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AK 3280; GDC3280; RG 6069
Ci8Hi4N502F3, mass 389.3 g/mol),
Ark Biosciences , under license from Roche , is developing AK-3280, an antifibrotic agent, for the potential oral treatment of IPF. In July 2018, Ark intended to further clinical development of the drug, for IPF. In June 2019, a phase I trial was planned in Sweden.
- Originator Genentech
- Mechanism of Action Undefined mechanism
- Phase I Interstitial lung diseases
- 19 Jun 2019Ark Biosciences plans a phase I trial for Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (In volunteers) in Sweden (PO, Tablet), in August 2019 , (NCT03990688)
- 28 Sep 2018GDC 3280 is still in phase I trials for Interstitial lung diseases (Genentech pipeline, September 2018)
- 28 Jun 2018No recent reports of development identified for phase-I development in Fibrosis(In volunteers) in United Kingdom (PO)
GDC 3280 (also known as RG 6069), an orally administered drug, is being developed by Genentech, for the treatment of interstitial lung diseases. Early stage clinical development is underway in the UK.
In September 2018, Genentech licensed exclusive worldwide development and commercialisation rights of GDC 3280 to Ark Biosciences, for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Key Development Milestones
As at September 2018, GDC 3280 is still in phase I development for interstitial lung disease (Genentech pipeline, September 2018).
In December 2015, Genentech completed a phase I trial that evaluated the safety, pharmacokinetics and tolerability of GDC 3280 in healthy volunteers, compared with placebo (GB29751; EudraCT2015-000560-33; NCT02471859). The randomised, double-blind, single and multiple oral dose trial was initiated in June 2015 and enrolled eight volunteers in the UK .
Novel crystalline salt forms of 1-methyl-7-(1-methyl-lH-pyrazol-4-yl)-5-(4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)-1,5-dihydro-4H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridin-4-one (compound I; presumed to be AK-3280 ), processes for their preparation and compositions comprising them are claimed.
Compound I is an orally available small molecule having the structure:
 Compound I has therapeutic value in several different indications that display fibrotic pathophysiology, including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).
 Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a disease of unknown etiology that occurs mainly in middle-aged and elderly patients, which is characterized by progressive fibrosis of the lung, leading to pulmonary insufficiency and death. Because fibrosis has long been considered to be a clinically irreversible process, treatments have traditionally been focused on managing the symptoms and complications, with little hope of significantly slowing progression of the condition. For many years, mainstay treatments have been typically anti inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and anti-oxidant agents. The effectiveness of these therapies in the treatment of IPF and other fibrotic conditions appears to be minimal and variable, and their side effects are often poorly tolerated by patients.
 New treatment options have only recently become available. Both pirfenidone and nintedanib have been approved for use in the treatment of IPF. Current research efforts to develop new anti-fibrotic agents are targeting multiple mechanisms proposed to be linked to the underlying molecular pathogenic processes. This changing landscape has raised hopes and expectations for what might be achievable with new single agents or combination therapies targeting additional pathways.
Preparation of Compound I and its salts
 A synthesis of Compound I and its tosylate salt is shown in the scheme below:
 l-methyl-5-(4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)-l,5-dihydro-4H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridin-4-one (5) was synthesized in 4 steps, including a copper-catalyzed coupling reaction e.g., a Goldberg-Ullmann coupling reaction. In another aspect of the invention, intermediate (5) is synthesized using any transition metal-catalyzed coupling reaction. The skilled chemist would know that intermediate (5) could be synthesized from intermediate (4) and compounds
of the general formula: OCF3 , wherein the leaving group“LG” includes but is not limited to halogen, tosylate, mesylate, triflate, etc.
 Compound I was synthesized in 6 steps, using a transition metal cross-coupling reaction, e.g., a Suzuki reaction. In another aspect of the invention, Compound I is synthesized using any cross -coupling reaction. Compound I is synthesized from intermediate 6 containing any leaving group. For example, the skilled chemist would use compounds of
the general formula:
, wherein the leaving group“LG” includes but is not limited to halogen, tosylate, mesylate, triflate, etc.
An alternative synthesis of Compound I and its salts is shown in the scheme below:
Example 13 – Synthesis of Compound I Tosylate Salt
 A process for the formation of mono- and di-tosylate salts of Compound I was developed and a batch was performed to successfully produce the mono-tosylate salt.
Step 1 : Synthesis of2-chloro-N-methyl-3-nitropyridin-4-amine
 A reactor was charged with 2,4-dichloro-3-nitropyridine and 3.0 volumes of DMF. The solution was stirred at 20-25 °C until a clear solution was obtained. The solution was then cooled to 0-5 °C, and 2.1 equivalents of 40% methylamine in water were slowly added over at least 2 hours at 0-5 °C. The reaction mixture was stirred for at least 2 hours at 0-5 °C until conversion to the product was 95% (as measured by HPLC). The reaction mixture was diluted by slowly adding 10 volumes of water over at least 30 minutes at 0-5 °C. The obtained suspension was stirred for at least 60 minutes at 0-5 °C. The precipitate was collected by filtration, and the filter cake was rinsed via the reactor with 10 volumes of water at 0-5 °C. The damp filter cake was then dried in a flow of dry nitrogen to yield 2-chloro-A-methyl-3-nitropyridin-4-amine in 78% yield.
Step 2: Synthesis of 2-chloro-N4 -methylpyridine-3, 4-diamine
 A reactor was charged with catalyst [2% Pt on charcoal, 59 %wt. water] (0.0004 equivalents Pt), damp 2-chloro-/V-methyl-3-nitropyridin-4-amine from step 1 and 9.4 volumes of THF. The solution was stirred, and then the suspension was transferred from the glass-reactor to an autoclave. The line was rinsed with 1.2 volumes of THF into the autoclave, and the autoclave was purged with nitrogen for 15 minutes at 50 rpm, followed by hydrogen for 15 minutes at 150 rpm. The autoclave was closed, and the hydrogen pressure was adjusted to 2 bar at 20-30 °C. The reaction mixture was stirred for 4-8 hours at 2 bar and 20-30 °C.
 Next, the autoclave was released to atmospheric pressure and purged with nitrogen for at least 15 minutes. Conversion to the product was verified by HPLC, and then the catalyst was removed by filtration. The filtered catalyst was rinsed with 1.3 volumes of THF and the filtrates were combined. The combined filtrates were charged to a second reactor via a particle filter, and the line was rinsed with 0.5 volumes of THF. The solution was concentrated to a final volume of 2.5 volumes by distillation under reduced pressure at 40-45 °C.
 The solution was then diluted with 10 volumes of THF in portions while concentrating the solution to a final volume of 2.5 volumes by distillation under reduced pressure at 45-50 °C. The reactor was purged with nitrogen to atmospheric pressure, and 5.0 volumes of heptane were added to the residue at 40-50 °C. The reaction mixture was cooled over 2 hours to 20-25 °C, and stirring was continued for 1 hour. The reaction mixture was then further cooled to 0-5 °C over 1 hour, and stirring was continued for 1 hour. The precipitated product was collected by filtration, rinsed via the reactor with 5.0 volumes of heptane, and the damp filter cake was dried in a vacuum drying oven at max. 40 °C until loss on drying was < 2 % weight, giving 2-chloro-/V4-methylpyridine-3, 4-diamine in 85% yield.
Step 3 : Synthesis of -inelhyl- 1 ,5-dihvdro-4H-iinidazoi4,5-c h yridin-4-one
 A reactor was charged with 2-chloro-/V4-methylpyridine-3, 4-diamine and 4 volumes of formic acid. The reaction mixture was heated to smooth reflux within one hour, and reflux was maintained for 6 hours. The reaction mixture was then cooled to
approximately 60 °C, and conversion to the product was verified by HPLC.
 The reaction mixture was then concentrated by distillation under reduced pressure at 60-80 °C to a final volume of 2 volumes. The temperature of the solution was adjusted to 60 °C, maintaining the temperature above 50 °C to avoid precipitation.
 Next, a second reactor was charged with 10 volumes of acetone, and heated to gentle reflux. The product solution from the first reactor was slowly transferred to the acetone in the second reactor over 20 minutes, and the line was rinsed with approximately 0.05 volumes of formic acid. Reflux of the obtained suspension was maintained for 15 minutes. The slurry was cooled to 0 °C within 1 hour, and stirring was continued for 1 hour at that temperature. The precipitate was collected by filtration, and the filter cake was rinsed via the reactor with 3.7 volumes of cold acetone at 0-10 °C. The filter cake was dried in a flow of dry nitrogen or in a vacuum drying oven at 50 °C until loss on drying was < 2% of weight, giving 1 -methyl- 1 ,5-dihydiO-4/7-imidazo[4,5-c]pyndin-4-onc in 95% yield.
Step 4: Synthesis of l-methyl-5-(4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)-J5-dihvdro-4H-imidaz.o[4,5-c]pyridin-4-one
 A first reactor (Reactor A) was charged with 1 -methyl- 1 ,5-dihydro-4/7-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridin-4-one (1.0 mol equivalent), Cu(0Ac)2 H20 (0.1 mol equivalents), and K2C03 (1.1 mol equivalents). The reactor was closed and the atmosphere replaced with nitrogen.
 Next, l-bromo-4-(trifluoromethoxy)benzene (1.5 mol equivalents) and N-methylpyrrolidinone (5.4 volume equivalents) were added, whereupon a suspension was formed. The suspension was stirred until the temperature had fallen again to approximately 20-25 °C and gas evolution had slowed. The reaction mixture was heated to approximately 130-150 °C at which time a blue/green color was observed, changing to dark brown after some time. The reaction was stirred at 130-150 °C for at least 40 hours. Stirring times of 40 hours up to 72 hours were required to reach an acceptable level of conversion. In general, higher reaction temperatures supported faster conversion.
 Next, the reaction mixture was cooled to approximately 20-30 °C, and 25% aqueous NH3 (0.7 volume equivalents) was added, followed by water (3.5 volume equivalents). The resulting suspension was transferred into a second reactor (Reactor B). Additional water was added (18.1 volume equivalents) to the reaction mixture via Reactor A, followed by n-heptane (3.2 volume equivalents). The resulting suspension was cooled to approximately 0-5 °C, and stirred for approximately 2 hours.
 The suspension was filtered, and the filter cake was washed with water (9.7 volume equivalents). The filter cake was then dissolved in dichloromethane (14.1 volume equivalents) and transferred back into reactor B. To this solution was added water (5.7 volume equivalents) via the filter, followed by 25% aq. NH3(1.6 volume equivalents). The mixture was stirred for approximately 1 hour at approximately 15-25 °C.
 Next, the layers were separated, and dichloromethane was added (3.6 volume equivalents) to the aqueous layer. The biphasic mixture was stirred at approximately 15-25 °C for approximately 20-30 minutes. The layers were separated over a period of at least 1 hour, and to the combined organic layers was added a solution of NH4Cl (2.5 mol equivalents) in water (7.0 volume equivalents). The biphasic mixture was stirred at approximately 15-25 °C for about 20-30 minutes, then the layers were separated over the course of 1 hour.
 The lower organic layer was filtered through a particle filter and diluted with toluene (7.1 volume equivalents) via the filter. The organic layer was concentrated under ambient pressure at approximately 80 °C, until no further liquid was seen to evaporate and a precipitate began to form. Toluene was added (16.6 volume equivalents), then concentrated in vacuo, followed by addition of more toluene (7.1 volume equivalents) and again concentrated in vacuo. The suspension was cooled to approximately 0-5 °C, stirred for approximately 2 hours, and filtered. The filter cake was washed with toluene (2.9 volume equivalents), and dried in vacuo at approximately 50 °C until the loss on drying was 0.5% of the weight to give l-methyl-5-(4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)-l,5-dihydro-47/-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridin-4-one as a beige-colored solid in 83.1% yield.
Step 5 : Synthesis of 7-bromo- 1 -methyl-5-(4-( trifluoromethoxy Iphenyl )- l,5- 4H-
 A first reactor (Reactor A) was charged with water (1.8 volume equivalents) and cooled to approximately 0-5 °C, to which was slowly added 96% sulfuric acid (14 mol. equivalents) at approximately 0-20 °C. The temperature of the solution was adjusted to approximately 0-5 °C, and l -mcthyl-5-(4-(tnfluoromcthoxy)phcnyl)-l ,5-dihydro-4/7-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridin-4-one (1.0 mol equivalent) was added in 3-4 portions at approximately 0-5 °C. The temperature of the mixture was adjusted to approximately 0-5 °C, and N-bromosuccinimide (1.0 mol equivalents) was slowly added in 3-4 portions, while maintaining the temperature at approximately 0-5 °C.
 The reaction mixture was stirred for about 1 hour at approximately 0-5 °C, and then for an additional 4-16 hours at approximately 0-22 °C. Conversion to the product was confirmed by HPLC, then the reaction mixture was cooled to approximately 0-5 °C.
 A second reactor (Reactor B) was charged with water (42.7 volume equivalents) and cooled to approximately 0-5 °C. The reaction mixture from Reactor A was transferred into the pre-cooled water in Reactor B at a temperature below 30 °C over 2 hours. The reaction was rinsed with water (1.6 volume equivalents), and 50% aqueous sodium hydroxide (25 mol. equivalents) was carefully added at approximately 0-30 °C over about 2 hours until the pH reached 2-5.
 Next, MTBE (6.5 volume equivalents) was added at approximately 0-20 °C, and the mixture was stirred for about 5 minutes. Additional 50% aqueous sodium hydroxide (2 mol. equivalents) was added at approximately 0-30 °C until the pH of the solution was in the range of 10-14. The reaction was stirred for at least 1.5 hours at approximately 15-25 °C, and then the layers were allowed to separate over a period of at least 1 hour. The suspension was filtered, taking care to capture the product, which accumulated at the interface of the aqueous and organic layers. The filter cake was washed with MTBE (1.7 volume equivalents), water (3.0 volume equivalents), and then MTBE again (3.0 volume equivalents). The product was dried in vacuo at below 50 °C until the loss on drying was < 1% of the weight, giving 7-bromo-l-methyl-5-(4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)-l,5-dihydro-47/-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridin-4-one as a pale beige-colored solid in 97.6% yield.
Step 6: Synthesis of 1 -methyl-7 -( 1 -methyl-lH-pyraz.ol-4-yl )-5-(4-( trifluoromethoxy )pheml )-J5-dihvdro-4H-imidaz.o[4,5-c]pyridin-4-one (Compound /)
 A reactor was charged with 7-bromo-l-methyl-5-(4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)-l,5-dihydro-4//-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridin-4-one (1.0 mol equivalents), ( 1 -methyl- 1 //-pyrazol-4-yl)boronic acid pinacol ester (l-methyl-4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-l,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)-l//-pyrazole, 1.6 mol equivalents), Pd[Ph3]4 (0.025 mol equivalents, and K2C03 (2.0 mol equivalents), to which were added acetonitrile (10.0 volume equivalents) and water (3.0 volume equivalents). The reaction mixture was stirred for approximately 10-20 minutes at about 20-25 °C to form a suspension.
 The mixture was heated to slight reflux, whereupon a biphasic, yellow solution formed. The mixture was stirred at slight reflux for at least 10 hours. The reaction mixture was cooled to between 30-50 °C, then passed through a particle filter. The filter was washed with acetonitrile (2.6 volume equivalents), the filtrates were combined, and the solution was concentrated to a final volume of approximately 120 mL (4.8 volume equivalents) under reduced pressure at below 60 °C.
 To the resulting suspension was added water (1.9 volume equivalents), methanol (26 mL, 1.0 volume equivalents), and dichloromethane (14.8 volume equivalents). The mixture was warmed to about 30-35 °C and stirred until two clear layers were observed. The layers were allowed to separate without stirring at about 30-35 °C, and additional dichloromethane (3.7 volume equivalents) was added to the aqueous layer. The mixture was warmed to approximately 30-35 °C and stirred for about 5 minutes, and then the layers were allowed to separate at approximately 30-35 °C.
 To the combined organic layers was added water (1.9 volume equivalents), and the mixture was warmed to approximately 30-35 °C and stirred for about 5 minutes. The layers were separated at approximately 30-35 °C. Charcoal was added to the combined organic layers and stirred for 30-60 minutes at approximately 30-35 °C. The charcoal was removed by filtration, and the filter was washed with dichloromethane (39 mL, 1.6 volume equivalents).
 The solution was concentrated to approximately 4.0 volume equivalents at ambient pressure and at below 50 °C, then diluted with methanol (5.0 volume equivalents). The solution was again concentrated to approximately 4.0 volume equivalents at ambient pressure and below 60 °C, diluted with methanol (5.0 volume equivalents), and concentrated to a final volume of approximately 3.0 volume equivalents under reduced pressure below 60 °C.
 To the resulting suspension was added methanol (2.9 volume equivalents), and the suspension was warmed to approximately 45-55 °C and stirred for about 1 hour. The suspension was cooled to approximately 0-5 °C within approximately 1 hour, stirred for 1 hour at approximately 0-5 °C, and then filtered. The filter cake was washed with cold methanol (pre-cooled to approximately 0-10 °C, 2.9 volume equivalents), and the product was dried under a stream of nitrogen and in vacuo at below 60 °C until the loss on drying was < 1% by weight, giving Compound I (l-methyl-7-(l-methyl-l -pyrazol-4-yl)-5-(4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)-l,5-dihydro-4//-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridin-4-one) as a white solid in 88.5% yield.
Step 7: Recrystallization of 1 -methyl-7 -(1 -methyl- lH-pyraz.ol-4-yl)-5-( 4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)-J5-dihvdro-4H-imidaz.o[4,5-c]pyridin-4-one (Compound /)
 A reactor was charged with crude l-methyl-7-(l -methyl- l//-pyrazol-4-yl)-5-(4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)-l,5-dihydro-47/-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridin-4-one from step 6, and to this was added glacial acetic acid (1.5 volume equivalents). The suspension was warmed to approximately 50-60 °C and stirred until a clear solution was obtained, approximately 10-20 minutes. The warm solution was passed through a particle filter into a second reactor.
 To this solution was added ethanol (10.0 volume equivalents) at approximately 45-55 °C over 2 hours. The suspension was stirred for approximately 30 minutes at approximately 45-55 °C, then cooled to approximately 0-5 °C over about 4 hours. The suspension was then stirred for approximately 4-16 hours at about 0-5 °C.
 Next, the suspension was filtered and the filter cake was washed with cold isopropanol (4.2 volume equivalents) at approximately 0-20 °C. The product was dried under a nitrogen stream and in vacuo at below 60 °C until the loss on drying was < 1% by weight, giving Compound I ( 1 – mcthyl-7-( 1 -methyl- 1 /7-pyrazol-4-yl)-5-(4-(tnfluoromcthoxy)phcnyl)-l,5-dihydro-47/-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridin-4-one) as a white solid in 93.0% yield.
Step 8 : Synthesis of 1 -methyl-7 -( 1 -methyl- 1 H-pyrazol-4-yl )-5-(4-( trifluoromethoxy )phenyl )- 1 ,5-dihvdro-4H-imidaz.oi 4,5-clpyridin-4-one, mono – mono -tosylate
 A reactor was charged with Compound I ( 1 -mcthyl-7-( 1 -methyl- 1 /7-pyrazol-4-yl)-5-(4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)-l,5-dihydro-4//-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridin-4-one, 1.00 mol equivalent), para-toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate (1.05 mol equivalents), acetone (6.75 volume equivalents), and water (0.75 volume equivalents). The mixture was stirred at 15-25 °C until a clear solution formed, and then this solution was filtered through a particle filter into a second reactor.
 The filter was washed with acetone (2.5 volume equivalents), and to the combined filtrates was added MTBE (7.5 volume equivalents) at 15-25 °C and Compound I mono-tosylate seeding crystals (0.001 mol equivalents).
 The resulting suspension was stirred at 15-25 °C for approximately 30-60 minutes, and MTBE was added (22.5 volume equivalents) at 15-25 °C during a period of
approximately 30 minutes. Stirring was continued at 15-25 °C for approximately 30-60 minutes, and then the suspension was filtered. The filter was washed with MTBE (2.5 volume equivalents), and the material was dried in vacuo at below 55 °C to give Compound I mono-tosylate salt (l-methyl-7-(l-methyl-l//-pyrazol-4-yl)-5-(4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)-l,5-dihydro-47/-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridin-4-one, mono-tosylate salt) as a white, crystalline solid in 93% yield.
claiming use of a specific compound, orally administered, in combination with food (eg low, medium or high fat meal) for treating fibrotic, inflammatory or autoimmune disorders eg idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis IPF, assigned to Genentech Inc ,
Roche licenses IPF candidate to Ark Biosciences. Internet-Doc 2019;.
Available from: URL: https://scrip.pharmaintelligence.informa.com/deals/201820364
Roche Q3 2018. Internet-Doc 2018;.
Available from: URL: https://www.roche.com/dam/jcr:f9cad8fc-8655-4692-9a85-efbe1cf7a59b/en/irp181017.pdf
A Phase 1, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Ascending, Single- and Multiple-Oral-Dose, Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacokinetic Study of GDC-3280 in Healthy Subjects
// AK-3280, AK 3280, AK3280, GDC 3280, RG 6069, PHASE 1, Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
- CC 930
- A c-Jun amino-terminal kinase inhibitor.UNII, M5O06306UO
Treatment of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF)
- Originator Celgene Corporation
- Class Antifibrotics; Small molecules
- Mechanism of ActionJ NK mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors
- Orphan Drug Status Yes – Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
- Discontinued Discoid lupus erythematosus; Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
- 16 Jul 2012 Celgene Corporation terminates a phase II trial in Discoid lupus erythematosus in USA (NCT01466725)
- 23 Feb 2012 Celgene initiates enrolment in a phase II trial for Discoid lupus erythematosus in the USA (NCT01466725)
- 08 Nov 2011The Committee for Orphan Medicinal Products (COMP) recommends orphan drug designation for tanzisertib in European Union for Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Tanzisertib has been granted orphan drug status by the FDA for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. A positive opinion has been received from the EU Committee for Orphan Medicinal Products (COMP
Tanzisertib has been used in trials studying the treatment of Fibrosis, Discoid Lupus, Pulmonary Fibrosis, Interstitial Lung Disease, and Lung Diseases, Interstitial, among others.
/////////Tanzisertib, CC 930, Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis, Orphan Drug, phase II, CELGENE
HEC Pharm , Calitor Sciences Llc; Sunshine Lake Pharma Co Ltd
PHASE 1, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and solid tumors
Phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor; mTOR inhibitor
- Originator HEC Pharm
- Developer HEC Pharm; Sunshine Lake Pharma
- Class Anti-inflammatories; Antifibrotics; Isoenzymes
- Mechanism of Action 1 Phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase inhibitors; MTOR protein inhibitors
- Phase I Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
- 22 May 2018 Phase-I clinical trials in Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in USA (PO) (NCT03502902)
- 24 Apr 2018 Sunshine Lake Pharma in collaboration with Covance plans a phase I trial for Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (In volunteers) in China , (NCT03502902)
- 19 Apr 2018 Preclinical trials in Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in China (PO)
- US 20140234254
- CN 103965199
Sunshine Lake Pharma , a subsidiary of HEC Pharm is developing an oral capsule formulation of HEC-68498 (phase 1, in July 2019) sodium salt, a dual inhibitor of phosphoinositide-3 kinase and the mTOR pathway, for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and solid tumors
HEC 68498 is an oral inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and mammalian target of rapamycin in clinical development at HEC Pharm for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. A phase I trial is under way in healthy volunteers.
The phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3 kinases or PI3Ks), a family of lipid kinases, have been found to play key regulatory roles in many cellular processes including cell survival, proliferation and differentiation. The PI3K enzymes consist of three classes with variable primary structure, function and substrate specificity. Class I PI3Ks consist of heterodimers of regulatory and catalytic subunits, and are subdivided into 1A and 1B based on their mode of activation. Class 1A PI3Ks are activated by various cell surface tyrosine kinases, and consist of the catalytic pl lO and regulatory p85 subunits. The three known isoforms of Class 1A pl lO are pl lOot, rΐ ΐqb, and rΐ ΐqd, which all contain an amino terminal regulatory interacting region (which interfaces with p85), a Ras binding domain, and a carboxy terminal catalytic domain. Class IB PI3Ks consist of the catalytic (pl lOy) and regulatory (p 101 ) subunits and are activated by G-protein coupled receptors. (“Small-molecule inhibitors of the PI3K signaling network” Future Med. Chem ., 2011, 3, 5, 549-565).
 As major effectors downstream of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), PI3Ks transduce signals from various growth factors and cytokines into intracellular massages by generating phospholipids, which activate the serine-threonine protein kinase ART (also known as protein kinase B (PKB)) and other downstream effector pathways. The tumor suppressor or PTEN (phosphatase and tensin
homologue) is the most important negative regulator of the PI3K signaling pathway. (“Status of PBK/Akt/mTOR Pathway Inhibitors in Lymphoma.” Clin Lymphoma, Myeloma Leuk , 2014, 14(5), 335-342.)
 The signaling network defined by phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks), AKT and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) controls most hallmarks of cancer, including cell cycle, survival, metabolism, motility and genomic instability. The pathway also contributes to cancer promoting aspects of the tumor environment, such as angiogenesis and inflammatory cell recruitment. The lipid second messenger produced by PI3K enzymes, phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3; also known as PIP3), is constitutively elevated in most cancer cells and recruits cytoplasmic proteins to membrane-localized‘onco’ signal osomes.
 Cancer genetic studies suggest that the PI3K pathway is the most frequently altered pathway in human tumors: the PIK3CA gene (encoding the PI3K catalytic isoform pl lOa) is the second most frequently mutated oncogene, and PTEN (encoding phosphatase and tensin homolog, the major PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 phosphatase) is among the most frequently mutated tumor suppressor genes. In accord, a recent genomic study of head and neck cancer found the PI3K pathway to be the most frequently mutated. Indeed, even in cancer cells expressing normal PI3K and PTEN genes, other lesions are present that activate the PI3K signaling network (that is, activated tyrosine kinases, RAS and AKT, etc ). As a net result of these anomalies, the PI3K pathway is activated, mutated or amplified in many malignancies, including in ovarian cancer (Campbell et al., Cancer Res., 2004, 64, 7678-7681; Levine et al., Clin. Cancer Res., 2005, 11, 2875-2878; Wang et al., Hum. Mutat., 2005, 25, 322; Lee et al., Gynecol. Oncol. ,2005, 97, 26-34), cervical cancer, breast cancer (Bachman et al.,· Cancer Biol., Ther, 2004, 3, 772-775; Levine et al., supra; Li et al., Breast Cancer Res. Treat., 2006, 96, 91-95; Saal et al., Cancer Res., 2005, 65, 2554-2559; Samuels and Velculescu, Cell Cycle, 2004, 3, 1221-1224), colorectal cancer (Samuels et al., Science, 2004, 304, 554; Velho et al., Eur. J. Cancer, 2005, 41, 1649-1654), endometrial cancer (Oda et al ., Cancer Res., 2005, 65, 10669-10673), gastric carcinomas (Byun et al., M. J. Cancer, 2003 , 104, 318-327; Li et al., supra; Velho et al., supra; Lee et al., Oncogene, 2005 , 24, 1477-1480), hepatocellular carcinoma (Lee et al., id), small and non-small cell lung cancer (Tang et al., Lung Cancer 2006, 11, 181-191; Massion et al , Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med., 2004, 170, 1088-1094), thyroid carcinoma (Wu et al., J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 2005, 90, 4688-4693),
acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) (Sujobert et al., Blood, 1997, 106, 1063-1066), chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) (Hickey et al., J. Biol. Chem ., 2006, 281, 2441-2450), glioblastomas (Hartmann et al. Jlcta Neuropathol (Bert ), 2005, 109, 639-642; Samuels et al., supra), Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas (“PI3K and cancer: lessons, challenges and opportunities”, Nature Reviews Drug Discovery., 2014, 13, 140).
 The PI3K pathway is hyperactivated in most cancers, yet the capacity of PI3K inhibitors to induce tumor cell death is limited. The efficacy of PI3K inhibition can also derive from interference with the cancer cells’ ability to respond to stromal signals, as illustrated by the approved PI3K5 inhibitor idelalisib in B-cell malignancies. Inhibition of the leukocyte-enriched PI3K5 or RI3Kg may unleash antitumor T-cell responses by inhibiting regulatory T cells and immune-suppressive myeloid cells. Moreover, tumor angiogenesis may be targeted by PI3K inhibitors to enhance cancer therapy. (“Targeting PI3K in Cancer: Impact on Tumor Cells, Their Protective Stroma, Angiogenesis, and Immunotherapy”, Cancer Discov., 2016, 6(10), 1090-1105.)
 mTOR is a highly conserved serine-threonine kinase with lipid kinase activity and participitates as an effector in the PI3K/AKT pathway. mTOR exists in two distinct complexes, mTORCl and mTORC2, and plays an important role in cell proliferation by monitoring nutrient avaliability and cellular energy levels. The downstream targets of mTORCl are ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1, both of which are crucial to the regulation of protein synthesis. (“Present and future of PI3K pathway inhibition in cancer: perspectives and limitations”, Current Med. Chem., 2011, 18, 2647-2685).
 Knowledge about consequences of dysregulated mTOR signaling for tumorigenesis comes mostly from studies of pharmacologically disruption of mTOR by repamycin and its analogues such as temsirolimus (CCI-779) and everolimus (RADOOl).Rapamycin was found to inhibit mTOR and thereby induce G1 arrest and apoptosis. The mechanism of rapamycin growth inhibition was found to be related to formation of complexes of rapamycin with FK-binding protein 12 (FKBP-12). These complexes then bound with high affinity to mTOR, preventing activation and resulting in inhibition of protein translation and cell growth. Cellular effects of mTOR inhibition are even more pronounced in cells that have concomitant inactivation of PTEN. Antitumor activity of rapamycin was subsequently identified, and a number of rapamycin analogues such as temsirolimus and everolimus have been approved by the US Food and Drug
Administration for the treatment certain types of cancer.
 Fibrosis is the formation of excess fibrous connective tissue in an organ or tissue in a reparative or reactive process. Examples of fibrosis include, but are not limited to pulmonary fibrosis, liver fibrosis, dermal fibrosis, and renal fibrosis. Pulmonary fibrosis, also called idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), interstitial diffuse pulmonary fibrosis, inflammatory pulmonary fibrosis, or fibrosing alveolitis, is a lung disorder and a heterogeneous group of conditions characterized by abnormal formation of fibrous tissue between alveoli caused by alveolitis comprising cellular infiltration into the alveolar septae with resulting fibrosis. The effects of IPF are chronic, progressive, and often fatal.
 The clinical course of IPF is variable and largely unpredictable. IPF is ultimately fatal, with historical data suggesting a median survival time of 2-3 years from diagnosis. A decline in forced vital capacity (FVC) is indicative of disease progression in patients with IPF and change in FVC is the most commonly used endpoint in clinical trials. A decline in FVC of 5% or 10% of the predicted value over 6-12 months has been associated with increased mortality in patients with IPF.
 Our understanding of the pathogenesis of IPF has evolved from that of a predominantly inflammatory disease to one driven by a complex interplay of repeated epithelial cell damage and aberrant wound healing, involving fibroblast recruitment, proliferation and differentiation, and culminating in excess deposition of extracellular matrix. This shift in knowledge prompted a change in the type of compounds being investigated as potential therapies, with those targeted at specific pathways in the development and progression of fibrosis becoming the focus.
 In patients with IPF, the mechanisms whereby PI3K/mTOR inhibitors act may involve inhibition of kinases such as PI3Ks and mTOR. This results in inactivation of cellular receptors for mediators involved in the development of pulmonary fibrosis. As a result, fibroblast proliferation is inhibited and extracellular matrix deposition is reduced. (“Update on diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis”, J Bras Pneumol. 2015, 41(5), 454-466.)
 Accordingly, small-molecule compounds that specially inhibit, regulate and/or modulate the signal transduction of kinases, particularly including PI3K and mTOR as described above, are desirable as a means to prevent, manage, or treat proliferative disorders and fibrosis, particular idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in a patient. One such small-molecule is A-(5-(3-cyanopyrazolo[l,5-a]pyridin-5-yl)-2-methoxypyridin-3-yl)-2,4-difluorobenzenesulfon-amide, which has the chemical structure as shown in the following:
 WO 2014130375A1 described the synthesis of N-(5 -(‘3 -cyanopyrazol o [l,5-a]pyridin-5-yl)-2-methoxypyridin-3-yl)-2,4-difluorobenzenesulfonamide (Example 3) and also disclosed the therapeutic activity of this molecule in inhibiting, regulating and modulating the signal transduction of protein kinases.
 Different salts and solid state forms of an active pharmaceutical ingredient may possess different properties. Such variations in the properties of different salts and solid state forms may provide a basis for improving formulation, for example, by facilitating better processing or handling characteristics, improving the dissolution profile, stability (polymorph as well as chemical stability) and shelf-life. These variations in the properties of different salts and solid state forms may also provide improvements to the final dosage form, for example, if they serve to improve bioavailability. Different salts and solid state forms of an active pharmaceutical ingredient may also give rise to a variety of polymorphs or crystalline forms, which may in turn provide additional opportunities to assess variations in the properties and characteristics of a solid active pharmaceutical ingredient.
Different salts and solid state forms of /V-(5-(3-cyanopyrazolo[l,5- ]pyridin-5-yl)-2-methoxypyridin-3-yl)-2,4-difluorobenzenesulfonamide are described herein.
claiming new pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine derivatives are PI3K and mTOR inhibitors, useful for treating proliferative diseases
Example 3 N-(5-(3-cyanopyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridin-5-yl)-2-methoxypyridin-3-yl)-2,4-difluorobenzenesulfonamide
Step 1) 5-bromopyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine
 A solution of ethyl 5-bromopyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine-3-carboxylate (240
mmol) in 40% H2SO4 (12 mL) was stirred at 100 °C for 4 hours, then cooled to rt, and neutralized to pH=7 with aq. NaOH (6 M) in ice bath. The resulted mixture was extracted with DCM (25 mL x 2). The combined organic phases were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and concentrated in vacuo to give the title compound as a light yellow solid (175 mg, 99.5%).
MS (ESI, pos. ion) m/z: 196.9 [M+H]+.
Step 2) 5-bromopyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine-3-carbaldehyde
 To a solution of 5-bromopyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine (175 mg, 0.89 mmol) in DCM (6 mL) was added (chloromethylene)dimethyliminium chloride (632 mg, 3.56 mmol). The reaction was stirred at 44 °C overnight, and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was dissolved in saturated NaHCO3 aqueous solution (25 mL) and the resulted mixture was then extracted with EtOAc (25 mL x 3). The combined organic phases were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and concentrated in vacuo to give the title compound as a light yellow solid (225 mg, 100%).
MS (ESI, pos. ion) m/z: 225.0 [M+H]+.
Step 3) (E)-5-bromopyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine-3-carbaldehyde oxime
 To a suspension of 5-bromopyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine-3-carbaldehyde (225 mg, 1 mmol) in EtOH (10 mL) and H2O (5 mL) was added hydroxylamine hydrochloride (104 mg, 1.5 mmol). The reaction was stirred at 85 °C for 2 hours, then cooled to rt, and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was adjusted to pH=7 with saturated NaHCO3 aqueous solution. The resulted mixture was then filtered and the filter cake was dried in vacuo to give title compound as a yellow solid (240 mg, 99%).
MS (ESI, pos. ion) m/z: 240.0 [M+H]+.
Step 4) 5-bromopyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine-3-carbonitrile
 A solution of (E)-5-bromopyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine-3-carbaldehyde oxime (240 mg,
1 mmol) in Ac2O (6 mL) was stirred at 140 °C for 18 hours, then cooled to rt, and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was washed with Et2O (1 mL) to give the title compound as a yellow solid (44 mg, 22.5%).
MS (ESI, pos. ion) m/z: 222.0 [M+H]+.
Step 5) N-(5-(3-cyanopyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridin-5-yl)-2-methoxypyridin-3-yl)-2,4-difluorobenzenesulfonamide
 2,4-difluoro-N-(2-methoxy-5-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl)benzenesulfonamide (612 mg, 1.5 mmol), 5-bromopyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine-3-carbonitrile (222 mg, 1 mmol), Pd(dppf)Cl2·CH2Cl2 (16 mg, 0.02 mmol) and Na2CO3 (85 mg, 0.8 mmol) were placed into a two-neck flask, then degassed with N2 for 3 times, and followed by adding 1,4-dioxane (5 mL) and water (1 mL). The resulted mixture was degassed with N2 for 3 times, then heated to 90 °C and stirred further for 5 hours. The mixture was cooled to rt and filtered. The filtrate was concentrated in vacuo and the residue was purified by a silica gel column chromatography (PE/EtOAc (v/v) = 1/2) to give the title compound as a light yellow solid (400 mg, 81.6%).
MS (ESI, pos. ion) m/z: 442.0 [M+H]+;
1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ (ppm): 10.37 (s, 1H), 9.02 (d, J = 7.2 Hz, 1H), 8.67 (s, 1H), 8.60 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 1H), 8.26-8.16 (m, 2H), 7.82-7.72 (m, 1H), 7.57 (dd, J = 13.2, 5.8 Hz, 2H), 7.21 (t, J= 8.5 Hz, 1H), 3.67 (s, 3H).
The invention relates to salts of pyrazolo[l,5-a]pyridine derivatives and use thereof, specifically relates to salt of /V-(5-(3-cyanopyrazolo[l,5-a]pyridin-5-yl)-2-methoxypyridin-3-yl) -2,4-difluorobenzenesulfonamide (compound of formula (I)) and use thereof, further relates to composition containing said salts above. The salts or the composition can be used to inhibit/modulate protein kinases, further prevent, manage or treat proliferative disorders or pulmonary fibrosis in a patient.
Amorphous form of mono-sodium salt of HEC-68498 , useful for treating a proliferative disorder or pulmonary fibrosis.
The invention is further illustrated by the following examples, which are not be construed as limiting the invention in scope.
 /V-(5-(3-cyanopyrazolo[l,5-a]pyridin-5-yl)-2-methoxypyridin-3-yl)-2,4-difluoroben zenesulfonamide can be prepared according to the synthetic method of example 3 disclosed in WO2014130375 Al.
//////////////HEC-68498, HEC 68498, HEC68498, HEC Pharm , Calitor Sciences, Sunshine Lake Pharma, PHASE 1, proliferative disorder, pulmonary fibrosis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, solid tumors, CT-365 , CT 365 , CT365