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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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Diquafosol


ChemSpider 2D Image | Diquafosol | C18H26N4O23P4

Diquafosol

  • Molecular FormulaC18H26N4O23P4
  • Average mass790.307 Da
{Oxybis[(hydroxyphosphoryl)oxy]}bis[hydrogéno(phosphonate)] de bis{[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(2,4-dioxo-3,4-dihydro-1(2H)-pyrimidinyl)-3,4-dihydroxytétrahydro-2-furanyl]méthyle}
59985-21-6 [RN]
7828VC80FJ
8326
Bis{[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(2,4-dioxo-3,4-dihydro-1(2H)-pyrimidinyl)-3,4-dihydroxytetrahydro-2-furanyl]methyl} {oxybis[(hydroxyphosphoryl)oxy]}bis[hydrogen (phosphonate)]
ChemSpider 2D Image | Diquafosol tetrasodium | C18H22N4Na4O23P4
Diquafosol Tetrasodium | CAS#:211427-08-6 | Chemsrc

Diquafosol tetrasodium

  • Molecular FormulaC18H22N4Na4O23P4
  • Average mass878.234 Da
1) uridine, 5′-(pentahydrogen tetraphosphate), P”’->5′-ester with uridine, tetrasodium salt
211427-08-6[RN]
Diquafosol tetrasodium[USAN]
uridine(5′)tetraphospho(5′)uridine tetrasodium salt
Diquafosol tetrasodium (USAN)
INS365
P1,P4-Diuridine 5′-tetraphosphate tetrasodium salt
Prolacria
U2P4
UNII:X8T9SBH9LL
INS-365; DE-089; KPY-998
Title: Diquafosol
CAS Registry Number: 59985-21-6
CAS Name: Uridine 5¢-(pentahydrogen tetraphosphate) P¢¢¢®5¢-ester with uridine
Additional Names:P1,P4-diuridine 5¢-tetraphosphate; UP4U
Molecular Formula: C18H26N4O23P4
Molecular Weight: 790.31
Percent Composition: C 27.36%, H 3.32%, N 7.09%, O 46.56%, P 15.68%
Literature References: Uridine nucleotide analog. P2Y2 purinoceptor agonist; stimulates mucin secretion from goblet cells. Prepn: M. J. Stutts, III et al.,WO9640059 (1996 to Univ. North Carolina at Chapel Hill); and receptor activity: W. Pendergast et al.,Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.11, 157 (2001). Ocular pharmacology: T. Fujihara et al.,J. Ocul. Pharmacol. Ther.18, 363 (2002). Review of development and therapeutic potential: J. Fischbarg, Curr. Opin. Invest. Drugs4, 1377-1383 (2003); K. K. Nichols et al.,Expert Opin. Invest. Drugs13, 47-54 (2004). Clinical trial in dry eye disease: J. Tauber et al., Cornea23, 784 (2004).
Derivative Type: Tetrasodium salt
CAS Registry Number: 211427-08-6
Manufacturers’ Codes: INS-365
Molecular Formula: C18H22N4Na4O23P4
Molecular Weight: 878.23
Percent Composition: C 24.62%, H 2.52%, N 6.38%, Na 10.47%, O 41.90%, P 14.11%
Therap-Cat: In treatment of dry eye disease.
Keywords: Purinoceptor P2Y Agonist.
Company:
Santen (Originator)
Sales:
$80 Million (Y2015); 
$71.7 Million (Y2014);
$79.3 Million (Y2013);
$67.1 Million (Y2012);
$36 Million (Y2011);
ATC Code:
S01
Approved Countries or Area 2010-04-16, JAPAN

Diquafosol tetrasodium was approved by Pharmaceuticals Medical Devices Agency of Japan (PMDA) on April 16, 2010. It was developed and marketed as Diquas® by Santen Pharmaceutical Corporation in Japan.

Diquafosol tetrasodium is a P2Y2 purinoceptor receptor agonist. It is indicated for improve dry eye symptoms by promoting secretion of mucin and water, thereby bringing the tear film closer to a normal state. No serious ocular or systemic adverse drug reactions were found during the clinical trials. Dry eye begins with symptoms of ocular discomfort such as burning, stinging or a foreign body sensation.

Diquas® is available as solution for ophthalmic use, containing 3% of Diquafosol tetrasodium. The recommended dose is 1 drop at a time, 6 times a day.

Index:

Diquafosol (tradename Diquas) is a pharmaceutical drug for the treatment of dry eye disease. It was approved for use in Japan in 2010.[1] It is formulated as a 3% ophthalmic solution of the tetrasodium salt.

Its mechanism of action involves agonism of the P2Y2 purinogenic receptor.[2]

SYN

INS-365 can also been obtained by the following ways: 4) Dimerization of uridine-5′-monophosphate tributyl-ammonium salt (I) with bis(tributylammonium) pyrophosphate (II) by means of CDI, followed by purification by semipreparative ion璭xchange chromatography. 5) Dimerization of uridine-5′-monophosphate tributyl-ammonium salt (I) with pyrophosphoryl chloride (III) in pyridine, followed by chromatographic purification as before. 6) Condensation of uridine (IV) with POCl3 and bis(tributylammonium) pyrophosphate (II) by means of tributylamine in trimethyl phosphate, followed by chromatographic purification as before. 7) Dimerization of uridine-5′-diphosphate tributylammonium salt (V) by means of CDI in DMF, followed by purification over Dowex 50Wx4 Na+. 8) Condensation of uridine-5′-triphosphate tributylammonium salt (VI) with uridine-5′-monophosphate tributyl-ammonium salt (I) by means of DCC in DMF, followed by chromatographic purification as before. 9) Reaction of uridine-5′-monophosphate tributylammonium salt (I) with CDI in DMF, followed by condensation with uridine-5′-triphosphate (VI) and chromatographic purification as before.

CLIP

Route 1

Reference:1. WO9905155A2.

Route 2

Reference:1. WO1999005155.

2. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 200111, 157-160.

Route 3

Reference:1. WO1999005155.

Route 4

Reference:1. WO2014103704.

SYN

Practical and Efficient Approach to the Preparation of Diquafosol Tetrasodium

    • Pengfei Xu
Cite this: Org. Process Res. Dev. 2020, XXXX, XXX, XXX-XXX
Publication Date:June 30, 2020
Abstract Image
https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.oprd.0c00209

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/suppl/10.1021/acs.oprd.0c00209/suppl_file/op0c00209_si_001.pdf

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.oprd.0c00209

A scalable and practical route to synthesize the P2Y2 receptor agonist diquafosol tetrasodium has been described. Diquafosol tetrasodium was obtained via a four-step process starting from commercially available 5′-uridylic acid disodium salt. The whole procedure gives the target product in a 45% overall yield with high purity (>99%). Key steps in this process including isolation of impurities and the target product by using anion-exchange resin are discussed in detail. The optimized process has been successfully demonstrated on a large scale to support the development of diquafosol tetrasodium in China.

References

  1. ^ “Santen and Inspire Announce Approval of DIQUAS for Dry Eye Treatment in Japan”. April 16, 2010.
  2. ^ Pendergast, W; Yerxa, BR; Douglass Jg, 3rd; Shaver, SR; Dougherty, RW; Redick, CC; Sims, IF; Rideout, JL (2001). “Synthesis and P2Y receptor activity of a series of uridine dinucleoside 5′-polyphosphates”. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters11 (2): 157–60. doi:10.1016/S0960-894X(00)00612-0PMID 11206448.
Diquafosol
Diquafosol.svg
Names
IUPAC name

[[[[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(2,4-Dioxopyrimidin-1-yl)-3,4-dihydroxy-tetrahydrofuran-2-yl]methoxy-hydroxy-phosphoryl]oxy-hydroxy-phosphoryl]oxy-hydroxy-phosphoryl] [(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(2,4-dioxopyrimidin-1-yl)-3,4-dihydroxy-tetrahydrofuran-2-yl]methyl hydrogen phosphate
Other names

P1,P4-Bis(5′-uridyl) tetraphosphate; INS-365; Diquafosol tetrasodium
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChEMBL
ChemSpider
PubChem CID
UNII
Properties
C18H26N4O23P4
Molar mass 790.306 g·mol−1
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

///////////// INS 365, Diquafosol, INS-365,  DE 089,  KPY 998, JAPAN 16

59985-21-6 (Diquafosol );
211427-08-6 (Diquafosol Tetrasodium);

BAY 1895344


BAY-1895344 Structure

BAY 1895344

1876467-74-1 (free base)
(R)-3-methyl-4-(4-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-8-(1H-pyrazol-3-yl)-1,7-naphthyridin-2-yl)morpholine, monohydrochloride

BAY-1895344 hydrochloride Chemical Structure

BAY-1895344

Molecular Weight

411.89

Formula

C₂₀H₂₂ClN₇O

BAY-1895344 (hydrochloride)

1876467-74-1

1876467-74-1(free base)

s8666CCG-268786CS-7574HY-101566A

BAY-1895344 hydrochloride is a potent, orally available and selective ATR inhibitor, with IC50 of 7 nM. Anti-tumor activity.

bay

NMR https://file.selleckchem.com/downloads/nmr/S866603-BAY-1895344-hnmr-selleck.pdf

 

Biological Activity

In vitro, BAY 1895344 was shown to be a very potent and highly selective ATR inhibitor (IC50 = 7 nM), which potently inhibits proliferation of a broad spectrum of human tumor cell lines (median IC50 = 78 nM). In cellular mechanistic assays BAY 1895344 potently inhibited hydroxyurea-induced H2AX phosphorylation (IC50 = 36 nM). Moreover, BAY 1895344 revealed significantly improved aqueous solubility, bioavailability across species and no activity in the hERG patch-clamp assay. BAY 1895344 also demonstrated very promising efficacy in monotherapy in DNA damage deficient tumor models as well as combination treatment with DNA damage inducing therapies.

Conversion of different model animals based on BSA (Value based on data from FDA Draft Guidelines)
Species Mouse Rat Rabbit Guinea pig Hamster Dog
Weight (kg) 0.02 0.15 1.8 0.4 0.08 10
Body Surface Area (m2) 0.007 0.025 0.15 0.05 0.02 0.5
Km factor 3 6 12 8 5 20
Animal A (mg/kg) = Animal B (mg/kg) multiplied by Animal B Km
Animal A Km

For example, to modify the dose of resveratrol used for a mouse (22.4 mg/kg) to a dose based on the BSA for a rat, multiply 22.4 mg/kg by the Km factor for a mouse and then divide by the Km factor for a rat. This calculation results in a rat equivalent dose for resveratrol of 11.2 mg/kg.

Chemical Information
Molecular Weight 375.43
Formula C20H21N7O
CAS Number 1876467-74-1
Purity 98.69%
Solubility 10 mM in DMSO
Storage at -20°C
PAPER
Damage Incorporated: Discovery of the Potent, Highly Selective, Orally Available ATR Inhibitor BAY 1895344 with Favorable Pharmacokinetic Properties and Promising Efficacy in Monotherapy and in Combination Treatments in Preclinical Tumor Models
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry  20206313, 7293-7325 (Article)

Publication Date (Web):June 5, 2020DOI: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.0c00369

2-[(3R)-3-Methylmorpholin-4-yl]-4-(1-methyl-1Hpyrazol-5-yl)-8-(1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-1,7-naphthyridine (BAY 1895344). Sulfonate 67 (500 mg, 0.95 mmol), 1- methyl-5-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)- 1H-pyrazole (68) (415 mg, 1.90 mmol), 2 M aq K2CO3 solution (1.4 mL), and Pd(PPh3)2Cl2 (67 mg, 0.094 mmol) were solubilized in DME (60 mL). The reaction mixture was stirred for 20 min at 130 °C under microwave irradiation. After cooling to rt, the mixture was filtered through a silicon filter and concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude material was purified by flash column chromatography (silica gel, hexane/EtOAc gradient 0–100%, followed by EtOAc/EtOH 9:1). The desired fractions were concentrated under reduced pressure and solubilized in concd H2SO4 (5 mL). The mixture was stirred for 3 h at rt. The mixture was then poured into ice and basified using solid NaHCO3. The suspension was filtered and the solid was stirred with EtOH at 40 °C, filtered, and dried under reduced pressure to give BAY 1895344 (280 mg, 0.75 mmol, 78%). LC-MS [Method 2]: Rt = 0.99 min. MS (ESI+): m/z = 376.1 [M+H]+ . 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ = 13.44 (br s, 1H, pyrazole-NH), 8.35 (d, J = 5.32 Hz, 1H, naphthyridine), 7.56–7.68 (m, 3H, pyrazole, naphthyridine), 7.42 (br s, 1H, pyrazole), 7.27 (d, J = 5.58 Hz, 1H, naphthyridine), 6.59 (d, J = 2.03 Hz, 1H, pyrazole), 4.60–4.69 (m, 1H, morpholine), 4.23 (br d, J = 11.66 Hz, 1H, morpholine), 4.00–4.09 (m, 1H, morpholine), 3.78–3.85 (m, 1H, morpholine), 3.75 (m, 4H, methyl, morpholine), 3.69–3.74 (m, 1H, morpholine), 3.57 (m, 1H, morpholine), 1.30 (d, J = 6.59 Hz, 3H, methyl). 13C NMR (125 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ = 156.5, 145.2, 140.0, 139.6, 139.5, 138.2, 137.4, 137.4, 125.7, 117.1, 115.5, 108.2, 107.7, 70.3, 66.1, 47.3, 39.7, 37.2, 13.3. ESI-HRMS: m/z [M+H]+ calcd for C20H22N7O: 376.1886, found: 376.1879. [α]D –80.8 ± 1.04 (1.0000 g/ 100 mL CHCl3).
References

Identification of potent, highly selective and orally available ATR inhibitor BAY 1895344 with favorable PK properties and promising efficacy in monotherapy and combination in preclinical tumor models
Ulrich T, et al. AACR. 2017 July;77(13 Suppl):Abstract nr 983.

ATR inhibitor BAY 1895344 shows potent anti-tumor efficacy in monotherapy and strong combination potential with the targeted alpha therapy Radium-223 dichloride in preclinical tumor models
Antje Margret Wengner, et al. AACR 2017 July;77(13 Suppl):Abstract nr 836.

////////////s8666CCG-268786CS-7574HY-101566ABAY-1895344BAY 1895344

CC1COCCN1C2=NC3=C(C=CN=C3C4=CC=NN4)C(=C2)C5=CC=NN5C

MK 5204


mk-5204

MK 5204

mk-5204

(1R,5S,6R,7R,10R,11R,14R,15S,20R,21R)-21-[(2R)-2-Amino-2,3,3-trimethylbutoxy]-20-(5-carbamoyl-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-5,7,10,15-tetramethyl-7-[(2R)-3-methylbutan-2-yl]-17-oxapentacyclo[13.3.3.01,14.02,11.05,10]henicos-2-ene-6-carboxylic acid.png

mk-5204

CAS No: 1207751-75-4
Product Code: BM178545

 (1R,5S,6R,7R,10R,11R,14R,15S,20R,21R)-21-[(2R)-2-amino-2,3,3-trimethylbutoxy]-20-(5-carbamoyl-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-5,7,10,15-tetramethyl-7-[(2R)-3-methylbutan-2-yl]-17-oxapentacyclo[13.3.3.01,14.02,11.05,10]henicos-2-ene-6-carboxylic acid

MW: 696g/mol

MW 695.97

C40 H65 N5 O5

PAPER

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0960894X20304686

Abstract

Our previously reported efforts to produce an orally active β-1,3-glucan synthesis inhibitor through the semi-synthetic modification of enfumafungin focused on replacing the C2 acetoxy moiety with an aminotetrazole and the C3 glycoside with a N,N-dimethylaminoether moiety. This work details further optimization of the C2 heterocyclic substituent, which identified 3-carboxamide-1,2,4-triazole as a replacement for the aminotetrazole with comparable antifungal activity. Alkylation of either the carboxamidetriazole at C2 or the aminoether at C3 failed to significantly improve oral efficacy. However, replacement of the isopropyl alpha amino substituent with a t-butyl, improved oral exposure while maintaining antifungal activity. These two structural modifications produced MK-5204, which demonstrated broad spectrum activity against Candida species and robust oral efficacy in a murine model of disseminated Candidiasis without the N-dealkylation liability observed for the previous lead.

MK-5204: An orally active β-1,3-glucan synthesis inhibitor ...

MK-5204: An orally active β-1,3-glucan synthesis inhibitor ...

patent

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=US43243783&tab=PCTDESCRIPTION&_cid=P22-KD34BU-17225-1

Patent ID Title Submitted Date Granted Date
US8188085 Antifungal agents 2010-05-06 2012-05-29
ungal infection is a major healthcare problem, and the incidence of hospital-acquired fungal diseases continues to rise. Severe systemic fungal infection in hospitals (such as candidiasis, aspergillosis, histoplasmosis, blastomycosis and coccidioidomycosis) is commonly seen in neutropaenic patients following chemotherapy and in other oncology patients with immune suppression, in patients who are immune-compromised due to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) caused by HIV infection, and in patients in intensive care. Systemic fungal infections cause ˜25% of infection-related deaths in leukaemics. Infections due to Candida species are the fourth most important cause of nosocomial bloodstream infection. Serious fungal infections may cause 5-10% of deaths in patients undergoing lung, pancreas or liver transplantation. Treatment failures are still very common with all systemic mycoses. Secondary resistance also arises. Thus, there remains an increasing need for effective new therapy against mycotic infections.
      Enfumafungin is a hemiacetal triterpene glycoside that is produced in fermentations of a Hormonema spp. associated with living leaves of Juniperus communis (U.S. Pat. No. 5,756,472; Pelaez et al., Systematic and Applied Microbiology, 23:333-343, 2000; Schwartz et al., JACS, 122:4882-4886, 2000; Schwartz, R. E., Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents, 11(11):1761-1772, 2001). Enfumafungin is one of the several triterpene glycosides that have in vitro antifungal activities. The mode of the antifungal action of enfumafungin and other antifungal triterpenoid glycosides was determined to be the inhibition of fungal cell wall glucan synthesis by their specific action on (1,3)-β-D-glucan synthase (Onishi et al., Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 44:368-377, 2000; Pelaez et al., Systematic and Applied Microbiology, 23:333-343, 2000). 1,3-β-D-Glucan synthase remains an attractive target for antifungal drug action because it is present in many pathogenic fungi which affords broad antifungal spectrum and there is no mammalian counterpart and as such, compounds inhibiting 1,3-β-D-Glucan synthase have little or no mechanism-based toxicity.

SIMILAR BUT NOT SAME

METHOXY EXAMPLE

Example 8

(1S,4aR,6aS,7R,8R,10aR,10bR,12aR,14R,15R)-15-[[(2R)-2-amino-2,3-dimethylbutyl]oxy]-8-[(1R)-1,2-dimethylpropyl]-14-[3-(methoxycarbonyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl]-1,6,6a,7,8,9,10,10a,10b,11,12,12a-dodecahydro-1,6a,8,10a-tetramethyl-4H-1,4a-propano-2H-phenanthro[1,2-c]pyran-7-carboxylic acid (EXAMPLE 8A) and (1S,4aR,6aS,7R,8R,10aR,10bR,12aR,14R,15R)-15-[[(2R)-2-amino-2,3-dimethylbutyl]oxy]-8-[(1R)-1,2-dimethylpropyl]-14-[5-(methoxycarbonyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl]-1,6,6a,7,8,9,10,10a,10b,11,12,12a-dodecahydro-1,6a,8,10a-tetramethyl-4H-1,4a-propano-2H-phenanthro[1,2-c]pyran-7-carboxylic acid (EXAMPLE 8B)

      Methyl 1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxylate (27.1 mg, 0.213 mmol) and BF 3OEt (54 μl, 0.426 mmol) were added to a stirred solution of Intermediate 6 (25.9 mg, 0.043 mmol) in 1,2-dichloroethane (0.43 ml). The reaction mixture was a light yellow suspension that was heated at 50° C. for 7.5 hr and then stirred at room temperature for 64 hr. The solvent was evaporated and the resulting residue was placed under high vacuum. The residue was dissolved in methanol and separated using a single HPLC run on a 19×150 mm Sunfire Prep C18 OBD 10 μm column by eluting with acetonitrile/water+0.1% TFA. The HPLC fractions of the faster eluting regioisomer were combined, the solvent was evaporated under reduced pressure, and the residue was lyophilized from ethanol and benzene to give EXAMPLE 8A (8.9 mg, 10.97 μmol) as a white solid. The HPLC fractions of the slower eluting regioisomer were combined, the solvent was evaporated under reduced pressure, and the residue was lyophilized from ethanol and benzene to give EXAMPLE 8B (1.5 mg, 1.85 μmol) as a white solid.

Example 8A

       1H NMR (CD 3OD, 600 MHz, ppm) δ 0.76 (s, 3H, Me), 0.76 (d, 3H, Me), 0.79 (d, 3H, Me), 0.83 (d, 3H, Me), 0.85 (d, 3H, Me), 0.88 (s, 3H, Me), 0.88 (s, 3H, Me), 0.89 (d, 3H, Me), 1.16 (s, 3H, Me), 1.20 (s, 3H, Me), 1.22-1.35 (m), 1.39-1.44 (m), 1.47-1.65 (m), 1.78-2.02 (m), 2.10-2.22 (m), 2.46 (dd, 1H, H13), 2.66 (d, 1H), 2.83 (s, 1H, H7), 3.48 (d, 1H), 3.50 (d, 1H), 3.53 (dd, 1H), 3.60 (d, 1H), 3.77 (d, 1H), 3.92 (d, 1H), 3.95 (s, 3H, COOMe), 5.48 (dd, 1H, H5), 5.61-5.68 (m, 1H, H14), 8.77 (broad s, 1H, triazole).
      Mass Spectrum: (ESI) m/z=697.42 (M+H).

Example 8B

       1H NMR (CD 3OD, 600 MHz, ppm) δ 0.76 (s, 3H, Me), 0.76 (d, 3H, Me), 0.79 (s, 3H, Me), 0.79 (d, 3H, Me), 0.82 (d, 3H, Me), 0.85 (d, 3H, Me), 0.88 (s, 3H, Me), 0.89 (d, 3H, Me), 1.13 (s, 3H, Me), 1.20 (s, 3H, Me), 1.22-1.36 (m), 1.39-1.44 (m), 1.47-1.55 (m), 1.59-1.65 (m), 1.72-1.96 (m), 2.10-2.22 (m), 2.46 (dd, 1H, H13), 2.78 (d, 1H), 2.84 (s, 1H, H7), 3.48 (d, 1H), 3.50 (d, 1H), 3.55 (dd, 1H), 3.62 (d, 1H), 3.93 (d, 1H), 3.98 (d, 1H), 3.99 (s, 3H, COOMe), 5.47 (dd, 1H, H5), 6.53-6.59 (m, 1H, H14), 8.14 (s, 1H, triazole).
      Mass Spectrum: (ESI) m/z=697.42 (M+H).
 

/////////////MK 5204, BM178545

NC(=O)c6ncnn6[C@@H]1C[C@]45COC[C@@](C)([C@H]1OC[C@](C)(N)C(C)(C)C)[C@@H]5CC[C@H]3C4=CC[C@@]2(C)[C@H](C(=O)O)[C@](C)(CC[C@@]23C)[C@H](C)C(C)C

CC(C)C(C)C1(CCC2(C3CCC4C5(COCC4(C3=CCC2(C1C(=O)O)C)CC(C5OCC(C)(C(C)(C)C)N)N6C(=NC=N6)C(=O)N)C)C)C

SELGANTOLIMOD


2D chemical structure of 2004677-13-6

SELGANTOLIMOD

GS 9688

RN: 2004677-13-6
UNII: RM4GJT3SMQ

Molecular Formula, C14-H20-F-N5-O,

Molecular Weight, 293.344

1-Hexanol, 2-((2-amino-7-fluoropyrido(3,2-d)pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)-2-methyl-, (2R)-

(2R)-2-((2-Amino-7-fluoropyrido(3,2-d)pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)-2-methylhexan-1-ol

gs

Discovery of GS9688 (Selgantolimod) as a Potent and Selective Oral Toll-Like Receptor 8 Agonist for the Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis B
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, Articles ASAP (Drug Annotation)

Publication Date (Web):May 14, 2020DOI: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.0c00100

PATENTS
Patent ID Title Submitted Date Granted Date
US2019192504 Therapeutic heterocyclic compounds 2018-08-20
US2017281627 TOLL LIKE RECEPTOR MODULATOR COMPOUNDS 2017-04-25
US2017071944 MODULATORS OF TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS FOR THE TREATMENT OF HIV 2016-09-13
US9670205 TOLL LIKE RECEPTOR MODULATOR COMPOUNDS 2016-03-02

Patent

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=US178076456&tab=PCTDESCRIPTION&_cid=P21-KD1F9D-27923-1

EXAMPLE 63

      Synthesis of methyl 2-amino-2-methylhexanoate (63A. To a mixture of (2R)-2-amino-2-methylhexanoic acid hydrochloride (50 mg, 0.28 mmol) and (2S)-2-amino-2-methylhexanoic acid hydrochloride (50 mg, 0.28 mmol) in MeOH (5.0 mL) was added (trimethylsilyl) diazomethane in hexanes (2 M, 0.41 mL, 0.83 mmol) dropwise. After 6 h, the reaction was quenched with AcOH (100 μL). The mixture was concentrated in vacuo to provide 63A that was used without further isolation. LCMS (m/z): 159.91 [M+H] +; t R=0.57 min. on LC/MS Method A.
      Synthesis of methyl 2-((2-((2,4-dimethoxybenzyl)amino)-7-fluoropyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)-2-methylhexanoate (63B). To a solution of 84E (120 mg, 0.55 mmol) in THF (5 mL) was added 63A (88 mg, 0.55 mmol) and N,N-diisopropylethylamine (0.3 mL, 1.7 mmol). After stirring at 80° C. for 18 h, the reaction was cooled to rt, diluted with EtOAc (50 mL), washed with water (50 mL) and brine (50 mL), dried over Na 2SO 4, then filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The crude residue was then diluted with THF (10 mL) and 2,4-dimethoxybenzylamine (0.4 mL, 2.6 mmol) and N,N-diisopropylethylamine (0.3 mL, 1.7 mmol) were added. After stirring at 100° C. for 18 h, the reaction was cooled to rt, diluted with EtOAc (50 mL), washed with water and brine, dried over Na 2SO 4, then filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was subjected to silica gel chromatography eluting with hexanes-EtOAc to provide 63B. 1H NMR (400 MHz, Chloroform-d) δ 8.14 (d, J=2.5 Hz, 1H), 7.36 (s, 1H), 7.28-7.24 (m, 2H), 6.46 (d, J=2.3 Hz, 1H), 6.41 (dd, J=8.3, 2.4 Hz, 1H), 4.54 (dd, J=6.2, 2.7 Hz, 2H), 3.84 (s, 3H), 3.78 (s, 3H), 3.69 (s, 3H), 2.27-2.16 (m, 1H), 2.02 (s, 1H), 1.71 (s, 3H), 1.34-1.23 (m, 5H), 0.88 (t, J=6.9 Hz, 3H). 19F NMR (376 MHz, Chloroform-d) δ −121.51 (d, J=422.9 Hz). LCMS (m/z): 472.21 [M+H] +; t R=0.91 min. on LC/MS Method A.
      Synthesis of 2-((2-((2,4-dimethoxybenzyl)amino)-7-fluoropyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)-2-methylhexan-1-ol (63C). To a solution of 63B (104 mg, 0.22 mmol) in THF (5 mL) was added lithium aluminum hydride in Et 2O (2M, 0.30 mL, 0.60 mmol). After 5 h the reaction was quenched with H 2O (1 mL) and 2M NaOH (aq), and then filtered. The mother liquor was then diluted with EtOAc (30 mL), washed with sat. Rochelle’s salt solution (25 mL), H 2O (25 mL), and brine (25 mL), dried over Na 2SO 4, then filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was subjected to silica gel chromatography eluting with hexanes-EtOAc to provide 63C. 1H NMR (400 MHz, Chloroform-d) δ 8.12 (d, J=2.5 Hz, 1H), 7.32 (s, 1H), 7.28 (s, 1H), 6.46 (d, J=2.4 Hz, 1H), 6.42 (dd, J=8.2, 2.4 Hz, 1H), 4.57-4.52 (m, 2H), 3.84 (s, 3H), 3.79 (s, 4H), 3.75 (s, 2H), 1.92 (d, J=14.1 Hz, 1H), 1.74 (t, J=12.6 Hz, 1H), 1.40-1.37 (m, 3H), 1.32 (td, J=13.4, 12.4, 6.3 Hz, 4H), 0.91 (t, J=7.0 Hz, 3H). 19F NMR (377 MHz, Chloroform-d) δ −121.34. LCMS (m/z): 444.20 [M+H] +; t R=0.94 min. on LC/MS Method A
      Synthesis of 2-((2-amino-7-fluoropyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)-2-methylhexan-1-ol (63). To 63C (22 mg, 0.05 mmol) was added TFA (3 mL). After 30 minutes, the reaction mixture was diluted with MeOH (5 mL). After stirring for 18 h, the mixture was filtered and concentrated in vacuo. Co-evaporation with MeOH (×3) provided 63 as a TFA salt. 1H NMR (400 MHz, MeOH-d 4) δ 8.53 (d, J=2.4 Hz, 1H), 8.20 (s, 1H), 7.65 (dd, J=8.8, 2.4 Hz, 1H), 3.95 (s, 1H), 3.70 (d, J=11.2 Hz, 1H), 2.09 (ddd, J=13.9, 10.9, 5.3 Hz, 1H), 1.96-1.86 (m, 1H), 1.53 (s, 3H), 1.42-1.28 (m, 6H), 0.95-0.87 (m, 3H). 19F NMR (377 MHz, MeOH-d 4) δ −77.47, −118.23 (d, J=8.6 Hz). LCMS (m/z): 294.12 [M+H] +; t R=0.68 min. on LC/MS Method A.

EXAMPLE 64

      Synthesis of (S)-2-amino-2-methylhexan-1-ol (64A). To (2S)-2-amino-2-methylhexanoic acid hydrochloride (250 mg, 1.4 mmol, supplied by Astatech) in THF (5 mL) was added borane-tetrahydrofuran complex solution in THF (1M, 5.5 mL) dropwise over 5 minutes. After 24 h, the reaction was quenched with MeOH (1 mL) and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was taken up in DCM (10 mL), filtered, and concentrated in vacuo to provide crude 64A. LCMS (m/z): 131.92 [M+H] +; t R=0.57 min. on LC/MS Method A.
      Synthesis of (S)-2-((2-amino-7-fluoropyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)-2-methylhexan-1-ol (64). To a solution of 43B (140 mg, 78 mmol) and 64A (125 mg, 0.95 mmol) in NMP (7.5 mL), was added DBU (0.35 mL, 2.4 mmol) followed by BOP (419 mg, 0.95 mmol). After 16 h, the reaction mixture was subjected to prep HPLC (Gemini 10u C18 110A, AXIA; 10% aq. acetonitrile—50% aq. acetonitrile with 0.1% TFA, over 20 min. gradient) to provide, after removal of volatiles in vacuo, 64 as a TFA salt. 1H NMR (400 MHz, MeOH-d 4) δ 8.55 (d, J=2.4 Hz, 1H), 8.22 (s, 1H), 7.64 (dd, J=8.7, 2.5 Hz, 1H), 3.97 (d, J=11.2 Hz, 1H), 3.71 (d, J=11.2 Hz, 1H), 2.09 (ddd, J=13.9, 10.8, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 1.92 (ddd, J=13.6, 10.9, 5.4 Hz, 1H), 1.54 (s, 4H), 1.40-1.31 (m, 5H), 1.00-0.85 (m, 3H). 19F NMR (377 MHz, MeOH-d 4) δ −77.62, −118.22 (d, J=8.7 Hz). LCMS (m/z) 294.09 [M+H] +; t R=0.79 min. on LC/MS Method A.

EXAMPLE 65

      Synthesis of (R)-N-(2-((2-amino-7-chloropyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)-2-methylhexyl)acetamide (65A). To a solution of 19B (112 mg, 0.48 mmol) in THF (5 mL) was added 61E (100 mg, 0.48 mmol) and N,N-diisopropylethylamine (0.25 mL, 1.4 mmol). After stirring at 80° C. for 18 h, 2,4-dimethoxybenzylamine (0.75 mL, 5.0 mmol) was added and the mixture was heated to 100° C. After 18 h, the reaction was cooled to rt, diluted with EtOAc (50 mL), washed with water (50 mL) and brine (50 mL), dried over Na 2SO 4, then filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was subjected to silica gel chromatography eluting with hexanes-EtOAc to provide 65A LCMS (m/z): 509.30[M+H] +; t R=0.89 min. on LC/MS Method A.
      Synthesis of (R)-N-(2-((2-amino-7-chloropyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)-2-methylhexyl)acetamide (65). To 65A (21 mg, 0.04 mmol) was added TFA (3 mL). After 30 minutes, the mixture was concentrated in vacuo and the residue co-evaporated with MeOH (10 mL×3). The resulting residue was suspended in MeOH (10 mL), filtered, and concentrated in vacuo to provide 65 as a TFA salt. 1H NMR (400 MHz, MeOH-d 4) δ 8.59 (d, J=2.1 Hz, 1H), 8.58 (s, 1H), 7.91 (d, J=2.1 Hz, 1H), 3.93 (d, J=14.0 Hz, 1H), 3.52 (d, J=14.0 Hz, 1H), 2.22-2.10 (m, 1H), 1.96 (s, 3H), 1.95-1.87 (m, 1H), 1.54 (s, 3H), 1.34 (dd, J=7.5, 3.9 Hz, 5H), 0.94-0.89 (m, 3H). 19F NMR (377 MHz, MeOH-d 4) δ −77.91. LCMS (m/z): 351.29 [M+H] +; t R=0.69 min. on LC/MS Method A.

 

 

/////////////GS 9688, SELGANTOLIMOD

CCCC[C@@](C)(CO)Nc1nc(N)nc2cc(F)cnc12

Desidustat


Desidustat.svg

DESIDUSTAT

Formal Name
N-[[1-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-1,2-dihydro-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-3-quinolinyl]carbonyl]-glycine
CAS Number 1616690-16-4
Molecular Formula   C16H16N2O6
Formula Weight 332.3
FormulationA crystalline solid
λmax233, 291, 335

2-(1-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxamido)acetic acid

desidustat

Glycine, N-((1-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-1,2-dihydro-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-3-quinolinyl)carbonyl)-

N-(1-(Cyclopropylmethoxy)-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-3-carbonyl)glycine

ZYAN1 compound

BCP29692

EX-A2999

ZB1514

CS-8034

HY-103227

A16921

(1-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-3-carbonyl) glycine in 98% yield, as a solid. MS (ESI-MS): m/z 333.05 (M+H) +1H NMR (DMSO-d 6): 0.44-0.38 (m, 2H), 0.62-0.53 (m, 2H), 1.34-1.24 (m, 1H), 4.06-4.04 (d, 2H), 4.14-4.13 (d, 2H), 7.43-7.39 (t, 1H), 7.72-7.70 (d, 1H), 7.89-7.85 (m, 1H), 8.11-8.09 (dd, 1H), 10.27-10.24 (t, 1H), 12.97 (bs, 1H), 16.99 (s, 1H). HPLC Purity: 99.85%

Desidustat | C16H16N2O6 - PubChem

breakingnewspharma hashtag on Twitter

Desidustat (INN, also known as ZYAN1) is an investigational drug for the treatment of anemia of chronic kidney disease. Clinical trials on desidustat have been done in India and Australia.[1] In a Phase 2, randomized, double-blind, 6-week, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging, safety and efficacy study, a mean Hb increase of 1.57, 2.22, and 2.92 g/dL in Desidustat 100, 150, and 200 mg arms, respectively, was observed.[2] It is currently undergoing Phase 3 clinical trials.[3] Desidustat is being developed for the treatment of anemia, where currently erythropoietin and its analogues are drugs of choice. Desidustat is a prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD) inhibitor. In preclinical studies, effect of desidustat was assessed in normal and nephrectomized rats, and in chemotherapy-induced anemia. Desidustat demonstrated hematinic potential by combined effects on endogenous erythropoietin release and efficient iron utilization.[4][5] Desidustat can also be useful in treatment of anemia of inflammation since it causes efficient erythropoiesis and hepcidin downregulation.[6]. In January 2020, Zydus entered into licensing agreement with China Medical System Holdings for development and commercialization of Desidustat in Greater China. Under the license agreement, CMS will pay Zydus an initial upfront payment, regulatory milestones, sales milestones and royalties on net sales of the product. CMS will be responsible for development, registration and commercialization of Desidustat in Greater China [7]

 

PATENT

US277539705

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf;jsessionid=C922CC7937C0B6D7F987FE395E8B6F34.wapp2nB?docId=US277539705&_cid=P21-KCEB8C-83913-1

      Patent applications WO 2004041818, US 20040167123, US 2004162285, US 20040097492 and US 20040087577 describes the utility of N-arylated hydroxylamines of formula (IV), which are intermediates useful for the synthesis of certain quinolone derivatives (VI) as inhibitors of hepatitis C (HCV) polymerase useful for the treatment of HCV infection. In these references, the compound of formula (IV) was prepared using Scheme 1 which involves partial reduction of nitro group and subsequent O-alkylation using sodium hydride as a base.

 (MOL) (CDX)

      The patent application WO 2014102818 describes the use of certain quinolone based compound of formula (I) as prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors for the treatment of anemia. Compound of formula (I) was prepared according to scheme 2 which involved partial reduction of nitro group and subsequent O-alkylation using cesium carbonate as a base.

 (MOL) (CDX)

      The drawback of process disclosed in WO 2014102818 (Scheme 2) is that it teaches usage of many hazardous reagents and process requires column chromatographic purification using highly flammable solvent at one of the stage and purification at multi steps during synthesis, which is not feasible for bulk production.
Scheme 3:

 (MOL) (CDX)

 Scheme 4.

 (MOL) (CDX)

      The process for the preparation of compound of formula (I-a) comprises the following steps:

Step 1′a Process for Preparation of ethyl 2-iodobenzoate (XI-a)

      In a 5 L fixed glass assembly, Ethanol (1.25 L) charged at room temperature. 2-iodobenzoic acid (250 g, 1.00 mol) was added in one lot at room temperature. Sulphuric acid (197.7 g, 2.01 mol) was added carefully in to reaction mixture at 20 to 35° C. The reaction mixture was heated to 80 to 85° C. Reaction mixture was stirred for 20 hours at 80 to 85° C. After completion of reaction distilled out ethanol at below 60° C. The reaction mixture was cooled down to room temperature. Water (2.5 L) was then added carefully at 20 to 35° C. The reaction mixture was then charged with Ethyl acetate (1.25 L). After complete addition of ethyl acetate, reaction mixture turned to clear solution. At room temperature it was stirred for 5 to 10 minutes and separated aqueous layer. Aqueous layer then again extracted with ethyl acetate (1.25 L) and separated aqueous layer. Combined organic layer then washed with twice 10% sodium bicarbonate solution (2×1.25 L) and twice process water (2×1.25L) and separated aqueous layer. Organic layer then washed with 30% brine solution (2.5 L) and separated aqueous layer. Concentrated ethyl acetate in vacuo to get ethyl 2-iodobenzoate in 95% yield, as an oil, which was used in next the reaction, without any further purification. MS (ESI-MS): m/z 248.75 (M+H). 1H NMR (CDCl 3): 1.41-1.37 (t, 3H), 4.41-4.35 (q, 2H), 7.71-7.09 (m, 1H), 7.39-7.35 (m, 1H), 7.94-7.39 (m, 1H), 7.96-7.96 (d, 1H). HPLC Purity: 99.27%

Step-2 Process for the Preparation of ethyl 2-((tert-butoxycarbonyl)(cyclopropylmethoxy)aminolbenzoate (XII-a)

      In a 5 L fixed glass assembly, toluene (1.5 L) was charged at room temperature. Copper (I) iodide (15.3 g, 0.08 mol) was added in one lot at room temperature. Glycine (39.1 g, 0.520 mol) was added in one lot at room temperature. Reaction mixture was stirred for 20 minutes at room temperature. Ethyl 2-iodobenzoate (221.2 g, 0.801 mol) was added in one lot at room temperature. Tert-butyl (cyclopropylmethoxy)carbamate (150 g, 0.801 mol) was added in one lot at room temperature. Reaction mixture was stirred for 20 minutes at room temperature. Potassium carbonate (885.8 g, 6.408 mol) and ethanol (0.9 L) were added at 25° C. to 35° C. Reaction mixture was stirred for 30 minutes. The reaction mixture was refluxed at 78 to 85° C. for 24 hours. Reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature and stirred for 30 minutes. The reaction mixture was then charged with ethyl acetate (1.5 L). After complete addition of ethyl acetate, reaction mixture turned to thick slurry. At room temperature it was stirred for 30 minutes and the solid inorganic material was filtered off through hyflow supercel bed. Inorganic solid impurity was washed with ethyl acetate (1.5 L), combined ethyl acetate layer was washed with twice water (2×1.5 L) and separated aqueous layer. Organic layer washed with 30% sodium chloride solution (1.5 L) and separated aqueous layer. Ethyl acetate was concentrated in vacuo to get ethyl 2-((tert-butoxycarbonyl)(cyclopropylmethoxy)amino)benzoate in 89% yield, as an oil, which was used in next the reaction, without any further purification. MS (ESI-MS): m/z 357.93 (M+Na). 1H NMR (CDCl 3): 0.26-0.23 (m, 2H), 0.52-0.48 (m, 2H), 1.10-1.08 (m, 1H), 1.38-1.35 (t, 3H), 1.51 (s, 9H), 3.78-3.76 (d, J=7.6 Hz, 2H), 4.35-4.30 (q, J=6.8 Hz, 2H), 7.29-7.25 (m, 1H), 7.49-7.47 (m, 2H), 7.78-7.77 (d, 1H). HPLC Purity: 88.07%

Step 3 Process for the Preparation of ethyl 2-((cyclopropylmethoxy)amino)benzoate (XIII-a)

      In a 10 L fixed glass assembly, dichloromethane (2.4 L) was charged at room temperature. Ethyl 2-((tert-butoxycarbonyl)(cyclopropylmethoxy)amino)benzoate (200 g, 0.596 mol) was charged and cooled externally with ice-salt at 0 to 10° C. Methanolic HCl (688.3 g, 3.458 mol, 18.34% w/w) solution was added slowly drop wise, over a period of 15 minutes, while maintaining internal temperature below 10° C. Reaction mixture was warmed to 20 to 30° C., and stirred at 20 to 30° C. for 3 hours. The reaction mixture was quenched with addition of water (3.442 L). Upon completion of water addition, the reaction mixture turn out to light yellow coloured solution. At room temperature it was stirred for another 15 minutes and separated aqueous layer. Aqueous layer was again extracted with Dichloromethane (0.8 L). Combined dichloromethane layer then washed with 20% sodium chloride solution (1.0 L) and separated aqueous layer. Concentrated dichloromethane vacuo to get Ethyl 2-((cyclopropylmethoxy)amino)benzoate in 92% yield, as an oil. MS (ESI-MS): m/z 235.65 (M+H) +1H NMR (CDCl 3): 0.35-0.31 (m, 2H), 0.80-0.59 (m, 2H), 0.91-0.85 (m, 1H), 1.44-1.38 (t, 3H), 3.76-3.74 (d, 2H), 4.36-4.30 (q, 2H), 6.85-6.81 (t, 1H), 7.36-7.33 (d, 1H), 7.92-7.43 (m, 1H), 7.94-7.93 (d, 1H), 9.83 (s, 1H). HPLC Purity: 87.62%

Step 4 Process for the Preparation of ethyl 24N-(cyclopropylinethoxy)-3-ethoxy-3-oxopropanamido)benzoate (XIV-a)

      In a 2 L fixed glass assembly, Acetonitrile (0.6 L) was charged at room temperature. Ethyl 2-((cyclopropylmethoxy)amino)benzoate (120 g, 0.510 mol) was charged at room temperature. Ethyl hydrogen malonate (74.1 g, 0.561 mol) was charged at room temperature. Pyridine (161.4 g, 2.04 mol) was added carefully in to reaction mass at room temperature and cooled externally with ice-salt at 0 to 10° C. Phosphorous oxychloride (86.0 g, 0.561 mol) was added slowly drop wise, over a period of 2 hours, while maintaining internal temperature below 10° C. Reaction mixture was stirred at 0 to 10° C. for 45 minutes. The reaction mixture was quenched with addition of water (1.0 L). Upon completion of water addition, the reaction mixture turns out to dark red coloured solution. Dichloromethane (0.672 L) was charged at room temperature and it was stirred for another 15 minutes and separated aqueous layer. Aqueous layer was again extracted with dichloromethane (0.672 L). Combined dichloromethane layer then washed with water (0.400 L) and 6% sodium chloride solution (0.400 L) and separated aqueous layer. Mixture of acetonitrile and dichloromethane was concentrated in vacuo to get Ethyl 2-(N-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-3-ethoxy-3-oxopropanamido)benzoate in 95% yield, as an oil. MS (ESI-MS): m/z 350.14 (M+H) l1H NMR (DMSO-d 6): 0.3-0.2 (m, 2H), 0.6-0.4 (m, 2H), 1.10-1.04 (m, 1H), 1.19-1.15 (t, 3H), 1.29-1.25 (t, 3H), 3.72-3.70 (d, 2H), 3.68 (s, 2H), 4.17-4.12 (q, 2H), 4.25-4.19 (q, 2H), 7.44-7.42 (d, 1H), 7.50-7.46 (t, 1H), 7.68-7.64 (m, 1H), 7.76-7.74 (d, 1H). HPLC Purity: 86.74%

Step 5: Process for the Preparation of ethyl 1-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2 dihydroquinolline-3-carboxylate (XY-a)

      In a 10 L fixed glass assembly under Nitrogen atmosphere, Methanol (0.736 L) was charged at room temperature. Ethyl 2-(N-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-3-ethoxy-3-oxopropanamido)benzoate (160 g, 0.457 mol) was charged at room temperature. Sodium methoxide powder (34.6 g, 0.641 mol) was added portion wise, over a period of 30 minutes, while maintaining internal temperature 10 to 20° C. Reaction mixture was stirred at 10 to 20° C. for 30 minutes. The reaction mixture was quenched with addition of ˜1N aqueous hydrochloric acid solution (0.64 L) to bring pH 2, over a period of 20 minutes, while maintaining an internal temperature 10 to 30° C. Upon completion of aqueous hydrochloric acid solution addition, the reaction mixture turned to light yellow coloured slurry. Diluted the reaction mass with water (3.02 L) and it was stirred for another 1 hour. Solid material was filtered off and washed twice with water (2×0.24 L). Dried the compound in fan dryer at temperature 50 to 55° C. for 6 hours to get crude ethyl 1-(cyclopropylmetboxy)-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylate as a solid.

Purification

      In a 10 L fixed glass assembly, DMF (0.48 L) was charged at room temperature. Crude ethyl 1-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylate (120 g) was charged at room temperature. Upon completion of addition of crude compound, clear reaction mass observed. Reaction mixture stirred for 30 minutes at room temperature. Precipitate the product by addition of water (4.8 L), over a period of 30 minutes, while maintaining an internal temperature 25 to 45° C. Upon completion of addition of water, the reaction mixture turned to light yellow colored slurry. Reaction mixture was stirred at 25 to 45° C. for 30 minutes. Solid material was filtered off and washed with water (0.169 L). Dried the product in fan dryer at temperature 50 to 55° C. for 6 hours to get pure ethyl 1-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylate in 81% yield, as a solid. MS (ESI-MS): m/z 303.90 (M+H) +1H NMR (DMSO-d 6): 0.37-0.35 (m, 2H), 0.59-0.55 (m, 2H), 1.25-1.20 (m, 1H), 1.32-1.29 (t, 3H), 3.97-3.95 (d, 2H), 4.36-4.31 (q, 2H), 7.35-7.31 (in, 1H), 7.62-7.60 (dd, 1H), 7.81-7.77 (m, 1H), 8.06-7.04 (dd, 1H). HPLC Purity: 95.52%

Step 6 Process for the Preparation of ethyl (1-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-3-carbonyl)glycinate (XVI-a)

      In a 5 L fixed glass assembly, tetrahydrofuran (0.5 L) was charged at room temperature. Ethyl 1-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylate (100 g, 0.329 mol) was charged at room temperature. Glycine ethyl ester HCl (50.7 g, 0.362 mol) was charged at room temperature. N,N-Diisopropylethyl amine (64 g, 0.494 mol) was added carefully in to reaction mass at room temperature and heated the reaction mass at 65 to 70° C. Reaction mixture was stirred at 65 to 70° C. for 18 hours. The reaction mixture was quenched with addition of water (2.5 L).
      Upon completion of water addition, the reaction mixture turns out to off white to yellow coloured slurry. Concentrated tetrahydrofuran below 55° C. in vacuo and reaction mixture was stirred at 25 to 35° C. for 1 hour. Solid material was filtered off and washed with water (3×0.20 L). Dried the compound in fan dryer at temperature 55 to 60° C. for 8 hours to get crude ethyl (1-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-3-carbonyl)glycinate as a solid.

Purification

      In a 2 L fixed glass assembly, Methanol (1.15 L) was charged at room temperature. Crude ethyl (1-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-3-carbonyl)glycinate (100 g) was charged at room temperature. The reaction mass was heated to 65 to 70° C. Reaction mass was stirred for 1 h at 65 to 70° C. Removed heating and cool the reaction mass to 25 to 35° C. Reaction mass stirred for 1 h at 25 to 35° C. Solid material was filtered off and washed with methanol (0.105 L). The product was dried under fan dryer at temperature 55 to 60° C. for 8 hours to get pure ethyl 1-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylate in 80% yield, as a solid. MS (ESI-MS): m/z 360.85 (M+H) +1H NMR (DMSO-d 6): 0.39 (m, 2H), 0.60-0.54 (m, 2H), 1.23-1.19 (t, 3H), 1.31-1.26 (m, 1H), 4.04-4.02 (d, 2H), 4.18-4.12 (q, 2H), 4.20-4.18 (d, 2H), 7.40-7.36 (m, 1H), 7.70-7.68 (d, 1H), 7.87-7.83 (m, 1H), 8.08-8.05 (dd, 1H), 10.27-10.24 (t, 1H). HPLC Purity: 99.84%

Step 7: Process for the Preparation of (1-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-3-carbonyl)glycine (I-a)

      In a 5 L fixed glass assembly, methanol (0.525 L) was charged at room temperature. Ethyl 1-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylate (75 g, 0.208 mol) was charged at room temperature. Water (0.30 L) was charged at room temperature. Sodium hydroxide solution (20.8 g, 0.520 mol) in water (0.225 L) was added carefully at 30 to 40° C. Upon completion of addition of sodium hydroxide solution, the reaction mass turned to clear solution. Reaction mixture stirred for 30 minutes at 30 to 40° C. Diluted the reaction by addition of water (2.1 L). Precipitate the solid by addition of hydrochloric acid solution (75 mL) in water (75 mL). Upon completion of addition of hydrochloric acid solution, the reaction mass turned to off white colored thick slurry. Reaction mixture was stirred for 1 h at room temperature. Solid material was filtered off and washed with water (4×0.375 L). The compound was dried under fan dryer at temperature 25 to 35° C. for 6 hours and then dried for 4 hours at 50 to 60° C. to get (1-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-3-carbonyl) glycine in 98% yield, as a solid. MS (ESI-MS): m/z 333.05 (M+H) +1H NMR (DMSO-d 6): 0.44-0.38 (m, 2H), 0.62-0.53 (m, 2H), 1.34-1.24 (m, 1H), 4.06-4.04 (d, 2H), 4.14-4.13 (d, 2H), 7.43-7.39 (t, 1H), 7.72-7.70 (d, 1H), 7.89-7.85 (m, 1H), 8.11-8.09 (dd, 1H), 10.27-10.24 (t, 1H), 12.97 (bs, 1H), 16.99 (s, 1H). HPLC Purity: 99.85%

Polymorphic Data (XRPD):

References

  1. ^ Kansagra KA, Parmar D, Jani RH, Srinivas NR, Lickliter J, Patel HV, et al. (January 2018). “Phase I Clinical Study of ZYAN1, A Novel Prolyl-Hydroxylase (PHD) Inhibitor to Evaluate the Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacokinetics Following Oral Administration in Healthy Volunteers”Clinical Pharmacokinetics57 (1): 87–102. doi:10.1007/s40262-017-0551-3PMC5766731PMID28508936.
  2. ^ Parmar DV, Kansagra KA, Patel JC, Joshi SN, Sharma NS, Shelat AD, Patel NB, Nakrani VB, Shaikh FA, Patel HV; on behalf of the ZYAN1 Trial Investigators. Outcomes of Desidustat Treatment in People with Anemia and Chronic Kidney Disease: A Phase 2 Study. Am J Nephrol. 2019 May 21;49(6):470-478. doi: 10.1159/000500232.
  3. ^ “Zydus Cadila announces phase III clinical trials of Desidustat”. 17 April 2019. Retrieved 20 April 2019 – via The Hindu BusinessLine.
  4. ^ Jain MR, Joharapurkar AA, Pandya V, Patel V, Joshi J, Kshirsagar S, et al. (February 2016). “Pharmacological Characterization of ZYAN1, a Novel Prolyl Hydroxylase Inhibitor for the Treatment of Anemia”. Drug Research66 (2): 107–12. doi:10.1055/s-0035-1554630PMID26367279.
  5. ^ Joharapurkar AA, Pandya VB, Patel VJ, Desai RC, Jain MR (August 2018). “Prolyl Hydroxylase Inhibitors: A Breakthrough in the Therapy of Anemia Associated with Chronic Diseases”. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry61 (16): 6964–6982. doi:10.1021/acs.jmedchem.7b01686PMID29712435.
  6. ^ Jain M, Joharapurkar A, Patel V, Kshirsagar S, Sutariya B, Patel M, et al. (January 2019). “Pharmacological inhibition of prolyl hydroxylase protects against inflammation-induced anemia via efficient erythropoiesis and hepcidin downregulation”. European Journal of Pharmacology843: 113–120. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2018.11.023PMID30458168S2CID53943666.
  7. ^ “Zydus enters into licensing agreement with China Medical System Holdings”. 20 January 2020. Retrieved 20 January 2020 – via Business Standard.

 

 

Publication Dates
20160
20170
20180
1.WO/2020/086736RGMC-SELECTIVE INHIBITORS AND USE THEREOF
WO – 30.04.2020
Int.Class A61P 7/06Appl.No PCT/US2019/057687Applicant SCHOLAR ROCK, INC.Inventor NICHOLLS, Samantha
Selective inhibitors of repulsive guidance molecule C (RGMc), are described. Related methods, including methods for making, as well as therapeutic use of these inhibitors in the treatment of disorders, such as anemia, are also provided.
2.WO/2020/058882METHODS OF PRODUCING VENOUS ANGIOBLASTS AND SINUSOIDAL ENDOTHELIAL CELL-LIKE CELLS AND COMPOSITIONS THEREOF
WO – 26.03.2020
Int.Class C12N 5/071Appl.No PCT/IB2019/057882Applicant UNIVERSITY HEALTH NETWORKInventor KELLER, Gordon
Disclosed herein are methods of producing a population of venous angioblast cells from stem cells using a venous angioblast inducing media and optionally isolating a CD34+ population from the cell population comprising the venous angioblast cells, for example using a CD34 affinity reagent, CD31 affinity reagent and/or CD144 affinity reagent, optionally with or without a CD73 affinity reagent as well as methods of further differentiating the venous angioblasts in vitro to produce SEC-LCs and/or in vivo to produce SECs. Uses of the cells and compositions comprising the cells are also described.
3.110876806APPLICATION OF HIF2ALPHA AGONIST AND ACER2 AGONIST IN PREPARATION OF MEDICINE FOR TREATING ATHEROSCLEROSIS
CN – 13.03.2020
Int.Class A61K 45/00Appl.No 201911014253.3Applicant PEKING UNIVERSITYInventor JIANG CHANGTAO
The invention discloses application of an HIF2alpha agonist and an ACER2 agonist in preparation of a medicine for treating and/or preventing atherosclerosis. Wherein the HIF2alpha agonist can be an adipose cell HIF2alpha agonist, and the ACER2 agonist can be a visceral fat ACER2 enzyme activator. The invention also discloses an application of Roxadustat in preparing a medicine for treating and/orpreventing atherosclerosis. The HIF2alpha agonist, the ACER2 agonist and the Roxadustat can be used for inhibiting or alleviating the occurrence and development of atherosclerosis.
4.20190359574PROCESS FOR THE PREPARATION OF QUINOLONE BASED COMPOUNDS
US – 28.11.2019
Int.Class C07D 215/58Appl.No 16421671Applicant CADILA HEALTHCARE LIMITEDInventor Ranjit C. Desai

The present invention relates to an improved process for the preparation of quinolone based compounds of general formula (I) using intermediate compound of general formula (XII). Invention also provides an improved process for the preparation of compound of formula (I-a) using intermediate compound of formula (XII-a) and some novel impurities generated during process. Compounds prepared using this process can be used to treat anemia.

5.WO/2019/169172SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR TREATING MEIBOMIAN GLAND DYSFUNCTION
WO – 06.09.2019
Int.Class A61F 9/00Appl.No PCT/US2019/020113Applicant THE SCHEPENS EYE RESEARCH INSTITUTEInventor SULLIVAN, David, A.
Systems and methods of treating meibomian and sebaceous gland dysfunction. The methods include reducing oxygen concentration in the environment of one or more dysfunctional meibomian and sebaceous glands, thereby restoring a hypoxic status of one or more dysfunctional meibomian and sebaceous glands. The reducing of the oxygen concentration is accomplished by restricting blood flow to the one or more dysfunctional meibomian and sebaceous glands and the environment of one or more dysfunctional meibomian sebaceous glands. The restricting of the blood flow is accomplished by contracting or closing one or more blood vessels around the one or more dysfunctional meibomian or sebaceous glands. The methods also include giving local or systemic drugs that lead to the generation of hypoxia-inducible factors in one or more dysfunctional meibomian and sebaceous glands.
6.201591195ХИНОЛОНОВЫЕ ПРОИЗВОДНЫЕ
EA – 30.10.2015
Int.Class C07D 215/58Appl.No 201591195Applicant КАДИЛА ХЕЛЗКЭР ЛИМИТЕДInventor Десаи Ранджит К.

Настоящее изобретение относится к новым соединениям общей формулы (I), фармацевтическим композициям, содержащим указанные соединения, применению этих соединений для лечения состояний, опосредованных пролилгидроксилазой HIF, и к способу лечения анемии, включающему введение заявленных соединений

7.2935221QUINOLONE DERIVATIVES
EP – 28.10.2015
Int.Class C07D 215/58Appl.No 13828997Applicant CADILA HEALTHCARE LTDInventor DESAI RANJIT C
The present invention relates to novel compounds of the general formula (I), their tautomeric forms, their stereoisomers, their pharmaceutically acceptable salts, pharmaceutical compositions containing them, methods for their preparation, use of these compounds in medicine and the intermediates involved in their preparation. [Formula should be inserted here].
8.20150299193QUINOLONE DERIVATIVES
US – 22.10.2015
Int.Class C07D 215/58Appl.No 14652024Applicant Cadila Healthcare LimitedInventor Ranjit C. Desai

The present invention relates to novel compounds of the general formula (I), their tautomeric forms, their stereoisomers, their pharmaceutically acceptable salts, pharmaceutical compositions containing them, methods for their preparation, use of these compounds in medicine and the intermediates involved in their preparation.

embedded image

9.WO/2014/102818NOVEL QUINOLONE DERIVATIVES
WO – 03.07.2014
Int.Class C07D 215/58Appl.No PCT/IN2013/000796Applicant CADILA HEALTHCARE LIMITEDInventor DESAI, Ranjit, C.
The present invention relates to novel compounds of the general formula (I), their tautomeric forms, their stereoisomers, their pharmaceutically acceptable salts, pharmaceutical compositions containing them, methods for their preparation, use of these compounds in medicine and the intermediates involved in their preparation. [Formula should be inserted here].

 

 

Desidustat
Desidustat.svg
Clinical data
Other names ZYAN1
Identifiers
CAS Number
UNII
Chemical and physical data
Formula C16H16N2O6
Molar mass 332.312 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)

Date

CTID Title Phase Status Date
NCT04215120 Desidustat in the Treatment of Anemia in CKD on Dialysis Patients Phase 3 Recruiting 2020-01-02
NCT04012957 Desidustat in the Treatment of Anemia in CKD Phase 3 Recruiting 2019-12-24

////////// DESIDUSTAT, ZYDUS CADILA, COVID 19, CORONA VIRUS, PHASE 3, ZYAN 1

GST-HG-121


GST-HG-121

mw 431.4

C23 H29 N07

Fujian Cosunter Pharmaceutical Co Ltd

Preclinical for the treatment of hepatitis B virus infection

This compound was originally claimed in WO2018214875 , and may provide the structure of GST-HG-121 , an HBsAg inhibitor which is being investigated by Fujian Cosunter for the treatment of hepatitis B virus infection; in June 2019, an IND application was planned in the US and clinical trials of the combination therapies were expected in 2020. Fujian Cosunter is also investigating GST-HG-131 , another HBsAg secretion inhibitor, although this appears to be being developed only as a part of drug combination.

WO2017013046A1

PATENT

WO2018214875

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2018214875&_cid=P21-KB0QYA-12917-1

Example 6

 

 

 

Step A: Maintaining at 0 degrees Celsius, lithium aluminum hydride (80.00 g, 2.11 mol, 2.77 equiv) was added to a solution of 6-1 (100.00 g, 762.36 mmol, 1.00 equiv) in tetrahydrofuran (400.00 mL). The solution was stirred at 10 degrees Celsius for 10 hours. Then, 80.00 ml of water was added to the reaction solution with stirring, and 240.00 ml of 15% aqueous sodium hydroxide solution was added, and then 80.00 ml of water was added. The resulting suspension was stirred at 10 degrees Celsius for 20 minutes, and filtered to obtain a colorless clear liquid. Concentrate under reduced pressure to obtain compound 6-2.

 

1 H NMR (400 MHz, deuterated chloroform) δ = 3.72 (dd, J = 3.9, 10.2 Hz, 1H), 3.21 (t, J = 10.2 Hz, 1H), 2.51 (dd, J = 3.9, 10.2 Hz, 1H ), 0.91(s, 9H)

 

Step B: Dissolve 6-2 (50.00 g, 426.66 mmol) and triethylamine (59.39 mL, 426.66 mmol) in dichloromethane (500.00 mL), di-tert-butyl dicarbonate (92.19 g, 422.40 mmol) Mol) was dissolved in dichloromethane (100.00 ml) and added dropwise to the previous reaction solution at 0 degrees Celsius. The reaction solution was then stirred at 25 degrees Celsius for 12 hours. The reaction solution was washed with saturated brine (600.00 mL), dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, the organic phase was concentrated under reduced pressure and spin-dried, and then recrystallized with methyl tert-butyl ether/petroleum ether (50.00/100.00) to obtain compound 6-3 .
1 H NMR (400 MHz, deuterated chloroform) δ 4.64 (br s, 1H), 3.80-3.92 (m, 1H), 3.51 (br d, J = 7.09 Hz, 2H), 2.17 (br s, 1H), 1.48 (s, 9H), 0.96 (s, 9H).

 

Step C: Dissolve thionyl chloride (100.98 ml, 1.39 mmol) in acetonitrile (707.50 ml), 6-3 (121.00 g, 556.82 mmol) in acetonitrile (282.90 ml), and drop at minus 40 degrees Celsius After adding to the last reaction solution, pyridine (224.72 mL, 2.78 mol) was added to the reaction solution in one portion. The ice bath was removed, and the reaction solution was stirred at 5-10 degrees Celsius for 1 hour. After spin-drying the solvent under reduced pressure, ethyl acetate (800.00 ml) was added, and a solid precipitated, which was filtered, and the filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure. Step 2: The obtained oil and water and ruthenium trichloride (12.55 g, 55.68 mmol) were dissolved in acetonitrile (153.80 ml), and sodium periodate (142.92 g, 668.19 mmol) was suspended in water (153.80 ml ), slowly add to the above reaction solution, and the final reaction mixture is stirred at 5-10 degrees Celsius for 0.15 hours. The reaction mixture was filtered to obtain a filtrate, which was extracted with ethyl acetate (800.00 mL×2). The organic phase was washed with saturated brine (800.00 mL), dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure to dryness. Column purification (silica, petroleum ether/ethyl acetate = 50/1 to 20/1) gave compound 6-4.

 

1 H NMR (400 MHz, deuterated chloroform) δ 4.49-4.55 (m, 1H), 4.40-4.44 (m, 1H), 4.10 (d, J = 6.15 Hz, 1H), 1.49 (s, 9H), 0.94 (s,9H).

[0230]
Step D: Dissolve 6-5 (100.00 g, 657.26 mmol) in acetonitrile (1300.00 mL), add potassium carbonate (227.10 g, 1.64 mol) and 1-bromo-3-methoxypropane (110.63 g, 722.99 Millimoles). The reaction solution was stirred at 85 degrees Celsius for 6 hours. The reaction solution was extracted with ethyl acetate 600.00 ml (200.00 ml×3), dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, then filtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure to obtain compound 6-6.

[0231]
1 H NMR (400 MHz, deuterated chloroform) δ 9.76-9.94 (m, 1H), 7.42-7.48 (m, 2H), 6.98 (d, J=8.03 Hz, 1H), 4.18 (t, J=6.53 Hz , 2H), 3.95 (s, 3H), 3.57 (t, J = 6.09 Hz, 2H), 3.33-3.39 (m, 3H), 2.13 (quin, J = 6.34 Hz, 2H).

[0232]
Step E: Dissolve 6-6 (70.00 g, 312.15 mmol) in methylene chloride, add m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid (94.27 g, 437.01 mmol), and the reaction was stirred at 50 degrees Celsius for 2 hours. After cooling the reaction solution, it was filtered, the filtrate was extracted with dichloromethane, the organic phase was washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate solution 2000.00 ml (400.00 ml × 5), dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, and concentrated under reduced pressure. A brown oil was obtained. After dissolving with as little methanol as possible, a solution of 2 mol per liter of potassium hydroxide (350.00 ml) was slowly added (exothermic). The dark colored reaction solution was stirred at room temperature for 20 minutes, and the reaction solution was adjusted to pH 5 with 37% hydrochloric acid. It was extracted with ethyl acetate 400.00 ml (200.00 ml×2), and the organic phase was washed with saturated brine 200.00 ml (100.00 ml×2), dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, and concentrated under reduced pressure to obtain compound 6-7.

 

1 H NMR (400 MHz, deuterated chloroform) δ 6.75 (d, J = 8.53 Hz, 1H), 6.49 (d, J = 2.89 Hz, 1H), 6.36 (dd, J = 2.82, 8.60 Hz, 1H), 4.07 (t, J = 6.40 Hz, 2H), 3.82 (s, 3H), 3.60 (t, J = 6.15 Hz, 2H), 3.38 (s, 3H), 2.06-2.14 (m, 2H).

 

Step F: Dissolve 6-7 (33.00 g, 155.48 mmol) in tetrahydrofuran (330.00 mL), add paraformaldehyde (42.02 g, 466.45 mmol), magnesium chloride (29.61 g, 310.97 mmol), triethylamine (47.20 g, 466.45 mmol, 64.92 mL). The reaction solution was stirred at 80 degrees Celsius for 8 hours. After the reaction was completed, it was quenched with 2 molar hydrochloric acid solution (200.00 ml) at 25°C, then extracted with ethyl acetate 600.00 ml (200.00 ml×3), and the organic phase was washed with saturated brine 400.00 ml (200.00 ml×2). Dry over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filter and concentrate under reduced pressure to obtain a residue. The residue was washed with ethanol (30.00 ml) and filtered to obtain a filter cake. Thus, compound 6-8 is obtained.

 

1 H NMR (400 MHz, deuterated chloroform) δ 11.29 (s, 1H), 9.55-9.67 (m, 1H), 6.83 (s, 1H), 6.42 (s, 1H), 4.10 (t, J=6.48 Hz , 2H), 3.79 (s, 3H), 3.49 (t, J = 6.05 Hz, 2H), 3.28 (s, 3H), 2.06 (quin, J = 6.27 Hz, 2H)

 

Step G: Dissolve 6-8 (8.70 g, 36.21 mmol) in N,N-dimethylformamide (80.00 mL), add potassium carbonate (10.01 g, 72.42 mmol) and 6-4 (11.13 g) , 39.83 mmol), the reaction solution was stirred at 50 degrees Celsius for 2 hours. The reaction solution was quenched with 1.00 mol/L aqueous hydrochloric acid solution (200.00 mL), and extracted with ethyl acetate (150.00 mL×2). The combined organic phase was washed with water (150.00 mL×3), dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure to obtain compound 6-9.
1 H NMR (400 MHz, deuterated chloroform) δ 10.31 (s, 1H), 7.34 (s, 1H), 6.57 (s, 1H), 4.18-4.26 (m, 3H), 4.07 (dd, J=5.33, 9.60Hz, 1H), 3.88(s, 4H), 3.60(t, J=5.96Hz, 2H), 3.39(s, 3H), 2.17(quin, J=6.21Hz, 2H), 1.47(s, 9H) , 1.06 (s, 9H).

 

Step H: Dissolve 6-9 (15.80 g, 35.95 mmol) in dichloromethane (150.00 mL) and add trifluoroacetic acid (43.91 mL, 593.12 mmol). The reaction solution was stirred at 10 degrees Celsius for 3 hours. The reaction solution was concentrated under reduced pressure and spin-dried, sodium bicarbonate aqueous solution (100.00 mL) was added, and dichloromethane (100.00 mL) was extracted. The organic phase was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure to obtain compound 6-10.
1 H NMR (400 MHz, deuterated chloroform) δ 8.40 (s, 1H), 6.80 (s, 1H), 6.51 (s, 1H), 4.30 (br d, J = 12.35 Hz, 1H), 4.04-4.11 ( m, 3H), 3.79 (s, 3H), 3.49 (t, J = 5.99 Hz, 2H), 3.36 (br d, J = 2.93 Hz, 1H), 3.28 (s, 3H), 2.06 (quin, J = 6.24Hz, 2H), 1.02(s, 9H).

 

Step I: Dissolve 6-10 (5.00 g, 15.56 mmol) in toluene (20.00 mL) and add 6-11 (8.04 g, 31.11 mmol). The reaction solution was stirred at 120 degrees Celsius for 12 hours under nitrogen protection. The reaction solution was quenched with water (100.00 mL), extracted with ethyl acetate (100.00 mL×2), the combined organic phases were washed with water (80.00 mL×2), dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by reverse phase column. Then purified by high-performance liquid chromatography (column: Phenomenex luna C18 250*50 mm*10 microns; mobile phase: [water (0.225% formic acid)-acetonitrile]; elution gradient: 35%-70%, 25 minutes) Compound 6-12 is obtained.

 

1 H NMR (400 MHz, deuterated chloroform) δ 7.95 (s, 1H), 6.59 (s, 1H), 6.40 (s, 1H), 5.15-5.23 (m, 1H), 4.35-4.41 (m, 2H) , 4.08-4.19 (m, 2H), 3.94-4.00 (m, 2H), 3.72 (s, 3H), 3.61-3.67 (m, 1H), 3.46 (dt, J=1.96, 5.99Hz, 2H), 3.27 (s, 3H), 3.01-3.08 (m, 1H), 2.85-2.94 (m, 1H), 1.97-2.01 (m, 2H), 1.18-1.22 (m, 3H), 1.04 (s, 9H).

 

Step J: Dissolve 6-12 (875.00 mg, 1.90 mmol) in toluene (20.00 mL) and ethylene glycol dimethyl ether (20.00 mL), and add tetrachlorobenzoquinone (1.40 g, 5.69 mmol). The reaction solution was stirred at 120 degrees Celsius for 12 hours. The reaction solution was cooled to room temperature, and a saturated aqueous sodium carbonate solution (50.00 ml) and ethyl acetate (60.00 ml) were added. The mixed solution was stirred at 10-15 degrees Celsius for 20 minutes, and the liquid was separated to obtain an organic phase. Add 2.00 mol/L aqueous hydrochloric acid solution (60.00 mL) to the organic phase, stir at 10-15 degrees Celsius for 20 minutes, and separate the liquid. Wash the organic phase with 2 mol/L aqueous hydrochloric acid solution (60.00 mL×2), separate the liquid, and separate the water phase A 2 mol/L aqueous sodium hydroxide solution (200.00 ml) and dichloromethane (200.00 ml) were added. The layers were separated, and the organic phase was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure to obtain compound 6-13.

[0243]
1 H NMR (400 MHz, deuterated chloroform) δ 7.98-8.78 (m, 1H), 6.86 (s, 1H), 6.43-6.73 (m, 2H), 4.41-4.48 (m, 1H), 4.28-4.38 ( m, 2H), 4.03-4.11 (m, 2H), 3.93 (br s, 1H), 3.80 (s, 3H), 3.47-3.52 (m, 3H), 3.29 (s, 3H), 2.06 (quin, J = 6.24 Hz, 2H), 1.33 (t, J = 7.15 Hz, 2H), 0.70-1.25 (m, 10H).

[0244]
Step K: Dissolve 6-13 (600.00 mg, 1.31 mmol) in methanol (6.00 mL), and add 4.00 mol/L aqueous sodium hydroxide solution (2.00 mL, 6.39 equiv). The reaction solution was stirred at 15 degrees Celsius for 0.25 hours. The reaction solution was adjusted to pH=3-4 with a 1.00 mol/L hydrochloric acid aqueous solution, and then extracted with dichloromethane (50.00 mL×3). The organic phases were combined, washed with saturated brine (50.00 mL), and dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate. , Filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure to obtain Example 6.

[0245]
ee value (enantiomeric excess): 100%.

[0246]
SFC (Supercritical Fluid Chromatography) method: Column: Chiralcel OD-3 100 mm x 4.6 mm ID, 3 μm mobile phase: methanol (0.05% diethylamine) in carbon dioxide from 5% to 40% Flow rate: 3 ml per minute Wavelength: 220 nm.

[0247]
1 H NMR (400 MHz, deuterated chloroform) δ 15.72 (br s, 1H), 8.32-8.93 (m, 1H), 6.60-6.93 (m, 2H), 6.51 (br s, 1H), 4.38-4.63 ( m, 2H), 4.11 (br dd, J = 4.52, 12.23 Hz, 3H), 3.79-3.87 (m, 3H), 3.46-3.54 (m, 2H), 3.29 (s, 3H), 2.07 (quin, J = 6.24 Hz, 2H), 0.77-1.21 (m, 9H).

PATENT

WO-2020103924

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2020103924&tab=FULLTEXT&_cid=P21-KB0QP8-09832-1

Novel crystalline forms of 11-oxo-7,11-dihydro-6H-benzo[f]pyrido[1,2-d][1,4]azepine, a hepatitis B surface antigen and HBV replication inhibitor, useful for treating HBV infection.

Hepatitis B virus, or hepatitis B for short, is a disease caused by Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection of the body. Hepatitis B virus is a hepatotropic virus, which mainly exists in liver cells and damages liver cells, causing inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis of liver cells. There are two types of viral hepatitis, acute and chronic. Acute hepatitis B in most adults can heal itself through its own immune mechanism. But chronic hepatitis B (CHB) has become a great challenge for global health care, and it is also the main cause of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and liver cancer (HCC). It is estimated that 2 billion people worldwide are infected with chronic hepatitis B virus, and more than 350 million people have developed into hepatitis B. Nearly 600,000 people die each year from complications of chronic hepatitis B. my country is a high incidence area of ​​hepatitis B. There are many patients with accumulated hepatitis B, and the harm is serious. According to data, there are about 93 million people with hepatitis B virus infection in China, and about 20 million of them are diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B, of which 10%-20% can evolve into cirrhosis and 1%-5% can develop into Liver cancer.

 

The key to the functional cure of hepatitis B is to remove HBsAg (hepatitis B virus surface antigen) and produce surface antibodies. HBsAg quantification is a very important biological indicator. In patients with chronic infection, few HBsAg reductions and seroconversion can be observed, which is the end point of current treatment.

 

The surface antigen protein of hepatitis B virus (HBV) plays a very important role in the process of HBV invading liver cells, and is of great significance for the prevention and treatment of HBV infection. Surface antigen proteins include large (L), medium (M) and small (S) surface antigen proteins, sharing a common C-terminal S region. They are expressed from an open reading frame, and their different lengths are determined by the three AUG start codons in the reading frame. These three surface antigen proteins include pre-S1/pre-S2/S, pre-S2/S and S domains. The HBV surface antigen protein is integrated into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane and is initiated by the N-terminal signal sequence. They not only constitute the basic structure of the virion, but also form spherical and filamentous subviral particles (SVPs, HBsAg), aggregated in the ER, host ER and pre-Golgi apparatus, SVP contains most S surface antigen proteins. The L protein is crucial in the interaction between viral morphogenesis and nucleocapsid, but it is not necessary for the formation of SVP. Due to their lack of nucleocapsid, the SVPs are non-infectious. SVPs are greatly involved in disease progression, especially the immune response to hepatitis B virus. In the blood of infected persons, the amount of SVPs is at least 10,000 times the number of viruses, trapping the immune system and weakening the body’s immune response to hepatitis B virus. HBsAg can also inhibit human innate immunity, can inhibit the production of cytokines induced by polysaccharide (LPS) and IL-2, inhibit the DC function of dendritic cells, and LPS interfere with ERK-1/2 and c-Jun N-terminal interfering kinase-1 2 Inducing activity in monocytes. It is worth noting that the disease progression of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma is also largely related to the persistent secretion of HBsAg. These findings indicate that HBsAg plays an important role in the development of chronic hepatitis.

 

The currently approved anti-HBV drugs are mainly immunomodulators (interferon-α and pegylated interferon-α-2α) and antiviral drugs (lamivudine, adefovir dipivoxil, entecavir, and Bifudine, Tenofovir, Kravudine, etc.). Among them, antiviral drugs belong to the class of nucleotide drugs, and their mechanism of action is to inhibit the synthesis of HBV DNA, and cannot directly reduce the level of HBsAg. As with prolonged treatment, nucleotide drugs show HBsAg clearance rate similar to natural observations.

 

Existing therapies in the clinic are not effective in reducing HBsAg. Therefore, the development of small molecule oral inhibitors that can effectively reduce HBsAg is urgently needed in clinical medicine.

 

Roche has developed a surface antigen inhibitor called RG7834 for the treatment of hepatitis B, and reported the drug efficacy of the compound in the model of woodchuck anti-hepatitis B: when using RG7834 as a single drug, it can reduce the surface of 2.57 Logs Antigen, reduced HBV-DNA by 1.7 Logs. The compound has good activity, but in the process of molecular synthesis, the isomers need to be resolved, which reduces the yield and increases the cost.

 

WO2017013046A1 discloses a series of 2-oxo-7,8-dihydro-6H-pyrido[2,1,a][2]benzodiazepine-3-for the treatment or prevention of hepatitis B virus infection Carboxylic acid derivatives. The IC 50 of Example 3, the highest activity of this series of fused ring compounds , is 419 nM, and there is much room for improvement in activity. The chiral centers contained in this series of compounds are difficult to synthesize asymmetrically. Generally, the 7-membered carbocyclic ring has poor water solubility and is prone to oxidative metabolism.
Example 1 Preparation of compound of formula (I)

 

[0060]

 

Step A: Maintaining at 0 degrees Celsius, to a solution of compound 1 (100.00 g, 762.36 mmol, 1.00 equiv) in tetrahydrofuran (400.00 mL) was added lithium aluminum hydride (80.00 g, 2.11 mol, 2.77 equiv). The solution was stirred at 10 degrees Celsius for 10 hours. Then, 80.00 ml of water was added to the reaction solution with stirring, and 240.00 ml of 15% aqueous sodium hydroxide solution was added, and then 80.00 ml of water was added. The resulting suspension was stirred at 10 degrees Celsius for 20 minutes, and filtered to obtain a colorless clear liquid. Concentrate under reduced pressure to obtain compound 2.
Step B: Dissolve compound 2 (50.00 g, 426.66 mmol) and triethylamine (59.39 mL, 426.66 mmol) in dichloromethane (500.00 mL), di-tert-butyl dicarbonate (92.19 g, 422.40 mmol) ) Was dissolved in dichloromethane (100.00 ml) and added dropwise to the previous reaction solution at 0 degrees Celsius. The reaction solution was then stirred at 25 degrees Celsius for 12 hours. The reaction solution was washed with saturated brine (600.00 ml), dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, the organic phase was concentrated under reduced pressure and spin-dried, and then recrystallized from methyl tert-butyl ether/petroleum ether (50.00/100.00) to obtain compound 3.
Step C: Dissolve thionyl chloride (100.98 ml, 1.39 mmol) in acetonitrile (707.50 ml), compound 3 (121.00 g, 556.82 mmol) in acetonitrile (282.90 ml), and add dropwise at minus 40 degrees Celsius To the last reaction solution, after the dropwise addition, pyridine (224.72 mL, 2.78 mol) was added to the reaction solution in one portion. The ice bath was removed, and the reaction solution was stirred at 5-10 degrees Celsius for 1 hour. After spin-drying the solvent under reduced pressure, ethyl acetate (800.00 ml) was added, and a solid precipitated, which was filtered, and the filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure. Step 2: The obtained oil and water and ruthenium trichloride (12.55 g, 55.68 mmol) were dissolved in acetonitrile (153.80 ml), and sodium periodate (142.92 g, 668.19 mmol) was suspended in water (153.80 ml ), slowly add to the above reaction solution, and the final reaction mixture is stirred at 5-10 degrees Celsius for 0.15 hours. The reaction mixture was filtered to obtain a filtrate, which was extracted with ethyl acetate (800.00 mL×2). The organic phase was washed with saturated brine (800.00 mL), dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure to dryness. Column purification (silica, petroleum ether/ethyl acetate = 50/1 to 20/1) gave compound 4.
Step D: Dissolve compound 5 (100.00 g, 657.26 mmol) in acetonitrile (1300.00 mL), add potassium carbonate (227.10 g, 1.64 mol) and 1-bromo-3-methoxypropane (110.63 g, 722.99 mmol) Mole). The reaction solution was stirred at 85 degrees Celsius for 6 hours. The reaction solution was extracted with ethyl acetate 600.00 ml (200.00 ml×3), dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, then filtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure to obtain compound 6.

 

Step E: Compound 6 (70.00 g, 312.15 mmol) was dissolved in methylene chloride, m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid (94.27 g, 437.01 mmol) was added, and the reaction was stirred at 50 degrees Celsius for 2 hours. After cooling the reaction solution, it was filtered, the filtrate was extracted with dichloromethane, the organic phase was washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate solution 2000.00 ml (400.00 ml × 5), dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, and concentrated under reduced pressure. A brown oil was obtained. After dissolving with as little methanol as possible, a solution of 2 mol per liter of potassium hydroxide (350.00 ml) was slowly added (exothermic). The dark colored reaction solution was stirred at room temperature for 20 minutes, and the reaction solution was adjusted to pH 5 with 37% hydrochloric acid. It was extracted with ethyl acetate 400.00 ml (200.00 ml×2), the organic phase was washed with saturated brine 200.00 ml (100.00 ml×2), dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, and concentrated under reduced pressure to obtain compound 7.

[0066]
Step F: Compound 7 (33.00 g, 155.48 mmol) was dissolved in tetrahydrofuran (330.00 mL), paraformaldehyde (42.02 g, 466.45 mmol), magnesium chloride (29.61 g, 310.97 mmol), triethylamine ( 47.20 g, 466.45 mmol, 64.92 mL). The reaction solution was stirred at 80 degrees Celsius for 8 hours. After the reaction was completed, it was quenched with 2 molar hydrochloric acid solution (200.00 ml) at 25°C, then extracted with ethyl acetate 600.00 ml (200.00 ml×3), and the organic phase was washed with saturated brine 400.00 ml (200.00 ml×2). Dry over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filter and concentrate under reduced pressure to obtain a residue. The residue was washed with ethanol (30.00 ml) and filtered to obtain a filter cake. Thus, compound 8 is obtained.

 

Step G: Dissolve compound 8 (8.70 g, 36.21 mmol) in N,N-dimethylformamide (80.00 mL), add potassium carbonate (10.01 g, 72.42 mmol) and compound 4 (11.13 g, 39.83 Mmol), the reaction solution was stirred at 50 degrees Celsius for 2 hours. The reaction solution was quenched with 1.00 mol/L aqueous hydrochloric acid solution (200.00 mL), and extracted with ethyl acetate (150.00 mL×2). The combined organic phase was washed with water (150.00 mL×3), dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure to obtain compound 9.

Step H: Compound 9 (15.80 g, 35.95 mmol) was dissolved in dichloromethane (150.00 mL), and trifluoroacetic acid (43.91 mL, 593.12 mmol) was added. The reaction solution was stirred at 10 degrees Celsius for 3 hours. The reaction solution was concentrated under reduced pressure and spin-dried, sodium bicarbonate aqueous solution (100.00 mL) was added, and dichloromethane (100.00 mL) was extracted. The organic phase was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure to obtain compound 10.

Step I: Compound 10 (5.00 g, 15.56 mmol) was dissolved in toluene (20.00 mL), and compound 11 (8.04 g, 31.11 mmol) was added. The reaction solution was stirred at 120°C for 12 hours under nitrogen protection. The reaction solution was quenched with water (100.00 mL), extracted with ethyl acetate (100.00 mL×2), the combined organic phases were washed with water (80.00 mL×2), dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by reverse phase column. Purified by high-performance liquid chromatography (column: Phenomenex luna C18 250×50 mm×10 μm; mobile phase: [water (0.225% formic acid)-acetonitrile]; elution gradient: 35%-70%, 25 minutes) Compound 12 is obtained.

Step J: Compound 12 (875.00 mg, 1.90 mmol) was dissolved in toluene (20.00 mL) and ethylene glycol dimethyl ether (20.00 mL), and tetrachlorobenzoquinone (1.40 g, 5.69 mmol) was added. The reaction solution was stirred at 120 degrees Celsius for 12 hours. The reaction solution was cooled to room temperature, and a saturated aqueous sodium carbonate solution (50.00 ml) and ethyl acetate (60.00 ml) were added. The mixed solution was stirred at 10-15 degrees Celsius for 20 minutes, and the liquid was separated to obtain an organic phase. Add 2.00 mol/L aqueous hydrochloric acid solution (60.00 mL) to the organic phase, stir at 10-15 degrees Celsius for 20 minutes, and separate the liquid. Wash the organic phase with 2 mol/L aqueous hydrochloric acid solution (60.00 mL×2), separate the liquid, and separate the water phase A 2 mol/L aqueous sodium hydroxide solution (200.00 ml) and dichloromethane (200.00 ml) were added. The layers were separated, and the organic phase was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure to obtain compound 13.

Step K: Compound 13 (600.00 mg, 1.31 mmol) was dissolved in methanol (6.00 mL), and 4.00 mol/L aqueous sodium hydroxide solution (2.00 mL, 6.39 equiv) was added. The reaction solution was stirred at 15 degrees Celsius for 0.25 hours. The reaction solution was adjusted to pH=3-4 with a 1.00 mol/L hydrochloric acid aqueous solution, and then extracted with dichloromethane (50.00 mL×3). The organic phases were combined, washed with saturated brine (50.00 mL), and dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate , Filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure to obtain the compound of formula (I). ee value (enantiomeric excess): 100%.

SFC (supercritical fluid chromatography) method:
Column: Chiralcel OD-3 100 mm x 4.6 mm size, 3 microns.
Mobile phase: methanol (0.05% diethylamine) in carbon dioxide, from 5% to 40%.
Flow rate: 3 ml per minute.
Wavelength: 220 nm.

////////////GST-HG-121, Fujian Cosunter,  Preclinical ,  hepatitis B,  virus infection

O=C(O)C1=CN2C(=CC1=O)c3cc(OC)c(OCCCOC)cc3OC[C@H]2C(C)(C)C

O=C(O)C1=CN2C(=CC1=O)c3cc(OC)c(OCCCOC)cc3OC[C@H]2C(C)(C)C

NARONAPRIDE


 

Thumb

Naronapride | C27H41ClN4O5 - PubChem

Naronapride | ATI-7505 | CAS#860174-12-5 | 860169-57-9 | 5-HT(4 ...

NARONAPRIDE

860174-12-5

Average: 537.1

C27H41ClN4O5

ATI 7505 / ATI-7505

(3R)-1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octan-3-yl 6-[(3S,4R)-4-(4-amino-5-chloro-2-methoxybenzamido)-3-methoxypiperidin-1-yl]hexanoate

INGREDIENT UNII CAS
Naronapride dihydrochloride 898PE2W8US 860169-57-9

 860174-12-5 (free base)   860169-57-9 (HCl)

Naronapride (free base), also known as ATI-7505, is a highly selective, high-affinity 5-HT(4) receptor agonist for gastrointestinal motility disorders. ATI-7505 accelerates overall colonic transit and tends to accelerate GE and AC emptying and loosen stool consistency.

 

Investigated for use/treatment in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and gastroparesis.

Renexxion , presumed to have been spun-out from Armetheon , under license from ARYx Therapeutics is developing naronapride (ATI-7505; phase 2 clinical in February 2020), an analog of the gastroprokinetic 5-HT 4 agonist cisapride identified using ARYx’s RetroMetabolic platform technology (ARM), for the oral treatment of upper GI disorders. In September 2018, this was still the case . PATENT

WO2005068461

NEW PATENT

WO-2020096911

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2020096911&tab=PCTDESCRIPTION&_cid=P21-KANOVN-53661-1

Process for preparing trihydrate salt of naronapride  hydrochloride as 5-HT 4 receptor agonist useful for treating gastrointestinal disorders such as dyspepsia, gastroparesis, constipation, post-operative ileus. Appears to be the first filing from the assignee and the inventors on this compound,

In some aspects, provided herein is a method of making a trihydrate form of (3S, 4R, 3’R)-6-[4-(4-amino-5-chloro-2-methoxy-benzoylamino)-3-methoxy-piperidin-l-yl]-hexanoic acid l-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3’-yl ester di-hydrochloride salt, which has the following formula:

Example 5: NMR Characterization of the Trihydrate

[0282] ^-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (‘H-NMR) : Approximately 6 mg of the trihydrate was dissolved in in 1 g of deuterated solvent (dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)-C45 99.9% d, with 0.05% v/v tetramethyl silane (TMS)). A Varian Gemini 300 MHz FT-NMR spectrometer was used to obtain the ¾-NMK spectrum. A list of the peaks is provided in Table 1 below. A representative ‘H-NMR spectrum is provided in FIG. 6.

Table 1. ‘H-NMR peak list for trihydrate

[0283] 13 C-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ( 13C-NMR ): Approximately 46 mg of the trihydrate was dissolved in 1 mL of deuterated solvent (deuterium oxide, Aldrich, 99.9% D, TPAS 0.75%). The 13C-NMR spectrum was obtained using a Varian Gemini 300 MHz FT-NMR spectrometer. A list of the peaks is provided in Table 2 below. A representative 13C-NMR spectrum is provided in FIG. 7.

Table 2. 13C-NMR peak list for trihydrate

 

 

PATENT

US10570127 claiming composition (eg tablet) comprising a trihydrate form of naronapride.

patent

ARYX THERAPEUTICS, WO2005/68461, A1, (2005)

Methods

titanium tetraethoxide; toluene;

Reactants can be synthesized in 1 step.
ARYX THERAPEUTICS, WO2005/68461, A1, (2005) The ester (1 part by weight) and (R)-3-Quinuclidinol (about 1.12 part by weight) were suspended in toluene before slowly adding titanium (IV) ethoxide (about 0.5 part by weight) to the stirred suspens ion. The mixture was heated to about 91 °C under a stream of nitrogen, and partial vacuum was applie d to the flask through a distillation apparatus in order to azeotropically remove the ethanol. Addit ional toluene was added as needed to maintain a minimum solvent volume in the flask. The reaction was considered complete after about 33 hours. The mixture was cooled to about room temperature and ext racted five times with water. The organic layer was concentrated under reduced pressure and the resulting residue was redissolved in EtOH/iPrOH (about 1: 1 v/v) and then filtered through a 0.45 micron membrane filter to remove any particulates. Concentrated hydrochloric acid was added slowly to the stirred filtrate to precipitate out the desired product as the dihydrochloride salt. The resulting s uspension was stirred for several hours at room temperature and collected under vacuum filtration and rinsed with EtOH/tPrOH (1: 1; v/v) to provide 0.53 part by weight of the crude product salt. Crude dihydrochloride salt was resuspended in ethanol and heated to reflux before cooling to room temperature over about 1 hour. The product was collected under vacuum filtration and rinsed with ethanol an d then air-dried. The solids were resuspended in ethanol and warmed to about 55 °C to give a clear s olution before adding warm isopropanol and the product was allowed to precipitate by slow cooling to room temperature. The resulting suspension was stirred for several hours before vacuum filtering and rinsing with, e. g., isopropanol. The product was vacuum dried, initially at room temperature for several hours and then at about 55 °C until a constant weight was achieved.

Patent

Methods

dmap; 1-ethyl-(3-(3-dimethylamino)propyl)-carbodiimide hydrochloride; DMFA;

Reactants can be synthesized in 2 steps.
ARYX THERAPEUTICS, WO2007/28073, A2, (2007) Production of Compound IV and Compound VI[0394] A mixture of (+)-Comrhoound II (1 eq.), (R)-(-)-3-quinuclidinol HCl salt (1 eq.), EDAC (1 eq.) and DMAP (1 eq.) in DMF is heated at around 5OC overnight . After cooling and diluting with water, the mixture is purified by chromatography or by crystallization to provide Compound IV. Similarly, using (S)-(+)-quinuclidinol, Compound VI is obtained

REFERENCES

1: Jiang C, Xu Q, Wen X, Sun H. Current developments in pharmacological therapeutics for chronic constipation. Acta Pharm Sin B. 2015 Jul;5(4):300-9. doi: 10.1016/j.apsb.2015.05.006. Epub 2015 Jun 6. Review. PubMed PMID: 26579459; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4629408.

2: Buchwald P, Bodor N. Recent advances in the design and development of soft drugs. Pharmazie. 2014 Jun;69(6):403-13. Review. PubMed PMID: 24974571.

3: Mozaffari S, Didari T, Nikfar S, Abdollahi M. Phase II drugs under clinical investigation for the treatment of chronic constipation. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2014 Nov;23(11):1485-97. doi: 10.1517/13543784.2014.932770. Epub 2014 Jun 24. Review. PubMed PMID: 24960333.

4: Shin A, Camilleri M, Kolar G, Erwin P, West CP, Murad MH. Systematic review with meta-analysis: highly selective 5-HT4 agonists (prucalopride, velusetrag or naronapride) in chronic constipation. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2014 Feb;39(3):239-53. doi: 10.1111/apt.12571. Epub 2013 Dec 5. Review. PubMed PMID: 24308797.

5: Stevens JE, Jones KL, Rayner CK, Horowitz M. Pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy of gastroparesis: current and future perspectives. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2013 Jun;14(9):1171-86. doi: 10.1517/14656566.2013.795948. Epub 2013 May 11. Review. PubMed PMID: 23663133.

6: Tack J, Camilleri M, Chang L, Chey WD, Galligan JJ, Lacy BE, Müller-Lissner S, Quigley EM, Schuurkes J, De Maeyer JH, Stanghellini V. Systematic review: cardiovascular safety profile of 5-HT(4) agonists developed for gastrointestinal disorders. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2012 Apr;35(7):745-67. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2036.2012.05011.x. Epub 2012 Feb 22. Review. PubMed PMID: 22356640; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3491670.

7: Hoffman JM, Tyler K, MacEachern SJ, Balemba OB, Johnson AC, Brooks EM, Zhao H, Swain GM, Moses PL, Galligan JJ, Sharkey KA, Greenwood-Van Meerveld B, Mawe GM. Activation of colonic mucosal 5-HT(4) receptors accelerates propulsive motility and inhibits visceral hypersensitivity. Gastroenterology. 2012 Apr;142(4):844-854.e4. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2011.12.041. Epub 2012 Jan 4. PubMed PMID: 22226658; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3477545.

8: Bowersox SS, Lightning LK, Rao S, Palme M, Ellis D, Coleman R, Davies AM, Kumaraswamy P, Druzgala P. Metabolism and pharmacokinetics of naronapride (ATI-7505), a serotonin 5-HT(4) receptor agonist for gastrointestinal motility disorders. Drug Metab Dispos. 2011 Jul;39(7):1170-80. doi: 10.1124/dmd.110.037564. Epub 2011 Mar 29. PubMed PMID: 21447732.

9: Tack J. Current and future therapies for chronic constipation. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2011 Feb;25(1):151-8. doi: 10.1016/j.bpg.2011.01.005. Review. PubMed PMID: 21382586.

10: Manabe N, Wong BS, Camilleri M. New-generation 5-HT4 receptor agonists: potential for treatment of gastrointestinal motility disorders. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2010 Jun;19(6):765-75. doi: 10.1517/13543784.2010.482927. Review. PubMed PMID: 20408739.

11: Sanger GJ. Translating 5-HT receptor pharmacology. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2009 Dec;21(12):1235-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2982.2009.01425.x. Review. PubMed PMID: 19906028.

12: Vakil N. New pharmacological agents for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Rev Gastroenterol Disord. 2008 Spring;8(2):117-22. Review. PubMed PMID: 18641594.

13: Bayés M, Rabasseda X, Prous JR. Gateways to clinical trials. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 2007 Jun;29(5):359-73. PubMed PMID: 17805439.

14: Camilleri M, Vazquez-Roque MI, Burton D, Ford T, McKinzie S, Zinsmeister AR, Druzgala P. Pharmacodynamic effects of a novel prokinetic 5-HT receptor agonist, ATI-7505, in humans. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2007 Jan;19(1):30-8. PubMed PMID: 17187586.

////////////NARONAPRIDE, ATI 7505, ATI 7505,PHASE 2

CO[C@H]1CN(CCCCCC(=O)O[C@H]2CN3CCC2CC3)CC[C@H]1NC(=O)C1=C(OC)C=C(N)C(Cl)=C1

VOCLOSPORIN


Voclosporin.svg

ChemSpider 2D Image | Voclosporin | C63H111N11O12

Voclosporin | C63H111N11O12 - PubChem

Structure of VOCLOSPORIN

Voclosporin

  • Molecular FormulaC63H111N11O12
  • Average mass1214.622 Da

VOCLOSPORIN

(3S,6S,9S,12R,15S,18S,21S,24S,30S,33S)-30-Ethyl-33-[(1R,2R,4E)-1-hydroxy-2-methyl-4,6-heptadien-1-yl]-6,9,18,24-tetraisobutyl-3,21-diisopropyl-1,4,7,10,12,15,19,25,28-nonamethyl-1,4,7,10,13,16,19,22,2 5,28,31-undecaazacyclotritriacontane-2,5,8,11,14,17,20,23,26,29,32-undecone
1,4,7,10,13,16,19,22,25,28,31-Undecaazacyclotritriacontane-2,5,8,11,14,17,20,23,26,29,32-undecone, 30-ethyl-33-[(1R,2R,4E)-1-hydroxy-2-methyl-4,6-heptadien-1-yl]-1,4,7,10,12,15,19,25,28-nonamethyl-3,2 1-bis(1-methylethyl)-6,9,18,24-tetrakis(2-methylpropyl)-, (3S,6S,9S,12R,15S,18S,21S,24S,30S,33S)-
2PN063X6B1
515814-01-4 [RN]
8889
SA247, ISAtx 247, ISAtx-247, ISAtx247, Luveniq, LX211,
The Greedy Vulture Accumulate under $3.50

Aurinia Pharmaceuticals  (following its merger with  Isotechnika ), in collaboration with licensee  Paladin Labs  (a subsidiary of Endo International plc ),  3SBio ,and  ILJIN , is developing a capsule formulation of the immunosuppressant calcineurin inhibitor peptide voclosporin for the treatment of psoriasis, the prevention of organ rejection after transplantation, autoimmune disease including systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis, and nephrotic syndrome including focal segmental glomerulosclerosis;

Voclosporin is an experimental immunosuppressant drug being developed by Aurinia Pharmaceuticals. It is being studied as a potential treatment for lupus nephritis (LN) and uveitis.[1] It is an analog of ciclosporin that has enhanced action against calcineurin and greater metabolic stability.[2] Voclosporin was discovered by Robert T. Foster and his team at Isotechnika in the mid 1990s.[3] Isotechnika was founded in 1993 and merged with Aurinia Pharmaceuticals in 2013.

Initially, voclosporin was a mixture of equal proporations of cis and trans geometric isomers of amino acid-1 modified cyclosporin. Later, in collaboration with Roche in Basel, Switzerland, voclosporin’s manufacturing was changed to yield the predominantly trans isomer which possesses most of the beneficial effect of the drug (immunosuppression) in the treatment of organ transplantation and autoimmune diseases.

Patent

WO-2020082061

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2020082061&_cid=P12-K9MDK8-59382-1

Novel crystalline forms of voclosporin  which is a structural analog of cyclosporine A as calcineurin signal-transduction pathway inhibitor useful for treating lupus nephritis.

Voclosporin is a structural analog of cyclosporine A, with an additional single carbon extension that has a double-bond on one side chain. Voclosporin has the chemical name (3S,6S,9S,l2R,l5S,l8S,2lS,24S,30S,33S)-30-Ethyl-33-[(lR,2R,4E)-l-hydroxy-2-methyl-4,6-heptadien-l-yl]-6,9,l8,24-tetraisobutyl-3,2l-diisopropyl-l,4,7,l0,l2,l5,l9,25,28-nonamethyl-l,4,7,l0,l3,l6,l9,22,25,28,3 l-undecaazacyclotritriacontane-2,5,8,l l,l4,l7,20,23,26,29,32-undecone and the following chemical structure:

Voclosporin is reported to be a semisynthetic structural analogue of cyclosporine that exerts its immunosuppressant effects by inhibition of the calcineurin signal-transduction pathway and is in Phase 3 Clinical Development for Lupus Nephritis.

[0003] Voclosporin and process for preparation thereof are known from International Patent Application No. WO 1999/18120.

[0004] Certain mixtures of cis and trans-isomers of cyclosporin A analogs referred to as

ISATX247 in different ratios are known from U.S. Patent No. 6,998,385, U.S. Patent No. 7,332,472 and U.S. Patent No. 9,765,119.

[0005] Polymorphism, the occurrence of different crystal forms, is a property of some molecules and molecular complexes. A single compound, like Voclosporin, may give rise to a variety of polymorphs having distinct crystal structures and physical properties like melting point, thermal behaviors (e.g. measured by thermogravimetric analysis – “TGA”, or differential scanning calorimetry – “DSC”), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) pattern, infrared absorption fingerprint, Raman absorption fingerprint, and solid state (13C-) NMR spectrum. One or more of these techniques may be used to distinguish different polymorphic forms of a compound.

[0006] Different salts and solid state forms (including solvated forms) of an active

pharmaceutical ingredient may possess different properties. Such variations in the properties of different salts and solid state forms and solvates may provide a basis for improving formulation, for example, by facilitating better processing or handling characteristics, improving the dissolution profile, or improving stability (polymorph as well as chemical stability) and shelf-life. These variations in the properties of different salts and solid state forms may also provide improvements to the final dosage form, for instance, if they serve to improve bioavailability. Different salts and solid state forms and solvates of an active pharmaceutical ingredient may also give rise to a variety of polymorphs or crystalline forms, which may in turn provide additional opportunities to use variations in the properties and characteristics of a solid active pharmaceutical ingredient for providing an improved product.

[0007] Discovering new salts, solid state forms and solvates of a pharmaceutical product can provide materials having desirable processing properties, such as ease of handling, ease of processing, storage stability, and ease of purification or as desirable intermediate crystal forms that facilitate conversion to other salts or polymorphic forms. New salts, polymorphic forms and solvates of a pharmaceutically useful compound can also provide an opportunity to improve the performance characteristics of a pharmaceutical product (dissolution profile, bioavailability, etc.). It enlarges the repertoire of materials that a formulation scientist has available for formulation optimization, for example by providing a product with different properties, e.g., a different crystal habit, higher crystallinity or polymorphic stability which may offer better processing or handling characteristics, improved dissolution profile, or improved shelf-life.

[0008] For at least these reasons, there is a need for solid state forms (including solvated forms) of Voclosporin and salts thereof.

HPLC method:

Method description

Column: Zorbax SB C18, 1.8 pm, 100×2.1 mm

Mobile phase: A: 38 ACN : 7 TBME : 55 voda : 0.02 H3P04 (V/V/V/V)

B: 70 ACN : 7 TBME : 23 voda : 0.02 H P04 (V/V/V/V)

Flow rate: 0.5 mL/min

Gradient

Analysis time: 26 minutes + 3 minutes equilibration

Injection volume: 3.0 pL

Column temperature: 90 °C

Diluent: Ethanol

Detection: UV, 210 nm

EXAMPLES

[0095] The starting material Voclosporin crude may be obtained according to ET.S. Patent No. 6,998,385 ETnless otherwise indicated, the purity is determined by HPLC (area percent). The crude product contained according to HPLC analysis 42.6 % trans-Voclosporin (further only Voclosporin), 40.2 % cis-Voclosporin and 2.9 % Cyclosporin A. The crude Voclosporin was purified by column chromatography on silica gel using a mixture of toluene and acetone 82 : 18 (v/v) as mobile phase. The fractions were monitored by HPLC. The appropriate fractions were joined and evaporated, obtaining purified Voclosporin as a white foam. According to HPLC analysis it contained 85.7 % Voclosporin, 3.6 % cis-Voclosporin and 2.6 % Cyclosporin A (further only purified Voclosporin).

[0096] The Voclosporin crude (containing about 42.6 % of Voclosporin) was used for further optimization of the chromatographic separation of cis-Voclosporin and Voclosporin and the effort resulted in improved process for chromatographic separation which includes purification by column chromatography on silica gel using a mixture of toluene and methylisobutylketone 38 : 62 as mobile phase. The fractions were monitored by HPLC. The appropriate fractions were joined and evaporated to a dry residue, weighing 31.0 grams. This residue was not analyzed. The material was dissolved in 25 ml of acetone and then 50 ml of water was added and the solution was let to crystallize for 2 hours in the refrigerator. Then the crystalline product was separated by filtration and dried in vacuum dryer (40 °C, 50 mbar, 12 hours), obtaining 29.6 g of dry product containing 90.6 % of Voclosporin, 0.4 % cis-Voclosporin and 3.7 % Cyclosporin A (further mentioned as final Voclosporin).

Example 1: Preparation of Voclosporin Form A

4.1 grams of Purified Voclosporin was dissolved in acetone and the solution was evaporated to 8.0 grams and the concentrate was diluted by 6 ml of water. The solution was let to crystallize in refrigerator at about 2 °C for 12 hours. The crystalline product was filtered off, washed by a mixture of acetone and water 1 : 1 (v/v) and dried on open air obtaining 2.6 grams of crystalline product Form A. Voclosporin form A was confirmed by PXRD as presented in Figure 1.

Example 2: Preparation of Voclosporin Form B

[0097] 1.0 gram of Purified Voclosporin was dissolved in a mixture of 1.5 ml acetone and 3.0 ml n-hexane. The solution was let to crystallize in refrigerator at about 2 °C for 12 hours. The crystalline product was filtered off, washed by a mixture of acetone and hexane 1 : 2 (v/v) and dried on open air obtaining 0.5 grams of crystalline product Form B. Voclosporin form B was confirmed by PXRD as presented in Figure 2.

Example 3: Preparation of Amorphous Voclosporin

[0098] 2.0 grams of Purified Voclosporin was dissolved in 40 ml of hot cyclohexane and the solution was stirred for 12 hours at room temperature. Then the crystalline product was filtered off and washed with 5 ml of cyclohexane and dried on open air, obtaining 1.3 grams of amorphous powder. Amorphous Voclosporin was confirmed by PXRD as presented in Figure 3

Example 4: Preparation of Voclosporin Form C

[0099] Final Voclosporin (2 grams) was dissolved in acetonitrile (20 ml) at 50 °C, water (6 ml) was added with stirring, and the clear solution was allowed to crystallize 5 days at 20 °C. Colorless needle crystals were directly mounted to the goniometer head in order to define the crystal structure. Voclosporin form C was confirmed by X-ray crystal structure determination.

References

  1. ^ “Luveniq Approval Status”Luveniq (voclosporin) is a next-generation calcineurin inhibitor intended for the treatment of noninfectious uveitis involving the intermediate or posterior segments of the eye.
  2. ^ “What is voclosporin?”. Isotechnika. Retrieved October 19, 2012.
  3. ^ U.S. Patent 6,605,593

External links

 

Voclosporin
Voclosporin.svg
Names
IUPAC name

(3S,6S,9S,12R,15S,18S,21S,24S,30S,33S)-30-Ethyl-33-[(1R,2R,4E)-1-hydroxy-2-methyl-4,6-heptadien-1-yl]-6,9,18,24-tetraisobutyl-3,21-diisopropyl-1,4,7,10,12,15,19,25,28-nonamethyl-1,4,7,10,13,16,19,22,25,28,31-undecaazacyclotritriacontane-2,5,8,11,14,17,20,23,26,29,32-undecone
Other names

VCS, ISA247, Luveniq
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChemSpider
PubChem CID
Properties
C63H111N11O12
Molar mass 1214.646 g·mol−1
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).

 

Synthesis

methanol; potassium carbonate;

Reactants can be synthesized in 7 steps.
Synthesis, vol. 44, 1, (2012), p. 63 – 68

Yield:60%
SYN 2

sulfuric acid; tetrahydrofuran;

ISOTECHNIKA INC., WO2004/89960, A2, (2004) 20 ml of THF were added and the reaction mixture was cooled to 0 °C. 2.7 ML (48.69 mmol, 3 equiv. ) of concentrated sulfuric acid were added. The temperature was raised to RT. After completion of the reaction (ca 1 hour), 100 ml of water were added. The organic phase was separated and washed 2 times with 50 ml water. The water phases were re-extracted sequentially with 50 ml dichloromethane. The c ombined organic phases were dried over NA2SO4, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure at 3 0°C. The resulting white foam was re-dissolved in 250 ml MTBE and after a few minutes, the crystalli zation started. After stirring 15 min. at RT and 2 hours at 0-2 C, THE SUSPENSION WAS FILTERED. THE crystals were washed with 50 ml cold MTBE (-20 °C) and dried at 40-50 °C under reduced pressure to p rovide 19.2 g of (E) -acetyl-ISA247 as white powder in >98percent isomeric purity (400MHZ LH NMR). (E)-ACETYL-ISA247 can be RECRYSTALLIZED by dissolving the solid in dichloromethane at room temperatur e and exchanging the solvent to MTBE (by adding MTBE, concentrating the solution to half its volume under reduced pressure at 40°C and repeating these operation 2 to three times). The solution is cool ed to room temperature and the crystallization then starts within a few minutes. The suspension is s tirred at room temperature for 2h and 30min at 0°C. The crystals of (E) -acetyl-ISA247 are isolated after filtration, washing with MTBE and drying under reduced pressure at 40°C.iii) Peterson eliminat ion The CRUDE-TRIMETHYLSILYALCOHOL diastereomers mixture (11 g, maximum 4.056 mmol) was dissolved in 25 ml THF. 0.679 ml (12.16 mmol, 3 equiv.) concentrated sulfuric were added dropwise maintaining th e temperature between 20 °C and 25 °C. After 2 hours at RT, 50 ml half saturated aqueous NaCl soluti on were added. The resulting mixture was extracted twice with 50 ML MTBE. The organic phases were washed with 50ML of a half saturated aqueous NACL solution, combined, dried over NA2SO4 and concentrat ed under reduce pressure at 40°C. The resulting crude E-acetyl-ISA247 was re-dissolved in 20 ml dich loromethane and concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude product was dissolved in 60 ml MTBE. The crystallization started within 10 min. The suspension was stirred for an additional 15 min. at R T and 2 hours AT-10 °C. The crystals were isolated by filtration, washed with 20 ml cold MTBE (-20 ° C) and dried under reduced pressure to provide 3. 6 G of (E)-ACETYL-ISA247 in ca 98percent isomeric purity by NMR.iii) Peterson elimination After overnight reaction, the organic layer was separated an d the water phase was discarded. 50 ML THF were added to the organic phase. The solution was concent rated under reduced pressure at 30 °C to half its volume. 100 ML THP were added and the solution was concentrated to 80 ML. The volume was adjusted to 100 ml with THF and the solution was cooled to 0- 2 °C. 1. 812 ML (32. 46 MMOL, 2 equiv.) concentrated sulfuric acid were added dropwise over 5 min., maintaining the temperature below 5 °C. After addition, the reaction cooling bath was removed and th e temperature was raised to RT. After 4 hours reaction, 40 ML water were added followed by 20 ml MTB E. The aqueous layer was separated and discarded. The organic phase was washed with 40 ml NAHCO3 Q, 20 ML saturated NACLAQ, 40 ml saturated NaClaq, dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated at 40 ° C under reduced pressure. The crude E-acetyl-ISA247 was RE-DISSOLVED in 200 ml MTBE and crystallizat ion started within a few minutes. After 15 min. at RT and 2.5 hours at 0 °C, the suspension was filt ered, the crystals were washed with 50 ML MTBE and dried at 50 °C under reduced pressure to give 18. 45 g of (E) -acetyl-ISA247 as a white powder (>98percent isomeric purity by NMR).iii) Peterson elim ination 5 ml THF were added to the organic phase and the solution was cooled to 0- 2 °C. 181 UL (3.2 46, 2 equiv. ) concentrated sulfuric acid were added. The reaction mixture was warmed up to RT. Afte r stirring overnight, 20 ml water were added. The aqueous layer was separated and discarded. The organic phase was washed with 20 ml of 5percent aqueous NAHCO3 solution, dried over MGS04, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure at 40 °C to give 2 g of (E) -acetyl-ISA247 as a white foam in > 98percent double bond isomeric purity (by NMR).ii) Peterson elimination The crude product was dissol ved in 11.15 ML THF and 268 P1 concentrated sulfuric acid were added. The reaction mixture was heate d at 33 °C for 1.5 hour and then cooled to RT. 22 ml water were added and the reaction mixture was e xtracted with 22 ml MTBE. The aqueous phase was RE-EXTRACTED with 11 ml MTBE. The organic layer were washed with 11 ml water, combined, dried over NA2SO4, filtered and concentrated at 40 °C under redu ced pressure to give 1.89 g of crude (E) -acetyl-ISA247 as a beige powder. The crude product was re-dissolved in 20 ml MTBE at RT. The crystallization started within a few minutes. The suspension was stirred 30 min. at RT, 45 min. at-10 °C and was filtered. The solid was washed with cold MTBE and dr ied at 40 °C under reduced pressure to give 1.02 g of (E)-acetylISA247 as a white powder in ca 98per cent double bond isomeric purity (NMR). ii) Peterson elimination The crude product was dissolved in 8 ML THF at RT. The solution was cooled to 0-5 °C and 200 UL of concentrated sulfuric acid were adde d dropwise. The temperature was raised to RT and the reaction mixture was stirred 10 hours. 40 ml MTBE and 15 ml of water were added. The water phase was separated and discarded. The organic phase was washed 15 ml of a 5percent aqueous NAHCO3 solution, 15 ml of a half saturated aqueous NACL solution, dried over NA2SO4, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure to give 1. 8 g of crude E-acet yl- ISA247. The crude diene was dissolved in 20 ml dichloromethane. 20 ML MTBE were added, and the s olution was concentrated at 40 °C under reduced pressure to half its volume. The last two operations was repeated three times to in order to exchange the solvent from dichloromethane to MTBE. The solution was cooled to RT and the crystallization started within a few minutes. The suspension was stirr ed 2 hours at RT and 30 min. at 0 °C. The suspension was filtered. The solid was washed with 15 ml M TBE and dried under reduced pressure at 40 °C to give 1.1 g OF E-ACETYL-ISA247 in >95percent double bond isomeric purity (NMR), as a white powder.ii) Peterson elimination The crude product was dissolv ed in 10 ml THF at RT. The solution was cooled to 0-5 °C and 200 UL of concentrated sulfuric acid we re added dropwise. The temperature was raised to RT and the reaction mixture was stirred overnight. 40 ml MTBE and 15 ML of water were added. The water phase was separated and discarded. The organic p hase was washed with 15 ml water, 15 ml of a 5percent aqueous NAHCO3 solution, 15 ml of a half saturated aqueous NaCl solution, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure to give 1.8 g of crude E-ACETYL-ISA247. The crude diene was redissolved in 35 ml of MTBE. The crystallization started withi n a few minutes. The suspension was stirred 2 hours at RT and 30 min. at 0 °C. The suspension was fi ltered. The solid was washed with 15 ml MTBE and dried under reduced pressure at 40 °C to gi ve 1 g of E-acetyl-ISA247 in >95percent double bond isomeric purity (NMR), as a white powder.

REFERENCES

1: Mok CC. Calcineurin inhibitors in systemic lupus erythematosus. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2017 Jun;31(3):429-438. doi: 10.1016/j.berh.2017.09.010. Epub 2017 Oct 11. Review. PubMed PMID: 29224682.

2: Dang W, Yin Y, Wang Y, Wang W, Su J, Sprengers D, van der Laan LJW, Felczak K, Pankiewicz KW, Chang KO, Koopmans MPG, Metselaar HJ, Peppelenbosch MP, Pan Q. Inhibition of Calcineurin or IMP Dehydrogenase Exerts Moderate to Potent Antiviral Activity against Norovirus Replication. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2017 Oct 24;61(11). pii: e01095-17. doi: 10.1128/AAC.01095-17. Print 2017 Nov. PubMed PMID: 28807916; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5655111.

3: Wong TC, Lo CM, Fung JY. Emerging drugs for prevention of T-cell mediated rejection in liver and kidney transplantation. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2017 Jun;22(2):123-136. doi: 10.1080/14728214.2017.1330884. Epub 2017 May 22. Review. PubMed PMID: 28503959.

4: Chow C, Simpson MJ, Luger TA, Chubb H, Ellis CN. Comparison of three methods for measuring psoriasis severity in clinical studies (Part 1 of 2): change during therapy in Psoriasis Area and Severity Index, Static Physician’s Global Assessment and Lattice System Physician’s Global Assessment. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2015 Jul;29(7):1406-14. doi: 10.1111/jdv.13132. Epub 2015 Apr 27. PubMed PMID: 25917315.

5: Simpson MJ, Chow C, Morgenstern H, Luger TA, Ellis CN. Comparison of three methods for measuring psoriasis severity in clinical studies (Part 2 of 2): use of quality of life to assess construct validity of the Lattice System Physician’s Global Assessment, Psoriasis Area and Severity Index and Static Physician’s Global Assessment. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2015 Jul;29(7):1415-20. doi: 10.1111/jdv.12861. Epub 2015 Apr 27. PubMed PMID: 25917214.

6: Maya JR, Sadiq MA, Zapata LJ, Hanout M, Sarwar S, Rajagopalan N, Guinn KE, Sepah YJ, Nguyen QD. Emerging therapies for noninfectious uveitis: what may be coming to the clinics. J Ophthalmol. 2014;2014:310329. doi: 10.1155/2014/310329. Epub 2014 Apr 24. Review. PubMed PMID: 24868451; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4020293.

7: Hardinger KL, Brennan DC. Novel immunosuppressive agents in kidney transplantation. World J Transplant. 2013 Dec 24;3(4):68-77. doi: 10.5500/wjt.v3.i4.68. Review. PubMed PMID: 24392311; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3879526.

8: Ling SY, Huizinga RB, Mayo PR, Larouche R, Freitag DG, Aspeslet LJ, Foster RT. Cytochrome P450 3A and P-glycoprotein drug-drug interactions with voclosporin. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2014 Jun;77(6):1039-50. doi: 10.1111/bcp.12309. PubMed PMID: 24330024; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4093929.

9: Mayo PR, Ling SY, Huizinga RB, Freitag DG, Aspeslet LJ, Foster RT. Population PKPD of voclosporin in renal allograft patients. J Clin Pharmacol. 2014 May;54(5):537-45. doi: 10.1002/jcph.237. Epub 2013 Nov 30. PubMed PMID: 24243422.

10: Gubskaya AV, Khan IJ, Valenzuela LM, Lisnyak YV, Kohn J. Investigating the Release of a Hydrophobic Peptide from Matrices of Biodegradable Polymers: An Integrated Method Approach. Polymer (Guildf). 2013 Jul 8;54(15):3806-3820. PubMed PMID: 24039300; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3770487.

11: Ling SY, Huizinga RB, Mayo PR, Freitag DG, Aspeslet LJ, Foster RT. Pharmacokinetics of voclosporin in renal impairment and hepatic impairment. J Clin Pharmacol. 2013 Dec;53(12):1303-12. doi: 10.1002/jcph.166. Epub 2013 Oct 8. PubMed PMID: 23996158.

12: Mayo PR, Huizinga RB, Ling SY, Freitag DG, Aspeslet LJ, Foster RT. Voclosporin food effect and single oral ascending dose pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies in healthy human subjects. J Clin Pharmacol. 2013 Aug;53(8):819-26. doi: 10.1002/jcph.114. Epub 2013 Jun 4. PubMed PMID: 23736966.

13: Schultz C. Voclosporin as a treatment for noninfectious uveitis. Ophthalmol Eye Dis. 2013 May 5;5:5-10. doi: 10.4137/OED.S7995. Print 2013. PubMed PMID: 23700374; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3653814.

14: Gomes Bittencourt M, Sepah YJ, Do DV, Agbedia O, Akhtar A, Liu H, Akhlaq A, Annam R, Ibrahim M, Nguyen QD. New treatment options for noninfectious uveitis. Dev Ophthalmol. 2012;51:134-61. doi: 10.1159/000336338. Epub 2012 Apr 17. Review. PubMed PMID: 22517211.

15: Khan IJ, Murthy NS, Kohn J. Hydration-induced phase separation in amphiphilic polymer matrices and its influence on voclosporin release. J Funct Biomater. 2012 Oct 30;3(4):745-59. doi: 10.3390/jfb3040745. PubMed PMID: 24955746; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4030927.

16: Roesel M, Tappeiner C, Heiligenhaus A, Heinz C. Oral voclosporin: novel calcineurin inhibitor for treatment of noninfectious uveitis. Clin Ophthalmol. 2011;5:1309-13. doi: 10.2147/OPTH.S11125. Epub 2011 Sep 13. PubMed PMID: 21966207; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3180504.

17: Busque S, Cantarovich M, Mulgaonkar S, Gaston R, Gaber AO, Mayo PR, Ling S, Huizinga RB, Meier-Kriesche HU; PROMISE Investigators. The PROMISE study: a phase 2b multicenter study of voclosporin (ISA247) versus tacrolimus in de novo kidney transplantation. Am J Transplant. 2011 Dec;11(12):2675-84. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2011.03763.x. Epub 2011 Sep 22. PubMed PMID: 21943027.

18: Kuglstatter A, Mueller F, Kusznir E, Gsell B, Stihle M, Thoma R, Benz J, Aspeslet L, Freitag D, Hennig M. Structural basis for the cyclophilin A binding affinity and immunosuppressive potency of E-ISA247 (voclosporin). Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2011 Feb;67(Pt 2):119-23. doi: 10.1107/S0907444910051905. Epub 2011 Jan 15. PubMed PMID: 21245533; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3045272.

19: Kunynetz R, Carey W, Thomas R, Toth D, Trafford T, Vender R. Quality of life in plaque psoriasis patients treated with voclosporin: a Canadian phase III, randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Eur J Dermatol. 2011 Jan-Feb;21(1):89-94. doi: 10.1684/ejd.2010.1185. PubMed PMID: 21227890.

20: Deuter CM. [Systemic voclosporin for uveitis treatment]. Ophthalmologe. 2010 Jul;107(7):672-5. doi: 10.1007/s00347-010-2217-5. German. PubMed PMID: 20571806.

//////////VOCLOSPORIN, Voclosporin, ISA247, ISAtx 247, ISAtx-247, ISAtx247, Luveniq, LX211,

CC[C@@H]1NC([C@@H](N(C([C@@H](N(C([C@@H](N(C([C@@H](N(C([C@H](NC([C@@H](NC([C@@H](N(C([C@H](C(C)C)NC([C@@H](N(C(CN(C1=O)C)=O)C)CC(C)C)=O)=O)C)CC(C)C)=O)C)=O)C)=O)C)CC(C)C)=O)C)CC(C)C)=O)C)C(C)C)=O)C)[C@@H]([C@@H](C/C=C/C=C)C)O)=O

AZITHROMYCIN, アジスロマイシン;


Azithromycin

Azithromycin structure.svg

ChemSpider 2D Image | Azithromycin | C38H72N2O12

AZITHROMYCIN

C38H72N2O12,

748.9845

アジスロマイシン;

CAS: 83905-01-5
PubChem: 51091811
ChEBI: 2955
ChEMBL: CHEMBL529
DrugBank: DB00207
PDB-CCD: ZIT[PDBj]
LigandBox: D07486
NIKKAJI: J134.080H
CAS Registry Number: 83905-01-5
CAS Name: (2R,3S,4R,5R,8R,10R,11R,12S,13S,14R)-13-[(2,6-Dideoxy-3-C-methyl-3-O-methyl-a-L-ribo-hexopyranosyl)oxy]-2-ethyl-3,4,10-trihydroxy-3,5,6,8,10,12,14-heptamethyl-11-[[3,4,6-trideoxy-3-(dimethylamino)-b-D-xylo-hexopyranosyl]oxy]-1-oxa-6-azacyclopentadecan-15-one
Additional Names: N-methyl-11-aza-10-deoxo-10-dihydroerythromycin A; 9-deoxo-9a-methyl-9a-aza-9a-homoerythromycin A
Molecular Formula: C38H72N2O12
Molecular Weight: 748.98
Percent Composition: C 60.94%, H 9.69%, N 3.74%, O 25.63%
Literature References: Semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic; related to erythromycin A, q.v. Prepn: BE 892357; G. Kobrehel, S. Djokic, US 4517359 (1982, 1985 both to Sour Pliva); of the crystalline dihydrate: D. J. M. Allen, K. M. Nepveux, EP 298650eidemUS 6268489 (1989, 2001 both to Pfizer). Antibacterial spectrum: S. C. Aronoff et al., J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 19, 275 (1987); and mode of action: J. Retsema et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 31, 1939 (1987). Series of articles on pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and clinical experience: J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 31, Suppl. E, 1-198 (1993). Clinical trial in prevention of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in AIDS patients: M. W. Dunne et al., Lancet 354, 891 (1999). Review of pharmacology and clinical efficacy in pediatric infections: H. D. Langtry, J. A. Balfour, Drugs 56, 273-297 (1998).
Properties: Amorphous solid, mp 113-115°. [a]D20 -37° (c = 1 in CHCl3).
Melting point: mp 113-115°
Optical Rotation: [a]D20 -37° (c = 1 in CHCl3)
Derivative Type: Dihydrate
CAS Registry Number: 117772-70-0
Manufacturers’ Codes: CP-62993; XZ-450
Trademarks: Azitrocin (Pfizer); Ribotrex (Fabre); Sumamed (Pliva); Trozocina (Sigma-Tau); Zithromax (Pfizer); Zitromax (Pfizer)
Properties: White crystalline powder. mp 126°. [a]D26 -41.4° (c = 1 in CHCl3).
Melting point: mp 126°
Optical Rotation: [a]D26 -41.4° (c = 1 in CHCl3)
Therap-Cat: Antibacterial.

Azithromycin is an antibiotic used for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.[3] This includes middle ear infectionsstrep throatpneumoniatraveler’s diarrhea, and certain other intestinal infections.[3] It can also be used for a number of sexually transmitted infections, including chlamydia and gonorrhea infections.[3] Along with other medications, it may also be used for malaria.[3] It can be taken by mouth or intravenously with doses once per day.[3]

Common side effects include nauseavomitingdiarrhea and upset stomach.[3] An allergic reaction, such as anaphylaxisQT prolongation, or a type of diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile is possible.[3] No harm has been found with its use during pregnancy.[3] Its safety during breastfeeding is not confirmed, but it is likely safe.[4] Azithromycin is an azalide, a type of macrolide antibiotic.[3] It works by decreasing the production of protein, thereby stopping bacterial growth.[3]

Azithromycin was discovered 1980 by Pliva, and approved for medical use in 1988.[5][6] It is on the World Health Organization’s List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system.[7] The World Health Organization classifies it as critically important for human medicine.[8] It is available as a generic medication[9] and is sold under many trade names worldwide.[2] The wholesale cost in the developing world is about US$0.18 to US$2.98 per dose.[10] In the United States, it is about US$4 for a course of treatment as of 2018.[11] In 2016, it was the 49th most prescribed medication in the United States with more than 15 million prescriptions.[12]

Medical uses

Azithromycin is used to treat many different infections, including:

  • Prevention and treatment of acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease due to H. influenzaeM. catarrhalis, or S. pneumoniae. The benefits of long-term prophylaxis must be weighed on a patient-by-patient basis against the risk of cardiovascular and other adverse effects.[13]
  • Community-acquired pneumonia due to C. pneumoniaeH. influenzaeM. pneumoniae, or S. pneumoniae[14]
  • Uncomplicated skin infections due to S. aureusS. pyogenes, or S. agalactiae
  • Urethritis and cervicitis due to C. trachomatis or N. gonorrhoeae. In combination with ceftriaxone, azithromycin is part of the United States Centers for Disease Control-recommended regimen for the treatment of gonorrhea. Azithromycin is active as monotherapy in most cases, but the combination with ceftriaxone is recommended based on the relatively low barrier to resistance development in gonococci and due to frequent co-infection with C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae.[15]
  • Trachoma due to C. trachomatis[16]
  • Genital ulcer disease (chancroid) in men due to H. ducrey
  • Acute bacterial sinusitis due to H. influenzaeM. catarrhalis, or S. pneumoniae. Other agents, such as amoxicillin/clavulanate are generally preferred, however.[17][18]
  • Acute otitis media caused by H. influenzaeM. catarrhalis or S. pneumoniae. Azithromycin is not, however, a first-line agent for this condition. Amoxicillin or another beta lactam antibiotic is generally preferred.[19]
  • Pharyngitis or tonsillitis caused by S. pyogenes as an alternative to first-line therapy in individuals who cannot use first-line therapy[20]

Bacterial susceptibility

Azithromycin has relatively broad but shallow antibacterial activity. It inhibits some Gram-positive bacteria, some Gram-negative bacteria, and many atypical bacteria.

A strain of gonorrhea reported to be highly resistant to azithromycin was found in the population in 2015. Neisseria gonorrhoeae is normally susceptible to azithromycin,[21] but the drug is not widely used as monotherapy due to a low barrier to resistance development.[15] Extensive use of azithromycin has resulted in growing Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance.[22]

Aerobic and facultative Gram-positive microorganisms

Aerobic and facultative Gram-negative microorganisms

Anaerobic microorganisms

Other microorganisms

Pregnancy and breastfeeding[edit source]

No harm has been found with use during pregnancy.[3] However, there are no adequate well-controlled studies in pregnant women.[23]

Safety of the medication during breastfeeding is unclear. It was reported that because only low levels are found in breast milk and the medication has also been used in young children, it is unlikely that breastfed infants would suffer adverse effects.[4] Nevertheless, it is recommended that the drug be used with caution during breastfeeding.[3]

Airway diseases

Azithromycin appears to be effective in the treatment of COPD through its suppression of inflammatory processes.[24] And potentially useful in asthma and sinusitis via this mechanism.[25] Azithromycin is believed to produce its effects through suppressing certain immune responses that may contribute to inflammation of the airways.[26][27]

Adverse effects

Most common adverse effects are diarrhea (5%), nausea (3%), abdominal pain (3%), and vomiting. Fewer than 1% of people stop taking the drug due to side effects. Nervousness, skin reactions, and anaphylaxis have been reported.[28] Clostridium difficile infection has been reported with use of azithromycin.[3] Azithromycin does not affect the efficacy of birth control unlike some other antibiotics such as rifampin. Hearing loss has been reported.[29]

Occasionally, people have developed cholestatic hepatitis or delirium. Accidental intravenous overdose in an infant caused severe heart block, resulting in residual encephalopathy.[30][31]

In 2013 the FDA issued a warning that azithromycin “can cause abnormal changes in the electrical activity of the heart that may lead to a potentially fatal irregular heart rhythm.” The FDA noted in the warning a 2012 study that found the drug may increase the risk of death, especially in those with heart problems, compared with those on other antibiotics such as amoxicillin or no antibiotic. The warning indicated people with preexisting conditions are at particular risk, such as those with QT interval prolongation, low blood levels of potassium or magnesium, a slower than normal heart rate, or those who use certain drugs to treat abnormal heart rhythms.[32][33][34]

Pharmacology

Mechanism of action

Azithromycin prevents bacteria from growing by interfering with their protein synthesis. It binds to the 50S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, thus inhibiting translation of mRNA. Nucleic acid synthesis is not affected.[23]

Pharmacokinetics

Azithromycin is an acid-stable antibiotic, so it can be taken orally with no need of protection from gastric acids. It is readily absorbed, but absorption is greater on an empty stomach. Time to peak concentration (Tmax) in adults is 2.1 to 3.2 hours for oral dosage forms. Due to its high concentration in phagocytes, azithromycin is actively transported to the site of infection. During active phagocytosis, large concentrations are released. The concentration of azithromycin in the tissues can be over 50 times higher than in plasma due to ion trapping and its high lipid solubility.[citation needed] Azithromycin’s half-life allows a large single dose to be administered and yet maintain bacteriostatic levels in the infected tissue for several days.[35]

Following a single dose of 500 mg, the apparent terminal elimination half-life of azithromycin is 68 hours.[35] Biliary excretion of azithromycin, predominantly unchanged, is a major route of elimination. Over the course of a week, about 6% of the administered dose appears as unchanged drug in urine.

History

A team of researchers at the pharmaceutical company Pliva in ZagrebSR CroatiaYugoslavia, — Gabrijela Kobrehel, Gorjana Radobolja-Lazarevski, and Zrinka Tamburašev, led by Dr. Slobodan Đokić — discovered azithromycin in 1980.[6] It was patented in 1981. In 1986, Pliva and Pfizer signed a licensing agreement, which gave Pfizer exclusive rights for the sale of azithromycin in Western Europe and the United States. Pliva put its azithromycin on the market in Central and Eastern Europe under the brand name Sumamed in 1988. Pfizer launched azithromycin under Pliva’s license in other markets under the brand name Zithromax in 1991.[36] Patent protection ended in 2005.[37]

Society and culture

Zithromax (azithromycin) 250 mg tablets (CA)

Cost

It is available as a generic medication.[9] The wholesale cost is about US$0.18 to US$2.98 per dose.[10] In the United States it is about US$4 for a course of treatment as of 2018.[11] In India, it is about US$1.70 for a course of treatment.[citation needed]

Available forms

Azithromycin is commonly administered in film-coated tablet, capsule, oral suspensionintravenous injection, granules for suspension in sachet, and ophthalmic solution.[2]

Usage

In 2010, azithromycin was the most prescribed antibiotic for outpatients in the US,[38] whereas in Sweden, where outpatient antibiotic use is a third as prevalent, macrolides are only on 3% of prescriptions.[39]

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References

  1. Jump up to:ab “Azithromycin Use During Pregnancy”Drugs.com. 2 May 2019. Retrieved 24 December 2019.
  2. Jump up to:abcdef “Azithromycin International Brands”. Drugs.com. Archived from the original on 28 February 2017. Retrieved 27 February 2017.
  3. Jump up to:abcdefghijklm “Azithromycin”. The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
  4. Jump up to:ab “Azithromycin use while Breastfeeding”Archived from the original on 5 September 2015. Retrieved 4 September 2015.
  5. ^ Greenwood, David (2008). Antimicrobial drugs : chronicle of a twentieth century medical triumph (1. publ. ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 239. ISBN9780199534845Archived from the original on 5 March 2016.
  6. Jump up to:ab Fischer, Jnos; Ganellin, C. Robin (2006). Analogue-based Drug Discovery. John Wiley & Sons. p. 498. ISBN9783527607495.
  7. ^ World Health Organization (2019). World Health Organization model list of essential medicines: 21st list 2019. Geneva: World Health Organization. hdl:10665/325771. WHO/MVP/EMP/IAU/2019.06. License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
  8. ^ World Health Organization (2019). Critically important antimicrobials for human medicine (6th revision ed.). Geneva: World Health Organization. hdl:10665/312266ISBN9789241515528. License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
  9. Jump up to:ab Hamilton, Richart (2015). Tarascon Pocket Pharmacopoeia 2015 Deluxe Lab-Coat Edition. Jones & Bartlett Learning. ISBN9781284057560.
  10. Jump up to:ab “Azithromycin”International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Retrieved 4 September 2015.
  11. Jump up to:ab “NADAC as of 2018-05-23”Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Retrieved 24 May 2018.
  12. ^ “The Top 300 of 2019”clincalc.com. Retrieved 22 December2018.
  13. ^ Taylor SP, Sellers E, Taylor BT (2015). “Azithromycin for the Prevention of COPD Exacerbations: The Good, Bad, and Ugly”. Am. J. Med128 (12): 1362.e1–6. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2015.07.032PMID26291905.
  14. ^ Mandell LA, Wunderink RG, Anzueto A, Bartlett JG, Campbell GD, Dean NC, Dowell SF, File TM, Musher DM, Niederman MS, Torres A, Whitney CG (2007). “Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society consensus guidelines on the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults”. Clin. Infect. Dis. 44 Suppl 2: S27–72. doi:10.1086/511159PMID17278083.
  15. Jump up to:ab “Gonococcal Infections – 2015 STD Treatment Guidelines”Archived from the original on 1 March 2016.
  16. ^ Burton M, Habtamu E, Ho D, Gower EW (2015). “Interventions for trachoma trichiasis”Cochrane Database Syst Rev11 (11): CD004008. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004008.pub3PMC4661324PMID26568232.
  17. ^ Rosenfeld RM, Piccirillo JF, Chandrasekhar SS, Brook I, Ashok Kumar K, Kramper M, Orlandi RR, Palmer JN, Patel ZM, Peters A, Walsh SA, Corrigan MD (2015). “Clinical practice guideline (update): adult sinusitis”. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg152 (2 Suppl): S1–S39. doi:10.1177/0194599815572097PMID25832968.
  18. ^ Hauk L (2014). “AAP releases guideline on diagnosis and management of acute bacterial sinusitis in children one to 18 years of age”. Am Fam Physician89 (8): 676–81. PMID24784128.
  19. ^ Neff MJ (2004). “AAP, AAFP release guideline on diagnosis and management of acute otitis media”. Am Fam Physician69 (11): 2713–5. PMID15202704.
  20. ^ Randel A (2013). “IDSA Updates Guideline for Managing Group A Streptococcal Pharyngitis”. Am Fam Physician88 (5): 338–40. PMID24010402.
  21. ^ The Guardian newspaper: ‘Super-gonorrhoea’ outbreak in Leeds, 18 September 2015Archived 18 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  22. ^ Lippincott Illustrated Reviews : Pharmacology Sixth Edition. p. 506.
  23. Jump up to:ab “US azithromycin label”(PDF). FDA. February 2016. Archived(PDF) from the original on 23 November 2016.
  24. ^ Simoens, Steven; Laekeman, Gert; Decramer, Marc (May 2013). “Preventing COPD exacerbations with macrolides: A review and budget impact analysis”. Respiratory Medicine107 (5): 637–648. doi:10.1016/j.rmed.2012.12.019PMID23352223.
  25. ^ Gotfried, Mark H. (February 2004). “Macrolides for the Treatment of Chronic Sinusitis, Asthma, and COPD”CHEST125 (2): 52S–61S. doi:10.1378/chest.125.2_suppl.52SISSN0012-3692PMID14872001.
  26. ^ Zarogoulidis, P.; Papanas, N.; Kioumis, I.; Chatzaki, E.; Maltezos, E.; Zarogoulidis, K. (May 2012). “Macrolides: from in vitro anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties to clinical practice in respiratory diseases”. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology68 (5): 479–503. doi:10.1007/s00228-011-1161-xISSN1432-1041PMID22105373.
  27. ^ Steel, Helen C.; Theron, Annette J.; Cockeran, Riana; Anderson, Ronald; Feldman, Charles (2012). “Pathogen- and Host-Directed Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Macrolide Antibiotics”Mediators of Inflammation2012: 584262. doi:10.1155/2012/584262PMC3388425PMID22778497.
  28. ^ Mori F, Pecorari L, Pantano S, Rossi M, Pucci N, De Martino M, Novembre E (2014). “Azithromycin anaphylaxis in children”. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol27 (1): 121–6. doi:10.1177/039463201402700116PMID24674687.
  29. ^ Dart, Richard C. (2004). Medical Toxology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 23.
  30. ^ Tilelli, John A.; Smith, Kathleen M.; Pettignano, Robert (2006). “Life-Threatening Bradyarrhythmia After Massive Azithromycin Overdose”. Pharmacotherapy26 (1): 147–50. doi:10.1592/phco.2006.26.1.147PMID16506357.
  31. ^ Baselt, R. (2008). Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals in Man (8th ed.). Foster City, CA: Biomedical Publications. pp. 132–133.
  32. ^ Denise Grady (16 May 2012). “Popular Antibiotic May Raise Risk of Sudden Death”The New York TimesArchived from the original on 17 May 2012. Retrieved 18 May 2012.
  33. ^ Ray, Wayne A.; Murray, Katherine T.; Hall, Kathi; Arbogast, Patrick G.; Stein, C. Michael (2012). “Azithromycin and the Risk of Cardiovascular Death”New England Journal of Medicine366(20): 1881–90. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1003833PMC3374857PMID22591294.
  34. ^ “FDA Drug Safety Communication: Azithromycin (Zithromax or Zmax) and the risk of potentially fatal heart rhythms”. FDA. 12 March 2013. Archived from the original on 27 October 2016.
  35. Jump up to:ab “Archived copy”Archived from the original on 14 October 2014. Retrieved 10 October 2014.
  36. ^ Banić Tomišić, Z. (2011). “The Story of Azithromycin”Kemija U Industriji60 (12): 603–617. ISSN0022-9830Archived from the original on 8 September 2017.
  37. ^ “Azithromycin: A world best-selling Antibiotic”http://www.wipo.int. World Intellectual Property Organization. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
  38. ^ Hicks, LA; Taylor TH, Jr; Hunkler, RJ (April 2013). “U.S. outpatient antibiotic prescribing, 2010”. The New England Journal of Medicine368 (15): 1461–1462. doi:10.1056/NEJMc1212055PMID23574140.
  39. ^ Hicks, LA; Taylor TH, Jr; Hunkler, RJ (September 2013). “More on U.S. outpatient antibiotic prescribing, 2010”. The New England Journal of Medicine369 (12): 1175–1176. doi:10.1056/NEJMc1306863PMID24047077.

External links

Keywords: Antibacterial (Antibiotics); Macrolides.

Azithromycin
Azithromycin structure.svg
Azithromycin 3d structure.png
Clinical data
Trade names Zithromax, Azithrocin, others[2]
Other names 9-deoxy-9α-aza-9α-methyl-9α-homoerythromycin A
AHFS/Drugs.com Monograph
MedlinePlus a697037
License data
Pregnancy
category
  • AU: B1 [1]
  • US: B (No risk in non-human studies) [1]
Routes of
administration
By mouth (capsule, tablet or suspension), intravenouseye drop
Drug class Macrolide antibiotic
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 38% for 250 mg capsules
Metabolism Liver
Elimination half-life 11–14 h (single dose) 68 h (multiple dosing)
Excretion Biliarykidney (4.5%)
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
IUPHAR/BPS
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
ChEMBL
NIAID ChemDB
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
ECHA InfoCard 100.126.551 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
Formula C38H72N2O12
Molar mass 748.984 g·mol−1 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)

/////////AZITHROMYCIN, Antibacterial, Antibiotics,  Macrolides, CORONA VIRUS, COVID 19, アジスロマイシン ,

EIDD 2801


 

CID 145996610.png

EIDD 2801

Molecular Formula: C13H19N3O7
Molecular Weight: 329.31 g/mol

[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-[4-(hydroxyamino)-2-oxopyrimidin-1-yl]oxolan-2-yl]methyl 2-methylpropanoate

UNII YA84KI1VEW

Story image

Electron microscope image of SARS virus in a tissue culture isolate, courtesy of CDC Public Health Image Library.

The drug EIDD-1931 was effective against SARS and MERS viruses in the laboratory, and a modified version (EIDD-2801) could potentially be valuable against 2019-nCoV.

https://news.emory.edu/stories/2020/02/coronavirus_eidd/index.html

Emory, collaborators testing antiviral drug as potential treatment for coronaviruses

09812-buscon5-emory.jpg

An antiviral compound discovered at Emory University could potentially be used to treat the new coronavirus associated with the outbreak in China and spreading around the globe. Drug Innovation Ventures at Emory (DRIVE), a non-profit LLC wholly owned by Emory, is developing the compound, designated EIDD-2801.

In testing with collaborators at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Vanderbilt University Medical Center, the active form of EIDD-2801, which is called EIDD-1931, has shown efficacy against the related coronaviruses SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome)- and MERS-CoV (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus). Some of the data was recently published in Journal of Virology.

EIDD-2801 is an oral ribonucleoside analog that inhibits the replication of multiple RNA viruses, including respiratory syncytial virus, influenza, chikungunya, Ebola, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, and Eastern equine encephalitis viruses.

“We have been planning to enter human clinical tests of EIDD-2801 for the treatment of influenza, and recognized that it has potential activity against the current novel coronavirus,” says George Painter, PhD, director of the Emory Institute for Drug Development (EIDD) and CEO of DRIVE. “Based on the drug’s broad-spectrum activity against viruses including influenza, Ebola and SARS-CoV/MERS-CoV, we believe it will be an excellent candidate.”

“Our studies in the Journal of Virology show potent activity of the EIDD-2801 parent compound against multiple coronaviruses including SARS and MERS,” says Mark Denison, MD, the Stahlman Professor of Pediatrics and director of pediatric infectious diseases at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine.  “It also has a strong genetic barrier to development of viral resistance, and its oral bioavailability makes it a candidate for use during an outbreak.”

“Generally speaking, seasonal flu is still a much more common threat than this coronavirus, however, novel emerging coronaviruses represent a considerable threat to global health as evidenced by the new 2019-nCoV,” said Ralph Baric, PhD, an epidemiology professor at the University of North Carolina’s Gillings School of Global Public Health. “But the reason the new coronavirus is so concerning is that it’s much more likely to be deadly than the flu – fatal for about one in 25 people versus one in 1,000 for the flu.”

The development of EIDD-2801 has been funded in whole or in part with Federal funds from  the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), under contract numbers HHSN272201500008C and 75N93019C00058, and from the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), under contract numbers HDTRA1-13-C-0072 and HDTRA1-15-C-0075, for the treatment of Influenza, coronavirus, chikungunya,  and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus.

About DRIVE:  DRIVE is a non-profit LLC wholly owned by Emory started as an innovative approach to drug development.  Operating like an early stage biotechnology company, DRIVE applies focus and industry development expertise to efficiently translate discoveries to address viruses of global concern. Learn more at: http://driveinnovations.org/

 

Emory-discovered antiviral is poised for COVID-19 clinical trials

The nucleoside inhibitor has advantages over Gilead’s remdesivir but has yet to be tested in humans

https://cen.acs.org/biological-chemistry/infectious-disease/Emory-discovered-antiviral-poised-COVID/98/i12?utm_source=Facebook&utm_medium=Social&utm_campaign=CEN&fbclid=IwAR1yIuxNNrelRhKBdPp2hz3oRlqFrDtFYgTPEEORPf1G2R30RIhPIYD9Iwg

Asmall-molecule antiviral discovered by Emory University chemists could soon start human testing against COVID-19, the respiratory disease caused by the novel coronavirus. That’s the plan of Ridgeback Biotherapeutics, which licensed the compound, EIDD-2801, from an Emory nonprofit.

EIDD-2801 works similarly to Gilead Sciences’ remdesivir, an unapproved drug that was developed for the Ebola virus and is being studied in five Phase III trials against COVID-19. Both molecules are nucleoside analogs that metabolize into an active form that blocks RNA polymerase, an essential component of viral replication.

But remdesivir can only be given intravenously, meaning it would be difficult to deploy widely. In contrast, EIDD-2801 can be taken in pill form, says Mark Denison, a coronavirus expert and director of the infectious diseases division at Vanderbilt Medical School. Denison partnered with Emory and researchers at the University of North Carolina to test the compound against coronaviruses.

EIDD-2801 has other promising features. Many antivirals work by introducing errors into the viral genome, but, unlike other viruses, coronaviruses can fix some mistakes. In lab experiments, EIDD-2801 “was able to overcome the coronavirus proofreading function,” Denison says.

He also notes that while remdesivir and EIDD-2801 both block RNA polymerase, they appear to do it in different ways, meaning they could be complementary.

Unlike remdesivir, EIDD-2801 lacks human safety data. Ridgeback founder and CEO Wendy Holman says she expects the US Food and Drug Administration to give the green light for a Phase I study in COVID-19 infections within “weeks, not months.”

////////EIDD 2801, EMORY, CORONA VIRUS,  COVID 19,

CC(C)C(=O)OC[C@H]2O[C@@H](N1C=CC(=NC1=O)NO)[C@H](O)[C@@H]2O

 

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