Shanghai Natural Bio-engineering Profile
Shanghai Natural Bio-engineering Co., Ltd, export branch of Hunan Keyuan Bio-products co., Ltd, established in 2003, is a professional large-scale high-tech manufacturer of raw materials for nutraceuticals, nutritional supplements, and pharmaceuticals. Plant extracts, Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) & intermediates are our focused areas.Key products include resveratrol, curcumin,artemisinin,artemether,artesunate,dihydroartemisinin,Lumefantrine,etc
Japanese knotweed extract (Polygonum cuspidatum) Resveratrol 98%
Japanese knotweed extract (Polygonum cuspidatum) Resveratrol 98%
Sales Manager at Shanghai Natural Bio-engineering Co., Ltd
|synonyms||Japanese knotweed extract, Polygonum cuspidatum, red wine extract, trans-3,5,4′-trihydroxystilbene, trans-Resveratrol, cis-resveratrol|
|Latin Name||Polygonum cuspidatum|
|Botanical source||1.Japanese knotweed plant Polygonum cuspidatum
2. red wine
3. red grape extracts
|Appearance||white powder with slight yellow|
|Solubility in water||0.03 g/L|
|Key benefits||Anti-aging, Anti-Cancer, cardiovascular support, regulate estrogen level, weight loss|
|Applied industry||Sports nutrition, nutraceuticals, cosmetics|
What is resveratrol?
When talk about resveratrol, we have to mention red wine since resveratrol is first popularly known in red wine. In fact, resveratrol was actually first isolated in 1940 from white hellebore roots by the Japanese scientist Michio Takaoka. Red wine, in moderation, has long been thought of as heart healthy. However, the most popular source of resveratrol is from Japanese knotweed extract (Latin name:Polygonum cuspidatum)
Resveratrol (3,5,4′-trihydroxystilbene) is a polyphenolic phytoalexin. It is a stilbenoid, a derivate of stilbene, and is produced in plants with the help of the enzyme stilbene synthase.
Resveratrol exists as two geometric isomers: “cis-” (“Z”) and “trans-” (“E”). The ”trans-” form can undergo isomerisation to the “cis-” form when exposed to ultraviolet irradiation. Trans-resveratrol in the powder form was found to be stable under “accelerated stability” conditions of 75% humidity and 40 degrees C in the presence of air. Resveratrol content also stayed stable in the skins of grapes and pomace taken after fermentation and stored for a long period.
Sources of resveratrol
The resveratrol in red wine comes from the skin of grapes used to make wine. Because red wine is fermented with grape skins longer than is white wine, red wine contains more resveratrol. Simply eating grapes, or drinking grape juice, has been suggested as one way to get resveratrol without drinking alcohol. Red and purple grape juices may have some of the same heart-healthy benefits of red wine.
Other foods that contain some resveratrol include peanuts, blueberries and cranberries. It’s not yet known how beneficial eating grapes or other foods might be compared with drinking red wine when it comes to promoting heart health. The amount of resveratrol in food and red wine can vary widely.
Benefits of taking reveratrol supplements
Numerous studies have been conducted regarding various purported resveratrol benefits. Studies have primarily been conducted on laboratory animals, and while human search is very promising, is still in its earliest stages. Current research into resveratrol benefits points to resveratrol having amazing anti-aging properties, hence dubbed “The Fountain of Youth.” Many other key benefits such as cardiovascular effects, anti-cancer, estrogen regulating effects are mentioned here.
1.Resveratrol and its anti-aging benefits
The study by Harvard Medical School researchers shows that resveratrol stimulates production of SIRT1, a serum that blocks diseases by speeding up the cell’s energy production centers known as mitochondria.
Resveratrol affects the activity of enzymes called sirtuins. Sirtuins control several biological pathways and are known to be involved in the aging process. Resveratrol is only one of many natural and synthetic sirtuin-activating compounds (STACs) now known. Certain metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes and heart disease, tend to strike as we age. In animal studies, severely restricting calories can help prevent some of these diseases. Over a decade ago, researchers found that resveratrol can mimic calorie restriction in some ways and extend the lifespans of yeast, worms, flies and fish.
2.Resveratrol and cardiovascular benefits
Resveratrol is famous for its Cardioprotective effects.According to Wikipedia, moderate drinking of red wine has long been known to reduce the risk of heart disease. This is best known as “the French paradox”.
Studies suggest resveratrol in red wine may play an important role in this phenomenon. It achieves the effects by the following functions: (1) inhibition of vascular cell adhesion molecule expression;(2) inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation;(3) stimulation of endolethelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity;(4) inhibition of platelet aggregation;and (5) inhibition of LDL peroxidation.
The cardioprotective effects of resveratrol also are theorized to be a form of preconditioning—the best method of cardioprotection, rather than direct therapy.Study into the cardioprotective effects of resveratrol is based on the research of Dipak K. Das, however, who has been found guilty of scientific fraud and many of his publications related to resveratrol have been retracted. A 2011 study concludes, “Our data demonstrate that both melatonin and resveratrol, as found in red wine, protect the heart in an experimental model of myocardial infarction via theSAFE pathway.”
Resveratrol, a polyphenol in red wine, induces nitric oxide (NO) synthase, the enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of NO, in cultured pulmonary artery endothelial cells, suggesting that Resveratrol could afford cardioprotection by affecting the expression of nitric oxide synthase.
3.Reveratrol and anti-cancer benefits
Experts already claim it can help you beat cancer – from brain tumours to breast, colon, prostate cancers and many more. Resveratrol is being studied to see how it affects the initiation, promotion, and progression of cancer. With regard to tumor initiation, it has been shown to act as an antioxidant by inhibiting free radical formation and as an anti-mutagen in rat models. Studies related to progression have found that resveratrol induced human promyelocytic leukemia cell differentiation, inhibited enzymes that promote tumor growth, and exerted antitumor effects in neuroblastomas. Noting that in animal studies, resveratrol was effective against tumors of the skin, breast, gastrointestinal tract, lung, and prostate gland. Memorial Sloan-Kettering, the American pillar of cancer treatment, conducted research on theinflammatory effects on cells leading to cancer. It is widely known that an enzyme, COX-2, lies behind the stimulation of localised hormones (eicosanoids) causing inflammation, the precursor to cancer. In the research Resveratrol completely turned off the COX-2 driver. MD Anderson´s studies have shown this same anti-inflammatory benefit too. Plus, after conversion in the liver to a sulphated form the compound can attack several of the steps in the cancer process even killing cancer cells.
4. The Benefits of Resveratrol Weight Loss
Resveratrol is actually a very popular nutrient that has been shown on Dr. Oz, Oprah, Barbara Walters, and a number of other national television shows. It is quickly becoming one of the country’s best natural supplements.
How does Resveratrol help you lose weight? Resveratrol on its own will not be effective at helping you to lose weight, but you have to use it in conjunction with exercise and a proper diet if you really want to obtain the maximum benefits from the supplement.
However, the vitamin, when in concentrated form, has been proven to help speed up the metabolism. This speeding up of the metabolism causes the body to metabolize and process to food consumed faster, which causes the calories in the food to be used more effectively. When the body metabolizes food faster, there is less risk of excess calories being stored in the body in the form of fat.
However, in order to ensure that Resveratrol actually works, you need to take sufficient amounts of the vitamin. The supplement is effective because it is a concentrated form of the helpful vitamin, and taking the supplement is the best way to ensure that Resveratrol works effectively in helping you shed those excess pounds.
Another way Resveratrol helps you to lose weight is through reducing the amounts of estrogen that your body produces. Estrogen increases body fat and decreases muscle mass, so reducing the amounts of estrogen produced by your body will help you lose weight and build muscle. Taking Resveratrol can be a good way to ensure that your body doesn’t produce the amounts of estrogen that will keep it from building muscle.
Side Effects of taking resveratrol supplements
Because there have been very few studies conducted on resveratrol in humans, doctors still can’t confirm what adverse effects these supplements might have on people over the long term. So far, studies have not discovered any severe side effects, even when resveratrol is taken in large doses. However, resveratrol supplements might interact with blood thinners such as warfarin (Coumadin), and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications such as aspirin and ibuprofen, increasing the risk for bleeding.
Like other supplements, resveratrol isn’t regulated by the FDA, so it’s difficult for consumers to know exactly what they’re getting when they buy a bottle, or whether the product is actually effective.
Dosage of resveratrol supplements
There also isn’t any specific dosage recommendation, and dosages can vary from supplement to supplement. The dosages in most resveratrol supplements are typically far lower than the amounts that have been shown beneficial in research studies. Most supplements contain 250 to 500 milligrams of resveratrol. To get the equivalent dose used in some animal studies, people would have to consume 2 grams of resveratrol (2,000 milligrams) or more a day.
Fallopia japonica, commonly known as Japanese knotweed, is a large, herbaceous perennial plant of the family Polygonaceae, native toEastern Asia in Japan, China and Korea. In North America and Europe the species is very successful and has been classified as aninvasive species in several countries. Japanese knotweed has hollow stems with distinct raised nodes that give it the appearance ofbamboo, though it is not closely related. While stems may reach a maximum height of 3–4 m each growing season, it is typical to see much smaller plants in places where they sprout through cracks in the pavement or are repeatedly cut down. The leaves are broad oval with a truncated base, 7–14 cm long and 5–12 cm broad, with an entire margin. The flowers are small, cream or white, produced in erectracemes 6–15 cm long in late summer and early autumn.
Other English names for Japanese knotweed include fleeceflower, Himalayan fleece vine, monkeyweed, monkey fungus, Hancock’s curse, elephant ears, pea shooters, donkey rhubarb (although it is not a rhubarb), sally rhubarb, Japanese bamboo, American bamboo, and Mexican bamboo (though it is not a bamboo). In Chinese medicine, it is known as Huzhang (Chinese: 虎杖; pinyin: Hǔzhàng), which translates to “tiger stick.” There are also regional names, and it is sometimes confused with sorrel. In Japanese, the name is itadori (虎杖, イタドリ?).
The invasive root system and strong growth can damage concrete foundations, buildings, flood defences, roads, paving, retaining walls and architectural sites. It can also reduce the capacity of channels in flood defences to carry water.
It is a frequent colonizer of temperate riparian ecosystems, roadsides and waste places. It forms thick, dense colonies that completely crowd out any other herbaceous species and is now considered one of the worst invasive exotics in parts of the eastern United States. The success of the species has been partially attributed to its tolerance of a very wide range of soil types, pH and salinity. Its rhizomes can survive temperatures of −35 °C (−31 °F) and can extend 7 metres (23 ft) horizontally and 3 metres (9.8 ft) deep, making removal by excavation extremely difficult.
The plant is also resilient to cutting, vigorously resprouting from the roots. The most effective method of control is by herbicideapplication close to the flowering stage in late summer or autumn. In some cases it is possible to eradicate Japanese knotweed in one growing season using only herbicides. Trials in the Queen Charlotte Islands (Haida Gwaii) of British Columbia using sea water sprayed on the foliage have demonstrated promising results, which may prove to be a viable option for eradication where concerns over herbicide application are too great.
- New Zealand
- United Kingdom
In the UK, Japanese Knotweed is established in the wild in many parts of the country and creates problems due to the impact on biodiversity, flooding management and damage to property. It is an offence under section 14(2) of the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 to “plant or otherwise cause to grow in the wild” any plant listed in Schedule nine, Part II to the Act, which includes Japanese knotweed. It is also classed as “controlled waste” in Britain under part 2 of the Environmental Protection Act 1990. This requires disposal at licensed landfill sites. The species is expensive to remove; Defra‘s Review of Non-native Species Policy states that a national eradication programme would be prohibitively expensive at £1.56 billion.
The decision was taken on 9 March 2010 in the UK to release into the wild a Japanese psyllid insect, Aphalara itadori. Its diet is highly specific to Japanese knotweed and shows good potential for its control.
In Scotland, the Wildlife and Natural Environment (Scotland) Act 2011 came into force in July 2012 that superseded the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981. This act states that is an offence to spread intentionally or unintentionally Japanese knotweed (or other non-native invasive species).
- North America
The weed can be found in 39 of the 50 United States and in six provinces in Canada. It is listed as an invasive weed in Maine,Ohio, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia, New York, Alaska, Pennsylvania, Michigan, Oregon and Washington state.
Japanese knotweed flowers are valued by some beekeepers as an important source of nectar for honeybees, at a time of year when little else is flowering. Japanese knotweed yields a monofloral honey, usually called bamboo honey by northeastern U.S. beekeepers, like a mild-flavored version of buckwheat honey (a related plant also in the Polygonaceae).
The young stems are edible as a spring vegetable, with a flavor similar to extremely sour rhubarb. In some locations, semi-cultivating Japanese knotweed for food has been used as a means of controlling knotweed populations that invade sensitive wetland areas and drive out the native vegetation. It is eaten in Japan as sansai or wild foraged vegetable.
Both Japanese knotweed and giant knotweed are important concentrated sources of resveratrol and its glucoside piceid, replacing grape byproducts. Many large supplement sources of resveratrol now use Japanese knotweed and use its scientific name in the supplement labels. The plant is useful because of its year-round growth and robustness in different climates.
Japanese knotweed has a large underground network of roots (rhizomes). To eradicate the plant the roots need to be killed. All above-ground portions of the plant need to be controlled repeatedly for several years in order to weaken and kill the entire patch. Picking the right herbicide is essential, as it must travel through the plant and into the root system below. Glyphosate is the best active ingredient in herbicide for use on Japanese knotweed as it is ’systemic’; it penetrates through the whole plant and travels to the roots.
Digging up the rhizomes is a common solution where the land is to be developed, as this is quicker than the use of herbicides, but safe disposal of the plant material without spreading it is difficult; knotweed is classed as controlled waste in the UK, and disposal is regulated by law.Digging up the roots is also very labor-intensive and not always efficient. The roots can go to up to 10 feet (3 meters) deep, and leaving only a few inches of root behind will result in the plant quickly growing back.
Covering the affected patch of ground with a non-translucent material can be an effective follow-up strategy. However, the trimmed stems of the plant can be razor sharp and are able to pierce through most materials. Covering with non-flexible materials such as concrete slabs has to be done meticulously and without leaving even the smallest splits. The slightest opening can be enough for the plant to grow back.
More ecologically-friendly means are being tested as an alternative to chemical treatments. Soil steam sterilization  involves injecting steam into contaminated soil in order to kill subterranean plant parts. Research has also been carried out on Mycosphaerella leafspot fungus, which devastates knotweed in its native Japan. This research has been relatively slow due to the complex life cycle of the fungus.
Research has been carried out by not-for-profit inter-governmental organisation CABI in the UK. Following earlier studies imported Japanese knotweed psyllid insects (Aphalara itadori), whose only food source is Japanese knotweed, were released at a number of sites in Britain in a study running from 1 April 2010 to 31 March 2014. In 2012, results suggested that establishment and population growth were likely, after the insects overwintered successfully.
In the United Kingdom, Japanese Knotweed has received a lot of attention in the press as a result of very restrictive lending policies by banks and other mortgage companies. Several lenders have refused mortgage applications on the basis of the plant being discovered in the garden or neighbouring garden. The Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors published a report in 2012 in response to lenders refusing to lend “despite [knotweed] being treatable and rarely causing severe damage to the property.” 
There is a real lack of information and understanding of what Japanese Knotweed is and the actual damage it can cause. Without actual advice and guidance, surveyors have been unsure of how to assess the risk of Japanese Knotweed, which can result in inconsistent reporting of the plant in mortgage valuations. RICS hopes that this advice will provide the industry with the tools it needs to measure the risk effectively, and provide banks with the information they require to identify who and how much to lend to at a time when it is essential to keep the housing market moving.—Philip Santo, RICS Residential Professional Group
In response to this guidance, several lenders have relaxed their criteria in relation to discovery of the plant. As recently as 2012, the policy at the Woolwich (part of Barclays plc) was “if Japanese Knotweed is found on or near the property then a case will be declined due to the invasive nature of the plant.” Their criteria have since been relaxed to a category-based system depending on whether the plant is discovered on a neighbouring property (categories 1 and 2) or the property itself (categories 3 and 4) incorporating proximity to the property curtilage and the main buildings. Even in a worst-case scenario (category 4), where the plant is “within 7 metres of the main building, habitable spaces, conservatory and/or garage and any permanent outbuilding, either within the curtilage of the property or on neighbouring land; and/or is causing serious damage to permanent outbuildings, associated structures, drains, paths, boundary walls and fences” Woolwich lending criteria now specify that this property may be acceptable if “remedial treatment by a Property Care Association (PCA) registered firm has been satisfactorily completed. Treatment must be covered by a minimum 10-year insurance-backed guarantee, which is property specific and transferable to subsequent owners and any mortgagee in possession.”  Santander have relaxed their attitude in a similar fashion (citation needed).
Property Care Association chief executive Steve Hodgson, whose trade body has set up a task force to deal with the issue, said: “japanese knotweed is not “house cancer” and could be dealt with in the same way qualified contractors dealt with faulty wiring or damp.”
The plant is known as itadori (イタドリ, 虎杖?). The kanji expression is from the Chinese meaning “tiger staff”, but as to the Japanese appellation, one straightforward interpretation is that it comes from “remove pain” (alluding to its painkilling use), though there are other etymological explanations offered.
It grows widely throughout Japan and is foraged as a wild edible vegetable (sansai), though not in sufficient quantities to be included in statistics. They are called by such regional names as: tonkiba (Yamagata), itazuiko (Nagano, Mie), itazura (Gifu, Toyama, Nara, Wakayama, Kagawa), gonpachi (Shizuoka, Nara, Mie, Wakayama),sashi (Akita, Yamagata), jajappo (Shimane, Tottori, Okayama), sukanpo (many areas).
Young leaves and shoots, which look like asparagus, are used. They are extremely sour; the fibrous outer skin must be peeled, soaked in water for half a day raw or after parboiling, before being cooked.
Places in Shikoku such as central parts of Kagawa Prefecture  pickle the peeled young shoots by weighting them down in salt mixed with 10% nigari (magnesium chloride).Kochi also rub these cleaned shoots with coarse salt-nigari blend. It is said (though no authority is cited) that the magnesium of the nigari binds with the oxalic acid thus mitigating its hazard.
- Persicaria capitata for another plant species called Japanese knotweed.
- RHS. “RHS on Japanese Knotweed”. RHS. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
- “itadori”. Denshi Jisho — Online Japanese dictionary. Retrieved 9 March 2010.
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- Matthew Chatfield (2010-03-14). “”Tell me, sweet little lice” Naturenet article on psyllid control of knotweed”. Naturenet.net. Retrieved 2014-06-30.
- Morelle, R. Alien invaders hit the UK. BBC News October 13, 2008.
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- Richard H. Shaw, Sarah Bryner and Rob Tanner. “The life history and host range of the Japanese knotweed psyllid, Aphalara itadori Shinji: Potentially the first classical biological weed control agent for the European Union”. UK Biological Control. Volume 49, Issue 2, May 2009, Pages 105-113.
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- Wang, H.; Liu, L.; Guo, Y. -X.; Dong, Y. -S.; Zhang, D. -J.; Xiu, Z. -L. (2007). “Biotransformation of piceid in Polygonum cuspidatum to resveratrol by Aspergillus oryzae”. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 75 (4): 763–768. doi:10.1007/s00253-007-0874-3. PMID 17333175.
- Pest Diagnostic Unit, University of Guelph[dead link]
- Soil-Steaming-Report, 03. Okt. 2009
- “Notes on Biological control and Japanese knotweed”. Gardenroots.co.uk. Retrieved 2014-06-30.
- “Testing the psyllid: first field studies for biological control of knotweed United Kingdom”. CABI. Retrieved 2014-06-30.
- “On CABI Web site, Japanese Knotweed Alliance: Japanese knotweed is one of the most high profile and damaging invasive weeds in Europe and North America”. Cabi.org. Retrieved 2014-06-30.
- Leah Milner Last updated at 11:30AM, July 8, 2013 (2013-07-08). “Japanese knotweed uproots home sales”. The Times. Retrieved 2014-06-30.
- 05 Jul 2013 (2013-07-05). “RICS targets the root of Japanese Knotweed risk to property”. Rics.org. Retrieved 2014-06-30.
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- “Japanese knotweed, the scourge that could sink your house sale”. The Guardian. 2014-09-08.
- “Residential Lending Criteria”. Woolwich. July 2014.
- “Brokers demand action on Japanese knotweed”. Mortgagesolutions.co.uk. 2013-08-14. Retrieved 2014-06-30.
- 日本國語大辞典 (Nihon kokugo daijiten) dictionary (1976)
- Daigenkai (大言海) dictionary, citing Wakunsai(『和訓菜』)
- MAFF 2004 山菜関係資料(Sansai-related material) (webpage pdf). Excerpted from “山菜文化産業懇話会報告書”
- “イタドリ”. 讃岐の食(Sanuki eating). 2001. Retrieved Apr 2012.
- Given in Japanese wiki article ja:イタドリ, traced to contribution 2006.2.17 (Fri) 16:23 by ウミユスリカ
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Species Profile- Japanese Knotweed (Fallopia japonica), National Invasive Species Information Center, United States National Agricultural Library. Lists general information and resources for Japanese Knotweed.
- Best management practice A variety of ways to control knotweed (under “knotweed”)(USA)
- Strategies for the eradication of Japanese knotweed
- American Journal of Botany – Sexual Reproduction in the Invasive Species Fallopia japonica
- Knotweed page on KnottyBits.com
- Japanese Knotweed Alliance (UK)
- Recipes from “Wildman” Steve Brill
- Time lapse video of knotweed growth BBC
- Insect that fights Japanese knotweed to be released BBC News 2010-03-0