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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D ( ICT, Mumbai) , INDIA 29Yrs Exp. in the feld of Organic Chemistry,Working for GLENMARK PHARMA at Navi Mumbai, INDIA. Serving chemists around the world. Helping them with websites on Chemistry.Million hits on google, NO ADVERTISEMENTS , ACADEMIC , NON COMMERCIAL SITE, world acclamation from industry, academia, drug authorities for websites, blogs and educational contribution, ........amcrasto@gmail.com..........+91 9323115463, Skype amcrasto64 View Anthony Melvin Crasto Ph.D's profile on LinkedIn Anthony Melvin Crasto Dr.

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK LIFE SCIENCES LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 PLUS year tenure till date June 2021, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 90 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, 233 countries, 7 continents, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 33 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 233 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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CLOSANTEL


Closantel.png
FIGURE 1

CLOSANTEL

Closantel

57808-65-8

N-(5-chloro-4-((4-chlorophenyl)(cyano)methyl)-2-methylphenyl)-2-hydroxy-3,5-diiodobenzamide

MW 663.1,

C22H14Cl2I2N2O2
Closantel Sodium

Closantel Sodium

CAS NO. 61438-64-0

FORMULAC22H13Cl2I2N2O2.Na
M. WT685.06

Closantel

CAS Registry Number: 57808-65-8

CAS Name:N-[5-Chloro-4-[(4-chlorophenyl)cyanomethyl]-2-methylphenyl]-2-hydroxy-3,5-diiodobenzamide

Manufacturers’ Codes: R-31520

Trademarks: Flukiver (Janssen); Seponver (Ethnor)

Molecular Formula: C22H14Cl2I2N2O2, Molecular Weight: 663.07

Percent Composition: C 39.85%, H 2.13%, Cl 10.69%, I 38.28%, N 4.22%, O 4.83%

Literature References: Salicylanilide derivative. Prepn: M. A. C. Janssen, V. K. Sipido, BE839481eidem,US4005218 (1976, 1977 both to Janssen). Effectiveness against Taenia pisiformis in rabbits: R. A. F. Chevis et al.,Vet. Parasitol.7, 333 (1980); against Ancylostoma caninum: J. Guerrero et al.,J. Parasitol.68, 616 (1983); against Fasciola hepatica in sheep: B. E. Stromberg et al.,ibid.70, 446 (1984). Prolonged effect on Haemonchus contortus in sheep: C. A. Hall et al.,Res. Vet. Sci.31, 104 (1981). Acts by uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation: H. Van den Bossche et al.,Arch. Int. Physiol. Biochim.87, 851 (1979); H. J. Kane et al.,Mol. Biochem. Parasitol.1, 347 (1980).

Properties: Crystals from methanol, mp 217.8°.

Melting point: mp 217.8°

Therap-Cat-Vet: Anthelmintic.

N-{5-chloro-4-[(4-chlorophenyl)(cyano)methyl]-2-methylphenyl}-2-hydroxy-3,5-diiodobenzamide is an aromatic amide resulting from the formal condensation of the carboxy group of 3,5-diiodosalicylic acid with the amino group of aniline substituted at positions 2, 4, and 5 by methyl, (4-chlorophenyl)(cyano)methyl, and methyl groups respectively. It is a nitrile, a member of phenols, an organoiodine compound, a monocarboxylic acid amide, an aromatic amide and a member of monochlorobenzenes.

Closantel is a broad-spectrum antiparasitic agent used against
    several species and developmental stages of trematodes, nematodes and
    arthropods.  The anti-trematode activity of closantel is mainly used
    against liver fluke.  The anti-nematode and anti-arthropod activity is
    especially used against those species which feed on blood or plasma. 

         The drug is widely used in sheep and cattle and can be used
    either parenterally (s.c. or i.m.) or orally for both prophylactic and
    therapeutic purposes and is available as drench, bolus and injectable
    formulations.  Closantel has also been combined with mebendazole and
    several other benzimidazoles in drench formulations for sheep and with
    levamisole in a bolus for cattle (Marsboom et al., 1989). 
    Closantel has not been evaluated previously by the Joint FAO/WHO
    Expert Committee on Food Additives.

PATENT

https://patents.google.com/patent/CN102180811B/en

Closantel sodium (Closantel Sodium) is a kind of very strong oxidative phosphorylation uncoupler, can suppress the mitochondrial phosphorylation process of polypide, nematode and insect etc. are contacted with blood circulation closely or sucking blood property worm all has and efficiently kills effect, be a kind of broad-spectrum de-worming medicine of efficient, low toxicity, it is huge on market a very large development potentiality.

And 4-chloro-phenyl–(the chloro-4-amino of 2–5-aminomethyl phenyl) cyano group methane is a kind of key intermediate for the synthesis of closantel sodium.But in prior art, the report of the synthetic method of relevant 4-chloro-phenyl–(the chloro-4-amino of 2–5-aminomethyl phenyl) cyano group methane is actually rare, is mainly the iron powder reducing synthetic method.As United States Patent (USP) (US4005218) relates to a kind of with the chloro-α of 4–[the chloro-4-of 2-(hydroxyl imido grpup)-5-methyl-2, the 5-phenylidene] benzyl cyanide (I) is raw material, with excessive iron powder, in ammonium chloride, water and toluene mixing solutions, heating reflux reaction, filter, clean filter cake with a large amount of solvents as tetrahydrofuran (THF) or 4-methyl-2 pentanone, filtrate boils off solvent, then adds the toluene recrystallization to obtain 4-chloro-phenyl–(the chloro-4-amino of 2–5-aminomethyl phenyl) cyano group methane (II).This reaction equation is:

But it is loaded down with trivial details that the shortcoming of the method is operating procedure, the supplementary material consumption is large, and, with producing a large amount of scrap iron powder after iron powder reducing, comparatively thickness, easily comprise product and impurity, and cost recovery is very high, and labour intensity is large, larger to the pollution effect of environment; And product yield and product quality lower.

//////////

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RESEARCHGATE

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PATENTS

CN103054846

WO2015048718

US2015164934

WO2016038035

CN105687172

WO2018013890

WO2018210449

WO2019222349

CN111150725

CN112294793

///////CLOSANTEL, veterinary

CC1=CC(=C(C=C1NC(=O)C2=C(C(=CC(=C2)I)I)O)Cl)C(C#N)C3=CC=C(C=C3)Cl

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MONENSIN


Monensin A.svg
ChemSpider 2D Image | Monensin | C36H62O11
17090-79-8.png

モネンシン;

MONENSIN

Elancoban [veterinary] (TN)

  • Molecular FormulaC36H62O11
  • Average mass670.871 Da

1,6-dioxaspiro[4.5]decane-7-butanoic acid, 2-[(2S,2’R,3’S,5R,5’R)-2-ethyloctahydro-3′-methyl-5′-[(2S,3S,5R,6R)-tetrahydro-6-hydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)-3,5-dimethyl-2H-pyran-2-yl][2,2′-bifuran]-5-yl]-9-hydroxy-β-methoxy-α,γ,2,8-tetramethyl-, (αS,βR,γS,2S,5R,7S,8R,9S)-

17090-79-8[RN]

241-154-0[EINECS]

(2S,3R,4S)-4-[(2S,5R,7S,8R,9S)-2-{(2S,2’R,3’S,5R,5’R)-2-Ethyl-5′-[(2S,3S,5R,6R)-6-hydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)-3,5-dimethyltetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl]-3′-methyloctahydro-2,2′-bifuran-5-yl}-9-hydroxy-2,8-di methyl-1,6-dioxaspiro[4.5]dec-7-yl]-3-methoxy-2-methylpentanoic acid

монензин[Russian]

مونانسين[Arabic]

莫能星[Chinese]

Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiprotozoal

Monensin sodium salt 90-95% (TLC)

Synonym(s):

Monensin A sodium salt

Empirical Formula (Hill Notation):C36H61NaO11

CAS Number:22373-78-0

Molecular Weight:692.85

Beilstein:4122200

Title: Monensin

CAS Registry Number: 17090-79-8

CAS Name: 2-[5-Ethyltetrahydro-5-[tetrahydro-3-methyl-5-[tetrahydro-6-hydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)-3,5-dimethyl-2H-pyran-2-yl]-2-furyl]-2-furyl]-9-hydroxy-b-methoxy-a,g,2,8-tetramethyl-1,6-dioxaspiro[4.5]decane-7-butyric acid

Additional Names: monensic acid (obsolete)

Manufacturers’ Codes: A-3823A

Molecular Formula: C36H62O11, Molecular Weight: 670.87

Percent Composition: C 64.45%, H 9.32%, O 26.23%

Literature References: Polyether antibiotic. Major factor in antibiotic complex isolated from Streptomyces cinnamonensis. Discovery and isolation: Haney, Hoehn, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.1967, 349. Production: Haney, Hoehn, US3501568 (1970 to Lilly). Structure: Agtarap et al.,J. Am. Chem. Soc.89, 5737 (1967). Crystal structure studies: Lutz et al.,Helv. Chim. Acta53, 1732 (1970); ibid.54, 1103 (1971). Fermentation studies: Stark et al.,Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.1967, 353. Chemistry: Agtarap, Chamberlin, ibid. 359. Stereocontrolled total synthesis: T. Fukuyama et al.,J. Am. Chem. Soc.101, 262 (1979); D. B. Collum et al.,ibid.102, 2117, 2118, 2120 (1980). 13C-NMR study: J. A. Robinson, D. L. Turner, Chem. Commun.1982, 148. Biosynthesis: Day et al.,Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.4, 410 (1973). Review: Stark, “Monensin, A New Biologically Active Compound Produced by a Fermentation Process”, in Fermentation Advances, Pap. Int. Ferment. Symp., 3rd, 1968, D. Perlman, Ed. (Academic Press, New York, 1969) pp 517-540.

Properties: Crystals, mp 103-105° (monohydrate). [a]D +47.7°. pKa 6.6 (in 66% DMF). Very stable under alkaline conditions. Slightly sol in water; more sol in hydrocarbons; very sol in other organic solvents. LD50 of monensin complex in mice, chicks (mg/kg): 43.8 ± 5.2, 284 ± 47 orally (Haney, Hoehn).

Melting point: mp 103-105° (monohydrate)

pKa: pKa 6.6 (in 66% DMF)

Optical Rotation: [a]D +47.7°

Toxicity data: LD50 of monensin complex in mice, chicks (mg/kg): 43.8 ± 5.2, 284 ± 47 orally (Haney, Hoehn)

Derivative Type: Sodium salt

Trademarks: Coban (Elanco); Romensin (Elanco); Rumensin (Elanco)

Molecular Formula: C36H61NaO11, Molecular Weight: 692.85

Percent Composition: C 62.41%, H 8.87%, Na 3.32%, O 25.40%

Properties: mp 267-269°. [a]D +57.3° (methanol). Slightly sol in water; more sol in hydrocarbons; very sol in other organic solvents.

Melting point: mp 267-269°

Optical Rotation: [a]D +57.3° (methanol)

Therap-Cat-Vet: Coccidiostat. Feed additive to improve feed efficiency in ruminants.

Monensin is a polyether antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces cinnamonensis.[1] It is widely used in ruminant animal feeds.[1][2]

The structure of monensin was first described by Agtarap et al. in 1967, and was the first polyether antibiotic to have its structure elucidated in this way. The first total synthesis of monensin was reported in 1979 by Kishi et al.[3]

SYN

File:Monensin.png

SYN

Production / synthesis Monensin is produced in vivo by Streptomyces cinnamonensis as a natural defense against competing bacteria. Monensin presents a formidable challenge to synthetic chemists as it possesses 17 asymmetric centers on a backbone of only 26 carbon atoms. Although its total synthesis has been described (e.g., Kishi et al., 1979), the high complexity of monensin makes an extraction from the bacterium the most economical procedure for its production. The total synthesis has 56 steps and a yield of only 0.26%. The chemical precursors are 2-allyl-1,3-propanediol and 2- (furan-2-yl)acetonitrile. The method used for synthesizing monensin is based on the principle of “absolute asymmetric synthesis”. Molecules are constructed out of prefabricated building blocks in the correct conformation, aiming for higher yields of the desired enantiomer. New stereocenters are also introduced. Using this method, monensin is assembled in two parts, a larger right side and a smaller left one. The penultimate step is connecting the left and the right halves of monensin, which are independently generated, in an Aldol-condensation. The two halves’ keto end groups (C7/ C8) are linked by eliminating a water molecule. The C7 atom is favored over the C1 atom, because it is more reactive. For catalyzing this step, Yoshito Kishi’s group used iPr2NMgBr (Hauser base) and THF to coordinate it at a temperature of − 78°C. Thus, they were able to isolate the molecule in the right conformation at a ratio of 8:1. Due to the low temperature required for a high yield of the correct enantiomer, the reaction is very solw. One of the most difficult steps is the last one: the connection of the spiro center. This is due to a characteristic feature of spiro compounds; they open and close very easily. Therefore, the conditions for forming the right conformation must be optimal in the last step of synthesis. The biosynthesis in a cell culture of Streptomyces cinnamonensis involves a complex medium containing, among other components, glucose, soybean oil, and grit. Cultivation is carried out for a week at a temperature of 30°C and under constant aeration. Product isolation requires filtration, acidification to pH3, extraction with chloroform and purification with activated carbon. In this way, a few grams per liter of monensin are produced and isolated. For crystallization, azeotropic distillation is necessary. In vivo, polyether backbones are assembled by modular polyketide synthases and are modified by two key enzymes, epoxidase and epoxide hydrolase, to generate the product. Precursors of the polyketide pathway are acetate, butyrate and propionate.

SYN

The final-stage aldol addition in Yoshito Kishi‘s 1979 total synthesis of monensin. (1979). “Synthetic studies on polyether antibiotics. 6. Total synthesis of monensin. 3. Stereocontrolled total synthesis of monensin”. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 101 (1): 262–263. DOI:10.1021/ja00495a066.

File:Monensin total synthesis Kishi 1979 JACS final stage aldol coupling.png

SYN

A polyether antibiotic, Monensin was the first member of this class of molecules to be structurally characterized.1 The structural features of these polyethers comprise of a terminal carboxylic acid, multiple cyclic ether rings (ex. Tetrahydrofuran and tetrahydropyran), a large amount of stereocenters and (for many of these molecules) one or more spiroketal moieties.2 Monensin was introduced into the market in 1971 and is used to fight coccidial infections in poultry and as an additive in cattle feed.3 Of the 26 carbon atom’s in Monensin’s backbone, 17 are stereogenic and six of those are contiguous. Coupled with a spiroketal moiety, three hydrofuran rings and two hydropyran rings, the molecule was an attractive synthetic target.

1. Agtarap, A.; Chamberlain, J.W.; Pinkerton, M.; Stein-rauf, L. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1967, 89, 5737 2. Polyether Antibiotics : Naturally Occurring Acid Ionophores. Westley J.W.; Marcel Dekker: New York (1982) Vol. 1-2. 3. Stark, W.M. In Fermentation Advances, Perlman, D., Ed., Academic Press: New York, 1969, 517

Retrosynthetic Analysis of Monensin

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Mechanism of action

The structure of the sodium (Na+) complex of monensin A.

Monensin A is an ionophore related to the crown ethers with a preference to form complexes with monovalent cations such as: Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, Ag+, and Tl+.[4][5] Monensin A is able to transport these cations across lipid membranes of cells in an electroneutral (i.e. non-depolarizing) exchange, playing an important role as an Na+/H+ antiporter. Recent studies have shown that monensin may transport sodium ion through the membrane in both electrogenic and electroneutral manner.[6] This approach explains ionophoric ability and in consequence antibacterial properties of not only parental monensin, but also its derivatives that do not possess carboxylic groups. It blocks intracellular protein transport, and exhibits antibioticantimalarial, and other biological activities.[7] The antibacterial properties of monensin and its derivatives are a result of their ability to transport metal cations through cellular and subcellular membranes.[8]

Uses

Monensin is used extensively in the beef and dairy industries to prevent coccidiosis, increase the production of propionic acid and prevent bloat.[9] Furthermore, monensin, but also its derivatives monensin methyl ester (MME), and particularly monensin decyl ester (MDE) are widely used in ion-selective electrodes.[10][11][12]

In laboratory research, monensin is used extensively to block Golgi transport.[13][14][15]

Toxicity

Monensin has some degree of activity on mammalian cells and thus toxicity is common. This is especially pronounced in horses, where monensin has a median lethal dose 1/100th that of ruminants. Accidental poisoning of equines with monensin is a well-documented occurrence which has resulted in deaths.[16]

References

  1. Jump up to:a b Daniel Łowicki and Adam Huczyński (2013). “Structure and Antimicrobial Properties of Monensin A and Its Derivatives: Summary of the Achievements”BioMed Research International2013: 1–14. doi:10.1155/2013/742149PMC 3586448PMID 23509771.
  2. ^ Butaye, P.; Devriese, L. A.; Haesebrouck, F. (2003). “Antimicrobial Growth Promoters Used in Animal Feed: Effects of Less Well Known Antibiotics on Gram-Positive Bacteria”Clinical Microbiology Reviews16 (2): 175–188. doi:10.1128/CMR.16.2.175-188.2003PMC 153145PMID 12692092.
  3. ^ Nicolaou, K. C.; E. J. Sorensen (1996). Classics in Total Synthesis. Weinheim, Germany: VCH. pp. 185–187. ISBN 3-527-29284-5.
  4. ^ Huczyński, A.; Ratajczak-Sitarz, M.; Katrusiak, A.; Brzezinski, B. (2007). “Molecular structure of the 1:1 inclusion complex of Monensin A lithium salt with acetonitrile”. J. Mol. Struct. 871 (1–3): 92–97. Bibcode:2007JMoSt.871…92Hdoi:10.1016/j.molstruc.2006.07.046.
  5. ^ Pinkerton, M.; Steinrauf, L. K. (1970). “Molecular structure of monovalent metal cation complexes of monensin”. J. Mol. Biol. 49 (3): 533–546. doi:10.1016/0022-2836(70)90279-2PMID 5453344.
  6. ^ Huczyński, Adam; Jan Janczak; Daniel Łowicki; Bogumil Brzezinski (2012). “Monensin A acid complexes as a model of electrogenic transport of sodium cation”Biochim. Biophys. Acta1818 (9): 2108–2119. doi:10.1016/j.bbamem.2012.04.017PMID 22564680.
  7. ^ Mollenhauer, H. H.; Morre, D. J.; Rowe, L. D. (1990). “Alteration of intracellular traffic by monensin; mechanism, specificity and relationship to toxicity”Biochim. Biophys. Acta1031 (2): 225–246. doi:10.1016/0304-4157(90)90008-ZPMC 7148783PMID 2160275.
  8. ^ Huczyński, A.; Stefańska, J.; Przybylski, P.; Brzezinski, B.; Bartl, F. (2008). “Synthesis and antimicrobial properties of Monensin A esters”. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 18 (8): 2585–2589. doi:10.1016/j.bmcl.2008.03.038PMID 18375122.
  9. ^ Matsuoka, T.; Novilla, M.N.; Thomson, T.D.; Donoho, A.L. (1996). “Review of monensin toxicosis in horses”. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science16: 8–15. doi:10.1016/S0737-0806(96)80059-1.
  10. ^ Tohda, Koji; Suzuki, Koji; Kosuge, Nobutaka; Nagashima, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Kazuhiko; Inoue, Hidenari; Shirai, Tsuneo (1990). “A sodium ion selective electrode based on a highly lipophilic monensin derivative and its application to the measurement of sodium ion concentrations in serum”Analytical Sciences6 (2): 227–232. doi:10.2116/analsci.6.227.
  11. ^ Kim, N.; Park, K.; Park, I.; Cho, Y.; Bae, Y. (2005). “Application of a taste evaluation system to the monitoring of Kimchi fermentation”. Biosensors and Bioelectronics20 (11): 2283–2291. doi:10.1016/j.bios.2004.10.007PMID 15797327.
  12. ^ Toko, K. (2000). “Taste Sensor”. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical64 (1–3): 205–215. doi:10.1016/S0925-4005(99)00508-0.
  13. ^ Griffiths, G.; Quinn, P.; Warren, G. (March 1983). “Dissection of the Golgi complex. I. Monensin inhibits the transport of viral membrane proteins from medial to trans Golgi cisternae in baby hamster kidney cells infected with Semliki Forest virus”The Journal of Cell Biology96 (3): 835–850. doi:10.1083/jcb.96.3.835ISSN 0021-9525PMC 2112386PMID 6682112.
  14. ^ Kallen, K. J.; Quinn, P.; Allan, D. (1993-02-24). “Monensin inhibits synthesis of plasma membrane sphingomyelin by blocking transport of ceramide through the Golgi: evidence for two sites of sphingomyelin synthesis in BHK cells”. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) – Lipids and Lipid Metabolism1166 (2–3): 305–308. doi:10.1016/0005-2760(93)90111-lISSN 0006-3002PMID 8443249.
  15. ^ Zhang, G. F.; Driouich, A.; Staehelin, L. A. (December 1996). “Monensin-induced redistribution of enzymes and products from Golgi stacks to swollen vesicles in plant cells”. European Journal of Cell Biology71 (4): 332–340. ISSN 0171-9335PMID 8980903.
  16. ^ “Tainted feed blamed for 4 horse deaths at Florida stable”. 2014-12-16.
Names
Preferred IUPAC name(2S,3R,4S)-4-[(2S,5R,7S,8R,9S)-2-{(2S,2′R,3′S,5R,5′R)-2-Ethyl-5′-[(2S,3S,5R,6R)-6-hydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)-3,5-dimethyloxan-2-yl]-3′-methyl[2,2′-bioxolan]-5-yl}-9-hydroxy-2,8-dimethyl-1,6-dioxaspiro[4.5]decan-7-yl]-3-methoxy-2-methylpentanoic acid
Other namesMonensic acid
Identifiers
CAS Number17090-79-8 
3D model (JSmol)Interactive image
ChEBICHEBI:27617 
ChEMBLChEMBL256105 
ChemSpider389937 
ECHA InfoCard100.037.398 
E numberE714 (antibiotics)
KEGGD08228 
PubChemCID441145
UNII906O0YJ6ZP 
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)DTXSID4048561 
showInChI
showSMILES
Properties
Chemical formulaC36H62O11
Molar mass670.871 g/mol
Appearancesolid state, white crystals
Melting point104 °C (219 °F; 377 K)
Solubility in water3×10−6 g/dm3 (20 °C)
Solubilityethanolacetonediethyl etherbenzene
Pharmacology
ATCvet codeQA16QA06 (WHOQP51AH03 (WHO)
Related compounds
Relatedantibioticsionophores
Related compoundsMonensin A methyl ester,
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).☒verify (what is ?)Infobox references

///////////MONENSIN, Elancoban, VETERINARY, Coccidiostat, A-3823A, A 3823A

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SIBUTRAMINE


Sibutramine.svg

SIBUTRAMINE

  • Molecular FormulaC17H26ClN
  • Average mass279.848 Da

1-(4-Chlorophenyl)-N,N-dimethyl-a-(2-methylpropyl)cyclobutane methanamine

1-[1-(4-Chlorophenyl)cyclobutyl]-N,N,3-trimethyl-1-butanamine

106650-56-0[RN]

106650-56-0 (Sibutramine );

125494-59-9 (Sibutramine HCl Monohydrate);

84485-00-7 (Sibutramine HCl);

6124

UNII:WV5EC51866, WV5EC51866

сибутрамин[Russian]

سيبوترامين[Arabic]

西布曲明[Chinese]

Drug Name:Sibutramine Hydrochloride Hydrate

Research Code:BTS-54524

Trade Name:Meridia®

MOA:Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor

Indication:Obesity

Status:Withdrawn

Company:Abbott (Originator)

Sibutramine hydrochloride monohydrate, KES-524, BTS-54524, Meridia, Reductil

Sibutramine, formerly sold under the brand name Meridia among others, is an appetite suppressant which has been discontinued in many countries. Until 2010, it was widely marketed and prescribed as an adjunct in the treatment of obesity along with diet and exercise. It has been associated with increased cardiovascular events and strokes and has been withdrawn from the market in several countries and regions including Australia,[1] Canada,[2] China,[3] the European Union,[4] Hong Kong,[5] India,[6] MexicoNew Zealand,[7] the Philippines,[8] Thailand,[9] the United Kingdom,[10] and the United States.[11] However, the drug remains available in some countries.[12]

Sibutramine was originally developed in 1988 by Boots in Nottingham, UK,[13] and marketed by Knoll Pharmaceuticals after BASF/Knoll AG purchased the Boots Research Division in 1995, and was most recently manufactured and marketed by Abbott Laboratories before its withdrawal from most markets. It has been sold under a variety of brand names including Reductil, Meridia, Siredia, and Sibutrex. It is classified as a Schedule IV controlled substance in the United States.

Sibutramine hydrochloride hydrate was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on Nov 16, 1997. It was developed and marketed as Meridia® by Abbott in the US.

Sibutramine hydrochloride hydrate is a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, it produces its therapeutic effects by norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine reuptake inhibition. Meridia® is indicated for the management of obesity, including weight loss and maintenance of weight loss, and should be used in conjunction with a reduced calorie diet.

Meridia® is available as capsule for oral use, containing 5, 10 or 15 mg of Sibutramine hydrochloride hydrate. The recommended dose is initiated at 10 mg once daily with or without food and may increase to 15 mg once daily.

Sibutramine has been withdrawn from the market in several countries and regions since 2010, owning to its side effect that associated with increased cardiovascular events and strokes.Route 1

Reference:1. US4746680A / US4806570A.

2. US4929629A.

SYN

File:Sibutramin synthesis.PNG

SYN

File:Sibutramine Synthesis.png

SYN

PAT

https://patents.google.com/patent/KR20060019351A/en

Sibutramine hydrochloride (Sibutramine HCl: C 17 H 26 CIN HCl) is a chemical name {1- [1- (4-chlorophenyl) -cyclobutyl] -3-methylbutyl} -dimethylamine hydrochloride, and has the structure of Formula 1 .

Figure 112004038703885-PAT00001

Sibutramine was originally developed as a drug for the treatment of depression and was found to give weight to patients taking this drug. It was developed as an anti-obesity drug. Let your appetite decrease.

Korean Patent Publication No. 1990-274 (corresponding patent DE3212682 (Boots), filed Oct. 21, 1982; priority GB 1981.4.6.) For the preparation of 1- (1-arylcyclobutyl) alkylamine derivative comprising sibutramine It is described. The method for synthesizing sibutramine described in this document proceeds in a total of five steps as follows.

Step A

Figure 112004038703885-PAT00002

1- (4-chlorophenyl) -1-cyclobutyl cyanide is obtained from 4-Chlorobenzyl cyanide. Examples of the actual synthesis method described in this document are as follows.

After dissolving 25 g of 4-chlorobenzyl cyanide and 15 ml of 1,3-dibromopropane in 150 ml of DMSO, the solution was dissolved in nitrogen at room temperature (20-35 ° C.) and 7.5 g of NaH dispersed in mineral oil. And 200 ml of DMSO was added dropwise. The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 2 hours, 8 ml of IPA was added dropwise, and 110 ml of water was added dropwise. The mixture is filtered through CELITE ™ and the solid residue is washed with ether. The ether layer is separated, washed with water, dried, evaporated and vacuum distilled at high temperature to separate the desired 1- (4-chlorophenyl) -1-cyclobutyl cyanide. The total reaction time of this step is 5 hours and the yield from the starting material is 78%.

Step B

Figure 112004038703885-PAT00003

1- [1- (4-chlorophenyl) -cyanobutyl] -3-methyl-butan-1-one is obtained from 1- (4-chlorophenyl) -1-cyclobutyl cyanide. Specific synthesis examples are as follows. 35.2 g of 1- (4-chlorophenyl) -1-cyclobutyl cyanide are dissolved in 100 ml of ether and this solution is added to the product prepared by the reaction of 32 g of propylbromide and 6.36 g of magnesium. The ether is replaced with toluene and the mixture is heated under reflux for 1 hour. After adding water, concentrated hydrochloric acid is added, and the mixture is heated under reflux for 1 hour. The mixture obtained in the same manner as in the previous step was treated with ether, water, dried and evaporated and then vacuum distilled to give the desired 1- [1- (4-chlorophenyl) -cyanobutyl] -3-methyl-butan-1-one. To separate. The reaction time of this step is a total of 22 hours, the yield is 81%. The target product is bp 100-120 ° C / 0.2 mm / Hg.

Step C

Figure 112004038703885-PAT00004

N- {1- [1- (4-chlorophenyl) -cyclobutyl] -3-methylbutyl from 1- [1- (4-chlorophenyl) -cyanobutyl] -3-methyl-butan-1-one } Formamide is obtained. Specific synthesis examples are as follows. To 23.5 ml of formamide, 37 g (0.14 mol) of 1- [1- (4-chlorophenyl) -cyanobutyl] -3-methyl-butan-1-one and 9 ml of HCOOH were added dropwise at 160-170 ° C. The temperature is maintained at 175 ° C. to 180 ° C. for 24 hours. The mixture is extracted with ether and concentrated to afford an oil, which crystallizes the desired N- {1- [1- (4-chlorophenyl) -cyclobutyl] -3-methylbutyl} formamide from petroleum ether. The reaction time of this step is a total of 24 hours, the yield is 39%. The target is mp 110-112 ° C.

Step D

Figure 112004038703885-PAT00005

1- [1- (4-chlorophenyl) -cyclobutyl] -3-methylbutylamine hydrochloride from N- {1- [1- (4-chlorophenyl) -cyclobutyl] -3-methylbutyl} formamide Get Specific synthesis examples are as follows. 4 g of N- {1- [1- (4-chlorophenyl) -cyclobutyl] -3-methylbutyl} formamide, 25 ml of 2-methoxyethyl ether, 10 ml of water and 22 ml of concentrated hydrochloric acid were refluxed for 18 hours. Stir under. Dilute with water, wash with ether, and add 35 ml of 5M aqueous NaOH solution. After completion of the process by treatment with ether, water and brine, treated with magnesium sulfate, filtered and concentrated. The concentrated crude product is saturated with hydrochloric acid dissolved in 20 ml of ether. The resulting solid is filtered, concentrated and crystallized with petroleum ether to give the desired product 1- [1- (4-chlorophenyl) -cyclobutyl] -3-methylbutylamine hydrochloride. The reaction time of this step is a total of 20 hours, the yield is 96% oil, 46% hydrochloride. The target product is mp 163-165 ° C.

Step E

Figure 112004038703885-PAT00006

The final target from 1- [1- (4-chlorophenyl) -cyclobutyl] -3-methylbutylamine hydrochloride {1- [1- (4-chlorophenyl) -cyclobutyl] -3-methylbutyl} -dimethyl Amine hydrochloride, ie sibutramine hydrochloride, is obtained. Specific synthesis examples are as follows. 3.3 g of 1- [1- (4-chlorophenyl) -cyclobutyl] -3-methylbutylamine hydrochloride, 2.99 g of HCOOH and 1 ml of water are mixed while cooling. 3.93 ml of 37% aqueous formaldehyde is added and heated at 85-95 ° C. for 18 hours. Excess hydrochloric acid is added and the solution is evaporated to dryness. 5N NaOH solution is added, extracted with ether and concentrated to give a pale yellow oil. This oil is dissolved in a mixture of 4 mL IPA, 20 mL ether and 2 mL hydrochloric acid is added dropwise. Concentrate, repeatedly dissolve in ethanol and concentrate again. Polishing with petroleum ether gives a yellow solid and recrystallizes with acetone to give the final target sibutramine hydrochloride. The reaction time of this step is a total of 18 hours, the yield is 80%. The target product is mp 195-197 ° C. The yield in 5 steps (A to E) is 18.9%.

As described above, the conventional sibutramine synthesis method has a total of five steps, which is complicated and takes a long time, and requires high temperature vacuum distillation (step A). Since the reaction proceeds at the high temperature of the raw material there was a problem that the yield is reduced. In fact, the synthesis was performed by applying the conventional sibutramine synthesis method, the total yield was very low as 18.9%.

First step

4-Chlorobenzyl cyanide is reacted with 1,3-dibromopropane to give 1- (4-chlorophenyl) -1-cyclobutyl cyanide.

Figure 112004038703885-PAT00007

In a flask at room temperature (20-35 ° C.), 14.1 g (352 mmol) of NaH dispersed in mineral oil (200%) and 200 ml of DMSO were added. 25 g (160 mmol) of 4-chlorobenzyl cyanide and 1,3- A solution of 36 g (176 mmol) of dibromopropane dissolved in 200 ml of DMSO was added dropwise. The mixture is stirred at room temperature for 2 hours, 10 ml of IPA is added dropwise and 200 ml of water is added dropwise. The mixture is filtered through a CELITE ™ filter and the solid residue is washed with ether. The ether layer is separated, washed with water, filtered, concentrated and dried to give 34.72 g of crude product of 1- (4-chlorophenyl) -1-cyclobutyl cyanide. The yield of crude product is 109.8%.

2nd step

1- (4-chlorophenyl) -1-cyclobutyl cyanide isobutyl magnesium bromide is reacted to obtain 1- [1- (4-chlorophenyl) -cyclobutyl] -3-methylbutylamine.

Figure 112004038703885-PAT00008

10 g (52 mmol) of 1- (4-chlorophenyl) -1-cyclobutyl cyanide was dissolved in 25 ml of toluene at room temperature, followed by addition of a 2.0 M solution of isobutyl magnesium bromide dissolved in 40 ml of diethyl ether. The mixture is heated at reflux at a temperature of at least 105 ° C. for 2 hours. After completion of the reaction at 0 ° C. with methanol, 2.4 g of NaBH 4 was added to the mixture at 0-25 ° C. and stirred for 1 hour or more. Concentrate, treat with ether, water, concentrate again, and vacuum dry. The yield of crude product is 91.6%.

3rd step

The amine group of 1- [1- (4-chlorophenyl) -cyclobutyl] -3-methylbutylamine was dimethylated to obtain {1- [1- (4-chlorophenyl) -cyclobutyl]-which is the final object of the present invention. 3-methylbutyl} -dimethylamine hydrochloride, ie sibutramine hydrochloride, is obtained.

Figure 112004038703885-PAT00009

5.02 g of 1- [1- (4-chlorophenyl) -cyclobutyl] -3-methylbutylamine and 10 ml of HCOOH are mixed with cooling. 6 ml of 37% aqueous formaldehyde is added and heated at 85-95 ° C. for 18 hours. Excess 2M HCl is added and the solution is evaporated to dryness. 5N NaOH solution is added, extracted with ether and concentrated to give a pale yellow oil. After dissolving in a small amount of ether, ether saturated with HCl gas is slowly added dropwise at 0 ° C. The solid obtained was filtered and dried in vacuo to give 5.12 g of sibutramine hydrochloride as the final target. Yield of the product is 92%, mp 193.5-194.8 ° C. The total yield of the first to third stages is 52.7%. The H 1 NMR results of the final product are as follows: H 1 NMR (CDCl 3 ) 1.058 (6H, dd), 1.400 (2H, m), 1.508 (2H, m), 2.193 (3H, d), 2.316 (2H , m), 2.784 (2H, m), 2.910 (3H, d), 2.967 (1H, m), 3.568 (1H, m), 7.386 (2H, d), 7.638 (2H, d), 10.771 (1H, s)

The present invention is to shorten the process that was conventionally carried out in five steps to three steps to greatly shorten the process as well as to eliminate the difficult and time-consuming high-temperature vacuum distillation process to enable mass production In addition, it is possible to greatly reduce production time and production costs by improving the process step by step, and to reduce the production cost by showing a yield improvement effect nearly three times that of the conventional synthesis method in terms of overall yield.

Claims (3)

Hide Dependent

  1. In the method for synthesizing {1- [1- (4-chlorophenyl) -cyclobutyl] -3-methylbutyl} -dimethylamine from 4-chlorobenzyl cyanide,(a) reacting 4-chlorobenzyl cyanide with 1,3-dibromopropane to obtain 1- (4-chlorophenyl) -1-cyclobutyl cyanide;(b) To isobutyl magnesium bromide dissolved in diethyl ether is added to 1- (4-chlorophenyl) -1-cyclobutyl cyanide dissolved in toluene, and the mixture is refluxed at a temperature of 105 ° C. or higher at 1-3 ° C. Heating and cooling for a period of time, followed by addition of NaBH 4 at 0-25 ° C., followed by stirring for at least 1 hour to obtain 1- [1- (4-chlorophenyl) -cyclobutyl] -3-methylbutylamine;(c) Dimethylating the amine group of 1- [1- (4-chlorophenyl) -cyclobutyl] -3-methylbutylamine to yield {1- [1- (4-chlorophenyl) -cyclobutyl] -3-methyl Improved synthesis method of sibutramine consisting of a three-step reaction comprising the step of obtaining butyl} -dimethylamine.
  2. The method according to claim 1,In step (a), the solution of 4-chlorobenzyl cyanide and 1,3-dibromopropane dissolved in DMSO is added dropwise to the mixture of NaH and DMSO dispersed in mineral oil, followed by filtration. , Washing, concentrating and drying to obtain a crude product of 1- (4-chlorophenyl) -1-cyclobutyl cyanide, and proceeding to the next step (b) as it is without distillation at high temperature. Improved Synthesis of Sibutramine.
  3. The method according to claim 1,In step (c), 1- [1- (4-chlorophenyl) -cyclobutyl] -3-methylbutylamine is mixed with formaldehyde in a free base state, and 37% aqueous formaldehyde is added thereto, and 85 An improved method for synthesizing sibutramine, characterized in that sibutramine hydrochloride is obtained by heating at -95 ° C for 15-22 hours followed by addition of hydrochloric acid.

 SYN

DE 3212682; GB 2098602; US 4806570

4-Chlorobenzyl cyanide (I) is cycloalkylated with 1,3-dibromopropane to yield 1-(4-chlorophenyl)cyclobutyl cyanide (II). The cyclobutyl cyanide (II) is treated with 2-methylpropyl magnesium bromide te give the imine salt (III), which may be either hydrolyzed to the ketone (IV), which is then formylaminated with formamide and formic acid and subsequently hydrolyzed, or reduced with sodium borohydride in ethanol to give 1-[1-(4-chlorophenyl)cyclobutyl]-3-methylbutylamine (V). Eschweiler-Clarke methylation and hydrochloride formation yield N-[1-[1-(4-chlorophenyl)cyclo butyl]-3-methylbutyl]-N,N-dimethylamine hydrochloride monohydrate

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Medical uses

Sibutramine has been used to produce appetite suppression for the purpose of attaining weight loss in the treatment of patients with obesity.

Contraindications

Sibutramine is contraindicated in patients with:

Side effects

A higher number of cardiovascular events has been observed in people taking sibutramine versus control (11.4% vs. 10.0%).[15] In 2010 the FDA noted the concerns that sibutramine increases the risk of heart attacks and strokes in patients with a history of cardiovascular disease.[15]

Frequently encountered side effects are: dry mouth, paradoxically increased appetite, nauseastrange taste in the mouth, upset stomach, constipation, trouble sleeping, dizziness, drowsiness, menstrual cramps/pain, headache, flushing, or joint/muscle pain.

In a 2016 Cochrane review sibutramine was found to substantially increase blood pressure and heart rate in some patients, in the updated review in 2021 sibutramine was not included since the drug had been withdrawn from the market.[16] When used, regular blood pressure monitoring needed to be performed.

The following side effects are infrequent but serious and require immediate medical attention: cardiac arrhythmiasparesthesia, mental/mood changes (e.g., excitement, restlessness, confusion, depression, rare thoughts of suicide).

Symptoms that require urgent medical attention are seizures, problems urinating, abnormal bruising or bleeding, melenahematemesisjaundicefever and rigorschest painhemiplegia, abnormal vision, dyspnea and edema.

Currently, no case of pulmonary hypertension has been noted. (Fenfluramine, of the 1990s “Fen-Phen” combo, forced excess release of neurotransmitters—a different action. Phentermine was uninvolved in the rare—but clinically significant—heart issues of fenfluramine.)

Interactions

Sibutramine has a number of clinically significant interactions. The concomitant use of sibutramine and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs, such as selegiline) is not indicated, as it may increase the risk of serotonin syndrome, a somewhat rare but serious adverse drug reaction.[17] Sibutramine should not be taken within two weeks of stopping or starting an MAOI. Taking both sibutramine and certain medications used in the treatment of migraines—such as ergolines and triptans—as well as opioids, may also increase the risk for serotonin syndrome, as may the use of more than one serotonin reuptake inhibitor at the same time.[17]

The concomitant use of sibutramine and drugs which inhibit CYP3A4, such as ketoconazole and erythromycin, may increase plasma levels of sibutramine.[18] Sibutramine does not affect the efficacy of hormonal contraception.[17]

Pharmacology

Pharmacodynamics

CompoundSERTNETDAT
Sibutramine298–2,800350–5,451943–1,200
Desmethylsibutramine152049
  (R)-Desmethylsibutramine44412
  (S)-Desmethylsibutramine9,200870180
Didesmethylsibutramine201545
  (R)-Didesmethylsibutramine140138.9
  (S)-Didesmethylsibutramine4,3006212
Values are Ki (nM).

Sibutramine is a serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) that, in humans, reduces the reuptake of norepinephrine (by ~73%), serotonin (by ~54%), and dopamine (by ~16%),[21] thereby increasing the levels of these substances in synaptic clefts and helping enhance satiety; the serotonergic action, in particular, is thought to influence appetite. Older anorectic agents such as amphetamine and fenfluramine force the release of these neurotransmitters rather than affecting their reuptake.[22]

Despite having a mechanism of action similar to tricyclic antidepressants, sibutramine has failed to demonstrate antidepressant properties in animal studies. It was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in November 1997[23] for the treatment of obesity.

Sibutramine is reported to be a prodrug to two active metabolitesdesmethylsibutramine (M1; BTS-54354) and didesmethylsibutramine (M2; BTS-54505), with much greater potency as MRIs.[24][25]

Unlike other serotonergic appetite suppressants like fenfluramine, sibutramine and its metabolites have only low and likely inconsequential affinity for the 5-HT2B receptor.[21]

Pharmacokinetics

Sibutramine is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract (77%), but undergoes considerable first-pass metabolism, reducing its bioavailability. The drug itself reaches its peak plasma level after 1 hour and has also a half-life of 1 hour. Sibutramine is metabolized by cytochrome P450 isozyme CYP3A4 into two pharmacologically-active primary and secondary amines (called active metabolites 1 and 2) with half-lives of 14 and 16 hours, respectively. Peak plasma concentrations of active metabolites 1 and 2 are reached after three to four hours. The following metabolic pathway mainly results in two inactive conjugated and hydroxylated metabolites (called metabolites 5 and 6). Metabolites 5 and 6 are mainly excreted in the urine.

Chemistry

Sibutramine has usually been used in the form of the hydrochloride monohydrate salt.

Detection in body fluids

Sibutramine and its two active N-demethylated metabolites may be measured in biofluids by liquid chromatographymass spectrometry. Plasma levels of these three species are usually in the 1–10 μg/L range in persons undergoing therapy with the drug. The parent compound and norsibutramine are often not detectable in urine, but dinorsibutramine is generally present at concentrations of >200 μg/L.[26][27][28]

Society and culture

Regulatory approval

Studies are ongoing into reports of sudden death, heart failurerenal failure and gastrointestinal problems. Despite a 2002 petition by Ralph Nader-founded NGO Public Citizen,[29] the FDA made no attempts to withdraw the drug, but was part of a Senate hearing in 2005.[30] Similarly, David Graham, FDA “whistleblower”, testified before a Senate Finance Committee hearing that sibutramine may be more dangerous than the conditions it is used for.[31]

Between January 2003 and November 2005, a large randomized-controlled “Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes” (SCOUT) study with 10,742 patients examined whether or not sibutramine administered within a weight management program reduces the risk for cardiovascular complications in people at high risk for heart disease and concluded that use of silbutramine had a RR 1.16 for the primary outcome (composit of nonfatal MI, nonfatal CVA, cardiac arrest, and CV death).[32]

In a dissenting article, “Sibutramine: gone, but not forgotten”, David Haslam (chairman of the National Obesity Forum) says that the SCOUT study is flawed as it only covered high-risk patients and did not consider obese patients who do not have cardiovascular complications or similar contraindications [33]

On January 21, 2010, the European Medicines Agency recommended suspension of marketing authorizations for sibutramine based on the SCOUT study results.[34]

In August 2010 the FDA added a new contraindication for patients over 65 years of age due to the fact that clinical studies of sibutramine did not include sufficient numbers of such patients.[14]

Abbott Laboratories announced on October 8, 2010 that it is withdrawing sibutramine from the US market under pressure from the FDA, citing concerns over minimal efficacy coupled with increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events.[35]

Counterfeit weight-loss products

On December 22, 2008, the United States Food and Drug Administration issued an alert to consumers naming 27 different products marketed as “dietary supplements” for weight loss, that illegally contain undisclosed amounts of sibutramine.[36][37] In March 2009, Dieter Müller et al. published a study of sibutramine poisoning cases from similar Chinese “herbal supplements” sold in Europe, containing as much as twice the dosage of the legally licensed drug.[38]

An additional 34 products were recalled by the FDA on April 22, 2009, further underscoring the risks associated with unregulated “herbal supplements” to unsuspecting persons. This concern is especially relevant to those with underlying medical conditions incompatible with undeclared pharmaceutical adulterants.[39] In January 2010, a similar alert was issued for counterfeit versions of the over-the-counter weight loss drug Alli sold over the Internet. Instead of the active ingredient orlistat, the counterfeit drugs contain sibutramine, and at concentrations at least twice the amount recommended for weight loss.[40]

In March 2010 Health Canada advised the public that illegal “Herbal Diet Natural” had been found on the market, containing sibutramine, which is a prescription drug in Canada, without listing sibutramine as an ingredient.[41] In October 2010 FDA notified consumers that “Slimming Beauty Bitter Orange Slimming Capsules contain the active pharmaceutical ingredient sibutramine, a prescription-only drug which is a stimulant. Sibutramine is not listed on the product label.”[42]

In October 2010 the MHRA in the UK issued a warning regarding “Payouji tea” and “Pai You Guo Slim Capsules” which were found to contain undeclared quantities of sibutramine.[43]

On December 30, 2010 the FDA released a warning regarding “Fruta Planta” dietary products, which were found to contain undeclared amounts of sibutramine. The recall stated that “there is NO SAFE formula on the US market and that all versions of Fruta Planta contain sibutramine. All versions of the formula are UNSAFE and should not be purchased from any source.”[44]

Some illegal weight loss products imported into Ireland have been found to contain sibutramine.[45][46] Similar concerns have been raised in Australia, where illegal imported supplements have been found to contain sibutramine, resulting in public alerts from Australia’s Therapeutic Goods Administration.[47]

In October 2011, the FDA warned that 20 brands of dietary supplements were tainted with sibutramine.[48] In a 2018 study FDA has found synthetic additives including sibutramine in over 700 diet supplements marketed as “natural”, “traditional” or “herbal remedies”.[49]

References

  1. ^ “Sibutramine (Reductil) – withdrawal in Australia”Therapeutic Goods Administration (Tga). Therapeutic Goods Administration, Department of Health, Australian Government. 2010. Retrieved 2014-10-06.
  2. ^ Health Canada Endorsed Important Safety Information on MERIDIA (Sibutramine Hydrochloride Monohydrate): Subject: Voluntary withdrawal of Meridia (sibutramine) capsules from the Canadian market.
  3. ^ “Notification of Termination of Production, Sale, and Usage of Sibutramine Preparations and Their Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient”. sda.gov in People’s Republic of China. October 30, 2010. Retrieved 2011-05-21.
  4. ^ (in German) Sibutramin-Vertrieb in der Europäischen Union ausgesetzt [1]Abbott Laboratories in Germany. Press Release 2010-01-21. Retrieved 2010-01-27
  5. ^ “De-registration of pharmaceutical products containing sibutramine” (Press release). info.gov in Hong Kong. November 2, 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-08.
  6. ^ “Banned Medicines” (Press release). Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. February 10, 2011. Retrieved 2011-03-15.
  7. ^ “Withdrawal of Sibutramine (Reductil) in New Zealand” (Press release). MedSafe in New Zealand. October 11, 2010. Retrieved 2012-11-06.
  8. ^ “FDA warns online sellers of banned slimming pills”. January 12, 2014. Retrieved February 20, 2014.
  9. ^ “Thai FDA reveals voluntary withdrawal of sibutramine from the Thai market” (PDF) (Press release). Food and Drug Administration of Thailand. October 20, 2010. Retrieved 2010-12-22.
  10. ^ “Top obesity drug sibutramine being suspended”BBC News. 2010-01-22. Retrieved 2010-01-22.
  11. ^ Rockoff JD, Dooren JC (October 8, 2010). “Abbott Pulls Diet Drug Meridia Off US Shelves”The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 8 October 2010.
  12. ^ “Sibutramine – Drugs.com”drugs.com.
  13. ^ Buckett WR, Thomas PC, Luscombe GP (1988). “The pharmacology of sibutramine hydrochloride (BTS 54 524), a new antidepressant which induces rapid noradrenergic down-regulation”. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry12 (5): 575–84. doi:10.1016/0278-5846(88)90003-6PMID 2851857S2CID 24787523.
  14. Jump up to:a b c “The FDA August 2010 drug safety update”fda.gov.
  15. Jump up to:a b “Early Communication about an Ongoing Safety Review of Meridia (sibutramine hydrochloride)”. United States Food and Drug Administration. 1 February 2010. Archived from the original on 6 January 2012.
  16. ^ Siebenhofer, Andrea; Winterholer, Sebastian; Jeitler, Klaus; Horvath, Karl; Berghold, Andrea; Krenn, Cornelia; Semlitsch, Thomas (2021-01-17). “Long-term effects of weight-reducing drugs in people with hypertension”The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews1: CD007654. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007654.pub5ISSN 1469-493XPMC 8094237PMID 33454957.
  17. Jump up to:a b c “Meridia Side Effects, and Drug Interactions”. RxList.com. 2007. Retrieved 2007-04-29.
  18. ^ (in Portuguese) Cloridrato de sibutramina monoidratado. Bula. [Sibutramine hydrochloride monohydrate—label information]. Medley (2007).
  19. ^ Nisoli E, Carruba MO (October 2000). “An assessment of the safety and efficacy of sibutramine, an anti-obesity drug with a novel mechanism of action”. Obesity Reviews1 (2): 127–39. doi:10.1046/j.1467-789x.2000.00020.xPMID 12119986S2CID 20553857.
  20. ^ Rothman RB, Baumann MH (May 2009). “Serotonergic drugs and valvular heart disease”Expert Opinion on Drug Safety8 (3): 317–29. doi:10.1517/14740330902931524PMC 2695569PMID 19505264.
  21. Jump up to:a b “Meridia (sibutramine hydrochloride monohydrate) Capsules CIV. Full Prescribing Information” (PDF). Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, IL 60064, U.S.A. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
  22. ^ Heal DJ, Aspley S, Prow MR, Jackson HC, Martin KF, Cheetham SC (August 1998). “Sibutramine: a novel anti-obesity drug. A review of the pharmacological evidence to differentiate it from d-amphetamine and d-fenfluramine”. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders. 22 Suppl 1: S18–28, discussion S29. PMID 9758240.
  23. ^ “FDA APPROVES SIBUTRAMINE TO TREAT OBESITY” (Press release). U.S. Food and Drug Administration. November 24, 1997. Retrieved 2007-04-29.
  24. ^ Kim KA, Song WK, Park JY (November 2009). “Association of CYP2B6, CYP3A5, and CYP2C19 genetic polymorphisms with sibutramine pharmacokinetics in healthy Korean subjects”. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics86 (5): 511–8. doi:10.1038/clpt.2009.145PMID 19693007S2CID 24789264.
  25. ^ Hofbauer K (2004). Pharmacotherapy of obesity : options and alternatives. Boca Raton, Fla: CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-415-30321-7.
  26. ^ Jain DS, Subbaiah G, Sanyal M, et al. Liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry validated method for the simultaneous quantification of sibutramine and its primary and secondary amine metabolites in human plasma and its application to a bioequivalence study. Rapid Comm. Mass Spec. 20: 3509-3521, 2006.
  27. ^ Thevis M, Sigmund G, Schiffer AK, Schänzer W. Determination of N-desmethyl- and N-bisdesmethyl metabolites of Sibutramine in doping control analysis using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Eur. J. Mass Spec. 12: 129-136, 2006.
  28. ^ R. Baselt, Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals in Man, 8th edition, Biomedical Publications, Foster City, CA, 2008, pp. 1426–1427.
  29. ^ Wolfe SM, Sasich LD, Barbehenn E (March 19, 2002). “Petition to FDA to ban the diet drug sibutramine (MERIDIA) (HRG Publication #1613)”Public Citizen. Retrieved 2007-04-29.
  30. ^ Japsen B (13 March 2005). “FDA weighs decision on Meridia; Health advisory likely for Abbott obesity drug”. Chicago Tribune. Chicago, Illinois. p. 1.
  31. ^ Hearing of 17 November 2004. Related CBS news item 19 November 2004.
  32. ^ James WP, Caterson ID, Coutinho W, Finer N, Van Gaal LF, Maggioni AP, Torp-Pedersen C, Sharma AM, Shepherd GM, Rode RA, Renz CL (September 2010). “Effect of sibutramine on cardiovascular outcomes in overweight and obese subjects” (PDF). The New England Journal of Medicine363 (10): 905–17. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1003114hdl:2437/111825PMID 20818901.
  33. ^ Haslam D (April 2010). “Sibutramine: gone, but not forgotten” (PDF). Pract Diab Int27 (3): 96–97. doi:10.1002/pdi.1453. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 July 2015.
  34. ^ “European Medicines Agency recommends suspension of marketing authorisations for sibutramine” (PDF). European Medicines Agency. January 21, 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-04-01.
  35. ^ Pollack A (October 8, 2010). “Abbott Labs Withdraws Meridia From Market”The New York Times.
  36. ^ “FDA warns consumers about tainted weight loss pills” (Press release). U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 22 December 2008.
  37. ^ “Consumer directed questions and answers about FDA’s initiative against contaminated weight loss products”. U.S. Food and Drug Administration Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. 22 December 2008.
  38. ^ Müller D, Weinmann W, Hermanns-Clausen M (March 2009). “Chinese slimming capsules containing sibutramine sold over the Internet: a case series”Deutsches Ärzteblatt International106 (13): 218–22. doi:10.3238/arztebl.2009.0218PMC 2680571PMID 19471631.
  39. ^ 34 weight loss products recalledWebMD, 22 April 2009.
  40. ^ “Fake Alli diet pills can pose health risks”CNN.com. January 23, 2010. Retrieved 2010-01-24.
  41. ^ “Herbal diet product poses heart risk”. CBC News. March 26, 2010.
  42. ^ “FDA Alert: Slimming Beauty Bitter Orange Slimming Capsules: Undeclared Drug Ingredient”drugs.com.
  43. ^ “Press release: Warning over unlicensed herbal Payouji tea and Pai You Guo Slim Capsules”United Kingdom Medicines & Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency. 20 October 2010. Archived from the original on 9 February 2012.
  44. ^ “PRock Marketing, LLC Issues a Voluntary Nationwide Recall of All weight loss formulas and variation of formulas of Reduce Weight Fruta Planta/Reduce Weight Dietary Supplement”. United States Food and Drug Administration. Archived from the original on 23 March 2012.
  45. ^ Pope C. “Seizures of illegal medicines rise”The Irish Times.
  46. ^ “FDA Alert: Slim Xtreme Herbal Slimming Capsule: Undeclared Drug Ingredient”drugs.com.
  47. ^ “Majestic slimming capsules: Safety advisory”Therapeutic Goods Administration. Australian Government. 9 November 2012.
  48. ^ Carroll L (19 October 2011). “‘Natural’ diet pills tainted with banned prescription drug”MSNBC. Archived from the original on 11 January 2012.
  49. ^ Cohen, Ronnie (12 October 2018). “No Wonder It Works So Well: There May Be Viagra In That Herbal Supplement”NPR.org. Retrieved 2018-10-14.

External links

Sibutramine (top),
(S)-(−)-sibutramine (bottom)
Clinical data
Trade namesMeridia, others
Other namesBTS-54524
AHFS/Drugs.comMonograph
MedlinePlusa601110
Pregnancy
category
AU: CNo human data exists; inconclusive evidence of teratogenic potential in animal studies
Routes of
administration
Oral (capsules)
ATC codeA08AA10 (WHO)
Legal status
Legal statusUS: Schedule IV
Pharmacokinetic data
BioavailabilityAbsorption 77%, considerable first-pass metabolism
Protein binding97%, (94% for its desmethyl metabolites, M1 & M2)
MetabolismHepatic (CYP3A4-mediated)
Elimination half-life1 hour (sibutramine), 14 hours (M1) & 16 hours (M2)
ExcretionUrine (77%), feces (8%)
Identifiers
showIUPAC name
CAS Number106650-56-0 
766462-77-5 (chlorosibutramine)
PubChem CID5210
IUPHAR/BPS2586
DrugBankDB01105 
ChemSpider5021 
UNIIWV5EC51866
KEGGD08513 
ChEMBLChEMBL1419 
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)DTXSID1023578 
ECHA InfoCard100.130.097 
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC17H26ClN
Molar mass279.85 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)Interactive image
showSMILES
showInChI
  (verify)

/////////////SIBUTRAMINE, UNII:WV5EC51866, WV5EC51866, сибутрамин , سيبوترامين , 西布曲明 , ABOTT, OBESITY

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Olipudase alfa


HPLSPQGHPA RLHRIVPRLR DVFGWGNLTC PICKGLFTAI NLGLKKEPNV ARVGSVAIKL
CNLLKIAPPA VCQSIVHLFE DDMVEVWRRS VLSPSEACGL LLGSTCGHWD IFSSWNISLP
TVPKPPPKPP SPPAPGAPVS RILFLTDLHW DHDYLEGTDP DCADPLCCRR GSGLPPASRP
GAGYWGEYSK CDLPLRTLES LLSGLGPAGP FDMVYWTGDI PAHDVWHQTR QDQLRALTTV
TALVRKFLGP VPVYPAVGNH ESTPVNSFPP PFIEGNHSSR WLYEAMAKAW EPWLPAEALR
TLRIGGFYAL SPYPGLRLIS LNMNFCSREN FWLLINSTDP AGQLQWLVGE LQAAEDRGDK
VHIIGHIPPG HCLKSWSWNY YRIVARYENT LAAQFFGHTH VDEFEVFYDE ETLSRPLAVA
FLAPSATTYI GLNPGYRVYQ IDGNYSGSSH VVLDHETYIL NLTQANIPGA IPHWQLLYRA
RETYGLPNTL PTAWHNLVYR MRGDMQLFQT FWFLYHKGHP PSEPCGTPCR LATLCAQLSA
RADSPALCRH LMPDGSLPEA QSLWPRPLFC
(Disulfide bridge: 43-119, 46-111, 74-85, 175-180, 181-204, 339-385, 538-542, 548-561)

Olipudase alfa

Xenpozyme, Japan 2022, APPROVALS 2022, 2022/3/28

PEPTIDE, オリプダーゼアルファ (遺伝子組換え)

Alternative Names: Acid sphingomyelinase Niemann Pick disease type B – Sanofi; Acid-sphingomyelinase – Sanofi; GZ-402665; Recombinant human acid sphingomyelinase – Sanofi; rhASM – Sanofi; Sphingomyelinase-C (synthetic human) – Sanofi; Synthetic human sphingomyelinase-C – Sanofi; Xenpozyme

FormulaC2900H4373N783O791S24
CAS927883-84-9
Mol weight63631.0831
EfficacyLysosomal storage disease treatment, Enzyme replacement (acid sphingomyelinase)
CommentEnzyme replacement therapy product
Treatment of Niemann-Pick disease type A/B
  • OriginatorGenzyme Corporation
  • DeveloperSanofi
  • ClassRecombinant proteins; Sphingomyelin phosphodiesterases
  • Mechanism of ActionSphingomyelin-phosphodiesterase replacements
  • Orphan Drug StatusYes – Niemann-Pick diseases
  • RegisteredNiemann-Pick diseases
  • 28 Mar 2022Registered for Niemann-Pick diseases (In adolescents, In children, In adults) in Japan (IV) – First global approval
  • 09 Feb 2022FDA assigns PDUFA action date of (03/07/2022) for Olipudase alfa (In children, In adults) for Niemann-Pick diseases
  • 09 Feb 2022Adverse e

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Olipudase Alfa Improves Lung Function, Spleen Volume in ASMD

Olipudase Alfa Improves Lung Function, Spleen Volume in ASMD

https://www.empr.com/home/mpr-first-report/worldsymposium-2021/olipudase-alfa-chronic-visceral-acid-sphingomyelinase-efficacy/embed/#?secret=x9Jl0tjBl4#?secret=4RmoWVLWaQ

Olipudase alfa was associated with significant improvements in clinically relevant disease end points among patients with chronic visceral acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) deficiency (ASMD), according to results from the phase 2/3 ASCEND trial presented at the 17th Annual WORLDSymposium.

ASMD is a rare, debilitating lysosomal storage disease characterized by a deficiency of the enzyme acid sphingomyelinase, which results in the accumulation of sphingomyelin in various tissues of the body. Olipudase alfa is an investigational enzyme replacement therapy designed to replace deficient or defective ASM.

The multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled ASCEND trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of olipudase alfa in 36 adults with chronic visceral ASMD. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive olipudase alfa 3mg/kg intravenously every 2 weeks or placebo for 52 weeks. The coprimary end points were the percent change in spleen volume and percent-predicted diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO).

At week 52, treatment with olipudase alfa resulted in a 39.45% reduction in spleen volume, compared with a 0.5% increase for placebo (P <.0001). A decrease in spleen volume of at least 30% was observed in 17 patients (94%) treated with olipudase afla compared with no patients treated with placebo. Additionally, olipudase alfa significantly improved lung function by 22% from baseline compared with 3% for patients receiving placebo (P =.0004), as measured by percent predicted DLCO.

Olipudase alfa also met key secondary end points including a 31.7% reduction in liver volume (vs a 1.4% reduction for placebo; P <.0001) and a 16.8% improvement in mean platelet counts (vs 2.5% with placebo; P =.019) at week 52. Significant improvements in HDL, LDL, AST, ALT, chitotriosidase (54% vs 12% with placebo; P =.0003), and lyso-sphingomyelin (78% vs 6% with placebo) were also observed in the olipudase alfa group at week 52.

With regard to Splenomegaly Related Score, a patient-reported outcome measurement that evaluates patient symptoms associated with an enlarged spleen, findings showed no meaningful difference between olipudase alfa and placebo (-8 point vs -9.3 points, respectively).

As for safety, olipudase alfa was well tolerated with most adverse events being mild to moderate in severity. There were no treatment-related serious adverse events and no adverse event-related discontinuations.

Disclosure: Some authors have declared affiliations with or received funding from the pharmaceutical industry. Please refer to the original study for a full list of disclosures.

Reference

Wasserstein M, Arash-Kaps L, Barbato A, et al. Adults with chronic acid sphingomyelinase deficiency show significant visceral, pulmonary, and hematologic improvements after enzyme replacement therapy with olipudase-alfa: 1-year results of the ASCEND placebo-controlled trial. Presented at: 17th Annual WORLDSymposium; February 8-12, 2021. Abstract 265.

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https://www.sanofi.com/en/media-room/press-releases/2021/2021-12-06-14-00-00-2346501

EMA accepts regulatory submission for olipudase alfa, the first potential therapy for ASMD

  • Olipudase alfa has been granted PRIority MEdicines (PRIME) designation in Europe, Breakthrough Therapy designation in the United States, and SAKIGAKE designation in Japan
  • European regulatory decision anticipated second half of 2022

DECEMBER 6, 2021

The European Medicines Agency (EMA) has accepted for review under an accelerated assessment procedure the Marketing Authorization Application (MAA) for olipudase alfa, Sanofi’s investigational enzyme replacement therapy which is being evaluated for the treatment of acid sphingomyelinase deficiency (ASMD). Historically referred to as Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) type A and type B, ASMD is a rare, progressive, and potentially life-threatening disease for which no treatments are currently approved. The estimated prevalence of ASMD is approximately 2,000 patients in the U.S., Europe (EU5 Countries) and Japan. If approved, olipudase alfa will become the first and only therapy for the treatment of ASMD.

Today’s milestone has been decades in the making and our gratitude goes to the ASMD community who has stood by us with endless patience while olipudase alfa advanced through clinical development,” said Alaa Hamed, MD, MPH, MBA, Global Head of Medical Affairs, Rare Diseases, Sanofi. “Olipudase alfa represents the kind of potentially life-changing innovation that is possible when industry, medical professionals and the patient community work together toward a common goal.”

The MAA is based on positive results from two separate clinical trials (ASCEND and ASCEND-Peds) evaluating olipudase alfa in adult and pediatric patients with non-central nervous system (CNS) manifestations of ASMD type A/B and ASMD type B.

Olipudase alfa has received special designations from regulatory agencies worldwide, recognizing the innovation potential of the investigational therapy.

“Scientific innovation is the greatest source of hope for people living with diseases like ASMD where there are no approved treatments and is a critical component for ensuring a viable healthcare ecosystem,” said Bill Sibold, Executive Vice President of Sanofi GenzymeAt Sanofi, we have a long history of pioneering scientific innovation, and we remain committed to finding solutions to address unmet medical needs, including those of the rare disease community.”

The EMA awarded olipudase alfa the PRIority MEdicines designation, also known as PRIME, intended to aid and expedite the regulatory process for investigational medicines that may offer a major therapeutic advantage over existing treatments, or benefit patients without treatment options.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted Breakthrough Therapy designation to olipudase alfa. This designation is intended to expedite the development and review of drugs intended to treat serious or life-threatening diseases and conditions. The criteria for granting Breakthrough Therapy designation include preliminary clinical evidence indicating that the molecule may demonstrate substantial improvement on a clinically significant endpoint over available therapies.

In Japan, olipudase alfa was awarded the SAKIGAKE designation, which is intended to promote research and development in Japan for innovative new medical products that satisfy certain criteria, such as the severity of the intended indication. In September, Sanofi filed the J-NDA submission for olipudase alfa.

About ASMD

ASMD results from a deficient activity of the enzyme acid sphingomyelinase (ASM), which is found in special compartments within cells called lysosomes and is required to breakdown lipids called sphingomyelin. If ASM is absent or not functioning as it should, sphingomyelin cannot be metabolized properly and accumulates within cells, eventually causing cell death and the malfunction of major organ systems. The deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme ASM is due to disease-causing variants in the sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 1 gene (SMPD1). The estimated prevalence of ASMD is approximately 2,000 patients in the U.S., Europe (EU5 Countries) and Japan.

ASMD represents a spectrum of disease caused by the same enzymatic deficiency, with two types that may represent opposite ends of a continuum sometimes referred to as ASMD type A and ASMD type B. ASMD type A is a rapidly progressive neurological form of the disease resulting in death in early childhood due to central nervous system complications. ASMD type B is a serious and potentially life-threatening disease that predominantly impacts the lungs, liver, and spleen, as well as other organs. ASMD type A/B represents an intermediate form that includes varying degrees of neurologic involvement. Patients with ASMD type A/B or ASMD type B were studied in the ASCEND trial program. Another type of NPD is NPD type C, which is unrelated to ASMD.

About olipudase alfa

Olipudase alfa is an investigational enzyme replacement therapy designed to replace deficient or defective ASM, allowing for the breakdown of sphingomyelin. Olipudase alfa is currently being investigated to treat non-CNS manifestations of ASMD. Olipudase alfa has not been studied in ASMD type A patients. Olipudase alfa is an investigational agent and the safety and efficacy have not been evaluated by the FDA, EMA, or any other regulatory authority worldwide.

About Sanofi

Sanofi is dedicated to supporting people through their health challenges. We are a global biopharmaceutical company focused on human health. We prevent illness with vaccines, provide innovative treatments to fight pain and ease suffering. We stand by the few who suffer from rare diseases and the millions with long-term chronic conditions.

With more than 100,000 people in 100 countries, Sanofi is transforming scientific innovation into healthcare solutions around the globe.

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(heavy chain)
IVGGQECKDG ECPWQALLIN EENEGFCGGT ILSEFYILTA AHCLYQAKRF KVRVGDRNTE
QEEGGEAVHE VEVVIKHNRF TKETYDFDIA VLRLKTPITF RMNVAPACLP ERDWAESTLM
TQKTGIVSGF GRTHEKGRQS TRLKMLEVPY VDRNSCKLSS SFIITQNMFC AGYDTKQEDA
CQGDAGGPHV TRFKDTYFVT GIVSWGEGCA RKGKYGIYTK VTAFLKWIDR SMKTRGLPKA
KSHAPEVITS SPLK
(light chan)
ANSFLFWNKY KDGDQCETSP CQNQGKCKDG LGEYTCTCLE GFEGKNCELF TRKLCSLDNG
DCDQFCHEEQ NSVVCSCARG YTLADNGKAC IPTGPYPCGK QTLER
(Disulfide bridge: H7-H12, H27-H43, H108-L98, H156-H170, H181-H209, L16-L27, L21-L36, L38-L47, L55-L66, L62-L75, L77-L90)

Andexanet alfa

JAPAN 2022, PEPTIDE

Ondexxya
2022/3/28
Anticoagulant reversal (factor Xa inhibitors)

CAS: 1262449-58-0

アンデキサネットアルファ (遺伝子組換え)

  • Andexanet alfa
  • r-Antidote
  • rfXa Inhibitor Antidote
  • PRT-4445
  • PRT064445

Andexanet alfa, sold under the trade name Andexxa among others, is an antidote for the medications rivaroxaban and apixaban, when reversal of anticoagulation is needed due to uncontrolled bleeding.[1] It has not been found to be useful for other factor Xa inhibitors.[2] It is given by injection into a vein.[2]

Common side effects include pneumonia and urinary tract infections.[2] Severe side effects may include blood clotsheart attacksstrokes, or cardiac arrest.[2] It works by binding to rivaroxaban and apixaban.[2]

It was approved for medical use in the United States in May 2018.[1] It was developed by Portola Pharmaceuticals.[3]

ndexanet alfa is a recombinant human coagulation Factor Xa that promotes blood coagulation. It was developed by Portola Pharmaceuticals and was approved in in May 2018. It is marketed as Andexxa for intravenous injection or infusion and is indicated for the reversal of anticoagulation in combination with rivaroxaban and apixaban in cases of life-threatening or uncontrolled bleeding. Rivaroxaban and apixaban are Factor Xa inhibitors that promote anticoagulation in situations where blood clotting is unfavourable, such as in deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. However, the use of these agents is associated with a risk for uncontrollable bleeding episodes that can lead to can cause serious or fatal bleeding. Andexanet alfa is currently under regulatory review by the European Union and is undergoing clinical development in Japan 1.

Andexanet alfa works by binding to Factor Xa inhibitors and prevent them from interacting with endogenous Factor Xa. It displayed high affinity (0.53–1.53 nmol/L) to apixaban, betrixaban, edoxaban and rivaroxaban 1. However, the effectiveness of andexanet alfa on treating bleeding related to any FXa inhibitors other than apixaban and rivaroxaban was not demonstrated, thus such use is limited 7. Its pharmacokinetic properties are not reported to be affected by factor Xa inhibitors 1. Andexanet alfa retains the structural similarity to that of endogenous human factor Xa, but exists in its mature functional form without the need for activation via the intrinsic or extrinsic coagulation pathways 5 and remains catalytically inactive due to structural modification 1. The procoagulation potential of andexanet alfa is eliminated through the removal of a 34-residue fragment containing Gla: via this truncation, andexanet alfa is unable to bind to membrane surfaces and assemble the prothrombinase complex 5. It also prevents andexanet alfa from taking up space on phospholipid surface membranes, so that native FXa may bind and assemble the prothrominase complex 5. The amino acid residue modification from serine to alanine in the binding site of the catalytic domain allows more effective binding to FXa inhibitors and deters the andexanet alfa from converting prothrombin to thrombin 5.

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Structure of andexant alfa. Andexanet alfa is a modified activated human factor Xa (FXa) that binds FXa with high affinity and a 1:1 stoichiometric ratio but does not have intrinsic catalytic activity (the amino acid serine at position 419 is replaced by alanine) and lacks the membrane-binding-carboxyglutamic acid domain (Gla domain) of native FX. The Gla domains are responsible for the binding of FXa to phospholipids

Structure of andexant alfa. Andexanet alfa is a modified activated human factor Xa (FXa) that binds FXa with high affinity and a 1:1 stoichiometric ratio but does not have intrinsic catalytic activity (the amino acid serine at position 419 is replaced by alanine) and lacks the membrane-binding-carboxyglutamic acid domain (Gla domain) of native FX. The Gla domains are responsible for the binding of FXa to phospholipids

Medical uses

Andexanet alfa is used to stop life threatening or uncontrollable bleeding in people who are taking rivaroxaban or apixaban.[1]

There are no randomised clinical trials as of 2019. Studies in healthy volunteers show that the molecule binds factor Xa inhibitors and counters their anti-Xa-activity.[4] The only published clinical trial is a prospective, open label, single group study.[5] This study reports results on 352 people and demonstrates a reduction of anti-Xa-activity while also showing an excellent or good hemostatic efficacy in 82%. While people who were expected to die in 30 days were excluded from the study, 14% of participants died. There was no relationship between hemostatic efficacy and reduced anti-Xa-activity.[6] The FDA has demanded a randomised clinical trial: the first results are not expected before 2023.[7]

Adverse effects

Common side effects include pneumonia and urinary tract infections.[2] Severe side effects may include blood clots or cardiac arrest.[2]

Andexanet alfa has a boxed warning that it is associated with arterial and venous blood clots, ischemic events, cardiac arrest, and sudden deaths.[1]

Pharmacology

Mechanism of action

Andexanet alfa is a biologic agent, a recombinant modified version of human activated factor X (FXa).[8] Andexanet alfa differs from native FXa due to the removal of a 34 residue fragment that contains the Gla domain. This modification reduces andexanet alfa’s procoagulant potential. Additionally, a serine to alanine (S419A) mutation in the active site eliminates its activity as a prothrombin to thrombin catalyst, but still allows the molecule to bind to FXa inhibitors.[9] FXa inhibitors bind to andexanet alfa with the same affinity as to natural FXa. As a consequence in the presence of andexanet alfa natural FXa is partially freed, which can lead to effective hemostasis.[3][10] In other words, it acts as a decoy receptor. Andexanet alfa reverses effect of all anticoagulants that act directly through FXa or by binding antithrombin III. The drug is not effective against factor IIa inhibitor dabigatran.[11]

History[edit]

It was approved in the United States in 2018 based on data from two phase III studies on reversing the anticoagulant activity of FXa inhibitors rivaroxaban and apixaban in healthy volunteers.[4] As a condition of its accelerated approval there is a study being conducted comparing it to other currently used reversal agents (“usual care”).[5][12]

Society and culture

Economics

Initial pricing (AWP) is $58,000 per reversal (800 mg bolus + 960 mg infusion, $3,300 per 100 mg vial) which is higher than reversal agents for other DOAC agents (idarucizumab for use in dabigatran reversal is $4,200 per reversal).[13]

References

  1. Jump up to:a b c d e “Andexxa- andexanet alfa injection, powder, lyophilized, for solution”DailyMed. 21 September 2020. Retrieved 12 November 2020.
  2. Jump up to:a b c d e f g “Andexxa Monograph for Professionals”Drugs.com. Retrieved 19 December 2018.
  3. Jump up to:a b Dolgin E (March 2013). “Antidotes edge closer to reversing effects of new blood thinners”Nature Medicine19 (3): 251. doi:10.1038/nm0313-251PMID 23467222S2CID 13340319.
  4. Jump up to:a b Siegal DM, Curnutte JT, Connolly SJ, Lu G, Conley PB, Wiens BL, Mathur VS, Castillo J, Bronson MD, Leeds JM, Mar FA, Gold A, Crowther MA (December 2015). “Andexanet Alfa for the Reversal of Factor Xa Inhibitor Activity”New England Journal of Medicine373 (25): 2413–24. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1510991PMID 26559317.
  5. Jump up to:a b Connolly SJ, Crowther M, Eikelboom JW, Gibson CM, Curnutte JT, Lawrence JH, et al. (April 2019). “Full Study Report of Andexanet Alfa for Bleeding Associated with Factor Xa Inhibitors”New England Journal of Medicine380 (14): 1326–1335. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1814051PMC 6699827PMID 30730782.
  6. ^ Justin Morgenstern, “Andexanet Alfa: More garbage science in the New England Journal of Medicine”, First10EM blog, February 11, 2019. Available at: https://first10em.com/andexanet-alfa/.
  7. ^ “A Randomized Clinical Trial of Andexanet Alfa in Acute Intracranial Hemorrhage in Patients Receiving an Oral Factor Xa Inhibitor”. 11 January 2022.
  8. ^ Lu, Genmin; DeGuzman, Francis R.; Lakhotia, Sanjay; Hollenbach, Stanley J.; Phillips, David R.; Sinha, Uma (2008-11-16). “Recombinant Antidote for Reversal of Anticoagulation by Factor Xa Inhibitors”. Blood112 (11): 983. doi:10.1182/blood.V112.11.983.983ISSN 0006-4971.
  9. ^ Kaatz, Scott; Bhansali, Hardik; Gibbs, Joseph; Lavender, Robert; Mahan, Charles E.; Paje, David G. (2017-09-13). “Reversing factor Xa inhibitors – clinical utility of andexanet alfa”Journal of Blood Medicine8: 141–149. doi:10.2147/JBM.S121550PMC 5602457PMID 28979172.
  10. ^ Lu G, Deguzman FR, Hollenbach SJ, et al. (March 2013). “A specific antidote for reversal of anticoagulation by direct and indirect inhibitors of coagulation factor Xa”. Nature Medicine19 (4): 446–51. doi:10.1038/nm.3102PMID 23455714S2CID 11235887.
  11. ^ H. Spreitzer (23 December 2013). “Neue Wirkstoffe – Andexanet Alfa”. Österreichische Apothekerzeitung (in German) (26/2013): 40.
  12. ^ “Trial of Andexanet in ICH Patients Receiving an Oral FXa Inhibitor”ClinicalTrials.gov. 11 January 2022.
  13. ^ “Lexi Comp Drug Information Online”. 24 May 2018.

Further reading

External links

Clinical data
Trade namesAndexxa, Ondexxya, others
Other namesCoagulation factor Xa (recombinant), inactivated-zhzo, PRT06445, r-Antidote, PRT4445
AHFS/Drugs.comMonograph
License dataUS DailyMedAndexanet_alfa
Routes of
administration
Intravenous injection
ATC codeV03AB38 (WHO)
Legal status
Legal statusUK: POM (Prescription only)US: ℞-only [1]EU: Rx-only
Pharmacokinetic data
MetabolismNot studied
Elimination half-life5 h to 7 h
Identifiers
showIUPAC name
CAS Number1262449-58-0
IUPHAR/BPS7576
DrugBankDB14562
ChemSpidernone
UNIIBI009E452R
KEGGD11029
ChEMBLChEMBL3301583

//////////Andexanet alfa, JAPAN 2022, APPROVALS 2022, アンデキサネットアルファ (遺伝子組換え) , Ondexxya , PRT-4445, PRT064445

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Ferric derisomaltose


2D chemical structure of 1345510-43-1
Ferric derisomaltose.png

Ferric derisomaltose

WeightAverage: 562.297
Monoisotopic: 562.117975Chemical FormulaC18H34FeO16

Monover, JAPAN 2022, 2022/3/28

Monoferric (TN);
Monover (TN)

Anti-anemic, Hematinic, Supplement (iron)

CAS 1345510-43-1

デルイソマルトース第二鉄

  • NS32
  • WHO 9712
  • UNII-AHU547PI9H
Originator CompanyPharmacosmos
Active CompaniesNippon Shinyaku Co Ltd;Pharmacosmos A/S;Wasserburger Arzneimittelwerk Gmbh;Zealand University Hospital

iron(3+) (2S,3R,4R,5R)-6-{[(2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-({[(2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)oxan-2-yl]oxy}hexane-1,2,3,4,5-pentol

  • alpha-D-Glucan, (1-6)-, reduced, reaction products with iron hydroxide (Fe(OH)3)

Ferric derisomaltose is an iron injection used in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia.

Ferric derisomaltose, sold under the brand name Monoferric, is a medication for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in adults who have intolerance to oral iron or have had unsatisfactory response to oral iron or who have non-hemodialysis dependent chronic kidney disease (NDD-CKD).[1] It was approved for use in the United States in January 2020.[1][2][3] It is given intravenously.[1]

Iron deficiency is an extremely common condition and is the most frequent cause of anemia worldwide. Iron deficiency results when iron intake, iron stores, and loss of iron from the body do not adequately support production of erythrocytes, also known as red blood cells. Though it is generally considered non life-threatening, iron deficiency may considerably affect quality of life.3

Ferric derisomaltose is a form of iron used in the treatment of iron deficiency. This drug is a complex of iron (III) hydroxide and derisomaltose. The latter is an iron carbohydrate oligosaccharide that works to release iron. Ferric derisomaltose was developed by Pharmacosmos Therapeutics ad was granted FDA approval in January 2020.8,9 Clinical trials show that it is non-inferior to iron sucrose, another form of iron that is often administered in iron deficiency, and less likely to cause serious hypersensitivity that is associated with other forms of injectable iron.1,4

This drug is indicated for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in adult patients who have experienced intolerance to oral iron preparations or insufficient clinical response to orally administered iron. Ferric derisomaltase is also indicated for patients with non-hemodialysis dependent chronic kidney disease.8 In Australia and United Kingdom, ferric derisomaltase is indicated for cases in which rapid delivery of iron is required.10,11

Iron deficiency is an extremely common condition and is the most frequent cause of anemia worldwide. Iron deficiency results when iron intake, iron stores, and loss of iron from the body do not adequately support production of erythrocytes, also known as red blood cells. Though it is generally considered non life-threatening, iron deficiency may considerably affect quality of life. Ferric derisomaltose is a form of iron used in the treatment of iron deficiency. This drug is a complex of iron (III) hydroxide and derisomaltose. The latter is an iron carbohydrate oligosaccharide that works to release ironFerric derisomaltose was developed by Pharmacosmos Therapeutics ad was granted FDA approval in January 2020. Clinical trials show that it is non-inferior to [iron sucrose], another form of iron that is often administered in iron deficiency, and less likely to cause serious hypersensitivity that is associated with other forms of injectable iron.

Monoferric is an iron replacement product containing ferric derisomaltose for intravenous infusion. Ferric derisomaltose is an iron carbohydrate complex with a matrix structure composed of interchanging layers of ferric hydroxide and the carbohydrate derisomaltose. Derisomaltose consists of linear, hydrogenated isomaltooligosaccharides with an average molecular weight of 1000 Da and a narrow molecular weight distribution that is almost devoid of mono-and disaccharides.

Ferric derisomaltose has an average molecular weight of 155,000 Da and has the following empirical formula:

{FeO(1-3X) (OH)(1+3X) (C6H5O73-)X}, (H20)T, –
(C6H10O6)R(-C6H10O5-)Z(C6H13O5)R, (NaCl)Y

X= 0.0311; T = 0.25; R = 0.14; Z = 0.49; Y = 0.14

Iron atoms placed in the electronegative cavities of the 3-D structure between and within the derisomaltose molecules. A schematic representation is presented below

MONOFERRIC (ferric derisomaltose) Structural Formula Illustration

Monoferric is a sterile, dark brown, non-transparent aqueous solution with pH 5.0-7.0, containing ferric derisomaltose dissolved in water for injections and filled into Type I glass vials.

Each 1 mL of solution contains 100 mg of elemental iron as ferric derisomaltose in water for injection.

Each 1 mL of solution contains 100 mg of elemental iron as ferric derisomaltose in water for injection.

Mkt.
Status
Active IngredientProprietary NameAppl. No.Dosage FormRouteStrengthTE CodeRLDRSApplicant Holder
RXFERRIC DERISOMALTOSEMONOFERRICN208171SOLUTIONINTRAVENOUS1GM/10ML (100MG/ML) RLDRSPHARMACOSMOS AS
DISCNFERRIC DERISOMALTOSEMONOFERRICN208171SOLUTIONINTRAVENOUS100MG/ML (100MG/ML) RLD PHARMACOSMOS AS
DISCNFERRIC DERISOMALTOSEMONOFERRICN208171SOLUTIONINTRAVENOUS500MG/5ML (100MG/ML) RLD PHARMACOSMOS AS
Mkt.
Status
Active IngredientProprietary NameAppl. No.Dosage FormRouteStrengthTE Code>RLDRSApplicant Holder

MONOFERRIC (FERRIC DERISOMALTOSE)
1GM/10ML (100MG/ML)
Marketing Status: Prescription

Active Ingredient: FERRIC DERISOMALTOSE
Proprietary Name: MONOFERRIC
Dosage Form; Route of Administration: SOLUTION; INTRAVENOUS
Strength: 1GM/10ML (100MG/ML)
Reference Listed Drug: Yes
Reference Standard: Yes
TE Code:
Application Number: N208171
Product Number: 003
Approval Date: Jan 16, 2020
Applicant Holder Full Name: PHARMACOSMOS AS
Marketing Status:  Prescription
Patent and Exclusivity Information

Patent and Exclusivity for: N208171

Product 003
FERRIC DERISOMALTOSE (MONOFERRIC) SOLUTION 1GM/10ML (100MG/ML)

Patent Data

Product NoPatent NoPatent ExpirationDrug SubstanceDrug ProductPatent Use CodeDelist RequestedSubmission Date
003881530108/14/2029DSDPU-2734 02/14/2020
0031041483103/25/2029DSDP  02/14/2020

PATENT

AU2009342799B2

US10414831B2 

US2012010166A1 

 US2014303364A1 

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References

  1. Jump up to:a b c d “Monoferric- ferric derisomaltose solution”DailyMed. 24 January 2020. Retrieved 16 February 2020.
  2. ^ “Monoferric approval letter” (PDF). U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 16 January 2020. Retrieved 16 February 2020. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  3. ^ “Drug Approval Package: Monoferric Injection”U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 7 May 2020. Retrieved 13 August 2020.

External links

Clinical data
Trade namesMonoferric
AHFS/Drugs.comMonograph
License dataUS DailyMedFerric_derisomaltose
Routes of
administration
Intravenous (IV)
ATC codeNone
Legal status
Legal statusUS: ℞-only [1]
Identifiers
showIUPAC name
CAS Number1345510-43-1
PubChem CID86278348
DrugBankDB15617
UNIIAHU547PI9H
KEGGD11808
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC18H34FeO16+3
Molar mass562.299 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)Interactive image
showSMILES
showInChI

/////////////Ferric derisomaltose, デルイソマルトース第二鉄 , APPROVALS 2022, JAPAN 2022, NS32, WHO 9712

[Fe+3].OC[C@H](O)[C@@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@H](O)CO[C@H]1O[C@H](CO[C@H]2O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@H]2O)[C@@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@H]1O

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Difamilast


img

Difamilast (JAN/USAN).png

2D chemical structure of 937782-05-3

Difamilast

PMDA Moizerto, JAPAN APPROVED 2021/9/27

ジファミラスト

ディファミラスト;

地法米司特

N-({2-[4-(difluoromethoxy)-3-(propan-2-yloxy)phenyl]-1,3- oxazol-4-yl}methyl)-2-ethoxybenzamide

OPA-15406

Formula
C23H24F2N2O5
CAS
937782-05-3
Mol weight
446.4439

MM 36; MM-36-Medimetriks-Pharmaceuticals; Moizerto; OPA-15406

Efficacy
Anti-inflammatory, Phosphodiesterase IV inhibitor
Comment
Treatment of atopic dermatitis

  • Originator
    Otsuka Pharmaceutical Development & Commercialization
  • DeveloperMedimetriks Pharmaceuticals; Otsuka Pharmaceutical Development & Commercialization
  • ClassBenzamides; Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories; Oxazoles; Skin disorder therapies
  • Mechanism of ActionType 4 cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitors
  • RegisteredAtopic dermatitis
  • 27 Sep 2021Registered for Atopic dermatitis (In adolescents, In children, In adults) in Japan (Topical)
  • 11 Nov 2020Otsuka Pharmaceutical completes a phase III trial in Atopic dermatitis (In children, In adolescents, In adults) in Japan (Topical) (NCT03961529)
  • 28 Sep 2020Preregistration for Atopic dermatitis in Japan (In children, In adolescents, In adults) (Topical)

Fig. 1

Difamilast is under investigation in clinical trial NCT01702181 (A Safety Study to Evaluate the Use and Effectiveness of a Topical Ointment to Treat Adults With Atopic Dermatitis).

PATENT

JP 2021059538

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=JP322244172&_cid=P20-L1WXG6-04592-1

Patent Documents 1 and 2 report an oxazole compound having a specific inhibitory action on phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) and a method for producing the same. PDE4 is the predominant PDE in inflammatory cells, inhibition of PDE4 increases intracellular cAMP concentration, and the increase in this concentration downregulates the inflammatory response through regulation of the expression of TNF-α, IL-23, and other inflammatory cytokines. .. Elevated cAMP levels also increase anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10. Therefore, it is considered that the oxazole compound is suitable for use as an anti-inflammatory agent. For example, it may be useful for controlling skin eczema and dermatitis, including atopic dermatitis. Patent Document 3 describes an ointment that stably contains an oxazole compound having a specific inhibitory effect on PDE4 and can be efficiently absorbed into the skin. The contents of Patent Documents 1 to 3 are incorporated in the present specification by reference.

patcit 1 : International Publication No. 2007/058338 (Japanese Publication No. 2009-515872 )
patcit 2 : International Publication No. 2014/034958 (Japanese Publication No. 2015-528433 )
patcit 3 : International Publication No. 2017/115780

[Synthesis of Oxazole Compound (Type A Crystal)]
Compound (5) (white powder) was prepared by the method described in Example 352 of Patent Document 1 (International Publication No. 2007/088383).

[0060]
化合物(5)データ
N−({2−[4−(difluoromethoxy)−3−isopropoxyphenyl]oxazol−4−yl}methyl)−2−ethoxybenzamide
: white powder.
H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): δ = 8.56 (br s,
1H, NH), 8.23 (dd, J = 7.6 Hz, 1.6 Hz, 1H, ArH), 7.66 (s, 1H, ArH), 7.63 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H, ArH), 7.58 (dd, J = 8.4 Hz, 2.0 Hz, 1H, ArH), 7.44−7.39 (m, 1H, ArH), 7.21 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H, ArH), 7.08−7.04 (m, 1H, ArH), 6.94 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H, ArH), 6.61 (t, J = 75.2 Hz, 1H, CHF ), 4.68 (sept, J = 6.0 Hz, 1H, CH), 4.62
(d, J = 6.0 Hz, 2H, CH ), 4.17 (q, J = 6.93, 2H, CH ), 1.48 (t, J = 7.2 Hz, 3H,
CH ), 1.39 (d, J = 5.6 Hz, 6H, 2CH ).
[Preparation of B-type crystal 2]
Using the obtained B-type crystal as a seed crystal, it was examined to further prepare a B-type crystal. Specifically,
B-type crystals were prepared as follows according to the method described in Patent Document 3 (International Publication No. 2017/115780).

[0072]
[Chem. 6]

[0073]
Compound (1) 20.00 g (66.8 mmol) and 17.28 g (134 mmol) of diisopropylethylamine were added to 300 mL of ethyl acetate to cool the mixture, and 11.48 g (100 mmol) of methanesulfonyl chloride was introduced into the compound (1) at 10 to 30 ° C. Stir for hours. Subsequently, 17.41 g (200 mmol) of lithium bromide was added, and the mixture was stirred at 20 to 35 ° C. for 1 hour. 100 mL of water was added to the reaction solution to separate the layers, and the organic layer was concentrated under reduced pressure. 300 mL of ethyl acetate was added to the concentrated residue to dissolve it, and the mixture was concentrated again under reduced pressure. 200 mL of N, N-dimethylformamide and 17.33 g (93.6 mmol) of phthalimide potassium were added to the concentrated residue, and the mixture was reacted at 75 to 85 ° C. for 1 hour. 200 mL of water was added to the reaction solution to precipitate crystals, and the precipitated crystals were collected by filtration and dried at 80 ° C. to obtain 27.20 g (yield 95.01%) of compound (3).

[0074]
[Chem. 7]

[0075]
Compound (3) 20.00 g (46.7 mmol), 40 mL of a 40% aqueous methylamine solution, 40 mL of methanol, and 100 mL of water were mixed and reacted under reflux for 30 minutes. 200 mL of cyclopentyl methyl ether (CPME) and 20 mL of a 25% sodium hydroxide aqueous solution were added to the reaction solution, and the temperature was adjusted to 65 to 75 ° C. to separate the liquids. A mixed solution of 100 mL of water and 20.00 g of sodium chloride was added to the organic layer, and the temperature was adjusted again to 65 to 75 ° C. to separate the liquids. 5 mL of concentrated hydrochloric acid was added to the organic layer to precipitate crystals. Precipitated crystals were collected by filtration to obtain 27.58 g of wet crystals of compound (4).

[0076]
Wet crystals (46.7 mmol) of compound (4) were mixed with 120 mL of ethyl acetate and 7.1 mL (51.4 mmol) of triethylamine, and the mixture was stirred at 20 to 30 ° C. for 1 hour. To the reaction solution, 10.09 g (60.7 mmol) of 2-ethoxybenzoic acid and 11.63 g (60.7 mmol) of 1-ethyl-3- (3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (WSC) were added, and 20 to 30 were added. The reaction was carried out at ° C. for 1 hour. 60 mL of water and 6 mL of concentrated hydrochloric acid were added to the reaction solution, and the temperature was adjusted to 40 to 50 ° C. to separate the solutions. 60 mL of water and 6 mL of a 25%
aqueous sodium hydroxide solution were added to the organic layer, the temperature was adjusted again to 40 to 50 ° C., the liquid was separated, and the organic layer was concentrated under reduced pressure. 50 mL of ethanol, 20 mL of water, 6 mL of a 25% aqueous sodium hydroxide solution, and 0.6 g of activated carbon were added to the concentrated residue, and the mixture was refluxed for 30 minutes. Activated carbon was removed by filtration, washed with 12 mL of ethanol, the filtrate was cooled, and 10 mg of B-type crystals (seed crystals) were added to precipitate crystals. Precipitated crystals were collected by filtration and dried at 60 ° C. to obtain 18.38 g (yield 88.18%) of crystals of compound (5).

PATENT

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2017115780

Production Example 1: Production 1 of Compound (3)
Compound (3) was produced in accordance with the following reaction scheme.

[0146]
[Chem. 11]

[0147]
10.00 g (55.5 mmol) of compound (1a) and 9.20 g (66.6 mmol) of potassium carbonate were added to 40 ml of N,N-dimethylformamide and 6 ml of water, and the mixture was stirred until exotherm subsided. 16.92 g (111 mmol) of sodium chlorodifluoroacetate was added thereto, and the mixture was reacted at 95 to 110°C for 3 hours. 80 ml of butyl acetate and 80 ml of water were added to the reaction solution, and the solution was partitioned. 80 ml of water was added again to the organic layer, followed by partitioning. 3 ml of concentrated hydrochloric acid was added to the organic layer, and the mixture was stirred at 60 to 70°C for 30 minutes. 40 ml of water and 10 ml of a 25% sodium hydroxide aqueous solution were added to the reaction solution, and the mixture was partitioned. 5.93 g (61.1 mmol) of sulfamic acid and 10 ml of water were added to the organic layer, and 22.08 g (61.0 mmol) of a 25% sodium chlorite aqueous solution was added dropwise thereto at a temperature of 20°C or below. The mixture was reacted at 20°C or below for 15 minutes, and 10 ml of a 25% sodium hydroxide aqueous solution was added dropwise thereto at a temperature of 20°C or below, followed by pouring in 83.95 g (66.6 mmol) of a 10% sodium sulfite aqueous solution. Additionally, 2 ml of concentrated hydrochloric acid was added and the mixture was partitioned, followed by concentration of the organic layer under reduced pressure. 40 ml of methanol, 80 ml of water, and 10 ml of a 25% sodium hydroxide aqueous solution were added to the concentrated residue to dissolve the residue, and 5 ml of concentrated hydrochloric acid was added dropwise thereto to precipitate crystals. The precipitated crystals were collected by filtration and dried at 80°C, thereby obtaining 11.81 g (yield: 86.4%) of compound (3) as a white powder.

[0148]

1H-NMR (CDCl 3) δ: 7.70 (2H,dd,J = 6.4 Hz,2.0 Hz),7.22 (1H,d,J = 9.2 Hz),6.66 (1H,t,J = 74.8 Hz),4.66(1H,sept,J = 6.0 Hz),1.39 (6H,d,J = 6.0 Hz).

Production Example 2: Production 2 of Compound (3)
Compound (3) was produced in accordance with the following reaction scheme.

[0149]
[Chem. 12]

[0150]
10.00 g (53.2 mmol) of compound (1b), 9.55 g (69.1 mmol) of potassium carbonate, and 8.50 g (69.1 mmol) of isopropyl bromide were added to 40 ml of N,N-dimethylformamide, and the mixture was reacted at 75 to 85°C for 2 hours. 80 ml of butyl acetate and 80 ml of water were added to the reaction solution, and the mixture was partitioned. 5.68 g (58.5 mmol) of sulfamic acid and 10 ml of water were added to the organic layer, and 21.15 g (58.5 mmol) of a 25% sodium chlorite aqueous solution was added dropwise thereto at 20°C or below, followed by reaction for 15 minutes. 10 ml of a 25% sodium hydroxide aqueous solution was added thereto at 20°C or below, and subsequently 80.41 g (63.8 mmol) of a 10% sodium sulfite aqueous solution was poured in. Additionally, 2 ml of concentrated hydrochloric acid was added, and the mixture was partitioned, followed by concentration of the organic layer under reduced pressure. 40 ml of methanol, 80 ml of water, and 10 ml of a 25% sodium hydroxide aqueous solution were added to the concentrated residue, and the residue was dissolved, followed by dropwise addition of 5 ml of concentrated hydrochloric acid to precipitate crystals. The precipitated crystals were collected by filtration and dried at 80°C, thereby obtaining 12.09 g (yield: 92.4%) of compound (3) as a white powder.

[0151]
Production Example 3: Production of Compound (7)
Compound (7) was produced in accordance with the following reaction scheme.

[0152]
[Chem. 13]
Production Example 4: Production of Compound (11)
Compound (11) was produced in accordance with the following reaction scheme.

[0160]
[Chem. 14]

[0161]
Synthesis of Compound (9)
20.00 g (66.8 mmol) of compound (7) and 17.28 g (134 mmol) of N,N-diisopropylethylamine were added to 300 ml of ethyl acetate, and the mixture was cooled. 11.48 g (100 mmol) of methanesulfonyl chloride was poured in and stirred at 10 to 30°C for 1 hour. 17.41 g (200 mmol) of lithium bromide was added thereto and reacted at 20 to 35°C for 1 hour. 100 ml of water was added to the reaction solution, and the mixture was partitioned, followed by concentration of the organic layer under reduced pressure. 300 ml of ethyl acetate was added to the concentrated residue to dissolve the residue, and the solution was again concentrated under reduced pressure. 200 ml of N,N-dimethylformamide and 17.33 g (93.6 mmol) of potassium phthalimide were added to the concentrated residue and reacted at 75 to 85°C for 1 hour. 200 ml of water was added to the reaction solution to precipitate crystals. The precipitated crystals were collected by filtration and dried at 80°C, thereby obtaining 25.90 g (yield: 90.5%) of compound (9) as a white powder.

[0162]
1H-NMR (DMSO-d 6) δ: 8.22 (1H,s),7.94-7.86 (4H,m),7.58 (1H,d,J = 2.0 Hz),7.52 (1H,dd,J = 8.8 Hz,2.4 Hz),7.30 (1H,d,J = 8.4 Hz),7.14 (1H,t,J = 74.2 Hz),4.78-4.69 (3H,m),1.30 (6H,d,J = 6.0 Hz).

[0163]
Synthesis of Compound (10)
15.00 g (35.0 mmol) of compound (9) was mixed with 30 ml of a 40% methylamine aqueous solution, 30 ml of methanol, and 75 ml of water, and reacted under reflux for 30 minutes. 150 ml of cyclopentyl methyl ether (CPME) and 15 ml of a 25% sodium hydroxide aqueous solution were added to the reaction solution, and the temperature was adjusted to 65 to 75°C, followed by partitioning. A mixture of 150 ml of water and 7.50 g of sodium chloride was added to the organic layer, and the temperature was adjusted to 65 to 75°C again, followed by partitioning. 3.75 ml of concentrated hydrochloric acid was added to the organic layer to precipitate crystals. The precipitated crystals were collected by filtration and dried at 60°C, thereby obtaining 11.95 g (yield: quant.) of compound (10) as a white powder.

[0164]
1H-NMR (DMSO-d 6) δ: 8.51 (3H,br-s),8.29 (1H,s),7.64 (1H,d,J = 2 Hz),7.59 (1H,dd,J = 8.0 Hz,1.6 Hz),7.37 (1H,d,J = 8.4 Hz),7.18 (1H,t,J = 74.0 Hz),4.72 (1H,sept,J = 6.1 Hz),4.03 (2H,s),1.33 (6H,d,J = 6.4 Hz).

[0165]
Synthesis of Compound (11)
13.30 g (39.7 mmol) of compound (10) was mixed with 3.83 g (37.8 mmol) of triethylamine and 108 ml of ethyl acetate, and stirred at 20 to 30°C for 1 hour. 9.78 g (58.9 mmol) of 2-ethoxybenzoic acid and 11.28 g (58.8 mmol) of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (WSC) were added to the reaction solution, and reacted at 20 to 30°C for 1 hour. 54 ml of water and 5.4 ml of concentrated hydrochloric acid were added to the reaction solution, and the temperature was adjusted to 40 to 50°C, followed by partitioning. 54 ml of water and 5.4 ml of a 25% sodium hydroxide aqueous solution were added to the organic layer, and the temperature was adjusted to 40 to 50°C again. The mixture was partitioned, and the organic layer was concentrated under reduced pressure. 45 ml of ethanol, 18 ml of water, 5.4 ml of a 25% sodium hydroxide aqueous solution, and 0.54 g of activated carbon were added to the concentrated residue, and the mixture was refluxed for 30 minutes. The activated carbon was removed by filtration, and the filtrate was washed with 11 ml of ethanol. The filtrate was cooled, and a seed crystal was added thereto to precipitate crystals. The precipitated crystals were collected by filtration and dried at 35°C, thereby obtaining 12.88 g (72.6%) of compound (11) as a white powder.

[0166]
1H-NMR (CDCl 3) δ: 8.56 (1H,br-s),8.23 (1H,dd,J = 7.6 Hz,1.6 Hz),7.66 (1H,s),7.63 (1H,d,J = 2.0 Hz),7.58 (1H,dd,J = 8.4 Hz,2.0 Hz),7.44-7.39 (1H,m),7.21 (1H,d,J = 8.0 Hz),7.08-7.04 (1H,mH),6.94 (1H,d,J = 8.0 Hz),6.61 (1H,t,J = 75.2 Hz),4.68 (1H,sept,J = 6.0 Hz),4.62 (2H,d,J = 6.0 Hz),4.17 (2H,q,J = 6.93),1.48 (3H,t,J = 7.2 Hz),1.39 (6H,d,J = 5.6 Hz).

PATENT

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2019194211


*DIPEA: Diisopropylethylamine, CPME: Cyclopentyl methyl ether,
DMF: N,N-dimethylformamide, 2-EBA: 2-Ethoxybenzoic acid,
WSC: 1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride

Type B Crystal Preparation 2
Analysis was conducted to further prepare the type B crystal using the obtained type B crystal as a seed crystal. More specifically, the type B crystal was prepared as follows, in accordance with the method disclosed in PTL 3 (WO2017/115780).

[0072]

[0073]
20.00 g (66.8 mmol) of compound (1) and 17.28 g (134 mmol) of diisopropylethylamine were added to 300 mL of ethyl acetate, and the mixture was cooled. 11.48 g (100 mmol) of methanesulfonyl chloride was poured in and stirred at 10 to 30°C for 1 hour. 17.41 g (200 mmol) of lithium bromide was added thereto, and the mixture was stirred at 20 to 35°C for 1 hour. 100 mL of water was added to the reaction solution, and the mixture was separated, followed by concentration of the organic layer under reduced pressure. 300 mL of ethyl acetate was added to the concentrated residue to dissolve the residue, and the solution was again concentrated under reduced pressure. 200 mL of N,N-dimethylformamide and 17.33 g (93.6 mmol) of potassium phthalimide were added to the concentrated residue, and reacted at 75 to 85°C for 1 hour. 200 mL of water was added to the reaction solution to precipitate crystals. The precipitated crystals were collected by filtration and dried at 80°C, thereby obtaining 27.20 g (yield: 95.01%) of compound (3).

[0074]

[0075]
20.00 g (46.7 mmol) of compound (3), 40 mL of a 40% methylamine aqueous solution, 40 mL of methanol, and 100 mL of water were mixed and reacted for 30 minutes under reflux. 200 mL of cyclopentyl methyl ether (CPME) and 20 mL of a 25% sodium hydroxide aqueous solution were added to the reaction solution, and the temperature was adjusted to 65 to 75°C, followed by separation. A mixture of 100 mL of water and 20.00 g of sodium chloride was added to the organic layer, and the temperature was adjusted to 65 to 75°C again, followed by separation. 5 mL of concentrated hydrochloric acid was added to the organic layer to precipitate crystals. The precipitated crystals were collected by filtration, thereby obtaining 27.58 g of compound (4) as a wet crystal.

[0076]
The wet crystal (46.7 mmol) of compound (4) was mixed with 120 mL of ethyl acetate and 7.1 mL (51.4 mmol) of triethylamine, and stirred at 20 to 30°C for 1 hour. 10.09 g (60.7 mmol) of 2-ethoxybenzoic acid and 11.63 g (60.7 mmol) of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (WSC) were added to the reaction solution, and reacted at 20 to 30°C for 1 hour. 60 mL of water and 6 mL of concentrated hydrochloric acid were added to the reaction solution, and the temperature was adjusted to 40 to 50°C, followed by separation. 60 mL of water and 6 mL of a 25% sodium hydroxide aqueous solution were added to the organic layer, and the temperature was adjusted to 40 to 50°C again. The mixture was separated, and the organic layer was concentrated under reduced pressure. 50 mL of ethanol, 20 mL of water, 6 mL of a 25% sodium hydroxide aqueous solution, and 0.6 g of activated carbon were added to the concentrated residue, and the mixture was refluxed for 30 minutes. The activated carbon was removed by filtration, and the filtrate was washed with 12 mL of ethanol. The filtrate was cooled, and 10 mg of the type B crystal (a seed crystal) was added thereto to precipitate crystals. The precipitated crystals were collected by filtration and dried at 60°C, thereby obtaining 18.38 g (88.18%) of compound (5).

PATENT

WO2014034958A1

WO2007058338A2

WO2007058338A9

WO2007058338A3

US9181205B2

US2015239855A1

USRE46792E

US2020078340A1

US2017216260A1

US2019070151A1

US2009221586A1

US8637559B2

US2014100226A1

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/////////////Difamilast, JAPAN 2021, APPROVALS 2021, ジファミラスト ,  MM 36,  MM-36-Medimetriks-Pharmaceuticals,  Moizerto, OPA-15406, OPA 15406, 地法米司特

O=C(NCC1=COC(C2=CC=C(OC(F)F)C(OC(C)C)=C2)=N1)C3=CC=CC=C3OCC

INTrmediate No.CAS No.DIFAM-001177429-27-5DIFAM-00293652-48-3DIFAM-0031574285-26-9DIFAM-00470-23-5DIFAM-0051574285-28-1DIFAM-0061574285-30-5DIFAM-0071574285-32-7DIFAM-0081574285-36-1DIFAM-0091574285-38-3DIFAM-010DIFAM-0111574285-40-7DIFAM-0121574285-43-0DIFAM-013134-11-2Difamilast937782-05-3

TOLDIMFOS SODIUM


Toldimfos sodium.png
Structure of TOLDIMFOS SODIUM

TOLDIMFOS SODIUM

C9H12NNaO2P+  , 220.16

Toldimfos sodium

575-75-7

Sodium (4-(dimethylamino)-2-methylphenyl)phosphinate

UNII-6139240O1E

sodium;[4-(dimethylamino)-2-methylphenyl]-oxido-oxophosphanium

EINECS 209-391-4

C9H13NO2P.Na

DTXSID4060361

AKOS015960346

VZ33686

AC-10524

FT-0657398

575-75-7

Sodium (4-(dimethylamino)-2-methylphenyl)phosphinate

UNII-6139240O1E

sodium;[4-(dimethylamino)-2-methylphenyl]-oxido-oxophosphanium

Phosphinic acid, [4-(dimethylamino)-2-methylphenyl]-, sodium salt

6139240O1E

Phosphinic acid, (4-(dimethylamino)-2-methylphenyl)-, sodium salt

Phosphinic acid, P-(4-(dimethylamino)-2-methylphenyl)-, sodium salt (1:1)

Toldimfos is an aromatic phosphorus compound which falls between phosphorous itself and phosphoric acid in the stages of oxidation. Toldimfos sodium is the sodium salt of 2- methyl-4-(dimethylamino)phenylphosphinic acid. It is used to treat and prevent diseases associated with parturition and peri-partum period, developmental and nutritional disorders in young animals, and bone growth disorders and tetany or paresis caused by calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus metabolism disorders. Toldimfos has been used as a human medicine since 1920. While it is no longer indicated for human use, it is used in horses, cattle, sheep, pigs, and goats, and administered by intravenous, intramuscular, or subcutaneous injection. No specific data on the pharmacodynamic action of toldimfos was submitted. The precise mode of action of toldimfos is unknown and it is questionable whether the effect of toldimfos is simply a matter of the substitution of deficient phosphorus. It appears more likely that the effect of toldimfos arises due to multiple stimulation of metabolism with the body.

Toldimfos sodium trihydrate.png

Toldimfos sodium trihydrate

5787-63-3

2D chemical structure of 57808-64-7

Toldimfos [INN:BAN]
57808-64-7

Toldimfos Sodium

CAS Registry Number: 575-75-7

CAS Name: (4-Dimethylamino-o-tolyl)phosphonous acid sodium salt

Additional Names: sodium (4-dimethylamino-o-tolyl)phosphonate; p-dimethylamino-o-toluenephosphonous acid sodium salt

Trademarks: Foston (Hoechst); Tonofosfan (Hoechst)

Molecular Formula: C9H13NNaO2P, Molecular Weight: 221.17

Percent Composition: C 48.87%, H 5.92%, N 6.33%, Na 10.39%, O 14.47%, P 14.00%

Literature References: Prepd from N,N-dimethyl-m-toluidine and phosphorus trichloride: Benda, Schmidt, DE397813 (1924 to Cassella), Frdl.14, 1409.

Derivative Type: Trihydrate

CAS Registry Number: 5787-63-3

Properties: Scales, needles, or prisms from alc. Freely sol in cold water, hot alcohol.

Therap-Cat-Vet: Phosphorus source.

SYN

PATENT

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2011026571

PATENT

https://patents.google.com/patent/CN103830261A/en

China’s animal husbandry fast development is the important motivity that promotes China’s agricultural and rural economy development, improves farmers’ income.The disease relevant with Nutrition and Metabolism of serious harm animal health is in rising trend in recent years, the direct economic loss that raising poultry nutritive metabolic disease causes over ten billion to China’s animal husbandry every year, and indirect economic loss is difficult to estimate.

Due to the life-time service of chemicals, will cause some poultrys, poultry product drug residue is serious, this is harm humans healthy not only, also affecting the export of farm produce earns foreign exchange, therefore, tackle this problem, research and development are efficient, the new Nutrition and Metabolism medicine of low toxicity, wide spectrum will have huge market.

Toldimfos (Toldimfos Sodium) belongs to the nutritional supplementation medicine of phosphorus supplement, can be used as benzenephosphonic acid (Phenylphosphinicacid, BPA) succedaneum uses, can be used for treating the disease relevant with childbirth and perinatal stage of the food animals such as horse, cattle, pig, sheep, the diseases such as the bone lengthening obstacle being caused by calcium, magnesium, phosphorus metabolism obstacle.

Toldimfos has higher water solublity, mainly excretes through urine rapidly with the former medicine form of not metabolism in animal body, and the half-life is short, can in tissue, not accumulate.

Toldimfos is developed by German Hoechst company, the symptom such as since nineteen twenty, once physical weakness, chronic stress, depression, mental muscle power postoperative for human treatment, that catch was overtired.Now be not used in the mankind, be mainly used in animal.Its commodity are called onofosfan.

In sum, toldimfos, as a kind of nutritional supplementation medicine of new and effective noresidue, has wide market prospect in China.The development of this product will be made outstanding contributions to the sound development of China’s animal husbandry, remarkable economic and social benefits with application.

PATENT

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2004003198A1/ja

///////////

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//////////TOLDIMFOS SODIUM, HOECHST,  Foston, Tonofosfan, 

O.O.O.[Na+].CN(C)c1ccc(c(C)c1)P(=O)[O-]

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Carotegrast methyl


ChemSpider 2D Image | CAROTEGRAST METHYL | C28H26Cl2N4O5
Carotegrast methyl (JAN).png
2D chemical structure of 401905-67-7

Carotegrast methyl

FormulaC28H26Cl2N4O5
CAS401905-67-7
Mol weight569.4358

PMDA APROVED, CAROGRA, カロテグラストメチル

ON 2022/3/28

Antiasthmatic, Integrin alpha 4 inhibitor

  • An alpha4 integrin antagonist.

401905-67-7[RN]

L-Phenylalanine, N-(2,6-dichlorobenzoyl)-4-[6-(dimethylamino)-1,4-dihydro-1-methyl-2,4-dioxo-3(2H)-quinazolinyl]-, methyl ester

methyl (2S)-2-[(2,6-dichlorophenyl)formamido]-3-{4-[6-(dimethylamino)-1-methyl-2,4-dioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinazolin-3-yl]phenyl}propanoate

Methyl N-(2,6-dichlorobenzoyl)-4-[6-(dimethylamino)-1-methyl-2,4-dioxo-1,4-dihydro-3(2H)-quinazolinyl]-L-phenylalaninate

Carotegrast Methyl

Methyl (2S)-2-(2,6-dichlorobenzamido)-3-{4-[6-(dimethylamino)-1-methyl-2,4-dioxo-1,4-dihydroquinazolin-3(2H)-yl]phenyl}propanoate

C28H26Cl2N4O5 : 569.44
[401905-67-7]

PATENT

WO 2008062859

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2008062859A1/en

Step 1

(Method 2): The title compound was prepared starting from 2-amino-5-dimethylamino- benzoic acid methyl ester dihydrochloride through the hydrolysis under basic condition To 5.0 g of 2-amino-5-dimethylamino-benzoic acid methyl ester di-hydrochloride, there were added 15 mL of water and 15.6 mL of a 6M aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide and the resulting mixture was heated to 40°C for 2 hours. After the confirmation of the progress of the reaction according to HPLC, the reaction system was cooled to room temperature, a 6M hydrochloric acid aqueous solution was dropwise added to the reaction system to thus neutralize the same and to separate out crystals (pH 4.9) and then the reaction system was stirred at 10°C for 2 hours. The solid thus obtained was isolated through the filtration under reduced pressure, washed with 30 mL of water and then dried under reduced pressure at 60°C for 14 hours. Title compound 3.14 g was obtained as gray-colored solid. The physical properties determined were almost identical to those observed for the same compound prepared in the above-mentioned synthesis example. H-NMR (400MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 8.21 (bs, 3H), 7.10 (d, 1H, J=2.8Hz), 6.97 (dd, 1H, J=9.1, 2.8Hz), 6.70 (d, 1H, J=9.1 Hz), 2.72 (s, 6H); 13C-NMR (100MHz, DMSO-d6): δ168.89, 144.55, 141.61, 123.29, 117.90, 114.78, 110.11,41.95; MS (ESI+): m/z 181.3 (MH+), (ESI-): m/z 179.2 (M-H).

Step 2

Step 1: Synthesis of Nα-(2,6-dichlorobenzoyl) -4-{2-ethoxycarbonylamino-5-dimethyl- amino-benzoylamino}-L-phenylalanine methyl ester To 1.96 g of 2-amino-5-dimethylaminobenzoic acid, there were added 12 mL of acetonitrile and 5.29 mL of pyridine to form a suspension and then the resulting suspension was cooled to 4°C. To this suspension there was dropwise added 4.17 mL of ethyl chloroformate over 5 minutes and then the mixture was stirred at 25°C for one hour. After confirming the disappearance of the starting material by HPLC, 0.7 mL of ethanol was added to the mixture to thus decompose the excess ethyl chloroformate and the mixture was further stirred for additional one hour. To this reaction solution there were added 4.0 g of 4-amino-Nα-(2,6-dichlorobenzoyl)-L-phenylalanine methyl ester and 12 mL of N,Ndimethylformamide, and the resulting mixture was stirred overnight. Subsequently, 48 mL of methanol was drop-wise added, the resulting mixture was stirred at 10°C overnight and then the solid separated from the mixture was isolated through filtration under reduced pressure. The solid was then washed with 8 mL of methanol and dried at 70°C for 5 hours under reduced pressure. Title compound 5.50 g was obtained as pale yellow solid. 1H-NMR (400MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 10.29 (s, 1H), 9.42 (bs, 1H), 9.24 (d, 1H, J=7.9Hz), 7.73 (bs, 1H), 7.62 (d, 2H, J=8.4Hz), 7.48-7.44 (m, 2H), 7.41 (dd, 1H, J=9.5, 6.2Hz), 7.27 (d, 2H,J=8.4Hz), 7.01 (d, 1H, J=2.7Hz), 6.93 (dd, 1H, J=9.1, 2.9Hz), 4.71 (ddd, 1H, J=9.2, 8.1, 5.7Hz), 4.05 (q, 2H, J=7.0Hz), 3.66 (s, 3H), 3.10 (dd, 1H, J=14.0, 5.6Hz), 2.96 (dd, 1H, J=14.0, 9.2Hz), 2.93 (s, 6H), 1.18 (t, 3H, J=7.2Hz); MS (ESI+): m/z 601.2 (MH+) and 623.2 (M+Na), (ESI): m/z 599.1 (M-H).

Step 3

Step2: Synthesis of Na-(2,6-dichlorobenzoyl)-4-{6-dimethylamino-1-methylquinazoline-2,4[1H,3H]-dion-3-yl}-L-phenylalanine methyl ester To 2.0 g of Na-(2,6-dichlorobenzoyl)-4-{2-ethoxycarbonylamino -5-dimethyl- amino-benzoylamino}-L-phenylalanine methyl ester prepared in above-mentioned step 1, were added 16 mL of N,N-dimethylfbrmamide, 0.8 mL of methanol and 0.91 g of potassium carbonate, followed by the stirring of the resulting mixture at 25°C overnight. To this reaction solution, there was added 0.75 mL of methyl p-toluenesulfonate for subjecting the methyl ester to alkylation at 25~40°C. After confirming the disappearance of the starting material by HPLC, 0.75 mL of acetic acid was added to quench the reaction, 16 mL of water was dropped and the solid was separated. Further, 8 mLof N,N-dimethylformamide/water = 1/1 mixed liquid was added to the resulting mixture, followed by the stirring of the mixture at 25°C. Then the solid thus separated was isolated through filtration under reduced pressure and then washed with 8 mL of water. Thereafter, the isolated solid was dried at 70°C for 4 hours under reduced pressure. Desired compound 1.77 g was obtained as pale yellow solid. 1H-NMR (400MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 9.28 (d, 1H, J=8.1 Hz), 7.48-7.36 (m, 6H), 7.31 (dd, 1H, J=3.0, 9.0Hz), 7.24 (d, 1H, J=3.0Hz), 7.20-7.15 (m, 2H), 4.18 (ddd, 1H, J=10.2, 8.1,4.8Hz), 3.69 (s, 3H), 3.49 (s, 3H), 3.22 (dd, 1H, J=14.1, 4.8Hz), 3.02 (dd, 1H, J=14.2, 10.5Hz), 2.94 (s, 6H); MS (ESI+): m/z 569.2 (MH+) and 591.1 (M+Na), (ESI-): m/z 567.2 (M-H).

PATENT

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2004074264A1/en

PATENT’ WO 2003070709

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2003070709A1/en

PATENT

WO 2002016329

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/////////////Carotegrast methyl, CAROGRA, カロテグラストメチル , JAPAN 2022, APPROVALS 2022,

COC(=O)[C@H](Cc1ccc(cc1)N2C(=O)N(C)c3ccc(cc3C2=O)N(C)C)NC(=O)c4c(Cl)cccc4Cl

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RISPERIDONE


Risperidone.svg

Risperidone

EU APPROVED 2022/2/14, Okedi

  • R-64,766
  • R-64766
  • RCN-3028
  • RCN3028

Risperidone, R-64766, Risperdal M-Tab, Risperdal Consta, Rispolept, Belivon, Risperdal

FormulaC23H27FN4O2
CAS106266-06-2
Mol weight410.4845

3-{2-[4-(6-fluoro-1,2-benzoxazol-3-yl)piperidin-1-yl]ethyl}-2-methyl-4H,6H,7H,8H,9H-pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-4-one

Product Ingredients

INGREDIENTUNIICASINCHI KEY
Risperidone tartrate0S6B72E3LK666179-92-6KSWIOGDSXUFKOC-LREBCSMRSA-N

Risperidone

CAS Registry Number: 106266-06-2

CAS Name: 3-[2-[4-(6-Fluoro-1,2-benzisoxazol-3-yl)-1-piperidinyl]ethyl]-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-2-methyl-4H-pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-4-one

Manufacturers’ Codes: R-64766

Trademarks: Belivon (Organon); Risperdal (J & J)

Molecular Formula: C23H27FN4O2, Molecular Weight: 410.48

Percent Composition: C 67.30%, H 6.63%, F 4.63%, N 13.65%, O 7.80%

Literature References: Combined serotonin (5-HT2) and dopamine (D2) receptor antagonist. Prepn: L. E. J. Kennis, J. Vandenberk, EP196132eidem,US4804663 (1986, 1989 both to Janssen). Pharmacology: P. A. J. Janssen et al.,J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.244, 685 (1988). Receptor binding studies: J. E. Leysen et al.,ibid.247, 661 (1988). HPLC determn in plasma: A. Avenoso et al.,J. Chromatogr. B746, 173 (2000). Clinical study in psychoses: Y. G. Gelders et al.,Pharmacopsychiatry23, 206 (1990); in autism: L. Scahill et al., N. Engl. J. Med.347, 314 (2002). Brief review: M. G. Livingston, Lancet343, 457-460 (1994). Review of pharmacology and therapeutic potential: S. Grant, A. Fitton, Drugs48, 253-273 (1994); B. Green, Curr. Med. Res. Opin.16, 57-65 (2000); of clinical experience in schizophrenia: H.-J. Möller, Expert Opin. Pharmacother.6, 803-818 (2005),

Properties: Crystals from DMF + 2-propanol, mp 170.0°. LD50 in male, female mice, rats, dogs (mg/kg): 29.7, 26.9, 34.3, 35.4, 14.1, 18.3 i.v.; 82.1, 63.1, 113, 56.6, 18.3, 18.3 orally (Janssen, 1988).

Melting point: mp 170.0°

Toxicity data: LD50 in male, female mice, rats, dogs (mg/kg): 29.7, 26.9, 34.3, 35.4, 14.1, 18.3 i.v.; 82.1, 63.1, 113, 56.6, 18.3, 18.3 orally (Janssen, 1988)

Therap-Cat: Antipsychotic.

Keywords: Antipsychotic; Benzisoxazoles; Serotonin-Dopamine Antagonist.

Risperidone, sold under the brand name Risperdal among others, is an atypical antipsychotic[2] used to treat schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.[2] It is taken either by mouth or by injection (subcutaneous or intramuscular).[2] The injectable versions are long-acting and last for 2-4 weeks.[6]

Common side effects include movement problemssleepinessdizziness, trouble seeing, constipation, and increased weight.[2][7] Serious side effects may include the potentially permanent movement disorder tardive dyskinesia, as well as neuroleptic malignant syndrome, an increased risk of suicide, and high blood sugar levels.[2][6] In older people with psychosis as a result of dementia, it may increase the risk of death.[2] It is unknown if it is safe for use in pregnancy.[2] Its mechanism of action is not entirely clear, but is believed to be related to its action as a dopamine and serotonin antagonist.[2]

Study of risperidone began in the late 1980s and it was approved for sale in the United States in 1993.[2][8][4] It is on the World Health Organization’s List of Essential Medicines.[9] It is available as a generic medication.[6] In 2019, it was the 149th most commonly prescribed medication in the United States, with more than 4 million prescriptions.[10][11]

Synthesis ReferenceUS4804663

SYN

EP 0196132; ES 8705881; JP 1986221186; US 4804663

The Friedel-Crafts condensation of 1,3-difluorobenzene (I) with 1-acetylpiperidine-4-carbonyl chloride (II) by means of AlCl3 in dichloromethane gives 1-acetyl-4-(2,4-difluorobenzoyl)piperidine (III), which is hydrotyzed with refluxing 6N HCl to yield 4-(2,4-difluorobenzoyl)piperidine (IV). The reaction of (IV) with hydroxylamine in refluxing ethanol affords the corresponding oxime (V), which is cyclized by means of KOH in boiling water giving 6-fluoro-3-(4-piperidinyl)-1,2-benzisoxazole (VI). Finally, this compound is condensed with 3-(2-chloroethyl)-2-methyl-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-4H-pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-4-one (VII) by means of K2CO3 and Kl in a variety of solvents.

SYN

ES 2050069

The intermediate 3-(2-chloroethyl)-2-methyl-6, 7,8,9-tetrahydro-4H-pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-4-one (V) has been obtained as follows: The cyclization of 2-aminopyridine (I) with 3-acetyltetrahydrofuran-2-one (II) by means of polyphosphoric acid (PPA) at 160 C gives 3-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-methyl-4H-pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-4-one (III), which is hydrogenated with H2 over Pd/C in ethanol/water to yield the tetrahydro derivative (IV). Finally, the OH group of (IV) is treated with SOCl2 in dichloromethane to afford the target 2-chloroethyl intermediate (V).

SYN

The condensation of piperidine-4-carboxylic acid (VI) with ethyl chloroformate (VII) by means of Na2CO3 in toluene/water gives 1-(ethoxycarbonyl)piperidine-4-carboxylic acid (VIII), which is treated with SOCl2 to yield the corresponding acyl chloride (IX). The Friedel-Crafts condensation of (IX) with refluxing 1,3-difluorobenzene (X) by means of AlCl3 gives 4-(2,4-difluorobenzoyl)piperidine-1-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (XI), which is treated with concentrated HCl at 100 C to yield 4-(2,4-difluorobenzoyl)piperidine (XII). The condensation of piperidine (XII) with the 2-chloroethyl intermediate (V) by means of KI and NaHCO3 in refluxing acetonitrile affords the adduct (XIII), which is treated with hydroxylamine hydrochloride and KOH in refluxing pyridine/ethanol to provide the corresponding oxime (XIV). Finally, this compound is cyclized by means of KOH in refluxing water or with NaH in refluxing THF to afford in both cases the target 1,2-benzisoxazole.

SYN

The intermediate 3-(2-aminoethyl)-2-methyl-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-4H-pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-4-one (IV) has been obtained as follows: The condensation of 3-(2-chloroethyl)-2-methyl-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-4H-pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-4-one (I) with dibenzylamine (II) by means of NaHCO3 in refluxing acetonitrile gives the tertiary amine (III), which is debenzylated by hydrogenation with H2 over Pd/C in warm ethanol to afford the target intermediate (IV).

SYN

The condensation of tetrahydropyran-4-carbonyl chloride (V) with refluxing 1,3-difluorobenzene (VI) by means of AlCl3 gives 1-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-1-(tetrahydropyran-4-yl)methanone (VII), which is treated with hydroxylamine hydrochloride and sodium acetate in refluxing ethanol/water to yield the corresponding oxime (VIII). The cyclization of (VIII) by means of KOH in refluxing methanol affords 6-fluoro-3-(tetrahydropyran-4-yl)-1,2-benzisoxazole (IX), which is treated with NaI and Ac-Cl and then with K2CO3 in refluxing acetonitrile to provide the 5-iodopentanol derivative (X). The reaction of the OH group of (X) with Ms-Cl and TEA in dichloromethane gives the corresponding mesylate (XI), which is finally cyclized with the intermediate amine (IV) by means of NaHCO3 in refluxing acetonitrile to yield the target piperidine.

SYN

SYN

Eur. Pat. Appl. 196132

File:Risperidone synthesis.png

SYN

  • Production Route of Risperidone
  • (CAS NO.: ), with other name of 4H-Pyrido(1,2-a)pyrimidin-4-one, 6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-3-(2-(4-(6-fluoro-1,2-benzisoxazol-3-yl)-1-piperidinyl)ethyl)-2-methyl-, could be produced through many synthetic methods.Following is one of the synthesis routes:
    The Friedel-Crafts condensation of 1,3-di (I) with 1-acetylpiperidine-4-carbonyl chloride (II) by means of AlCl3 in dichloromethane gives 1-acetyl-4-(2,4-difluorobenzoyl)piperidine (III), which is hydrotyzed with refluxing 6N HCl to yield 4-(2,4-difluorobenzoyl)piperidine (IV). The reaction of (IV) with hydroxylamine in refluxing ethanol affords the corresponding oxime (V), which is cyclized by means of KOH in boiling water giving 6-fluoro-3-(4-piperidinyl)-1,2-benzisoxazole (VI). Finally, this compound is condensed with 3-(2-chloroethyl)-2-methyl-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-4H-pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-4-one (VII) by means of K2CO3 and Kl in a variety of solvents.Production Route of Risperidone
  • SYN

Piperidine-Based Nonfused Biheterocycles With C–N and C–C Coupling

Ruben Vardanyan, in Piperidine-Based Drug Discovery, 2017

Risperidone (15970)

Risperidone (7.2.1) (Risperdal) is the first second-generation antipsychotic that was specifically designed as a combined D2 and serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist, thus following the pharmacological mechanism thought to be responsible for the antipsychotic effects. After its advent in the 1990s as the first novel second-generation antipsychotic, risperidone has achieved worldwide acceptance. It was initially approved for use in schizophrenia, mania of bipolar disorder, and irritability and aggression of autism. But it is also effectively used in other instances of psychosis, including schizoaffective disorder, depression with psychotic features, and psychosis secondary to general medical conditions. Risperidone may be effective in other conditions such as major depression, various anxiety disorders, delirium, dementia, for Alzheimer’s dementia, which occurs in 6–8% of persons older than 65 and increases to 30% among those 85 years or older, and substance abuse disorders [84–113].

Risperidone is proposed for inclusion in the WHO Model List of Essential Medications for treatment of schizophrenia, mania, and autism.

Risperidone (7.2.1) was synthesized starting from 1-acetyl-4-piperidine-carbonyl chloride (7.2.4), which was used to acylate 1,3-difluorobenzene (7.2.5) in dichloromethane using aluminum chloride as Lewis acid. The reaction gave 1-(4-(2,4-difluorobenzoyl)piperidin-1-yl)ethan-1-one (7.2.6). The protecting acetyl group of the last was removed off by hydrolysis in 6 N hydrochloric acid on reflux, which gave (2,4-difluorophenyl)(piperidin-4-yl)methanone (7.2.7). The obtained product was converted further to corresponding oxime (7.2.8) on reaction with hydroxylamine hydrochloride in ethanol in the presence of N,N-diethylenethanamine. Synthesized oxime (7.2.8) was cyclized to 6-fluoro-3-(piperidin-4-yl)benzo[d]isoxazole (7.2.9) on reflux with 50% potassium hydroxide solution in water. At the final stage the obtained product (7.2.9) was alkylated with 3-(2-chloroethyl)-2-methyl-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-4H-pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidin-4-one (7.2.10) on heating at 85–90°C in dimethylformamide in the presence of sodium carbonate and potassium iodide, which gave the desired product, risperidone (7.2.1) [114,115]. Later, another method of (7.2.7) → (7.2.1) transformation was proposed, which involved the reductive alkylation of (2,4-difluorophenyl)(piperidin-4-yl)methanone (7.2.7) with aldehyde (7.2.11) and sodium cyanoborohydride, which gave compound (7.2.12), coherently converted to oxime (7.2.13) and further to the desired compound, risperidone (7.2.1) [116] (Scheme 7.7).

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Medical uses

Risperidone is mainly used for the treatment of schizophreniabipolar disorder, and irritability associated with autism.[12]

Schizophrenia

Risperidone is effective in treating psychogenic polydipsia and the acute exacerbations of schizophrenia.[13][14]

Studies evaluating the utility of risperidone by mouth for maintenance therapy have reached varying conclusions. A 2012 systematic review concluded that evidence is strong that risperidone is more effective than all first-generation antipsychotics other than haloperidol, but that evidence directly supporting its superiority to placebo is equivocal.[15] A 2011 review concluded that risperidone is more effective in relapse prevention than other first- and second-generation antipsychotics with the exception of olanzapine and clozapine.[16] A 2016 Cochrane review suggests that risperidone reduces the overall symptoms of schizophrenia, but firm conclusions are difficult to make due to very low-quality evidence. Data and information are scarce, poorly reported, and probably biased in favour of risperidone, with about half of the included trials developed by drug companies. The article raises concerns regarding the serious side effects of risperidone, such as parkinsonism.[17] A 2011 Cochrane review compared risperidone with other atypical antipsychotics such as olanzapine for schizophrenia:[18]

Summary
Risperidone seems to produce somewhat more extrapyramidal side effects and clearly more prolactin increase than most other atypical antipsychotics. It may also differ from other compounds in the occurrence of other adverse effects such as weight gain, metabolic problems, cardiac effects, sedation, and seizures. Nevertheless, the large proportion of participants leaving studies early and incomplete reporting of outcomes makes drawing firm conclusions difficult.[18]
showOutcomeFindings in wordsFindings in numbersQuality of evidence

Long-acting injectable formulations of antipsychotic drugs provide improved compliance with therapy and reduce relapse rates relative to oral formulations.[19][20] The efficacy of risperidone long-acting injection appears to be similar to that of long acting injectable forms of first generation antipsychotics.[21]

Bipolar disorder

Second-generation antipsychotics, including risperidone, are effective in the treatment of manic symptoms in acute manic or mixed exacerbations of bipolar disorder.[22][23][24] In children and adolescents, risperidone may be more effective than lithium or divalproex, but has more metabolic side effects.[25] As maintenance therapy, long-acting injectable risperidone is effective for the prevention of manic episodes but not depressive episodes.[26] The long-acting injectable form of risperidone may be advantageous over long acting first generation antipsychotics, as it is better tolerated (fewer extrapyramidal effects) and because long acting injectable formulations of first generation antipsychotics may increase the risk of depression.[27]

Autism

Compared to placebo, risperidone treatment reduces certain problematic behaviors in autistic children, including aggression toward others, self-injury, challenging behaviour, and rapid mood changes.[28] The evidence for its efficacy appears to be greater than that for alternative pharmacological treatments.[29] Weight gain is an important adverse effect.[4][30] Some authors recommend limiting the use of risperidone and aripiprazole to those with the most challenging behavioral disturbances in order to minimize the risk of drug-induced adverse effects.[31] Evidence for the efficacy of risperidone in autistic adolescents and young adults is less persuasive.[32]

Other uses

Risperidone has shown promise in treating therapy-resistant obsessive–compulsive disorder, when serotonin reuptake inhibitors alone are not sufficient.[33]

Risperidone has not demonstrated a benefit in the treatment of eating disorders or personality disorders, except for limited evidence in schizotypal personality disorder.[34]

While antipsychotic medications such as risperidone have a slight benefit in people with dementia, they have been linked to higher incidence of death and stroke.[34] Because of this increased risk of death, treatment of dementia-related psychosis with risperidone is not FDA approved and carries a black box warning.[4]

Forms

Available forms of risperidone include tablet, oral dissolving tablet, oral solution, and powder and solvent for suspension for injection.[35]

Adverse effects

See also: List of adverse effects of risperidone

Common side effects include movement problemssleepinessdizziness, trouble seeing, constipation, and increased weight.[2][7] About 9 to 20% of people gained more than 7% of the baseline weight depending on the dose.[2] Serious side effects may include the potentially permanent movement disorder tardive dyskinesia, as well as neuroleptic malignant syndrome, an increased risk of suicide, and high blood sugar levels.[2][6] In older people with psychosis as a result of dementia, it may increase the risk of death.[2]

While atypical antipsychotics appear to have a lower rate of movement problems as compared to typical antipsychotics, risperidone has a high risk of movement problems among the atypicals.[36][37] Atypical antipsychotics however are associated with a greater amount of weight gain.[37]

Drug interactions

Discontinuation

The British National Formulary recommends a gradual withdrawal when discontinuing antipsychotic treatment to avoid acute withdrawal syndrome or rapid relapse.[40] Some have argued the additional somatic and psychiatric symptoms associated with dopaminergic super-sensitivity, including dyskinesia and acute psychosis, are common features of withdrawal in individuals treated with neuroleptics.[41][42][43][44] This has led some to suggest the withdrawal process might itself be schizomimetic, producing schizophrenia-like symptoms even in previously healthy patients, indicating a possible pharmacological origin of mental illness in a yet unknown percentage of patients currently and previously treated with antipsychotics. This question is unresolved, and remains a highly controversial issue among professionals in the medical and mental health communities, as well as the public.[45]

Dementia

Older people with dementia-related psychosis are at a higher risk of death if they take risperidone compared to those who do not. Most deaths are related to heart problems or infections.[4]

Pharmacology

Pharmacodynamics

See also: Atypical antipsychotic § Pharmacodynamics, and Antipsychotic § Comparison of medications

SiteKi (nM)Action
5-HT1A423Antagonist
5-HT1B14.9Antagonist
5-HT1D84.6Antagonist
5-HT2A0.17Inverse agonist
5-HT2B61.9Inverse agonist
5-HT2C12.0Inverse agonist
5-HT5A206Antagonist
5-HT62,060Antagonist
5-HT76.60Irreversible
antagonist[47]
α1A5.0Antagonist
α1B9.0Antagonist
α2A16.5Antagonist
α2B108Antagonist
α2C1.30Antagonist
D1244Antagonist
D23.57Antagonist
D2S4.73Antagonist
D2L4.16Antagonist
D33.6Inverse agonist
D44.66Antagonist
D5290Antagonist
H120.1Inverse agonist
H2120Inverse agonist
mACh>10,000Negligible

Risperidone pharmacodynamics excluding D-amino acid oxidase inhibition

Risperidone has been classified as a “qualitatively atypical” antipsychotic agent with a relatively low incidence of extrapyramidal side effects (when given at low doses) that has more pronounced serotonin antagonism than dopamine antagonism. Risperidone contains the functional groups of benzisoxazole and piperidine as part of its molecular structure. Although not a butyrophenone, it was developed with the structures of benperidol and ketanserin as a basis. It has actions at several 5-HT (serotoninreceptor subtypes. These are 5-HT2C, linked to weight gain, 5-HT2A, linked to its antipsychotic action and relief of some of the extrapyramidal side effects experienced with the typical neuroleptics.[48]

It has been found that D-amino acid oxidase, the enzyme that catalyses the breakdown of D-amino acids (e.g. D-alanine and D-serine — the neurotransmitters) is inhibited by risperidone.[49]

Risperidone acts on the following receptors:

Dopamine receptors: This drug is an antagonist of the D1 (D1, and D5) as well as the D2 family (D2, D3 and D4) receptors, with 70-fold selectivity for the D2 family. This drug has “tight binding” properties, which means it has a long half-life and like other antipsychotics, risperidone blocks the mesolimbic pathway, the prefrontal cortex limbic pathway, and the tuberoinfundibular pathway in the central nervous system. Risperidone may induce extrapyramidal side effects, akathisia and tremors, associated with diminished dopaminergic activity in the striatum. It can also cause sexual side effects, galactorrhoea, infertility, gynecomastia and, with chronic use reduced bone mineral density leading to breaks, all of which are associated with increased prolactin secretion.[48]

Serotonin receptors: Its action at these receptors may be responsible for its lower extrapyramidal side effect liability (via the 5-HT2A/2C receptors) and improved negative symptom control compared to typical antipsychotics such as haloperidol for instance. Its antagonistic actions at the 5-HT2C receptor may account, in part, for its weight gain liability.[medical citation needed]

Alpha α1 adrenergic receptors: This action accounts for its orthostatic hypotensive effects and perhaps some of the sedating effects of risperidone.[48]

Alpha α2 adrenergic receptors: Perhaps greater positive, negative, affective and cognitive symptom control.[50]

Histamine H1 receptors: effects on these receptors account for its sedation and reduction in vigilance. This may also lead to drowsiness and weight gain.[48]

Voltage-gated sodium channels: Because it accumulates in synaptic vesicles, Risperidone inhibits voltage-gated sodium channels at clinically used concentrations.[51]

Though this medication possesses similar effects to other typical and atypical antipsychotics, it does not possess an affinity for the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. In many respects, this medication can be useful as an “acetylcholine release-promoter” similar to gastrointestinal drugs such as metoclopramide and cisapride.[medical citation needed]

Pharmacokinetics

Risperidone undergoes hepatic metabolism and renal excretion. Lower doses are recommended for patients with severe liver and kidney disease.[4] The active metabolite of risperidone, paliperidone, is also used as an antipsychotic.[52]

Society and culture

Risperdal (risperidone) 4 mg tablets (UK)

Legal status

Risperidone was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1993 for the treatment of schizophrenia.[63] In 2003, the FDA approved risperidone for the short-term treatment of the mixed and manic states associated with bipolar disorder. In 2006, the FDA approved risperidone for the treatment of irritability in autistic children and adolescents.[64] The FDA’s decision was based in part on a study of autistic people with severe and enduring problems of violent meltdowns, aggression, and self-injury; risperidone is not recommended for autistic people with mild aggression and explosive behavior without an enduring pattern.[65] On 22 August 2007, risperidone was approved as the only drug agent available for treatment of schizophrenia in youths, ages 13–17; it was also approved that same day for treatment of bipolar disorder in youths and children, ages 10–17, joining lithium.

On 16 December 2021, the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) adopted a positive opinion, recommending the granting of a marketing authorization for the medicinal product Okedi, intended for the treatment of schizophrenia in adults for whom tolerability and effectiveness has been established with oral risperidone.[66] The applicant for this medicinal product is Laboratorios Farmacéuticos Rovi, S.A.[66]

Availability

Janssen’s patent on risperidone expired on 29 December 2003, opening the market for cheaper generic versions from other companies, and Janssen’s exclusive marketing rights expired on 29 June 2004 (the result of a pediatric extension). It is available under many brand names worldwide.[1]

Risperidone is available as a tablet, an oral solution, and an ampule, which is a depot injection.[1]

Lawsuits

On 11 April 2012, Johnson & Johnson (J&J) and its subsidiary Janssen Pharmaceuticals Inc. were fined $1.2 billion by Judge Timothy Davis Fox of the Sixth Division of the Sixth Judicial Circuit of the U.S. state of Arkansas.[67] The jury found the companies had downplayed multiple risks associated with risperidone (Risperdal). The verdict was later reversed by the Arkansas State Supreme court.[68]

In August 2012, Johnson & Johnson agreed to pay $181 million to 36 U.S. states in order to settle claims that it had promoted risperidone and paliperidone for off-label uses including for dementiaanger management, and anxiety.[69]

In November 2013, J&J was fined $2.2 billion for illegally marketing risperidone for use in people with dementia.[70]

In 2015, Steven Brill posted a 15-part investigative journalism piece on J&J in The Huffington Post, called “America’s most admired lawbreaker”, which was focused on J&J’s marketing of risperidone.[71][72]

J&J has faced numerous civil lawsuits on behalf of children who were prescribed risperidone who grew breasts (a condition called gynecomastia); as of July 2016 there were about 1,500 cases in Pennsylvania state court in Philadelphia, and there had been a February 2015 verdict against J&J with $2.5 million awarded to a man from Alabama, a $1.75M verdict against J&J that November, and in 2016 a $70 million verdict against J&J.[73] In October 2019, a jury awarded a Pennsylvania man $8 billion in a verdict against J&J.[74]

Names

Brand names include Risperdal, Risperdal Consta, Risperdal M-Tab, Risperdal Quicklets, Risperlet, Okedi, and Perseris.[75]

References

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Further reading

Clinical data
Trade namesRisperdal, others[1]
AHFS/Drugs.comMonograph
MedlinePlusa694015
License dataUS DailyMedRisperidone
Pregnancy
category
AU: C
Routes of
administration
By mouthintramuscularsubcutaneous
Drug classAtypical antipsychotic[2]
ATC codeN05AX08 (WHO)
Legal status
Legal statusAU: S4 (Prescription only)CA℞-onlyUK: POM (Prescription only) [3]US: ℞-only [4]EU: Rx-only [5]
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability70% (by mouth)[2]
MetabolismLiver (CYP2D6 mediated to 9-hydroxyrisperidone)[2]
Elimination half-life20 hours (by mouth), 3–6 days (IM)[2]
ExcretionUrinary (70%) feces (14%)[2]
Identifiers
showIUPAC name
CAS Number106266-06-2 
PubChem CID5073
PubChem SID475100
IUPHAR/BPS96
DrugBankDB00734 
ChemSpider4895 
UNIIL6UH7ZF8HC
KEGGD00426 
ChEBICHEBI:8871 
ChEMBLChEMBL85 
PDB ligand8NU (PDBeRCSB PDB)
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)DTXSID8045193 
ECHA InfoCard100.114.705 
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC23H27FN4O2
Molar mass410.493 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)Interactive image
showSMILES
showInChI
  (verify)

//////////////Risperidone, R-64,766, R-64766, RCN-3028, RCN3028

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