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Read all about Organic Spectroscopy on ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY INTERNATIONAL 

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with AFRICURE PHARMA, ROW2TECH, CLEANCHEM LABS as ADVISOR, earlier assignment was with GLENMARK LIFE SCIENCES LTD, as CONSUlTANT, Retired from GLENMARK in Jan2022 Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 32 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 32 PLUS year tenure till date Feb 2023, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 100 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 100 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, 227 countries, 7 continents, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 38 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 227 countries...... , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc He has total of 32 International and Indian awards

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Hyaluronan initiates chondrogenesis mainly via CD44 in human adipose derived stem cells.

 cas no 9004-61-9 , 31799-91-4 (potassium salt),9067-32-7 (sodium salt)
J Appl Physiol. 2013 Feb 28.
Hyaluronan initiates chondrogenesis mainly via CD44 in human adipose derived stem cells.

Wu SC, Chen CH, Chang JK, Fu YC, Wang CK, Eswaramoorthy R, Lin YS, Wang YH, Lin SY, Wang GJ, Ho ML.


1Kaohsiung Medical University.


Cell-matrix adhesion is one of the important interactions that regulate stem cell survival, self-renewal, and differentiation. Our previous report indicated that a microenvironment enriched with hyaluronan (HA) initiated and enhanced chondrogenesis in human adipose derived stem cells (hADSCs). We further hypothesize that HA-induced chondrogenesis in hADSCs is mainly due to the interaction of HA and CD44 (HA-CD44), a cell surface receptor of HA. The HA-CD44 interaction was tested by examining the mRNA expression of hyaluronidase-1 (Hyal-1) and chondrogenic marker genes (SOX-9, collagen type II, and aggrecan) in hADSCs cultured on HA-coated wells. Cartilaginous matrix formation, sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) and collagen productions by hADSCs affected by HA-CD44 interaction were tested in a 3D fibrin hydrogel. About 99.9% of hADSCs possess CD44. The mRNA expressions of Hyal-1 and chondrogenic marker genes were up-regulated by HA in hADSCs on HA-coated wells. Blocking HA-CD44 interaction by anti-CD44 antibody completely inhibited Hyal-1 expression and reduced chondrogenic marker gene expression, which indicates that HA induced chondrogenesis in hADSCs mainly acts through HA-CD44 interaction. A two-hour pre-incubation and co-culture of cells with HA in hydrogel (HA/fibrin hydrogel) not only assisted in hADSC survival but also enhanced expression of Hyal-1 and chondrogenic marker genes. Higher levels of sGAG and total collagen were also found in HA/fibrin hydrogel group. Immunocytochemistry showed more collagen type II but less collagen type X in HA/fibrin than in fibrin hydrogels. Our results indicate that signaling triggered by HA-CD44 interaction significantly contributes to HA-induced chondrogenesis and may be applied to ADSC-based cartilage regeneration.

Hyaluronan (also called hyaluronic acid or hyaluronate or HA) is an anionic,nonsulfated glycosaminoglycan distributed widely throughout connective,epithelial, and neural tissues. It is unique among glycosaminoglycans in that it is nonsulfated, forms in the plasma membrane instead of the Golgi, and can be very large, with its molecular weight often reaching the millions.[2] One of the chief components of the extracellular matrix, hyaluronan contributes significantly to cell proliferation and migration, and may also be involved in the progression of some malignant tumors.

The average 70 kg (154 lbs) person has roughly 15 grams of hyaluronan in the body, one-third of which is turned over (degraded and synthesized) every day.[3]Hyaluronic acid is also a component of the group A streptococcal extracellularcapsule,[4] and is believed to play a role in virulence.[5][6]

  1. Hyaluronate Sodium in the ChemIDplus database, consulté le 12 février 2009
  2. Frasher, J.R.E et al’; Laurent, T. C.; Laurent, U. B. G. (1997).“Hyaluronan: its nature, distribution, functions and turnover”(PDF). Journal of Internal Medicine 242 (1): 27–33.doi:10.1046/j.1365-2796.1997.00170.xPMID 9260563. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
  3. Stern R (August 2004). “Hyaluronan catabolism: a new metabolic pathway”. Eur J Cell Biol 83 (7): 317–25.doi:10.1078/0171-9335-00392PMID 15503855.
  4. Sugahara, K.; N.B. Schwartz and A. Dorfman (1979).“Biosynthesis of hyaluronic acid by StreptococcusJournal of Biological Chemistry 254 (14): 6252–6261. PMID 376529.
  5. Wessels, M.R.; A.E. Moses, J.B. Goldberg and T.J. DiCesare (1991). “Hyaluronic acid capsule is a virulence factor for mucoid group A streptococci”PNAS 88 (19): 8317–8321.doi:10.1073/pnas.88.19.8317PMC 52499.PMID 1656437.
  6.  Schrager, H.M.; J.G. Rheinwald and M.R. Wessels (1996).“Hyaluronic acid capsule and the role of streptococcal entry into keratinocytes in invasive skin infection”Journal of Clinical Investigation 98 (9): 1954–1958. doi:10.1172/JCI118998.PMC 507637PMID 8903312.

Hyaluronic Acid

Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, prepares for trial of glaucoma drug

If glaucoma is left untreated, it can lead to blindness.–Courtesy of NIH

LipoLat, a controlled-release glaucoma therapeutic, is a suspension of nanocapsules each trapping a payload of drug. Designed as an injection into the conjunctiva (the outer layer of the eye), LipoLat gradually released the drug and was as effective as eye drops for as long as three months in preclinical trials. According to the researchers, this is now ready to move into human studies.

12th feb 2013

preclinical trials

For glaucoma patients, taking daily medication will soon become a thing of the past. With Nanyang Technological University’s (NTU) newest solution, a simple, quick and painless injection four times a year would be enough. The solution contains an anti-glaucoma drug wrapped in nano-sized capsules, and is delivered by an injection into the outer layer in the front of the eye (conjunctiva) by the doctor.

The nanocarrier will then slowly release the drug over several weeks. LipoLat, as it is known, is now ready for clinical trials. Extensive pre-clinical studies have shown that this single injection is as effective at treating glaucoma as taking daily eye drops for up to three months.

The newly launched Ocular Therapeutic Engineering Centre will work on this research. Housed at NTU’s School of Materials Science and Engineering, the center builds upon the School’s successful research collaboration with the Singapore Eye Research Institute. The center’s director Professor Subbu Venkatraman, who is also the school chair, said the center will build on the strong research collaboration between clinical scientists and NTU technologists, to develop new drug delivery systems for the eye.

“I hope to showcase this as a good example of how close interactions between medical practitioners and technology providers can lead to rapid translation of ideas to the clinic, such as LipoLat,” said Prof Venkatraman. “We are confident that the products co-developed at the centre will lead on to further discoveries and innovations in ocular therapy.” Working closely with Prof Venkatraman as the co-director of the center is Dr Tina Wong, an adjunct associate professor at the School of Materials Science and Engineering and a senior consultant at the Singapore National Eye Centre. She is also head of the Ocular Therapeutics and Drug Delivery Research Group at the Singapore Eye Research Institute
Extensive pre-clinical studies have shown that a single injection of the solution developed by Nanyang Technological University is effective in treating glaucoma

The solution developed by the university contains an anti-glaucoma drug wrapped in nano-sized capsules


The solution developed by the university contains an anti-glaucoma drug wrapped in nano-sized capsules

Wong - Subbu

Working closely with Prof Venkatraman (picture) as the Co-Director of the centre is Dr Tina Wong (picture)

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