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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK LIFE SCIENCES LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 PLUS year tenure till date June 2021, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 90 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, 233 countries, 7 continents, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 33 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 233 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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Asparaginase erwinia chrysanthemi (recombinant)-rywn


Rylaze

Sequence:

1ADKLPNIVIL ATGGTIAGSA ATGTQTTGYK AGALGVDTLI NAVPEVKKLA51NVKGEQFSNM ASENMTGDVV LKLSQRVNEL LARDDVDGVV ITHGTDTVEE101SAYFLHLTVK SDKPVVFVAA MRPATAISAD GPMNLLEAVR VAGDKQSRGR151GVMVVLNDRI GSARYITKTN ASTLDTFKAN EEGYLGVIIG NRIYYQNRID201KLHTTRSVFD VRGLTSLPKV DILYGYQDDP EYLYDAAIQH GVKGIVYAGM251GAGSVSVRGI AGMRKAMEKG VVVIRSTRTG NGIVPPDEEL PGLVSDSLNP301AHARILLMLA LTRTSDPKVI QEYFHTY

>Protein sequence for asparaginase (Erwinia chrysanthemi) monomer
ADKLPNIVILATGGTIAGSAATGTQTTGYKAGALGVDTLINAVPEVKKLANVKGEQFSNM
ASENMTGDVVLKLSQRVNELLARDDVDGVVITHGTDTVEESAYFLHLTVKSDKPVVFVAA
MRPATAISADGPMNLLEAVRVAGDKQSRGRGVMVVLNDRIGSARYITKTNASTLDTFKAN
EEGYLGVIIGNRIYYQNRIDKLHTTRSVFDVRGLTSLPKVDILYGYQDDPEYLYDAAIQH
GVKGIVYAGMGAGSVSVRGIAGMRKAMEKGVVVIRSTRTGNGIVPPDEELPGLVSDSLNP
AHARILLMLALTRTSDPKVIQEYFHTY
References:
  1. Therapeutic Targets Database: TTD Biologic drug sequences in fasta format [Link]

Asparaginase erwinia chrysanthemi (recombinant)-rywn

JZP458-201

JZP458

CAS Registry Number 1349719-22-7

Protein Chemical FormulaC1546H2510N432O476S9

Protein Average Weight 140000.0 Da

Rylaze, FDA APPROVED 6/30/2021, BLA 761179

L-Asparaginase (ec 3.5.1.1, L-asparagine amidohydrolase) erwinia chrysanthemi tetramer alpha4Asparaginase (Dickeya chrysanthemi subunit) 

Other Names

  • Asparaginase Erwinia chrysanthemi
  • Crisantaspase
  • Cristantaspase
  • Erwinase
  • Erwinaze
  • L-Asparagine amidohydrolase (Erwinia chrysanthemi subunit)

D733ET3F9O

1349719-22-7

Asparaginase erwinia chrysanthemi [USAN]

UNII-D733ET3F9O

L-Asparaginase (erwinia)

Erwinia asparaginase

L-Asparaginase, erwinia chrysanthemi

Asparaginase (erwinia chrysanthemi)

Erwinase

Asparaginase erwinia chrysanthemi

Erwinaze

Crisantaspase

Crisantaspase [INN]

L-Asparaginase (ec 3.5.1.1, L-asparagine amidohydrolase) erwinia chrysanthemi tetramer alpha4

Asparaginase erwinia sp. [MI]

Asparaginase erwinia chrysanthemi (recombinant) [USAN]

Asparaginase erwinia chrysanthemi (recombinant)

JZP-458

A hydrolase enzyme that converts L-asparagine and water to L-aspartate and NH3.

NCI: Asparaginase Erwinia chrysanthemi. An enzyme isolated from the bacterium Erwinia chrysanthemi (E. carotovora). Asparagine is critical to protein synthesis in leukemic cells, which cannot synthesize this amino acid due to the absence of the enzyme asparagine synthase. Asparaginase hydrolyzes L-asparagine to L-aspartic acid and ammonia, thereby depleting leukemic cells of asparagine and blocking protein synthesis and tumor cell proliferation, especially in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. This agent also induces apoptosis in tumor cells. The Erwinia-derived product is often used for those patients who have experienced a hypersensitivity reaction to the E. Coli formulation. (NCI Thesaurus)

  • Treatment of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)
  • Antineoplastic Agents
10MG/0.5MLINJECTABLE;INTRAMUSCULAR

Label (PDF)
Letter (PDF)

Label (PDF)

PATENT

WO 2011003633

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2011003633A1/en

The present invention concerns a conjugate of a protein having substantial L-asparagine aminohydrolase activity and polyethylene glycol, particularly wherein the polyethylene glycol has a molecular weight less than or equal to about 5000 Da, particularly a conjugate wherein the protein is a L-asparaginase from Erwinia, and its use in therapy.Proteins with L-asparagine aminohydrolase activity, commonly known as L- asparaginases, have successfully been used for the treatment of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia(ALL) in children for many years. ALL is the most common childhood malignancy (Avramis and Panosyan, Clin. Pharmacokinet. (2005) 44:367-393).[0003] L-asparaginase has also been used to treat Hodgkin’s disease, acute myelocytic leukemia, acute myelomonocytic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, lymphosarcoma, reticulosarcoma, and melanosarcoma (Kotzia and Labrou, J. Biotechnol. 127 (2007) 657-669).The anti-tumor activity of L-asparaginase is believed to be due to the inability or reduced ability of certain malignant cells to synthesize L-asparagine (Kotzia and Labrou, J. Biotechnol. 127 (2007) 657-669). These malignant cells rely on an extracellular supply of L-asparagine. However, the L-asparaginase enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of L-asparagine to aspartic acid and ammonia, thereby depleting circulating pools of L-asparagine and killing tumor cells which cannot perform protein synthesis without L-asparagine (Kotzia and Labrou, J. Biotechnol. 127 (2007) 657-669).[0004] L-asparaginase from E. coli was the first enzyme drug used in ALL therapy and has been marketed as Elspar® in the USA or as Kidrolase® and L-asparaginase Medac® in Europe. L- asparaginases have also been isolated from other microorganisms, e.g., an L-asparaginase protein from Erwinia chrysanthemi, named crisantaspase, that has been marketed as Erwinase® (Wriston Jr., J.C. (1985) “L-asparaginase” Meth. Enzymol. 113, 608-618; Goward, CR. et al. (1992) “Rapid large scale preparation of recombinant Erwinia chrysanthemi L-asparaginase”, Bioseparation 2, 335-341). L-asparaginases from other species of Erwinia have also been identified, including, for example, Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 (Genbank Accession#AAS67028), Erwinia chrysanthemi NCPPB 1125 (Genbank Accession #CAA31239), Erwinia carotovora (Genbank Accession #AAP92666), and Erwinia carotovora subsp. Astroseptica (Genbank Accession #AAS67027). These Erwinia chrysanthemi L-asparaginases have about 91-98% amino acid sequence identity with each other, while the Erwinia carotovora L- asparaginases have approximately 75-77% amino acid sequence identity with the Erwinia chrysanthemi L-asparaginases (Kotzia and Labrou, J. Biotechnol. 127 (2007) 657-669).[0005] L-asparaginases of bacterial origin have a high immunogenic and antigenic potential and frequently provoke adverse reactions ranging from mild allergic reaction to anaphylactic shock in sensitized patients (Wang, B. et al. (2003) “Evaluation of immunologic cross reaction of anti- asparaginase antibodies in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL and lymphoma patients),Leukemia 17, 1583-1588). E. coli L-asparaginase is particularly immunogenic, with reports of the presence of anti-asparaginase antibodies to E. coli L-asparaginase following i.v. or i.m. administration reaching as high as 78% in adults and 70% in children (Wang, B. et al. (2003) Leukemia 17, 1583-1588).[0006] L-asparaginases from Escherichia coli and Erwinia chrysanthemi differ in their pharmacokinetic properties and have distinct immunogenic profiles, respectively (Klug Albertsen, B. et al. (2001) “Comparison of intramuscular therapy with Erwinia asparaginase and asparaginase Medac: pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, formation of antibodies and influence on the coagulation system” Brit. J. Haematol. 115, 983-990). Furthermore, it has been shown that antibodies that developed after a treatment with L-asparaginase from E. coli do not cross react with L-Asparaginase from Erwinia (Wang, B. et al., Leukemia 17 (2003) 1583-1588). Thus, L-asparaginase from Erwinia (crisantaspase) has been used as a second line treatment of ALL in patients that react to E. coli L-asparaginase (Duval, M. et al. (2002) “Comparison of Escherichia co/z-asparaginase with £Vwzmα-asparaginase in the treatment of childhood lymphoid malignancies: results of a randomized European Organisation for Research and Treatment ofCancer, Children’s Leukemia Group phase 3 trial” Blood 15, 2734-2739; Avramis and Panosyan,Clin. Pharmacokinet. (2005) 44:367-393).[0007] In another attempt to reduce immunogenicity associated with administration of microbial L-asparaginases, an E. coli L-asparaginase has been developed that is modified with methoxy- polyethyleneglycol (mPEG). This method is commonly known as “PEGylation” and has been shown to alter the immunological properties of proteins (Abuchowski, A. et al. (1977) “Alteration of Immunological Properties of Bovine Serum Albumin by Covalent Attachment of Polyethylene Glycol,” J.Biol.Chem. 252 (11), 3578-3581). This so-called mPEG-L- asparaginase, or pegaspargase, marketed as Oncaspar® (Enzon Inc., USA), was first approved in the U.S. for second line treatment of ALL in 1994, and has been approved for first- line therapy of ALL in children and adults since 2006. Oncaspar® has a prolonged in vivo half-life and a reduced immunogenicity/antigenicity.[0008] Oncaspar® is E. coli L-asparaginase that has been modified at multiple lysine residues using 5 kDa mPEG-succinimidyl succinate (SS-PEG) (U.S. Patent No. 4,179,337). SS-PEG is aPEG reagent of the first generation that contains an instable ester linkage that is sensitive to hydro lysis by enzymes or at slightly alkaline pH values (U.S. Patent No. 4,670,417; Makromol. Chem. 1986, 187, 1131-1144). These properties decrease both in vitro and in vivo stability and can impair drug safety.[0009] Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that antibodies developed against L-asparaginase from E. coli will cross react with Oncaspar® (Wang, B. et al. (2003) “Evaluation of immunologic cross-reaction of anti-asparaginase antibodies in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL and lymphoma patients),” Leukemia 17, 1583-1588). Even though these antibodies were not neutralizing, this finding clearly demonstrated the high potential for cross-hypersensitivity or cross-inactivation in vivo. Indeed, in one report 30-41% of children who received pegaspargase had an allergic reaction (Wang, B. et al. (2003) Leukemia 17, 1583-1588).[0010] In addition to outward allergic reactions, the problem of “silent hypersensitivity” was recently reported, whereby patients develop anti-asparaginase antibodies without showing any clinical evidence of a hypersensitivity reaction (Wang, B. et al. (2003) Leukemia 17, 1583-1588). This reaction can result in the formation of neutralizing antibodies to E. coli L-asparaginase and pegaspargase; however, these patients are not switched to Erwinia L-asparaginase because there are not outward signs of hypersensitivity, and therefore they receive a shorter duration of effective treatment (Holcenberg, J., J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol. 26 (2004) 273-274).[0011] Erwinia chrysanthemi L-asparaginase treatment is often used in the event of hypersensitivity to E. co/z-derived L-asparaginases. However, it has been observed that as many as 30-50% of patients receiving Erwinia L-asparaginase are antibody-positive (Avramis andPanosyan, Clin. Pharmacokinet. (2005) 44:367-393). Moreover, because Erwinia chrysanthemi L-asparaginase has a significantly shorter elimination half-life than the E. coli L-asparaginases, it must be administered more frequently (Avramis and Panosyan, Clin. Pharmacokinet. (2005) 44:367-393). In a study by Avramis et al., Erwinia asparaginase was associated with inferior pharmacokinetic profiles (Avramis et al., J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol. 29 (2007) 239-247). E. coli L-asparaginase and pegaspargase therefore have been the preferred first-line therapies for ALL over Erwinia L-asparaginase.[0012] Numerous biopharmaceuticals have successfully been PEGylated and marketed for many years. In order to couple PEG to a protein, the PEG has to be activated at its OH terminus. The activation group is chosen based on the available reactive group on the protein that will bePEGylated. In the case of proteins, the most important amino acids are lysine, cysteine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, C-terminal carboxylic acid and the N-terminal amino group. In view of the wide range of reactive groups in a protein nearly the entire peptide chemistry has been applied to activate the PEG moiety. Examples for this activated PEG-reagents are activated carbonates, e.g., p-nitrophenyl carbonate, succinimidyl carbonate; active esters, e.g., succinimidyl ester; and for site specific coupling aldehydes and maleimides have been developed (Harris, M., Adv. Drug – A -DeI. Rev. 54 (2002), 459-476). The availability of various chemical methods for PEG modification shows that each new development of a PEGylated protein will be a case by case study. In addition to the chemistry the molecular weight of the PEG that is attached to the protein has a strong impact on the pharmaceutical properties of the PEGylated protein. In most cases it is expected that, the higher the molecular weight of the PEG, the better the improvement of the pharmaceutical properties (Sherman, M. R., Adv. Drug Del. Rev. 60 (2008), 59-68; Holtsberg, F. W., Journal of Controlled Release 80 (2002), 259-271). For example, Holtsberg et al. found that, when PEG was conjugated to arginine deaminase, another amino acid degrading enzyme isolated from a microbial source, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic function of the enzyme increased as the size of the PEG attachment increased from a molecular weight of 5000Da to 20,000 Da (Holtsberg, F.W., Journal of Controlled Release 80 (2002), 259-271).[0013] However, in many cases, PEGylated biopharmaceuticals show significantly reduced activity compared to the unmodified biopharmaceutical (Fishburn, CS. (2008) Review “The Pharmacology of PEGylation: Balancing PD with PK to Generate Novel Therapeutics” J. Pharm. Sd., 1-17). In the case of L-asparaginase from Erwinia carotovora, it has been observed that PEGylation reduced its in vitro activity to approximately 57% (Kuchumova, A.V. et al. (2007) “Modification of Recombinant asparaginase from Erwinia carotovora with Polyethylene Glycol 5000” Biochemistry (Moscow) Supplement Series B: Biomedical Chemistry, 1, 230-232). The L-asparaginase from Erwinia carotovora has only about 75% homology to the Erwinia chrysanthemi L-asparaginase (crisantaspase). For Oncaspar® it is also known that its in vitro activity is approximately 50% compared to the unmodified E. coli L-asparaginase.[0014] The currently available L-asparaginase preparations do not provide alternative or complementary therapies— particularly therapies to treat ALL— that are characterized by high catalytic activity and significantly improved pharmacological and pharmacokinetic properties, as well as reduced immunogenicity. L-asparaginase protein has at least about 80% homology or identity with the protein comprising the sequence of SEQ ID NO:1, more specifically at least about 85%, 86%, 87%, 88%, 89%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99%, or 100% homology or identity with the protein comprising the sequence of SEQ ID NO:1. SEQ ID NO:1 is as follows:ADKLPNIVILATGGTIAGSAATGTQTTGYKAGALGVDTLINAVPEVKKLANVKGE QFSNMASENMTGDVVLKLSQRVNELLARDDVDGVVITHGTDTVEESAYFLHLTV KSDKPVVFVAAMRPATAISADGPMNLLEAVRVAGDKQSRGRGVMVVLNDRIGSA RYITKTNASTLDTFKANEEGYLGVIIGNRIYYQNRIDKLHTTRSVFDVRGLTSLPKV DILYGYQDDPEYLYDAAIQHGVKGIVYAGMGAGSVSVRGIAGMRKAMEKGVVVIRSTRTGNGIVPPDEELPGLVSDSLNPAHARILLMLALTRTSDPKVIQEYFHTY (SEQ ID NO:1) [0048] The term “comprising the sequence of SEQ ID NO:1” means that the amino-acid sequence of the protein may not be strictly limited to SEQ ID NO:1 but may contain additional amino-acids.ExamplesExample 1 : Preparation of Recombinant Crisantaspase [0100] The recombinant bacterial strain used to manufacture the naked recombinant Erwinia chrysanthemi L-asparaginase protein (also referred to herein as “r-crisantaspase”) was an E. coli BL21 strain with a deleted ansB gene (the gene encoding the endogenous E. coli type II L- asparaginase) to avoid potential contamination of the recombinant Erwinia chrysanthemi L- asparaginase with this enzyme. The deletion of the ansB gene relies on homologous recombination methods and phage transduction performed according to the three following steps:1) a bacterial strain (NMI lOO) expressing a defective lambda phage which supplies functions that protect and recombine electroporated linear DNA substrate in the bacterial cell was transformed with a linear plasmid (kanamycin cassette) containing the kanamycin gene flanked by an FLP recognition target sequence (FRT). Recombination occurs to replace the ansB gene by the kanamycin cassette in the bacterial genome, resulting in a ΛansB strain; 2) phage transduction was used to integrate the integrated kanamycin cassette region from the ΛansB NMI lOO strain to the ansB locus in BL21 strain. This results in an E. coli BL21 strain with a deleted ansB gene and resistant to kanamycin; 3) this strain was transformed with a FLP -helper plasmid to remove the kanamycin gene by homologous recombination at the FRT sequence. The genome of the final strain (BL21 ΛansB strain) was sequenced, confirming full deletion of the endogenous ansB gene.[0101] The E. co/z-optimized DNA sequence encoding for the mature Erwinia chrysanthemi L- asparaginase fused with the ENX signal peptide from Bacillus subtilis was inserted into an expression vector. This vector allows expression of recombinant Erwinia chrysanthemi L- asparaginase under the control of hybrid T5/lac promoter induced by the addition of Isopropyl β- D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) and confers resistance to kanamycin.[0102] BL21 ΛansB strain was transformed with this expression vector. The transformed cells were used for production of the r-crisantaspase by feed batch glucose fermentation in Reisenberg medium. The induction of the cell was done 16h at 23°C with IPTG as inducer. After cell harvest and lysis by homogenization in 1OmM sodium phosphate buffer pH6 5mM EDTA (Buffer A), the protein solution was clarified by centrifugation twice at 1500Og, followed by 0.45μm and 0.22μm filtration steps. The recombinant Erwinia chrysanthemi L-asparaginase was next purified using a sequence of chromatography and concentration steps. Briefly, the theoretical isoelectric point of the Erwinia chrysanthemi L-asparaginase (7.23) permits the recombinant enzyme to adsorb to cation exchange resins at pH6. Thus, the recombinant enzyme was captured on a Capto S column (cation exchange chromatography) and eluted with salt gradient in Buffer A. Fractions containing the recombinant enzyme were pooled. The pooled solution was next purified on Capto MMC column (cation exchange chromatography) in Buffer A with salt gradient. . The eluted fractions containing Erwinia chrysanthemi L-asparaginase were pooled and concentrated before protein separation on Superdex 200pg size exclusion chromatography as polishing step. Fractions containing recombinant enzymes were pooled, concentrated, and diafiltered against 10OmM sodium phosphate buffer pH8. The purity of the final Erwinia chrysanthemi L-asparaginase preparation was evaluated by SDS-PAGE (Figure 1) and RP-HPLC and was at least 90%. The integrity of the recombinant enzyme was verified byN-terminal sequencing and LC-MS. Enzyme activity was measured at 37°C using Nessler’s reagent. The specific activity of the purified recombinant Erwinia chrysanthemi L-asparaginase was around 600 U/mg. One unit of enzyme activity is defined as the amount of enzyme that liberates lμmol of ammonia from L-asparagine per minute at 37°C. Example 2: Preparation of 10 kDa mPEG-L- Asparaginase Conjugates[0103] A solution of L-asparaginase from Erwinia chrysanthemi was stirred in a 100 mM sodium phosphate buffer at pH 8.0, at a protein concentration between 2.5 and 4 mg/mL, in the presence of 150 mg/mL or 36 mg/mL 10 kDa mPEG-NHS, for 2 hours at 22°C. The resulting crude 10 kDa mPEG-L-asparaginase was purified by size exclusion chromatography using a Superdex 200 pg column on an Akta purifier UPC 100 system. Protein-containing fractions were pooled and concentrated to result in a protein concentration between 2 and 8 mg/mL. Two 10 kDa mPEG-L-asparaginase conjugates were prepared in this way, differing in their degree of PEGylation as determined by TNBS assay with unmodified L-asparaginase as a reference, one corresponding to full PEGylation (100% of accessible amino groups (e.g., lysine residues and/or the N-terminus) residues being conjugated corresponding to PEGylation of 78% of total amino groups (e.g., lysine residues and/or the N-terminus)); the second one corresponding to partial PEGylation (39% of total amino groups (e.g., lysine residues and/or the N-terminus) or about 50% of accessible amino groups (e.g., lysine residues and/or the N-terminus)) . SDS-PAGE analysis of the conjugates is shown in Figure 2. The resulting conjugates appeared as an essentially homogeneous band and contained no detectable unmodified r-crisantaspase.Example 3: Preparation of 5 kDa mPEG-L-Asparaginase Conjugates[0104] A solution of L-asparaginase from Erwinia chrysanthemi was stirred in a 100 mM sodium phosphate buffer at pH 8.0, at a protein concentration of 4 mg/mL, in the presence of 150 mg/mL or 22.5 mg/mL 5 kDa mPEG-NHS, for 2 hours at 22°C. The resulting crude 5 kDa mPEG-L-asparaginase was purified by size exclusion chromatography using a Superdex 200 pg column on an Akta purifier UPC 100 system. Protein-containing fractions were pooled and concentrated to result in a protein concentration between 2 and 8 mg/mL. Two 5 kDa mPEG-L- asparaginase conjugates were prepared in this way, differing in their degree of PEGylation as determined by TNBS assay with unmodified L-asparaginase as a reference, one corresponding to full PEGylation (100% of accessible amino groups (e.g., lysine residues and/or the N-terminus) being conjugated corresponding to PEGylation of 84% of total amino groups (e.g., lysine residues and/or the N-terminus)); the second one corresponding to partial PEGylation (36% of total amino groups (e.g., lysine residues and/or the N-terminus) or about 43% of accessible amino groups (e.g., lysine residues and/or the N-terminus)). SDS-PAGE analysis of the conjugates is shown in Figure 2. The resulting conjugates appeared as an essentially homogeneous band and contained no detectable unmodified r-crisantaspase.Example 4: Preparation of 2 kDa mPEG-L-Asparaginase Conjugates[0105] A solution of L-asparaginase from Erwinia chrysanthemi was stirred in a 100 mM sodium phosphate buffer pH 8.0 at a protein concentration of 4 mg/mL in the presence of150 mg/mL or 22.5 mg/mL 2 kDa mPEG-NHS for 2 hours at 22°C. The resulting crude 2 kDa mPEG-L-asparaginase was purified by size exclusion chromatography using a Superdex 200 pg column on an Akta purifier UPC 100 system. Protein containing fractions were pooled and concentrated to result in a protein concentration between 2 and 8 mg/mL. Two 2 kDa mPEG-L- asparaginase conjugates were prepared in this way, differing in their degree of PEGylation as determined by TNBS assay with unmodified L-asparaginase as reference, one corresponding to maximum PEGylation (100% of accessible amino groups (e.g., lysine residues and/or the N- terminus) being conjugated corresponding to PEGylation of 86% of total amino groups (e.g., lysine residues and/or the N-terminus)); the second one corresponding to partial PEGylation (47% of total amino groups (e.g., lysine residues and/or the N-terminus) or about 55% of accessible amino groups {e.g., lysine residues and/or the N-terminus)). SDS-PAGE analysis of the conjugates is shown in Figure 2. The resulting conjugates appeared as an essentially homogeneous band and contained no detectable unmodified r-crisantaspase.Example 5: Activity of mPEG-r-Crisantaspase Conjugates[0106] L-asparaginase aminohydrolase activity of each conjugate described in the proceeding examples was determined by Nesslerization of ammonia that is liberated from L-asparagine by enzymatic activity. Briefly, 50μL of enzyme solution were mixed with 2OmM of L-asparagine in a 50 mM Sodium borate buffer pH 8.6 and incubated for 10 min at 37°C. The reaction was stopped by addition of 200μL of Nessler reagent. Absorbance of this solution was measured at 450 nm. The activity was calculated from a calibration curve that was obtained from Ammonia sulfate as reference. The results are summarized in Table 2, below:Table 2: Activity of mPEG-r-crisantaspase conjugates

Figure imgf000031_0001

* the numbers “40%” and “100%” indicate an approximate degree of PEGylation of respectively 40-55% and 100% of accessible amino groups (see Examples 2-4, supra).** the ratio mol PEG / mol monomer was extrapolated from data using TNBS assay, that makes the assumption that all amino groups from the protein (e.g., lysine residues and the N-terminus) are accessible.[0107] Residual activity of mPEG-r-crisantaspase conjugates ranged between 483 and 543 Units/mg. This corresponds to 78-87% of L-asparagine aminohydrolase activity of the unmodified enzyme. Example 6: L-Asparagine-Depleting Effect of Unmodified Crisantaspase

PAPER

Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry (2019), 66(3), 281-289.  |

https://iubmb.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/bab.1723

Crisantaspase is an asparaginase enzyme produced by Erwinia chrysanthemi and used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in case of hypersensitivity to Escherichia coli l-asparaginase (ASNase). The main disadvantages of crisantaspase are the short half-life (10 H) and immunogenicity. In this sense, its PEGylated form (PEG-crisantaspase) could not only reduce immunogenicity but also improve plasma half-life. In this work, we developed a process to obtain a site-specific N-terminal PEGylated crisantaspase (PEG-crisantaspase). Crisantaspase was recombinantly expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) strain cultivated in a shaker and in a 2-L bioreactor. Volumetric productivity in bioreactor increased 37% compared to shaker conditions (460 and 335 U L−1 H−1, respectively). Crisantaspase was extracted by osmotic shock and purified by cation exchange chromatography, presenting specific activity of 694 U mg−1, 21.7 purification fold, and yield of 69%. Purified crisantaspase was PEGylated with 10 kDa methoxy polyethylene glycol-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl (mPEG-NHS) at different pH values (6.5–9.0). The highest N-terminal pegylation yield (50%) was at pH 7.5 with the lowest poly-PEGylation ratio (7%). PEG-crisantaspase was purified by size exclusion chromatography and presented a KM value three times higher than crisantaspase (150 and 48.5 µM, respectively). Nonetheless, PEG-crisantaspase was found to be more stable at high temperatures and over longer periods of time. In 2 weeks, crisantaspase lost 93% of its specific activity, whereas PEG-crisantaspase was stable for 20 days. Therefore, the novel PEG-crisantaspase enzyme represents a promising biobetter alternative for the treatment of ALL.

ADKLPNIVILATGGTIAGSAATGTQTTGYKAGALGVDTLINAVPEVKKLANVKGEQFSN

MASENMTGDVVLKLSQRVNELLARDDVDGVVITHGTDTVEESAYFLHLTVKSDKPVV

FVAAMRPATAISADGPMNLLEAVRVAGDKQSRGRGVMVVLNDRIGSARYITKTNAST

LDTFKANEEGYLGVIIGNRIYYQNRIDKLHTTRSVFDVRGLTSLPKVDILYGYQDDPEY

LYDAAIQHGVKGIVYAGMGAGSVSVRGIAGMRKAMEKGVVVIRSTRTGNGIVPPDEE

LPGLVSDSLNPAHARILLMLALTRTSDPKVIQEYFHTY

Figure S1 – Amino acid sequence of the enzyme crisantaspase without the signal peptide and with the lysines highlighted in red (Swiss-Prot/TrEMBL accession number: P06608|22-348 AA).

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

As a component of a chemotherapy regimen to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia and lymphoblastic lymphoma in patients who are allergic to E. coli-derived asparaginase products
Press ReleaseFor Immediate Release:June 30, 2021

FDA Approves Component of Treatment Regimen for Most Common Childhood Cancer

Alternative Has Been in Global Shortage Since 2016

Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Rylaze (asparaginase erwinia chrysanthemi (recombinant)-rywn) as a component of a chemotherapy regimen to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia and lymphoblastic lymphoma in adult and pediatric patients who are allergic to the E. coli-derived asparaginase products used most commonly for treatment. The only other FDA-approved drug for such patients with allergic reactions has been in global shortage for years.

“It is extremely disconcerting to patients, families and providers when there is a lack of access to critical drugs for treatment of a life-threatening, but often curable cancer, due to supply issues,” said Gregory Reaman, M.D., associate director for pediatric oncology in the FDA’s Oncology Center of Excellence. “Today’s approval may provide a consistently sourced alternative to a pivotal component of potentially curative therapy for children and adults with this type of leukemia.”

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia occurs in approximately 5,700 patients annually, about half of whom are children. It is the most common type of childhood cancer. One component of the chemotherapy regimen is an enzyme called asparaginase that kills cancer cells by depriving them of substances needed to survive. An estimated 20% of patients are allergic to the standard E. coli-derived asparaginase and need an alternative their bodies can tolerate.

Rylaze’s efficacy was evaluated in a study of 102 patients who either had a hypersensitivity to E. coli-derived asparaginases or experienced silent inactivation. The main measurement was whether patients achieved and maintained a certain level of asparaginase activity. The study found that the recommended dosage would provide the target level of asparaginase activity in 94% of patients.

The most common side effects of Rylaze include hypersensitivity reactions, pancreatic toxicity, blood clots, hemorrhage and liver toxicity.

This review was conducted under Project Orbis, an initiative of the FDA Oncology Center of Excellence. Project Orbis provides a framework for concurrent submission and review of oncology drugs among international partners. For this review, FDA collaborated with Health Canada, where the application review is pending.

Rylaze received Fast Track and Orphan Drug designations for this indication. Fast Track is a process designed to facilitate the development and expedite the review of drugs to treat serious conditions and fulfill an unmet medical need. Orphan Drug designation provides incentives to assist and encourage drug development for rare diseases.

The FDA granted approval of Rylaze to Jazz Pharmaceuticals.

REF

https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/jazz-pharmaceuticals-announces-us-fda-approval-of-rylaze-asparaginase-erwinia-chrysanthemi-recombinant-rywn-for-the-treatment-of-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-or-lymphoblastic-lymphoma-301323782.html#:~:text=Jazz%20Pharmaceuticals%20Announces,details%20to%20follow

DUBLIN, June 30, 2021 /PRNewswire/ — Jazz Pharmaceuticals plc (Nasdaq: JAZZ) today announced the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of Rylaze (asparaginase erwinia chrysanthemi (recombinant)-rywn) for use as a component of a multi-agent chemotherapeutic regimen for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL) in pediatric and adult patients one month and older who have developed hypersensitivity to E. coli-derived asparaginase.1 Rylaze is the only recombinant erwinia asparaginase manufactured product that maintains a clinically meaningful level of asparaginase activity throughout the entire duration of treatment, and it was developed by Jazz to address the needs of patients and healthcare providers with an innovative, high-quality erwinia-derived asparaginase with reliable supply.

“We are excited to bring this important new treatment to patients who are in critical need, and we are grateful to FDA for the approval of Rylaze based on its established safety and efficacy profile. We are pleased Rylaze was approved before the trial is complete and are diligently working to advance additional clinical trial data. We are committed to quickly engaging with FDA to evolve the Rylaze product profile with additional dosing options and an IV route of administration,” said Bruce Cozadd, chairman and CEO of Jazz Pharmaceuticals. “Thank you to our collaborators within the Children’s Oncology Group, the clinical trial investigators, patients and their families, and all of the other stakeholders who helped us achieve this significant milestone.”

Rylaze was granted orphan drug designation for the treatment of ALL/LBL by FDA in June 2021. The Biologics Licensing Application (BLA) approval followed review under the Real-Time Oncology Review (RTOR) program, an initiative of FDA’s Oncology Center of Excellence designed for efficient delivery of safe and effective cancer treatments to patients.

The company expects Rylaze will be commercially available in mid-July.

“The accelerated development and approval of Rylaze marks an important step in bringing a meaningful new treatment option for many ALL patients – most of whom are children – who cannot tolerate E. coli-derived asparaginase medicine,” said Dr. Luke Maese, assistant professor at the University of Utah, Primary Children’s Hospital and Huntsman Cancer Institute. “Before the approval of Rylaze, there was a significant need for an effective asparaginase medicine that would allow patients to start and complete their prescribed treatment program with confidence in supply.”

Recent data from a Children’s Oncology Group retrospective analysis of over 8,000 patients found that patients who did not receive a full course of asparaginase treatment due to associated toxicity had significantly lower survival outcomes – regardless of whether those patients were high risk or standard risk, slow early responders.2

About Study JZP458-201
The FDA approval of Rylaze, also known as JZP458, is based on clinical data from an ongoing pivotal Phase 2/3 single-arm, open-label, multicenter, dose confirmation study evaluating pediatric and adult patients with ALL or LBL who have had an allergic reaction to E. coli-derived asparaginases and have not previously received asparaginase erwinia chrysanthemi. The study was designed to assess the safety, tolerability and efficacy of JZP458. The determination of efficacy was measured by serum asparaginase activity (SAA) levels. The Phase 2/3 study is being conducted in two parts. The first part is investigating the intramuscular (IM) route of administration, including a Monday-Wednesday-Friday dosing schedule. The second part remains active to further confirm the dose and schedule for the intravenous (IV) route of administration.

The FDA approval of Rylaze was based on data from the first of three IM cohorts, which demonstrated the achievement and maintenance of nadir serum asparaginase activity (NSAA) greater than or equal to the level of 0.1 U/mL at 48 hours using IM doses of Rylaze 25 mg/m2. The results of modeling and simulations showed that for a dosage of 25 mg/m2 administered intramuscularly every 48 hours, the proportion of patients maintaining NSAA ≥ 0.1 U/mL at 48 hours after a dose of Rylaze was 93.6% (95% CI: 92.6%, 94.6%).1

The most common adverse reactions (incidence >15%) were abnormal liver test, nausea, musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, infection, headache, pyrexia, drug hypersensitivity, febrile neutropenia, decreased appetite, stomatitis, bleeding and hyperglycemia. In patients treated with the Rylaze, a fatal adverse reaction (infection) occurred in one patient and serious adverse reactions occurred in 55% of patients. The most frequent serious adverse reactions (in ≥5% of patients) were febrile neutropenia, dehydration, pyrexia, stomatitis, diarrhea, drug hypersensitivity, infection, nausea and viral infection. Permanent discontinuation due to an adverse reaction occurred in 9% of patients who received Rylaze. Adverse reactions resulting in permanent discontinuation included hypersensitivity (6%) and infection (3%).1

The company will continue to work with FDA and plans to submit additional data from a completed cohort of patients evaluating 25mg/m2 IM given on Monday and Wednesday, and 50 mg/m2 given on Friday in support of a M/W/F dosing schedule. Part 2 of the study is evaluating IV administration and is ongoing. The company also plans to submit these data for presentation at a future medical meeting.

Investor Webcast
The company will host an investor webcast on the Rylaze approval in July. Details will be announced separately.

About Rylaze (asparaginase erwinia chrysanthemi (recombinant)-rywn)
Rylaze, also known as JZP458, is approved in the U.S. for use as a component of a multi-agent chemotherapeutic regimen for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL) in pediatric and adult patients one month and older who have developed hypersensitivity to E. coli-derived asparaginase. Rylaze has orphan drug designation for the treatment of ALL/LBL in the United States. Rylaze is a recombinant erwinia asparaginase that uses a novel Pseudomonas fluorescens expression platform. JZP458 was granted Fast Track designation by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in October 2019 for the treatment of this patient population. Rylaze was approved as part of the Real-Time Oncology Review program, an initiative of the FDA’s Oncology Center of Excellence designed for efficient delivery of safe and effective cancer treatments to patients.

The full U.S. Prescribing Information for Rylaze is available at: <http://pp.jazzpharma.com/pi/rylaze.en.USPI.pdf>

Important Safety Information

RYLAZE should not be given to people who have had:

  • Serious allergic reactions to RYLAZE
  • Serious swelling of the pancreas (stomach pain), serious blood clots, or serious bleeding during previous asparaginase treatment

RYLAZE may cause serious side effects, including:

  • Allergic reactions (a feeling of tightness in your throat, unusual swelling/redness in your throat and/or tongue, or trouble breathing), some of which may be life-threatening
  • Swelling of the pancreas (stomach pain)
  • Blood clots (may have a headache or pain in leg, arm, or chest)
  • Bleeding
  • Liver problems

Contact your doctor immediately if any of these side effects occur.

Some of the most common side effects with RYLAZE include: liver problems, nausea, bone and muscle pain, tiredness, infection, headache, fever, allergic reactions, fever with low white blood cell count, decreased appetite, mouth swelling (sometimes with sores), bleeding, and too much sugar in the blood.

RYLAZE can harm your unborn baby. Inform your doctor if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or nursing. Females of reproductive potential should use effective contraception (other than oral contraceptives) during treatment and for 3 months following the final dose. Do not breastfeed while receiving RYLAZE and for 1 week after the final dose.

Tell your healthcare provider if there are any side effects that are bothersome or that do not go away.

These are not all the possible side effects of RYLAZE. For more information, ask your healthcare provider.

You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit www.fda.gov/medwatch, or call 1-800-FDA-1088 (1-800-332-1088).

About ALL
ALL is a cancer of the blood and bone marrow that can progress quickly if not treated.3 Leukemia is the most common cancer in children, and about three out of four of these cases are ALL.4  Although it is one of the most common cancers in children, ALL is among the most curable of the pediatric malignancies due to recent advancements in treatment.5,6 Adults can also develop ALL, and about four of every 10 cases of ALL diagnosed are in adults.7  The American Cancer Society estimates that almost 6,000 new cases of ALL will be diagnosed in the United States in 2021.7 Asparaginase is a core component of multi-agent chemotherapeutic regimens in ALL.8  However, asparaginase treatments derived from E. coli are associated with the potential for development of hypersensitivity reactions.9

About Lymphoblastic Lymphoma
LBL is a rare, fast-growing, aggressive subtype of Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, most often seen in teenagers and young adults.8 LBL is a very aggressive lymphoma – also called high-grade lymphoma – which means the lymphoma grows quickly with early spread to different parts of the body.10,11

About Jazz Pharmaceuticals plc
Jazz Pharmaceuticals plc (NASDAQ: JAZZ) is a global biopharmaceutical company whose purpose is to innovate to transform the lives of patients and their families. We are dedicated to developing life-changing medicines for people with serious diseases – often with limited or no therapeutic options. We have a diverse portfolio of marketed medicines and novel product candidates, from early- to late-stage development, in neuroscience and oncology. We actively explore new options for patients including novel compounds, small molecules and biologics, and through cannabinoid science and innovative delivery technologies. Jazz is headquartered in Dublin, Ireland and has employees around the globe, serving patients in nearly 75 countries. For more information, please visit www.jazzpharmaceuticals.com and follow @JazzPharma on Twitter.

About The Children’s Oncology Group (COG)
COG (childrensoncologygroup.org), a member of the NCI National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN), is the world’s largest organization devoted exclusively to childhood and adolescent cancer research. COG unites over 10,000 experts in childhood cancer at more than 200 leading children’s hospitals, universities, and cancer centers across North America, Australia, and New Zealand in the fight against childhood cancer. Today, more than 90% of the 14,000 children and adolescents diagnosed with cancer each year in the United States are cared for at COG member institutions. Research performed by COG institutions over the past 50 years has transformed childhood cancer from a virtually incurable disease to one with a combined 5-year survival rate of 80%. COG’s mission is to improve the cure rate and outcomes for all children with cancer.

Caution Concerning Forward-Looking Statements 
This press release contains forward-looking statements, including, but not limited to, statements related to Jazz Pharmaceuticals’ belief in the potential of Rylaze to provide a reliable therapeutic option for adult and pediatric patients to maximize their chance for a cure, plans for a mid-July 2021 launch of Rylaze, the availability of a reliable supply of Rylaze and other statements that are not historical facts. These forward-looking statements are based on Jazz Pharmaceuticals’ current plans, objectives, estimates, expectations and intentions and inherently involve significant risks and uncertainties. Actual results and the timing of events could differ materially from those anticipated in such forward-looking statements as a result of these risks and uncertainties, which include, without limitation, effectively launching and commercializing new products; obtaining and maintaining adequate coverage and reimbursement for the company’s products; delays or problems in the supply or manufacture of the company’s products and other risks and uncertainties affecting the company, including those described from time to time under the caption “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in Jazz Pharmaceuticals’ Securities and Exchange Commission filings and reports (Commission File No. 001-33500), including Jazz Pharmaceuticals’ Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020 and future filings and reports by Jazz Pharmaceuticals. Other risks and uncertainties of which Jazz Pharmaceuticals is not currently aware may also affect Jazz Pharmaceuticals’ forward-looking statements and may cause actual results and the timing of events to differ materially from those anticipated. The forward-looking statements herein are made only as of the date hereof or as of the dates indicated in the forward-looking statements, even if they are subsequently made available by Jazz Pharmaceuticals on its website or otherwise. Jazz Pharmaceuticals undertakes no obligation to update or supplement any forward-looking statements to reflect actual results, new information, future events, changes in its expectations or other circumstances that exist after the date as of which the forward-looking statements were made.

Jazz Media Contact:
Jacqueline Kirby
Vice President, Corporate Affairs
Jazz Pharmaceuticals plc
CorporateAffairsMediaInfo@jazzpharma.com
Ireland, +353 1 697 2141
U.S. +1 215 867 4910

Jazz Investor Contact:
Andrea N. Flynn, Ph.D.
Vice President, Head, Investor Relations
Jazz Pharmaceuticals plc
investorinfo@jazzpharma.com  
Ireland, +353 1 634 3211

References

  1. Rylaze (asparaginase erwinia chrysanthemi (recombinant)-rywn) injection, for intramuscular use Prescribing Information. Palo Alto, CA: Jazz Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
  2. Gupta S, Wang C, Raetz EA et al. Impact of Asparaginase Discontinuation on Outcome in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Report From the Children’s Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol. 2020 Jun 10;38(17):1897-1905. doi: 10.1200/JCO.19.03024
  3. National Cancer Institute. Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version. Available at www.cancer.gov/types/leukemia/patient/adult-all-treatment-pdq. Accessed June 29, 2021
  4. American Cancer Society. Key Statistics for Childhood Leukemia. Available at https://www.cancer.org/cancer/leukemia-in-children/about/key-statistics.html. Accessed June 29, 2021.
  5. American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures 2019. www.cancer.org/research/cancer-facts-statistics/all-cancer-facts-figures/cancer-facts-figures-2019.html. Accessed June 29, 2021.
  6. Pui C, Evans W. A 50-Year Journey to Cure Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. Seminars in Hematology. 2013;50(3), 185-196.
  7. American Cancer Society. Key Statistics for Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL). Available at https://cancerstatisticscenter.cancer.org/?_ga=2.8163506.1018157754.1621008457-1989786785.1621008457#!/data-analysis/NewCaseEstimates. Accessed June 29, 2021.
  8. Salzer W, Bostrom B, Messinger Y et al. 2018. Asparaginase activity levels and monitoring in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Leukemia & Lymphoma. 59:8, 1797-1806, DOI: 10.1080/10428194.2017.1386305.
  9. Hijiya N, van der Sluis IM. Asparaginase-associated toxicity in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Leuk Lymphoma. 2016;57(4):748–757. DOI: 10.3109/10428194.2015.1101098.
  10. Leukemia Foundation. Lymphoblastic Lymphoma. Available at https://www.leukaemia.org.au/disease-information/lymphomas/non-hodgkin-lymphoma/other-non-hodgkin-lymphomas/lymphoblastic-lymphoma/. Accessed June 29, 2021.
  11. Mayo Clinic. Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Diagnosis. Available at https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/acute-lymphocytic-leukemia/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20369083. Accessed June 29, 2021.

SOURCE Jazz Pharmaceuticals plc

Related Links

CLIP

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4776285/

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/////////////asparaginase erwinia chrysanthemi (recombinant)-rywn, Rylaze, Jazz Pharmaceuticals, JZP458-201, JZP458, FDA 2021, APPROVALS 2021, ORPHAN, Fast TrackAcute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, ALL, Antineoplastic Agents

https://chem.nlm.nih.gov/chemidplus/id/1349719227

https://go.drugbank.com/drugs/DB08886

wdt-4

NEW DRUG APPROVALS

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Sotorasib


AMG 510.svg
4-((S)-4-Acryloyl-2-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-6-fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one.png

Sotorasib

6-fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(4-methyl-2-propan-2-ylpyridin-3-yl)-4-[(2S)-2-methyl-4-prop-2-enoylpiperazin-1-yl]pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2-one

AMG 510
AMG-510
AMG510

FormulaC30H30F2N6O3
CAS2296729-00-3
Mol weight560.5944

FDA APPROVED, 2021/5/28 Lumakras

Antineoplastic, Non-small cell lung cancer (KRAS G12C-mutated)

ソトラシブ (JAN);

2296729-00-3 (racemate)

4-((S)-4-Acryloyl-2-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-6-fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one

6-fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(4-methyl-2-propan-2-ylpyridin-3-yl)-4-[(2S)-2-methyl-4-prop-2-enoylpiperazin-1-yl]pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2-one

Sotorasib [INN]

6-Fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(4-methyl-2-propan-2-ylpyridin-3-yl)-4-((2S)-2-methyl-4-prop-2-enoylpiperazin-1-yl)pyrido(2,3-d)pyrimidin-2-one

Sotorasib

(1M)-6-Fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-[4-methyl-2-(propan-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl]-4-[(2S)-2-methyl-4-(prop-2-enoyl)piperazin-1-yl]pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one

C30H30F2N6O3 : 560.59
[2296729-00-3]

Sotorasib is an inhibitor of the RAS GTPase family. The molecular formula is C30H30F2N6O3, and the molecular weight is 560.6 g/mol. The chemical name of sotorasib is 6-fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-(1M)-1-[4-methyl-2-(propan-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl]-4-[(2S)-2-methyl-4-(prop-2enoyl) piperazin-1-yl]pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one. The chemical structure of sotorasib is shown below:

LUMAKRAS™ (sotorasib) Structural Formula Illustration

Sotorasib has pKa values of 8.06 and 4.56. The solubility of sotorasib in the aqueous media decreases over the range pH 1.2 to 6.8 from 1.3 mg/mL to 0.03 mg/mL.

LUMAKRAS is supplied as film-coated tablets for oral use containing 120 mg of sotorasib. Inactive ingredients in the tablet core are microcrystalline cellulose, lactose monohydrate, croscarmellose sodium, and magnesium stearate. The film coating material consists of polyvinyl alcohol, titanium dioxide, polyethylene glycol, talc, and iron oxide yellow.

FDA grants accelerated approval to sotorasib for KRAS G12C mutated NSCLC

https://www.fda.gov/drugs/drug-approvals-and-databases/fda-grants-accelerated-approval-sotorasib-kras-g12c-mutated-nsclc

On May 28, 2021, the Food and Drug Administration granted accelerated approval to sotorasib (Lumakras™, Amgen, Inc.), a RAS GTPase family inhibitor, for adult patients with KRAS G12C ‑mutated locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), as determined by an FDA ‑approved test, who have received at least one prior systemic therapy.

FDA also approved the QIAGEN therascreen® KRAS RGQ PCR kit (tissue) and the Guardant360® CDx (plasma) as companion diagnostics for Lumakras. If no mutation is detected in a plasma specimen, the tumor tissue should be tested.

Approval was based on CodeBreaK 100, a multicenter, single-arm, open label clinical trial (NCT03600883) which included patients with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC with KRAS G12C mutations. Efficacy was evaluated in 124 patients whose disease had progressed on or after at least one prior systemic therapy. Patients received sotorasib 960 mg orally daily until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

The main efficacy outcome measures were objective response rate (ORR) according to RECIST 1.1, as evaluated by blinded independent central review and response duration. The ORR was 36% (95% CI: 28%, 45%) with a median response duration of 10 months (range 1.3+, 11.1).

The most common adverse reactions (≥ 20%) were diarrhea, musculoskeletal pain, nausea, fatigue, hepatotoxicity, and cough. The most common laboratory abnormalities (≥ 25%) were decreased lymphocytes, decreased hemoglobin, increased aspartate aminotransferase, increased alanine aminotransferase, decreased calcium, increased alkaline phosphatase, increased urine protein, and decreased sodium.

The recommended sotorasib dose is 960 mg orally once daily with or without food.

The approved 960 mg dose is based on available clinical data, as well as pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modeling that support the approved dose. As part of the evaluation for this accelerated approval, FDA is requiring a postmarketing trial to investigate whether a lower dose will have a similar clinical effect.

View full prescribing information for Lumakras.

This indication is approved under accelerated approval based on overall response rate and duration of response. Continued approval for this indication may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in a confirmatory trial(s).

This review was conducted under Project Orbis, an initiative of the FDA Oncology Center of Excellence. Project Orbis provides a framework for concurrent submission and review of oncology drugs among international partners. For this review, FDA collaborated with the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA), the Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency (ANVISA), Health Canada, and the United Kingdom Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). The application reviews are ongoing at the other regulatory agencies.

This review used the Real-Time Oncology Review (RTOR) pilot program, which streamlined data submission prior to the filing of the entire clinical application, the Assessment Aid, and the Product Quality Assessment Aid (PQAA), voluntary submissions from the applicant to facilitate the FDA’s assessment. The FDA approved this application approximately 10 weeks ahead of the FDA goal date.

This application was granted priority review, fast-track, breakthrough therapy and orphan drug designation. A description of FDA expedited programs is in the Guidance for Industry: Expedited Programs for Serious Conditions-Drugs and Biologics.

Sotorasib, sold under the brand name Lumakras is an anti-cancer medication used to treat non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).[1][2] It targets a specific mutation, G12C, in the protein KRAS which is responsible for various forms of cancer.[3][4]

The most common side effects include diarrhea, musculoskeletal pain, nausea, fatigue, liver damage and cough.[1][2]

Sotorasib is an inhibitor of the RAS GTPase family.[1]

Sotorasib is the first approved targeted therapy for tumors with any KRAS mutation, which accounts for approximately 25% of mutations in non-small cell lung cancers.[2] KRAS G12C mutations represent about 13% of mutations in non-small cell lung cancers.[2] Sotorasib was approved for medical use in the United States in May 2021.[2][5]

Sotorasib is an experimental KRAS inhibitor being investigated for the treatment of KRAS G12C mutant non small cell lung cancer, colorectal cancer, and appendix cancer.

Sotorasib, also known as AMG-510, is an acrylamide derived KRAS inhibitor developed by Amgen.1,3 It is indicated in the treatment of adult patients with KRAS G12C mutant non small cell lung cancer.6 This mutation makes up >50% of all KRAS mutations.2 Mutant KRAS discovered in 1982 but was not considered a druggable target until the mid-2010s.5 It is the first experimental KRAS inhibitor.1

The drug MRTX849 is also currently being developed and has the same target.1

Sotorasib was granted FDA approval on 28 May 2021.6

Medical uses

Sotorasib is indicated for the treatment of adults with KRAS G12C-mutated locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), as determined by an FDA-approved test, who have received at least one prior systemic therapy.[1][2]

Clinical development

Sotorasib is being developed by Amgen. Phase I clinical trials were completed in 2020.[6][7][8] In December 2019, it was approved to begin Phase II clinical trials.[9]

Because the G12C KRAS mutation is relatively common in some cancer types, 14% of non-small-cell lung cancer adenocarcinoma patients and 5% of colorectal cancer patients,[10] and sotorasib is the first drug candidate to target this mutation, there have been high expectations for the drug.[10][11][12] The Food and Drug Administration has granted a fast track designation to sotorasib for the treatment of metastatic non-small-cell lung carcinoma with the G12C KRAS mutation.[13]

Chemistry and pharmacology

Sotorasib can exist in either of two atropisomeric forms and one is more active than the other.[10] It selectively forms an irreversible covalent bond to the sulfur atom in the cysteine residue that is present in the mutated form of KRAS, but not in the normal form.[10]

History

Researchers evaluated the efficacy of sotorasib in a study of 124 participants with locally advanced or metastatic KRAS G12C-mutated non-small cell lung cancer with disease progression after receiving an immune checkpoint inhibitor and/or platinum-based chemotherapy.[2] The major outcomes measured were objective response rate (proportion of participants whose tumor is destroyed or reduced) and duration of response.[2] The objective response rate was 36% and 58% of those participants had a duration of response of six months or longer.[2]

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted the application for sotorasib orphan drugfast trackpriority review, and breakthrough therapy designations.[2] The FDA collaborated with the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA), the Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency (ANVISA), Health Canada and the United Kingdom Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).[2] The application reviews are ongoing at the other regulatory agencies.[2]

The FDA granted approval of Lumakras to Amgen Inc.[2]

Society and culture

Economics

Sotorasib costs US$17,900 per month.[5]

Names

Sotorasib is the recommended international nonproprietary name (INN).[14]

PAPER

Nature (London, United Kingdom) (2019), 575(7781), 217-223

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-019-1694-1

KRAS is the most frequently mutated oncogene in cancer and encodes a key signalling protein in tumours1,2. The KRAS(G12C) mutant has a cysteine residue that has been exploited to design covalent inhibitors that have promising preclinical activity3,4,5. Here we optimized a series of inhibitors, using novel binding interactions to markedly enhance their potency and selectivity. Our efforts have led to the discovery of AMG 510, which is, to our knowledge, the first KRAS(G12C) inhibitor in clinical development. In preclinical analyses, treatment with AMG 510 led to the regression of KRASG12C tumours and improved the anti-tumour efficacy of chemotherapy and targeted agents. In immune-competent mice, treatment with AMG 510 resulted in a pro-inflammatory tumour microenvironment and produced durable cures alone as well as in combination with immune-checkpoint inhibitors. Cured mice rejected the growth of isogenic KRASG12D tumours, which suggests adaptive immunity against shared antigens. Furthermore, in clinical trials, AMG 510 demonstrated anti-tumour activity in the first dosing cohorts and represents a potentially transformative therapy for patients for whom effective treatments are lacking.

Paper

Scientific Reports (2020), 10(1), 11992

PAPER

European journal of medicinal chemistry (2021), 213, 113082.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0223523420310540

Image 1

KRAS is the most commonly altered oncogene of the RAS family, especially the G12C mutant (KRASG12C), which has been a promising drug target for many cancers. On the basis of the bicyclic pyridopyrimidinone framework of the first-in-class clinical KRASG12C inhibitor AMG510, a scaffold hopping strategy was conducted including a F–OH cyclization approach and a pyridinyl N-atom working approach leading to new tetracyclic and bicyclic analogues. Compound 26a was identified possessing binding potency of 1.87 μM against KRASG12C and cell growth inhibition of 0.79 μM in MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cells. Treatment of 26a with NCI–H358 cells resulted in down-regulation of KRAS-GTP levels and reduction of phosphorylation of downstream ERK and AKT dose-dependently. Molecular docking suggested that the fluorophenol moiety of 26a occupies a hydrophobic pocket region thus forming hydrogen bonding to Arg68. These results will be useful to guide further structural modification.

PAPER

Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2020), 63(1), 52-65.

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.9b01180

KRASG12C has emerged as a promising target in the treatment of solid tumors. Covalent inhibitors targeting the mutant cysteine-12 residue have been shown to disrupt signaling by this long-“undruggable” target; however clinically viable inhibitors have yet to be identified. Here, we report efforts to exploit a cryptic pocket (H95/Y96/Q99) we identified in KRASG12C to identify inhibitors suitable for clinical development. Structure-based design efforts leading to the identification of a novel quinazolinone scaffold are described, along with optimization efforts that overcame a configurational stability issue arising from restricted rotation about an axially chiral biaryl bond. Biopharmaceutical optimization of the resulting leads culminated in the identification of AMG 510, a highly potent, selective, and well-tolerated KRASG12C inhibitor currently in phase I clinical trials (NCT03600883).

AMG 510 [(R)-38]. (1R)-6-Fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-[4-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)-3-pyridinyl]-4-[(2S)-2-methyl-4-(1-oxo-2-propen-1-yl)-1-piperazinyl]-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one

………… concentrated in vacuo. Chromatographic purification of the residue (silica gel; 0–100% 3:1 EtOAc–EtOH/heptane) followed by chiral supercritical fluid chromatography (Chiralpak IC, 30 mm × 250 mm, 5 μm, 55% MeOH/CO2, 120 mL/min, 102 bar) provided (1R)-6-fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-[4-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)-3-pyridinyl]-4-[(2S)-2-methyl-4-(1-oxo-2-propen-1-yl)-1-piperazinyl]pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one (AMG 510; (R)-38; 2.25 g, 43% yield) as the first-eluting peak. 1H NMR (600 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 10.20 (s, 1H), 8.39 (d, J = 4.9 Hz, 1H), 8.30 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 0.5H), 8.27 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 0.5H), 7.27 (q, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 7.18 (d, J = 4.9 Hz, 1H), 6.87 (dd, J = 16.2, 10.8 Hz, 0.5H), 6.84 (dd, J = 16.2, 10.7 Hz, 0.5H), 6.74 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 6.68 (t, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 6.21 (d, J = 16.2 Hz, 0.5H), 6.20 (d, J = 16.2 Hz, 0.5H), 5.76 (d, J = 10.8 Hz, 0.5H), 5.76 (d, J = 10.7 Hz, 0.5H), 4.91 (m, 1H), 4.41 (d, J = 12.2 Hz, 0.5H), 4.33 (d, J = 12.2 Hz, 1H), 4.28 (d, J = 12.2 Hz, 0.5H), 4.14 (d, J = 12.2 Hz, 0.5H), 4.02 (d, J = 13.6 Hz, 0.5H), 3.69 (m, 1H), 3.65 (d, J = 13.6 Hz, 0.5H), 3.52 (t, J = 12.2 Hz, 0.5H), 3.27 (d, J = 12.2 Hz, 0.5H), 3.15 (t, J = 12.2 Hz, 0.5H), 2.72 (m, 1H), 1.90 (s, 3H), 1.35 (d, J = 6.7 Hz, 3H), 1.08 (d, J = 6.7 Hz, 3H), 0.94 (d, J = 6.7 Hz, 3H). 
19F NMR (376 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ −115.6 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1 F), −128.6 (br s, 1 F). 
13C NMR (151 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 165.0 (1C), 163.4 (1C), 162.5 (1C), 160.1 (1C), 156.8 (1C), 153.7 (1C), 151.9 (1C), 149.5 (1C), 148.3 (1C), 145.2 (1C), 144.3 (1C), 131.6 (1C), 130.8 (1C), 127.9 (0.5C), 127.9 (0.5C), 127.8 (0.5C), 127.7 (0.5C), 123.2 (1C), 122.8 (1C), 111.7 (1C), 109.7 (1C), 105.7 (1C), 105.3 (1C), 51.4 (0.5C), 51.0 (0.5C), 48.9 (0.5C), 45.4 (0.5C), 44.6 (0.5C), 43.7 (0.5C), 43.5 (0.5C), 41.6 (0.5C), 29.8 (1C), 21.9 (1C), 21.7 (1C), 17.0 (1C), 15.5 (0.5C), 14.8 (0.5C). 
FTMS (ESI) m/z: [M + H]+ calcd for C30H30F2N6O3 561.24202. Found 561.24150. 

d (1R)-6-Fluoro7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-[4-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)-3-pyridinyl]-4-[(2S)-2-methyl-4-(1-oxo-2-propen-1-yl)-1- piperazinyl]-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one ((R)-38; AMG 510; 2.25 g, 43% yield) as the first-eluting peak.1 H NMR (600 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 10.20 (s, 1H), 8.39 (d, J = 4.9 Hz, 1H), 8.30 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 0.5H), 8.27 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 0.5H), 7.27 (q, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 7.18 (d, J = 4.9 Hz, 1H), 6.87 (dd, J = 16.2, 10.8 Hz, 0.5H), 6.84 (dd, J = 16.2, 10.7 Hz, 0.5H), 6.74 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 6.68 (t, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 6.21 (d, J = 16.2 Hz, 0.5H), 6.20 (d, J = 16.2 Hz, 0.5H), 5.76 (d, J = 10.8 Hz, 0.5H), 5.76 (d, J = 10.7 Hz, 0.5H), 4.91 (m, 1H), 4.41 (d, J = 12.2 Hz, 0.5H), 4.33 (d, J = 12.2 Hz, 1H), 4.28 (d, J = 12.2 Hz, 0.5H), 4.14 (d, J = 12.2 Hz, 0.5H), 4.02 (d, J = 13.6 Hz, 0.5H), 3.69 (m, 1H), 3.65 (d, J = 13.6 Hz, 0.5H), 3.52 (t, J = 12.2 Hz, 0.5H), 3.27 (d, J = 12.2 Hz, 0.5H), 3.15 (t, J = 12.2 Hz, 0.5H), 2.72 (m, 1H), 1.90 (s, 3H), 1.35 (d, J = 6.7 Hz, 3H), 1.08 (d, J = 6.7 Hz, 3H), 0.94 (d, J = 6.7 Hz, 3H). 
19F NMR (376 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ –115.6 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1 F), –128.6 (br. s., 1 F). 
13C NMR (151 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 165.0 (1C), 163.4 (1C), 162.5 (1C), 160.1 (1C), 156.8 (1C), 153.7 (1C), 151.9 (1C), 149.5 (1C), 148.3 (1C), 145.2 (1C), 144.3 (1C), 131.6 (1C), 130.8 (1C), 127.9 (0.5C), 127.9 (0.5C), 127.8 (0.5C), 127.7 (0.5C), 123.2 (1C), 122.8 (1C), 111.7 (1C), 109.7 (1C), 105.7 (1C), 105.3 (1C), 51.4 (0.5C), 51.0 (0.5C), 48.9 (0.5C), 45.4 (0.5C), 44.6 (0.5C), 43.7 (0.5C), 43.5 (0.5C), 41.6 (0.5C), 29.8 (1C), 21.9 (1C), 21.7 (1C), 17.0 (1C), 15.5 (0.5C), 14.8 (0.5C). 
FTMS (ESI) m/z: [M+H]+ Calcd for C30H30F2N6O3 561.24202; Found 561.24150. Atropisomer configuration (R vs. S) assigned crystallographically.The Supporting Information is available free of charge at https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.9b01180.

PATENT

WO 2021097212

The present disclosure relates to an improved, efficient, scalable process to prepare intermediate compounds, such as compound of Formula 6A, having the structure,


useful for the synthesis of compounds for the treatment of KRAS G12C mutated cancers.

BACKGROUND

[0003] KRAS gene mutations are common in pancreatic cancer, lung adenocarcinoma, colorectal cancer, gall bladder cancer, thyroid cancer, and bile duct cancer. KRAS mutations are also observed in about 25% of patients with NSCLC, and some studies have indicated that KRAS mutations are a negative prognostic factor in patients with NSCLC. Recently, V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) mutations have been found to confer resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeted therapies in colorectal cancer; accordingly, the mutational status of KRAS can provide important information prior to the prescription of TKI therapy. Taken together, there is a need for new medical treatments for patients with pancreatic cancer, lung adenocarcinoma, or colorectal cancer, especially those who have been diagnosed to have such cancers characterized by a KRAS mutation, and including those who have progressed after chemotherapy.

Related Synthetic Processes

[0126] The following intermediate compounds of 6-Fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(4-methyl-2-(2-propanyl)-3-pyridinyl)-4-((2S)-2-methyl-4-(2-propenoyl)-1-piperazinyl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one are representative examples of the disclosure and are not intended to be construed as limiting the scope of the present invention.

[0127] A synthesis of Compound 9 and the relevant intermediates is described in U.S. Serial No.15/984,855, filed May 21, 2018 (U.S. Publication No.2018/0334454, November 22, 2018) which claims priority to and the benefit claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No.62/509,629, filed on May 22, 2017, both of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entireties for all purposes. 6-Fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(4-methyl-2-(2-propanyl)-3-pyridinyl)-4-((2S)-2-methyl-4-(2-propenoyl)-1-piperazinyl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one was prepared using the following process, in which the isomers of the final product were isolated via chiral chromatography.

[0128] Step 1: 2,6-Dichloro-5-fluoronicotinamide (Intermediate S). To a mixture of 2,6-dichloro-5-fluoro-nicotinic acid (4.0 g, 19.1 mmol, AstaTech Inc., Bristol, PA) in dichloromethane (48 mL) was added oxalyl chloride (2M solution in DCM, 11.9 mL, 23.8 mmol), followed by a catalytic amount of DMF (0.05 mL). The reaction was stirred at room temperature overnight and then was concentrated. The residue was dissolved in 1,4-dioxane (48 mL) and cooled to 0 °C. Ammonium hydroxide solution (28.0-30% NH3 basis, 3.6 mL, 28.6 mmol) was added slowly via syringe. The resulting mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 30 min and then was concentrated. The residue was diluted with a 1:1 mixture of EtOAc/Heptane and agitated for 5 min, then was filtered. The filtered solids were discarded, and the remaining mother liquor was partially concentrated to half volume and filtered. The filtered solids were washed with heptane and dried in a reduced-pressure oven (45 °C) overnight to provide 2,6-dichloro-5-fluoronicotinamide. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 8.23 (d, J = 7.9 Hz, 1 H) 8.09 (br s, 1 H) 7.93 (br s, 1 H). m/z (ESI, +ve ion): 210.9 (M+H)+.

[0129] Step 2: 2,6-Dichloro-5-fluoro-N-((2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)carbamoyl)nicotinamide. To an ice-cooled slurry of 2,6-dichloro-5-fluoronicotinamide (Intermediate S, 5.0 g, 23.9 mmol) in THF (20 mL) was added oxalyl chloride (2 M solution in DCM, 14.4 mL, 28.8 mmol) slowly via syringe. The resulting mixture was heated at 75 °C for 1 h, then heating was stopped, and the reaction was concentrated to half volume. After cooling to 0 °C, THF (20 mL) was added, followed by a solution of 2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-amine (Intermediate R, 3.59 g, 23.92 mmol) in THF (10 mL), dropwise via cannula. The resulting mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 1 h and then was quenched with a 1:1 mixture of brine and saturated aqueous ammonium chloride. The mixture was extracted with EtOAc (3x) and the combined organic layers were dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated to provide 2,6-dichloro-5-fluoro-N-((2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)carbamoyl)nicotinamide. This material was used without further purification in the following step. m/z (ESI, +ve ion): 385.1(M+H)+.

[0130] Step 3: 7-Chloro-6-fluoro-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione. To an ice-cooled solution of 2,6-dichloro-5-fluoro-N-((2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)carbamoyl)nicotinamide (9.2 g, 24.0 mmol) in THF (40 mL) was added KHMDS (1 M solution in THF, 50.2 mL, 50.2 mmol) slowly via syringe. The ice bath was removed and the resulting mixture was stirred for 40 min at room temperature. The reaction was quenched with saturated aqueous ammonium chloride and extracted with EtOAc (3x). The combined organic layers were dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (eluent: 0-50% 3:1 EtOAc-EtOH/heptane) to provide 7-chloro-6-fluoro-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione.1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 12.27 (br s, 1H), 8.48-8.55 (m, 2 H), 7.29 (d, J = 4.8 Hz, 1 H), 2.87 (quin, J = 6.6 Hz, 1 H), 1.99-2.06 (m, 3 H), 1.09 (d, J = 6.6 Hz, 3 H), 1.01 (d, J = 6.6 Hz, 3 H).19F NMR (376 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ: -126.90 (s, 1 F). m/z (ESI, +ve ion): 349.1 (M+H)+.

[0131] Step 4: 4,7-Dichloro-6-fluoro-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one. To a solution of 7-chloro-6-fluoro-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione (4.7 g, 13.5 mmol) and DIPEA (3.5 mL, 20.2 mmol) in acetonitrile (20 mL) was added phosphorus oxychloride (1.63 mL, 17.5 mmol), dropwise via syringe. The resulting mixture was heated at 80 °C for 1 h, and then was cooled to room temperature and concentrated to provide 4,7-dichloro-6-fluoro-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one. This material was used without further purification in the following step. m/z (ESI, +ve ion): 367.1 (M+H)+.

[0132] Step 5: (S)-tert-Butyl 4-(7-chloro-6-fluoro-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-3-methylpiperazine-1-carboxylate. To an ice-cooled solution of 4,7-dichloro-6-fluoro-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one (13.5 mmol) in acetonitrile (20 mL) was added DIPEA (7.1 mL, 40.3 mmol), followed by (S)-4-N-Boc-2-methyl piperazine (3.23 g, 16.1 mmol, Combi-Blocks, Inc., San Diego, CA, USA). The resulting mixture was warmed to room temperature and stirred for 1 h, then was diluted with cold saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution (200 mL) and EtOAc (300 mL). The mixture was stirred for an additional 5 min, the layers were separated, and the aqueous layer was extracted with more EtOAc (1x). The combined organic layers were dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (eluent: 0-50% EtOAc/heptane) to provide (S)-tert-butyl 4-(7-chloro-6-fluoro-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-3-methylpiperazine-1-carboxylate. m/z (ESI, +ve ion): 531.2 (M+H)+.

[0133] Step 6: (3S)-tert-Butyl 4-(6-fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-3-methylpiperazine-1-carboxylate. A mixture of (S)-tert-butyl 4-(7-chloro-6-fluoro-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-3-methylpiperazine-1-carboxylate (4.3 g, 8.1 mmol), potassium trifluoro(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)borate (Intermediate Q, 2.9 g, 10.5 mmol), potassium acetate (3.2 g, 32.4 mmol) and [1,1′-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene]dichloropalladium(II), complex with dichloromethane (661 mg, 0.81 mmol) in 1,4-dioxane (80 mL) was degassed with nitrogen for 1 min. De-oxygenated water (14 mL) was added, and the resulting mixture was heated at 90 °C for 1 h. The reaction was allowed to cool to room temperature, quenched with half-saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate, and extracted with EtOAc (2x) and DCM (1x). The combined organic layers were dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (eluent: 0-60% 3:1 EtOAc-EtOH/heptane) to provide (3S)-tert-butyl 4-(6-fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-3-methylpiperazine-1-carboxylate.1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 10.19 (br s, 1 H), 8.38 (d, J = 5.0 Hz, 1 H), 8.26 (dd, J = 12.5, 9.2 Hz, 1 H), 7.23-7.28 (m, 1 H), 7.18 (d, J = 5.0 Hz, 1 H), 6.72 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1 H), 6.68 (t, J = 8.9 Hz, 1 H), 4.77-4.98 (m, 1 H), 4.24 (br t, J = 14.2 Hz, 1 H), 3.93-4.08 (m, 1 H), 3.84 (br d, J=12.9 Hz, 1 H), 3.52-3.75 (m, 1 H), 3.07-3.28 (m, 1 H), 2.62-2.74 (m, 1 H), 1.86-1.93 (m, 3 H), 1.43-1.48 (m, 9 H), 1.35 (dd, J = 10.8, 6.8 Hz, 3 H), 1.26-1.32 (m, 1 H), 1.07 (dd, J = 6.6, 1.7 Hz, 3 H), 0.93 (dd, J = 6.6, 2.1 Hz, 3 H).19F NMR (376 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ: -115.65 (s, 1 F), -128.62 (s, 1 F). m/z (ESI, +ve ion): 607.3 (M+H)+.

[0134] Step 7: 6-Fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(4-methyl-2-(2-propanyl)-3-pyridinyl)-4-((2S)-2-methyl-4-(2-propenoyl)-1-piperazinyl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one. Trifluoroacetic acid (25 mL, 324 mmol) was added to a solution of (3S)-tert-butyl 4-(6-fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-3-methylpiperazine-1-carboxylate (6.3 g, 10.4 mmol) in DCM (30 mL). The resulting mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 h and then was concentrated. The residue was dissolved in DCM (30 mL), cooled to 0 °C, and sequentially treated with DIPEA (7.3 mL, 41.7 mmol) and a solution of acryloyl chloride (0.849 mL, 10.4 mmol) in DCM (3 mL; added dropwise via syringe). The reaction was stirred at 0 °C for 10 min, then was quenched with half-saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate and extracted with DCM (2x). The combined organic layers were dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (eluent: 0-100% 3:1 EtOAc-EtOH/heptane) to provide 6-fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(4-methyl-2-(2-propanyl)-3-pyridinyl)-4-((2S)-2-methyl-4-(2-propenoyl)-1-piperazinyl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one.1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 10.20 (s, 1 H), 8.39 (d, J = 4.8 Hz, 1 H), 8.24-8.34 (m, 1 H), 7.23-7.32 (m, 1 H), 7.19 (d, J = 5.0 Hz, 1 H), 6.87 (td, J = 16.3, 11.0 Hz, 1 H), 6.74 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 1 H), 6.69 (t, J = 8.6 Hz, 1 H), 6.21 (br d, J = 16.2 Hz, 1 H), 5.74-5.80 (m, 1 H), 4.91 (br s, 1 H), 4.23-4.45 (m, 2 H), 3.97-4.21 (m, 1 H), 3.44-3.79 (m, 2 H), 3.11-3.31 (m, 1 H), 2.67-2.77 (m, 1 H), 1.91 (s, 3 H), 1.35 (d, J = 6.8 Hz, 3 H), 1.08 (d, J = 6.6 Hz, 3 H), 0.94 (d, J = 6.8 Hz, 3 H).19F NMR (376 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm -115.64 (s, 1 F), -128.63 (s, 1 F). m/z (ESI, +ve ion): 561.2 (M+H)+.

[0135] Another synthesis of Compound 9 and the relevant intermediates was described in a U.S. provisional patent application filed November 16, 2018, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety for all purposes.

Representative Synthetic Processes

[0136] The present disclosure comprises the following steps wherein the synthesis and utilization of the boroxine intermediate is a novel and inventive step in the manufacture of AMG 510 (Compound 9):

Raw Materials

Step la

[0137] To a solution of 2,6-dichloro-5-fluoro-3-pyridinecarboxylic acid (25kg; 119. lmol) in dichloromethane (167kg) and DMF (592g) was added Oxalyl chloride (18.9kg; 148.9mol) while maintaining an internal temp between 15-20 °C. Additional dichloromethane (33kg) was added as a rinse and the reaction mixture stirred for 2h. The reaction mixture is cooled then quenched with ammonium hydroxide (40.2L; 595.5mol) while maintaining internal temperature 0 ± 10°C. The resulting slurry was stirred for 90min then the product collected by filtration. The filtered solids were washed with DI water (3X 87L) and dried to provide 2,6-dichloro-5-fluoronicotinamide (Compound 1).

Step 1b

[0138] In reactor A, a solution of 2,6-dichloro-5-fluoronicotinamide (Compound 1) (16.27kg; 77.8mol) in dichloromethane (359.5kg) was added oxalyl chloride (11.9kg;

93.8mol) while maintaining temp ≤ 25°C for 75min. The resulting solution was then headed to 40°C ± 3°C and aged for 3h. Using vacuum, the solution was distilled to remove dichloromethane until the solution was below the agitator. Dichloromethane (300 kg) was then added and the mixture cooled to 0 ± 5°C. To a clean, dry reactor (reactor B) was added,2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-amine (ANILINE Compound 2A) (12.9kg; 85.9mol) followed by dichloromethane (102.6 kg). The ANILINE solution was azeodried via vacuum distillation while maintaining an internal temperature between 20-25 °), replacing with additional dichloromethane until the solution was dry by KF analysis (limit ≤ 0.05%). The solution volume was adjusted to approx. 23L volume with dichloromethane. The dried ANILINE solution was then added to reactor A while maintaining an internal temperature of 0 ± 5°C throughout the addition. The mixture was then heated to 23 °C and aged for 1h. the solution was polish filtered into a clean reactor to afford 2,6-dichloro-5-fluoro-N-((2- isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)carbamoyl)nicotinamide (Compound 3) as a solution in DCM and used directly in the next step.

Step 2

[0139] A dichloromethane solution of 2,6-dichloro-5-fluoro-N-{[4-methyl-2-(propan-2- yl)pyridin-3-yl]carbamoyl}pyridine-3-carboxamide (UREA (Compound 3)) (15kg contained; 38.9mol) was solvent exchanged into 2-MeTHF using vacuum distillation while maintaining internal temperature of 20-25 °C. The reactor volume was adjusted to 40L and then

additional 2-MeTHF was charged (105.4 kg). Sodium t-butoxide was added (9.4 kg;

97.8mol) while maintaining 5-10 °C. The contents where warmed to 23 °C and stirred for 3h. The contents where then cooled to 0-5C and ammonium chloride added (23.0kg; 430mol) as a solution in 60L of DI water. The mixture was warmed to 20 C and DI water added (15L) and further aged for 30min. Agitation was stopped and the layers separated. The aqueous layer was removed and to the organic layer was added DI water(81.7L). A mixture of conc HCl (1.5kg) and water (9L) was prepared then added to the reactor slowly until pH measured between 4-5. The layers were separated, and the aqueous layer back extracted using 2-MeTHF (42.2kg). The two organic layers combined and washed with a 10% citric acid solution (75kg) followed by a mixture of water (81.7L) and saturated NaCl (19.8 kg). The organic layer was then washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate (75kg) repeating if necessary to achieve a target pH of ≥ 7.0 of the aqueous. The organic layer was washed again with brine (54.7kg) and then dried over magnesium sulfate (5kg). The mixture was filtered to remove magnesium sulfate rinsing the filtered bed with 2-MeTHF (49.2 kg). The combined filtrate and washes where distilled using vacuum to 40L volume. The concentrated solution was heated to 55 °C and heptane (10-12kg) slowly added until cloud point. The solution was cooled to 23 °C over 2h then heptane (27.3 kg) was added over 2h. The product slurry was aged for 3h at 20-25 °C then filtered and washed with a mixture of 2-MeTHF (2.8kg) and heptane (9kg). The product was dried using nitrogen and vacuum to afford solid 7-chloro-6-fluoro-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione (rac-DIONE (Compound 4)).

Step 3

[0140] To a vessel, an agitated suspension of Compound 4, (1.0 eq.) in 2- methylterahydrofuran (7.0 L/kg) was added (+)-2,3-dibenzoyl-D-tartaric acid (2.0 eq.) under an atmosphere of nitrogen. 2-MeTHF is chiral, but it is used as a racemic mixture. The different enantiomers of 2-MeTHF are incorporated randomly into the co-crystal. The resulting suspension was warmed to 75°C and aged at 75°C until full dissolution was observed (< 30 mins.). The resulting solution was polish filtered at 75°C into a secondary vessel. To the polish filtered solution was charged n-Heptane (2.0 L/kg) at a rate that maintained the internal temperature above 65°C. The solution was then cooled to 60°C, seeded with crystals (0.01 kg/kg) and allowed to age for 30 minutes. The resulting suspension was cooled to 20°C over 4 hours and then sampled for chiral purity analysis by HPLC. To the suspension, n-Heptane (3.0 L/kg) was charged and then aged for 4 hours at 20°C under an atmosphere of nitrogen. The suspension was filtered, and the isolated solids were washed two times with (2:1) n-Heptane:2-methyltetrahydrofuran (3.0 L/kg). The material was dried with nitrogen and vacuum to afford M-Dione:DBTA: Me-THF complex (Compound 4a).

Step 4

[0141] To vessel A, a suspension of disodium hydrogen phosphate (21.1 kg, 2.0 equiv) in DI water (296.8 L, 6.3 L/kg) was agitated until dissolution was observed (≥ 30 min.). To vessel B, a suspension of the M-Dione:DBTA: Me-THF complex (Composition 4a)[46.9 kg (25.9 kg corrected for M-dione, 1.0 equiv.)] in methyl tert-butyl ether (517.8 L, 11.0 L/kg) was agitated for 15 to 30 minutes. The resulting solution from vessel A was added to vessel B, and then the mixture was agitated for more than 3 hours. The agitation was stopped, and the biphasic mixture was left to separate for more than 30 minutes. The lower aqueous phase was removed and then back extracted with methyl tert-butyl ether (77.7 L, 1.7 L/kg). The organic phases were combined in vessel B and dried with magnesium sulfate (24.8 kg, 0.529 kg/kg). The resulting suspension from vessel B was agitated for more than three hours and then filtered into vessel C. To vessel B, a methyl tert-butyl ether (46.9 L, 1.0 L/kg) rinse was charged and then filtered into vessel C. The contents of vessel C were cooled to 10 °C and then distilled under vacuum while slowly being warmed to 35°C. Distillation was continued until 320-350 kg (6.8-7.5 kg/kg) of methyl tert-butyl ether was collected. After cooling the contents of vessel C to 20°C, n-Heptane (278.7 L, 5.9 L/kg) was charged over one hour and then distilled under vacuum while slowly being warmed to 35°C. Distillation was continued until a 190-200 kg (4.1-4.3 kg/kg) mixture of methyl tert-butyl ether and n-Heptane was collected. After cooling the contents of vessel C to 20°C, n-Heptane (278.7 L, 5.9 L/kg) was charged a second time over one hour and then distilled under vacuum while slowly being warmed to 35°C. Distillation was continued until a 190-200 kg (4.1-4.3 kg/kg) mixture of methyl tert-butyl ether and n-Heptane was collected. After cooling the contents of vessel C to 20°C, n-Heptane (195.9 L, 4.2 L/kg) was charged a third time over one hour and then sampled for solvent composition by GC analysis. The vessel C suspension continued to agitate for more than one hour. The suspension was filtered, and then washed with a n-Heptane (68.6 L, 1.5 L/kg) rinse from vessel C. The isolated solids were dried at 50°C, and a sample was submitted for stock suitability. Afforded 7-chloro-6-fluoro-(1M)-1-[4-methyl-2-(propan-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl]pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione (M-DIONE) Compound 5M.

[0142] The first-generation process highlighted above has been successfully scaled on 200+ kg of rac-dione starting material (Compound 4). In this process, seeding the crystallization with the thermodynamically-stable rac-dione crystal form (which exhibits low solubility) would cause a batch failure. Based on our subsequent studies, we found that increasing the DBTA equivalents and lowering the seed temperature by adjusting heptane

charge schedule improves robustness of the process. The improved process is resistant to the presence of the thermodynamically-stable rac-dione crystal form and promotes successful separation of atropisomers. Subsequent batches will incorporate the improved process for large scale manufacture.

Step 5

Note: All L/kg amounts are relative to M-Dione input; All equiv. amounts are relative to M-Dione input after adjusted by potency.

[0143] M-Dione (Compound 5M, 1.0 equiv.) and Toluene-1 (10.0 L/kg) was charged to Vessel A. The resulting solution was dried by azeotropic distillation under vacuum at 45 °C until 5.0 L/kg of solvents has been removed. The contents of Vessel A were then cooled to 20 °C.

[0144] Vessel C was charged with Toluene-3 (4.5 L/kg), Phosphoryl chloride (1.5 equiv.) and N,N-Diisopropylethylamine-1 (2.0 equiv.) while maintaining the internal temperature below 20 ± 5 °C.

Upon finishing charging, Vessel C was warmed to 30 ± 5 °C. The contents of Vessel A were then transferred to Vessel C over 4 hours while maintaining the internal temperature at 30 ± 5°C. Vessel A was rinsed with Toluene-2 (0.5 L/kg) and transferred to Vessel C. The contents of Vessel C were agitated at 30°C for an additional 3 hours. The contents of Vessel C were cooled to 20 ± 5 °C. A solution of (s)-1-boc-3-methylpiperazine (1.2 equiv.), N,N-Diisopropylethylamine-2 (1.2 equiv.) in isopropyl acetate-1 (1.0 L/kg) was prepared in Vessel D. The solution of Vessel D was charged to vessel C while maintaining a batch temperature of 20 ± 5 °C (Note: Exotherm is observed). Upon the end of transfer, Vessel D was rinsed with additional dichloromethane (1.0 L/kg) and transferred to Vessel C. The contents of Vessel C were agitated for an additional 60 minutes at 20 °C. A solution of sodium bicarbonate [water-1 (15.0 L/kg + Sodium bicarbonate (4.5 equiv.)] was then charged into Vessel C over an hour while maintaining an internal temperature at 20 ± 5 °C throughout the addition. The contents of Vessel C were agitated for at least 12 hours at which point the Pipazoline (Compound 6) product was isolated by filtration in an agitated filter dryer. The cake was washed with water-2 and -3 (5.0 L/kg x 2 times, agitating each wash for 15 minutes) and isopropyl acetate-2 and 3 (5.0 L/kg x 2 times, agitating each wash for 15 min). The cake as dried under nitrogen for 12 hours.

Acetone Re-slurry (Optional):

[0145] Pipazoline (Compound 6) and acetone (10.0 L/kg) were charged to Vessel E. The suspension was heated to 50 °C for 2 hours. Water-4 (10.0 L/kg) was charged into Vessel E over 1 hour. Upon completion of water addition, the mixture was cooled to 20 °C over 1 hour. The contents of Vessel E were filtered to isolate the product, washing the cake with 1:1 acetone/water mixture (5.0 L/kg). The cake was dried under nitrogen for 12 hours.

Step 6

General Note: All equivalents and volumes are reported in reference to Pipazoline input

Note: All L/kg and kg/kg amounts are relative to Pipazoline input

[0146] Reactor A is charged with Pipazoline (Compound 6, 1.0 equiv), degassed 2- MeTHF (9.0 L/kg) and a solution of potassium acetate (2.0 equiv) in degassed water (6.5 L/kg). The resulting mixture is warmed to 75 ± 5 °C and then, charge a slurry of

Pd(dpePhos)Cl2 (0.003 equiv) in 2-MeTHF (0.5 L/kg). Within 2 h of catalyst charge, a solution of freshly prepared Boroxine (Compound 6A, 0.5 equiv) in wet degassed 2-MeTHF (4.0 L/kg, KF > 4.0%) is charged over the course of >1 hour, but < 2 hours, rinsing with an additional portion of wet 2-MeTHF (0.5 L/kg) after addition is complete. After reaction completion ( <0.15 area % Pipazoline remaining, typically <1 h after boroxine addition is complete), 0.2 wt% (0.002 kg/kg) of Biaryl seed is added as a slurry in 0.02 L/kg wet 2- MeTHF, and the resulting seed bed is aged for > 60 min. Heptane (5.0 L/kg) is added over 2 hours at 75 ± 5 °C. The batch is then cooled to 20 ± 5 °C over 2 hours and aged for an additional 2 h. The slurry is then filtered and cake washed with 1 x 5.0L/kg water, 1 x 5.0L/kg 1:1 iPrOH:water followed by 1 x 5.0 L/kg 1:1 iPrOH:heptane (resuspension wash: the cake is resuspended by agitator and allow to set before filtering) . The cake (Biaryl, Compound 7) is then dried under vacuum with a nitrogen sweep.

Note: If the reaction stalls, an additional charge of catalyst and boroxine is required

Step 7 Charcoal Filtration for Pd removal


General Note: All equivalents and volumes are reported in reference to crude Biaryl input

Note: All L/kg and kg/kg amounts are relative to crude Biaryl input

[0147] In a clean Vessel A, charge crude Biaryl (1 equiv) and charge DCM (10 L/kg). Agitate content for > 60 minutes at 22 ± 5 °C, observing dissolution. Pass crude Biaryl from Vessel A, through a bag filter and carbon filters at a flux ≤ 3 L2/min/m and collect filtrate in clean Vessel B. Charge DCM rinse (1 L/kg) to Vessel A, and through carbon filters to collect in vessel B.

[0148] From filtrate in Vessel B, pull a solution sample for IPC Pd content. Sample is concentrated to solid and analyzed by ICP-MS. IPC: Pd ≤ 25 ppm with respect to Biaryl. a. If Pd content is greater than 25 ppm with respect to Biaryl on first or second IPC sample, pass solution through carbon filter a second time at ≤ 3 L2/min/m2, rinsing with 1 L/kg DCM; sample filtrate for IPC.

b. If Pd content remains greater than 25 ppm after third IPC, install and condition fresh carbon discs. Pass Biaryl filtrate through refreshed carbon filter, washing with 1 L/kg DCM. Sample for IPC.

[0149] Distill and refill to appropriate concentration. Prepare for distillation of recovered filtrate by concentrating to ≤ 4 L/kg DCM, and recharge to reach 5.25 ± 0.25 L/kg DCM prior to moving into Step 7 Boc-deprotection reaction.

Step 7

 General Note: All equivalents and volumes are reported in reference to crude Biaryl input

Note: All L/kg and kg/kg amounts are relative to Biaryl input

[0150] To Reactor A was added: tert-butyl (3S)-4-{6-fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-(1M)-1-[4-methyl-2-(propan-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl]-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl}-3-methylpiperazine-1-carboxylate (Biaryl) (1.0 equiv), dichloromethane (5.0 L/kg), and the TFA (15.0 equiv, 1.9 L/kg) is charged slowly to maintain the internal temperature at 20 ± 5 °C. The reaction was stirred for 4 h at 20 ± 5 °C.

[0151] To Reactor B was added: potassium carbonate (18.0 equiv), water (20.0 L/kg), and NMP (1.0) to form a homogenous solution. While agitating at the maximum acceptable rate for the equipment, the reaction mixture in A was transferred into the potassium carbonate solution in B over 30 minutes (~ 0.24 L/kg/min rate). The mixture was stirred at 20 ± 5 °C for an additional 12 h.

[0152] The resulting slurry was filtered and rinsed with water (2 x 10 L/kg). The wet cake was dried for 24 h to give 6-fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-4-[(2S)-2-methylpiperazin- 1-yl]-(1M)-1-[4-methyl-2-(propan-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl]pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one (Des- Boc, Compound 8).

Step 8

Note: All L/kg and kg/kg amounts are relative to Des-Boc input

[0153] Des-Boc (Compound 8, 1.0 equiv) and NMP (4.2 L/kg) are charged to Vessel A under nitrogen, charge the TFA (1.0 equiv.) slowly to maintain the Tr <25 °C. The mixture is aged at 25 °C until full dissolution is observed (about 0.5 hour). The solution is then polish filtered through a 0.45 micron filter into Vessel B, washing with a NMP (0.8 L/kg). The filtrate and wash are combined, and then cooled to 0 °C. To the resulting solution, Acryloyl Chloride (1.3 equiv.) is added while maintaining temperature < 10 C. The reaction mixture is then aged at 5 ±5°C until completed by IPC (ca.1.5 hrs).

Preparation of Aqueous Disodium Phosphate Quench:

[0154] Disodium Phosphate (3.0 equiv) and Water (15.0 L/kg) are charged to Vessel C. The mixture is aged at 25 °C until full dissolution is observed. The solution is warmed to 45 ±5°C. A seed slurry of AMG 510 (0.005 equiv.) in Water (0.4 L/kg) is prepared and added to Vessel C while maintaining temperature at 45 ±5°C.

[0155] The reaction mixture in Vessel B is transferred to Vessel C (quench solution) while maintaining temperature at 45 ±5°C (ca.1 hrs). Vessel B is washed with a portion of NMP (0.5 L/kg). The product slurry is aged for 2 hrs at 45 ±5°C, cooled to 20 °C over 3 hrs, aged at 20 °C for a minimum of 12 hrs, filtered and washed with Water (2 x 10.0 L/kg). The product is dried using nitrogen and vacuum to afford Crude AMG 510 (Compound 9A).

Step 9

 General Note: All equivalents and volumes are reported in reference to crude AMG 510 input

Note: All L/kg and kg/kg amounts are relative to Crude AMG 510 input

[0156] Reactor A was charged with 6-fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-(1M)-1-[4- methyl-2-(propan-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl]-4-[(2S)-2-methyl-4-(prop-2-enoyl)piperazin-1- yl]pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one (Crude AMG 510) (1.0 equiv), ethanol (7.5 L/kg), and water (1.9 L/kg). The mixture heated to 75 °C and polish filtered into a clean Reactor B. The solution was cool to 45 °C and seeded with authentic milled AMG 510 seed (0.015 േ 0.005

1 Seed performs best when reduced in particle size via milling or with other type of mechanical grinding if mill is not available (mortar/ pestle). Actual seed utilized will be based on seed availability. 1.0- 2.0% is seed is target amount.

kg/kg); the resulting slurry was aged for 30 min. Water (15.0 L/kg) was added over 5h while maintaining an internal temperature > 40 °C; the mixture was aged for an additional 2h.

[0157] The mixture was cooled to 20 °C over 3 hours and aged for 8h, after which the solid was collected by filtration and washed using a mixture of ethanol (2.5 L/kg) and water (5.0 L/kg). The solid was dried using vacuum and nitrogen to obtain 6-fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-(1M)-1-[4-methyl-2-(propan-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl]-4-[(2S)-2-methyl-4-(prop-2-enoyl)piperazin-1-yl]pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one (AMG 510, Compound 9).

Compound 6A Boroxine Synthesis:

Lithiation/borylation

[0158] Reactor A was charged with THF (6 vol), a secondary amine base, Diisopropylamine (1.4 equiv), and a catalyst, such as triethylamine hydrochloride (0.01 equiv.). The resulting solution was cooled to -70 °C and a first base, n-BuLi (2.5 M in hexane, 1.5 equiv) was slowly added. After addition is complete, a solution of 3-fluoroanisole (1.0 equiv) in THF (6 vol) was added slowly and kept at -70 °C for 5 min. Concurrently or subsequently, a reagent, B(EtO)3 (2.0 equiv), was added slowly and kept at -70 °C for 10 min. The reaction mixture was quenched with an acid, 2N HCl. The quenched reaction mixture was extracted with MTBE (3 x 4 vol). The combined organic phases were concentrated to 1.5-3 total volumes. Heptane (7-9 vol) was added drop-wise and the mixture was cooled to 0-10 °C and stirred for 3 h. The mixture was filtrated and rinsed with heptane (1.5 vol). The solid was dried under nitrogen at < 30 °C to afford (2-fluoro-6-methoxyphenyl)boronic acid.

Demethylation:

Note: All L/kg and kg/kg amounts are relative to (2-fluoro-6-methoxyphenyl)boronic acid input

[0159] To a reactor, charge dichloromethane (solvent, 4.0 L/kg) and an acid, BBr3 (1.2 equiv), and cool to -20 °C. To this solution, a suspension of (2-fluoro-6-methoxyphenyl)boronic acid (1.0 equiv) in dichloromethane (4.0 L/kg) was added into the BBr3/DCM mixture while keeping temperature -15 to -25 °C. The reaction was allowed to proceed for approximately 2 hours while monitored by HPLC [≤1% (2-fluoro-6-methoxyphenyl)boronic acid] before reverse quenching into water (3.0 L/kg). The precipitated solid was then isolated by filtration and slurried with water (3.0 L/kg) on the filter prior to deliquoring. The filtrates were adjusted to pH 4-6 by the addition of sodium bicarbonate. The bottom organic phase was separated and the resulting aqueous layer was washed with dichloromethane (solvent, 5.0 Vol) and adjusted to pH = 1 by addition of concentrated hydrochloric acid. The resulting solids were isolated by filtration, washing the cake with water (2 x 5.0 L/kg)

Purification via Reslurry (required)

[0160] The combined crude solids were charged into a reactor and slurried with 5% EtOH/water (5.0 L/kg) at 20 °C for >1 h. The purified product was then isolated by filtration and rinsed with water (2 x 3 L/kg) before drying on the filter at < 30 °C to with nitrogen/vacuum to afford 2,2′,2”-(1,3,5,2,4,6-trioxatriborinane-2,4,6-triyl)tris(3-fluorophenol) (Boroxine, Compound 6A).

PATENT

WO 2020102730

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2020102730

PATENT

US 20180334454

References

  1. Jump up to:a b c d e “Lumakras- sotorasib tablet, coated”DailyMed. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
  2. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m n “FDA Approves First Targeted Therapy for Lung Cancer Mutation Previously Considered Resistant to Drug Therapy”U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 28 May 2021. Retrieved 28 May 2021.  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  3. ^ “KRAS mutant-targeting AMG 510”NCI Drug Dictionary. National Cancer Institute. 2 February 2011. Retrieved 16 November2019.
  4. ^ Canon J, Rex K, Saiki AY, Mohr C, Cooke K, Bagal D, et al. (November 2019). “The clinical KRAS(G12C) inhibitor AMG 510 drives anti-tumour immunity”. Nature575 (7781): 217–23. Bibcode:2019Natur.575..217Cdoi:10.1038/s41586-019-1694-1PMID 31666701.
  5. Jump up to:a b “FDA approves Amgen drug for lung cancer with specific mutation”CNBC. 28 May 2021. Retrieved 28 May 2021.
  6. ^ Hong DS, Fakih MG, Strickler JH, Desai J, Durm GA, Shapiro GI, et al. (2020). “KRASG12C inhibition with sotorasib in advanced solid tumors”N Engl J Meddoi:10.1056/NEJMoa1917239PMC 7571518.
  7. ^ Clinical trial number NCT03600883 for “A Phase 1/2, Study Evaluating the Safety, Tolerability, PK, and Efficacy of AMG 510 in Subjects With Solid Tumors With a Specific KRAS Mutation ” at ClinicalTrials.gov
  8. ^ “The Discovery Of Amgen’s Novel Investigational KRAS(G12C) Inhibitor AMG 510 Published In Nature” (Press release). Amgen. 30 October 2019. Retrieved 16 November 2019.
  9. ^ Irving M (24 December 2019). “Drug targeting common cancer cause enters phase 2 clinical trials”New Atlas. Retrieved 24 December 2019.
  10. Jump up to:a b c d Halford B (3 April 2019). “Amgen unveils its KRas inhibitor in human clinical trials: AMG 510 shuts down a mutant version of the cancer target via covalent interaction”Chemical & Engineering News97 (4). Retrieved 16 November 2019.
  11. ^ Al Idrus A (9 September 2019). “Amgen’s KRAS drug continues to deliver but faces ‘curse’ of high expectations”. fiercebiotech.com. Retrieved 16 November 2019.
  12. ^ Kaiser J (30 October 2019). “Two new drugs finally hit ‘undruggable’ cancer target, providing hope for treatments”Science Magazine. AAAS. Retrieved 16 November 2019.
  13. ^ Astor L (9 September 2019). “FDA Grants AMG 510 Fast Track Designation for KRAS G12C+ NSCLC”. targetedonc.com. Retrieved 16 November 2019.
  14. ^ World Health Organization (2021). “International nonproprietary names for pharmaceutical substances (INN): recommended INN: list 85” (PDF). WHO Drug Information35 (1).

Further reading

External links

  • “Sotorasib”Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Clinical trial number NCT03600883 for “A Phase 1/2, Study Evaluating the Safety, Tolerability, PK, and Efficacy of AMG 510 in Subjects With Solid Tumors With a Specific KRAS Mutation (CodeBreaK 100)” at ClinicalTrials.gov
Clinical data
Trade namesLumakras
Other namesAMG 510
License dataUS DailyMedSotorasib
Routes of
administration
By mouth
ATC codeNone
Legal status
Legal statusUS: ℞-only [1][2]
Identifiers
showIUPAC name
CAS Number2252403-56-6
PubChem CID137278711
DrugBankDB15569
ChemSpider72380148
UNII2B2VM6UC8G
KEGGD12055
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC30H30F2N6O3
Molar mass560.606 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)Interactive image
showSMILES
showInChI

////////Sotorasib, ソトラシブ , FDA 2021,  APPROVALS 2021,  Lumakras, CANCER, ANTINEOPLASTIC, AMG 510, AMG-510, AMG510, AMGEN, priority review, fast-track, breakthrough therapy, orphan drug

CC1CN(CCN1C2=NC(=O)N(C3=NC(=C(C=C32)F)C4=C(C=CC=C4F)O)C5=C(C=CN=C5C(C)C)C)C(=O)C=C

AMG 510.svg
4-((S)-4-Acryloyl-2-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-6-fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one.png

Sotorasib

6-fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(4-methyl-2-propan-2-ylpyridin-3-yl)-4-[(2S)-2-methyl-4-prop-2-enoylpiperazin-1-yl]pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2-one

AMG 510
AMG-510
AMG510

FormulaC30H30F2N6O3
CAS2296729-00-3
Mol weight560.5944

FDA APPROVED, 2021/5/28 Lumakras

Antineoplastic, Non-small cell lung cancer (KRAS G12C-mutated)

ソトラシブ (JAN);

2296729-00-3 (racemate)

4-((S)-4-Acryloyl-2-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-6-fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one

6-fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(4-methyl-2-propan-2-ylpyridin-3-yl)-4-[(2S)-2-methyl-4-prop-2-enoylpiperazin-1-yl]pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2-one

Sotorasib [INN]

6-Fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(4-methyl-2-propan-2-ylpyridin-3-yl)-4-((2S)-2-methyl-4-prop-2-enoylpiperazin-1-yl)pyrido(2,3-d)pyrimidin-2-one

Sotorasib

(1M)-6-Fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-[4-methyl-2-(propan-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl]-4-[(2S)-2-methyl-4-(prop-2-enoyl)piperazin-1-yl]pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one

C30H30F2N6O3 : 560.59
[2296729-00-3]

Sotorasib is an inhibitor of the RAS GTPase family. The molecular formula is C30H30F2N6O3, and the molecular weight is 560.6 g/mol. The chemical name of sotorasib is 6-fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-(1M)-1-[4-methyl-2-(propan-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl]-4-[(2S)-2-methyl-4-(prop-2enoyl) piperazin-1-yl]pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one. The chemical structure of sotorasib is shown below:

LUMAKRAS™ (sotorasib) Structural Formula Illustration

Sotorasib has pKa values of 8.06 and 4.56. The solubility of sotorasib in the aqueous media decreases over the range pH 1.2 to 6.8 from 1.3 mg/mL to 0.03 mg/mL.

LUMAKRAS is supplied as film-coated tablets for oral use containing 120 mg of sotorasib. Inactive ingredients in the tablet core are microcrystalline cellulose, lactose monohydrate, croscarmellose sodium, and magnesium stearate. The film coating material consists of polyvinyl alcohol, titanium dioxide, polyethylene glycol, talc, and iron oxide yellow.

FDA grants accelerated approval to sotorasib for KRAS G12C mutated NSCLC

https://www.fda.gov/drugs/drug-approvals-and-databases/fda-grants-accelerated-approval-sotorasib-kras-g12c-mutated-nsclc

On May 28, 2021, the Food and Drug Administration granted accelerated approval to sotorasib (Lumakras™, Amgen, Inc.), a RAS GTPase family inhibitor, for adult patients with KRAS G12C ‑mutated locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), as determined by an FDA ‑approved test, who have received at least one prior systemic therapy.

FDA also approved the QIAGEN therascreen® KRAS RGQ PCR kit (tissue) and the Guardant360® CDx (plasma) as companion diagnostics for Lumakras. If no mutation is detected in a plasma specimen, the tumor tissue should be tested.

Approval was based on CodeBreaK 100, a multicenter, single-arm, open label clinical trial (NCT03600883) which included patients with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC with KRAS G12C mutations. Efficacy was evaluated in 124 patients whose disease had progressed on or after at least one prior systemic therapy. Patients received sotorasib 960 mg orally daily until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

The main efficacy outcome measures were objective response rate (ORR) according to RECIST 1.1, as evaluated by blinded independent central review and response duration. The ORR was 36% (95% CI: 28%, 45%) with a median response duration of 10 months (range 1.3+, 11.1).

The most common adverse reactions (≥ 20%) were diarrhea, musculoskeletal pain, nausea, fatigue, hepatotoxicity, and cough. The most common laboratory abnormalities (≥ 25%) were decreased lymphocytes, decreased hemoglobin, increased aspartate aminotransferase, increased alanine aminotransferase, decreased calcium, increased alkaline phosphatase, increased urine protein, and decreased sodium.

The recommended sotorasib dose is 960 mg orally once daily with or without food.

The approved 960 mg dose is based on available clinical data, as well as pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modeling that support the approved dose. As part of the evaluation for this accelerated approval, FDA is requiring a postmarketing trial to investigate whether a lower dose will have a similar clinical effect.

View full prescribing information for Lumakras.

This indication is approved under accelerated approval based on overall response rate and duration of response. Continued approval for this indication may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in a confirmatory trial(s).

This review was conducted under Project Orbis, an initiative of the FDA Oncology Center of Excellence. Project Orbis provides a framework for concurrent submission and review of oncology drugs among international partners. For this review, FDA collaborated with the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA), the Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency (ANVISA), Health Canada, and the United Kingdom Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). The application reviews are ongoing at the other regulatory agencies.

This review used the Real-Time Oncology Review (RTOR) pilot program, which streamlined data submission prior to the filing of the entire clinical application, the Assessment Aid, and the Product Quality Assessment Aid (PQAA), voluntary submissions from the applicant to facilitate the FDA’s assessment. The FDA approved this application approximately 10 weeks ahead of the FDA goal date.

This application was granted priority review, fast-track, breakthrough therapy and orphan drug designation. A description of FDA expedited programs is in the Guidance for Industry: Expedited Programs for Serious Conditions-Drugs and Biologics.

Sotorasib, sold under the brand name Lumakras is an anti-cancer medication used to treat non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).[1][2] It targets a specific mutation, G12C, in the protein KRAS which is responsible for various forms of cancer.[3][4]

The most common side effects include diarrhea, musculoskeletal pain, nausea, fatigue, liver damage and cough.[1][2]

Sotorasib is an inhibitor of the RAS GTPase family.[1]

Sotorasib is the first approved targeted therapy for tumors with any KRAS mutation, which accounts for approximately 25% of mutations in non-small cell lung cancers.[2] KRAS G12C mutations represent about 13% of mutations in non-small cell lung cancers.[2] Sotorasib was approved for medical use in the United States in May 2021.[2][5]

Sotorasib is an experimental KRAS inhibitor being investigated for the treatment of KRAS G12C mutant non small cell lung cancer, colorectal cancer, and appendix cancer.

Sotorasib, also known as AMG-510, is an acrylamide derived KRAS inhibitor developed by Amgen.1,3 It is indicated in the treatment of adult patients with KRAS G12C mutant non small cell lung cancer.6 This mutation makes up >50% of all KRAS mutations.2 Mutant KRAS discovered in 1982 but was not considered a druggable target until the mid-2010s.5 It is the first experimental KRAS inhibitor.1

The drug MRTX849 is also currently being developed and has the same target.1

Sotorasib was granted FDA approval on 28 May 2021.6

Medical uses

Sotorasib is indicated for the treatment of adults with KRAS G12C-mutated locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), as determined by an FDA-approved test, who have received at least one prior systemic therapy.[1][2]

Clinical development

Sotorasib is being developed by Amgen. Phase I clinical trials were completed in 2020.[6][7][8] In December 2019, it was approved to begin Phase II clinical trials.[9]

Because the G12C KRAS mutation is relatively common in some cancer types, 14% of non-small-cell lung cancer adenocarcinoma patients and 5% of colorectal cancer patients,[10] and sotorasib is the first drug candidate to target this mutation, there have been high expectations for the drug.[10][11][12] The Food and Drug Administration has granted a fast track designation to sotorasib for the treatment of metastatic non-small-cell lung carcinoma with the G12C KRAS mutation.[13]

Chemistry and pharmacology

Sotorasib can exist in either of two atropisomeric forms and one is more active than the other.[10] It selectively forms an irreversible covalent bond to the sulfur atom in the cysteine residue that is present in the mutated form of KRAS, but not in the normal form.[10]

History

Researchers evaluated the efficacy of sotorasib in a study of 124 participants with locally advanced or metastatic KRAS G12C-mutated non-small cell lung cancer with disease progression after receiving an immune checkpoint inhibitor and/or platinum-based chemotherapy.[2] The major outcomes measured were objective response rate (proportion of participants whose tumor is destroyed or reduced) and duration of response.[2] The objective response rate was 36% and 58% of those participants had a duration of response of six months or longer.[2]

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted the application for sotorasib orphan drugfast trackpriority review, and breakthrough therapy designations.[2] The FDA collaborated with the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA), the Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency (ANVISA), Health Canada and the United Kingdom Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).[2] The application reviews are ongoing at the other regulatory agencies.[2]

The FDA granted approval of Lumakras to Amgen Inc.[2]

Society and culture

Economics

Sotorasib costs US$17,900 per month.[5]

Names

Sotorasib is the recommended international nonproprietary name (INN).[14]

PAPER

Nature (London, United Kingdom) (2019), 575(7781), 217-223

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-019-1694-1

KRAS is the most frequently mutated oncogene in cancer and encodes a key signalling protein in tumours1,2. The KRAS(G12C) mutant has a cysteine residue that has been exploited to design covalent inhibitors that have promising preclinical activity3,4,5. Here we optimized a series of inhibitors, using novel binding interactions to markedly enhance their potency and selectivity. Our efforts have led to the discovery of AMG 510, which is, to our knowledge, the first KRAS(G12C) inhibitor in clinical development. In preclinical analyses, treatment with AMG 510 led to the regression of KRASG12C tumours and improved the anti-tumour efficacy of chemotherapy and targeted agents. In immune-competent mice, treatment with AMG 510 resulted in a pro-inflammatory tumour microenvironment and produced durable cures alone as well as in combination with immune-checkpoint inhibitors. Cured mice rejected the growth of isogenic KRASG12D tumours, which suggests adaptive immunity against shared antigens. Furthermore, in clinical trials, AMG 510 demonstrated anti-tumour activity in the first dosing cohorts and represents a potentially transformative therapy for patients for whom effective treatments are lacking.

Paper

Scientific Reports (2020), 10(1), 11992

PAPER

European journal of medicinal chemistry (2021), 213, 113082.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0223523420310540

Image 1

KRAS is the most commonly altered oncogene of the RAS family, especially the G12C mutant (KRASG12C), which has been a promising drug target for many cancers. On the basis of the bicyclic pyridopyrimidinone framework of the first-in-class clinical KRASG12C inhibitor AMG510, a scaffold hopping strategy was conducted including a F–OH cyclization approach and a pyridinyl N-atom working approach leading to new tetracyclic and bicyclic analogues. Compound 26a was identified possessing binding potency of 1.87 μM against KRASG12C and cell growth inhibition of 0.79 μM in MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cells. Treatment of 26a with NCI–H358 cells resulted in down-regulation of KRAS-GTP levels and reduction of phosphorylation of downstream ERK and AKT dose-dependently. Molecular docking suggested that the fluorophenol moiety of 26a occupies a hydrophobic pocket region thus forming hydrogen bonding to Arg68. These results will be useful to guide further structural modification.

PAPER

Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2020), 63(1), 52-65.

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.9b01180

KRASG12C has emerged as a promising target in the treatment of solid tumors. Covalent inhibitors targeting the mutant cysteine-12 residue have been shown to disrupt signaling by this long-“undruggable” target; however clinically viable inhibitors have yet to be identified. Here, we report efforts to exploit a cryptic pocket (H95/Y96/Q99) we identified in KRASG12C to identify inhibitors suitable for clinical development. Structure-based design efforts leading to the identification of a novel quinazolinone scaffold are described, along with optimization efforts that overcame a configurational stability issue arising from restricted rotation about an axially chiral biaryl bond. Biopharmaceutical optimization of the resulting leads culminated in the identification of AMG 510, a highly potent, selective, and well-tolerated KRASG12C inhibitor currently in phase I clinical trials (NCT03600883).

AMG 510 [(R)-38]. (1R)-6-Fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-[4-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)-3-pyridinyl]-4-[(2S)-2-methyl-4-(1-oxo-2-propen-1-yl)-1-piperazinyl]-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one

………… concentrated in vacuo. Chromatographic purification of the residue (silica gel; 0–100% 3:1 EtOAc–EtOH/heptane) followed by chiral supercritical fluid chromatography (Chiralpak IC, 30 mm × 250 mm, 5 μm, 55% MeOH/CO2, 120 mL/min, 102 bar) provided (1R)-6-fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-[4-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)-3-pyridinyl]-4-[(2S)-2-methyl-4-(1-oxo-2-propen-1-yl)-1-piperazinyl]pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one (AMG 510; (R)-38; 2.25 g, 43% yield) as the first-eluting peak. 1H NMR (600 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 10.20 (s, 1H), 8.39 (d, J = 4.9 Hz, 1H), 8.30 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 0.5H), 8.27 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 0.5H), 7.27 (q, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 7.18 (d, J = 4.9 Hz, 1H), 6.87 (dd, J = 16.2, 10.8 Hz, 0.5H), 6.84 (dd, J = 16.2, 10.7 Hz, 0.5H), 6.74 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 6.68 (t, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 6.21 (d, J = 16.2 Hz, 0.5H), 6.20 (d, J = 16.2 Hz, 0.5H), 5.76 (d, J = 10.8 Hz, 0.5H), 5.76 (d, J = 10.7 Hz, 0.5H), 4.91 (m, 1H), 4.41 (d, J = 12.2 Hz, 0.5H), 4.33 (d, J = 12.2 Hz, 1H), 4.28 (d, J = 12.2 Hz, 0.5H), 4.14 (d, J = 12.2 Hz, 0.5H), 4.02 (d, J = 13.6 Hz, 0.5H), 3.69 (m, 1H), 3.65 (d, J = 13.6 Hz, 0.5H), 3.52 (t, J = 12.2 Hz, 0.5H), 3.27 (d, J = 12.2 Hz, 0.5H), 3.15 (t, J = 12.2 Hz, 0.5H), 2.72 (m, 1H), 1.90 (s, 3H), 1.35 (d, J = 6.7 Hz, 3H), 1.08 (d, J = 6.7 Hz, 3H), 0.94 (d, J = 6.7 Hz, 3H). 
19F NMR (376 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ −115.6 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1 F), −128.6 (br s, 1 F). 
13C NMR (151 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 165.0 (1C), 163.4 (1C), 162.5 (1C), 160.1 (1C), 156.8 (1C), 153.7 (1C), 151.9 (1C), 149.5 (1C), 148.3 (1C), 145.2 (1C), 144.3 (1C), 131.6 (1C), 130.8 (1C), 127.9 (0.5C), 127.9 (0.5C), 127.8 (0.5C), 127.7 (0.5C), 123.2 (1C), 122.8 (1C), 111.7 (1C), 109.7 (1C), 105.7 (1C), 105.3 (1C), 51.4 (0.5C), 51.0 (0.5C), 48.9 (0.5C), 45.4 (0.5C), 44.6 (0.5C), 43.7 (0.5C), 43.5 (0.5C), 41.6 (0.5C), 29.8 (1C), 21.9 (1C), 21.7 (1C), 17.0 (1C), 15.5 (0.5C), 14.8 (0.5C). 
FTMS (ESI) m/z: [M + H]+ calcd for C30H30F2N6O3 561.24202. Found 561.24150. 

d (1R)-6-Fluoro7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-[4-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)-3-pyridinyl]-4-[(2S)-2-methyl-4-(1-oxo-2-propen-1-yl)-1- piperazinyl]-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one ((R)-38; AMG 510; 2.25 g, 43% yield) as the first-eluting peak.1 H NMR (600 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 10.20 (s, 1H), 8.39 (d, J = 4.9 Hz, 1H), 8.30 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 0.5H), 8.27 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 0.5H), 7.27 (q, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 7.18 (d, J = 4.9 Hz, 1H), 6.87 (dd, J = 16.2, 10.8 Hz, 0.5H), 6.84 (dd, J = 16.2, 10.7 Hz, 0.5H), 6.74 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 6.68 (t, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 6.21 (d, J = 16.2 Hz, 0.5H), 6.20 (d, J = 16.2 Hz, 0.5H), 5.76 (d, J = 10.8 Hz, 0.5H), 5.76 (d, J = 10.7 Hz, 0.5H), 4.91 (m, 1H), 4.41 (d, J = 12.2 Hz, 0.5H), 4.33 (d, J = 12.2 Hz, 1H), 4.28 (d, J = 12.2 Hz, 0.5H), 4.14 (d, J = 12.2 Hz, 0.5H), 4.02 (d, J = 13.6 Hz, 0.5H), 3.69 (m, 1H), 3.65 (d, J = 13.6 Hz, 0.5H), 3.52 (t, J = 12.2 Hz, 0.5H), 3.27 (d, J = 12.2 Hz, 0.5H), 3.15 (t, J = 12.2 Hz, 0.5H), 2.72 (m, 1H), 1.90 (s, 3H), 1.35 (d, J = 6.7 Hz, 3H), 1.08 (d, J = 6.7 Hz, 3H), 0.94 (d, J = 6.7 Hz, 3H). 
19F NMR (376 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ –115.6 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1 F), –128.6 (br. s., 1 F). 
13C NMR (151 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 165.0 (1C), 163.4 (1C), 162.5 (1C), 160.1 (1C), 156.8 (1C), 153.7 (1C), 151.9 (1C), 149.5 (1C), 148.3 (1C), 145.2 (1C), 144.3 (1C), 131.6 (1C), 130.8 (1C), 127.9 (0.5C), 127.9 (0.5C), 127.8 (0.5C), 127.7 (0.5C), 123.2 (1C), 122.8 (1C), 111.7 (1C), 109.7 (1C), 105.7 (1C), 105.3 (1C), 51.4 (0.5C), 51.0 (0.5C), 48.9 (0.5C), 45.4 (0.5C), 44.6 (0.5C), 43.7 (0.5C), 43.5 (0.5C), 41.6 (0.5C), 29.8 (1C), 21.9 (1C), 21.7 (1C), 17.0 (1C), 15.5 (0.5C), 14.8 (0.5C). 
FTMS (ESI) m/z: [M+H]+ Calcd for C30H30F2N6O3 561.24202; Found 561.24150. Atropisomer configuration (R vs. S) assigned crystallographically.The Supporting Information is available free of charge at https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.9b01180.

PATENT

WO 2021097212

The present disclosure relates to an improved, efficient, scalable process to prepare intermediate compounds, such as compound of Formula 6A, having the structure,


useful for the synthesis of compounds for the treatment of KRAS G12C mutated cancers.

BACKGROUND

[0003] KRAS gene mutations are common in pancreatic cancer, lung adenocarcinoma, colorectal cancer, gall bladder cancer, thyroid cancer, and bile duct cancer. KRAS mutations are also observed in about 25% of patients with NSCLC, and some studies have indicated that KRAS mutations are a negative prognostic factor in patients with NSCLC. Recently, V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) mutations have been found to confer resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeted therapies in colorectal cancer; accordingly, the mutational status of KRAS can provide important information prior to the prescription of TKI therapy. Taken together, there is a need for new medical treatments for patients with pancreatic cancer, lung adenocarcinoma, or colorectal cancer, especially those who have been diagnosed to have such cancers characterized by a KRAS mutation, and including those who have progressed after chemotherapy.

Related Synthetic Processes

[0126] The following intermediate compounds of 6-Fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(4-methyl-2-(2-propanyl)-3-pyridinyl)-4-((2S)-2-methyl-4-(2-propenoyl)-1-piperazinyl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one are representative examples of the disclosure and are not intended to be construed as limiting the scope of the present invention.

[0127] A synthesis of Compound 9 and the relevant intermediates is described in U.S. Serial No.15/984,855, filed May 21, 2018 (U.S. Publication No.2018/0334454, November 22, 2018) which claims priority to and the benefit claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No.62/509,629, filed on May 22, 2017, both of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entireties for all purposes. 6-Fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(4-methyl-2-(2-propanyl)-3-pyridinyl)-4-((2S)-2-methyl-4-(2-propenoyl)-1-piperazinyl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one was prepared using the following process, in which the isomers of the final product were isolated via chiral chromatography.

[0128] Step 1: 2,6-Dichloro-5-fluoronicotinamide (Intermediate S). To a mixture of 2,6-dichloro-5-fluoro-nicotinic acid (4.0 g, 19.1 mmol, AstaTech Inc., Bristol, PA) in dichloromethane (48 mL) was added oxalyl chloride (2M solution in DCM, 11.9 mL, 23.8 mmol), followed by a catalytic amount of DMF (0.05 mL). The reaction was stirred at room temperature overnight and then was concentrated. The residue was dissolved in 1,4-dioxane (48 mL) and cooled to 0 °C. Ammonium hydroxide solution (28.0-30% NH3 basis, 3.6 mL, 28.6 mmol) was added slowly via syringe. The resulting mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 30 min and then was concentrated. The residue was diluted with a 1:1 mixture of EtOAc/Heptane and agitated for 5 min, then was filtered. The filtered solids were discarded, and the remaining mother liquor was partially concentrated to half volume and filtered. The filtered solids were washed with heptane and dried in a reduced-pressure oven (45 °C) overnight to provide 2,6-dichloro-5-fluoronicotinamide. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 8.23 (d, J = 7.9 Hz, 1 H) 8.09 (br s, 1 H) 7.93 (br s, 1 H). m/z (ESI, +ve ion): 210.9 (M+H)+.

[0129] Step 2: 2,6-Dichloro-5-fluoro-N-((2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)carbamoyl)nicotinamide. To an ice-cooled slurry of 2,6-dichloro-5-fluoronicotinamide (Intermediate S, 5.0 g, 23.9 mmol) in THF (20 mL) was added oxalyl chloride (2 M solution in DCM, 14.4 mL, 28.8 mmol) slowly via syringe. The resulting mixture was heated at 75 °C for 1 h, then heating was stopped, and the reaction was concentrated to half volume. After cooling to 0 °C, THF (20 mL) was added, followed by a solution of 2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-amine (Intermediate R, 3.59 g, 23.92 mmol) in THF (10 mL), dropwise via cannula. The resulting mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 1 h and then was quenched with a 1:1 mixture of brine and saturated aqueous ammonium chloride. The mixture was extracted with EtOAc (3x) and the combined organic layers were dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated to provide 2,6-dichloro-5-fluoro-N-((2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)carbamoyl)nicotinamide. This material was used without further purification in the following step. m/z (ESI, +ve ion): 385.1(M+H)+.

[0130] Step 3: 7-Chloro-6-fluoro-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione. To an ice-cooled solution of 2,6-dichloro-5-fluoro-N-((2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)carbamoyl)nicotinamide (9.2 g, 24.0 mmol) in THF (40 mL) was added KHMDS (1 M solution in THF, 50.2 mL, 50.2 mmol) slowly via syringe. The ice bath was removed and the resulting mixture was stirred for 40 min at room temperature. The reaction was quenched with saturated aqueous ammonium chloride and extracted with EtOAc (3x). The combined organic layers were dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (eluent: 0-50% 3:1 EtOAc-EtOH/heptane) to provide 7-chloro-6-fluoro-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione.1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 12.27 (br s, 1H), 8.48-8.55 (m, 2 H), 7.29 (d, J = 4.8 Hz, 1 H), 2.87 (quin, J = 6.6 Hz, 1 H), 1.99-2.06 (m, 3 H), 1.09 (d, J = 6.6 Hz, 3 H), 1.01 (d, J = 6.6 Hz, 3 H).19F NMR (376 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ: -126.90 (s, 1 F). m/z (ESI, +ve ion): 349.1 (M+H)+.

[0131] Step 4: 4,7-Dichloro-6-fluoro-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one. To a solution of 7-chloro-6-fluoro-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione (4.7 g, 13.5 mmol) and DIPEA (3.5 mL, 20.2 mmol) in acetonitrile (20 mL) was added phosphorus oxychloride (1.63 mL, 17.5 mmol), dropwise via syringe. The resulting mixture was heated at 80 °C for 1 h, and then was cooled to room temperature and concentrated to provide 4,7-dichloro-6-fluoro-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one. This material was used without further purification in the following step. m/z (ESI, +ve ion): 367.1 (M+H)+.

[0132] Step 5: (S)-tert-Butyl 4-(7-chloro-6-fluoro-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-3-methylpiperazine-1-carboxylate. To an ice-cooled solution of 4,7-dichloro-6-fluoro-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one (13.5 mmol) in acetonitrile (20 mL) was added DIPEA (7.1 mL, 40.3 mmol), followed by (S)-4-N-Boc-2-methyl piperazine (3.23 g, 16.1 mmol, Combi-Blocks, Inc., San Diego, CA, USA). The resulting mixture was warmed to room temperature and stirred for 1 h, then was diluted with cold saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution (200 mL) and EtOAc (300 mL). The mixture was stirred for an additional 5 min, the layers were separated, and the aqueous layer was extracted with more EtOAc (1x). The combined organic layers were dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (eluent: 0-50% EtOAc/heptane) to provide (S)-tert-butyl 4-(7-chloro-6-fluoro-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-3-methylpiperazine-1-carboxylate. m/z (ESI, +ve ion): 531.2 (M+H)+.

[0133] Step 6: (3S)-tert-Butyl 4-(6-fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-3-methylpiperazine-1-carboxylate. A mixture of (S)-tert-butyl 4-(7-chloro-6-fluoro-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-3-methylpiperazine-1-carboxylate (4.3 g, 8.1 mmol), potassium trifluoro(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)borate (Intermediate Q, 2.9 g, 10.5 mmol), potassium acetate (3.2 g, 32.4 mmol) and [1,1′-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene]dichloropalladium(II), complex with dichloromethane (661 mg, 0.81 mmol) in 1,4-dioxane (80 mL) was degassed with nitrogen for 1 min. De-oxygenated water (14 mL) was added, and the resulting mixture was heated at 90 °C for 1 h. The reaction was allowed to cool to room temperature, quenched with half-saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate, and extracted with EtOAc (2x) and DCM (1x). The combined organic layers were dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (eluent: 0-60% 3:1 EtOAc-EtOH/heptane) to provide (3S)-tert-butyl 4-(6-fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-3-methylpiperazine-1-carboxylate.1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 10.19 (br s, 1 H), 8.38 (d, J = 5.0 Hz, 1 H), 8.26 (dd, J = 12.5, 9.2 Hz, 1 H), 7.23-7.28 (m, 1 H), 7.18 (d, J = 5.0 Hz, 1 H), 6.72 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1 H), 6.68 (t, J = 8.9 Hz, 1 H), 4.77-4.98 (m, 1 H), 4.24 (br t, J = 14.2 Hz, 1 H), 3.93-4.08 (m, 1 H), 3.84 (br d, J=12.9 Hz, 1 H), 3.52-3.75 (m, 1 H), 3.07-3.28 (m, 1 H), 2.62-2.74 (m, 1 H), 1.86-1.93 (m, 3 H), 1.43-1.48 (m, 9 H), 1.35 (dd, J = 10.8, 6.8 Hz, 3 H), 1.26-1.32 (m, 1 H), 1.07 (dd, J = 6.6, 1.7 Hz, 3 H), 0.93 (dd, J = 6.6, 2.1 Hz, 3 H).19F NMR (376 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ: -115.65 (s, 1 F), -128.62 (s, 1 F). m/z (ESI, +ve ion): 607.3 (M+H)+.

[0134] Step 7: 6-Fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(4-methyl-2-(2-propanyl)-3-pyridinyl)-4-((2S)-2-methyl-4-(2-propenoyl)-1-piperazinyl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one. Trifluoroacetic acid (25 mL, 324 mmol) was added to a solution of (3S)-tert-butyl 4-(6-fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-3-methylpiperazine-1-carboxylate (6.3 g, 10.4 mmol) in DCM (30 mL). The resulting mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 h and then was concentrated. The residue was dissolved in DCM (30 mL), cooled to 0 °C, and sequentially treated with DIPEA (7.3 mL, 41.7 mmol) and a solution of acryloyl chloride (0.849 mL, 10.4 mmol) in DCM (3 mL; added dropwise via syringe). The reaction was stirred at 0 °C for 10 min, then was quenched with half-saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate and extracted with DCM (2x). The combined organic layers were dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (eluent: 0-100% 3:1 EtOAc-EtOH/heptane) to provide 6-fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(4-methyl-2-(2-propanyl)-3-pyridinyl)-4-((2S)-2-methyl-4-(2-propenoyl)-1-piperazinyl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one.1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 10.20 (s, 1 H), 8.39 (d, J = 4.8 Hz, 1 H), 8.24-8.34 (m, 1 H), 7.23-7.32 (m, 1 H), 7.19 (d, J = 5.0 Hz, 1 H), 6.87 (td, J = 16.3, 11.0 Hz, 1 H), 6.74 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 1 H), 6.69 (t, J = 8.6 Hz, 1 H), 6.21 (br d, J = 16.2 Hz, 1 H), 5.74-5.80 (m, 1 H), 4.91 (br s, 1 H), 4.23-4.45 (m, 2 H), 3.97-4.21 (m, 1 H), 3.44-3.79 (m, 2 H), 3.11-3.31 (m, 1 H), 2.67-2.77 (m, 1 H), 1.91 (s, 3 H), 1.35 (d, J = 6.8 Hz, 3 H), 1.08 (d, J = 6.6 Hz, 3 H), 0.94 (d, J = 6.8 Hz, 3 H).19F NMR (376 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm -115.64 (s, 1 F), -128.63 (s, 1 F). m/z (ESI, +ve ion): 561.2 (M+H)+.

[0135] Another synthesis of Compound 9 and the relevant intermediates was described in a U.S. provisional patent application filed November 16, 2018, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety for all purposes.

Representative Synthetic Processes

[0136] The present disclosure comprises the following steps wherein the synthesis and utilization of the boroxine intermediate is a novel and inventive step in the manufacture of AMG 510 (Compound 9):

Raw Materials

Step la

[0137] To a solution of 2,6-dichloro-5-fluoro-3-pyridinecarboxylic acid (25kg; 119. lmol) in dichloromethane (167kg) and DMF (592g) was added Oxalyl chloride (18.9kg; 148.9mol) while maintaining an internal temp between 15-20 °C. Additional dichloromethane (33kg) was added as a rinse and the reaction mixture stirred for 2h. The reaction mixture is cooled then quenched with ammonium hydroxide (40.2L; 595.5mol) while maintaining internal temperature 0 ± 10°C. The resulting slurry was stirred for 90min then the product collected by filtration. The filtered solids were washed with DI water (3X 87L) and dried to provide 2,6-dichloro-5-fluoronicotinamide (Compound 1).

Step 1b

[0138] In reactor A, a solution of 2,6-dichloro-5-fluoronicotinamide (Compound 1) (16.27kg; 77.8mol) in dichloromethane (359.5kg) was added oxalyl chloride (11.9kg;

93.8mol) while maintaining temp ≤ 25°C for 75min. The resulting solution was then headed to 40°C ± 3°C and aged for 3h. Using vacuum, the solution was distilled to remove dichloromethane until the solution was below the agitator. Dichloromethane (300 kg) was then added and the mixture cooled to 0 ± 5°C. To a clean, dry reactor (reactor B) was added,2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-amine (ANILINE Compound 2A) (12.9kg; 85.9mol) followed by dichloromethane (102.6 kg). The ANILINE solution was azeodried via vacuum distillation while maintaining an internal temperature between 20-25 °), replacing with additional dichloromethane until the solution was dry by KF analysis (limit ≤ 0.05%). The solution volume was adjusted to approx. 23L volume with dichloromethane. The dried ANILINE solution was then added to reactor A while maintaining an internal temperature of 0 ± 5°C throughout the addition. The mixture was then heated to 23 °C and aged for 1h. the solution was polish filtered into a clean reactor to afford 2,6-dichloro-5-fluoro-N-((2- isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)carbamoyl)nicotinamide (Compound 3) as a solution in DCM and used directly in the next step.

Step 2

[0139] A dichloromethane solution of 2,6-dichloro-5-fluoro-N-{[4-methyl-2-(propan-2- yl)pyridin-3-yl]carbamoyl}pyridine-3-carboxamide (UREA (Compound 3)) (15kg contained; 38.9mol) was solvent exchanged into 2-MeTHF using vacuum distillation while maintaining internal temperature of 20-25 °C. The reactor volume was adjusted to 40L and then

additional 2-MeTHF was charged (105.4 kg). Sodium t-butoxide was added (9.4 kg;

97.8mol) while maintaining 5-10 °C. The contents where warmed to 23 °C and stirred for 3h. The contents where then cooled to 0-5C and ammonium chloride added (23.0kg; 430mol) as a solution in 60L of DI water. The mixture was warmed to 20 C and DI water added (15L) and further aged for 30min. Agitation was stopped and the layers separated. The aqueous layer was removed and to the organic layer was added DI water(81.7L). A mixture of conc HCl (1.5kg) and water (9L) was prepared then added to the reactor slowly until pH measured between 4-5. The layers were separated, and the aqueous layer back extracted using 2-MeTHF (42.2kg). The two organic layers combined and washed with a 10% citric acid solution (75kg) followed by a mixture of water (81.7L) and saturated NaCl (19.8 kg). The organic layer was then washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate (75kg) repeating if necessary to achieve a target pH of ≥ 7.0 of the aqueous. The organic layer was washed again with brine (54.7kg) and then dried over magnesium sulfate (5kg). The mixture was filtered to remove magnesium sulfate rinsing the filtered bed with 2-MeTHF (49.2 kg). The combined filtrate and washes where distilled using vacuum to 40L volume. The concentrated solution was heated to 55 °C and heptane (10-12kg) slowly added until cloud point. The solution was cooled to 23 °C over 2h then heptane (27.3 kg) was added over 2h. The product slurry was aged for 3h at 20-25 °C then filtered and washed with a mixture of 2-MeTHF (2.8kg) and heptane (9kg). The product was dried using nitrogen and vacuum to afford solid 7-chloro-6-fluoro-1-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione (rac-DIONE (Compound 4)).

Step 3

[0140] To a vessel, an agitated suspension of Compound 4, (1.0 eq.) in 2- methylterahydrofuran (7.0 L/kg) was added (+)-2,3-dibenzoyl-D-tartaric acid (2.0 eq.) under an atmosphere of nitrogen. 2-MeTHF is chiral, but it is used as a racemic mixture. The different enantiomers of 2-MeTHF are incorporated randomly into the co-crystal. The resulting suspension was warmed to 75°C and aged at 75°C until full dissolution was observed (< 30 mins.). The resulting solution was polish filtered at 75°C into a secondary vessel. To the polish filtered solution was charged n-Heptane (2.0 L/kg) at a rate that maintained the internal temperature above 65°C. The solution was then cooled to 60°C, seeded with crystals (0.01 kg/kg) and allowed to age for 30 minutes. The resulting suspension was cooled to 20°C over 4 hours and then sampled for chiral purity analysis by HPLC. To the suspension, n-Heptane (3.0 L/kg) was charged and then aged for 4 hours at 20°C under an atmosphere of nitrogen. The suspension was filtered, and the isolated solids were washed two times with (2:1) n-Heptane:2-methyltetrahydrofuran (3.0 L/kg). The material was dried with nitrogen and vacuum to afford M-Dione:DBTA: Me-THF complex (Compound 4a).

Step 4

[0141] To vessel A, a suspension of disodium hydrogen phosphate (21.1 kg, 2.0 equiv) in DI water (296.8 L, 6.3 L/kg) was agitated until dissolution was observed (≥ 30 min.). To vessel B, a suspension of the M-Dione:DBTA: Me-THF complex (Composition 4a)[46.9 kg (25.9 kg corrected for M-dione, 1.0 equiv.)] in methyl tert-butyl ether (517.8 L, 11.0 L/kg) was agitated for 15 to 30 minutes. The resulting solution from vessel A was added to vessel B, and then the mixture was agitated for more than 3 hours. The agitation was stopped, and the biphasic mixture was left to separate for more than 30 minutes. The lower aqueous phase was removed and then back extracted with methyl tert-butyl ether (77.7 L, 1.7 L/kg). The organic phases were combined in vessel B and dried with magnesium sulfate (24.8 kg, 0.529 kg/kg). The resulting suspension from vessel B was agitated for more than three hours and then filtered into vessel C. To vessel B, a methyl tert-butyl ether (46.9 L, 1.0 L/kg) rinse was charged and then filtered into vessel C. The contents of vessel C were cooled to 10 °C and then distilled under vacuum while slowly being warmed to 35°C. Distillation was continued until 320-350 kg (6.8-7.5 kg/kg) of methyl tert-butyl ether was collected. After cooling the contents of vessel C to 20°C, n-Heptane (278.7 L, 5.9 L/kg) was charged over one hour and then distilled under vacuum while slowly being warmed to 35°C. Distillation was continued until a 190-200 kg (4.1-4.3 kg/kg) mixture of methyl tert-butyl ether and n-Heptane was collected. After cooling the contents of vessel C to 20°C, n-Heptane (278.7 L, 5.9 L/kg) was charged a second time over one hour and then distilled under vacuum while slowly being warmed to 35°C. Distillation was continued until a 190-200 kg (4.1-4.3 kg/kg) mixture of methyl tert-butyl ether and n-Heptane was collected. After cooling the contents of vessel C to 20°C, n-Heptane (195.9 L, 4.2 L/kg) was charged a third time over one hour and then sampled for solvent composition by GC analysis. The vessel C suspension continued to agitate for more than one hour. The suspension was filtered, and then washed with a n-Heptane (68.6 L, 1.5 L/kg) rinse from vessel C. The isolated solids were dried at 50°C, and a sample was submitted for stock suitability. Afforded 7-chloro-6-fluoro-(1M)-1-[4-methyl-2-(propan-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl]pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione (M-DIONE) Compound 5M.

[0142] The first-generation process highlighted above has been successfully scaled on 200+ kg of rac-dione starting material (Compound 4). In this process, seeding the crystallization with the thermodynamically-stable rac-dione crystal form (which exhibits low solubility) would cause a batch failure. Based on our subsequent studies, we found that increasing the DBTA equivalents and lowering the seed temperature by adjusting heptane

charge schedule improves robustness of the process. The improved process is resistant to the presence of the thermodynamically-stable rac-dione crystal form and promotes successful separation of atropisomers. Subsequent batches will incorporate the improved process for large scale manufacture.

Step 5

Note: All L/kg amounts are relative to M-Dione input; All equiv. amounts are relative to M-Dione input after adjusted by potency.

[0143] M-Dione (Compound 5M, 1.0 equiv.) and Toluene-1 (10.0 L/kg) was charged to Vessel A. The resulting solution was dried by azeotropic distillation under vacuum at 45 °C until 5.0 L/kg of solvents has been removed. The contents of Vessel A were then cooled to 20 °C.

[0144] Vessel C was charged with Toluene-3 (4.5 L/kg), Phosphoryl chloride (1.5 equiv.) and N,N-Diisopropylethylamine-1 (2.0 equiv.) while maintaining the internal temperature below 20 ± 5 °C.

Upon finishing charging, Vessel C was warmed to 30 ± 5 °C. The contents of Vessel A were then transferred to Vessel C over 4 hours while maintaining the internal temperature at 30 ± 5°C. Vessel A was rinsed with Toluene-2 (0.5 L/kg) and transferred to Vessel C. The contents of Vessel C were agitated at 30°C for an additional 3 hours. The contents of Vessel C were cooled to 20 ± 5 °C. A solution of (s)-1-boc-3-methylpiperazine (1.2 equiv.), N,N-Diisopropylethylamine-2 (1.2 equiv.) in isopropyl acetate-1 (1.0 L/kg) was prepared in Vessel D. The solution of Vessel D was charged to vessel C while maintaining a batch temperature of 20 ± 5 °C (Note: Exotherm is observed). Upon the end of transfer, Vessel D was rinsed with additional dichloromethane (1.0 L/kg) and transferred to Vessel C. The contents of Vessel C were agitated for an additional 60 minutes at 20 °C. A solution of sodium bicarbonate [water-1 (15.0 L/kg + Sodium bicarbonate (4.5 equiv.)] was then charged into Vessel C over an hour while maintaining an internal temperature at 20 ± 5 °C throughout the addition. The contents of Vessel C were agitated for at least 12 hours at which point the Pipazoline (Compound 6) product was isolated by filtration in an agitated filter dryer. The cake was washed with water-2 and -3 (5.0 L/kg x 2 times, agitating each wash for 15 minutes) and isopropyl acetate-2 and 3 (5.0 L/kg x 2 times, agitating each wash for 15 min). The cake as dried under nitrogen for 12 hours.

Acetone Re-slurry (Optional):

[0145] Pipazoline (Compound 6) and acetone (10.0 L/kg) were charged to Vessel E. The suspension was heated to 50 °C for 2 hours. Water-4 (10.0 L/kg) was charged into Vessel E over 1 hour. Upon completion of water addition, the mixture was cooled to 20 °C over 1 hour. The contents of Vessel E were filtered to isolate the product, washing the cake with 1:1 acetone/water mixture (5.0 L/kg). The cake was dried under nitrogen for 12 hours.

Step 6

General Note: All equivalents and volumes are reported in reference to Pipazoline input

Note: All L/kg and kg/kg amounts are relative to Pipazoline input

[0146] Reactor A is charged with Pipazoline (Compound 6, 1.0 equiv), degassed 2- MeTHF (9.0 L/kg) and a solution of potassium acetate (2.0 equiv) in degassed water (6.5 L/kg). The resulting mixture is warmed to 75 ± 5 °C and then, charge a slurry of

Pd(dpePhos)Cl2 (0.003 equiv) in 2-MeTHF (0.5 L/kg). Within 2 h of catalyst charge, a solution of freshly prepared Boroxine (Compound 6A, 0.5 equiv) in wet degassed 2-MeTHF (4.0 L/kg, KF > 4.0%) is charged over the course of >1 hour, but < 2 hours, rinsing with an additional portion of wet 2-MeTHF (0.5 L/kg) after addition is complete. After reaction completion ( <0.15 area % Pipazoline remaining, typically <1 h after boroxine addition is complete), 0.2 wt% (0.002 kg/kg) of Biaryl seed is added as a slurry in 0.02 L/kg wet 2- MeTHF, and the resulting seed bed is aged for > 60 min. Heptane (5.0 L/kg) is added over 2 hours at 75 ± 5 °C. The batch is then cooled to 20 ± 5 °C over 2 hours and aged for an additional 2 h. The slurry is then filtered and cake washed with 1 x 5.0L/kg water, 1 x 5.0L/kg 1:1 iPrOH:water followed by 1 x 5.0 L/kg 1:1 iPrOH:heptane (resuspension wash: the cake is resuspended by agitator and allow to set before filtering) . The cake (Biaryl, Compound 7) is then dried under vacuum with a nitrogen sweep.

Note: If the reaction stalls, an additional charge of catalyst and boroxine is required

Step 7 Charcoal Filtration for Pd removal


General Note: All equivalents and volumes are reported in reference to crude Biaryl input

Note: All L/kg and kg/kg amounts are relative to crude Biaryl input

[0147] In a clean Vessel A, charge crude Biaryl (1 equiv) and charge DCM (10 L/kg). Agitate content for > 60 minutes at 22 ± 5 °C, observing dissolution. Pass crude Biaryl from Vessel A, through a bag filter and carbon filters at a flux ≤ 3 L2/min/m and collect filtrate in clean Vessel B. Charge DCM rinse (1 L/kg) to Vessel A, and through carbon filters to collect in vessel B.

[0148] From filtrate in Vessel B, pull a solution sample for IPC Pd content. Sample is concentrated to solid and analyzed by ICP-MS. IPC: Pd ≤ 25 ppm with respect to Biaryl. a. If Pd content is greater than 25 ppm with respect to Biaryl on first or second IPC sample, pass solution through carbon filter a second time at ≤ 3 L2/min/m2, rinsing with 1 L/kg DCM; sample filtrate for IPC.

b. If Pd content remains greater than 25 ppm after third IPC, install and condition fresh carbon discs. Pass Biaryl filtrate through refreshed carbon filter, washing with 1 L/kg DCM. Sample for IPC.

[0149] Distill and refill to appropriate concentration. Prepare for distillation of recovered filtrate by concentrating to ≤ 4 L/kg DCM, and recharge to reach 5.25 ± 0.25 L/kg DCM prior to moving into Step 7 Boc-deprotection reaction.

Step 7

 General Note: All equivalents and volumes are reported in reference to crude Biaryl input

Note: All L/kg and kg/kg amounts are relative to Biaryl input

[0150] To Reactor A was added: tert-butyl (3S)-4-{6-fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-(1M)-1-[4-methyl-2-(propan-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl]-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl}-3-methylpiperazine-1-carboxylate (Biaryl) (1.0 equiv), dichloromethane (5.0 L/kg), and the TFA (15.0 equiv, 1.9 L/kg) is charged slowly to maintain the internal temperature at 20 ± 5 °C. The reaction was stirred for 4 h at 20 ± 5 °C.

[0151] To Reactor B was added: potassium carbonate (18.0 equiv), water (20.0 L/kg), and NMP (1.0) to form a homogenous solution. While agitating at the maximum acceptable rate for the equipment, the reaction mixture in A was transferred into the potassium carbonate solution in B over 30 minutes (~ 0.24 L/kg/min rate). The mixture was stirred at 20 ± 5 °C for an additional 12 h.

[0152] The resulting slurry was filtered and rinsed with water (2 x 10 L/kg). The wet cake was dried for 24 h to give 6-fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-4-[(2S)-2-methylpiperazin- 1-yl]-(1M)-1-[4-methyl-2-(propan-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl]pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one (Des- Boc, Compound 8).

Step 8

Note: All L/kg and kg/kg amounts are relative to Des-Boc input

[0153] Des-Boc (Compound 8, 1.0 equiv) and NMP (4.2 L/kg) are charged to Vessel A under nitrogen, charge the TFA (1.0 equiv.) slowly to maintain the Tr <25 °C. The mixture is aged at 25 °C until full dissolution is observed (about 0.5 hour). The solution is then polish filtered through a 0.45 micron filter into Vessel B, washing with a NMP (0.8 L/kg). The filtrate and wash are combined, and then cooled to 0 °C. To the resulting solution, Acryloyl Chloride (1.3 equiv.) is added while maintaining temperature < 10 C. The reaction mixture is then aged at 5 ±5°C until completed by IPC (ca.1.5 hrs).

Preparation of Aqueous Disodium Phosphate Quench:

[0154] Disodium Phosphate (3.0 equiv) and Water (15.0 L/kg) are charged to Vessel C. The mixture is aged at 25 °C until full dissolution is observed. The solution is warmed to 45 ±5°C. A seed slurry of AMG 510 (0.005 equiv.) in Water (0.4 L/kg) is prepared and added to Vessel C while maintaining temperature at 45 ±5°C.

[0155] The reaction mixture in Vessel B is transferred to Vessel C (quench solution) while maintaining temperature at 45 ±5°C (ca.1 hrs). Vessel B is washed with a portion of NMP (0.5 L/kg). The product slurry is aged for 2 hrs at 45 ±5°C, cooled to 20 °C over 3 hrs, aged at 20 °C for a minimum of 12 hrs, filtered and washed with Water (2 x 10.0 L/kg). The product is dried using nitrogen and vacuum to afford Crude AMG 510 (Compound 9A).

Step 9

 General Note: All equivalents and volumes are reported in reference to crude AMG 510 input

Note: All L/kg and kg/kg amounts are relative to Crude AMG 510 input

[0156] Reactor A was charged with 6-fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-(1M)-1-[4- methyl-2-(propan-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl]-4-[(2S)-2-methyl-4-(prop-2-enoyl)piperazin-1- yl]pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one (Crude AMG 510) (1.0 equiv), ethanol (7.5 L/kg), and water (1.9 L/kg). The mixture heated to 75 °C and polish filtered into a clean Reactor B. The solution was cool to 45 °C and seeded with authentic milled AMG 510 seed (0.015 േ 0.005

1 Seed performs best when reduced in particle size via milling or with other type of mechanical grinding if mill is not available (mortar/ pestle). Actual seed utilized will be based on seed availability. 1.0- 2.0% is seed is target amount.

kg/kg); the resulting slurry was aged for 30 min. Water (15.0 L/kg) was added over 5h while maintaining an internal temperature > 40 °C; the mixture was aged for an additional 2h.

[0157] The mixture was cooled to 20 °C over 3 hours and aged for 8h, after which the solid was collected by filtration and washed using a mixture of ethanol (2.5 L/kg) and water (5.0 L/kg). The solid was dried using vacuum and nitrogen to obtain 6-fluoro-7-(2-fluoro-6-hydroxyphenyl)-(1M)-1-[4-methyl-2-(propan-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl]-4-[(2S)-2-methyl-4-(prop-2-enoyl)piperazin-1-yl]pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2(1H)-one (AMG 510, Compound 9).

Compound 6A Boroxine Synthesis:

Lithiation/borylation

[0158] Reactor A was charged with THF (6 vol), a secondary amine base, Diisopropylamine (1.4 equiv), and a catalyst, such as triethylamine hydrochloride (0.01 equiv.). The resulting solution was cooled to -70 °C and a first base, n-BuLi (2.5 M in hexane, 1.5 equiv) was slowly added. After addition is complete, a solution of 3-fluoroanisole (1.0 equiv) in THF (6 vol) was added slowly and kept at -70 °C for 5 min. Concurrently or subsequently, a reagent, B(EtO)3 (2.0 equiv), was added slowly and kept at -70 °C for 10 min. The reaction mixture was quenched with an acid, 2N HCl. The quenched reaction mixture was extracted with MTBE (3 x 4 vol). The combined organic phases were concentrated to 1.5-3 total volumes. Heptane (7-9 vol) was added drop-wise and the mixture was cooled to 0-10 °C and stirred for 3 h. The mixture was filtrated and rinsed with heptane (1.5 vol). The solid was dried under nitrogen at < 30 °C to afford (2-fluoro-6-methoxyphenyl)boronic acid.

Demethylation:

Note: All L/kg and kg/kg amounts are relative to (2-fluoro-6-methoxyphenyl)boronic acid input

[0159] To a reactor, charge dichloromethane (solvent, 4.0 L/kg) and an acid, BBr3 (1.2 equiv), and cool to -20 °C. To this solution, a suspension of (2-fluoro-6-methoxyphenyl)boronic acid (1.0 equiv) in dichloromethane (4.0 L/kg) was added into the BBr3/DCM mixture while keeping temperature -15 to -25 °C. The reaction was allowed to proceed for approximately 2 hours while monitored by HPLC [≤1% (2-fluoro-6-methoxyphenyl)boronic acid] before reverse quenching into water (3.0 L/kg). The precipitated solid was then isolated by filtration and slurried with water (3.0 L/kg) on the filter prior to deliquoring. The filtrates were adjusted to pH 4-6 by the addition of sodium bicarbonate. The bottom organic phase was separated and the resulting aqueous layer was washed with dichloromethane (solvent, 5.0 Vol) and adjusted to pH = 1 by addition of concentrated hydrochloric acid. The resulting solids were isolated by filtration, washing the cake with water (2 x 5.0 L/kg)

Purification via Reslurry (required)

[0160] The combined crude solids were charged into a reactor and slurried with 5% EtOH/water (5.0 L/kg) at 20 °C for >1 h. The purified product was then isolated by filtration and rinsed with water (2 x 3 L/kg) before drying on the filter at < 30 °C to with nitrogen/vacuum to afford 2,2′,2”-(1,3,5,2,4,6-trioxatriborinane-2,4,6-triyl)tris(3-fluorophenol) (Boroxine, Compound 6A).

PATENT

WO 2020102730

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2020102730

PATENT

US 20180334454

References

  1. Jump up to:a b c d e “Lumakras- sotorasib tablet, coated”DailyMed. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
  2. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m n “FDA Approves First Targeted Therapy for Lung Cancer Mutation Previously Considered Resistant to Drug Therapy”U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 28 May 2021. Retrieved 28 May 2021.  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  3. ^ “KRAS mutant-targeting AMG 510”NCI Drug Dictionary. National Cancer Institute. 2 February 2011. Retrieved 16 November2019.
  4. ^ Canon J, Rex K, Saiki AY, Mohr C, Cooke K, Bagal D, et al. (November 2019). “The clinical KRAS(G12C) inhibitor AMG 510 drives anti-tumour immunity”. Nature575 (7781): 217–23. Bibcode:2019Natur.575..217Cdoi:10.1038/s41586-019-1694-1PMID 31666701.
  5. Jump up to:a b “FDA approves Amgen drug for lung cancer with specific mutation”CNBC. 28 May 2021. Retrieved 28 May 2021.
  6. ^ Hong DS, Fakih MG, Strickler JH, Desai J, Durm GA, Shapiro GI, et al. (2020). “KRASG12C inhibition with sotorasib in advanced solid tumors”N Engl J Meddoi:10.1056/NEJMoa1917239PMC 7571518.
  7. ^ Clinical trial number NCT03600883 for “A Phase 1/2, Study Evaluating the Safety, Tolerability, PK, and Efficacy of AMG 510 in Subjects With Solid Tumors With a Specific KRAS Mutation ” at ClinicalTrials.gov
  8. ^ “The Discovery Of Amgen’s Novel Investigational KRAS(G12C) Inhibitor AMG 510 Published In Nature” (Press release). Amgen. 30 October 2019. Retrieved 16 November 2019.
  9. ^ Irving M (24 December 2019). “Drug targeting common cancer cause enters phase 2 clinical trials”New Atlas. Retrieved 24 December 2019.
  10. Jump up to:a b c d Halford B (3 April 2019). “Amgen unveils its KRas inhibitor in human clinical trials: AMG 510 shuts down a mutant version of the cancer target via covalent interaction”Chemical & Engineering News97 (4). Retrieved 16 November 2019.
  11. ^ Al Idrus A (9 September 2019). “Amgen’s KRAS drug continues to deliver but faces ‘curse’ of high expectations”. fiercebiotech.com. Retrieved 16 November 2019.
  12. ^ Kaiser J (30 October 2019). “Two new drugs finally hit ‘undruggable’ cancer target, providing hope for treatments”Science Magazine. AAAS. Retrieved 16 November 2019.
  13. ^ Astor L (9 September 2019). “FDA Grants AMG 510 Fast Track Designation for KRAS G12C+ NSCLC”. targetedonc.com. Retrieved 16 November 2019.
  14. ^ World Health Organization (2021). “International nonproprietary names for pharmaceutical substances (INN): recommended INN: list 85” (PDF). WHO Drug Information35 (1).

Further reading

External links

  • “Sotorasib”Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Clinical trial number NCT03600883 for “A Phase 1/2, Study Evaluating the Safety, Tolerability, PK, and Efficacy of AMG 510 in Subjects With Solid Tumors With a Specific KRAS Mutation (CodeBreaK 100)” at ClinicalTrials.gov
Clinical data
Trade namesLumakras
Other namesAMG 510
License dataUS DailyMedSotorasib
Routes of
administration
By mouth
ATC codeNone
Legal status
Legal statusUS: ℞-only [1][2]
Identifiers
showIUPAC name
CAS Number2252403-56-6
PubChem CID137278711
DrugBankDB15569
ChemSpider72380148
UNII2B2VM6UC8G
KEGGD12055
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC30H30F2N6O3
Molar mass560.606 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)Interactive image
showSMILES
showInChI

////////Sotorasib, ソトラシブ , FDA 2021,  APPROVALS 2021,  Lumakras, CANCER, ANTINEOPLASTIC, AMG 510, AMG-510, AMG510, AMGEN, priority review, fast-track, breakthrough therapy, orphan drug

CC1CN(CCN1C2=NC(=O)N(C3=NC(=C(C=C32)F)C4=C(C=CC=C4F)O)C5=C(C=CN=C5C(C)C)C)C(=O)C=C

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Dostarlimab


(Heavy chain)
EVQLLESGGG LVQPGGSLRL SCAASGFTFS SYDMSWVRQA PGKGLEWVST ISGGGSYTYY
QDSVKGRFTI SRDNSKNTLY LQMNSLRAED TAVYYCASPY YAMDYWGQGT TVTVSSASTK
GPSVFPLAPC SRSTSESTAA LGCLVKDYFP EPVTVSWNSG ALTSGVHTFP AVLQSSGLYS
LSSVVTVPSS SLGTKTYTCN VDHKPSNTKV DKRVESKYGP PCPPCPAPEF LGGPSVFLFP
PKPKDTLMIS RTPEVTCVVV DVSQEDPEVQ FNWYVDGVEV HNAKTKPREE QFNSTYRVVS
VLTVLHQDWL NGKEYKCKVS NKGLPSSIEK TISKAKGQPR EPQVYTLPPS QEEMTKNQVS
LTCLVKGFYP SDIAVEWESN GQPENNYKTT PPVLDSDGSF FLYSRLTVDK SRWQEGNVFS
CSVMHEALHN HYTQKSLSLS LGK
(Light chain)
DIQLTQSPSF LSAYVGDRVT ITCKASQDVG TAVAWYQQKP GKAPKLLIYW ASTLHTGVPS
RFSGSGSGTE FTLTISSLQP EDFATYYCQH YSSYPWTFGQ GTKLEIKRTV AAPSVFIFPP
SDEQLKSGTA SVVCLLNNFY PREAKVQWKV DNALQSGNSQ ESVTEQDSKD STYSLSSTLT
LSKADYEKHK VYACEVTHQG LSSPVTKSFN RGEC
(Disulfide bridge: H22-H96, H130-L214, H143-H199, H222-H’222, H225-H’225, H257-H317, H363-H421, H’22-H’96, H’130-L’214, H’143-H’199, H’257-H’317, H’363-H’421, L23-L88, L134-L194, L’23-L’88, L’194-L’134)

>Heavy Chain
EVQLLESGGGLVQPGGSLRLSCAASGFTFSSYDMSWVRQAPGKGLEWVSTISGGGSYTYY
QDSVKGRFTISRDNSKNTLYLQMNSLRAEDTAVYYCASPYYAMDYWGQGTTVTVSSASTK
GPSVFPLAPCSRSTSESTAALGCLVKDYFPEPVTVSWNSGALTSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLYS
LSSVVTVPSSSLGTKTYTCNVDHKPSNTKVDKRVESKYGPPCPPCPAPEFLGGPSVFLFP
PKPKDTLMISRTPEVTCVVVDVSQEDPEVQFNWYVDGVEVHNAKTKPREEQFNSTYRVVS
VLTVLHQDWLNGKEYKCKVSNKGLPSSIEKTISKAKGQPREPQVYTLPPSQEEMTKNQVS
LTCLVKGFYPSDIAVEWESNGQPENNYKTTPPVLDSDGSFFLYSRLTVDKSRWQEGNVFS
CSVMHEALHNHYTQKSLSLSLGK
>Light Chain
DIQLTQSPSFLSAYVGDRVTITCKASQDVGTAVAWYQQKPGKAPKLLIYWASTLHTGVPS
RFSGSGSGTEFTLTISSLQPEDFATYYCQHYSSYPWTFGQGTKLEIKRTVAAPSVFIFPP
SDEQLKSGTASVVCLLNNFYPREAKVQWKVDNALQSGNSQESVTEQDSKDSTYSLSSTLT
LSKADYEKHKVYACEVTHQGLSSPVTKSFNRGEC
References:
  1. Statement on a Nonproprietary Name Adopted by the USAN Council: Dostarlimab [Link]

Dostarlimab

Immunoglobulin G4, anti-​(programmed cell death protein 1 (PDCD1)​) (humanized clone ABT1 γ4-​chain)​, disulfide with humanized clone ABT1 κ-​chain, dimer

Protein Sequence

Sequence Length: 1314, 443, 443, 214, 214multichain; modified (modifications unspecified)

  • GSK-4057190
  • GSK4057190
  • TSR 042
  • TSR-042
  • WBP-285
  • ANB 011
FormulaC6420H9832N1680O2014S44
CAS2022215-59-2
Mol weight144183.6677

Jemperli FDA 2021/4/22 AND EMA 2021/4/21

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Dostarlimab, sold under the brand name Jemperli, is a monoclonal antibody medication used for the treatment of endometrial cancer.[1][2][3][4]

The most common adverse reactions (≥20%) were fatigue/asthenia, nausea, diarrhea, anemia, and constipation.[1][2] The most common grade 3 or 4 adverse reactions (≥2%) were anemia and transaminases increased.[1][2]

Dostarlimab is a programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1)–blocking antibody.[1][2]

Dostarlimab was approved for medical use in the United States in April 2021.[1][2][5]

NAMEDOSAGESTRENGTHROUTELABELLERMARKETING STARTMARKETING END  
JemperliInjection50 mg/1mLIntravenousGlaxoSmithKline LLC2021-04-22Not applicableUS flag 

Medical uses

Dostarlimab is indicated for the treatment of adults with mismatch repair deficient (dMMR) recurrent or advanced endometrial cancer, as determined by an FDA-approved test, that has progressed on or following prior treatment with a platinum-containing regimen.[1][2]

On April 22, 2021, the Food and Drug Administration granted accelerated approval to dostarlimab-gxly (Jemperli, GlaxoSmithKline LLC) for adult patients with mismatch repair deficient (dMMR) recurrent or advanced endometrial cancer, as determined by an FDA-approved test, that has progressed on or following a prior  platinum-containing regimen.

Efficacy was evaluated based on cohort (A1) in GARNET Trial (NCT02715284), a multicenter, multicohort, open-label trial in patients with advanced solid tumors. The efficacy population consisted of 71 patients with dMMR recurrent or advanced endometrial cancer who progressed on or after  a platinum-containing regimen. Patients received dostarlimab-gxly, 500 mg intravenously, every 3 weeks for 4 doses followed by 1,000 mg intravenously every 6 weeks.

The main efficacy endpoints were overall response rate (ORR) and duration of response (DOR), as assessed by blinded independent central review (BICR) according to RECIST 1.1. Confirmed ORR was 42.3% (95% CI: 30.6%, 54.6%). The complete response rate was 12.7% and partial response rate was 29.6%. Median DOR was not reached, with 93.3% of patients having  durations  ≥6 months (range: 2.6 to 22.4 months, ongoing at last assessment).

Serious adverse reactions occurred in 34% of patients receiving dostarlimab-gxly. Serious adverse reactions in >2% of patients included sepsis , acute kidney injury , urinary tract infection , abdominal pain , and pyrexia . The most common adverse reactions (≥20%) were fatigue/asthenia, nausea, diarrhea, anemia, and constipation. The most common grade 3 or 4 adverse reactions (≥2%) were anemia and transaminases increased. Immune-mediated adverse reactions can occur including pneumonitis, colitis, hepatitis, endocrinopathies, and nephritis.

The recommended dostarlimab-gxly dose and schedule (doses 1 through 4) is 500 mg every 3 weeks. Subsequent dosing, beginning 3 weeks after dose 4, is 1,000 mg every 6 weeks until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Dostarlimab-gxly should be administered as an intravenous infusion over 30 minutes.

View full prescribing information for Jemperli.

This indication is approved under accelerated approval based on tumor response rate and durability of response. Continued approval for this indication may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in a confirmatory trial(s).

FDA also approved the VENTANA MMR RxDx Panel as a companion diagnostic device for selecting endometrial cancer patients for treatment with dostarlimab-gxly.

This review used the Real-Time Oncology Review (RTOR) pilot program, which streamlined data submission prior to the filing of the entire clinical application, and the Assessment Aid, a voluntary submission from the applicant to facilitate the FDA’s assessment.

This application was granted priority review, and breakthrough therapy designation. A description of FDA expedited programs is in the Guidance for Industry: Expedited Programs for Serious Conditions-Drugs and Biologics.

Side effects

Serious adverse reactions in >2% of patients included sepsis, acute kidney injury, urinary tract infection, abdominal pain, and pyrexia.[1][2]

Immune-mediated adverse reactions can occur including pneumonitis, colitis, hepatitis, endocrinopathies, and nephritis.[1][2]

History

Like several other available and experimental monoclonal antibodies, it is a PD-1 inhibitor. As of 2020, it is undergoing Phase I/II and Phase III clinical trials.[6][7][8] The manufacturer, Tesaro, announced prelimary successful results from the Phase I/II GARNET study.[6][9][10]

In 2020, the GARNET study announced that Dostarlimab was demonstrating potential to treat a subset of women with recurrent or advanced endometrial cancer.[11]

April 2021, Dostarlimab is approved for the treatment of recurrent or advanced endometrial cancer with deficient mismatch repair (dMMR), which are genetic anomalies abnormalities that disrupt DNA repair.[12]

On April 22, 2021, the Food and Drug Administration granted accelerated approval to dostarlimab-gxly (Jemperli, GlaxoSmithKline LLC).[1] Efficacy was evaluated based on cohort (A1) in GARNET Trial (NCT02715284), a multicenter, multicohort, open-label trial in patients with advanced solid tumors.[1]

Society and culture

Legal status

On 25 February 2021, the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) adopted a positive opinion, recommending the granting of a conditional marketing authorization for the medicinal product Jemperli, intended for the treatment of certain types of recurrent or advanced endometrial cancer.[13] The applicant for this medicinal product is GlaxoSmithKline (Ireland) Limited.[13]

References[

  1. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k “FDA grants accelerated approval to dostarlimab-gxly for dMMR endometri”U.S. Food and Drug Administration(FDA) (Press release). 22 April 2021. Retrieved 22 April 2021. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  2. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i “Jemperli- dostarlimab injection”DailyMed. Retrieved 28 April 2021.
  3. ^ Statement On A Nonproprietary Name Adopted By The USAN Council – DostarlimabAmerican Medical Association.
  4. ^ World Health Organization (2018). “International Nonproprietary Names for Pharmaceutical Substances (INN). Proposed INN: List 119” (PDF). WHO Drug Information32 (2).
  5. ^ “FDA grants accelerated approval for GSK’s Jemperli (dostarlimab-gxly) for women with recurrent or advanced dMMR endometrial cancer” (Press release). GlaxoSmithKline. 22 April 2021. Retrieved 22 April 2021 – via PR Newswire.
  6. Jump up to:a b Clinical trial number NCT02715284 for “A Phase 1 Dose Escalation and Cohort Expansion Study of TSR-042, an Anti-PD-1 Monoclonal Antibody, in Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors (GARNET)” at ClinicalTrials.gov
  7. ^ Clinical trial number NCT03981796 for “A Study of Dostarlimab (TSR-042) Plus Carboplatin-paclitaxel Versus Placebo Plus Carboplatin-paclitaxel in Patients With Recurrent or Primary Advanced Endometrial Cancer (RUBY)” at ClinicalTrials.gov
  8. ^ Clinical trial number NCT03602859 for “A Phase 3 Comparison of Platinum-Based Therapy With TSR-042 and Niraparib Versus Standard of Care Platinum-Based Therapy as First-Line Treatment of Stage III or IV Nonmucinous Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (FIRST)” at ClinicalTrials.gov
  9. ^ “Data from GARNET study indicates robust activity of dostarlimab in patients with advanced or recurrent endometrial cancer”Tesaro (Press release). Retrieved 1 January 2020.
  10. ^ Scalea B (28 May 2019). “Dostarlimab Effective in Endometrial Cancer Regardless of MSI Status”Targeted Oncology. Retrieved 1 January 2020.
  11. ^ “GSK Presents New Data from the GARNET Study Demonstrating Potential of Dostarlimab to Treat a Subset of Women with Recurrent or Advanced Endometrial Cancer – Drugs.com MedNews”Drugs.com. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
  12. ^ “FDA Approves New Immunotherapy for Endometrial Cancer”Medscape. Retrieved 23 April 2021.
  13. Jump up to:a b “Jemperli: Pending EC decision”European Medicines Agency (EMA) (Press release). 25 February 2021. Retrieved 22 April 2021.

External links

  • “Dostarlimab”Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Clinical trial number NCT02715284 for “Study of TSR-042, an Anti-programmed Cell Death-1 Receptor (PD-1) Monoclonal Antibody, in Participants With Advanced Solid Tumors (GARNET)” at ClinicalTrials.gov
  1. Kaplon H, Muralidharan M, Schneider Z, Reichert JM: Antibodies to watch in 2020. MAbs. 2020 Jan-Dec;12(1):1703531. doi: 10.1080/19420862.2019.1703531. [Article]
  2. Temrikar ZH, Suryawanshi S, Meibohm B: Pharmacokinetics and Clinical Pharmacology of Monoclonal Antibodies in Pediatric Patients. Paediatr Drugs. 2020 Apr;22(2):199-216. doi: 10.1007/s40272-020-00382-7. [Article]
  3. Green AK, Feinberg J, Makker V: A Review of Immune Checkpoint Blockade Therapy in Endometrial Cancer. Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book. 2020 Mar;40:1-7. doi: 10.1200/EDBK_280503. [Article]
  4. Deshpande M, Romanski PA, Rosenwaks Z, Gerhardt J: Gynecological Cancers Caused by Deficient Mismatch Repair and Microsatellite Instability. Cancers (Basel). 2020 Nov 10;12(11). pii: cancers12113319. doi: 10.3390/cancers12113319. [Article]
  5. FDA Approved Drug Products: Jemperli (dostarlimab-gxly) for intravenous injection [Link]
  6. FDA News Release: FDA grants accelerated approval to dostarlimab-gxly for dMMR endometrial cancer [Link]
  7. Statement on a Nonproprietary Name Adopted by the USAN Council: Dostarlimab [Link]
Monoclonal antibody
TypeWhole antibody
SourceHumanized
TargetPCDP1
Clinical data
Trade namesJemperli
Other namesTSR-042, WBP-285, dostarlimab-gxly
License dataUS DailyMedDostarlimab
Routes of
administration
Intravenous
Drug classAntineoplastic
ATC codeL01XC40 (WHO)
Legal status
Legal statusUS: ℞-only [1][2]
Identifiers
CAS Number2022215-59-2
PubChem SID384585344
DrugBankDB15627
UNIIP0GVQ9A4S5
KEGGD11366
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC6420H9832N1690O2014S44
Molar mass144325.73 g·mol−1

/////////Dostarlimab,  PEPTIDE, ANTINEOPLASTIC, CANCER, ドスタルリマブ , GSK 4057190, GSK4057190, TSR 042, TSR-042, WBP-285, FDA 2021, EU 2021

Sitravatinib


Sitravatinib.png
File:Sitravatinib.svg - Wikipedia

Sitravatinib

1-N‘-[3-fluoro-4-[2-[5-[(2-methoxyethylamino)methyl]pyridin-2-yl]thieno[3,2-b]pyridin-7-yl]oxyphenyl]-1-N-(4-fluorophenyl)cyclopropane-1,1-dicarboxamide

1-N’-[3-fluoro-4-[2-[5-[(2-methoxyethylamino)methyl]pyridin-2-yl]thieno[3,2-b]pyridin-7-yl]oxyphenyl]-1-N-(4-fluorophenyl)cyclopropane-1,1-dicarboxamide

MG-91516

1,1-Cyclopropanedicarboxamide, N-[3-fluoro-4-[[2-[5-[[(2-methoxyethyl)amino]methyl]-2-pyridinyl]thieno[3,2-b]pyridin-7-yl]oxy]phenyl]-N’-(4- fluorophenyl)-

N-(3-fluoro-4-((2-(5-(((2-methoxyethyl)amino)methyl)pyridin-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]pyridin-7-yl)oxy)phenyl)-N-(4-fluorophenyl)cyclopropane-1,1-dicarboxamide

シトラバチニブ; ситраватиниб , سيترافاتينيب , 司曲替尼 , 
FormulaC33H29F2N5O4S
Cas1123837-84-2
Mol weight629.6763

MG-516

Sitravatinib (MGCD516)

UNII-CWG62Q1VTB

CWG62Q1VTB

MGCD-516

MGCD516

Antineoplastic, Receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor

Sitravatinib (MGCD516) is an experimental drug for the treatment of cancer. It is a small molecule inhibitor of multiple tyrosine kinases.

Sitravatinib is being developed by Mirati Therapeutics.[1]

Ongoing phase II trials include a trial for liposcarcoma,[2] a combination trial for non-small cell lung cancer,[3] and a combination trial with nivolumab for renal cell carcinoma.[4]

Mirati Therapeutics and licensee BeiGene are developing sitravatinib, an oral multitargeted kinase inhibitor which inhibits Eph, Ret, c-Met and VEGF-1, -2 and -3, DDR, Trk, Axl kinases, CHR4q12, TYRO3 and Casitas B-lineage, in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors, for treating advanced solid tumors.

In March 2021, sitravatinib was reported to be in phase 3 clinical development.

PDT PATENT

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2009026717

WO2009026717 , in which sitravatinib was first disclosed, claiming heterocyclic compounds as multi kinase inhibitors.

Scheme 10



Example 52
N-(3-Fluoro-4-(2-(5-((2-methoxyethylamino)methyl)pyridin-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]pyridin-7- yloxy)phenyl)-N-(4-fluorophenyl)cyclopropane- 1 , 1 -dicarboxamide

Step 1 : tert-Butyl (6-(7-(2-Fluoro-4-(1-(4-fluorophenylcarbamoyl)-cyclopropanecarboxamido)phenoxy)thieno [3 ,2-b]pyridin-2-yl)pyridin-3 -y l)methyl(2-methoxyethyl)carbamate (146)
To aniline 126 (0.58 g, 1.1 mmol) and DIPEA (0.58 mL, 0.43 g, 3.3 mmol) in dry DMF

(20 mL) was added 1-(4-fluorophenylcarbamoyl)cyclopropanecarbpxylic acid (0.35 g, 1.5 mmol) and HATU (0.72 g, 1.9 mmol) and the mixture was stirred at r.t. for 18 h. It was then partitioned between ethyl acetate and water, the organic phase was washed with water, IM NaOH, brine, dried (MgSO4), filtered, and concentrated. Silica gel chromatography (ethyl acetate) afforded title compound Ϊ46 (0.60 g, 74 % yield). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ (ppm): 10.40 (s, 1H), 10.01 (s, 1H), 8.52-8.49 (m, 2H), 8.33 (s, 1H), 8.27-8.24 (m, 1H), 7.92-7.88 (m, 1H), 7.78 (dd, J = 8.2, 2.1 Hz, 1H) 7.65-7.60 (m, 2H), 7.52-7.42 (m, 2H), 7.14 (t, J = 8.8 Hz, 2H), 6.65 (d, J = 5.1 Hz 1H), 4.47 (s, 2H), 3.42-3.30 (m, 4H), 3.22 (s, 3H), 1.46-1.30 (m, 13H). MS (m/z): 730.1 (M+H).
Step 2. N-(3-Fluoro-4-(2-(5-((2-methoxyethylamino)methyl)pyridin-2-yl)thieno[3,2-blpyridin-7-yloxy)phenyl)-N-(4-fluorophenyl)cyclopropane-1,1-dicarboxamide (147)
To the compound 146 (0.59 g, 0.81 mmol) in dichloromethane (50 mL) was added TFA (3 mL). The solution was stirred for 18 h then concentrated. The residue was partitioned between dichloromethane and 1 M NaOH, and filtered to remove insolubles. The organic phase was collected, washed with IM NaOH, brine, dried (MgSO4), filtered, and concentrated to afford title compound 147 (0.35 g, 69 % yield).

1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ (ppm): 10.40 (s, 1H), 10.01 (s, 1H), 8.55 (d, J = 1.6 Hz, 1H), 8.51 (d, J = 5.3 Hz, 1H), 8.31 (s, 1H), 8.22 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 7.92-7.87 (m, 2H), 7.65-7.61 (m, 2H), 7.52-7.43 (m, 2H), 7.17-7.12 (m, 2H), 6.64 (d, J = 5.5 Hz, 1H), 3.77 (s, 2H), 3.40 (t, J = 5.7 Hz, 2H), 3.23 (s, 3H), 2.64 (t, J = 5.7 Hz, 2H), 1.46 (br s, 4H). MS (m/z): 630.1 (M+H).

PATENT

WO 2009026720 

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2009026720A1

PATENT

WO-2021050580

Novel, stable crystalline polymorphic forms (form D) of sitravatinib , useful for treating a multi tyrosine kinase-associated cancer eg sarcoma, glioma, non-small cell lung, bladder, kidney, ovarian, gastric, breast or liver cancer. 

 International publication No. W02009/026717A disclosed compounds with the inhibition activities of multiple protein tyrosine kinases, for example, the inhibition activities of VEGF receptor kinase and HGF receptor kinase. In particular, disclosed N-(3-fluoro-4-((2-(5-(((2-methoxyethyl)amino)methyl)pyridin-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]pyridin-7-yl)oxy)phenyl)-N-(4-fluorophenyl)cyclopropane- 1,1 -di carboxamide (Compound 1) is a multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitor with demonstrated potent inhibition of a closely related spectrum of tyrosine kinases, including RET, CBL, CHR4ql2, DDR and Trk, which are key regulators of signaling pathways that lead to cell growth, survival and tumor progression.

[003]

Compound 1

[004] Compound 1 shows tumor regression in multiple human xenograft tumor models in mice, and is presently in human clinical trials as a monotherapy as well as in combination for

treating a wide range of solid tumors. Compound 1 is presently in Phase 1 clinical trial for patients with advanced cancer, in Phase 2 studies for patients with advanced liposarcoma and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

[005] The small scale chemical synthesis of the amorphous Compound 1 had been disclosed in the Example 52 (compound 147) of W02009/026717A, however, in order to prepare the API of Compound 1 with high quality and in large quantity, crystalline forms of Compound 1 would be normally needed so the process impurities could be purged out by recrystallization.

Practically, it is difficult to predict with confidence which crystalline form of a particular compound will be stable, reproducible, and suitable for phamaceutical processing. It is even more difficult to predict whether or not a particular crystalline solid state form will be produced with the desired physical properties for pharmaceutical formulations.

[006] For all the foregoing reasons, there is a great need to produce crystalline forms of Compound 1 that provide manufacturing improvements of the pharmaceutical composition.

The present invention advantageously addresses one or more of these needs.

EXAMPLE 1

Preparation of N-(3-fluoro-4-((2-(5-(((2-methoxyethyl)amino)methyl)pyridin-2- yl)thieno[3,2-b]pyridin-7-yl)oxy)phenyl)-N-(4-fluorophenyl)cyclopropane-l,l- dicarboxamide (Compound 1)

[0085] This Example illustrates the preparation ofN-(3-fluoro-4-((2-(5-(((2-methoxyethyl)amino)methyl)pyridin-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]pyridin-7-yl)oxy)phenyl)-N-(4-fluorophenyl)cyclopropane- 1,1 -di carboxamide (Compound 1).

[0086] Step 1: N-(Y6-bromopyridin-3-vDmethvD-2-methoxyethan-l-amine (Compound 1A)

Compound 1A

[0087] To a stirred solution of 2-Methoxyethylamine (3.0 eq) in dichloromethane (DCM) (12 vol) was added Molecular sieves (0.3 w/w) and stirred for 2 hours at 25±5°C under nitrogen atmosphere. The reaction mass water content was monitored by Karl Fischer analysis until the water content limit reached 0.5 % w/w. Once the water content limit was reached, the reaction mass cooled to 5±5°C and 6-bromonicotinaldehyde (1.0 eq) was added lot wise over period of 30 minutes to the above reaction mass at 5±5°C. The reaction mass was stirred for 30±5 minutes at 5±5°C and acetic acid (1.05 eq) was added drop wise at 5±5°C. After completion of the addition, the mass was slowly warmed to 25±5°C and stirred for 8 h to afford Compound 1 A. The imine formation was monitored by HPLC.

[0088] Step 2: tert-butyl (Y6-brom opyri din-3 -vQmethvO(2-m ethoxy ethvDcarbamate (Compound

IB)

Compound 1B

[0089] Charged Compoud 1A (1.0 eq) in THF (5.0 vol) was added and the reaction mass was stirred for 30 minutes at 25±5°C under nitrogen atmosphere. The reaction mass was cooled to temperature of about 10±5°C. Di-tert- butyl dicarbonate (1.2 eq) was added to the reaction mass at 10±5°C under nitrogen atmosphere and the reaction mass temperature was raised to 25±5°C and the reaction mass for about 2 hours. The progress of the reaction was monitored by HPLC. After IPC completion, a prepared solution of Taurine (1.5 eq) in 2M aq NaOH (3.1 vol) was charged and stirred at 10±5°C for 16 h to 18 h. The reaction mass was further diluted with 1M aq.NaOH solution (3.7 vol) and the layers were separated. The aqueous layer was extracted with DCM (2 x 4.7vol) and the extract combined with the organic layer. The combined organic layers were washed with 1M aq.NaOH solution (3.94 vol), followed by water (2×4.4 vol), and dried over sodium sulfate (2.0 w/w) . The filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure below 40° C until no distillate was observed. Tetrahydrofuran (THF) was sequentially added (1×4 vol and lx 6vol) and concentrated under reduced pressure below 40°C until no distillate was observed to obtained Compound IB as light yellow colored syrup liquid.

[0090] Step 3: tert-butyl 7-chlorothieno[3.2-b1pyridin-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl )methyl)(2- 

methoxyethvDcarbamate (Compound 1C)

Compound 1C

[0091] To a stirred solution of 7-chlorothieno[3,2-b]pyridine (1.05 eq) in tetrahydrofuran (7 vol) was added n-butyl lithium (2.5 M in hexane) drop wise at -15±10°C and stirred for 90 minutes at same temperature under nitrogen atmosphere. Zinc chloride (1.05 eq) was added to the reaction mass at -15±10°C. The reaction mass was slowly warmed to 25±5°C and stirred for 45 minutes under nitrogen atmosphere to afford Compound 1C. The progress of the reaction was monitored by HPLC.

[0092] Step 4: tert-butyl (Y6-(7-(4-amino-2-fluorophenoxy)thieno[3.2-b1pyridin-2-v0pyridin-3-vDmethvD(2-methoxyethvDcarbamate (Compound ID)

Compound 1D

[0093] 3-fluoro-4-hydroxybenzenaminium chloride (1.2 eq) in DMSO (3.9 vol) at 25±5°C was charged under nitrogen atmosphere and the reaction mass was stirred until observance of a clear solution at 25±5°C. t-BuOK was added lot wise under nitrogen atmosphere at 25±10°C. The reaction mass temperature was raised to 45±5°C and maintained for 30 minutes under nitrogen atmosphere. Compound 1C was charged lot-wise under nitrogen atmosphere at 45±5°C and stirred for 10 minutes at 45± 5°C.The reaction mixture was heated to 100± 5°C and stirred for 2 hrs. The reaction mass is monitored by HPLC.

[0094] After reaction completion, the reaction mass was cooled to 10± 5°C and quenched with chilled water (20 vol) at 10±5°C. The mass temperature was raised to 25± 5°C and stirred for 7-8 h. The resulting Compound ID crude was collected by filtration and washed with 2 vol of water. Crude Compound ID material taken in water (10 vol) and stirred for up to 20 minutes at 25±5°C. The reaction mass was heated to 45±5°C and stirred for 2-3 h at 45±5°C, filtered and vacuum-dried.

[0095] Crude Compound ID was taken in MTBE (5 vol) at 25±5°C and stirred for about 20 minutes at 25±5°C. The reaction mass temperature was raised to 45±5°C, stirred for 3-4 h at 45±5°C and then cooled to 20±5°C. The reaction mass was stirred for about 20 minutes at 20±5°C, filtered, followed by bed wash with water (0. 5 vol) and vacuum-dried.

[0096] The crude material was dissolved in acetone (10 vol) at 25±5°C and stirred for about 2h at 25±5°C. The reaction mass was filtered through a celite bed and washed with acetone (2.5 vol). The filtrate was slowly diluted with water (15 vol) at 25±5°C. The reaction mass was stirred for 2-3 h at 25±5°C, filtered and bed washed with water (2 vol) & vacuum-dried to afford Compound ID as brown solid.

[0097] Step 5 : 1 -((4-((2-(5-(((tert-butoxycarbonv0(2-methoxy ethvOaminolmethvOpyri din-2 -yl )thieno[3.2-b]pyridin-7-yl )oxy)-3 -fluorophenyl icarbamoyl level opropane-1 -carboxylic acid (Compound IE)

Compound 1E

[0098] To a solution of Compound ID (1.0 eq.) in tetrahydrofuran (7 vol.), aqueous potassium carbonate (1.0 eq.) in water (8 vol.) was added. The solution was cooled to 5±5°C, and stirred for about 60 min. While stirring, separately triethylamine (2.0 eq.) was added to a solution of 1,1-cyclopropanedicarboxylic acid (2.0 eq.) in tetrahydrofuran (8 vol.), at 5±5°C, followed by thionyl chloride (2.0 eq.) and stirred for about 60 min. The acid chloride mass was slowly added to the Compound ID solution at 5±5°C. The temperature was raised to 25±5°C and stirred for 3.0 h. The reaction was monitored by HPLC analysis.

[0099] After reaction completion, the mass was diluted with ethyl acetate (5.8 vol.), water (5.1 vol.), 10% (w/w) aqueous hydrochloric acid solution (0.8 vol.) and 25% (w/w) aqueous sodium chloride solution (2 vol.). The aqueous layer was separated and extracted with ethyl acetate (2 x 5 vol.). The combined organic layers were washed with a 0.5M aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution (7.5 vol.). The organic layer was treated with Darco activated charcoal (0.5 w/w) and sodium sulfate (0.3 w/w) at 25±5°C for 1.0 h. The organic layer was filtered through celite and washed with tetrahydofuran (5.0 vol.). The filtrate was concentrated under vacuum below 50°C to about 3 vol and co-distilled with ethyl acetate (2 x 5 vol.) under vacuum below 50°C up to ~ 3.0 vol. The organic layer was cooled to 15±5°C, stirred for about 60 min., filtered, and the solid was washed with ethyl acetate (2.0 vol.). The material was dried under vacuum at 40±5°C until water content was less than 1% to afford Compound IE as brown solid.

[00100] Step 6: tert-butyl (Y6-(7-(2-fluoro-4-(T-(Y4-fluorophenvDcarbamovDcvclopropane-l-carboxamido)phenoxy)thieno[3.2-b]pyridin-2-v0pyri din-3 – (2- 
methoxyethvDcarbamate (Compound IF)

[00101] Pyridine (1.1 eq.) was added to a suspension of Compound IE (1.0 eq.) in tetrahydrofuran (10 vol.) and cooled to 5±5°C. Thionyl chloride (2.0 eq.) was added and stirred for about 60 min. The resulting acid chloride formation was confirmed by HPLC analysis after quenching the sample in methanol. Separately, aqueous potassium carbonate (2.5 eq.) solution (7.0 vol. of water) was added to a solution of 4-fluoroaniline (3.5 eq.) in tetrahydrofuran (10 vol.), cooled to 5±5°C, and stirred for about 60 min. The temperature of the acid chloride mass at 5±5°C was raised to a temperature of about 25±5°C and stirred for 3 h. The reaction monitored by HPLC analysis.

[00102] After completion of the reaction, the solution was diluted with ethyl acetate (25 vol.), the organic layer was separated and washed with a 1M aqueous sodium hydroxide solution (7.5 vol.), a 1M aqueous hydrochloric acid solution (7.5 vol.), and a 25% (w/w) aqueous sodium chloride solution (7.5 vol.). The organic layer was dried and and filtered with sodium sulfate (1.0 w/w). The filtrate was concentrated ~ 3 vol under vacuum below 50°C and co-distilled with ethyl acetate (3 x 5 vol.) under vacuum below 50°C to ~ 3.0 vol. Ethyl acetate (5 vol.) and MTBE (10 vol.) were charged, heated up to 50±5°C and stirred for 30-60 min. The mixture was cooled to 15±5°C, stirred for about 30 min., filtered, and the solid was washed with ethyl acetate (2.0 vol.). MGB3 content was analyzed by HPLC analysis. The material was dried under vacuum at 40±5°C until the water content reached about 3.0% to afford Compound IF as brown solid.

[00103] Step 7 : N-(3-fluoro-4-((2-(5-(((2-methoxyethv0amino)methv0pyridin-2-yl )thieno[3.2-b]pyridin-7-yl )oxy)phenyl)-N-(4-fluorophenyl level opropane-1. 1 -dicarboxamide (Compound 1)

Compound 1

[0100] To a mixture of Compound IF in glacial acetic acid (3.5 vol.) concentrated hydrochloric acid (0.5 vol.) was added and stirred at 25±5°C for 1.0 h. The reaction was monitored by HPLC analysis.

[0101] After reaction completion, the mass was added to water (11 vol.) and stirred for 20±5°C for 30 min. The pH was adjusted to 3.0 ± 0.5 using 10% (w/w) aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution and stirred for 20±5°C for approximately 3.0 h.. The mass was filtered, washed with water (4 x 5.0 vol.) and the pH of filtrate was checked after every wash. The material was dried under vacuum at 50±5°C until water content was about 10%.

[0102] Crude Compound 1 was taken in ethyl acetate (30 vol.), heated to 70±10°C, stirred for 1.0 h., cooled to 25±5°C, filtered, and washed with ethyl acetate (2 vol.). The material was dries under vacuum at 45±5°C for 6.0 h.

[0103] Crude Compound 1 was taken in polish filtered tetrahydrofuran (30 vol.) and pre washed Amberlyst A-21 Ion exchange resin and stirred at 25±5°C until the solution became clear. After getting the clear solution, the resin was filtered and washed with polish filtered tetrahydrofuran (15 vol.). The filtrate was concentrated by -50% under vacuum below 50°C and co-distilled with polish filtered IPA (3 x 15.0 vol.) and concentrated up to -50% under vacuum below 50°C. Charged polish filtered IPA (15 vol.) was added and the solution concentrated under vacuum below 50°C to – 20 vol. The reaction mass was heated to 80±5°C, stirred for 60 min. and cooled to 25±5°C. The resultant reaction mass was stirred for about 20 hours at 25±5°C. The reaction mass was cooled to 0±5°C, stirred for 4-5 hours, filtered, and washed with polish filtered IPA (2 vol.). The material was dried under vacuum at 45±5°C, until the water content was about 2%, to obtain the desired product Compound 1. ¾-NMR (400 MHz, DMSO- d): 510.40 (s, 1H), 10.01 (s, 1H), 8.59 – 8.55 (m, 1H), 8.53 (d, J= 5.6 Hz, 1H), 8.32 (s, 1H), 8.23 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, 1H), 7.96 – 7.86 (m, 2H), 7.70 – 7.60 (m, 2H), 7.56 – 7.43 (m, 2H), 7.20 – 7.11 (m, 2H), 6.66 (d, J= 5.6 Hz, 1H), 3.78 (s, 2H), 3.41 (t, J= 5.6 Hz, 2H), 3.25 (s, 3H), 2.66 (t, J= 5.6 Hz, 2H), 1.48 (s, 4H)ppm. MS: M/e 630 (M+l)+.

EXAMPLE 2

Preparation of Crystalline Form D of N-(3-fluoro-4-((2-(5-(((2- methoxyethyl)amino)methyl)pyridin-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]pyridin-7-yl)oxy)phenyl)-N-(4- fluorophenyl)cyclopropane-l, 1-dicarboxamide

EXAMPLE 2A: Preparation of Compound 1 Crystalline Form D

[0104] To a 50 L reactor, 7.15 Kg of Compound 1, 40 g of Form D as crystal seed and 21 L acetone (>99%) were added. The mixture was heated to reflux ( ~56 °C) for 1~2 h. The mixture was agitated with an internal temperature of 20±5 °C for at least 24 h. Then, the suspension was filtered and washed the filter cake with 7 L acetone. The wet cake was dried under vacuum at <45 °C, to obtain 5.33 kg of Compound 1 of desired Form D

[0105] X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD)

The XRPD patterns were collected with a PAN alytical X’ Pert PRO MPD diffractometer using auincident beam of Cu radiation produced using au Optix long, fine-focus source. An elliptically graded multilayer mirror was used to focus Cu Ka X -rays through the specimens and onto the detector. Prior to the analysis, a silicon specimen (NIST SRM 640e) was analyzed to verify the observed position of the Si Ill peak is consistent with the NIST-certified position. A specimen of each sample was sandwiched between 3 -pm -thick films and analyzed in transmission geometly. A beam-stop, short autiscatter extension, and an autiscatter knife edge were used to minimize the background generated by air. Sober slits for the incident aud diffracted beauls were used to minimize broadening from axial divergence. The diffraction patterns were collected using a scanning position-sensitive detector (X’Celerator) located 240 mm from the specimens and Data Collector software v. 2.2b. Pattern Match v2.3.6 was used to create XRPD patterns.

[0106] The X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) pattern was used to characterize the Compound 1 obtained, which showed that the Compound 1 was in Crystalline Form D of Compound 1 (Compound 1 Form D), see Figure 1A. The XRPD pattern yielded is substantially the same as that shown in Figure 3C.

[0107] Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)

[0108] DSC was performed using a Mettler-Toledo DSC3+ differential scanning calorimeter. Temperature calibration was performed using octane, phenyl salicylate, indium, tin, and zinc. The TAWN sensitivity was 11.9. The samples were placed into aluminum DSC pans, covered with lids, and the weights were accurately recorded. A weighed aluminum pan configured as the sample pan was placed on the reference side of the cell. The pan lids were pierced prior to sample analyses. The method name on the thermograms is an abbreviation for the start and end temperature as well as the heating rate; e.g., -30-250-10 means “from ambient to 250°C, at 10°C/min.” The nitrogen flow rate was 50.0 mL/min. This instrument does not provide gas pressure value as required by USP because it is the same as atmospheric pressure.

[0109] A broad small endotherm with a peak maximum at approximately 57°C to 62°C (onset ~20°C to 22°C) followed by a sharp endotherm with a peak maximum at approximately 180°C (onset ~178°C) were observed. These events could be due to the loss of volatiles and a melt, respectively (see Figure IB).

[0110] In an alternative embodiment Form D was prepared as follows. Designated Material O was suspended in 600 pL of acetone. Initial dissolution was observed followed by re precipitation. The amount of suspended solids was not measured because the target of the experiment was to get a suspension with enough solids to slurry isolate and collect XRPD data. Based on the solubility of Form D in acetone a very rough estimate for the scale of the experiment is about 80-100mg. The suspension was stirred at ambient temperature for approximately 2 5 weeks after which the solids were isolated by centrifugation with filtration. XRPD data appeared to be consistent with Form D The sample was then dried in vacuum oven at ~40 °C for ~2 5 hours. The XRPD pattern of the final solids was consistent with Form D EXAMPLE 2B: Preparation of Compound 1 Form D

[0111] 427.0 mg of Compound 1 was dissolved in 5 mL of THF to obtain a clear brown solution. The resulting solution was filtered, and the filtrate evaporated under flow of nitrogen. A sticky solid was obtained, which was dried under vacuum in room temperature for ~5 min, still a sticky brown solid obtained. It was dissolved in 0.2 mL of EtOAc and sonicated to dissolve. The solution obtained was stirred at room temperature for 15 min and a solid precipitated. The resulting solid was added 0.4 mL of EtOAc and stirred in room temperature for 21 h 40 min to ontian a suspension. The solid was spparated from mother liquor by centrifugation, then the resulting solid was resuspended the in 0.6 mL of EtOAc and stirred in room temperature for 2 days. The solid was isolated by centrifugation, to obtain Compound 1 of desired Form D.

[0112] The X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) pattern was used to characterize the Compound 1 obtained, which showed that the Compound 1 was in Crystalline Form D of Compound 1 (Compound 1 Form D).

EXAMPLE 2C: Preparation of Compound 1 Form D

[0113] Single crystal X-ray diffraction data of Compound 1 was collected at 180 K on a Rigaku XtaLAB PRO 007HF(Mo) diffractometer, with Mo Ka radiation (l = 0.71073 A). Data reduction and empirical absorption correction were performed using the CrysAlisPro program. The structure was solved by a dual-space algorithm using SHELXT program. All non-hydrogen atoms could be located directly from the difference Fourier maps. Framework hydrogen atoms were placed geometrically and constrained using the riding model to the parent atoms. Final structure refinement was done using the SHELXL program by minimizing the sum of squared deviations of F2 using a full-matrix technique.

Preparation of Compound 1 Form D ( a Single Crystal )

[0114] Compound 1 Form D was dissolved in a mixture of acetone/ ACN (1/2) with the concentration of Compound 1 at ~7 mg/mL. A block single crystal was obtained, which was a single crystal.

[0115] The XRPD pattern was used to characterize the single crystal of Compound 1 Form D obtained, see Figure 2A. The crystal structural data are summarized in Table IB. The refined single crystal structure were shown in Figure 2B. The single crystal structure of Compound 1 Form D is in the P-1 space group and the triclinic crystal system. The terminal long alkyl chain is found to have large ellipsoids, indicating high mobility with disordered atoms.

[0116] The theoretical XRPD calculated from the single crystal structure and experimental XRPD are essentially similar (Figure 2A). A few small peaks are absent or shift because of orientation preference, disorder and tested temperature (180 K for single crystal data and 293 K for experimental one).

[0117] Table IB. Crystal Data and Structure Refinement for Compound 1 Form D (a Single Crystal)

References

  1. ^ http://www.mirati.com/go/mgcd516/
  2. ^ “MGCD516 in Advanced Liposarcoma and Other Soft Tissue Sarcomas – Full Text View – ClinicalTrials.gov”.
  3. ^ “Phase 2 Study of Glesatinib, Sitravatinib or Mocetinostat in Combination With Nivolumab in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer – Full Text View – ClinicalTrials.gov”.
  4. ^ “MGCD516 Combined With Nivolumab in Renal Cell Cancer (RCC) – Full Text View – ClinicalTrials.gov”.
Identifiers
showIUPAC name
CAS Number1123837-84-2
ChemSpider52083477
UNIICWG62Q1VTB
KEGGD11140
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC33H29F2N5O4S
Molar mass629.68 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)Interactive image
hideSMILESCOCCNCc1ccc(nc1)c2cc3c(s2)c(ccn3)Oc4ccc(cc4F)NC(=O)C5(CC5)C(=O)Nc6ccc(cc6)F
hideInChIInChI=1S/C33H29F2N5O4S/c1-43-15-14-36-18-20-2-8-25(38-19-20)29-17-26-30(45-29)28(10-13-37-26)44-27-9-7-23(16-24(27)35)40-32(42)33(11-12-33)31(41)39-22-5-3-21(34)4-6-22/h2-10,13,16-17,19,36H,11-12,14-15,18H2,1H3,(H,39,41)(H,40,42)Key:WLAVZAAODLTUSW-UHFFFAOYSA-N

///////////// sitravatinib, phase 3, シトラバチニブ , MGCD516, MG-516Sitravatinib (MGCD516)UNII-CWG62Q1VTBCWG62Q1VTBMGCD-516ситраватиниб , سيترافاتينيب , 司曲替尼 , Antineoplastic, MGCD 516

#sitravatinib, #phase 3, #シトラバチニブ , #MGCD516, #MG-516#Sitravatinib (MGCD516), #UNII-#CWG62Q1VTB, #CWG62Q1VTB, #MGCD-516ситраватиниб , سيترافاتينيب , 司曲替尼 , #Antineoplastic, #MGCD516

COCCNCC1=CN=C(C=C1)C2=CC3=NC=CC(=C3S2)OC4=C(C=C(C=C4)NC(=O)C5(CC5)C(=O)NC6=CC=C(C=C6)F)F

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