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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D ( ICT, Mumbai) , INDIA 29Yrs Exp. in the feld of Organic Chemistry,Working for GLENMARK PHARMA at Navi Mumbai, INDIA. Serving chemists around the world. Helping them with websites on Chemistry.Million hits on google, NO ADVERTISEMENTS , ACADEMIC , NON COMMERCIAL SITE, world acclamation from industry, academia, drug authorities for websites, blogs and educational contribution, ........amcrasto@gmail.com..........+91 9323115463, Skype amcrasto64 View Anthony Melvin Crasto Ph.D's profile on LinkedIn Anthony Melvin Crasto Dr.

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK LIFE SCIENCES LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 PLUS year tenure till date June 2021, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 90 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, 233 countries, 7 continents, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 33 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 233 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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Melarsoprol


Melarsoprol2DCSD.svg

Melarsoprol

MelarsoprolCAS Registry Number: 494-79-1 
CAS Name: 2-[4-[(4,6-Diamino-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)amino]phenyl]-1,3,2-dithiarsolane-4-methanolAdditional Names:p-[(4,6-diamino-s-triazin-2-yl)amino]dithiobenzenearsonous acid 3-hydroxypropylene ester; 2-p-(4,6-diamino-s-triazin-2-ylamino)phenyl-4-hydroxymethyl-1,3,2-dithiarsoline; 2-(4-melamin-2-ylphenyl)-4-hydroxymethyl-1,3-dithia-2-arsolaneTrademarks: Mel B; Arsobal (Specia) 
Molecular Formula: C12H15AsN6OS2Molecular Weight: 398.34 
Percent Composition: C 36.18%, H 3.80%, As 18.81%, N 21.10%, O 4.02%, S 16.10%Literature References: Prepn: Friedheim, US2659723 (1953); US2772303 (1956).Properties: Practically insol in water, cold ethanol, methanol. Sol in propylene glycol. 
Therap-Cat: Antiprotozoal (Trypanosoma).Keywords: Antiprotozoal (Trypanosoma).

Melarsoprol is a medication used for the treatment of sleeping sickness (African trypanosomiasis).[1] It is specifically used for second-stage disease caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense when the central nervous system is involved.[1] For Trypanosoma brucei gambienseeflornithine or fexinidazole is usually preferred.[1] It is effective in about 95% of people.[3] It is given by injection into a vein.[2]

Melarsoprol has a high number of side effects.[4] Common side effects include brain dysfunction, numbness, rashes, and kidney and liver problems.[2] About 1-5% of people die during treatment.[3] In those with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiencyred blood cell breakdown may occur.[2] It has not been studied in pregnancy.[2] It works by blocking pyruvate kinase, an enzyme required for aerobic metabolism by the parasite.[2]

Melarsoprol has been used medically since 1949.[1] It is on the World Health Organization’s List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system.[5] In regions of the world where the disease is common, melarsoprol is provided for free by the World Health Organization.[4] It is not commercially available in Canada or the United States.[2] In the United States, it may be obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, while in Canada it is available from Health Canada.[1][2]

Medical uses

People diagnosed with trypanosome-caused disease should be treated with an anti-trypanosomal. Treatment is based on stage, 1 or 2, and parasite,T. b. rhodesiense or T. b. gambiense. In stage 1 disease, trypanosomes are present only in the peripheral circulation. In stage 2 disease, trypanosomes have crossed the blood-brain barrier and are present in the central nervous system.[6]

The following are considerable treatment options:[6]

Melarsoprol is a treatment used during the second stage of the disease. So far, it is the only treatment available for late-stage T. b. rhodesiense.[7]

Due to high toxicity, melarsoprol is reserved only for the most dangerous cases. Other agents associated with lower toxicity levels are used during stage 1 of the disease.[8] The approval of the nifurtimox-eflornithine combination therapy (NECT) in 2009 for the treatment of T. b. gambiense limited the use of melarsoprol to the treatment of second-stage T. b. rhodesiense.[9]

Failure rates of 27% in certain African countries have been reported.[10] This was caused by both drug resistance and additional mechanisms that have not yet been elucidated. Resistance is likely due to transport problems associated with the P2 transporter, an adenine-adenosine transporter. Resistance can occur with point mutations within this transporter.[11] Resistance has been present since the 1970s.[12]

Mechanism of action

Melarsoprol is a prodrug, which is metabolized to melarsen oxide (Mel Ox) as its active form. Mel Ox is an phenylarsonous acid derivative that irreversibly binds to sulfhydryl groups on pyruvate kinase, which disrupts energy production in the parasite. The inability to distinguish between host and parasite PK renders this drug highly toxic with many side effects.

Mel Ox also reacts with trypanothione (a spermidine-glutathione adduct that replaces glutathione in trypanosomes). It forms a melarsen oxide-trypanothione adduct (Mel T) that competitively inhibits trypanothione reductase, effectively killing the protist.[11]

Pharmacokinetics

The half-life of melarsoprol is less than one hour, but bioassays indicate a 35-hour half-life. This is commonly associated with pharmacologic agents that have active metabolites. One such metabolite, Mel Ox, reaches maximum plasma levels about 15 minutes after melarsoprol injection. Melarsoprol clearance is 21.5 ml/min/kg and the Mel Ox half-life is approximately 3.9 hours.[13]

Dosage

Two arsenic-containing stereoisomers exist in a 3:1 molar ratio. Since melarsoprol is insoluble in water, dosage occurs via a 3.6% propylene glycol intravenous injection.[11] To avoid the risk of injection site reactions, melarsoprol must be given slowly.[citation needed]

Melarsoprol used for the treatment of African trypanosomiasis with CNS involvement is given under a complicated dosing schedule. The dosing schedule for children and adults is 2–3.6 mg/kg/day intravenously for three days, then repeated every seven days for a total of three series.[6] To monitor for relapse, follow-up is recommended every six months for at least two years.[3]

Side effects

Although melarsoprol cures about 96% of people with late stage disease, its toxicity limits its use.[7] About 1-5% of people die during treatment.[3] As a toxic organic compound of arsenic, melarsoprol is a dangerous treatment that is typically only administered by injection under the supervision of a licensed physician. Notable side effects are similar to arsenic poisoning. Among clinicians, it is colloquially referred to as “arsenic in antifreeze”.[14] Severe and life-threatening adverse reactions are associated with melarsoprol. It is known to cause a range of side effects including convulsions, fever, loss of consciousness, rashes, bloody stools, nausea and vomiting. In approximately 5-10% of cases, it causes encephalopathy. Of those, about 50% die due to encephalopathy-related adverse reactions.[6] Additional potentially serious side effects of melarsoprol include damage to the heart, presence of albumin in the urine that could be associated with kidney damage, and an increase in blood pressure.[3]

Cautions

Numerous warnings must be examined before melarsoprol treatment can be initiated. Prior to initiation, the following must be noted: glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, kidney or liver disease, cardiac problems (high blood pressure, irregular beating of the heart or arrhythmias, any damage to the heart muscles and potential signs of heart failure), preexisting nervous system disorders, and any signs of leprosy.

Routine laboratory testing is needed before and after melarsoprol initiation. Laboratory parameters for both therapeutic effects and toxic effects need to be evaluated.

Blood analysis is used to detect the presence of trypanosomes. An evaluation of the cerebrospinal fluid via a lumbar puncture is also used to determine an individual’s white blood count and level of protein. These are diagnostic criteria such that the presence of trypanosomes, an elevated white blood count greater than five per microliter, or a protein content greater than 40 mg are considered abnormal and initiation should be considered. Continuous cerebrospinal fluid evaluation should be repeated every six months for at least three years in individuals that have undergone melarsoprol treatment.

To assess potential concerns related to toxicity, the following should be completed: a complete blood count, an assessment of electrolyte levels, liver and kidney function tests, and a urinalysis to detect the appearance, concentration and content of the urine.

Melarsoprol should be given using glass syringes (if they can be reliably sterilised). The propylene glycol it contains is capable of dissolving plastic.[15]

Pregnancy and breastfeeding

Currently, melarsoprol is not recommended for use in pregnant women. The World Health Organization suggests that treatment be deferred until immediately after delivery since the effects of the medication on the developing fetus have not yet been established.[3]

Lactation guidelines associated with melarsoprol have not yet been established.

Society and culture

Melarsoprol is produced by Sanofi-Aventis and under an agreement with the WHO, they donate melarsoprol to countries where the disease is common.[medical citation needed]

Melarsoprol was used to treat a patient with African trypanosomiasis on season 1 episode 7 “Fidelity” of the medical drama House MD.[16]

PAPER

Journal of Organometallic Chemistry (2006), 691(5), 1081-1084.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0022328X05009344

Graphical abstract

(2-Phenyl-[1,3,2]dithiarsolan-4-yl)-methanol derivatives were tested on K562 and U937 human leukemia cell lines. Their systemic toxicity was estimated by the corresponding LD50 on mice. The cytotoxic activity of each derivative was significantly better than that of arsenic trioxide and the therapeutic index (T.I. = LD50/IC50) was improved.

References

  1. Jump up to:a b c d e f “Our Formulary Infectious Diseases Laboratories CDC”http://www.cdc.gov. 22 September 2016. Archived from the original on 16 December 2016. Retrieved 7 December 2016.
  2. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h “Melarsoprol Drug Information, Professional”http://www.drugs.com. 20 December 1994. Archived from the original on 30 December 2016. Retrieved 7 December 2016.
  3. Jump up to:a b c d e f “WHO Model Prescribing Information: Drugs Used in Parasitic Diseases – Second Edition: Protozoa: African trypanosomiasis: Melarsoprol”WHO. 1995. Archived from the original on 2016-11-10. Retrieved 2016-11-09.
  4. Jump up to:a b “Trypanosomiasis, human African (sleeping sickness)”World Health Organization. February 2016. Archived from the original on 4 December 2016. Retrieved 7 December 2016.
  5. ^ World Health Organization (2019). World Health Organization model list of essential medicines: 21st list 2019. Geneva: World Health Organization. hdl:10665/325771. WHO/MVP/EMP/IAU/2019.06. License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
  6. Jump up to:a b c d CDC (2013). “Disease Control and Prevention: Parasites – African Trypanosomiasis”Archived from the original on 2017-06-19.
  7. Jump up to:a b “Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (African Trypanosomiasis) – Infectious Disease and Antimicrobial Agents”http://www.antimicrobe.orgArchived from the original on 2016-11-28. Retrieved 2016-11-17.
  8. ^ Bisser S, N’Siesi FX, Lejon V, et al. (2007). “Equivalence trial of melarsoprol and nifurtimox monotherapy and combination therapy for the treatment of second-stage Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense sleeping sickness”J. Infect. Dis195 (3): 322–9. doi:10.1086/510534PMID 17205469.
  9. ^ Farrar J (2014). “Manson’s Tropical Diseases: Expert Consult-Online”. 23: 616.
  10. ^ Kioy, D.; Jannin, J.; Mattock, N. (March 2004). “Human African trypanosomiasis”Nature Reviews Microbiology2 (3): 186–187. doi:10.1038/nrmicro848PMID 15751187S2CID 36525641.
  11. Jump up to:a b c Brunton L (2011). “Goodman & Gillman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics”. McGraw Hill Medical: 1427–28.
  12. ^ Brun, Reto; Schumacher, Reto; Schmid, Cecile; Kunz, Christina; Burri, Christian (November 2001). “The phenomenon of treatment failures in Human African Trypanosomiasis”. Tropical Medicine and International Health6 (11): 906–914. doi:10.1046/j.1365-3156.2001.00775.xPMID 11703845S2CID 21542129.
  13. ^ Keiser J.; Ericsson O; Burri C (2000). “Investigations of the metabolites of the trypanocidal drug melarsoprol”. Clinical Pharmacology67 (5): 478–88. doi:10.1067/mcp.2000.105990PMID 10824626S2CID 24326873.
  14. ^ Hollingham R (2005). “Curing diseases modern medicine has left behind”New Scientist2005 (2482): 40–41. Archived from the original on 2015-05-11.
  15. ^ “MELARSOPROL injectable – Essential drugs”medicalguidelines.msf.org. Retrieved 6 December 2019.
  16. ^ Holtz, Andrew (2006). The Medical Science of House, M.D.Penguin. p. 272. ISBN 1440628734. Retrieved 25 March 2020.

External links

Clinical data
Trade namesArsobal[1]
Other namesMel B, Melarsen Oxide-BAL[2]
AHFS/Drugs.comMicromedex Detailed Consumer Information
Routes of
administration
IV
ATC codeP01CD01 (WHOQP51AD04 (WHO)
Pharmacokinetic data
Elimination half-life35 hours
ExcretionKidney
Identifiers
showIUPAC name
CAS Number494-79-1 
PubChem CID10311
ChemSpider9889 
UNIIZF3786Q2E8
KEGGD00832 
ChEMBLChEMBL166 
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)DTXSID90862033 
ECHA InfoCard100.007.086 
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC12H15AsN6OS2
Molar mass398.33 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)Interactive image
showSMILES
showInChI
  (what is this?)  (verify)

/////////Melarsoprol

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Rilzabrutinib


Click here for structure editor
(R)-2-(3-(4-Amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxyphenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]-pyrimidin-1-yl)piperidine-1-carbonyl)-4-methyl-4-(4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin-1-yl)pent-2-enenitrile.png
20200818lnp2-rilza.jpg

PRN 1008, Rilzabrutinib

CAS 1575591-66-0

リルザブルチニブ;

C36H40FN9O3,

MW 665.7597

2-[(3R)-3-[4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxyphenyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-1-yl]piperidine-1-carbonyl]-4-methyl-4-[4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin-1-yl]pent-2-enenitrile

Anti-inflammatory disease, Autoimmune disease treatment

  • OriginatorPrincipia Biopharma
  • Class2 ring heterocyclic compounds; Amines; Anti-inflammatories; Fluorobenzenes; Nitriles; Phenyl ethers; Piperazines; Piperidines; Pyrazoles; Pyrimidines; Skin disorder therapies; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of ActionAgammaglobulinaemia tyrosine kinase inhibitors
  • Orphan Drug StatusYes – Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura; Pemphigus vulgaris
  • Phase IIIIdiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura; Pemphigus vulgaris
  • Phase IIAutoimmune disorders
  • 02 Jun 2021Efficacy data from a phase IIa trial in Ankylosing spondylitis presented at the 22nd Annual Congress of the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR-2021)
  • 07 Apr 2021Sanofi initiates enrollment in a phase I pharmacokinetics trial in healthy volunteers in Australia (PO, Tablet, Capsule) (NCT04748926)
  • 31 Mar 2021Sanofi announces intention to seek regulatory approval for Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura in 2023 (Sanofi pipeline, May 2021)

CLIP

https://cen.acs.org/pharmaceuticals/drug-development/Sanofi-acquire-BTK-inhibitor-firm/98/web/2020/08

Sanofi to acquire BTK inhibitor firm Principia for $3.7 billion

Principia is testing its small-molecule compounds in multiple sclerosis and immune system diseases

Sanofi will pay $3.7 billion to acquire Principia Biopharma, a San Francisco-based biotech firm developing small molecules that inhibit Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK). The price represents about a 75% premium over Principia’s stock market value in early July, before reports surfaced that Sanofi was interested in buying the firm.

BTK is a protein important for both normal B cell development and the proliferation of lymphomas, which are B cell cancers. AbbVie, AstraZeneca, and BeiGene all market BTK inhibitors for treating specific kinds of lymphomas. Sales of AbbVie’s inhibitor, Imbruvica, approached $4.7 billion in 2019.

Other drug firms have been eager to get in on the action as well. In January, Merck & Co. spent $2.7 billion to acquire ArQule, whose experimental noncovalent BTK inhibitor is designed to overcome resistance that some cancers develop after treatment with current covalent BTK inhibitors. Eli Lilly and Company’s $8 billion acquisition of Loxo Oncology in 2019 also included a noncovalent BTK inhibitor.

BTK is also linked to inflammation, and Principia focuses on developing BTK inhibitors for immune system diseases and multiple sclerosis. Its compound rilzabrutinib is currently in clinical trials for pemphigus and immune thrombocytopenia. In 2017, Sanofi struck a deal to develop Principia’s brain-penetrant BTK inhibitor, SAR442168, for multiple sclerosis.

Sanofi announced in April of this year that the inhibitor reduced formation of new lesions—the scarred nervous tissue that gives multiple sclerosis its name—by 85% in a Phase II clinical trial. A Phase III trial of the compound began in June.

Upon announcing its deal to acquire Principia, Sanofi said that both rilzabrutinib and SAR442168 have the potential to become a “pipeline in a product,” indicating they can be used for many immune-related and neurological diseases, respectively.

The anti-inflammatory effects of BTK inhibitors have raised interest in the drugs as treatments for people hospitalized with COVID-19. Notably, the US National Cancer Institute conducted a small study suggesting acalabrutinib may help reduce the respiratory distress and inflammation in people with COVID-19. Based on that preliminary study, AstraZeneca—which markets acalabrutinib as Calquence—is conducting a 60-person randomized trial of the drug for COVID-19.

Sanofi has not indicated interest in investigating Principia’s BTK inhibitors as COVID-19 treatments.Chemical & Engineering NewsISSN 0009-2347 
PATENTWO 2021127231https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2021127231&tab=PCTDESCRIPTION&_cid=P20-KRA0I9-18818-1

SOLID FORMS OF 2-[3-[4-AMTNO-3-(2-FT,TTORO-4-PHENOXY- PHEN¥L)PYRAZOLO[3,4 D]PYRIMIDIN l~YL]PIPERIDINE~l~CARBON¥L] 4~

METHYL-4-[4-(OXETAN-3-YL)PIPERAZIN-l-YLjPENT-2-ENENITRILE

[11 This application claims the benefit of priority to U.S. Provisional Application

No 62/951,958, filed December 20, 2019, and U.S Provisional Application No. 63/122,309, filed December 7, 2020, the contents of each of which are incorporated by reference herein in their entirety.

[2] Disclosed herein are solid forms of 2-[3-[4~amino-3~(2~fluoro-4-phenoxy-plienyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-l-yl]piperidine-l Carbonyl]~4-nietliyl-4~[4-(oxetaii~3-yl)piperazin-!~yi]pent-2~enenitriie (Compound (I)), methods of using the same, and processes for making Compound (I), including its solid forms. The solid forms of Compound (I) may be inhibitors of Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) comprising low residual solvent content.

[3| The enzyme BTK is a member of the Tec family non-receptor tyrosine kinases.

BTK is expressed in most hematopoietic cells, including B cells, mast cells, and macrophages BTK plays a role in the development and activation of B cells. BTK activity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several disorders and conditions, such as B cell-related hematological cancers (e.g., non-Hodgkin lymphoma and B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia) and autoimmune diseases (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren’s syndrome, pemphigus, IBD, lupus, and asthma).

[4] Compound (I), pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof, and solid forms of any of the foregoing may inhibit BTK and be useful in the treatment of disorders and conditions mediated by BTK activity. Compound (I) is disclosed in Example 31 of WO 2014/039899 and has the following structure:

where *C is a stereochemical center. An alternative procedure for producing Compound (!) is described in Example 1 of WO 2015/127310.

[5] Compound (I) obtained by the procedures described in WO 2014/039899 and WO 2015/127310 comprises residual solvent levels well above the limits described in the International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (“ICH”) guidelines. In general, manufacturing processes producing residual solvent levels near or above the ICH limits are not desirable for preparing active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs).

Example 1: Spray Drying Process A

[311] A solution of Compound (I) in dichloromethane (prepared according to Example 31 on pages 86-87 of WO 2014/039899) was washed with pH 3 phosphate buffer to remove basic impurities that are more soluble than Compound (I) in the aqueous layer. The dichloromethane solution was then washed with pH 7 buffer and solvent exchanged into isopropyl acetate. The isopropyl acetate solution was then washed with pH 3 phosphate buffer, bringing Compound (I) into the aqueous layer and removing non-basic impurities. The pH of the aqueous layer was adjusted to pH 9 with 10% sodium hydroxide, and the aqueous layer was extracted with isopropyl acetate. Upon concentration under vacuum, Compound (I) was precipitated from heptane at 0 °C, filtered and dried to give a white amorphous solid as a mixture of the (E) and (Z) isomers, as wet Compound (I). Wet Compound (I) was dissolved in methanol and spray dried at dryer inlet temperature of 125 °C to 155 °C and dryer outlet temperature of 48 to 58 °C to obtain the stable amorphous Compound (I) free base with levels of isopropyl acetate and heptane below 0.5% and 0.05%, respectively.

Example 2: Spray Drying Process B


intermediate A

Compound (!)

[241] A jacketed reactor with overhead stirrer, condenser, nitrogen line, temperature probe, and recirculating fluid chiller/heater was charged with Intermediate A (20.2 kg) and Intermediate B (13.6 kg, 1.5 equiv). DCM (361.3 kg, 14.5 vol) was charged to the reactor. The mixture was agitated, and the batch cooled to 0 °C to 5 °C. The reactor was charged with pyrrolidine (18.3 kg, 6 equiv) and then charged with TMSC1 (18.6 kg, 4 eq). Stirring was continued at 0 °C to 5 °C for 0.5 to 1 hour

[242] At 0 °C to 5 °C, acetic acid (2.0 equiv) was charged to the reactor followed by water (5 equiv). Stirring was continued at 0 °C to 5 °C for 1 to 1.5 hours. Water (10 equiv) was charged to the reactor, and the solution was adjusted to 20 °C to 25 °C. The internal temperature was adjusted to 20 °C to 25 °C and the biphasic mixture was stirred for 15 to 20 mins. Stirring was stopped and phases allowed to separate for at least 0.5 h. The lower aqueous layer was removed.

[243] Water (7 vol) was charged to the reactor. The pH was adjusted to 2.8-3.3 with a 10 wt. % solution of citric acid. Stirring was continued at 0 to 5 °C for 1 to 1.5 hours. Stirring was stopped and phases allowed to separate for at least 0.5 h. The lower aqueous layer was removed.

[244] A jacketed reactor with overhead stirrer, condenser, nitrogen line, temperature probe, and recirculating fluid chiller/heater was charged with an approximately 9% solution of NaHCCri (1 vol) and the organic layer. The internal temperature was adjusted to 20 °C to 25 °C, and the biphasic mixture was stirred for 15 to 20 mins. Stirring was stopped and phases allowed to separate for at least 0.5 h. The lower aqueous layer was removed. The aqueous layer was measured to have a pH greater than 7.

[245] A jacketed reactor with overhead stirrer, condenser, nitrogen line, temperature probe and recirculating fluid chiller/heater was charged with the organic layer. The organic phase ¾s distilled under vacuum at less than 25 °C to 4 total volumes. IP AC (15 vol) was charged to the reactor. The organic phase was distilled under vacuum at less than 25 °C to 10 total volumes. Water (15 vol) followed by pH 2.3 phosphate buffer were charged to the reactor at an internal temperature of 20 °C to 25 °C. The pH adjusted to 3 Stirring was stopped and phases allowed to separate for at least 0.5 h. The organic phase was removed.

[246] The following steps were repeated twice: IP AC (5 vol) was charged to the reactor containing the aqueous layer. Stirring was continued for 0.25 to 0.5 hours. Stirring was stopped and phases allowed to separate for at least 0.5 h. The organic phase was removed. [247] IP AC (15 vol) was charged to the reactor containing the aqueous layer. A pH 10 phosphate buffer was charged to the reactor and the pH adjusted to 10 with 14% NaOH solution. Stirring was continued for 1.5 to 2 hours. Stirring was stopped and phases allowed to separate for at. least 0.5 h. The aqueous layer was discarded. The organic layer was dried over brine.

[248] The organic solution was distilled under vacuum at less than 25 °C to 5 total volumes.

[249] A jacketed reactor with overhead stirrer, condenser, nitrogen line, temperature probe and recirculating fluid chiller/heater was charged with n-heptane (20 vol). The internal temperature was adjusted to 0 to 5 °C, and the IP AC solution was added.

[250] The suspension was filtered. The filter cake was washed with n-heptane and the tray was dried at 35 °C. Compound (I) (24.6 kg) was isolated in 86% yield.

[251] Compound (1) was dissolved in methanol (6 kg) and spray dried to remove residual IP AC and n-heptane.

Example 3: Precipitation Process A

[252] A solution of Compound (I) in dichloromethane (prepared according to Example 31 on pages 86-87 of WO 2014/039899) was quenched with acetic acid and water, followed by washing with pH 3 aqueous solution to remove basic impurities that are more soluble than Compound (1) in the aqueous layer. Washing was repeated as needed to reduce impurities. Methanesulfonic acid was added to the dichloromethane solution, and the dichloromethane solution was concentrated by distillation under reduced pressure, followed by addition of 1% NaCi aqueous solution and isopropyl acetate before adjustment of pH to approximately 3 with potassium hydroxide. The isopropyl acetate layer was removed and discarded. The aqueous layer containing Compound (I) was washed with isopropyl acetate to remove hydrophobic impurities. Washing was repeated as needed to reduce related substance impurities. Residual isopropyl acetate was removed by distillation under reduced pressure. The aqueous solution containing Compound (I) was cooled to 0 to 5°C before adjusting the pH to approximately 9 with potassium hydroxide. The free base of Compound (I) was allowed to precipitate and maturate at 20 °C for 20 hours. The mixture temperature was then adjusted to 20 °C to 25 °C, and the hydrate impurity was verified to be less than 0.3% (< 0.3%). The cake of the free base of Compound (I) was filtered and washed as needed to reduce conductivity. The cake was then allowed to dry on the filter under vacuum and nitrogen swept to reduce water content by Karl-Fischer (KF < 50%) before transferring to the oven for drying. The wet cake of the free base of Compound (1) was dried under vacuum at 25 °C until water content by Karl -Fischer was less than 1.5% (KF < 1.5%), and then dehmiped by milling to yield a uniform white amorphous solid as a mixture of the (E) and (Z) isomers, with no detectible levels of isopropyl acetate or heptane.

Example 4: Precipitation Process 3B

[253] A solution of Compound (I) in dichloromethane (prepared according to Example 31 on pages 86-87 of WO 2014/039899) was quenched with acetic acid and water, followed by washing with pH 3 aqueous solution to remove basic impurities that are more soluble than Compound (I) in the aqueous layer. The washing was repeated as needed to reduce residual solvents and impurities. The dichloromethane solution was then washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate (pH > 7). Dichloromethane was removed by distillation under reduced pressure, followed by addition of water and isopropyl acetate. The pH of the aqueous layer was adjusted to pH to 2.8 – 3.3 with 2 M aqueous sulfuric acid (H2SQ4) at 0 – 5 °C, and the mixture rvas stirred and settled. After phase separation removal of the organic layer, the aqueous layer was washed with isopropyl acetate three times and the residual isopropyl acetate in aqueous layer was distilled out under vacuum at a temperature below 25 °C and the solution was basitied with 5% aqueous KOFI to pH 9 – 10 to a slurry . The resulting suspension was stirred and warmed up to 20 °C to 25 °C and aged for 20 h. The product was filtered and washed with water and dried to give white solid in 86% yield.

Example 5: Precipitation Process C

[254] A solution of Compound (I) in dichloromethane (prepared according to Example 31 on pages 86-87 of WO 2014/039899) was quenched with acetic acid and water, followed by washing to remove basic impurities that are more soluble than Compound (I) in the aqueous layer. Washing was repeated as needed to reduce impurities. Methanesulfonic acid was added to the d chloromethane solution, and the dichloromethane solution was concentrated under reduced pressure to obtain a thin oil. The concentrated oil was cooled to approximately 5°C before washing with an aqueous solution of sodium chloride. The organic phase was discarded. Washing of the aqueous layer was repeated as needed with dichloromethane to remove low level impurities. The pH of the aqueous solution was adjusted to approximately 3 with an aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide. Residual dichloromethane was removed

under reduced pressure. The level of residual acetic acid was determined by, for example, titration. The aqueous solution containing Compound (I) was cooled to a temperature between 0°C and 5°C. Acetic acid was present at 0 wt % to 8 wt. %. Acetic acid level was 0 wt % if the aqueous acid solution was washed with aqueous sodium bicarbonate or another aqueous inorganic base. Optionally, additional acetic acid was added to achieve a 0 wt.% to 8 wt. % acetic acid level. An aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide was constantly charged to the aqueous solution to obtain a pH to approximately 9.5. The free base of Compound (I) was allowed to precipitate and maturate at approximately 20 °C for least 3 hours. The cake (wet solid) of the free base of Compound (I) was filtered and washed with water. The wet cake was then dried under reduced vacuum with slight heat. Alternatively, instead of washing the wet cake with water, the wet cake was reslurried with water at approximately 15 °C for at least 1 hour before filtering. The free base of Compound (I) in the fomi of a wet cake was dried under vacuum with slight heat at 25°C.

[255] FIGs. 12-15 are example SEM images showing the variable morphologies of particles of Compound (I) during the filtration step to isolate Compound (I) based on the amount acetic acid added during the initial step in the precipitation of Compound (Ϊ) (FIG. 12: at 0 wt. % acetic acid; FIG 13: at 3 wt. % acetic acid; FIG. 14: at 5 wt. % acetic acid; FIG 15: at 8 wt. % acetic acid). Filtration speed depended on the morphology and was the fastest for 0 wt. % acetic acid. At 1 wt. % acetic acid, the filtration speed diminished considerably, improving at 2 wt. % to 3 wt. % acetic acid. Morphologies with more open holes (such as, e.g., more porous particles) resulted in improved filtration speeds, whereas more compact particles resulted in decreased filtration speed.

Example 6: Conversion of a Crystalline Form of Compound (Ϊ) to an Amorphous Form

[256] 9.8 grams of a crystalline form of Compound (I) were dissolved in approximately 20 mL of dichloromethane and approximately 120 ml. of brine solution. Then, approximately 1 equivalent of methanesulfonic acid was added. The pH w¾s approximately 2. The layers were separated. The aqueous layer was concentrated at a temperature between 0°C and 5°C to remove residual dichloromethane before slowly adding aqueous KOI I solution (approximately 5%) to adjust the pH to a value between 9 and 10. During aqueous KOH addition, an amorphous form of Compound (I) precipitated out. The slurry was slowly warmed to room temperature and then was stirred for approximately 24 hours before filtering and rinsing the wet cake with water. The wet cake was dried under vacuum with slight heat at approximately 30°C to provide 7 grams of a white to an off-white solid (87% yield and 98 4% purity). XRPD showed that the product was an amorphous solid form of Compound (I).

Example 7: Micronization of Compound (I) Particles Obtained by Precipitation Processes

[257] A fluid jet mill equipment was used during lab scale jet milling trials. The fluid jet mill equipment includes a flat cylindrical chamber with 1.5” diameter, fitted with four symmetric jet nozzles winch are tangentially positioned in the inner wall. Prior to feeding material to the fluid jet mill in each trial, the material was sieved in a 355 iim screen to remove any agglomerates and avoid blocking of the nozzles during the feed of material to the micronization chamber. The material to be processed was drawn into the grinding chamber through a vacuum created by the venturi (P vent ~ 0 5 – 1 0 bar above P grind). The feed flow rate of solids (F_feed) was controlled by a manual valve and an infinite screw volumetric feeder. Compressed nitrogen was used to inject the feed material; compressed nitrogen was also used for the jet nozzles in the walls of the milling chamber. Compressed fluid issuing from the nozzles expands from P grind and imparts very’ high rotational speeds in the chamber. Accordingly, material is accelerated by rotating and expanding gases and subjected to centrifugal forces. Particles move outward and are impacted by high velocity jets, directing the particles radially inward at very high speeds. Rapidly moving particles impact the slower moving path of particles circulating near the periphery of the chamber. Attrition takes place due to the violent impacts of particles against each other. Particles with reduced size resulting from this sequence of impacts are entrained in the circulating stream of gas and swept against the action of centrifugal force toward the outlet at the center. Larger particles in the gas stream are subjected to a centrifugal force and returned to the grinding zone. Fine particles are carried by the exhaust gas to the outlet and pass from the grinding chamber into a collector.

[258] The feeder has continuous feed rate control; however, to more precisely control the feed rate, the full scale of feed rates was arbitrary divided in 10 positions. To calibrate F feed, the feeder was disconnected from milling chamber and 10 g of Compound (I) powder was fed through the feeder operating at various feed rate positions. The mass of powder flowing through the feeder over 6 minutes was marked. The resulting feed rate was directly proportional to feeder position. After processing each of the four trials, the jet mill was stopped, micronized product removed from the container, and the milling chamber checked for any powder accumulation.

Variables/Parameters

F_feed Feed flow rate of solids [kg/h]

P grind Grinding pressure inside the

drying chamber [bar]

P vent Feed pressure in the venturi [bar]

Example 8: Residual Solvent Levels

[251] Retention of process solvents (/.<?., res dual solvents) depends on van der Waal s’ forces that are unique to and an inherent property of each molecule. Additionally, solvent retention depends how the API solid is formed, isolated, washed, and dried (i.e., during the manufacturing process). Because residual solvents may pose safety risks, pharmaceutical processes should be designed to minimize residual solvent levels (e.g , to result in residual solvent levels below the limits established in the ICH guidelines).

[252] Residual solvent analysis was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The residual solvent levels in solid forms of Compound (I) prepared by spray drying processes described herein and precipitation processes described herein are provided in Table 2. The residual solvent levels in crude Compound (I) listed in Table 2 are comparable to the residual solvent levels in crude Compound (I) prepared according to the procedures detailed in Example 31 of WO 2014/039899 and Example 1 of WO 2015/127310.

Table 2: Residual solvent levels in solid forms of Compound (I)

PATENTWO 2015127310https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2015127310A1/enExample 1Synthesis of 2-[(3R)-3-[4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxy-phenyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-l- yl]-piperidine-l-carbonyl]-4-m iperazin-l-yl]pent-2-enenitrile

Figure imgf000045_0001

Step 1To a solution of 3-[(3R)-3-[4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxy-phenyl)pyrazolo[3,4- d]pyrimidin-l -yl]-l-piperidyl]-3-oxo-propanenitrile (15 g, 3.12mmol), 2-methyl-2-[4- (oxetan-3-yl)piperazin-l-yl]propanal (794.25mg, 3.74mmol) in DCM (40mL), pyrrolidine (1.54mL,18.71mmol) at 0-5 °C was added, which is followed by TMS-Cl (1.58mL,12.47mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at 0-5 °C for 3 h and was quenched with 1 M potassium phosphate buffer (pH 3). Layers were separated and the organic layer was washed once more with 1 M potassium phosphate buffer (pH 3). The organic layer was extracted withl M potassium Phosphate buffer at pH 1.5. Layers were separated. The aqueous phase contained the desired product while the impurities stayed in the organic phase. The aqueous phase was neutralized with 1 M potassium phosphate (pH 7) and was extracted with isopropylacetate (10 volumes). Upon concentration 2-[(3R)-3-[4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4- phenoxy-phenyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-l-yl]piperidine-l-carbonyl]-4-methyl-4-[4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin-l-yl]pent-2-enenitrile was obtained as a foam having >99% HPLC purity. MS (pos. ion) m/z: 666 (M+l ).The foam containing high levels of residual solvent was dissolved in 2 M HC1 and the resulting solution was placed under vacuum to remove residual organic solvents. pH of the solution was then adjusted to ~ 7 and the resulting paste was filtered and dried in vacuum without heat. This resulted in isolation of 2-[(3R)-3-[4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxy- phenyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-l-yl]piperidine-l-carbonyl]-4-methyl-4-[4-(oxetan-3- yl)piperazin- l-yl]pent-2-enenitrile containing residual water up to 10%. Drying under vacuum without heat reduces the water level but lead to generation of impurities.Step 1AAlternatively, the isopropylacetate solution of 2-[(3R)-3-[4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4- phenoxy-phenyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin- 1 -yl]piperidine- 1 -carbonyl]-4-methyl-4-[4- (oxetan-3-yl)piperazin-l -yl]pent-2-enenitrile can be concentrated to 4 vol and added to heptane (20 volume) at 0 °C. The resulting suspension was stirred at 0 °C overnight and the product was filtered, washed twice with heptane and dried at 45 °C for 2 days under vacuum to give 2-[(3R)-3-[4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxy-phenyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-l – yl]piperidine-l-carbonyl]-4-methyl-4-[4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin-l-yl]pent-2-enenitrile in 85 – 90 % yield as a free flowing solid. However, the solids obtained by this method contained high residual solvents (3.9 wt% isopropylacetate and 1.7 wt% heptane). In addition, the free base form was not very stable as degradation products were observed during the drying process at less than 45 °C.Salt formationExample 2Preparation of 2-[(3R)-3-[4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxy-phenyl)-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin- l-yl]-piperidine-l-carbonyl]-4-methyl-4-[4-(oxetan-3-yl)-piperazin-l-yl]pent-2-enenitrile hemisulfate and sulfate saltHemisulfate: To the solution of 2-[(3R)-3-[4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxy-phenyl)-pyrazolo[3,4- d]pyrimidin-l-yl]-piperidine -carbonyl]-4-methyl-4-[4-(oxetan-3-yl)-piperazin-l-yl]pent-2- enenitrile (4.2 g) in EtOAc (60 mL, 15 vol) was added sulfuric acid (0.31 g, 0.17 mL, 0.5 eq) in EtOAc (20 mL, 5 vol) at ambient temperature. The suspension was stirred at ambient temperature for ~ 2 hr and then 40 °C for 4 hr and then at ambient temperature for at least 1 hr. After filtration and drying at ambient temperature under vacuum, 1.5 g of white powder was obtained. Solubility of the hemi-sulfate at ambient temperature was > 100 mg/mL in water.Sulfate saltTo the solution of 2-[(3R)-3-[4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxy-phenyl)-pyrazolo[3,4- d]pyrimidin-l-yl]-piperidine-l-carbonyl]-4-methyl-4-[4-(oxetan-3-yl)-piperazin-l-yl]pent-2- enenitrile (810 mg) in EtOAc (8 mL, 10 vol) was added sulfuric acid (0.06 mL, 1.0 equiv.) in EtOAc (2.5 mL, 5 vol) at ambient temperature. The resulting suspension was stirred at 40 °C for 2 hr and then cooled to ambient temperature for at least 1 hr. After filtration, solids were dried by suction under Argon for 1 h to give a white powder (0.68 g) in 69% yield.

Figure imgf000047_0001

Example 3Preparation of 2-[(3R)-3-[4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxy-phenyl)-pyrazolo[3,4- d]pyrimidin- 1 -yl]-piperidine- 1 -carbonyl] -4-methyl-4-[4-(oxetan-3-yl)-piperazin- 1 -yl]pent-2- enenitrile hydrochlorideTo a solution of 2-[(3R)-3-[4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxy-phenyl)pyrazolo[3,4- d]pyrimidin- 1 -yl]piperidine- 1 -carbonyl]-4-methyl-4-[4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin- 1 -yl]pent-2- enenitrile (100 mg, 0.15 mmol) in CH2CI2 (1ml) at ambient temperature was added 2 equivalent of HC1 (0.3 mmol, 0.15 ml of 2M HC1 in 1 : 1 dioaxane:CH2Cl2). The resulting homogeneous solution was stirred at ambient temperature for 1 h and was added dropwise to 15 volumes of ethylacetate (as compared to CH2C12) resulting in formation of a white solid. The mixtures was aged at ambient temperature for lh and placed at 2-8 C for 19 h. Upon filtration and washing of the filter cake with ethylacetate and drying a white solid was obtained. Analysis by XRPD indicated formation of an amorphous solid. Both Ή-NMR and IC analysis indicated formation of the salt. IC indicated formation mono-HCl salt.

Figure imgf000048_0001

Example 4General procedure for preparation of 2-[(3R)-3-[4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxy- phenyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-l-yl]-piperidine-l-carbonyl]-4-methyl-4-[4-(oxetan-3-yl)- piperazin-l-yl]pent-2-enenitrile mono- and di-mesylate saltsTo a solution of 2-[(3R)-3-[4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxy-phenyl)pyrazolo[3,4- d]pyrimidin-l-yl]piperidine-l-carbonyl]-4-methyl-4-[4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin-l-yl]pent-2- enenitrile (100 mg, 0.15 mmol) in CH2C12 (1 ml) at ambient temperature was added either 1 equivalent of methanesulfonic acid (0.15 mmol, 0.2 ml of 74 mg/ml solution in CH2C12) or 2 equivalent of methanesulfonic acid (0.3 mmol, 0.4 ml of 74 mg/ml solution in CH2C12). The resulting homogeneous solution was stirred at ambient temperature for 1 h and was added dropwise to 10 volumes of antisolvents (ethylacetate, methyl tert-butylether (MTBE), or cyclohexane) (10 ml as compared to CH2C12) resulting in formation of a white solid. The mixture was aged at ambient temperature for lh and placed at 2-8 °C for 19 h. Upon filtration and washing of the filter cake with the antisolvent and drying, a white solid was obtained. Analysis by XRPD indicated formation of an amorphous solid. Both Ή-NMR and IC analysis indicated formation of the salt as well as counterion ratio.Alternatively 2-[(3R)-3-[4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxy-phenyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]- pyrimidin- 1 -yl]piperidine- 1 -carbonyl]-4-methyl-4-[4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin- 1 -yl]pent-2- enenitrile can be dissolved in 4 volumes of isopropylacetate and added to 2 equivalent of methanesulfonic acid in 6 volumes of isopropylacetate at 0 °C to generate the dimesylate salt.

Figure imgf000049_0001

1. Theoretical mesylate content, monomesylate=12.6% and dimesylate=22.4%, NO- not determinedExample 5 General procedure for the preparation of carboxylate salt Approximately 20 mg of the compound (I) was dissolved in minimum amount of the allocated solvent system. These were then mixed with the appropriate number of equivalents of counterion dissolved or slurried in the allocated solvent.If compound (I) was insoluble in the selected solvent, slurry of the sample was used after adding 300 μί.If the acid was insoluble in the selected solvent, slurry of the acid was used after adding 300 xL.If the acid was a liquid, the acid was added to the dissolved/slurried compound (I) from a stock solution in the allocated solvent.The suspensions/ precipitates resulting from the mixtures of compound (I) were temperature cycled between ambient (ca. 22°C) and 40°C in 4 hour cycles for ca. 48 hrs (the cooling/heating rate after each 4 hour period was ca. 1 °C/min). The mixtures were visually checked and any solids present were isolated and allowed to dry at ambient conditions prior to analysis. Where no solid was present, samples were allowed to evaporate at ambient. Samples which produced amorphous material, after the treatment outlined above, were re- dissolved and precipitated using anti-solvent (ter/-butylmethylether) addition methods at ambient conditions (ca. 22°C). i.e. the selected anti-solvent was added to each solution, until no further precipitation could be observed visually or until no more anti-solvent could be added. The solvents used in this preparation were acetonitrile, acetone, isopropyl acetate, THF and MTBE. The acid used were oxalic acid, L-aspartic acid, maleic acid, malonic acid, L-tartaric acid, and fumaric acid.Example 6General procedure for preparation of 2-[(3R)-3-[4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxy- phenyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-l-yl]-piperidine-l-carbonyl]-4-methyl-4-[4-(oxetan-3-yl)- piperazin-l-yl]pent-2-enenitrile hemicitrate saltTo a solution 2-[(3R)-3-[4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxy-phenyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]- pyrimidin- 1 -yl]piperidine- 1 -carbonyl]-4-methyl-4-[4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin- 1 -yl]pent-2- enenitrile (5 g, 7.5 mmol) in ethanol (50 ml) was added citric acid (720.5 mg, 3.76 mmol) dissolved in 2 ml of water. Mixture was stirred at ambient temperature for 15 min, additional 0.5 ml of water was added and the mixture was stirred for 1 h, concentrated in vacuo to a gum. Ethanol was added and the mixture was concentrated. This process was repeated twice more and then CH2CI2 was added to the mixture. Upon concentration a white solid was obtained which was tumble dried under reduced pressure at 40 C for 4 h, then in a vacuum oven for 19h to give 5.4 g of a solid. Analysis by XRD indicated formation of an amorphous solid 

PATENT

WO2014039899, Example 31

Rilzabrutinib (PRN1008) is an oral, reversible covalent inhibitor of Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) [1].

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2014039899A1/enExample 31Synthesis of (R)-2-(3-(4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxyphenyl)- 1 H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin- 1 -yl)piperidine- 1 -carbonyl)-4-methyl-4-(4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin- 1 -yl)pent-2-enenitrile

Figure imgf000087_0002

Step 1A solution of 2-bromo-2-methyl-propanal (696.6 mg, 4.61 mmol) in DCM (10 mL) was cooled with an ice bath and l -(oxetan-3-yl)piperazine (328 mg, 2.31 mmol), diluted with 5-10 mL of DCM, was slowly added via addition funnel over a 15 min period. Next, Hunig’s base (0.4 mL, 2.31 mmol) was added and then the cooling bath was removed. The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight and the DCM layer was washed three times with 0.5N HC1. The combined aqueous layer was neutralized with NaOH to pH 10-11 and extracted with DCM. The combined organic layer was washed with brine and dried over Na?S04. Filtration and removal of solvent afforded 2-methyl-2-[4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin-l- yl]propanal as a light yellow liquid, which was used directly in the next step without further purification.Step 2To a cooled (0 °C) solution of 3-[(3R)-3-[4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxy-phenyl)- pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-l-yl]-l-piperidyl]-3-oxo-propanenitrile (80 mg, 0.17 mmol), was added 2-methyl-2-[4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin-l-yl]propanal (-108 mg, 0.51 mmol) in DCM (10 mL) followed by pyrrolidine (0.08 mL, 1.02 mmol) and TMS-C1 (0.09 raL, 0.68 mmol.) The ice bath was removed, and the reaction stirred 1 hour. Most of the solvent was removed and the residues were purified by chromatography, using 95:5 CH2Cl2:MeOH to obtain 79 mg of (R)-2-(3-(4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxyphenyl)-lH-pyrazolo[3,4-d]-pyrimidin-l- yl)piperidine- 1 -carbonyl)-4-methyl-4-(4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin- 1 -yl)pent-2-enenitrile as a white solid. MS (pos. ion) m/z: 666 (M+l).

PAPER

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0223523421001781?dgcid=rss_sd_all

Therapy based on Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitors one of the major treatment options currently recommended for lymphoma patients. The first generation of BTK inhibitor, Ibrutinib, achieved remarkable progress in the treatment of B-cell malignancies, but still has problems with drug-resistance or off-target induced serious side effects. Therefore, numerous new BTK inhibitors were developed to address this unmet medical need. In parallel, the effect of BTK inhibitors against immune-related diseases has been evaluated in clinical trials. This review summarizes recent progress in the research and development of BTK inhibitors, with a focus on structural characteristics and structure-activity relationships. The structure-refinement process of representative pharmacophores as well as their effects on binding affinity, biological activity and pharmacokinetics profiles were analyzed. The advantages and disadvantages of reversible/irreversible BTK inhibitors and their potential implications were discussed to provide a reference for the rational design and development of novel potent BTK inhibitors.

Image 17

///////////////PRN-1008,  PRN 1008, Rilzabrutinib, リルザブルチニブ,
N#CC(=CC(N(C1COC1)C)(C)C)C(=O)N1CCCC1Cn1nc(c2c1ncnc2N)c1ccc(cc1F)Oc1ccccc1

PRN 473, SAR 444727


str1

2-[(3R)-3-[4-Amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxyphenyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-1-yl]piperidine-1-carbonyl]-4,4-dimethylpent-2-enenitrile.png

SAR-444727

1414354-91-8C30 H30 F N7 O2 Molecular Weight539.601-Piperidinepropanenitrile, 3-[4-amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxyphenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-1-yl]-α-(2,2-dimethylpropylidene)-β-oxo-, (3R)-

(3R)-3-[4-Amino-3-(2-fluoro-4-phenoxyphenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-1-yl]-α-(2,2-dimethylpropylidene)-β-oxo-1-piperidinepropanenitrile

2-(3-(4-amino~3-(2-fiuoro~4-phenoxyphenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-1-yl)piperidine-1-carbonyl)-4,4-dimethylpent-2-enenitrile

  • OriginatorPrincipia Biopharma
  • ClassSmall molecules
  • Mechanism of ActionAgammaglobulinaemia tyrosine kinase inhibitors
  • Phase IAutoimmune disorders
  • DiscontinuedArthritis
  • 28 Sep 2020Principia Biopharma has been acquired by Sanofi
  • 22 Jun 2020Principia Biopharma plans a pharmacokinetic phase I trial (In volunteers) for Hypersensitivity (for Immunoglobulin E-mediated allergies) in Australia (Topical) (ACTRN12620000693921)
  • 10 Mar 2020Phase-I clinical trials in Autoimmune disorders (In volunteers) in Australia (Topical)
  • US 8957080
  • US 8673925
  • WO 2014022569
  • WO 2013191965
  • WO 2012158764

Useful for treating pemphigus vulgaris, immune thrombocytopenia, inflammatory bowel disease, Sjogren’s syndrome, multiple sclerosis, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and ankylosing spondylitis. Principia Biopharma is developing a topical formulation PRN-473 (presumed to be SAR-444727), a reversible covalent bruton’s (BTK) tyrosine kinase inhibitor, developed based on Principia’s reversible, tailored covalency platform, for treating immune-mediated diseases [phase I, July 2021]. Principia Biopharma was also investigating BTK inhibitors , developed based on Principia’s reversible, tailored covalency platform, for treating hematologic malignancies [no development reported since July 2019]. At the time of publication, Zhu was also affiliated with Nurix Therapeutics , while By and Phiasivongsa were based at Rain Therapeutics and Kronos Bio , respectively.

PATENT

WO-2021142131

Novel crystalline polymorphic forms (I to V) of PRN-473 and their preparation method.

CRYSTALLINE FORMS OF 2- [3- [4- AMINO-3-(2- FLUORO-4-PHENOXY- PHENYL)-1H-PYRAZOLO[3,4-D]PYRIMIDIN-1-YL]PIPERIDINE-1-CARBONYL]- 4,4-DIMETHYLPENT-2-ENENITRILE

This application claims the benefit of priority to U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/958,389, filed January 8, 2020, the contents of which are incorporated by reference herein in their entirety.

Disclosed herein are crystalline forms of 2-(3-(4-amino~3-(2-fiuoro~4-phenoxyphenyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-1-yl)piperidine-1-carbonyl)-4,4-dimethylpent-2-enenitrile (Compound (I)), methods of using the same, and processes for making Compound (I), including its various crystalline forms. The crystalline forms of Compound (I) are inhibitors of Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK). The enzyme BTK is a member of the Tec family non-receptor tyrosine kinases.

BTK is expressed in most hematopoietic cells, including B cells, mast cells, and macrophages. BTK plays a role in the development and activation of B cells and has been implicated in multiple signaling pathways across a wide range of immune-mediated diseases. BTK activity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several disorders and conditions, such as B cel1-related hematological cancers (e.g,, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia) and autoimmune diseases (e.g, rheumatoid arthritis,

Sjogren’s syndrome, pemphigus, IBD, lupus, and asthma).

Compound (I) and various solid forms thereof may inhibit BTK and be useful in the treatment of disorders and conditions mediated by BTK activity. Compound (I) is disclosed as, e.g., Compound 125A in Table 1 of WO 2012/158764 and has the following structure:

str1

Example 1: Preparation of Crystalline Form (I) of Compound (I)

Methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK; 6 mL) was added to amorphous (R)-2-(3-(4-amino-3- (2-fluoro-4-phenoxyphenyJ)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-1-yl)piperidine-1-carbonyl)-4,4- dimethylpent-2-enenitrile (1,0 g) and stirred to fonn a solution. After approximately five minutes of agitation, a precipitate began to form. Additional MIBK (10 mL) was charged, and the slurry was stirred. After approximately ten days, the solid was filtered and rinsed with MIBK (10 mL). The solid was dried under vacuum with heating to afford approximately 0.5 g of crystalline Form (I) of Compound (I) as a white solid.

PATENT

WO2012158764 , claiming BTK tyrosine kinase inhibitors, useful for treating cancer.

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2012158764A1/en

WO 2012/158764 125A

Figure imgf000057_0001

PATENT

US20210205313

PATENT

US20210205312 ,

for concurrently published filings, claiming a gel composition comprising PRN-473 and use of another BTK tyrosine kinase inhibitor ie PRN1008 , respectively.

PATENT

WO2016100914 , claiming use of a BTK inhibitor ie PRN-473, alone or in combination with corticosteroid therapy, for treating pemphigus vulgaris.

PATENT

WO 2014022569

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2014022569A1/en

//////// PRN-473,  PRN 473, SAR 444727, PHASE 1

CC(C)(C)C=C(C#N)C(=O)N1CCC[C@H](C1)n1nc(c2c(N)ncnc21)c1ccc(Oc2ccccc2)cc1F

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DEUCRAVACITINIB


CID 134821691.png
Deucravacitinib Chemical Structure
2D chemical structure of 1609392-27-9

DEUCRAVACITINIB

BMS-986165

CAS 1609392-27-9, C20H22N8O3, 425.46

6-(cyclopropanecarbonylamino)-4-[2-methoxy-3-(1-methyl-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)anilino]-N-(trideuteriomethyl)pyridazine-3-carboxamide

6-(cyclopropanecarboxamido)-4-((2-methoxy-3-(1-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)phenyl)amino)-N-(methyl-d3)pyridazine-3-carboxamide

Tyk2-IN-4

UNII-N0A21N6RAU

N0A21N6RAU

GTPL10432

EX-A3154

BDBM50507816

NSC825520

s8879

  • OriginatorBristol-Myers Squibb
  • ClassAmides; Aniline compounds; Anti-inflammatories; Antipsoriatics; Antirheumatics; Cyclopropanes; Ethers; Hepatoprotectants; Organic deuterium compounds; Pyridazines; Skin disorder therapies; Small molecules; Triazoles
  • Mechanism of ActionTYK2 kinase inhibitors
  • Phase IIIPlaque psoriasis
  • Phase IICrohn’s disease; Lupus nephritis; Psoriatic arthritis; Systemic lupus erythematosus; Ulcerative colitis
  • Phase IAutoimmune disorders
  • No development reportedInflammatory bowel diseases; Psoriasis
  • 02 Jul 2021Bristol-Myers Squibb plans a phase I pharmacokinetics trial (In volunteers) in USA (PO, Tablet) in July 2021 (NCT04949269)
  • 14 Jun 2021Bristol-Myers Squibb plans a phase III trial for Psoriatic arthritis (Treatment-naïve) in USA, Brazil, Colombia, Czech republic, Hungary, Italy, Mexico, Romania, Spain and Taiwan in July 2021 (NCT04908202) (EudraCT2020-005097-10)
  • 02 Jun 2021Interim efficacy and adverse events data from the phase III POETYK-PSO-1 trial in Psoriatic psoriasis presented at the 22nd Annual Congress of the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR-2021)

BMS , presumed to be in collaboration with Jinan University and Chinese Academy of Sciences , is developing deucravacitinib, a TYK2 inhibitor, for treating autoimmune diseases, primarily psoriasis. In July 2021, deucravacitinib was reported to be in phase 3 clinical development.

Deucravacitinib (BMS-986165) is a highly selective, orally bioavailable allosteric TYK2 inhibitor for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, which selectively binds to TYK2 pseudokinase (JH2) domain (IC50=1.0 nM) and blocks receptor-mediated Tyk2 activation by stabilizing the regulatory JH2 domain. Deucravacitinib inhibits IL-12/23 and type I IFN pathways.

PAPER

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.9b00444

Abstract Image

Small molecule JAK inhibitors have emerged as a major therapeutic advancement in treating autoimmune diseases. The discovery of isoform selective JAK inhibitors that traditionally target the catalytically active site of this kinase family has been a formidable challenge. Our strategy to achieve high selectivity for TYK2 relies on targeting the TYK2 pseudokinase (JH2) domain. Herein we report the late stage optimization efforts including a structure-guided design and water displacement strategy that led to the discovery of BMS-986165 (11) as a high affinity JH2 ligand and potent allosteric inhibitor of TYK2. In addition to unprecedented JAK isoform and kinome selectivity, 11 shows excellent pharmacokinetic properties with minimal profiling liabilities and is efficacious in several murine models of autoimmune disease. On the basis of these findings, 11 appears differentiated from all other reported JAK inhibitors and has been advanced as the first pseudokinase-directed therapeutic in clinical development as an oral treatment for autoimmune diseases.

Bristol Myers Squibb Presents Positive Data from Two Pivotal Phase 3 Psoriasis Studies Demonstrating Superiority of Deucravacitinib Compared to Placebo and Otezla® (apremilast)

04/23/2021.. https://news.bms.com/news/details/2021/Bristol-Myers-Squibb-Presents-Positive-Data-from-Two-Pivotal-Phase-3-Psoriasis-Studies-Demonstrating-Superiority-of-Deucravacitinib-Compared-to-Placebo-and-Otezla-apremilast/default.aspx

Significantly more patients treated with deucravacitinib achieved PASI 75 and sPGA 0/1 compared to patients treated with placebo and Otezla at Week 16, with an increased benefit versus Otezla at Week 24 and maintained through Week 52

Deucravacitinib was well tolerated with a low rate of discontinuation due to adverse events

Deucravacitinib is a first-in-class, oral, selective tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) inhibitor with a unique mechanism of action

Results presented as late-breaking research at the 2021 American Academy of Dermatology Virtual Meeting Experience

PRINCETON, N.J.–(BUSINESS WIRE)– Bristol Myers Squibb (NYSE:BMY) today announced positive results from two pivotal Phase 3 trials evaluating deucravacitinib, an oral, selective tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) inhibitor, for the treatment of patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. The POETYK PSO-1 and POETYK PSO-2 trials, which evaluated deucravacitinib 6 mg once daily, met both co-primary endpoints versus placebo, with significantly more patients achieving Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) 75 response and a static Physician’s Global Assessment score of clear or almost clear (sPGA 0/1) after 16 weeks of treatment with deucravacitinib. Deucravacitinib was well tolerated with a low rate of discontinuation due to adverse events (AEs).

This press release features multimedia. View the full release here: https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20210423005134/en(Graphic: Business Wire)

Deucravacitinib demonstrated superior skin clearance compared with Otezla® (apremilast) for key secondary endpoints in both studies, as measured by PASI 75 and sPGA 0/1 responses at Week 16 and Week 24. Findings include:

PASI 75 Response in POETYK PSO-1 and POETYK PSO-2:

  • At Week 16, 58.7% and 53.6% of patients receiving deucravacitinib achieved PASI 75 response, respectively, versus 12.7% and 9.4% receiving placebo and 35.1% and 40.2% receiving Otezla.
  • At Week 24, 69.0% and 59.3% of patients receiving deucravacitinib achieved PASI 75 response, respectively, versus 38.1% and 37.8% receiving Otezla.
  • Among patients who achieved PASI 75 response at Week 24 with deucravacitinib and continued treatment with deucravacitinib, 82.5% and 81.4%, respectively, maintained PASI 75 response at Week 52.

sPGA 0/1 Response in POETYK PSO-1 and POETYK PSO-2:

  • At Week 16, 53.6% and 50.3% of patients receiving deucravacitinib achieved sPGA 0/1 response, respectively, versus 7.2% and 8.6% receiving placebo and 32.1% and 34.3% receiving Otezla.
  • At Week 24, 58.4% and 50.4% of patients receiving deucravacitinib achieved sPGA 0/1 response, respectively, versus 31.0% and 29.5% receiving Otezla.

“In both pivotal studies, deucravacitinib was superior to Otezla across multiple endpoints, including measures of durability and maintenance of response, suggesting that deucravacitinib has the potential to become a new oral standard of care for patients who require systemic therapy and need a better oral option for their moderate to severe plaque psoriasis,” said April Armstrong, M.D., M.P.H., Associate Dean and Professor of Dermatology at the University of Southern California. “As many patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis remain undertreated or even untreated, it is also highly encouraging to see that deucravacitinib improved patient symptoms and outcomes to a greater extent than Otezla.”

Superiority of Deucravacitinib Versus Placebo and Otezla

Deucravacitinib demonstrated a robust efficacy profile, including superiority to placebo for the co-primary endpoints and to Otezla for key secondary endpoints. In addition to PASI 75 and sPGA 0/1 measures, deucravacitinib was superior to Otezla across both studies in multiple other secondary endpoints, demonstrating significant and clinically meaningful efficacy improvements in symptom burden and quality of life measures.

POETYK PSO-1 and POETYK PSO-2 Results at Week 16 and Week 24
Endpoint POETYK PSO-1 (n=666) POETYK PSO-2 (n=1,020)
Deucravacitinib6 mg(n=332) Otezla30 mg(n=168) Placebo(n=166) Deucravacitinib6 mg(n=511) Otezla30 mg(n=254) Placebo(n=255)
PASI 75*a
Week 16 58.7%* 35.1% 12.7% 53.6%* 40.2% 9.4%
Week 24 69.0% 38.1% 59.3% 37.8%
sPGA 0/1*b
Week 16 53.6%* 32.1% 7.2% 50.3%* 34.3% 8.6%
Week 24 58.4% 31.0% 50.4% 29.5%
(Scalp) ss-PGA 0/1c
Week 16 70.8%* 39.1% 17.4% 60.3%* 37.3% 17.3%
Week 24 71.8% 42.7% 59.7% 41.6%
PSSD-Symptoms CFBd
Week 16 -26.7* -17.8 -3.6 -28.3* -21.1 -4.7
Week 24 -31.9 -20.7 -29.1 -21.4
DLQI 0/1e
Week 16 40.7%* 28.6% 10.6% 38.0%* 23.1% 9.8%
Week 24 47.8% 24.2% 41.8% 21.5%
*Co-primary endpoints for POETYK PSO-1 and POETYK PSO-2 were PASI 75 and sPGA 0/1 for deucravacitinib vs placebo at Week 16.
a. PASI 75 is defined as at least a 75% improvement from baseline in Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) scores. *p<0.0001 vs placebo. †p<0.0001 vs Otezla. ‡p=0.0003 vs Otezla.
b. sPGA 0/1 is defined as a static Physician’s Global Assessment (sPGA) score of clear or almost clear. *p<0.0001 vs placebo. †p<0.0001 vs Otezla.
c. ss-PGA 0/1 is defined as a scalp-specific Physician’s Global Assessment (ss-PGA) score of clear or almost clear in those with ss-PGA of at least 3 (moderate) at baseline. POETYK PSO-1: *p<0.0001 vs placebo. †p<0.0001 vs Otezla. POETYK PSO-2: *p<0.0001 vs placebo. †p<0.0001 vs Otezla. ‡p=0.0002 vs Otezla.
d. Change from baseline (CFB) in Psoriasis Symptoms and Signs Diary (PSSD) captures improvement in symptoms of itch, pain, stinging, burning and skin tightness in patient eDiaries. *p<0.0001 vs placebo. †p<0.0001 vs Otezla.
e. Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) 0/1 scores reflect no effect at all on patient’s life in patients with a baseline DLQI score of ≥2. POETYK PSO-1: *p<0.0001 vs placebo. †p=0.0106 vs Otezla. ‡p<0.0001 vs Otezla. POETYK PSO-2: *p<0.0001 vs placebo. †p<0.0001 vs Otezla.

Safety and Tolerability

Deucravacitinib was well-tolerated and had a similar safety profile in both trials. At Week 16, 2.9% of 419 patients on placebo, 1.8% of 842 patients on deucravacitinib and 1.2% of 422 patients on Otezla experienced serious adverse events (SAEs) across both studies. The most common AEs (≥5%) with deucravacitinib treatment at Week 16 were nasopharyngitis and upper respiratory tract infection with low rates of headache, diarrhea and nausea. At Week 16, 3.8% of patients on placebo, 2.4% of patients on deucravacitinib and 5.2% of patients on Otezla experienced AEs leading to discontinuation. Across POETYK PSO-1 and POETYK PSO-2 over 52 weeks, SAEs when adjusted for exposure (exposure adjusted incidence per 100 patient-years [EAIR]) were 5.7 with placebo, 5.7 with deucravacitinib and 4.0 with Otezla. In the same timeframe across both studies, EAIRs for AEs leading to discontinuation were 9.4 with placebo, 4.4 with deucravacitinib and 11.6 with Otezla. No new safety signals were observed during Weeks 16‒52.

Across both Phase 3 trials, rates of malignancy, major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), venous thromboembolism (VTE) and serious infections were low and generally consistent across active treatment groups. No clinically meaningful changes were observed in multiple laboratory parameters (including anemia, blood cells, lipids and liver enzymes) over 52 weeks.

“The findings from both studies affirm that deucravacitinib – a first-in-class, oral, selective TYK2 inhibitor with a unique mechanism of action that inhibits the IL-12, IL-23 and Type 1 IFN pathways –may become an oral treatment of choice for people living with psoriasis. We believe deucravacitinib has significant potential across a broad range of immune-mediated diseases, and we are committed to further advancing our expansive clinical program with this agent,” said Mary Beth Harler, M.D., head of Immunology and Fibrosis Development, Bristol Myers Squibb. “We are in discussions with health authorities with the goal of bringing this new therapy to appropriate patients as soon as possible. At Bristol Myers Squibb, we are committed to building an immunology portfolio that addresses pressing unmet needs that exist for those impacted by serious dermatologic conditions and other immune-mediated diseases, to ultimately deliver the promise of living a better life.”

These results are available as a late-breaking research presentation (Session S033 – Late-Breaking Research Abstracts) as part of the 2021 American Academy of Dermatology (AAD) Virtual Meeting Experience (VMX). Full results of both studies will be submitted to a medical journal for peer review. In November 2020 and February 2021, respectively, Bristol Myers Squibb announced positive topline results from POETYK PSO-1 and POETYK PSO-2.

Visit www.bms.com/media/medical-meetings/bms-at-aad-vmx.html for more information on Bristol Myers Squibb’s scientific approach and resources on psoriasis and immune-mediated diseases.

About Deucravacitinib

Deucravacitinib (pronounced doo-krav-a-sih-ti-nib) is a first-in-class, oral, selective tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) inhibitor with a unique mechanism of action. Deucravacitinib is the first and only TYK2 inhibitor in clinical studies across multiple immune-mediated diseases. Bristol Myers Squibb scientists designed deucravacitinib to selectively target TYK2, thereby inhibiting signaling of interleukin (IL)-12, IL-23 and Type 1 interferon (IFN), key cytokines involved in psoriasis pathogenesis. Deucravacitinib achieves a high degree of selectivity by uniquely binding to the regulatory, rather than the active, domain of TYK2, which is structurally distinct from the regulatory domains of Janus kinase (JAK) 1, 2 and 3. At therapeutic doses, deucravacitinib does not inhibit JAK1, JAK2 or JAK3. Due to the innovative design of deucravacitinib, Bristol Myers Squibb earned recognition with the 2019 Thomas Alva Edison Patent Award for the science underpinning the clinical development of deucravacitinib.

Deucravacitinib is being studied in multiple immune-mediated diseases, including psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, lupus and inflammatory bowel disease. In addition to POETYK PSO-1 and POETYK PSO-2, Bristol Myers Squibb is evaluating deucravacitinib in three other Phase 3 studies in psoriasis: POETYK PSO-3 (NCT04167462); POETYK PSO-4 (NCT03924427); POETYK PSO-LTE (NCT04036435). Deucravacitinib is not approved for any use in any country.

About the Phase 3 POETYK PSO-1 and POETYK PSO-2 Studies

PrOgram to Evaluate the efficacy and safety of deucravacitinib, a selective TYK2 inhibitor (POETYK) PSO-1 (NCT03624127) and POETYK PSO-2 (NCT03611751) are global Phase 3 studies designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of deucravacitinib compared to placebo and Otezla® (apremilast) in patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. Both POETYK PSO-1, which enrolled 666 patients, and POETYK PSO-2, which enrolled 1,020 patients, were multi-center, randomized, double-blind trials that evaluated deucravacitinib (6 mg once daily) compared with placebo and Otezla (30 mg twice daily). POETYK PSO-2 included a randomized withdrawal and retreatment period after Week 24.

The co-primary endpoints of both POETYK PSO-1 and POETYK PSO-2 were the percentage of patients who achieved Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) 75 response and those who achieved static Physician’s Global Assessment (sPGA) score of 0 or 1 at Week 16 versus placebo. Key secondary endpoints of the trials included the percentage of patients who achieved PASI 75 and sPGA 0/1 compared to Otezla at Week 16 and other measures.

About Psoriasis

Psoriasis is a widely prevalent, chronic, systemic immune-mediated disease that substantially impairs patients’ physical health, quality of life and work productivity. Psoriasis is a serious global problem, with at least 100 million people worldwide impacted by some form of the disease, including around 14 million people in Europe and approximately 7.5 million people in the United States. Up to 90 percent of patients with psoriasis have psoriasis vulgaris, or plaque psoriasis, which is characterized by distinct round or oval plaques typically covered by silvery-white scales. Despite the availability of effective systemic therapy, many patients with moderate to severe psoriasis remain undertreated or even untreated and are dissatisfied with current treatments. People with psoriasis report an impact on their emotional well-being, straining both personal and professional relationships and causing a reduced quality of life. Psoriasis is associated with multiple comorbidities that may impact patients’ well-being, including psoriatic arthritis, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease and depression.

About Bristol Myers Squibb

Bristol Myers Squibb is a global biopharmaceutical company whose mission is to discover, develop and deliver innovative medicines that help patients prevail over serious diseases. For more information about Bristol Myers Squibb, visit us at BMS.com or follow us on LinkedInTwitterYouTubeFacebook and Instagram.

Celgene and Juno Therapeutics are wholly owned subsidiaries of Bristol-Myers Squibb Company. In certain countries outside the U.S., due to local laws, Celgene and Juno Therapeutics are referred to as, Celgene, a Bristol Myers Squibb company and Juno Therapeutics, a Bristol Myers Squibb company.

Otezla® (apremilast) is a registered trademark of Amgen Inc.

PATENT

WO-2021129467

Novel crystalline polymorphic forms (CSI and CSII) of deucravacitinib (also known as BMS-986165), useful a tyrosine kinase 2 pseudokinase domain (TYK2) inhibitor for treating psoriasis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and Crohn’s disease.Tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) is an intracellular signal transduction kinase that can mediate interleukin-23 (IL-23), interleukin-12 (IL-12) and type I interferon (IFN) These cytokines are involved in inflammation and immune response. 
BMS-986165 is the first and only new oral selective TYK2 inhibitor, clinically used to treat autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases (such as psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, lupus and inflammatory bowel disease, Crowe Graciousness, etc.). The results of a phase III clinical study of the drug announced in November 2020 showed that BMS-986165 has shown positive clinical effects in the treatment of moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. In addition, BMS-986165 also shows good therapeutic effects in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus and Crohn’s disease. 
The chemical name of BMS-986165 is 6-(cyclopropaneamido)-4-((2-methoxy-3-(1-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)benzene (Yl)amino)-N-(methyl-D3)pyridazine-3-carboxamide, the structural formula is shown below, and is hereinafter referred to as “compound I”: 

The crystal form is a solid in which the compound molecules are arranged in a three-dimensional order in the microstructure to form a crystal lattice. The phenomenon of drug polymorphism refers to the existence of two or more different crystal forms of the drug. Because of different physical and chemical properties, different crystal forms of the drug may have different dissolution and absorption in the body, which in turn affects the clinical efficacy and safety of the drug to a certain extent. Especially for poorly soluble solid drugs, the crystal form will have a greater impact. Therefore, drug crystal form must be an important content of drug research and also an important content of drug quality control. 
WO2018183656A1 discloses compound I crystal form A (hereinafter referred to as “crystal form A”) and a preparation method thereof. The crystalline form A disclosed in WO2018183656A1 is the only known free crystalline form of Compound I. The inventor of the present application repeated the preparation method disclosed in WO2018183656A1 to obtain and characterize the crystal form A. The results show that the crystal form A has poor compressibility and high adhesion. Therefore, there is still a need in the art to develop a compound I crystalline form with good stability, good compressibility, and low adhesion for the development of drugs containing compound I. 
The inventor of the present application has paid a lot of creative work and unexpectedly discovered the crystalline form CSI of compound I and the crystalline form CSII of compound I provided by the present invention, which have advantages in physical and chemical properties, preparation processing performance and bioavailability, for example, There are advantages in at least one aspect of melting point, solubility, hygroscopicity, purification, stability, adhesion, compressibility, fluidity, dissolution in vivo and in vitro, and bioavailability, especially good physical and chemical stability and mechanical stability It has good performance, good compressibility, and low adhesion, which solves the problems existing in the prior art, and is of great significance to the development of drugs containing compound I.

PATENT

US9505748 , a family member of WO2014074661 .

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2014074661

Preparation 1

Step l Int1

Step 2 Int2 Step 3 Int3 Step 4 Int4

Example 52

Step 1

[00219] To a solution of 2-methoxy-3-(l-methyl-lH-l ,2,4-triazol-3-yl)aniline (10.26 g, 50.2 mmol) and Int8 (10.5 g, 50.2 mmol) in THF (120 mL) was added lithium bis(trimethylsilyl)amide (LiHMDS, 1M in THF, 151 mL, 151 mmol) in a dropwise manner using a pressure equalized addition funnel. The reaction was run for 10 minutes after the completion of the addition and then quenched with HCl (1M aq., 126 mL, 126 mmol). The reaction was concentrated on a rotary evaporator until the majority of the THF was removed and a precipitate prevailed throughout the vessel. Water (-500 mL) was then added and the slurry sonicated for 5 minutes and stirred for 15 min. The solid was filtered off, rinsing with water and then air dried for 30 minutes. The powder was collected and dissolved in dichloromethane. The organic layer was washed with water and brine and then dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated to provide the product (12.5 g, 66% yield) (carried on as is). 1H NMR (400MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 11.11 (s, 1H), 9.36 (s, 1H), 8.56 (s, 1H), 7.72 (dd, J=7.8, 1.6 Hz, 1H), 7.60 (dd, J=7.9, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 7.29 (t, J=7.9 Hz, 1H), 7.19 (s, 1H), 3.95 (s, 3H), 3.72 (s, 3H). LC retention time 1.18 [E]. MS(E+) m/z: 377 (MH+).

Step 2

[00220] Intl3 (2.32 g, 6.16 mmol) and cyclopropanecarboxamide (1.048 g, 12.31 mmol) were dissolved in dioxane (62 mL) and Pd2(dba)3 (564 mg, 0.616 mmol), Xantphos (534 mg, 0.924 mmol) and cesium carbonate (4.01 g, 12.3 mmol) were added. The vessel was evacuated three times (backfilling with nitrogen) and then sealed and heated to 130 °C for 140 minutes. The reaction was filtered through CELITE® (eluting with ethyl acetate) and concentrated (on smaller scale this material could then be purified using preparative HPLC). The crude product was adsorbed onto CELITE® using dichloromethane, dried and purified using automated chromatography (100% EtOAc) to provide example 52 (1.22 g, 46% yield). 1H NMR (500MHz, chloroform-d) δ 10.99 (s, 1H), 8.63 (s, 1H), 8.18 (s, 1H), 8.10 (d, J=0.5 Hz, 2H), 7.81 (dd, J=7.9, 1.7 Hz, 1H), 7.51 (dd, J=7.9, 1.4 Hz, 1H), 7.33 – 7.20 (m, 7H), 4.01 (d, J=0.3 Hz, 3H), 3.82 (s, 3H), 1.73 -1.60 (m, 1H), 1.16 – 1.06 (m, 2H), 0.97 – 0.84 (m, 2H). LC retention time 6.84 [N]. MS(E+) m/z: 426 (MH+).

Example 53

[00221] To a homogeneous solution of Example 52 (50 mg, 0.12 mmol) in dichloromethane (3 mL) was added HCI (1M aq., 0.13 mL, 0.13 mmol) resulting in the solution turning yellow. The homogenous solution was concentrated down and then re-concentrated from dichloromethane twice to remove residual water, resulting in a white powder. The powder was suspended in dichloromethane and sonicated for 15 minutes, the powder was then collected via filtration, rinsing with dichloromethane to provide the corresponding HCI salt (38 mg, 70% yield). 1H NMR (500MHz, chloroform-d) δ 12.02 (s, 1H), 8.35 (s, 1H), 8.16 (s, 1H), 8.01 (dd, J=7.9, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 7.57 (br. s., 1H), 7.52 -7.46 (m, 1H), 7.36 (t, J=7.9 Hz, 1H), 4.03 (s, 3H), 3.83 (s, 3H), 2.05 – 1.95 (m, 1H), 1.16 – 1.09 (m, 2H), 1.03 (dd, J=7.4, 3.6 Hz, 2H). LC retention time 0.62 [j]. MS(E+) m/z: 426 (MH+).

[00222] Compare to NMR of parent free base: 1H NMR (500MHz, chloroform-d) δ 10.99 (s, 1H), 8.63 (s, 1H), 8.18 (s, 1H), 8.10 (d, J=0.5 Hz, 2H), 7.81 (dd, J=7.9, 1.7 Hz, 1H), 7.51 (dd, J=7.9, 1.4 Hz, 1H), 7.33 – 7.20 (m, 7H), 4.01 (d, J=0.3 Hz, 3H), 3.82 (s, 3H), 1.73 – 1.60 (m, 1H), 1.16 – 1.06 (m, 2H), 0.97 – 0.84 (m, 2H).

////////////DEUCRAVACITINIB, phase 3, BMS-986165, BMS 986165, psoriasis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Crohn’s disease,

CNC(=O)C1=NN=C(C=C1NC2=CC=CC(=C2OC)C3=NN(C=N3)C)NC(=O)C4CC4

wdt-6

NEW DRUG APPROVALS

one time

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BELUMOSUDIL


KD025 structure.png
2-(3-(4-((1H-Indazol-5-yl)amino)quinazolin-2-yl)phenoxy)-N-isopropylacetamide.png
2D chemical structure of 911417-87-3

BELUMOSUDIL

C26H24N6O2

MW 452.5

911417-87-3, SLx-2119, KD-025, KD 025, WHO 11343

2-[3-[4-(1H-indazol-5-ylamino)quinazolin-2-yl]phenoxy]-N-propan-2-ylacetamide

2-(3-(4-(lH-indazol-5-ylamino)quinazolin-2-yl)phenoxy)-N-isopropylacetamide

Belumosudil mesylate | C27H28N6O5S - PubChem

Belumosudil mesylate

KD025 mesylate

2109704-99-4

 

UPDATE FDA APPROVED 7/16/2021 To treat chronic graft-versus-host disease after failure of at least two prior lines of systemic therapy, Rezurock

New Drug Application (NDA): 214783
Company: KADMON PHARMA LLC

200 MG TABLET

FDA approves belumosudil for chronic graft-versus-host disease

On July 16, 2021, the Food and Drug Administration approved belumosudil (Rezurock, Kadmon Pharmaceuticals, LLC), a kinase inhibitor, for adult and pediatric patients 12 years and older with chronic graft-versus-host disease (chronic GVHD) after failure of at least two prior lines of systemic therapy.

Efficacy was evaluated in KD025-213 (NCT03640481), a randomized, open-label, multicenter dose-ranging trial that included 65 patients with chronic GVHD who were treated with belumosudil 200 mg taken orally once daily.

The main efficacy outcome measure was overall response rate (ORR) through Cycle 7 Day 1 where overall response included complete response (CR) or partial response (PR) according to the 2014 criteria of the NIH Consensus Development Project on Clinical Trials in Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease. The ORR was 75% (95% CI: 63, 85); 6% of patients achieved a CR, and 69% achieved a PR. The median time to first response was 1.8 months (95% CI: 1.0, 1.9). The median duration of response, calculated from first response to progression, death, or new systemic therapies for chronic GVHD, was 1.9 months (95% CI: 1.2, 2.9). In patients who achieved response, no death or new systemic therapy initiation occurred in 62% (95% CI: 46, 74) of patients for at least 12 months since response.

The most common adverse reactions (≥ 20%), including laboratory abnormalities, were infections, asthenia, nausea, diarrhea, dyspnea, cough, edema, hemorrhage, abdominal pain, musculoskeletal pain, headache, phosphate decreased, gamma glutamyl transferase increased, lymphocytes decreased, and hypertension.

The recommended dosage of belumosudil is 200 mg taken orally once daily with food.

View full prescribing information for Rezurock.

This review was conducted under Project Orbis, an initiative of the FDA Oncology Center of Excellence. Project Orbis provides a framework for concurrent submission and review of oncology drugs among international partners. For this review, FDA collaborated with Australia’s Therapeutic Goods Administration, Health Canada, Switzerland’s Swissmedic, and the United Kingdom’s Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency.

This review used the Real-Time Oncology Review (RTOR) pilot program, which streamlined data submission prior to the filing of the entire clinical application, and the Assessment Aid, a voluntary submission from the applicant to facilitate the FDA’s assessment. The FDA approved this application 6 weeks ahead of the FDA goal date.

This application was granted priority review and breakthrough therapy designation. A description of FDA expedited programs is in the Guidance for Industry: Expedited Programs for Serious Conditions-Drugs and Biologics.

Belumosudil mesylate is an orally available rho kinase 2 (ROCK 2) inhibitor being developed at Kadmon. In 2020, the drug candidate was submitted for a new drug application (NDA) in the U.S., under a real-time oncology review pilot program, for the treatment of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). The compound is also in phase II clinical development for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis. Formerly, the company had also been conducting clinical research for the treatment of psoriasis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH); however, no further development has been reported for these indications. Originally developed by Nano Terra, the product was licensed to Kadmon on an exclusive global basis in 2011. In 2019, Kadmon entered into a strategic partnership with BioNova Pharmaceuticals and established a joint venture, BK Pharmaceuticals, to exclusively develop and commercialize KD-025 for the treatment of graft-versus-host disease in China. The compound has been granted breakthrough therapy designation in the U.S. for the treatment of cGVHD and orphan drug designations for cGVHD and systemic sclerosis. In the E.U. belumosudil was also granted orphan drug status in the E.U. for the treatment of cGVHD.

Kadmon , under license from NT Life Sciences , is developing belumosudil as mesylate salt, a ROCK-2 inhibitor, for treating IPF, chronic graft-versus-host disease, hepatic impairment and scleroderma. In July 2021, belumosudil was reported to be in pre-registration phase.

Belumosudil (formerly KD025 and SLx-2119) is an experimental drug being explored for the treatment of chronic graft versus host disease (cGvHD), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and moderate to severe psoriasis. It is an inhibitor of Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase 2 (ROCK2; ROCK-II).[1] Belumosudil binds to and inhibits the serine/threonine kinase activity of ROCK2. This inhibits ROCK2-mediated signaling pathways which play major roles in pro- and anti-inflammatory immune cell responses. A genomic study in human primary cells demonstrated that the drug also has effects on oxidative phosphorylation, WNT signaling, angiogenesis, and KRAS signaling.[2] Originally developed by Surface Logix, Inc,[1] Belumosudil was later acquired by Kadmon Corporation. As of July 2020 the drug was in completed or ongoing Phase II clinical studies for cGvHD, IPF and psoriasis.[3]

cGvHD is a complication that can follow stem cell or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation where the transplanted cells (graft) attack healthy cells (host). This causes inflammation and fibrosis in multiple tissues. Two cytokines controlled by the ROCK2 signaling pathway, IL-17 and IL-21, have a major role in the cGvHD response. In a 2016 report using both mouse models and a limited human clinical trial ROCK2 inhibition with belumosudil targeted both the immunologic and fibrotic components of cGvHD and reversed the symptoms of the disease.[4] In October 2017 KD025 was granted orphan drug status in the United States for treatment of patients with cGvHD.[5]

IPF is a progressive fibrotic disease where the lining of the lungs become thickened and scarred.[6] Increased ROCK activity has been found in the lungs of humans and animals with IPF. Treatment with belumosudil reduced lung fibrosis in a bleomycin mouse model study.[7] Belumosudil may have a therapeutic benefit in IPF by targeting the fibrotic processes mediated by the ROCK signaling pathway.

Psoriasis is an inflammatory skin condition where patients experiences eruptions and remissions of thickened, erythematous, and scaly patches of skin. Down-regulation of pro-inflammatory responses was observed with KD025 treatment in Phase 2 clinical studies in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis.[8]
“Substance Name:Substance Name: Belumosudil [USAN]”.

PATENT

WO2012040499  

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2012040499A2/en

PATENT

CN106916145  

https://patents.google.com/patent/CN106916145A/en

WO 2014055996, WO 2015157556

(7) preparation of SLx-2119:
 
N- isopropyls -2- [3- (4- chloro-quinazolines base)-phenoxy group]-acetamide VI is sequentially added in 25mL tube sealings (1.2mmol), 5- Aminoindazoles (1mmol) and DMF (5mL), load onto condensation reflux unit;Back flow reaction is carried out at 100 DEG C, After 2.5h, raw material N- isopropyls -2- [3- (4- chloro-quinazolines base)-phenoxy group]-acetamide VI is monitored by TLC and reacts complete Afterwards, stop stirring, add water after being quenched, organic layer, saturated common salt water washing, anhydrous Na are extracted with ethyl acetate2SO4Dry, be spin-dried for Obtain SLx-2119, brown solid (yield 87%), as shown in figure 1,1H NMR(500MHz,DMSO)δ(ppm):13.12(br, NH,1H),9.98(br,NH,1H),8.61-8.59(m,1H),8.32(s,1H),8.17(s,1H),8.06-8.03(m,2H), 7.97-7.96(m,1H),7.87-7.84(m,1H),7.66-7.61(m,2H),7.44-7.40(m,1H),7.09-7.08(m, 1H), 4.57 (s, 2H), 4.04-3.96 (m, 1H), 1.11 (d, J=5.0Hz, 6H).
 

Patent

WO-2021129589

Novel crystalline polymorphic forms (N1, N2 and N15) of KD-025 (also known as belumosudil ), useful as a Rho A kinase 2 (ROCK-2) inhibitor for treating multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), atherosclerosis, non-alcoholic fatty liver and systemic sclerosis. Represents the first filing from Sunshine Lake Pharma or its parent HEC Pharm that focuses on belumosudil.KD-025 is a selective ROCK2 (Rho-associated protein kinase 2, Rho-related protein kinase 2) inhibitor. It has multiple clinical indications such as the treatment of multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and Primary pulmonary fibrosis, atherosclerosis, non-alcoholic fatty liver, etc., among which many indications are in clinical phase I, and psoriasis and systemic sclerosis are in clinical phase II.
The structure of KD-025 is shown in the following formula (1).

Example 1 Preparation method of crystal form N1 of KD-025[0222]300mg of KD-025 solid was suspended and stirred in 10mL methanol at room temperature. After 22h, it was filtered, suction filtered and placed in a drying oven at 50°C under vacuum overnight to obtain 262mg of powder. The obtained crystal was detected by XPRD and confirmed to be KD-025 crystal form N1; its X-ray powder diffraction pattern was basically the same as that of Fig. 1, its DSC pattern was basically the same as that of Fig. 2, and the TGA pattern was basically the same as that of Fig. 3.

PATENT

WO2006105081 ,

Belumosudil product pat, 

protection in the EU states until March 2026, expires in the US in May 2029 with US154 extension.

Example 82
2-(3-(4-(lH-indazol-5-ylamino)quinazolin-2-yl)phenoxy)-N-isopropylacetamide

[0257] A suspension of 2-(3-(4-(lH-indazol-5-ylamino)qumazolin-2-yl)ρhenoxy)acetic acid (70 mg, 0.14 mmol), PyBOP® (40 mg, 0.077 mmol), DlEA (24 μL, 0.14 mmol) in dry CH2Cl2 : DMF (2 : 0.1 mL) was stirred at RT for 15 minutes. To this solution of activated acid was added propan-2-amine (5.4 mg, 0.091 mmol). After 30 minutes, 1.0 equivalent of DIEA and 0.55 equivalents of PyBOP® were added. After stirring the solution for 15 minutes, 0.65 equivalents of propan-2-aminewere added and the mixture was stirred for an additional 30 minutes. The solvent was removed in vacuo and the crude product was purified using prep HPLC (25-50 90 rnins) to afford 2-(3-(4-(lH-indazol-5-ylamino)quinazolin-2-yl)phenoxy)-N-isopropylacetamide. (40 mg, 0.086 mmol, 61 %).

References

  1. Jump up to:a b Boerma M, Fu Q, Wang J, Loose DS, Bartolozzi A, Ellis JL, et al. (October 2008). “Comparative gene expression profiling in three primary human cell lines after treatment with a novel inhibitor of Rho kinase or atorvastatin”Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis19 (7): 709–18. doi:10.1097/MBC.0b013e32830b2891PMC 2713681PMID 18832915.
  2. ^ Park J, Chun KH (5 May 2020). “Identification of novel functions of the ROCK2-specific inhibitor KD025 by bioinformatics analysis”. Gene737: 144474. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2020.144474PMID 32057928.
  3. ^ “KD025 – Clinical Trials”. ClinicalTrials.gov. Retrieved 25 July 2020.
  4. ^ Flynn R, Paz K, Du J, Reichenbach DK, Taylor PA, Panoskaltsis-Mortari A, et al. (April 2016). “Targeted Rho-associated kinase 2 inhibition suppresses murine and human chronic GVHD through a Stat3-dependent mechanism”Blood127 (17): 2144–54. doi:10.1182/blood-2015-10-678706PMC 4850869PMID 26983850.
  5. ^ Shanley M (October 6, 2017). “Therapy to Treat Transplant Complications Gets Orphan Drug Designation”RareDiseaseReport. Retrieved 25 July 2018.
  6. ^ “Pulmonary Fibrosis”. The Mayo Clinic. Retrieved July 25, 2018.
  7. ^ Semedo D (June 5, 2016). “Phase 2 Study of Molecule Inhibitor for Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Begins”Lung Disease News. BioNews Services, LLC. Retrieved 25 July 2018.
  8. ^ Zanin-Zhorov A, Weiss JM, Trzeciak A, Chen W, Zhang J, Nyuydzefe MS, et al. (May 2017). “Cutting Edge: Selective Oral ROCK2 Inhibitor Reduces Clinical Scores in Patients with Psoriasis Vulgaris and Normalizes Skin Pathology via Concurrent Regulation of IL-17 and IL-10”Journal of Immunology198 (10): 3809–3814. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1602142PMC 5421306PMID 28389592.
 
Clinical data
Routes of
administration
Oral administration (tablets or capsules)
ATC code None
Identifiers
showIUPAC name
CAS Number 911417-87-3 
PubChem CID 11950170
UNII 834YJF89WO
CompTox Dashboard (EPA) DTXSID80238425 
Chemical and physical data
Formula C26H24N6O2
Molar mass 452.518 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol) Interactive image
showSMILES
showInChI

////////////BELUMOSUDIL, SLx-2119, KD-025, KD 025, WHO 11343, PHASE 2, cGvHD, IPF,  psoriasis, Breakthrough Therapy, Orphan Drug Designation

CC(C)NC(=O)COC1=CC=CC(=C1)C2=NC3=CC=CC=C3C(=N2)NC4=CC5=C(C=C4)NN=C5

wdt-5

NEW DRUG APPROVALS

ONE TIME

$10.00

Asparaginase erwinia chrysanthemi (recombinant)-rywn


Rylaze

Sequence:

1ADKLPNIVIL ATGGTIAGSA ATGTQTTGYK AGALGVDTLI NAVPEVKKLA51NVKGEQFSNM ASENMTGDVV LKLSQRVNEL LARDDVDGVV ITHGTDTVEE101SAYFLHLTVK SDKPVVFVAA MRPATAISAD GPMNLLEAVR VAGDKQSRGR151GVMVVLNDRI GSARYITKTN ASTLDTFKAN EEGYLGVIIG NRIYYQNRID201KLHTTRSVFD VRGLTSLPKV DILYGYQDDP EYLYDAAIQH GVKGIVYAGM251GAGSVSVRGI AGMRKAMEKG VVVIRSTRTG NGIVPPDEEL PGLVSDSLNP301AHARILLMLA LTRTSDPKVI QEYFHTY

>Protein sequence for asparaginase (Erwinia chrysanthemi) monomer
ADKLPNIVILATGGTIAGSAATGTQTTGYKAGALGVDTLINAVPEVKKLANVKGEQFSNM
ASENMTGDVVLKLSQRVNELLARDDVDGVVITHGTDTVEESAYFLHLTVKSDKPVVFVAA
MRPATAISADGPMNLLEAVRVAGDKQSRGRGVMVVLNDRIGSARYITKTNASTLDTFKAN
EEGYLGVIIGNRIYYQNRIDKLHTTRSVFDVRGLTSLPKVDILYGYQDDPEYLYDAAIQH
GVKGIVYAGMGAGSVSVRGIAGMRKAMEKGVVVIRSTRTGNGIVPPDEELPGLVSDSLNP
AHARILLMLALTRTSDPKVIQEYFHTY
References:
  1. Therapeutic Targets Database: TTD Biologic drug sequences in fasta format [Link]

Asparaginase erwinia chrysanthemi (recombinant)-rywn

JZP458-201

JZP458

CAS Registry Number 1349719-22-7

Protein Chemical FormulaC1546H2510N432O476S9

Protein Average Weight 140000.0 Da

Rylaze, FDA APPROVED 6/30/2021, BLA 761179

L-Asparaginase (ec 3.5.1.1, L-asparagine amidohydrolase) erwinia chrysanthemi tetramer alpha4Asparaginase (Dickeya chrysanthemi subunit) 

Other Names

  • Asparaginase Erwinia chrysanthemi
  • Crisantaspase
  • Cristantaspase
  • Erwinase
  • Erwinaze
  • L-Asparagine amidohydrolase (Erwinia chrysanthemi subunit)

D733ET3F9O

1349719-22-7

Asparaginase erwinia chrysanthemi [USAN]

UNII-D733ET3F9O

L-Asparaginase (erwinia)

Erwinia asparaginase

L-Asparaginase, erwinia chrysanthemi

Asparaginase (erwinia chrysanthemi)

Erwinase

Asparaginase erwinia chrysanthemi

Erwinaze

Crisantaspase

Crisantaspase [INN]

L-Asparaginase (ec 3.5.1.1, L-asparagine amidohydrolase) erwinia chrysanthemi tetramer alpha4

Asparaginase erwinia sp. [MI]

Asparaginase erwinia chrysanthemi (recombinant) [USAN]

Asparaginase erwinia chrysanthemi (recombinant)

JZP-458

A hydrolase enzyme that converts L-asparagine and water to L-aspartate and NH3.

NCI: Asparaginase Erwinia chrysanthemi. An enzyme isolated from the bacterium Erwinia chrysanthemi (E. carotovora). Asparagine is critical to protein synthesis in leukemic cells, which cannot synthesize this amino acid due to the absence of the enzyme asparagine synthase. Asparaginase hydrolyzes L-asparagine to L-aspartic acid and ammonia, thereby depleting leukemic cells of asparagine and blocking protein synthesis and tumor cell proliferation, especially in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. This agent also induces apoptosis in tumor cells. The Erwinia-derived product is often used for those patients who have experienced a hypersensitivity reaction to the E. Coli formulation. (NCI Thesaurus)

  • Treatment of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)
  • Antineoplastic Agents
10MG/0.5MLINJECTABLE;INTRAMUSCULAR

Label (PDF)
Letter (PDF)

Label (PDF)

PATENT

WO 2011003633

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2011003633A1/en

The present invention concerns a conjugate of a protein having substantial L-asparagine aminohydrolase activity and polyethylene glycol, particularly wherein the polyethylene glycol has a molecular weight less than or equal to about 5000 Da, particularly a conjugate wherein the protein is a L-asparaginase from Erwinia, and its use in therapy.Proteins with L-asparagine aminohydrolase activity, commonly known as L- asparaginases, have successfully been used for the treatment of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia(ALL) in children for many years. ALL is the most common childhood malignancy (Avramis and Panosyan, Clin. Pharmacokinet. (2005) 44:367-393).[0003] L-asparaginase has also been used to treat Hodgkin’s disease, acute myelocytic leukemia, acute myelomonocytic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, lymphosarcoma, reticulosarcoma, and melanosarcoma (Kotzia and Labrou, J. Biotechnol. 127 (2007) 657-669).The anti-tumor activity of L-asparaginase is believed to be due to the inability or reduced ability of certain malignant cells to synthesize L-asparagine (Kotzia and Labrou, J. Biotechnol. 127 (2007) 657-669). These malignant cells rely on an extracellular supply of L-asparagine. However, the L-asparaginase enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of L-asparagine to aspartic acid and ammonia, thereby depleting circulating pools of L-asparagine and killing tumor cells which cannot perform protein synthesis without L-asparagine (Kotzia and Labrou, J. Biotechnol. 127 (2007) 657-669).[0004] L-asparaginase from E. coli was the first enzyme drug used in ALL therapy and has been marketed as Elspar® in the USA or as Kidrolase® and L-asparaginase Medac® in Europe. L- asparaginases have also been isolated from other microorganisms, e.g., an L-asparaginase protein from Erwinia chrysanthemi, named crisantaspase, that has been marketed as Erwinase® (Wriston Jr., J.C. (1985) “L-asparaginase” Meth. Enzymol. 113, 608-618; Goward, CR. et al. (1992) “Rapid large scale preparation of recombinant Erwinia chrysanthemi L-asparaginase”, Bioseparation 2, 335-341). L-asparaginases from other species of Erwinia have also been identified, including, for example, Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 (Genbank Accession#AAS67028), Erwinia chrysanthemi NCPPB 1125 (Genbank Accession #CAA31239), Erwinia carotovora (Genbank Accession #AAP92666), and Erwinia carotovora subsp. Astroseptica (Genbank Accession #AAS67027). These Erwinia chrysanthemi L-asparaginases have about 91-98% amino acid sequence identity with each other, while the Erwinia carotovora L- asparaginases have approximately 75-77% amino acid sequence identity with the Erwinia chrysanthemi L-asparaginases (Kotzia and Labrou, J. Biotechnol. 127 (2007) 657-669).[0005] L-asparaginases of bacterial origin have a high immunogenic and antigenic potential and frequently provoke adverse reactions ranging from mild allergic reaction to anaphylactic shock in sensitized patients (Wang, B. et al. (2003) “Evaluation of immunologic cross reaction of anti- asparaginase antibodies in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL and lymphoma patients),Leukemia 17, 1583-1588). E. coli L-asparaginase is particularly immunogenic, with reports of the presence of anti-asparaginase antibodies to E. coli L-asparaginase following i.v. or i.m. administration reaching as high as 78% in adults and 70% in children (Wang, B. et al. (2003) Leukemia 17, 1583-1588).[0006] L-asparaginases from Escherichia coli and Erwinia chrysanthemi differ in their pharmacokinetic properties and have distinct immunogenic profiles, respectively (Klug Albertsen, B. et al. (2001) “Comparison of intramuscular therapy with Erwinia asparaginase and asparaginase Medac: pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, formation of antibodies and influence on the coagulation system” Brit. J. Haematol. 115, 983-990). Furthermore, it has been shown that antibodies that developed after a treatment with L-asparaginase from E. coli do not cross react with L-Asparaginase from Erwinia (Wang, B. et al., Leukemia 17 (2003) 1583-1588). Thus, L-asparaginase from Erwinia (crisantaspase) has been used as a second line treatment of ALL in patients that react to E. coli L-asparaginase (Duval, M. et al. (2002) “Comparison of Escherichia co/z-asparaginase with £Vwzmα-asparaginase in the treatment of childhood lymphoid malignancies: results of a randomized European Organisation for Research and Treatment ofCancer, Children’s Leukemia Group phase 3 trial” Blood 15, 2734-2739; Avramis and Panosyan,Clin. Pharmacokinet. (2005) 44:367-393).[0007] In another attempt to reduce immunogenicity associated with administration of microbial L-asparaginases, an E. coli L-asparaginase has been developed that is modified with methoxy- polyethyleneglycol (mPEG). This method is commonly known as “PEGylation” and has been shown to alter the immunological properties of proteins (Abuchowski, A. et al. (1977) “Alteration of Immunological Properties of Bovine Serum Albumin by Covalent Attachment of Polyethylene Glycol,” J.Biol.Chem. 252 (11), 3578-3581). This so-called mPEG-L- asparaginase, or pegaspargase, marketed as Oncaspar® (Enzon Inc., USA), was first approved in the U.S. for second line treatment of ALL in 1994, and has been approved for first- line therapy of ALL in children and adults since 2006. Oncaspar® has a prolonged in vivo half-life and a reduced immunogenicity/antigenicity.[0008] Oncaspar® is E. coli L-asparaginase that has been modified at multiple lysine residues using 5 kDa mPEG-succinimidyl succinate (SS-PEG) (U.S. Patent No. 4,179,337). SS-PEG is aPEG reagent of the first generation that contains an instable ester linkage that is sensitive to hydro lysis by enzymes or at slightly alkaline pH values (U.S. Patent No. 4,670,417; Makromol. Chem. 1986, 187, 1131-1144). These properties decrease both in vitro and in vivo stability and can impair drug safety.[0009] Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that antibodies developed against L-asparaginase from E. coli will cross react with Oncaspar® (Wang, B. et al. (2003) “Evaluation of immunologic cross-reaction of anti-asparaginase antibodies in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL and lymphoma patients),” Leukemia 17, 1583-1588). Even though these antibodies were not neutralizing, this finding clearly demonstrated the high potential for cross-hypersensitivity or cross-inactivation in vivo. Indeed, in one report 30-41% of children who received pegaspargase had an allergic reaction (Wang, B. et al. (2003) Leukemia 17, 1583-1588).[0010] In addition to outward allergic reactions, the problem of “silent hypersensitivity” was recently reported, whereby patients develop anti-asparaginase antibodies without showing any clinical evidence of a hypersensitivity reaction (Wang, B. et al. (2003) Leukemia 17, 1583-1588). This reaction can result in the formation of neutralizing antibodies to E. coli L-asparaginase and pegaspargase; however, these patients are not switched to Erwinia L-asparaginase because there are not outward signs of hypersensitivity, and therefore they receive a shorter duration of effective treatment (Holcenberg, J., J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol. 26 (2004) 273-274).[0011] Erwinia chrysanthemi L-asparaginase treatment is often used in the event of hypersensitivity to E. co/z-derived L-asparaginases. However, it has been observed that as many as 30-50% of patients receiving Erwinia L-asparaginase are antibody-positive (Avramis andPanosyan, Clin. Pharmacokinet. (2005) 44:367-393). Moreover, because Erwinia chrysanthemi L-asparaginase has a significantly shorter elimination half-life than the E. coli L-asparaginases, it must be administered more frequently (Avramis and Panosyan, Clin. Pharmacokinet. (2005) 44:367-393). In a study by Avramis et al., Erwinia asparaginase was associated with inferior pharmacokinetic profiles (Avramis et al., J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol. 29 (2007) 239-247). E. coli L-asparaginase and pegaspargase therefore have been the preferred first-line therapies for ALL over Erwinia L-asparaginase.[0012] Numerous biopharmaceuticals have successfully been PEGylated and marketed for many years. In order to couple PEG to a protein, the PEG has to be activated at its OH terminus. The activation group is chosen based on the available reactive group on the protein that will bePEGylated. In the case of proteins, the most important amino acids are lysine, cysteine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, C-terminal carboxylic acid and the N-terminal amino group. In view of the wide range of reactive groups in a protein nearly the entire peptide chemistry has been applied to activate the PEG moiety. Examples for this activated PEG-reagents are activated carbonates, e.g., p-nitrophenyl carbonate, succinimidyl carbonate; active esters, e.g., succinimidyl ester; and for site specific coupling aldehydes and maleimides have been developed (Harris, M., Adv. Drug – A -DeI. Rev. 54 (2002), 459-476). The availability of various chemical methods for PEG modification shows that each new development of a PEGylated protein will be a case by case study. In addition to the chemistry the molecular weight of the PEG that is attached to the protein has a strong impact on the pharmaceutical properties of the PEGylated protein. In most cases it is expected that, the higher the molecular weight of the PEG, the better the improvement of the pharmaceutical properties (Sherman, M. R., Adv. Drug Del. Rev. 60 (2008), 59-68; Holtsberg, F. W., Journal of Controlled Release 80 (2002), 259-271). For example, Holtsberg et al. found that, when PEG was conjugated to arginine deaminase, another amino acid degrading enzyme isolated from a microbial source, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic function of the enzyme increased as the size of the PEG attachment increased from a molecular weight of 5000Da to 20,000 Da (Holtsberg, F.W., Journal of Controlled Release 80 (2002), 259-271).[0013] However, in many cases, PEGylated biopharmaceuticals show significantly reduced activity compared to the unmodified biopharmaceutical (Fishburn, CS. (2008) Review “The Pharmacology of PEGylation: Balancing PD with PK to Generate Novel Therapeutics” J. Pharm. Sd., 1-17). In the case of L-asparaginase from Erwinia carotovora, it has been observed that PEGylation reduced its in vitro activity to approximately 57% (Kuchumova, A.V. et al. (2007) “Modification of Recombinant asparaginase from Erwinia carotovora with Polyethylene Glycol 5000” Biochemistry (Moscow) Supplement Series B: Biomedical Chemistry, 1, 230-232). The L-asparaginase from Erwinia carotovora has only about 75% homology to the Erwinia chrysanthemi L-asparaginase (crisantaspase). For Oncaspar® it is also known that its in vitro activity is approximately 50% compared to the unmodified E. coli L-asparaginase.[0014] The currently available L-asparaginase preparations do not provide alternative or complementary therapies— particularly therapies to treat ALL— that are characterized by high catalytic activity and significantly improved pharmacological and pharmacokinetic properties, as well as reduced immunogenicity. L-asparaginase protein has at least about 80% homology or identity with the protein comprising the sequence of SEQ ID NO:1, more specifically at least about 85%, 86%, 87%, 88%, 89%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99%, or 100% homology or identity with the protein comprising the sequence of SEQ ID NO:1. SEQ ID NO:1 is as follows:ADKLPNIVILATGGTIAGSAATGTQTTGYKAGALGVDTLINAVPEVKKLANVKGE QFSNMASENMTGDVVLKLSQRVNELLARDDVDGVVITHGTDTVEESAYFLHLTV KSDKPVVFVAAMRPATAISADGPMNLLEAVRVAGDKQSRGRGVMVVLNDRIGSA RYITKTNASTLDTFKANEEGYLGVIIGNRIYYQNRIDKLHTTRSVFDVRGLTSLPKV DILYGYQDDPEYLYDAAIQHGVKGIVYAGMGAGSVSVRGIAGMRKAMEKGVVVIRSTRTGNGIVPPDEELPGLVSDSLNPAHARILLMLALTRTSDPKVIQEYFHTY (SEQ ID NO:1) [0048] The term “comprising the sequence of SEQ ID NO:1” means that the amino-acid sequence of the protein may not be strictly limited to SEQ ID NO:1 but may contain additional amino-acids.ExamplesExample 1 : Preparation of Recombinant Crisantaspase [0100] The recombinant bacterial strain used to manufacture the naked recombinant Erwinia chrysanthemi L-asparaginase protein (also referred to herein as “r-crisantaspase”) was an E. coli BL21 strain with a deleted ansB gene (the gene encoding the endogenous E. coli type II L- asparaginase) to avoid potential contamination of the recombinant Erwinia chrysanthemi L- asparaginase with this enzyme. The deletion of the ansB gene relies on homologous recombination methods and phage transduction performed according to the three following steps:1) a bacterial strain (NMI lOO) expressing a defective lambda phage which supplies functions that protect and recombine electroporated linear DNA substrate in the bacterial cell was transformed with a linear plasmid (kanamycin cassette) containing the kanamycin gene flanked by an FLP recognition target sequence (FRT). Recombination occurs to replace the ansB gene by the kanamycin cassette in the bacterial genome, resulting in a ΛansB strain; 2) phage transduction was used to integrate the integrated kanamycin cassette region from the ΛansB NMI lOO strain to the ansB locus in BL21 strain. This results in an E. coli BL21 strain with a deleted ansB gene and resistant to kanamycin; 3) this strain was transformed with a FLP -helper plasmid to remove the kanamycin gene by homologous recombination at the FRT sequence. The genome of the final strain (BL21 ΛansB strain) was sequenced, confirming full deletion of the endogenous ansB gene.[0101] The E. co/z-optimized DNA sequence encoding for the mature Erwinia chrysanthemi L- asparaginase fused with the ENX signal peptide from Bacillus subtilis was inserted into an expression vector. This vector allows expression of recombinant Erwinia chrysanthemi L- asparaginase under the control of hybrid T5/lac promoter induced by the addition of Isopropyl β- D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) and confers resistance to kanamycin.[0102] BL21 ΛansB strain was transformed with this expression vector. The transformed cells were used for production of the r-crisantaspase by feed batch glucose fermentation in Reisenberg medium. The induction of the cell was done 16h at 23°C with IPTG as inducer. After cell harvest and lysis by homogenization in 1OmM sodium phosphate buffer pH6 5mM EDTA (Buffer A), the protein solution was clarified by centrifugation twice at 1500Og, followed by 0.45μm and 0.22μm filtration steps. The recombinant Erwinia chrysanthemi L-asparaginase was next purified using a sequence of chromatography and concentration steps. Briefly, the theoretical isoelectric point of the Erwinia chrysanthemi L-asparaginase (7.23) permits the recombinant enzyme to adsorb to cation exchange resins at pH6. Thus, the recombinant enzyme was captured on a Capto S column (cation exchange chromatography) and eluted with salt gradient in Buffer A. Fractions containing the recombinant enzyme were pooled. The pooled solution was next purified on Capto MMC column (cation exchange chromatography) in Buffer A with salt gradient. . The eluted fractions containing Erwinia chrysanthemi L-asparaginase were pooled and concentrated before protein separation on Superdex 200pg size exclusion chromatography as polishing step. Fractions containing recombinant enzymes were pooled, concentrated, and diafiltered against 10OmM sodium phosphate buffer pH8. The purity of the final Erwinia chrysanthemi L-asparaginase preparation was evaluated by SDS-PAGE (Figure 1) and RP-HPLC and was at least 90%. The integrity of the recombinant enzyme was verified byN-terminal sequencing and LC-MS. Enzyme activity was measured at 37°C using Nessler’s reagent. The specific activity of the purified recombinant Erwinia chrysanthemi L-asparaginase was around 600 U/mg. One unit of enzyme activity is defined as the amount of enzyme that liberates lμmol of ammonia from L-asparagine per minute at 37°C. Example 2: Preparation of 10 kDa mPEG-L- Asparaginase Conjugates[0103] A solution of L-asparaginase from Erwinia chrysanthemi was stirred in a 100 mM sodium phosphate buffer at pH 8.0, at a protein concentration between 2.5 and 4 mg/mL, in the presence of 150 mg/mL or 36 mg/mL 10 kDa mPEG-NHS, for 2 hours at 22°C. The resulting crude 10 kDa mPEG-L-asparaginase was purified by size exclusion chromatography using a Superdex 200 pg column on an Akta purifier UPC 100 system. Protein-containing fractions were pooled and concentrated to result in a protein concentration between 2 and 8 mg/mL. Two 10 kDa mPEG-L-asparaginase conjugates were prepared in this way, differing in their degree of PEGylation as determined by TNBS assay with unmodified L-asparaginase as a reference, one corresponding to full PEGylation (100% of accessible amino groups (e.g., lysine residues and/or the N-terminus) residues being conjugated corresponding to PEGylation of 78% of total amino groups (e.g., lysine residues and/or the N-terminus)); the second one corresponding to partial PEGylation (39% of total amino groups (e.g., lysine residues and/or the N-terminus) or about 50% of accessible amino groups (e.g., lysine residues and/or the N-terminus)) . SDS-PAGE analysis of the conjugates is shown in Figure 2. The resulting conjugates appeared as an essentially homogeneous band and contained no detectable unmodified r-crisantaspase.Example 3: Preparation of 5 kDa mPEG-L-Asparaginase Conjugates[0104] A solution of L-asparaginase from Erwinia chrysanthemi was stirred in a 100 mM sodium phosphate buffer at pH 8.0, at a protein concentration of 4 mg/mL, in the presence of 150 mg/mL or 22.5 mg/mL 5 kDa mPEG-NHS, for 2 hours at 22°C. The resulting crude 5 kDa mPEG-L-asparaginase was purified by size exclusion chromatography using a Superdex 200 pg column on an Akta purifier UPC 100 system. Protein-containing fractions were pooled and concentrated to result in a protein concentration between 2 and 8 mg/mL. Two 5 kDa mPEG-L- asparaginase conjugates were prepared in this way, differing in their degree of PEGylation as determined by TNBS assay with unmodified L-asparaginase as a reference, one corresponding to full PEGylation (100% of accessible amino groups (e.g., lysine residues and/or the N-terminus) being conjugated corresponding to PEGylation of 84% of total amino groups (e.g., lysine residues and/or the N-terminus)); the second one corresponding to partial PEGylation (36% of total amino groups (e.g., lysine residues and/or the N-terminus) or about 43% of accessible amino groups (e.g., lysine residues and/or the N-terminus)). SDS-PAGE analysis of the conjugates is shown in Figure 2. The resulting conjugates appeared as an essentially homogeneous band and contained no detectable unmodified r-crisantaspase.Example 4: Preparation of 2 kDa mPEG-L-Asparaginase Conjugates[0105] A solution of L-asparaginase from Erwinia chrysanthemi was stirred in a 100 mM sodium phosphate buffer pH 8.0 at a protein concentration of 4 mg/mL in the presence of150 mg/mL or 22.5 mg/mL 2 kDa mPEG-NHS for 2 hours at 22°C. The resulting crude 2 kDa mPEG-L-asparaginase was purified by size exclusion chromatography using a Superdex 200 pg column on an Akta purifier UPC 100 system. Protein containing fractions were pooled and concentrated to result in a protein concentration between 2 and 8 mg/mL. Two 2 kDa mPEG-L- asparaginase conjugates were prepared in this way, differing in their degree of PEGylation as determined by TNBS assay with unmodified L-asparaginase as reference, one corresponding to maximum PEGylation (100% of accessible amino groups (e.g., lysine residues and/or the N- terminus) being conjugated corresponding to PEGylation of 86% of total amino groups (e.g., lysine residues and/or the N-terminus)); the second one corresponding to partial PEGylation (47% of total amino groups (e.g., lysine residues and/or the N-terminus) or about 55% of accessible amino groups {e.g., lysine residues and/or the N-terminus)). SDS-PAGE analysis of the conjugates is shown in Figure 2. The resulting conjugates appeared as an essentially homogeneous band and contained no detectable unmodified r-crisantaspase.Example 5: Activity of mPEG-r-Crisantaspase Conjugates[0106] L-asparaginase aminohydrolase activity of each conjugate described in the proceeding examples was determined by Nesslerization of ammonia that is liberated from L-asparagine by enzymatic activity. Briefly, 50μL of enzyme solution were mixed with 2OmM of L-asparagine in a 50 mM Sodium borate buffer pH 8.6 and incubated for 10 min at 37°C. The reaction was stopped by addition of 200μL of Nessler reagent. Absorbance of this solution was measured at 450 nm. The activity was calculated from a calibration curve that was obtained from Ammonia sulfate as reference. The results are summarized in Table 2, below:Table 2: Activity of mPEG-r-crisantaspase conjugates

Figure imgf000031_0001

* the numbers “40%” and “100%” indicate an approximate degree of PEGylation of respectively 40-55% and 100% of accessible amino groups (see Examples 2-4, supra).** the ratio mol PEG / mol monomer was extrapolated from data using TNBS assay, that makes the assumption that all amino groups from the protein (e.g., lysine residues and the N-terminus) are accessible.[0107] Residual activity of mPEG-r-crisantaspase conjugates ranged between 483 and 543 Units/mg. This corresponds to 78-87% of L-asparagine aminohydrolase activity of the unmodified enzyme. Example 6: L-Asparagine-Depleting Effect of Unmodified Crisantaspase

PAPER

Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry (2019), 66(3), 281-289.  |

https://iubmb.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/bab.1723

Crisantaspase is an asparaginase enzyme produced by Erwinia chrysanthemi and used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in case of hypersensitivity to Escherichia coli l-asparaginase (ASNase). The main disadvantages of crisantaspase are the short half-life (10 H) and immunogenicity. In this sense, its PEGylated form (PEG-crisantaspase) could not only reduce immunogenicity but also improve plasma half-life. In this work, we developed a process to obtain a site-specific N-terminal PEGylated crisantaspase (PEG-crisantaspase). Crisantaspase was recombinantly expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) strain cultivated in a shaker and in a 2-L bioreactor. Volumetric productivity in bioreactor increased 37% compared to shaker conditions (460 and 335 U L−1 H−1, respectively). Crisantaspase was extracted by osmotic shock and purified by cation exchange chromatography, presenting specific activity of 694 U mg−1, 21.7 purification fold, and yield of 69%. Purified crisantaspase was PEGylated with 10 kDa methoxy polyethylene glycol-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl (mPEG-NHS) at different pH values (6.5–9.0). The highest N-terminal pegylation yield (50%) was at pH 7.5 with the lowest poly-PEGylation ratio (7%). PEG-crisantaspase was purified by size exclusion chromatography and presented a KM value three times higher than crisantaspase (150 and 48.5 µM, respectively). Nonetheless, PEG-crisantaspase was found to be more stable at high temperatures and over longer periods of time. In 2 weeks, crisantaspase lost 93% of its specific activity, whereas PEG-crisantaspase was stable for 20 days. Therefore, the novel PEG-crisantaspase enzyme represents a promising biobetter alternative for the treatment of ALL.

ADKLPNIVILATGGTIAGSAATGTQTTGYKAGALGVDTLINAVPEVKKLANVKGEQFSN

MASENMTGDVVLKLSQRVNELLARDDVDGVVITHGTDTVEESAYFLHLTVKSDKPVV

FVAAMRPATAISADGPMNLLEAVRVAGDKQSRGRGVMVVLNDRIGSARYITKTNAST

LDTFKANEEGYLGVIIGNRIYYQNRIDKLHTTRSVFDVRGLTSLPKVDILYGYQDDPEY

LYDAAIQHGVKGIVYAGMGAGSVSVRGIAGMRKAMEKGVVVIRSTRTGNGIVPPDEE

LPGLVSDSLNPAHARILLMLALTRTSDPKVIQEYFHTY

Figure S1 – Amino acid sequence of the enzyme crisantaspase without the signal peptide and with the lysines highlighted in red (Swiss-Prot/TrEMBL accession number: P06608|22-348 AA).

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

As a component of a chemotherapy regimen to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia and lymphoblastic lymphoma in patients who are allergic to E. coli-derived asparaginase products
Press ReleaseFor Immediate Release:June 30, 2021

FDA Approves Component of Treatment Regimen for Most Common Childhood Cancer

Alternative Has Been in Global Shortage Since 2016

Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Rylaze (asparaginase erwinia chrysanthemi (recombinant)-rywn) as a component of a chemotherapy regimen to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia and lymphoblastic lymphoma in adult and pediatric patients who are allergic to the E. coli-derived asparaginase products used most commonly for treatment. The only other FDA-approved drug for such patients with allergic reactions has been in global shortage for years.

“It is extremely disconcerting to patients, families and providers when there is a lack of access to critical drugs for treatment of a life-threatening, but often curable cancer, due to supply issues,” said Gregory Reaman, M.D., associate director for pediatric oncology in the FDA’s Oncology Center of Excellence. “Today’s approval may provide a consistently sourced alternative to a pivotal component of potentially curative therapy for children and adults with this type of leukemia.”

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia occurs in approximately 5,700 patients annually, about half of whom are children. It is the most common type of childhood cancer. One component of the chemotherapy regimen is an enzyme called asparaginase that kills cancer cells by depriving them of substances needed to survive. An estimated 20% of patients are allergic to the standard E. coli-derived asparaginase and need an alternative their bodies can tolerate.

Rylaze’s efficacy was evaluated in a study of 102 patients who either had a hypersensitivity to E. coli-derived asparaginases or experienced silent inactivation. The main measurement was whether patients achieved and maintained a certain level of asparaginase activity. The study found that the recommended dosage would provide the target level of asparaginase activity in 94% of patients.

The most common side effects of Rylaze include hypersensitivity reactions, pancreatic toxicity, blood clots, hemorrhage and liver toxicity.

This review was conducted under Project Orbis, an initiative of the FDA Oncology Center of Excellence. Project Orbis provides a framework for concurrent submission and review of oncology drugs among international partners. For this review, FDA collaborated with Health Canada, where the application review is pending.

Rylaze received Fast Track and Orphan Drug designations for this indication. Fast Track is a process designed to facilitate the development and expedite the review of drugs to treat serious conditions and fulfill an unmet medical need. Orphan Drug designation provides incentives to assist and encourage drug development for rare diseases.

The FDA granted approval of Rylaze to Jazz Pharmaceuticals.

REF

https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/jazz-pharmaceuticals-announces-us-fda-approval-of-rylaze-asparaginase-erwinia-chrysanthemi-recombinant-rywn-for-the-treatment-of-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-or-lymphoblastic-lymphoma-301323782.html#:~:text=Jazz%20Pharmaceuticals%20Announces,details%20to%20follow

DUBLIN, June 30, 2021 /PRNewswire/ — Jazz Pharmaceuticals plc (Nasdaq: JAZZ) today announced the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of Rylaze (asparaginase erwinia chrysanthemi (recombinant)-rywn) for use as a component of a multi-agent chemotherapeutic regimen for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL) in pediatric and adult patients one month and older who have developed hypersensitivity to E. coli-derived asparaginase.1 Rylaze is the only recombinant erwinia asparaginase manufactured product that maintains a clinically meaningful level of asparaginase activity throughout the entire duration of treatment, and it was developed by Jazz to address the needs of patients and healthcare providers with an innovative, high-quality erwinia-derived asparaginase with reliable supply.

“We are excited to bring this important new treatment to patients who are in critical need, and we are grateful to FDA for the approval of Rylaze based on its established safety and efficacy profile. We are pleased Rylaze was approved before the trial is complete and are diligently working to advance additional clinical trial data. We are committed to quickly engaging with FDA to evolve the Rylaze product profile with additional dosing options and an IV route of administration,” said Bruce Cozadd, chairman and CEO of Jazz Pharmaceuticals. “Thank you to our collaborators within the Children’s Oncology Group, the clinical trial investigators, patients and their families, and all of the other stakeholders who helped us achieve this significant milestone.”

Rylaze was granted orphan drug designation for the treatment of ALL/LBL by FDA in June 2021. The Biologics Licensing Application (BLA) approval followed review under the Real-Time Oncology Review (RTOR) program, an initiative of FDA’s Oncology Center of Excellence designed for efficient delivery of safe and effective cancer treatments to patients.

The company expects Rylaze will be commercially available in mid-July.

“The accelerated development and approval of Rylaze marks an important step in bringing a meaningful new treatment option for many ALL patients – most of whom are children – who cannot tolerate E. coli-derived asparaginase medicine,” said Dr. Luke Maese, assistant professor at the University of Utah, Primary Children’s Hospital and Huntsman Cancer Institute. “Before the approval of Rylaze, there was a significant need for an effective asparaginase medicine that would allow patients to start and complete their prescribed treatment program with confidence in supply.”

Recent data from a Children’s Oncology Group retrospective analysis of over 8,000 patients found that patients who did not receive a full course of asparaginase treatment due to associated toxicity had significantly lower survival outcomes – regardless of whether those patients were high risk or standard risk, slow early responders.2

About Study JZP458-201
The FDA approval of Rylaze, also known as JZP458, is based on clinical data from an ongoing pivotal Phase 2/3 single-arm, open-label, multicenter, dose confirmation study evaluating pediatric and adult patients with ALL or LBL who have had an allergic reaction to E. coli-derived asparaginases and have not previously received asparaginase erwinia chrysanthemi. The study was designed to assess the safety, tolerability and efficacy of JZP458. The determination of efficacy was measured by serum asparaginase activity (SAA) levels. The Phase 2/3 study is being conducted in two parts. The first part is investigating the intramuscular (IM) route of administration, including a Monday-Wednesday-Friday dosing schedule. The second part remains active to further confirm the dose and schedule for the intravenous (IV) route of administration.

The FDA approval of Rylaze was based on data from the first of three IM cohorts, which demonstrated the achievement and maintenance of nadir serum asparaginase activity (NSAA) greater than or equal to the level of 0.1 U/mL at 48 hours using IM doses of Rylaze 25 mg/m2. The results of modeling and simulations showed that for a dosage of 25 mg/m2 administered intramuscularly every 48 hours, the proportion of patients maintaining NSAA ≥ 0.1 U/mL at 48 hours after a dose of Rylaze was 93.6% (95% CI: 92.6%, 94.6%).1

The most common adverse reactions (incidence >15%) were abnormal liver test, nausea, musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, infection, headache, pyrexia, drug hypersensitivity, febrile neutropenia, decreased appetite, stomatitis, bleeding and hyperglycemia. In patients treated with the Rylaze, a fatal adverse reaction (infection) occurred in one patient and serious adverse reactions occurred in 55% of patients. The most frequent serious adverse reactions (in ≥5% of patients) were febrile neutropenia, dehydration, pyrexia, stomatitis, diarrhea, drug hypersensitivity, infection, nausea and viral infection. Permanent discontinuation due to an adverse reaction occurred in 9% of patients who received Rylaze. Adverse reactions resulting in permanent discontinuation included hypersensitivity (6%) and infection (3%).1

The company will continue to work with FDA and plans to submit additional data from a completed cohort of patients evaluating 25mg/m2 IM given on Monday and Wednesday, and 50 mg/m2 given on Friday in support of a M/W/F dosing schedule. Part 2 of the study is evaluating IV administration and is ongoing. The company also plans to submit these data for presentation at a future medical meeting.

Investor Webcast
The company will host an investor webcast on the Rylaze approval in July. Details will be announced separately.

About Rylaze (asparaginase erwinia chrysanthemi (recombinant)-rywn)
Rylaze, also known as JZP458, is approved in the U.S. for use as a component of a multi-agent chemotherapeutic regimen for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL) in pediatric and adult patients one month and older who have developed hypersensitivity to E. coli-derived asparaginase. Rylaze has orphan drug designation for the treatment of ALL/LBL in the United States. Rylaze is a recombinant erwinia asparaginase that uses a novel Pseudomonas fluorescens expression platform. JZP458 was granted Fast Track designation by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in October 2019 for the treatment of this patient population. Rylaze was approved as part of the Real-Time Oncology Review program, an initiative of the FDA’s Oncology Center of Excellence designed for efficient delivery of safe and effective cancer treatments to patients.

The full U.S. Prescribing Information for Rylaze is available at: <http://pp.jazzpharma.com/pi/rylaze.en.USPI.pdf>

Important Safety Information

RYLAZE should not be given to people who have had:

  • Serious allergic reactions to RYLAZE
  • Serious swelling of the pancreas (stomach pain), serious blood clots, or serious bleeding during previous asparaginase treatment

RYLAZE may cause serious side effects, including:

  • Allergic reactions (a feeling of tightness in your throat, unusual swelling/redness in your throat and/or tongue, or trouble breathing), some of which may be life-threatening
  • Swelling of the pancreas (stomach pain)
  • Blood clots (may have a headache or pain in leg, arm, or chest)
  • Bleeding
  • Liver problems

Contact your doctor immediately if any of these side effects occur.

Some of the most common side effects with RYLAZE include: liver problems, nausea, bone and muscle pain, tiredness, infection, headache, fever, allergic reactions, fever with low white blood cell count, decreased appetite, mouth swelling (sometimes with sores), bleeding, and too much sugar in the blood.

RYLAZE can harm your unborn baby. Inform your doctor if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or nursing. Females of reproductive potential should use effective contraception (other than oral contraceptives) during treatment and for 3 months following the final dose. Do not breastfeed while receiving RYLAZE and for 1 week after the final dose.

Tell your healthcare provider if there are any side effects that are bothersome or that do not go away.

These are not all the possible side effects of RYLAZE. For more information, ask your healthcare provider.

You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit www.fda.gov/medwatch, or call 1-800-FDA-1088 (1-800-332-1088).

About ALL
ALL is a cancer of the blood and bone marrow that can progress quickly if not treated.3 Leukemia is the most common cancer in children, and about three out of four of these cases are ALL.4  Although it is one of the most common cancers in children, ALL is among the most curable of the pediatric malignancies due to recent advancements in treatment.5,6 Adults can also develop ALL, and about four of every 10 cases of ALL diagnosed are in adults.7  The American Cancer Society estimates that almost 6,000 new cases of ALL will be diagnosed in the United States in 2021.7 Asparaginase is a core component of multi-agent chemotherapeutic regimens in ALL.8  However, asparaginase treatments derived from E. coli are associated with the potential for development of hypersensitivity reactions.9

About Lymphoblastic Lymphoma
LBL is a rare, fast-growing, aggressive subtype of Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, most often seen in teenagers and young adults.8 LBL is a very aggressive lymphoma – also called high-grade lymphoma – which means the lymphoma grows quickly with early spread to different parts of the body.10,11

About Jazz Pharmaceuticals plc
Jazz Pharmaceuticals plc (NASDAQ: JAZZ) is a global biopharmaceutical company whose purpose is to innovate to transform the lives of patients and their families. We are dedicated to developing life-changing medicines for people with serious diseases – often with limited or no therapeutic options. We have a diverse portfolio of marketed medicines and novel product candidates, from early- to late-stage development, in neuroscience and oncology. We actively explore new options for patients including novel compounds, small molecules and biologics, and through cannabinoid science and innovative delivery technologies. Jazz is headquartered in Dublin, Ireland and has employees around the globe, serving patients in nearly 75 countries. For more information, please visit www.jazzpharmaceuticals.com and follow @JazzPharma on Twitter.

About The Children’s Oncology Group (COG)
COG (childrensoncologygroup.org), a member of the NCI National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN), is the world’s largest organization devoted exclusively to childhood and adolescent cancer research. COG unites over 10,000 experts in childhood cancer at more than 200 leading children’s hospitals, universities, and cancer centers across North America, Australia, and New Zealand in the fight against childhood cancer. Today, more than 90% of the 14,000 children and adolescents diagnosed with cancer each year in the United States are cared for at COG member institutions. Research performed by COG institutions over the past 50 years has transformed childhood cancer from a virtually incurable disease to one with a combined 5-year survival rate of 80%. COG’s mission is to improve the cure rate and outcomes for all children with cancer.

Caution Concerning Forward-Looking Statements 
This press release contains forward-looking statements, including, but not limited to, statements related to Jazz Pharmaceuticals’ belief in the potential of Rylaze to provide a reliable therapeutic option for adult and pediatric patients to maximize their chance for a cure, plans for a mid-July 2021 launch of Rylaze, the availability of a reliable supply of Rylaze and other statements that are not historical facts. These forward-looking statements are based on Jazz Pharmaceuticals’ current plans, objectives, estimates, expectations and intentions and inherently involve significant risks and uncertainties. Actual results and the timing of events could differ materially from those anticipated in such forward-looking statements as a result of these risks and uncertainties, which include, without limitation, effectively launching and commercializing new products; obtaining and maintaining adequate coverage and reimbursement for the company’s products; delays or problems in the supply or manufacture of the company’s products and other risks and uncertainties affecting the company, including those described from time to time under the caption “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in Jazz Pharmaceuticals’ Securities and Exchange Commission filings and reports (Commission File No. 001-33500), including Jazz Pharmaceuticals’ Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020 and future filings and reports by Jazz Pharmaceuticals. Other risks and uncertainties of which Jazz Pharmaceuticals is not currently aware may also affect Jazz Pharmaceuticals’ forward-looking statements and may cause actual results and the timing of events to differ materially from those anticipated. The forward-looking statements herein are made only as of the date hereof or as of the dates indicated in the forward-looking statements, even if they are subsequently made available by Jazz Pharmaceuticals on its website or otherwise. Jazz Pharmaceuticals undertakes no obligation to update or supplement any forward-looking statements to reflect actual results, new information, future events, changes in its expectations or other circumstances that exist after the date as of which the forward-looking statements were made.

Jazz Media Contact:
Jacqueline Kirby
Vice President, Corporate Affairs
Jazz Pharmaceuticals plc
CorporateAffairsMediaInfo@jazzpharma.com
Ireland, +353 1 697 2141
U.S. +1 215 867 4910

Jazz Investor Contact:
Andrea N. Flynn, Ph.D.
Vice President, Head, Investor Relations
Jazz Pharmaceuticals plc
investorinfo@jazzpharma.com  
Ireland, +353 1 634 3211

References

  1. Rylaze (asparaginase erwinia chrysanthemi (recombinant)-rywn) injection, for intramuscular use Prescribing Information. Palo Alto, CA: Jazz Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
  2. Gupta S, Wang C, Raetz EA et al. Impact of Asparaginase Discontinuation on Outcome in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Report From the Children’s Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol. 2020 Jun 10;38(17):1897-1905. doi: 10.1200/JCO.19.03024
  3. National Cancer Institute. Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version. Available at www.cancer.gov/types/leukemia/patient/adult-all-treatment-pdq. Accessed June 29, 2021
  4. American Cancer Society. Key Statistics for Childhood Leukemia. Available at https://www.cancer.org/cancer/leukemia-in-children/about/key-statistics.html. Accessed June 29, 2021.
  5. American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures 2019. www.cancer.org/research/cancer-facts-statistics/all-cancer-facts-figures/cancer-facts-figures-2019.html. Accessed June 29, 2021.
  6. Pui C, Evans W. A 50-Year Journey to Cure Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. Seminars in Hematology. 2013;50(3), 185-196.
  7. American Cancer Society. Key Statistics for Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL). Available at https://cancerstatisticscenter.cancer.org/?_ga=2.8163506.1018157754.1621008457-1989786785.1621008457#!/data-analysis/NewCaseEstimates. Accessed June 29, 2021.
  8. Salzer W, Bostrom B, Messinger Y et al. 2018. Asparaginase activity levels and monitoring in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Leukemia & Lymphoma. 59:8, 1797-1806, DOI: 10.1080/10428194.2017.1386305.
  9. Hijiya N, van der Sluis IM. Asparaginase-associated toxicity in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Leuk Lymphoma. 2016;57(4):748–757. DOI: 10.3109/10428194.2015.1101098.
  10. Leukemia Foundation. Lymphoblastic Lymphoma. Available at https://www.leukaemia.org.au/disease-information/lymphomas/non-hodgkin-lymphoma/other-non-hodgkin-lymphomas/lymphoblastic-lymphoma/. Accessed June 29, 2021.
  11. Mayo Clinic. Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Diagnosis. Available at https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/acute-lymphocytic-leukemia/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20369083. Accessed June 29, 2021.

SOURCE Jazz Pharmaceuticals plc

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https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4776285/

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Soberana 02, FINLAY-FR-2


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Soberana 02

FINLAY-FR-2

cas 2543416-58-4

A SARS-CoV-2 vaccine comprising a conjugate of the spike protein RBD domain with tetanus toxoid (Finlay Vaccine Institute of Cuba)
Soberana 02
, is a conjugate vaccine developed by Instituto Finlay de Vacunas.[517]

Cuba[518]

Iran[517]

517 Zimmer, Carl; Corum, Jonathan; Wee, Sui-Lee. “Coronavirus Vaccine Tracker”. The New York Times. Retrieved 30 June 2021.

518 Sesin, Carmen (14 May 2021). “Cuba begins mass Covid-19 vaccine inoculation before concluding trials”. NBC News. Retrieved 2 July 2021.

Soberana 02, technical name FINLAY-FR-2, is a COVID-19 vaccine produced by the Finlay Institute, a Cuban epidemiological research institute. It is a conjugate vaccine. This candidate followed a previous one called SOBERANA-01 (FINLAY-FR-1).[2] Professor Ihosvany Castellanos Santos said that the antigen is safe because it contains parts instead of the whole live virus, and therefore it does not require extra refrigeration, like other candidates in the world.[3] According to the WHO candidate landscape vaccine document, this vaccine requires two doses, the second one being administered 28 days after the first shot.[4]

The name of the vaccine, Soberana, is a Spanish word that means “sovereign”.[5]

An overview of current COVID-19 vaccine platforms - ScienceDirect

Efficacy

It has shown an efficacy of 62% after only two doses, according to BioCubaFarma, though a pre-print or details of the study have not been released.[6][7][8]

Pharmacology

FINLAY-FR-2 is a conjugate vaccine. It consists of the receptor binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein conjugated chemically to tetanus toxoid.[2]

Manufacturing

The spike protein subunit is produced in Chinese hamster ovary cell culture.[2] In a pre-print article scientists from Cuba explain details of the vaccines technology and production.[9][non-primary source needed]

 
  Production  Deliveries  Planned Production  Potential Production

Deliveries (0)Effective production (implies deliveries) (1)

  1. Cuba[10][11]

Planned production

  1. Iran

Potential Production

  1. Ghana
  2. Argentina

In Cuba

The Cuban government says it is planning to produce 100 million doses of its vaccine to respond to its own demand and that of other countries.[12][13] Cuba has also suggested that, once it’s approved, it will offer the vaccine to tourists visiting the country.[14][15][16]

The production of the first batch of about 100,000 doses will start in April.[17] José Moya, representative of the World Health Organization and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) in Cuba, suggested that after the vaccine passes all clinical stages, it could be included as part of PAHO’s Revolving Fund.[18]

The roll-out began with an “Interventional Trial”[19] that consisted of inoculating 150,000 at-risk participants which seems to be defined as health-care workers.[20][21] On April 11, 2021, the Ministry of Public Health of Cuba announced that 75,000 health-care workers were inoculated with their first dose of either of the two Cuba’s Phase III vaccines (the other being Abdala).[22][23]

Outside Cuba

Vietnam, Iran, Venezuela, Argentina,[24][25][26] Pakistan, India, the African Union, Jamaica and Suriname[27] have expressed interest in purchasing the vaccine, although they are waiting on Phase 3 results.[28][29]

Iran has signed an agreement to manufacture the vaccine[30] and Argentina is negotiating one.[24][25][26] Additionally, the Cuban government offered a “transfer of technology” to Ghana and will also supply “active materials” needed to make the vaccine.[31][32][33]

While the price is currently unknown, the commercialization strategy of the vaccine will be a combination of the “impact on health” and the capability of Cuba’s system to financially support “the production of vaccines and drugs for the country”, per the director of the Finlay Institute, Vicente Vérez.[34]

Clinical trials

Phase I

FINLAY-FR-2, which started being developed in October 2020, had 40 volunteers for its Phase I, according to the Cuban Public Registry of Clinical Trials, with an open, sequential and adaptive study to assess safety, reactogenicity and explore immunogenicity of the vaccine.[35]

Phase II

Phase IIa involved 100 Cubans, and phase IIb of the vaccine will have 900 volunteers between 19 and 80 years.[36][37] Vicente Vérez, director general of the Finlay Vaccine Institute, said that the vaccine has shown to give an immune response after 14 days.[38] The second phase has been supervised by Iranian officials from the Pasteur Institute.[5]

Phase III

Phase III commenced at the beginning of March as originally scheduled,[39][15] and “ready to publish” results are expected by June.[40][41][42] The trial volunteers are divided into three groups: some will receive two doses of the vaccine 28 days apart, another group will get two doses plus a third immune booster (Soberana Plus[43][44][45]), and the third a placebo.[39]

Although the trials involve thousands of adult volunteers recruited in Havana,[46] Cuba’s public health officials have said that they will also need to conduct phase III trials abroad because the island doesn’t have an outbreak of sufficient scale to produce meaningful statistics on vaccine protection.[5][14]

On March 13, 2021, the Cuban Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Industries Business Group (BioCubaFarma) announced on social media that it had sent 100,000 doses of its Soberana 02 coronavirus vaccine candidate to the Pasteur Institute of Iran for clinical testing, “as part of the collaboration with other countries in the development of COVID-19 vaccines.” [47]

On April 26, 2021, it was reported that a Phase III conducted by the Pasteur Institute of Iran was approved to be started in Iran[48][49][50] It was previously reported that the Institute will host Phase 3 but the pre-requisites were “technology transfer and joint production”.[51][5]

Mexico plans to host a phase 3 trial.[52]

Interventional Study

The “Interventional Study” is set both in Havana,[53] Cuba’s capital and Santiago de Cuba, Cuba’s second most populous city [54][55] and in other provinces.[56] On May 6, 2021, the Finlay Institute of Vaccines announced on social media that the following adverse events have been observed: injection site pain (20%), inflammation at the injection site (5%), and general discomfort (5%).[57][58]

Authorizations

 
  Full authorization  Emergency authorization

See also: List of COVID-19 vaccine authorizations § Soberana 02

References

  1. ^ “Cuba’s Soberana Plus against Covid-19 is showing good results”. Prensa Latina. Retrieved 10 May 2021.
  2. Jump up to:a b c Malik JA, Mulla AH, Farooqi T, Pottoo FH, Anwar S, Rengasamy KR (January 2021). “Targets and strategies for vaccine development against SARS-CoV-2”Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy137: 111254. doi:10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111254PMC 7843096PMID 33550049.
  3. ^ Santos IC (January 2021). “Rapid response to: Covid 19: Hope is being eclipsed by deep frustration”BMJ372: n171. doi:10.1136/bmj.n171.
  4. ^ “Draft landscape and tracker of COVID-19 candidate vaccines”http://www.who.intWorld Health Organization. Retrieved 2021-02-04.
  5. Jump up to:a b c d Rasmussen SE, Eqbali A (12 January 2021). “Iran, Cuba, Under U.S. Sanctions, Team Up for Covid-19 Vaccine Trials”The Wall Street Journal.
  6. ^ “Cuba’s homegrown Covid vaccine shows promise”http://www.ft.com. Retrieved 2021-06-20.
  7. ^ “Cuba encouraged by early efficacy results of homegrown COVID-19 vaccine”http://www.zawya.com. Retrieved 2021-06-20.
  8. ^ Acosta, Nelson (2021-06-20). “Cuba encouraged by early results of homegrown COVID-19 vaccine amid worst outbreak”The Age. Retrieved 2021-06-20.
  9. ^ Valdes-Balbin, Yury; Santana-Mederos, Darielys; Quintero, Lauren; Fernández, Sonsire; Rodriguez, Laura; Ramirez, Belinda Sanchez; Perez, Rocmira; Acosta, Claudia; Méndez, Yanira; Ricardo, Manuel G.; Hernandez, Tays (2021-02-09). “SARS-CoV-2 RBD-Tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine induces a strong neutralizing immunity in preclinical studies”doi:10.1101/2021.02.08.430146.
  10. ^ Melimopoulos, Elizabeth. “Is Cuba closing in on COVID vaccine sovereignty?”http://www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2021-05-07.
  11. ^ “Optimism as Cuba set to test its own Covid vaccine”BBC News. 2021-02-16. Retrieved 2021-05-07.
  12. ^ “Cuba espera fabricar 100 millones de dosis de su candidato vacunal Soberana 02”Nodal (in Spanish). 21 January 2021.
  13. ^ “Vaccino, Cuba pronta a produrre 100 milioni di dosi di ‘Soberana 02′”Dire (in Italian). 21 January 2021.
  14. Jump up to:a b Ribeiro G (4 February 2021). “Cuba to offer coronavirus vaccines to tourists”Brazilian Report.
  15. Jump up to:a b “Coronavirus: Vacuna cubana Soberana 02 alista fase 3 y ensayos”Deutsche Welle (in Spanish). 5 February 2021.
  16. ^ Meredith S (23 February 2021). “‘Sun, sea, sand and Soberana 02’: Cuba open to inoculating tourists with homegrown Covid vaccine”CNBC.
  17. ^ “Coronavirus: Vacuna cubana Soberana 02 alista fase 3 y ensayos”Deutsche Welle (in Spanish). 5 February 2021. Las expectativas sobre Soberana 02 son tales que el titular del organismo estatal que desarrolló la vacuna, Vicente Vérez, confirmó que mientras se aguarden los resultados de la Fase 3 solo en La Habana, en abril se dará inicio a la producción del primer lote, de alrededor de 100 mil dosis.
  18. ^ “Cuba anuncia fase 3 de la vacuna Soberana 02”La Jornada(in Spanish). 7 February 2021. Una vez que superen las etapas clínicas, la OMS podría contar con el fármaco cubano, afirmó Moya, y “pasar a ser parte del grupo de vacunas que se oferten a través del Fondo Rotatorio”, un mecanismo que desde hace cuatro décadas permite gestionar antígenos e insumos a los países de las Américas.
  19. ^ “SOBERANA – INTERVENTION | Registro Público Cubano de Ensayos Clínicos”rpcec.sld.cu. Retrieved 2021-04-11.
  20. ^ “Cuba says it’s ‘betting it safe’ with its own Covid vaccine”NBC News. Retrieved 2021-04-11.
  21. ^ “Cuba begins testing 2nd COVID-19 vaccine on health care workers”medicalxpress.com. Retrieved 2021-04-11.
  22. ^ Ministry of Public Health of Cuba (11 April 2021). “[Translated] “The administration of the 1st dose of the Cuban vaccine candidates #Soberana02 and #Abdala to the 75 thousand health workers and Biocubafarma who are part of the intervention study taking place in #LaHabana has concluded.””Twitter. Retrieved 2021-04-11.
  23. ^ “Cuban scientists, health workers received first anti-Covid-19 dose”http://www.plenglish.com/index.php?o=rn&id=66247&SEO=cuban-scientists-health-workers-received-first-anti-covid-19-dose (in Spanish). Retrieved 2021-04-11.
  24. Jump up to:a b “ILARREGUI (EMBAJADOR EN CUBA): “DURANTE ESTE AÑO PODREMOS TENER VACUNAS CUBANAS EN ARGENTINA””RadioCut. Retrieved 2021-05-07.
  25. Jump up to:a b Argentina, Cadena 3. “Argentina comenzó a negociar con Cuba la vacuna Soberana”Cadena 3 Argentina (in Spanish). Retrieved 2021-05-07.
  26. Jump up to:a b de 2021, 6 de Mayo. “Sin definiciones sobre cuándo podrían llegar, el Gobierno avanza para conseguir las vacunas Soberana y Abdala de Cuba”infobae (in Spanish). Retrieved 2021-05-07.
  27. ^ admin (2021-04-09). “Cuba’s COVID-19 Vaccines Being Sought After by CARICOM Countries”Caribbean News. Retrieved 2021-05-07.
  28. ^ Guenot, Marianne (2021-02-15). “Cuba is working on a homegrown COVID-19 vaccine program. It has a history of fighting disease without help from the West”Business Insider France (in French). Retrieved 2021-05-07.
  29. ^ Página12 (2021-01-22). “Soberana 02: Cuba prepara cien millones de dosis de la vacuna contra el coronavirus | “No somos una multinacional. Nuestro fin es crear salud”, dijo el director del Instituto Finlay de Vacunas”PAGINA12. Retrieved 2021-05-07.
  30. ^ “Cuban coronavirus vaccine to start third clinical trial phase in Iran”Tehran Times. 2021-04-18. Retrieved 2021-05-07.
  31. ^ Banini | 0542440286, Awofisoye Richard. “CEO OF FDA DISCUSSES PRODUCTION OF COVID-19 VACCINE WITH CUBAN AMBASSADOR”http://www.fdaghana.gov.gh. Retrieved 2021-05-05.
  32. ^ “Cuba To Transfer COVID-19 Vaccine Technology To Ghana”http://www.gnbcc.net. Retrieved 2021-05-05.
  33. ^ “Cuban government offers to transfer COVID-19 Soberana 02 vaccine technology to Ghana”Rio Times Online. 16 February 2021.
  34. ^ “Coronavirus: Cuba will produce 100 million doses of its Soberana 02 vaccine”OnCubaNews English. 2021-01-21. Retrieved 2021-05-07.
  35. ^ “SOBERANA 02 | Registro Público Cubano de Ensayos Clínicos”Cuban Registry of Clinical Trials (in Spanish). Retrieved 24 January 2021.
  36. ^ Cuba inicia nova fase de testes com vacina que desenvolve contra covid-19 (in Portuguese), Universo Online, 19 January 2021, Wikidata Q105047566
  37. ^ “Cuba apuesta por crear primera vacuna de América Latina contra el covid-19”France 24 (in Spanish). 2021-01-21. Retrieved 24 January 2021.
  38. ^ “Cuba negotiates with other countries to develop phase 3 of Soberana 02 vaccine”OnCubaNews English. 2020-12-30. Retrieved 24 January 2021.
  39. Jump up to:a b “Cuban-developed vaccine enters Phase III trial”ABS CBN. 5 March 2021.
  40. ^ Mega, Emiliano Rodríguez (2021-04-29). “Can Cuba beat COVID with its homegrown vaccines?”Naturedoi:10.1038/d41586-021-01126-4PMID 33927405.
  41. ^ “Cuban Vaccine Ready in July. Interview with the Cuban Ambassador to the Czech Republic”Pressenza. 2021-03-23. Retrieved 2021-04-29.
  42. ^ Augustin, Ed (2021-05-12). “Cuba deploys unproven homegrown vaccines, hoping to slow an exploding virus outbreak”The New York TimesISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2021-05-14.
  43. ^ “L’esempio cubano sui vaccini”http://www.ilfoglio.it (in Italian). Retrieved 2021-05-07.
  44. ^ Avances de las vacunas cubanas contra la COVID-19, retrieved 2021-05-07
  45. ^ Mega, Emiliano Rodríguez (2021-04-29). “Can Cuba beat COVID with its homegrown vaccines?”Naturedoi:10.1038/d41586-021-01126-4PMID 33927405.
  46. ^ Yaffe, Helen. “Cuba’s five COVID-19 vaccines: the full story on Soberana 01/02/Plus, Abdala, and Mambisa”LSE Latin America and Caribbean blog. Retrieved 2021-03-31.
  47. ^ “Cuba sends 100,000 doses of the Soberana 02 vaccine candidate to Iran” oncubanews.com. Retrieved 19 March 2021.
  48. ^ “Iran-Cuba vaccine enters phase three clinical trials”Tehran Times. 2021-04-26. Retrieved 2021-04-28.
  49. ^ “Cuban coronavirus vaccine to start third clinical trial phase in Iran”Tehran Times. 2021-04-18. Retrieved 2021-04-28.
  50. ^ “América Latina apura una vacuna propia. Cuba, adelante; México avanza. Pero no son los únicos”http://www.poresto.net (in Spanish). Retrieved 2021-04-28.
  51. ^ Marsh S (2021-01-09). “Cuba to collaborate with Iran on coronavirus vaccine”Reuters. Retrieved 2021-01-24.
  52. ^ “Mexico Hopes to Work With Cuba on Covid Vaccine Phase 3 Trial”Bloomberg.com. 2021-02-14. Retrieved 2021-05-07.
  53. ^ Marsh, Sarah (2021-03-24). “Nearly all Havana to receive experimental Cuban COVID-19 vaccines”Reuters. Retrieved 2021-04-28.
  54. ^ BioCubaFarma (April 6, 2021). “[Translated] Updating the vaccination process with vaccine candidates #Soberana02 and #Abdala during ongoing clinical trials.#VacunasCubanasCovid19”Twitter (in Spanish). Retrieved 2021-04-11.
  55. ^ “Intervention study with Covid-19 vaccine candidate Abdala begins”Radio Cadena Agramonte. Retrieved 2021-04-28.
  56. ^ “Cuba administers over 62,000 doses in intervention trials”http://www.plenglish.com/index.php?o=rn&id=66012&SEO=cuba-administers-over-62000-doses-in-intervention-trials (in Spanish). Retrieved 2021-04-28.
  57. ^ “[Trnslated] In more than 62 thousand applied doses of #Soberana02 the safety of the vaccine has been demonstrated. Adverse effects have been: 👉 Pain at the injection site (20%). 👉 Redness at the injection site (5%). 👉 Feeling of general malaise (5%)”Twitter. Retrieved 2021-05-07.
  58. ^ “[Translated]In more than 62 thousand applied doses of #Soberana02 the safety of the vaccine has been demonstrated. Adverse effects have been: 👉 Pain at the injection site (20%). 👉 Redness at the injection site (5%). 👉 Feeling of general malaise (5%)”Facebook. Retrieved 2021-05-07.

External links

Scholia has a profile for SOBERANA 02 (Q105047585).
Vaccine description
TargetSARS-CoV-2
Vaccine typeConjugate
Clinical data
Other namesFINLAY-FR-2, SOBERANA PLUS[1]
Routes of
administration
Intramuscular
Legal status
Legal statusFull and Emergency Authorizations: List of Soberana 02 authorizations
Part of a series on the
COVID-19 pandemic
COVID-19 (disease)SARS-CoV-2 (virus)CasesDeaths
showTimeline
showLocations
showInternational response
showMedical response
showEconomic impact and recession
showImpacts
 COVID-19 portal

/////////////////SARS-CoV-2, covid 19, corona virus, vaccine, iran, cuba, Soberana 02, FINLAY-FR-2

 Nature (London, United Kingdom) (2021), 

wdt-3

NEW DRUG APPROVALS

one time

$10.00

BPI-7711, Rezivertinib


Rezivertinib.png
img

BPI-7711, Rezivertinib

1835667-12-3

C27H30N6O3, 486.576

N-[2-[2-(dimethylamino)ethoxy]-4-methoxy-5-[[4-(1-methylindol-3-yl)pyrimidin-2-yl]amino]phenyl]prop-2-enamide

Beta Pharma in collaboration Chinese licensee CSPC Pharmaceuticals Group , is developing BPI-7711

In June 2021, this drug was reported to be in phase 3 clinical development.

  • OriginatorBeta Pharma
  • ClassAmides; Amines; Antineoplastics; Indoles; Phenyl ethers; Pyrimidines; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of ActionEpidermal growth factor receptor antagonists
  • Phase IIINon-small cell lung cancer
  • 30 Dec 2020Chemical structure information added
  • 09 Apr 2020Beta Pharma initiates a phase I trial for Non-small cell lung cancer (In volunteers) in China (PO) (NCT04135833)
  • 25 Mar 2020Beta Pharma completes a phase I pharmacokinetic trial for Non-small cell lung cancer (In volunteers) in China (NCT04135820)

GTPL10628

2-Propenamide, N-(2-(2-(dimethylamino)ethoxy)-4-methoxy-5-((4-(1-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-2-pyrimidinyl)amino)phenyl)-

N-(2-(2-(Dimethylamino)ethoxy)-4-methoxy-5-((4-(1-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-2-pyrimidinyl)amino)phenyl)-2-propenamideThe epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, Herl, ErbB l) is a principal member of the ErbB family of four structurally-related cell surface receptors with the other members being Her2 (Neu, ErbB2), Her3 (ErbB3) and Her4 (ErbB4). EGFR exerts its primary cellular functions though its intrinsic catalytic tyrosine protein kinase activity. The receptor is activated by binding with growth factor ligands, such as epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-a), which transform the catalytically inactive EGFR monomer into catalytically active homo- and hetero- dimers. These catalytically active dimers then initiate intracellular tyrosine kinase activity, which leads to the autophosphorylation of specific EGFR tyrosine residues and elicits the downstream activation of signaling proteins. Subsequently, the signaling proteins initiate multiple signal transduction cascades (MAPK, Akt and JNK), which ultimately mediate the essential biological processes of cell growth, proliferation, motility and survival.EGFR is found at abnormally high levels on the surface of many types of cancer cells and increased levels of EGFR have been associated with advanced disease, cancer spread and poor clinical prognosis. Mutations in EGFR can lead to receptor overexpression, perpetual activation or sustained hyperactivity and result in uncontrolled cell growth, i.e. cancer. Consequently, EGFR mutations have been identified in several types of malignant tumors, including metastatic lung, head and neck, colorectal and pancreatic cancers. In lung cancer, mutations mainly occur in exons 18 to 21, which encode the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding pocket of the kinase domain. The most clinically relevant drug- sensitive EGFR mutations are deletions in exon 19 that eliminate a common amino acid motif (LREA) and point mutations in exon 21, which lead to a substitution of arginine for leucine at position 858 (L858R). Together, these two mutations account for nearly 85% of the EGFR mutations observed in lung cancer. Both mutations have perpetual tyrosine kinase activity and as a result they are oncogenic. Biochemical studies have demonstrated that these mutated EGFRs bind preferentially to tyrosine kinase inhibitor drugs such as erlotinib and gefitinib over adenosine triphosphate (ATP).Erlotinib and gefitinib are oral EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors that are first line monotherapies for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients having activating mutations in EGFR. Around 70% of these patients respond initially, but unfortunately they develop resistance with a median time to progression of 10-16 months. In at least 50% of these initially responsive patients, disease progression is associated with the development of a secondary mutation, T790M in exon 20 of EGFR (referred to as the gatekeeper mutation). The additional T790M mutation increases the affinity of the EGFR kinase domain for ATP, thereby reducing the inhibitory activity of ATP- competitive inhibitors like gefitinib and erlotinib.Recently, irreversible EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been developed that effectively inhibit the kinase domain of the T790M double mutant and therefore overcome the resistance observed with reversible inhibitors in the clinic. These inhibitors possess reactive electrophilic functional groups that react with the nucleophilic thiol of an active-site cysteine. Highly selective irreversible inhibitors can be achieved by exploiting the inherent non-covalent selectivity of a given scaffold along with the location of a particular cysteine residue within the ATP binding site. The acrylamide moieties of these inhibitors both undergo a Michael reaction with Cys797 in the ATP binding site of EGFRT790M to form a covalent bond. This covalent mechanism is thought to overcome the increase in ATP affinity of the T790M EGRF double mutant and give rise to effective inhibition. However, these inhibitors may cause various undesired toxicities. Therefore, development of new inhibitors for treatment of various EGFR-related cancers is still in high demand. 
PatentCN201580067776) N-(2-(2-(dimethylamino)ethoxy)-4-methoxy-5-((4-(1-methyl-1H- Indol-3-yl)pyrimidin-2-yl)amino)phenyl)acrylamide (compound of formula I) can be prepared by the following synthetic route: 

PATENT

WO2016094821A2

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2016094821A2/enExample 1N-(2-(2-(Dimethylamino)ethoxy)-4-methoxy-5-((4-(l-methyl-lH-indol-3- yl)pyrimidin-2-yl)amino)phenyl)acrylamide (1) Sche

Figure imgf000022_0001

N-(4-(2-(Dimethylamino)ethoxy)-2-methoxy-5-nitrophenyl)-4-(l-methyl-lH- indol-3-yl)pyrimidin-2-amine (Scheme 1, Intermediate B). To a slurry of NaH (30 mmol, 60% oil dispersion prewashed with hexanes) and 50 mL of 1,4-dioxane was added 2-dimethylaminoethanol (27 mmol, 2.7 mL) dropwise with stirring under N2. After stirring for 1 h, a slurry of A (5.4 mmol) in 50 mL of 1,4-dioxane was added portion-wise over 15 min under a stream of N2. The resulting mixture was stirred overnight, then poured into water and the solid was collected, rinsed with water, and dried under vacuum to yield 2.6 g of product as a yellow solid. A purified sample was obtained from chromatography (silica gel; CH2C12-CH30H gradient). 1H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO) δ 2.26 (s, 6H), 2.70 (t, 2H, J = 6 Hz), 3.87 (s, 3H), 4.01 (s, 3H), 4.32 (t, 2H, J = 6 Hz), 7.00-7.53 (m, 5H), 8.18-8.78 (m, 5H); C24H26N604 m/z MH+ 463.4-(2-(Dimethylamino)ethoxy)-6-methoxy-Nl-(4-(l-methyl-lH-indol-3- yl)pyrimidin-2-yl)benzene-l,3-diamine (Scheme 1, Intermediate C). A suspension of 2.6 g of Intermediate B, 1.6 g of Fe°, 30 mL of ethanol, 15 mL of water, and 20 mL of cone. HC1 was heated to 78 °C for 3 h. The solution was cooled to room temperature, adjusted to pH 10 with 10% NaOH (aq) and diluted with CH2C12. The mixture was filtered through Dicalite, and the filtrate layers were separated. The aqueous phase was extracted with CH2C12 twice, and the combined organic extracts were dried over Na2S04 and concentrated. Column chromatography (silica gel, CH2Cl2-MeOH gradient) afforded 1.2 g of Intermediate C as a solid. C24H28N602 m/z MH+ 433.N-(2-(2-(Dimethylamino)ethoxy)-4-methoxy-5-((4-(l-methyl-lH-indol-3- yl)pyrimidin-2-yl)amino)phenyl)acrylamide (1). To a solution of Intermediate C (2.8 mmol) in 50 mL of THF and 10 mL of water was added 3-chloropropionychloride (2.8 mmol) dropwise with stirring. After 5 h of stirring, NaOH (28 mmol) was added and the mixture was heated at 65°C for 18 h. After cooling to room temperature, THF was partially removed under reduced pressure, and the mixture was extracted with CH2C12, dried over Na2S04, and concentrated. Chromatography of the crude product (silica gel, CH2Cl2-MeOH) afforded 0.583 g of Example 1 as a beige solid. 1H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO) δ 2.28 (s, 6H), 2.50-2.60 (m, 2H), 3.86 (s, 3H), 3.90 (s, 3H), 4.19 (t, 2H, = 5.5 Hz), 5.73-5.77 (m, IH), 6.21-6.27 (m, IH), 6.44-6.50 (m, IH), 6.95 (s, IH), 7.11-7.53 (overlapping m, 3H), 7.90 (s, IH), 8.27-8.30 (overlapping m, 3H), 8.55 (s, IH), 8.84 (s, IH), 9.84 (s, IH) ppm; C27H30N6O3 m/z MH+ 487

PATENT WO2021115425

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2021115425&tab=FULLTEXT&_cid=P20-KQN9F3-73566-1Epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR, Her1, ErbB1) are the main members of the ErbB family of four structurally related cell surface receptors, and the other members are Her2 (Neu, ErbB2), Her3 (ErbB3) and Her4 (ErbB4). EGFR exerts its main cellular functions through its inherent catalytic tyrosine protein kinase activity. The receptor is activated by binding to growth factor ligands, such as epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α). The catalytically inactive EGFR monomer is transformed into a catalytically active homopolymer and Heterodimer. These catalytically active dimers then initiate intracellular tyrosine kinase activity, which leads to autophosphorylation of specific EGFR tyrosine residues and elicits downstream activation of signaling proteins. Subsequently, the signal protein initiates multiple signal transduction cascades (MAPK, Akt, and JNK), which ultimately regulate the basic biological processes of cell growth, proliferation, motility, and survival.

EGFR has been found to have abnormally high levels on the surface of many types of cancer cells, and elevated EGFR levels have been associated with advanced disease, cancer spread, and poor clinical prognosis. Mutations in EGFR can lead to overexpression of the receptor, permanent activation or continuous hyperactivity, leading to uncontrolled cell growth, which is cancer. Therefore, EGFR mutations have been identified in several types of malignant tumors, including metastatic lung cancer, head and neck cancer, colorectal cancer, and pancreatic cancer. In brain cancer, mutations mainly occur in exons 18-21, which encode the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding pocket of the kinase domain. The most clinically relevant drug-sensitive EGFR mutations are deletions in exon 19 and point mutations in exon 21. The former eliminates a common amino acid motif (LREA), and the latter results in position 858 (L858R). The arginine is replaced by leucine. Together, these two mutations account for nearly 85% of the EGFR mutations observed in lung cancer. Both mutations have permanent tyrosine kinase activity, so they are carcinogenic. In at least 50% of patients who initially responded to current therapies, the progression of the disease is related to the development of a secondary mutation, T790M (also known as the goalkeeper mutation) in exon 20 of EGFR.
BPI-7711 is a third-generation EGFR-TKI compound developed by Beida Pharmaceuticals and disclosed in International Patent No. WO2017/218892. It is the N-(2-(2-(dimethylamino) )Ethoxy)-4-methoxy-5-((4-(1-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)pyrimidin-2-yl)amino)phenyl)acrylamide methanesulfonic acid salt:

Need to develop improved properties containing N-(2-(2-(dimethylamino)ethoxy)-4-methoxy-5-((4-(1-methyl-1H-indole-3 -Yl)pyrimidin-2-yl)amino)phenyl)acrylamide pharmaceutically acceptable salt, in particular the pharmaceutical composition of BPI-7711 and its use, and the preparation of said pharmaceutical composition suitable for large-scale production method.

PATENT

WO2021061695 , for another filing, assigned to Beta Pharma, claiming a combination of an EGFR inhibitor (eg BPI-7711) and a CDK4/6 inhibitor, useful for treating cancer.

PATENT

WO-2021121146

Novel crystalline polymorphic form A of rezivertinib – presumed to be BPI-7711 – useful for treating diseases mediated by EGFR mutations eg lung cancer, preferably non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a type of transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase in the human body. The activation (ie phosphorylation) of this kinase is of great significance to the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis, tumor invasion, metastasis and apoptosis. EGFR kinase is involved in the disease process of most cancers, and these receptors are overexpressed in many major human tumors. Overexpression, mutations, or high expression of ligands associated with these family members can lead to some tumor diseases, such as non-small cell lung cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, head and neck cancer, cervical cancer, bladder cancer, and thyroid. Cancer, stomach cancer, kidney cancer, etc. 
In recent years, epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase has become one of the most attractive targets in current anti-tumor drug research. In 2003, the US FDA approved the first epidermal growth receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) drug (gefitinib) for the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Development of a generation of EGFR inhibitors. Numerous clinical trials have confirmed that for patients with EGFR-positive non-small cell lung cancer, the therapeutic effect of molecular targeted drugs is significantly better than traditional chemotherapy. 
Although the first-generation EGFR-inhibiting targeted drugs responded well to the initial treatment of many non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, most patients will eventually develop disease progression due to drug resistance (such as EGFR secondary T790M mutation). The emergence of drug resistance is caused by various mechanisms based on the mutations in the original EGFR pathway activity. In the drug resistance research on the first generation of EGFR inhibitors, the research frontier is the irreversible third generation EFGR inhibitor. 
But so far, the third-generation EGFR inhibitors worldwide, in addition to AstraZeneca O’Higgins imatinib developed, there is no other effective against T790M resistance mutations in patients with drug approved for clinical use; Several drug candidates for the T790M mutation are in clinical development. The chemical structure of this third-generation EGFR inhibitor is completely different from that of the first-generation. The main difference from the first-generation EGFR inhibitors is that they both use a highly selective core structure to replace the low-selective aminoquinoline core structure of the first and second-generation EGFR-TKIs. Compared with wild-type EGFR, these third-generation compounds are highly specific and selective for the T790M mutation after EGFR positive resistance. 
Chinese Patent Application No. CN201580067776.8 discloses a compound of the following formula I, which also belongs to the third-generation EGFR-TKI class of small molecule targeted drugs. The compound has a high inhibitory effect on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells with single-activity mutation and T790M double-mutant EGFR, and its effective inhibitory concentration is significantly lower than the concentration required to inhibit the activity of wild-type EGFR tyrosine kinase. It has good properties, low side effects and good safety.

Chinese Patent Application No. CN201780050034.3 also discloses various salts and corresponding crystal forms of the compound of the above formula I. Example 2 discloses two crystal forms of the methanesulfonate of the compound of formula I, 2A and 2B, respectively.In the following examples, the “room temperature” can be 15-25°C.[0041](1) N-(2-(2-(Dimethylamino)ethoxy)-4-methoxy-5-((4-(1-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)pyrimidine -2-yl)amino)phenyl)acrylamide (compound of formula I)[0042]

[0043]Known (for example, see CN201580067776.8) N-(2-(2-(dimethylamino)ethoxy)-4-methoxy-5-((4-(1-methyl-1H- Indol-3-yl)pyrimidin-2-yl)amino)phenyl)acrylamide (compound of formula I) can be prepared by the following synthetic route:[0044]

[0045]Step 1-Preparation of Intermediate J:[0046]

[0047]Preparation: In a 10L reaction flask, add 6L of anhydrous tetrahydrofuran solvent, protected by nitrogen, and cool to 0°C. While stirring, slowly add 101 g of sodium hydride (101 g, 2.52 mol), and the internal temperature does not exceed 10° C., and add 234 g of dimethylaminoethanol (234 g, 2.62 mol). After the addition, the temperature is adjusted to room temperature to prepare a sodium alkoxide solution.[0048]In a 30L reaction flask, add N-(4-fluoro-2-methoxy-5-nitrophenyl)-4-(1-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-2-pyrimidinamine ( Starting material B) (430g, 1.10mol), then add 9L of tetrahydrofuran, start stirring, dissolve it, control the temperature at 10±10°C, slowly add the prepared sodium alkoxide solution dropwise. Control the temperature at 10±10℃ and keep it for 5.0h. When the raw material content is ≤0.5%, the reaction ends. Control the temperature at 10±10°C, slowly add 3% hydrochloric acid solution dropwise, adjust the pH of the solution to 6-7, stir for 1.5h and then stand for stratification, separate the organic phase, and concentrate to 15-20L. After cooling to 20±5°C, 4.3 kg of water was slowly added dropwise, filtered, and dried to obtain 497 g of yellow powder intermediate J with a yield of 98.0% and an HPLC purity of 99.3%. MS m/z: 463.2 [M+1].[0049]Nuclear magnetic data: 1 HNMR (d 6 -DMSO): δ ppm: 8.78 (s, 1H); 8.42-8.28 (m, 3H); 8.16 (s, 1H); 7.53 (d, 1H, J = 8.28); 7.29- 7.20 (m, 2H); 7.13-7.07 (m, 1H); 7.01 (s, 1H); 4.33 (t, 2H, J = 5.65); 4.02 (s, 3H); 3.88 (s, 3H); 2.71 ( t, 2H, J = 5.77); 2.27 (s, 6H).[0050]Step 2-Preparation of Intermediate K:[0051]

[0052]Preparation: Add 5L of tetrahydrofuran and Intermediate J (350g, 108mmol) to a 10L hydrogenation reactor, add 17.5g of wet palladium charcoal, replace the hydrogenation reactor with hydrogen, adjust the pressure value to 0.2MPa, control the temperature at 25°C, and keep the temperature for reaction. At 9h, HPLC monitors the progress of the reaction, and stops the reaction when the substrate is ≤0.5%. Filter, concentrate the filtrate under reduced pressure until the solvent volume is about 2L, adjust the internal temperature to room temperature, slowly add 4L n-heptane dropwise within 4-7 hours, filter and dry the solid under reduced pressure to obtain 285g of white powder intermediate K The yield was 86%, and the HPLC purity was 99.60%. MS m/z: 433.3 [M+1].

Nuclear magnetic data: 1 HNMR (CDCl 3 ): δ ppm: 8.42 (d, 1H, J = 7.78), 8.28 (s, 1H), 8.26-8.23 (m, 1H), 7.78 (s, 1H), 7.51 (d, 1H,J=8.28),7.41(s,1H),7.26-7.23(m,1H),7.19- 7.11(m,2H),6.72(s,1H), 4.38(br,2H),4.06(t, 2H,J=5.77), 3.88(s,3H), 3.75(s,3H), 2.63(t,2H,J=5.77), 2.26(s,6H).

Step 3-Preparation of compound of formula I:

Add 250 mL of anhydrous tetrahydrofuran solvent and Intermediate K (14 g, 32 mmol) to the reaction flask and stir, cool to 0-5° C., add 10% hydrochloric acid (12 ml), and stir for 20 minutes. At 0-5°C, slowly drop 3-chloropropionyl chloride (5.6 g, 45 mmol) into the reaction flask. Stir for 3 hours, after sampling test (K/(U+K)≤0.5%) is qualified, add 36% potassium hydroxide aqueous solution (75ml, 480mmol), heat to 23-25°C, and stir for 12 hours. Raise the temperature to 50-60°C and stir for 4 hours. After the sampling test (U/(U+L)≤0.1%) is qualified, stand still for liquid separation. Separate the organic phase, wash with 10% brine three times, dry, filter, and concentrate the organic phase to 150 ml. The temperature was raised to 40° C., 150 ml of n-heptane was slowly added dropwise, and the temperature was lowered to room temperature to precipitate crystals. Filtered and dried to obtain 10.71 g of light brown solid (compound of formula I), yield 68%, HPLC purity: 99.8% (all single impurities do not exceed 0.15%). MS m/z: 487.3 [M+1].[0057]Nuclear magnetic data (Figure 1): 1 HNMR (d 6 -DMSO): δppm: 9.84 (s, 1H), 8.90 ~ 8.82 (m, 1H), 8.32-8.25 (m, 2H), 7.89 (s, 1H) ,7.51(d,1H,J=8.25), 7.27~7.10(m,1H), 6.94(s,1H), 6.49(dd,1H,J=16.88,10.13), 6.25(dd,1H,J=16.95 ,1.81),5.80~5.75(m,1H),4.19(t,2H,J=5.57),3.88(d,6H,J=14.63,6H),3.34(s,3H),2.58(d,2H, J=5.5), 2.28 (s, 6H).

(2) N-(2-(2-(Dimethylamino)ethoxy)-4-methoxy-5-((4-(1-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)pyrimidine -2-yl)amino)phenyl)acrylamide methanesulfonate (Form A) preparation
Example 1

The compound of formula I (3 g, 6.1 mmol) was dissolved in 24 ml of dimethyl sulfoxide DMSO solvent, the temperature was raised to 65° C., and the mixture was stirred and dissolved. Add an equivalent amount of methanesulfonic acid (0.59 g, 6.1 mmol) to the system. The temperature was lowered to 50°C, and 12ml of isopropyl acetate IPAc was slowly added. Stir at 50°C for 1 hour, then lower the temperature to 15°C. 21ml IPAc was added in 4 hours. The solution was stirred and crystallized at 15°C, filtered under reduced pressure, the filter cake was washed with isopropyl acetate, and washed with acetone to reduce the residual DMSO solvent. Blow drying at 50°C (or vacuum drying at 50°C) to obtain 3.16 g of a pale yellow solid (crystal form A). HPLC purity is 100%, yield is 88%, DMSO: <100ppm; IPAc: <100ppm. MS m/z: 487.2 [M+1-MsOH]. Melting point: 242-244°C.
Nuclear magnetic data (figure 2): 1 HNMR(d 6 -DMSO): δppm: 9.57(brs,1H), 9.40(s,1H), 8.71(s,1H), 8.48(s,1H), 8.32(d ,1H,J=7.9),8.29(d,1H,J=5.3),7.96(s,1H),7.51(d,1H,J=8.2),7.23(ddd,1H,J=7.9,7.1,0.8 ), 7.19 (d, 1H, J = 5.4), 7.15 (ddd, 1H, J = 7.8, 7.3, 0.5), 6.94 (s, 1H), 6.67 (dd, 1H, J = 16.9, 10.2), 6.27 ( dd, 1H, J = 16.9, 1.8), 5.57 (dd, 1H, J = 16.9, 1.7), 4.44 (t, 2H, J = 4.6), 3.89 (s, 3H), 3.88 (s, 3H), 3.58 (t, 2H, J=4.6), 2.93 (s, 6H), 2.39 (s, 3H).
After testing, the powder X-ray diffraction pattern of crystal form A obtained in this example has diffraction angle 2θ values of 11.06±0.2°, 12.57±0.2°, 13.74±0.2°, 14.65±0.2°, 15.48±0.2°, 16.58±0.2°, 17.83±0.2°, 19.20±0.2°, 19.79±0.2°, 20.88±0.2°, 22.05±0.2°, 23.06±0.2°, 24.23±0.2°, 25.10±0.2°, 25.71±0.2°, 26.15±0.2°, 27.37±0.2°, 27.42±0.2° has a characteristic peak; its XRPD spectrum is shown in Figure 3 and the attached table, DSC diagram is shown in Figure 4, TGA diagram is shown in Figure 5, and infrared spectrum IR diagram is shown in Figure 6. Show.
Example 2

[0066]The compound of formula I (28.25 g, 58.1 mmol) was dissolved in 224 ml of dimethyl sulfoxide DMSO solvent, the temperature was raised to 15-35° C., and the mixture was stirred to clear. 0.97 equivalents of methanesulfonic acid (5.4 g, 0.97 mmol) were added to the system in batches. Slowly add 448 ml of methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). Stir for 1 hour, then lower the temperature to 10-15°C. The solution was reacted with salt formation at 10-15°C, sampled, and HPLC detected the residue of the compound of formula I in the mother liquor (≤0.4%). After the reaction was completed, vacuum filtration was performed to obtain 32 g of the crude methanesulfonate of the compound of formula I.Add 3g of the crude methanesulfonate of the compound of formula I into 24ml of dimethyl sulfoxide DMSO solvent, stir to clear at 65°C, cool down, slowly add 48ml of methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) dropwise, stir and crystallize 6-8 After hours, vacuum filtration, drying at 60° C. (or 60° C. vacuum drying) to obtain the target crystal form A. Melting point: 242-244°C. The XRPD pattern of the crystal form is consistent with Figure 3 (Figure 7), and all characteristic peaks are within the error range.

//////////// BPI-7711,  BPI 7711, rezivertinib, phase 3

CN1C=C(C2=CC=CC=C21)C3=NC(=NC=C3)NC4=CC(=C(C=C4OC)OCCN(C)C)NC(=O)C=C

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Tralokinumab


(Heavy chain)
QVQLVQSGAE VKKPGASVKV SCKASGYTFT NYGLSWVRQA PGQGLEWMGW ISANNGDTNY
GQEFQGRVTM TTDTSTSTAY MELRSLRSDD TAVYYCARDS SSSWARWFFD LWGRGTLVTV
SSASTKGPSV FPLAPCSRST SESTAALGCL VKDYFPEPVT VSWNSGALTS GVHTFPAVLQ
SSGLYSLSSV VTVPSSSLGT KTYTCNVDHK PSNTKVDKRV ESKYGPPCPS CPAPEFLGGP
SVFLFPPKPK DTLMISRTPE VTCVVVDVSQ EDPEVQFNWY VDGVEVHNAK TKPREEQFNS
TYRVVSVLTV LHQDWLNGKE YKCKVSNKGL PSSIEKTISK AKGQPREPQV YTLPPSQEEM
TKNQVSLTCL VKGFYPSDIA VEWESNGQPE NNYKTTPPVL DSDGSFFLYS RLTVDKSRWQ
EGNVFSCSVM HEALHNHYTQ KSLSLSLGK
(Light chain)
SYVLTQPPSV SVAPGKTARI TCGGNIIGSK LVHWYQQKPG QAPVLVIYDD GDRPSGIPER
FSGSNSGNTA TLTISRVEAG DEADYYCQVW DTGSDPVVFG GGTKLTVLGQ PKAAPSVTLF
PPSSEELQAN KATLVCLISD FYPGAVTVAW KADSSPVKAG VETTTPSKQS NNKYAASSYL
SLTPEQWKSH RSYSCQVTHE GSTVEKTVAP TECS
(Disulfide bridge: H22-H96, H149-H205, H263-H323, H369-H427, H228-H’228, H231-H’231, L22-L87, L136-L195, H136-L213)

Tralokinumab

トラロキヌマブ (遺伝子組換え)

FormulaC6374H9822N1698O2014S44
CAS1044515-88-9
Mol weight143873.2167

EU APPROVED, Adtralza, 2021/6/17

Antiasthmatic, Anti-inflammatory, Anti-IL-13 antibody

Tralokinumab is a human monoclonal antibody which targets the cytokine interleukin 13,[1] and is designed for the treatment of asthma and other inflammatory diseases.[2] Tralokinumab was discovered by Cambridge Antibody Technology scientists, using Ribosome Display, as CAT-354[3] and taken through pre-clinical and early clinical development.[4] After 2007 it has been developed by MedImmune, a member of the AstraZeneca group, where it is currently in Ph3 testing for asthma and Ph2b testing for atopic dermatitis.[5][6] This makes it one of the few fully internally discovered and developed drug candidates in AstraZeneca’s late stage development pipeline.

Discovery and development

Tralokinumab (CAT-354) was discovered by Cambridge Antibody Technology scientists[7] using protein optimization based on Ribosome Display.[8] They used the extensive data sets from ribosome display to patent protect CAT-354 in a world-first of sequence-activity-relationship claims.[7] In 2004, clinical development of CAT-354 was initiated with this first study completing in 2005.[9] On 21 July 2011, MedImmune LLC initiated a Ph2b, randomized, double-blind study to evaluate the efficacy of tralokinumab in adults with asthma.[10]

In 2016, MedImmune and AstraZeneca were developing tralokinumab for asthma (Ph3) and atopic dermatitis (Ph2b) while clinical development for moderate-to-severe ulcerative colitis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) have been discontinued.[9] In July of that year AstraZeneca licensed Tralokinumab to LEO Pharma for skin diseases.[11]

A phase IIb study of Tralokinumab found that treatment was associated with early and sustained improvements in atopic dermatitis symptoms and tralokinumab had an acceptable safety and tolerability profile, thereby providing evidence for targeting IL-13 in patients with atopic dermatitis.[12]

On 15 June 2017, Leo Pharma announced that they were starting phase III clinical trials with tralokinumab in atopic dermatitis.[13]

Society and culture

Legal status

On 22 April 2021, the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) adopted a positive opinion, recommending the granting of a marketing authorization for the medicinal product Adtralza, intended for the treatment of moderate‑to‑severe atopic dermatitis.[14]

The applicant for this medicinal product is LEO Pharma A/S.

References

  1. ^ Kopf M, Bachmann MF, Marsland BJ (September 2010). “Averting inflammation by targeting the cytokine environment”. Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery9 (9): 703–18. doi:10.1038/nrd2805PMID 20811382S2CID 23769909.
  2. ^ “Statement On A Nonproprietary Name Adopted By The USAN Council: Tralokinumab” (PDF). American Medical Association.
  3. ^ Thom G, Cockroft AC, Buchanan AG, Candotti CJ, Cohen ES, Lowne D, et al. (May 2006). “Probing a protein-protein interaction by in vitro evolution” [P]. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America103 (20): 7619–24. Bibcode:2006PNAS..103.7619Tdoi:10.1073/pnas.0602341103PMC 1458619PMID 16684878.
  4. ^ May RD, Monk PD, Cohen ES, Manuel D, Dempsey F, Davis NH, et al. (May 2012). “Preclinical development of CAT-354, an IL-13 neutralizing antibody, for the treatment of severe uncontrolled asthma”British Journal of Pharmacology166 (1): 177–93. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01659.xPMC 3415647PMID 21895629.
  5. ^ “Pipeline”MedImmune. Retrieved 11 June 2013.
  6. ^ “Studies found for CAT-354”ClinicalTrials.gov. Retrieved 11 June 2013.
  7. Jump up to:a b Human Antibody Molecules for Il-13, retrieved 2015-07-26
  8. ^ Jermutus L, Honegger A, Schwesinger F, Hanes J, Plückthun A (January 2001). “Tailoring in vitro evolution for protein affinity or stability”Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America98 (1): 75–80. Bibcode:2001PNAS…98…75Jdoi:10.1073/pnas.98.1.75PMC 14547PMID 11134506.
  9. Jump up to:a b “Tralokinumab”Adis Insight. Springer Nature Switzerland AG.
  10. ^ Clinical trial number NCT01402986 for “A Phase 2b, Randomized, Double-blind Study to Evaluate the Efficacy of Tralokinumab in Adults With Asthma” at ClinicalTrials.gov
  11. ^ “AstraZeneca enters licensing agreements with LEO Pharma in skin diseases”.
  12. ^ Wollenberg A, Howell MD, Guttman-Yassky E, Silverberg JI, Kell C, Ranade K, et al. (January 2019). “Treatment of atopic dermatitis with tralokinumab, an anti-IL-13 mAb”The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology143 (1): 135–141. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2018.05.029PMID 29906525.
  13. ^ “LEO Pharma starts phase 3 clinical study for tralokinumab in atopic dermatitis”leo-pharma.com. AstraZeneca. 1 July 2016.
  14. ^ “Adtralza: Pending EC decision”European Medicines Agency. 23 April 2021. Retrieved 23 April 2021.
Tralokinumab Fab fragment bound to IL-13. From PDB 5L6Y​.
Monoclonal antibody
TypeWhole antibody
SourceHuman
TargetIL-13
Clinical data
ATC codeD11AH07 (WHO)
Identifiers
CAS Number1044515-88-9 
ChemSpidernone
UNIIGK1LYB375A
KEGGD09979
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC6374H9822N1698O2014S44
Molar mass143875.20 g·mol−1
  (what is this?)  (verify)

/////////Tralokinumab, Adtralza, EU 2021, APPROVALS 2021, Antiasthmatic, Anti-inflammatory, Anti-IL-13 antibody, MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY, PEPTIDE, トラロキヌマブ (遺伝子組換え) ,

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Upacicalcet sodium hydrate


Upacicalcet sodium hydrate (JAN).png

Upacicalcet sodium hydrate, ウパシカルセトナトリウム水和物

CAS 2052969-18-1

1333218-50-0 free

PMDA JAPAN APPROVED 2021/6/23, Upasita

Calcium sensing receptor agonist

(2S)-2-amino-3-[(3-chloro-2-methyl-5-sulfophenyl)carbamoylamino]propanoic acid

FormulaC11H13ClN3O6S. Na. xH2O
  • OriginatorAjinomoto Pharma
  • DeveloperSanwa Kagaku Kenkyusho
  • ClassAmines; Chlorobenzenes; Propionic acids; Small molecules; Sulfonic acids; Toluenes
  • Mechanism of ActionCalcium-sensing receptor agonists
  • RegisteredSecondary hyperparathyroidism
  • 25 Jun 2021Chemical structure information added
  • 23 Jun 2021Sanwa Kagaku Kenkyusho and Kissei Pharmaceutical agree to co-promote upacicalcet in Japan for Secondary hyperparathyroidism
  • 23 Jun 2021Registered for Secondary hyperparathyroidism in Japan (IV) – First global approval
Upacicalcet Sodium HydrateMonosodium 3-({[(2S)-2-amino-2-carboxyethyl]carbamoyl}amino)-5-chloro-4-methylbenzenesulfonate hydrateC11H13ClN3NaO6S▪xH2O
[2052969-18-1 , anhydride]

Announcement of Marketing Authorization Approval in Japan and Co-promotion Agreement of UPASITA® IV Injection Syringe for the Treatment of Secondary Hyperparathyroidism in Dialysis Patients

SANWA KAGAKU KENKYUSHO Co., Ltd. (Head Office: Nagoya, President and CEO : Shusaku Isono, Suzuken Group, ; “SANWA KAGAKU”) has received Marketing Authorization approval today for UPASITA® IV Injection Syringes (generic name: Upacicalcet Sodium Hydrate; “UPASITA®”) for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients on hemodialysis.

UPASITA® was created by Ajinomoto Pharmaceuticals Co., Ltd. (currently EA Phama Co., Ltd.) and developed by SANWA KAGAKU for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism under a licensing agreement with EA Pharma. UPASITA® acts on calcium sensing receptor in the parathyroid and suppresses excessive secretions of parathyroid hormones (PTH). UPASITA® is administered by intravenous injection to dialysis patients through dialysis circuit by physicians or medical staffs upon completion of dialysis and such administration is expected to reduce the burden of patients with many oral medications whose drinking water volume is severely restricted.

Regarding provision of medical and drug information, SANWA KAGAKU entered into a co-promotion agreement in Japan with Kissei Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. (Head Office: Matsumoto, Nagano; Chairman and CEO: Mutsuo Kanzawa ; “Kissei”). SANWA KAGAKU will handle the production, marketing, and distribution of the Product while SANWA KAGAKU and Kissei collaboratively promote it to medical institutions in the field in accordance with the agreement. Through the co-promotion activity in the field, SANWA KAGAKU and Kissei will contribute to the treatment of dialysis patients suffering from secondary hyperparathyroidism.

《Reference》

About secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT)
SHTP is one of complications that occur as chronic kidney disease (chronic kidney failure) progresses and is a pathological condition where excessive PTH is secreted by the parathyroid gland. It has been reported that excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone promotes efflux of phosphorus and calcium from the bone into the blood, thereby increasing the risk of developing bone fractures and arteriosclerosis due to calcification of the cardiovascular system and affecting the vital prognosis.

Product Summary of UPASITA® IV Injection Syringe for Dialysis
Brand name:
UPASITA® IV Injection Syringe for Dialysis 25μg
UPASITA® IV Injection Syringe for Dialysis 50μg
UPASITA® IV Injection Syringe for Dialysis 100μg
UPASITA® IV Injection Syringe for Dialysis 150μg
UPASITA® IV Injection Syringe for Dialysis 200μg
UPASITA® IV Injection Syringe for Dialysis 250μg
UPASITA® IV Injection Syringe for Dialysis 300μg

Generic Name (JAN):
Upacicalcet Sodium Hydrate

Date of Marketing Approval:
June 23, 2021

Indications:
Secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients on hemodialysis

Dosage and Administration:
In adults, UPASITA® is usually administered into venous line of the dialysis circuit at the end of dialysis session during rinse back at a dose of 25 μg sodium upacicalcet 3 times a week as a starting dose.
The starting dose can be 50 μg depending on the concentration of serum calcium. Thereafter, the dose may be adjusted in a range from 25 to 300 μg while parathyroid hormone (PTH) and serum calcium level should be carefully monitored in patients.

SYN

WO 2020204117

PATENT

WO 2011108724

WO 2011108690

JP 2013063971

WO 2016194881

JP 6510136 

PATENT

WO 2016194881

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2016194881&tab=FULLTEXT(Example 1)  Synthesis of
(2S) -2-amino-3-{[(5-chloro-2-hydroxy-3-sulfophenyl) carbamoyl] amino} propanoic acid (Compound 1 )
[Chemical formula 14]
CDI 150. 2 g (926.6Mmol, 1.1 eq. vs Boc-DAP-O t Bu) to and stirred at 5 ° C. acetone was added 750mL (3.0L / kg). 250 g (842.6 mmol) of Boc-DAP-OtBu was added in two portions, and the mixture was washed with 125 mL (0.5 L / kg) of acetone. After stirring for 30 minutes, completion of the IC (imidazolylcarbonylation) reaction was confirmed by HPLC. 282.6 g (1263.8 mmol, 1.5 eq.) Of ACHB was added in 3 portions, and the mixture was washed with 125 mL (0.5 L / kg) of acetone. After raising the temperature to 30 ° C. and stirring for 18 hours, the completion of the urea conversion reaction was confirmed by HPLC. After cooling to 5 ° C., 124.5 mL (1432.4 mmol, 1.7 eq.) Of concentrated hydrochloric acid was added, and the mixture was stirred for 1 hour. The precipitated unwanted material was filtered and washed with 1000 mL (4.0 L / kg) of acetone. The filtrate was concentrated to 1018 g (4.1 kg / kg), the temperature was raised to 50 ° C., and 625.0 mL (7187 mmol, 8.5 eq.) Of concentrated hydrochloric acid was added dropwise. After stirring for 30 minutes and confirming the completion of deprotection by HPLC, 750 mL of water was added (3.0 L / kg). This liquid was concentrated under reduced pressure to 1730 g (6.9 kg / kg) to precipitate a solid. After stirring at 20 ° C. for 14 hours, vacuum filtration was performed. The filtered solid was washed with 500 mL (2.0 L / kg) of acetone and then dried under reduced pressure at 60 ° C. for 6 hours to obtain 201.4 g of the target product (64.5%).
1H-NMR (400MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 8.3 (s, 1H), 8.2 (bs, 3H), 8.1 (d, 1H, J = 2.6Hz), 7.3 (t, 1H, J = 6.0Hz), 7.0 (d, 1H, J = 2.6Hz), 4.0-4.1 (m, 1H), 3.6-3.7 (m, 1H), 3.4-3.5 (m, 1H)[0026](Example 2) Synthesis of
(2S) -2-amino-3-{[(3-sulfophenyl) carbamoyl] amino} propanoic acid (Compound 2 )
[Chemical
formula 15] CDI 120.2 g (741.2 mmol, 1. 600 mL (3.0 L / kg) of acetone was added to 1 eq. Vs Boc-DAP-OtBu), and the mixture was stirred at 5 ° C. 200 g (673.9 mmol) of Boc-DAP-OtBu was added in two portions, and the mixture was washed with 100 mL (0.5 L / kg) of acetone. After stirring for 30 minutes, the completion of the IC reaction was confirmed by HPLC. 175.0 g (1010.8 mmol, 1.5 eq.) Of ABS was added in 3 portions and washed with 100 mL (0.5 L / kg) of acetone. After raising the temperature to 30 ° C. and stirring for 18 hours, the completion of the urea conversion reaction was confirmed by HPLC. After cooling to 5 ° C., 99.6 mL (1145.4 mmol, 1.7 eq.) Of concentrated hydrochloric acid was added, and the mixture was stirred for 1 hour. The precipitated unwanted material was filtered and washed with 1400 mL (7.0 L / kg) of acetone. The filtrate was concentrated to 800.1 g (4.0 kg / kg), heated to 50 ° C., and then 500.0 mL (5750.0 mmol, 8.5 eq.) Of concentrated hydrochloric acid was added dropwise. After stirring for 30 minutes and confirming the completion of deprotection by HPLC, 600 mL of water was added (3.0 L / kg). This liquid was concentrated under reduced pressure to 1653.7 g to precipitate a solid. After aging at 20 ° C. for 15 hours, vacuum filtration was performed. The filtered solid was washed with 400 mL (2.0 L / kg) of acetone and then dried under reduced pressure at room temperature for 6 hours to obtain 140.3 g of the desired product (net 132.2 g, 64.7%).
1H-NMR (400MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 8.8 (s, 1H), 8.2 (bs, 3H), 7.7 (s, 1H), 7.3-7.4 (m, 1H), 7.1-7.2 (m, 2H) , 6.3-6.4 (bs, 1H), 4.0-4.1 (bs, 1H), 3.6-3.7 (bs, 1H), 3.5-3.6 (bs, 1H)[0027](Example 3) Synthesis of
(2S) -2-amino-3-{[(3-chloro-2-methyl-5-sulfophenyl) carbamoyl] amino} propanoic acid (Compound 3 )
[Chemical formula 16]
CDI 14. To 4 g (88.8 mmol, 1.05 eq. Vs Boc-DAP-OtBu), 75 mL (3.0 L / kg vs DAP-OtBu) of acetone was added and stirred at 5 ° C. After adding 25 g (84.3 mmol) of Boc-DAP-OtBu in two portions and stirring for 30 minutes, the completion of the IC reaction was confirmed by HPLC. 26.1 g (118.0 mmol, 1.4 eq.) Of ACTS was added in 3 portions and washed with 25 mL (1.0 L / kg) of acetone. After the temperature was raised to 30 ° C., the mixture was stirred overnight, and the completion of the urea conversion reaction was confirmed by HPLC. After concentrating under reduced pressure at 10 kPa and 40 ° C. until the solvent was completely removed, 37.5 mL (1.5 L / kg) of water and 22.8 mL (257.6 mmol) of concentrated hydrochloric acid were added to perform deprotection for 2 hours. After confirming the completion of the reaction by HPLC, the mixture was cooled to 5 ° C., 60 mL (2.4 L / kg) of MeCN was added, and the mixture was stirred overnight. Further, when 120 mL (4.8 L / kg) of MeCN was added, stratification occurred, so 10 mL (0.4 L / kg) of water and 2.5 mL (0.1 L / kg) of MeCN were added. The precipitated solid was filtered under reduced pressure, washed with 60 mL of MeCN / water (1/2), and then dried under reduced pressure at 60 ° C. for 14 hours to obtain 20.1 g of the desired product as a white solid (net18.3 g, yield 61). 0.8%).
1H-NMR (400MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 14.70-13.30 (bs, 1H), 8.27 (bs, 3H), 8.15 (s, 1H), 7.98 (d, 1H, J = 1.6Hz), 7.27 (d , 1H, J = 1.6Hz), 6.82 (t, 1H, J = 6.0Hz), 4.04 (bs, 1H), 3.70-3.60 (m, 1H), 3.60-3.50 (m, 1H), 2.22 (s, 3H)[0028](Example 4) Synthesis of
compound 3 using phenylchloroformate as a carbonyl group-introducing reagent
(Step 1)
[Chemical
formula 17] MeCN 375 mL (7.5 L / kg vs ACTS), Py for 50 g (225.6 mmol) of ACTS. 38.1 mL (473.7 mmol, 2.1 eq.) Was added and stirred at 25 ° C. 29.9 mL (236.8 mmol, 1.05 eq.) Of ClCO 2 Ph (phenyl chloroformate) was added dropwise, and after stirring for 30 minutes, completion of the CM (carbamate) reaction was confirmed by HPLC. 68.9 g (232.4 mmol) of Boc-DAP-OtBu was added, 97.5 mL (699.3 mmol, 3.1 eq.) Of TEA was added dropwise, and the mixture was stirred at 25 ° C. for 3 hours. The completion of the urea conversion reaction was confirmed by HPLC. Here, 103.5 g of the total amount of 517.43 g was used to move to the next step (down to ACTS 10 g scale).
30 mL of water was added and concentrated to 77.0 g at 40 ° C. and 5 kPa. After 100 mL (10 L / kg) of AcOEt was added and the liquid separation operation was performed, 30 mL of water was added to the organic layer and the liquid separation operation was performed again. The organic layer was concentrated to 47.6 g at 40 ° C. and 10 kPa, and then 15 mL (1.5 L / kg) of AcOEt and 100 mL (10 L / kg) of THF were added. Again, it was concentrated to 50.7 g and THF was added up to 146 g. When it was concentrated again to 35.5 g and added to AcOEt 30 mL (3 L / kg) and THF 100 mL (10 L / kg), a solid was precipitated. It was cooled to 5 ° C. and aged overnight. The precipitated solid was filtered under reduced pressure, washed with 20 mL (2.0 L / kg) of THF, and then dried under reduced pressure at 40 ° C. for 3 hours overnight at 30 ° C. to obtain 24.9 g of the desired product as a white solid (net). 23.0 g, 83.6%).
1 H-NMR (400MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 8.86 (bs, 1H), 8.09 (s, 1H), 7.88 (s, 1H), 7.25 (d, 1H, J = 1.6Hz), 7.14 (d, 1H, J = 7.6Hz), 6.60 (t, 1H, J = 5.6Hz), 4.00-3.90 (m, 1H), 3.60-3.50 (m, 1H), 3.30-3.20 (m, 1H), 3.15-3.05 (m, 6H), 2.19 (s, 3H), 1.50-1.30 (m, 18H), 1.20-1.10 (m, 9H)

(Step 2)
[Chemical

formula 18] Compound 4 21.64 g (net. 20.0 g, 68 mL of water (3.4 L / kg vs. compound 4) vs. 32.8 mmol) ) Was added, the mixture was stirred at 50 ° C., and 12 mL (135.6 mmol, 4.1 eq.) Of concentrated hydrochloric acid was added dropwise. After stirring for 1 hour, the temperature was raised to 70 ° C. to dissolve the precipitated solid. After confirming the completion of the reaction by HPLC, the mixture was cooled to 50 ° C. and aged for 1 hour, and then cooled to 5 ° C. over 4 hours. The precipitated solid was filtered under reduced pressure, washed with 40 mL (2.0 L / kg) of MeCN / water (2/1), and then dried under reduced pressure at 60 ° C. for 3 hours to obtain 11.2 g of the desired product as a white solid (11.2 g). net 10.5 g, 91.1%).[0029](Example 5)
[Chemical
formula 19] MeCN 10.0 mL (10.0 L / kg vs ACSS), Py 0.75 mL (9.25 mmol, 2.05 eq.) For 1.00 g (4.51 mmol) of ACTS. , And stirred at 8 ° C. After dropping 0.59 mL (4.74 mmol, 1.05 eq.) Of ClCO 2 Ph, raising the temperature to room temperature and stirring for 1 hour, completion of the CM conversion reaction was confirmed by HPLC. 1.33 g (4.51 mmol, 1.0 eq.) Of Boc-DAP-OtBu was added, 1.92 mL (13.76 mmol, 3.05 eq.) Of TEA was added dropwise, and the mixture was stirred at 40 ° C. for 1 hour. After confirming the completion of the urea conversion reaction by HPLC, the mixture was concentrated until the solvent was completely removed. 1.0 mL of water and 2.0 mL of concentrated hydrochloric acid (22.6 mmol, 5.0 eq.) Were added, and the mixture was stirred at 50 ° C. for 4 hours. After confirming the completion of deprotection by HPLC, MeCN 7.5 mL (7.5 L / kg), 1 M HCl aq. After adding 4.5 mL, the mixture was stirred at 5 ° C. overnight. The precipitated solid was filtered under reduced pressure, washed with 3.0 mL (3.0 L / kg) of MeCN, and then dried at 60 ° C. overnight to obtain 1.28 g of the desired product as a white solid (net 1.18 g, 77). .0%).[0030](Example 6)
(Step 1)
3-({[(2S) -2-amino-3-methoxy-3-oxopropyl] carbamoyl} amino) -5-chloro-4-methylbenzene-1-sulfonic acid ( Synthesis of Compound 5 )
[Chemical formula 20] To
5 g (22.56 mmol) of ACTS, 37.5 mL (7.5 L / kg vs ACTS) of MeCN and 3.81 mL (47.38 mmol, 2.1 eq.) Of Py were added. The mixture was stirred at 25 ° C. 2.99 mL (23.68 mmol, 1.05 eq.) Of ClCO 2 Ph was added dropwise, and after stirring for 30 minutes, the completion of the CM reaction was confirmed by HPLC. 5.92 g (23.23 mmol, 1.03 eq.) Of Boc-DAP-OMe was added, 9.75 mL (69.93 mmol, 3.1 eq.) Of TEA was added dropwise, and the mixture was stirred at 25 ° C. for 3 hours. 0.4 g (1.58 mmol, 0.07 eq.) Of Boc-DAP-OMe and 0.22 mL (1.58 mmol, 0.07 eq.) Of TEA were added, and the completion of the ureaization reaction was confirmed by HPLC. 7.32 mL (112.8 mmol, 5.0 eq.) Of MsOH was added, the temperature was raised to 50 ° C., and the mixture was stirred for 4 hours. After confirming the completion of deprotection by HPLC, the mixture was cooled to 25 ° C. and 37.5 mL (7.5 L / kg) of MeCN and 7.5 mL (1.5 L / kg) of water were added to precipitate a solid. It was cooled to 5 ° C. and aged for 16 hours. The precipitated solid was filtered under reduced pressure, washed with 20 mL (4.0 L / kg) of water / MeCN (1/2), and then dried under reduced pressure at 40 ° C. for 5 hours to obtain 7.72 g of the target product as a white solid (772 g of the target product). net 7.20 g, 87.3%).
1H-NMR (400MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 8.39 (bs, 3H), 8.16 (d, 1H, J = 1.2Hz), 7.90 (d, 1H, J = 1.6Hz), 7.28 (d, 1H, J = 1.6Hz), 6.78 (t, 1H, J = 5.6Hz), 4.20-4.10 (m, 1H), 3.77 (s, 3H), 3.70-3.60 (m, 1H), 3.55-3.45 (m, 1H) , 2.21 (s, 3H)
HRMS (FAB  ): calcd for m / z 364.0369 (MH), found The m / z 364.0395 (MH)

(step 2)
[Formula 21]

compound 5 10.64 g (net Non 10.0 g, To 27.34 mmol), 18 mL of water (1.8 L / kg vs. compound 5 ) was added and stirred at 8 ° C. 3.42 mL (57.41 mmol, 2.1 eq.) Of a 48% aqueous sodium hydroxide solution was added dropwise, and the mixture was washed with 1.0 mL (1.0 L / kg) of water and then stirred at 8 ° C. for 15 minutes. After confirming the completion of hydrolysis by HPLC, the temperature was raised to 25 ° C. and 48% HBr aq. The pH was adjusted to 5.8 by adding about 3.55 mL. After confirming the precipitation of the target product by dropping 65 mL (6.5 L / kg) of IPA, the mixture was aged for 1 hour. 81 mL (8.1 L / kg) of IPA was added dropwise and aged at 8 ° C. overnight. The precipitated solid was filtered under reduced pressure, washed with 20 mL (2.0 L / kg) of IPA, and then dried under reduced pressure at 40 ° C. for 4 hours to obtain 10.7 g of the desired product as a white solid (net 9.46 g, 92. 6%).
1 H-NMR (400MHz, DMSO-d6): δ8.76 (s, 1H), 7.91 (d, 1H, J = 1.6Hz), 8.00-7.50 (bs, 2H), 7.24 (d, 1H, J = 1.6Hz), 7.20 (t, 1H, J = 5.6Hz), 3.58-3.54 (m, 1H), 3.47-3.43 (m, 1H), 3.42-3.37 (m, 1H), 2.23 (s, 3H)[0031](Example 7)
(Step 1)
[Chemical
formula 22] For 10.0 g (45.1 mmol) of ACTS, 50 mL (5.0 L / kg vs ACTS) of MeCN, 7.46 mL (92.5 mmol, 2.05 eq. ) Was added, and the mixture was stirred at 8 ° C. 5.98 mL (47.4 mmol, 1.05 eq.) Of ClCO 2 Ph was added dropwise, the temperature was raised to 25 ° C., and the mixture was stirred for 1 hour, and then the completion of the CM reaction was confirmed by HPLC. 100 ml of acetone (10.0 L / kg vs ACTS) was added, the mixture was cooled to 8 ° C., and aged for 1 hour. The precipitated solid was filtered under reduced pressure, washed with 30 mL of acetone (3.0 L / kg vs ACTS), and then dried under reduced pressure at 60 ° C. for 2 hours to obtain 17.8 g of the target product (net 14.4 g as a free form). Quant).
1 H-NMR (400MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 9.76 (bs, 1H), 8.93-8.90 (m, 2H), 8.60-8.50 (m, 1H), 8.10-8.00 (m, 2H), 7.60 (s , 1H), 7.50-7.40 (m, 3H), 7.30-7.20 (m, 3H), 2.30 (s, 3H)

(Step 2)
[Chemical 23]

Compound 6 To 5.0 g (11.9 mmol), 50 ml of acetonitrile and 3.53 g (11.9 mmol) of Boc-DAP-OtBu were added, and the mixture was stirred at 8 ° C. 3.5 ml (25 mmol) of triethylamine was added dropwise, and the mixture was stirred overnight at room temperature. The solvent was distilled off under reduced pressure, and 25 ml of ethyl acetate and 5 ml of water were added for extraction. The organic layer was washed with 5 ml of water, the solvent was distilled off, 50 ml of tetrahydrofuran was added, the mixture was cooled to 8 ° C., and aged for 1 hour. The precipitated solid was filtered under reduced pressure, washed with 10 ml of tetrahydrofuran, and dried under reduced pressure at 60 ° C. overnight to obtain 6.3 g of the desired product as a white solid.[0032](Example 8)
[Chemical
formula 24] For 1.08 g (4.89 mmol) of ACTS, 8.1 mL (7.5 L / kg vs ACTS) of MeCN and 827 μL (10.27 mmol, 2.1 eq.) Of Py were added. In addition, it was stirred at room temperature. ClCO 2 Ph 649 μL (5.14 mmol, 1.05 eq.) Was added dropwise, and the mixture was stirred for 30 minutes, and then the completion of the CM conversion reaction was confirmed by HPLC. 1.48 g (5.04 mmol, 1.03 eq.) Of Cbz-DAP-OMe HCl was added, 2.1 mL (15.17 mmol, 3.1 eq.) Of TEA was added dropwise, and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for about 5 hours. After confirming the completion of the urea conversion reaction by HPLC, the mixture was concentrated until the solvent was completely removed. 15.0 mL of 30% HBr / AcOH was added, and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 70 minutes, and the completion of deprotection was confirmed by HPLC. After concentration to dryness, 10 mL of water and 4 mL of AcOEt were added to carry out an extraction operation, and then the aqueous layer was stirred at room temperature overnight. The precipitated solid was filtered under reduced pressure, washed with 15 mL of water and 10 mL of AcOEt, and then dried at 40 ° C. for 3 hours to obtain 1.45 g of the desired product as a white solid (58.8%).[0033](Example 9) Synthesis of compound 7 ( methyl ester of compound 1 )
using phenyl chloroformate as a carbonyl group introduction reagent [Chemical  formula 25] MeCN 73 mL (14.6 L) with respect to 5.00 g (22.4 mmol) of ACHB. / Kg vs ACHB), Py 3.8 mL (47 mmol, 2.1 eq.), Was added and stirred at 40 ° C. After adding 3.0 mL (24 mmol, 1.05 eq.) Of ClCO 2 Ph and stirring for 30 minutes, the completion of the CM conversion reaction was confirmed by HPLC. 5.87 g (23 mmol, 1.0 eq.) Of Boc-DAP-OMe was added, washed with a small amount of MeCN, 9.7 mL (70 mmol, 3.1 eq.) Of TEA was added dropwise, and the mixture was stirred at 40 ° C. for 3 hours. After confirming the completion of the urea conversion reaction by HPLC, the mixture was cooled to room temperature. 7.3 mL (112 mmol, 5.0 eq.) Of MsOH was added, the temperature was raised to 50 ° C., and the mixture was stirred for 7 hours. Further, 1.5 mL (23 mmol, 1.0 eq.) Of MsOH was added, and the reaction was carried out at 50 ° C. overnight. After confirming the completion of deprotection by HPLC, 90 mL of acetone was added to the reaction solution, and the mixture was cooled to room temperature. The precipitated solid was obtained and dried under reduced pressure at 60 ° C. to obtain the desired product. 1 H-NMR (400MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 7.22 (m, 1H), 7.14 (m, 1H), 4.36 (m, 1H), 3.80 (s, 3H), 3.20-3.40 (m, 2H).[0034](Example 10) Synthesis of
compound 5 using 4-chlorophenylchloroformate as a carbonyl group-introducing reagent
[Chemical formula 26] For
5.00 g (22.6 mmol) of ACTS, 73 mL (14.6 L / kg vs ACTS) of MeCN, 3.8 mL (47 mmol, 2.1 eq.) Of Py was added and stirred at 40 ° C. After adding 3.25 mL (23.7 mmol, 1.05 eq.) Of 4-chloroformic acid 4-chlorophenylate and stirring at 40 ° C. for 1.5 hours, completion of the CM conversion reaction was confirmed by HPLC. Add 5.92 g (23.2 mol, 1.0 eq.) Of Boc-DAP-OMe, wash with a small amount of MeCN, add 9.7 mL (70 mmol, 3.1 eq.) Of TEA, and stir at 40 ° C. for 2 hours. did. After confirming the completion of the urea conversion reaction by HPLC, the mixture was cooled to room temperature. 7.3 mL (113 mmol, 5.0 eq.) Of MsOH was added, the temperature was raised to 50 ° C., and the mixture was stirred for 3.5 hours. After confirming the completion of deprotection by HPLC, the reaction solution was cooled to room temperature, 7.5 mL of water was added, the mixture was cooled to 8 ° C., and the mixture was stirred overnight. The precipitated solid was filtered, washed with a small amount of MeCN water, and dried at 60 ° C. overnight to obtain 6.94 g of the desired product as a white solid (84.1%).[0035](Example 11) Synthesis of
compound 5 using 4-nitrophenyl chloroformate as a carbonyl group-introducing reagent
[Chemical formula 27]
73 mL (14.6 L / kg vs. ACTS) of MeCN with respect to 5.00 g (22.6 mmol) of ACTS. , Py 3.8 mL (47 mmol, 2.1 eq.), And stirred at 40 ° C. 4.77 mL (23.7 mmol, 1.05 eq.) Of 4-nitrophenyl chloroformate was added dropwise, and the mixture was stirred at 40 ° C. for 3.5 hours, and then the completion of the CM reaction was confirmed by HPLC. Add 5.92 g (23.2 mmol, 1.0 eq.) Of Boc-DAP-OMe, wash with a small amount of MeCN, add 9.7 mL (70 mmol, 3.1 eq.) Of TEA, and stir at 40 ° C. for 2 hours. did. After confirming the completion of the urea conversion reaction by HPLC, the mixture was cooled to room temperature. 7.3 mL (113 mmol, 5.0 eq.) Of MsOH was added, the temperature was raised to 50 ° C., and the mixture was stirred for 3.5 hours. After confirming the completion of deprotection by HPLC, the reaction solution was cooled to room temperature, 7.5 mL of water was added, the mixture was cooled to 8 ° C., and the mixture was stirred overnight. The precipitated solid was filtered, washed with a small amount of MeCN water, and dried at 60 ° C. overnight to obtain 5.96 g of the desired product as a white solid (72.2%).[0036](Example 12) Synthesis of
compound 3 using Boc-DAP-OH
[Chemical 28]
MeCN 73 mL (14.6 L / kg vs ACTS), Py 3.8 mL, relative to 5.00 g (22.6 mmol) of ACTS. (47 mmol, 2.1 eq.) Was added and stirred at 40 ° C. After adding 3.00 mL (23.8 mmol, 1.05 eq.) Of phenylchloroformate and stirring at 40 ° C. for 0.5 hours, the completion of the CM conversion reaction was confirmed by HPLC (CM conversion reaction product: 4.37 minutes). , ACTS: N.D.). Add 4.75 g (23.2 mmol, 1.0 eq.) Of Boc-DAP-OH, wash with a small amount of MeCN, add 9.7 mL (70 mmol, 3.1 eq.) Of TEA, and stir at 40 ° C. for 2 hours. did. After confirming the completion of the urea-forming reaction by HPLC (urea-forming reaction product: 3.81 minutes, CM-forming reaction product: 0.02 area% vs. urea-forming reaction product), the mixture was cooled to room temperature. By adding 7.3 mL (113 mmol, 5.0 eq.) Of MsOH, raising the temperature to 50 ° C., stirring for 4.5 hours, and further adding 1.5 mL (23 mmol, 1.0 eq.) Of MsOH, stirring for 1 hour. , The formation of the target product was confirmed by HPLC (Compound 3: 2.49 minutes, urea conversion reaction product: 0.50 area vs. compound 3, area of compound 3 with respect to the total area excluding pyridine: 71.0 area).

PATENT

JP 6510136

PATENT

WO 2020204117

Reference Example 1
Synthesis of 3-{[(2S) -2-amino-2-carboxyethyl] carbamoylamino} -5-chloro-4-methylbenzenesulfonate sodium (Compound A1) 
(Step 1)
Synthesis of
3 -({[(2S) -2-amino-3-methoxy-3-oxopropyl] carbamoyl} amino) -5-chloro-4-methylbenzene-1-sulfonic acid 3-amino- 37.5 mL (7.5 L / kg vs ACTS) of acetonitrile and 3.81 mL (47.38 mmol, 2.1 eq.) Of pyridine against 5 g (22.56 mmol) of 5-chloro-4-methylbenzenesulfonic acid (ACTS). Was added and stirred at 25 ° C. 2.99 mL (23.68 mmol, 1.05 eq.) Of ClCO 2 Ph was added dropwise, and after stirring for 30 minutes, the completion of the carbamate reaction was confirmed by HPLC. Add 5.92 g (23.23 mmol, 1.03 eq.) Of 3-amino-N- (tert-butoxycarbonyl) -L-alanine methyl ester hydrochloride and 9.75 mL (69.93 mmol, 3.1 eq.) Triethylamine. Was added dropwise, and the mixture was stirred at 25 ° C. for 3 hours. Add 0.4 g (1.58 mmol, 0.07 eq.) Of 3-amino-N- (tert-butoxycarbonyl) -L-alanine methyl ester hydrochloride and 0.22 mL (1.58 mmol, 0.07 eq.) Of triethylamine. Then, the completion of the urea conversion reaction was confirmed by HPLC. 7.32 mL (112.8 mmol, 5.0 eq.) Of methanesulfonic acid was added, the temperature was raised to 50 ° C., and the mixture was stirred for 4 hours. After confirming the completion of deprotection by HPLC, the mixture was cooled to 25 ° C. and 37.5 mL (7.5 L / kg) of acetonitrile and 7.5 mL (1.5 L / kg) of water were added to precipitate a solid. It was cooled to 5 ° C. and aged for 16 hours. The precipitated solid was filtered under reduced pressure, washed with 20 mL (4.0 L / kg) of water / acetonitrile (1/2), and then dried under reduced pressure at 40 ° C. for 5 hours to obtain 7.72 g of the desired product as a white solid (. net 7.20 g, 87.3%).

1 H-NMR (400MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 8.39 (bs, 3H), 8.16 (d, 1H, J = 1.2Hz), 7.90 (d, 1H, J = 1.6Hz), 7.28 (d, 1H, J = 1.6Hz), 6.78 (t, 1H, J = 5.6Hz), 4.20-4.10 (m, 1H), 3.77 (s, 3H), 3.70-3.60 (m, 1H), 3.55-3.45 (m, 1H) ), 2.21 (S, 3H)HRMS (FAB  ): Calcd For M / Z 364.0369 (MH & lt;), Found M / Z 364.0395 (MH & lt;) 
(Step 2)
(2)
Compound obtained in step 1 of synthesis of 3-{[(2S) -2-amino-2-carboxyethyl] carbamoylamino} -5-chloro-4-methylbenzenesulfonate . To 64 g (net 10.0 g, 27.34 mmol), 18 mL of water (1.8 L / kg vs. the compound of Step 1) was added, and the mixture was stirred at 8 ° C. 3.42 mL (57.41 mmol, 2.1 eq.) Of a 48% aqueous sodium hydroxide solution was added dropwise, and the mixture was washed with 1.0 mL (1.0 L / kg) of water and then stirred at 8 ° C. for 15 minutes. After confirming the completion of hydrolysis by HPLC, the temperature was raised to 25 ° C. and 48% HBr aq. About 3.55 mL was added to adjust the pH to 5.8. After confirming the precipitation of the desired product by dropping 65 mL (6.5 L / kg) of isopropyl alcohol, the mixture was aged for 1 hour. 81 mL (8.1 L / kg) of isopropyl alcohol was added dropwise and the mixture was aged at 8 ° C. overnight. The precipitated solid was filtered under reduced pressure, washed with 20 mL (2.0 L / kg) of isopropyl alcohol, and then dried under reduced pressure at 40 ° C. for 4 hours to obtain 10.7 g of the desired product as a white solid (net 9.46 g, 92). .6%).
1 H-NMR (400MHz, DMSO-d6): δ8.76 (s, 1H), 7.91 (d, 1H, J = 1.6Hz), 8.00-7.50 (bs, 2H), 7.24 (d, 1H, J = 1.6Hz), 7.20 (t, 1H, J = 5.6Hz), 3.58-3.54 (m, 1H), 3.47-3.43 (m, 1H), 3.42-3.37 (m, 1H), 2.23 (s, 3H)

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I , Dr A.M.Crasto is writing this blog to share the knowledge/views, after reading Scientific Journals/Articles/News Articles/Wikipedia. My views/comments are based on the results /conclusions by the authors(researchers). I do mention either the link or reference of the article(s) in my blog and hope those interested can read for details. I am briefly summarising the remarks or conclusions of the authors (researchers). If one believe that their intellectual property right /copyright is infringed by any content on this blog, please contact or leave message at below email address amcrasto@gmail.com. It will be removed ASAP