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ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY

Read all about Organic Spectroscopy on ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY INTERNATIONAL 

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 29 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 29 year tenure till date Aug 2016, Around 30 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 25 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 13 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 212 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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(±)-Integrifolin, Compound from plants keeps human cancer cells from multipying


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CAS 89647-87-0

MFC15 H18 O4, MW 262.30
Azuleno[4,5-b]furan-2(3H)-one, decahydro-4,8-dihydroxy-3,6,9-tris(methylene)-, (3aR,4R,6aR,8S,9aR,9bR)-
  • Azuleno[4,5-b]furan-2(3H)-one, decahydro-4,8-dihydroxy-3,6,9-tris(methylene)-, [3aR-(3aα,4β,6aα,8β,9aα,9bβ)]-
  • (3aR,4R,6aR,8S,9aR,9bR)-Decahydro-4,8-dihydroxy-3,6,9-tris(methylene)azuleno[4,5-b]furan-2(3H)-one
  • 8-epi-Deacylcynaropicrin
  • 8β-Hydroxyzaluzanin C
  • Integrifolin (guaianolide)

STR1Integrifolin

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PATENT

WO 2011085979

Paper

Two New Amino Acid-Sesquiterpene Lactone Conjugates from Ixeris dentata

BLOG POST FROM CHEMISTRY VIEWS, WILEY

thumbnail image: Total Synthesis of (±)-IntegrifolinSTR1STR1STR1

(±)-Integrifolin

Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

Total Synthesis of (±)-Integrifolin

Compound from plants keeps human cancer cells from multipying

Read more at Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

Weight control is an important concern of human beings, both for medical (pharmaceutical and/or nutraceutical) as well as non-therapeutic, e.g. cosmetic, reasons. More importantly, excessive accumulation of body fat (i.e. obesity (= adiposity), especially with excessive fat in the ventral region and surrounding the viscera) can be dangerous and has been linked to health problems such as type II diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, atherosclerosis (where more than two of the preceding disorders are present, the condition is often called “Metabolic Syndrome” or “syndrome X”), hyperlipidemia, coronary heart disease, stroke, breast and colon cancer, sleep apnoea, gallbladder disease, reproductive disorders such as polycystic ovarian syndrome, gastroesophageal reflux disease, increased incidence of complications of general anesthesia, fatty liver, gout or thromboembolism (see, e.g., Kopelman, Nature 404: 635-43 (2000)). Obesity reduces life-span and carries a serious risk of the co-morbidities listed above, as well disorders such as infections, varicose veins,

acanthosis nigricans, eczema, exercise intolerance, insulin resistance, hypertension hypercholesterolemia, cholelithiasis, orthopedic injury, and thromboembolic disease (Rissanen et al, Br. Med. J. 301 : 835-7 (1990)). Obesity is one of the main factors in the development of cardiovascular diseases. As a side effect the levels of cholesterol, blood pressure, blood sugar and uric acid in obese people are usually higher than those of persons of normal weight. The morbidity from coronary heart disease among the overweight people is increased as well. Among the people aged 40-50, mortality will rise about 1% when body weight increases by 0.5 kg and the death rate will increase 74% when body weight exceeds 25% of the standard. The prevalence of obesity in the United States has more than doubled since the turn of the last century (whole population) and more than tripled within the last 30 years among children aged from 6 to 11. This problem more and more becomes a disease risk also in Europe. In Germany, particularly many people have been found to suffer from overweight recently, already 25% of the young people, children and adolescents there are affected by obesity and related disorders. Furthermore, being overweight is considered by the majority of the Western population as unattractive.

Overweight and obesity result from an imbalance between the calories consumed and the calories used by the body. When the calories consumed exceed the calories burned, the body is in positive energy balance and over time weight gain will occur. The excess calories are stored in the fat cells. When the calories burned exceed the calories consumed, the body is in negative energy balance and over time weight loss will occur.

Determinants of obesity include social factors, psychological factors, genetic factors, developmental factors and decreased physical activity. Some components of a comprehensive weight loss programs include medical assessment, behavioural and dietary modification, nutrition education, mental and cognitive restructuring, increased physical activity, and long term follow-up.

An increasing interest by consumers in the maintenance or reduction of their body weight can be found. This leads to a demand for products useful for these purposes. Preferred are such food products which can conveniently be consumed as part of the daily diet, for example meal replacer products, such as meal replacer bars and beverages. These are usually designed for use as a single-serving food product to replace one or two meals a day.

An issue is that often a saturating effect is missed when such products are consumed, resulting in hunger feelings only a relatively short time after consummation or even in the lack of a saturation feeling already directly after consummation.

Summing up, there remains a need for new safe and effective compositions for promoting weight loss and/or loss of body fat in subjects such as humans. The problem to be solved by the present invention is therefore to find compositions or compounds useful in the treatment of obesity; and/or for improving the total cholesterol HDIJLDL ratio.

Phytochemistry provides a large pool of compounds and compositions to be looked at whether they are able to solve this problem.

The present invention provides methods and compositions useful in the control, treatment and prevention of obesity and obesity-related conditions, disorders, and diseases; and/or and/or for improving the total cholesterol HDL/LDL ratio.

Rosinski, G., et al., Endocrinological Frontiers in Phyiological Insect Ecology, Wroclow Technical University Press, Wroclow 1989, describe that certain tricyclic sequiterpene lactones, such as grossheimin and repin, showed inhibition of larval growth and antifeeding activity in Mealworm (Tenebrio σιοΐϊίοή. Grossheimin shows no anti-feeding but little decrease of absorption of digested food constituents and a little decrease in efficiency in digesting. Repin exhibit low effects at all. Both compounds show no effect on lipid levels in blood.

Shimoda, H., et al, Bioinorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 13 (2003), 223-228, describe that methanolic extracts from Artichoke (Cynara sclolymus L.) with cynaropicrin, aguerin B and grossheimin as components and certain sesquiterpene glycosides suppress serum triglyceride elevation in olive oil-loaded mice. Some of these compounds exhibit a moderate short term (2 hours after olive oil administration) anti-hyperlipidemic activity presented as a lowering of the serum triglyceride (serum TG) concentrations, the long term (6 hours) show in the case of cynaropicrin and aguerine B an increase of the serum TG. Furthermore the authors present data of the gastric emptying (GE) of a methanolic ectract of artichoke. They determine a significantly inhibited GE. However, as shown below, this mechanism is not an explanation for the anti obesity effect shown in the present invention (see Example 1 ).

Fritzsche, J., et al., Eur. Food Res. Technol. 215, 149-157 (2002) describe the effect of certain isolated artichoke leaflet extract components with cholesterol lowering potential. Ahn, E.M-., et al, Arch Pharm. res. 29(1 1 ), 937-941 , 2006, shows ACAT inhibitory activity for two sesquiterpene lactones. KR 20040070985 also shows an effect of certain sesquiterpene lactone derivatives on cholesterol biosynthesis involved enzymes. Gebhard, R., Phytother. Res. 16, 368-372 (2002) and J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 286(3), 1 122-1 128 (1998), shows

enforcement of cholesterol biosynthesis inhibition in HepG2 cells by artichoke extracts. WO 2007/006391 also claims reduction in cholesterol by certain Cynara scolymus variety extracts.

Other reported activities of tricyclic sesquiterpene lactones are antioxidant activity (European Food Research & Technology (2002), 215(2): 149-157), inhibitors of NF kb (Food Style 21 (2007), 1 1 (6): 54-56; JP 2006-206532), serum triglyceride increase-inhibitory effect (Kagaku Kogyo (2006), 57(10): 740-745), hypoglycaemic effect (J. Trad. Med. (2003), 20(2): 57-61), bitter taste (DE 2654184). Any beneficial effects are included in this invention by reference.

None of the documents suggest that a control and treatment of obesity and body fat in warmblooded animals might be possible.

http://www.chemistryviews.org/details/ezine/9412451/Total_Synthesis_of_-Integrifolin.html?elq_mid=10181&elq_cid=1558306

Cynaropicrin, a tricyclic sesquiterpene lactone causes in vivo a strong weight loss. More surprisingly it was found that this effect is not correlated to a decrease in food intake. The weight balance is not affected by reduction of assimilation efficiency; the decrease of body fat and body weight is presumably caused by effects on energy metabolism. Surprisingly, it was found in addition that cynaropicrin also allows for improving the total cholesterol HDL7LDL ratio

Tricyclic sequiterpene lactones or known ingredients of plants of the subclass Asterides, especially from the family of Asteraceae, more specifically from species of the genera of the list consisting of Achilea, Acroptilon, Agranthus, Ainsliaea, Ajania, Amberboa, Andryala, Artemisia, Aster, Bisphopanthus, Brachylaena, Calea, Calycocorsus, Cartolepsis, Centaurea, Cheirolophus, Chrysanthemum, Cousinia, Crepis, Cynara, Eupatorium, Greenmaniella, Grossheimia, Hemistaptia, Ixeris, Jurinea, Lapsana, Lasiolaena, Liatris, Lychnophora, Macroclinidium, Mikania, Otanthus, Pleiotaxis, Prenanthes, Pseudostifftia, Ptilostemon,

Rhaponticum, Santolina, Saussurea, Serratula, Sonchus, Stevia, Taeckholmia, Tanacetum, Tricholepis, Vernonia, Volutarella, Zaluzania; even more specifically from species of the list consisting of Achillea clypeolata, Achillea collina, Acroptilon repens, Agrianthus pungens, Ainsliaea fragrans, Ajania fastigiata, Ajania fruticulosa, Amberboa lippi, Amberboa muricata, Amberboa ramose**, Amberboa tubuliflora and other Amberboa spp.*, Andryala integrifolia, Andryala pinnatifida, Artemisia absinthium, Artemisia cana, Artemisia douglasiana, Artemisia fastigiata, Artemisia franserioides, Artemisia montana, Artemisia sylvatica, Artemisia

tripartita, Aster auriculatus, Bishopanthus soliceps, Brachylaena nereifolia, Brachylaena perrieri, Calea jamaicensis, Calea solidaginea, Calycocorsus stipitatus, Cartolepsis intermedia, Centaurea babylonica, Centaurea bella, Centaurea canariensis*, Centaurea clementei, Centaurea conicum, Centaurea dealbata, Centaurea declinata, Centaurea glastifolia, Centaurea hermanii, Centaurea hyrcanica, Centaurea intermedia, Centaurea janeri, Centaurea kalscyi, Centaurea kandavanensis, Centaurea kotschyi, Centaurea linifolia, Centaurea macrocephala, Centaurea musimomum, Centaurea nicolai, Centaurea pabotii, Centaurea pseudosinaica, Centaurea repens, Centaurea salonitana, Centaurea scoparia, Centaurea sinaica, Centaurea solstitialis, Centaurea tweediei and other Centaurea spp. *, Cheirolophus uliginosus, Chrysanthemum boreale, Cousin ia canescens, Cousinia conifera, Cousinia picheriana, Cousinia piptocephala, Crepis capillaris, Crepis conyzifolia, Crepis crocea, Crepis japonica, Crepis pyrenaica, Crepis tectorum, Crepis virens, Crepis zacintha, Cynara alba, Cynara algarbiensis, Cynara auranitica, Cynara baetica, Cynara cardunculus, Cynara cornigera, Cynara cyrenaica, Cynara humilis, Cynara hystrix, Cynara syriaca, Cynara scolymus**, Cynara sibthorpiana and other Cynara spp.*, Eupatorium anomalum,

Eupatorium chinense, Eupatorium lindleyanum, Eupatorium mohrii, Eupatorium

rotundifolium, Eupatorium semialatum, Greenmaniella resinosa, Grossheimia

macrocephala** and other Grossheimia spp. *, Hemisteptia lyrata, Ixeris chinensis, Ixeris debilis, Ixeris dentata, Ixeris repens, Ixeris stolonifera, Jurinea carduiformis, Jurinea derderioides, Jurinea maxima, Lapsana capillaris, Lapsana communis, Lasiolaena morii, Lasiolaena santosii, Liatris chapmanii, Liatris gracilis, Liatris pycnostachya, Lychnophora blanchetii, Macroclinidium trilobum, Mikania hoehnei, Otanthus maritimus, Pleiotaxis rugosa, Prenanthes acerifolia, Pseudostifftia kingii, Ptilostemon diacanthus, Ptilostemon

gnaphaloides, Rhaponticum serratuloides, Santolina jamaicensis, Saussurea affinis,

Saussurea elegans, Saussurea involucrata, Saussurea laniceps, Saussurea neopulchella** and other Sauusurea spp. *, Serratula strangulata, Sonchus arborea, Stevia sanguinea, Taeckholmia arborea, Taeckholmia pinnata, Tanacetum fruticulosum, Tanacetum

parthenium, Tricholepis glaberrima** and other Tricholepsis spp. *, Vernonia arkansana, Vernonia nitidula, Vernonia noveboracensis, Vernonia profuga, Vernonia sublutea,

Volutarella divaricata, Zaiuzania resinosa; and can potentially be isolated from any part of the plants. Those genera and/or species marked with an asterisk (*) and especially those species marked with two asterisks (**) are especially preferred.

Appropriate plant material can be obtained from various sources, e.g. from:

Alfred Galke GmbH, Gittelde/Harz, Germany; Miiggenburg Pflanzliche Rohstoffe, Bad Bramstedt, Germany; Friedrich Nature Discovery, Euskirchen, Germany; VitaPlant AG, Uttwil, Switzerland; Amoros Nature SL, Hostalric, Spain.

(±)-Integrifolin

Banksia integrifolia

Coast Banksia

Family: Proteaceae

Banksia integrifolia is a tall shrub or small tree 6 – 16m tall. It is common in sandy coastal areas, but also grows in the forests of tablelands. The light grey bark is hard and rough.

Mature leaves 5 -10 cm long, are stiff, entire (untoothed), dull dark green above and hairy-white underneath. They are generally lanceolate. Younger leaves are irregularly toothed and shorter than the mature leaves. The species name ‘integrifolia’ means whole-leaved.

The pale yellow flower spikes of Banksia integrifolia range from 7-14cm long and 7cm wide. The bent styles emerge from individual flowers on the spike, straightening and spreading.

A short time after flowering, the seed pods protrude cleanly from the woody cone and open to shed black, papery, winged seeds.

Banksia integrifolia flowers from January to June.

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https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/cpb1958/33/8/33_8_3361/_pdf

PAPER

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/chem.201601275/abstract

Total Synthesis of (±)-Integrifolin

  • DOI: 10.1002/chem.201601275

///////(±)-Integrifolin,  human cancer cells,  multipying

C=C1C(=O)O[C@@H]2[C@H]3C(=C)[C@@H](O)C[C@H]3C(=C)C[C@@H](O)[C@@H]12

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Japanese knotweed extract (Polygonum cuspidatum) Resveratrol 98%


Shanghai Natural Bio-engineering Co., Ltd

 

http://www.hnkeyuan.com/

Shanghai Natural Bio-engineering Profile

Shanghai Natural Bio-engineering Co., Ltd, export branch of Hunan Keyuan Bio-products co., Ltd, established in 2003, is a professional large-scale high-tech manufacturer of raw materials for nutraceuticals, nutritional supplements, and pharmaceuticals. Plant extracts, Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) & intermediates are our focused areas.Key products include resveratrol, curcumin,artemisinin,artemether,artesunate,dihydroartemisinin,Lumefantrine,etc

 

 

Japanese knotweed extract (Polygonum cuspidatum) Resveratrol 98%

Japanese knotweed extract (Polygonum cuspidatum) Resveratrol 98%

link is

https://www.linkedin.com/today/post/article/20140805055958-283555965-japanese-knotweed-extract-polygonum-cuspidatum-resveratrol-98?trk=hb_ntf_MEGAPHONE_ARTICLE_POST

posted by

Stanford Lee

Sales Manager at Shanghai Natural Bio-engineering Co., Ltd

 

synonyms Japanese knotweed extract, Polygonum cuspidatum, red wine extract, trans-3,5,4′-trihydroxystilbene, trans-Resveratrol, cis-resveratrol
CAS number 501-36-0
Latin Name Polygonum cuspidatum
Botanical source 1.Japanese knotweed plant Polygonum cuspidatum
2. red wine
3. red grape extracts
Molecular Formula C14H12O3
Molecular weight 228.24
Appearance white powder with slight yellow
Solubility in water 0.03 g/L
Dosage 500mg
Key benefits Anti-aging, Anti-Cancer, cardiovascular support, regulate estrogen level, weight loss
Applied industry Sports nutrition, nutraceuticals, cosmetics

What is resveratrol?

When talk about resveratrol, we have to mention red wine since resveratrol is first popularly known in red wine. In fact, resveratrol was actually first isolated in 1940 from white hellebore roots by the Japanese scientist Michio Takaoka. Red wine, in moderation, has long been thought of as heart healthy. However, the most popular source of resveratrol is from Japanese knotweed extract (Latin name:Polygonum cuspidatum)

Resveratrol (3,5,4′-trihydroxystilbene) is a polyphenolic phytoalexin. It is a stilbenoid, a derivate of stilbene, and is produced in plants with the help of the enzyme stilbene synthase.

Resveratrol exists as two geometric isomers: “cis-” (“Z”) and “trans-” (“E”). The ”trans-” form can undergo isomerisation to the “cis-” form when exposed to ultraviolet irradiation. Trans-resveratrol in the powder form was found to be stable under “accelerated stability” conditions of 75% humidity and 40 degrees C in the presence of air. Resveratrol content also stayed stable in the skins of grapes and pomace taken after fermentation and stored for a long period.

Sources of resveratrol

The resveratrol in red wine comes from the skin of grapes used to make wine. Because red wine is fermented with grape skins longer than is white wine, red wine contains more resveratrol. Simply eating grapes, or drinking grape juice, has been suggested as one way to get resveratrol without drinking alcohol. Red and purple grape juices may have some of the same heart-healthy benefits of red wine.

Other foods that contain some resveratrol include peanuts, blueberries and cranberries. It’s not yet known how beneficial eating grapes or other foods might be compared with drinking red wine when it comes to promoting heart health. The amount of resveratrol in food and red wine can vary widely.

Benefits of taking reveratrol supplements

Numerous studies have been conducted regarding various purported resveratrol benefits. Studies have primarily been conducted on laboratory animals, and while human search is very promising, is still in its earliest stages. Current research into resveratrol benefits points to resveratrol having amazing anti-aging properties, hence dubbed “The Fountain of Youth.” Many other key benefits such as cardiovascular effects, anti-cancer, estrogen regulating effects are mentioned here.

1.Resveratrol and its anti-aging benefits

The study by Harvard Medical School researchers shows that resveratrol stimulates production of SIRT1, a serum that blocks diseases by speeding up the cell’s energy production centers known as mitochondria.

Resveratrol affects the activity of enzymes called sirtuins. Sirtuins control several biological pathways and are known to be involved in the aging process. Resveratrol is only one of many natural and synthetic sirtuin-activating compounds (STACs) now known. Certain metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes and heart disease, tend to strike as we age. In animal studies, severely restricting calories can help prevent some of these diseases. Over a decade ago, researchers found that resveratrol can mimic calorie restriction in some ways and extend the lifespans of yeast, worms, flies and fish.

2.Resveratrol and cardiovascular benefits

Resveratrol is famous for its Cardioprotective effects.According to Wikipedia, moderate drinking of red wine has long been known to reduce the risk of heart disease. This is best known as “the French paradox”.

Studies suggest resveratrol in red wine may play an important role in this phenomenon. It achieves the effects by the following functions: (1) inhibition of vascular cell adhesion molecule expression;(2) inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation;(3) stimulation of endolethelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity;(4) inhibition of platelet aggregation;and (5) inhibition of LDL peroxidation.

The cardioprotective effects of resveratrol also are theorized to be a form of preconditioning—the best method of cardioprotection, rather than direct therapy.Study into the cardioprotective effects of resveratrol is based on the research of Dipak K. Das, however, who has been found guilty of scientific fraud and many of his publications related to resveratrol have been retracted. A 2011 study concludes, “Our data demonstrate that both melatonin and resveratrol, as found in red wine, protect the heart in an experimental model of myocardial infarction via theSAFE pathway.”

Resveratrol, a polyphenol in red wine, induces nitric oxide (NO) synthase, the enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of NO, in cultured pulmonary artery endothelial cells, suggesting that Resveratrol could afford cardioprotection by affecting the expression of nitric oxide synthase.

3.Reveratrol and anti-cancer benefits

Experts already claim it can help you beat cancer – from brain tumours to breast, colon, prostate cancers and many more. Resveratrol is being studied to see how it affects the initiation, promotion, and progression of cancer. With regard to tumor initiation, it has been shown to act as an antioxidant by inhibiting free radical formation and as an anti-mutagen in rat models. Studies related to progression have found that resveratrol induced human promyelocytic leukemia cell differentiation, inhibited enzymes that promote tumor growth, and exerted antitumor effects in neuroblastomas. Noting that in animal studies, resveratrol was effective against tumors of the skin, breast, gastrointestinal tract, lung, and prostate gland. Memorial Sloan-Kettering, the American pillar of cancer treatment, conducted research on theinflammatory effects on cells leading to cancer. It is widely known that an enzyme, COX-2, lies behind the stimulation of localised hormones (eicosanoids) causing inflammation, the precursor to cancer. In the research Resveratrol completely turned off the COX-2 driver. MD Anderson´s studies have shown this same anti-inflammatory benefit too. Plus, after conversion in the liver to a sulphated form the compound can attack several of the steps in the cancer process even killing cancer cells.

4. The Benefits of Resveratrol Weight Loss

Resveratrol is actually a very popular nutrient that has been shown on Dr. Oz, Oprah, Barbara Walters, and a number of other national television shows. It is quickly becoming one of the country’s best natural supplements.

How does Resveratrol help you lose weight? Resveratrol on its own will not be effective at helping you to lose weight, but you have to use it in conjunction with exercise and a proper diet if you really want to obtain the maximum benefits from the supplement.

However, the vitamin, when in concentrated form, has been proven to help speed up the metabolism. This speeding up of the metabolism causes the body to metabolize and process to food consumed faster, which causes the calories in the food to be used more effectively. When the body metabolizes food faster, there is less risk of excess calories being stored in the body in the form of fat.

However, in order to ensure that Resveratrol actually works, you need to take sufficient amounts of the vitamin. The supplement is effective because it is a concentrated form of the helpful vitamin, and taking the supplement is the best way to ensure that Resveratrol works effectively in helping you shed those excess pounds.

Another way Resveratrol helps you to lose weight is through reducing the amounts of estrogen that your body produces. Estrogen increases body fat and decreases muscle mass, so reducing the amounts of estrogen produced by your body will help you lose weight and build muscle. Taking Resveratrol can be a good way to ensure that your body doesn’t produce the amounts of estrogen that will keep it from building muscle.

Side Effects of taking resveratrol supplements

Because there have been very few studies conducted on resveratrol in humans, doctors still can’t confirm what adverse effects these supplements might have on people over the long term. So far, studies have not discovered any severe side effects, even when resveratrol is taken in large doses. However, resveratrol supplements might interact with blood thinners such as warfarin (Coumadin), and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications such as aspirin and ibuprofen, increasing the risk for bleeding.

Like other supplements, resveratrol isn’t regulated by the FDA, so it’s difficult for consumers to know exactly what they’re getting when they buy a bottle, or whether the product is actually effective.

Dosage of resveratrol supplements

There also isn’t any specific dosage recommendation, and dosages can vary from supplement to supplement. The dosages in most resveratrol supplements are typically far lower than the amounts that have been shown beneficial in research studies. Most supplements contain 250 to 500 milligrams of resveratrol. To get the equivalent dose used in some animal studies, people would have to consume 2 grams of resveratrol (2,000 milligrams) or more a day.

Fallopia japonica, commonly known as Japanese knotweed, is a large, herbaceous perennial plant of the family Polygonaceae, native toEastern Asia in Japan, China and Korea. In North America and Europe the species is very successful and has been classified as aninvasive species in several countries. Japanese knotweed has hollow stems with distinct raised nodes that give it the appearance ofbamboo, though it is not closely related. While stems may reach a maximum height of 3–4 m each growing season, it is typical to see much smaller plants in places where they sprout through cracks in the pavement or are repeatedly cut down. The leaves are broad oval with a truncated base, 7–14 cm long and 5–12 cm broad,[1] with an entire margin. The flowers are small, cream or white, produced in erectracemes 6–15 cm long in late summer and early autumn.

Closely related species include giant knotweed (Fallopia sachalinensis, syn. Polygonum sachalinense) and Russian vine (Fallopia baldschuanica, syn. Polygonum aubertii, Polygonum baldschuanicum).

Other English names for Japanese knotweed include fleeceflower, Himalayan fleece vine, monkeyweed, monkey fungus, Hancock’s curse, elephant ears, pea shooters, donkey rhubarb (although it is not a rhubarb), sally rhubarb, Japanese bamboo, American bamboo, and Mexican bamboo (though it is not a bamboo). In Chinese medicine, it is known as Huzhang (Chinese: 虎杖; pinyin: Hǔzhàng), which translates to “tiger stick.” There are also regional names, and it is sometimes confused with sorrel. In Japanese, the name is itadori (虎杖, イタドリ?).[2]

Old stems remain in place as new growth appears

A hedgerow made up of roses and Japanese knotweed in Caersws, Wales in 2010

Erect inflorescence

Invasive species

It is listed by the World Conservation Union as one of the world’s worst invasive species.[3]

The invasive root system and strong growth can damage concrete foundations, buildings, flood defences, roads, paving, retaining walls and architectural sites. It can also reduce the capacity of channels in flood defences to carry water.[4]

It is a frequent colonizer of temperate riparian ecosystems, roadsides and waste places. It forms thick, dense colonies that completely crowd out any other herbaceous species and is now considered one of the worst invasive exotics in parts of the eastern United States. The success of the species has been partially attributed to its tolerance of a very wide range of soil types, pH and salinity. Its rhizomes can survive temperatures of −35 °C (−31 °F) and can extend 7 metres (23 ft) horizontally and 3 metres (9.8 ft) deep, making removal by excavation extremely difficult.

The plant is also resilient to cutting, vigorously resprouting from the roots. The most effective method of control is by herbicideapplication close to the flowering stage in late summer or autumn. In some cases it is possible to eradicate Japanese knotweed in one growing season using only herbicides. Trials in the Queen Charlotte Islands (Haida Gwaii) of British Columbia using sea water sprayed on the foliage have demonstrated promising results, which may prove to be a viable option for eradication where concerns over herbicide application are too great.[citation needed]

Two biological pest control agents that show promise in the control of the plant are the psyllid Aphalara itadori[5] and a leaf spotfungus from genus Mycosphaerella.[6]

New Zealand

It is classed as an unwanted organism in New Zealand and is established in some parts of the country.[7]

United Kingdom

In the UK, Japanese Knotweed is established in the wild in many parts of the country and creates problems due to the impact on biodiversity, flooding management and damage to property. It is an offence under section 14(2) of the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 to “plant or otherwise cause to grow in the wild” any plant listed in Schedule nine, Part II to the Act, which includes Japanese knotweed. It is also classed as “controlled waste” in Britain under part 2 of the Environmental Protection Act 1990. This requires disposal at licensed landfill sites. The species is expensive to remove; Defra‘s Review of Non-native Species Policy states that a national eradication programme would be prohibitively expensive at £1.56 billion.[8]

The decision was taken on 9 March 2010 in the UK to release into the wild a Japanese psyllid insect, Aphalara itadori.[9] Its diet is highly specific to Japanese knotweed and shows good potential for its control.[10][11]

In Scotland, the Wildlife and Natural Environment (Scotland) Act 2011 came into force in July 2012 that superseded the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981. This act states that is an offence to spread intentionally or unintentionally Japanese knotweed (or other non-native invasive species).

North America

The weed can be found in 39 of the 50 United States[12] and in six provinces in Canada. It is listed as an invasive weed in Maine,Ohio, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia, New York, Alaska, Pennsylvania, Michigan, Oregon and Washington state.[13]

Uses

A variegated variety of Japanese Knotweed, used as a landscape plant

Japanese knotweed flowers are valued by some beekeepers as an important source of nectar for honeybees, at a time of year when little else is flowering. Japanese knotweed yields a monofloral honey, usually called bamboo honey by northeastern U.S. beekeepers, like a mild-flavored version of buckwheat honey (a related plant also in the Polygonaceae).

The young stems are edible as a spring vegetable, with a flavor similar to extremely sour rhubarb. In some locations, semi-cultivating Japanese knotweed for food has been used as a means of controlling knotweed populations that invade sensitive wetland areas and drive out the native vegetation.[14] It is eaten in Japan as sansai or wild foraged vegetable.

Similarly to rhubarb, knotweed contains oxalic acid, which when eaten may aggravate conditions such as rheumatism, arthritis, gout, kidney stones or hyperacidity.[15]

Both Japanese knotweed and giant knotweed are important concentrated sources of resveratrol and its glucoside piceid,[16] replacing grape byproducts. Many large supplement sources of resveratrol now use Japanese knotweed and use its scientific name in the supplement labels. The plant is useful because of its year-round growth and robustness in different climates.[17]

This antique locomotive at Beekbergen,Netherlands is overgrown by knotweed. A few years before, it was free of knotweed

Control

Japanese knotweed has a large underground network of roots (rhizomes). To eradicate the plant the roots need to be killed. All above-ground portions of the plant need to be controlled repeatedly for several years in order to weaken and kill the entire patch. Picking the right herbicide is essential, as it must travel through the plant and into the root system below. Glyphosate is the best active ingredient in herbicide for use on Japanese knotweed as it is ’systemic’; it penetrates through the whole plant and travels to the roots.

Digging up the rhizomes is a common solution where the land is to be developed, as this is quicker than the use of herbicides, but safe disposal of the plant material without spreading it is difficult; knotweed is classed as controlled waste in the UK, and disposal is regulated by law.Digging up the roots is also very labor-intensive and not always efficient. The roots can go to up to 10 feet (3 meters) deep, and leaving only a few inches of root behind will result in the plant quickly growing back.

Covering the affected patch of ground with a non-translucent material can be an effective follow-up strategy. However, the trimmed stems of the plant can be razor sharp and are able to pierce through most materials. Covering with non-flexible materials such as concrete slabs has to be done meticulously and without leaving even the smallest splits. The slightest opening can be enough for the plant to grow back.

More ecologically-friendly means are being tested as an alternative to chemical treatments. Soil steam sterilization [18] involves injecting steam into contaminated soil in order to kill subterranean plant parts. Research has also been carried out on Mycosphaerella leafspot fungus, which devastates knotweed in its native Japan. This research has been relatively slow due to the complex life cycle of the fungus.[19]

Research has been carried out by not-for-profit inter-governmental organisation CABI in the UK. Following earlier studies imported Japanese knotweed psyllid insects (Aphalara itadori), whose only food source is Japanese knotweed, were released at a number of sites in Britain in a study running from 1 April 2010 to 31 March 2014. In 2012, results suggested that establishment and population growth were likely, after the insects overwintered successfully.[20][21]

Detail of the stalk

Controversy

In the United Kingdom, Japanese Knotweed has received a lot of attention in the press as a result of very restrictive lending policies by banks and other mortgage companies. Several lenders have refused mortgage applications on the basis of the plant being discovered in the garden or neighbouring garden.[22] The Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors published a report in 2012 in response to lenders refusing to lend “despite [knotweed] being treatable and rarely causing severe damage to the property.” [23]

There is a real lack of information and understanding of what Japanese Knotweed is and the actual damage it can cause. Without actual advice and guidance, surveyors have been unsure of how to assess the risk of Japanese Knotweed, which can result in inconsistent reporting of the plant in mortgage valuations. RICS hopes that this advice will provide the industry with the tools it needs to measure the risk effectively, and provide banks with the information they require to identify who and how much to lend to at a time when it is essential to keep the housing market moving.

—Philip Santo, RICS Residential Professional Group[23]

In response to this guidance, several lenders have relaxed their criteria in relation to discovery of the plant. As recently as 2012, the policy at the Woolwich (part of Barclays plc) was “if Japanese Knotweed is found on or near the property then a case will be declined due to the invasive nature of the plant.”[24][25] Their criteria have since been relaxed to a category-based system depending on whether the plant is discovered on a neighbouring property (categories 1 and 2) or the property itself (categories 3 and 4) incorporating proximity to the property curtilage and the main buildings. Even in a worst-case scenario (category 4), where the plant is “within 7 metres of the main building, habitable spaces, conservatory and/or garage and any permanent outbuilding, either within the curtilage of the property or on neighbouring land; and/or is causing serious damage to permanent outbuildings, associated structures, drains, paths, boundary walls and fences” Woolwich lending criteria now specify that this property may be acceptable if “remedial treatment by a Property Care Association (PCA) registered firm has been satisfactorily completed. Treatment must be covered by a minimum 10-year insurance-backed guarantee, which is property specific and transferable to subsequent owners and any mortgagee in possession.” [26] Santander have relaxed their attitude in a similar fashion (citation needed).

Property Care Association chief executive Steve Hodgson, whose trade body has set up a task force to deal with the issue, said: “japanese knotweed is not “house cancer” and could be dealt with in the same way qualified contractors dealt with faulty wiring or damp.”[27]

Japan

The plant is known as itadori (イタドリ, 虎杖?). The kanji expression is from the Chinese meaning “tiger staff”, but as to the Japanese appellation, one straightforward interpretation is that it comes from “remove pain” (alluding to its painkilling use),[28][29] though there are other etymological explanations offered.

It grows widely throughout Japan and is foraged as a wild edible vegetable (sansai), though not in sufficient quantities to be included in statistics.[30] They are called by such regional names as: tonkiba (Yamagata),[30] itazuiko (Nagano, Mie),[30] itazura (Gifu, Toyama, Nara, Wakayama, Kagawa),[30] gonpachi (Shizuoka, Nara, Mie, Wakayama),[30]sashi (Akita, Yamagata),[30] jajappo (Shimane, Tottori, Okayama),[30] sukanpo (many areas).

Young leaves and shoots, which look like asparagus, are used. They are extremely sour; the fibrous outer skin must be peeled, soaked in water for half a day raw or after parboiling, before being cooked.

Places in Shikoku such as central parts of Kagawa Prefecture [31] pickle the peeled young shoots by weighting them down in salt mixed with 10% nigari (magnesium chloride).Kochi also rub these cleaned shoots with coarse salt-nigari blend. It is said (though no authority is cited) that the magnesium of the nigari binds with the oxalic acid thus mitigating its hazard.[32]

A novel use for a related species known as oh-itadori (Polygonum sachalinense) in Hokkaido is feeding it to larvae of sea urchins in aquaculture.[33]

See also

References

  1. Jump up^ RHS. “RHS on Japanese Knotweed”. RHS. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
  2. Jump up^ “itadori”. Denshi Jisho — Online Japanese dictionary. Retrieved 9 March 2010.
  3. Jump up^ Synergy International Limited <http://www.synergy.co.nz> (2004-01-30). “IUCN Global Invasive Species Database”. Issg.org. Retrieved 2014-06-30.
  4. Jump up^ “Article on the costs of Japanese Knotweed”. Gardenroots.co.uk. Retrieved 2014-06-30.
  5. Jump up^ Matthew Chatfield (2010-03-14). “”Tell me, sweet little lice” Naturenet article on psyllid control of knotweed”. Naturenet.net. Retrieved 2014-06-30.
  6. Jump up^ Morelle, R. Alien invaders hit the UK. BBC News October 13, 2008.
  7. Jump up^ “Asiatic knotweed”. Biosecurity New Zealand. 14 January 2010. Retrieved 29 December 2012.
  8. Jump up^ “Review of non-native species policy”. Defra. Retrieved 14 July 2013.
  9. Jump up^ Morelle, Rebecca (2010-03-09). “BBC News”. BBC News. Retrieved 2014-06-30.
  10. Jump up^ Richard H. Shaw, Sarah Bryner and Rob Tanner. “The life history and host range of the Japanese knotweed psyllid, Aphalara itadori Shinji: Potentially the first classical biological weed control agent for the European Union”. UK Biological Control. Volume 49, Issue 2, May 2009, Pages 105-113.
  11. Jump up^ “CABI Natural control of Japanese knotweed”. Cabi.org. Retrieved 2014-06-30.
  12. Jump up^ PUSDA
  13. Jump up^ National Invasive Species Information Center. “USDA weed profile for Japanese knotweed”. Invasivespeciesinfo.gov. Retrieved 2014-06-30.
  14. Jump up^ “Pilot project of Bionic Knotweed Control in Wiesbaden, Germany”. Newtritionink.de. Retrieved 2014-06-30.
  15. Jump up^ “Japanese Knotweed”. Edible Plants. Retrieved 2014-06-30.
  16. Jump up^ Wang, H.; Liu, L.; Guo, Y. -X.; Dong, Y. -S.; Zhang, D. -J.; Xiu, Z. -L. (2007). “Biotransformation of piceid in Polygonum cuspidatum to resveratrol by Aspergillus oryzae”. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 75 (4): 763–768. doi:10.1007/s00253-007-0874-3. PMID 17333175. edit
  17. Jump up^ Pest Diagnostic Unit, University of Guelph[dead link]
  18. Jump up^ Soil-Steaming-Report, 03. Okt. 2009
  19. Jump up^ “Notes on Biological control and Japanese knotweed”. Gardenroots.co.uk. Retrieved 2014-06-30.
  20. Jump up^ “Testing the psyllid: first field studies for biological control of knotweed United Kingdom”. CABI. Retrieved 2014-06-30.
  21. Jump up^ “On CABI Web site, Japanese Knotweed Alliance: Japanese knotweed is one of the most high profile and damaging invasive weeds in Europe and North America”. Cabi.org. Retrieved 2014-06-30.
  22. Jump up^ Leah Milner Last updated at 11:30AM, July 8, 2013 (2013-07-08). “Japanese knotweed uproots home sales”. The Times. Retrieved 2014-06-30.
  23. ^ Jump up to:a b 05 Jul 2013 (2013-07-05). “RICS targets the root of Japanese Knotweed risk to property”. Rics.org. Retrieved 2014-06-30.
  24. Jump up^ “Woolwich Lending Criteria – Property Types”.
  25. Jump up^ “Japanese knotweed, the scourge that could sink your house sale”. The Guardian. 2014-09-08.
  26. Jump up^ “Residential Lending Criteria”. Woolwich. July 2014.
  27. Jump up^ “Brokers demand action on Japanese knotweed”. Mortgagesolutions.co.uk. 2013-08-14. Retrieved 2014-06-30.
  28. Jump up^ 日本國語大辞典 (Nihon kokugo daijiten) dictionary (1976)
  29. Jump up^ Daigenkai (大言海) dictionary, citing Wakunsai(『和訓菜』)
  30. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g MAFF 2004 山菜関係資料(Sansai-related material) (webpage pdf). Excerpted from “山菜文化産業懇話会報告書”
  31. Jump up^ “イタドリ”. 讃岐の食(Sanuki eating). 2001. Retrieved Apr 2012.
  32. Jump up^ Given in Japanese wiki article ja:イタドリ, traced to contribution 2006.2.17 (Fri) 16:23 by ウミユスリカ
  33. Jump up^ “北海道食材ものがたり21 ウニ”. 道新TODAY. Sept-1999 1999. Retrieved Apr 2012.

External links

سیاه‌دانه Nigella Sativa حبة البركة Kills 89% of Lung Cancer Cells in Vitro


Nigella Sativa Kills 89% of Lung Cancer Cells in Vitro: Researchers have just shown that nigella sativa (also known as black seed or black cumin) seed oil kills up to 89% of human lung cancer cells (A-549) after just 24 hours, while a non-oil extract from the seeds killed up to 77% of the cancer cells. The extracts were prepared from seeds obtained at a local market. Nigella sativa is a powerful medicinal herb which has been used for thousands of years in traditional Chinese, Ayurvedic, Unani and Arabic medicine. It is best known for its potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, and has been used to suppress coughs, treat kidney stones, diarrhea and stomach pain. But modern science has now also uncovered nigella’s powerful anti-diabetes and anti-cancer effects. This super herb has already shown potent activity against cancer of the breast, prostate, kidney, pancreas, liver, colon and cervix in previous lab studies, and this new study has shown new activity against lung cancer. Good health and cancer prevention should always start with a well-balanced diet focused on organic vegetables, fruit and whole foods (consuming at least half in the raw state). But nigella sativa may offer sizeable benefits for those wanting an extra measure of protection.<br /><br /><br />
#NigellaSativa #BlackCumin #BlackSeed<br /><br /><br />
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24568529

Nigella Sativa Kills 89% of Lung Cancer Cells in Vitro: Researchers have just shown that nigella sativa (also known as black seed or black cumin) seed oil killsup to 89% of human lung cancer cells (A-549) after just 24 hours, while a non-oil extract from the seeds killed up to 77% of the cancer cells.

The extracts were prepared from seeds obtained at a local market. Nigella sativa is a powerful medicinal herb which has been used for thousands of years in traditional Chinese, Ayurvedic, Unani and Arabic medicine. It is best known for its potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, and has been used to suppress coughs, treat kidney stones, diarrhea and stomach pain. But modern science has now also uncovered nigella’s powerful anti-diabetes and anti-cancer effects.

This super herb has already shown potent activity against cancer of the breast, prostate, kidney, pancreas, liver, colon and cervix in previous lab studies, and this new study has shown new activity against lung cancer. Good health and cancer prevention should always start with a well-balanced diet focused on organic vegetables, fruit and whole foods (consuming at least half in the raw state). But nigella sativa may offer sizeable benefits for those wanting an extra measure of protection.


read at

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24568529

 

Nigella sativa is an annual flowering plant, native to south and southwest Asia. It grows to 20–30 cm (7.9–11.8 in) tall, with finely divided, linear (but not thread-like) leaves. The flowers are delicate, and usually coloured pale blue and white, with five to ten petals. The fruit is a large and inflated capsule composed of three to seven united follicles, each containing numerous seeds. The seed is used as a spice.

Etymology

Nigella sativa seed

The scientific name is a derivative of Latin niger (black).[2]

Common names

In EnglishNigella sativa seed is variously called fennel flower,[3] nutmeg flower,[3] black caraway,[3] Roman coriander,[3] and also called black cumin.[3] Other names used, sometimes misleadingly, are onion seed and black sesame, both of which are similar-looking, but unrelated.Blackseed and black caraway may also refer to Bunium persicum.[4]

The seeds are frequently referred to as black cumin (as in Assamesekaljeera or kolajeera or Bengali kalo jeeray), But black cumin (kala Jeera)[clarification needed] is different than Nigella sativa (Kali Jeeri).[citation needed] In south Indian language Kannada it is called [ಕೃಷ್ಣ ಜೀರಿಗೆ] “Krishna Jeerige”, but this is also used for a different spice, Bunium persicum.

In English-speaking countries with large immigrant populations, it is also variously known as kaljeera (Assamese কালজীৰা kalzira or ক’লাজীৰাkolazira), kalo jira (Bengaliকালোজিরা kalojira, black cumin), karum cheerakamhabbat al-barakah (Arabic حبة البركة) Kurdish “reşke” (rashkeh) (Tamil கருஞ்சீரகம்), kalonji (Hindi कलौंजी kalauṃjī or कलोंजी kaloṃjīUrdu كلونجى kaloṃjī) or mangrail (Hindi मंगरैल maṃgarail), “Kala Jira in Marathi” ketzakh (Hebrew קצח), chernushka (Russian), çörek otu (Turkish), garacocco (Cypriot Turkish), ḥebbit al-barakah, seed of blessing (Arabic), siyah daneh (Persian سیاه‌دانه siyâh dâne), jintan hitam (Indonesian), karim jeerakam (കരിംജീരകം) in Malayalamor කළු දුරු in SinhalaKarto Jeera in Beary.

It is used as part of the spice mixture paanch phoran or panch phoron (meaning a mixture of five spices) and by itself in a great many recipes in Bengali cookery and most recognizably in naan bread.[5]

The Turkish name çörek otu literally means “bun’s herb” from its use in flavouring the çörek buns. Such braided-dough buns are widespread in the cuisines of Turkey and its neighbours (see Tsoureki τσουρέκι). In Bosnian, the Turkish name for Nigella sativa is respelled as čurekot. The seed is used in Bosnia, and particularly its capital Sarajevo, to flavour pastries (Bosnian: somun) often baked on Muslim religious holidays.

The Arabic approbation about Bunium bulbocastanum (Kaala Jeera) Hebbit il barakah, meaning the “seed of blessing” is also applied toNigella sativa (Kali Jeeri).

Characteristics

Nigella sativa has a pungent bitter taste and smell. It is used primarily in confectionery and liquors. Peshawari naan is, as a rule, topped with kalonji seeds. Nigella is also used in Armenian string cheese, a braided string cheese called Majdouleh or Majdouli in the Middle East.

History

According to Zohary and Hopf, archaeological evidence about the earliest cultivation of N. sativa “is still scanty”, but they report supposed N. sativa seeds have been found in several sites from ancient Egypt, including Tutankhamun‘s tomb.[6] Although its exact role in Egyptian culture is unknown, it is known that items entombed with a pharaoh were carefully selected to assist him in the afterlife.

The earliest written reference to N. sativa is thought to be in the book of Isaiah in the Old Testament, where the reaping of nigella and wheat is contrasted (Isaiah 28: 25, 27). Easton’s Bible dictionary states the Hebrew word ketsah refers to N. sativa without doubt (although not all translations are in agreement). According to Zohary and Hopf, N. sativawas another traditional condiment of the Old World during classical times; and its black seeds were extensively used to flavour food.[6]

Found in Hittite flask in Turkey from 2nd millennium BCE.[7]

History of medicineIn the Unani Tibb system of medicine, black cumin (Bunium bulbocastanum) is regarded as a valuable remedy for a number of diseases. Sayings of the Islamic prophet Muhammadunderline the significance of black cumin. According to a hadith narrated by Abu Hurairah, he says, “I heard Allah’s Apostle saying, ‘There is healing in black seed (haba sowda) for all diseases except death.'” [8] [9]

The black cumin (Bunium bulbocastanum) seeds have been traditionally used in the Middle East and Southeast Asian countries for a variety of ailments. Nigella seeds are sold as black cumin in small bundles to be rubbed until warm, when they emit an aroma similar to black cumin which opens clogged sinuses in the way that do eucalyptus or Vicks.

Nestlé has purportedly filed a patent application covering use of Nigella sativa as a food allergy treatment.[10] Yet the firm denies the claim of patenting the plant, stating that the patent would only cover “the specific way that thymoquinone – a compound that can be extracted from the seed of the fennel flower – interacts with opioid receptors in the body and helps to reduce allergic reactions to food”.[11]

Medical studies

Thymoquinone, found in the seed oil extract of N. sativa, has been shown to have anti-neoplastic effects in rats and mice and in cultured human cells from several types of cancer, including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.[12] It has protective antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, and promotes apoptosis (cell death) of the cancer cells.[12]

Black cumin

Nigella sativa oil

Original black cumin (Bunium bulbocastanum) is rarely available, so N. sativa is widely used instead; in India, Carum carvi is the substitute. Cumins are from the Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) family, but N. sativa is from Ranunculaceae family. Black cumin (not N. sativa) seeds come as paired or separate carpels, and are 3–4 mm long. They have a striped pattern of nine ridges and oil canals, and are fragrant (Ayurveda says, “Kaala jaaji sugandhaa cha” (black cumin seed is fragrant itself)), blackish in colour, boat-shaped, and tapering at each extremity, with tiny stalks attached; it has been used for medicinal purposes for centuries, both as a herb and pressed into oil, in Asia, the Middle East, and Africa.

Chemistry

Nigella sativa oil contains an abundance of conjugated linoleic (18:2) acidthymoquinone, nigellone (dithymoquinone),[13] melanthinnigilline,damascenine, and tannins. Melanthin is toxic in large doses and nigelline is paralytic, so this spice must be used in moderation.

References

  1.  “The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species”.
  2.  New International Encyclopedia
  3.  “USDA GRIN Taxonomy”.
  4.  Bunium persicum – (Boiss.) B.Fedtsch. Common Name Black Caraway
  5.  Indian Naan with Nigella Seeds Recipe
  6.  Zohary, Daniel; Hopf, Maria (2000). Domestication of plants in the Old World (3 ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 206. ISBN 0-19-850356-3.
  7.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2009.05.039
  8.  Sunan Ibn Majah.
  9.  “71”Sahih Bukhari 7. 592.
  10.  Hammond, Edward (2012). “Food giant Nestlé claims to have invented stomach soothing use of habbat al-barakah (Nigella sativa)”Briefing Paper. Third World Network. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
  11.  “Is Nestlé trying to patent the fennel flower?”, http://www.nestle.com.
  12.  Chehl, N.; Chipitsyna, G.; Gong, Q.; Yeo, C.J.; Arafat, H.A. (2009). “Anti-inflammatory effects of the Nigella sativa seed extract, thymoquinone, in pancreatic cancer cells”. HPB (Oxford) 11 (5): 373–381. doi:10.1111/j.1477-2574.2009.00059.xPMID 19768141.
  13.  Mohammad Hossein Boskabady, Batool Shirmohammadi (2002). “Effect of Nigella Sativa on Isolated Guinea Pig Trachea”Arch Iranian Med 5 (2): 103–107.

ASPARAGUS AND THE SMELL


ASPARAGUS

Asparagusic acid

Asparagusic acid is the organosulfur with the formula S2(CH2)2CHCO2H. The molecule contains both carboxylic acid and disulfide functional groups. It is present in the vegetable asparagus and may be the metabolic precursor to other odorous thiol compounds.

The material was originally isolated from an aqueous extract of asparagus.

Biosynthetic studies revealed that asparagusic acid is derived from isobutyric acid. This colorless solid has a melting point (m.p.) of 75.7–76.5 °C. The corresponding dithiol (m.p. 59.5–60.5 °C) is also known; it is called dihydroasparagusic acid or dimercaptoisobutyric acid.

File:Asparagusic-acid-3D-balls.png3D MODEL

Over the past forty years several papers have been published on the subject, and several studies undertaken, to try and determine the chemical compounds responsible, and though there is still no definitive verdict as to the manner in which these compounds are formed, it has been suggested that they all form from asparagusic acid.

Asparagus Chemistry

Asparagusic acid is, unsurprisingly considering the name, a chemical found exclusively in asparagus, and absent in other related vegetables.

The asparagus-pee molecules that you smell come mostly from the breakdown of a molecule known as asparagusic acid, which is present naturally in asparagus. When your body breaks down asparagusic acid it forms a wide variety of chemicals, all of which contain sulfur!

This has made it an obvious candidate for being the origin of the peculiar effect that asparagus has on urine. It has been suggested by recent studies that it could be metabolised in the body to produce the volatile compounds found in the urine after consuming the vegetable.

Steamed asparagus prepared with roasted pine nuts

Many chemicals that contain sulfur atoms smell horrible in similar ways, and I have no idea why this is. This is one chemical/biological mystery that, much to my chagrin, remains unsolved in my head (internet people, if the reason is known, please help!).

Aside from sulfur, the thing that all these smelly asparagus-pee chemicals have in common is that they are “light” enough (a.k.a. they are “volatile”, which means they have a relatively low boiling point) that they can float up into the air and into your nose. That is partly why asparagus doesn’t smell like asparagus-pee, because asparagusic acid is not volatile (remember that word). In fact, asparagusic acid boils above 300 °C (>600 °F), so there is no way any of it gets into your nose!

Asparagus has been used as a vegetable and medicine, owing to its delicate flavour, diuretic properties, and more. It is pictured as an offering on an Egyptian frieze dating to 3000 BC. Still in ancient times, it was known in Syria and in Spain. Greeks and Romans ate it fresh when in season and dried the vegetable for use in winter; Romans would even freeze it high in the Alps, for the Feast of Epicurus. Emperor Augustus tossed off the “Asparagus Fleet” for hauling the vegetable, and coined the expression “faster than cooking asparagus” for quick action. A recipefor cooking asparagus is in the oldest surviving book of recipes, Apicius’s third-century AD De re coquinaria, Book III.

The ancient Greek physician Galen (prominent among the Romans) mentioned asparagus as a beneficial herb during the second century AD, but after the Roman empire ended, asparagus drew little medieval attention. until al-Nafzawi‘s The Perfumed Garden. That piece of writing celebrates its (scientifically unconfirmed) aphrodisiacal power, a supposed virtue that the IndianAnanga Ranga attributes to “special phosphorus elements” that also counteract fatigue. By 1469, asparagus was cultivated in French monasteries. Asparagus appears to have been hardly noticed in England until 1538, and in Germany until 1542.

The finest texture and the strongest and yet most delicate taste is in the tips. The points d’amour (“love tips”) were served as a delicacy to Madame de Pompadour. Asparagus became available to the New World around 1850, in the United States.

German botanical illustration of asparagus

Chemistry

Asparagus foliage turns bright yellow in autumn

Certain compounds in asparagus are metabolized to yield ammonia and various sulfur-containing degradation products, including various thiols andthioesters, which give urine a characteristic smell.

Some of the volatile organic compounds responsible for the smell are:

Subjectively, the first two are the most pungent, while the last two (sulfur-oxidized) give a sweet aroma. A mixture of these compounds form a “reconstituted asparagus urine” odor. This was first investigated in 1891 by Marceli Nencki, who attributed the smell to methanethiol. These compounds originate in the asparagus as asparagusic acid and its derivatives, as these are the only sulfur-containing compounds unique to asparagus. As these are more present in young asparagus, this accords with the observation that the smell is more pronounced after eating young asparagus. The biological mechanism for the production of these compounds is less clear.

The onset of the asparagus urine smell is remarkably rapid. The smell has been reported to be detectable 15 to 30 minutes after ingestion.

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to analyse the ‘headspace’ of urine produced after consumption of asparagus. The headspace is the gas space immediately above the liquid surface, which is occupied by light, volatile compounds in the liquid, and analysis of this is useful in identifying odour-causing compounds. The analysis of the post-asparagus urine showed the presence of several compounds that were not present, or present in negligible amounts, in normal urine. The primary compounds present, in quantities a thousand times greater than in normal urine, were methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide. The compounds dimethyl sulfide and dimethyl sulfone were also present and it was suggested that they modify the aroma to give it a ‘sweet’ edge.

Asparagus
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 85 kJ (20 kcal)
Carbohydrates 3.88 g
– Sugars 1.88 g
– Dietary fibre 2.1 g
Fat 0.12 g
Protein 2.2 g
Vitamin A equiv. 38 μg (5%)
– beta-carotene 449 μg (4%)
– lutein and zeaxanthin 710 μg
Thiamine (vit. B1) 0.143 mg (12%)
Riboflavin (vit. B2) 0.141 mg (12%)
Niacin (vit. B3) 0.978 mg (7%)
Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.274 mg (5%)
Vitamin B6 0.091 mg (7%)
Folate (vit. B9) 52 μg (13%)
Choline 16 mg (3%)
Vitamin C 5.6 mg (7%)
Vitamin E 1.1 mg (7%)
Vitamin K 41.6 μg (40%)
Calcium 24 mg (2%)
Iron 2.14 mg (16%)
Magnesium 14 mg (4%)
Manganese 0.158 mg (8%)
Phosphorus 52 mg (7%)
Potassium 202 mg (4%)
Sodium 2 mg (0%)
Zinc 0.54 mg (6%)

Link to USDA Database entry
Percentages are roughly approximated
using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

 

 

Ayurveda Herbs : Medicinal uses of Turmeric


http://www.slideshare.net/drdbbajpai/ayurveda-herbs-medicinal-uses-of-turmeric?from_search=2

………………

Composition

Curcumin keto form

Curcumin enol form

Turmeric contains up to 5% essential oils and curcumin of about three percent by weight, a polyphenol. Curcumin is the active substance of turmeric and curcumin is known as C.I. 75300, or Natural Yellow 3. The systematic chemical name is (1E,6E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione.

It can exist at least in two tautomeric forms, keto and enol. Curcumin is a pH indicator. In acidic solutions (pH <7.4) it turns yellow, whereas in basic (pH > 8.6) solutions it turns bright red.

Drug to ‘cure’ cravings-compound found in the bark of an African bush may hold clues to the development of drugs for reversing a host of addictive behaviours from drug


(–)-18-Methoxycoronaridine (18-MC)

A compound found in the bark of an African bush may hold clues to the development of drugs for reversing a host of addictive behaviours from drug and alcohol abuse and even smoking and compulsive over-eating, scientists reported at the BIO convention in Chicago, US, in April 2013.

read all at

http://www.soci.org/Chemistry-and-Industry/CnI-Data/2013/5/Drug-to-cure-cravings

18-Methoxycoronaridine

(–)-18-Methoxycoronaridine (18-MC) is a derivative of ibogaine invented in 1996 by the research team around the pharmacologist Stanley D. Glick from the Albany Medical College and the chemist Martin E. Kuehne from the University of Vermont. In animal studies it has proved to be effective at reducing self-administration of morphine, cocaine, methamphetamine, nicotine and sucrose. 18-MC is a selective α3β4 nicotinic antagonist and, in contrast to ibogaine, has no affinity at the α4β2 subtype nor at NMDA-channels nor at the serotonin transporter, and has significantly reduced affinity for sodium channels and for the σ receptor, but retains modest affinity for the μ and κ opioid receptors. The sites of action in the brain include the medial habenula, interpeduncular nucleus, dorsolateral tegmentum and basolateral amygdala. It has also been shown to produce anorectic effects in obese rats, most likely due to the same actions on the reward system which underlie its anti-addictive effects against drug addiction.

18-MC has not yet been tested in humans. In 2002 the research team started trying to raise funds for human trials, but were unable to secure the estimated $5 million needed. Efforts to raise funds for future trials are still ongoing. In January 2010, Obiter Research, a chemical manufacturer in Champaign, Illinois, signed a patent license with Albany Medical College and the University of Vermont allowing them the right to synthesize and market 18-MC and other congeners.

A number of derivatives of 18-MC have also been developed, with several of them being superior to 18-MC itself, the methoxyethyl congener ME-18-MC being more potent than 18-MC but with similar efficacy, and the methylamino analogue 18-MAC being more effective than 18-MC but with around the same potency. These compounds were also found to act as selective α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine antagonists, with little or no effect on NMDA receptors.

Iboga alkaloids.png

 

 

BY WORLD DRUG TRACKER

Natrol, Inc. Revitalizes Hair Technology with NuHair® FOAM, a Natural Solution for Male and Female Hair Rejuvenation


February 21, 2013, Natrol, Inc., a global leader in the nutrition industry and trusted manufacturer and marketer of superior quality supplements, has raised the bar for hair technology and created an alternate and innovative method to enhance hair rejuvenation among men and women with NuHair® FOAM. The product is hitting the marketplace following Natrol’s tablet hair-rejuvenation product being named the #1 selling supplement for hair growth.

NuHair® FOAM, now available at Walgreens nationwide, joins the NuHair line of dietary supplements that includes: Hair Regrowth Tablets designed for both men and women, Thinning Hair Serum, and DHT Blocker. The product was specifically created to protect against follicle damage, graying hair, and bring nourishment to the scalp and revitalize each strand to promote fuller, beautiful hair. It is also a 2-in-1 product, which has a light hold for styling.

“Natrol believes that hair rejuvenation begins at the root, and we’re thrilled to roll out NuHair® FOAM as the perfect product to stimulate that area,” said Stacy Dill, Natrol’s Senior Marketing Manager. “It works naturally, and with its robust styling ingredients as a bonus, provides a better alternative to what is already out there, without any extensive warning labels or side effects. NuHair® FOAM is simple…and can easily be a part of one’s daily regimen.”

NuHair® FOAM is formulated to work naturally with a natural blend of vitamins, herbs and extracts:

  • Chamomile and Sage: Revitalizes the scalp, strengthens the texture of the hair, and promotes elasticity.
  • Fo-Ti: Supports hair growth and may help prevent thinning and graying hair.
  • Vitamin E: Stabilizes cell membranes in hair follicles to encourage proper growth.
  • Vitamin B5: Penetrates the hair cuticle to retain moisture, leaving strands pliable, shinier and thicker.
  • Shea Butter: Soothes dryness from root to tip, repairs breakage and mends split ends.
  • Rosemary: Stimulates and improves hair group and may help darken gray hair.
  • Nettle: Revitalizes and repairs brittle and damaged hair.
  • Grape Seed Extract: Enhances hair growth and provides a rich, silky luster.

NuHair® belongs to Natrol, Inc.’s family of brands: Natrol, MRI, PROLAB, Promensil, Trinovin, Laci Le Beau, Shen Min, and Vedic Mantra.

NuHair® products are also available on Amazon.com, www.bodybuilders.com and other online retailers.

Organic India launches single ingredient Moringa products in US


Moringa oleifera

The Drumstick Plant

http://miracletrees.org/

08 February 2013, Organic India, a manufacturer of herb-based functional supplements, has launched organic single ingredient Moringa products in the US.

Available in both capsule and powder formulations, the product made from powdered leaves of Moringa oleifera tree contains vitamin A, B1, B3, B12, iron, magnesium, potassium, amino acids, and polyphenols and is used for restoring internal imbalances.

Organic India national sales manager Heather Henning said the ancient therapeutic Moringa oleifera plant has been used for years and has seen increasing popularity amongst mainstream consumers worldwide.

Moringa oleifera leaf powdermoringa

“Millions of people globally use Moringa for essential nutrition — now, the US distribution channel will have access to this extraordinary plant with USDA organic certification,” Henning added.

The company said Moringa supplement, which has more B12 than steak, more vitamin A than eggs, and more calcium than milk, will be unveiled to the public at Expo West 2013.

Sonjna (Moringa oleifera) leaves with flowers

Moringa oleifera (synonym: Moringa pterygosperma) is the most widely cultivated species of the genus Moringa, which is the only genus in the family Moringaceae. English common names include moringa, and drumstick tree, from the appearance of the long, slender, triangular seed pods, horseradish tree, from the taste of the roots which resembles horseradish, or ben oil tree, from the oil derived from the seeds. The tree itself is rather slender, with drooping branches that grow to approximately 10m in height. In cultivation, it is often cut back annually to 1–2 meters and allowed to regrow so the pods and leaves remain within arm’s reach.[1][2]

In developing countries, moringa has potential to improve nutrition, boost food security, foster rural development, and support sustainable landcare.[3] It may be used as forage forlivestock, a micronutrient liquid, a natural anthelmintic and possible adjuvant.[2][4][5]

The moringa tree is grown mainly in semiarid, tropical, and subtropical areas, corresponding in the United States to USDA hardiness zones 9 and 10. While it grows best in dry, sandy soil, it tolerates poor soil, including coastal areas. It is a fast-growing, drought-resistant tree that is native to the southern foothills of the Himalayas in northwestern India.

Cultivation in Hawai’i, for commercial distribution in the United States, is in its early stages.[6]

“India is the largest producer of moringa, with an annual production of 1.1 to 1.3 million tonnes of tender fruits from an area of 380 km². Among the states, Andhra Pradesh leads in both area and production (156.65 km²) followed by Karnataka (102.8 km²) and Tamil Nadu(74.08 km²). In other states, it occupies an area of 46.13 km². Tamil Nadu is the pioneering state in·so·much as it has varied genotypes from diversified geographical areas and introductions from Sri Lanka.”[7]

Moringa is grown in home gardens and as living fences in Tamil Nadu Southern India and Thailand, where it is commonly sold in local markets.[8] In the Philippines, it is commonly grown for its leaves, which are used in soup.[9] Moringa is also actively cultivated by theWorld Vegetable Center in Taiwan, a center for vegetable research with a mission to reduce poverty and malnutrition in developing countries through improved production and consumption of vegetables. Tamil Nadu Southern India has Moringa in its folk stories and as well considered to be auspicious to grow in home. Interestingly the name in Tamil is Moorungai which sounds same as Moringa.

It is also widely cultivated in Africa, Cambodia, Nepal, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Central and South America, and Sri Lanka

An Indian drumstick (cut)

Moringa oleifera leaf, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 64 kcal (270 kJ)
Carbohydrates 8.28 g
– Dietary fiber 2.0 g
Fat 1.40 g
Protein 9.40 g
Water 78.66 g
Vitamin A equiv. 378 μg (47%)
Thiamine (vit. B1) 0.257 mg (22%)
Riboflavin (vit. B2) 0.660 mg (55%)
Niacin (vit. B3) 2.220 mg (15%)
Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.125 mg (3%)
Vitamin B6 1.200 mg (92%)
Folate (vit. B9) 40 μg (10%)
Vitamin C 51.7 mg (62%)
Calcium 185 mg (19%)
Iron 4.00 mg (31%)
Magnesium 147 mg (41%)
Manganese 0.36 mg (17%)
Phosphorus 112 mg (16%)
Potassium 337 mg (7%)
Sodium 9 mg (1%)
Zinc 0.6 mg (6%)
Percentages are relative to
US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
Moringa oleifera pods, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 37 kcal (150 kJ)
Carbohydrates 8.53 g
– Dietary fiber 3.2 g
Fat 0.20 g
Protein 2.10 g
Water 88.20 g
Vitamin A equiv. 4 μg (1%)
Thiamine (vit. B1) 0.0530 mg (5%)
Riboflavin (vit. B2) 0.074 mg (6%)
Niacin (vit. B3) 0.620 mg (4%)
Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.794 mg (16%)
Vitamin B6 0.120 mg (9%)
Folate (vit. B9) 44 μg (11%)
Vitamin C 141.0 mg (170%)
Calcium 30 mg (3%)
Iron 0.36 mg (3%)
Magnesium 45 mg (13%)
Manganese 0.259 mg (12%)
Phosphorus 50 mg (7%)
Potassium 461 mg (10%)
Sodium 42 mg (3%)
Zinc 0.45 mg (5%)
Percentages are relative to
US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

  1. “USDA GRIN Taxonomy”.
  2. Verzosa, Caryssa. “Malunggay and Spinach Powder (Investigatory Project Sample)”. Scribd.com. Retrieved 4-11-2012.
  3. National Research Council (2006-10-27). “Moringa”Lost Crops of Africa: Volume II: Vegetables. Lost Crops of Africa. 2. National Academies Press. ISBN 978-0-309-10333-6. Retrieved 2008-07-15.
  4. Makkar HP, Francis G, Becker K (2007). “Bioactivity of phytochemicals in some lesser-known plants and their effects and potential applications in livestock and aquaculture production systems”. Animal 1 (9): 1371–91. doi:10.1017/S1751731107000298.PMID 22444893.
  5. ^ Mahajan SG, Mali RG, Mehta AA (2007). “Protective effect of ethanolic extract of seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. against inflammation associated with development of arthritis in rats”. J Immunotoxicol 4 (1): 39–47. doi:10.1080/15476910601115184PMID 18958711.
  6. Ted Radovich (2010). C.R Elevitch. ed. “Farm and Forestry Production and Marketing profile for Moringa”Specialty Crops for Pacific Island Agroforestry (Holualoa, Hawai’i: Permanent Agriculture Resources).
  7. Rajangam J., et al. (October 29 – November 2, 2001). “Status of Production and Utilisation of Moringa in Southern India”.Development potential for Moringa products (Dar es Salaam, Tanzania).
  8. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, The Vegetable Sector in Thailand, 1999
  9. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profiles: Philippines
  10. Roloff, A.; Weisgerber, H.; Lang, U.; Stimm, B. (2009), “Moringa oleifera”Weinheim: 978–3
  11. “Drumstick”. Vahrehvah.com. Retrieved 2012-04-18.

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