoon representing how, in history, we are continuously faced with new scientific advancements that make us question what the future holds and whether what we currently have is still useful or should be replaced. What are the drugs of the future? Med. Chem. Commun., 2018, Advance ArticleDOI: 10.1039/C8MD90019A, Opinion Huy X. Ngo, Sylvie Garneau-Tsodikova…

via What are the drugs of the future? — All About Drugs

Efmoroctocog alfa, エフモロクトコグアルファ;


(Heavy chain)
ATRRYYLGAV ELSWDYMQSD LGELPVDARF PPRVPKSFPF NTSVVYKKTL FVEFTDHLFN
IAKPRPPWMG LLGPTIQAEV YDTVVITLKN MASHPVSLHA VGVSYWKASE GAEYDDQTSQ
REKEDDKVFP GGSHTYVWQV LKENGPMASD PLCLTYSYLS HVDLVKDLNS GLIGALLVCR
EGSLAKEKTQ TLHKFILLFA VFDEGKSWHS ETKNSLMQDR DAASARAWPK MHTVNGYVNR
SLPGLIGCHR KSVYWHVIGM GTTPEVHSIF LEGHTFLVRN HRQASLEISP ITFLTAQTLL
MDLGQFLLFC HISSHQHDGM EAYVKVDSCP EEPQLRMKNN EEAEDYDDDL TDSEMDVVRF
DDDNSPSFIQ IRSVAKKHPK TWVHYIAAEE EDWDYAPLVL APDDRSYKSQ YLNNGPQRIG
RKYKKVRFMA YTDETFKTRE AIQHESGILG PLLYGEVGDT LLIIFKNQAS RPYNIYPHGI
TDVRPLYSRR LPKGVKHLKD FPILPGEIFK YKWTVTVEDG PTKSDPRCLT RYYSSFVNME
RDLASGLIGP LLICYKESVD QRGNQIMSDK RNVILFSVFD ENRSWYLTEN IQRFLPNPAG
VQLEDPEFQA SNIMHSINGY VFDSLQLSVC LHEVAYWYIL SIGAQTDFLS VFFSGYTFKH
KMVYEDTLTL FPFSGETVFM SMENPGLWIL GCHNSDFRNR GMTALLKVSS CDKNTGDYYE
DSYEDISAYL LSKNNAIEPR SFSQNPPVLK RHQREITRTT LQSDQEEIDY DDTISVEMKK
EDFDIYDEDE NQSPRSFQKK TRHYFIAAVE RLWDYGMSSS PHVLRNRAQS GSVPQFKKVV
FQEFTDGSFT QPLYRGELNE HLGLLGPYIR AEVEDNIMVT FRNQASRPYS FYSSLISYEE
DQRQGAEPRK NFVKPNETKT YFWKVQHHMA PTKDEFDCKA WAYFSDVDLE KDVHSGLIGP
LLVCHTNTLN PAHGRQVTVQ EFALFFTIFD ETKSWYFTEN MERNCRAPCN IQMEDPTFKE
NYRFHAINGY IMDTLPGLVM AQDQRIRWYL LSMGSNENIH SIHFSGHVFT VRKKEEYKMA
LYNLYPGVFE TVEMLPSKAG IWRVECLIGE HLHAGMSTLF LVYSNKCQTP LGMASGHIRD
FQITASGQYG QWAPKLARLH YSGSINAWST KEPFSWIKVD LLAPMIIHGI KTQGARQKFS
SLYISQFIIM YSLDGKKWQT YRGNSTGTLM VFFGNVDSSG IKHNIFNPPI IARYIRLHPT
HYSIRSTLRM ELMGCDLNSC SMPLGMESKA ISDAQITASS YFTNMFATWS PSKARLHLQG
RSNAWRPQVN NPKEWLQVDF QKTMKVTGVT TQGVKSLLTS MYVKEFLISS SQDGHQWTLF
FQNGKVKVFQ GNQDSFTPVV NSLDPPLLTR YLRIHPQSWV HQIALRMEVL GCEAQDLYDK
THTCPPCPAP ELLGGPSVFL FPPKPKDTLM ISRTPEVTCV VVDVSHEDPE VKFNWYVDGV
EVHNAKTKPR EEQYNSTYRV VSVLTVLHQD WLNGKEYKCK VSNKALPAPI EKTISKAKGQ
PREPQVYTLP PSRDELTKNQ VSLTCLVKGF YPSDIAVEWE SNGQPENNYK TTPPVLDSDG
SFFLYSKLTV DKSRWQQGNV FSCSVMHEAL HNHYTQKSLS LSPG
(Lignt chain)
DKTHTCPPCP APELLGGPSV FLFPPKPKDT LMISRTPEVT CVVVDVSHED PEVKFNWYVD
GVEVHNAKTK PREEQYNSTY RVVSVLTVLH QDWLNGKEYK CKVSNKALPA PIEKTISKAK
GQPREPQVYT LPPSRDELTK NQVSLTCLVK GFYPSDIAVE WESNGQPENN YKTTPPVLDS
DGSFFLYSKL TVDKSRWQQG NVFSCSVMHE ALHNHYTQKS LSLSPG
(disulfide bridges: H153-H179, H248-H329, H528-H554, H630-H711, H938-H964, H1005-H1009, H1127-H1275, H1280-H1432, H1444-L6, H1447-L9, H1479-H1539, H1585-H1643, L41-L101, L147-L205)

Efmoroctocog alfa

Protein chemical formulaC9736H14863N2591O2855S78

Protein average weight220000.0 Da (Apparent, B-domain deleted)

Peptide

CAS: 1270012-79-7

エフモロクトコグアルファ;

2015/11/19 ema APPROVED elocta

Image result for Efmoroctocog alfa

Image result for Efmoroctocog alfa

Efmoroctocog alfa is a fully recombinant factor VIII-Fc fusion protein (rFVIIIFc) with an extended half-life compared with conventional factor VIII (FVIII) preparations, including recombinant FVIII (rFVIII) products such as Moroctocog alfa[1]. It is an antihemorrhagic agent used in replacement therapy for patients with haemophilia A (congenital factor VIII deficiency). It is suitable for all age groups. Haemophilia A is a rare bleeding disorder associated with a slow clotting process caused by the deficiency of factor VIII. Patients with this disorder are more susceptible to recurrent bleeding episodes and excessive bleeding following minor traumatic injuries or surgical procedures [1]. Prophylactic treatment may dramatically improve the management of severe haemophilia A in the future by reducing joint bleeding and other hemorrhages that cause chronic pain and disability to patients [12]. Prophylaxis has also shown to reduce the formation of neutralizing anti-FVIII antibodies, or inhibitors [2].

Factor VIII is a blood coagulant factor involved in the intrinsic pathway to form fibrin, or a blood clot. Efmoroctocog alfa is a first commercially available rFVIII-Fc fusion protein (rFVIIIFc) where the conjugated molecule of rFVIII to polyethylene glycol is covalently fused to the dimeric Fc domain of human immunoglobulin G1, a long-lived plasma protein [FDA Label]. The B domain of factor VIII is deleted. In animal models of haemophilia, efmoroctocog alfa demonstrated an approximately two-fold longer t½ than commercially available rFVIII products [1].

Other drug products with similar structure and function to Efmoroctocog alfa include Moroctocog alfa, which is produced by recombinant DNA technology and is identical in sequence to endogenously produced Factor VIII, but does not contain the B-domain, which has no known biological function, and Antihemophilic factor human, which is purified endogenous Factor VIII from human pooled blood and contains both A- and B-subunits.

It is commonly marketed as Elocta or Eloctate for intravenous injection. To date, no confirmed inhibitory autoantibodies were seen in previously treated patients included in clinical studies and treatment-emergent adverse events were generally consistent with those expected in the patient populations being studied [1]. The extended half-life of efmoroctocog alfa provides several clinical benefits for patients, including reduced frequency of injections required and improved adherence to prophylaxis [1].

Haemophilia A is an inherited sex-linked disorder of blood coagulation in which affected males (very rarely females) do not produce functional coagulation FVIII in sufficient quantities to achieve satisfactory haemostasis. The incidence of congenital haemophilia A is approximately 1 in 10,000 births. Disease severity is classified according to the level of FVIII activity (% of normal) as mild (>5% to <40%), moderate (1% to 5%) or severe (<1%). This deficiency in FVIII predisposes patients with haemophilia A to recurrent bleeding episodes in joints, muscles or internal organs, either spontaneously or as a result of accidental or surgical trauma. Without adequate treatment these repeated haemarthroses and haematomas lead to long-term sequelae with severe disability. Other less frequent, but more severe bleeding sites, are the central nervous system, the urinary or gastrointestinal tract, eyes and the retro-peritoneum. Patients with haemophilia A are at high risk of developing major and life-threatening bleeds after surgical procedures, even after minor procedures such as tooth extraction. The development of cryoprecipitate and subsequently FVIII concentrates, obtained by fractionation of human plasma, provided replacement FVIII and greatly improved clinical management and life expectancy of patients with haemophilia A. Current treatment approaches focus on either prophylactic or on demand factor replacement therapy with plasma-derived FVIII or recombinant FVIII products. In the short term, prophylaxis can prevent spontaneous bleeding and in the long term, prophylaxis can prevent bleeding into joints that will eventually lead to debilitating arthropathy. Prophylaxis with FVIII concentrates is currently the preferred treatment regimen for patients with severe haemophilia A, especially in very young patients. The majority of patients receiving prophylaxis are treated 3-times weekly or every other day at a dose of 25–40 international units (IU)/kg (or 15–25 IU/kg in an intermediate dose regimen), although an escalating dose regimen is also used. However, on-demand treatment is still the predominant replacement approach in many countries. The most serious complication in the treatment of haemophilia A is the development of neutralising antibodies (inhibitors) against FVIII, rendering the patient resistant to replacement therapy and thereby increasing the risk of unmanageable bleeding, particularly arthropathy, and disability.

ELOCTA (efmoroctocog alfa) is a recombinant human coagulation factor VIII Fc fusion protein (rFVIIIFc) consisting of B-domain deleted FVIII covalently attached to the Fc domain of human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) thus aiming at prolongation of plasma half-life. It has been developed as a long-acting version of recombinant FVIII (rFVIII) for the control and prevention of bleeding episodes, routine prophylaxis, and perioperative management (surgical prophylaxis) in individuals with hemophilia A. ELOCTA is formulated as powder for intravenous administration in a single-use vial. Each single-use vial contains nominally 250, 500, 750, 1000, 1500, 2000, or 3000 International Units (IU) of rFVIIIFc for reconstitution with a solvent (Sterile Water for Injections), which is provided in a pre-filled syringe. In 2013, national scientific advice was sought from the United Kingdom Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA), Swedish Medicinal Products Agency, and German Paul-Ehrlich-Institute. No substantial deviations from the advices provided could be identified. On 2 April 2014, the Paediatric Committee (PDCO) of the European Medicines Agency adopted a favourable opinion on the modification of an agreed paediatric investigation plan (PIP) (P/0077/2014) and a partially completed compliance procedure was finalised on 16-18 July 2014 (EMEA-C1-001114-PIP01-10-MO2). Completed studies, Study 997HA301 and Study 8HA02PED, and the initiation of Study 8HA01EXT are considered compliant with EMA Decision P/0077/2014.

The active substance of ELOCTA, efmoroctocog alfa, is a recombinant human coagulation factor VIII, Fc fusion protein (rFVIIIFc) comprising B-domain deleted (BDD) human FVIII covalently linked to the Fc domain of human immunoglobulin G1(IgG1). It has been developed as a long-acting version of recombinant FVIII (rFVIII). ELOCTA is formulated as a sterile, non-pyrogenic, preservative-free, lyophilized, white to off-white powder to cake for intravenous administration in a single-use vial. Each single-use vial contains nominally 250, 500, 750, 1000, 1500, 2000, or 3000 International Units (IU) of rFVIIIFc for reconstitution with liquid diluent (Sterile Water for Injection), which is provided in a pre-filled syringe. The finished medicinal product consists of a package containing a rFVIIIFc drug product vial, a pre-filled diluent (SWFI) syringe and medical devices (a plunger rod, a vial adapter (used as a transfer device during reconstitution), an infusion set, alcohol swabs, plasters and gauze pad for intravenous administration).

Structure The active substance of Elocta, efmoroctocog alfa, is a recombinant human coagulation factor VIII, Fc fusion protein (rFVIIIFc) comprised of a single molecule of B-domain deleted human Factor VIII (BDD FVIII) fused to the dimeric Fc region of human IgG1 with no intervening linker sequence.

The rFVIIIFc protein has a molecular weight of approximately 220 kDa. rFVIIIFc is synthesized as 2 polypeptide chains, one chain consisting of BDD FVIII fused to the N-terminal of human IgG1 Fc domain the other chain consisting of the same Fc region alone. The two subunits of rFVIIIFc, FVIIIFc single chain and Fc single chain, are associated through disulfide bonds in the hinge region of Fc as well as through extensive noncovalent interactions between the Fc fragments.

Characterisation rFVIIIFc was extensively characterised by physicochemical methods in accordance with guideline ICH Q6B. The structural characterisation and the physicochemical properties confirmed the expected properties for a recombinant FVIIIFc product. In general, the characterization performed was considered appropriate for this complex fusion molecule. The panel of tests was comprehensive and covered most of its structural and functional attributes. The comparability between representative batches from development and commercial manufacture (including process validation batches) as well as with rFVIIIFc reference materials was demonstrated. The biological activity was analysed by the FVIII one stage clotting assay (activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT)), the FVIII chromogenic assay and the FcRn binding assay. Additional in vitro functional tests were performed comprising the binding to von Willebrand factor and the generation of Factor Xa. Since it is anticipated that the potency of modified products measured by the one stage clotting assay (aPTT) may be dependent on the choice of the aPTT reagent, the ISTH recommends for all new FVIII products to perform a study including assay variations (different aPTT reagents) for FVIII testing when using the coagulation assay. Respective studies were provided by the Applicant in Module 5 (no significant dependence on the aPTT reagent was observed). REF 3

AUSTRALIA REF 4

Submission details Type of submission: New biological entity Decision: Approved Date of decision: 18 June 2014 Active ingredient: Efmoroctocog alfa (rhu2)3

Product name: Eloctate Sponsor’s name and address: Biogen Idec Australia Pty Ltd Suite 1, Level 5 123 Epping Rd North Ryde, NSW 2113 Dose form: Powder for injection and diluent Strengths: 250 international units (IU), 500 IU, 750 IU, 1000 IU, 1500 IU, 2000 IU and 3000 IU Containers: Type I glass vial (powder) and pre-filled syringe (diluent) Pack size: Single Approved therapeutic use: Eloctate is a long-acting antihaemophilic factor (recombinant) indicated in adults and children ( ≥ 12 years) with haemophilia A (congenital factor VIII deficiency) for: · control and prevention of bleeding episodes · routine prophylaxis to prevent or reduce the frequency of bleeding episodes · perioperative management (surgical prophylaxis) Eloctate does not contain von Willebrand factor, and therefore is not indicated in patients with von Willebrand’s disease. Route of administration: Intravenous (IV) infusion Dosage: Refer to the Product Information (PI; Attachment 1) ARTG numbers: 210521 (250 IU), 210519 (500 IU), 210523 (750 IU), 210525 (1000 IU), 210522 (1500 IU), 210524 (2000 IU), 210520 (3000 IU). 2 recombinant human 3 The ingredient name at the time of submission and registration was Efraloctocog alfa, The name was subsequently changed on 20 February 2015 to harmonise to the International Non-proprietary Name (INN) Efmoroctocog alfa. The AusPAR document has been amended by replacing the previous name efraloctocog alfa with approved INN efmoroctocog alfa.

  1. Frampton JE: Efmoroctocog Alfa: A Review in Haemophilia A. Drugs. 2016 Sep;76(13):1281-1291. doi: 10.1007/s40265-016-0622-z. [PubMed:27487799]
  2. Tiede A: Half-life extended factor VIII for the treatment of hemophilia A. J Thromb Haemost. 2015 Jun;13 Suppl 1:S176-9. doi: 10.1111/jth.12929. [PubMed:26149020]
  3. http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/EPAR_-_Public_assessment_report/human/003964/WC500198644.pdf
  4. https://www.tga.gov.au/sites/default/files/auspar-efmoroctocog-alfa-rhu-150317.pdf
  5. http://www.who.int/medicines/publications/druginformation/innlists/RL73_pre.pdf

///////////Efmoroctocog alfa, Peptide, ema 2015

1,2 Diaminocyclohexane from Synthesis with Catalysts Pvt Ltd


STR1 STR2 str3 str4

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Roquinimex


ChemSpider 2D Image | Roquinimex | C18H16N2O3CID 55197.png

Roquinimex.svg

Roquinimex

  • Molecular FormulaC18H16N2O3
  • Average mass308.331 Da
4-hydroxy-N,1-dimethyl-2-oxo-N-phenyl-1,2-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxamide
84088-42-6 [RN]
Linomide
N-phenyl-N-methyl-1,2-dihydro-4-hydroxy-1-methyl-2-oxoquinoline-3-carboxamide
1,2-Dihydro-4-hydroxy-N,1-dimethyl-2-oxo-N-phenyl-3-quinolinecarboxamide
372T2944C0, FCF-89
LS-2616
PNU-212616  
E. Eriksoo et al., EP 59698; eidem, U.S. Patent 4,738,971 (1982, 1988 both to AB Leo).
Roquinimex (Linomide) is a quinoline derivative immunostimulant which increases NK cell activity and macrophage cytotoxicity. It also inhibits angiogenesis and reduces the secretion of TNF alpha.

Roquinimex (Linomide) is a quinoline derivative immunostimulant which increases NK cell activity and macrophage cytotoxicity. It also inhibits angiogenesis and reduces the secretion of TNF alpha.

Investigated as a treatment for some cancers (including as adjuvant therapy after bone marrow transplantation in acute leukemia) and autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and recent-onset type I diabetes.

Roquinimex has been investigated as a treatment for some cancers (including as adjuvant therapy after bone marrow transplantation in acute leukemia) and autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and recent-onset type I diabetes. Several trials have been terminated due to serious cardiovascular toxicity.

Synthesis

Roquinimex synthesis:[1]

Ethyl 2-(methylamino)benzoate is condensed with ethyl malonate. Amine-ester ineterchange of that compound with N-methylanilineresults in formation of the amide roquinimex.

PAPER

Using DOE to Achieve Reliable Drug Administration:  A Case Study

DuPont Chemoswed, R&D Department, P.O. Box 839, Celciusgatan 35, SE-201 80 Malmö, Sweden
Org. Proc. Res. Dev.20048 (5), pp 802–807
DOI: 10.1021/op049904l
Abstract Image

Design of experiments (DOE), a statistical tool, and mathematical modeling techniques are established and proven methodologies for process and product improvements in the pharmaceutical industry. This contribution presents a case study where an unsatisfactory dissolution capacity for the drug Roquinimex was overcome by investigating the process parameters with the help of an experimental design. By elucidating the detailed effects of temperature, dosing time, and dilution, conformity in the particle size distribution of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) from batch to batch in full-scale manufacturing could be ensured. As a direct result the manufactured drug met its specified dissolution capacity, which was a prerequisite for obtaining the desired bioavailability of the pharmaceutical oral formulation. This work demonstrates how the use of DOE in chemical process development adds value by allowing efficient and reliable improvements of a given synthetic step.

1 H NMR (4): δ 12.4 (broad s, 1H, OH), 8.1 (m, 1H, Ar), 7.5 (m, 1H, Ar), 7.1 (m, 7H, Ar), 3.5 (s, 3H, NCH3 ), 3.3 5 (s, 3H, NCH3 ).

SYN

BE 0904431; DE 3609052; GB 2172594; JP 1986221194; US 4672057

By condensation of 4-hydroxy-1-methyl-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (I) with N-methylaniline (II) by heating at 125 C and distillation of the ethanol formed.

CLIP

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0731708597001076

Image result for Roquinimex NMR1H-NMR spectrum of linomide in DMSO at 298 K recorded on a Bruker AC

Image result for Roquinimex NMR13C-DEPT experiment of linomide in DMSO at 298 K recorded on a Bruker AC

Image result for Roquinimex NMR

Image result for Linomide NMR

A 2D 13C–1H COLOC experiment of linomide in DMSO at 298 K recorded on

Image result for Linomide NMR

Image result for Linomide NMRCOSY 45° spectrum of linomide in DMSO at 298 K recorded on a Bruker AC

PATENT

https://patents.google.com/patent/US5912349

U.S. Pat. No. 4,738,971 discloses roquinimex and a method to produce it. The disclosed method starts with N-methylisatoic anhydride (I) and requires three steps. The improved process of the present invention starts with the same N-methylisatoic anhydride (I) and requires fewer steps.

The process of the present invention is practiced according to EXAMPLE 2. It is preferred to perform the claimed process in an aprotic solvent. Suitable aprotic solvents include DMF, THF, glyme, dioxane and ether and mixtures thereof.

The roquinimex produced by the process of the invention (EXAMPLE 2) can be upgraded or purified by the process of EXAMPLE 3.

Roquinimex is known to be useful as a pharmaceutical agent, see U.S. Pat. No. 4,738,971. It is preferably used in treating multiple sclerosis, in particular the treatment of relapsing remitting and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. In treating multiple sclerosis roquinimex is administered in an oral dose of from about 2.0 to about 5.0 mg/day.

Example 1

N-Methyl-N-Phenyl-α-Carbomethoxyacetamide (V)

Mono-methyl malonate potassium salt also known as potassium methyl malonate (73.32 g, 0.47 mol) and water (50 ml) are cooled to 5° with an ice bath, and concentrated hydrochloric acid (40 ml) is added over a 30 minute period while the temperature is maintained below 10°. The mixture is filtered with suction to remove potassium chloride, and the precipitate washed with methyl t-butylether (75 ml). The aqueous layer of the filtrate is separated and washed with methyl t-butyl ether (3×50 ml). The combined methyl t-butyl ether extracts are dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate; then the solvent was removed under reduced pressure at 45-50° to give carbomethoxy acetic acid. This product was checked by NMR for complete removal of the methyl t-butyl ether solvent.

Carbomethoxy acetic acid (100 g, 0.84 mol) is dissolved in methylene chloride (400 ml). Thionyl chloride (100 g, 0.84 mol) is added via a dropping funnel. It can be added rapidly as there is little, if any, exotherm produced during the addition. After addition, the reaction is refluxed at 40-45° for 1 hr. At the end of the reflux period, 50% of the methylene chloride is removed (200 ml) by distillation at atmospheric pressure and 40-45°. Fresh methylene chloride is added (200 ml) followed by distillation to again remove 50% of the total volume. This add-distillation procedure is repeated two times to give the carbomethoxy acetyl chloride.

The carbomethoxy acetyl chloride mixture is cooled in an ice-salt bath to -5 to 0° and N-methyl aniline (55.64 g, 0.52 mol) in methylene chloride (200 ml) is added at a rate so as to maintain the temperature of the reaction mixture between -5 to 0°. The addition is performed using an addition funnel and can normally be carried out over a 3-5 min time period to control the slight exotherm. Pyridine (66.36 g, 0.84 mol) in methylene chloride (200 ml) is then added to the above mixture. The addition rate is adjusted so as to keep the temperature of the reaction between -5 to 0° during the addition. The addition is performed using an addition funnel and can normally be carried out over a 3-5 min time period to control the slight exotherm. After the addition is complete (as measured by HPLC) the reaction is quenched by pouring the reaction mixture into water (500 ml) and stirring continued for 30 min. The reaction is equilibrated and the methylene chloride layer separated. Additional methylene chloride (400-500 ml) is added and the methylene chloride mixture is washed successively with hydrochloric acid (1N, 2×300 ml), saturated sodium bicarbonate solution (2×300 ml), saline (1×600 ml) and the methylene chloride mixture dried through anhydrous sodium sulfate. Concentration of the mixture under reduced pressure at 40-45° gives the title compound, HPLC (Nucleosil column; acetonitrile/water, 45/55, 1 ml/min, UV=229 nm; Retention times for N-methyl-N-phenyl-α-carbomethoxyacetamide˜6.0 min; N-methyl aniline˜11.0-12.0 min.

Example 2

Preparation of Roquinimex (IV) from N-Methylisotoic anhydride (I) and N-Methyl-α-carbomethoxyacetamide (V)

N-Methyl-N-phenyl-α-carbomethoxyacetamide (V, EXAMPLE 1, 139 g, 0.671 mole) and DMF (695 mL). The mixture is subject to reduced pressure and purged with nitrogen three times. While at room temperature (20-25°), potassium t-butoxide solution (1.714 M in THF, 367 mL, 0.630 mole) is added in one portion. A small exotherm and slight darkening of the mixture followed this addition. The mixture is heated to 80-90° and kept at this temperature for 1.5 hr.

A -78° cooling bath is placed on the receiving flask of the distillation assembly, the nitrogen flow is shut off and the mixture is subject to reduced pressure over 0.5 hr to remove the THF solvent. The pot temperature at the end of the distillation is 72-76°. The amount of distillate collected should be nearly identical to the amount of potassium tert-butoxide reagent used, (367 ml). The mixture is then heated to 80-85° and N-methylisotoic anhydride (I, 70.72 g, 0.400 mole) is added in one portion followed by a 5-10 mL DMF wash. Gas evolution with foaming followed the addition and subsequent wash. The equipment is modified at this point to include a reflux condenser with a vacuum port. With the temperature still at 80-85°, the mixture is placed under reduced pressure and the mixture refluxed for 30 min. After refluxing the temperature is 79°. The reduced pressure and heat source are removed, the system is repressurized with nitrogen and the temperature is allowed to drop to 30° (±2°). Hydrochloric acid (0.6 N, 2.295 L) is added slowly via an addition funnel attached to the claisen head over 2.5 hr, to pH=1.0-1.5, making sure the temperature does not exceed 32°. The temperature control is especially critical at the beginning of the addition when a mild exotherm occurs. The temperature at the end of the addition is nearly room temperature (24-25°). When the acid addition is complete, the resulting slurry is stirred for 30 min and then let stand overnight before filtration. The solids are washed with water (2 ×330 mL) and dried on a nitrogen press to give the title compound, HPLC (Nucleosil column; acetonitrile/water, 45/55, 1 ml/min, UV=229 nm; Retention times 2.29 min.

Example 3

Purification of Roquinimex (IV)

Roquinimex crude is taken up in water (1.5 L) and the slurry is stirred vigorously at 20-25°. The pH is adjusted to 7.5-7.7 with sodium hydroxyde (7%, about 170 mL). (The base can be added as fast as possible but requires longer pH equilibration near the end of the addition (about 1-2 hr total addition time). It is recommended that 85% of the base is initially added to a stable pH and the rest is added dropwise until the pH has stabilized and falls into the desired range of 7.5-7.7.) Nearly all solids should be dissolved (some may remain however). After the base is added and the pH is stabilized for more than 30 min, Darco (charcoal, 15.00 g) is added and the mixture is stirred for 30 min. The mixture is filtered through a 0.45 micron Millipore filter and the filter cake is washed with water (2×175 mL). The filtrate is transferred to a flask.

The mixture is stirred vigorously, heated to 28-32° and hydrochloric acid (6 N, about 120 mL) is added over 30 to 45 min to a pH of 0.5 to 1.0. After the addition is over, the mixture is stirred for 15 min then allowed to stand, without stirring, at the above temperature for 2 hr before filtration. The filter cake is washed with water (2×180 mL) and dried on a nitrogen press to give essentially pure title compound.

PATENT

https://patents.google.com/patent/US6605616

The present invention relates to novel substituted quinoline-3-carboxamide derivatives, to methods for their preparation, to compositions containing them, and to methods and use for clinical treatment of diseases resulting from autoimmunity, such as multiple sclerosis, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease and psoriasis and, furthermore, diseases where pathologic inflammation plays a major role, such as asthma, atherosclerosis, stroke and Alzheimer’s disease. More particularly, the present invention relates to novel quinoline derivatives suitable for the treatment of, for example, multiple sclerosis and its manifestations.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Autoimmune diseases, e.g., multiple sclerosis (MS), insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), systemic lupuis erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and psoriasis represent assaults by the body’s immune system which may be systemic in nature, or else directed at individual organs in the body. They appear to be diseases in which the immune system makes mistakes and, instead of mediating protective functions, becomes the aggressor (1).

MS is the most common acquired neurologic disease of young adults in western Europe and North America. It accounts for more disability and financial loss, both in lost income and in medical care, than any other neurologic disease of this age group. There are approximately 250.000 cases of MS in the United States. Although the cause of MS is unknown, advances in brain imaging, immunology, and molecular biology have increased researchers’ understanding of this disease. Several therapies are currently being used to treat MS, but no single treatment has demonstrated dramatic treatment efficacy. Current treatment of MS falls into three categories: treatment of acute exacerbations, modulation of progressive disease, and therapy for specific symptoms.

MS affects the central nervous system and involves a demyelination process, i.e., the myelin sheaths are lost whereas the axons are preserved. Myelin provides the isolating material that enables rapid nerve impulse conduction. Evidently, in demyelination, this property is lost. Although the pathogenic mechanisms responsible for MS are not understood, several lines of evidence indicate that demyelination has an immunopathologic basis. The pathologic lesions, the plaques, are characterized by infiltration of immunologically active cells such as macrophages and activated T cells (2).

In U.S. Pat. No. 4,547,511 and in U.S. Pat. No. 4,738,971 and in EP 59,698 some derivatives of N-aryl-1,2-dihydro-4-substituted-1-alkyl-2-oxo-quinoline-3-carboxamide are claimed as enhancers of cell-mediated immunity. The compound

Figure US06605616-20030812-C00002

known as roquinimex (Merck Index 12th Ed., No. 8418; Linomide®, LS2616, N-phenyl-N-methyl-1,2-dihydro-4-hydroxy-1-methyl-2-oxo-quinoline-3-carboxamide) belongs to this series of compounds. Roquinimex has been reported to have multiple immunomodulatory activities not accompanied with general immunosuppression (3-12). Furthermore, in U.S. Pat. No. 5,580,882 quinoline-3-carboxarnide derivatives are claimed to be useful in the treatment of conditions associated with MS. The particular preferred compound is roquinimex. In U.S. Pat. No. 5,594,005 quinoline-3-carboxamide derivatives are claimed to be useful in the treatment of type I diabetes. The particular preferred compound is roquinimex. In WO 95/24195 quinoline-3-carboxamide derivatives are claimed to be useful in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Particularly preferred compounds are roquinimex or a salt thereof. In WO95/24196 quinoline-3-carboxamide derivatives are claimed to be useful in the treatment of psoriasis. Particularly preferred compounds are roquinimex or a salt thereof.

In clinical trials comparing roquinimex to placebo, roquinimex was reported to hold promise in the treatment of conditions associated with MS (13, 14). There are, however, some serious drawbacks connected to roquinimex. For example, it has been found to be teratogenic in the rat, and to induce dose-limiting side effects in man, e.g., a flu-like syndrome, which prevents from using the full clinical potential of the compound.

Further, in WO 92/18483 quinoline derivatives substituted in the 6-position with a RAS (O)n-group (RA=lower alkyl or aryl; n=0−2) are claimed, which possess an immunomodulating, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effect.

PAPER

Modified synthesis and antiangiogenic activity of linomide

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960894X00006995?via%3Dihub

PAPER

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/jm031044w

1H NMR (CDCl3) δ 3.28 (s, br, 3H, 1-NCH3), 3.50 (s, 3H, 12-NCH3), 7.1−7.3 (m, 7H, 6,8,2‘,3‘,4‘,5‘,6‘-aromatic CH), 7.56 (dt, JHCCH = 7.5 and 8.5 Hz, JHCCCH = 1.5 Hz, 1H, 7-aromatic CH), 8.09 (dd, JHCCH = 8.0 Hz, JHCCCH = 1.5 Hz, 1H, 5-aromatic CH), 12.3 (s, br, 1H, 4-OH). 13C NMR (CDCl3) δ 28.7 (1C, 1-NCH3), 38.3 (1C, br, 12-NCH3), 104.6 (1C, 3-C), 113.5 (1C, 8-CH), 115.3 (1C, 10-C), 121.4 (1C, 6-CH), 124.6 (1C, 5-CH), 125.5 (2C, 2‘,6‘-CH), 126.7 (1C, 4‘-CH), 128.5 (2C, 3‘,5‘-CH), 132.3 (1C, 7-CH), 140.1 (1C, 9-C), 143.8 (1C, 1‘-C), 158.8 (1C, 2-CO), 164.3 (1C, 4-C), 169.4 (1C, 11-CO). MS-ESI:  m/z 309 [MH]+. Anal. (C18H16N2O3) C, H, N.

PATENT

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2012050500&recNum=1&maxRec=&office=&prevFilter=&sortOption=&queryString=&tab=PCTDescription

1,2-dihydro-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-quinoline-3-carboxanilides have been described in the literature since the 1970s (refs 1-4). The most well-known compound in this class, roquinimex (Linomide), was first described by AB Leo as an immuno-stimulating agent (ref 4) but was later also found to have immuno-modulating effects, as well as anti-angiogenetic effects (refs 5a, b). Roquinimex has been claimed beneficial for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes type 1, and psoriasis, as well as for the treatment of cancer (refs 6a-d, 9d and refs therein).


The compound laquinimod (a 5-Cl, N-Et carboxanilide derivative) has been reported by Active Biotech AB to convey a better therapeutic index compared with roquinimex (refs 7a, b) and is currently in phase III clinical studies for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Laquinimod has also entered clical trials in Crohn’s disease and

SLE. Two other compounds in the same class under clinical evaluation are tasquinimod (prostate cancer) and paquinimod (systemic sclerosis). Recently, a molecular target for laquinimod was identified as S100A9 (ref 8).

Fujisawa has reported on similar compounds with inhibitory activity on nephritis and on B16 melanoma metastases (refs 9a-d). Also the closely related thieno-pyridone analogs have been described as immunomodulating compounds with anti-inflammatory properties (ref

10).

Another closely related compound class are the corresponding N-pyridyl-carboxamide derivatives, which have been reported to have antitubercular activity as well as anti-inflammatory properties (ref

11). However, according to litterature (ref 10) these derivatives are less active as immunomodulating agents.

The N-hydrogen 3-carboxanilides (“N-H derivatives”) and the N-alkyl 3-carboxanilides (“N-alkyl derivatives”), respectively, are described in the prior art documents relating to inflammation, immunomodulation, and cancer as a homogenous group of compounds in terms of biological effects. Prior art also teaches that the N-alkyl derivatives are the preferred compound derivatives.

In fact, very few studies (refs 4, 9d) of N-hydrogen derivatives, especially in vivo studies, have been reported. Furthermore, no fundamental biological differences between the N-alkyl derivatives and the N-hydrogen derivatives, respectively, have been described.

However, some chemical properties of the N-hydrogen and the N-alkyl derivatives are different (ref 12). N-Alkyl derivatives adopt a twisted 3D-structure, whereas the N-H derivatives are stabilized by intramolecular hydrogen bonds in a planar structure. The N-alkyl derivatives are more soluble in aqueous media, but also inherently unstable towards nucleophiles, such as amines and alcohols (refs 12, 13).

The N-alkyl derivatives roquinimex (N-Me) and laquinimod (N-Et) have been reported to be metabolized in human microsomes to give the corresponding N-hydrogen derivatives, via N-dealkylation catalyzed mainly by CYP3A4 (refs 14a, b).

bHLH-PAS (basic helix-loop-helix Per-Arnt-Sim) proteins constitute a recently descovered protein family functioning as transcripon factors as homo or hetero protein dimers (refs 15a, b). The N-terminal bHLH domain is responsible for DNA binding and contributes to dimerization with other family members. The PAS region (PAS-A and PAS-B) is also involved in protein-protein interactions determining the choice of dimerization partner and the PAS-B domain harbors a potential ligand binding pocket.

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR or dioxin receptor) and its dimerization partner ARNT (AhR nuclear translocator) were the first mammalian protein members to be identified. AhR is a cytosolic protein in its non-activated form, associated in a protein complex with Hsp90, p23, and XAP2. Upon ligand activation, typically by chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons like TCDD, the Ahr enters the nucleus and dimerizes with ARNT. The AhR/ARNT dimer recognizes specific xenobiotic response elements (XREs) to regulate TCDD-responsive genes. The ligand binding domain of AhR (AhR-LBD) resides in the PAS-B domain.

Recently, it has been demonstrated that AhR is involved in Thl7 and Treg cell development and AhR has been proposed as a unique target for therapeutic immuno-modulation (refs 16a-c). The AhR ligand TCDD was shown to induce development of Treg (FoxP3+) cells, essential for controlling auto-immunity, and to suppress symptoms in the EAE model. In addition, activation of AhR has been shown essential for the generation of IL-10 producing regulatory Trl cells (ref 16d), and Ahr ligands have also been proven efficacious in other models of auto-immunity, e.g. diabetes type 1, IBD, and uveitis (refs 16e-h). Apart from controlling autoimmune disorders, AhR activation and Treg cell development have been implicated as a therapeutic strategy for other conditions with an immunological component, such as allergic lung inflammation, food allergy, transplant rejection, bone loss, and type 2 diabetes and other metabolic disorders (refs 17a-e).

Apart from its role as a transcription factor, AhR has been reported to function as a ligand-dependent E3 ubiguitin ligase (ref 18), and ligand-induced degradation of β-catenin has been demonstrated to suppress intestinal cancer in mice (ref 19). In addition, activation of AhR has been implicated to play a protective role in prostate cancer (ref 20).

Other members of the bHLH-PAS family are the HIF-α (hypoxia inducible factor alpha) proteins, which also hetero-dimerize with ARNT. In conditions with normal oxygen levels (normoxia), HIF-α proteins are rapidly degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system and they are also inactivated by asparagine hydroxylation. Under hypoxic conditions, however, the proteins are active and upregulate genes as a response to the hypoxic state, e.g. genes for erythropoietin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF is essential for blood vessel growth (angiogenesis) and is together with HIF-1α considered as interesting targets for anti-angiogenetic tumour theraphy (ref 21). HIF-α proteins can be negatively and indirectly regulated by AhR ligands, which upon binding with AhR reduce the level of the common dimerization partner ARNT. Anti-angiogenetic effects can possibly also be achieved directly by AhR activity via upregulation of thrombospondin-1 (ref 22).

Roquinimex
Title: Roquinimex
CAS Registry Number: 84088-42-6
CAS Name: 1,2-Dihydro-4-hydroxy-N,1-dimethyl-2-oxo-N-phenyl-3-quinolinecarboxamide
Additional Names: N-phenyl-N-methyl-1,2-dihydro-4-hydroxy-1-methyl-2-oxoquinoline-3-carboxamide; 1,2-dihydro-4-hydroxy-N,1-dimethyl-2-oxo-3-quinolinecarboxanilide
Manufacturers’ Codes: LS-2616
Trademarks: Linomide (Pfizer)
Molecular Formula: C18H16N2O3
Molecular Weight: 308.33
Percent Composition: C 70.12%, H 5.23%, N 9.09%, O 15.57%
Literature References: Biological response modifier. Prepn: E. Eriksoo et al., EP 59698eidem, US 4738971 (1982, 1988 both to AB Leo). Immunopharmacology: A. Tarkowski et al., Immunology 59, 589 (1986). Mechanism of action study: E.-L. Larsson et al.,Int. J. Immunopharmacol. 9, 425 (1987). Clinical evaluation in cancer patients: J. C. S. Bergh et al., Cancer Invest. 15, 204 (1997).
Properties: Crystals from pyridine, mp 200-204°.
Melting point: mp 200-204°
Therap-Cat: Antineoplastic.
Keywords: Antineoplastic; Immunomodulators.
Roquinimex
Roquinimex.svg
Clinical data
ATC code
Pharmacokinetic data
Biological half-life 26-42 hours
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
ChemSpider
UNII
ECHA InfoCard 100.163.758 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
Formula C18H16N2O3
Molar mass 308.331 g/mol
3D model (JSmol)
 Yes (what is this?)  (verify)

Roquinimex (Linomide) is a quinoline derivative immunostimulant which increases NK cell activity and macrophage cytotoxicity. It also inhibits angiogenesis and reduces the secretion of TNF alpha.

/////////////////Roquinimex, Linomide, FCF-89, LS-2616, PNU-212616  

CN1C2=CC=CC=C2C(=O)C(=C1O)C(=O)N(C)C3=CC=CC=C3

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