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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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Biafungin, CD 101, a Novel Echinocandin for Vulvovaginal candidiasis


STR1

str1

str1as  CH3COOH salt

UNII-W1U1TMN677.png

CD 101

Several structural representations above

Biafungin™; CD 101 IV; CD 101 Topical; CD101; SP 3025, Biafungin acetate, Echinocandin B

UNII-G013B5478J FRE FORM,

CAS 1396640-59-7 FREE FORM

MF, C63-H85-N8-O17, MW, 1226.4035

Echinocandin B,

1-((4R,5R)-4-hydroxy-N2-((4”-(pentyloxy)(1,1′:4′,1”-terphenyl)-4-yl)carbonyl)-5-(2-(trimethylammonio)ethoxy)-L-ornithine)-4-((4S)-4-hydroxy-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-L-allothreonine)-

Treat and prevent invasive fungal infections; Treat and prevent systemic Candida infections; Treat candidemia

2D chemical structure of 1631754-41-0

Biafungin acetate

CAS 1631754-41-0 ACETATE, Molecular Formula, C63-H85-N8-O17.C2-H3-O2, Molecular Weight, 1285.4472,

C63 H85 N8 O17 . C2 H3 O2
1-[(4R,5R)-4-hydroxy-N2-[[4”-(pentyloxy)[1,1′:4′,1”-terphenyl]-4-yl]carbonyl]-5-[2-(trimethylammonio)ethoxy]-L-ornithine]-4-[(4S)-4-hydroxy-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-L-allothreonine]-, acetate (1:1)

UNII: W1U1TMN677

CD101 – A novel echinocandin antifungal C. albicans (n=351) MIC90 = 0.06 µg/mL C. glabrata (n=200) MIC90 = 0.06 µg/mL  Echinocandins have potent fungicidal activity against Candida species

  • Originator Seachaid Pharmaceuticals
  • Developer Cidara Therapeutics
  • Class Antifungals; Echinocandins; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action Glucan synthase inhibitors

 

BIAFUNGIN, CD 101

Watch this space as I add more info…………….

U.S. – Fast Track (Treat candidemia);
U.S. – Fast Track (Treat and prevent invasive fungal infections);
U.S. – Orphan Drug (Treat and prevent invasive fungal infections);
U.S. – Orphan Drug (Treat candidemia);
U.S. – Qualified Infectious Disease Program (Treat candidemia);
U.S. – Qualified Infectious Disease Program (Treat and prevent invasive fungal infections)

Fungal infections have emerged as major causes of human disease, especially among the immunocompromised patients and those hospitalized with serious underlying disease. As a consequence, the frequency of use of systemic antifungal agents has increased significantly and there is a growing concern about a shortage of effective antifungal agents. Although resistance rates to the clinically available antifungal agents remains low, reports of breakthrough infections and the increasing prevalence of uncommon fungal species that display elevated MIC values for existing agents is worrisome. Biafungin (CD101, previously SP 3025) is a novel echinocandin that displays chemical stability and long-acting pharmacokinetics that is being developed for once-weekly or other intermittent administration (see posters #A-693 and A- 694 for further information). In this study, we test biafungin and comparator agents against a collection of common Candida and Aspergillus species, including isolates resistant to azoles and echinocandins.

The echinocandins are an important class of antifungal agents, but are administered once daily by intravenous (IV) infusion. An echinocandin that could be administered once weekly could facilitate earlier hospital discharges and could expand usage to indications where daily infusions are impractical. Biafungin is a highly stable echinocandin for once-weekly IV administration. The compound was found to have a spectrum of activity and potency comparable to other echinocandins. In chimpanzees single dose pharmacokinetics of IV and orally administered biafungin were compared to IV anidulafungin, which has the longest half-life (T1/2 ) of the approved echinocandins.

Background  Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a highly prevalent mucosal infection  VVC is caused by Candida albicans (~85%) and non-albicans (~15%)  5-8% of women have recurrent VVC (RVVC) which is associated with a negative impact on work/social life  Oral fluconazole prescribed despite relapse, potential DDIs and increased risk to pregnant women  No FDA-approved therapy for RVVC and no novel agent in >20 years

str1

Cidara Therapeutics 6310 Nancy Ridge Drive, Suite 101 San Diego, CA 92121

The incidence of invasive fungal infections, especially those due to Aspergillus spp. and Candida spp., continues to increase. Despite advances in medical practice, the associated mortality from these infections continues to be substantial. The echinocandin antifungals provide clinicians with another treatment option for serious fungal infections. These agents possess a completely novel mechanism of action, are relatively well-tolerated, and have a low potential for serious drug–drug interactions. At the present time, the echinocandins are an option for the treatment of infections due Candida spp (such as esophageal candidiasis, invasive candidiasis, and candidemia). In addition, caspofungin is a viable option for the treatment of refractory aspergillosis. Although micafungin is not Food and Drug Administration-approved for this indication, recent data suggests that it may also be effective. Finally, caspofungin- or micafungin-containing combination therapy should be a consideration for the treatment of severe infections due to Aspergillus spp. Although the echinocandins share many common properties, data regarding their differences are emerging at a rapid pace. Anidulafungin exhibits a unique pharmacokinetic profile, and limited cases have shown a potential far activity in isolates with increased minimum inhibitory concentrations to caspofungin and micafungin. Caspofungin appears to have a slightly higher incidence of side effects and potential for drug–drug interactions. This, combined with some evidence of decreasing susceptibility among some strains ofCandida, may lessen its future utility. However, one must take these findings in the context of substantially more data and use with caspofungin compared with the other agents. Micafungin appears to be very similar to caspofungin, with very few obvious differences between the two agents.

Echinocandins are a new class of antifungal drugs[1] that inhibit the synthesis of glucan in the cell wall, via noncompetitive inhibition of the enzyme 1,3-β glucan synthase[2][3] and are thus called “penicillin of antifungals”[4] (a property shared with papulacandins) as penicillin has a similar mechanism against bacteria but not fungi. Beta glucans are carbohydrate polymers that are cross-linked with other fungal cell wall components (The bacterial equivalent is peptidoglycan). Caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin are semisynthetic echinocandin derivatives with clinical use due to their solubility, antifungal spectrum, and pharmacokinetic properties.[5]

List of echinocandins:[17]

  • Pneumocandins (cyclic hexapeptides linked to a long-chain fatty acid)
  • Echinocandin B not clinically used, risk of hemolysis
  • Cilofungin withdrawn from trials due to solvent toxicity
  • Caspofungin (trade name Cancidas, by Merck)
  • Micafungin (FK463) (trade name Mycamine, by Astellas Pharma.)
  • Anidulafungin (VER-002, V-echinocandin, LY303366) (trade name Eraxis, by Pfizer)

History

Discovery of echinocandins stemmed from studies on papulacandins isolated from a strain of Papularia sphaerosperma (Pers.), which were liposaccharide – i.e., fatty acid derivatives of a disaccharide that also blocked the same target, 1,3-β glucan synthase – and had action only on Candida spp. (narrow spectrum). Screening of natural products of fungal fermentation in the 1970s led to the discovery of echinocandins, a new group of antifungals with broad-range activity against Candida spp. One of the first echinocandins of the pneumocandin type, discovered in 1974, echinocandin B, could not be used clinically due to risk of high degree of hemolysis. Screening semisynthetic analogs of the echinocandins gave rise to cilofungin, the first echinofungin analog to enter clinical trials, in 1980, which, it is presumed, was later withdrawn for a toxicity due to the solvent system needed for systemic administration. The semisynthetic pneumocandin analogs of echinocandins were later found to have the same kind of antifungal activity, but low toxicity. The first approved of these newer echinocandins was caspofungin, and later micafungin and anidulafungin were also approved. All these preparations so far have low oral bioavailability, so must be given intravenously only. Echinocandins have now become one of the first-line treatments for Candida before the species are identified, and even as antifungal prophylaxis in hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients.

CIDARA THERAPEUTICS DOSES FIRST PATIENT IN PHASE 2 TRIAL OF CD101 TOPICAL TO TREAT VULVOVAGINAL CANDIDIASIS

SAN DIEGO–(BUSINESS WIRE)–Jun. 9, 2016– Cidara Therapeutics, Inc. (Nasdaq:CDTX), a biotechnology company developing novel anti-infectives and immunotherapies to treat fungal and other infections, today announced that the first patient has been dosed in RADIANT, a Phase 2 clinical trial comparing the safety and tolerability of the novel echinocandin, CD101, to standard-of-care fluconazole for the treatment of acute vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). RADIANT will evaluate two topical formulations of CD101, which is Cidara’s lead antifungal drug candidate.

“There have been no novel VVC therapies introduced for more than two decades, so advancing CD101 topical into Phase 2 is a critical step for women with VVC and for Cidara,” said Jeffrey Stein, Ph.D., president and chief executive officer of Cidara. “Because of their excellent safety record and potency against Candida, echinocandin antifungals are recommended as first line therapy to fight systemic Candida infections. CD101 topical will be the first echinocandin tested clinically in VVC and we expect to demonstrate safe and improved eradication of Candida with rapid symptom relief for women seeking a better option over the existing azole class of antifungals.”

RADIANT is a Phase 2, multicenter, randomized, open-label, active-controlled, dose-ranging trial designed to evaluate the safety and tolerability of CD101 in women with moderate to severe episodes of VVC. The study will enroll up to 125 patients who will be randomized into three treatment cohorts. The first cohort will involve the treatment of 50 patients with CD101 Ointment while a second cohort of 50 patients will receive CD101 Gel. The third cohort will include 25 patients who will be treated with oral fluconazole.

The primary endpoints of RADIANT will be the safety and tolerability of a single dose of CD101 Ointment and multiple doses of CD101 Gel in patients with acute VVC. Secondary endpoints include therapeutic efficacy in acute VVC patients treated with CD101. Treatment evaluations and assessments will occur on trial days 7, 14 and 28.

The RADIANT trial will be conducted at clinical trial centers across the United States. More information about the trial is available at www.clinicaltrials.gov, identifier NCT02733432.

About VVC and RVVC

Seventy-five percent of women worldwide suffer from VVC in their lifetime, and four to five million women in the United Statesalone have the recurrent form of the infection, which is caused by Candida. Many women will experience recurrence after the completion of treatment with existing therapies. Most VVC occurs in women of childbearing potential (the infection is common in pregnant women), but it affects women of all ages. In a recent safety communication, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration(FDA) advised caution in the prescribing of oral fluconazole for yeast infections during pregnancy based on a published study concluding there is an increased risk of miscarriage. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines recommend using only topical antifungal products to treat pregnant women with vulvovaginal yeast infections. Vaginal infections are associated with a substantial negative impact on day-to-day functioning and adverse pregnancy outcomes including preterm delivery, low birth weight, and increased infant mortality in addition to predisposition to HIV/AIDS. According to the CDC, certain species of Candida are becoming increasingly resistant to existing antifungal medications. This emerging resistance intensifies the need for new antifungal agents.

About CD101 Topical

CD101 topical is the first topical agent in the echinocandin class of antifungals and exhibits a broad spectrum of fungicidal activity against Candida species. In May 2016, the FDA granted Qualified Infectious Disease Product (QIDP) and Fast Track Designation to CD101 topical for the treatment of VVC and the prevention of RVVC.

About Cidara Therapeutics

Cidara is a clinical-stage biotechnology company focused on the discovery, development and commercialization of novel anti-infectives for the treatment of diseases that are inadequately addressed by current standard-of-care therapies. Cidara’s initial product portfolio comprises two formulations of the company’s novel echinocandin, CD101. CD101 IV is being developed as a once-weekly, high-exposure therapy for the treatment and prevention of serious, invasive fungal infections. CD101 topical is being developed for the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and the prevention of recurrent VVC (RVVC), a prevalent mucosal infection. In addition, Cidara has developed a proprietary immunotherapy platform, Cloudbreak™, designed to create compounds that direct a patient’s immune cells to attack and eliminate pathogens that cause infectious disease. Cidara is headquartered inSan Diego, California. For more information, please visit www.cidara.com.

REF http://ir.cidara.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=253962&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=2176474

CLIP

Cidara Therapeutics raises $42 million to develop once-weekly anti-fungal therapy

Cidara Therapeutics (formerly K2 Therapeutics) grabbed $42 million in a private Series B funding round Wednesday to continue developing its once-weekly anti-fungal therapy. Just in June 2014, the company completed a $32 million Series A financing led by 5AM Ventures, Aisling Capital, Frazier Healthcare and InterWest Partners, which was the fourth largest A round in 2014 for innovative startups[1]. FierceBiotech named the company as one of 2014 Fierce 15 biotech startups.

Cidara has an impressive executive team. The company was co-founded by Kevin Forrest, former CEO of Achaogen (NASDAQ: AKAO), and Shaw Warren. Jeffrey Stein, former CEO of Trius Therapeutics (NASDAQ: TSRX) and Dirk Thye, former president of Cerexa, have joined Cidara as CEO and CMO, respectively. Trius successfully developed antibiotic tedizolid and was acquired in 2013 by Cubist Pharmaceuticals (NASDAQ: CBST) for $818 million.

Cidara’s lead candidate, biafungin (SP3025), was acquired from Seachaid Pharmaceuticals for $6 million. Biafungin’s half-life is much longer than that of similar drugs known as echinocandins (e.g., caspofungin, micafungin, anidulafungin), which may allow it to be developed as a once-weekly therapy, instead of once daily. The company is also developing a topical formulation of biafungin, namely topifungin. Cidara intends to file an IND and initiate a Phase I clinical trial in the second half of 2015.

Merck’s Cancidas (caspofungin), launched in 2001, was the first of approved enchinocandins. The drug generated annual sales of $596 million in 2008. The approved echinocandins must be administered daily by intravenous infusion. Biafungin with improved pharmacokinetic characteristics has the potential to bring in hundreds of millions of dollars per year.

[1] Nat Biotechnol. 2015, 33(1), 18.

CLIP

Biafungin is a potent and broad-spectrum antifungal agent with excellent activity against wild-type and troublesome azole- and echinocandin-resistant strains of Candida spp. The activity of biafungin is comparable to anidulafungin. • Biafungin was active against both wild-type and itraconazole-resistant strains of Aspergillus spp. from four different species. • In vitro susceptibility testing of biafungin against isolates of Candida and Aspergillus may be accomplished by either CLSI or EUCAST broth microdilution methods each providing comparable results. • The use of long-acting intravenous antifungal agents that could safely be given once a week to select patients is desirable and might decrease costs with long-term hospitalizations. Background: A novel echinocandin, biafungin, displaying long-acting pharmacokinetics and chemical stability is being developed for once-weekly administration. The activities of biafungin and comparator agents were tested against 173 fungal isolates of the most clinically common species. Methods: 106 CAN and 67 ASP were tested using CLSI and EUCAST reference broth microdilution methods against biafungin (50% inhibition) and comparators. Isolates included 27 echinocandin-resistant CAN (4 species) with identified fks hotspot (HS) mutations and 20 azole nonsusceptible ASP (4 species). Results: Against C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. tropicalis, the activity of biafungin (MIC50, 0.06, 0.12 and 0.03 μg/ml, respectively by CLSI method) was comparable to anidulafungin (AND; MIC50, 0.03, 0.12 and 0.03 μg/ml, respectively) and caspofungin (CSP; MIC50, 0.12, 0.25 and 0.12 μg/ml, respectively; Table). C. krusei strains were very susceptible to biafungin, showing MIC90 values of 0.06 μg/ml by both methods. Biafungin (MIC50/90, 1/2 μg/ml) was comparable to AND and less potent than CSP against C. parapsilosis using CLSI methodology. CLSI and EUCAST methods displayed similar results for most species, but biafungin (MIC50, 0.06 μg/ml) was eight-fold more active than CSP (MIC50, 0.5 μg/ml) against C. glabrata using the EUCAST method. Overall, biafungin was two- to four-fold more active against fks HS mutants than CSP and results were comparable to AND. Biafungin was active against A. fumigatus (MEC50/90, ≤0.008/0.015 μg/ml), A. terreus (MEC50/90, 0.015/0.015 μg/ml), A. niger (MEC50/90, ≤0.008/0.03 μg/ml) and A. flavus (MEC50/90, ≤0.008/≤0.008 μg/ml) using CLSI method. EUCAST results for ASP were also low for all echinocandins and comparable to CLSI results. Conclusions: Biafungin displayed comparable in vitro activity with other echinocandins against common wild-type CAN and ASP and resistant subsets that in combination with the long-acting profile warrants further development of this compound. 1. Arendrup MC, Cuenca-Estrella M, Lass-Florl C, Hope WW (2013). Breakpoints for antifungal agents: An update from EUCAST focussing on echinocandins against Candida spp. and triazoles against Aspergillus spp. Drug Resist Updat 16: 81-95. 2. Castanheira M, Woosley LN, Messer SA, Diekema DJ, Jones RN, Pfaller MA (2014). Frequency of fks mutations among Candida glabrata isolates from a 10-year global collection of bloodstream infection isolates. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 58: 577-580. 3. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (2008). M27-A3. Reference Method for Broth Dilution Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Yeasts: third edition. Wayne, PA: CLSI. 4. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (2008). M38-A2. Reference Method for Broth Dilution Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Filamentous Fungi: Second Edition. Wayne, PA: CLSI. 5. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (2012). M27-S4. Reference Method for Broth Dilution Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Yeasts: 4th Informational Supplement. Wayne, PA: CLSI. 6. European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (2014). Breakpoint tables for interpretation of MICs and zone diameters. Version 4.0, January 2014. Available at: http://www.eucast.org/clinical_breakpoints/. Accessed January 1, 2014. 7. Pfaller MA, Diekema DJ (2010). Epidemiology of invasive mycoses in North America. Crit Rev Microbiol 36: 1-53. 8. Pfaller MA, Diekema DJ, Andes D, Arendrup MC, Brown SD, Lockhart SR, Motyl M, Perlin DS (2011). Clinical breakpoints for the echinocandins and Candida revisited: Integration of molecular, clinical, and microbiological data to arrive at species-specific interpretive criteria. Drug Resist Updat 14: 164-176. ABSTRACT Activity of a Novel Echinocandin Biafungin (CD101) Tested against Most Common Candida and Aspergillus Species, Including Echinocandin- and Azole-resistant Strains M CASTANHEIRA, SA MESSER, PR RHOMBERG, RN JONES, MA PFALLER JMI Laboratories, North Liberty, Iowa, USA C

PATENT

https://www.google.com/patents/WO2015035102A2?cl=en

BIAFUNGIN ACETATE IS USED AS STARTING MATERIAL

Example 30b: Synthesis of Compound 31

Step a. Nitration of Biafungin Acetate

To a stirring solution of biafungin (1 00 mg, 0.078 mmol) in glacial acetic acid(1 .5 ml_) was added sodium nitrite (1 1 mg, 0.159 mmol) and the reaction was stirred at ambient temperature for 20 hours. The mixture was applied directly to reversed phase H PLC (Isco CombiFlash Rf; 50g RediSep C1 8 column, 5 to 95% acetonitrile in Dl water containing 0.1 % formic acid: 15 minute gradient). The pure fractions were pooled and lyophilized to yield 85 mg of the desired product as a light yellow solid, formate salt. 1 H-NMR (300 M Hz, Methanol-d4) δ 8.58 (d, 1 H, J = 1 1 .7 Hz), 8.47 (t, 2H, J = 8.7Hz), 8.05 (d, 1 H, J = 2.1 Hz), 7.99 (d, 2H, J = 9.3 Hz), 7.82 (d, 2H, J = 8.7 Hz), 7.79-7.60 (m, 12H), 7.1 7 (d, 1 H, J = 8.7 Hz), 7.03 (d, 2H, J = 9 Hz), 5.48 (d, 1 H, J = 6 Hz), 5.08 (dd, 1 H, J = 1 .2, 5.7 Hz), 4.95-4.73 (m, 5H), 4.68-4.56 (m, 2H), 4.53 (d, 1 H, J = 5.7 Hz), 4.48-4.39 (m, 2H), 4.31 -3.79 (m, 6H), 4.04 (t, 2H, J = 5.7 Hz), 3.72-3.44 (m,3H), 3.1 8 (s, 9H), 2.60-1 .99 (m, 5H), 1 .83 (m, 2H, J = 8.7 Hz), 1 .56-1 .35 (m, 5H), 1 .28 (d, 6H, J = 4.2 Hz), 1 .09 (d, 3H, J = 1 0.2 Hz), 0.99 (t, 3H, J = 8.7 Hz) ; LC/MS, [M/2+H]+: 635.79, 635.80 calculated.

Step b. Reduction of Nitro-Biafungin To Amino-Biafungin

To a stirring solution of Nitro-Biafungin (1 00 mg, 0.075 mmol) in glacial acetic acid(1 .5 ml_) was added zinc powder (50 mg, 0.77 mmol) and the reaction was stirred at ambient temperature for 1 hour. The mixture was filtered and applied directly to reversed phase HPLC (Isco CombiFlash Rf, 50g Redisep C18 column; 5 to 95% acetonitrile in Dl water containing 0.1 % formic acid: 15 minute gradient). The pure fractions were pooled and lyophilized to yield 55 mg of the desired product as a white solid, formate salt. 1 H-NMR (300 MHz, Methanol-d4) 5 8.47 (bs, 1 H), 7.99 (d, 2H, J = 1 0.8Hz), 7.82 (d, 2H, J = 7.5 Hz), 7.80-7.67 (m, 6H), 7.62 (d, 2H, J = 8.7 Hz), 7.03 (d, 2H, J = 7.5 Hz), 6.77 (d, 1 H, J = 1 .9 Hz), 6.68 (d, 1 H, J = 8.2 Hz), 6.55 (dd, 2H, J = 8.2, 1 .9 Hz), 5.43 (d, 1 H, J = 2.5 Hz), 5.05 (d, 1 H, J = 3 Hz), 4.83-4.73 (m, 2H), 4.64- 4.56 (m, 2H), 4.43-4.34 (m, 2H), 4.31 -4.15 (m, 4H), 4.03-4.08 (m, 1 H), 4.1 1 -3.89 (m, 8H), 3.83 (d, 1 H, J = 1 0.8 Hz), 3.68-3.47 (m, 3H), 3.1 7 (s, 9H), 2.57-2.42 (m, 2H), 2.35-2.27 (m, 1 H), 2.14-1 .98 (m, 2H), 1 .83 (m, 2H, J = 6 Hz), 1 .56-1 .38 (m, 4H), 1 .28 (dd, 6H, J = 6.5, 2 Hz), 1 .09 (d, 3H, J = 7 Hz), 0.986 (t, 3H, J = 7 Hz); High Res LC/MS: [M+H]+ 1241 .61 63; 1241 .6136 calculated.

Step c. Reaction of Amino-Biafungin with lnt-2 to Produce Compound 31

To a stirring solution of Amino-Biafungin (50 mg, 0.04 mmol) in DM F (1 ml_) was added formyl-Met-Leu-Phe- -Ala-OSu (lnt-2) (36 mg, 0.06 mmol) and DI PEA (7 uL, 0.04 mmol). The reaction was stirred at ambient temperature for 1 8 hours. The mixture was applied directly to reversed phase HPLC (Isco CombiFlash Rf; 50g Redisep C1 8 column; 5 to 95% acetonitrile in Dl water containing 0.1 % formic acid: 15 minute gradient). The pure fractions were pooled and lyophilized to yield 26 mg of a white solid as a formate salt. 1 H-NMR (300 M Hz, Methanol-d4) 5 8.55 (bs, 1 H), 8.44 (t, 1 H, J = 10 Hz), 8.1 8 (d, 1 H, J = 6 Hz), 8.1 1 (s, 1 H), 7.99 (d, 2H, J = 1 0 Hz), 7.84-7.70 (m, 6H), 7.63 (d, 2H, J = 7.8 Hz), 7.32-7.1 9 (m, 6H), 7.03 (d, 4H, J = 9 Hz), 6.87 (d, 1 H, J = 8.1 Hz), 5.44 (d, 1 H, J = 1 0.5 Hz), 5.05 (d, 1 H, J = 4.5 Hz), 4.83-4.74 (m, 2H), 4.66-4.50 (m, 6H), 4.45-4.29 (m, 10H), 4.1 9-3.82 (m, 1 0H), 3.67-3.57 (m, 6H), 3.1 7 (s, 9H), 2.64-2.46 (m, 6 H), 2.14-1 .92 (m, 6H), 1 .84 (m, 4H, J = 6 Hz), 1 .62-1 .40 (m, 8H), 1 .32-1 .22 (m, 6H), 1 .09 (d, 3H, J = 9 Hz), 0.99 (t, 3H, J = 7.5 Hz), 0.88 (m, 6H, J = 6.8 Hz) ; High Res LC/MS, [M/2+H]+ 865.4143, 865.4147 calculated.

REFERENCES

  1. Denning, DW (June 2002). “Echinocandins: a new class of antifungal.”. The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy 49 (6): 889–91. doi:10.1093/jac/dkf045. PMID 12039879.
  2.  Morris MI, Villmann M (September 2006). “Echinocandins in the management of invasive fungal infections, part 1”. Am J Health Syst Pharm 63 (18): 1693–703.doi:10.2146/ajhp050464.p1. PMID 16960253.
  3. Morris MI, Villmann M (October 2006). “Echinocandins in the management of invasive fungal infections, Part 2”. Am J Health Syst Pharm 63 (19): 1813–20.doi:10.2146/ajhp050464.p2. PMID 16990627.
  4. ^ Jump up to:a b “Pharmacotherapy Update – New Antifungal Agents: Additions to the Existing Armamentarium (Part 1)”.
  5.  Debono, M; Gordee, RS (1994). “Antibiotics that inhibit fungal cell wall development”.Annu Rev Microbiol 48: 471–497. doi:10.1146/annurev.mi.48.100194.002351.

17 Eschenauer, G; Depestel, DD; Carver, PL (March 2007). “Comparison of echinocandin antifungals.”. Therapeutics and clinical risk management 3 (1): 71–97. PMC 1936290.PMID 18360617.

///////////Biafungin™,  CD 101 IV,  CD 101 Topical,  CD101,  SP 3025, PHASE 2, CIDARA, Orphan Drug, Fast Track Designation, Seachaid Pharmaceuticals,  Qualified Infectious Disease Product, QIDP, UNII-G013B5478J, 1396640-59-7, 1631754-41-0, Vulvovaginal candidiasis, Echinocandin B, FUNGIN

FREE FORM

CCCCCOc1ccc(cc1)c2ccc(cc2)c3ccc(cc3)C(=O)N[C@H]4C[C@@H](O)[C@H](NC(=O)[C@@H]5[C@@H](O)[C@@H](C)CN5C(=O)[C@@H](NC(=O)C(NC(=O)[C@@H]6C[C@@H](O)CN6C(=O)C(NC4=O)[C@@H](C)O)[C@H](O)[C@@H](O)c7ccc(O)cc7)[C@@H](C)O)OCC[N+](C)(C)C

AND OF ACETATE

CCCCCOc1ccc(cc1)c2ccc(cc2)c3ccc(cc3)C(=O)N[C@H]4C[C@@H](O)[C@H](NC(=O)[C@@H]5[C@@H](O)[C@@H](C)CN5C(=O)[C@@H](NC(=O)C(NC(=O)[C@@H]6C[C@@H](O)CN6C(=O)[C@@H](NC4=O)[C@@H](C)O)[C@H](O)[C@@H](O)c7ccc(O)cc7)[C@@H](C)O)OCC[N+](C)(C)C.CC(=O)[O-]

Three antifungal drugs approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration, caspofungin, anidulafungin, and micafungin, are known to inhibit β-1 ,3-glucan synthase which have the structures shown below.

caspofungin

Anidulafungin

Other exemplary p-1 ,3-glucan synthase inhibitors include,

echinocandin B

cilofungin

pneumocandin A0

pneumocandin B0

L-705589

L-733560

A-174591

or a salt thereof,

Biafungin


or a salt thereof,

Amino-biafungin


or a salt thereof,

Amino-AF-053

ASP9726

Yet other exemplary p-1 ,3-glucan synthase inhibitors include, without limitation:

Papulacandin B

Ergokonin

//////////////

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VELPATASVIR (GS-5816), GILEAD SCIENCES, велпатасвир, فالباتاسفير , 维帕他韦 ,


img

VELPATASVIR (GS-5816), GILEAD SCIENCES

CAS 1377049-84-7

Molecular Formula: C49H54N8O8
Molecular Weight: 883.00186 g/mol

Hepatitis C virus NS 5 protein inhibitors

KEEP WATCHING AS I ADD MORE DATA, SYNTHESIS……………

Gilead Sciences, Inc. INNOVATOR

Elizabeth M. Bacon, Jeromy J. Cottell, Ashley Anne Katana, Darryl Kato, Evan S. Krygowski, John O. Link, James Taylor, Chinh Viet Tran, Martin Teresa Alejandra Trejo, Zheng-Yu Yang, Sheila Zipfel,

Elizabeth Bacon

Senior Research Associate II at Gilead Sciences

Methyl {(2S)-1-[(2S,5S)-2-(5-{2-[(2S,4S)-1-{(2R)-2- [(methoxycarbonyl)amino]-2-phenylacetyl}-4- (methoxymethyl)pyrrolidin-2-yl]-1 ,1 1 dihydroisochromeno[4′,3′:6,7]naphtho[1 ,2-d]imidazol-9-yl}-1 H-imidazol-2-yl)-5- methylpyrrolidin-1 -yl]-3-methyl-1 -oxobutan-2-yl}carbamate

methyl {(2S)-1-[(2S,5S)-2-(9-{2-[(2S,4S)-1-{(2R)-2-[(methoxycarbonyl)amino]-2-phenylacetyl}-4-(methoxymethyl)pyrrolidin-2-yl]-1H-imidazol-5-yl}-1,11-dihydroisochromeno[4′,3′:6,7]naphtho[1,2-d]imidazol-2-yl)-5-methylpyrrolidin-1-yl]-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl}carbamate

methyl {(2S)-1 – [(2S,5S)-2-(5-{2-[(2S,4S)-l- {(2R)-2-[(methoxycarbonyl)amino]-2-phenylacetyl} -4-(methoxymethyl) pyrrolidin-2-yl]-l,l 1 dihydroisochromeno [4′,3′:6,7]naphtho[l,2-d]imidazol-9-yl}-lH-imidazol-2-yl)- 5-methylpyrrolidin-l-yl]-3-methyl-l -oxobutan-2-yl}carbamate

str1

Research Scientist I at Gilead Sciences

{(2S)-1-[(2S,5S)-2-(9-{2-[(2S,4S)-1-{(2R)-2-[(Méthoxycarbonyl)amino]-2-phénylacétyl}-4-(méthoxyméthyl)-2-pyrrolidinyl]-1H-imidazol-4-yl}-1,11-dihydroisochroméno[4′,3′:6,7]naphto[1,2-d]imidazol-2-yl)-5 -méthyl-1-pyrrolidinyl]-3-méthyl-1-oxo-2-butanyl}carbamate de méthyle
Carbamic acid, N-[(1R)-2-[(2S,4S)-2-[4-[1,11-dihydro-2-[(2S,5S)-1-[(2S)-2-[(methoxycarbonyl)amino]-3-methyl-1-oxobutyl]-5-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl][2]benzopyrano[4′,3′:6,7]naphth[1,2-d]imidazol-9-yl]-1H- imidazol-2-yl]-4-(methoxymethyl)-1-pyrrolidinyl]-2-oxo-1-phenylethyl]-, methyl ester

Methyl {(2S)-1-[(2S,5S)-2-(9-{2-[(2S,4S)-1-{(2R)-2-[(methoxycarbonyl)amino]-2-phenylacetyl}-4-(methoxymethyl)pyrrolidin-2-yl]-1H-imidazol-4-yl}-1,11-dihydro[2]benzopyrano[4′,3′:6,7]naphtho[1,2-d]imidazol-2-yl)-5-methylpyrrolidin-1-yl]-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl}carbamate

str1

Velpatasvir.png

.

str1

Description Pan-genotypic HCV NS5A inhibitor
Molecular Target HCV NS5A protein
Mechanism of Action HCV non-structural protein 5A inhibitor
Therapeutic Modality Small molecule
Latest Stage of Development Phase II
Standard Indication Hepatitis C virus (HCV)
Indication Details Treat HCV genotype 1 infection; Treat HCV infection
  • Gilead Sciences
  • Class Antivirals; Carbamates; Chromans; Imidazoles; Naphthols; Phenylacetates; Phosphoric acid esters; Pyrimidine nucleotides; Pyrrolidines; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action Hepatitis C virus NS 5 protein inhibitors
  • Registered Hepatitis C

Most Recent Events

  • 14 Jul 2016 Registered for Hepatitis C in Canada (PO)
  • 08 Jul 2016 Registered for Hepatitis C in Liechtenstein, Iceland, Norway, European Union (PO)
  • 30 Jun 2016 Gilead Sciences plans a phase III trial for Hepatitis C (Combination therapy, Treatment-experienced) in Japan (PO (NCT02822794)

 

Darryl Kato works on a hepatitis treatment at Gilead Sciences Inc.’s lab

Velpatasvir, also known as GS-5816, is a potent and selective Hepatitis C virus NS5A inhibitor. GS-5816 has demonstrated pan-genotypic activity and a high barrier to resistance in HCV replicon assays. GS-5816 demonstrated pangenotypic antiviral activity in patients with genotype 1-4 HCV infection. It will be further evaluated in combination with other pangenotypic direct-acting antivirals to achieve the goal of developing a well-tolerated, highly effective treatment for all HCV genotypes.

WO 2013/075029. Compound I has the formula:


methyl {(2S)-1-[(2S,5S)-2-(9-{2-[(2S,4S)-1-{(2R)-2-[(methoxycarbonyl)amino]-2-phenylacetyl}-4-(methoxymethyl)pyrrolidin-2-yl]-1H-imidazol-5-yl}-1,11-dihydroisochromeno[4′,3′:6,7]naphtho[1,2-d]imidazol-2-yl)-5-methylpyrrolidin-1-yl]-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl}carbamate

.

PAPER

Patent Highlights: Recently Approved HCV NS5a Drugs

Cidara Therapeutics, 6310 Nancy Ridge Dr., Suite 101, San Diego, California 92121, United States
Org. Process Res. Dev., Article ASAP

Abstract

Five inhibitors of the NS5a enzyme have been approved as part of oral regimens for the treatment of hepatitis C virus, including daclatasvir (Bristol-Myers Squibb), ledipasvir (Gilead Sciences), ombitasvir (AbbVie), elbasvir (Merck), and velpatasvir (Gilead Sciences). This article reviews worldwide patents and patent applications that have been published on synthetic routes and final forms for these five drugs.

 

PATENT

https://google.com/patents/WO2013075029A1?cl=en

Example NP

Methyl {(2S)-1-[(2S,5S)-2-(5-{2-[(2S,4S)-1-{(2R)-2- [(methoxycarbonyl)amino]-2-phenylacetyl}-4- (methoxymethyl)pyrrolidin-2-yl]-1 ,1 1 dihydroisochromeno[4′,3′:6,7]naphtho[1 ,2-d]imidazol-9-yl}-1 H-imidazol-2-yl)-5- methylpyrrolidin-1 -yl]-3-methyl-1 -oxobutan-2-yl}carbamate

Methyl {(2S)-l-[(2S,5S)-2-(5-{2-[(2S,4S)-l-{(2R)-2-[(methoxycarbonyl)amino]-2-phenylacetyl}-4- (methoxymethyl)pyrrolidin-2-yl]-l,ll dihydroisochromeno [4′,3′:6,7]naphtho[l,2-d]imidazol-9- yl}-lH-imidazol-2-yl)-5-methylpyrrolidin-l-yl]-3-methyl-l-oxobutan-2-yl}carbamate

The synthesis of this compound was prepared according to the procedure of example LR-1 with the following modification. During the Suzuki coupling, (2S)-l-[(2S,5S)-2-(5-iodo-lH-imidazol- 2-yl)-5-methylpyrrolidin-l-yl]-2-[(l-meth^ was used in lieu of

(2S)-l -[(2S)-2-(5-bromo-lH-imidazol-2-yl)pyrrolidin-l-yl]-2-[(l-methoxyethenyl)amino]-3- methylbutan-l-one. The crade material was purified by preparative HPLC to provide methyl {(2S)-1 – [(2S,5S)-2-(5-{2-[(2S,4S)-l- {(2R)-2-[(methoxycarbonyl)amino]-2-phenylacetyl} -4-(methoxymethyl) pyrrolidin-2-yl]-l,l 1 dihydroisochromeno [4′,3′:6,7]naphtho[l,2-d]imidazol-9-yl}-lH-imidazol-2-yl)- 5-methylpyrrolidin-l-yl]-3-methyl-l -oxobutan-2-yl}carbamate as a white solid (17 mg, 0.019 mmol, 17%). lU NMR (400 MHz, cd3od) δ 8.63 (s, 1H), 8.19 (d, 1H), 8.04 (m, 1H), 7.87 (m, 2H), 7.66 (m, 2H), 7.52 – 7.39 (m, 6H), 5.50 (m, 2H), 5.32 (s, 2H), 5.16 (m, 1H), 4.12 (m, 1H), 3.80 (m, 4H), 3.66 (s, 6H), 3.43 (m, 4H), 3.23 (s, 3H), 2.72-1.99 (m, 9H), 1.56 (d, 3H), 1.29 (m, 1H), 0.99 (d, 3H), 0.88 (d, 3H).

PATENT

US 20150361073 A1

Scheme 1

Compound (J)

Compound (I) H CO- Com pound (G)

st alkylation: Conversion of Compound (I-a) to Compound (G-a)

Compound (I-a) (45 g, 1.0 equiv.), Compound (J-a) (26.7g, 1.03 equiv.) and potassium carbonate (20.7g, 1.5 equiv.) in dichloromethane (450 mL) were stirred at about 20 °C for approximately 3-4 hours. After the completion of the reaction, water (450 mL) was charged into the reactor and the mixture was stirred. Layers were separated, and the aqueous layer was extracted with dichloromethane (200 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with 2 wt% NaH2PO4/10wt% NaCl solution (450 mL). The organic layer was then concentrated and the solvent was swapped from dichloromethane into tetrahydrofuran. A purified sample of Compound (G-a) has the following spectrum: ¾ NMR (400 MHz,

CDC13) δ 7.90-7.94 (m, 1H), 7.81-7.85 (m, 1H), 7.72 (s, 1H), 7.69 (s, 1H), 7.66 (s, 1H), 5.19-5.56 (2dd, 2H), 5.17 (s, 2H), 4.73 (t, 1H), 4.39-4.48 (m, 1H), 3.70-3.77 (m, 1H), 3.37-3.45 (m, 2H), 3.33-3.35 (d, 3H), 3.28-3.32 (m, 1H), 3.20-3.25 (dd, 1H), 2.92-2.96 (dt, 1H), 2.44-2.59 (m, 4H), 1.97-2.09 (m, 1H), 1.44 (d, 9H).

Alternative reagents and reaction conditions to those disclosed above may also be employed. For example, alternative starting material may be Compound (I) where X may be -CI, -Br, -OTs, -OS02Ph, -OS02Me, -OS02CF3, -OS02R, , and -OP(0)(OR)2 and Y may be -CI, -Br, -OTs, -OS02Ph, -OS02Me, -OS02CF3, -OS02R, and -OP(0)(OR)2. R may be alkyl, haloalkyl, or an optionally substituted aryl.

Various bases may also be employed, such as phosphate salts (including but not limited to KH2P04, K3P04, Na2HP04, and Na3P04) and carbonate salts (including but not limited to Na2C03,Cs2C03, and NaHC03). Where the starting material is Compound (J), KHC03 or preformed potassium, sodium, and cesium salts of Compound (J) may also be used.

Alternative solvents can include 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, tetrahydrofuran, isopropyl acetate, ethyl acetate, tert-butyl methyl ether, cyclopentyl methyl ether, dimethylformamide, acetone, MEK, and MIBK.

The reaction temperature may range from about 10 °C to about 60 °C.

” alkylation: Conversion of Compound (G-a) to Compound (B-a):

A solution of Compound (G-a) (prepared as described earlier starting from 45 g of Compound (I-a)) was mixed with Compound (H) (42.9g, 1.5 equiv.), and cesium carbonate (26. lg, 0.8 equiv.). The reaction mixture was stirred at about 40-45 °C until reaction was complete and then cooled to about 20 °C. Water (450 mL) and ethyl acetate (225 mL) were added and the mixture was agitated. Layers were separated, and the aqueous layer was extracted with ethyl acetate (150 mL). Combined organic phase was concentrated and solvent was swapped to toluene. A purified sample of Compound (B-a) has the following spectrum: ¾ NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) 57.90-7.93 (m, 1H), 7.81-7.83 (m, 1H), 7.73 (s, 1H), 7.63-7.64 (d, 1H), 7.59-7.60 (d, 1H), 5.52-5.63 (m, 1H), 5.30-5.43 (q, 1H), 5.13-5.23 (s+m, 3H), 4.56-4.64 (m, 2H), 4.39-4.48 (m, 1H), 4.20-4.27 (m, 1H), 3.62-3.79 (m, 2H), 3.66 (s, 2H), 3.36-3.45 (m, 2H), 3.34-3.35 (d, 3H), 3.07-3.25 (m, 3H), 2.59-2.37 (m, 5H), 1.97-2.16 (m, 3H), 1.60 (s, 3H), 1.38-1.45 (m, 12H), 0.91-1.03 (m, 6H).

Alternative reagents and reaction conditions to those disclosed above may also be employed. For example, alternative starting material may include Compound (G) where Y may be -CI, -Br, -OTs, -OS02Ph, -OS02Me, -OS02CF3, -OS02R, , or -OP(0)(OR)2. where R is alkyl, aryl, or substituted aryl. In some embodiments, the substituted aryl may be an aryl having one or more substituents, such as alkyl, alkoxy, hydroxyl, nitro, halogen, and others as discussed above.

Various bases may be employed. Non-limiting examples can include phosphate salts (including but not limited to KH2P04, K3P04, Na2HP04, and Na3P04) and carbonate salts (including but not limited to K2C03 or Na2C03). If Compound (H) is used as the starting material, Li2C03 or preformed potassium, sodium, and cesium salt of Compound (H) may be employed.

Alternative solvents may include 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, dichloromethane, toluene, mixtures of THF/Toluene, isopropyl acetate, ethyl acetate, l-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone, Ν,Ν-dimethylacetamide, acetone, MEK,and MIBK. An alternative additive may be

potassium iodide, and the reaction temperature may range from about 40 °C to about 60 °C or about 40 °C to about 50 °C.

A toluene solution of Compound (B-a) (604 g solution from 45 g of Compound (I-a)) was charged to a reaction vessel containing ammonium acetate (185.2 g) and isopropanol (91.0 g). The contents of the reactor were agitated at about 90 °C until the reaction was complete (about 16 to 24 hours). The reaction mixture was cooled to about 45 °C, and then allowed to settle for layer separation. Water (226 g) was added to the organic phase, and the resulting mixture was separated at about 30 °C. Methanol (274 g), Celite (26.9 g) and an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide (67.5 g, 50%) and sodium chloride (54.0 g) in water (608 g) were added to the organic phase, and the resulting mixture was agitated for a minimum of 30 minutes. The mixture was then filtered through Celite and rinsed forward with a mixture of toluene (250 g) and isopropanol (1 1 g). The biphasic filtrate was separated and water (223 g) was added to the organic phase, and the resulting mixture was agitated at about 30 °C for at least 15 minutes. The mixture was filtered through Celite and rinsed forward with toluene (91 g). The organic layer was concentrated by vacuum distillation to 355 g and was added over 30 minutes to another reactor containing w-heptane (578 g). The resulting slurry is filtered, with the wetcake was washed with w-heptane (450 mL) and dried in a vacuum oven to afford Compound (C-a). A purified sample of Compound (C-a) has the following spectrum: *H NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) δ 12.27-11.60 (m, 1 H), 1 1.18-10.69 (m, 1 H), 7.83 – 7.44 (m, 4 H), 7.36 (d, J = 7.9 Hz, 1 H), 7.28 – 7.05 (m, 1 H), 5.65 – 5.25 (m, 1H), 5.25 – 4.83 (m, 4 H), 4.34 – 4.03 (m, 2 H), 3.93 – 3.63 (m, 4 H), 3.52 (s, 1 H), 3.35 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 4 H), 3.19 – 2.94 (m, 4 H), 2.88 (dd, J = 12.0, 7.9 Hz, 3 H), 2.66 – 1.85 (m, 5 H), 1.79 (s, 5 H), 1.37 – 1.12 (m, 6H), 1.04-0.98 (m, 6 H), 0.82 (t, J = 7.7 Hz, 2 H).

Alternative reagents and reaction conditions to those disclosed above may also be employed. For example, alternative reagents, in lieu of ammonium acetate, can include hexamethyldisilazane, ammonia, ammonium formate, ammonium propionate, ammonium hexanoate, and ammonium octanoate. Various solvents, such as toluene, xylene, an alcohol

(including but not limited to isopropanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, 2-methoxyethanol, and glycols, such as ethylene glycol and propylene glycol) may be employed. Alternative catalyst/additives may include magnesium stearate, acetic acid, propionic acid, and acetic anhydride. The reaction temperature may range from about 60 °C to about 110 °C or about 85 °C to about 95 °C.

D

Preparation of Compound (D-a) using DDQ as oxidant:

A solution of Compound (C-a) (255.84 g) in 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (1535 mL) was cooled to about 0 °C and acetic acid (0.92 mL) was added. To this mixture was added a solution of DDQ (76.98 g) in 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (385 mL) over about 30 minutes. Upon reaction completion, a 10 wt% aqueous potassium hydroxide solution (1275 mL) was added over about 30 minutes and the mixture was warmed to about 20 °C. Celite (101.5 g) was added and the slurry was filtered through Celite (50.0 g) and the filter cake was rinsed with 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (765 mL). The phases of the filtrate were separated. The organic phase was washed successively aqueous potassium hydroxide solution (1020 mL, 10 wt%), aqueous sodium bisulfite solution (1020 mL, 10 wt%), aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution (1020 mL, 5 wt%) and aqueous sodium chloride solution (1020 mL, 5 wt%). The organic phase was then concentrated to a volume of about 650 mL. Cyclopentyl methyl ether (1530 mL) was added and the resulting solution was concentrated to a volume of about 710 mL. The temperature was adjusted to about 40 °C and Compound (D-a) seed (1.0 g) was added. The mixture was agitated until a slurry forms, then methyl tert-butyl ether (2300 mL) was added over about 3 hours. The slurry was cooled to about 20 °C over about 2 hours and filtered. The filter cake was rinsed with methyl tert-butyl ether (1275 mL) and dried in a vacuum oven at about 40 °C to provide Compound (D-a). A purified sample of Compound (D-a) has the following spectrum: ¾ NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) δ 13.05-10.50 (comp m, 2H), 8.65-6.95 (comp m, 8H), 5.50-5.35 (m, 2H), 5.25^1.60 (comp m, 3H), 4.35-4.20 (m, 1H), 4.00-3.65 (comp m, 4H), 3.60-3.45 (m, 1H), 3.45-3.25 (comp m, 4H), 3.25-3.00 (comp m, 2H), 2.95-1.65 (comp m, 6H), 1.47 (br s, 9H), 1.40-1.25 (comp m, 2H), 1.20-0.70 (comp m, 9H).

Alternative Preparation of Compound (D-a) using Mn02 as oxidant:

A mixture of Compound (C-a) (50.0 g), manganese (IV) oxide (152.8 g) and dichloromethane (500 mL) is stirred at about 20 °C. Upon completion of the reaction, Celite (15 g) was added. The resulting slurry was filtered through Celite (20 g) and the filter cake was rinsed with dichloromethane (500 mL). The filtrate was concentrated and solvent exchanged into cyclopentyl methyl ether (250 mL). The resulting solution was warmed to about 60 °C and treated with an aqueous potassium hydroxide solution (250 mL, 10wt%). The biphasic mixture is stirred at about 45 °C for about 12 hours. The phases are then separated and the organic phase is concentrated to a volume of about 150 mL. The concentrate is filtered, seeded with Compound (D-a) seed and agitated at about 40 °C to obtain a slurry. Methyl tert-butyl ether (450 mL) was added to the slurry over 30 minutes and the resulting mixture was cooled to about 20 °C. The precipitated solid was filtered, rinsed with methyl tert-butyl ether (250 mL) and dried in a vacuum oven at about 40 °C to obtain Compound (D-a).

Alternative Preparation of Compound (D-a) through catalytic dehydrogenation

A mixture of Compound (C-a) (2.5 g, 2.7 mmol, 1 equiv), 5% Pd/Al203 (2.5 g) and 1-propanol (25 mL, degassed) was stirred at reflux under inert environment for about 5.5 hours. The reaction mixture was then cooled to ambient temperature and filtered through Celite, and the residue rinsed with 1-propanol (2 x 5 mL) to obtain a solution of Compound (D-a).

Alternative reagents and reaction conditions to those disclosed above may also be employed. For example, in a reaction scheme employing stoichiometric oxidants, alternative oxidants may include manganese(IV) oxide, copper(II) acetate, copper(II) trifluoroacetate, copper(II) chloride, copper(II) bromide, bromine (Br2), iodine (I2), N-chlorosuccinimide, N-bromosuccinimide, N-iodosuccinimide, 1 ,4-benzoquinone, tetrachloro-l,4-benzoquinone (chloranil), eerie ammonium nitrate, hydrogen peroxide, tert-butyl hydroperoxide, άϊ-tert-butyl peroxide, benzoyl peroxide, oxygen ((¾), sodium hypochlorite, sodium hypobromite, tert-butyl hypochlorite, Oxone, diacetoxyiodobenzene, and bis(trifluoroacetoxy)iodobenzene. Various additives may be employed, and non-limiting examples may be carbonate bases (e.g., potassium carbonate, potassium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, and the like), amines (e.g., triethylamine, diisopropylethylamine and the like), and acids (e.g., trifluoroacetic acid, trichloroacetic acid, benzoic acid, hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, ara-toluenesulfonic acid, methanesulfonic acid), sodium acetate, potassium acetate, and the like). The reaction temperature may range from about -10°C to 80 °C. The reaction may take place in solvents, such as halogenated solvents (e.g., dichloromethane, 1,2-dichloroethane, etc.), aromatic solvents (e.g., toluene, xylenes, etc.), ethereal solvents (tetrahydrofuran, 1,4-dioxane, cyclopentyl methyl ether, 1 ,2-dimethoxyethane, diglyme, triglyme, etc.), alcoholic solvents (e.g., methanol, ethanol, w-propanol, isopropanol, n-butanol, tert-butanol, tert-amyl alcohol, ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, etc.), ester solvents (e.g., ethyl acetate, isopropyl acetate, tert-butyl acetate, etc.), ketone solvents (e.g., acetone, 2-butanone, 4-methyl-2-pentanone, etc.), polar aprotic solvents (e.g., acetonitrile, Ν,Ν-dimethylformamide, N,N-dimethylacetamide, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone, pyridine, dimethyl sulfoxide, etc.), amine solvents (e.g., triethylamine, morpholine, etc.), acetic acid, and water.

In reaction schemes employing catalytic oxidants, alternative catalysts may include palladium catalysts (e.g., palladium(II) acetate, palladium(II) trifluoroacetate, palladium(II) chloride, palladium(II) bromide, palladium(II) iodide, palladium(II) benzoate, palladium(II) sulfate, tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0), tris(dibenzylideneacetone)dipalladium(0), bis(tri-iert-butylphosphine)palladium(0), bis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(II) chloride, bis(acetonitrile)palladium(II) chloride, bis(benzonitrile)palladium(II) chloride, palladium on carbon, palladium on alumina, palladium on hydroxyapatite, palladium on calcium carbonate, palladium on barium sulfate, palladium(II) hydroxide on carbon), platinum catalysts (e.g., platinum on carbon, platinum(IV) oxide, chloroplatinic acid, potassium chloroplatinate), rhodium catalysts (e.g., rhodium on carbon, rhodium on alumina,

bis(styrene)bis(triphenylphosphine)rhodium(0)), ruthenium catalysts (e.g., ruthenium(II) salen, dichloro(para-cymene)ruthenium(II) dimer), iridium catalysts (e.g., iridium(III) chloride, (l,5-cyclooctadiene)diiridium(I) dichloride, bis(l,5-cyclooctadiene)iridium(I) tetrafluoroborate, bis(triphenylphosphine)(l,5-cyclooctadiene)iridium(I) carbonyl chloride, bis(triphenylphosphine)(l,5-cyclooctadiene)iridium(I) tetrafluoroborate), copper catalysts (e.g., copper(I) chloride, copper(II) chloride, copper(I) bromide, copper(II) bromide, copper(I) iodide, copper(II) iodide, copper(II) acetate, copper(II) trifluoroacetate, copper(I) trifluoromethanesulfonate, copper(II) trifluoromethanesulfonate, copper(II) sulfate), iron catalysts (e.g., iron(II) sulfate, iron(II) chloride, iron(III) chloride), vanadium catalysts (e.g., dichloro(ethoxy)oxovanadium, dichloro(isopropoxy)oxovanadium), manganese catalysts (e.g., manganese(rV) oxide, manganese(III) (salen) chloride), cobalt catalysts (e.g., cobalt(II) acetate, cobalt(II) chloride, cobalt(II) salen), indium(III) chloride, silver(I) oxide, sodium tungstate, quinone catalysts (e.g., 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-l,4-benzoquinone, 1,4-benzoquinone, and tetrachloro-l,4-benzoquinone (chloranil)).

Alternative co-oxidants can include, but are not limited to, sodium nitrite, copper(II) acetate, sodium persulfate, potassium persulfate, ammonium persulfate, sodium perborate, nitrobenzenesulfonate, 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-l-oxyl (TEMPO), pyridine-N-oxide, hydrogen peroxide, tert-butyl hydroperoxide, di-tert-butyl peroxide, benzoyl peroxide, oxygen (02), sodium hypochlorite, sodium hypobromite, tert-butyl hypochlorite, oxone, diacetoxyiodobenzene, and bis(trifluoroacetoxy)iodobenzene.

Varoius hydrogen acceptors may be employed. Non-limiting examples can include unsaturated hydrocarbons (e.g., tert-butylethylene, tert-butyl acetylene, 2-hexyne, cyclohexene, and the like), acrylate esters (e.g., methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate, isopropyl acrylate, tert-butyl acrylate, and the like), maleate esters (e.g., dimethyl maleate, diethyl maleate, diisopropyl maleate, dibutyl maleate, and the like), fumarate esters (e.g., dimethyl fumarate, diethyl fumarate, diisopropyl fumarate, dibutyl fumarate, and the like), and quinones (e.g. chloranil, 1 ,4-benzoquinone, etc.).

Alternative additives may be employed, such as carbonate bases (e.g., potassium carbonate, potassium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, etc.), amine bases (e.g., triethylamine, diisopropylethylamine, etc.), phosphines (e.g., triphenylphosphine, tri(ort zotolyl)phosphine, tricyclohexylphosphine, tri-w-butylphosphine, tri-tert-butylphosphine, etc.), acids (e.g., trifluoroacetic acid, trichloroacetic acid, benzoic acid, hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, ara-toluenesulfonic acid, methanesulfonic acid, etc.), sodium acetate, N-hydroxyphthalimide, salen, 2,2 ‘-bipyri dine, 9,10-phenanthroline, and quinine.

The reaction can proceed at temperatures ranging from about 10 °C to about 120 °C. Various solvents can be employed, including but not limited to halogenated solvents (e.g., dichloromethane, 1,2-dichloroethane, and the like), aromatic solvents (e.g., toluene, xylenes, and the like), ethereal solvents (tetrahydrofuran, 1,4-dioxane, cyclopentyl methyl ether, 1,2-dimethoxyethane, diglyme, triglyme, and the like), alcoholic solvents (e.g., methanol, ethanol, w-propanol, isopropanol, w-butanol, tert-butanol, tert-amyl alcohol, ethylene glycol, propylene glyco, and the like), ester solvents (e.g., ethyl acetate, isopropyl acetate, tert-butyl acetate, and the like), ketone solvents (e.g., acetone, 2-butanone, 4-methyl-2-pentanone, and the like), polar aprotic solvents (e.g., acetonitrile, Ν,Ν-dimethylformamide, Ν,Ν-dimethylacetamide, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone, pyridine, dimethyl sulfoxide, and the like), amine solvents (e.g., triethylamine, morpholine, and the like), acetic acid, and water.

Acetyl chloride (135 mL, 5 equiv.) was added slowly to methanol (750 mL) under external cooling maintaining reaction temperature below 30 °C. The resulting methanolic hydrogen chloride solution was cooled to about 20 °C, and added slowly over about 1 hour to a solution of Compound (D-a) (300 g, 1 equiv.) in methanol (750 mL) held at about 60 °C, and rinsed forward with methanol (300 mL). The reaction mixture was agitated at about 60 °C until reaction was complete (about 1 hour), and then cooled to about 5 °C. The reaction mixture was adjusted to pH 7-8 by addition of sodium methoxide (25 wt. % solution in methanol, 370 mL) over about 20 minutes while maintaining reaction temperature below about 20 °C. Phosphoric acid (85 wt. %, 26 mL, 1 equiv.) and Celite (120 g) were added to the reaction mixture, which was then adjusted to about 20 °C, filtered, and the filter cake was rinsed with methanol (1050 mL). The combined filtrate was polish filtered and treated with phosphoric acid (85 wt. %, 104 mL, 4 equiv.). The mixture was was adjusted to about 60 °C, seeded with Compound (E-a) seed crystals (1.5 g), aged at about 60 °C for 4 hours and cooled slowly to about 20 °C over about 7.5 hours. The precipitated product was filtered, washed with methanol (2 x 600 mL), and dried in a vacuum oven at about 45 °C to provide

Compound (E-a). !H NMR (400 MHz, D20) δ 7.53-6.77 (comp m, 8H), 5.24-4.80 (comp m, 3H), 4.59-4.38 (comp m, 2H), 4.15-3.90 (m, 1H), 3.65-3.38 (comp m, 5H), 3.36-3.14 (comp m, 4H), 2.75 (s, 1H), 2.87-2.66 (m, 1H), 2.29-1.60 (comp m, 6H), 1.27 (d, 3H), 0.76 (m, 6H).

Alternative reagents and reaction conditions to those disclosed above may also be employed. Various deprotection agents are well known to those skilled in the art and include those disclosed in T.W. Greene & P.G.M. Wuts, Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis (4th edition) J. Wiley & Sons, 2007, hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. For example, a wide range of acids may be used, including but not limited to phosphoric acid, trifluoroacetic acid, p-toluenesulfonic acid, methanesulfonic acid, ethanesulfonic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, p-toluenesulfonic acid, 4-bromobenzenesulfonic acid, thionyl chloride,and trimethylsilyl chloride. A wide range of solvents may be employed, including but not limited to water, ethanol, acetonitrile, acetone, tetrahydrofuran, 1 ,4-dioxane, and toluene. Deprotection may proceed at temperatures ranging from about 20 °C to about 110 °C or from about 55 °C to about 65 °C.

A wide range of bases may be employed as a neutralization reagent. Non-limiting examples can include sodium phosphate dibasic, potassium phosphate dibasic, potassium bicarbonate, lithium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, triethylamine, N, N-diisopropylethylamine, and 4-methylmorpholine. Various solvents may be used for neutralization, such as water, ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, acetone, acetonitrile, 2-butanone, 4-methyl-2-pentanone, tetrahydrofuran, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, 1,4-dioxane, ethyl acetate, isopropyl acetate, dichloromethane, and dichloroethane.

Neutralization may proceed at temperatures ranging from about -20 °C to about 60 °C or about 5 °C to about 15 °C.

Various crystallization reagents can be employed. Non-limiting examples may be hydrochloric acid, hydrobromic acid, sulfuric acid, ethanesulfonic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, 4-bromobenzenesulfonic acid, oxalic acid, and glucuronic acid. Solvents for crystallization can include, but is not limited to, water, ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, and acetonitrile. Crystallization may proceed at temperatures ranging from about -20 °C to about 100 °C.

Free-Basing of Compound (E-a) to Prepare Compound (E)

ompound (E-a) OCH, H3CO- Compound (E)

Compound (E-a) (10.0 g, 10.1 mmol) was dissolved in water (100 g) and then dichloromethane (132 g) and 28% ammonium hydroxide (7.2 g) were added sequentially. The biphasic mixture was stirred for 45 minutes. Celite (2.2 g) was added, the mixture was filtered through a bed of additional Celite (5.1 g), and the phases were then separated. The lower organic phase was washed with water (50 g), filtered, and then concentrated by rotary evaporation to produce Compound (E). ‘H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) δ 8.35-7.17 (m, 8H), 5.6^1.68 (m, 3H), 4.41-3.96 (m, 2H), 3.96-3.72 (br s, 1H), 3.74-3.48 (m, 2H), 3.42 (d, 2H), 3.33 (s, 3H), 3.28 (s, 1H), 3.19-3.01 (m, 1H), 3.00-2.79 (m, 1H), 2.69-1.82 (m, 6H), 1.80-1.45 (m, 3H), 1.21-0.73 (m, 8H).

Alternative reagents and reaction conditions to those disclosed above may also be employed. For example, tris-hydrochloride salts of Compound (E) may be used. Various bases may be employed, such as sodium carbonate, potassium carbonate, sodium hydroxide, and potassium hydroxide. Various solvents, such as 2-methyltetrahydrofuran and ethyl acetate, may be employed. The temperature may range from about 15 °C to about 25 °C.

Alternative Free-Basing of Compound (E-b) to Prepare Compound (E)

Compound (E-b) (15.2 g) was dissolved in water (100 g) and then dichloromethane

(132 g) and 28% ammonium hydroxide (7.4 g) were added sequentially. The biphasic mixture was stirred for about 45 minutes. Celite (2.1 g) was added, the mixture was filtered through a bed of additional Celite (5.2 g), and the phases were then separated. The lower organic phase was washed with water (50 g), filtered, and then concentrated by rotary evaporation to produce Compound (E). *H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) δ 7.92-6.73 (m, 8H), 5.51-4.90 (m, 2H), 4.63-4.30 (m, 3H), 4.21-3.78 (m, 1H), 3.73-3.46 (m, 5H), 3.40-3.19 (m, 4H), 3.07-2.49 (m, 3H), 2.41-1.61 (m, 6H), 1.44-1.14 (m, 2H), 1.04-0.55 (m, 7H).

Salt Conversion of Compound (E-a) to Compound (E-b)

A solution of Compound (E-a) (10.0 g, 10.1 mmol), a solution of 37% HCI (10 g) in water (20 g), and acetonitrile (30 g)was warmed to about 50 °C and agitated for about lh. The solution was cooled to about 20 °C and acetonitrile (58 g) was charged to the reactor during which time a slurry formed. The slurry was stirred for about 21 h and then additional acetonitrile (39 g) was added. The slurry was cooled to about 0 °C, held for about 60 min and the solids were then isolated by filtration, rinsed with 7% (w/w) water in acetonitrile (22 g) previously cooled to about 5 °C. The wet cake was partially deliquored to afford

Compound (E-b). *H NMR (400 MHz, D20) δ 7.92-6.73 (m, 8H), 5.51^1.90 (m, 2H),

4.63-4.30 (m, 3H), 4.21-3.78 (m, 1H), 3.73-3.46 (m, 5H), 3.40-3.19 (m, 4H), 3.07-2.49 (m, 3H), 2.41-1.61 (m, 6H), 1.44-1.14 (m, 2H), 1.04-0.55 (m, 7H).

A flask was charged sequentially with 2-chloro-4,6-bis[3-(perfluorohexyl)propyloxy]-1,3,5-triazine (“CDMT”) (2.2 giv) and methanol (8.9 g) and the slurry was cooled to about 0 °C. To the mixture was added NMM (1.3 g) over about 5 minutes, maintaining an internal temperature of less than 20 °C. The solution was stirred for about 20 minutes to produce a solution of 4-(4,6-dimethoxy-l,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-4-methylmorpholinium chloride in methanol.

To a solution of Compound (E) (7.1 g) in dichloromethane (170 g) was added

Compound (Γ) (2.8 g). The solution of 4-(4,6-dimethoxy-l,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-4-methylmorpholinium chloride in methanol was added over 2 minutes followed by a rinse of methanol (1.1 g). After about 2.5 h, the completed reaction solution was washed sequentially with aqueous 10% potassium bicarbonate solution (40 mL), 3% hydrochloric acid (40 mL), and aqueous 10% potassium bicarbonate solution (40 mL). The lower organic phase was washed with water (40 mL), filtered, and then concentrated by rotary evaporation to produce Compound (A). ¾ NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) δ 8.56-6.67 (m, 13H), 5.76^1.94 (m, 4H), 4.86-4.67 (m, 1H), 4.47-3.98 (m, 1H), 3.98-2.72 (m, 15H), 2.74-1.77 (m, 7H), 1.77-1.40 (m, 2H), 1.39-0.53 (m, 8H).

Alternative reagents and reaction conditions to those disclosed above may also be employed. For example, tris-phosphate salts or tris-hydrochloride salts of Compound (G) may be used as alternative starting material. The reaction may take place at a temperature range of from about 10 °C to about 20 °C. Alternative coupling agents include, but are not limited to, EDC/HOBt, HATU, HBTU, TBTU, BOP, PyClOP, PyBOP, DCC/HOBt, COMU, EDCLOxyma, T3P, and 4-(4,6-dimethoxy-l,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-4-methylmorpholinium tetrafluoroborate. An alternative bases that may be employed can be diisopropylethylamine. The reaction may proceed in DMF and at temperatures ranging from about -20 °C to about 30 °C.

Salt Formation and Crystallization of Compound (A)

Crystallization of Compound (A-a)

A flask was charged with Compound (A) (10 g) and ethanol (125 mL) and was then warmed to about 45 °C. Concentrated hydrochloric acid (2.3 mL) was added followed by Compound (A-a) seed crystals (5 mg). The mixture was cooled to about 20 °C over about 5 h and held for about an additional 1 1 h. The solids were isolated by filtration, washed with ethanol (2 x 20 mL), and deliquored to produce Compound (A-a). !H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) δ 8.94-7.22 (m, 14H), 5.78-5.1 1 (m, 5H), 4.53-4.04 (m, 1H), 3.99-3.57 (m, 10H), 3.57-3.41 (m, 2H), 2.99-2.24 (m, 5H), 2.24-1.85 (m, 3H), 1.80-1.50 (m, 2H), 1.39-0.73 (m, 8H).

Alternative Crystallization of Compound (A-b)

A reaction vessel was charged with Compound (A) (25.0 g) followed by ethanol (125 mL) and 10% H3PO4 (250 mL). The solution was seeded with Compound (A-b) (100 mg) and stirred for about 17.5 h. The solids were isolated by filtration, washed with ethanol (2 x 5 mL), deliquored, and dried in a vacuum oven to produce Compound (A-b). JH NMR (400 MHz, D20) δ 7.76-6.48 (m, 13H), 5.53^1.90 (m, 3H), 4.60-4.32 (m, 2H), 4.29-3.76 (m, 1H), 3.70-2.75 (m, 14H), 2.66-1.51 (m, 8H), 1.51-1.09 (m, 3H), 1.05-0.45 (m, 7H).

Alternative reagents and reaction conditions to those disclosed above may also be employed. For example, alternative acids may be hydrochloric acid, hydrobromic acid, L-tartaric acid. Various solvents may be employed, such as methanol, ethanol, water, and isopropanol. The reaction may proceed at temperatures ranging from about 5 °C to about 60 °C.

Free-Basing of Compound (A)

Free-Basing of Compound (A-a) to Prepare Compound (A)

A reaction vessel was charged with Compound (A-a) (18.2 g) followed by ethyl acetate (188 g) and 10% potassium bicarbonate (188 g) and the mixture was stirred for about 25 minutes. The phases were separated and the upper organic phase was then washed with water (188 mL). The resulting organic solution was concentrated, ethanol (188 g) was added, and the solution was evaporated to produce a concentrate (75 g). The resulting concentrate added into water (376 g) to produce a slurry. The solids were isolated by filtration, washed with water (38 g), de liquored and dried in a vacuum oven at about 50 °C to produce

Compound (A).

Alternative Free-Basing of Compound (A-b) to Prepare Compound (A)

om poun –

A reaction vessel was charged with Compound (A-b) (3.0 g) followed by EtOAc (15 mL) and 10% KHCO3 (15 mL) and agitation was initiated. After about 5 h, the phases were separated and the organic phase was washed with water (15 mL) and then concentrated by rotary evaporation under vacuum. The residue was taken up in EtOH (4.5 mL) and then added to water (30 mL) to produce a slurry. After about 15 min, the solids were isolated by filtration rinsing forward water (3 x 3 mL). The solids were dried at about 50 to 60 °C vacuum oven for about 15 h to produce Compound (A).

CLIP AND ITS REFERENCES

Synthetic Route—Final Steps

The final steps to velpatasvir from backbone dibromide 62 (Scheme 14) are described and claimed in a process chemistry patent application.(43) The bond disconnections are the same as described in the composition of matter patents.(44)
The phenacyl bromide of 62 is selectively alkylated with the chiral methoxylmethyl proline 63 using K2CO3 in CH2Cl2 to provide intermediate64. After aqueous workup, the solvent is switched into THF for the alkylation of the secondary bromide with the 2-methylproline-Moc-l-valine dipeptide 65 using Cs2CO3 to afford bis-ester 66.
Formation of the bis-imidazole 67 is conducted using NH4OAc in toluene/i-PrOH, conditions similar to those originally described for daclatasvir  and also used for ledipasvir  except that i-PrOH is added as cosolvent, likely for increased solubility. Dehydrogenation to the aromatic core 68 is accomplished with DDQ and HOAc in 2-MeTHF solvent.
Deprotection of the Boc group with HCl/MeOH affords the bis-amine 69 which is crystallized as a triphosphate salt.
The final amide coupling with the chiral phenylglycine carbamate fragment 70 mediated by CDMT affords velpatasvir. No yields are provided in the experimental section of the patent and characterization is limited to generalized 1H NMR data, ie, the aromatic region of velpatasvir is reported as δ 8.56–6.67 (m, 13H).(43)
 STR1
STR1
Synthetic RouteEarly Steps. Multiple routes to intermediates 62, 63, and 65 are described in the process
patent application but are not claimed.43 The route to 2-methylproline-Moc-valine fragment 65 is outlined in Scheme 15.45
str1
N-Boc (S)-pyroglutamic acid ethyl ester is ring-opened with methylmagnesium bromide to form Boc-amine 71. Deprotection with TFA and reductive amination with NaBH(OAc)3 are conducted in a one-pot reaction. Hydride transfer to the intermediate imine occurs on the face opposite to the ethoxycarbonyl group to afford cis-pyrrolidine
72, which is isolated as the tosylate salt. Amide coupling with Moc-L-valine followed by hydrolysis affords the dipeptide 65.
Three routes are described for the synthesis of fragment 63. The first route, and the only chemistry in the patent that is
described on a multikilo scale, is outlined in Scheme 16.
str1
Dimethyl N-Boc-L-glutamate is formylated at low temperature with acetic formic anhydride, which is cyclized to the enamine 73 with TFA. The patent scheme shows both Boc groups present in structure 73, so it is not clear if this is an error or if the Boc groups remain intact upon TFA treatment and whether imine formation can occur with the Boc-protected amine.
Hydrogenation of the double bond is carried out with Pd/C;then the ester is reduced to the primary alcohol 74 with
NaBH4. Deprotection of both Boc groups is followed by reprotection of the nitrogen to afford 75. After methylation, the dicyclohexylamine salt of 63 is crystallized, presumably to remove the trans-diastereomer formed during the hydrogenation. After salt break, 63 free acid is crystallized from hexane/CH2Cl2.
The second approach to 63 starts with N-Boc-cis-4-cyano-Lproline methyl ester and converts the cyano group to the
methoxymethyl group in 4−5 steps (Scheme 17).
str1
The stereochemistry appears to be maintained at both chiral centers through the sequence. Methanolysis of the cyano group to the methyl ester occurs with concomitant deprotection of the Boc group, so reprotection is necessary. The ester at the 4-position is then selectively hydrolyzed with 1.4 equiv of NaOH in THF at −1 °C to afford ester-acid 76. No yield is provided so no information is available for the selectivity of hydrolysis at the 4-position vs the more hindered 2-position, except that hydrolysis later in the sequence requires a temperature of 20 °C.
Reduction of the carboxylic acid to the primary alcohol is accomplished with borane−dimethyl sulfide followed by
hydrolysis of the methyl ester, then alkylation of the primary alcohol with MeI to afford 63, which is purified by
crystallization from i-PrOH/water. Alternatively, hydrolysis of the ester and alkylation can be carried out in a single pot reaction with 63 crystallized from toluene/heptane.
A number of routes to backbone 62 are described, but all rely on an alkylation/C−H activation sequence as outlined in
Scheme 18.
str1
An alternate bond disconnection for the synthesis of velpatasvir is described in a Chinese patent application in which left (77) and right-hand (78) fragments are more fully elaborated and then the tetracyclic backbone is constructed at a stereochemistry appears to be maintained at both chiral centers through the sequence. Methanolysis of the cyano group to the methyl ester occurs with concomitant deprotection of the Bocgroup, so reprotection is necessary. The ester at the 4-position is then selectively hydrolyzed with 1.4 equiv of NaOH in THF
at −1 °C to afford ester-acid 76. No yield is provided so no information is available for the selectivity of hydrolysis at the 4-position vs the more hindered 2-position, except that hydrolysis later in the sequence requires a temperature of 20 °C.
Reduction of the carboxylic acid to the primary alcohol is accomplished with borane−dimethyl sulfide followed by
hydrolysis of the methyl ester, then alkylation of the primary alcohol with MeI to afford 63, which is purified by
crystallization from i-PrOH/water. Alternatively, hydrolysis of the ester and alkylation can be carried out in a single pot reaction with 63 crystallized from toluene/heptane.
A number of routes to backbone 62 are described, but all rely on an alkylation/C−H activation sequence as outlined in
Scheme 18. An alternate bond disconnection for the synthesis of velpatasvir is described in a Chinese patent application in which left (77) and right-hand (78) fragments are more fully elaborated and then the tetracyclic backbone is constructed at a late stage.46 This route is more convergent than the Gilead route but overall requires a similar number of steps (Scheme19).
str1
Final Form.
A patent application describes and claims 19 crystal forms of velpatasvir, including free base (1 form), bis-HCl salt (5 forms), phosphate salt (9 forms), bis-HBr salt (1form), L-tartrate salt (2 forms), and D-tartrate salt (1 form).47
Two patent applications describe solid dispersion formulations of velpitasvir alone and as a combination with sofosbuvir,48 suggesting that velpitasvir is rendered amorphous during the formulation process. According to the patent applications,several forms of velpitasvir API are suitable for use in the solid dispersion process although a specific claim is made for a spraydried process of free base in ethanol.48
(43) Allan, K. M.; Fujimori, S.; Heumann, L. V.; Huynh, G. M.;Keaton, K. A.; Levins, C. M.; Pamulapati, G. R.; Roberts, B. J.; Sarma,K.; Teresk, M. G.; Wang, X.; Wolckenhauer, S. A. Processes for Preparing Antiviral Compounds. U.S. Patent Application 2015/0361073 A1, December 17, 2015.
(44) (a) Bacon, E. M.; Cottrell, J. J.; Katana, A. A.; Kato, D.;Krygowski, E. S.; Link, J. O.; Taylor, J.; Tran, C. V.; Martin, T. A. T.;Yang, Z.-Y.; Zipfel, S. Antiviral Compounds. U.S. Patent 8,575,135 B2,November 5, 2013. (b) Bacon, E. M.; Cottrell, J. J.; Katana, A. A.;Kato, D.; Krygowski, E. S.; Link, J. O.; Taylor, J.; Tran, C. V.; Martin, T. A. T.; Yang, Z.-Y.; Zipfel, S. Antiviral Compounds. U.S. Patent 8,921,341 B2, December 30, 2014.
(45) The process patent43 appears to contain an error in structure Va,which should not contain a Boc group.
(46) Mu, X.; Liu, N. Velpatasvir Intermediate and PreparationMethod Thereof. Chinese Patent Application CN 105294713 A,February 3, 2016.
(47) Lapina, O. V.; Shi, B.; Wang, F.; Wolckenhauer, S. A. SolidForms of an Antiviral Compound. U.S. Patent Application 2015/0361085 A1, December 17, 2015.
(48) (a) Gorman, E.; Mogalian, E.; Oliyai, R.; Stefanidis, D.; Zia, V.Solid Dispersion Formulation of an Antiviral Compound. U.S. PatentApplication 2015/0064252 A1, March 5, 2015. (b) Gorman, E.;Mogalian, E.; Oliyai, R.; Stefanidis, D.; Wiser, L.; Zia, V. CombinationFormulation of Two Antiviral Compounds.

PATENT

US 2015/0361085

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=US153621930&redirectedID=true

Compound I Form I
      An additional stable form screen was performed using the same procedure as described above but included a crystalline intermediate (Compound II shown below) as seeds.


      Compound II can be synthesized according to the methods described in WO 2013/075029 or U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/010,813. Needle-like particles were formed in butyronitrile, propionitrile, MEK/toluene, MEK/IPE and 2-pentanone/toluene. XRPD patterns of the wet solids were mostly consistent with each other with minor shifting in the peaks. The new form is named Compound I Form I, which is believed to be isostructural channel solvates with the respective solvents. After air drying all solids afforded amorphous XRPD patterns.
      Another stable form screen was performed using carbon (Darco G-60) treated Compound I, solvents, antisolvent (diisopropyl ether (IPE)), and seeds of Compound I Form I. This screen afforded crystalline solids from additional solvents as summarized in Table 1. The XRPD patterns of all of these solvates are consistent with Form I. The solvates were observed to convert to amorphous solids after drying. The XRPD patterns of Compound I were obtained in the experimental setting as follows: 45 kV, 40 mA, Kα1=1.5406 Å, scan range 2-40°, step size 0.0167°, counting time: 15.875 s.

[TABLE-US-00002]

TABLE 1
Stable form screen of carbon treated Compound I
Solvents PLM Comments
Water Amorphous Slurry
Water/EtOH Amorphous Sticky phase coating
ACN/IPE Birefringent Slurry of needles
MeOH/IPE Solution Seeds dissolved
EtOH/IPE Solution Seeds dissolved
Acetone/IPE Birefringent Thick slurry of
needles
IPA/IPE Amorphous Sticky coating
MEK/IPE Birefringent Thick slurry of
needles
MIBK/IPE Birefringent White paste
DCM/IPE Birefringent Thick slurry of small
needles
THF/IPE Solution Seeds dissolved
2-MeTHF/IPE Amorphous slurry
EtOAc/IPE Birefringent Thick slurry of
needles
IPAc/IPE Amorphous slurry
Toluene Amorphous Sticky coating
      The crystallinity of Compound I Form I can be improved by using a butyronitrile/butyl ether (BN/BE) mixture according to the following procedure.
      The crystallization experiment was started with 40 to 75 mg Compound I in 1.1 to 3.0 mL of a BN/BE in a ratio of 7:4 (anhydrous solvents). The sample was held at RT over P2O5 for 23 days without agitation, and crystals formed in the solution. Afterwards, the liquid phase was replaced with butyl ether and the solids were obtained by centrifuge. These solids, corresponding to Compound I Form I, were used for the subsequent step as seed.
      Purified Compound I (709.8 mg) was prepared from reflux of ethanol solution with Darco G-60 and was added to a new vial via a filter. While stirring, 7 mL of anhydrous butyronitrile (BN) was added. A clear orange solution was obtained. While stirring, 4 mL of anhydrous butyl ether (BE) was added slowly. To the solution was added 7.7 mg of Compound I Form I (from previous BN:BE crystallization experiment) as seed. The solution became cloudy and the seeds did not dissolve. The sample was stirred for ˜10 minutes before the agitation was stopped. The vial was capped and placed into a jar with some P2O5 solids at room temperature. After 6 days, a thin layer of bright yellow precipitate was observed on the wall and the bottom of the vial. The liquid phase was withdrawn and 3 mL of anhydrous butyl ether was added. Solids were scraped down with a spatula from the vial. The suspension was heated to about 30° C. for over half hour period and was held for ˜1 hour before cooling to 20° C. at about 0.1° C./min (without agitation). The sample was stored in ajar with P2O5 solids for 5 days. The sample was vacuum filtered using 0.22 μm nylon filter, washed with 2×200 μL of anhydrous butyl ether, and air dried under reduced pressure for about 5 minutes.
      XRPD analysis of the sample showed good very sharp peaks as shown in FIG. 1. The XRPD analysis setting was as follows: 45 kV, 40 mA, Kα1=1.5406 Å, scan range 1-40°, step size 0.0167°, counting time: 36.83 s. The characteristic peaks of crystalline Compound I Form I include: 2.9, 3.6, 4.8, 5.2, 6.0° 2θ (FIG. 1). The XRPD pattern of Form I was successfully indexed, indicating that Form I is composed primarily of a single crystalline phase. Extremely large unit cell volume containing up to ˜60 API molecules in the unit cell was observed. The amorphous halo observed in the XRPD pattern could be a result of the size of the unit cell. Butyl ether stoichiometry could not be estimated. Two alternative indexing solutions were found: monoclinic and orthorhombic.
      DSC and TGA data confirmed that Form I is a solvated form. DSC shows a broad endotherm with onset at 109° C. and small endotherm with onset at 177° C. (FIG. 2). TGA shows 22% weight loss below 150° C. (FIG. 3).

PATENT

CN 105294713

https://www.google.com/patents/CN105294713A?cl=en

https://patentimages.storage.googleapis.com/pdfs/2601c633c50937ffb780/CN105294713A.pdf

str1

str1

Example 12

str1

Under nitrogen, was added l〇2g1 said, adding methylene burn 500 blood dissolved, 4mol / L fertilizer 1 1,4-dioxane SOOmL, football for 1 hour at room temperature, of the C (already burned: ethyl acetate 1: 1) point in the control board, the starting material spot disappeared, the reaction was stopped, the solvent was concentrated, was added (R & lt) -2- (methoxy several yl) -2-phenylacetic acid 29g, COMU60g, DMF blood 500, diisopropylethylamine 223M1,25 ° C reaction I h, ethyl acetate was added IL diluted, purified water is added IL painted twice, dried over anhydrous sulfate instrument, and concentrated, methanol was added SOOmL temperature 60 ° C dissolved, 250mL of purified water was slowly added dropwise, to precipitate a solid, the addition was completed, cooled to 50 ° C for 1 hour, cooled to room temperature, filtered, and concentrated to give Velpatasvir (GS-5816) product 90. 5g, 78. 2〇 yield / billion. H-NMR (400MHz, CDs isolated) 5 7. 94 – 7.67 (m, 4H), 7.59 of J = 9.1 Hz, 1H), 7. 52 (S, 1H), 7.48 – 7. 33 (m, 4H) , 7.11 of J = 18. 7Hz, 1H), 5.68 of J = 6.3Hz, 1H), 5.48 – 5.33 (m, 1H), 5.23 (dd, J = 24.1, 15.7Hz, 1H), 5.17 -5.03 (m, 3H), 4.22 (dd, J = 17.0, 9.6Hz, 1H), 4.16 – 4.01 (m, 1H), 3.91 (d, J = 24. 1 Hz, 1H), 3 83 -. 3. 68 (m, 1H), 3 68 -. 3. 59 (m, 3H), 3 59 -. 3. 49 (m, 3H), 3.38 (ddd, J = 15.9, 9.6, 5.7Hz, 2H), 3.28 – 3.14 (m, 5H), 3.10 (dd, J = 14.0, 8.2 Hz, 1H), 3.00 (dd, J = 17.8, 9.6Hz, 1H), 2.92 (dd, J = 14.5, 6.7 Hz, 1H), 2.73 – 2.41 (m, 2H), 2.40 – 2.11 (m, 2H), 2. 11 – 1.83 (m, 2H), 1.54 deduction J = 9. 7 Hz, 2H), 1.24 of J = 6.2Hz, 1H), 1.06 (t, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 0.99 of J = 6.8 Hz, 1H), 0. 94 (d, J = 6. 6Hz, 2H), 0. 85 (d, J = 6. 7Hz, 2H ).

str1

Construction

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Clip and foot notes

Velpatasvir only got its name last year and was previously known as GS-5816. That compound was only announced back in 2013 when Gilead showed the initial in vitrostudies on a handful of posters. [1]  [2]  Very little information is available on this follow-up compound. The following was pretty much the summary of their poster presentation.

To understand the medical significance of this study, Sofosbuvir is the best-in-class NS5B inhibitor from Gilead (see link for more information). [3] These inhibitors work the fastest when paired with a NS5A inhibitor like Daclatasvir or Ledipasvir (making up the Sofosbuvir+Ledipasvir = Harvoni combination) or the Viekira Pak combo. Disclosure: I am an employee of Bristol-Myers Squibb which produces Daclatasvir. However, HCV comprises of 7 different genotypes. Harvoni and Viekira Pak are approved against genotypes 1a, 1b. Harvoni is indicated for genotypes 4, 5, and 6. For the treatment of genotypes 2 and 3, sofosbuvir is generally combined with ribavirin or interferon which has notable side effects. While 70% of patients have genotype 1, for the remainder of patients with the other variants, they are still stuck with the more risky (and more expensive and longer) therapy.

I think this is the structure of GS-5816. It’s not yet published in any journal.  [4]

For comparison, here is the structure of Ledipasvir, the first generation NS5A inhibitor used in Harvoni. Structurally speaking, they are pretty similar so it seems like GS-5816 is the product of good old fashioned medchem.

The clearest summary of the 4 Phase III trials can be found on Gilead’s website. [5]ASTRAL-1 was run on genotypes 1, 2, 4, 5, 6. [6]  ASTRAL-2 focused on genotype 2. ASTRAL-3 focused on genotype 3. [7]  ASTRAL-4 focused on HCV patients with Child-Pugh cirrhosis. [8] These patients previously had interferon treatment but had a poor response and are generally very sick.

I think that a few interesting things stand out. ASTRAL-1 occurred from July 2014 to December 2014 but upon a request from the FDA, ASTRAL-2 and 3 were started in September 2014-July 2015 in order to have an isolated study on genotypes 2 and 3. For a 24 week study that’s incredibly fast. As discussed elsewhere, clinical trials are often limited by the speed of patient enrollment and these studies can take years. [9] Here, they were able to find volunteers for a 1000 patient study within weeks. An interesting note about the clinical trial design, the ASTRAL-1 team knew that the historical cure rate was 85% and were able to correctly power the trial to get a statistically significant study on the first try. Also, deep sequencing was used to identify and stratify the HCV genotypes. In ASTRAL-1, 42% of the patients had NS5A resistance and 9% had NS5B resistance.

The market impact may be significant to Achillion which was a former partner of Gilead and a potential acquisition target. Achillion was working with Janssen on its own second generation NS5A inhibitor, odalasvir. This announcement may kill the market for a competing product as well as remove the acquisition hype.

How did Gilead come up with Velpatasvir? It really sounds like good solid science. Ledipasvir was developed to be a best-in-class NS5A inhibitor and it was recognized that it worked well with NS5B inhibitors. It was also understood that most of the NS5A inhibitors specific only towards certain N5SA genotypes and that there was a clear unmet need for patients with HCV genotypes 2 and 3. With the help of some computational modeling  [10]Gilead developed assays for all of the HCV genotypes to screen for a pan-genotype NS5A inhibitor to follow up to their 2014 Ledipasvir trials and leveraging their strategic advantage in the HCV market, were able to quickly ramp up 4 major clinical trials to demonstrate the clinical efficacy of their next gen drug combination.

That’s really good science. Not long ago, Gilead stated that it was planning on eradicating HCV. This compound is a part of the Gilead license with Indian generic manufacturers but it seems like MSF is contesting that decision. [11]  [12] With this drug Gilead is now another step closer towards that goal. [13]

Footnotes

[1] GS-5816, a Second-Generation HCV NS5A Inhibitor With Potent Antiviral Activity, Broad Genotypic Coverage, and a High Resistance Barrier

[2] Page on journal-of-hepatology.eu

[3] Christopher VanLang’s answer to How was Sovaldi (the drug now being marketed by Gilead), first discovered by Pharmasset?

[4] CAS # 1377049-84-7, Velpatasvir, GS 5816, Methyl [(2S)-1-[(2S,5S)-2-[9-[2-[(2S,4S)-1-[(2R)-2-[(methoxycarbonyl)amino]-2-phenylacetyl]-4-(methoxymethyl)pyrrolidin-2-yl]-1H-imidazol-5-yl]-1,11-dihydroisochromeno[4′,3′:6,7]naphtho[1,2-d]imidazol-2-yl]-5-methylpyrrolidin-1-yl]-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl]carbamate

[5] Page on gilead.com

[6] Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir for HCV Genotype 1, 2, 4, 5, and 6 Infection — NEJM

[7] Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir for HCV Genotype 2 and 3 Infection — NEJM

[8] Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir for HCV in Patients with Decompensated Cirrhosis — NEJM

[9] Why do clinical trials for new drugs take several years? Remarkably, 72% of Americans are willing to be in them.

[10] Inhibition of hepatitis C virus NS5A by fluoro-olefin based γ-turn mimetics.

[11] Page on gilead.com

[12] MSF response to Gilead announcement on inclusion of hepatitis C drug GS-5816 in voluntary licence

[13] Gilead and Georgia to attempt Hep C eradication by Christopher VanLang on Making Drugs

09338-acsnews1-gileadcxd

SAVING LIVES
The Gilead team responsible for Harvoni: Front row, from left: John Link, Chris Yang, Rowchanak Pakdaman, Bob Scott, and Benjamin Graetz. Back row, from left: Erik Mogalian and Bruce Ross. Not pictured: Michael Sofia.
Credit: Gilead Sciences

Gilead’s Harvoni is a combination of two antiviral agents, sofosbuvir and ledipasvir. “In hepatitis C, the virus mutates so rapidly that to overcome resistance, we use a combination of drugs, and each one pulls their own weight in the process,” says John Link, who discovered ledipasvir.

Link says that the amount of interdisciplinary collaboration on the drug was unprecedented for the company. “Once ledipasvir was discovered, the process chemists were right there with us understanding the kinds of things we were doing, and medicinal chemists and process chemists worked on making material to scale for preclinical studies,” he says. “We all realized this was our moment to make a difference for patients with hepatitis C.”

Harvoni is the first once-a-day pill for treatment of chronic hepatitis C, and it has a cure rate in the U.S. of 94-99%. The drug is an alternative to injected interferon treatment, which has been associated with significant side effects.

“The high cure rates that we saw in our clinical trials are really amazing,” Link says. “Before we had these compounds, I had only hoped that we could equal something like interferon-type regimens in cure rates, without all the horrible side effects. To dramatically exceed them is important for patients.”

Harvoni patients can attest to the drug’s effectiveness. Mark Melancon, who had contracted hepatitis C 25 years ago, says that after taking Harvoni, he now has no trace of the virus in his body, and his liver is beginning to repair itself. “Four weeks into it, and the virus was gone. Not detectable,” he says. “To have this virus hanging over my head for 25 years and then it was just gone, I can’t explain the feeling. The people who worked hard on this medication, they need to know that I appreciate it.”

Print

REFERENCES

https://www.eiseverywhere.com/file_uploads/c2a2b5664a374fe807c0b95bb546321d_JordanFeld.pdf

WO2013075029A1 * Nov 16, 2012 May 23, 2013 Gilead Sciences, Inc. Condensed imidazolylimidazoles as antiviral compounds

References

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Velpatasvir
Velpatasvir structure.svg
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(2S)-2-{[hydroxy(methoxy)methylidene]amino}-1-[(2S,5S)-2-(17-{2-[(2S,4S)-1-[(2R)-2-{[hydroxy(methoxy)methylidene]amino}-2-phenylacetyl]-4-(methoxymethyl)pyrrolidin-2-yl]-1H-imidazol-5-yl}-21-oxa-5,7-diazapentacyclo[11.8.0.0³,¹¹.0⁴,⁸.0¹⁴,¹⁹]henicosa-1(13),2,4(8),6,9,11,14(19),15,17-nonaen-6-yl)-5-methylpyrrolidin-1-yl]-3-methylbutan-1-one
Identifiers
CAS Number 1377049-84-7
PubChem CID 67683363
ChemSpider 34501056
UNII KCU0C7RS7Z Yes
Chemical data
Formula C49H54N8O8
Molar mass 883.02 g·mol−1

//////////////VELPATASVIR, GS-5816, GILEAD SCIENCES, Epclusa , FDA 2016, велпатасвир,فالباتاسفير  ,              维帕他韦  , велпатасвир, فالباتاسفير , 维帕他韦 , Elizabeth Bacon, Sheila Zipfel

UNII:KCU0C7RS7Z

C[C@H]1CC[C@H](N1C(=O)[C@H](C(C)C)NC(=O)OC)C2=NC3=C(N2)C=CC4=CC5=C(C=C43)OCC6=C5C=CC(=C6)C7=CN=C(N7)[C@@H]8C[C@@H](CN8C(=O)[C@@H](C9=CC=CC=C9)NC(=O)OC)COC

/////

FDA approves Adlyxin (lixisenatide) 利西拉 to treat type 2 diabetes


 

 

07/28/2016 07:53 AM EDT
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Adlyxin (lixisenatide), a once-daily injection to improve glycemic control (blood sugar levels), along with diet and exercise, in adults with type 2 diabetes.

July 28, 2016

Release

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Adlyxin (lixisenatide), a once-daily injection to improve glycemic control (blood sugar levels), along with diet and exercise, in adults with type 2 diabetes.

“The FDA continues to support the development of new drug therapies for diabetes management,” said Mary Thanh Hai Parks, M.D., deputy director, Office of Drug Evaluation II in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “Adlyxin will add to the available treatment options to control blood sugar levels for those with type 2.”

Type 2 diabetes affects more than 29 million people and accounts for more than 90 percent of diabetes cases diagnosed in the United States. Over time, high blood sugar levels can increase the risk for serious complications, including heart disease, blindness and nerve and kidney damage.

Adlyxin is a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, a hormone that helps normalize blood sugar levels. The drug’s safety and effectiveness were evaluated in 10 clinical trials that enrolled 5,400 patients with type 2 diabetes. In these trials, Adlyxin was evaluated both as a standalone therapy and in combination with other FDA-approved diabetic medications, including metformin, sulfonylureas, pioglitazone and basal insulin. Use of Adlyxin improved hemoglobin A1c levels (a measure of blood sugar levels) in these trials.

In addition, more than 6,000 patients with type 2 diabetes at risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease were treated with either Adlyxin or a placebo in a cardiovascular outcomes trial. Use of Adlyxin did not increase the risk of cardiovascular adverse events in these patients.

Adlyxin should not be used to treat people with type 1 diabetes or patients with increased ketones in their blood or urine (diabetic ketoacidosis).

The most common side effects associated with Adlyxin are nausea, vomiting, headache, diarrhea and dizziness. Hypoglycemia in patients treated with both Adlyxin and other antidiabetic drugs such as sulfonylurea and/or basal insulin is another common side effect. In addition, severe hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis, were reported in clinical trials of Adlyxin.

The FDA is requiring the following post-marketing studies for Adlyxin:

  • Clinical studies to evaluate dosing, efficacy and safety in pediatric patients.
  • A study evaluating the immunogenicity of lixisenatide.

Adlyxin is manufactured by Sanofi-Aventis U.S. LLC, of Bridgewater, New Jersey.

END……………….

 

 

lixisenatide;Lixisenatide|Lixisenatide Acetate;Lixisenatide Acetate
CAS: 320367-13-3
MF: C215H347N61O65S
MW: 4858.53

C215 H347 N61 O65 S

L-Lysinamide, L-histidylglycyl-L-α-glutamylglycyl-L-threonyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-threonyl-L-seryl-L-α-aspartyl-L-leucyl-L-seryl-L-lysyl-L-glutaminyl-L-methionyl-L-α-glutamyl-L-α-glutamyl-L-α-glutamyl-L-alanyl-L-valyl-L-arginyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-isoleucyl-L-α-glutamyl-L-tryptophyl-L-leucyl-L-lysyl-L-asparaginylglycylglycyl-L-prolyl-L-seryl-L-serylglycyl-L-alanyl-L-prolyl-L-prolyl-L-seryl-L-lysyl-L-lysyl-L-lysyl-L-lysyl-L-lysyl-

L-Histidylglycyl-L-α-glutamylglycyl-L-threonyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-threonyl-L-seryl-L-α-aspartyl-L-leucyl-L-seryl-L-lysyl-L-glutaminyl-L-methionyl-L-α-glutamyl-L-α-glutamyl-L-α-glutamyl-L-alanyl-L-valyl-L-arginyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-isoleucyl-L-α-glutamyl-L-tryptophyl-L-leucyl-L-lysyl-L-asparaginylglycylglycyl-L-prolyl-L-seryl-L-serylglycyl-L-alanyl-L-prolyl-L-prolyl-L-seryl-L-lysyl-L-lysyl-L-lysyl-L-lysyl-L-lysyl-L-lysinamide

 

827033-10-3.png

Lixisenatide

Lixisenatide

 

827033-10-3; Lixisenatide [INN]; UNII-74O62BB01U; DesPro36Exendin-4(1-39)-Lys6-NH2;   DesPro36Exendin-4(1-39)-Lys6-NH2
Molecular Formula: C215H347N61O65S
Molecular Weight: 4858.49038 g/mol
IUPAC Condensed

H-His-Gly-Glu-Gly-Thr-Phe-Thr-Ser-Asp-Leu-Ser-Lys-Gln-Met-Glu-Glu-Glu-Ala-Val-Arg-Leu-Phe-Ile-Glu-Trp-Leu-Lys-Asn-Gly-Gly-Pro-Ser-Ser-Gly-Ala-Pro-Pro-Ser-Lys-Lys-Lys-Lys-Lys-Lys-NH2

from PubChem
LINUCS

[][L-Lys-NH2]{[(1+2)][L-Lys]{[(1+2)][L-Lys]{[(1+2)][L-Lys]{[(1+2)][L-Lys]{[(1+2)][L-Lys]{[(1+2)][L-Ser]{[(1+2)][L-Pro]{[(1+2)][L-Pro]{[(1+2)][L-Ala]{[(1+2)][Gly]{[(1+2)][L-Ser]{[(1+2)][L-Ser]{[(1+2)][L-Pro]{[(1+2)][Gly]{[(1+2)][Gly]{[(1+2)][L-Asn]{[(1+2)][L-Lys]{[(1+2)][L-Leu]{[(1+2)][L-Trp]{[(1+2)][L-Glu]{[(1+2)][L-Ile]{[(1+2)][L-Phe]{[(1+2)][L-Leu]{[(1+2)][L-Arg]{[(1+2)][L-Val]{[(1+2)][L-Ala]{[(1+2)][L-Glu]{[(1+2)][L-Glu]{[(1+2)][L-Glu]{[(1+2)][L-Met]{[(1+2)][L-Gln]{[(1+2)][L-Lys]{[(1+2)][L-Ser]{[(1+2)][L-Leu]{[(1+2)][L-Asp]{[(1+2)][L-Ser]{[(1+2)][L-Thr]{[(1+2)][L-Phe]{[(1+2)][L-Thr]{[(1+2)][Gly]{[(1+2)][L-Glu]{[(1+2)][Gly]{[(1+2)][L-His]{}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}

from PubChem
Sequence

HGEGTFTSDLSKQMEEEAVRLFIEWLKNGGPSSGAPPSKKKKKK

from PubChem
PLN

H-HGEGTFTSDLSKQMEEEAVRLFIEWLKNGGPSSGAPPSKKKKKK-[NH2]

from PubChem
HELM

PEPTIDE1{H.G.E.G.T.F.T.S.D.L.S.K.Q.M.E.E.E.A.V.R.L.F.I.E.W.L.K.N.G.G.P.S.S.G.A.P.P.S.K.K.K.K.K.K.[am]}$$$$

Sanofi (formerly sanofi-aventis, formerly Aventis), under license from Zealand Pharma, has developed and launched lixisenatide

Lixisenatide (trade name Lyxumia) is a once-daily injectable GLP-1 receptor agonist for the treatment of diabetes, discovered by Zealand Pharma A/S of Denmark and licensed and developed by Sanofi.[1] Lixisenatide was accepted for review by the US FDA on February 19, 2013, and approved by the European Commission on February 1, 2013.[2] On September 12, 2013, Sanofi delayed the approval process in the US, citing internal data from a cardiovascular risk study. The drug will likely be resubmitted for approval in 2015.

Lixisenatide is a once-daily injectable GLP-1 receptor agonist discovered by Zealand Pharma A/S of Denmark and licensed and developed by Sanofi. As of September 2010 it is in clinical trials for diabetes. Lixisenatide was accepted for review by the US FDA on February 19, 2013, and approved by the European Commission on February 1, 2013. The drug will likely be resubmitted for approval in 2015.

Mechanism of action

GLP-1 is a naturally-occurring peptide that is released within minutes of eating a meal. It is known to suppress glucagon secretion from pancreatic alpha cells and stimulate insulin secretion by pancreatic beta cells. GLP-1 receptor agonists are used as an add-on treatment for type 2 diabetes and their use is endorsed by the European Association for the Study of Diabetes, the American Diabetes Association, the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the American College of Endocrinology.

Physical and chemical properties

Lixisenatixe has been described as “des-38-proline-exendin-4 (Heloderma suspectum)-(1–39)-peptidylpenta-L-lysyl-L-lysinamide”, meaning it is derived from the first 39 amino acids in the sequence of the peptide exendin-4, found in the Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum), omitting proline at position 38 and adding six lysine residues. Its complete sequence is:[3]

H–HisGlyGlu–Gly–ThrPhe–Thr–SerAspLeu–Ser–LysGlnMet–Glu–Glu–Glu–AlaValArg–Leu–Phe–Ile–Glu–Trp–Leu–Lys–Asn–Gly–Gly–Pro–Ser–Ser–Gly–Ala–Pro–Pro–Ser–Lys–Lys–Lys–Lys–Lys–Lys–NH2

PATENT

US 20110313131

http://www.google.co.in/patents/US20110313131

 

PATENT

CN 105713082

The title method comprises the steps of: (1) coupling Fmoc-Lys(Boc)-OH and resin to obtain Fmoc-Lys(Boc)-resin, (2) protecting amino acid with Fmoc, conducting solid-phase synthesis to obtain lixisenatide wholly protected 20-44-peptide resin, (3) conducting solid-phase synthesis to obtain wholly protected 15-19-peptide resin, (4) coupling the wholly protected 20-44-peptide resin and wholly protected 15-19-peptide resin, (5) coupling other amino acids till solid-phase synthesis finishes, (6) cracking lixisenatide peptide resin to obtain crude peptide, and (7) purifying through RP-HPLC.  The method improves crude peptide purity and purifn. yield.

PATENT

CN104211801A

MACHINE TRANSLATION FROM CHINESE, PL BEAR WITH SOME IREGULARITES IN GRAMMAR

利西拉, the English name: Lixisenatide, is a polypeptide containing 44 amino acids, the structural formula is as follows: peptide sequence as follows:

Figure CN104211801AD00031

H-His-Gly-Glu-Gly-Thr-Phe-Thr-Ser-Asp-Leu-Ser-Lys-Gln-Met-Glu-Glu-Glu-Al a-Val-Arg-Leu-Phe-IIe-Glu -Trp-Leu-Lys-Asn-Gly-Gly-Pro-Ser-Ser-Gly-Ala-Pro-Pr O-Ser-Lys-Lys-Lys-Lys-Lys-Lys-NH 2 Li Xila to (Lixisenatide ) by Sanofi-Aventis developed once a day subcutaneously with glucagon-like peptide -I (GLP-I) receptor agonists, for the treatment of type II diabetes, on February 1, 2013 Sanofi Lee Division -Aventis of exenatide is approved EMEA, for the adjuvant treatment of poorly stable dose of basal insulin (or metformin) in the treatment of type II diabetes to improve HbAlc and postprandial blood glucose levels.

CN201210030151. 2 used in a pure solid phase sequential coupling method synthetic peptides. The method amino resin as the carrier, using conventional coupling sequence, the final cut to give Li Xila.

 US6528486 patent for the compound, synthetic methods mentioned it to phase condensation method Fmoc / tBu strategy.

The [0005] W02005058954 synthesis method including the gradual condensation process Fmoc / tBu strategy, Boc strategy of gradual condensation methods and genetic engineering.

The  W02001004156 synthesis method for the gradual condensation process Fmoc / tBu strategy.

 Since Li Xila abroad mostly used to synthesize Fmoc solid phase synthesis method, a gradual shrinking gradually synthesis step more, resulting in more types of product impurities, US 20130284912 Special Report polypeptide impurity: Di-Ser33- Leisy pull and Di-Ala35- Li Xila come, Di-Ser 33- Li Xila come and Di-Ala35- Li Xila to atmosphere amino acid sequence as follows: Di-Ser33- Li Xila to the amino acid sequence: H-His -Gly-Glu-Gly-Thr-Phe-Thr-Ser-Asp-Leu-Ser-Lys-Gln-Met-Glu-Glu-Glu-Al a-Val-Arg-Leu-Phe-IIe-Glu-Trp- Leu-Lys-Asn-Gly-Gly-Pro-Ser-Ser-Ser-Gly-Ala-Pr 〇-Pr〇-Ser-Lys_Lys_Lys_Lys_Lys_LyS-NH2 Di-Ala35- Li Xila to the amino acid sequence: H-His-Gly- Glu-Gly-Thr-Phe-Thr-Ser-Asp-Leu-Ser-Lys-Gln-Met-Glu-Glu-Glu-Al a-Val-Arg-Leu-Phe-IIe-Glu-Trp-Leu-Lys -Asn-Gly-Gly-Pro-Ser-Ser-Gly-Ala-Ala-Pr 〇-Pr〇-Ser-Lys_Lys_Lys_Lys_Lys_LyS-NH2 toxicity of these impurities are impurities larger, and very difficult to separate from the main peak , the presence of the impurities seriously affect 利西拉 to content and the use of safety. Hence the need to find an effective way to remove it and to reach the high standard level of 0.1% or less. The present inventors have found that this impurity is difficult to remove by means of the prior art, although there are ways to remove part of, but removal is not ideal, it is difficult to achieve high quality standards is likely to cause 利西拉 level while reducing their yield.

In summary, the existing Li Xila to the solid phase synthesis, low yield of the synthesis, impurities, in particular, are not well controlled impurity Di-Ser 33- Li Xila come and Di-Ala35 – Li Xila to, does not apply to industrial production

Example i ^ a: Preparation 利西拉 to fine peptide acetate Weigh 利西拉 above 44. 70g to 45L crude peptide was dissolved in water, purified by C18 column, the first purification conditions: mobile phase: A phase: 0 I% TFA; B phase: acetonitrile; gradient program was: 15% B, 60 minutes to 60% B; detection wavelength 220 nm; peak fraction collection purposes. The second purification conditions: mobile phase was: A phase: 0 3% HAC; B phase: acetonitrile; gradient program was: 10% B, 60 minutes to 60% B; detection wavelength 220 nm; peak fraction collection purposes. Desalting conditions: Mobile phase: A phase: an aqueous solution of 20 mmol / L ammonium acetate: acetonitrile = 95: 5; B phase: water: acetonitrile = 95: 5; C phase: 0.03% aqueous solution of acetic acid: acetonitrile = 95 : 5; D phase: 0.03% aqueous solution of acetic acid: acetonitrile = 50: 50; gradient program: mobile phase A isocratic for 15 minutes, convert isocratic mobile phase B for 10 minutes, is converted into the flow Phase C isocratic 10 minutes, converted into a mobile phase D isocratic 25 minutes; detection wavelength 220 nm; peak fraction collection purposes; rotary evaporation concentrated and lyophilized to give Li Xila acetate fine peptide 22. 65g which HPLC spectrum shown in Figure 5, HPLC purity of 99.75% (area normalization method), Di-Ser33- Li Xila come to 0.03% (area normalization method), Di-Ala35- Li Xila to the content of 0.05% (area normalization method). Purification total yield of 51%, total yield 41%. Its mass spectrum as shown in Figure 6, [M + H] + = 4858. 691, 利西拉 precise molecular weight to the theoretical: 4857.53, the sample mass is consistent with the theoretical molecular weight.

PATENT

CN 103709243

MACHINE TRANSLATION FROM CHINESE, PL BEAR WITH SOME IREGULARITES IN GRAMMAR

Example 2: Preparation 利西拉 to crude peptide

利西拉 [0116] Example 24 was prepared to be placed 125.4g peptide resin cleavage reaction to 10ml / g resin ratio added lysis reagent (TFA: thioanisole: EDT: TIS: water = 86: 5 : 5: 3: 1 (V / V)), stirred at room temperature 2.5h. The reaction was purified by frit funnel filtration, the filtrate was collected, the resin was washed 3 times and then a small amount of TFA, the combined filtrates concentrated under reduced pressure. Frozen precipitation in anhydrous ether was added, washed three times with anhydrous diethyl ether, and dried in vacuo to give a white solid powder, i.e. Li Xila to crude peptide 47.lg, by weight of the crude peptide yield 97.2%, HPLC purity 63.8% 0

利西拉 to crude peptide preparation: 27 patients [0117] Example

利西拉 [0118] The Example 25 was prepared to be placed 123.7g peptide resin cleavage reaction to 10ml / g resin ratio added lysis reagent (TFA: thioanisole: EDT: TIS: water = 86: 5 : 5: 3: 1 (V / V)), stirred at room temperature 2.5h. The reaction was purified by frit funnel filtration, the filtrate was collected, the resin was washed 3 times and then a small amount of TFA, the combined filtrates concentrated under reduced pressure. Frozen precipitation in anhydrous ether was added, washed three times with anhydrous diethyl ether, and dried in vacuo to give a white solid powder, i.e. Li Xila to crude peptide 46.9g, yield the crude peptide by weight 96.5%, HPLC purity 64.2% 0

28 Example 2: Preparation 利西拉 to fine peptide acetate

 Example weighed 26 to 27 after 利西拉 to any 30.0g crude peptide was dissolved in 3000ml of water using Waters2545RP-HPLC system, wavelength 230nm, 50 X 250mm column of reverse phase C18 column, 0.2% TFA conventional / acetonitrile mobile phase were fractionated peaks of fractions, refined peptide purity greater than 98.5%. The fine peptide solution using Waters2545RP-HPLC system, 50 X 250mm column was C18 reverse phase column, 0.1% acetic acid / acetonitrile mobile phase transfer salt, the purpose of peak fractions were collected, concentrated by rotary evaporation and lyophilized to give Li Xila acetate fine salt peptide> 9.0g, RP-HPLC purity ≥98.5%. Purification Yield ≥30%, total yield ≥29.0%.

PATENT

CN 102875663

MACHINE TRANSLATION FROM CHINESE, PL BEAR WITH SOME IREGULARITES IN GRAMMAR

http://www.google.at/patents/CN102875663B?cl=en

Example 9

[0239] The crude peptide Li Xila to 4000g (including Li Xila to 1139g) was dissolved with purified water 100L, collected by filtration and the filtrate set aside.

[0240] purification chromatographic conditions:

[0241] HPLC Model: Novasep LC450

 Column: 450X250mm, built-phenyl silane bonded silica gel as stationary phase filler, the filler particle size of 10 μ m0

 flow rate: 5000ml / min.

The detection wavelength: 280nm.

 Mobile phase A phase: 10% 30mM D- 30mM sodium tartrate and disodium hydrogenphosphate in methanol / 90% aqueous (v / v), adjusted to pH 2.5 with phosphoric acid.

[0246] Mobile phase A phase preparation process: Weigh 1280g 2070g D- sodium tartrate and disodium hydrogenphosphate, after an appropriate amount of purified water was dissolved through 0.45 μ m membrane filter, the filtrate collected all 300L tank, added 30L chromatographically pure After methanol was added to the 300L scale purification of water, adjusted to pH 2.5 with phosphoric acid. Repeat preparation run.

[0247] The mobile phase B phase: HPLC grade acetonitrile.

Figure CN102875663BD00132

[0249] sample volume: 250.0g (6250ml).

[0250] Purification: column equilibration the sample so that after 5 minutes, run a gradient purification, monitoring and staging purposes peak fractions were collected. The collected fractions (chromatographic conditions purity testing to the same conditions as above 利西拉 determination to area normalization method measured) purity test, the purity of greater than or equal to 98% of the fractions after removing most of the acetonitrile in turn salt; purity of 70% or more less than 98% of the fraction recovered after removal of most of the acetonitrile and the purification procedure is repeated, again collected purity greater than or equal to 98% of the fraction after removal of most of the acetonitrile are also used to turn salt; purity of less than 70 % of fractions by waste disposal.

[0251] points and 16 injections, repeat the above operation.

[0252] turn salt chromatographic conditions:

[0253] HPLC Model: Novasep LC450

[0254] Column: 450 X 250mm, built-C8 reversed-phase chromatography packing, the particle size of the filler is 10 μ m.

[0255] flow rate: 5000ml / min.

[0256] The detection wavelength: 280nm.

[0257] Mobile phase A phase: 0.2% acetic acid (v / v) solution.

[0258] The mobile phase B phase: HPLC grade acetonitrile.

[0259] gradient

Figure CN102875663BD00141

[0260] sample volume: 2500ml.

[0261] Purification: The column equilibration the sample for 5 minutes, run a gradient purification, monitoring and collecting the target peak fractions. The purpose of the peak fractions were concentrated by rotary evaporation under reduced pressure to 9000ml after lyophilization.

[0262] After the freeze-dried to give a white powder refined peptide 704g. Purity of 98.39%, the impurity content of less than 0.5%. Purification yield 61.8% (in crude Li Xila to content), total yield of 17.6%.

PATENT

CN 102558338

MACHINE TRANSLATION FROM CHINESE, PL BEAR WITH SOME IREGULARITES IN GRAMMAR

Preparation of Fmoc-Lys (Boc) -Lys (Boc) -Lys (Boc) -Lys (Boc) -Rink Amide-MBHAResin:

[0096] To the resulting Fmoc-Lys (Boc) -Lys (Boc) -Lys (Boc) -RinkAmide-MBHAResin mouth of a 20% strength piperidine / DMF solution for 10 minutes, the reaction was drained, washed with DMF Resin 6 (50ml * 6). Weigh Fmoc-Lys (Boc) -〇H3.52g, H0Bt1.01g, HBTU2.84g, TMP1.98ml, DMF50ml added to dissolve slowly with stirring under ice-cooling for 3 minutes, at room temperature for 2 hours, the reaction Ninhydrin detection method completed, pumping off the reaction solution, DMF the resin was washed twice (50mlX2), DCM the resin was washed twice (50mlX2), to give Fmoc-Lys (B oc) -Lys (Boc) -Lys (Boc) -Lys (Boc) -RinkAmide-MBHAResin. As used in the above operation Fmoc-Lys (Boc) -OH: HOBt: HBTU: TMP ratio is 1: 1: 1: 2, wherein Fmoc-Lys (Boc) -OH is the number of moles of Fmoc-RinkAmide-MBHAResin number of moles 3 times.

[0097] Li Xila fully protected side chain was prepared to -Rink Amide-MBHA Resin:

[0098] To the resulting Fmoc-Lys (Boc) -Lys (Boc) -Lys (Boc) -Lys (Boc) -RinkAmide-MBHA Resin added 20% piperidine / DMF solution for 10 minutes, drained reaction solution, washed 6 times with DMF. Weigh Jie 111〇 (3-1 ^ 8 billion (3) -0 13.528, 1 (»Shu 1.018,01 (:!! 1.391111 added 50,111,101 ^ dissolve slowly stirring for 3 minutes in an ice bath, poured into the solid phase resin is mixed with the reaction column, at room temperature for 2 hours, the reaction Ninhydrin detection method is completed, the reaction solution was deprived, DMF the resin was washed twice (50ml X 2), DCM the resin was washed twice (50ml X 2), to give Fmoc-Lys ( Boc) -Lys (Boc) -Lys (Boc) -Lys (Boc) -Lys (Boc) -Rink Amide-MBHAResin above operation used by the Fmoc-Lys (Boc) -〇H:. HOBt: DIC ratio is 1: 1: L2, which Fmoc-Lys (Boc) is three times the number of moles -〇H Fmoc-Rink Amide-MBHA Resin moles of repeat after the coupling step, followed by the completion of the 39 lysine to first. connecting protected amino acids histidine, followed by addition of 20% piperidine / DMF solution for 10 minutes, the reaction was drained, DMF the resin was washed six times (50ml X 6), DCM the resin was washed six times (50ml X 6 ), MeOH contraction of the resin three times with MeOH 50ml, each contraction 5min. After the resin was dried in vacuo to give a full side-chain protected peptide resin to the Li Xila 27. 5g, weight resin 17. 5g.

[0099] Li Xila to crude peptide preparation:

[0100] Weigh side chains fully protected Li Xila to -Rink Amide-MBHA Resin 27. 5 grams, into a round bottom flask.Configuration 275 ml lysis buffer, wherein trifluoroacetic acid: thioanisole: ethanedithiol: anisole, phenol = 93: 4: 1: 1.5: 2 (volume ratio). Lysate in the refrigerator after the pre-freeze 1 hour before Sheng Youli put to Silas to -Rink Amide-MBHA Resin round bottom flask, stirred at room temperature for 2 hours. The reaction mixture was filtered, the resin was washed with 20ml TFA and the combined filtrate.

[0101] The volume of the filtrate was slowly poured into 2,750 ml of diethyl ether frozen (frozen advance ether), a white precipitate appears, at 3000 rpm / centrifuged 5 minutes, the resulting solid was washed twice with ether, then the solid was dried under vacuum to give Li Xila trifluoroacetate crude peptide to 15. 3g.

[0102] Li Xila to large scale production of fine peptide:

[0103] Sample Preparation: The crude peptide was dissolved in water, the sample was completely dissolved by membrane filtration, the filtrate was collected for use.

[0104] Purification conditions: Column: octadecyl silane bonded silica gel as stationary phase column, the column diameter and length: 300_X250mm. Mobile phase: A phase: 35mm〇l / L phosphoric acid solution adjusted with triethylamine to pH 6. 7; B phase: acetonitrile, flow rate: 2200ml / min, Gradient: B%: 12% ~32%, detection wavelength: 280nm . The injection volume was 75g. Purification process: the column with 50% acetonitrile rinse clean after balance sample, sample amount is 75g. Linear gradient 120min, the purpose of collecting peaks will be collected 利西拉 solution was concentrated by rotary evaporation under reduced pressure to about 80mg / ml and reserve the water temperature exceeds 40 ° C without conditions.

[0105] turn salt: turn salt conditions: Column: octadecyl silane bonded silica gel as stationary phase column, the column diameter and length: 300mmX250mm. Mobile phase: A phase: mass concentration of 0.2% aqueous acetic acid; B phase: HPLC grade acetonitrile, flow rate: 2200ml / min, detection wavelength: 280nm. Gradient: B%: 6% ~36%. The injection volume was 48-60g. Salt transfer process: the column with 50% acetonitrile rinse clean after the sample, the sample volume is 1600ml sample solution. Linear gradient 90min, the purpose of collecting peaks collected Li Xila to solutions were concentrated by rotary evaporation to about 80ml / g after go to the appropriate size vials, then freeze-dried to obtain the purity of greater than 99.5% The Li Xila come.

Old post

https://newdrugapprovals.org/2013/09/13/sanofi-to-withdraw-the-lixisenatide-new-drug-application-nda-in-the-u-s-the-company-plans-to-resubmit-the-nda-in-2015-after-completion-of-the-elixa-cv-study/

lixisenatide

Sanofi Provides Update on Lixisenatide New Drug Application in U.S.

Paris, France – September 12, 2013 – Sanofi (EURONEXT: SAN and NYSE: SNY) announced today its decision to withdraw the lixisenatide New Drug Application (NDA) in the U.S., which included early interim results from the ongoing ELIXA cardiovascular (CV) outcomes study. The company plans to resubmit the NDA in 2015, after completion of the ELIXA CV study.

The decision to withdraw the lixisenatide application follows discussions with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regarding its proposed process for the review of interim data. Sanofi believes that potential public disclosure of early interim data, even with safeguards, could potentially compromise the integrity of the ongoing ELIXA study. Sanofi’s decision is not related to safety issues or deficiencies in the NDA………………………read all at

http://www.pharmalive.com/sanofi-pulls-diabetes-drug-nda

 

EU

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WO2014077802A1 * 13 Nov 2012 22 May 2014 Ipsen Pharma S.A.S. Purification method of a glp-1 analogue
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References

  1.  Christensen, M; Knop, FK; Holst, JJ; Vilsboll, T (2009). “Lixisenatide, a novel GLP-1 receptor agonist for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus”. IDrugs : the investigational drugs journal 12 (8): 503–13. PMID 19629885.
  2.  “Sanofi New Drug Application for Lixisenatide Accepted for Review by FDA”. Drugs.com/PR Newsire. 19 February 2013.
  3.  “International Nonproprietary Names for Pharmaceutical Substances (INN). Recommended INN: List 61” (PDF). WHO Drug Information 23 (1): 66f. 2009.
Lixisenatide
Clinical data
Trade names Lyxumia
License data
Routes of
administration
Subcutaneous injection
Legal status
Legal status
  • UK: POM (Prescription only)
Identifiers
CAS Number 827033-10-3
ATC code A10BX10 (WHO)
PubChem CID 16139342
IUPHAR/BPS 7387
ChemSpider 17295846
ChEBI CHEBI:85662
Chemical data
Formula C215H347N61O65S
Molar mass 4858.49 g/mol

///////FDA 2016, SANOFI, FDA,  approves , Adlyxin, lixisenatide, type 2 diabetes, Sanofi-Aventis U.S. LLC, Bridgewater, New Jersey, Lyxumia,  利西拉, PEPTIDE, 

CCC(C)C(C(=O)NC(CCC(=O)O)C(=O)NC(Cc1c[nH]c2c1cccc2)C(=O)NC(CC(C)C)C(=O)NC(CCCCN)C(=O)NC(CC(=O)N)C(=O)NCC(=O)NCC(=O)N3CCCC3C(=O)NC(CO)C(=O)NC(CO)C(=O)NCC(=O)NC(C)C(=O)N4CCCC4C(=O)N5CCCC5C(=O)NC(CO)C(=O)NC(CCCCN)C(=O)NC(CCCCN)C(=O)NC(CCCCN)C(=O)NC(CCCCN)C(=O)NC(CCCCN)C(=O)NC(CCCCN)C(=O)N)NC(=O)C(Cc6ccccc6)NC(=O)C(CC(C)C)NC(=O)C(CCCNC(=N)N)NC(=O)C(C(C)C)NC(=O)C(C)NC(=O)C(CCC(=O)O)NC(=O)C(CCC(=O)O)NC(=O)C(CCC(=O)O)NC(=O)C(CCSC)NC(=O)C(CCC(=O)N)NC(=O)C(CCCCN)NC(=O)C(CO)NC(=O)C(CC(C)C)NC(=O)C(CC(=O)O)NC(=O)C(CO)NC(=O)C(C(C)O)NC(=O)C(Cc7ccccc7)NC(=O)C(C(C)O)NC(=O)CNC(=O)C(CCC(=O)O)NC(=O)CNC(=O)C(Cc8cnc[nH]8)N

AND

CCC(C)C(C(=O)NC(CCC(=O)O)C(=O)NC(CC1=CNC2=CC=CC=C21)C(=O)NC(CC(C)C)C(=O)NC(CCCCN)C(=O)NC(CC(=O)N)C(=O)NCC(=O)NCC(=O)N3CCCC3C(=O)NC(CO)C(=O)NC(CO)C(=O)NCC(=O)NC(C)C(=O)N4CCCC4C(=O)N5CCCC5C(=O)NC(CO)C(=O)NC(CCCCN)C(=O)NC(CCCCN)C(=O)NC(CCCCN)C(=O)NC(CCCCN)C(=O)NC(CCCCN)C(=O)NC(CCCCN)C(=O)N)NC(=O)C(CC6=CC=CC=C6)NC(=O)C(CC(C)C)NC(=O)C(CCCNC(=N)N)NC(=O)C(C(C)C)NC(=O)C(C)NC(=O)C(CCC(=O)O)NC(=O)C(CCC(=O)O)NC(=O)C(CCC(=O)O)NC(=O)C(CCSC)NC(=O)C(CCC(=O)N)NC(=O)C(CCCCN)NC(=O)C(CO)NC(=O)C(CC(C)C)NC(=O)C(CC(=O)O)NC(=O)C(CO)NC(=O)C(C(C)O)NC(=O)C(CC7=CC=CC=C7)NC(=O)C(C(C)O)NC(=O)CNC(=O)C(CCC(=O)O)NC(=O)CNC(=O)C(CC8=CN=CN8)N

Varenicline (Chantix™) バレニクリン酒石酸塩


Varenicline.svg

Varenicline (Chantix™)

Varenicline

  • MF C13H13N3
  • MW 211.26
(1R,12S)-5,8,14-Triazatétracyclo[10.3.1.02,11.04,9]hexadéca-2,4,6,8,10-pentaène [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name]
6,10-Methano-6H-azepino[4,5-g]quinoxaline, 7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-, (6R,10S)- [ACD/Index Name]
Champix
(1R,12S)-5,8,14-triazatetracyclo[10.3.1.02,11.04,9]hexadeca-2(11),3,5,7,9-pentaene
CP-526,555
MFCD08460603
MFCD10001497
UNII:W6HS99O8ZO
APPROVALS
FDA MAY 10, 2006
EMA SEPT 2006
PMDA JAPAN JAN 25 2008

Varenicline (trade name Chantix and Champix usually in the form of varenicline tartrate), is a prescription medication used to treatnicotine addiction. Varenicline is a nicotinic receptor partial agonist—it stimulates nicotine receptors more weakly than nicotine itself does. In this respect it is similar to cytisine and different from the nicotinic antagonist, bupropion, and nicotine replacement therapies(NRTs) like nicotine patches and nicotine gum. As a partial agonist it both reduces cravings for and decreases the pleasurable effects of cigarettes and other tobacco products. Through these mechanisms it can assist some patients to quit smoking.

Varenicline

Varenicline
CAS Registry Number: 249296-44-4
CAS Name: 7,8,9,10-Tetrahydro-6,10-methano-6H-pyrazino[2,3-h][3]benzazepine
Additional Names: 5,8,14-triazatetracyclo[10.3.1.02,11.04,9]hexadeca-2(11)-3,5,7,9-pentaene
Manufacturers’ Codes: CP-526555
Molecular Formula: C13H13N3
Molecular Weight: 211.26
Percent Composition: C 73.91%, H 6.20%, N 19.89%
Literature References: Nicotinic a4b2 acetylcholine receptor partial agonist. Prepn: P. R. P. Brooks, J. W. Coe, WO 0162736(2001 to Pfizer). Synthesis, receptor binding studies, and in vivo dopaminergic acitvity: J. W. Coe et al., J. Med. Chem. 48, 3474 (2005). Metabolism: R. S. Obach et al., Drug Metab. Dispos. 34, 121 (2006).
Derivative Type: Tartrate
CAS Registry Number: 375815-87-5
Trademarks: Champix (Pfizer)
Molecular Formula: C13H13N3.C4H6O6
Molecular Weight: 361.35
Percent Composition: C 56.51%, H 5.30%, N 11.63%, O 26.57%
Therap-Cat: Aid in smoking cessation.
バレニクリン酒石酸塩
Varenicline Tartrate

C13H13N3▪C4H6O6 : 361.35
[375815-87-5]

Medical uses

Varenicline is used for smoking cessation. In a 2009 meta-analysis varenicline was found to be more effective than bupropion (odds ratio 1.40) and NRTs (odds ratio 1.56).[1]

A 2013 Cochrane overview and network meta-analysis concluded that varenicline is the most effective medication for tobacco cessation and that smokers were nearly three times more likely to quit on varenicline than with placebo treatment. Varenicline was more efficacious than bupropion or NRT and as effective as combination NRT for tobacco smoking cessation.[2][3]

The United States’ Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) has approved the use of varenicline for up to twelve weeks. If smoking cessation has been achieved it may be continued for another twelve weeks.[4]

Varenicline has not been tested in those under 18 years old or pregnant women and therefore is not recommended for use by these groups. Varenicline is considered a class C pregnancy drug, as animal studies have shown no increased risk of congenital anomalies, however, no data from human studies is available.[5] An observational study is currently being conducted assessing for malformations related to varenicline exposure, but has no results yet.[6] An alternate drug is preferred for smoking cessation during breastfeeding due to lack of information and based on the animal studies on nicotine.[7]

Varenicline L-tartrate (Compound I) is the international commonly accepted name for 7,8,9,10- tetrahydro-6, 10-methano-6i7-pyrazino [2, 3- h] [3 ] benzazepme, (2R, 3R) -2 , 3-dihydroxybutanedioate (1:1) (which is also known as 5,8,14- tπazatetracyclo [10.3.1. O211. O49] -hexadeca-2 (11) , 3, 5, 7, 9-pentaene, (2R, 3R)-2,3- dihydroxybutanedioate (1:1)) and has an empirical formula of C13H13N3 C4H6O6 and a molecular weight of 361.35. Varenicline L-tartrate is a commercially marketed pharmaceutically active substance known to be useful for the treatment of smoking addiction.

Figure imgf000002_0001

(D

Varenicline L-tartrate is a partial agonist selective for (X4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes. In the United States, varenicline L-tartrate is marketed under the name Chantix™ for the treatment of smoking cessation. Varenicline base and its pharmaceutically acceptable acid addition salts are described in U.S. Patent No. 6,410,550. In particular, Example 26 of U.S. Patent No. 6,410,550 describes the preparation of varenicline hydrochloride salt using 1- (4 , 5-dinitro-10- aza-tπcyclo [6.3.1.O27] dodeca-2, 4, 6-trien-10-yl) -2,2,2- tπfluoroethanone (compound of formula (III)) as starting compound. On the other hand, Example HA) of U.S. Patent No. 6,410,550 illustrates the preparation of compound of formula (III) via nitration of compound of formula (II) using an excess of nitronium triflate (>4 equiv) as a nitrating agent. The process disclosed in U.S. Patent No. 6,410,550 is depicted in Scheme 1.

Figure imgf000003_0001

VareniclineΗCl

Scheme 1

However, Coe et al., J. Med. Chem., 48, 3474 (2005), describes the same process and examples as U.S. Patent No. 6,410,550, and it also reveals that this process affords intermediate ortho-4 , 5-dinitrocompound of formula (III) together with the meta-3, 5-dinitro- isomer (i.e. the meta-dinitrocompound) in a ratio 9:1. The presence of the meta-dinitrocompound may affect not only the purity of the intermediate compound of formula III but it may also have an effect on the purity of the final varenicline tartrate, given that it can be carried along the synthetic pathway and/or it can also give rise to other derivative impurities. Thereby, as well as in U.S. Patent No. 6,410,550, in order to isolate pure compound of formula (III) , the raw product is triturated with ethyl acetate/hexane to afford compound of formula (III) with 77% yield. Additionally, the mother liquor is purified by chromatography on silica gel to improve the yield to a total of 82.8%. However, this process is not desirable for industrial implementation since it requires extensive and complicated purification procedures, i.e. trituration of the solid product along with column chromatography purification of the mother liquor, which is not very efficient or suitable for industrial scale-up.

Several improved processes for the synthesis of varenicline or its salts have been reported in the literature (e.g. WO2006/090236) . However, none of these processes tackle the optimization of the purification step of compound of formula (III).

There is therefore the need for providing an improved process for the preparation of varenicline L- tartrate which involves simple experimental procedures well suited to industrial production, which avoids the use of column chromatography purifications, and which affords high pure varenicline L-tartrate which hence can be used directly as a starting product for the preparation of the marketed pharmaceutical speciality.

Additionally, it has been observed that varenicline L-tartrate is usually obtained as a yellow solid under – A –

standard synthetic conditions. In this regard, colour must be attributed to the presence of some specific impurities that may or may not be detectable by conventional methods such as HPLC. The presence of impurities may adversely affect the safety and shelf life of formulations. In this connection, International application No. WO2006/090236 describes the isolation of vareniclme L- tartrate as a white solid. However, in order to remove coloured impurities, the varenicline L-tartrate obtained in WO2006/090236 is treated with a particular activated carbon having a specific grade (i.e. Darco KB-B™) . In fact, Example 5 of WO2006/090236 describes a large reprocessing step which comprises: dissolving varenicline L-tartrate in water, adding toluene, basifying with NaOH aqueous solution, collecting the toluene phase containing varenicline free base, distilling, adding methanol, azeotropically distilling the mixture, and adding more methanol to obtain a methanolic solution containing varenicline free base, adding Darco KB-B™ (10% w/w) , stirring for one hour, filtering through a pad of celite, and treating with L-tartaric acid to give varenicline L- tartrate salt as a white solid. Further, WO2006/090236 provides the absorbance at 430 nm of a varenicline L- tartrate salt solution, either in dichloromethane or in toluene, with or without using Darco KB-B™ activated carbon. However, this measure cannot be used to corroborate the whiteness of the solid varenicline L- tartrate. In addition, Example 3 of International application No. WO2002/092089, also disclose the preparation of varenicline L-tartrate polymorphic form C (i.e. a hydrate polymorph) as a white precipitate. Therefore, there is also a need for a simple and efficient method for preparing varenicline L-tartrate with enhanced whiteness and having a high purity.

SYNTHESIS

Synthesis of Intermediate VIII

Paper

J. Med. Chem. 48, 3474 (2005).

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/jm050069n

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PATENT

https://www.google.com/patents/WO2001062736A1?cl=en

CLIP

Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients and Related Methodology, Volume 37

edited by Harry G. Brittain

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SYNTHESIS

DOI: 10.1021/jm00190a020
DOI: 10.1021/jm050069n

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Scheme (I) compound patent US6410550B1 is provided adjacent difluorobromobenzene as raw materials by DA reaction, oxidation, cyclization, debenzylation get varenicline intermediate (II). The synthesis route is as follows:

Figure CN102827079AD00051
CLIP

Patent CN101693712A mainly given varenicline intermediate (II) The preparation process is different from the compound patented. After the five-step method patents cited compounds. The entire route is longer, while using a large number of precious metal catalysts and reaction conditions need very strict control, inappropriate EVAL industry production.

Figure CN102827079AD00052
CLIP

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PATENT

CN 102827079

A varenicline intermediate 2,3, 4, 5-tetrahydro-1,5-methylene bridge synthesis -1H-3- benzazepine hydrochloride, which comprises the following Step: (1) 2-indanone of formula 3 and the compound and paraformaldehyde under alkaline or acidic conditions Mannich reaction, as shown in general formula 2 intermediate; (2) the step (I) obtained through reaction of Formula 2 intermediate under basic or acidic conditions by reducing the role of the carbonyl group is reduced to a methylene group, and get varenicline intermediate (II) by debenzylation, the reaction is:

Figure CN102827079AC00021

Wherein, R groups are selected from _H, _Me, _Et, _iPr> _t_Bu.

Figure 2;

Figure CN102827079AD00072

Wherein, R group is -H, -Me, -Et, -iPr or -t_Bu.

(2) Step (I) obtained by the reaction intermediates of formula under basic or acidic conditions by reducing the role of the carbonyl group is reduced 2 methylene, and get by debenzylation cutting Lenk Lin intermediate (II);

Figure CN102827079AD00073

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Varenicline, a nicotinic 􀀁4􀀂2 partial agonist, was approved in the US for the treatment of smoking cessation in May of 2006. It was developed and marketed by Pfizer as a treatment for cigarette smokers who want to quit. Varenicline partially activates the nicotinic receptors and thus reduces the craving for cigarette that smokers feel when they try to quit smoking. By mitigating this craving and antagonizing nicotine activity without other symptoms, this novel drug helps quitting this dangerous addiction easier on the patients [6,52]. Several modifications [54,55] to the original synthesis [53,56] have been reported in the literature, including an improved process scale synthesis of the last few steps (Scheme 15) [57]. The Grignard reaction was initiated on a small scale by addition of 2-bromo fluorobenzene 113 to a slurry of Magnesium turnings and catalytic 1,2-dibromoethane in THF and heating the mixture until refluxing in maintained. To this refluxing mixture was added a mixture of the 2-bromo fluorobenzene 113 and cyclopentadiene 114 over a period of 1.5 h. After complete addition, the reaction was allowed to reflux for additional 1.5 h to give the Diels- Alder product 115 in 64% yield. Dihydroxylation of the olefin 115 by reacting with catalytic osmium tetraoxide in the presence of N-methylmorpholine N-oxide (NMO) in acetone: water mixture at room temperature provided the diol 116 in 89% yield. Oxidative cleavage of diol 116 with sodium periodate in biphasic mixture of water: DCE at 10ºC provided di-aldehyde 117 which was immediately reacted with benzyl amine in the presence of sodium acetoxyborohydride to give benzyl amine 118 in 85.7% yield. The removal of the benzyl group was effected by hydrogenation of the HCl salt in 40-50 psi hydrogen pressure with 20% Pd(OH)2 in methanol to give amine hydrochloride 119 in 88% yield. Treatment of amine 119 with trifluoroacetic anhydride and pyridine in dichloromethane at 0ºC gave trifluoroacetamide 120 in 94% yield. Dinitro compound 121 was prepared by addition of trifluoroacetamide 120 to a mixture of trifluoromethane sulfonic acid and nitric acid, which was premixed, in dichloromethane at 0ºC. Reduction of the dinitro compound 121 by hydrogenation at 40-50 psi hydrogen in the presence of catalytic 5%Pd/C in isopropanol:water mixture provided the diamine intermediate 122 which was quickly reacted with glyoxal in water at room temperature for 18h to give compound 123 in 85% overall yield. The trifluoroacetamide 123 was then hydrolyzed with 2 M sodium hydroxide in toluene at 37-40ºC for 2-3h followed by preparation of tartrate salt in methanol to furnish varenicline tartrate (XV).

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[52]Keating, G.; Siddiqui, M. A. A. CNSdrugs, 2006, 11, 946.
[53] Coe, J. W.; Brooks, P. R.; Vetelino, M. G.; Wirtz, M. C.; Arnold,E. P. ; Huang, J.; Sands, S. B.; Davis, T. I.; Lebel, L. A.; Fox, C.
B.; Shrikhande, A.; Heym, J. H.; Schaeffer, E.; Rollema, H.; Lu,Y.; Mansbach, R. S.; Chambers, L. K.; Rovetti, C. C.; Schulz, D.
W.; Tingley, III, F. D.; O’Neill, B. T. J. Med. Chem., 2005, 48,3474.
[54] Brooks, P. R.; Caron, S.; Coe, J. W.; Ng, K. K.; Singer, R. A.;Vazquez, E.; Vetelino, M. G.; Watson, Jr. H. H.; Whritenour, D.
C.; Wirtz, M. C. Synthesis, 2004, 11, 1755.
[55] Singer, R. A.; McKinley, J. D.; Barbe, G.; Farlow, R. A. Org. Lett.,2004, 6, 2357.
[56] Coe, J. W.; Brooks, P. R. P. US-6410550 B1, 2002.
[57] Busch, F. R.; Hawkins, J. M.; Mustakis, L. G.; Sinay, T. G., Jr.;Watson, T. J. N.; Withbroe, G. J. WO-2006090236 A1, 2006.

PATENT

WO 2002085843

https://google.com/patents/WO2002085843A2?cl=en

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PATENT

https://www.google.com/patents/EP2204369A1?cl=en

Varenicline (a compound I of formula I) is the international commonly accepted non-proprietary name for 7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-6,10-methano-6H-pyrazino[2,3-h][3]benzazepine (which is also known as 5,8,14-triazatetracyclo[10.3.1.02,11.04,9]-hexadeca-2(11),3,5,7,9-pentaene), and has an empirical formula of C13H13N3 and a molecular weight of 211.26.

Figure imgb0001

The L-tartrate salt of varenicline is known to be therapeutically useful and is commercially marketed for the treatment of smoking addiction. Varenicline L-tartrate is a partial agonist selective for α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes. In the United States, varenicline L-tartrate is marketed under the trade mark Chantix and is indicated as an aid to smoking cessation treatment.

Varenicline base and its pharmaceutically acceptable acid addition salts are described in U.S. Patent No. 6,410,550 . In particular, the preparation of varenicline provided in this reference makes use of 10-aza-tricyclo[6.3.1.02,7]-dodeca-2(7),3,5-triene (a compound of Formula VI), as a key intermediate compound (see Scheme 1 below). Specifically, Example 1 of U.S. Patent No. 6,410,550 describes the synthetic preparation of key intermediate compound of Formula VI as depicted in Scheme 1.

Figure imgb0002

1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1,4-methano-naphthalene-cis-2,3-diol (a compound of Formula III), and / or indane-1,3-dicarbaldehyde (a compound of Formula IV).

Example 1: Preparation of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1,4-methano-naphthalene-cis-2,3-diol (a compound of Formula III)

A 10mL round bottom flask was charged with a compound of formula II (142mg, 1mmol), N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (120mg, 1.03mmol), tert-butanol (3mL) and water (1mL). FibreCat 3003 (OsO4 anchored onto a polymeric support) (11.6mg, 0.0025mmol) was added to this solution and the mixture was heated to reflux. Complete conversion to a compound of formula III was detected by GC, method A, after 48h.

Example 2: Preparation of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1,4-methano-naphthalene-cis-2,3-diol (a compound of Formula III)Step A) Preparation of hexadecyl-trimethylammoniumpermanganate (HTAP):

HTAP was prepared from ion exchange reaction between hexadecyltrimethylammoniumbromide and potassium permanganate.

Potassium permanganate (17.38g, 0.11mol, 1equiv.) was dissolved in 500mL water. A solution of hexadecyltrimethylammoniumbromide (40.10g, 0.11mol, 1equiv) in 500mL water was added drop-wise over 45 min at 20-22°C, and the mixture stirred for 30 minutes at this temperature. The precipitated solid was collected by filtration, washed with water (3 x 100mL) and dried under vacuum at 35°C for 24 hours to give 34.38g of HTAP as a light purple solid.

Step B) Preparation of a compound of formula III:

Compound II (3.52g, 24.8mmol, 1equiv.) was dissolved in anhydrous tetrahydrofuran (80mL) and a solution of HTAP (10g, 24.8mmol, 1.0equiv.) in anhydrous tetrahydrofuran (125mL) was added drop-wise at 23-30°C over 45min. The reaction was monitored by TLC (hexane-ethyl acetate = 1:1). After complete reaction the mixture was cooled to below 10°C, and methyl tert-butyl ether (50mL) and 5% aqueous NaOH solution (50mL) were added and the mixture stirred for 30min. The solid was removed by filtration, and washed with methyl tert-butyl ether (2 x 30mL). The combined layers of the filtrate were separated and the aqueous phase extracted with methyl tert-butyl ether (2 x 30mL). The organic layers were combined and washed with 5% aqueous NaOH solution (50mL), water (2 x 50mL), dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated to obtain a dark green solid. This residue was suspended in acetone (15mL) and collected by filtration, washing with additional acetone (3 x 5mL). The product was dried under vacuum at 40°C to give 2.215g (50.7% yield) as a white crystalline solid.

Analytical data: m.p. = 178.8-179.3°C; 1H-NMR: See Figure 1; 13C-NMR: See Figure 2.

Example 3: Preparation of indane-1,3-dicarbaldehyde (a compound of Formula IV)

A 25 mL round bottom flask was charged with a compound of formula I (142mg, 1mmol), Ruthenium (III) chloride hydrate (Aldrich, Reagent Plus) (7.2mg, 0.035mmol), acetonitrile (8.5mL) and water (1.1mL). The solution was heated to 45°C and sodium periodate (449mg, 2.1mmol) was added portionwise over 25 minutes. After 1h, the reaction was cooled to ambient temperature and filtered. The solids were washed with ethyl acetate (3 x 2mL) and water (3mL). The filtrate was concentrated under vacuum and 5mL of water were added to the obtained residue. The mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate (2 x 5mL) and the combination of the organic layers was washed with water (3 x 5mL), dried with MgSO4 and concentrated under vacuum to obtain a compound of formula IV (118mg) in 68% yield, 70.9% purity (analyzed by GC, method A).

PATENT

WO 199935131, WO 2002092089, US 2013030179

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PATENT

https://www.google.com/patents/WO2009065872A2?cl=en

Example 1: Preparation of 7,8,9,10- tetrahydro-6, 10-methano-6H-pyrazino [2, 3-h] [3] benzazepine L-tartrate (i.e. varenicline L-tartrate)

A) Preparation of compound of formula (III)

This example is based on U.S. Patent No. 6,410,550.

A 250 mL round bottom flask with thermometer, condenser, addition funnel and magnetic stirring was charged with 10-aza-tricyclo [ 6.3.1. O27] dodeca-2, 4, 6- triene para-toluene sulfonic acid salt (12.4g, 37.5 mmol) and 44 mL of CH2Cl2. Triethylamine (8.3 g, 82.5 mmol) was added to the slurry and the resulting solution was cooled to 0-5 0C. The addition funnel was charged with a solution of (CF3CO)2O (8.1q, 41.25 mmol) in 19 mL of CH2Cl2. This solution was slowly added to the reaction mixture, maintaining the temperature < 15 0C. The resulting mixture was stirred for 1 hour, and the complete conversion was monitored by GC. The crude reaction mixture was washed with water (2 * 40 mL) and brine (40 mL) . The organic phase was used in the next step without further purification.

On the other hand, a 500 mL round bottom flask with thermometer, condenser, addition funnel and magnetic stirring was charged with CF3SO3H (25.9 g, 172.5 mmol), CH2Cl2 (110 mL) and cooled to 0-5 0C. At this temperature, fuming nitric acid (5.4 g, 86.25 mmol) was added slowly. To the resulting slurry at 0-5 0C, the solution obtained in the previous step was slowly added, maintaining the temperature < 15 0C. After the addition, the reaction mixture was stirred overnight. The complete dinitration was confirmed by GC. The crude reaction mixture was poured into water (60 mL) an ice (80 g) and stirred. The phases were separated and the aqueous phase was extracted with CH2Cl2 (3 x 50 mL) . The mixture of the organic phases was washed with aqueous saturated NaHCO3, dried over Na2SO4 and volatiles evaporated under vacuum to obtain 11.9 g of a solid that was suspended and stirred for 2 hours in AcOEt (12 mL) and hexanes (24 mL) . The solid was filtered and washed with hexanes to obtain the compound of formula (III), 9.1g with a purity of 88.9% by GC (9.8% of meta-dimtrocompound impurity) .

B) Preparation of compound of formula (IV)

This example is based on International Patent No. WO/2006/090236.

A 200 mL autoclave was charged with (III) (9.1 g, 26.3 mmol), damp 5% Pd/C 50% and 180 mL of a 2- propanol/water (80/20 wt/wt) . The reaction was stirred under 50 psi of hydrogen for 18 hours. The complete hydrogenation was confirmed by GC analysis. The reaction was filtered through Celite and washed with 2-propanol (40 mL) . To this solution, K2HPO4(458 mg, 2.63 mmol) was added. The mixture was cooled at 0-5 0C and a solution of 4.07 g of 40% aqueous glyoxal diluted with water (14.5 mL) was added slowly. The resulting solution was stirred 2 hours at this temperature and overnight at room temperature. The complete conversion was confirmed by GC analysis. The reaction was concentrated under vacuum to a volume of 68 mL and water (128 mL) was added drop- wise. The resulting suspension was stirred for 2 hours at room temperature, 1 hour in a ice/water bath, filtered, washed with water (20 mL) and dried m a oven at 50 0C to obtain the compound of formula (IV), 6.78 g.

C) Preparation of vareniclme L-tartrate (compound of formula (I) )

This example is based on International Patent No. WO/2006/090236.

A 250 mL round bottom flask with thermometer, condenser, and magnetic stirring was charged with compound of formula (IV) (6.78 g, 22 mmol) and toluene

(47 mL) . To this solution was added a solution of NaOH (2.7 g, 68.2 mmol) in water (34 mL) . The mixture was heated to 400C and stirred for 4 hours. The complete hydrolysis was confirmed by GC analysis. Toluene (68 mL) was added and the reaction was cooled. The phases were separated and the aqueous phase was extracted with toluene (30 mL) . The organic phases were evaporated under vacuum. The residue was dissolved in MeOH (90 mL) and evaporated again. The final residue was dissolved in 156 mL of MeOH. 1.3 g of activated carbon “Darco G-60 100 mesh” were added and the mixture was stirred for 30 min and filtered through Celite to obtain an intense yellow solution. The process with activated carbon was repeated without any improvement in the colour. This solution was added drop-wise over a solution of L- tartaric acid (3.63 g, 24.2 mmol) in MeOH (47 mL) . The slurry was stirred for 72 hours at room temperature, filtered, washed with MeOH and dried in an oven at 50 0C for 8 hours, to obtain 5.05 g of varenicline L-tartrate as a yellow solid with a 95.5% purity by HPLC (4.4% of unknown impurity A). Colour L: 92.75, a*: -7.19, b*:43.08.

Comparative Example 2: Preparation of 7,8,9,10- tetrahydro-6, 10-methano-6H-pyrazmo [2, 3-h] [3 ] benzazepine L-tartrate (i.e. varenicline L-tartrate) A) Preparation of compound of formula (IV)

This example is based on International Patent No. WO/2006/090236.

A 200 mL autoclave was charged with (III) prepared according to Comparative Example 1.A) (4.1 g) , 123 mg of damp 5% Pd/C 50% and 81 mL of a 2-propanol/water (80/20 wt/wt) . The reaction was stirred under 50 psi of hydrogen for 24 hours. The complete hydrogenation was confirmed by GC analysis. The reaction was filtered through Celite and washed with 2-propanol (16 mL) . To this solution, K2HPO4 (207 mg, 1.19 mmol) was added. The mixture was cooled at 0-5 0C and a solution of 1.84 g of 40% aqueous glyoxal diluted with water (6.6 mL) was added slowly. The resulting solution was stirred 2 hours at this temperature and overnight at room temperature. The complete conversion was confirmed by GC analysis. The reaction was concentrated under vacuum to a volume of 30 mL and water (56 mL) was added drop-wise. The resulting suspension was stirred for 2 hours at room temperature, 1 hour in a ice/water bath, filtered, washed with water and dried in a oven at 50 0C to obtain 3.15 g of compound of formula (IV) .

B) Preparation of vareniclme L-tartrate (compound of formula (I) )

This example is based on International application No. WO/2006/090236. A 100 mL round bottom flask with thermometer, condenser, and magnetic stirring was charged with

7, 8, 9, 10-tetrahydro-8- (tπfluoroacetyl) -6, 10-methano-6H- pyrazino [2 , 3-h] [3] benzazepine, i.e. compound of formula

(IV) (3.14 g, 10.2 mmol) and toluene (22 mL) . To this solution was added a solution of NaOH (1.3 g, 31.6 mmol) in water (16 mL) . The mixture was heated to 40 0C and stirred for 2.5 hours. The complete hydrolysis was confirmed by GC analysis. Toluene (30 mL) was added and the reaction was cooled. The phases were separated and the aqueous phase was extracted with toluene (15 mL) . The organic phases were evaporated under vacuum. The residue was dissolved in MeOH (45 mL) and evaporated again. The final residue was dissolved m 70 mL of MeOH. 314 mg of activated carbon “Darco G-60 100 mesh” were added and the mixture was stirred for 30 mm and filtered through Celite to obtain a yellow solution. This solution was added drop-wise over a solution of L- tartaπc acid (1.68 g, 11.22 mmol) m MeOH (22 mL) . The slurry was stirred for 1 hour at room temperature, filtered, washed with MeOH (2 x 5 mL) and dried under vacuum, to obtain vareniclme L-tartrate (2.48 g) as a yellow solid with a 95.6% purity by HPLC (4.4% of unknown impurity A). Colour L: 99.50, a*: -4.98, b*:43.02

Comparative Example 3: Preparation of 7,8,9,10- tetrahydro-6, 10-methano-6H-pyrazino [2, 3-h] [3 ] benzazepine L-tartrate (i.e. vareniclme L-tartrate)

This example is based on International application No. WO/2002/092089.

2 g of vareniclme L-tartrate as obtained from Comparative Example 1 were dissolved in 3 mL of water.

To this solution, 100 mL of CH3CN were added, and the resulting slurry was stirred for 10 mm and filtered.

After drying the product was analysed to be a 98.2% purity by HPLC (1.7% of unknown impurity A) . Colour L: 91.44, a*: -3.24, b* : 33.47

Example 1: Preparation of 7, 8, 9, lO-tetrahydro-6, 10- methano-6H-pyrazmo [2, 3-h] [3] benzazepine L-tartrate

(i.e. vareniclme L-tartrate)

A) Preparation of compound of formula (III) This example is based on U.S. Patent No. 6,410,550, except for the purification step, which is the object of the present invention (i.e. crystallization in toluene) .

A 500 mL round bottom flask with thermometer, condenser, addition funnel and magnetic stirring was charged with 10-aza-tricyclo [ 6.3.1. O27] dodeca-2, 4, 6- tπene para-toluene sulfonic acid salt (32.5g, 98.2 mmol) and 115 mL of CH2Cl2. Triethylamine (21.8 g, 216 mmol) was added to the slurry and the resulting solution was cooled to 0-5 0C. The addition funnel was charged with a solution of (CF3CO)2O (22.7 g, 108 mmol) in 50 mL of CH2Cl2. This solution was slowly added to the reaction mixture, maintaining the temperature < 15 0C. The resulting mixture was stirred for 1 hour, and the complete conversion was monitored by GC. The crude reaction mixture was washed with water (2 x 100 mL) and brine (100 mL) . The organic phase was used in the next step without further purification.

A l L round bottom flask with thermometer, condenser, addition funnel and magnetic stirring was charged with CF3SO3H (67.8 g, 452 mmol), CH2Cl2 (280 mL) and cooled to 0-5 0C. At this temperature, fuming nitric acid (14.2 g, 226 mmol) was slowly added. To the resulting slurry at 0-5 0C, the solution obtained in the previous step was slowly added, maintaining the temperature < 15 0C. After the addition, the reaction mixture was stirred overnight. The complete dinitration was confirmed by GC. The crude reaction mixture was poured into water (150 mL) an ice (200 g) and stirred. The phases were separated and the aqueous phase was extracted with CH2Cl2 (100 mL) . The mixture of the organic phases was washed with aqueous saturated NaHCO3 (2×100 mL) , water (100 mL) , dried over Na2SO4 and volatiles evaporated under vacuum to obtain 30.5 g of a solid with a 83.6% purity by GC (12.5% of meta- dinitrocompound impurity) . 20 g of this solid were crystallized in toluene (100 mL) to obtain the compound of formula (III), 15 g of a pale brown solid with a 98.5 % purity by GC (meta-dinitrocompound impurity not detected) .

B) Preparation of compound of formula (IV) This example is based on International Patent No. WO/2006/090236.

A 200 mL autoclave was charged with (III) (9.1 g, 26.3 mmol, crystals from toluene), damp 5% Pd/C 50% and 180 mL of a 2-propanol/water (80/20 wt/wt) . The reaction was stirred under 50 psi of hydrogen for 18 hours. The complete hydrogenation was confirmed by GC analysis. The reaction was filtered over Celite and washed with 2- propanol (40 mL) . To this solution, K2HPO4 (458 mg, 2.63 mmol) was added. The mixture was cooled at 0-5 0C and a solution of 4.07 g of 40% aqueous glyoxal diluted with water (14.5 mL) was added slowly. The resulting solution was stirred 2 hours at this temperature and overnight at room temperature. The complete conversion was confirmed by GC analysis. The reaction was concentrated under vacuum to a volume of 68 mL and water (128 mL) was added drop-wise. The resulting suspension was stirred for 2 hours at room temperature, 1 hour in a ice/water bath, filtered, washed with water (20 mL) and dried m a oven at 50 0C to obtain the product, 7.16 g of compound of formula (IV) with a 99.9% purity by HPLC. C) Preparation of varenicline L-tartrate (compound of formula ( I) )

Thrs example rs based on International Patent No. WO/2006/090236. A 250 mL round bottom flask with thermometer, condenser, and magnetic stirring was charged with a solution of NaOH (2.89 g, 72.23 mmol) in water (36 mL) , compound of formula (IV) (7.15 g, 23.3 mmol) and toluene (50 mL) . The mixture was heated to 40 0C and stirred for 4 hours. The complete hydrolysis was confirmed by GC analysis. Toluene (71 mL) was added and the reaction was cooled. The phases were separated and the aqueous phase was extracted with toluene (36 mL) . The organic phases were evaporated under vacuum. The residue was dissolved in MeOH (110 mL) and evaporated again. The final residue was dissolved in 164 mL of MeOH. 750 mg of activated carbon “Darco G-60 100 mesh” were added and the mixture was stirred for 30 min and filtered through Celite to obtain a yellow solution. This solution was added drop- wise over a solution of L-tartaric acid (3.84 g, 25.6 mmol) in MeOH (50 mL) . The slurry was stirred for 14 hours at room temperature, filtered, washed with MeOH and dried under vacuum, to obtain varenicline L-tartrate

(7.04 g) as an off-white solid with a >99.9% purity by HPLC (unknown impurity A not detected) . Colour L: 94.39, a*: 2.27, b*:9.02.

Post-marketing surveillance

No evidence for increased risks of cardiovascular events, depression, or self-harm with varenicline versus nicotine replacement therapy has been found in one post-marketing surveillance study.[23]

Mechanism of action

Varenicline displays full agonism on α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.[24][25] And it is a partial agonist on the α4β2, α3β4, and α6β2 subtypes.[26] In addition, it is a weak agonist on the α3β2 containing receptors.

Varenicline’s partial agonism on the α4β2 receptors rather than nicotine’s full agonism produces less effect of dopamine release than nicotine’s. This α4β2 competitive binding, reduces the ability of nicotine to bind and stimulate the mesolimbic dopamine system – similar to the method of action of buprenorphine in the treatment of opioid addiction.[3]

Pharmacokinetics

Most of the active compound is excreted by the kidneys (92–93%). A small proportion is glucuronidated, oxidised, N-formylated or conjugated to a hexose.[27] The elimination half-life is about 24 hours.

History

Use of Cytisus plant as a smoking substitute during World War II[28] led to use as a cessation aid in eastern Europe and extraction of cytisine.[29] Cytisine analogs led to varenicline at Pfizer.[30][31][32]

Varenicline received a “priority review” by the US FDA in February 2006, shortening the usual 10-month review period to 6 months because of its demonstrated effectiveness inclinical trials and perceived lack of safety issues.[33] The agency’s approval of the drug came on May 11, 2006.[4] On August 1, 2006, varenicline was made available for sale in the United States and on September 29, 2006, was approved for sale in the European Union.[34]

SEE

Busch FR, Concannon PE, Handfield RE, McKinley JD, McMahon ME, Singer RA, Watson TJ, Withbroe GJ, Stivanello M, Leoni L, Bezze C. Synthesis of (1 (Aminomethyl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-3-yl)methanol: Structural Confirmation of the Main Band Impurity Found in Varenicline® Starting Material.Synth Commun. 2008;38:441–447. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00397910701771231.
Varenicline standards and impurity controls. www.freepatentsonline.com/US2007/0224690.html.
N-formyl and N-methyl degradation products. www.freepatentsonline.com/y2004/0235850.html.
Methods of reducing degradant formation in pharmaceutical compositions of Varenicline.www.freepatentsonline.com/y2008/0026059.html.
Varenicline standards and impurity controls. www.freepatentsonline.com/EP2004186.html.
Satheesh B, Kumarpulluru S, Raghavan V, Saravanan D. UHPLC Separation and Quantification of Related Substances of Varenicline Tartrate Tablet. Acta Chromatogr. 2010;22:207–218.http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/AChrom.22.2010.2.4.
STR1
US6410550 Nov 13, 1998 Jun 25, 2002 Pfizer Inc Aryl fused azapolycyclic compounds
WO2009155403A2 * Jun 18, 2009 Dec 23, 2009 Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. Processes for the preparation of varenicline and intermediates thereof
Reference
1 * BHUSHAN, VIDYA; RATHORE, RAJENDRA; CHANDRASEKARAN, S.: “A Simple and Mild Method for the cis-Hydroxylation of Alkenes with Cetyltrimethylammonium Permanganate” SYNTHESIS, no. 5, 1984, pages 431-433, XP002581198
2 * BROOKS P R ET AL: “Synthesis of 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1,5-methano-1H-3-benzaz epine via oxidative cleavage and reductive amination strategies” SYNTHESIS 20040803 DE, no. 11, 3 August 2004 (2004-08-03), pages 1755-1758, XP002581197 ISSN: 0039-7881
3 * SORBERA L A ET AL: “Varenicline tartrate: Aid to smoking cessation nicotinic [alpha]4[beta]2 partial agonist” DRUGS OF THE FUTURE 200602 ES LNKD- DOI:10.1358/DOF.2006.031.02.964028, vol. 31, no. 2, February 2006 (2006-02), pages 117-122, XP002581199 ISSN: 0377-8282 DOI: 10.1358/dof.2006.031.02.964028
WO2001062736A1 * Feb 8, 2001 Aug 30, 2001 Pfizer Products Inc. Aryl fused azapolycyclic compounds
WO2002085843A2 * Mar 4, 2002 Oct 31, 2002 Pfizer Products Inc. Process for the preparation of 1,3-substituted indenes and aryl-fused azapolycyclic compounds
WO2006090236A1 * Feb 21, 2006 Aug 31, 2006 Pfizer Products Inc. Preparation of high purity substituted quinoxaline
WO2008060487A2 * Nov 9, 2007 May 22, 2008 Pfizer Products Inc. Polymorphs of nicotinic intermediates
Reference
1 * COE J W ET AL: “Varenicline: an alpha4beta2 Nicotinic Receptor Partial Agonist for Smoking Cessation” JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY, AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, WASHINGTON., US, vol. 48, no. 10, 1 January 2005 (2005-01-01), pages 3474-3477, XP002474642 ISSN: 0022-2623 cited in the application
Citing Patent Filing date Publication date Applicant Title
WO2010005643A1 * May 28, 2009 Jan 14, 2010 Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. Processes for purifying varenicline l-tartrate salt and preparing crystalline forms of varenicline l-tartrate salt
WO2011110954A1 * Mar 8, 2011 Sep 15, 2011 Actavis Group Ptc Ehf Highly pure varenicline or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof substantially free of methylvarenicline impurity
WO2011154586A3 * Jun 13, 2011 Mar 22, 2012 Medichem, S. A. Improved methods for the preparation of quinoxaline derivatives
EP2581375A2 * Jun 13, 2011 Apr 17, 2013 Medichem, S.A. Improved methods for the preparation of quinoxaline derivatives
US8039620 May 21, 2009 Oct 18, 2011 Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. Varenicline tosylate, an intermediate in the preparation process of varenicline L-tartrate
US8178537 Jun 22, 2010 May 15, 2012 Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. Solid state forms of varenicline salts and processes for preparation thereof

References

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  9.  American Cancer Society. “Cancer Drug Guide: Varenicline”. Retrieved 2008-01-19.
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  11. FDA. “Public Health Advisory: FDA Requires New Boxed Warnings for the Smoking Cessation Drugs Chantix and Zyban”. Retrieved 2009-07-01.
  12. ^ Jump up to:a b “www.accessdata.fda.gov” (PDF).
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  14.  “FDA Drug Safety Communication: Chantix (varenicline) may increase the risk of certain cardiovascular adverse events in patients with cardiovascular disease”. 2011-06-16.
  15. Jump up^ Singh, S; Loke, YK, Spangler, JG, Furberg, CD (Sep 6, 2011). “Risk of serious adverse cardiovascular events associated with varenicline: a systematic review and meta-analysis” (PDF). CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association 183 (12): 1359–66.doi:10.1503/cmaj.110218. PMC 3168618. PMID 21727225.
  16.  Takagi, H; Umemoto, T (Sep 6, 2011). “Varenicline: quantifying the risk”. CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association 183 (12): 1404. doi:10.1503/cmaj.111-2063.PMC 3168634. PMID 21896705.
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  18.  “European Medicine Agency confirms positive benefit-risk balance for Champix.”. 2011-07-21.
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  21.  cessation in cardiovascular patients”. Evidence-Based Medicine (Review & Commentary) 19 (5): 193. doi:10.1136/eb-2014-110030.PMID 24917603.
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  25. Jump up^ Mineur YS, Picciotto MR; Picciotto (December 2010). “Nicotine receptors and depression: revisiting and revising the cholinergic hypothesis”. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 31 (12): 580–6. doi:10.1016/j.tips.2010.09.004. PMC 2991594. PMID 20965579.
  26.  Tanuja Bordia. “Varenicline Is a Potent Partial Agonist at α6β2* Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Rat and Monkey Striatum”. aspetjournals.org.
  27.  Obach, RS; Reed-Hagen, AE; Krueger, SS; Obach, BJ; O’Connell, TN; Zandi, KS; Miller, S; Coe, JW (2006). “Metabolism and disposition of varenicline, a selective alpha4beta2 acetylcholine receptor partial agonist, in vivo and in vitro”. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals 34 (1): 121–130.doi:10.1124/dmd.105.006767. PMID 16221753.
  28.  “[Cytisine as an aid for smoking cessation].”. Med Monatsschr Pharm 15 (1): 20–1. Jan 1992. PMID 1542278.
  29.  Prochaska, BMJ 347:f5198 2013 http://www.bmj.com/content/347/bmj.f5198
  30.  Coe JW, Brooks PR, Vetelino MG, Wirtz MC, Arnold EP, Huang J, Sands SB, Davis TI, Lebel LA, Fox CB, Shrikhande A, Heym JH, Schaeffer E, Rollema H, Lu Y, Mansbach RS, Chambers LK, Rovetti CC, Schulz DW, Tingley FD 3rd, O’Neill BT (2005). “Varenicline: an alpha4beta2 nicotinic receptor partial agonist for smoking cessation”. J. Med. Chem. 48(10): 3474–3477. doi:10.1021/jm050069n. PMID 15887955.
  31. Schwartz JL (1979). “Review and evaluation of methods of smoking cessation, 1969–77. Summary of a monograph”. Public Health Rep 94 (6): 558–63. PMC 1431736.PMID 515342.
  32.  Etter JF (2006). “Cytisine for smoking cessation: a literature review and a meta-analysis”. Arch. Intern. Med. 166 (15): 1553–1559. doi:10.1001/archinte.166.15.1553.PMID 16908787.
  33.  Kuehn BM (2006). “FDA speeds smoking cessation drug review”. JAMA 295 (6): 614–614.doi:10.1001/jama.295.6.614. PMID 16467225.
  34.  European Medicines Agency (2011-01-28). “EPAR summary for the public. Champix varenicline”. London. Retrieved 2011-02-14.

External links

Manufacturer’s website USA

STR1

Varenicline
Varenicline.svg
Varenicline ball-and-stick model.png
Systematic (IUPAC) name
7,8,9,10-Tetrahydro-6,10-methano-6H-pyrazino[2,3-h] [3]benzazepine
Clinical data
Trade names Chantix
AHFS/Drugs.com Monograph
MedlinePlus a606024
License data
Pregnancy
category
  • AU: B3
  • US: C (Risk not ruled out)
Routes of
administration
Oral
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Protein binding <20%
Metabolism Limited (<10%)
Biological half-life 24 hours
Excretion Renal (81–92%)
Identifiers
CAS Number 249296-44-4 Yes 375815-87-5
ATC code N07BA03 (WHO)
PubChem CID 5310966
IUPHAR/BPS 5459
DrugBank DB01273 Yes
ChemSpider 4470510 Yes
UNII W6HS99O8ZO Yes
KEGG D08669 
ChEBI CHEBI:84500 
ChEMBL CHEMBL1076903 Yes
Chemical data
Formula C13H13N3
Molar mass 211.267 g/mol

////////////Varenicline, Chantix™, FDA 2006, 249296-44-4, 375815-87-5,  Champix , Pfizer, バレニクリン酒石酸塩

n1c2cc3c(cc2ncc1)[C@@H]4CNC[C@H]3C4

Written Confirmation expired: Can an API still be imported when produced earlier?


DRUG REGULATORY AFFAIRS INTERNATIONAL

What needs to be considered if an API is produced in the time period of a valid written confirmation but imported after this confirmation has expired? This is answered in a revised Q&A Document of the EU Commission.

see………http://www.gmp-compliance.org/enews_05432_Written-Confirmation-expired-Can-an-API-still-be-imported-when-produced-earlier_15432,15354,15367,Z-QAMAP_n.html

The EU Commission has updated its Question and Answers Document “Importation of active substances for medicinal products for human use” (now version 7). In this updated version, the question “Can an API batch manufactured during the period of validity of a written confirmation be imported into the EU once the written confirmation is expired?”

In the answer it is referred to Article 46(b)(2)(b) of Directive 2001/83/EC, where it is defined that APIs can only be imported if they are manufactured in accordance with EU GMP or equivalent, and accompanied by a written confirmation from the competent authority of the exporting third country certifying this.

But what if an…

View original post 167 more words

MHRA GxP Data Integrity Definitions and Guidance for Industry: New Draft Version for Consultation


DRUG REGULATORY AFFAIRS INTERNATIONAL

In January and March 2015, the U.K. Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) published a “GMP Data Integrity Definitions and Guidance for Industry”. The agency has recently published a new version of the Guidance. Please find here a short overview of the new features in the “GxP Data Integrity Definitions and Guidance for Industry: Draft version for consultation”.

http://www.gmp-compliance.org/enews_05505_MHRA-GxP-Data-Integrity-Definitions-and-Guidance-for-Industry-New-Draft-Version-for-Consultation_15637,15488,15420,15064,Z-COVM_n.html

In recent years, regulatory authorities have been struggling with data integrity issues. In particular the U.S. American FDA has tightened the awareness regarding the topic in many Warning Letters. In the meantime, data integrity has also become a focus of European regulatory authorities’ inspections. One of the first regulatory authorities to publish a “GMP Data Integrity Definitions and Guidance for Industry” in January and March 2015 was the U.K. Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). More information can be found in “MHRA revises its Guideline on Data Integrity in the short Term

View original post 172 more words

WHO Draft on Analytical Method Validation


DRUG REGULATORY AFFAIRS INTERNATIONAL

The World Health Organization (WHO) recently published a draft document on analytical method Validation for comment. Read more about the draft “Guidelines on Validation – Appendix 4 Analytical Method Validation“.

http://www.gmp-compliance.org/enews_05452_WHO-Draft-on-Analytical-Method-Validation_15729,15438,Z-PDM_n.html

In June 2016 the World Health Organization (WHO) published a draft document “Guidelines on Validation – Appendix 4 Analytical Method Validation”. Comments on the text should be sent to WHO until July 30, 2016.

The appendix 4 of the published Supplementary guidelines on good manufacturing practices: validation (WHO Technical Report Series, No. 937, 2006, Annex 4) has been revised in view of current trends in validation. The appendix presents some information on the characteristics that should be considered during validation of analytical methods. Approaches other than those specified in the Appendix may be followed and may be acceptable.

The new Appendix 4 is structured as follows (New and revised):

1. Principle (revised):

  • 1.5 The…

View original post 761 more words

SPIRONOLACTONE, спиронолактон , سبيرونولاكتون , 螺内酯 ,


Skeletal formula of spironolactone

Spironolactone

Spironolactone, Supra-puren, Suracton, спиронолактон, سبيرونولاكتون ,

螺内酯 , Abbolactone, Aldactide, SNL, Spiroctanie, Sprioderm, Verospirone,  Opianin

7α-Acetylthio-17α-hydroxy-3-oxopregn-4-ene-21-carboxylic acid γ-lactone

(1’S,2R,2’R,9’R,10’R,11’S,15’S)-9′-(acetylsulfanyl)-2′,15′-dimethylspiro[oxolane-2,14′-tetracyclo[8.7.0.02,7.011,15]heptadecan]-6′-ene-5,5′-dione

(7a,17a)-7-(Acetylthio)-17-hydroxy-3-oxopregn-4-ene-21-carboxylic acid g-lactone
17-Hydroxy-7a-mercapto-3-oxo-17a-pregn-4-ene-21-carboxylic Acid g-Lactone Acetate
3-(3-Oxo-7a-acetylthio-17b-hydroxy-4-androsten-17a-yl)propionic Acid g-Lactone
 CAS 52-01-7

MF C24H32O4S, MW 416.573 Da

ChemSpider 2D Image | spironolactone | C24H32O4SSpironolactone, marketed under the brand name Aldactone among others, is a medication primarily used to treatfluid build-up due to heart failure, liver scarring, or kidney disease.[1] Other uses include high blood pressure, low blood potassium that does not improve with supplementation, early puberty, excessive hair growth in women,[1] and as a component of hormone replacement therapy for transgender women.[6] It is taken by mouth.[1]

Common side effects include electrolyte abnormalities particularly high blood potassium, nausea, vomiting, headache, a rash, and a decreased desire for sex. In those with liver or kidney problems extra care should be taken.[1]Spironolactone has not been well studied in pregnancy and should not be used to treat high blood pressure of pregnancy.[7] It is a steroid that blocks mineralocorticoid receptors. It also blocks androgen, and blocks progesterone. It belongs to a class of medications known as potassium-sparing diuretics.[1]

Spironolactone was introduced in 1959.[8][9] It is on the World Health Organization’s List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system.[10] It is available as a generic medication.[1] The wholesale cost in the developing world as of 2014 is between 0.02 and 0.12 USD per day.[11] In the United States it costs about 0.50 USD per day.[1]

Title: Spironolactone
CAS Registry Number: 52-01-7
CAS Name: (7a,17a)-7-(Acetylthio)-17-hydroxy-3-oxopregn-4-ene-21-carboxylic acid g-lactone
Additional Names: 17-hydroxy-7a-mercapto-3-oxo-17a-pregn-4-ene-21-carboxylic acid g-lactone, acetate; 3-(3-oxo-7a-acetylthio-17b-hydroxy-4-androsten-17a-yl)propionic acid g-lactone
Manufacturers’ Codes: SC-9420
Trademarks: Aldactone (Pharmacia & Upjohn); Aquareduct (Azupharma); Practon (Pfizer); Osyrol (Aventis); Sincomen (Schering AG); Spirobeta (Betapharm); Spiroctan (Ferlux); Spirolone (APS); Spironone (Dexo); Verospiron (Richter Gedeon); Xenalon (Mepha)
Molecular Formula: C24H32O4S
Molecular Weight: 416.57
Percent Composition: C 69.20%, H 7.74%, O 15.36%, S 7.70%
Literature References: Aldosterone antagonist. Prepn: Cella, Tweit, J. Org. Chem. 24, 1109 (1959); US 3013012 (1961 to Searle); Tweit et al., J. Org. Chem. 27, 3325 (1962). Activity and metabolic studies: Gerhards, Engelhardt, Arzneim.-Forsch. 13, 972 (1963). Crystal and molecular structure: Dideberg, Dupont, Acta Crystallogr. B28, 3014 (1972). Comprehensive description: J. L. Sutter, E. P. K. Lau, Anal. Profiles Drug Subs. 4, 431-451 (1975). Review of carcinogenetic risk: IARC Monographs 24, 259-273 (1980). Review of antiandrogen effects and clinical use in hirsutism: R. R. Tremblay, Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 15, 363-371 (1986); of clinical efficacy in hypertension: A. N. Brest, Clin. Ther. 8, 568-585 (1986). Review of pharmacology: H. A. Skluth, J. G. Gums,DICP Ann. Pharmacother. 24, 52-59 (1990). Clinical trial in congestive heart failure: B. Pitt et al., N. Engl. J. Med. 341, 709 (1999).
Properties: Crystals from methanol, mp 134-135° (resolidifies and dec 201-202°). [a]D20 -33.5° (chloroform). uv max: 238 nm (e20200). Practically insol in water. Sol in alcohol; freely sol in benzene, chloroform. LD50 in rats, mice, rabbits (mg/kg): 790, 360, 870 i.p. (IARC, 1980).
Melting point: mp 134-135° (resolidifies and dec 201-202°)
Optical Rotation: [a]D20 -33.5° (chloroform)
Absorption maximum: uv max: 238 nm (e 20200)
Toxicity data: LD50 in rats, mice, rabbits (mg/kg): 790, 360, 870 i.p. (IARC, 1980)
Therap-Cat: Diuretic.
Therap-Cat-Vet: Diuretic.
Keywords: Aldosterone Antagonist; Diuretic; Steroids

Medical uses

Spironolactone is used primarily to treat heart failure, edematous conditions such as nephrotic syndrome or ascites in people with liver disease, essential hypertension, hypokalemia, secondary hyperaldosteronism (such as occurs with hepatic cirrhosis), and Conn’s syndrome (primary hyperaldosteronism). On its own, spironolactone is only a weak diuretic because it primarily targets the distal nephron (collecting tubule), where only small amounts of sodium are reabsorbed, but it can be combined with other diuretics to increase efficacy.

Spironolactone is an antagonist of the androgen receptor (AR) as well as an inhibitor of androgen production. Due to the antiandrogenic effects that result from these actions, it is frequently used off-label to treat a variety of dermatological conditions in which androgens, such as testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), play a role. Some of these uses include androgenic alopecia in men (either at low doses or as a topical formulation) and women, and hirsutism, acne, and seborrhea in women.[12] Spironolactone is the most commonly used drug in the treatment of hirsutism in the United States.[13] Higher doses of spironolactone are not recommended in males due to the high risk of feminization and other side effects. Similarly, it is also commonly used to treat symptoms of hyperandrogenism in polycystic ovary syndrome.[14]

Spironolactone (SL) is known to be a potent aldosterone antagonist at mineralocorticoid steroid hormone receptors, and it is widely used in humans for the treatment of essential hypertension, congestive heat failure and refractory edema or hyperaldosteronism. However, the prolonged use of SL is associated with undesirable endocrine side effects such as gynecomastia and lose of libido in men and menstrual irregularities in women due to interaction of SL with gonadal steroid hormone biosynthesis and target cell gonadal steroid receptors.

The nature and prevalence of the undesirable side effects limit the usefulness of spironolactone as a therapeutic agent. Gynecomastia or tender breast enlargement has been found to occur in 10% of hypertensive patients using spironolactone for therapy as compared to 1% of men in the placebo group. Recent studies by Pitt, et al. with spironolactone have shown that in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) taking digoxin and a loop diuretic—spironolactone therapy in conjunction with digitalis and ACE inhibitor—reduces mortality by 30%. See Pitt, B., et al., The Effect of Spironolactone on Morbidity and Mortality in Patients with Severe Heart Failure, Randomized Aldactone Evaluation Study Investigors; N. Engl. J. Med., 1999, 341:709-717. These authors stated that the 30% reduction in the risk of death among patients in the group receiving spironolactone could be attributed to a lower risk of both death from progressive heart failure and sudden death from cardiac arrhythmic causes. In addition, they found that the frequency of hospitalization for worsening heart failure is 35% lower in the spironolacotone treated group than in the placebo group. These authors concluded that patients who received spironolactone had a significant improvement in the symptoms of severe heart failure caused by systolic left ventricular dysfunction. Overall, 8% of the patients in the spironolactone group discontinued treatment because of adverse events. The purpose of the present invention is to make available the individual chiral isomers of spironolactone that would be effective in treating CHF and in reducing hypertension, and at the same time would be devoid of undesirable side effects such as gynecomastia, lose of libido in men, and menstrual irregularities in women.

Spironolactone is the name commonly used for a specific spirolactone that has the full chemical name 17-hydroxy-7-alpha-mercapto-3-oxo-17-alpha-pregn-4-ene-21-carboxylic acid gamma-lactone acetate. The term “spirolactone” denotes that a lactone 10 ring (i.e., a cyclic ester) is attached to another ring structure in a spiro configuration (i.e., the lactone ring shares a single carbon atom with the other ring). Spirolactones that are coupled to steroids are the most important class of spirolactones from a pharmaceutical perspective, so they are widely referred to in the pharmaceutical arts simply as spirolactones. As used herein, “spironolactone” refers to a molecule comprising a lactone structure coupled via a spiro configuration to a steroid structure or steroid derivative.

Spironolactone, its activities, and modes of synthesis and purification are described in a number of U.S. patents, notably U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,013,012, 4,529,811 and 4,603,128.

Intracellular receptors (IRs) form a class of structurally-related genetic regulators that act as ligand-dependent transcription factors. See Evans, R. M., “The Steroid and Thyroid Hormone Receptor Superfamily”, Science, May 13, 1988; 240(4854):889-95. Steroid receptors are a recognized subset of the IRs, including the progesterone receptor (PR), androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor (ER), which can be referred to collectively as the gonadal steroid receptors, glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). Regulation of a gene by such factors requires both the IR itself and a corresponding ligand that has the ability to selectively bind to the IR in a way that affects gene transcription.

Ligands for the IRs can include low molecular weight native molecules, such as the hormones aldosterone, progesterone, estrogen and testosterone, as well as synthetic derivative compounds such as medroxyprogesterone acetate, diethylstilbesterol and 19-nortestosterone. These ligands, when present the fluid surrounding a cell, pass through the outer cell membrane by passive diffusion and bind to specific IR proteins to create a ligand/receptor complex. This complex then translocates to the cell’s nucleus, where it binds to a specific gene or genes present in the cell’s DNA. Once bound to DNA, the complex modulates the production of the protein encoded by that gene. In this regard, a compound that binds to an IR and mimics the effect of the native ligand is referred to as an “agonist”, while a compound that binds to an IR and inhibits the effect of the native ligand is called an “antagonist”.

The therapeutic mechanism of action of spironolactone involves binding to intracellular mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) in kidney epithelial cells, thereby inhibiting the binding of aldosterone. Spironolactone has been found to counteract the sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion effects of aldosterone and other mineralocorticoids. Spironolactone has also been shown to interfere with testosterone biosynthesis, has anti-androgen action and inhibits adrenal aldosterone biosynthesis. Large doses of spironolactone in children appear to decrease the testosterone production rate.

Spironolactone is found to exhibit intra-individual variability of pharmacokinetic parameters and it presumably belongs to the group of drugs with high inter-subject variability. Spironolactone has poor water solubility and dissolution rate.

In order to prolong the half-life and decrease the side effects associated with spironolactone, syntheses of spironolactone derivatives have been developed (e.g. synthesis of mexrenone, prorenone, spirorenone). Slight modifications of the spironolactone steroid skeleton, e.g. such as formation of 11β-allenic and epoxy compounds, have been shown to effect important variations in the affinity and specificity for the mineralocorticoid receptor. These results suggest that it is possible to develop spironolactone analogues that do not interact with the androgen receptor or cytochrome P-450 and are therefore free of spironolactone undesirable side-effects.

METABOLISM

Figure US20090325918A1-20091231-C00003

SYNTHESIS

METHOD 1 REF 150

STR1

REF 130, 150

STR1

STR1

METHOD 2 REF 140

STR1

STR1

STR1

METHOD 3 REF 150

STR1

Synthesis

Cella, John A.; Tweit, Robert C. (1959). Journal of Organic Chemistry 24: 1109. doi:10.1021/jo01090a019.

(See also part 1 and part 3)

SPECTROSCOPY UV

STR1

SPECTROSCOPY IR

KBR

The principal absorption peaks of the spectrum shown in Figure 5 were noted at 1765,
1693, 1673, 1240, 1178, 1135, 1123 and 1193 cm -1.

STR1

SPECTROSCOPY 1H NMR

STR1

STR1

SPECTROSCOPY 13C NMR

STR1

STR1

SPECTROSCOPY MASS SPECTRUM

STR1

STR1STR1

130 J.A. Cola, E.A. Brown, and R.R. Burtner, 3. Org. Chem., 24, 1109(1959).

 140 Remington’s: The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19 t~ edn.Volume II, K.G. Alfonso, ed.; Mack Publishing Co., Pennsylvania (1995) p.1048.
150. G. Anner and H. Wehrli (Ciba-Geigy, A.-G.), German Often 2,625,723 (cl.C07J21/00), Dec,1976; Swiss Appl. 75/7, 696, 13Jun. 1975; pp. 37.

ANALYTICAL

    • High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic Conditions
      Column LiChrosorb RP-8, 5 μm. 150 × 4.6 mm I.D.
      Eluent Acetonitrile-0.05 M phosphate buffer, pH 4 (45:55)
      Flow-rate 1 ml/min
      Temperature 25° C.
      Detector UV detector, wavelength 286 nm or 271 nm
      Recorder Chart speed 0.5 cm/min
      Sample loop 10 μl
    • The concentration of canrenone is determined in plasma and urine samples by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV-detection. An aliquot of 300 ng of spironolactone derivative is added to the samples as internal standard, which are then extracted twice with 1 ml n-hexane-toluene (1:1, v/v). The organic phase is taken to dryness and re-dissolved in 250 μl HPLC eluent (methanol-water, 60:40, v/v). (25×4.6 mm; 5 μm). Detection is performed with the UV detector set at λ=285 nm.

Flurometric Method

    Five ml of water is a reagent blank and 5 ml of working standards containing 0.05 μg and 0.20 μg of SC-9376 are carried through the entire procedure. Lower sales are read vs. the 0.05 μg standard at full scale, and higher samples vs. the 0.20 μg standard. Fluorescence readings are proportional to the concentrations of the standards in this range.
      Pipette 0.2 ml of heparinized plasma into a 50-ml polyethylene-stoppered centrifuge tube, dilute to 5 ml with water and add 15 ml of methylene chloride (Du Pont refrigeration grade, redistilled). Shake for 30 seconds, centrifuge and discard the aqueous supernatant. Add 1 ml 0.1 N NaOH, shake 15 seconds, centrifuge and discard the supernatant. Transfer a 10-ml aliquot of the methylene chloride phase to another tube containing 2 ml of 65% aqueous sulfuric acid, shake 30 seconds, centrifuge and remove organic phase by aspiration. The material is allowed to stand at room temperature for about 1 hour and then about 1 ml of the sulfuric acid phase in transferred to a quartz cuvette. Fluorescence intensity is determined in an Aminco-Bowman spectrophotofluorometer (activation maximum, 465 nm).
    Gas Liquid Chromatography
    The GLC estimation is carried out on a Fractovap Model 251 series 2150 (Carlo Erba) instrument equipped with a Nickel-63 electron capture detector. A 6-foot, 0.4 mm internal diameter, U-shaped glass column, packed with OV-17 2% or XE-60 1% on gas chrom A, 100-120 mesh (Applied Science Lab) is conditioned for 3 days before use. Argon with 10% methane which passed through a molecular sieve before entering the column is used as the carrier gas. The conditions of analysis are: column 255° C., detector 275° C., carrier gas flow 30 ml/min. Samples are injected on the column with a 10 μl Hamilton syringe. The injector in not heated.

PATENT

https://www.google.com/patents/US20090325918

EXAMPLE 1Chiral Separation

The separation of 7 beta isomer of SL is schematically described below.

    • Figure US20090325918A1-20091231-C00004
      Chromatographic Method for Isolation of SL Isomers
      The basic method is described in Chan, Ky, et al., J. Chromatog, Nov. 15, 1991:571 (1-2) 291-297. The separation is performed using spectra-physics HPLC instrument and UV variable wavelength detector set at 254 nm. For chiral separation, the chromatographic column is either a pre-packed 25 mm×4.6 mm ID Cyclobond 1 (5 μm particle size), or a pre-packed 150 mm×4 mm ID Resolvosil BSA-7 column (5 μm) operated using the conditions described herein.
      Analysis of the isomers present in the peaks in the chromatograms and their chiral extract purity analysis can be determined in each case by high resolution NMR spectroscopy using a chiral shift reagent. Based on this information and the determination of molecular weight by mass spectrometry and/or optical activity, structural configuration is assigned to each isomer. Eluted samples of isomers may be re-chromatographed in order to obtain adequate quantities of isomers having desired optical purity for study. For future use, reference standards that are optically pure will be compared for confirmation of purity and identity to the isolated isomers that are obtained after their chromatographic separation.

EXAMPLE 2Chemical Synthesis of Optical Isomers

    As an example, the desire spironolactone 7-beta-isomer is synthesized following the scheme that is described below:
    • Figure US20090325918A1-20091231-C00005
      Diene (i) is prepared from commercially available starting materials using methods well known in the art of chemical synthesis.
      Diene (i) is treated with acetic acid and the mixture is heated to reflux to yield 7-alpha-acetate ester (ii). The 7-alpha-ester (ii) is further subjected to nucleophilic substitution, followed by hydrolysis to obtain the 7-beta-isomer (iii). The 7-beta-isomer (iii) is then esterified with an acyl halide in the presence of a base to generate the desired spironolactone 7-beta-isomer (iv).

EXAMPLE 3Preparation of Radiolabeled Probe Compounds of the Invention

      Using known methods, the compounds of the invention may be prepared as radiolabeled probes by carrying out their synthesis using precursors comprising at least one atom that is a radioisotope. The radioisotope is preferably selected from at least one of carbon (preferably

14

      C), hydrogen (preferably

3

      H), sulfur (preferably

35

    S), or iodine (preferably I). Such radiolabeled probes are conveniently synthesized by a radioisotope supplier specializing in customer synthesis of radiolabeled probe compounds. Such suppliers include Amersham Corporation, Arlington Heights, Ill.; Cambridge Isotope Laboratories, Inc., Andover, Mass.; SRI International, Menlo Park, Calif.; Wizard Laboratories, West Sacramento, Calif.; ChemSyn Laboratories, Lexena, Kans.; American Radiolabeled Chemicals, Inc., St. Louis, Mo.; and Moravek Biochemicals Inc., Brea, Calif.
      Tritium labeled probe compounds are also conveniently prepared catalytically via platinum-catalyzed exchange in tritiated acetic acid, acid-catalyzed exchange in tritiated trifluoroacetic acid, or heterogeneous-catalyzed exchange with tritium gas. Tritium labeled probe compounds can also be prepared, when appropriate, by sodium borotritide reduction. Such preparations are also conveniently carried out as a custom radiolabeling by any of the suppliers listed in the preceding paragraph using the compound of the invention as substrate.
    EXAMPLE 4Isolation and Purification Procedure
    The optical isomers of spironolactones may be isolated from fluid sample such as urine or blood as follows:
    Extraction from Urine
    The urine sample is extracted with dichloromethane and the extract washed with NaOH (0.1 N) and then with water to neutrality. The residue obtained after evaporation of the dichloromethane extract is purified on TLC in three different systems: benzene-acetone-water, (150:100:0.4); chloroform-ethanol, (90:10); ethyl acetate-cyclohexane-ethanol, (45:25:10), using aldosterone as reference standard.
      The extract is then purified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on a Waters 6000 A, 480 U.V. detector instrument with radial pressure. The extract is first run through a C

18

    10μ column using methanol-water (70:30) as the eluent, followed by a silica 5μ column using dichloromethane-methanol (95:5). In both cases, the rate of the eluent is 1.5 ml/min. A small part of the extract is subjected to heptafluorobutyrylation for GLC investigation.

References

  1.  “Spironolactone”. The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Retrieved Oct 24, 2015.
  2.  “Spironolactone: MedlinePlus Drug Information”. Retrieved 2016-01-20.
  3.  “Spironolactone”. Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
  4.  “Spironolactone”. Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House.
  5.  Harry G. Brittain (26 November 2002). Analytical Profiles of Drug Substances and Excipients. Academic Press. p. 309. ISBN 978-0-12-260829-2. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
  6.  Maizes, Victoria (2015). Integrative Women’s Health (2 ed.). p. 746.ISBN 9780190214807.
  7.  “Spironolactone Pregnancy and Breastfeeding Warnings”. Retrieved 29 November2015.
  8.  Camille Georges Wermuth (24 July 2008). The Practice of Medicinal Chemistry. Academic Press. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-12-374194-3. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
  9.  Marshall Sittig (1988). Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Encyclopedia. William Andrew. p. 1385. ISBN 978-0-8155-1144-1. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
  10.  “WHO Model List of EssentialMedicines” (PDF). World Health Organization. October 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
  11.  “Spironolactone”. International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Retrieved 29 November2015.
  12.  Hughes BR, Cunliffe WJ (May 1988). “Tolerance of spironolactone”. The British Journal of Dermatology 118 (5): 687–91. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2133.1988.tb02571.x.PMID 2969259.
  13. Victor R. Preedy (1 January 2012). Handbook of Hair in Health and Disease. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 132–. ISBN 978-90-8686-728-8.
  14.  Loy R, Seibel MM (December 1988). “Evaluation and therapy of polycystic ovarian syndrome”. Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America 17 (4): 785–813.PMID 3143568.
Spironolactone
Skeletal formula of spironolactone
Ball-and-stick model of the spironolactone molecule
Systematic (IUPAC) name
7α-Acetylthio-17α-hydroxy-3-oxopregn-4-ene-21-carboxylic acid γ-lactone
Clinical data
Pronunciation /spɪˌrnəˈlæktn, sp, spə, ˈrɒ, n/or /ˌsprənˈlæktn/[2][3][4]
Trade names Aldactone
AHFS/Drugs.com Monograph
MedlinePlus a682627
Pregnancy
category
  • AU: B3
  • US: C (Risk not ruled out)
Routes of
administration
Oral[1]
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Protein binding 90%+[5]
Metabolism Hepatic CYP450
Biological half-life 1.3-2 hours
Excretion Urine, bile
Identifiers
CAS Number 52-01-7 Yes
ATC code C03DA01 (WHO)
PubChem CID 5833
IUPHAR/BPS 2875
DrugBank DB00421 Yes
ChemSpider 5628 Yes
UNII 27O7W4T232 Yes
KEGG D00443 Yes
ChEBI CHEBI:9241 Yes
ChEMBL CHEMBL1393 Yes
Chemical data
Formula C24H32O4S
Molar mass 416.574 g/mol

///////Spironolactone, Supra-puren, Suracton, спиронолактон, سبيرونولاكتون ,

螺内酯 , Abbolactone, Aldactide, SNL, Spiroctanie, Sprioderm, Verospirone,  Opianin

O=C5O[C@@]4([C@@]3([C@H]([C@@H]2[C@H](SC(=O)C)C/C1=C/C(=O)CC[C@]1(C)[C@H]2CC3)CC4)C)CC5

Prucalopride succinate (Resolor)


Prucalopride.svg

Prucalopride (Resolor)

CAS 179474-81-8 , R-093877; R-108512
4-Amino-5-chlor-N-[1-(3-methoxypropyl)-4-piperidinyl]-2,3-dihydro-1-benzofuran-7-carboxamid
R-093877|R-108512|Resolor®
Resolor;Resotran
Resotran
UNII:0A09IUW5TP
SHIRE 2010 LAUNCHED
JANNSEN PHASE 3 IRRITABLE BOWL SYNDROME
Prucalopride succinate.png
Prucalopride succinate; 179474-85-2; Resolor; Prucalopride (succinate); UNII-4V2G75E1CK; R-108512;
Molecular Formula: C22H32ClN3O7
Molecular Weight: 485.95838 g/mol

Drug Name:Prucalopride Succinate

Trade Name:Resolor®, MOA:Serotonin (5-HT4) receptor agonist, Indication:Chronic constipation

Company:Shire (Originator) , Johnson & Johnson

APPROVED EU 2009-10-15

CHINA 2014-01-21

COA  NMR  HPLC CLICK

Prucalopride (brand name Resolor, developed by Johnson & Johnson and licensed to Movetis) is a drug acting as a selective, high affinity 5-HT4 receptor agonist[1] which targets the impaired motility associated with chronic constipation, thus normalizing bowel movements.[2][3][4][5][6][7] Prucalopride was approved for use in Europe in 2009,[8] in Canada (named Resotran) on December 7, 2011[9] and in Israel in 2014[10] but it has not been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in the United States. The drug has also been tested for the treatment of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction.[11][12]

Mechanism of action

Prucalopride, a first in class dihydro-benzofuran-carboxamide, is a selective, high affinity serotonin (5-HT4) receptor agonist with enterokinetic activities.[13] Prucalopride alters colonic motility patterns via serotonin 5-HT4 receptor stimulation: it stimulates colonic mass movements, which provide the main propulsive force for defecation.

The observed effects are exerted via highly selective action on 5-HT4 receptors:[13] prucalopride has >150-fold higher affinity for 5-HT4 receptors than for other receptors.[1][14] Prucalopride differs from other 5-HT4 agonists such as tegaserod and cisapride, which at therapeutic concentrations also interact with other receptors (5-HT1B/D and the cardiac human ether-a-go-go K+ or hERG channelrespectively) and this may account for the adverse cardiovascular events that have resulted in the restricted availability of these drugs.[14] Clinical trials evaluating the effect of prucalopride on QT interval and related adverse events have not demonstrated significant differences compared with placebo.[13]

ChemSpider 2D Image | prucalopride | C18H26ClN3O3

Pharmacokinetics

Prucalopride is rapidly absorbed (Cmax attained 2–3 hours after single 2 mg oral dose) and is extensively distributed. Metabolism is not the major route of elimination. In vitro, human liver metabolism is very slow and only minor amounts of metabolites are found. A large fraction of the active substance is excreted unchanged (about 60% of the administered dose in urine and at least 6% in feces).Renal excretion of unchanged prucalopride involves both passive filtration and active secretion. Plasma clearance averages 317 ml/min, terminal half-life is 24–30 hours,[15] and steady-state is reached within 3–4 days. On once daily treatment with 2 mg prucalopride, steady-state plasma concentrations fluctuate between trough and peak values of 2.5 and 7 ng/ml, respectively.[13]

In vitro data indicate that prucalopride has a low interaction potential, and therapeutic concentrations of prucalopride are not expected to affect the CYP-mediated metabolism of co-medicated medicinal products.[13]

Efficacy

The primary measure of efficacy in the clinical trials is three or more spontaneous complete bowel movements per week; a secondary measure is an increase of at least one complete spontaneous bowel movement per week.[7][16][17] Further measures are improvements in PAC-QOL[18] (a quality of life measure) and PAC-SYM[19] (a range of stool,abdominal, and rectal symptoms associated with chronic constipation). Infrequent bowel movements, bloating, straining, abdominal pain, and defecation urge with inability to evacuate can be severe symptoms, significantly affecting quality of life.[20][21][22][23][24]

In three large clinical trials, 12 weeks of treatment with prucalopride 2 and 4 mg/day resulted in a significantly higher proportion of patients reaching the primary efficacy endpoint of an average of ≥3 spontaneous complete bowel movements than with placebo.[7][16][17] There was also significantly improved bowel habit and associated symptoms, patient satisfaction with bowel habit and treatment, and HR-QOL in patients with severe chronic constipation, including those who did not experience adequate relief with prior therapies (>80% of the trial participants).[7][16][17] The improvement in patient satisfaction with bowel habit and treatment was maintained during treatment for up to 24 months; prucalopride therapy was generally well tolerated.[25][26]

Side effects

Prucalopride has been given orally to ~2700 patients with chronic constipation in controlled clinical trials. The most frequently reported side effects are headache andgastrointestinal symptoms (abdominal pain, nausea or diarrhea). Such reactions occur predominantly at the start of therapy and usually disappear within a few days with continued treatment.[13]

Approval

In the European Economic Area, prucalopride was originally approved for the symptomatic treatment of chronic constipation in women in whom laxatives fail to provide adequate relief.[13] Subsequently, it has been approved by the European Commission for use in adults – that is, including male patients – for the same indication.[27]

Contraindications

Prucalopride is contraindicated where there is hypersensitivity to the active substance or to any of the excipients, renal impairment requiring dialysis, intestinal perforation orobstruction due to structural or functional disorder of the gut wall, obstructive ileus, severe inflammatory conditions of the intestinal tract, such as Crohn’s disease, and ulcerative colitis and toxic megacolon/megarectum.[13]

CLIP

Prucalopride succinate, a first-in-class dihydrobenzofurancarboxamide, is a selective serotonin (5-HT4) receptor agonist.86–94 The drug, marketed under the brand name Resolor, possesses enterokinetic activity and was developed by the Belgian-based pharmaceutical firm Movetis. Prucalopride alters colonic motility patterns via serotonin 5-HT4 receptor stimulation, triggering the central propulsive force for defecation.95–97 The preparation of prucalopride succinate begins with the commercially available salicylic aniline 124 (Scheme 18). Acidic esterification, acetylation of the aniline nitrogen atom, and ambient-temperature chlorination via sulfuryl chloride (SO2Cl2) converted aminophenol 124 to acetamidoester 125 in 83% yield over the course of three steps.98–102 An unique set of conditions involving sodium tosylchloramide (chloramine T) trihydrate and sodium iodide were then employed to convert 125 to o-phenolic iodide 126, which then underwent sequential Sonogashira/cyclization reaction utilizing TMS-acetylene with tetramethylguanidine (TMG) in the presence of silica gel to furnish the benzofuran progenitor of 127.103 Hydrogenation of this intermediate benzofuranyl Sonagashira product saturated the 2,3-benzofuranyl bond while leaving the chlorine atom intact, ultimately delivering dihydrobenzofuran 127 in excellent yield for the two step sequence. Base-induced saponification and acetamide removal gave rise to acid 128. This acid was activated as the corresponding mixed anhydride and treated with commercial piperidine 129 to construct prucalopride which was stirred at room temperature for 24 h in ethanolic succinic acid to provide prucalopride succinate (XI). The yield for the formation of the salt was not provided.

STR1

86. Briejer, M. R.; Bosmans, J. P.; Van Daele, P.; Jurzak, M.; Heylen, L.; Leysen, J. E.;Prins, N. H.; Schuurkes, J. A. J. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 2001, 423, 71.
87. Briejer, M. R.; Prins, N. H.; Schuurkes, J. A. J. Neurogastroenterol. Motil. 2001, 13,465.
88. Coggrave, M.; Wiesel, P. H.; Norton, C. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 2006.CD002115.
89. Coremans, G.; Kerstens, R.; De Pauw, M.; Stevens, M. Digestion 2003, 67, 82.
90. De Winter, B. Y.; Boeckxstaens, G. E.; De Man, J. G.; Moreels, T. G.; Schuurkes, J.A. J.; Peeters, T. L.; Herman, A. G.; Pelckmans, P. A. Gut 1999, 45, 713.
91. Emmanuel, A. V.; Roy, A. J.; Nicholls, T. J.; Kamm, M. A. Aliment. Pharmacol.Ther. 2002, 16, 1347.
92. Frampton, J. E. Drugs 2009, 69, 2463.
93. Krogh, K.; Bach Jensen, M.; Gandrup, P.; Laurberg, S.; Nilsson, J.; Kerstens, R.;De Pauw, M. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 2002, 37, 431.
94. Pau, D.; Workman, A. J.; Kane, K. A.; Rankin, A. C. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 2005,313, 146.
95. De Maeyer, J. H.; Schuurkes, J. A. J.; Lefebvre, R. A. Br. J. Pharmacol. 2009, 156,362.
96. Irving, H. R.; Tochon-Danguy, N.; Chinkwo, K. A.; Li, J. G.; Grabbe, C.; Shapiro,M.; Pouton, C. W.; Coupar, I. M. Pharmacology 2010, 85, 224.
97. Ray, A. M.; Kelsell, R. E.; Houp, J. A.; Kelly, F. M.; Medhurst, A. D.; Cox, H. M.;Calver, A. R. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 2009, 604, 1.
98. Baba, Y.; Usui, T.; Iwata, N. EP 640602 A1, 1995.
99. Fancelli, D.; Caccia, C.; Severino, D.; Vaghi, F.; Varasi, M. WO 9633186 A1,1996.
100. Hirokawa, Y.; Fujiwara, I.; Suzuki, K.; Harada, H.; Yoshikawa, T.; Yoshida, N.;Kato, S. J. Med. Chem. 2003, 46, 702.
101. Kakigami, T.; Usui, T.; Tsukamoto, K.; Kataoka, T. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 1998, 46,42.
102. Van Daele, G. H. P.; Bosmans, J.-P. R. M. A.; Schuurkes, J. A. J. WO 9616060 A1,1996.
103. Candiani, I.; DeBernadinis, S.; Cabri, W.; Marchi, M.; Bedeschi, A.; Penco, S.Synlett 1993, 269.

PAPER

Synlett 1993, 269

https://www.thieme-connect.com/products/ejournals/abstract/10.1055/s-1993-22663

PAPER

Chem. Pharm. Bull. 1998, 46,42.

https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/cpb1958/46/1/46_1_42/_article

https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/cpb1958/46/1/46_1_42/_pdf

PATENT

US5948794

http://www.google.co.in/patents/US5948794

EXAMPLE 1

In trichloromethane (135 ml) 4-amino-5-chloro-2,3-dihydro-7-benzofurancarboxylic acid (0.05 mol) (the preparation of which was described in EP-0,389,037-A) was suspended and cooled to ±5° C. N,N-diethylethanamine (0.05 mol) was added dropwise at a temperature below 10° C. Ethyl chloroformate (0.05 mol) was added dropwise and the reaction mixture was stirred for 40 min. while keeping the temperature below 10° C. The resulting mixture was added dropwise over a 20-min period to a solution of 1-(3-methoxypropyl)-4-piperidinamine (0.05 mol) in trichloromethane (35 ml). The cooling bath was removed and the reaction mixture was stirred for 150 min. Said mixture was washed with water (50 ml). The precipitate was filtered off over a glass filter and washed with water and CHCl3. The filtrate was separated in it’s layers. The separated organic layer was washed with water (50 ml)+a 50% NaOH solution (1 ml), dried, filtered and the solvent was evaporated. The residue was stirred in 2-propanol (100 ml). This mixture was acidified with HCl/2-propanol (7.2 ml; 5.29 N). The mixture was stirred for 16 hours at room temperature and the resulting precipitate was filtered off, washed with 2-propanol (15 ml) and dried (vacuum; 50° C.), yielding 12.6 g (62%) of 4-amino-5-chloro-2,3-dihydro-N- 1-(3-methoxypropyl)-4-piperidinyl!-7-benzofurancarboxamide monohydrochloride (comp. 1).

US5854260

http://www.google.co.in/patents/US5854260

EXPERIMENTAL PART EXAMPLE 1

In trichloromethane (135 ml) 4-amino-5-chloro-2,3-dihydro-7-benzofurancarboxylic acid (0.05 mol) (the preparation of which was described in EP-0,389,037-A) was suspended and cooled to ±5° C. N,N-diethylethanamine (0.05 mol) was added dropwise at a temperature below 10° C. Ethyl chloroformate (0.05 mol) was added dropwise and the reaction mixture was stirred for 40 min. while keeping the temperature below 10° C. The resulting mixture was added dropwise over a 20-min period to a solution of 1-(3-methoxypropyl)-4-piperidinamine (0.05 mol) in trichloromethane (35 ml). The cooling bath was removed and the reaction mixture was stirred for 150 min. Said mixture was washed with water (50 ml). The precipitate was filtered off over a glass filter and washed with water and CHCl3. The filtrate was separated in it’s layers. The separated organic layer was washed with water (50 ml)+ a 50% NaOH solution (1 ml), dried, filtered and the solvent was evaporated. The residue was stirred in 2-propanol (100 ml). This mixture was acidified with HCl/2-propanol (7.2 ml; 5.29 N). The mixture was stirred for 16 hours at room temperature and the resulting precipitate was filtered off, washed with 2-propanol (15 ml) and dried (vacuum; 50° C.), yielding 12.6 g (62%) of 4-amino-5-chloro-2,3-dihydro-N- 1-(3-methoxypropyl)-4-piperidinyl!-7-benzofurancarboxamide monohydrochloride (comp. 1).

str1

PATENT

WO199616060A1

http://www.google.co.in/patents/WO1996016060A1?cl=en

EP-0,389,037-A, published on September 26, 1990, N-(3-hydroxy-4-piperidin- yl) (dihydrobenzofuran or dihydro-2H-benzopyran)carboxamide derivatives are disclosed as having gastrointestinal motility stimulating properties. In our EP-0,445,862-A, published on September 11, 1991, N-(4-piperidinyl) (dihydrobenzo¬ furan or dihydro-2H-benzopyran)carboxamide derivatives are disclosed also having gastrointestinal motility stimulating properties.

The compound subject to the present application differs therefrom by showing superior enterokinetic properties.

The present invention concerns a compound of formula

Figure imgf000003_0001

and the pharmaceutically acceptable acid addition salts thereof.

The chemical name of the compound of formula (I) is 4-amino-5-chloro-2,3-dihydro-N- [l-(3-methoxypropyl)-4-piperidinyl]-7-benzofurancarboxamide.

str1

Example 1

In trichloromethane (135 ml) 4-amino-5-chloro-2,3-dihydro-7-benzofurancarboxylic acid (0.05 mol) (the preparation of which was described in EP-0,389,037-A) was suspended and cooled to ± 5 °C. H,N-diethylethanamine (0.05 mol) was added dropwise at a temperature below 10 °C. Ethyl chloroformate (0.05 mol) was added dropwise and the reaction mixture was stirred for 40 min. while keeping the temperature below 10°C. The resulting mixture was added dropwise over a 20-min period to a solution of l-(3-methoxypropyl)-4-piperidinamine (0.05 mol) in trichloromethane (35 ml). The cooling bath was removed and the reaction mixture was stirred for 150 min. Said mixture was washed with water (50 ml). The precipitate was filtered off over a glass filter and washed with water and CHCI3. The filtrate was separated in it’s layers. The separated organic layer was washed with water (50 ml) + a 50% NaOH solution (1 ml), dried, filtered and the solvent was evaporated. The residue was stirred in 2-propanol (100 ml). This mixture was acidified with HCl/2-propanol (7.2 ml; 5.29 N). The mixture was stirred for 16 hours at room temperature and the resulting precipitate was filtered off, washed with 2-propanol (15 ml) and dried (vacuum; 50 °C), yielding 12.6 g (62%) of 4-amino-5-chloro-2,3-dihydro-M-[ 1 -(3-methoxypropyl)-4-piperidinyl]-7- benzofurancarboxamide monohydrochloride (comp. 1).

Example 2

A mixture of 4-amino-5-chloro-2,3-dihydro-N-(4-piperidinyl)-7-benzofuran- carboxamide(O.Olmol), l-chloro-3-methoxypropane (0.012mol), M,M-diethyl- ethanamine (2Jml) and KI (catalytic amount) in N,M-dimethylformamide (75ml) was stirred overnight at 50°C. The reaction mixture was cooled. The solvent was evaporated. The residue was purified by column chromatography over silica gel (eluent: CHCl3/(CH3OH/NH3) 97/3). The pure fractions were collected and the solvent was evaporated. The residue was dissolved in 2-propanol and converted into the hydrochloric acid salt (1:1) with HCl/2-propanol. The precipitate was filtered off and dried (vacuum; 80°C), yielding 1.40g (35%) of 4-amino-5-chloro-2,3-dihydro-N-[l-(3-methoxypropyl)- 4-piperidinyl]-7-benzofurancarboxamide monohydrochloride (comp. 1).

PAPER

Chinese Journal of Pharmaceuticals 2012, 43, 5-8.

str1

str1

CLIP

Chinese Patent CN 103012337 A report is as follows:

Figure CN104529960AD00053

PAPER

Pharmaceutical & Clinical Research 2011, 19, 306-307.

str1

CLIP

US5374637 (CN1045781, EP389037) and J. Het Chem, 1980,17 (6): 1333-5 reported synthetic route, as follows:

Figure CN104529960AD00051

CLIP

Chinese Patent CN 104016949 A synthetic route reported as follows:

Figure CN104529960AD00052

PATENT

CN104529960A

https://www.google.com/patents/CN104529960A?cl=zh

Figure CN104529960AD00061

str1.

Figure CN104529960AD00081

Example 1

1. Preparation of Compound II

Compound I (167. lg, Imol), triethylamine (111. lg, I. Imol) and methylene chloride (KMOg) added to the reaction flask, nitrogen cooled to 5 ° C, was slowly added dropwise trifluoroacetic anhydride (220. 5g, 1.05mol) / methylene chloride (150g) solution, maintaining the temperature throughout 5~15 ° C, dropping was completed, the reaction after 3 hours at room temperature, TLC (DCM = MeOH = 25: 1) The reaction was monitored to complete the reaction; the reaction mixture was slowly poured into ice water (560g) and stirred for 20 minutes, standing layer, the aqueous phase was separated, the organic phase was washed with saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate (IOOg) wash sash; IM hydrochloric acid (IlOg) wash sash, then with saturated brine (200g) washed sash, magnesium sulfate (40g) dried, filtered and concentrated to give compound II (250. Ig), yield: 952%.

[0066] 2. Preparation of Compound III

[0067] Chloroacetyl chloride (101. 7g, 0. 9mol), nitrobenzene (20g) and dichloroethane (580 g) added to the reaction flask, nitrogen cooled to 5 ° C, was slowly added anhydrous trichloro aluminum powder (359. 2g, 2. 7mol), to keep the whole temperature 5~20 ° C, plus complete, insulation 15~25 ° C for 30 minutes to obtain a mixture A.

[0068] Compound II (. 236. 7g, 0 9mol) and dichloroethane (500g) added to the reaction flask, nitrogen cooled to 15 ° C; the mixture was added Compound II A quick solution, plus complete, rapid heating 65~75 ° C, 1 hours later once every 15 minutes in the control, monitoring TLC (DCM = MeOH = 50: 1) to complete the reaction; the reaction mixture was immediately poured into ice water (800g) and stirred for 30 minutes, controlling the temperature between 15~25 ° C, the organic phase was separated, the organic phase washed with water (180g) was washed with saturated brine (240g), dried over magnesium sulfate (45g) was dried, filtered and concentrated to give crude compound III (303 . 2g).

[0069] Take the crude compound III (291. 3g) / ethanol 1 dichloromethane: 1 solution (1500ml) was dissolved, and then adding activated carbon (14. 5g) was refluxed for one hour, cooled to room temperature filtered and the filtrate concentrated at room temperature to 600~ 650g, stop and concentrated down to 5~10 ° C, filtered to give a yellow solid (204. 7g); the resulting yellow solid (207. 6g) in tetrahydrofuran (510g) was purified, reduced to 10~15 ° C, filtered, The filter cake was washed with tetrahydrofuran (90g) dip, dried under vacuum to give compound III (181. 3g), yield: 61.7% billion

[0070] 3. Preparation of Compound IV

[0071] Compound 111 (! 169.68,0.5 11〇1), methanol (5,801,111) and sodium acetate (123.38,1.5111〇1) was added to the reaction flask. After 6 hours of reaction, began TLC (DCM: MeOH = 30: 1 ) the reaction was monitored to completion of the reaction; the reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature, concentrated, and the residue with ethyl acetate (500g) and water (200g) was dissolved, the organic phase was separated, the organic phase was washed with 2M sodium hydrogen carbonate (120g) was washed, then with saturated brine (IOOg), dried over magnesium sulfate (50g) was dried, filtered and concentrated to 250~280g, cooled to room temperature with stirring was added cyclohexane (200 g of), after stirring for 1 hour and then filtered and dried to obtain compound IV (126. 7g), yield: 83.4% billion

[0072] 4. Preparation of Compound V

[0073] Compound IV (12L 2g, 0. 4mol), methanol (380g) and Raney-Ni (12. 5g) added to the autoclave, purged with nitrogen, hydrogen is introduced (3. Ompa), the reaction was heated to 45 ° C after 8 hours, TLC (DCM = MeOH = 30: 1) to monitor the reaction, to complete the reaction, cooled to room temperature and pressure, and then purged with nitrogen, the reaction solution was filtered and concentrated to give crude compound V (103. 7g), taking compound V crude product (103g) was refluxed with ethyl acetate (420g) (1 hour) was purified, cooled to room temperature and stirred for 30 minutes and filtered to give a yellow solid was dried in vacuo to give compound V (76 8g.), yield: 663 %.

[0074] 5. Preparation of Compound VI

[0075] Compound ¥ (57.88,0.2111〇1), 1 ^ dimethylformamide (4.58) and acetonitrile (30 (^) was added to the reaction flask and heated 74~76 ° C; solution of N- chlorosuccinimide imide (. 26. 7g, 0 2mol) and acetonitrile (45g) was added dropwise over 30 minutes and maintaining the temperature finished 76~82 ° C, dropping was completed, the reaction was kept, after one hour the reaction started TLC (DCM: MeOH = 30: 1) to monitor the reaction, the reaction is complete the reaction solution cooled to 5~8 ° C, the filter cake was washed with water (210g) washed stirred, filtered, and dried in vacuo to give compound VI (57. 6g), yield. rate of 89.1%.

6. Preparation of Compound VII

Compound VI (48. 5g, 0. 15mol) and methanol (80g) added to the reaction flask, stirring at room temperature was added dropwise 4M aqueous sodium hydroxide (HOg), dropwise complete, for the reaction, 25 ° C~35 after 4 hours of reaction ° C, samples of about 7:00 adjust PH TLC (DCM = MeOH = 30: 1) to monitor the reaction, until the reaction was complete, down to 5~10 ° C, with 6M hydrochloric acid solution PH ~ 7. 5, half the solution was concentrated, then 2M hydrochloric acid solution PH ~ 7, reduced to 15~20 ° C was stirred for 30 minutes, filtered, the filter cake with methyl tert-butyl ether (70g) beating, filtration, and dried in vacuo to give compound VII (28. 7g), yield: 903%.

PAPER

Chem Pharm Bull 46 (1), 42-52 (1998) and Pharmaceutical and clinical study based on 2011 (4) 306-307 reported synthetic route is as follows:

Figure CN104529960AD00041

Biological Activity

Description Prucalopride is a selective, high affinity 5-HT4 receptor agonist, inhibiting human 5-HT(4a) and 5-HT(4b) receptor with Ki value of 2.5 nM and 8 nM, respectively.
Targets 5-HT4A [1] 5-HT4B [1]
IC50 2.5 nM(Ki) 8 nM(Ki)
In vitro Prucalopride induces contractions in a concentration-dependent manner with pEC50 of 7.5. Prucalopride (1 mM) significantly amplifies the rebound contraction of the guinea-pig proximal colon after electrical field stimulation. Prucalopride induces relaxation of the rat oesophagus preparation of rat oesophagus tunica muscularis mucosae with pEC50 of 7.8, yielding a monophasic concentration–response curve. [1] Prucalopride (0.1 μM) concentration-dependently increases the amplitude of submaximal cholinergic contractions and of acetylcholine release induced by electrical field stimulation in pig gastric circular muscle, and the effect is induced and enhanced IBMX (10 μM). [2] Prucalopride (1 μM) significantly enhances the electrically induced cholinergic contractions in pig descending colon, and the facilitating effect is significantly enhanced by Rolipram. [3]
In vivo Prucalopride alters colonic contractile motility patterns in a dose-dependent fashion by stimulating high-amplitude clustered contractions in the proximal colon and by inhibiting contractile activity in the distal colon of fasted dogs. Prucalopride also causes a dose-dependent decrease in the time to the first giant migrating contraction (GMC); at higher doses of prucalopride, the first GMC generally occurres within the first half-hour after treatment. [4]
Features

Conversion of different model animals based on BSA (Value based on data from FDA Draft Guidelines)

Species Mouse Rat Rabbit Guinea pig Hamster Dog
Weight (kg) 0.02 0.15 1.8 0.4 0.08 10
Body Surface Area (m2) 0.007 0.025 0.15 0.05 0.02 0.5
Km factor 3 6 12 8 5 20
Animal A (mg/kg) = Animal B (mg/kg) multiplied by  Animal B Km
Animal A Km

For example, to modify the dose of resveratrol used for a mouse (22.4 mg/kg) to a dose based on the BSA for a rat, multiply 22.4 mg/kg by the Km factor for a mouse and then divide by the Km factor for a rat. This calculation results in a rat equivalent dose for resveratrol of 11.2 mg/kg.

Rat dose (mg/kg) = mouse dose (22.4 mg/kg) × mouse Km(3)  = 11.2 mg/kg
rat Km(6)

1

References

[1] Briejer MR, et al. Eur J Pharmacol, 2001, 423(1), 71-83.

[2] Priem E, et al. Neuropharmacology, 2012, 62(5-6), 2126-2135.

Clinical Trial Information( data from http://clinicaltrials.gov, updated on 2016-07-23)

NCT Number Recruitment Conditions Sponsor
/Collaborators
Start Date Phases
NCT02806206 Not yet recruiting Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage|Crohn Disease|Celiac Disease|Intestinal Diseases|Inflammatory Bowel Diseases University of British Columbia July 2016 Phase 4
NCT02781493 Not yet recruiting Prucalopride Plus Polyethylene Glycol in Bowel Preparation for Colonoscopyp Shandong University|Binzhou Peoples Hospital|Taian People  …more June 2016 Phase 4
NCT02538367 Recruiting Functional Constipation Yuhan Corporation August 2015 Phase 1|Phase 2
NCT02228616 Recruiting Constipation Xian-Janssen Pharmaceutical Ltd. October 2014 Phase 4
NCT02425774 Recruiting Postoperative Ileus Katholieke Universiteit Leuven|Universitaire Ziekenhuizen  …more July 2014 Phase 4

References

  1. Briejer, M. R.; Bosmans, J. P.; Van Daele, P.; Jurzak, M.; Heylen, L.; Leysen, J. E.; Prins, N. H.; Schuurkes, J. A. (2001). “The in vitro pharmacological profile of prucalopride, a novel enterokinetic compound”. European Journal of Pharmacology 423 (1): 71–83.doi:10.1016/S0014-2999(01)01087-1. PMID 11438309.
  2.  Clinical trial number [1] for “NCT00793247” at ClinicalTrials.gov
  3.  Emmanuel, A. V.; Kamm, M. A.; Roy, A. J.; Kerstens, R.; Vandeplassche, L. (2012).“Randomised clinical trial: The efficacy of prucalopride in patients with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction – a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over, multiple n = 1 study”.Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 35 (1): 48–55. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2036.2011.04907.x. PMC 3298655. PMID 22061077.
  4.  Smart, C. J.; Ramesh, A. N. (2011). “The successful treatment of acute refractory pseudo-obstruction with Prucalopride”. Colorectal Disease: no. doi:10.1111/j.1463-1318.2011.02929.x.
  5. Jump up^ Bouras, E. P.; Camilleri, M.; Burton, D. D.; McKinzie, S. (1999). “Selective stimulation of colonic transit by the benzofuran 5HT4 agonist, prucalopride, in healthy humans”. Gut44 (5): 682–686. doi:10.1136/gut.44.5.682. PMC 1727485. PMID 10205205.
  6. Jump up^ Bouras, E. P.; Camilleri, M.; Burton, D. D.; Thomforde, G.; McKinzie, S.; Zinsmeister, A. R. (2001). “Prucalopride accelerates gastrointestinal and colonic transit in patients with constipation without a rectal evacuation disorder”. Gastroenterology 120 (2): 354–360.doi:10.1053/gast.2001.21166. PMID 11159875.
  7. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Tack, J.; Van Outryve, M.; Beyens, G.; Kerstens, R.; Vandeplassche, L. (2008). “Prucalopride (Resolor) in the treatment of severe chronic constipation in patients dissatisfied with laxatives”. Gut 58 (3): 357–365. doi:10.1136/gut.2008.162404.PMID 18987031.
  8.  European Medicines Agency -EPAR
  9.  Health Canada, Notice of Decision for Resotran
  10.  Digestive Remedies in Israel
  11. Briejer, M. R.; Prins, N. H.; Schuurkes, J. A. (2001). “Effects of the enterokinetic prucalopride (R093877) on colonic motility in fasted dogs”. Neurogastroenterology and motility : the official journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society 13 (5): 465–472. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2982.2001.00280.x. PMID 11696108.
  12.  Oustamanolakis, P.; Tack, J. (2012). “Prucalopride for chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction”. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 35 (3): 398–9. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2036.2011.04947.x. PMID 22221087.
  13.  SmPC. Summary of product characteristics Resolor (prucalopride) October, 2009: 1-9.
  14.  De Maeyer, JH; Lefebvre, RA; Schuurkes, JA (Feb 2008). “5-HT(4) receptor agonists: similar but not the same”. Neurogastroenterol Motil 20 (2): 99–112. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2982.2007.01059.x. PMID 18199093.
  15.  Frampton, J. E. (2009). “Prucalopride”. Drugs 69 (17): 2463–2476.doi:10.2165/11204000-000000000-00000. PMID 19911858.
  16.  Camilleri, M.; Kerstens, R.; Rykx, A.; Vandeplassche, L. (2008). “A Placebo-Controlled Trial of Prucalopride for Severe Chronic Constipation”. New England Journal of Medicine 358 (22): 2344–2354. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0800670. PMID 18509121.
  17. ^ Jump up to:a b c Quigley, E. M. M.; Vandeplassche, L.; Kerstens, R.; Ausma, J. (2009). “Clinical trial: the efficacy, impact on quality of life, and safety and tolerability of prucalopride in severe chronic constipation – a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study”.Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 29 (3): 315–328. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2036.2008.03884.x. PMID 19035970.
  18. Marquis, P.; De La Loge, C.; Dubois, D.; McDermott, A.; Chassany, O. (2005). “Development and validation of the Patient Assessment of Constipation Quality of Life questionnaire”. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 40 (5): 540–551.doi:10.1080/00365520510012208. PMID 16036506.
  19.  Frank, L.; Kleinman, L.; Farup, C.; Taylor, L.; Miner Jr, P. (1999). “Psychometric validation of a constipation symptom assessment questionnaire”. Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology 34 (9): 870–877. doi:10.1080/003655299750025327.PMID 10522604.
  20.  Johanson, JF; Kralstein, J (2007). “Chronic constipation: a survey of the patient perspective.”. Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics 25 (5): 599–608. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2036.2006.03238.x. PMID 17305761.
  21.  Koch, A.; Voderholzer, W. A.; Klauser, A. G.; Müller-Lissner, S. (1997). “Symptoms in chronic constipation”. Diseases of the colon and rectum 40 (8): 902–906.doi:10.1007/BF02051196. PMID 9269805.
  22. McCrea, G. L.; Miaskowski, C.; Stotts, N. A.; MacEra, L.; Paul, S. M.; Varma, M. G. (2009). “Gender differences in self-reported constipation characteristics, symptoms, and bowel and dietary habits among patients attending a specialty clinic for constipation”.Gender Medicine 6 (1): 259–271. doi:10.1016/j.genm.2009.04.007. PMID 19467522.
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  24. Wald, A.; Scarpignato, C.; Kamm, M. A.; Mueller-Lissner, S.; Helfrich, I.; Schuijt, C.; Bubeck, J.; Limoni, C.; Petrini, O. (2007). “The burden of constipation on quality of life: results of a multinational survey”. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 26 (2): 227–236. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2036.2007.03376.x. PMID 17593068.
  25.  Camilleri, M; Beyens, G; Kerstens, R; Vandeplassche, L (2009). “Long-term follow-up of safety and satisfaction with bowel function in response to oral prucalopride in patients with chronic constipation [Abstract]”. Gastroenterology 136 (Suppl 1): 160. doi:10.1016/s0016-5085(09)60143-8.
  26. Van Outryve, MJ; Beyens, G; Kerstens, R; Vandeplassche, L (2008). “Long-term follow-up study of oral prucalopride (Resolor) administered to patients with chronic constipation [Abstract T1400]”. Gastroenterology 134 (4 (suppl 1)): A547. doi:10.1016/s0016-5085(08)62554-8.
  27.  https://www.shire.com/newsroom/2015/june/resolor-eu-male-indication-press-release

External links

EP0389037A1 * 13 Mar 1990 26 Sep 1990 Janssen Pharmaceutica N.V. N-(3-hydroxy-4-piperidinyl)(dihydrobenzofuran, dihydro-2H-benzopyran or dihydrobenzodioxin)carboxamide derivatives
EP0445862A2 * 22 Feb 1991 11 Sep 1991 Janssen Pharmaceutica N.V. N-(4-piperidinyl)(dihydrobenzofuran or dihydro-2H-benzopyran)carboxamide derivatives
Citing Patent Filing date Publication date Applicant Title
WO1999058527A2 * 13 May 1999 18 Nov 1999 EGIS Gyógyszergyár Rt. Benzofuran derivatives, pharmaceutical composition containing the same, and a process for the preparation of the active ingredient
WO1999058527A3 * 13 May 1999 27 Jan 2000 Bela Agai Benzofuran derivatives, pharmaceutical composition containing the same, and a process for the preparation of the active ingredient
WO2000030640A1 * 16 Nov 1999 2 Jun 2000 Janssen Pharmaceutica N.V. Use of prucalopride for the manufacture of a medicament for the treatment of dyspepsia
WO2000066170A1 * 20 Apr 2000 9 Nov 2000 Janssen Pharmaceutica N.V. Prucalopride oral solution
WO2003059906A1 * 13 Jan 2003 24 Jul 2003 Janssen Pharmaceutica N.V. Prucalopride-n-oxide
WO2012116976A1 28 Feb 2012 7 Sep 2012 Shire – Movetis Nv Prucalopride oral solution
WO2013024164A1 17 Aug 2012 21 Feb 2013 Shire Ag Combinations of a 5-ht4 receptor agonist and a pde4 inhibitor for use in therapy
US6413988 20 Apr 2000 2 Jul 2002 Janssen Pharmaceutica N.V. Prucalopride oral solution
US8063069 30 Oct 2007 22 Nov 2011 Janssen Pharmaceutica N.V. Prucalopride-N-oxide
Patent ID Date Patent Title
US2016082123 2016-03-24 Hydrogel-Linked Prodrugs Releasing Tagged Drugs
US2015202317 2015-07-23 DIPEPTIDE-BASED PRODRUG LINKERS FOR ALIPHATIC AMINE-CONTAINING DRUGS
US2014323402 2014-10-30 Protein Carrier-Linked Prodrugs
US2014296257 2014-10-02 High-Loading Water-Soluable Carrier-Linked Prodrugs
US2014243254 2014-08-28 Polymeric Hyperbranched Carrier-Linked Prodrugs
US2013053301 2013-02-28 DIPEPTIDE-BASED PRODRUG LINKERS FOR ALIPHATIC AMINE-CONTAINING DRUGS
US2012220630 2012-08-30 PRUCALOPRIDE ORAL SOLUTION
US2012156259 2012-06-21 Biodegradable Polyethylene Glycol Based Water-Insoluble Hydrogels
US6413988 2002-07-02 Prucalopride oral solution
US6310077 2001-10-30 Enterokinetic benzamide
Prucalopride
Prucalopride.svg
Systematic (IUPAC) name
4-Amino-5-chloro-N-[1-(3-methoxypropyl)piperidin-4-yl]-2,3-dihydro-1-benzofuran-7-carboxamide
Clinical data
Trade names Resolor, Resotran
AHFS/Drugs.com International Drug Names
License data
Pregnancy
category
  • Not recommended
Routes of
administration
Oral
Legal status
Legal status
  • AU: S4 (Prescription only)
  • ℞ (Prescription only)
Identifiers
CAS Number 179474-81-8 Yes
ATC code A06AX05 (WHO)
PubChem CID 3052762
IUPHAR/BPS 243
ChemSpider 2314539
UNII 0A09IUW5TP Yes
Chemical data
Formula C18H26ClN3O3
Molar mass 367.870 g/mol

//////////Prucalopride succinate, Resolor, R-093877, R-108512, Resolor®, Resolor, Resotran, UNII:0A09IUW5TP, 179474-81-8 , R-093877,  R-108512, Shire , Johnson & Johnson, 179474-85-2, UNII-4V2G75E1CK, SHIRE,  2010,  LAUNCHED, JANNSEN , PHASE 3,  IRRITABLE BOWL SYNDROME

COCCCN1CCC(CC1)NC(=O)C2=CC(=C(C3=C2OCC3)N)Cl

Delamanid, (Deltyba) デラマニド


Delamanid

デラマニド

MKT as Deltyba® by Otsuka Pharmaceutical

http://www.ama-assn.org/resources/doc/usan/delamanid.pdf

(2R)-2-Methyl-6-nitro-2-[(4-{4-[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenoxy]-1-piperidinyl}phenoxy)methyl]-2,3-dihydroimidazo[2,1-b][1,3]oxazole

2(R)-Methyl-6-nitro-2-[4-[4-[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenoxy]piperidin-1-yl]phenoxymethyl]-2,3-dihydroimidazo[2,1-b]oxazole

(R) -2-methyl-6-nitro-2- { 4- [4- (4- trifluoromethoxyphenoxy) piperidin-l-yl] phenoxymethyl } -2 , 3- dihydroimidazo [2 , 1-b] oxazole

Imidazo[2,1-b]oxazole, 2,3-dihydro-2-methyl-6-nitro-2-[[4-[4-[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenoxy]-1-piperidinyl]phenoxy]methyl]-, (2R)-

(R)-2-methyl-6-nitro-2-{4-[4-(4-trifluoromethoxyphenoxy)piperidin-1-yl]phenoxymethyl}-2,3-dihydroimidazo[2,1-b]oxazole

(2R)-2-Methyl-6-nitro-2-[(4-{4-[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenoxy]piperidin-1-yl}phenoxy)methyl]-2,3-dihydroimidazo[2,1-b]oxazole

681492-22-8 CAS

Delamanid.svg

Delamanid, 681492-22-8, Delamanid (JAN/USAN), Delamanid [USAN:INN],UNII-8OOT6M1PC7,
  • OPC 67683
  • OPC-67683
  • UNII-8OOT6M1PC7
MW: C25H25F3N4O6
MW: 534.48441

CLINICAL TRIALS

Trial Name: A Placebo-Controlled, Phase 2 Trial to Evaluate OPC 67683 in Patients With Pulmonary Sputum Culture-Positive, Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis (TB)
Primary Sponsor: Otsuka Pharmaceutical Development & Commercialization, Inc.
Trial ID / Reg # / URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00685360
Delamanid

C25H25F3N4O6 : 534.48
[681492-22-8]

Delamanid (USAN, INN) is a drug for the treatment of multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis. It works by blocking the synthesis of mycolic acids in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the organism which causes tuberculosis, thus destabilising its cell wall.[2][3][4] The drug is approved in the EU under the trade name Deltyba (made by Otsuka Pharmaceutical).

It is on the World Health Organization’s List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basichealth system.[5]

Adverse effects

Delamanid prolongs QT interval.[6]

Interactions

Delamanid is metabolised by the liver enzyme CYP3A4, wherefore strong inducers of this enzyme can reduce its effectiveness.[6]

History

In phase II clinical trials, the drug was used in combination with standard treatments, such as four or five of the drugsethambutol, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, rifampicin, aminoglycoside antibiotics, and quinolones. Healing rates (measured as sputum culture conversion) were significantly better in patients who additionally took delamanid.[4][7]

The European Medicines Agency (EMA) recommended conditional marketing authorization for delamanid in adults with multidrug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis without other treatment options because of resistance or tolerability. The EMA considered the data show that the benefits of delamanid outweigh the risks, but that additional studies were needed on the long-term effectiveness.[8]

Delamanid was first approved by European Medicine Agency (EMA) on Apr 28, 2014, then approved by Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency of Japan (PMDA) on July 4, 2014. It was developed and marketed as Deltyba® by Otsuka Pharmaceutical.

Delamanid is a novel bactericidal agent that interferes with the metabolism of the mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) cell walls. It is indicated for the treatment of pulmonary multi-drugresistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in adult patients.

Deltyba® is available as tablets for oral use, containing 50 mg of free Delamanid, and the recommended dose is 100 mg twice daily for 24 weeks.

Delamanid, an antibiotic active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains, has been filed for approval in the E.U. and by Otsuka for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. In 2013, a positive opinion was received in the E.U. for this indication. Phase III trials for treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis are under way in the U.S. Phase II study for the pediatric use is undergone in the Europe.

The drug candidate’s antimycobacterial mechanism of action is via specific inhibition of the synthesis pathway of mycolic acid, which is a cell wall component unique to M. tuberculosis.

In 2008, orphan drug designation was received in Japan for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis.

Tuberculosis (TB), an airborne lung infection, still remains a major public health problem worldwide. It is estimated that about 32% of the world population is infected with TB bacillus, and of those, approximately 8.9 million people develop active TB and 1.7 million die as a result annually according to 2004 figures. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been a major contributing factor in the current resurgence of TB. HIV-associated TB is widespread, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, and such an infectious process may further accelerate the resurgence of TB.

Moreover, the recent emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains ofMycobacterium tuberculosis that are resistant to two major effective drugs, isonicotinic acid hydrazide (INH) and rifampicin (RFP), has further complicated the world situation.

The World Health Organization (WHO) has estimated that if the present conditions remain unchanged, more than 30 million lives will be claimed by TB between 2000 and 2020. As for subsequent drug development, not a single new effective compound has been launched as an antituberculosis agent since the introduction of RFP in 1965, despite the great advances that have been made in drug development technologies.

Although many effective vaccine candidates have been developed, more potent vaccines will not become immediately available. The current therapy consists of an intensive phase with four drugs, INH, RFP, pyrazinamide (PZA), and streptomycin (SM) or ethambutol (EB), administered for 2 months followed by a continuous phase with INH and RFP for 4 months. Thus, there exists an urgent need for the development of potent new antituberculosis agents with low-toxicity profiles that are effective against both drug-susceptible and drug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis and that are capable of shortening the current duration of therapy.

PATENT

US20060094767

(R)-2-bromo-4-nitro-1-(2-methyl-2-oxiranylmethyl)imidazole

4-[4-(4-Trifluoromethoxyphenoxy)piperidin-1-yl]phenol

ARE THE INTERMEDIATES

Example 1884

Production of (R)-2-methyl-6-nitro-2-{4-[4-(4-trifluoromethoxyphenoxy)piperidin-1-yl]phenoxymethyl}-2,3-dihydroimidazo[2,1-b]oxazole

4-[4-(4-Trifluoromethoxyphenoxy)piperidin-1-yl]phenol (693 mg, 1.96 mmol) was dissolved in N,N′-dimethylformamide (3 ml), and sodium hydride (86 mg, 2.16 mmol) was added while cooling on ice followed by stirring at 70-75° C. for 20 minutes. The mixture was cooled on ice. To the solution, a solution prepared by dissolving (R)-2-bromo-4-nitro-1-(2-methyl-2-oxiranylmethyl)imidazole (720 mg, 2.75 mmol) in N,N′-dimethylformamide (3 ml) was added followed by stirring at 70-75° C. for 20 minutes. The reaction mixture was allowed to return to room temperature, ice water (25 ml) was added, and the resultant solution was extracted with methylene chloride (50 ml) three times. The organic phases were combined, washed with water 3 times, and dried over magnesium sulfate. After filtration, the filtrate was concentrated, and the residue was purified by silica gel column chromatography (methylene chloride/ethyl acetate=3/1). Recrystallization from ethyl acetate/isopropyl ether gave (R)-2-methyl-6-nitro-2-{4-[4-(4-trifluoromethoxyphenoxy)piperidin-1-yl]phenoxymethyl}-2,3-dihydroimidazo[2,1-b]oxazole (343 mg, 33%) as a light yellow powder.

PATENT

WO 2010021409 AND http://worldwide.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/biblio?CC=IN&NR=203704A1&KC=A1&FT=D

FOR 2, 4 DINITROIMIDAZOLE

PATENT

WO2011093529A1

These patent literatures disclose Reaction Schemes A and B below as the processes for producing the aforementioned 2, 3-dihydroimidazo [2, 1-b] oxazole compound.

Reaction Scheme A:

Figure imgf000003_0001

wherein R1 is a hydrogen atom or lower-alkyl group; R2 is a substituted pxperidyl group or a substituted piperazinyl group; and X1 is a halogen atom or a nitro group.

Reaction Scheme B:

Figure imgf000004_0001
Figure imgf000004_0002

wherein X2 is a halogen or a group causing a substitution reaction similar to that of a halogen; n is an integer from 1 to 6; and R1, R2 and X1 are the same as in Reaction Scheme A.

An oxazole com ound represented by Formula (la) :

Figure imgf000004_0003

, i.e., 2-methyl-6-nitro-2-{4- [4- (4- trifluoromethoxyphenoxy) piperidin-l-yl] phenoxymethyl }-2, 3- dihydroimidazo [2, 1-b] oxazole (hereunder, this compound may be simply referred to as “Compound la”) is produced, for example, by the method shown in the Reaction Scheme C below (Patent

Literature 3) . In this specification, the term “oxazole compound’ means an oxazole derivative that encompasses compounds that contain an oxazole ring or an oxazoline ring (dihydrooxazole ring) in the molecule.

Reaction Scheme C:

Figure imgf000005_0001
Figure imgf000005_0002

However, the aforementioned methods are unsatisfactory in terms of the yield of the objective compound. For example, the method of Reaction Scheme C allows the objective oxazole Compound (la) to be obtained from Compound (2a) at a yield as low as 35.9%. Therefore, alternative methods for producing the compound in an industrially advantageous manner are desired. Citation List

Patent Literature

PTL 1: WO2004/033463

PTL 2: WO2004/035547

PTL 3: WO2008/140090

Example 9

Production of (R) -2-methyl-6-nitro-2- { 4- [4- (4- trifluoromethoxyphenoxy) piperidin-l-yl] phenoxymethyl } -2 , 3- dihydroimidazo [2 , 1-b] oxazole

{R) -1- [ – {2 , 3-epoxy-2-methylpropoxy ) phenyl] -4- [4- ( trifluoromethoxy ) phenoxy ] piperidine (10.0 g, 23.6 mmol, optical purity of 94.3%ee), 2-chloro-4-nitroimidazole (4.0 g, 27.2 mmol), sodium acetate (0.4 g, 4.9 mmol), and t- butyl acetate (10 ml) were mixed and stirred at 100°C for 3.5 hours. Methanol (70 ml) was added to the reaction mixture, and then a 25% sodium hydroxide aqueous solution (6.3 g, 39.4 mmol) was added thereto dropwise while cooling with ice. The resulting mixture was stirred at 0°C for 1.5 hours, and further stirred at approximately room

temperature for 40 minutes. Water (15 ml) and ethyl acetate (5 ml) were added thereto, and the mixture was stirred at 45 to 55°C for 1 hour. The mixture was cooled to room temperature, and the precipitated crystals were collected by filtration. The precipitated crystals were subsequently washed with methanol (30 ml) and water (40 ml) . Methanol (100 ml) was added to the resulting

crystals, followed by stirring under reflux for 30 minutes. The mixture was cooled to room temperature. The crystals were then collected by filtration and washed with methanol (30 ml) . The resulting crystals were dried under reduced pressure, obtaining 9.3 g of the objective product (yield: 73%) .

Optical purity: 99.4%ee.

PATENT

Synthesis and antituberculosis activity of a novel series of optically active 6-nitro-2,3-dihydroimidazo[2,1-b]oxazoles
J Med Chem 2006, 49(26): 7854

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jm060957y

(R)-2-Methyl-6-nitro-2-{4-[4-(4-trifluoromethoxyphenoxy)piperidin-1-yl]phenoxymethyl}-2,3-dihydroimidazo[2,1-b]oxazole (19,  DELAMANID).

To a mixture of 27 (127.56 g, 586.56 mmol) and 4-[4-(4-trifluoromethoxyphenoxy)piperidin-1-yl]phenol (28g) (165.70 g, 468.95 mmol) in N,N-dimethylformamide (1600 mL) was added 60% sodium hydride (22.51 g, 562.74 mmol) at 0 °C portionwise. After the mixture was stirred at 50 °C for 2 h under a nitrogen atmosphere, the reaction mixture was cooled in an ice bath and carefully quenched with ethyl acetate (230 mL) and ice water (50 mL). The thus-obtained mixture was poured into water (3000 mL) and stirred for 30 min. The resulting precipitates were collected by filtration, washed with water, and dried at 60 °C overnight. This crude product was purified by silica gel column chromatography using a dichloromethane and ethyl acetate mixture (5/1) as solvent. The appropriate fractions were combined and evaporated under reduced pressure. The residue was recrystallized from ethyl acetate (1300 mL)−isopropyl alcohol (150 mL) to afford 19 (119.11 g, 48%) as a pale yellow crystalline powder.

Mp 195−196 °C.

1H NMR (CDCl3) δ 1.77 (3H, s), 1.87−2.16 (4H, m), 2.95−3.05 (2H, m), 3.32−3.41 (2H, m), 4.02 (1H, d, J = 10.2 Hz), 4.04 (1H, d, J = 10.2 Hz), 4.18 (1H, J = 10.2 Hz), 4.36−4.45 (1H, m), 4.49 (1H, d, J = 10.2 Hz), 6.76 (2H, d, J = 6.7 Hz), 6.87−6.94 (4H, m), 7.14 (2H, d, J = 8.6 Hz), 7.55 (1H, s).

[α  −9.9° (c 1.01, CHCl3).

MS (DI) m/z 535 (M+ + 1). Anal. (C25H25F3N4O6) C, H, N.

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/suppl/10.1021/jm060957y/suppl_file/jm060957ysi20061113_095044.pdf

CLIPS

Delamanid (Deltyba)
Marketed by Otsuka, delamanid was approved in both the European Union and Japan in 2014 as part of combination therapies for
multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (TB). Because delamanid exhibited no adverse drug–drug interactions, it has found utility as a
combination therapy with standard antiretroviral drugs indicated for TB. Delamanid blocks mycolic acid biosynthesis in ycobacterium
tuberculosis, which allows its cell wall to be penetrated by small molecule antivirals.92

Although delamanid possesses a rather linear structure capable of a variety of retrosynthetic disconnections, the most likely scale
synthesis is a convergent approach involving two key synthons—diol 82 and piperidine 81, as is outlined in Scheme 13.93–95
Preparation of 82 proceeded through a Sharpless Asymmetric Epoxidation of commercial alcohol 86, followed by a diastereoselective
epoxide ring opening with 4-bromophenol to afford key diol 82 in 76% for the two step sequence (Scheme 14).93–96
Piperidine 81 was concurrently prepared by first generating biaryl ether 79, which arose from a substitution reaction between
pyridine N-oxide 77 and phenol 78 that proceeded in 86% yield. Next, removal of the N-oxide functionality by means of catalytic
hydrogenation under mild pressure and neutral conditions afforded diaryl ether 80 in excellent yield. Reduction of the pyridine
to the corresponding piperidine (81) was affected through the use of catalytic hydrogenation as well, this time under acidic
conditions and elevated pressures relative to the N-oxide reduction.95,97 At this juncture, subjection of piperidine 81 to Buchwald–
Hartwig conditions in the presence of diol subunit 82

(preparation described in Scheme 14) delivered diol 83. A two-step elimination to deliver enantiopure epoxide 84 set the stage for an
interesting cascade reaction to arrive at delamanid (XI) directly— the initial alkylation of the epoxide by imidazole 85 proceeded
under basic conditions with sodium acetate which then underwent an intramolecular nucleophilic substitution reaction by the liberated alcohol on the pendant imidazole chloride in the presence of sodium hydroxide. The reaction sequence proceeded in 73%
yield to provide delamanid (XI) as a free base.96

STR1

STR1

92. Blair, H. A.; Scott, L. J. Drugs 2015, 75, 91.
93. Tsubouchi, H.; Sasaki, H.; Kuroda, H.; Itotani, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Haraguchi, Y.;Kuroda, T.; Matsuzaki, T. US Patent 2006094767A1, 2006.
94. Sasaki, H.; Haraguchi, Y.; Itotani, M.; Kuroda, H.; Hashizume, H.; Tomishige,T.; Kawasaki, M.; Matsumoto, M.; Komatsu, M.; Tsubouchi, H. J. Med. Chem.2006, 49, 7854.
95. Goto, F.; Takemura, N.; Otani, T.; Hasegawa, T.; Tsubouchi, H.; Utsumi, N.; Fujita, S.; Kuroda, H.; Shitsuta, T.; Sasaki, H. US2012130082A1, 2012.
96. Yamamoto, A.; Shinhama, K.; Fujita, N.; Aki, S.; Ogasawara, S.; Utsumi, N. WOPatent 2011093529A1, 2011.

STR1

STR1

STR1

References

  1.  “Deltyba (delamanid): Summary of Product Characteristics. 5.2. Pharmacokinetic Properties” (PDF). Otsuka Novel Products GmbH. p. 10. Retrieved 9 July 2016.
  2.  Matsumoto, M.; Hashizume, H.; Tomishige, T.; Kawasaki, M.; Tsubouchi, H.; Sasaki, H.; Shimokawa, Y.; Komatsu, M. (2006). “OPC-67683, a Nitro-Dihydro-Imidazooxazole Derivative with Promising Action against Tuberculosis in Vitro and in Mice”. PLoS Medicine 3 (11): e466. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0030466. PMC 1664607. PMID 17132069.
  3.  Skripconoka, V.; Danilovits, M.; Pehme, L.; Tomson, T.; Skenders, G.; Kummik, T.; Cirule, A.; Leimane, V.; Kurve, A.; Levina, K.; Geiter, L. J.; Manissero, D.; Wells, C. D. (2012). “Delamanid Improves Outcomes and Reduces Mortality for Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis”. European Respiratory Journal 41 (6): 1393–1400. doi:10.1183/09031936.00125812. PMC 3669462.PMID 23018916.
  4.  H. Spreitzer (18 February 2013). “Neue Wirkstoffe – Bedaquilin und Delamanid”. Österreichische Apothekerzeitung (in German) (4/2013): 22.
  5.  “WHO Model List of EssentialMedicines” (PDF). World Health Organization. October 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
  6. Pharmazeutische Zeitung: Delamanid: Neuer Wirkstoff gegen multiresistente TB, 9 May 2014. (German)
  7.  Gler, M. T.; Skripconoka, V.; Sanchez-Garavito, E.; Xiao, H.; Cabrera-Rivero, J. L.; Vargas-Vasquez, D. E.; Gao, M.; Awad, M.; Park, S. K.; Shim, T. S.; Suh, G. Y.; Danilovits, M.; Ogata, H.; Kurve, A.; Chang, J.; Suzuki, K.; Tupasi, T.; Koh, W. J.; Seaworth, B.; Geiter, L. J.; Wells, C. D. (2012). “Delamanid for Multidrug-Resistant Pulmonary Tuberculosis”. New England Journal of Medicine 366 (23): 2151–2160. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1112433. PMID 22670901.
  8.  Drug Discovery & Development. EMA Recommends Two New Tuberculosis Treatments. November 22, 2013.
  9. Japan PMDA.[7]. PLoS Med. 2006 Nov;3(11):e466.[8]. Drug@EMA, EMEA/H/C/002552 Deltyba: EPAR-Assessment Report.
12-28-2006
Synthesis and antituberculosis activity of a novel series of optically active 6-nitro-2,3-dihydroimidazo[2,1-b]oxazoles.
Journal of medicinal chemistry
11-1-2006
OPC-67683, a nitro-dihydro-imidazooxazole derivative with promising action against tuberculosis in vitro and in mice.
PLoS medicine
1-1-2008
New anti-tuberculosis drugs with novel mechanisms of action.
Current medicinal chemistry
11-11-2010
Synthesis and Structure-Activity Relationships of Aza- and Diazabiphenyl Analogues of the Antitubercular Drug (6S)-2-Nitro-6-{[4-(trifluoromethoxy)benzyl]oxy}-6,7-dihydro-5H-imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]oxazine (PA-824).
Journal of medicinal chemistry
5-1-2012
Tuberculosis: the drug development pipeline at a glance.
European journal of medicinal chemistry
1-12-2012
Structure-activity relationships for amide-, carbamate-, and urea-linked analogues of the tuberculosis drug (6S)-2-nitro-6-{[4-(trifluoromethoxy)benzyl]oxy}-6,7-dihydro-5H-imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]oxazine (PA-824).
Journal of medicinal chemistry
9-11-2009
Pharmaceutical Composition Achieving Excellent Absorbency of Pharmacologically Active Substance
1-16-2009
Sulfonamide Derivatives for the Treatment of Bacterial Infections
WO2004033463A1 Oct 10, 2003 Apr 22, 2004 Otsuka Pharma Co Ltd 2,3-DIHYDRO-6-NITROIMIDAZO[2,1-b]OXAZOLES
WO2004035547A1 Oct 14, 2003 Apr 29, 2004 Otsuka Pharma Co Ltd 1-substituted 4-nitroimidazole compound and process for producing the same
WO2008140090A1 May 7, 2008 Nov 20, 2008 Otsuka Pharma Co Ltd Epoxy compound and method for manufacturing the same
JP2009269859A * Title not available
Delamanid
Delamanid.svg
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(2R)-2-Methyl-6-nitro-2-[(4-{4-[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenoxy]-1-piperidinyl}phenoxy)methyl]-2,3-dihydroimidazo[2,1-b][1,3]oxazole
Clinical data
Trade names Deltyba
AHFS/Drugs.com International Drug Names
Routes of
administration
Oral (film-coated tablets)
Legal status
Legal status
  • ℞ (Prescription only)
Pharmacokinetic data
Protein binding ≥99.5%
Metabolism in plasma by albumin, in liver
by CYP3A4 (to a lesser extent)
Biological half-life 30–38 hours
Excretion not excreted in urine[1]
Identifiers
CAS Number 681492-22-8
ATC code J04AK06 (WHO)
PubChem CID 6480466
ChemSpider 4981055
ChEMBL CHEMBL218650
Synonyms OPC-67683
Chemical data
Formula C25H25F3N4O6
Molar mass 534.48 g/mol

//////////////////////////681492-22-8 , Delamanid, Deltyba, Otsuka Pharmaceutical

FC(F)(F)Oc5ccc(OC4CCN(c3ccc(OC[C@@]2(Oc1nc(cn1C2)[N+]([O-])=O)C)cc3)CC4)cc5

TB

Figure

It is estimated that a third of the world’s population is currently infected with tuberculosis, leading to 1.6 million deaths annually. The current drug regimen is 40 years old and takes 6-9 months to administer. In addition, the emergence of drug resistant strains and HIV co-infection mean that there is an urgent need for new anti-tuberculosis drugs. The twenty-first century has seen a revival in research and development activity in this area, with several new drug candidates entering clinical trials. This review considers new potential first-line anti-tuberculosis drug candidates, in particular those with novel mechanisms of action, as these are most likely to prove effective against resistant strains.

From among acid-fast bacteria, human Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been widely known. It is said that the one-third of the human population is infected with this bacterium. In addition to the human Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium africanum and Mycobacterium bovis have also been known to belong to the Mycobacterium tuberoculosis group. These bacteria are known as Mycobacteria having a strong pathogenicity to humans.

Against these tuberculoses, treatment is carried out using three agents, rifampicin, isoniazid, and ethambutol (or streptomycin) that are regarded as first-line agents, or using four agents such as the above three agents and pyrazinamide.

However, since the treatment of tuberculosis requires extremely long-term administration of agents, it might result in poor compliance, and the treatment often ends in failure.

Moreover, in respect of the above agents, it has been reported that: rifampicin causes hepatopathy, flu syndrome, drug allergy, and its concomitant administration with other drugs is contraindicated due to P450-associated enzyme induction; that isoniazid causes peripheral nervous system disorder and induces serious hepatopathy when used in combination with rifampicin; that ethambutol brings on failure of eyesight due to optic nerve disorder; that streptomycin brings on diminution of the hearing faculty due to the 8th cranial nerve disorder; and that pyrazinamide causes adverse reactions such a hepatopathy, gouty attack associated with increase of uric acid level, vomiting (A Clinician’s Guide To Tuberculosis, Michael D. Iseman 2000 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, printed in the USA, ISBN 0-7817-1749-3, Tuberculosis, 2nd edition, Fumiyuki Kuze and Takahide Izumi, Igaku-Shoin Ltd., 1992).

Actually, it has been reported that cases where the standard chemotherapy could not be carried out due to the adverse reactions to these agents made up 70% (approximately 23%, 52 cases) of the total cases where administration of the agents was discontinued (the total 228 hospitalized patients who were subject to the research) (Kekkaku, Vol. 74, 77-82, 1999).

In particular, hepatotoxicity, which is induced by rifampicin, isoniazid, and ethambutol out of the 5 agents used in combination for the aforementioned first-line treatment, is known as an adverse reaction that is developed most frequently. At the same time, Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to antitubercular agents, multi-drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and the like have been increasing, and the presence of these types of Mycobacterium tuberculosismakes the treatment more difficult.

According to the investigation made by WHO (1996 to 1999), the proportion ofMycobacterium tuberculosis that is resistant to any of the existing antitubercular agents to the total types of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that have been isolated over the world reaches 19%, and it has been published that the proportion of multi-drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis is 5.1%. The number of carriers infected with such multi-drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis is estimated to be 60,000,000, and concerns are still rising that multi-drug-resistantMycobacterium tuberculosis will increase in the future (April 2001 as a supplement to the journal Tuberculosis, the “Scientific Blueprint for TB Drug Development.”)

In addition, the major cause of death of AIDS patients is tuberculosis. It has been reported that the number of humans suffering from both tuberculosis and HIV reaches 10,700,000 at the time of year 1997 (Global Alliance for TB drug development). Moreover, it is considered that the mixed infection of tuberculosisand HIV has an at least 30 times higher risk of developing tuberculosis than the ordinary circumstances.

Taking into consideration the aforementioned current situation, the profiles of the desired antitubercular agent is as follows: (1) an agent, which is effective even for multi-drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis, (2) an agent enabling a short-term chemotherapy, (3) an agent with fewer adverse reactions, (4) an agent showing an efficacy to latent infecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis (i.e., latentMycobacterium tuberculosis), and (5) an orally administrable agent.

Examples of bacteria known to have a pathogenicity to humans include offending bacteria of recently increasing MAC infection (Mycobacterium avium—intracellulare complex infection) such as Mycobacterium avium andMycobacterium intracellulare, and atypical acid-fast bacteria such asMycobacterium kansasii, Mycobacterium marinum, Mycobacterium simiae, Mycobacterium scrofulaceum, Mycobacterium szulgai, Mycobacterium xenopi, Mycobacterium malmoense, Mycobacterium haemophilum, Mycobacterium ulcerans, Mycobacterium shimoidei, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium chelonae, Mycobacterium smegmatis, and Mycobacterium aurum.

Nowadays, there are few therapeutic agents effective for these atypical acid-fast bacterial infections. Under the presence circumstances, antitubercular agents such as rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol, streptomycin and kanamycin, a newquinolone agent that is a therapeutic agent for common bacterial infections, macrolide antibiotics, aminoglycoside antibiotics, and tetracycline antibiotics are used in combination.

However, when compared with the treatment of common bacterial infections, the treatment of atypical acid-fast bacterial infections requires a long-term administration-of agents, and there have been reported cases where the infection is changed to an intractable one, finally leading to death. To break the afore-mentioned current situation, the development of an agent having a stronger efficacy is desired.

For example, National Publication of International Patent Application No. 11-508270 (WO97/01562) discloses that a 6-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro[2,1-b]-imidazopyran compound has a bactericidal action in vitro to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (H37Rv strain) and multi-drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and that the above compound has a therapeutic effect to a tuberculosis-infected animal model when it is orally administered and thus useful as antitubercular agent.

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