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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D ( ICT, Mumbai) , INDIA 29Yrs Exp. in the feld of Organic Chemistry,Working for GLENMARK PHARMA at Navi Mumbai, INDIA. Serving chemists around the world. Helping them with websites on Chemistry.Million hits on google, NO ADVERTISEMENTS , ACADEMIC , NON COMMERCIAL SITE, world acclamation from industry, academia, drug authorities for websites, blogs and educational contribution, ........amcrasto@gmail.com..........+91 9323115463, Skype amcrasto64 View Anthony Melvin Crasto Ph.D's profile on LinkedIn Anthony Melvin Crasto Dr.

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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FDA and USDA announce key step to advance collaborative efforts to streamline produce safety requirements for farmers


DRUG REGULATORY AFFAIRS INTERNATIONAL

Image result for FDA and USDA announce key step to advance collaborative efforts to streamline produce safety requirements for farmers
As part of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s ongoing effort to make the oversight of food safety stronger and more efficient, the FDA and the USDA today announced the alignment of the USDA Harmonized Good Agricultural Practices Audit Program (USDA H-GAP) with the requirements of the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act’s (FSMA’s) Produce Safety Rule.
The new step is part of an ongoing effort to streamline produce safety requirements for farmers. The joint announcement was made by Agriculture Secretary Sonny Perdue and FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb, M.D., during a visit by the Secretary to the FDA’s White Oak campus in Silver Spring, Md.

june 5, 2018

Image result for FDA and USDA announce key step to advance collaborative efforts to streamline produce safety requirements for farmers

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As part of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s ongoing effort…

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Penciclovir


Penciclovir2DCSD.svgChemSpider 2D Image | Penciclovir | C10H15N5O3

Penciclovir

  • Molecular FormulaC10H15N5O3
  • Average mass253.258 Da

Cas 39809-25-1
97845-62-0 (Na salt)

Launched – 1996 PERRIGO, Herpes labialis

2-Amino-1,9-dihydro-9-[4-hydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)butyl]-6H-purin-6-one
2-Amino-9-[4-hydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)butyl]-1,9-dihydro-6H-purin-6-one
2-Amino-9-[4-hydroxy-3-(hydroxyméthyl)butyl]-1,9-dihydro-6H-purin-6-one
359HUE8FJC

BRL-39123; penciclovir; BRL 39123A; penciclovir sodium; Denavir; Vectavir; Euraxvir; Fenivir

Penciclovir [USAN:INN:BAN]

  • BRL 39123
  • BRL-39123
  • CCRIS 9213
  • Denavir
  • HSDB 8123
  • Penciclovir
  • Penciclovirum
  • Penciclovirum [INN-Latin]
  • UNII-359HUE8FJC
Title: Penciclovir
CAS Registry Number: 39809-25-1
CAS Name: 2-Amino-1,9-dihydro-9-[4-hydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)butyl]-6H-purin-6-one
Additional Names: 9-[4-hydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)but-1-yl]guanine; PCV
Manufacturers’ Codes: BRL-39123
Trademarks: Denavir (SKB); Vectavir (SKB)
Molecular Formula: C10H15N5O3
Molecular Weight: 253.26
Percent Composition: C 47.42%, H 5.97%, N 27.65%, O 18.95%
Literature References: Carba analog of ganciclovir, q.v., active against several herpes viruses. Prepn: U. K. Pandit et al., Synth. Commun. 2, 345 (1972); R. L. Jarvest, M. R. Harnden, US 5075445 (1991 to Beecham). Synthesis: M. R. Harnden et al., J. Med. Chem. 30, 1636 (1987); J. Hannah et al., J. Heterocycl. Chem. 26, 1261 (1989). Crystal and molecular structures: M. R. Harnden et al., Nucleosides Nucleotides 9, 499 (1990). In vitro activity of enantiomers in comparison with acyclovir, q.v.: G. Abele et al.,Antiviral Chem. Chemother. 2, 163 (1991); against herpes simplex viruses: A. Weinberg et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 36,2037 (1992). Clinical pharmacokinetics: S. E. Fowles et al., Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 43, 513 (1992). HPLC determn in plasma and urine: J. R. McMeekin et al., Anal. Proc. 29, 178 (1992). Review of development and antiviral activity: M. R. Harnden, Drugs Future14, 347-358 (1989).
Properties: White crystalline solid from water, (monohydrate), mp 275-277°; also reported as colorless matted needles, mp 272-275°. uv max (in water): 253 nm (e 11500). uv max (aq 0.01N NaOH): 215, 268 nm (e 18140, 10710). Sol in water (20°): 1.7 mg/ml, pH 7.
Melting point: mp 275-277°; mp 272-275°
Absorption maximum: uv max (in water): 253 nm (e 11500); uv max (aq 0.01N NaOH): 215, 268 nm (e 18140, 10710)
Derivative Type: Sodium salt
Manufacturers’ Codes: BRL-39123A
Properties: Occurs as monohydrate, stable crystalline solid. Sol in water (20°): >200 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml soln has pH 11.
Therap-Cat: Antiviral.
Keywords: Antiviral; Purines/Pyrimidinones.
Penciclovir is a guanosine analogue antiviral drug used for the treatment of various herpesvirus infections. It is a nucleoside analoguewhich exhibits low toxicity and good selectivity. Because penciclovir is absorbed poorly when given orally (by mouth) it is more often used as a topical treatment. It is the active ingredient in the cold sore medications Denavir (NDC 0135-0315-52), Vectavir and Fenivir. Famciclovir is a prodrug of penciclovir with improved oral bioavailability.

Penciclovir was approved for medical use in 1996.[2]

Developed and launched by SmithKline Beecham (SB; now GlaxoSmithKline) and now marketed in the US by Prestium Pharma and ex-US by Novartis, penciclovir (Vectavir; Fenivir; Denavir; Euraxvir) is a 1% topical cream indicated for the treatment of recurrent herpes labialis (cold sores) in adults and children 12 years of age and older

APPROVALS

THE US

In September 1996, the compound was approved by the US FDA for cold sore treatment , and was launched in the US in 1997.

EUROPE

In December 1995, SB filed for European approvals of the drug . In  1997, the drug was approved in Belgium  Iceland Denmark  Norway  Ireland . In January 2003, the drug was launched in Sweden . In May 2007, the drug was launched in Portugal .

JAPAN

In December 1995, SB filed for Japanese approval of the drug .

CHINA

In September 1999, the compound was approved in China

FDA

https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2013/020629s016lbl.pdf

Chemically, penciclovir is known as 9-[4-hydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)butyl] guanine. Its molecular formula is C10H15N5O3; its molecular weight is 253.26. It is a synthetic acyclic guanine derivative

Penciclovir is a white to pale yellow solid. At 20°C it has a solubility of 0.2 mg/mL in methanol, 1.3 mg/mL in propylene glycol, and 1.7 mg/mL in water. In aqueous buffer (pH 2) the solubility is 10.0 mg/mL. Penciclovir is not hygroscopic. Its partition coefficient in n-octanol/water at pH 7.5 is 0.024 (logP = -1.62).

Medical use

In herpes labialis, the duration of healing, pain and detectable virus is reduced by up to one day,[3] compared with the total duration of 2–3 weeks of disease presentation.

Mechanism of action

Penciclovir is inactive in its initial form. Within a virally infected cell a viral thymidine kinase adds a phosphate group to the penciclovir molecule; this is the rate-limiting step in the activation of penciclovir. Cellular (human) kinases then add two more phosphate groups, producing the active penciclovir triphosphate. This activated form inhibits viral DNA polymerase, thus impairing the ability of the virus to replicate within the cell.

The selectivity of penciclovir may be attributed to two factors. First, cellular thymidine kinases phosphorylate the parent form significantly less rapidly than does the viral thymidine kinase, so the active triphosphate is present at much higher concentrations in virally infected cells than in uninfected cells. Second, the activated drug binds to viral DNA polymerase with a much higher affinity than to human DNA polymerases. As a result, penciclovir exhibits negligible cytotoxicity to healthy cells.

The structure and mode of action of penciclovir are very similar to that of other nucleoside analogues, such as the more widely used aciclovir. A difference between aciclovir and penciclovir is that the active triphosphate form of penciclovir persists within the cell for a much longer time than the activated form of aciclovir, so the concentration within the cell of penciclovir will be higher given equivalent cellular doses.

SYN

Choudary, B.M.; Geen, G.R.; Grinter, T.J.; MacBeath, F.S.; Parratt, M.J.
Influence of remote structure upon regioselectivity in the N-alkylation of 2-amino-6-chloropurine: Application to the synthesis of penciclovir
Nucleosides Nucleotides 1994, 13(4): 979

PATENT

US 6573378

PATENT

CN 102070636

PAPER

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1081/SCC-120026312?journalCode=lsyc20Selective and Practical Synthesis of Penciclovir

Pages 3897-3905 | Received 01 May 2003, Published online: 19 Aug 2006

9-[4-Hydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)butyl]guanine
(Penciclovir)[3a,b] (1)
………………………as a colorless crystalline solid: m.p. 268.4–269.2C [Lit.[3a,b]
275–277C]. UV (H2O) max 252 and 273 (sh) nm [Lit[3a,b] 253 and 270
(sh) nm].

1HNMR (DMSO-d6) 1.42 (pseudo septet, 1H, J¼7 Hz, H-30),
1.69 (pseudo q, 2H, J¼7 Hz, H-20), 3.37 (ddd, 2H, J¼11, 7 and 7 Hz)
and 3.41 (ddd, 2H, J¼11, 7 and 7 Hz) (CH2OH), 3.98 (t, 2H, J¼7 Hz,
H-10), 4.42 (t, 2H, J¼7 Hz, OH), 6.42 (br s, 2H, NH2), 7.67 (s, 1H, H-8),
10.50 (br s, 1H, H-1).

The 1HNMR spectrum is in good agreement with
the literature data.[3a,b]

3 (a) Harnden, M.R.; Jarvest, R.L.Tetrahedron Lett. 1985, 26, 4265–4268;

(b) Harnden, M.R.;Jarvest, R.L.; Bacon, T.H.; Boyd, M.R. J. Med. Chem. 1987, 30,1636–1642;

PAPER

Improved industrial syntheses of penciclovir and famciclovir using N2-acetyl-7-benzylguanine and a cyclic side chain precursor.

The synthesis of penciclovir by two related ways has been reported: 1) The reaction of 2-(hydroxymethyl)butane-1,4-diol (I) with formaldehyde (or an aldehyde such as trimethylacetaldehyde) (II) by means of H2SO4 (or p-toluenesulfonic acid, TsOH) gives the dioxane (III), which by reaction first with methanesulfonyl chloride and triethylamine and then with NaI in acetone affords the corresponding 5-(2-iodoethyl)-1,3-dioxane (IV). The reaction of (IV) with 2-amino-6-chloropurine (V) by means of K2CO3 in DMF gives the corresponding condensation product (VI), which is finally hydrolyzed and deprotected with refluxing 2M aqueous HCl. 2) The reaction of triol (I) with 2,2-dimethoxypropane (VII) by means of TsOH gives the corresponding 1,3-dioxane (VIII), which by reaction with triphenylphosphine and CBr4 is converted to the 5-(2-bromoethyl) derivative (IX). The reaction of (IX) with the purine (V) by means of K2CO3 as before affords the corresponding condensation product (X), which is hydrolyzed and deprotected with 2M HCl as before.
AND
This compound has been obtained by two similar ways: 1) The reaction of 6-chloropurine-2-amine (I) with 6,6-dimethyl-5,7-dioxaspiro[2.5]octane-4,8-dione (II) by means of K2CO3 in DMF gives the expected condensation product (III), which is methanolized with HCl/methanol yielding 2-[2-(2-amino-6-methoxypurin-9-yl)ethyl]malonic acid dimethyl ester (IV). The reduction of (IV) with NaBH4 in tert-butanol/methanol affords the corresponding diol (V), which is finally converted into pecnciclovir by hydrolysis with 2N NaOH. 2) The reaction of purine (I) with 3-bromopropane-1,1,1-tricarboxylic acid triethyl ester (VI) by means ofK2CO3 in DMF gives the expected condensation product (VII), which is partially decarboxylated with sodium methoxide in methanol yielding 2-[2-(2-amino-6-chloropurin-9-yl)ethyl]malonic acid diethyl ester (VIII). The reduction of (VIII) with NaBH4 in tert-butanol/methanol followed by acetylation with acetic anhydride affords the corresponding diol diacetate (IX), which is finally converted into penciclovir by hydrlysis with 2N HCl.
AND
A synthesis of famciclovir that corresponds to that previously published and studies on its oral bioavailability in rats and mice, identifying famciclovir as the preferred prodrug of BRL-39123 (penciclovir), have been published.
AND
The reaction of purine (I) with 3-bromopropane-1,1,1-tricarboxylic acid triethyl ester (II) by means ofK2CO3 in DMF gives the expected condensation product (III), which is partially decarboxylated with sodium methoxide in methanol yielding 2-[2-(2-amino-6-chloropurin-9-yl)ethyl]malonic acid diethyl ester (IV). The reduction of (IV) with NaBH4 in tert-butanol/methanol followed by acetylation with acetic anhydride affords the corresponding diol diacetate (V), which is finally converted into famciclovir by reductive dechlorination with H2 over Pd/C in ethyl acetate/triethylamine.
PAPER
Synth Commun 1972,2345-351
This compound has been obtained by two similar ways: 1) The reaction of 6-chloropurine-2-amine (I) with 6,6-dimethyl-5,7-dioxaspiro[2.5]octane-4,8-dione (II) by means of K2CO3 in DMF gives the expected condensation product (III), which is methanolized with HCl/methanol yielding 2-[2-(2-amino-6-methoxypurin-9-yl)ethyl]malonic acid dimethyl ester (IV). The reduction of (IV) with NaBH4 in tert-butanol/methanol affords the corresponding diol (V), which is finally converted into pecnciclovir by hydrolysis with 2N NaOH. 2) The reaction of purine (I) with 3-bromopropane-1,1,1-tricarboxylic acid triethyl ester (VI) by means ofK2CO3 in DMF gives the expected condensation product (VII), which is partially decarboxylated with sodium methoxide in methanol yielding 2-[2-(2-amino-6-chloropurin-9-yl)ethyl]malonic acid diethyl ester (VIII). The reduction of (VIII) with NaBH4 in tert-butanol/methanol followed by acetylation with acetic anhydride affords the corresponding diol diacetate (IX), which is finally converted into penciclovir by hydrlysis with 2N HCl.
PAPER
Tetrahedron Lett 1985,264265-68
This compound has been obtained by two similar ways: 1) The reaction of 6-chloropurine-2-amine (I) with 6,6-dimethyl-5,7-dioxaspiro[2.5]octane-4,8-dione (II) by means of K2CO3 in DMF gives the expected condensation product (III), which is methanolized with HCl/methanol yielding 2-[2-(2-amino-6-methoxypurin-9-yl)ethyl]malonic acid dimethyl ester (IV). The reduction of (IV) with NaBH4 in tert-butanol/methanol affords the corresponding diol (V), which is finally converted into pecnciclovir by hydrolysis with 2N NaOH. 2) The reaction of purine (I) with 3-bromopropane-1,1,1-tricarboxylic acid triethyl ester (VI) by means ofK2CO3 in DMF gives the expected condensation product (VII), which is partially decarboxylated with sodium methoxide in methanol yielding 2-[2-(2-amino-6-chloropurin-9-yl)ethyl]malonic acid diethyl ester (VIII). The reduction of (VIII) with NaBH4 in tert-butanol/methanol followed by acetylation with acetic anhydride affords the corresponding diol diacetate (IX), which is finally converted into penciclovir by hydrlysis with 2N HCl.
PAPER
J Med Chem 1987,301636-42
PAPER
Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A 2013 Vol.14 No.10 P.760-766

10.1631/jzus.A1300238

Accelerated effect on Mitsunobu reaction via bis-N-tert-butoxycarbonylation protection of 2-amino-6-chloropurine and its application in a novel synthesis of penciclovir

Author(s):  Li-yan Dai, Qiu-long Shi, Jing Zhang, Xiao-zhong Wang, Ying-qi Chen
Affiliation(s):  . Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China
Corresponding email(s):   dailiyan@zju.edu.cn
Key Words:  2-amino-6-chloropurine, Mitsunobu reaction, bis-Boc protection, Penciclovir (PCV)
1.  Introduction
 Numerous nucleoside analogues in which the sugar residues have been replaced by acylic side-chains have been found to exhibit high antiviral activity (De Clercq, 1991). Purine derivatives (Fig. 1), in the majority N9 position, represent a plurality of important active substances endowed with antiviral activity. This group of compounds includes acyclovir (ACV) 1 (Schaeffer et al., 1978), ganciclovir (GCV) 2 (Ogilvie et al., 1982; Martin et al., 1983), penciclovir (PCV) 3 (Harnden et al., 19851987; Harnden and Jarvest, 1987), and famciclovir (FCV) 4 (Geen et al., 1992), and so on. Since Schaeffer et al. (1978) discovered that acyclovir is a promising anti-herpes virus agent, several groups have undertaken intensive studies to develop still more potent and effective acylic nucleoside analogues (Ashton et al., 1982; Smith et al., 1982; Martin et al., 1983). As a result, penciclovir (PCV) 3 and its pro-drug famciclovir (FCV) 4 were found to be potent and highly selective antiviral agents against both the herpes simplex virus (HSV) and the vari-cella-zoster virus (VZV) (Tippie et al., 1984). It was also reported that 3 exhibits anti hepatitis B virus (HBV) and duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) activity (Korba and Boyd, 1996; Shaw et al., 1994).
Fig.1
Purine derivatives

To synthesize 3 and 4, 2-amino-6-chloropurine (ACP) is commonly used as a starting material, coupling with alkyl halide side chains (Geen et al., 1990; Geen et al., 1992; Kim et al., 1998; Brand et al., 1999; Toyokuni et al., 2003). However, considering its isomerization at N7 and N9 positions under acidic or alkaline conditions, the most challengeable issue is the selectivity of a N-alkylation at the N7 or N9 position of ACP. Normally, alkylation takes place at the N9 position as well as at the N7 position of the purine moiety, and the N9/N7 ratio is usually less than 6:1 (Kim et al., 1998). Accordingly, to improve this ratio, several approaches have been reported, mainly involving changing the structure of the side chains (Geen et al., 1992) and modification of the ACP (Brand et al., 1999). For example, as reported by Zheng et al. (2004) (Fig. 2), a side chain 6 was synthesized and separated readily at 0 °C. After coupling 6 with 2-amino-6-chloropurine 7, the ratio of the product 9-isomer purine (8a) and the 7-isomer purine (8b) could reach about 10:1. However, the reaction temperature must be strictly controlled as 6 decomposes easily even at room temperature and then an extra careful column chromatography separation procedure would be required to obtain pure 8a. Thus, finding a more practical and efficient method, which could avoid the formation of N7-alkylated compound and shorten the synthetic steps to obtain ACP, becomes attractive.

Fig.2
Synthesis of penciclovir (PCV) with conventional method

The Mitsunobu reaction might be an alternative (potential) approach (Mitsunobu, 1981; Swamy et al., 2009). This reaction has become a very popular chemical transformation due to its mildness, occurring under essentially neutral conditions, and its stereospecificity, proceeding with complete Walden inversion of stereochemistry (Mitsunobu, 1981). Moreover, it permits C-O, C-S, C-N, or C-C bonds formed by the condensation of an acidic component with a primary or a secondary alcohol. Actually, some literature has already reported successful Mitsunobu coupling of ACP and adenine with allylic and benzylic alcohol, showing a good N9 selectivity (Yang et al., 2005; Kitade et al., 2006; Yin et al., 2006). However, a poor to modest yield (20%–50%) and a limited substrate scope were observed. In order to improve these yields, Lu et al. (2007) developed a modified Mitsunobu method to couple purine with alcohols in a higher temperature (70 °C), along with two rounds of the Mitsunobu reaction; yet its long reaction procedure and poor atom economy weaken its potential. The poor solubility of ACP or its derivatives in THF, the preferred solvent for Mitsunobu reactions, is likely the primary reason for these defects being observed.

A possible process to improve the solubility of ACP is to make use of the tert-butoxycarbonyl group (Boc), which can serve as the protection of the exocylic amino groups functionality and increase the lipophilicity of the base portion of the purine. Another advantage of the Boc protection group is that its acidolytic removal is less sensitive to steric factors and can also be removed under neutral conditions (Hwu et al., 1996; Siro et al., 1998). In contrast, a few studies have recently been reported that apply the Boc group in the protection of nucleobase (Sikchi and Hultin, 2006; Porcheddu et al., 2008). As described by Porcheddu et al. (2008), solubility of nucleobases, including guanine, was increased in some organic solvents after protected by Boc groups. In addition, some results in our previous study (Yang et al., 2011) demonstrated a very good improvement in coupling purine derivatives under Mitsunobu conditions. Thus, it could be safer to presume that protecting amino groups of ACP with Boc would be an ideal way for its application in the synthesis of PCV 3 and offer similar results as shown under Mitsunobu conditions.

In this study, we firstly synthesized a bis-Boc protected ACP, namely, bis-Boc-2-amino-6-chloropurine 9 (Fig. 3) and investigated its solubility in several different Mitsunobu solvents, then coupling bis-Boc-2-amino-6-chloropurine 9 with a large scope of alcohols confirmed its good reactivity for a Mitsunobu reaction and successfully developed a new and efficient method for the preparation of PCV using Mitsunobu coupling reaction as the key step.

Fig.3
Synthesis of bis-Boc-6-chloropurine 9
a: 2-amino-6-chloropurine, 4,4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP), THF and Boc2O, 25 °C, N2; b: MeOH, NaHCO3, 55 °C

2.  Experimental
2.1.  General
 Acetic ether and hexane, used for extraction and chromatography, were distilled. Absolute anhydrous THF used in the Mitsunobu reactions were prepared by distillation over a drying agent (Na/benzophenone). All other reagents were purchased and used without further purification. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analyses were conducted on the Merck Kieselgel 60 F254 plates. Flash chromatography was performed using a silica gel Merck 60 (particle size 0.040–0.063 mm). All 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra were recorded on the BRUKER AVANCE DX500 (BRUKER AVANCE, Germany), using CDCl3 or d6-DMSO as solvent at room temperature. Chemical shifts are given in 10−6 relative to tetramethylsilane (TMS) and the coupling constants J are given in Hz. TMS served as an internal standard (δ=0) for 1H NMR, and CDCl3 was used as an internal standard (δ=77.0×10−6) for 13C NMR. Melting points (mp) were obtained on a Melting Point WRR (Shanghai Precision & Scientific Instrument Co., Ltd., China).
2.2.  Bis-Boc-2-amino-6-chloropurine (9)
 1. t-Butyl-2-[bis(t-butoxycarbonyl)amino]-6-chloro-9H-purine-9-carboxylate (9a)

To a 250 ml N2-flushed flask with dry THF (100 ml), equipped with a magnetic stir bar, 2-amino-6-chloropurine (2.0 g, 11.8 mmol) and DMAP (0.14 g, 1.18 mmol) were added. Boc2O (10.3 g, 47.2 mmol) was added to the stirred suspension under an N2atmosphere, then the reaction mixture was stirred for 6 h at room temperature (TLC analysis indicated the disappearance of 2-mino-6-chloropurine). The excess amount of THF was removed, and the crude product was dissolved in AcOEt (400 ml), washed with HCl aqueous (2 mol/L, 1×30 ml) and brine (2×50 ml), dried with Na2SO4 and concentrated in vacuo to give a white solid (5.2 g, 94.5%). mp 51–52 °C; 1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3): δ=1.47 (s, 18H, C(CH3)3), 1.69 (s, 9H, C(CH3)3), 8.58 (s, 1H, CH); 13C NMR (125 MHz, CDCl3δ=153.8, 152.0, 151.8, 150.6, 145.5, 144.7, 130.8, 88.0, 83.9, 28.0.

2. Bis-Boc-2-amino-6-chloropurine (9)

A solution of the white solid obtained above (14 g, 30 mmol) in MeOH (400 ml) was added to saturated NaHCO3 aqueous (200 ml), then the turbid solution was stirred at 55 °C for 2 h, at which point clean conversion to bis-Boc protected adenine was observed by TLC. After evaporation of MeOH, the residue mixture was cooled, added 5 mol/L hydrochloric acid to get pH=7 (approximate). A large amount of white solid formed, the reaction mixture was filtrated and then dried under a vacuum to give a white solid 9 (10.5 g, 95.5%). mp 101.3–103.3 °C; 1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3): δ=1.50 (s, 18H, C(CH3)3), 8.41 (s, 1H, CH); 13C NMR (125 MHz, CDCl3δ=153.5, 151.9, 151.6, 151.3, 145.6, 128.5, 82.7, 28.5.

2.3.  5-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane (5)

2-hydroxymethyl-1,4-butanediol 11 (8.10 g, 67.4 mmol) and 2,2-dimethoxypropane (13 ml, 105.7 mmol) were dissolved in dry THF (20 ml). The mixture was stirred and p-toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate (0.64 g, 3.4 mmol) was added, the clear solution was stirred at room temperature for 12 h, triethylamine (10 ml) was added to quench the reaction, and the solution was stirred for 30 min. Then solvents were removed to leave a colorless liquid, the residue was subject to column chromatography on silica gel eluted with 2:1 EtOAc/hexane to give a colorless liquid 5 (6.2 g, 61.5%), R f=0.46 (2:1 EtOAc/hexane). 1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3): δ=3.99 (dd, 2H, Heq. J 1=11.80 Hz, J 2=4.45 Hz, CH2); 3.80 (t, 2H, J=6.71 Hz, CH2), 3.34 (dd, 2H, Hax. J 1=11.80 Hz, J 2=8.11 Hz, CH2), 1.90–1.98 (m, 2H, CH and OH), 1.62 (q, 2H, J=6.85 Hz, CH2 ); 13C NMR (125 MHz, CDCl3): δ=100.5, 69.8, 60.4, 31.9, 30.3, 21.2.

2.4.  Bis-Boc-2-amino-6-chloro-9-[2-(2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxan-5-yl)ethyl] purine (12)

Bis-Boc-2-amino-6-chloropurine 9 (1.0 equivalent) was added to a solution of the side chain 5 (1.1 equivalent) and phosphine reagent (1.1 equivalent) in anhydrous THF under N2 atmosphere at 0 °C, the resulting solution was treated with di-p-nitrobenzyl azocarboxylate (DNAD) (1.1 equivalent) dropwise and the reaction mixture was continued at room temperature for 8 h, then the solvent was evaporated and the residue dissolved in cyclohexane. The triphenylphosphane oxide precipitated and was filtered off and then the filtrate evaporated under reduced pressure. The product was purified by a column chromatography on silica gel to obtain the pure products as a white solid. mp>280 °C (dec); 1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3): δ=8.36 (s, 1H, CH), 4.02 (t, 2H, J=7.23 Hz, CH2), 3.79 (dd, 2H, Heq. J 1=11.57 Hz, J 2=4.46 Hz, CH2), 3.56 (dd, 2H, Hax. J 1=11.57 Hz, J 2=8.77 Hz, CH2), 1.67 (q, 2H, J=7.22 Hz, CH2), 1.53–1.61 (m, 1H, CH), 1.47 (s, 18H, C(CH3)3), 1.39 (s, 3H, CH3), 1.36 (s, 3H, CH3); 13C NMR (125 MHz, CDCl3): δ=154.3, 151.7, 151.5, 151.1, 128.0, 104.8, 81.7, 71.5, 50.8, 33.7, 28.6, 26.2, 25.7.

2.5.  2-amino-6-chloro-9-[2-(2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxan-5-yl) ethyl]purine (8a)

A mixture of compound 12 (2.56 g, 5.0 mmol), 2,6-dimethyl pyridine (1.18 ml, 10 mmol) and dry DCM (20 ml) was stirred at 0 °C, then TBTMS-OTf was added dropwise; after the addition, the reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature until TLC showed that compound 12 had completely disappeared. Then 30 ml saturated ammonium chloride solution was added, separated the organic layer, extracted with DCM (2×20 ml), combined and washed by saturated NaCl (2×40 ml), dried with anhydrous sodium sulfate and evaporated to give a white solid (1.21 g, 78%). mp 125–126 °C; 1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3): δ=8.07 (s, 1H, CH) , 6.99 (s, 2H, NH2), 4.12 (t, 2H, J=7.31 Hz, CH2), 3.82 (dd, 2H, 4′-Heq, J 1=11.79 Hz, J 2=4.50 Hz, CH2), 3.53 (dd, 2H, 4′-Hax, J 1=11.79 Hz, J 2=8.80 Hz, CH2), 1.74 (q, 2H, J=7.30 Hz, CH2), 1.53–1.65 (m, 1H, CH), 1.36 (s, 3H, CH3), 1.31 (s, 3H, CH3); 13C NMR (125 MHz, CDCl3): δ=159.94, 150.31, 150.26, 141.84, 132.11, 100.52, 68.14, 52.90, 31.32, 26.84, 26.05.

2.6.  9-[4-hydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)butyl] guanine (PCV 3)

Compound 12 (5.12 g, 10 mmol) was dissolved in THF (20 ml) hydrochloric acid (2 mol/L, 20 ml). The mixture was stirred for 2 h at 70 °C, and then slowly warmed to reflux for 2 h. After evaporation of the THF under reduced vacuum, 10% aqueous NaOH solution was added to neutralize the residual liquid, and a large amount of off-white solid formed, filtered, washed with acetone and then water, and dried under vacuum to give an off-white solid 3 (2.07 g, 82%). mp 274.6–276.9 °C.

3.  Results and discussion
 To begin with, bis-Boc-2-amino-6-chloropurine 9 was synthesized from 2-amino-6-chloropurine 7 in high yield followed by Subhakar’s procedure (Dey and Garner, 2000). The solubility of bis-Boc-2-amino-6-chloropurine 9 was investigated and the results are shown in Table 1. Unlike 2-amino-6-chloropurine 7, known for its notorious insolubility in most common solvents, the solubility of 9 in DCM, methylbenzene, acetonitrile, and especially in THF was increased dramatically.

Table 1

Mole fraction solubility x of bis-Boc-2-amino-6-chloropurine 9 in different Mitsunobu solvents

T (K) (±0.05 K) Solubility x a (%)


THFb DCMb Methylbenzeneb Acetonitrileb
273.15 0.1141 0.0493 0.0213 0.0150
278.15 0.1191 0.0552 0.0253 0.0178
283.15 0.1251 0.0613 0.0303 0.0210
288.15 0.1299 0.0664 0.0349 0.0244
293.15 0.1352 0.0734 0.0405 0.0288
298.15 0.1399 0.0809 0.0470 0.0347
303.15 0.1463 0.0894 0.0544 0.0417
308.15 0.1523 0.0983 0.0634 0.0501
313.15 0.1581 0.1081 0.0734 0.0617
  • a: the solubility of bis-Boc-2-amino-6-chloropurine 9 was measured by our previous method with temperature ranging from 273.15 K to 313.15 K (Wang et al., 2008) at atmospheric pressure. The laser monitoring observation technique was used to determine the disappearance of the solid phase in a solid and liquid mixture

b: all the solvents were further purified by distillation in dry agent (Na/benzophenone) and the sample bis-boc-2-amino-6-chloropurine 9 was dried in vacuum for over 2 d

As shown in Table 1, THF, which is the most common solvent in Mitsunobu reaction, has great solubility for bis-Boc-2-amino-6-chloropurine 9. Afterwards, the best solvent THF was taken for coupling 9 with a number of alcohols under normal Mitsunobu conditions to investigate its reactivity. The results were illustrated in Table 2. We clearly learned that bis-Boc-2-amino-6-chloropurine 9, as an excellent nucleophilic precursor, was able to react with a large number of alcohols, including primary alcohol, secondary alcohol, allyl alcohol, benzyl alcohol, etc., with high N9 selectivity and yields. Moreover, tert-Butyl alcohol still could not react with a protected purine as in the previous study (Yang et al., 2011), owing to its steric hindrance in tertiary carbon.

Table 2

Investigation of the reactivity of bis-Boc-2-amino-6-chloropurine 9 with different alcohols

Entry Alcohol Product Isolated yield (%)
1 10a 90.2
2 10b 86.6
3 10c 83.3
4 10d 84.8
5 10e 86.4
6 10f 81.2
7 10g 81.5
8 10h 80.7
9 10i 0
  • a): a mixture of 9 (1.0 equivalent), alcohol (1.1 equivalent) and phosphine reagent (1.1 equivalent) in anhydrous THF stirring under N2 atmosphere at 0 °C, then treated with azo-reagent DNAD (1.1 equivalent) warmed to room temperature; b): the mixture of the products from procedure a, THF (20 ml) and aqueous hydrochloric acid (2 mol/L, 20 ml) was refluxed for 2 h at 70 °C
  • According to the research results above, it is more reasonable and assuring to prepare PCV via a Mitsunobu reaction. This novel method for the preparation of PCV is indicated in Fig. 4. First, the side chain of 5-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2,2-dimethyl-1,3 -dioxane 5 was achieved through the commercially available starting material 2-hydroxymethyl-1,4-butanediol 11 reacting with 2,2-dimethoxypropane catalyzed by p-toluenesulfonic acid. The free –OH group of compound 5 is not necessary to be converted to the other leaving group such as chlorine, tosylate or methanesulphonate, which is always taken as a necessary step in the previous method or many other previous studies for the preparation of PVC till now (Harnden and Jarvest, 1985; Harnden et al., 1987; Zheng et al., 2004), making the synthesis of the side chain part of our method much more convenient and practical.
Fig.4
Synthesis of penciclovir (PCV) with new method
a: 2,2-dimethoxypropane, p-toluenesulfonic acid, THF; b: 1.1 equivalent of the side chain 5, 1.1 equivalent of PPh3, and 1.1 equivalent of azodicarboxylate reagent at rt. in THF; c: TBDMS-OTf, DCM; d: aqueous hydrochloric acid (2 mol/L), THF; e: aqueous hydrochloric acid (2 mol/L)

Our next objective was the synthesis of PCV. As was expected, bis-Boc-2-amino-6-chloropurine 9 combined with the side chain 5(1.1 equivalent) under normal Mitsunobu conditions successfully obtained the desired N9-alkylated compound 12 in 92% yield without the undesired N7 alkylation by-product being formed. Importantly, the reaction conditions were significantly milder than those reported in recent studies (Geen et al., 19901992; Kim et al., 1998; Brand et al., 1999; Toyokuni et al., 2003), requiring only 1.1 equivalent of each of the alcohol, PPh3 and DNAD, and proceeding to completion within 60 min at room temperature. This is mainly due to the enhanced solubility of the compound 9 as mentioned above. By process c in Fig. 4, compound 8a was obtained under neutral conditions. It is 1H and 13C NMR spectra further indicated that no 7-isomer purine (8b) was formed. Subsequently, we could obtain PCV 3 in an acid condition as procedure e; or directly starting from 12, where hydrolytic dechlorination and deprotection step(s) were accomplished in one pot under mild acid conditions (2mol/L, hydrochloric acid in THF at room temperature) to afford the target PCV 3 in 80%–85% yield (process d). The overall yield of PCV from 11 was 44.5% higher than that in previous study (16%) (Zheng et al., 2004).

4.  Conclusions
 In this study, ACP was protected with a bis-Boc carbamate group and showed a significant increase of solubility in the favorite Mitsunobu solvents. Coupling bis-Boc-2-amino-6-chloropurine 9 with different alcohols indicated a higher N9 selectivity and good reactivity in a Mitsunobu reaction. The results provided a convenient and practical protocol to prepare PCV from ACP, avoiding the presence of undesired N7 by-product and requiring only a few synthetic steps with higher yields.

References

[1] Ashton, W.T., Karkas, J.D., Field, A.K., Tolman, R.L., 1982. Activation by thymidine kinase and potent antiherpetic activity of 2’-nor-2’-deoxyguanosine (2’NDG). Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 108(4):1716-1721.
[2] Brand, B., Reese, C.B., Song, Q., Visintin, C., 1999. Convenient syntheses of 9-[4-hydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)butyl] guanine (penciclovir) and 9-[4-acetoxy-3-(acetoxymethyl) butyl]-2-amino-9H-purine (famciclovir). Tetrahedron, 55(16):5239-5252.
[3] De Clercq, E., 1991. Broad-spectrum anti-DNA virus and anti-retrovirus activity of phosphonylmethoxyalkylpurines and pyrimidines. Biochemical Pharmacology, 42(5):963-972.
[4] Dey, S., Garner, P., 2000. Synthesis of tert-butoxycarbonyl (Boc)-protected purines. The Journal of Organic Chemistry, 65(22):7697-7699.
[5] Geen, G.R., Grinter, T.J., Kincey, P.M., Jarvest, R.L., 1990. The effect of the C-6 substituent on the regioselectivity of N-alkylation of 2-aminopurines. Tetrahedron, 46(19):6903-6914.
[6] Geen, G.R., Kincey, P.M., Choudary, B.M., 1992. Regiospecific Michael additions with 2-aminopurines. Tetrahedron Letters, 33(32):4609-4612.
[7] Harnden, M.R., Jarvest, R.L., 1985. An improved synthesis of the antiviral acyclonucleoside 9-(4-hydroxy-3-hydroxymethylbut-1-yl) guanine. Tetrahedron Letters, 26(35):4265-4268.
[8] Harnden, M.R., Jarvest, R.L., Bacon, T.H., Boyd, M.R., 1987. Synthesis and antiviral activity of 9-[4-hydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl) but-1-yl] purines. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 30(9):1636-1642.
[9] Hwu, J.R., Jain, M.L., Tsay, S.C., Hakimelahi, G.H., 1996. Ceric ammonium nitrate in the deprotection of tert-butoxycarbonyl group. Tetrahedron Letters, 37(12):2035-2038.
[10] Kim, D.K., Lee, N., Kim, Y.W., Chang, K.Y., Kim, J.S., Im, G.J., Choi, W.S., Jung, I.H., Kim, T.S., Hwang, Y.Y., 1998. Synthesis and evaluation of 2-amino-9-(3-hydroxymethyl-4-alkoxycarbonylo-xybut-1-yl) purines as potential prodrugs of penciclovir. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 41(18):3435-3441.
[11] Kitade, Y., Ando, T., Yamaguchi, T., Hori, A., Nakanishi, M., Ueno, Y., 2006. 4’-fluorinated carbocyclic nucleosides: synthesis and inhibitory activity against S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, 14(16):5578-5583.
[12] Korba, B.E., Boyd, M.R., 1996. Penciclovir is a selective inhibitor of hepatitis B virus replication in cultured human hepatoblastoma cells. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 40(13):1282-1284.
[13] Lu, W., Sengupta, S., Petersen, J.L., Akhmedov, N.G., Shi, X., 2007. Mitsunobu coupling of nucleobases and alcohols: an efficient, practical synthesis for novel nonsugar carbon nucleosides. Journal of Organic Chemistry, 72(13):5012-5015.
[14] Martin, J.C., Dvorak, C.A., Smee, D.F., Matthews, T.R., Verheyden, J.P.H., 1983. 9-(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxymethyl) guanine: a new potent and selective antiherpes agent. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 26(5):759-761.
[15] Mitsunobu, O., 1981. The use of diethyl azodicarboxylate and triphenylphosphine in synthesis and transformation of natural products. Synthesis, 1981(1):1-28.
[16] Ogilvie, K.K., Cheriyan, U.O., Radatus, B.K., Smith, K.O., Galloway, K.S., Kennell, W.L., 1982. Biologically active acyclonucleoside analogues. II. The synthesis of 9-[[2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethoxy]methyl] guanine (BIOLF-62). Canadian Journal of Chemistry, 60(24):3005-3010.
[17] Porcheddu, A., Giacomelli, G., Piredda, I., Carta, M., Nieddu, G., 2008. A Practical and efficient approach to PNA monomers compatible with Fmoc-mediated solid-phase synthesis protocols. European Journal of Organic Chemistry, 2008(34):5786-5797.
[18] Schaeffer, H.J., Beauchamp, L., Miranda, P.D., Elion, G.B., Bauer, D.J., Collins, P., 1978. 9-(2-hydroxyethoxymethyl) guanine activity against viruses of the herpes group. Nature, 272(5654):583-585.
[19] Shaw, T., Amor, P., Civitico, G., Boyd, M., Locarnini, S., 1994. In vitro antiviral activity of penciclovir, a novel purine nucleoside, against duck hepatitis B virus. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 38(4):719-723.
[20] Smith, K.O., Galloway, K.S., Kennell, W.L., Ogilvie, K.K., Radatus, B.K., 1982. A new nucleoside analog, 9-[[2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethoxyl]methyl] guanine, highly active in vitro against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 22(1):55-61.
[21] Tippie, M.A., Martin, J.C., Smee, D.F., Matthews, T.R., Verheyden, J.P.M., 1984. Antiherpes simplex virus activity of 9-[4-hydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)-1-butyl] guanine. Nucleosides and Nucleotides, 3(5):525-535.
[22] Toyokuni, T., Walsh, J.C., Namavari, M., Shinde, S.S., Moore, J.R., Barrio, J.R., Satyamurthy, N., 2003. Selective and practical synthesis of penciclovir. Synthetic Communications, 33(22):3897-3905.
[23] Sikchi, S.A., Hultin, P.G., 2006. Solventless protocol for efficient Bis-N-Boc protection of adenosine, cytidine, and guanosine derivatives. Journal of Organic Chemistry, 71(16):5888-5891.
[24] Siro, J.G., Martin, J., Garcia-Navio, J.L., Remuinan, M.J., Vaquero, J.J., 1998. Easy microwave assisted deprotection of N-Boc derivatives. Synlett, 1998(2):147-148.
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PAPER
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SYN

EP 0141927; ES 8602791; ES 8603887; ES 8603888; JP 1994293764; US 5075445

This compound has been obtained by two similar ways: 1) The reaction of 6-chloropurine-2-amine (I) with 6,6-dimethyl-5,7-dioxaspiro[2.5]octane-4,8-dione (II) by means of K2CO3 in DMF gives the expected condensation product (III), which is methanolized with HCl/methanol yielding 2-[2-(2-amino-6-methoxypurin-9-yl)ethyl]malonic acid dimethyl ester (IV). The reduction of (IV) with NaBH4 in tert-butanol/methanol affords the corresponding diol (V), which is finally converted into pecnciclovir by hydrolysis with 2N NaOH. 2) The reaction of purine (I) with 3-bromopropane-1,1,1-tricarboxylic acid triethyl ester (VI) by means ofK2CO3 in DMF gives the expected condensation product (VII), which is partially decarboxylated with sodium methoxide in methanol yielding 2-[2-(2-amino-6-chloropurin-9-yl)ethyl]malonic acid diethyl ester (VIII). The reduction of (VIII) with NaBH4 in tert-butanol/methanol followed by acetylation with acetic anhydride affords the corresponding diol diacetate (IX), which is finally converted into penciclovir by hydrlysis with 2N HCl.

References

  1. Jump up^ “Penciclovir”Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 2016-01-22.
  2. Jump up^ Long, Sarah S.; Pickering, Larry K.; Prober, Charles G. (2012). Principles and Practice of Pediatric Infectious Disease. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 1502. ISBN 1437727026.
  3. Jump up^ Farmaceutiska Specialiteter i Sverige – the Swedish official drug catalog. [http://www.fass.se Fass.se –> Vectavir. Retrieved on August 12, 2009. Translated from “Tiden för läkning, smärta och påvisbart virus förkortas med upp till ett dygn.”
Penciclovir
Penciclovir2DCSD.svg
Clinical data
Pronunciation /ˌpɛnˈsklˌvɪər/[1]
Trade names Denavir
AHFS/Drugs.com Monograph
MedlinePlus a697027
Pregnancy
category
  • AU: B1
  • US: B (No risk in non-human studies)
Routes of
administration
Topical
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 1.5% (oral), negligible (topical)
Protein binding <20%
Metabolism Viral thymidine kinase
Elimination half-life 2.2–2.3 hours
Excretion Renal
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
ChEMBL
ECHA InfoCard 100.189.687 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
Formula C10H15N5O3
Molar mass 253.258 g/mol
3D model (JSmol)

/////////////Penciclovir, BRL-39123,  BRL 39123A, penciclovir sodium, Denavir, Vectavir, Euraxvir, Fenivir,

C1=NC2=C(N1CCC(CO)CO)NC(=NC2=O)N

Carglumic acid, карглумовая кислота , حمض كاروغلوميك , カルグルミ酸 ,


Carglumic acid.svgCarglumic acid.png

Carglumic acid

N-Carbamyl-L-glutamate;

  • Molecular FormulaC6H10N2O5
  • Average mass190.154 Da
N-Carbamylglutamate
карглумовая кислота [Russian] [INN]
حمض كاروغلوميك [Arabic] [INN]
カルグルミ酸;
1188-38-1 [RN]
5L0HB4V1EW
8008
L-Glutamic acid, N-(aminocarbonyl)-
L-Glutamic acid, N-(hydroxyiminomethyl)-
N-[Hydroxy(imino)methyl]-L-glutamic acid
(S)-2-Ureidopentanedioic acid
(S)-2-ureidopentanedioic acid; N-Carbamoyl-L-Glutamic Acid; N-Carbamyl-L-glutamate; N-Carbamylglutamate
OE 312 / OE-312, UNII5L0HB4V1EW
Prepn: H. McIlwain, Biochem. J. 33, 1942 (1939)

Carglumic acid is a Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase 1 Activator. The mechanism of action of carglumic acid is as a Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase 1 Activator.

For the treatment of acute and chronic hyperammonaemia in patients with N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS) deficiency. This enzyme is an important component of the urea cycle to prevent build up of neurotoxic ammonium in the blood.

EMA

Carglumic acid exists as a white powder or colourless crystals. It is soluble in boiling water, slightly soluble in cold water and practically insoluble in organic solvents (cyclohexane, dichloromethane, ether). The water solubility of carglumic acid at pH 2.0 is 21.0 g/L. It increases rapidly between the pH 3.0 (28.2 g/L) and the pH 5.0 (440.9 g/L). The solubility of carglumic acid in water is stable between pH 6.0 (555.5 g/L) and pH 8.0 (553.9 g/L). Carglumic acid is prepared from L-glutamic acid. It exhibits stereoisomerism due to the presence of one chiral centre and has one optical isomer; N-carbamoyl-D-glutamic acid.

ORIGINATOR ORPHAN EUROPE

POLA CHEMICAL

ORPHAN DRUG

EU APPROVED 2003 ORPHAN EUROPE

FDA 2010  ORPHAN EUROPE

JAPAN 2016 POLA CHEM

Title: Carglumic acid
CAS Registry Number: 1188-38-1
CAS Name: N-(Aminocarbonyl)-L-glutamic acid
Additional Names: carbamylglutamic acid; N-carbamoyl-L-glutamic acid; l-uramidoglutaric acid; ureidoglutaric acid
Trademarks: Carbaglu (Orphan Europe)
Molecular Formula: C6H10N2O5
Molecular Weight: 190.15
Percent Composition: C 37.90%, H 5.30%, N 14.73%, O 42.07%
Literature References: Metabolically stable analog of N-acetylglutamate, a physiological activator of the first enzyme of the urea cycle, carbamylphosphate synthetase (CAPS). Prepn: H. McIlwain, Biochem. J. 33, 1942 (1939). Effect on blood urea and ammonia levels and potential clinical application: J.-E. O’Connor et al., Eur. J. Pediatr. 143, 196 (1985). Evaluation in treatment of CAPS deficiency: G. Kuchler et al., J. Inher. Metab. Dis. 19, 220 (1996); of N-acetylglutamate synthetase (NAGS) deficiency: B. Plecko et al., Eur. J. Pediatr. 157, 996 (1998).
Properties: mp 174°.
Melting point: mp 174°
Therap-Cat: In treatment of inherited urea cycle disorders.

CARBAGLU®
(carglumic acid) Tablet for Oral Suspension

DESCRIPTION

CARBAGLU tablets for oral suspension, contain 200 mg of carglumic acid. Carglumic acid, the active substance, is a Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase 1 (CPS 1) activator and is soluble in boiling water, slightly soluble in cold water, and practically insoluble in organic solvents.

Chemically carglumic acid is N-carbamoyl-L-glutamic acid or (2S)-2-(carbamoylamino) pentanedioic acid, with a molecular weight of 190.16.

The structural formula is:

CARBAGLU® (carglumic acid) - Structural Formula Illustration

Molecular Formula: C6H10N2O5

The inactive ingredients of CARBAGLU are croscarmellose sodium, hypromellose, microcrystalline cellulose, silica colloidal anhydrous, sodium lauryl sulfate, sodium stearyl fumarate.

Carglumic Acid is an orally active, synthetic structural analogue of N-acetylglutamate (NAG) and carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS 1) activator, with ammonia lowering activity. NAG, which is formed by the hepatic enzyme N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS), is an essential allosteric activator of the enzyme carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS 1). CPS 1 plays an essential role in the urea cycle and converts ammonia into urea. Upon oral administration, carglumic acid can replace NAG in NAGS deficient patients and activates CPS 1, which prevents hyperammonaemia.

Carglumic acid is an orphan drug and a derivative of N-acetylglutamate that activates the first enzyme in the urea cycle that is responsible for removal and detoxification of ammonia, making this drug a valuable agent for therapy of hyperammonemia caused by rare forms of urea cycle defects. Clinical experience with carglumic acid is limited, but it has not been linked to significant serum enzyme elevations during therapy or to instances of clinically apparent acute liver injury.

Carglumic acid is an orphan drug, marketed by Orphan Europe under the trade name Carbaglu. Carglumic acid is used for the treatment of hyperammonaemia in patients with N-acetylglutamate synthase deficiency.[1][2] The initial daily dose ranges from 100 to 250 mg/kg, adjusted thereafter to maintain normal plasma levels of ammonia.

The US FDA approved it for treatment of hyperammonaemia on March 18, 2010. Orphan Drug exclusivity expired on March 18, 2017.[3] 

USFDA

https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/nda/2010/022562s000chemr.pdf

Carbaglu (carglumic acid) Tablets 200 mg, is a white elongated tablet with three score marks on both sides engraved C’s on one side. It is a dispersible tablet designed to be dispersed in of water and ingested or administered through a syringe via a nasogastric tube. It is indicated for treatment of acute hyperammonemia in patients with NAGS deficiency.

The drug substance, carglumic acid, is an allosteric activator of a critical urea cycle enzyme, carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPS). It is a close analog of the naturally occurring activator, N-acetyl glutamate (NAG). Carglumic acid is a urea-like derivative of the amino acid L-glutamate and contains one chiral center. The drug substance solid form is the neutral dicarboxylic acid and is a white crystalline powder. The water solubility of the drug substance depends on the . polymorphic solid form has been found.

The drug substance is manufactured by .
The facility was found to have acceptable cGMP status during an inspection by
the Agency in November 2009. The synthesis of carglumic acid consists of a

Regarding characterization, the drug substance structure was determined by
NMR, MS, IR and Regarding impurities, two potential
impurities are possible due to
hydantoin-5-proprionic acid (HPA) and diaza-1,3-dione-2,4-carboxy-7-
cycloheptane (Diaza). Only the has been detected at
batch release and it increases in amount during storage at elevated temperatures
but not at room temperature. This impurity also increases during drug product
storage at room temperature but not at refrigerated temperatures, see above
discussion. The starting materials, , were not
detected in several batches and therefore routine testing is not required.
Regarding drug substance specification, identity testing is by IR and HPLC.
Other tests include optical rotation, melting point, pH of 0.5% solution, loss on
drying, residue on ignition, heavy metals, assay and impurities by HPLC.
Regarding chiral purity, the observed specific optical rotation is small and
therefore not a very precise method for determination of chiral purity. Although
a chiral HPLC method was developed, since the r was not detected in
any samples (the limit of detection was 0.1%) during the development, originally
the sponsor did not propose to implement the test in the specification. However,
the Agency recommended that the chiral HPLC method be included in the
specification to assure chiral purity, and the sponsor agreed to do so with the limit
for the NMT
Batch release data were provided that justified the proposed acceptance limits. In
general, measured total impurities were low in the drug substance, about .
Appropriate in-house reference standards were established.
Stability results for 3 batches stored at 25°C/60%RH for 36 months remained
within the tight specification limits. A re-test period of for the drug
substance stored in its original packaging at room temperature is granted.

B. Description of How the Drug Product is Intended to be Used
The drug product tablets may be dispersed in a minimum amount of water
mL per tablet) and ingested immediately or administered through a syringe via a
nasogastric tube. The suspension has a slightly acidic taste.

NDA 022562

EUROPE

http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/EPAR_-_Public_assessment_report/human/004019/WC500230265.pdf

21 April 2017 EMA/CHMP/404487/2017 Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) Assessment report Ucedane International non-proprietary name: carglumic acid Procedure No. EMEA/H/C/004019/0000

Carglumic acid (also called N-carbamyl-L-glutamate, or carbamylglutamate) is an orally active deacylaseresistant synthetic structural N-acetylglutamate (NAG) analogue. NAG, which is formed by the hepatic enzyme N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS), is an essential allosteric activator of the enzyme carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS-1). CPS-1 plays an essential role in the urea cycle and converts ammonia into urea which prevents hyperammonaemia. Despite a lower affinity of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase for carglumic acid than for N-acetylglutamate, carglumic acid has been shown in vivo to stimulate carbamoyl phosphate synthetase and to be much more effective than N-acetylglutamate in protecting against ammonia intoxication in rats.

Carglumic acid was first authorised in the EU as Carbaglu dispersible tablets in January 2003. At the time of approval Carbaglu was indicated for the treatment of hyperammonaemia associated with N-acetylglutamate synthase deficiency. Subsequently, the approved indications for Carbaglu have been extended and is now also authorised for the treatment of hyperammonaemia due to, isovaleric acidaemia, methymalonic acidaemia, or propionic acidaemia. Ucedane is indicated in treatment of hyperammonaemia due to N-acetylglutamate synthase primary deficiency. Proposed posology and method of administration for Ucedane

The chemical name of the active substance, carglumic acid, is N-Carbamyl-L-glutamic acid corresponding to the molecular formula C6H10N2O5. It has a relative molecular mass 190.16 g/mol and the following structure:

Carglumic acid exists as a white powder or colourless crystals. It is soluble in boiling water, slightly soluble in cold water and practically insoluble in organic solvents (cyclohexane, dichloromethane, ether). The water solubility of carglumic acid at pH 2.0 is 21.0 g/L. It increases rapidly between the pH 3.0 (28.2 g/L) and the pH 5.0 (440.9 g/L). The solubility of carglumic acid in water is stable between pH 6.0 (555.5 g/L) and pH 8.0 (553.9 g/L). Carglumic acid is prepared from L-glutamic acid. It exhibits stereoisomerism due to the presence of one chiral centre and has one optical isomer; N-carbamoyl-D-glutamic acid.

Adverse effects

The most common adverse effects include vomiting, abdominal pain, fever, and tonsillitis.[4]

SYNTHESIS PHARMACODIA

http://en.pharmacodia.com/web/drug/1_468.html

References

  1. Jump up^ Caldovic L, Morizono H, Daikhin Y, Nissim I, McCarter RJ, Yudkoff M, Tuchman M (2004). “Restoration of ureagenesis in N-acetylglutamate synthase deficiency by N-carbamylglutamate”. J Pediatr145 (4): 552–4. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2004.06.047PMID 15480384.
  2. Jump up^ Elpeleg O, Shaag A, Ben-Shalom E, Schmid T, Bachmann C (2002). “N-acetylglutamate synthase deficiency and the treatment of hyperammonemic encephalopathy”. Ann Neurol52 (6): 845–9. doi:10.1002/ana.10406PMID 12447942.
  3. Jump up^ “Patent and Exclusivity Search Results”.
  4. Jump up^ Drugs.comProfessional Drug Facts for Carglumic Acid.
Patent ID

Patent Title

Submitted Date

Granted Date

US2014322323 PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM
2014-04-25
2014-10-30
US9592179 DISPOSABLE RIGID CONTAINER FOR PHARMACEUTICAL COMPOSITIONS
2012-09-21
2014-08-07
US2015099270 METHOD OF SCREENING PHARMACEUTICALS FOR DRUG INTERACTIONS AND NEPHROTOXICITY
2014-10-06
2015-04-09
US8459458 Disposable rigid container for pharmaceutical compositions
2011-03-18
2013-06-11
US7118913 Expression vector containing urea cycle enzyme gene, transformant thereof, and use of transformant for protein over-expression
2005-04-28
2006-10-10
Patent ID

Patent Title

Submitted Date

Granted Date

US2014079780 Crush resistant delayed-release dosage forms
2013-11-19
2014-03-20
US2010151028 CRUSH RESISTANT DELAYED-RELEASE DOSAGE FORMS
2009-12-17
2010-06-17
US2011311631 CONTROLLED RELEASE PHARMACEUTICAL COMPOSITION WITH RESISTANCE AGAINST THE INFLUENCE OF ETHANOL EMPLOYING A COATING COMPRISING A POLYMER MIXTURE AND EXCIPIENTS
2009-03-18
2011-12-22
US9730899 CONTROLLED RELEASE PHARMACEUTICAL COMPOSITION WITH RESISTANCE AGAINST THE INFLUENCE OF ETHANOL EMPLOYING A COATING COMPRISING NEUTRAL VINYL POLYMERS AND EXCIPIENTS
2009-03-18
2012-02-23
US2008311187 CRUSH RESISTAN DELAYED-RELEASE DOSAGE FORM
2008-06-17
2008-12-18
Patent ID

Patent Title

Submitted Date

Granted Date

US2017056347 METHODS AND COMPOSITIONS FOR TREATING CONDITIONS ASSOCIATED WITH AN ABNORMAL INFLAMMATORY RESPONSES
2016-09-01
US2017049899 TARGETED THERAPEUTICS
2016-08-30
US2016354370 METHOD FOR TREATING A PROTOZOAL INFECTION
2016-08-19
US9688967 Bacteria Engineered to Treat Diseases Associated with Hyperammonemia
2016-05-25
US2017056510 TARGETED THERAPEUTICS
2016-03-08
Patent ID

Patent Title

Submitted Date

Granted Date

US9669038 Heterocyclic compounds and uses thereof
2015-10-26
2017-06-06
US7790905 Pharmaceutical propylene glycol solvate compositions
2003-12-29
2010-09-07
US2017128580 TARGETED THERAPEUTICS
2017-01-19
US2017216370 BACTERIA ENGINEERED TO TREAT DISORDERS INVOLVING PROPIONATE CATABOLISM
2017-01-09
US2017056511 TARGETED THERAPEUTICS
2016-09-15
Carglumic acid
Carglumic acid.svg
Clinical data
Synonyms (S)-2-ureidopentanedioic acid
AHFS/Drugs.com Consumer Drug Information
License data
Pregnancy
category
  • unknown
Routes of
administration
Oral
ATC code
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 30%
Protein binding Undetermined
Metabolism Partial
Elimination half-life 4.3 to 9.5 hours
Excretion Fecal (60%) and renal (9%, unchanged)
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
IUPHAR/BPS
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
ChEMBL
ECHA InfoCard 100.116.323 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
Formula C6H10N2O5
Molar mass 190.2 g/mol

////////////////Carglumic acid, FDA 2010, карглумовая кислота حمض كاروغلوميك カルグルミ酸 , ORPHAN, ORPHAN EU, JAPAN 2016, EU 2003, POLA, ORPHAN, OE 312

C(CC(=O)O)C(C(=O)O)NC(=O)N

FDA approves first biosimilar to Neulasta, Fulphila (pegfilgrastim) to help reduce the risk of infection during cancer treatment


Image result for pegfilgrastim-jmdb

FDA approves first biosimilar to Neulasta to help reduce the risk of infection during cancer treatment

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Fulphila (pegfilgrastim-jmdb) as the first biosimilar to Neulasta (pegfilgrastim) to decrease the chance of infection as suggested by febrile neutropenia (fever, often with other signs of infection, associated with an abnormally low number of infection-fighting white blood cells), in patients with non-myeloid (non-bone marrow) cancer who are receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy that has a clinically significant incidence of febrile neutropenia.

Continue reading…

June 4, 2018

Release

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Fulphila (pegfilgrastim-jmdb) as the first biosimilar to Neulasta (pegfilgrastim) to decrease the chance of infection as suggested by febrile neutropenia (fever, often with other signs of infection, associated with an abnormally low number of infection-fighting white blood cells), in patients with non-myeloid (non-bone marrow) cancer who are receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy that has a clinically significant incidence of febrile neutropenia.

“Bringing new biosimilars to patients is a top priority for the FDA, and a key part of our efforts to help promote competition that can reduce drug costs and promote access,” said FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb, M.D. “We’ll continue to prioritize reviews of these products to help ensure that biosimilar medications are brought to the market efficiently and through a process that makes certain that these new medicines meet the FDA’s rigorous standard for approval. This summer, we’ll release a comprehensive new plan to advance new policy efforts that promote biosimilar product development. Biologics represent some of the most clinically important, but also costliest products that patients use to promote their health. We want to make sure that the pathway for developing biosimilar versions of approved biologics is efficient and effective, so that patients benefit from competition to existing biologics once lawful intellectual property has lapsed on these products.”

Biological products are generally derived from a living organism and can come from many sources, such as humans, animals, microorganisms or yeast. A biosimilar is a biological product that is approved based on data showing that it is highly similar to a biological product already approved by the FDA (reference product) and has no clinically meaningful differences in terms of safety, purity and potency (i.e., safety and effectiveness) from the reference product, in addition to meeting other criteria specified by law.

The FDA’s approval of Fulphila is based on review of evidence that included extensive structural and functional characterization, animal study data, human pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data, clinical immunogenicity data, and other clinical safety and effectiveness data that demonstrates Fulphila is biosimilar to Neulasta. Fulphila has been approved as a biosimilar, not as an interchangeable product.

The most common side effects of Fulphila are bone pain and pain in extremities. Patients with a history of serious allergic reactions to human granulocyte colony-stimulating factors such as pegfilgrastim or filgrastim products should not take Fulphila.

Serious side effects from treatment with Fulphila include rupture of the spleen, acute respiratory distress syndrome, serious allergic reactions including anaphylaxis, acute inflammation of the kidney (glomerulonephritis), an abnormally high level of white blood cells (leukocytosis), capillary leak syndrome and the potential for tumor growth. Fatal sickle cell crises have occurred.

The FDA granted approval of Fulphila to Mylan GmbH.

Image result for Neulasta

//////////// pegfilgrastim, fda 2018, Fulphila, Neulasta, Mylan GmbH, biosimilars, MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY,

YINLITINIB


Image result for china flag animated gif

Figure CN104119350BD00752

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SCHEMBL16219901.png

Figure US09556191-20170131-C00087

str1

str1

YINLITINIB

error EMAIL ME amcrasto@gmail.com

(E)-4-[(4aR,7aS)-2,3,4a,5,7,7a-hexahydro-[1,4]dioxino[2,3-c]pyrrol-6-yl]-N-[4-(3-chloro-4-fluoroanilino)-7-methoxyquinazolin-6-yl]but-2-enamide

(E)-N-(4-((3-Chloro-4-fluorophenyl)amino)-7-methoxyquinazolin-6-yl)-4-((4aR,7aS)-tetrahydro-2H-[1,4]dioxin[2,3-c]pyrrol-6(3H)-yl)but-2-enamide

CAS 1637253-79-2
2-Butenamide, N-[4-[(3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)amino]-7-methoxy-6-quinazolinyl]-4-[(4aR,7aS)-hexahydro-6H-1,4-dioxino[2,3-c]pyrrol-6-yl]-, (2E)-rel
C25 H25 Cl F N5 O4, 513.95

DNT-04110 ; yinlitinib maleate , Guangdong Hec Pharmaceutical

Use for treating proliferative diseases, atherosclerosis and pulmonary fibrosis

Phase I CHINA

NOTE AND USE YOUR JUDGMENT ON DRUG SUBSTANCE, EMAIL ME amcrasto@gmail.com

str1

REGOTSLWVKSZRG-ICCQKZDASA-N.png

Molecular Formula: C25H25ClFN5O4
Molecular Weight: 516.973 g/mol

Yinlitinib methoxy-d3

CAS 1637254-71-7

C25 H22 Cl D3 F N5 O4
2-Butenamide, N-[4-[(3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)amino]-7-(methoxy-d3)-6-quinazolinyl]-4-[(4aR,7aS)-hexahydro-6H-1,4-dioxino[2,3-c]pyrrol-6-yl]-, (2E)-rel
CN 104119350
YINLITINIB MALEATE methoxy-d3
CAS ?
EMAIL ME amcrasto@gmail.com

MAY BE DRUG COMD

Patent ID

Patent Title

Submitted Date

Granted Date

US9556191 AMINOQUINAZOLINE DERIVATIVES AND THEIR SALTS AND METHODS OF USE THEREOF
2014-04-28
2016-02-11

In March 2015, an IND was filed in China ; in February 2016, approval to conduct a clinical trial was obtained

Guangdong Hec Pharmaceutical is investigating an oral capsule formulation of yinlitinib maleate (DNT-04110), an irreversible pan-ErbB inhibitor, for the potential treatment of solid tumors . In March 2015, an IND was filed in China ; in February 2016, approval to conduct a clinical trial was obtained . In December 2016, a phase I trial was planned in China

Protein kinases (PKs) represent a large family of proteins, which play an important role in the regulation of a wide variety of cellular processes and maintaining control over cellular functions. There are two classes of protein kinases (PKs): the protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) and the serine-threonine kinases (STKs). The protein tyrosine kinase is an enzyme that catalytically transfers the phosphate group from ATP to the tyrosine residue located at the protein substrate, and has a play in the normal cell growth. Many growth factor receptor proteins operate via the tyrosine kinase, and influence the conduction of signal passage and further regulate the cell growth by this process. However, in some circumstances, these receptors become abnormal due to either mutation or overexpression, which cause the uncontrolled cell multiplication, cause the tumor growth, and finally initiate the well-known disease, i.e., cancer. The growth factor receptor protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor, via the inhibition of the above phosphorylation process, may treat cancers and other diseases characterized by the uncontrolled or abnormal cell growth.

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a kind of receptor tyrosine kinases, is a multifunction glycoprotein that is widely distributed on the cell membranes of the tissues of the human body, and is an oncogene analog of avian erythroblastic leukemia viral (v-erb-b). Human EGFR/HER1/ErbB-1 and HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor-2)/ErbB-2/Teu/p185, HER3/ErbB-3, HER4/ErbB-4 and the like are grouped into the HER/ErbB family, and belong to protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs). They are single polypeptide chains, and each is encoded respectively by genes located on different chromosomes. EGFR and the like are expressed in the epithelia-derived tumors such as squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck, mammary cancer, rectal cancer, ovarian cancer, prostate carcinoma, non-small cell lung cancer, and the like, which are associated with cell proliferation, metastasis, and the like. Pan-HER tyrosine kinase inhibitor, via the competitive binding to the kinase catalytic sites in the intracellular region against ATP, blocks the autophosphorylation of intramolecular tyrosine, blocks the tyrosine kinase activation, inhibits HER-2 family activation, and therefore inhibits cell cycle progression, accelerates cell apoptosis, and exerts the therapeutic action.

EGFR, after binding to the ligand, forms a dimer with a subgroup of HER family, and then combines with ATP to activate the tyrosine kinase activity of the EGFR itself. Therefore, the autophosphorylation occurs in several tyrosine sites of the intracellular kinase region. Pan-HER tyrosine kinase inhibitor, via simultaneity acting on EGFR and HER2/4, inhibits the activation of HER family, and plays a good role in the tumor growth inhibition.

It is indicated in the study that Pan-HER tyrosine kinase irreversible inhibitor has an inhibition effect on HER2/4, besides it effectively inhibits EGFR. The pharmaceutical drugs of this kind, having an irreversible inhibition to both of HER/ErbB families, not only increase the drug activity, but also reduce the drug resistance, and have a substantial inhibition effect on H1975 cell lines which are resistant to erlotinib.

The pharmaceutical drugs that are now commercially available include selective EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinb (IRESSA®, ZD1839), erlotinib (TARCEVA®, OSI-774), double EGFR/HER2 inhibitor Lapatinib (TYKERB®, GW572016), and the like. These three drugs are all reversible EGF receptor tyrosine phosphorylation kinase inhibitor. It has been found in the study that they have good therapeutic response to some tumors initially. However, several months after the treatment, the disease progression appears again and therefore a natural or secondary drug resistance forms. For example, about half of the patients administered with gefitinib or erlotinib develop resistance to gefitinib or erlotinib, which can not lead to the desired therapeutic effect. And it has been indicated by study that the development of drug resistance to selective EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor relates to mutations in EGFR.

The mutations of EGFR gene mostly located in the tyrosing kinase coding domain (TK, exons 18-21) are mainly deletion mutation in exon 19 and point mutation in exon 21, both of which are drug-sensitive, and few are point mutation in exon 18 and insertion mutation in exon 20. T790M mutation recognized as one of the mechanism of drug resistance is a point mutation in exon 20 of EGFR. The presence of a second-site EGFR mutation leads to the substitution of methionine for threonine at position 790 (T790M) and changes in the structure of EGFR, which hinder the binding of EGFR inhibitors to EGFR or greatly increase the affinity between EGFR and ATP, so that ATP affinity back to the level of wild-type EGFR, thus resulting in drug resistance. Further studies shows that the pre-treatment tumor samples with mutations of EGFR contain T790M mutation, which indicates that T790M mutation is not just associated with drug resistance and it may have the carcinogenic potential itself.

Irreversible inhibitor can bind to EGFR tyrosine kinase by covalent bond. Thus, the drugs can act on the entire link of epidermal growth factor signal transduction pathway, and improve efficiency of drug blocking. Many clinical studies show that some irreversible inhibitors in current development can against T790M mutation, and overcome the drug resistance caused by T790M. Meanwhile, listed drug Afatinib (BIBW 2992) and some irreversible inhibitors in clinical development (e.g., Dacomitinib, PF00299804, etc.), can inhibit multiple members of EGFR receptor family, especially to the role of EGFR and HER-2, possibly by blocking collaborative signal pathway activated by homodimer and heterodimer to enhance inhibitory effect (Oncologist, 2009, 14 (11): 1116-1130).

Upon developing the drug having an excellent antineoplastic effect, being able to reduce the drug resistance and having a good tolerance, the present inventors discover a quinazoline derivatives as tyrosine kinase inhibitors having a Pan-HER irreversible inhibition function.

PATENT

https://patents.google.com/patent/US9556191

EXAMPLES Example 1 (E)-N-(4-((3-Chloro-4-fluorophenyl)amino)-7-methoxyquinazolin-6-yl)-4-((4aR,7aS)-tetrahydro-2H-[1,4]dioxin[2,3-c]pyrrol-6(3H)-yl)but-2-enamide

Figure US09556191-20170131-C00087

Step 1) N-(3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)-7-methoxy-6-nitroquinazolin-4-amine

A solution of N-(3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)-7-fluoro-6-nitroquinazolin-4-amine (10.00 g, 29.8 mmol) and sodium methanolate (2.80 g, 51.8 mmol) in methanol (150 mL) was heated to 70° C. and stirred for 4.0 hours. The reaction mixture was then cooled to 25° C. The resulting mixture was poured into ice water (500 mL), and a yellow solid precipitated out. The mixture was filtered and the filter cake was dried under vacuum to give the title compound as a yellow solid (9.00 g, 86.9%). The compound was characterized by the following spectroscopic data: MS (ESI, pos.ion) m/z: 349.1 [M+1]+; and 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ: 11.60 (s, 1H), 9.55 (s, 1H), 8.08 (dd, J1=6.6 Hz, J2=2.4 Hz, 1H), 7.90 (s, 1H), 7.76-7.71 (m, 1H), 7.58 (s, 1H), 7.55 (t, J=9.4 Hz, 1H), 4.10 (s, 3H).

Step 2) N4-(3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)-7-methoxyquinazoline-4,6-diamine

To a solution of N-(3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)-7-methoxy-6-nitroquinazolin-4-amine (9.00 g, 25.9 mmol) in ethanol (100 mL) were added iron powder (14.50 g, 259.0 mmol) and concentrated hydrochloric acid (3.0 mL) at 25° C. The reaction mixture was heated to 90° C. and stirred for 3.0 hours. Then heating was stopped, and the resulting mixture was adjusted to pH 11 with aqueous sodium hydroxide solution (1 M) while the mixture was still at a temperature of about 60±10° C. The pH-adjusted resulting mixture was then immediately filtered hot to remove iron mud. The filtrate was concentrated in vacuo. The residue was triturated with ethanol (50 mL) and filtered. The filter cake was dried under vacuum to give the title compound as a yellow solid (6.00 g, 73.0%). The compound was characterized by the following spectroscopic data: MS (ESI, pos.ion) m/z: 319.1 [M+1]+.

Step 3) (E)-4-bromobut-2-enoyl chloride

To a solution of 4-bromocrotonic acid (2.47 g, 15.0 mmol) and DMF (0.05 mL) in DCM (60 mL) was added oxalyl chloride (4.19 g, 33.0 mmol) dropwise at 0° C. The reaction mixture was stirred at 0° C. for 3.0 hours, and then concentrated in vacuo. The residue was stored in a refrigerator for the next step.

Step 4) (E)-4-bromo-N-(4-((3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)amino)-7-methoxyquinazolin-6-yl)but-2-enamide

To a solution of N4-(3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)-7-methoxyquinazoline-4,6-diamine (4.00 g, 12.6 mmol) and TEA (6.0 mL, 37.8 mmol) in anhydrous tetrahydrofuran (80 mL) was added (E)-4-bromobut-2-enoyl chloride (2.74 g, 15.1 mmol) slowly at 0° C. The reaction mixture was then heated to 25° C. and stirred for 2.0 hours. The resulting mixture was poured into water (100 mL) and extracted with DCM (50 mL×3). The combined organic phases were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was triturated with DCM (30 mL) and filtered. The filter cake was dried under vacuum to give the title compound as a brownish yellow solid (2.00 g, 34.5%). The compound was characterized by the following spectroscopic data: MS (ESI, pos.ion) m/z: 465.1 [M+1]+.

Step 5) (E)-N-(4-((3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)amino)-7-methoxyquinazolin-6-yl)-4-((4aR,7aS)-tetrahydro-2H-[1,4]dioxin[2,3-c]pyrrol-6(3H)-yl)but-2-enamide

To a solution of (E)-4-bromo-N-(4-((3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)amino)-7-methoxyquinazolin-6-yl)but-2-enamide (0.50 g, 1.1 mmol) and diisopropylethylamine (0.6 mL, 3.2 mmol) in N,N-dimethylacetamide (10 mL) was added (4aR,7aS)-hexahydro-2H-[1,4]dioxino[2,3-c]pyrrole (0.42 g, 3.2 mmol) at 25° C., and the reaction mixture was then stirred at 25° C. for 5.0 hours. The resulting mixture was poured into water (70 mL) and extracted with DCM (40 mL×3). The combined organic phases were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified by silica gel column chromatography (CH2Cl2/MeOH (v/v)=20/1) to give the title compound as a brownish yellow solid (0.30 g, 54.5%). The compound was characterized by the following spectroscopic data: MS (ESI, pos.ion) m/z: 514.1 [M+1]+; and 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ: 10.60 (s, 1H), 9.35 (s, 1H), 8.90 (s, 1H), 8.08 (dd, J1=6.6 Hz, J2=2.4 Hz, 1H), 7.76-7.70 (m, 1H), 7.58 (s, 1H), 7.55 (t, J=8.4 Hz, 1H), 6.75-6.65 (m, 1H), 6.63 (d, J=16.2 Hz, 1H), 4.10 (s, 3H), 3.78 (t, J=6.2 Hz, 4H), 3.26 (t, J=4.4 Hz, 2H), 3.20 (dd, J1=7.8 Hz, J2=2.6 Hz, 2H), 2.20 (d, J=4.6 Hz, 4H).

PATENT

WO2017067447

DIFFERENT COMPD

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2017067447

claiming novel crystalline polymorphic forms of a similar EGFR, useful for treating cancer. One of these two compounds is probably yinlitinib maleate , an irreversible pan-ErbB inhibitor, being developed by Guangdong Hec Pharmaceutical , another subsidiary of HEC Pharm , for treating solid tumors; in April 2017, yinlitinib maleate was reported to be in preclinical development

Chinese patent CN 103102344 A (publication number) have disclosed the structure of 4- [ (3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl) amino] -7-methoxy-6- [3- [ (1R, 6S) -2, 5-dioxa-8-azabicyclo [4.3.0] nonan-8-yl] propoxy] quinazoline in example 6 of specification, page 57, and the structure is shown as Formula (II) . The compound of Formula (II) has a high inhibition activity against EGFR, and can be used for treating proliferative disorders.

PATENT

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2014177038A1/en

InventorYingjun ZhangBing LiuJinlei LiuJiancun ZhangChangchun Zheng

Original AssigneeSunshine Lake Pharma Co., Ltd.

PATENT

CN104119350B

Inventor张英俊刘兵刘金雷张健存郑常春 Original Assignee广东东阳光药业有限公司

https://patents.google.com/patent/CN104119350B/en

Figure CN104119350BD00731

Figure CN104119350BD00741

Figure CN104119350BD00742

Figure CN104119350BD00751

Example 1

[0442] (E) -N- (4- ((3- chloro-4-fluorophenyl) amino) -7-methoxy-quinazolin-6-yl) -4- ((4aR, 7aS) – tetrahydro _2H_ [1,4] dioxin burning and [2,3_c] R ratio slightly -6 (3H) – yl) butyric acid amide dilute _2_

[0443]

Figure CN104119350BD00752

[0444] Synthesis Step Shu: N- (3- chloro-4-fluorophenyl) -7-methoxy-6-nitro quinazolin-4-amine

[0445] The N- (3- chloro-4-fluorophenyl) -7-fluoro-6-nitro-quinazolin-4-amine (10 • 0g, 29 • 8mmol) and sodium methoxide (2.80g, 51.8 mmol) was dissolved in methanol (150 mL), the reaction was warmed to 70 ° C 4. Oh. Was cooled to 25 ° C, the reaction mixture was poured into ice-water (500 mL), the precipitated yellow solid was filtered, the filter cake was dried in vacuo to give a yellow solid 9.00g, yield 86.9%.

[0446] MS (. ESI, pos ion) m / z: 349.1 [M + l] +;

[0447] bandit R (400MHz, DMS〇-d6) S: 11 • 60 (s, 1H), 9 • 55 (s, 1H), 8 • 08 (dd, Ji = 6 • 6Hz, J2 = 2.4Hz, lH), 7.90 (s, lH), 7.76-7.71 (m, lH), 7.58 (s, lH), 7.55 (t, J = 9.4Hz, 1H), 4.10 (s, 3H) square

[0448] Synthesis Step 2: n4- (3- chloro-4-fluorophenyl) -7-methoxy-quinazolin-4,6-diamine

[0449] The N- (3- chloro-4-fluorophenyl) -7-methoxy-6-nitro quinazolin-4-amine (9.00g, 25.9mmol) was dissolved in ethanol (100 mL), the was added reduced iron powder (14.5g, 259. Ommol) and concentrated hydrochloric acid (3mL) at 25 ° C, the reaction was warmed to 90 ° C 3.Oh. With 1M aqueous sodium hydroxide solution adjusted to pH 11, filtered hot to remove iron sludge, the mother liquor was concentrated and the residue was purified slurried with ethanol (50 mL), filtered, and the filter cake was dried in vacuo to a yellow solid 6.00g, yield 73.0%.

[0450] MS (ESI, pos ion.) M / z: 319.1 [M + l] + square

[0451] Synthesis Step 3: (E) -4- bromo-but-2-enoyl chloride

The [0452] square ° C Oxalyl chloride (4.19g, 33. Ommol) was slowly added dropwise to a solution containing 4-bromo crotonic acid (2.47g, 15. Ommol) and DMF (0.05mL) in dichloromethane (60 mL) solution of in 3. Oh reaction was stirred at 0 ° C. The reaction solution was concentrated, the residue was stored in a refrigerator until use.

[0453] Synthesis Step 4: (E) -4- bromo–N- (4- ((3- chloro-4-fluorophenyl) amino) -7-methoxy-quinazolin-6-yl) butan – 2_ dilute amide

[0454] The N4- (3- chloro-4-fluorophenyl) -7-methoxy-quinazolin-4,6-diamine (4.00g, 12.6mmol) and triethylamine (6.0mL, 37.8mmol ) was dissolved in anhydrous tetrahydro-furan in Misaki (80 mL), cooled to 0 ° C, was slowly added (E) -4- bromo-2-dilute acid chloride (2.748,15.12 dirty 〇1), warmed to 25 ° ( : 2.011 reaction the reaction mixture was poured into water (1001 ^) and extracted with methylene chloride (50mL X 3), the organic phases were combined, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate filtered, concentrated and the residue with dichloromethane (30 mL). beating purified filtered, the filter cake was dried in vacuo 2.00g tan solid, yield 34.5%.

[0455] MS (ESI, pos ion.) M / z: 465.1 [M + l] + square

[0456] Synthesis Step 5: (E) -N- (4 _ ((3- chloro-4-fluorophenyl) amino) -7_ methoxy-quinazolin-6-yl) _4_ ((4aR, 7aS) – tetrahydro -2H- [1,4] dioxin burning and [2,3_c] P ratio slightly -6 (3H) – yl) butyric acid amide dilute _2_

[0457] The (E) -4- bromo–N- (4- ((3- chloro-4-fluorophenyl) amino) -7-methoxy-quinazolin-6-yl) but-2-ene amide (0.50g, 1.08mmol) and diisopropylethylamine (0.6mL, 3.24mmol) was dissolved in dimethylacetamide (10 mL) was added at 25 ° C (4aR, 7aS) – hexahydro–2H- [1,4] dioxane, and [2,3-c] pyrrole (0 • 42g, 3 • 24mmol) 5. Oh reaction was continued under stirring, 25 ° C. The reaction mixture was poured into water (70 mL) and extracted with methylene chloride (40mL X 3), the organic phases were combined, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate. Filtered, concentrated and the residue purified by column chromatography (CH2Cl2 / MeOH (V / v) = 20/1), to give 0.30g tan solid, yield 54.5%.

[0458] MS (. ESI, pos ion) m / z: 514.1 [M + l] +;

[0459] XH NMR (400MHz, DMS0-d6) 8: 10.60 (s, lH), 9.35 (s, lH), 8.90 (s, lH), 8.08 (dd, Ji = 6.6Hz, J2 = 2.4Hz, 1H ), 7.76-7.70 (m, 1H), 7.58 (s, 1H), 7.55 (t, J = 8.4Hz, 1H), 6.75-6.65 (m, lH), 6.63 (d, J = 16.2Hz, lH) , 4.10 (s, 3H), 3.78 (t, J = 6.2Hz, 4H), 3.26 (t, J = 4.4Hz, 2H), 3.20 (dd, Ji = 7.8Hz, J2 = 2.6Hz, 2H), 2.20 (d, J = 4.6Hz, 4H)

PATENT

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2018095353&recNum=1&maxRec=&office=&prevFilter=&sortOption=&queryString=&tab=FullText

Patent applications WO 2014/177038 and CN 104119350 discloses aminoquinazoline tyrosine kinase inhibitors with irreversible inhibition effect on Pan-HER, wherein the compound (E) -N- (4- (3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl) amino) -7- (methyloxy-D3) -quinazolin-6-yl) -4- ( (4aR, 7aS) -tetra hydro-2H- [l, 4] dioxino [2, 3-c] pyrrole-6 (3H) -yl) butyl-2-enamide (i.e. compound (I) ) has an excellent antitumor effect. It can reduce the generation of drug resistance and also have good tolerance.

[0011]
EXPERIMENTAL PART
[0184]
The specific synthetic method for compound (I) (E) -N- (4- (3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl) amino) -7- (methyloxy-D3) -quinazolin-6-yl) -4- ( (4aR, 7aS) -tetra hydro-2H- [l, 4] dioxino [2, 3-c] pyrrole-6 (3H) -yl) butyl-2-enamide refers to Example 20 of Patent CN 104119350 A (Application Publication No. ) .
[0185]
EXAMPLES
[0186]
Example 1
[0187]
(E) -N- (4- (3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl) amino) -7- (methyloxy-D3) -quinazolin-6-yl) -4- ( (4aR, 7aS) -t etrahydro-2H- [l, 4] dioxino [2, 3-c] pyrrole-6 (3H) -yl) butyl-2-enamide dimesylate having crystalline form A
[0188]
1. Preparation of dimesylatesulfonate having crystalline form A
[0189]
(E) -N- (4- (3-Chloro-4-fluorophenyl) amino) -7- (methyloxy-D3) -quinazolin-6-yl) -4- ( (4a R, 7aS) -tetrahydro-2H- [l, 4] dioxino [2, 3-c] pyrrole-6 (3H) -yl) butyl-2-enamide (1.032 g, 2.0 mmol) was added to acetone (80 mL) , the mixture was heated to reflux for 30 minutes and filtered. The filtrate was refluxed, and mesylate (0.481 g, 5.0 mmol) was added. The resulting mixture was refluxed overnight. A part of solvent was evaporated under reduced pressure, then the temperature of the residue was gradually cooled to room temperature and maintained at this temperature overnight. The resulting mixture was filtered with suction. The filter cake was washed with acetone and dried at 50 ℃ for 8 hours in vacuo to give a white solid (1.15 g, 81.3%) .
PATENT

Example 6

[00221] N-(3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)-7-methoxy-6-(3-(tetrahvdro-2H-n,41dioxinor2,3-clpyrrol-6(3H -vn propoxy quinazolin-4-amine

Figure imgf000074_0001

[00222] Step Ubenzyl 3,4-dihvdroxypyrrolidine-l -carboxylate

Figure imgf000074_0002

To a solution of N- carbobenzoxy-3-pyrroline ( 1.00 g, 4.92 mmol, 1.0 eq) in acetone (20 mL) was added NMO ( 1.0 g, 7.38 mmol, 1.5 eq) followed by Os04 (cat. 10 mg in 1 mL ‘PrOH). The mixture was stirred for 3 h. To this, saturated NaHS03aqueous solution (5 mL) was added, and the mixture was stirred for another 0.5 h. The organic phase was separated from the mixture, and the water phase was extracted with EtOAc (20 mL x 3). The combined organic phases were dried over anhydrous Na2S04 and filtered. The filtrate was concentrated in vacuo and the residue was purified by a silica gel column chromatography (EtOAc) to give the compound as colorless oil (1.16 g, 100 %).

[00223] Step 2) benzyl tetrahvdro-2H-n.41dioxino[2.3-c1pyrrole-6(3H)- carboxylate

Figure imgf000074_0003

A mixture of NaOH aqueous solution (35 w/w %, 21 mL, aq.), C1CH2CH2C1 (21 mL), benzyl 3,4-dihydroxypyrrolidine-l -carboxylate (1.16 g, 4.9 mmol, 1.0 eq) and TBAB (0.31 g, 0.98 mmol, 0.2 eq) was heated at 55 °C for 48h in a round-bottom flask. The reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature and poured into water (50 mL), extracted with EtOAc (50 mL). The organic phase was separated from the mixture, and the water phase was extracted with EtOAc (20 mLx3). The combined organic phases were dried over anhydrous Na2S04 and filtered. The filtrate was concentrated in vacuo and the residue was purified with a silica gel column chromatography ( 1 : 1 (v/v) PE/EtOAc) to give the product as colorless oil (0.50 g, 39 %).

[00224] Step 3) hexahvdro-2H-n.41dioxinor2.3-clpyrrole

Figure imgf000074_0004

To a solution of benzyl tetrahydro-2H-[l ,4]dioxino[2,3-c] pyrrole-6(3H)-carboxylate (0.46 g, 1 .94 mmol) in MeOH (20 mL) was added two drops of HC02H followed by 20 % Pd(OH)2 (50mg). The reaction mixture was stirred under H2 for 4h at rt and was filtered. The filtrate was concentrated in vacuo to give the crude product, which was used for the next step without further purification.

[00225] Step 4) N-(3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)-7-methoxy-6-(3-(tetrahvdro-2H-n,41 dioxinor2,3-clpyrrol-6(3H) -yl)propoxy)quinazolin-4-amine

Figure imgf000075_0001

A mixture of hexahydro-2H-[ l ,4]dioxino[2,3-c]pyrrole (1.0 eq), N-(3-chloro-4-fluorophenyI)-6- (3-chloropropoxy)-7-methoxyquinazolin-4-amine (710 mg, 1.8 mmol, 0.95 eq), 2C03 (524 mg, 3.8 mmol, 2.0 eq) and KI (16 mg, 0.095 mmol, 0.05 eq) in DMF (12 mL) was heated at 60 °C for 3 h and cooled to room temperature. The reaction mixture was quenched with water (10 mL) and diluted with EtOAc (20 mL). The organic phase was separated from the mixture, and the water phase was extracted with EtOAc (20 mLx3). The combined organic phases were dried over anhydrous Na2S04 and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified by a silica gel column chromatography (20: 1 (v/v) CH2Cl2/CH3OH) to give the crude product, which was recrystallized from CH2C12/PE to afford the title compound as a grayish-white solid (230 mg, 25.00 %), HPLC:99.1 1 % . The compound was characterized by the following spectroscopic data: MS (ESI, pos. ion) m/z: 489.9 (M+1 );’H NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) δ: 2.09 (2H, m), 2.74 (4H, m), 2.99 (2H, dd, = 3.3, 10.4 Hz), 3.56 (2H, m), 3.80 (2H, m), 3.99 (3H, s), 4.12 (2H, t, J = 3.5 Hz), 4.22 (2H, t, J = 6.8 Hz), 7.14 (1 H, t, J = 8.8 Hz), 7.23 (1 H, s), 7.29 ( 1 H, d, J = 15.8 Hz), 7.60 (1 H, m), 7.89 (1 H, dd, J = 2.5, 6.5 Hz), 8.63 (1 H, s) ppm.

PATENT

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2014177038&recNum=1&maxRec=&office=&prevFilter=&sortOption=&queryString=&tab=PCTDescription

Example 1

[00192] (^-N 4 (3-Chloro -fluorophenyl)amino)-7-methoxyquinazolin-6-yl)-4 (4aR,7a5)-tetrahydro-2H-[ l,4]dioxino[2,3-c]pyrrol-6(3H)

[00193] Step 1) N-(3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)-7-methoxy-6-nitroquinazolin-4-amine

A solution of N-(3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)-7-fluoro-6-nitroquinazolin-4-amine (10.00 g, 29.8 mmol) and sodium methanolate (2.80 g, 51.8 mmol) in methanol (150 mL) was heated to 70 °C and stirred for 4.0 hours. The reaction mixture was then cooled to 25 °C. The resulting mixture was poured into ice water (500 mL), and a yellow solid precipitated out. The mixture was filtered and the filter cake was dried under vacuum to give the title compound as a yellow solid (9.00 g, 86.9%). The compound was characterized by the following spectroscopic data: MS (ESI, pos.ion) m/z : 349.1 [M+l]+; and ‘H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-<&) δ: 11.60 (s, 1H), 9.55 (s, 1H), 8.08 (dd, Jx = 6.6 Hz, J2 = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 7.90 (s, 1H), 7.76-7.71 (m, 1H), 7.58 (s, 1H), 7.55 (t, J = 9.4 Hz, lH ), 4.10 (s, 3H).

[00194] Step 2) N4-(3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)-7-methoxyquinazoline-4,6-diamine

To a solution of N-(3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)-7-methoxy-6-nitroquinazolin-4-amine (9.00 g, 25.9 mmol) in ethanol (100 mL) were added iron powder (14.50 g, 259.0 mmol) and concentrated hydrochloric acid (3.0 mL) at 25 °C. The reaction mixture was heated to 90 °C and stirred for 3.0 hours. Then heating was stopped, and the resulting mixture was adjusted to pH 11 with aqueous sodium hydroxide solution (1 M) while the mixture was still at a temperature of about 60 ± 10 °C. The pH-adjusted resulting mixture was then immediately filtered hot to remove iron mud. The filtrate was concentrated in vacuo. The residue was triturated with ethanol (50 mL) and filtered. The filter cake was dried under vacuum to give the title compound as a yellow solid (6.00 g, 73.0%). The compound was characterized by the following spectroscopic data: MS (ESI, pos.ion) m/z : 319.1 [M+l]+.

[00195] Step 3) (£)-4-bromobut-2-enoyl chloride

To a solution of 4-bromocrotonic acid (2.47 g, 15.0 mmol) and DMF (0.05 mL) in DCM (60 mL) was added oxalyl chloride (4.19 g, 33.0 mmol) dropwise at 0 °C. The reaction mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 3.0 hours, and then concentrated in vacuo. The residue was stored in a refrigerator for the next step.

[00196] Step 4) (ii)-4-bromo-N-(4-((3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)amino)-7-methoxyquinazolin-6-yl)but-2-enamide

To a solution of N4-(3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)-7-methoxyquinazoline-4,6-diamine (4.00 g, 12.6 mmol) and TEA (6.0 mL, 37.8 mmol) in anhydrous tetrahydrofuran (80 mL) was added (E)-4-bromobut-2-enoyl chloride (2.74 g, 15.1 mmol) slowly at 0 °C. The reaction mixture was then heated to 25 °C and stirred for 2.0 hours. The resulting mixture was poured into water (100 mL) and extracted with DCM (50 mL x 3). The combined organic phases were dried over anhydrous NaaSOzi, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was triturated with DCM (30 mL) and filtered. The filter cake was dried under vacuum to give the title compound as a brownish yellow solid (2.00 g, 34.5%). The compound was characterized by the following spectroscopic data: MS (ESI, pos.ion) m/z : 465.1 [M+l]+.

[00197] Step 5) (^-N 4 (3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)amino)-7-methoxyquinazolin-6-yl) (4aR,7aS)-tetrahydro-2H-[l,4]dioxino[2,3-c]pyrrol-6(3H)-yl)but-2-enamide

To a solution of (iT)-4-bromo-N-(4-((3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)amino)-7-methoxyquinazolin-6-yl)but-2-enamide (0.50 g, 1.1 mmol) and diisopropylethylamine (0.6 mL, 3.2 mmol) in N^V-dimethylacetamide (10 mL) was added (4aR,7aS)-hexahydro-2H-[l,4]dioxino[2,3-c]pyrrole (0.42 g, 3.2 mmol) at 25 °C, and the reaction mixture was then stirred at 25 °C for 5.0 hours. The resulting mixture was poured into water (70 mL) and extracted with DCM (40 mL x 3). The combined organic phases were dried over anhydrous Na2S04, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified by silica gel column chromatography (CH2Cl2 MeOH (v/v) = 20/1) to give the title compound as a brownish yellow solid (0.30 g, 54.5%). The compound was characterized by the following spectroscopic data: MS (ESI, pos.ion) m/z : 514.1 [M+l]+; and lH NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-t/tf) δ: 10.60 (s, 1H), 9.35 (s, 1H) , 8.90 (s, 1H), 8.08 (dd, Jx = 6.6 Hz, J2 = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 7.76-7.70 (m, 1H), 7.58 (s, 1H), 7.55 (t, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H ), 6.75-6.65 (m, 1H), 6.63(d, J = 16.2 Hz, 1H), 4.10 (s, 3H), 3.78 (t, J= 6.2 Hz, 4H), 3.26 (t, J = 4.4 Hz, 2H), 3.20 (dd, Jx = 7.8 Hz, J2 = 2.6 Hz, 2H), 2.20 (d, J= 4.6 Hz, 4H).

////////////DNT-04110,  yinlitinib maleate , Guangdong Hec Pharmaceutical, PHASE 1, CHINA, yinlitinib

Fc1ccc(cc1Cl)Nc2ncnc3cc(OC)c(cc23)NC(=O)/C=C/CN4C[C@H]5OCCO[C@H]5C4

Fc1ccc(cc1Cl)Nc2ncnc3cc(OC([2H])([2H])[2H])c(cc23)NC(=O)/C=C/CN4C[C@H]5OCCO[C@H]5C4

SIMILAR COMPDS

1
Canertinib [INN:BAN]
267243-28-7
2D chemical structure of 267243-28-7
MW: 485.9445  –
2
Canertinib dihydrochloride [USAN]
289499-45-2
2D chemical structure of 289499-45-2
MW: 558.8663
3
Dacomitinib [USAN:INN]
1110813-31-4
2D chemical structure of 1110813-31-4
MW: 469.9455
4
439081-18-2
2D chemical structure of 439081-18-2
MW: 485.9445
5
Afatinib [USAN:INN]
850140-72-6
2D chemical structure of 850140-72-6
MW: 485.9445

Doxepin, ドキセピン


Doxepin2DACS.svgDB01142.png

Doxepin

1668-19-5 
1229-29-4 (hydrochloride), 4698-39-9 ((E)-isomer); 25127-31-5 ((Z)-isomer)

Launched – 1964

1-Propanamine, 3-dibenz(b,e)oxepin-11(6H)-ylidene-N,N-dimethyl-
1-Propanamine, 3-dibenz[b,e]oxepin-11(6H)-ylidene-N,N-dimethyl-, (3Z)-
3-(Dibenzo[b,e]oxepin-11(6H)-ylidene)-N,N-dimethylpropan-1-amine
N,N-Dimethyldibenz[b,e]oxepin-D11(6H),g-propylamine
(3Z)-3-(Dibenzo[b,e]oxepin-11(6H)-ylidene)-N,N-dimethylpropan-1-amine
Doxepin Hydrochloride 3U9A0FE9N5 1229-29-4

NSC-108160
P-3693A
SO-101

Aponal
Quitaxon
Silenor
Sinequan
Sinquan
Xepin
Zonalon

USP

USP32/pub/data/v32270/usp32nf27s0_m28110

N,N-Dimethyldibenz[b,e]oxepin-D11(6H),-propylamine hydrochloride [1229-29-4; 4698-39-9 ((E)-isomer); 25127-31-5 ((Z)-isomer)].

» Doxepin Hydrochloride, an (E) and (Z) geometric isomer mixture, contains the equivalent of not less than 98.0 percent and not more than 102.0 percent of doxepin (C19H21NO·HCl), calculated on the dried basisIt contains not less than 13.6 percent and not more than 18.1 percent of the (Z)-isomer, and not less than 81.4 percent and not more than 88.2 percent of the (E)-isomer.
Title: Doxepin
CAS Registry Number: 1668-19-5
CAS Name: 3-Dibenz[b,e]oxepin-11(6H)-ylidene-N,N-dimethyl-1-propanamine
Additional Names:N,N-dimethyldibenz[b,e]oxepin-D11(6H),g-propylamine; 11-(3-dimethylaminopropylidene)-6,11-dihydrodibenz[b,e]oxepin
Manufacturers’ Codes: P-3693A
Molecular Formula: C19H21NO
Molecular Weight: 279.38
Percent Composition: C 81.68%, H 7.58%, N 5.01%, O 5.73%
Literature References: Prepn of mixture of cis- and trans-isomers: K. Stach, F. Bickelhaupt, Monatsh. Chem.93, 896 (1962); F. Bickelhaupt et al.,ibid.95, 485 (1964); NL6407758; K. Stach, US3438981 (1965, 1969 both to Boehringer Mann.); and separation and activity of isomers: B. M. Bloom, J. R. Tretter, BE641498eidem,US3420851 (1964, 1969 both to Pfizer). Pharmacology: A. Ribbentrop, W. Schaumann, Arzneim.-Forsch.15, 863 (1965). Metabolism in animals: D. C. Hobbs, Biochem. Pharmacol.18, 1941 (1969). Determn in plasma by GC/MS: T. P. Davis et al.,J. Chromatogr.273, 436 (1983); by HPLC: T. Emm, L. J. Lesko, ibid.419,445 (1987). Clinical study in depression: K. Rickels et al.,Arch. Gen. Psychiatry42, 134 (1985). Comparative clinical trial with cimetidine, q.v., in treatment of ulcer: R. K. Shrivastava et al.,Clin. Ther.7, 181 (1985). Review of pharmacology and therapeutic efficacy: R. M. Pinder et al.,Drugs13, 161 (1977).
Properties: Oily liq consisting of a mixture of cis- and trans-isomers. bp0.03 154-157°, bp0.2 260-270°. LD50 in mice, rats (mg/kg): 26, 16 i.v.; 79, 182 i.p.; 135, 147 orally (Ribbentrop, Schaumann).
Boiling point: bp0.03 154-157°; bp0.2 260-270°
Toxicity data: LD50 in mice, rats (mg/kg): 26, 16 i.v.; 79, 182 i.p.; 135, 147 orally (Ribbentrop, Schaumann)
Derivative Type: Hydrochloride
CAS Registry Number: 1229-29-4
Trademarks: Adapin (Lotus); Aponal (Boehringer, Mann.); Curatin (Pfizer); Quitaxon (Boehringer, Mann.); Sinequan (Pfizer)
Molecular Formula: C19H21NO.HCl
Molecular Weight: 315.84
Percent Composition: C 72.25%, H 7.02%, N 4.43%, O 5.07%, Cl 11.22%
Properties: Crystals, mp 184-186°, 188-189°.
Melting point: mp 184-186°, 188-189°
Derivative Type: Maleate
Properties: Crystals, mp 161-164°, 168-169°.
Melting point: mp 161-164°, 168-169°
Derivative Type:trans-Form hydrochloride
CAS Registry Number: 3607-18-9
Properties: mp 192-193°.
Melting point: mp 192-193°
Derivative Type:cis-Form hydrochloride
CAS Registry Number: 25127-31-5
Additional Names: Cidoxepin hydrochloride
Manufacturers’ Codes: P-4599
Properties: Crystals, mp 209-210.5°.
Melting point: mp 209-210.5°
Therap-Cat: Antidepressant.
Therap-Cat-Vet: Antipruritic.
Keywords: Antidepressant; Tricyclics.
US FDA
NDA 22-036 Silenor (doxepin HCl) Tablets Somaxon Pharmaceuticals, Inc
Introduction: Doxepin Hydrochloride has been marketed by Pfizer since 1969 for the treatment of depression, anxiety, and psychotic depressive disorders. It is available, under the tradename Sinequan®, as 10-, 25-, 50-, 75-, 100-, and 150 mg capsules and 10 mg/mL oral concentrate. In the current NDA, Somaxon proposes to market doxepin, under the tradename Silenor™, for treatment of insomnia. The product will be available as 1-, 3-, and 6 mg tablets. Silenor Tablets will be packaged in 30-, 100- and 500-count HDPE bottles, 4-count blister packs (physician sample), and 30-count blister packs.
Drug Substance: The active ingredient, Doxepin Hydrochloride, USP, [chemical name: 3- dibenz[b,e]oxepin- 11(6H)ylidene-N,N-dimethyl-1-propanamine hydrochloride] is a member of the tricyclic class of antidepressants. It is a well characterized small molecule with molecular formula C19H21O•HCl and molecular weight 315.84. Doxepin hydrochloride is readily soluble in water. The active moiety, doxepin, exists as an approximately mixture of E- and Zisomers. The relative amounts of the two geometric isomers are controlled through drug substance specification. The drug substance CMC information is referenced to DMF . The DMF was reviewed and found to be inadequate to support this NDA. Subsequently, the DMF holder provided adequate responses to the c

DESCRIPTION

SINEQUAN® (doxepin hydrochloride) is one of a class of psychotherapeutic agents known as dibenzoxepin tricyclic compounds. The molecular formula of the compound is C19H21NO•HCl having a molecular weight of 316. It is a white crystalline solid readily soluble in water, lower alcohols and chloroform.

Inert ingredients for the capsule formulations are: hard gelatin capsules (which may contain Blue 1, Red 3, Red 40, Yellow 10, and other inert ingredients); magnesium stearate; sodium lauryl sulfate; starch.

Inert ingredients for the oral concentrate formulation are: glycerin; methylparaben; peppermint oil; propylparaben; water.

Chemistry

SINEQUAN (doxepin HCl) is a dibenzoxepin derivative and is the first of a family of tricyclic psychotherapeutic agents. Specifically, it is an isomeric mixture of: 1-Propanamine, 3-dibenz[b,e]oxepin-11(6H)ylidene-N,N-dimethyl-, hydrochloride.

SINEQUAN® (doxepin HCl) Structural Formula Illustration

For Consumers

WHAT ARE THE POSSIBLE SIDE EFFECTS OF DOXEPIN (SINEQUAN) (SINEQUAN)?

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Report any new or worsening symptoms to your doctor, such as: mood or behavior changes, anxiety, panic attacks, trouble sleeping, or if you feel impulsive, irritable, agitated, hostile, aggressive, restless, hyperactive (mentally or physically), more depressed, or have thoughts about suicide or hurting yourself.

Synthesis Reference

Luigi Schioppi, Brian Talmadge Dorsey, Michael Skinner, John Carter, Robert Mansbach, Philip Jochelson, Roberta L. Rogowski, Cara Casseday, Meredith Perry, Bryan Knox, “LOW-DOSE DOXEPIN FORMULATIONS AND METHODS OF MAKING AND USING THE SAME.” U.S. Patent US20090074862, issued March 19, 2009.

US20090074862

File:Doxepin synthesis.png

DOI: 10.1007/BF00904459

DOI: 10.1007/BF00901313 US 3420851

DE 1232161

SYN 2

Synth Commun 1989, 19(19): 3349, US 3438981

 Doxepin hydrochloride pk_prod_list.xml_prod_list_card_pr?p_tsearch=A&p_id=91437

Condensation of dibenzo-oxepinone (I) with 3-(dimethylamino)propylmagnesium chloride (II), followed by a dehydration of the resultant tertiary alcohol with hot HCl gives the target 3-(dimethylamino)propylidene derivative.

SYN 3

 Doxepin hydrochloride pk_prod_list.xml_prod_list_card_pr?p_tsearch=A&p_id=91437

Chlorination of 2-(phenoxymethyl)benzoic acid (I) with SOCl2 at 50 °C gives 2-(phenoxymethyl)benzoyl chloride (II), which undergoes cyclization in the presence of FeCl3 in toluene to furnish dibenzo[b,e]oxepin-11-one (III)

Grignard reaction of intermediate (III) with tert-butyl 3-chloropropyl ether (IV) using Mg  in refluxing THF or Et2O  provides 11-(3-tert-butoxypropyl)-6,11-dihydrodibenzo[b,e]oxepin-11-ol (V), which upon elimination by means of HCl  in refluxing EtOH  affords alkene (VI).

Treatment of tert-butyl ether (VI) with SOCl2 in refluxing  toluene gives 11-(3-chloropropylidene)-6,11-dihydrodibenzo[b,e]oxepine (VII), which is then coupled with dimethylamine (VIII)  in the presence of Ni(OAc)2, PPh3 and K2CO3 in DMF  or in EtOH at 100 °C  to furnish doxepin (VII) .

Finally, treatment of tertiary amine (VII) with HCl at 140 °C yields the target doxepin hydrochloride .

US 2014309437, CN 102924424

Doxepin is a dibenzoxepin-derivative tricyclic antidepressant (TCA). Structurally similar to phenothiazines, TCAs contain a tricyclic ring system with an alkyl amine substituent on the central ring. In non-depressed individuals, doxepin does not affect mood or arousal, but may cause sedation. In depressed individuals, doxepin exerts a positive effect on mood. TCAs are potent inhibitors of serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake. Tertiary amine TCAs, such as doxepin and amitriptyline, are more potent inhibitors of serotonin reuptake than secondary amine TCAs, such as nortriptyline and desipramine. TCAs also down-regulate cerebral cortical β-adrenergic receptors and sensitize post-synaptic serotonergic receptors with chronic use. The antidepressant effects of TCAs are thought to be due to an overall increase in serotonergic neurotransmission. TCAs also block histamine H1 receptors, α1-adrenergic receptors and muscarinic receptors, which accounts for their sedative, hypotensive and anticholinergic effects (e.g. blurred vision, dry mouth, constipation, urinary retention), respectively. Doxepin has less sedative and anticholinergic effects than amitriptyline. See toxicity section below for a complete listing of side effects. When orally administered, doxepin may be used to treat depression and insomnia. Unlabeled indications of oral doxepin also include chronic and neuropathic pain, and anxiety. Doxepin may also be used as a second line agent to treat idiopathic urticaria. As a topical agent, doxepin may be used relieve itching in patients with certain types of eczema. It may be used for the management of moderate pruritus in adult patients with atopic dermatitis or lichen simplex chronicus

Doxepin is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) used as a pill to treat major depressive disorderanxiety disorders, chronic hives, and for short-term help with trouble remaining asleep after going to bed (a form of insomnia).[8][7][9] As a cream it is used for short term treatment of itchiness due to atopic dermatitis or lichen simplex chronicus.[10]

At doses used to treat depression, doxepin appears to inhibit the reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine and to have antihistamineadrenergic and serotonin receptor antagonistic, and anticholinergic activities; at low doses used to treat insomnia it appears to be selective for the histamine H1 receptor.[11]

It was introduced under the brand names Quitaxon and Aponal by Boehringer, which discovered it, and as Sinequan by Pfizer,[12] and has subsequently been marketed under many other names worldwide.[2]

Medical uses

Doxepin is used as a pill to treat major depressive disorderanxiety disorders, chronic hives, and for short-term help with trouble remaining asleep after going to bed (a form of insomnia).[8][7][9] As a cream it is used for short term treatment of itchiness to due atopic dermatitis or lichen simplex chronicus.[10]

In 2016 the American College of Physicians advised that insomnia be treated first by treating comorbid conditions, then with cognitive behavioral therapy and behavioral changes, and then with drugs; doxepin was among those recommended for short term help maintaining sleep, on the basis of weak evidence.[13][14] The 2017 American Academy of Sleep Medicine recommendations focused on treatment with drugs were similar.[13] A 2015 AHRQ review of treatments for insomnia had similar findings.[15]

A 2010 review found that topical doxepin is useful to treat itchiness.[16]

A 2010 review of treatments for chronic hives found that doxepin had been superseded by better drugs but was still sometimes useful as a second line treatment.[17]

Chemistry

Doxepin is a tricyclic compound, specifically a dibenzoxepin, and possesses three rings fused together with a side chain attached in its chemical structure.[38] It is the only TCA with a dibenzoxepin ring system to have been marketed.[64] Doxepin is a tertiary amine TCA, with its side chaindemethylated metabolite nordoxepin being a secondary amine.[40][41] Other tertiary amine TCAs include amitriptylineimipramineclomipraminedosulepin (dothiepin), and trimipramine.[65][66] Doxepin is a mixture of (E) and (Z) stereoisomers (the latter being known as cidoxepin or cis-doxepin) and is used commercially in a ratio of approximately 85:15.[3][67] The chemical name of doxepin is (E/Z)-3-(dibenzo[b,e]oxepin-11(6H)-ylidene)-N,N-dimethylpropan-1-amine[38][68] and its free base form has a chemical formula of C19H21NO with a molecular weight of 279.376 g/mol.[68] The drug is used commercially almost exclusively as the hydrochloride salt; the free base has been used rarely.[3][69] The CAS Registry Number of the free base is 1668-19-5 and of the hydrochloride is 1229-29-4.[3][69]

Image result for synthesis doxepin

Image result for synthesis doxepin

clip

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0040402007016079

Image result for synthesis doxepin

History

Doxepin was discovered in Germany in 1963 and was introduced in the United States as an antidepressant in 1969.[38] It was subsequently approved at very low doses in the United States for the treatment of insomnia in 2010.[44][69]

Society and culture

Generic names

Doxepin is the generic name of the drug in English and German and its INN and BAN, while doxepin hydrochloride is its USANUSPBANM, and JAN.[3][69][70][2] Its generic name in Spanish and Italian and its DCIT are doxepina, in French and its DCF are doxépine, and in Latin is doxepinum.[2]

The cis or (Z) stereoisomer of doxepin is known as cidoxepin, and this is its INN while cidoxepin hydrochloride is its USAN.[3]

Brand names

It was introduced under the brand names Quitaxon and Aponal by Boehringer and as Sinequan by Pfizer.[12]

As of October 2017, doxepin is marketed under many brand names worldwide: Adnor, Anten, Antidoxe, Colian, Dofu, Doneurin, Dospin, Doxal, Doxepini, Doxesom, Doxiderm, Flake, Gilex, Ichderm, Li Ke Ning, Mareen, Noctaderm, Oxpin, Patoderm, Prudoxin, Qualiquan, Quitaxon, Sagalon, Silenor, Sinepin, Sinequan, Sinequan, Sinquan, and Zonalon.[2] It is also marketed as a combination drug with levomenthol under the brand name Doxure.[2]

Approvals

The oral formulations of doxepin are FDA-approved for the treatment of depression and sleep-maintenance insomnia and its topical formulations are FDA-approved the short-term management for some itchy skin conditions.[71] Whereas in Australia and the United Kingdom, the only licensed indication(s) is/are in the treatment of major depression and pruritus in eczema, respectively.[20][72]

Research

Antihistamine

As of 2017 there was no good evidence that topical doxepin was useful to treat localized neuropathic pain.[73] Cidoxepin is under development by Elorac, Inc. for the treatment of chronic urticaria (hives).[74] As of 2017, it is in phase II clinical trials for this indication.[74] The drug was also under investigation for the treatment of allergic rhinitisatopic dermatitis, and contact dermatitis, but development for these indications was discontinued.[74]

Headache

Doxepin was under development by Winston Pharmaceuticals in an intranasal formulation for the treatment of headache.[75] As of August 2015, it was in phase II clinical trials for this indication.[75]

PATENT

https://patents.google.com/patent/US9486437B2/en

Doxepin:

Doxepin HCl is a tricyclic compound currently approved and available for treatment of depression and anxiety. Doxepin has the following structure:

Figure US09486437-20161108-C00001

For all compounds disclosed herein, unless otherwise indicated, where a carbon-carbon double bond is depicted, both the cis and trans stereoisomers, as well as mixtures thereof are encompassed.

Doxepin belongs to a class of psychotherapeutic agents known as dibenzoxepin tricyclic compounds, and is currently approved and prescribed for use as an antidepressant to treat depression and anxiety. Doxepin has a well-established safety profile, having been prescribed for over 35 years.

Doxepin, unlike most FDA approved products for the treatment of insomnia, is not a Schedule IV controlled substance. U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,502,047 and 6,211,229, the entire contents of which are incorporated herein by reference, describe the use of doxepin for the treatment chronic and non-chronic (e.g., transient/short term) insomnias at dosages far below those used to treat depression.

It is contemplated that doxepin for use in the methods described herein can be obtained from any suitable source or made by any suitable method. As mentioned, doxepin is approved and available in higher doses (75-300 milligrams) for the treatment of depression and anxiety. Doxepin HCl is available commercially and may be obtained in capsule form from a number of sources. Doxepin is marketed under the commercial name SINEQUAN® and in generic form, and can be obtained in the United States generally from pharmacies in capsule form in amounts of 10, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 150 mg dosage, and in liquid concentrate form at 10 mg/mL. Doxepin HCl can be obtained from Plantex Ltd. Chemical Industries (Hakadar Street, Industrial Zone, P.O. Box 160, Netanya 42101, Israel), Sifavitor S.p.A. (Via Livelli 1—Frazione, Mairano, Italy), or from Dipharma S.p.A. (20021 Baranzate di Bollate, Milano, Italy). Also, doxepin is commercially available from PharmacyRx (NZ) (2820 1st Avenue, Castlegar, B.C., Canada) in capsule form in amounts of 10, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 150 mg. Furthermore, Doxepin HCl is available in capsule form in amounts of 10, 25, 50, 75, 100 and 150 mg and in a 10 mg/ml liquid concentrate from CVS Online Pharmacy Store (CVS.com).

Also, doxepin can be prepared according to the method described in U.S. Pat. No. 3,438,981, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. It should be noted and understood that although many of the embodiments described herein specifically refer to “doxepin,” other doxepin-related compounds can also be used, including, for example, pharmaceutically acceptable salts, prodrugs, metabolites, in-situ salts of doxepin formed after administration, and solid state forms, including polymorphs and hydrates.

Metabolites:

In addition, doxepin metabolites can be prepared and used. By way of illustration, some examples of metabolites of doxepin can include, but are not limited to, desmethyldoxepin, hydroxydoxepin, hydroxyl-N-desmethyldoxepin, doxepin N-oxide, N-acetyl-N-desmethyldoxepin, N-desmethyl-N-formyldoxepin, quaternary ammonium-linked glucuronide, 2-O-glucuronyldoxepin, didesmethyldoxepin, 3-O-glucuronyldoxepin, or N-acetyldidesmethyldoxepin. The metabolites of doxepin can be obtained or made by any suitable method, including the methods described above for doxepin.

Desmethyldoxepin has the following structure:

Figure US09486437-20161108-C00002

Desmethyldoxepin is commercially available as a forensic standard. For example, it can be obtained from Cambridge Isotope Laboratories, Inc. (50 Frontage Road, Andover, Mass.). Desmethyldoxepin for use in the methods discussed herein can be prepared by any suitable procedure. For example, desmethyldoxepin can be prepared from 3-methylaminopropyl triphenylphosphonium bromide hydrobromide and 6,11-dihydrodibenz(b,e)oxepin-11-one according to the method taught in U.S. Pat. No. 3,509,175, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

Hydroxydoxepin has the following structure:

Figure US09486437-20161108-C00003

2-Hydroxydoxepin can be prepared by any suitable method, including as taught by Shu et al. (Drug Metabolism and Disposition (1990) 18:735-741), which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

Hydroxyl-N-desmethyldoxepin has the following structure:

Figure US09486437-20161108-C00004

2-Hydroxy-N-desmethyldoxepin can be prepared any suitable method.

Doxepin N-oxide has the following structure:

Figure US09486437-20161108-C00005

Doxepin N-oxide can be prepared by any suitable method. For example, doxepin N-oxide can be prepared as taught by Hobbs (Biochem Pharmacol (1969) 18:1941-1954), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

N-acetyl-N-desmethyldoxepin has the following structure:

Figure US09486437-20161108-C00006

N-acetyl-N-desmethyldoxepin can be prepared by any suitable means. For example, (E)-N-acetyl-N-desmethyldoxepin has been produced in filamentous fungus incubated with doxepin as taught by Moody et al. (Drug Metabolism and Disposition (1999) 27:1157-1164), hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

N-desmethyl-N-formyldoxepin has the following structure:

Figure US09486437-20161108-C00007

N-desmethyl-N-formyldoxepin can be prepared by any suitable means. For example, (E)-N-desmethyl-N-formyldoxepin has been produced in filamentous fungus incubated with doxepin as taught by Moody et al. (Drug Metabolism and Disposition (1999) 27:1157-1164), hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

N-acetyldidesmethyldoxepin has the following structure:

Figure US09486437-20161108-C00008

N-acetyldidesmethyldoxepin can be prepared by any suitable means. For example, (E)-N-acetyldidesmethyldoxepin has been produced in filamentous fungus incubated with doxepin as taught by Moody et al. (Drug Metabolism and Disposition (1999) 27:1157-1164), hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

Didesmethyldoxepin has the following structure:

Figure US09486437-20161108-C00009

Didesmethyldoxepin can be prepared by any suitable means. For example, (Z)- and (E)-didesmethyldoxepin have been isolated from plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of depressed patients taking doxepin, as taught by Deuschle et al. (Psychopharmacology (1997) 131:19-22), hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

3-O-glucuronyldoxepin has the following structure:

Figure US09486437-20161108-C00010

3-O-glucuronyldoxepin can be prepared by any suitable means. For example, (E)-3-O-glucuronyldoxepin has been isolated from the bile of rats given doxepin, as described by Shu et al. (Drug Metabolism and Disposition (1990) 18:1096-1099), hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

2-O-glucuronyldoxepin has the following structure:

Figure US09486437-20161108-C00011

2-O-glucuronyldoxepin can be prepared by any suitable means. For example, (E)-2-O-glucuronyldoxepin has been isolated from the bile of rats given doxepin, and also in the urine of humans given doxepin, as described by Shu et al. (Drug Metabolism and Disposition (1990) 18:1096-1099), hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

Quaternary ammonium-linked glucuronide of doxepin (doxepin N+-glucuronide) has the following structure:

Figure US09486437-20161108-C00012

N+-glucuronide can be obtained by any suitable means. For example, doxepin N+-glucuronide can be prepared as taught by Luo et al. (Drug Metabolism and Disposition, (1991) 19:722-724), hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

PATENT

https://patents.google.com/patent/CN105330638A/en

 doxepin hydrochloride, the chemical name is N, N- dimethyl-3-dibenzo (b, e) _ oxepin -11 (6H) -1-propanamine salt subunit cistron iso the mixture body configuration. CAS Number 1229-29-4 thereof, of the formula

[0003]

Figure CN105330638AD00061

[0004] Doxepin hydrochloride is a drug for the treatment of depression and anxiety neurosis that act to inhibit the central nervous system serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake, such that these two synaptic cleft neurotransmitter concentration increased and antidepressant effect, but also has anti-anxiety and sedative effects. Doxepin hydrochloride oral absorption, bioavailability of 13-45%, half-life (Shu 1/2) is 8-12 hours, to apparent volume of distribution (1) ^ 9-33171.Primarily metabolized in the liver to active metabolites thereof demethylation.Metabolite excretion from the kidney, elderly patients decline of metabolism and excretion ability of this product

[0005] Chinese Patent CN102924486A discloses a method for preparing a hydrochloride of doxepin. The method comprises the coupling reaction CN, i.e., the use of Ni (0Α〇) 2 / ΡΡ1 ^ φ to the amine-based compound. Although Ni catalyst the reaction step (OAc) 2 is more readily available and inexpensive, but the low yield of this step, and low product purity.

SUMMARY

[0006] Accordingly, the present invention provides a method of o-toluic acid synthesized multi doxepin hydrochloride, the higher the yield and purity of the obtained product was purified by this method.

[0007] – o-methylbenzoate method for the synthesis of doxepin hydrochloride, comprising the steps of:

[0008] (1) o-methylbenzoic acid with N- halosuccinimide benzylation halogenation reaction occurs in an acetonitrile solvent in the light conditions, to give o-halo-methylbenzoic acid (Compound J), the following reaction formula,

[0009]

Figure CN105330638AD00071

[0010] (2) Compound J celite load cesium fluoride intramolecular substitution reaction, to give phthalide (Compound H) in an acetonitrile solvent and as a catalyst, the following reaction formula,

[0011]

Figure CN105330638AD00072

[0012] (3) The phenol compound J with sodium methoxide in an alcohol solvent substitution reaction, to give a compound I, the following reaction formula,

[0013]

Figure CN105330638AD00073

[0014] (4) The cyclization reaction of Compound I in a solvent in the catalytic DMS0 anhydrous aluminum chloride to give 6, 11-dihydro-dibenzo [b, e] oxepin -11- one (compound A), the following reaction formula,

[0015]

Figure CN105330638AD00074

[0016] (5) 6, 11-dihydro-dibenzo [b, e] oxepin-11-one (Compound A) and 3-chloropropyl alkyl tert-butyl ether (compound B) is added magnesium powder and with THF and / or a nucleophilic addition of anhydrous diethyl ether under the conditions of the reaction solvent to give the hydroxy compound (compound C), the following reaction formula,

[0017]

Figure CN105330638AD00081

[0018] (6) heating elimination reaction to give an olefin compound (Compound D) in a strong base in an alcoholic solvent to the hydroxy compound, the following reaction formula,

[0019]

Figure CN105330638AD00082

[0020] (7) to the olefinic compound in the nucleophilic substitution reaction of a hydrogen halide acid, to give halide (Compound E), the following reaction formula,

Figure CN105330638AD00083

[0022] wherein the compound E X is a C1, Br, or a a I;

[0023] (8) the halide with dimethylamine in a solvent under an organic lithium compound is added in ether to nucleophilic substitution reaction to yield doxepin (Compound F.), The following reaction formula,

[0024]

Figure CN105330638AD00091

[0025] (9) the doxepin neutralization reaction with hydrochloric acid to give sulfasalazine (Compound G), the following reaction formula,

Figure CN105330638AD00092

Example 1

[0043] placed in a 20L reaction vessel acetonitrile, o-methylbenzoic acid, N- bromosuccinimide, using a water bath temperature controlled at 10 ° C, under stirring for 4h. A known separation method, separation of o-bromomethyl-benzoic acid. This compound is named J.

[0044] placed in a 20L reaction container, Compound J, diatomaceous earth in an amount of 0.05 to load cesium fluoride (compound J as a mass basis), acetonitrile in an amount of 2.5 (in Compound J 1 is a mass basis), and the temperature was adjusted to 30 ° C, with stirring under reflux for 20h adjustment. Then, a known means for separating the reaction phthalide.

After [0045] placed in a 20L reaction vessel phthalide, 3 an amount of sodium methoxide in ethanol solvent (total mass of phenol phthalide and 1 meter), the reaction solution temperature adjusted to 50 ° C, was added dropwise start phenol was 1.05 mass (in mass was 1 meter phthalide), dropwise over lh. After the dropwise addition, the reaction temperature after 5h using known separation methods, to give o-methyl benzyl phenyl ether, this compound is named I.

[0046] The above compound I, in an amount of 10% anhydrous aluminum chloride (mass of Compound I was 100% basis), the amount of DMS0 3 (mass basis Compound I 1) into a reaction vessel , the temperature was adjusted to 95 ° C. The reaction time is to be 12h. Using known separation means for separating the 6, 11-dihydro-dibenzo [b, e] oxepin-11-one.

[0047] placement 6, 11-dihydro-dibenzo in a reaction vessel and 20L [b, e] oxepin-11-one, 1.1-dihydro-fold of the mole of diphenyl at 6, 11 and [ b, e] oxepin-11-one 3-chloropropyl alkyl tert-butyl ether, 2 times the mass 6, 11-dihydro-dibenzo [b, e] oxepin-11-one magnesium in , taking all of fifths THF (5 to 6 times by mass, 11-dihydro-dibenzo [b, e] THF oxepin-11-one) and heated to 35 ° C and allowed to react. After the reaction started, the remaining 3/5 of THF was added dropwise.Was added dropwise to the system to be completed into hydrogen, reflux. After a total reaction 5h, the reaction was stopped. After the system was cooled and then poured into saturated ammonium chloride solution, extracted twice with ethyl acetate was added, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate 5h, the resulting crude product was recrystallized from acetonitrile to give hydroxy compound.

[0048] placed in a 20L reaction vessel above hydroxy compound, an ethanol solution of 1.5 times the mass of hydroxy compound class of sodium hydroxide (concentration l〇wt mass%), was heated to 65 ° C, 2h elimination reaction after the reaction was stopped, cooled, the solvent was distilled off more of the obtained crude product was crystallized from acetonitrile to give the olefinic compounds.

[0049] placed in a 20L reaction vessel of the olefin compound, in an aqueous solution plus 1 times the mass of the olefinic compound hydrochloride (concentration of 5wt%), and heated to 50 ° C, so that a nucleophilic substitution reaction . The reaction time is to be after 4h, the reaction was stopped, cooled, the solvent was distilled off more of the obtained crude product was crystallized from acetonitrile to give the halides.

[0050] placed in a 20L reaction vessel above halide, 0.1 times the mass of methyl lithium halides to 2 times the mass of the halide in diethyl ether, heated to 40 ° C, so that the nucleophilic substitution reaction. The reaction time is to be after 5h, the reaction was stopped, reaction was complete and extracted with ethylacetate three times, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate 5h, the resulting crude product was recrystallized from acetonitrile to obtain doxepin.

[0051] 20L is placed in a pressure reactor above doxepin, 1.05 times the mass of material in the doxepin hydrochloride (concentration of 30wt%), the control pressure to 3 ~ 4MPa, and heated to 130 ° C , and among the responses. Time after to be reacted for 20 h, cooled to room temperature and should be finished by filtration, and dried to give doxepin hydrochloride. In this embodiment overall yield 37.9%, measured by HPLC obtaining 99.2% purity.

[0052] Example 2

[0053] placed in a 20L reaction vessel acetonitrile, o-methylbenzoic acid, N- bromosuccinimide, using a water bath temperature controlled at 20 ° C, under stirring for 2h. A known separation method, separation of o-toluic acid halide.

[0054] placed in a 20L reaction container, Compound J, an amount of load of cesium fluoride Celite ~ 0.05 0.15 (in mass Compound J is 1 meter), in an amount of 2.5 to 8 acetonitrile (compound J as a mass basis), and the temperature was adjusted to 30 ~ 50 ° C, 12 ~ 20h at reflux with stirring under regulation. Then, a known means for separating the reaction phthalide.

After [0055] phthalide placed in 20L reaction vessel, an amount of sodium methoxide in 10 ethanol solvent (total mass of phenol phthalide and 1 meter), adjusting the temperature of the reaction solution was 60 ° C, was added dropwise start phenol was 1.15 mass (in mass was 1 meter phthalide), dropwise over lh.After the dropwise addition, the reaction temperature after 5h using known separation methods, to give o-methyl benzyl phenyl ether, this compound is named I.

[0056] The above compound I, in an amount of 40% anhydrous aluminum chloride (mass of Compound I was 100% basis), in an amount of DMS0 8 (in compound I is a mass basis) into a reaction vessel , the temperature was adjusted to 105 ° C. The reaction time is to be for 6h. Using known separation means for separating the 6, 11-dihydro-dibenzo [b, e] oxepin-11-one.

[0057] placement 6, 11-dihydro-dibenzo in a reaction vessel and 20L [b, e] oxepin-11-one, 1.5-dihydro-fold of the mole of diphenyl at 6, 11 and [ b, e] oxepin-11-one 3-chloropropyl alkyl tert-butyl ether, 2.4 times the mass in 6, 11-dihydro-dibenzo [b, e] oxepin-11-one of magnesium, taking all fifths THF (5 to 7 times the mass in 6, 11-dihydro-dibenzo [b, e] THF oxepin-11-one) is to make, and heated to 40 ° C reaction.After the reaction started, the remaining 3/5 of THF was added dropwise. Was added dropwise to the system to be completed into hydrogen, reflux. When the total reaction 2h, the reaction was stopped. After the system was cooled and then poured into saturated ammonium chloride solution, extracted twice with ethyl acetate was added, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate 5h, the resulting crude product was recrystallized from acetonitrile to give hydroxy compound.

[0058] placed in a 20L reaction vessel above hydroxy compound, an ethanol solution of 5 times the mass of hydroxy compound class of sodium hydroxide (concentration of 70wt%), was heated to 80 ° C, the reaction was stopped after the elimination reaction LH, cooling, the solvent was distilled off more of the obtained crude product was crystallized from acetonitrile to give the olefinic compounds.

[0059] placed in a 20L reaction vessel of the olefin compound, in an aqueous solution of 2 times the mass of the olefinic compound added hydrobromic acid (concentration of 30wt%), and heated to 60 ° C, so that nucleophilic Substitution reaction. The reaction time is to be after the 1. 5h, the reaction was stopped, cooled, the solvent was distilled off more of the obtained crude product was crystallized from acetonitrile to give the halides.

[0060] placed in a 20L reaction vessel above halide, 0.8 times the mass of phenyl lithium halide to 8 times the mass of the halide in diethyl ether, heated to 50 ° C, so that the nucleophilic substitution reaction. The reaction time is to be after 2h, the reaction was stopped, reaction was complete and extracted with ethylacetate three times, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate 5h, the resulting crude product was recrystallized from acetonitrile to obtain doxepin.

[0061] 20L is placed in a pressure reactor above doxepin, 1.2 times the mass of material in the doxepin hydrochloride (concentration of 38wt%), the control pressure to 3 ~ 4MPa, and heated to 150 ° C , and among the responses. Time after to be reacted for 16 h, cooled to room temperature and should be finished by filtration, and dried to give doxepin hydrochloride. In this embodiment overall yield 39.7%, measured by HPLC obtaining 99.4% purity.

[0062] Example 3

[0063] placed in a 20L reaction vessel acetonitrile, o-methylbenzoic acid, N- bromosuccinimide, using a water bath temperature controlled at 15 ° C, under stirring for 3h. A known separation method, separation of o-bromomethyl-benzoic acid.

[0064] placed in a 20L reaction container, Compound J, an amount of load of cesium fluoride Celite ~ 0.05 0.15 (in mass Compound J is 1 meter), in an amount of 2.5 to 8 acetonitrile (compound J as a mass basis), and the temperature was adjusted to 30 ~ 50 ° C, 12 ~ 20h at reflux with stirring under regulation. Then, a known means for separating the reaction phthalide.

After [0065] phthalide placed in 20L reaction vessel, an amount of sodium methoxide in ethanol solvent 6 (total mass of phenol phthalide and 1 meter), adjusting the temperature of the reaction solution was 55 ° C, was added dropwise start phenol was 1.10 mass (in mass was 1 meter phthalide), dropwise over lh.After the dropwise addition, the reaction temperature after 3. 5h using known separation methods, to give o-methyl benzyl phenyl ether, this compound is named I.

[0066] Anhydrous aluminum above compound I, in an amount of 25% of the chloride (compound I mass is 100% basis), in an amount of DMS0 6. 5 (in compound I is a mass basis) into the reaction vessel temperature is adjusted to 100 ° C. The reaction time is to be 9h. Using known separation means for separating the 6, 11-dihydro-dibenzo [b, e] oxepin-11-one.

[0067] placement 6, 11-dihydro-dibenzo in a reaction vessel and 20L [b, e] oxepin-11-one, 1.3-dihydro-fold of the mole of diphenyl at 6, 11 and [ b, e] oxepin-11-one 3-chloropropyl alkyl tert-butyl ether, 2.2 times the mass in 6, 11-dihydro-dibenzo [b, e] oxepin-11-one of magnesium, taking all fifths THF (5 to 7 times the mass in 6, 11-dihydro-dibenzo [b, e] THF oxepin-11-one) is to make, and heated to 38 ° C reaction.After the reaction started, the remaining 3/5 of THF was added dropwise. Was added dropwise to the system to be completed into hydrogen, refluxed for 2h. After a total reaction 3. 5h, the reaction was stopped. After the system was cooled and then poured into saturated ammonium chloride solution, extracted twice with ethyl acetate was added, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate 5h, the resulting crude product was recrystallized from acetonitrile to give hydroxy compound.

[0068] placed in a 20L reaction vessel above hydroxy compound, an ethanol solution of 3-hydroxysteroid times the mass of the compound of sodium hydroxide (concentration of 40wt%), and heated to 75 ° C, 1. 5h the reaction stopped after elimination the reaction was cooled, the solvent was distilled off more of the obtained crude product was crystallized from acetonitrile to give the olefinic compounds.

[0069] placed in a 20L reaction vessel of the olefin compound, an aqueous solution of 1.5-fold increase in the mass of hydroiodic olefinic compounds (concentration of 18wt%), was heated to 55 ° C, so nucleophilic substitution reaction. The reaction time is to be after 2h, the reaction was stopped, cooled, the solvent was distilled off more of the obtained crude product was crystallized from acetonitrile to give the halides.

[0070] placed in a 20L reaction vessel above halide, 0.4 times the mass of the halide in n-butyllithium, in diethyl ether five times the mass of halide and heated to 45 ° C, so that a nucleophilic substitution reaction . The reaction time is to be 3. After 5h, the reaction was stopped, reaction was complete and extracted with ethylacetate three times, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate 5h, the resulting crude product was recrystallized from acetonitrile to obtain doxepin.

[0071] 20L is placed in a pressure reactor above doxepin, 1.12 times the mass of material in the doxepin hydrochloride (concentration of 34wt%), the control pressure to 3 ~ 4MPa, and heated to 140 ° C , and among the responses. Time after to be reacted for 18 h, cooled to room temperature and should be finished by filtration, and dried to give doxepin hydrochloride. In this embodiment overall yield 40.2%, measured by HPLC obtaining 99.5% purity.

[0072] Example 4

[0073] placed in a 20L reaction vessel acetonitrile, o-methylbenzoic acid, N- bromosuccinimide, using a water bath temperature controlled at 15 ° C, under stirring for 4h. A known separation method, separation of o-toluic acid halide.

[0074] placed in a 20L reaction container, Compound J, an amount of load of cesium fluoride Celite ~ 0.05 0.15 (in mass Compound J is 1 meter), in an amount of 2.5 to 8 acetonitrile (compound J as a mass basis), and the temperature was adjusted to 30 ~ 50 ° C, 12 ~ 20h at reflux with stirring under regulation. Then, a known means for separating the reaction phthalide.

After [0075] phthalide placed in 20L reaction vessel, 5 an amount of sodium methoxide in ethanol solvent (total mass of phenol phthalide and 1 meter), adjusting the temperature of the reaction solution was 55 ° C, was added dropwise start phenol was 1.15 mass (in mass was 1 meter phthalide), dropwise over lh.After the dropwise addition, the reaction temperature after 5h using known separation methods, to give o-methyl benzyl phenyl ether, this compound is named I.

[0076] The above compound I, in an amount of 25% anhydrous aluminum chloride (mass of Compound I was 100% basis), in an amount of DMS0 8 (in compound I is a mass basis) into a reaction vessel , the temperature was adjusted to 100 ° C. The reaction time is to be 12h. Using known separation means for separating the 6, 11-dihydro-dibenzo [b, e] oxepin-11-one.

[0077] placement 6, 11-dihydro-dibenzo in a reaction vessel and 20L [b, e] oxepin-11-one, 1.3-dihydro-fold of the mole of diphenyl at 6, 11 and [ b, e] oxepin-11-one 3-chloropropyl alkyl tert-butyl ether, 2.4 times the mass in 6, 11-dihydro-dibenzo [b, e] oxepin-11-one of magnesium, taking all fifths THF (5 to 7 times the mass in 6, 11-dihydro-dibenzo [b, e] THF oxepin-11-one) is to make, and heated to 40 ° C reaction.After the reaction started, the remaining 3/5 of THF was added dropwise. Was added dropwise to the system to be completed into hydrogen, reflux. When the total reaction 2h, the reaction was stopped. After the system was cooled and then poured into saturated ammonium chloride solution, extracted twice with ethyl acetate was added, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate 5h, the resulting crude product was recrystallized from acetonitrile to give hydroxy compound.

[0078] placed in a 20L reaction vessel above hydroxy compound, an ethanol solution of 5 times the mass of hydroxy compound class of sodium hydroxide (concentration of 70wt%), was heated to 80 ° C, the reaction was stopped after the elimination reaction LH, cooling, the solvent was distilled off more of the obtained crude product was crystallized from acetonitrile to give the olefinic compounds.

[0079] placed in a 20L reaction vessel of the olefin compound, an aqueous solution of 1.5-fold increase in the mass of hydroiodic olefinic compounds (concentration of 30wt%), and heated to 60 ° C, so nucleophilic substitution reaction. The reaction time is to be after the 1. 5h, the reaction was stopped, cooled, the solvent was distilled off more of the obtained crude product was crystallized from acetonitrile to give the halides.

[0080] placed in a 20L reaction vessel above halide, 0.8 times in mass n-butyl lithium halide, eight times the mass of the halide in diethyl ether, heated to 50 ° C, so that a nucleophilic substitution reaction . The reaction time is to be after 2h, the reaction was stopped, reaction was complete and extracted with ethylacetate three times, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate 5h, the resulting crude product was recrystallized from acetonitrile to obtain doxepin.

[0081] 20L is placed in a pressure reactor above doxepin, 1.2 times the mass of material in the doxepin hydrochloride (concentration of 38wt%), the control pressure to 3 ~ 4MPa, and heated to 150 ° C , and among the responses. Time after to be reacted for 16 h, cooled to room temperature and should be finished by filtration, and dried to give doxepin hydrochloride. In this embodiment overall yield 41.6%, measured by HPLC obtaining 99.7% purity.

[0082] Example 5

[0083] placed in a 20L reaction vessel acetonitrile, o-methylbenzoic acid, N- bromosuccinimide, using a water bath temperature controlled at 15 ° C, the reaction 2. 5h under stirring. A known separation method, separation of o-bromomethyl-benzoic acid.

[0084] placed in a 20L reaction vessel o-bromomethyl benzoic acid, diatomaceous earth in an amount of load of cesium fluoride 0.05 ~ 0.15 (in mass Compound J is 1 meter), in an amount of 2. 5-8 acetonitrile (compound J as a mass basis), and the temperature was adjusted to 30 ~ 50 ° C, 12 ~ 20h at reflux with stirring under regulation. Then, a known means for separating the reaction phthalide.

After [0085] phthalide placed in 20L reaction vessel, 5 an amount of sodium methoxide in ethanol solvent (total mass of phenol phthalide and 1 meter), adjusting the temperature of the reaction solution was 55 ° C, was added dropwise start was 1.08 mass of phenol (mass was phthalide 1 meter), dropwise over lh.After the dropwise addition, the reaction temperature after 3h using known separation methods, to give o-methyl benzyl phenyl ether, this compound is named I.

[0086] Anhydrous aluminum above compound I, in an amount of 25% of the chloride (compound I mass is 100% basis), in an amount of DMS0 5 (in compound I is a mass basis) into a reaction vessel , the temperature was adjusted to 100 ° C.The reaction time is to be 8h. Using known separation means for separating the 6, 11-dihydro-dibenzo [b, e] oxepin-11-one.

[0087] placement 6, 11-dihydro-dibenzo in a reaction vessel and 20L [b, e] oxepin-11-one, 1.2-dihydro-fold of the mole of diphenyl at 6, 11 and [ b, e] oxepin-11-one 3-chloropropyl alkyl tert-butyl ether, 2.2 times the mass in 6, 11-dihydro-dibenzo [b, e] oxepin-11-one of magnesium, taking all fifths THF (5 to 7 times the mass in 6, 11-dihydro-dibenzo [b, e] THF oxepin-11-one) is to make, and heated to 38 ° C reaction.After the reaction started, the remaining 3/5 of THF was added dropwise. Was added dropwise to the system to be completed into hydrogen, reflux. When the total reaction 2h, the reaction was stopped. After the system was cooled and then poured into saturated ammonium chloride solution, extracted twice with ethyl acetate was added, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate 5h, the resulting crude product was recrystallized from acetonitrile to give hydroxy compound.

[0088] placed in a 20L reaction vessel above hydroxy compound, an ethanol solution of 2 times the mass of hydroxy compound class of sodium hydroxide (concentration of 40wt%), was heated to 70 ° C, the reaction was stopped after the elimination reaction 2h, cooling, the solvent was distilled off more of the obtained crude product was crystallized from acetonitrile to give the olefinic compounds.

[0089] placed in a 20L reaction vessel of the olefin compound, an aqueous solution of 1.5-fold increase in the mass of hydroiodic olefinic compounds (concentration of 15wt%), and heated to 50 ° C, so nucleophilic substitution reaction. The reaction time is to be after 4h, the reaction was stopped, cooled, the solvent was distilled off more of the obtained crude product was crystallized from acetonitrile to give the halides.

[0090] placed in a 20L reaction vessel above halide, 0.4 times the mass of the halide in n-butyl lithium, 2 to 8 times the mass of the halide in diethyl ether, heated to 45 ° C, so that nucleophilic Substitution reaction. The reaction time is to be after 3h, the reaction was stopped, reaction was complete and extracted with ethylacetate three times, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate 5h, the resulting crude product was recrystallized from acetonitrile to obtain doxepin.

[0091] 20L is placed in a pressure reactor above doxepin, 1.12 times the mass of material in the doxepin hydrochloride (mass concentration 37. 6wt%), the control pressure to 3 ~ 4MPa, heated to 140 ° C, allowing the reaction among. Time after to be reacted for 20 h, cooled to room temperature and should be finished by filtration, and dried to give doxepin hydrochloride. In this embodiment overall yield 43.9%, measured by HPLC obtaining 99.9% purity.

PATENTS

CN102924424A *2012-09-042013-02-13苏州弘森药业有限公司Method for synthesizing doxepin hydrochloride
CN105061386A *2015-08-172015-11-18苏州黄河制药有限公司Method for synthesizing doxepin hydrochloride by utilizing phthalic anhydride as raw material
Doxepin
Doxepin2DACS.svg
Doxepin-3RZE-2011-ball-and-stick.png
Clinical data
Trade names Sinequan, many others[2]
Synonyms NSC-108160[3]
AHFS/Drugs.com Monograph
MedlinePlus a682390
License data
Pregnancy
category
  • AU: C
  • US: B (No risk in non-human studies)
Routes of
administration
By mouthtopicalintravenousintramuscular injection[1]
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 13–45% (mean 29%)[5][6]
Protein binding 76%[7]
Metabolism Hepatic (CYP2D6CYP2C19)[4][5]
Metabolites Nordoxepin, glucuronide conjugates[4]
Elimination half-life Doxepin: 8–24 hours (mean 17 hours)[7]
Nordoxepin: 31 hours[7]
Excretion Urine: ~50%[4][5]
Feces: minor[5]
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
IUPHAR/BPS
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
ChEMBL
Chemical and physical data
Formula C19H21NO
Molar mass 279.376 g/mol
3D model (JSmol)
  1. Virtanen R, Iisalo E, Irjala K: Protein binding of doxepin and desmethyldoxepin. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol (Copenh). 1982 Aug;51(2):159-64. [PubMed:7113722]
  2. Virtanen R, Scheinin M, Iisalo E: Single dose pharmacokinetics of doxepin in healthy volunteers. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol (Copenh). 1980 Nov;47(5):371-6. [PubMed:7293791]
  3. Negro-Alvarez JM, Carreno-Rojo A, Funes-Vera E, Garcia-Canovas A, Abellan-Aleman AF, Rubio del Barrio R: Pharmacologic therapy for urticaria. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 1997 Jan-Feb;25(1):36-51. [PubMed:9111875]
  4. Sansone RA, Sansone LA: Pain, pain, go away: antidepressants and pain management. Psychiatry (Edgmont). 2008 Dec;5(12):16-9. [PubMed:19724772]
  5. Kirchheiner J, Meineke I, Muller G, Roots I, Brockmoller J: Contributions of CYP2D6, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 to the biotransformation of E- and Z-doxepin in healthy volunteers. Pharmacogenetics. 2002 Oct;12(7):571-80. [PubMed:12360109]
  6. ZONALON® (doxepin hydrochloride) CREAM, 5% [Link]
  7. FDA Label: SilenorTM (doxepin) tablets for oral administration [Link]

//////////////Doxepin, ドキセピン , NSC-108160  , P-3693A  , SO-101

[H]C(CCN(C)C)=C1C2=CC=CC=C2COC2=CC=CC=C12

Doxepin Hydrochloride
usp32nf27s0_m28120
Click to View Image

C19H21NO·HCl 315.84

1-Propanamine, 3-dibenz[b,e]oxepin-11(6H)ylidene-N,N-dimethyl-, hydrochloride.
N,N-Dimethyldibenz[b,e]oxepin-D11(6H),-propylamine hydrochloride [1229-29-4; 4698-39-9 ((E)-isomer); 25127-31-5 ((Z)-isomer)].
» Doxepin Hydrochloride, an (E) and (Z) geometric isomer mixture, contains the equivalent of not less than 98.0 percent and not more than 102.0 percent of doxepin (C19H21NO·HCl), calculated on the dried basis. It contains not less than 13.6 percent and not more than 18.1 percent of the (Z)-isomer, and not less than 81.4 percent and not more than 88.2 percent of the (E)-isomer.
Packaging and storage— Preserve in well-closed containers.

Identification—

B: The retention time of the major peak in the chromatogram of the Assay preparation corresponds that in the chromatogram of the Standard preparation, as obtained in the Assay.
C: A solution (1 in 100) in a mixture of water and alcohol (1:1) meets the requirements of the test for Chloride 191 in amine hydrochlorides.
Loss on drying 731 Dry it in vacuum at 60 for 3 hours: it loses not more than 0.5% of its weight.
Residue on ignition 281: not more than 0.2%.
Heavy metals, Method II 231: 0.002%.

Related compounds—

Diluted phosphoric acid— Prepare a mixture of water and phosphoric acid (10:1), and mix well.
Buffer— Dissolve 1.42 g of dibasic sodium phosphate in 1 L of water, adjust with Diluted phosphoric acid to a pH of 7.7, and mix.
Mobile phase— Prepare a filtered and degassed mixture of methanol, Buffer, and acetonitrile (50:30:20). Make adjustments if necessary (see System Suitabilityunder Chromatography 621).
Diluent— Prepare a mixture of Mobile phase and 2 N sodium hydroxide (1000:2).
Standard solution— Dissolve accurately weighed quantities of USP Doxepin Hydrochloride RSUSP Doxepin Related Compound A RSUSP Doxepin Related Compound B RS, and USP Doxepin Related Compound C RS in Diluent to obtain a solution having a known concentration of about 0.001 mg of doxepin hydrochloride, doxepin related compound A, and doxepin related compound B each per mL, and 0.002 mg per mL of doxepin related compound C. [NOTE—Sonication for about 1 minute may be used to aid the initial dissolution of the compounds.]
Test solution— Dissolve an accurately weighed quantity of Doxepin Hydrochloride in Diluent to obtain a final solution having a known concentration of about 1 mg per mL.

Chromatographic system (see Chromatography 621)— The liquid chromatograph is equipped with a 215-nm detector and a 4.6-mm × 25-cm column that contains 5-µm packing L1. The flow rate is about 1 mL per minute. The column temperature is maintained at 30. Chromatograph about 20 µL of the Standard solution, and record the peak areas as directed for Procedure: the resolution, R, between doxepin related compound A and doxepin related compound C is not less than 1.5; the resolution between doxepin related compound C and doxepin related compound B is not less than 1.5; and the signal-to-noise ratio for all the peaks is not less than 10. [NOTE—Use the approximate relative retention times given in Table 1 for the purpose of peak identification. The doxepin related compound C peak will be the largest peak in the Standard solution chromatogram.]

Table 1
Name Relative
Retention
Time
(RRT)
Limit (%)
Doxepin related compound A 0.48 0.10
Doxepin related compound C 0.55 0.20
Doxepin related compound B 0.63 0.10
Doxepin hydrochloride 1.0
Unknown impurity 0.10 each

Procedure— Inject a volume (about 20 µL) of the Test solution into the chromatograph, record the chromatogram for up to 2.2 times the retention time of doxepin, and measure the peak responses. Calculate the percentage of each individual doxepin related compound in the portion of Doxepin Hydrochloride taken by the formula:

100(rU / rS)(CS / CT)

in which rU is the individual peak response for each doxepin related compound obtained from the Test solution; rS is the response of the corresponding peak in theStandard solution; CS is the concentration, in mg per mL, of each doxepin related compound in the Standard solution; and CT is the concentration, in mg per mL, of Doxepin Hydrochloride in the Test solution. The related substance limits are listed in Table 1[NOTE—Discard any peak with a relative retention time less than 0.25. This method is not intended to resolve the E- and Z-isomers of doxepin hydrochloride. Minor variations in the mobile phase composition could result in a shoulder in the trailing edge of doxepin. In cases where there may be separation, both the E- and Z-isomers should be used in the appropriate calculations.] Use the response of the doxepin peak obtained from the Standard solution and the concentration of doxepin hydrochloride in the Standard solution to calculate the percentage of unknown individual impurities.

Assay—

Mobile phase— Prepare a mixture of 0.2 M monobasic sodium phosphate buffer and methanol (7:3), adjust with 2 N phosphoric acid to a pH of 2.5, filter, and degas. Make adjustments if necessary (see System Suitability under Chromatography 621).
Standard preparation— Dissolve an accurately weighed quantity of USP Doxepin Hydrochloride RS in Mobile phase, and dilute quantitatively and stepwise with Mobile phase to obtain a solution having a known concentration of about 100 µg per mL.
Assay preparation— Transfer about 50 mg of Doxepin Hydrochloride, accurately weighed, to a 100-mL volumetric flask. Add about 70 mL of Mobile phase, and sonicate to dissolve. Dilute with Mobile phase to volume, and mix. Pipet 10.0 mL of this solution into a 50-mL volumetric flask, and dilute with Mobile phase to volume.
Chromatographic system— The liquid chromatograph is equipped with a 254-nm detector and a 4-mm × 12.5-cm column, heated to 50, that contains packing L7. The flow rate is about 1 mL per minute. Chromatograph the Standard preparation, and record the peak responses as directed under Procedure: the resolution between the (E)- and (Z)-isomers is not less than 1.5, the tailing factor for each analyte peak is not more than 2.0, and the relative standard deviation for replicate injections is not more than 2.0%.

Procedure— Separately inject equal volumes (about 20 µL) of the Standard preparation and the Assay preparation into the chromatograph, record the chromatograms, and measure the responses for the major peaks. Calculate the quantity, in mg, of C19H21NO·HCl in the portion of Doxepin Hydrochloride taken by the formula:

0.5C[(rU(Z) + rU(E)) / (rS(Z) + rS(E))]

in which C is the concentration, in µg per mL, of USP Doxepin Hydrochloride RS in the Standard preparation, and rU(Z) and rU(E) are the respective peak responses of the (Z)- and (E)-isomers obtained from the Assay preparation, and rS(Z) and rS(E) are the respective peak responses of the (Z)- and (E)-isomers obtained from the Standard preparation. Calculate the percentage of the (Z)-isomer in the Assay preparation taken by the formula:

(rU(Z) / rS(Z))(WS / WT)(PZ)

in which WS is the weight, in mg, of USP Doxepin Hydrochloride RS in the Standard preparationWT is the weight, in mg, in the portion of Doxepin Hydrochloride taken, and PZ is the labeled percentage of (Z)-isomer in USP Doxepin Hydrochloride RS. Similarly calculate the percentage of (E)-isomer in the Assay preparationtaken by the formula:

(rU(E) / rS(E))(WS / WT)(PE)

in which PE is the labeled percentage of (E)-isomer in USP Doxepin Hydrochloride RS.

Auxiliary Information— Please check for your question in the FAQs before contacting USP.

Topic/Question Contact Expert Committee
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Senior Scientist
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USP32–NF27 Page 2206

Pharmacopeial Forum: Volume No. 32(2) Page 330

Chromatographic Column—

Chromatographic columns text is not derived from, and not part of, USP 32 or NF 27.

PF-06409577


PF-06409577 ≥98% (HPLC)PF-06409577, >=98% (HPLC).png

PF-06409577

6-Chloro-5-[4-(1-hydroxycyclobutyl)phenyl]-1H-indole-3-carboxylic acid

CAS Number 1467057-23-3,  C19H16ClNO3, 341.79

Biochem/physiol Actions

PF-06409577 is a potent and selective activator of 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK).

PF-06409577 potently activates a1β1γ1 AMPK (5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase) isoform, and prevents its dephosphorylation. It is similarly potent for β1 containing isoforms, but shows significantly lower potency for β2-containing isoforms of AMPK. Patch-clamp assays show that this compound does not inhibit hERG (human ether-a-go-go gene). It interacts with the allosteric drug and metabolite site (ADaM) of AMPK.

General description

PF-06409577 is a 6-chloro-indole derivative obtained from 5-bromo-6-chloro-indole.

PF-06409577 is a potent and selective activator of 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) for the Potential Treatment of diabetic nephropathy. PF-06409577 has AMPK α1β1γ1 Kd=9.0 nM. AMPK α1β1γ1 EC50 = 7.0 nM; AMPK α1β2γ1 EC50 > 40000 nM. PF-06409577 showed efficacy in a preclinical model of diabetic nephropathy. Upon the basis of its potent and selective AMPK activation, low metabolic turnover in human hepatocytes, clean off-target profile, and favorable preclinical in vivo efficacy results, PF-06409577 was profiled in regulatory toxicology studies and was subsequently advanced to clinical trials to assess human pharmacokinetics and safety/ tolerability.

Diabetes is a major public health concern because of its increasing prevalence and associated health risks. The disease is characterized by high levels of blood glucose resulting from defects in insulin production, insulin action, or both. Two major forms of diabetes are recognized, type I and type II. Type I diabetes develops when the body’s immune system destroys pancreatic beta cells, the only cells in the body that make the hormone insulin that regulates blood glucose. To survive, people with type 1 diabetes must have insulin delivered by injection or a pump. Type II diabetes accounts for about 90 to 95 percent of all diagnosed cases of diabetes. Type II diabetes usually begins as insulin resistance, a disorder in which the cells do not use insulin properly. Key target tissues, including liver, muscle, and adipose tissue, are resistant to the effects of insulin in stimulating glucose and lipid metabolism. As the need for insulin rises, the pancreas gradually loses its ability to produce insulin. Controlling type II diabetes with medication is essential; otherwise it can progress into pancreatic beta-cell failure requiring complete dependence on insulin.

Obesity increases the risk of type II diabetes as well as many other health conditions including coronary heart disease, stroke, and high blood pressure. More than one-third of U.S. adults (over 72 million people) and 17% of U.S. children are obese. During 1980-2008, obesity rates doubled for adults and tripled for children. During the past several decades, obesity rates for all population groups— regardless of age, sex, race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, education level, or geographic region— have increased markedly.

Research has identified the enzyme 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as a regulator of cellular and whole-body energy homeostasis. AMPK is activated by cellular stress resulting in downstream events that serve to conserve or generate ATP. AMPK is composed of three distinct subunits, each with multiple isoforms: the alpha subunit (alpha 1 or 2); the beta subunit (beta 1 or 2); and the gamma subunit (gamma 1, 2, or 3); for a total of twelve possible heterotrimeric isoforms.

In the liver, activated AMPK phosphorylates a variety of substrates including 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase (Clarke, P.R. & Hardie, D.G., EMBO J 9, 2439-2446 (1990)) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (Carling, D. et al. FEBS Letters 223, 217-222 (1987)) which inhibits cholesterol biosynthesis and decreases fatty acid synthesis, respectively. Therefore, activation of AMPK should lead to decreases in the levels of triglycerides and cholesterol. AMPK is also thought to regulate plasma glucose levels by decreasing hepatic gluconeogenesis through downregulation of key gene products following phosphorylation of CRTC2 (Koo S.H. et. AL, Nature 437, 1109-1111 (2005)). In muscle and myocardial tissues, AMPK activates the transport activity of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) increasing glucose uptake into cells thereby producing an additional avenue for decreasing plasma glucose (Kurth-Kraczek, E.J. et. al., Diabetes 48, 1667-1671 (1999)). AMPK activation has also been shown to enhance mitochondrial biogenesis improving fatty acid oxidation and decreasing circulating lipids (Merrill, G.M. et. al., Am. J. Physiol. 273, E1107-E1112 (1997)). Direct activation of AMPK using AICAR (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside) has been shown to lead to beneficial effects on several metabolic endpoints including improved glucose disposal, decreased hepatic glucose output and decreases in plasma triglycerides and free fatty acids (Song, X.M. et. al., Diabetologia 45, 56-65 (2002); Bergeron, R. et. al., Diabetes 50, 1076-1082 (2001); Buhl, E.S.et. al., Diabetes 50, 12-17 (2001); Iglesias, M.A. et. al., Diabetes 51, 2886-2894 (2002), Fogarty, S. & Hardie, D.G., Biochim et Biophys Acta 1804, 581-591 (2010)). Because of AMPK’s pluripotent effects on carbohydrate, lipid, and cholesterol metabolism and biosynthesis, agents that activate AMPK are attractive therapeutic targets for treating metabolic syndrome disorders such as diabetes, obesity, and dyslipidemia.

Decreases in renal AMPK activation have been implicated in the etiology of diseases of the kidney, including diabetic nephropathy, acute kidney injury (AKI), and polycystic kidney disease (PKD); activation of AMPK through hormonal (adiponectin) or pharmacological (AICAR) mechanisms has been shown to be protective in rodent models of these diseases. In diabetic nephropathy decreased AMPK activation in podocytes occurs early in the disease and is associated with increased expression of the NADPH-Oxidase protein Nox4 and increased proteinuria. These effects were reduced following administration of the AMPK activators AICAR, metformin, and Adiponectin (Lee, MJ. et.al. American Journal of Physiology – Renal Physiology. 292.

F617-F627 (2007); Sharma, K. et.al. Journal of Clinical Investigation.118. 1645-1656. (2008)). In ischemia/reperfusion models of AKI the AMPK activators metformin and AICAR were shown to dose-dependently reduce subsequent proteinuria, oxidative tissue damage, and kidney macrophage infiltration (Lempiainen, J. et.al. British Journal of Pharmacology 166. 1905-1915 (2012); Seo-Mayer, P.W. et.al. American Journal of Physiology – Renal Physiology, 301, F1346-F1357 (2011)). In two rodent models of PKD the AMPK activator metformin was shown to reduce renal cyst expansion (Takiar, V. et. al. PNAS 108, 2462-2467 (2011)). These studies suggest a broad benefit of AMPK activators in multiple renal diseases.

The compounds of the present invention activate AMPK and are, therefore, useful in treating metabolic disorders such as diabetes, obesity, and dyslipidemia as well as the renal diseases chronic kidney disease, diabetic nephropathy, acute kidney injury and polycystic kidney disease.

PATENT

US 20130267493

WO 2014140704

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2014140704&recNum=232&docAn=IB2013058819&queryString=EN_ALL:nmr%20AND%20PA:pfizer&maxRec=8241

Example 5

6-Chloro-5-(4-(3-hydroxyoxetan-3-yl)phenyl)-1H-indole-3-carboxylic acid

Step 1

6-chloro-5-(4-(3-hydroxyoxetan-3-yl)phenyl)-1H-indole-3-carbaldehyde

A mixture of 5,5,5′,5′-tetramethyl-[2,2′]bi[[1,3,2]dioxaborinanyl] (149.0 mg, 0.44 mmol), oven dried potassium acetate (173.0 mg, 1.75 mmol) and 3-(4-bromo-phenyl)-oxetan-3-ol (100.0 mg, 0.44 mmol) in 1,4-dioxane (2 mL) was degassed with N2 for 5 minutes, treated with [1,1′-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene]dichloropalladium(II) (33.0 mg, 0.044 mmol) and subjected to microwave irradiation at 110 °C for 1 hour. The cooled reaction mixture was filtered through celite and concentrated in vacuo to give a black oil. To the dark oil was added 5-bromo-6-chloro-1H-indole-3-carbaldehyde (112.0 mg, 0.43 mmol), 2 N aqueous potassium carbonate (0.4 mL, 0.80 mmol), toluene (1.5 mL) and EtOH (0.5 mL). The reaction mixture was degassed with N2 for 10 minutes, treated with [1, 1′-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene] dichloropalladium(II) (25.0 mg, 0.034 mmol), and heated in a pressure tube to 110 °C for 2 hours. The cooled reaction mixture was purified by flash chromatography (33-100% EtOAc/ heptanes) to give a solid. The solid was triturated in MeOH and filtered to afford the title compound (50 mg, 35%) as a yellow solid. MS (ES+) 328.0 (M+H)+1NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 12.23 (s, 1 H), 9.92 (s, 1 H), 8.35 (s, 1 H), 8.02 (s, 1 H), 7.66 (d, J = 9.4 Hz, 2 H), 7.44 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 2 H), 6.36 (s, 1 H), 4.80 – 4.76 (m, 2 H), 4.75 – 4.71 (m, 2 H).

Step 2

6-Chloro-5-(4-(3-hydroxyoxetan-3-yl)phenyl)-1 H-indole-3-carboxylic acid To the mixture of 6-chloro-5-[4-(3-hydroxy-oxetan-3-yl)-phenyl]-1H-indole-3-carbaldehyde (50.0 mg, 0.15 mmol) in MeCN (2 mL) was added 2-methyl-2-butene (2.0 mL, 13.7 mmol), followed by sodium chlorite (138 mg, 1.53 mmol) and sodium phosphate monobasic hydrate (211.0 mg, 1.53 mmol) in water (1 mL). The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 20 hours, and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was acidified with 1 N aqueous citric acid (1 mL) and extracted with EtOAc. The organic layer was dried over MgSO4 and concentrated in vacuo. The crude material was purified by flash chromatography (34-80% EtOAc/heptanes, with 0.2% formic acid modifier) to afford the title compound (18 mg, 34%) as a brown solid. MS (ES-) 342.3 (M-H)-. 1NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) δ 8.02 (s, 1 H), 7.98 (s, 1 H), 7.66 (d, J = 8.20 Hz, 2 H), 7.56 (s, 1 H), 7.47 (d, J = 8.20 Hz, 2 H), 4.87 – 4.80 (m, 4 H).

Paper

Discovery and Preclinical Characterization of 6-Chloro-5-[4-(1-hydroxycyclobutyl)phenyl]-1H-indole-3-carboxylic Acid (PF-06409577), a Direct Activator of Adenosine Monophosphate-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK), for the Potential Treatment of Diabetic Nephropathy. Cameron KO et al Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 59(17), 8068-8081, (2016)

Abstract Image

Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a protein kinase involved in maintaining energy homeostasis within cells. On the basis of human genetic association data, AMPK activators were pursued for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. Identification of an indazole amide high throughput screening (HTS) hit followed by truncation to its minimal pharmacophore provided an indazole acid lead compound. Optimization of the core and aryl appendage improved oral absorption and culminated in the identification of indole acid, PF-06409577 (7). Compound 7 was advanced to first-in-human trials for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy.

Discovery and Preclinical Characterization of 6-Chloro-5-[4-(1-hydroxycyclobutyl)phenyl]-1H-indole-3-carboxylic Acid (PF-06409577), a Direct Activator of Adenosine Monophosphate-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK), for the Potential Treatment of Diabetic Nephropathy

Cardiovascular, Metabolic and Endocrine Diseases Medicinal Chemistry, Cardiovascular, Metabolic and Endocrine Diseases Research Unit, and §Pharmacokinetics, Dynamics and Metabolism, Pfizer Worldwide Research & Development, 610 Main Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, United States
Cardiovascular, Metabolic and Endocrine Diseases Medicinal Chemistry, Cardiovascular, Metabolic and Endocrine Diseases Research Unit, #Worldwide Medicinal Chemistry, Pharmacokinetics, Dynamics and Metabolism, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Pfizer Worldwide Research & Development, Groton, Connecticut 06340, United States
J. Med. Chem.201659 (17), pp 8068–8081
DOI: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.6b00866
*For K.O.C.: phone, 617-551-3234; E-mail, Kimberly.O.Cameron@pfizer.com., *For D.W.K.: E-mail, Daniel.W.Kung@pfizer.com.

ACS Editors’ Choice – This is an open access article published under an ACS AuthorChoice License, which permits copying and redistribution of the article or any adaptations for non-commercial purposes.

6-Chloro-5-[4-(1-hydroxycyclobutyl)phenyl]-1H-indole-3-carboxylic Acid (7)

7 as a crystalline off-white solid (72.4 g, 58%). The mother liquor was concentrated to ∼30% of the initial volume, and a precipitate formed. The solids were collected by filtration and were dried under vacuum to obtain an additional batch of off-white solid (14.5 g, 12%). MS (ES−) 340.3 (M – H)1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 12.12 (s, 1H), 11.95 (br s, 1H), 8.09 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 7.96 (s, 1H), 7.65 (s, 1H), 7.58 (d, J = 7.8 Hz, 2H), 7.42 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 2H), 5.53 (s, 1H), 2.42–2.48 (m, 2H), 2.28–2.35 (m, 2H), 1.91–2.01 (m, 1H), 1.62–1.79 (m, 1H). Analytical % Calcd: C, 66.77; H, 4.72; N, 4.10. Found: C, 66.59; H, 4.56; N, 3.96. mp 220–222 °C.

PAPER

Evolution of the Synthesis of AMPK Activators for the Treatment of Diabetic Nephropathy: From Three Preclinical Candidates to the Investigational New Drug PF-06409577

 Pfizer Worldwide Research & DevelopmentEastern Point Road, Groton, Connecticut 06340, United States
 Pfizer Worldwide Research & Development610 Main Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, United States
§ Bridge Organics311 West Washington Street, Vicksburg, Michigan 49097, United States
 BoroPharm, Inc.39555 Orchard Hill Place, Suite 600, Novi, Michigan 48375, United States
Org. Process Res. Dev., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acs.oprd.8b00059
*E-mail for Aaron C. Smith: Aaron.Smith2@pfizer.com., *E-mail for Daniel W. Kung: Daniel.W.Kung@pfizer.com.

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.oprd.8b00059

Abstract Image

Indole acids 12, and 3 are potent 5′-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activators for the potential treatment of diabetic nephropathy. Compounds 13 were scaled to supply material for preclinical studies, and indole 3 was selected for advancement to first-in-human clinical trials and scaled to kilogram quantities. The progression of the synthesis strategy for these AMPK activators is described, as routes were selected for efficient structure–activity relationship generation and then improved for larger scales. The developed sequences employed practical isolations of intermediates and APIs, reproducible cross-coupling, hydrolysis, and other transformations, and enhanced safety and purity profiles and led to the production of 40–50 g of 1and 2 and 2.4 kg of 3. Multiple polymorphs of 3 were observed, and conditions for the reproducible formation of crystalline material suitable for clinical development were identified.

str1str2

Mp: 192–194 °C. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 12.12 (s, 1H), 11.94 (br d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 8.08 (d, J = 2.9 Hz, 1H), 7.95 (s, 1H), 7.64 (s, 1H), 7.57 (d, J = 8.3 Hz, 2H), 7.40 (d, J = 8.1 Hz, 2H), 5.52 (s, 1H), 2.48–2.40 (m, 2H), 2.35–2.26 (m, 2H), 2.00–1.89 (m, 1H), 1.74–1.63 (m, 1H). 13C NMR (101 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 165.6, 146.6, 138.1, 136.0, 133.8, 133.0, 129.2, 125.6, 125.3, 124.6, 122.8, 112.9, 107.6, 75.1, 37.3, 12.8. MS (ES): calcd for C19H17ClNO3 ([M – H]) 340.1; found 340.3. Anal. Calcd (%): C, 66.77; H, 4.72; N, 4.10. Found: C, 66.59; H, 4.71; N, 3.96.

///////////////////PF-06409577, PHASE 1

O=C(C1=CNC2=C1C=C(C3=CC=C(C4(O)CCC4)C=C3)C(Cl)=C2)O

Burosumab-twza, ブロスマブ


> Burosumab Heavy Chain Sequence
QVQLVQSGAEVKKPGASVKVSCKASGYTFTNHYMHWVRQAPGQGLEWMGIINPISGSTSN
AQKFQGRVTMTRDTSTSTVYMELSSLRSEDTAVYYCARDIVDAFDFWGQGTMVTVSSAST
KGPSVFPLAPSSKSTSGGTAALGCLVKDYFPEPVTVSWNSGALTSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLY
SLSSVVTVPSSSLGTQTYICNVNHKPSNTKVDKKVEPKSCDKTHTCPPCPAPELLGGPSV
FLFPPKPKDTLMISRTPEVTCVVVDVSHEDPEVKFNWYVDGVEVHNAKTKPREEQYNSTY
RVVSVLTVLHQDWLNGKEYKCKVSNKALPAPIEKTISKAKGQPREPQVYTLPPSRDELTK
NQVSLTCLVKGFYPSDIAVEWESNGQPENNYKTTPPVLDSDGSFFLYSKLTVDKSRWQQG
NVFSCSVMHEALHNHYTQKSLSLSPGK
> Burosumab Light Chain Sequence
AIQLTQSPSSLSASVGDRVTITCRASQGISSALVWYQQKPGKAPKLLIYDASSLESGVPS
RFSGSGSGTDFTLTISSLQPEDFATYYCQQFNDYFTFGPGTKVDIKRTVAAPSVFIFPPS
DEQLKSGTASVVCLLNNFYPREAKVQWKVDNALQSGNSQESVTEQDSKDSTYSLSSTLTL
SKADYEKHKVYACEVTHQGLSSPVTKSFNRGEC

ALSO

(Heavy chain)
QVQLVQSGAE VKKPGASVKV SCKASGYTFT NHYMHWVRQA PGQGLEWMGI INPISGSTSN
AQKFQGRVTM TRDTSTSTVY MELSSLRSED TAVYYCARDI VDAFDFWGQG TMVTVSSAST
KGPSVFPLAP SSKSTSGGTA ALGCLVKDYF PEPVTVSWNS GALTSGVHTF PAVLQSSGLY
SLSSVVTVPS SSLGTQTYIC NVNHKPSNTK VDKKVEPKSC DKTHTCPPCP APELLGGPSV
FLFPPKPKDT LMISRTPEVT CVVVDVSHED PEVKFNWYVD GVEVHNAKTK PREEQYNSTY
RVVSVLTVLH QDWLNGKEYK CKVSNKALPA PIEKTISKAK GQPREPQVYT LPPSRDELTK
NQVSLTCLVK GFYPSDIAVE WESNGQPENN YKTTPPVLDS DGSFFLYSKL TVDKSRWQQG
NVFSCSVMHE ALHNHYTQKS LSLSPGK
(Light chain)
AIQLTQSPSS LSASVGDRVT ITCRASQGIS SALVWYQQKP GKAPKLLIYD ASSLESGVPS
RFSGSGSGTD FTLTISSLQP EDFATYYCQQ FNDYFTFGPG TKVDIKRTVA APSVFIFPPS
DEQLKSGTAS VVCLLNNFYP REAKVQWKVD NALQSGNSQE SVTEQDSKDS TYSLSSTLTL
SKADYEKHKV YACEVTHQGL SSPVTKSFNR GEC
(dimer; disulfide bridge:H22-H96, H144-H200, H220-L213, H220-H’226, H229-H’229, H261-H321, H367-H425, H’22-H’96, H’144-H’200, H’220-L’213, H’261-H’321, H’367-H’425, L23-L88, L133-L193, L’23-L’88, L’133-L’193)

Burosumab-twza, KRN 23

ブロスマブ

CAS1610833-03-8

UNII G9WJT6RD29

Protein chemical formulaC6388H9904N1700O2006S46

Protein average weight144100.0 Da

Protein Based Therapies
Monoclonal antibody (mAb)

breakthrough therapy and orphan drug designations

Approval Status:Approved April 2018

Specific Treatments:X-linked hypophosphatemia

Crysvita (burosumab-twza) is a fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) blocking antibody.

This drug is indicated for the treatment of X-linked hypophosphatemia with radiological evidence of bone disease in children of 1 year of age and older and adolescents with growing skeletons [4].

Burosumab (INN, trade name Crysvita) known as KRN23 is a human monoclonal antibody designed for the treatment of X-linked hypophosphatemia.[1][2][3] Burosumab was approved by the FDA for its intended purpose, in patients aged 1 year and older, on 17 April 2018.[4] The FDA approval fell under both the breakthrough therapy and orphan drug designations.[4]

This drug was developed by Ultragenyx and is in a collaborative license agreement with Kyowa Hakko Kirin.[5]

Burosumab (KRN23) is an entirely human monoclonal IgG1 antibody that binds excess fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and has been successfully tested in clinical trials in children with X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets [1].

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Crysvita (burosumab) in April 2018. This is the first drug approved to treat adults and children ages 1 year and older with X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH), which is a rare, inherited form of rickets. X-linked hypophosphatemia causes low circulating levels of phosphorus in the blood. It causes impaired bone growth and development in children and adolescents and issues with bone mineralization throughout a patient’s life [3].

XLH is a serious disease which affects about 3,000 children and 12,000 adults in the United States. Most children with XLH suffer from bowed or bent legs, short stature, bone pain and severe dental pain. Some adults with this condition suffer from persistent, unrelenting discomfort and complications, such as joint pain, impaired mobility, tooth abscesses and hearing loss [3]

Crysvita is specifically indicated for the treatment of X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) in adult and pediatric patients 1 year of age and older.

Crysvita is supplied as a subcutaneous injection. The recommended starting dose for pediatrics is 0.8 mg/kg of body weight, rounded to the nearest 10 mg, administered every two weeks. The minimum starting dose is 10 mg up to a maximum dose of 90 mg. After initiation of treatment with Crysvita, measure fasting serum phosphorus every 4 weeks for the first 3 months of treatment, and thereafter as appropriate. If serum phosphorus is above the lower limit of the reference range for age and below 5 mg/dL, continue treatment with the same dose. Follow dose adjustment schedule per the drug label. The recommended dose regimen in adults is 1 mg/kg body weight, rounded to the nearest 10 mg up to a maximum dose of 90 mg, administered every four weeks.  After initiation of treatment with Crysvita, assess fasting serum phosphorus on a monthly basis, measured 2 weeks post-dose, for the first 3 months of treatment, and thereafter as appropriate. If serum phosphorus is within the normal range, continue with the same dose. See drug label for specific dose adjustments.

Mechanism of Action

Crysvita (burosumab-twza) is a fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) blocking antibody. X-linked hypophosphatemia is caused by excess fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) which suppresses renal tubular phosphate reabsorption and the renal production of 1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D. Burosumab-twza binds to and inhibits the biological activity of FGF23 restoring renal phosphate reabsorption and increasing the serum concentration of 1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D.

REFERENCES

1 file:///H:/761068Orig1s000ChemR.pdf

REF

  • Kutilek S: Burosumab: A new drug to treat hypophosphatemic rickets. Sudan J Paediatr. 2017;17(2):71-73. doi: 10.24911/SJP.2017.2.11. [PubMed:29545670]
  • Kinoshita Y, Fukumoto S: X-linked hypophosphatemia and FGF23-related hypophosphatemic diseases -Prospect for new treatment. Endocr Rev. 2018 Jan 26. pii: 4825438. doi: 10.1210/er.2017-00220. [PubMed:29381780]
  • FDA approves first therapy for rare inherited form of rickets, x-linked hypophosphatemia [Link]
  • Crysvita Drug Label [Link]
  • Burosumab for a rare bone disease [Link]
  • DRUG: Burosumab [Link]
  • NHS document [Link]
  • Burosumab for XLH [Link]
Burosumab
Monoclonal antibody
Type Whole antibody
Source Human
Target FGF 23
Clinical data
Trade names Crysvita
Synonyms KRN23
ATC code
Identifiers
CAS Number
ChemSpider
  • none
UNII
KEGG
Chemical and physical data
Formula C6388H9904N1700O2006S46
Molar mass 144.1 kDa

References

//////////////Burosumab-twza, Crysvita  FDA 2018, BLA 761068, Protein Based Therapies, Monoclonal antibody, mAb, KRN 23,  breakthrough therapyorphan drug designations, Peptide, ブロスマブ

Nitisinone, ニチシノン


ChemSpider 2D Image | Nitisinone | C14H10F3NO5DB00348.pngNitisinone.svg

Nitisinone

ニチシノン

Orfadin

Launched – 2002, NTBC
SC-0735
SYN-118

2-(alpha,alpha,alpha-Trifluoro-2-nitro-p-tuluoyl)-1,3-cyclohexanedione

2-(2-Nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)cyclohexane-1,3-dione 

Priority,  Orphan

Formula
C14H10F3NO5
CAS
104206-65-7
Mol weight
329.2281
1,3-Cyclohexanedione, 2-[2-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoyl]-
104206-65-7 [RN]
2-(2-Nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)-1,3-cyclohexanedione
Orfadin®|SC-0735
QB-0882
SC0735
UNII:K5BN214699
UNII-K5BN214699
Research Code:SC-0735
Trade Name:Orfadin®
MOA:4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase inhibitor
Indication:Hereditary tyrosinemia
Company:Swedish Orphan Biovitrum AB (SOBI) (Originator)

Nitisinone is a synthetic reversible inhibitor of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase. It is used in the treatment of hereditary tyrosinemia type 1. It is sold under the brand name Orfadin.

Nitisinone was first approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on January 18, 2002, then approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) on February 21, 2005. It was developed and marketed as Orfadin® by Swedish Orphan Biovitrum AB (SOBI) in the US .

The mechanism of action of nitisinone involves reversibile inhibition of 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase(HPPD). It is indicated for use as an adjunct to dietary restriction of tyrosine and phenylalanine in the treatment of hereditary tyrosinemia type 1 (HT-1).

Orfadin® is available as capsule for oral use, containing 2, 5 or 10 mg of free Nitisinone. The recommended initial dose is 1 mg/kg/day divided into two daily doses. Maximum dose is 2 mg/kg/day.

Nitisinone was launched in 2002 by Swedish Orphan (now Swedish Orphan Biovitrum) in a capsule formulation as an adjunct to dietary restriction of tyrosine and phenylalanine in the treatment of hereditary tyrosinemia type I. In 2015, this product was launched in Japan for the same indication. The same year, an oral suspension formulation for pediatric patients was registered in the E.U., and launch took place in the United Kingdom shortly after. This formulation was approved in 2016 in the U.S. for the same indication. In 2016, nitisinone tablet formulation developed by Cycle Pharmaceuticals was approved in Canada (this formulation is also available also in the U.S.).

Indication

Used as an adjunct to dietary restriction of tyrosine and phenylalanine in the treatment of hereditary tyrosinemia type 1.

Associated Conditions

EU

Image result for EU

http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/EPAR_-_Public_assessment_report/human/004281/WC500236080.pdf

Nitisinone MendeliKABS

22 June 2017 EMA/CHMP/502860/2017

Product name, strength, pharmaceutical form: Orfadin • Marketing authorisation holder: Swedish Orphan Biovitrum International AB • Date of authorisation: 21/02/2005

Procedure No. EMEA/H/C/004281/0000

During the meeting on 22 June 2017, the CHMP, in the light of the overall data submitted and the scientific discussion within the Committee, issued a positive opinion for granting a Marketing authorisation to Nitisinone MendeliKABS.

The chemical name of nitisinone is 2-[2-Nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoyl]-1,3-cyclohexanedione corresponding to the molecular formula C14H10F3NO5. It has a relative molecular mass of 329.23 g/mol and the following structure: Figure 1. Structure of nitisinone.

Nitisinone appears as off-white to yellowish non-hygroscopic fine crystalline powder. It is practically insoluble in unbuffered water. It is freely soluble in dichloromethane, sparingly soluble in ethyl alcohol, slightly soluble in isopropyl alcohol and 70% aqueous isopropyl alcohol and in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer, very slightly soluble in pH 4.5 acetate buffer and practically insoluble at pH 1.1. Solubility in acidified aqueous media depends on the acid counter ion. Solubility increases with increasing pH. Its pKa was found to be around 10. Nitisinone is achiral and does not show polymorphism.

ALSO

2005

http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/EPAR_-_Scientific_Discussion/human/000555/WC500049192.pdf

Nitisinone is a white to yellowish-white crystalline powder poorly soluble in water. The active substance is a weak acid and it is highly soluble in the pH range 4.5-7.2 in phosphate buffer solutions. Nitisinone has the chemical name 2-(2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)-cyclohexane-1,3-dione. It does not show polymorphism.

US FDA

https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/nda/2016/206356Orig1s000ChemR.pdf

Company:  Swedish Orphan Biovitrum AB
Application No.:  206356Orig1
Approval Date: April 22, 2016

Nitisinone (INN), also known as NTBC (an abbreviation of its full chemical name) is a medication used to slow the effects of hereditary tyrosinemia type 1. Since its first use for this indication in 1991, it has replaced liver transplantation as the first-line treatment for this rare condition. It is also being studied in the related condition alkaptonuria. It is marketed under the brand name Orfadin by the company Swedish Orphan Biovitrum (Sobi); it was first brought to market by Swedish Orphan International. It was originally developed as a candidate herbicide.

Uses

Nitisinone is used to treat hereditary tyrosinemia type 1, in combination with restriction of tyrosine in the diet.[1][2][3]

Since its first use for this indication in 1991, it has replaced liver transplantation as the first-line treatment for this rare condition.[4] I It is marketed under the brand name Orfadin.

It has been demonstrated that treatment with nitisinone can reduce urinary levels of homogentisic acid in alkaptonuria patients by 95%.[5] A series of clinical trials run by DevelopAKUre to determine whether nitisinone is effective at treating the ochronosis suffered by patients with alkaptonuria are ongoing.[6] If the trials are successful, DevelopAKUre will try to get nitisinone licensed for use by alkaptonuria patients.[7]

Mechanism of action

The mechanism of action of nitisinone involves reversibile inhibition of 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD).[8][9] This is a treatment for patients with Tyrosinemia type 1 as it prevents the formation of maleylacetoacetic acid and fumarylacetoacetic acid, which have the potential to be converted to succinyl acetone, a toxin that damages the liver and kidneys.[4] This causes the symptoms of Tyrosinemia type 1 experienced by untreated patients.[10]

Alkaptonuria is caused when an enzyme called homogentisic dioxygenase (HGD) is faulty, leading to a buildup of homogenisate.[11]Alkaptonuria patients treated with nitisinone produce far less HGA than those not treated (95% less in the urine),[5] because nitisinone inhibits HPPD, resulting in less homogenisate accumulation. Clinical trials are ongoing to test whether nitisinone can prevent ochronosisexperienced by older alkaptonuria patients.[6]

Adverse effects

Nitisinone has several negative side effects; these include but are not limited to: bloated abdomen, dark urine, abdominal pain, feeling of tiredness or weakness, headache, light-colored stools, loss of appetite, weight loss, vomiting, and yellow-colored eyes or skin.[12]

Research

Nitisinone is being studied as a treatment for alkaptonuria.[13]

Research at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has demonstrated that nitisinone can reduce urinary levels of HGA by up to 95% in patients with alkaptonuria. The primary parameter of the NIH trial was range of hip motion, for which the results were inconclusive.[citation needed]

Research done using alkaptonuric mice has shown that mice treated with nitisinone experience no ochronosis in knee joint cartilage. In contrast, all of the mice in the untreated control group developed ochronotic knee joints.[14]

The efficacy of Nitisinone is now being studied in a series international clinical trials called DevelopAKUre.[15] The studies will recruit alkaptonuria patients in Europe.[16] A larger number of patients will be recruited in these trials than in the previous NIH trial.[17] The trials are funded by the European Commission.[18]

Nitisinone has been shown to increase skin and eye pigmentation in mice, and has been suggested as a possible treatment for oculocutaneous albinism.[19][20]

History

Nitisinone was discovered as part of a program to develop a class of herbicides called HPPD inhibitors. It is a member of the benzoylcyclohexane-1,3-dione family of herbicides, which are chemically derived from a natural phytotoxin, leptospermone, obtained from the Australian bottlebrush plant (Callistemon citrinus).[21] HPPD is essential in plants and animals for catabolism, or breaking apart, of tyrosine.[22] In plants, preventing this process leads to destruction of chlorophyll and the death of the plant.[22] In toxicology studies of the herbicide, it was discovered that it had activity against HPPD in rats[23] and humans.[24]

In Type I tyrosinemia, a different enzyme involved in the breakdown of tyrosine, fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase is mutated and doesn’t work, leading to very harmful products building up in the body.[1] Fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase acts on tyrosine after HPPD does, so scientists working on making herbicides in the class of HPPD inhibitors hypothesized that inhibiting HPPD and controlling tyrosine in the diet could treat this disease. A series of small clinical trials attempted with one of their compounds, nitisinone, were conducted and were successful, leading to nitisinone being brought to market as an orphan drug Swedish Orphan International,[8] which was later acquired by Swedish Orphan Biovitrum (Sobi).

Sobi is now a part of the DevelopAKUre consortium. They are responsible for drug supply and regulatory support in the ongoing clinical trials that will test the efficiacy of nitisinone as a treatment for alkaptonuria.[25] It is hoped that if the trials are successful, nitisinone could also be licensed for treatment of alkaptonuria.[7]

Generic versions

There is no generic version of Orfadin in G7 countries. Prior to the market authorization of MDK-Nitisinone in Canada, the only Nitisinone product available globally was Orfadin.[26]Until recently, Nitisinone was not approved in Canada where it was distributed for over 20 years via a Health Canada Special Access Program. In September 2016, MendeliKABS was granted approval of a Priority New Drug Submission (PNDS) by Health Canada for a bioequivalent generic version of Orfadin capsules (MDK-Nitisinone). In November 2016 Cycle Pharma was also granted approval of a PNDS by Health Canada for Nitisinone tablets that are bioequivalent to Orfadin capsules.[27] SOBI was granted approval of a PNDS in December 2016.[28]

PAPER

1H NMR, 13C NMR, and Computational DFT Studies of the Structure of 2-Acylcyclohexane-1,3-diones and Their Alkali Metal Salts in Solution

Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warszawa, Poland
J. Org. Chem.200671 (12), pp 4636–4641
DOI: 10.1021/jo060583g
Abstract Image

1H and 13C NMR spectra of 2-acyl-substituted cyclohexane-1,3-diones (acyl = formyl, 1; 2-nitrobenzoyl, 2; 2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl, 3) and lithium sodium and potassium salts of 1have been measured. The compound 3, known as NTBC, is a life-saving medicine applied in tyrosinemia type I. The optimum molecular structures of the investigated objects in solutions have been found using the DFT method with B3LYP functional and 6-31G** and/or 6-311G(2d,p) basis set. The theoretical values of the NMR parameters of the investigated compounds have been calculated using GIAO DFT B3LYP/6-311G(2d,p) method. The theoretical data obtained for compounds 13 have been exploited to interpret their experimental NMR spectra in terms of the equilibrium between different tautomers. It has been found that for these triketones an endo-tautomer prevails. The differences in NMR spectra of the salts of 1 can be rationalized taking into account the size of the cation and the degree of salt dissociation. It seems that in DMSO solution the lithium salt exists mainly as an ion pair stabilized by the chelation of a lithium cation with two oxygen atoms. The activation free energy the of formyl group rotation for this salt has been estimated to be 51.5 kJ/mol. The obtained results suggest that in all the investigated objects, including the free enolate ions, all atoms directly bonded to the carbonyl carbons lie near the same plane. Some observations concerning the chemical shift changes could indicate strong solvation of the anion of 1 by water molecules. Implications of the results obtained in this work for the inhibition mechanism of (4-hydroxyphenyl) pyruvate dioxygenase by NTBC are commented upon.

2-(2-Nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)cyclohexane-1,3-dione (NTBC; 3). The compound was prepared in the same manner as 2. The synthesis of an appropriate benzoic acid derivative was started from the transformation of commercially available 2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylaniline into benzonitrile by the classical Sandmeyer method. Then the nitrile was hydrolyzed in 65% sulfuric acid to give 2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoic acid.13 The obtained triketone 3 had a mp of 140−142 °C (lit.14 141−143 °C). For NMR data, see Supporting Information….. https://pubs.acs.org/doi/suppl/10.1021/jo060583g/suppl_file/jo060583gsi20060420_080852.pdf

NMR data for 2-(2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)cyclohexane-1,3-dione, 3, in CDCl3

1 H NMR: 16.25 (s, 1H, OH), 8.47 (ddq, 1H, H10, J10,12=1.7 Hz, J10,13=0.4 Hz, J10,F=0.7 Hz), 7.94 (ddq, 1H, H12, J12,13=8.0 Hz, J12,F=0.7 Hz), 7.39 (ddq, 1H, H13, J13,F=0.8 Hz), 2.81 (t-like m, 2H, H4, H4’, JH4,H4’= -18.8 Hz, JH4,H5=5.4 Hz, JH4,H5’=7.3 Hz, JH4,H6=0.7 Hz, JH4,H6’= -0.8 Hz), 2.37 (tlike m, 2H, H6, H6’, JH6,H6’= -16.5 Hz, JH6,H5=4.6 Hz, JH6,H5’=8. 5 Hz), 2.04 (pentet-like m, 2H, H5, H5’, JH5,H5’= -13.6 Hz.

13C NMR: 196.3 (s, C(O)Ph), 195.8 (s, C3), 194.1 (s, C1), 145.5 (s, C9), 139.7 (s, C8), 132.0 (q, C11, J11,F=34.3 Hz), 130.8 (q, C12 J12,F=3.5 Hz), 127.7 (s, C13), 122.6 (q, CF3, JC,F=272.9 Hz), 121.1 (q, C10, J10,F=3.9 Hz), 112.7 (s, C2), 37.3 (s, C6) 31.6 (s, C4), 19.1 (s, C5).

str1 str2

PATENT

EP 186118

US 4780127

File:Nitisinone synthesis.svg

 Nitisinone pk_prod_list.xml_prod_list_card_pr?p_tsearch=A&p_id=228471

The condensation of cyclohexane-1,3-dione (I) with 2-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoyl chloride by means of TEA in dichloromethane gives the target Nitisinone.EP 0186118
JP 1986152642, US 4774360, US 4780127

Image result for nitisinone synthesis

Nitisinone

    • Synonyms:NTBC, SC 0735
    • ATC:A16AX04
  • Use:treatment of inherited tyrosinemia type I
  • Chemical name:2-[2-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoyl]-1,3-cyclohexanedione
  • Formula:C14H10F3NO5
  • MW:329.23 g/mol
  • CAS-RN:104206-65-7

Substance Classes

Synthesis Path

Substances Referenced in Synthesis Path

CAS-RN Formula Chemical Name CAS Index Name
504-02-9 C6H8O2 cyclohexane-1,3-dione 1,3-Cyclohexanedione
81108-81-8 C8H3ClF3NO3 2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl chloride

Trade Names

Country Trade Name Vendor Annotation
D Orfadin Orphan Europe
USA Orfadin Swedish Orphan ,2002

Formulations

  • cps. 2 mg

References

    • WO 9 300 080 (ICI; 7.1.1993; appl. 18.6.1992; GB-prior. 24.6.1991).
    • US 4 774 360 (Stauffer Chemical; 27.9.1988; appl. 29.6.1987).
  • synergistic herbicidal combination:

    • WO 9 105 469 (Hoechst AG; 2.5.1991; appl. 12.10.1990; D-prior. 18.10.1989).
  • preparation of benzoylcyclohexanedione herbicides:

    • US 4 780 127 (Stauffer Chemical; 25.10.1988; appl. 30.6.1986; USA-prior. 25.3.1982).
  • certain 2-(2-nitrobenzoyl)-1,3-cyclohexanediones:

    • EP 186 118 (Stauffer Chemical; 2.7.1986; appl. 18.12.1985; USA-prior. 20.12.1984).
  • stable herbicidal compositions:

    • WO 9 727 748 (Zeneca; 7.8.1997; appl. 3.2.1997; USA-prior. 2.2.1996).

PATENT

US9783485B1

https://patents.google.com/patent/US9783485B1/en

NTBC is a drug marketed by Swedish Orphan Biovitrum International AB under the brand name Orfadin® and it is used to slow the effects of hereditary tyrosinemia type 1 (HT-1) in adult and pediatric patients. It has been approved by FDA and EMA in January 2002 and February 2005 respectively.

HT-1 disease is due to a deficiency of the final enzyme of the tyrosine catabolic pathway fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase. NTBC is a competitive inhibitor of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD), an enzyme which precedes fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase. By inhibiting the normal catabolism of tyrosine in patients with HT-1, NTBC prevents the accumulation of the toxic intermediates maleylacetoacetate and fumarylacetoacetate, that in patients with HT-1 are converted to the toxic metabolites succinylacetone and succinylacetoacetate, the former inhibiting the porphyrin synthesis pathway leading to the accumulation of 5-aminolevulinate.

Usefulness of NTBC in the treatment of further diseases has also been documented. A non-comprehensive list is reported hereinafter.

Effectiveness of Orfadin® in the treatment of diseases where the products of the action of HPPD are involved (e.g., HT-1) has been described notably in EP0591275B1 corresponding to U.S. Pat. No. 5,550,165B1. Synthesis of NTBC is also described in this patent.

WO2011106655 reports a method for increasing tyrosine plasma concentrations in a subject suffering from oculocutaneous/ocular albinism, the method comprising administering to the subject a pharmaceutically acceptable composition comprising NTBC in the range of between about 0.1 mg/kg/day to about 10 mg/kg/day.

U.S. Pat. No. 8,354,451B2 reports new methods of combating microbial infections due to fungi or bacteria by means of administration to a subject of a therapeutically active amount of NTBC.

WO2010054273 discloses NTBC-containing compositions and methods for the treatment and/or prevention of restless leg syndrome (RLS).

EP1853241B1 claims the use of NTBC in the treatment of a neurodegenerative disease, notably Parkinson disease.

Introne W. J., et al., disclosed usefulness of nitisinone in the treatment of alkaptonuria (Introne W. J., et al., Molec. Genet. Metab., 2011, 103, 4, 307). The key step of the synthesis reported in EP0591275B1 (now propriety of Swedish Orphan Biovitrum International AB, SE), involves the reaction of 2-nitro-4-trifluromethylbenzoyl chloride and cyclohexane-1,3-dione in the presence of triethylamine and then use of acetone cyanohydrin in order to promote the rearrangement of the key intermediate enol ester. After washing and extraction from CH2Cl2, the crude product is recrystallized from ethyl acetate to get the desired 2-(2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)-1,3-cyclohexanedione as a solid having a melting point of 88-94° C.

Another patent (U.S. Pat. No. 4,695,673) filed in name of Stauffer Chemical Company disclosed a process of synthesis of acylated 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds in which the intermediate enol ester is isolated prior to its rearrangement into the final product, said rearrangement making use of a cyanohydrin compound derived from alkali metal, methyl alkyl ketone, benzaldehyde, cyclohexanone, C2-C5aliphatic aldehyde, lower alkyl silyl or directly by using hydrogen cyanide.

Yet another patent (U.S. Pat. No. 5,006,158) filed in name of ICI Americas Inc. disclosed a process similar to the one disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,695,673 wherein the intermediate enol ester was isolated prior to its rearrangement into the final product by use of potassium cyanide. Said reaction can optionally be done by concomitant use of a phase transfer catalyst such as Crown ethers. The preferred solvent for conducting such a reaction is 1,2-dichloroethane.

Still a further patent (EP0805791) filed in name of Zeneca Ltd disclosed an alternative synthesis of nitisinone involving the reaction of 1,3-cyclohexanedione and variously substituted benzoyl chloride in the presence of sodium or potassium carbonate in CH3CN or DMF. Best yields were obtained using CH3CN as solvent and sodium carbonate as the base. Reaction was performed at 55-57° C. in 17 hours.

It is well known that one of the problems of the actual drug formulation (i.e., Orfadin® capsules) is its chemical instability. Indeed, even if Orfadin® has to be stored in a refrigerator at a temperature ranging from 2° C. to 8° C., its shelf life is of only 18 months. After first opening, the in-use stability is a single period of 2 months at a temperature not above 25° C., after which it must be discarded. It will be evident that such storage conditions have an impact in the distribution chain of the medicine, in terms of costs and also in terms of logistics for the patient. Therefore, there is an urgent need of more stable formulations, both from a logistic supply chain point of view, and from the patient compliance point of view. Since the formulation of Orfadin® contains only the active ingredient and starch as excipient, relative instability may be attributed to the active pharmaceutical ingredient itself; in other words it can derive from the way it is synthesized and/or the way it is extracted from the reaction mixture, and/or the way it is finally crystallized. Furthermore, some impurities may contribute to render the final product less stable overtime. Consequently, it is of major importance to identify a process of synthesis and/or a crystallization method that enable the reliable production of a highly pure and stable product.

Impurities as herein-above mentioned can derive either from the final product itself (through chemical degradation) or directly from the starting materials/solvents used in the process of synthesis. Regarding the latter option, it is therefore primordial to ascertain that at each step, impurities are completely removed in order not to get them at the final stage, also considering that some of them could potentially be cyto/genotoxic.

The impurities correlated to nitisinone can be either derived from the starting materials themselves (i.e., impurities 1 and 2) or obtained as side products during the process of synthesis and/or under storage conditions (i.e., impurities 3 to 5) and are the following:

    • 2-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl) benzoic acid (Impurity no 1),
    • 1,3-cyclohexanedione (CHD) (Impurity no 2),
    • 4-(trifluoromethyl)salicylic acid (Impurity no 3),
    • 2-[3-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoyl]-1,3-cyclohexanedione (Impurity no 4), and
    • 6-trifluoromethyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-xanthene-1,9-dione (Impurity no 5).
Figure US09783485-20171010-C00001


Impurity-2, impurity-3, and impurity-5 have been previously reported in WO2015101794. Strangely, impurity-4 has never been reported, even if it is an obvious side-product which can easily be formed during the coupling reaction between 1,3-cyclohexanedione and 2-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl) benzoic acid, the latter being not 100% pure but containing some amount of regioisomer 3-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl) benzoic acid.

Potential genotoxicity of impurity no 4 which possesses an aromatic nitro moiety was assessed using in-silico techniques and resulted to be a potential genotoxic impurity. According to the FDA ICH M7 guidelines, daily intake of a mutagenic impurity (Threshold of Toxicological Concern, TTC) in an amount not greater than 1.5 μg per person is considered to be associated with a negligible risk to develop cancer over a lifetime of exposure. Consequently, assuming a daily dose of 2 mg/kg, for a person weighing 70 kg, the maximum tolerated impurity content of such a compound would be of about 11 ppm, as calculated according to the equation underneath.

concentration ⁢ ⁢ limit ⁢ ⁢ ( ppm ) = T ⁢ ⁢ T ⁢ ⁢ C ⁡ ( µg / day ) Dose ⁡ ( g / day )

It is therefore of paramount importance to ensure that the process of synthesis of nitisinone and the purification steps of the same give rise to an API devoid of such impurity no 4, or at least far below the threshold of 11 ppm as indicated above. The skilled person will understand that total absence of said impurity is highly desirable.

It is well known in the pharmaceutical field that investigation of potential polymorphism of a solid API is of crucial importance and is also recommended by major regulatory authorities such as FDA.

Notwithstanding the fact that nitisinone has been used for years to treat HT-1 patients, it appears that no NTBC formulation fully satisfies the requisites of stability and/or compliance standard for the patients. Therefore, there is an unmet medical need of long-term pure and stable formulations.

Example 1

Thionyl chloride (162 g, 1.36 mol) was added dropwise into a suspension of 2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoic acid (228 g, 0.97 mol) in toluene (630 g) at 80° C. The thus obtained solution was kept under stirring at 80° C. for 20 hours, and then cooled to 50° C. The volatiles were removed under reduced pressure in order to get the expected 2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl chloride as an oil. The latter, cooled to 25° C. was added dropwise to a suspension of 1,3-cyclohexanedione (109 g, 0.97 mol) and potassium carbonate (323 g, 2.33 mol) in CH3CN (607 g). After 18 h the mixture was diluted with water (500 ml) and slowly acidified to about pH=1 with HCl 37%. The mixture was then warmed to about 55° C. and the phases were separated. The organic layer was washed with a 10% aqueous solution of sodium chloride and then, concentrated under reduced pressure at a temperature below 55° C. to reach a volume of 380 ml. The thus obtained mixture was stirred at 55° C. for 1 h and then cooled to 0° C. in 16 to 18 h. The resulting solid was filtered and rinsed several times with pre-cooled (0° C.) toluene. The wet solid was dried at 60° C. under vacuum for 6 h to provide nitisinone (164 g) as a white to yellowish solid with a purity of 98.4% as measured by HPLC and a content of potentially genotoxic impurity no 4 of 6.1 ppm measured by HPLC/MS.

Example 2

Nitisinone as obtained from example 1 (164 g) was added to a 3/1 (w/w) mixture of CH3CN/toluene (volume of solvent: 638 ml). The mixture was warmed gently to about 55° C. under stirring until solids were completely dissolved. The solution was then concentrated under reduced pressure maintaining the internal temperature below 50° C. to reach a volume of 290 ml. Then, more toluene (255 g) was added and the solution was concentrated again under reduced pressure until the residual volume reached 290 ml. The solution was heated to about 55° C. for 1 h and successively cooled slowly in 10 to 12 h to 10° C. The resulting solid was filtered and rinsed several times with pre-cooled (0° C.) toluene. The wet solid was dried at about 60° C. under vacuum for 4 h to provide nitisinone (136 g) as a white to yellowish solid, with a purity of 99.94% and a 99.8% assay measured by HPLC and a d(90) particle size between 310 and 350 μm. The content of potential genotoxic impurity no 4 resulted below 1 ppm.

CLIP

Nitisinone – WikiVisually

WikiVisually

4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase – Proposed Reaction Mechanism of HPPD

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References

  1. Jump up to:a b National Organization for Rare Disorders. Physician’s Guide to Tyrosinemia Type 1Archived 2014-02-11 at the Wayback Machine.
  2. Jump up^ “Nitisinone (Oral Route) Description and Brand Names”. Mayoclinic.com. 2015-04-01. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
  3. Jump up^ Sobi Orfadin® (nitisinone)
  4. Jump up to:a b McKiernan, Patrick J (2006). “Nitisinone in the Treatment of Hereditary Tyrosinaemia Type 1”. Drugs66 (6): 743–50. doi:10.2165/00003495-200666060-00002PMID 16706549.
  5. Jump up to:a b Introne, Wendy J.; Perry, Monique B.; Troendle, James; Tsilou, Ekaterini; Kayser, Michael A.; Suwannarat, Pim; O’Brien, Kevin E.; Bryant, Joy; Sachdev, Vandana; Reynolds, James C.; Moylan, Elizabeth; Bernardini, Isa; Gahl, William A. (2011). “A 3-year randomized therapeutic trial of nitisinone in alkaptonuria”Molecular Genetics and Metabolism103(4): 307–14. doi:10.1016/j.ymgme.2011.04.016PMC 3148330Freely accessiblePMID 21620748.
  6. Jump up to:a b “About DevelopAKUre | DevelopAKUre”. Developakure.eu. 2014-06-20. Archived from the original on 2015-05-12. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
  7. Jump up to:a b “A Potential Drug – Nitisinone”. Akusociety.org. Archived from the original on 2015-05-05. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
  8. Jump up to:a b Lock, E. A.; Ellis, M. K.; Gaskin, P.; Robinson, M.; Auton, T. R.; Provan, W. M.; Smith, L. L.; Prisbylla, M. P.; Mutter, L. C.; Lee, D. L. (1998). “From toxicological problem to therapeutic use: The discovery of the mode of action of 2-(2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)-1,3-cyclohexanedione (NTBC), its toxicology and development as a drug”. Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease21 (5): 498–506. doi:10.1023/A:1005458703363PMID 9728330.
  9. Jump up^ Kavana, Michael; Moran, Graham R. (2003). “Interaction of (4-Hydroxyphenyl)pyruvate Dioxygenase with the Specific Inhibitor 2-[2-Nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoyl]-1,3-cyclohexanedione†”. Biochemistry42 (34): 10238–45. doi:10.1021/bi034658bPMID 12939152.
  10. Jump up^ “Newborn Screening”. Newbornscreening.info. 2013-05-14. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
  11. Jump up^ “What is Alkaptonuria?”. Akusociety.org. Archived from the original on 2015-04-05. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
  12. Jump up^ “Nitisinone (Oral Route) Side Effects”. Mayoclinic.com. 2015-04-01. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
  13. Jump up^ Phornphutkul, Chanika; Introne, Wendy J.; Perry, Monique B.; Bernardini, Isa; Murphey, Mark D.; Fitzpatrick, Diana L.; Anderson, Paul D.; Huizing, Marjan; Anikster, Yair; Gerber, Lynn H.; Gahl, William A. (2002). “Natural History of Alkaptonuria”. New England Journal of Medicine347 (26): 2111–21. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa021736PMID 12501223.
  14. Jump up^ Preston, A. J.; Keenan, C. M.; Sutherland, H.; Wilson, P. J.; Wlodarski, B.; Taylor, A. M.; Williams, D. P.; Ranganath, L. R.; Gallagher, J. A.; Jarvis, J. C. (2013). “Ochronotic osteoarthropathy in a mouse model of alkaptonuria, and its inhibition by nitisinone”. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases73 (1): 284–9. doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2012-202878PMID 23511227.
  15. Jump up^ “DevelopAKUre”. Developakure.eu. 2014-06-20. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
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  18. Jump up^ “European Commission : CORDIS : Search : Simple”. Cordis.europa.eu. 2012-05-30. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
  19. Jump up^ Onojafe, Ighovie F.; Adams, David R.; Simeonov, Dimitre R.; Zhang, Jun; Chan, Chi-Chao; Bernardini, Isa M.; Sergeev, Yuri V.; Dolinska, Monika B.; Alur, Ramakrishna P.; Brilliant, Murray H.; Gahl, William A.; Brooks, Brian P. (2011). “Nitisinone improves eye and skin pigmentation defects in a mouse model of oculocutaneous albinism”Journal of Clinical Investigation121 (10): 3914–23. doi:10.1172/JCI59372PMC 3223618Freely accessiblePMID 21968110Lay summary – ScienceDaily (September 26, 2011).
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  22. Jump up to:a b Moran, Graham R. (2005). “4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase”. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics433 (1): 117–28. doi:10.1016/j.abb.2004.08.015PMID 15581571.
  23. Jump up^ Ellis, M.K.; Whitfield, A.C.; Gowans, L.A.; Auton, T.R.; Provan, W.M.; Lock, E.A.; Smith, L.L. (1995). “Inhibition of 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate Dioxygenase by 2-(2-Nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)-cyclohexane-1,3-dione and 2-(2-Chloro-4-methanesulfonylbenzoyl)-cyclohexane-1,3-dione”. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology133 (1): 12–9. doi:10.1006/taap.1995.1121PMID 7597701.
  24. Jump up^ Lindstedt, Sven; Odelhög, Birgit (1987). “4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase from human liver”. In Kaufman, Seymour. Metabolism of Aromatic Amino Acids and Amines. Methods in Enzymology. 142. pp. 139–42. doi:10.1016/S0076-6879(87)42021-1ISBN 978-0-12-182042-8PMID 3037254.
  25. Jump up^ “Others | DevelopAKUre”. Developakure.eu. 2014-06-20. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
  26. Jump up^ Pr MDK-Nitisinone Summary Basis of Decisions, Health Canada 2016. http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/dhp-mps/prodpharma/sbd-smd/drug-med/sbd-smd-2016-mdk-nitisinone-190564-eng.php
  27. Jump up^ Pr Nitisinone Tablets Regulatory Decision Summary Health Canada, 2016. http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/dhp-mps/prodpharma/rds-sdr/drug-med/rds-sdr-nitisinone-tab-193770-eng.php
  28. Jump up^ PrOrfadin Regulatory Decision Summary Health Canada, 2016. http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/dhp-mps/prodpharma/rds-sdr/drug-med/rds-sdr-orfadin-193226-eng.php

External links

Nitisinone
Nitisinone.svg
Clinical data
AHFS/Drugs.com Consumer Drug Information
License data
Routes of
administration
Oral
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Elimination half-life Approximately 54 h
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
IUPHAR/BPS
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
ChEMBL
ECHA InfoCard 100.218.521 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
Formula C14H10F3NO5
Molar mass 329.228 g/mol
3D model (JSmol)
Title: Nitisinone
CAS Registry Number: 104206-65-7
CAS Name: 2-[2-Nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoyl]-1,3-cyclohexanedione
Additional Names: NTBC
Trademarks: Orfadin (Swedish Orphan )
Molecular Formula: C14H10F3NO5
Molecular Weight: 329.23
Percent Composition: C 51.07%, H 3.06%, F 17.31%, N 4.25%, O 24.30%
Literature References: Herbicidal triketone that inhibits 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD), an enzyme involved in plastoquinone biosynthesis in plants and in tyrosine catabolism in mammals. Prepn: C. G. Carter, EP 186118 (1986 to Stauffer); idem, US 5006158 (1991 to ICI). Inhibition of HPPD in plants: M. P. Prisbylla et al., Brighton Crop Prot. Conf. – Weeds 1993, 731; in rats: M. K. Ellis et al., Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 133, 12 (1995). LC determn in plasma: M. Bielenstein et al., J. Chromatogr. B 730,177 (1999). Clinical evaluation in hereditary tyrosinemia type I: S. Lindstedt et al., Lancet 340, 813 (1992). Review of toxicology and therapeutic development: E. A. Lock et al, J. Inherited Metab. Dis. 21, 498-506 (1998); of clinical experience: E. Holme, S. Lindstedt, ibid. 507-517.
Properties: Solid, mp 88-94°.
Melting point: mp 88-94°
Therap-Cat: In treatment of inherited tyrosinemia type I.

////////////////Nitisinone, ニチシノン , Orfadin, FDA 2002, NTBC  , SC-0735  , SYN-118 , JAPAN 2015, JAP 2015, EU 2005, Priority,  Orphan

[O-][N+](=O)C1=C(C=CC(=C1)C(F)(F)F)C(=O)C1C(=O)CCCC1=O

ONC201 disrupts mitochondrial function and kills breast cancer cells, reveals study — Med-Chemist


TRAIL, a member of the TNF family of ligands, causes caspase-dependent apoptosis through activation of its receptors, death receptor 4 and DR5.ONC201 was originally identified as a small molecule that inhibits both Akt and ERK, resulting in dephosphorylation of Foxo3a and thereby induces TRAIL transcription.Recently, two independent groups, Wafik El Deiry at Fox Chase and…

via ONC201 disrupts mitochondrial function and kills breast cancer cells, reveals study — Med-Chemist

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