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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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AD 35


str1

AD 35

IND-120499

MF C24 H27 N3 O3
Molecular Weight, 405.49
Spiro[cyclopropane-1,5′-[5H-1,3]dioxolo[4,5-f]isoindol]-7′(6′H)-one, 6′-[2-[1-(2-pyridinylmethyl)-4-piperidinyl]ethyl]-

6′-[2-[1-(2-Pyridinylmethyl)-4-piperidinyl]ethyl]spiro[cyclopropane-1,5′-[5H-1,3]dioxolo[4,5-f]isoindol]-7′(6’H)-one

1531586-58-9 CAS FREE FORM

1531586-64-7  PHOSPHATE

1531586-62-5  HYDROCHLORIDE

Zhejiang Hisun Pharmaceutical Co Ltd

Image result for Zhejiang Hisun Pharmaceutical Co Ltd

AD-35 is known to be a neuroprotectant, useful for treating Alzheimer’s diseases.

Zhejiang Hisun Pharmaceutical is developing an oral tablet formulation of AD-35, for treating Alzheimers disease . By August 2017, the phase I multiple doses trial had been completed in the US and would be completed in China soon

CAS 1531586-64-7  PHOSPHATE

6′-[2-[1-(Pyridin-2-ylmethyl)piperidin-4-yl]ethyl]spiro[cyclopropane-1,5′-[1,3]dioxolo[4,5-f]isoindol]-7′(6’H)-one phosphate

 Molecular Formula C24 H27 N3 O3 . H3 O4 P
 Molecular Weight 503.4847

With the rapid growth of the elderly population, the number of people suffering from Alzheimer’s disease (Alzheimer’s disease) also will be increased dramatically.Alzheimer’s disease is also known as Alzheimer-type dementia (Alzheimer type dementia), or the Alzheimer type senile dementia (senile dementia of the Alzheimer type). At present, although the prevalence of this disease on a global scale is still unknown, but according to the latest report from the US Alzheimer’s Association (the Alzheimer’s Association), and in 2011 the United States there are about 540 million people suffer from Alcatel the number of Alzheimer’s disease, and in 2050, in the United States suffering from the disease will increase to about 13.5 million. Therefore, the development of better efficacy and fewer side effects of new drugs to treat the disease it is a priority.

Alzheimer’s disease is the most common form of senile dementia, it has become the sixth leading cause of death of Americans, and 65 years and the fifth leading cause of death in Americans over 65 years. Although scientists have this disease carried out extensive and in-depth research, but so far, the exact cause of the disease remains unclear. Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive disease that continues to kill nerve cells, destroying nerve connections in the brain, resulting in brain tissue is damaged, leading to patients gradually lose memory, consciousness and judgment, and cause mood disorders and behavioral disorders in patients.

Alzheimer’s is an irreversible disease, and now there is no any drug can prevent the disease, and no drugs can cure the disease or slow the disease process. Drugs currently used to treat the disease can only alleviate or ameliorate symptoms of the disease. These drugs are FDA approved for use in the United States a total of five, four of which are acetylcholinesterase (acetylcholinesterase) inhibitors. Acetylcholine (acetylcholine) is a neurotransmitter, a chemical released by nerves, if produced in the brain acetylcholine system, i.e. damaged cholinergic system, it can result in associated with Alzheimer’s disease memory disorders; and acetylcholinesterase function is to catalyze the hydrolysis of acetylcholine, acetylcholine is decomposed. Because Alzheimer’s disease is accompanied

Attenuation of acetylcholine activity, thus inhibiting acetylcholinesterase is one way to treat this disease. As described above, in the present 5 treatment of Alzheimer’s disease drugs in clinical use, there are four acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, including acetylcholinesterase inhibitors such as donepezil (donepezil), tacrine (tacrine ), rivastigmine (rivastigmine), and galantamine (galantamine), wherein donepezil (Sugimoto et al US4895841 and 5100901;.. Pathi et al WO 2007077443;. Parthasaradhi et al WO 2005003092;. Dubey et al WO 2005076749; Gutman . et al WO 200009483;… Sugimoto et al J. Med Chem 1995, 38, 481) is a first-line treatment of Alzheimer’s disease drugs. However, donepezil and the other four drugs can only improve the patient’s symptoms, and this is the only improvement of symptoms is short, only lasting about 6-12 months, and the patient response rates to these drugs only about 50% (Alzheimer’s Association, 201 1 Alzheimer ‘Disease Facts and Figures, Alzheimer’s & Dementia, 201 1, 7 (2), 208). The present invention provides a new class of inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase, which is dioxole between a new class of derivatives of benzo, is more effective than donepezil and fewer side effects in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease drug.

PATENT

WO 2014005421

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2014005421&recNum=1&maxRec=&office=&prevFilter=&sortOption=&queryString=&tab=PCTDescription

Example 42: 6- [2- [l- (2-Pyridylmethyl) -4-piperidinyl] ethyl] spiro [[1,3] dioxolo [4,5-f ] Isoindole-7, Γ-cyclopropane-5-one (Compound No. 1-29)

To the reaction flask was added 24.3 g (0.069 mol) of compound 11-5, 36.5 g (0.26 mol) of potassium carbonate, 243 ml of ethanol, 6.1 ml (0.044 mole) of triethylamine, heated to about 50 ° C, 0.049 mol) of 2-chloromethylpyridine hydrochloride was maintained at about 50 ° C for 5 hours. The reaction was complete and 750 ml of water was added. The solid was precipitated, filtered and the cake was washed with water and dried to give 17.8 g of compound 1-29. Rate: 63.4%. ‘HNMR (CDC13 . 3 ): [delta] 1.26 (dd, 2H, J = 6.1, 7.6 Hz), 1.35 (brs,. 3 H), 1.49-1.57 (m, 4H), 1.72 (D, 2H, J = 8.6Hz) (T, 2H, J = 7.9 Hz), 3.64 (s, 2H), 6.03 (s, 2H), 2.09 (t, 2H, J = 10.4 Hz), 2.89 (d, 2H, J = 10.7 Hz) , 7.42 (s, 1 H), 7.15 (dd, 1 H, J = 5.2, 6.7 Hz), 7.24 (s, 1 H), 7.41 (d, 1 H, J = 7.7 Hz), 7.64 (td, H, J = 7.6, 1.8 Hz), 8.55 (D,. 1 H, J = 4.2 Hz); the MS (ESI): m / Z 406 [m + H] + .

Example 46: 6- [2- [l- (2-Pyridylmethyl) -4-piperidinyl] ethyl] spiro [[1,3] dioxolo [4,5-f ] Isoindole-7, Γ-cyclopropane] -5-one hydrochloride (Compound No. 1-33)

To the reaction flask was added 5 g (0.012 mol) of compound 1-29 and 25 ml of ethanol, heated at 50 ° C

(0.012 mol) of concentrated hydrochloric acid was added, and 1 g of activated charcoal was added to decolorize for 20 minutes. The filtrate was cooled to room temperature and 50 ml of isopropyl ether was added dropwise. The solid was precipitated, stirred for 1 hour, The ether cake was washed with ether and dried to give 5 g of compound 1-33 in a yield of 91.7%. Ethanol / isopropyl ether can be re-refined, the yield of about 90%. 1H-NMR is (D 2 0): 51.14 (T, 2 H, J-7.0 Hz), 1.38-1.70 (m,. 7 H), 1.96 (D, 2H, J = 13.3 Hz), 2.99-3.14 (m, H. 4 ), 3.50 (d, 2 H, J = 11.0 Hz), 4.37 (s, 2H), 5.93 (s, 2H), 6.28 (s, 1 H), 6.75 (s, 1 H), 7.47 (dd, J = 7.8, 1.7 Hz), 8.58 (d, 1 H, J = 4.4 Hz), 7.55 (d, 1 H, J = 7.8 Hz), 7.91 (td, ; MS (ESI): m / z 406 [M-Cl] & lt; + & gt ; .

Example 48: 6- [2- [l- (2-Pyridylmethyl) -4-piperidinyl] ethyl] spiro [[1,3] dioxolo [4,5-f ] Isoindole-7, Γ-cyclopropan-5-one phosphate (Compound I-3S)

To the reaction flask was added 2 g (0.0049 mole) of compound 1-29 and 40 ml of ethanol, stirred at 60 ° C until all dissolved, 0.57 g (0.0049 mole) of 85% phosphoric acid was added, stirred and solidified,

Liter of ethyl acetate, cooled to room temperature, stirred for 1 hour, filtered, and a small amount of ethyl acetate was used to wash the filter cake and dried to give 2.1 g of compound 1-35 in a yield of 84.7%. 1H-NMR (D 2 0): δ 1.10 (t, 2 H, J = 7.2 Hz), 1.33-1.64 (m, 7 H), 1.92 (d, 2 H, J = 13.4 Hz), 2.95-3.09 (m, (S, 1 H), 6.69 (s, 1 H), 7.45 (s, 2 H), 4.34 (s, (d, 1 H, J-7.8 Hz), 7.88 (td, 1 H, J = 7.7, 1.2 Hz), 8.54 (d, 1 H, J = 4.6 Hz).

PATENT

CN 103524515

https://encrypted.google.com/patents/CN103524515B?cl=en

PATENT

CN 105859732

https://www.google.com/patents/CN105859732A?cl=en

Example 14: 6- [2- [l_ (2- pyridylmethyl) -4-piperidinyl] ethyl] spiro [[1,3] dioxolo [4,5 -f] isoindole-7, prepared Γ- cyclopropane] phosphate 5-one (compound I) is

Figure CN105859732AD00182

[0146] Compound was added 2g (4.9 mmol) of formula XI to the reaction flask 50mL, 40mL of ethanol, 60 ~ 70 ° C dissolved by heating, added with stirring square. 57g 85% (4.9mmol) phosphoric acid, and the precipitated solid was added dropwise 40mL of acetic acid ethyl cooled to room temperature, stirred for 1 hour, filtered, the filter cake washed with a small amount of ethyl acetate, dried to give 2.3g white solid (compound I, HPLC purity: 99.8%). Yield: 92.7%, H bandit R (D2O): δ1 · l〇 (t, 2H, J = 7.2Hz), 1.33-1.64 (m, 7H), 1.92 (d, 2H, J = 13.4Hz), 2.95 -3.09 (m, 4H), 3.46 (d, 2H, J = 10.7Hz), 4.34 (s, 2H), 5.89 (s, 2H), 6.20 (s, 1H), 6.69 (s, 1H), 7.45 ( , 7.53 (d, lH, J 7.8Hz dd, lH, J = 5.2,7.4Hz) =), 7.88 (td, lH, J =

PATENT

WO 2017177816

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2017177816&recNum=1&maxRec=&office=&prevFilter=&sortOption=&queryString=&tab=FullText

Process for preparing AD-35 and its intermediates – comprising the reaction of a cyano ester with a Grignard reagent, followed by condensation and further manipulative steps.

A novel intermediate of AD-35 is claimed. Also claimed is a processes for preparing 6,7-dihydro-[1,3]dioxolo[4,5-f]isoindol-5-one comprising the reaction of a cyano ester compound in an isopropyl ester (Ti(i-Pr)4)) with a Grignard reagent in the presence of an ethyl magnesium halide. Further claimed are processes for preparing synthon of intermediates. A process for preparing a benzodioxole derivative, particularly AD-35 from intermediates is also claimed.

WO2014005421 reports a class of benzodioxole compounds, which have the activity to inhibit acetylcholinesterase and can be used to treat Alzheimer’s disease. Of these compounds, it is particularly noteworthy that 6- [2- [1- (2-pyridylmethyl) -4-piperidinyl] ethyl] spiro [[1,3] dioxole And [4,5-f] isoindole-7,1′-cyclopropane] -5-one phosphate, codon AD-35, whose chemical structure is as follows:
AD-35 is a weaker acetylcholinesterase inhibitor that inhibits acetylcholinesterase activity in vitro is about one tenth of the activity of donepezil, but the compound exhibits comparable efficacy with donepezil in the Morris water maze test , That is, the effect of improving memory and learning ability is comparable to donepezil. This suggests that the AD-35 is likely to also have the effect of improving memory and learning through other mechanisms in the body. A further study of the rat model of Alzheimer’s disease induced by Aβ 25-35 found that AD-35 significantly inhibited the production and release of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β, Small Aβ 25-35 on the nerve cell toxicity, effectively protect the nerve cells.
In addition, AD-35 also exhibits a certain ability to chelate transition metal ions such as Cu 2+ in vitro , while Cu 2+ accelerates the formation of Aβ fibers and enhances the toxicity of Aβ to neuronal cells, thereby promoting neuronal cell death , So excessive Cu 2+ in the brain is also considered to be one of the risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease (Sarell et al. J. Biol. Chem. 2010, 285 (53), 41533). From the chemical structure point of view, AD-35 molecules in the piperidine ring and pyridine ring on the two nitrogen atoms constitute a structural unit similar to ethylenediamine, which should be able to explain why this compound to a certain extent Chelating transition metal ions. In terms of the safety of the compounds, the acute toxicity of mice showed that the toxicity of AD-35 was much less than that of donepezil. A newly completed clinical single-dose incremental tolerance test (SAD) showed that the subjects taking 90 mg of AD-35 did not have any adverse effects at once, indicating that the compound was safe.
In summary, the AD-35 is promising to be a small side-effect drug for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, and its multiple mechanisms of action are likely to make this compound not only alleviate the symptoms of Alzheimer’s patients , And can delay the process of the disease.
Since the synthesis route of AD-35 and its analogs reported in WO2014005421 is too long, the operation is complicated and the yield is low, and some steps are not suitable for industrial production. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a new process route to overcome the above- Preparation method.
The preferred reaction conditions of the present invention are listed in the following schemes:
Step (1) :
Step (2) :
Step (3) :
Step (4) :
Step (5) :
Step (6) :
Step (7) :
Step (8) :

Specific implementation plan

The following examples are provided for the purpose of further illustrating the invention, but this is not intended to be limiting of the invention.
Reference Example 1: Preparation of the starting material of tert-butyl 4- [2- (p-toluenesulfonyloxy) ethyl] piperidine-1-carboxylate (Formula VIa)

[0103]

[0104]
To a 10 L reaction flask was added 800 g (3.49 mol) of tert-butyl 4- (2-hydroxyethyl) piperidine-1-carboxylate, 5 L of dichloromethane, 974 ml of (6.75 mol) of triethylamine and 16 g of 4-dimethyl (3L × 3), the organic phase was collected, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, and the reaction mixture was washed with anhydrous sodium sulfate , Filtered and the filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure to give 1360.3 g of compound VIa (HPLC purity: 85%). 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ): δ 0.85-0.93 (m, 2H), 1.38 (s, 9H), 1.42-1.52 (m, 5H), 2.43 (s, 3H), 2.59 (br s, 2H (D, 2H, J = 11.3 Hz), 4.05 (t, 2H, J = 6.1 Hz), 7.50 (d, 2H, J = 8.1 Hz), 7.79 (d, 2H, J = 8.3 Hz) MS (ESI): m / z 383 [M + Na] & lt; + & gt ; .
Reference Example 2: Preparation of the starting material 4- (2-iodoethyl) piperidine-1-carboxylate (Formula VIb)
To a 50 mL reaction flask was added 5 g (13.0 mmol) of tert-butyl 4- [2- (p-toluenesulfonyloxy) ethyl] piperidine-1-carboxylate (Formula VIa), 35 mL of acetone and 2.9 g (19.3 mmol The organic phase was washed with 50 mL of water. The organic phase was collected and the aqueous phase was extracted again with 50 mL of ethyl acetate. The organic phase was washed with 50 mL of water and extracted with 50 mL of water and 50 mL of water. The organic phases were combined, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filtered and the filtrate was concentrated to dryness to give 3.5 g of compound VIb in a yield of 79.5%. 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ): δ 0.97-1.07 (m, 2H), 1.41 (s, 9H), 1.51-1.58 (m, 1H), 1.63-1.66 (m, 2H), 1.73-1.78 (m, 2H), 2.69 (br s, 2H), 3.31 (t, 2H, J = 7.3Hz), 3.96 (d, 2H, J = 10.3Hz); MS (ESI): m / + H] + .
Example 1: Preparation of 6-bromo-1,3-benzodioxole-5-carboxylic acid (Compound II)
To the 2L reaction flask, 100 g (0.60 mol) of piperine, 29 g (0.725 mol) of sodium hydroxide and 1 L of water were successively added, and 150 g (0.84 mol) of N-bromosuccinimide was added thereto, After the reaction was carried out for 45 min, the reaction was monitored by TLC. The reaction solution was concentrated dropwise with concentrated hydrochloric acid to adjust the pH of the reaction solution to 2 to 3, and the solid was precipitated. The ice was cooled, filtered and washed with water to obtain 117.4 g of compound II (HPLC purity: 82%), Yield 79.5%. 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ): δ 6.15 (s, 2H), 7.30 (s, 1H), 7.32 (s, 1H), 13.17 (s, 1H).
Example 2: Preparation of 6-bromo-1,3-benzodioxole-5-carboxylic acid (Compound II)
To the 2L reaction flask, 100 g (0.60 mol) of piperine, 29 g (0.725 mol) of sodium hydroxide and 1 L of water were successively added, and 150 g (0.84 mol) of N-bromosuccinimide was added thereto, After the reaction was complete for 45 min, the reaction was monitored by TLC. After 1 L of ethyl acetate and 40 mL of concentrated hydrochloric acid were added, the mixture was stirred for 20 min. The organic phase was collected, concentrated to dryness, 200 mL of water and 600 mL of petroleum ether, stirred for 1 h, , And 116 g of compound II (HPLC purity: 92.0%) was dried to a yield of 78.9%. & Lt; 1 & gt ; H NMR data with Example 1.
Example 3: Preparation of ethyl 6-bromo-1,3-benzodioxole-5-carboxylate (Compound IIIa)
To a 2 L reaction flask was added 117.3 g (0.39 mol) of 6-bromo-1,3-benzodioxole-5-carboxylic acid (II), 585 mL of absolute ethanol, opened with a stirrer, (1.4mol) concentrated sulfuric acid, heating reflux reaction 6h, TLC monitoring reaction is completed. Water was added dropwise, and 1.2 L of water was added dropwise to remove the solid, filtered and washed with water, and dried at 35 to 45C to obtain 124.0 g of compound IIIa (HPLC purity: 85%) in a yield of 93.9%. . 1 H NMR (CDCl3 . 3 ): [delta] 1.39 (T, 3H, J = 7.1Hz), 4.34 (Q, 2H, J = 7.1Hz), 6.04 (S, 2H), 7.07 (S, IH), 7.31 ( s, 1H).
Example 4: Preparation of methyl 6-bromo-1,3-benzodioxole-5-carboxylate (Compound IIIb)
To a 1 L reaction flask was added 50 g (0.30 mol) of 6-bromo-1,3-benzodioxole-5-carboxylic acid (II), 500 mL of anhydrous methanol, opened with a stirrer, 33.3 mL (0.60 mol) of concentrated sulfuric acid was added dropwise and heated under reflux for 6 h. TLC test reaction is completed, ice water cooling, precipitation of solids, dropping 500mL of water, filtration, water washing filter cake, 45 ~ 55 ℃ drying 44.4 g compound IIIb, yield: 84.0%. 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ): δ 3.83 (s, 3H), 6.19 (s, 2H), 7.35 (s, 1H), 7.36 (s, 1H).
Example 5: Preparation of 6-cyano-1,3-benzodioxole-5-carboxylate (Compound IVa)
To a 2 L reaction flask was charged 124 g (0.38 mol) of ethyl 6-bromo-1,3-benzodioxole-5-carboxylate (IIIa), 990 mL of N, N-dimethylformamide, After opening the stirrer, 33.1 g (0.09 mol) of potassium ferrocyanide and 103.3 g (0.54 mol) of cuprous iodide were added, heated to 120-140C for 5 h, and the TLC reaction was completed. Cooling, dropping water to precipitate a solid, filtering, and washing the filter cake. The filter cake was stirred in 1.9 L of dichloromethane for 30 min, filtered, the filtrate was added with 9 g of activated charcoal, decolorized for 30 min, filtered and the filtrate was concentrated to a small amount. The solid was precipitated, n-hexane was added dropwise, cooled with ice water, filtered and dried to give 82.8 g of compound IVa (HPLC purity: 99.5%), yield: 83.2%. . 1 H NMR (DMSO-D . 6 ): [delta] 1.34 (T, 3H, J = 7.1Hz), 4.33 (Q, 2H, J = 7.1Hz), 6.29 (S, 2H), 7.51 (S, IH), 7.57 (s, 1H).
Example 6: Preparation of 6-cyano-1,3-benzodioxole-5-carboxylate (Compound IVa)
To a 50 mL reaction flask was added 3.5 g (12.8 mmol) of ethyl 6-bromo-1,3-benzodioxole-5-carboxylate (IIIa), 35 mL of N, N-dimethylformamide , 2.3g (25.7mmol) cuprous cyanide, open stirring, 120 ~ 140 ℃ reaction 30 ~ 60min, TLC detection reaction is completed, cooling, dropping 30mL saturated ammonium chloride aqueous solution, precipitate solid, filter, water washing cake. The filter cake was dissolved in 200 mL of ethyl acetate and washed with saturated aqueous ammonium chloride (30 ml x 2 times). The organic phase was collected and the aqueous phase was extracted again with 100 ml of ethyl acetate. The combined organic phases were dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and filtered , And concentrated to give 2.0 g of compound IVa in a yield of 62.5%. & Lt; 1 & gt ; H NMR data with Example 5.
Example 7: Preparation of 6-cyano-1,3-benzodioxole-5-carboxylate (Compound IVb)
To a 1 L reaction flask was added 40 g (0.15 mol) of methyl 6-bromo-1,3-benzodioxole-5-carboxylate (IIIb), 11.4 g (31.0 mmol) of potassium ferrocyanide , 35.2 g (0.18 mol) of cuprous iodide, 240 mL of N, N-dimethylacetamide, 120 to 140 ° C in an oil bath for 2 to 3 hours, and the TLC reaction was completed. After cooling, 480 mL of water was added dropwise, Ice water cooling, filtration, water washing filter cake. Filter cake was dissolved in 500mL ethyl acetate and 200mL tetrahydrofuran mixture, heated to 80 ℃, adding 2g activated carbon, filtered, the filtrate was concentrated to a small amount, precipitation of solid, dropping 200mL petroleum ether, ice water cooling, filtration, petroleum ether washing filter The cake was dried to give 27.7 g of compound IVb in a yield of 87.6%. 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ): δ 3.87 (s, 3H), 6.28 (s, 2H), 7.49 (s, 1H), 7.55 (s, 1H).
Example 8: Preparation of Spiro [6H- [1,3] dioxolo [4,5-f] isoindole-7,1′-cyclopropane] -5-one (Compound V)
To a 2 L reaction flask was added 16 g (0.072 mol) of compound of formula IVa, 160 mL of dichloromethane, stirred and dissolved under nitrogen. 24 mL (0.080 mol) of isopropyl tetrafis (4) isopropyl ether was added and cooled to 0 to 20 ° C A solution of 73 mL (0.22 mol) of ethylmagnesium bromide in diethyl ether (3M) was added and the reaction was complete after TLC. Slowly drop the water / tetrahydrofuran solution (64 mL water / 240 mL tetrahydrofuran), heat to 50 ° C, decalcinate with 2 g of activated charcoal and stir for 20 min. Filtration, ethyl acetate washing filter residue, the filtrate 40 ~ 50 ° C concentrated under reduced pressure, add 96mL ethyl acetate and 96mL water, stirring solid precipitation, dropping 290mL n-hexane, ice water cooling, filtration, n-hexane washing cake, Dried to give 11.9 g of compound V (HPLC purity: 70%) in a yield of 80.2%. 1 H NMR (DMSO-d 6 ): δ 1.33-1.41 (m, 4H), 6.11 (s, 2H), 6.86 (s, 1H), 7.09 (s, 1H), 8.53 (s, 1H).
Example 9: Preparation of Spiro [6H- [1,3] dioxolo [4,5-f] isoindole-7,1′-cyclopropane] -5-one (Compound V)
To a 500 mL reaction flask was added 10 g (48.8 mmol) of 6-cyano-1,3-benzodioxole-5-carboxylate (IVb), 200 mL of methyl tert-butyl ether, (50.7 mmol) of (IV) isopropyl ester was cooled to 0 to 20 ° C, and 49 mL (0.15 mol) of ethyl magnesium bromide in diethyl ether (3M) was slowly added dropwise. After completion of the drop, the TLC reaction was completed. (10 mL x 2 times), the organic phase was collected and the aqueous phase was extracted again with 100 mL of ethyl acetate. The organic phases were combined, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, and the activated charcoal was dried over 100 mL of ethyl acetate and extracted with 250 mL of ethyl acetate. Decolorization, filtration, the filtrate was concentrated to a small amount, dropping petroleum ether, ice water cooling, filtration, petroleum ether washing cake, drying 2.3g compound V, yield: 23.2%. & Lt; 1 & gt ; H NMR data with Example 8.
Example 10: 4- [2- (5-oxospiro [[1,3] dioxolo [4,5-f] isoindole-7,1′-cyclopropane] -6 Yl) ethyl] piperidine-1-carboxylate (Compound VIIa)
To a 250 mL reaction flask was added 11.9 g (0.041 mol) of compound of formula V, 84 mL of dimethylsulfoxide, 4 g (0.071 mol) of potassium hydroxide, 27.3 g (0.06 mol) of 4- [2- (p-toluenesulfonyloxy ) Ethyl] piperidine-1-carboxylate (Formula VIa), heated to 55-65 ° C for 3 to 4 hours, and the TLC reaction was completed. (150 mL x 2 times), the aqueous phase was extracted again with 200 mL of ethyl acetate, the organic phase was combined, and 3 g of activated charcoal was added to decolorize, stirred for 30 min, filtered, and the mixture was washed with 300 mL of ethyl acetate. The filtrate was concentrated to dryness under reduced pressure to give compound VIIa. 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ): δ 1.08-1.19 (m, 2H), 1.28 (dd, 2H, J = 6.2, 7.4 Hz), 1.45 (s, 9H), 1.48-1.57 (m, 5H) (d, 2H, J = 12.7 Hz), 2.69 (t, 2H, J = 11.6 Hz), 3.20 (t, 2H, J = 7.6 Hz), 4.07 (d, 2H, J = 13.1 Hz) , 2H), 6.43 (S, IH), 7.23 (S, IH); the MS (ESI): m / Z 437 [m + of Na] + .
Example 11: 4- [2- (5-oxospiro [[1,3] dioxolo [4,5-f] isoindole-7,1′-cyclopropane] -6 Yl) ethyl] piperidine-1-carboxylate (Compound VIIa)
To a 250 mL reaction flask, 6.7 g (33.0 mmol) of compound of formula V, 100 mL of N, N-dimethylformamide, 2.6 g (65.0 mmol) of sodium hydroxide, 14 g (41.3 mmol) of 4- (2-iodoethyl ) Piperidine-1-carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester (VIb), 25-30 ° C for 1.5 h, TLC detection reaction was completed, 100 mL of water and 100 mL of ethyl acetate were added and the organic phase was washed with water (50 mL x 2 times) The organic phase was collected and the aqueous phase was extracted again with 100 mL of ethyl acetate. The organic phases were combined, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filtered and the filtrate was concentrated to dryness to give compound VIIa. & Lt; 1 & gt ; H NMR data with Example 10.
Example 12: 6- [2- (4-Piperidine) ethyl] spiro [[l, 3] dioxolo [4,5-f] isoindole- Propane] -5-one hydrochloride (Compound VIIIa)
To a 100 mL reaction flask was added the compound of formula VIIa obtained in Example 10, 30 mL of ethanol, 45 mL of ethyl acetate, 10.5 mL of concentrated hydrochloric acid. Open the stirrer, 50 ~ 60 ℃ reaction 3h, TLC detection reaction is completed, stop heating, ice water cooling, filtration, ethyl acetate detergent cake, drying, 8.5g off-white solid (compound VIIIa, HPLC purity: 97%) The Yield: 41.4% (calculated based on the amount of compound V in Example 10). 1 H NMR (D 2 O): δ 1.06 (t, 2H, J = 6.7Hz), 1.32-1.46 (m, 6H), 1.60 (m, 1H), 1.91 (d, 2H, J = 13.5Hz) (M, 4H), 3.39 (d, 2H, J = 12.8 Hz), 5.90 (s, 2H), 6.18 (s, 1H), 6.68 (s, 1H); MS (ESI): m / z 315 [M-Cl] + .
Example 13: 6- [2- [1- (2-Pyridylmethyl) -4-piperidinyl] ethyl] spiro [[1,3] dioxolo [4,5-f ] Isoindole-7,1′-cyclopropane] -5-one (Compound XI)
A solution of 128.6 g (0.35 mol) of the compound of formula VIIIa, 90 g (0.54 mol) of 2-chloromethylpyridine hydrochloride (formula IXa), 965 mL of water, 26 g of activated carbon and 60 to 65C for 30 minutes were charged into a 2 L reaction flask, , And the residue was washed with 643 ml of water and 215 mL of ethanol. The solution was slowly added with 161 g (1.16 mol) of potassium carbonate. The reaction was carried out at 55 to 65 ° C for 4 to 5 hours. After completion of the TLC reaction, the reaction was cooled, filtered and dried to obtain 137 g of crude The crude product was dissolved in 1.37L ethanol and dissolved at 60-65 ° C. After decontamination with activated charcoal (27.4 g / times x 2 times), 4.11 L of water was added dropwise with stirring, the solid was precipitated, the ice was cooled, filtered, And dried to give 118.9 g of compound XI in 80% yield. 1 H NMR (CDCl 3 ): δ 1.26 (dd, 2H, J = 6.1, 7.6 Hz), 1.35 (br s, 3H), 1.49-1.57 (m, 4H), 1.72 (d, 2H, J = 8.6 (T, 2H, J = 7.9 Hz), 3.64 (s, 2H), 6.03 (s, & lt; RTI ID = 0.0 & gt; 2H), 6.42 (s, 1H), 7.15 (dd, 1H, J = 5.2, 6.7 Hz), 7.24 (s, 1H), 7.41 (d, 1H, J = 7.7 Hz), 7.64 (td, 7.6, 1.8 Hz =), 8.55 (D, IH, J = 4.2Hz); the MS (ESI): m / Z 406 [m + H] + .
Example 14: 6- [2- [1- (2-Pyridylmethyl) -4-piperidinyl] ethyl] spiro [[1,3] dioxolo [4,5-f ] Isoindole-7,1′-cyclopropane] -5-one phosphate (Compound I)
To a 50 mL reaction flask was added 2 g (4.9 mmol) of the compound of formula XI, 40 mL of ethanol, dissolved at 60-70 ° C and 0.57 g of 85% (4.9 mmol) of phosphoric acid was added with stirring. The solid was precipitated, 40 mL of ethyl acetate was added dropwise, To room temperature, stirred for 1 hour, filtered, a small amount of ethyl acetate to wash the filter cake, and dried to obtain 2.3 g of a white solid (Compound I, HPLC purity: 99.8%). Yield: 92.7%. 1 H NMR (D 2 O): δ 1.10 (t, 2H, J = 7.2Hz), 1.33-1.64 (m, 7H), 1.92 (d, 2H, J = 13.4Hz), 2.95-3.09 (m, 4H), 3.46 (d, 2H, J = 10.7 Hz), 4.34 (s, 2H), 5.89 (s, 2H), 6.20 (s, 1H), 6.69 (s, 1H), 7.45 (dd, 1H, J = 7.5, 7.4 Hz), 7.53 (d, 1H, J = 7.8 Hz), 7.88 (td, 1H, J = 7.7, 1.2 Hz), 8.54 (d, 1H, J = 4.6 Hz)
Multifunctional compound AD-35 improves cognitive impairment and attenuates the production of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta in an alphabeta25-35-induced rat model of alzheimer’s disease
J Alzheimer’s Dis 2017, 56(4): 1403
CN101626688A * Dec 11, 2007 Jan 13, 2010 雷维瓦药品公司 Compositions, synthesis, and methods of using indanone based cholinesterase inhibitors
WO2014005421A1 * Jul 3, 2013 Jan 9, 2014 Zhejiang Hisun Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. Benzodioxole derivative and preparation method and use thereof
////////////Alzheimers disease, Zhejiang Hisun Pharmaceutical, AD 35, PHASE1, IND-120499
O=C5N(CCC2CCN(Cc1ccccn1)CC2)C3(CC3)c4cc6OCOc6cc45
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HAO 472


STR1

STR1.CF3COOH

STR1.jpg

HAO 472

PHASE 1 CHINA

PRoject Name: HAO472 treatment Phase I clinical trial in relapsed / refractory AML,  M2b type of AML

The main purpose: to determine HAO472 treatment of relapsed / refractory C the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Secondary objectives: 1) evaluation of drug safety and tolerability; 2) study HAO472 in pharmacokinetic characteristics of the human body; 3) the effectiveness of HAO472 treatment of relapsed / refractory M2b type of AML.

Introduction Test

Acute myelogenous leukemia

HAO472

Phase I

Test Number: CTR20150246

Sponsor Name:

Jiangsu Hengrui Medicine Co., Ltd. 1/
2 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine /
3 Jiangsu Hengrui Medicine Co., Ltd. /
4 Shanghai Hengrui Medicine Co., Ltd. /

Microsoft Word - 2016-6-8_Manuscrpit_Review on Oridonin analogs

Natural products have historically been, and continue to be, an invaluable source for the discovery of various therapeutic agents. Oridonin, a natural diterpenoid widely applied in traditional Chinese medicines, exhibits a broad range of biological effects including anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. To further improve its potency, aqueous solubility and bioavailability, the oridonin template serves as an exciting platform for drug discovery to yield better candidates with unique targets and enhanced drug properties. A number of oridonin derivatives (e.g. HAO472) have been designed and synthesized, and have contributed to substantial progress in the identification of new agents and relevant molecular mechanistic studies toward the treatment of human cancers and other diseases. This review summarizes the recent advances in medicinal chemistry on the explorations of novel oridonin analogues as potential anticancer therapeutics, and provides a detailed discussion of future directions for the development and progression of this class of molecules into the clinic.

Highlights

Oridonin displays significant anticancer activities via multi-signaling pathways.

Recent advances in medicinal chemistry of oridonin-like compounds are presented.

The article summarizes the SAR and mechanism studies of relevant drug candidates.

The milestones and future direction of oridonin-based drug discovery are discussed.

Volume 122, 21 October 2016, Pages 102–117

Review article

Discovery and development of natural product oridonin-inspired anticancer agents

  • a Chemical Biology Program, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, 77555, United States
  • b Department of Clinical Cancer Prevention, Division of Cancer Prevention and Population Sciences, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, 77030, United States

Major milestones achieved in oridonin-inspired drug discovery and development.

////////Natural product, Oridonin, Diterpenoids, Anticancer agents, Drug discovery, Chemical biology, AML, HAO 472, relapsed / refractory AML. Jiangsu Hengrui Medicine Co., Ltd, PHASE1, LEUKEMIA

C[C@H](N)C(=O)O[C@]15OC[C@@]2([C@H](O)CCC(C)(C)[C@@H]2[C@H]1O)[C@H]3CC[C@@H]4C(=C)C(=O)[C@@]35C4O

GSK 1070916 For Advanced solid tumor


GSK 1070916

NMI-900 , GSK-1070916, GSK-1070916A

4-[3-(4-N,N-Dimethylcarbamylaminophenyl)-1-ethyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl]-2-[3-(dimethylaminomethyl)phenyl]-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine

N’-[4-[4-[2-[3-[(Dimethylamino)methyl]phenyl]-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-4-yl]-1-ethyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl]phenyl]-N,N-dimethylurea

CAS 942918-07-2,

MFC30H33N7O,

MW507.63

PHASE 1/II , Advanced solid tumor, Cancer Research Technology,

off-white solid.

1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 12.14 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 8.31 (s, 1H), 8.27 (s, 1 H), 8.07 (d, J = 4.8 Hz, 1H), 7.78 (d, J = 8.1 Hz, 1H), 7.77 (s, 1H), 7.43 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 2H), 7.39 (d, J = 8.1 Hz, 1H), 7.27 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 2H), 7.27 (dd, 1H), 6.79 (d, J = 5.1 Hz, 1H), 6.76 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 4.27 (q, J = 7.3 Hz, 2H), 3.43 (s, 2H), 2.91 (s, 6H), 2.18 (s, 6H), 1.51 (t, J = 7.2 Hz, 3H).

MS m/z 508.4 [M + H]+. Anal. (C30H33N7O·1.0H2O) C, H, N.

GSK1070916 is a reversible and ATP-competitive inhibitor of Aurora B/C with IC50 of 3.5 nM/6.5 nM; displays >100-fold selectivity against the closely related Aurora A-TPX2 complex(IC50=490 nM).

NMI-900, an Aurora B/C kinase inhibitor, is under development at Cancer Research Technology in phase I/II clinical studies for the treatment of advanced and/or metastatic solid tumors. Other phase I clinical trials for the treatment of solid tumors had been previously completed, in a collaboration between GlaxoSmithKline and Cancer Research Technology, under the Cancer Research UK’s Clinical Development Partnerships (CDP) program.

The drug was originated by GlaxoSmithKline. The rights of the product were acquired by Cancer Research Technology from GlaxoSmithKline after the company elected not to take the program forward. In December 2015, the product was licensed by Cancer Research Technology to Nemucore Medical Innovations for the exclusive worldwide development and commercialization for the treatment of difficult-to-treat cancers.

GSK-1070916

PATENT

US 20070149561

https://www.google.com/patents/US20070149561

PAPER

Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2010), 53 (10), 3973-4001

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jm901870q

Discovery of GSK1070916, a Potent and Selective Inhibitor of Aurora B/C Kinase

Cancer Research, Oncology R&D
Molecular Discovery Research
GlaxoSmithKline, 1250 South Collegeville Road, Collegeville, Pennsylvania 19426
§ Tsukuba Research Laboratories, Japan
J. Med. Chem., 2010, 53 (10), pp 3973–4001
DOI: 10.1021/jm901870q
Abstract Image

The Aurora kinases play critical roles in the regulation of mitosis and are frequently overexpressed or amplified in human tumors. Selective inhibitors may provide a new therapy for the treatment of tumors with Aurora kinase amplification. Herein we describe our lead optimization efforts within a 7-azaindole-based series culminating in the identification of GSK1070916 (17k). Key to the advancement of the series was the introduction of a 2-aryl group containing a basic amine onto the azaindole leading to significantly improved cellular activity. Compound 17k is a potent and selective ATP-competitive inhibitor of Aurora B and C with Ki* values of 0.38 ± 0.29 and 1.5 ± 0.4 nM, respectively, and is >250-fold selective over Aurora A. Biochemical characterization revealed that compound 17k has an extremely slow dissociation half-life from Aurora B (>480 min), distinguishing it from clinical compounds 1 and 2. In vitro treatment of A549 human lung cancer cells with compound 17k results in a potent antiproliferative effect (EC50 = 7 nM). Intraperitoneal administration of 17k in mice bearing human tumor xenografts leads to inhibition of histone H3 phosphorylation at serine 10 in human colon cancer (Colo205) and tumor regression in human leukemia (HL-60). Compound 17k is being progressed to human clinical trials.

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/jm901870q………..PDF FILE

STR1

PAPER

Molecules 2014, 19(12), 19935-19979; doi:10.3390/molecules191219935

http://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/19/12/19935/htm

http://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/19/12/19935/htm

Biological Activity of GSK-1070916

GSK1070916 is a reversible and ATP-competitive inhibitor of Aurora B/C with IC50 of 3.5 nM/6.5 nM; displays >100-fold selectivity against the closely related Aurora A-TPX2 complex(IC50=490 nM).
IC50 Value: 3.5 nM(Aurora B); 6.5 nM(Aurora C)
Target: Aurora B/C
in vitro: GSK1070916 selectively inhibits Aurora B and Aurora C with Ki of 0.38 nM and 1.5 nM over Aurora A with Ki of 490 nM. Inhibition of Aurora B and Aurora C is time-dependent, with an enzyme-inhibitor dissociation half-life of >480 min and 270 min respectively. In addition, GSK1070916 is also a competitive inhibitor with respect to ATP. Human tumor cells treated with GSK1070916 shows dose-dependent inhibition of phosphorylation on serine 10 of Histone H3, a substrate specific for Aurora B. Moreover, GSK1070916 inhibits the proliferation of tumor cells with EC50 values of <10 nM in over 100 cell lines spanning a broad range of tumor types, with a median EC50 of 8 nM. Although GSK1070916 has potent activity against proliferating cells, a dramatic shift in potency is observed in primary, nondividing, normal human vein endothelial cells. Furthermore, GSK1070916-treated cells do not arrest in mitosis but instead fails to divide and become polyploid, ultimately leading to apoptosis. In another study, it is also reported high chromosome number associated with resistance to the inhibition of Aurora B and C suggests cells with a mechanism to bypass the high ploidy checkpoint are resistant to GSK1070916.
in vivo: GSK1070916 (25, 50, or 100 mg/kg) shows dose-dependent inhibition of phosphorylation of an Aurora B–specific substrate in mice and consistent with its broad cellular activity, has antitumor effects in 10 human tumor xenograft models including breast, colon, lung, and two leukemia models.

Clinical Information of GSK-1070916

Product Name Sponsor Only Condition Start Date End Date Phase Last Change Date
GSK-1070916 Cancer Research UK Advanced solid tumor 31-MAR-10 31-MAR-13 Phase 1 17-JUN-13

References on GSK-1070916

[1]. Anderson K, et al. Biochemical characterization of GSK1070916, a potent and selective inhibitor of Aurora B and Aurora C kinases with an extremely long residence time1. Biochem J. 2009 May 13;420(2):259-65.
Abstract


[2]. Hardwicke, Mary Ann; Oleykowski, Catherine A.; Plant, Ramona; GSK1070916, a potent Aurora B/C kinase inhibitor with broad antitumor activity in tissue culture cells and human tumor xenograft models. Molecular Cancer Therapeutics (2009), 8(7), 1808-1817.

[3]. Moy C, Oleykowski CA, Plant R, Greshock J, Jing J, Bachman K, Hardwicke MA, Wooster R, Degenhardt Y.High chromosome number in hematological cancer cell lines is a negative predictor of response to the inhibition of Aurora B and C by GSK1070916.J Transl Med. 2011 Jul 15;9:110.

[4]. Adams ND, Adams JL, Burgess JL, Chaudhari AM, Copeland RA, Donatelli CA, Drewry DH, Fisher KE, Hamajima T, Hardwicke MA, Huffman WF, Koretke-Brown KK, Lai ZV, McDonald OB, Nakamura H, Newlander KA, Oleykowski CA, Parrish CA, Patrick DR, Plant R, Sarpong MA, Sasaki K, Schmidt SJ, Silva DJ, Sutton D, Tang J, Thompson CS, Tummino PJ, Wang JC, Xiang H, Yang J, Dhanak D.Discovery of GSK1070916, a potent and selective inhibitor of Aurora B/C kinase.J Med Chem. 2010 May 27;53(10):3973-4001.

[5]. Medina JR, Grant SW, Axten JM, Miller WH, Donatelli CA, Hardwicke MA, Oleykowski CA, Liao Q, Plant R, Xiang H.Discovery of a new series of Aurora inhibitors through truncation of GSK1070916.Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2010 Apr 15;20(8):2552-5. Epub 2010 Mar 1.

http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/ben/lddd/2014/00000012/00000001/art00003?crawler=true

/////////////GSK1070916, GSK-1070916,  942918-07-2 GSK, phase1, Advanced solid tumor, NMI-900 , GSK-1070916, GSK-1070916A

Temanogrel


ChemSpider 2D Image | temanogrel | C24H28N4O4TEMANOGREL.pngimg

Temanogrel

APD 791

3-methoxy-N-[3-(2-methylpyrazol-3-yl)-4-(2-morpholinoethoxy)phenyl]benzamide
Benzamide,3-methoxy-N-[3-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-4-[2-(4-morpholinyl)ethoxy]phenyl]-
UNII:F42Z27575A
TEMANOGREL; APD791; CHEMBL1084617; UNII-F42Z27575A; 887936-68-7; 3-Methoxy-N-[3-(2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethoxy)-phenyl]-benzamide;
Molecular Formula: C24H28N4O4
Molecular Weight: 436.50352 g/mol
  • Originator Arena Pharmaceuticals
  • Developer Arena Pharmaceuticals; Ildong Pharmaceutical
  • Class Antithrombotics; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action Serotonin 2A receptor inverse agonists

Phase I Arterial thrombosis

Most Recent Events

  • 30 Mar 2016 Arena Pharmaceuticals has patents pending for Temanogrel in 12 regions, including Brazil (Arena Pharmaceuticals 10-K; march 2016)
  • 30 Mar 2016 Arena Pharmaceuticals has patent protection for Temanogrel in 87 regions, including USA, Japan, China, Germany, France, Italy, the United Kingdom, Spain, Canada, Russia, India, Australia and South Korea
  • 01 Mar 2015 Ildong Pharmaceutical initiates enrolment in a phase I trial for Arterial thrombosis in South Korea (NCT02419820)

A 5-HT2A inverse agonist potentially for the reduction of the risk of arterial thrombosis.

APD-791

CAS No. 887936-68-7

ChemSpider 2D Image | Temanogrel hydrochloride | C24H29ClN4O4

Temanogrel hydrochloride

  • Molecular FormulaC24H29ClN4O4
  • Average mass472.965
957466-27-2 CAS
Benzamide, 3-methoxy-N-[3-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-4-[2-(4-morpholinyl)ethoxy]phenyl]-, hydrochloride (1:1) [ACD/Index Name]
Temanogrel hydrochloride [USAN]
UNII:5QEY8NZP3T

Temanogrel, also known as APD791, is a highly selective 5-hydroxytryptamine2A receptor inverse agonist under development for the treatment of arterial thrombosis. APD791 displayed high-affinity binding to membranes (K(i) = 4.9 nM) and functional inverse agonism of inositol phosphate accumulation (IC(50) = 5.2 nM) in human embryonic kidney cells stably expressing the human 5-HT(2A) receptor. APD791 was greater than 2000-fold selective for the 5-HT(2A) receptor versus 5-HT(2C) and 5-HT(2B) receptors. APD791 inhibited 5-HT-mediated amplification of ADP-stimulated human and dog platelet aggregation (IC(50) = 8.7 and 23.1 nM, respectively)

Arterial thrombosis is the formation of a blood clot or thrombus inside an artery or arteriole that restricts or blocks the flow of blood and, depending upon location, can result in acute coronary syndrome or stroke. The formation of a thrombus is usually initiated by blood vessel injury, which triggers platelet aggregation and adhesion of platelets to the vessel wall. Treatments aimed at inhibiting platelet aggregation have demonstrated clear clinical benefits in the setting of acute coronary syndrome and stroke. Current antiplatelet therapies include aspirin, which irreversibly inhibits cyclooxygenase (COXa

Abbreviations: COX, cyclooxygenase; ADP, adenosine diphosphate; SAR, structure−activity relationship; hERG, human ether-a-go-go-related gene; CNS, central nervous system; 5-HT, serotonin; AUC, area under the plasma concentration time curve, iv, intravenous; IP, inositol phosphate.

) and results in reduced thromboxane production, clopidogrel and prasugrel, which inhibit platelet adenosine diphosphate (ADP) P2Y12 receptors, and platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists. Another class of antiplatelet drugs, protease-activated thrombin receptor (PAR-1) antagonists, are also being evaluated in the clinic for the treatment of acute coronary syndrome. The most advanced candidate in this class, N-[(1R,3aR,4aR,6R,8aR,9S,9aS)-9-{2-[5-(3-fluorophenyl)pyridin-2-yl]vinyl}-1-methyl-3-oxoperhydro-naphtho[2,3-c]furan-6-yl]-carbamic acid ethyl ester (SCH-530348), is currently in phase 3 trials for the prevention of arterial thrombosis.

The 5-HT2A receptor is one of 15 different serotonin receptor subtypes.
 In the cardiovascular system, modulation of 5-HT2A receptors on vascular smooth muscle cells and platelets is thought to play an important role in the regulation of cardiovascular function. Platelets are activated by a variety of agonists such as ADP, thrombin, thromboxane, serotonin, epinephrine, and collagen. Upon platelet activation at the site of blood vessel injury, a number of factors including serotonin (5-HT) are released. Although by itself serotonin is a weak activator of platelet aggregation, in vitro it can amplify aggregation induced by other agonists as mentioned above. Therefore, serotonin released from activated platelets may induce further platelet aggregation and enhance thrombosis.
The 5-HT2A receptor antagonist ketanserin  was shown in clinical studies to reduce early restenosis(7) and decrease myocardial ischemia during coronary balloon angioplasty.(8)However, in another study, ketanserin did not significantly improve clinical outcomes, and the rate of adverse events was higher than that observed in the control group.(9) Some of the adverse events reported in the latter study could be specific to ketanserin and resulted from its lack of 5-HT2A receptor selectivity. Other 5-HT2A antagonists with improved selectivity profiles have shown promise in clinical studies. For example, sarpogrelate  was shown to inhibit restenosis following coronary stenting.

Figure

Figure 1. Serotonin and known 5-HT2A receptor antagonists.

Because the 5-HT2A receptor is expressed both in peripheral tissues and in the central nervous system (CNS), compounds with limited CNS partitioning would be preferred to maximize cardiovascular and blood platelet pharmacological activity while minimizing CNS effects. In addition, because 5-HT2A receptor inverse agonists are thought to reduce thrombus formation via inhibition of serotonin-mediated amplification of platelet aggregation without inhibiting agonist driven aggregation per se, it is possible that this class of inhibitors will have an improved bleeding risk side effect profile compared to what has been observed with other classes of antithrombotic drugs.

SYNTHESIS 

PAPER

Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2010), 53(11), 4412-4421.

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jm100044a

Abstract Image

Serotonin, which is stored in platelets and is released during thrombosis, activates platelets via the 5-HT2A receptor. 5-HT2A receptor inverse agonists thus represent a potential new class of antithrombotic agents. Our medicinal program began with known compounds that displayed binding affinity for the recombinant 5-HT2A receptor, but which had poor activity when tested in human plasma platelet inhibition assays. We herein describe a series of phenyl pyrazole inverse agonists optimized for selectivity, aqueous solubility, antiplatelet activity, low hERG activity, and good pharmacokinetic properties, resulting in the discovery of 10k (APD791). 10k inhibited serotonin-amplified human platelet aggregation with an IC50 = 8.7 nM and had negligible binding affinity for the closely related 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C receptors. 10k was orally bioavailable in rats, dogs, and monkeys and had an acceptable safety profile. As a result, 10k was selected further evaluation and advanced into clinical development as a potential treatment for arterial

Discovery and Structure−Activity Relationship of 3-Methoxy-N-(3-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-4-(2-morpholinoethoxy)phenyl)benzamide (APD791): A Highly Selective 5-Hydroxytryptamine2A Receptor Inverse Agonist for the Treatment of Arterial Thrombosis

Arena Pharmaceuticals, 6166 Nancy Ridge Drive, San Diego, California 92121
J. Med. Chem., 2010, 53 (11), pp 4412–4421
DOI: 10.1021/jm100044a
Publication Date (Web): May 10, 2010
Copyright © 2010 American Chemical Society
*To whom correspondence should be addressed. Phone: +1 858-453-7200. Fax: +1 858-453-7210. E-mail:yxiong@arenapharm.com.

3-Methoxy-N-[3-(2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethoxy)-phenyl]-benzamide (10k)

10k was prepared in a manner similar to that described for 10c, using 9d (120 mg, 0.40 mmol) and 3-methoxybenzoyl chloride (81 mg, 0.48 mmol) to give the TFA salt of 10k as a white solid (88 mg, 51%); mp (HCl salt, recrystallized from iPrOH) 214−216 °C. 1H NMR (acetone-d6, 400 MHz) δ: 2.99−3.21 (m, 2H), 3.22−3.45 (m, 2H), 3.66 (t, J = 4.8 Hz, 2H), 3.75 (s, 3H), 3.85 (s, 3H), 3.79−3.89 (m, 4H), 4.58 (t, J = 4.8 Hz, 2H), 6.29 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.13 (dd, J = 2.5, 8.3 Hz, 1H), 7.22 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 7.42 (t, J = 7.8 Hz, 1H), 7.47 (d, J = 1.7 Hz, 1H), 7.52 (t, J = 1.7 Hz, 1H), 7.56 (d, J = 7.0 Hz, 1H), 7.80−7.83 (m, 1H), 7.91−7.96 (m, 1H), 9.54 (s, 1H). LCMSm/z = 437.5 [M + H]+.

Additional Information

Oral administration of APD791 to dogs resulted in acute (1-h) and subchronic (10-day) inhibition of 5-HT-mediated amplification of collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation in whole blood. Two active metabolites, APD791-M1 and APD791-M2, were generated upon incubation of APD791 with human liver microsomes and were also indentified in dogs after oral administration of APD791. The affinity and selectivity profiles of both metabolites were similar to APD791. These results demonstrate that APD791 is an orally available, high-affinity 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist with potent activity on platelets and vascular smooth muscle.(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19628629).

 

PATENT

WO 2006055734

https://google.com/patents/WO2006055734A2?cl=en

Example 1.88: Preparation of 3-methoxy-N-[3-(2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-(2-morpholin~

4-yl-ethoxy)-phenyl]-benzamide (Compound 733).

Figure imgf000151_0002

A mixture of 3-(2-methyl-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-4-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethoxy)-phenylamine (120 mg, 0.40 mmole), 3-methoxy-benzoyl chloride (81 mg, 0.48 mmole), and triethylamine (0.1 mL, 0.79 mmole) in 5 mL THF was stirred at room temperature for 10 minutes. The mixture was purified by HPLC to give the title compound as a white solid (TFA salt, 88 mg, 51 %). 1H NMR ( Acetone-^, 400 MHz) 2.99-3.21 (m, 2H), 3.22-3.45 (m, 2H), 3.66 (t, J= 4.80 Hz, 2H), 3.75 (s, 3H), 3.85 (s, 3H), 3.79-3.89 (m, 4H), 4.58 (t, J= 4.80 Hz, 2H), 6.29 (d, J= 2.02 Hz IH), 7.13 (dd, J= 8.34, 2.53 Hz, IH), 7.22 (d, J= 8.84 Hz, IH), 7.42 (t, J= 7.83 Hz, IH), 7.47 (d, J= 1.77 Hz, IH), 7.52 (t, J= 1.77 Hz, IH), 7.56 (d, J= 7.07 Hz, IH), 7.80-7.83 (m, IH), 7.91-7.96 (m, IH), 9.54 (s, NH). Exact mass calculated for C24H28N4O4 436.2, found 437.5 (MH+).

References

1: Xiong Y, Teegarden BR, Choi JS, Strah-Pleynet S, Decaire M, Jayakumar H, Dosa
PI, Casper MD, Pham L, Feichtinger K, Ullman B, Adams J, Yuskin D, Frazer J,
Morgan M, Sadeque A, Chen W, Webb RR, Connolly DT, Semple G, Al-Shamma H.
Discovery and structure-activity relationship of
3-methoxy-N-(3-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-4-(2-morpholinoethoxy)phenyl)benzamide
(APD791): a highly selective 5-hydroxytryptamine2A receptor inverse agonist for
the treatment of arterial thrombosis. J Med Chem. 2010 Jun 10;53(11):4412-21.
doi: 10.1021/jm100044a. PubMed PMID: 20455563.

2: Przyklenk K, Frelinger AL 3rd, Linden MD, Whittaker P, Li Y, Barnard MR, Adams
J, Morgan M, Al-Shamma H, Michelson AD. Targeted inhibition of the serotonin
5HT2A receptor improves coronary patency in an in vivo model of recurrent
thrombosis. J Thromb Haemost. 2010 Feb;8(2):331-40. doi:
10.1111/j.1538-7836.2009.03693.x. Epub 2009 Nov 17. PubMed PMID: 19922435; PubMed
Central PMCID: PMC2916638.

3: Adams JW, Ramirez J, Shi Y, Thomsen W, Frazer J, Morgan M, Edwards JE, Chen W,
Teegarden BR, Xiong Y, Al-Shamma H, Behan DP, Connolly DT. APD791,
3-methoxy-n-(3-(1-methyl-1h-pyrazol-5-yl)-4-(2-morpholinoethoxy)phenyl)benzamide,
a novel 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A receptor antagonist: pharmacological profile,
pharmacokinetics, platelet activity and vascular biology. J Pharmacol Exp Ther.
2009 Oct;331(1):96-103. doi: 10.1124/jpet.109.153189. Epub 2009 Jul 23. PubMed
PMID: 19628629.

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///////////APD-791 , 887936-68-7, Temanogrel , PHASE 1, ARENA,

CN1C(=CC=N1)C2=C(C=CC(=C2)NC(=O)C3=CC(=CC=C3)OC)OCCN4CCOCC4

C(=O)(c1cc(ccc1)OC)Nc1ccc(c(c1)c1n(ncc1)C)OCCN1CCOCC1

GSK 2126458, Omipalisib, PI3K/mTOR inhibitor


GSK 2126458

CAS 1086062-66-9

OMipalisib;GSK2126458;GSK-2126458;GSK2126458 (GSK458);GSK212;

2,4-Difluoro-N-[2-methoxy-5-[4-(4-pyridazinyl)-6-quinolinyl]-3-pyridinyl]benzenesulfonamide;

2,4-Difluoro-N-[2-Methoxy-5-[4-(pyridazin-4-yl)quinolin-6-yl]pyridin-3-yl]benzenesulfonaMide

2,4-Difluoro-N-[2-methoxy-5-[4-(4-pyridazinyl)quinolin-6-yl]pyridin-3-yl]benzenesulfonamide

phosphoinositide 3 kinase inhibitor

idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

PHASE 1

MW 505.49598

MF C25H17F2N5O3S

GSK…….http://www.gsk.com/media/280387/product-pipeline-2014.pdf

Omipalisib (GSK2126458): Omipalisib, also known as GSK2126458, is a small-molecule pyridylsulfonamide inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) with potential antineoplastic activity. PI3K inhibitor GSK2126458 binds to and inhibits PI3K in the PI3K/mTOR signaling pathway, which may trigger the translocation of cytosolic Bax to the mitochondrial outer membrane, increasing mitochondrial membrane permeability and inducing apoptotic cell death. Bax is a member of the proapoptotic Bcl2 family of proteins. PI3K, often overexpressed in cancer cells, plays a crucial role in tumor cell regulation and survival.

GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) is developing omipalisib (GSK-2126458), a phosphoinositide 3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/mTOR) inhibitor as well as mTOR complex 1 and 2 inhibitor, for the potential oral treatment of cancer and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

MEDKOO

Certificate of Analysis:

View current batch of CoA

QC data:

View NMR, View HPLC, View MS

GSK2126458 is a highly potent PI3K and mTOR inhibitor. In vivo, GSK2126458 showed anti-tumor activity in both pharmacodynamic and tumor growth efficacy models. GSK2126458 reduced the phosphorylated AKT, p70S6K contents in a dose and time dependent way. The IC50 of GSK2126458 is 2 nM for pAKT in the HCC1954 breast carcinoma cell line. In various human tumor cells, GSK2126458 had a width of inhibitory activity for potent cell growth and induced cell death. Notably, GSK2126458 acted mainly by not induction of apoptosis but cell cycle arrest, particularly in G1-phase

GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) is developing omipalisib (GSK-2126458), a phosphoinositide 3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/mTOR) inhibitor as well as mTOR complex 1 and 2 inhibitor, for the potential oral treatment of cancer and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

GSK-2126458 is a phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K) inhibitor in early clinical development for the oral treatment of solid tumors and for the oral treatment of lymphoma. Early clinical studies are ongoing for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The compound is being developed b GlaxoSmithKline.

In August 2009, a phase I trial began for solid tumors and lymphoma . In April 2012, phase Ib co-clinical trials in advanced prostate cancer (PC) were underway . In March 2013, a phase I trial was initiated in the UK in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

In April 2014, a phase I, open-label, multicenter, dose-escalation study (study number P3K113794) and safety data were presented at the 105th AACR meeting in San Diego, CA. Advanced solid tumor patients (n = 69) received oral continuous GSK-2126458 or intermittent GSK-2126458 bid  + trametinib. For GSK-2126458 and trametinib, the MTD in QD cohort was 2 and 1 mg, respectively, and also 1 and 1.5 mg, respectively

PAPER 

Discovery of GSK2126458, a highly potent inhibitor of PI3K and the mammalian target of rampamycin
ACS Med Chem Lett 2010, 1(1): 39

 

Abstract Image

Phosphoinositide 3-kinase α (PI3Kα) is a critical regulator of cell growth and transformation, and its signaling pathway is the most commonly mutated pathway in human cancers. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a class IV PI3K protein kinase, is also a central regulator of cell growth, and mTOR inhibitors are believed to augment the antiproliferative efficacy of PI3K/AKT pathway inhibition. 2,4-Difluoro-N-{2-(methyloxy)-5-[4-(4-pyridazinyl)-6-quinolinyl]-3-pyridinyl}benzenesulfonamide (GSK2126458, 1) has been identified as a highly potent, orally bioavailable inhibitor of PI3Kα and mTOR with in vivo activity in both pharmacodynamic and tumor growth efficacy models. Compound 1 is currently being evaluated in human clinical trials for the treatment of cancer.

 ……………….. 

synthesis

omalipisib

 

Figure imgf000151_0002

Figure imgf000145_0002

………………..

PATENT

WO 2008144463

http://www.google.co.in/patents/WO2008144463A1?cl=en

Example 345

2,4-difluoro-N-{2-(methyloxy)-5-[4-(4-pyridazinyl)-6-quinolinyl]-3- pyridinyl } benzenesulf onamide

a) 6-bromo-4-(4-pyridazinyl)quinoline

Dissolved 6-bromo-4-iodoquinoline (17.43 g, 52.2 mmol), 4- (tributylstannanyl)pyridazine (19.27 g, 52.2 mmol), and PdC12(dppf)-CH2C12 (2.132 g, 2.61 mmol) in 1,4-dioxane (200 mL) and heated to 105 °C. After 3 h, added more palladium catalyst and heated for 6 h. Concentrated and dissolved in methylene chloride/methanol. Purified by column chromatography (combiflash) with 2% MeOH/EtOAc to 5% MeOH/EtOAc to give the crude title compound. Trituration with EtOAc furnished 6-bromo-4-(4-pyridazinyl)quinoline (5.8 g, 20.27 mmol, 38.8 % yield). MS(ES)+ m/e 285.9, 287.9 [M+H]+.

b) 2,4-difluoro-N-{2-(methyloxy)-5-[4-(4-pyridazinyl)-6-quinolinyl]-3- pyridinyl } benzenesulf onamide A slurry of 6-bromo-4-(4-pyridazinyl)quinoline (4.8 g, 16.78 mmol), bis(pinacolato)diboron (4.69 g, 18.45 mmol) , PdC12(dppf)-CH2C12 (530 mg, 0.649 mmol) and potassium acetate (3.29 g, 33.6 mmol) in anhydrous 1,4-dioxane (120 ml) was heated at 100 °C for 3 h. The complete disappearance of the starting bromide was observed by LCMS. The reaction was then treated with N-[5-bromo-2- (methyloxy)-3-pyridinyl]-2,4-difluorobenzenesulfonamide (6.68 g, 17.61 mmol) and another portion of PdC12(dppf)-CH2C12 (550 mg, 0.673 mmol), then heated at 110 °C for 16 h. The reaction was allowed to cool to room temperature, filtered, and concentrated. Purification of the residue by chromatography (Analogix; 5% MeOH / 5% CH2C12 / 90% EtOAC) gave 6.5 g (76%) desired product. MS(ES)+ m/e 505.9 [M+H]+.

 

INTERMEDIATES:

Intermediate 1  Similar but not same

Scheme A:

Conditions: a) Tributyl(vinyl)tin, Pd(PPh3)4, dioxane, reflux; b) OsO4, NaIO4, 2,6- lutidine, r-BuOH, dioxane, H2O, rt; c) (4-pyridyl)boronic acid, Pd(PPh3)4, 2 M K2CO35 DMF, 100 DC.

4-(4-pyridinyl)-6-quinolinecarbaldehydeSimilar but not same

a) 4-chloro-6-ethenylquinoline

A mixture of 6-bromo-4-chloroquinoline (6.52 g, 26.88 mmol; see J. Med. Chem., H 268 (1978) ), tributyl(vinyl)tin (8.95 g, 28.22 mmol), and tetrakistriphenylphospbine palladium (0) (0.62 g, 0.54 mmol) in 1,4-dioxane (150 mL) was refluxed for 2.0 h, cooled to room temperature, and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified by flash chromatography on silica gel (0-4% MeOH:CH2Cl2) to give the title compound (5.1 g) as a pale yellow solid. MS (ES)+ m/e 190 [M+H]+. This material was used directly in the next step.

b) 4-chloro-6-quinolinecarbaldehyde

A mixture of 4-chloro-6-ethenylquinoline (5.1 g, 26.88 mmol), 2,6-lutidine

(5.76 g, 53.75 mmol), sodium (meta) periodate (22.99 g, 107.51 mmol), and osmium tetroxide (5.48 g of a 2.5% solution in tert-butanol, 0.538 mmol) in l,4-dioxane:H2θ (350 mL of 3: 1 mixture) was stirred for 3.5 h at room temperature and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified by flash chromatography on silica gel (CH2Cb) to give the title compound (4.26 g, 83% for 2 steps) as a pale yellow solid. MS (ES)+ m/e 192 [M+H]+.

c) 4-(4-pyridmyl)-6-qumolinecarbaldehyde

A mixture of 4-chloro-6-quinolinecarbaldehyde (3.24 g, 16.92 mmol), A- pyridylboronic acid (3.12 g, 25.38 mmol), tetrakistriphenylphosphine palladium (0) (0.978 g, 0.846 mmol), and 2M aqueous K2CO3 (7.02 g, 50.76 mmol, 25.4 mis of 2M solution) in DMF (100 mL) was heated at 100 °C for 3.0 h and cooled to room temperature. The mixture was filtered through Celite and the Celite was washed with EtOAc. The filtrate was transferred to a separatory funnel, washed with water and saturated NaCl, dried (Na2SO4), filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified by flash chromatography on silica gel (5% MeOH:CH2Cl2) to give the title compound (2.03 g, 51%) as a tan solid. MS (ES)+ m/e 235 [M+H]+.

Intermediate 2

Preparation of 2-amino-5 -bromo-N,N-dimethyl-3 -pyridinesulfonamideSimilar but not same

a) 2-ammo-5-bromo-3-pyridinesulfonyl chloride

To a cooled (0 °C) solution of chlorosulfonic acid (58 mL) under vigorous stirring was added 5-bromo-2-pyridinamine (86.7 mmol) portionwise. The reaction mixture was then heated at reflux for 3 hrs. Upon cooling to room temperature, the reaction mixture was poured over ice (-100 g) with vigorous stirring. The resulting yellow precipitate was collected by suction filtration, washing with cold water and petroleum ether to provide the title compound as an orange-yellow solid (18.1 g, 77% yield). MS(ES)+ m/e 272.8 [M+H]+.

* Other sulfonyl chlorides can be prepared using this procedure by varying the choice of substituted aryl or heteroaryl.

b) 2-amino-5-bromo-N,N-dimethyl-3-pyridinesulfonamide

To a cold (0 DC) suspension of 2-amino-5-bromo-3-pyridinesulfonyl chloride (92.1 mmol) in dry 1,4-dioxane (92 mL) was added pyridine (101.3 mmol) followed by a 2M solution of dimethylamine in THF (101.3 mmol). The reaction was allowed to warm to rt for 2 h, heated to 50 DC for 1 h, then cooled to rt. After standing for 2 h, the precipitate was collected by filtration and rinsed with a minimal amount of cold water. Drying the precipitate to constant weight under high vacuum provided 14.1 g (55%) of the title compound as a white solid. MS(ES)+ m/e 279.8, 282.0 [M+H]+.

 

Intermediate 3

Preparation of 2-amino-N,N-dimethyl-5-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-l,3.2-dioxaborolan-2- yl)-3 -pyridinesulfonamideSimilar but not same

c) To a solution of 2-amino-5-bromo-N,N-dimethyl-3 -pyridinesulfonamide (7.14 mmol) in 1,4-dioxane (35 mL) was added 4,4,4′,4′,5,5,5′,5′-octamethyl-2,2′-bi-l,3,2- dioxaborolane (7.86 mmol), potassium acetate (28.56 mmol) and [1,1 ‘- bis(diphenylphosphmo)-ferrocene] dichloropalladium(II) dichloromethane complex (1 :1) (0.571 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at 100 °C for 18 h. The reaction was concentrated in vacuo, re-dissolved in ethyl acetate (50 mL) and purified on silica using 60% ethyl acetate/hexanes to yield the title compound as a tan solid (86 %). IH ΝMR (400 MHz, DMSOd6) δ ppm 8.41 (d, 1 H, J =1.52), 7.92 (d, 1 H, J = 1.77), 2.68 (s, 6 H), 1.28 (s, 12 H).

* Other boronate or boronic acids can be prepared using this procedure by varying the choice of aryl or heteroaryl bromide. Scheme 17:

Conditions: a) NaO(Rl), (Rl)OH, O 0C to room temperature; b) SnCl2-2H2O, ethyl acetate, reflux; c) (R2)SO2C1, pyridine, O 0C to room temperature.

Intermediate 4

Preparation of N-r5-bromo-2-(methyloxy)-3-pyridinyll-2,4- difluorobenzenesulfonamide

Figure imgf000151_0002N-[5-bromo-2-(methyloxy)-3-pyridinyl]-2,4- difluorobenzenesulfonamide

a) 5-bromo-2-(methyloxy)-3-nitropyridine

To a cooled (0 °C) solution of 5-bromo-2-chloro-3-nitropyridine (50 g, 211 mmol) in methanol (200 mL) was added dropwise over 10 minutes 20% sodium methoxide (50 mL, 211 mmol) solution. The reaction, which quickly became heterogeneous, was allowed to warm to ambient temperature and stirred for 16 h. The reaction was filtered and the precipitate diluted with water (200 mL) and stirred for 1 h. The solids were filtered, washed with water (3 x 100 mL) and dried in a vac oven (40 °C) to give 5-bromo-2-(methyloxy)-3-nitropyridine (36 g, 154 mmol, 73.4 % yield) as a pale yellow powder. The original filtrate was concentrated in vacuo and diluted with water (150 mL). Saturated ammonium chloride (25 mL) was added and the mixture stirred for 1 h. The solids were filtered, washed with water, and dried in a vac oven (40 °C) to give a second crop of 5-bromo-2-(methyloxy)-3- nitropyridine (9 g, 38.6 mmol, 18.34 % yield). Total yield = 90%. MS(ES)+ m/e 232.8, 234.7 [M+H]+.

b) 5-bromo-2-(methyloxy)-3-pyridinamine

To a solution of 5-bromo-2-(methyloxy)-3-nitropyridine (45 g, 193 mmol) in ethyl acetate (1 L) was added tin(II) chloride dihydrate (174 g, 772 mmol). The reaction mixture was heated at reflux for 4 h. LC/MS indicated some starting material remained, so added 20 mol% tin (II) chloride dihydrate and continued to heat at reflux. After 2 h, the reaction was allowed to cool to ambient temperature and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was treated with 2 N sodium hydroxide and the mixture stirred for 1 h. The mixture was then with methylene chloride (1 L), filtered through Celite, and washed with methylene chloride (500 mL). The layers were separated and the organics dried over magnesium sulfate and concentrated to give 5-bromo-2-(methyloxy)-3-pyridinamine (23 g, 113 mmol, 58.7 % yield). The product was used crude in subsequent reactions. MS(ES)+ m/e 201.9, 203.9 [M+H]+.

c) N-[5-bromo-2-(methyloxy)-3-pyridinyl]-2,4-difluorobenzenesulfonamide

Figure imgf000151_0002

To a cooled (0 °C) solution of 5-bromo-2-(methyloxy)-3-pyridinamine (20.3 g, 100 mmol) in pyridine (200 mL) was added slowly 2,4-difluorobenzenesulfonyl chloride (21.3 g, 100 mmol) over 15 min (reaction became heterogeneous). The ice bath was removed and the reaction was stirred at ambient temperature for 16 h, at which time the reaction was diluted with water (500 mL) and the solids filtered off and washed with copious amounts of water. The precipitate was dried in a vacuum oven at 50 °C to give N-[5-bromo-2-(methyloxy)-3-pyridinyl]-2,4- difluorobenzenesulfonamide (12 g, 31.6 mmol, 31.7 % yield) MS(ES)+ m/e 379.0, 380.9 [M+H]+.

 

 

References

1. Knight et al., ACS Med. Chem. Lett. 2010, 1, 39-43.
2. Hardwick et al., Mol. Cancer Ther. 2009, 8(12), Supplement I, Abstract C63.
3. Greger et al., Combinations of BRAF, MEK, and PI3K/mTOR inhibitors overcome acquired resistance to the BRAF inhibitor GSK2118436 dabrafenib, mediated by NRAS or MEK mutations. Mol. Cancer Ther. 2012, 11(4), 909-920.

1: Zhang Y, Xue D, Wang X, Lu M, Gao B, Qiao X. Screening of kinase inhibitors targeting BRAF for regulating autophagy based on kinase pathways. Mol Med Rep. 2014 Jan;9(1):83-90. doi: 10.3892/mmr.2013.1781. Epub 2013 Nov 7. PubMed PMID: 24213221.

2: Villanueva J, Infante JR, Krepler C, Reyes-Uribe P, Samanta M, Chen HY, Li B, Swoboda RK, Wilson M, Vultur A, Fukunaba-Kalabis M, Wubbenhorst B, Chen TY, Liu Q, Sproesser K, DeMarini DJ, Gilmer TM, Martin AM, Marmorstein R, Schultz DC, Speicher DW, Karakousis GC, Xu W, Amaravadi RK, Xu X, Schuchter LM, Herlyn M, Nathanson KL. Concurrent MEK2 mutation and BRAF amplification confer resistance to BRAF and MEK inhibitors in melanoma. Cell Rep. 2013 Sep 26;4(6):1090-9. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2013.08.023. Epub 2013 Sep 19. PubMed PMID: 24055054; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3956616.

3: Kim HG, Tan L, Weisberg EL, Liu F, Canning P, Choi HG, Ezell SA, Wu H, Zhao Z, Wang J, Mandinova A, Griffin JD, Bullock AN, Liu Q, Lee SW, Gray NS. Discovery of a potent and selective DDR1 receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor. ACS Chem Biol. 2013 Oct 18;8(10):2145-50. doi: 10.1021/cb400430t. Epub 2013 Aug 13. PubMed PMID: 23899692; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3800496.

4: Khalili JS, Yu X, Wang J, Hayes BC, Davies MA, Lizee G, Esmaeli B, Woodman SE. Combination small molecule MEK and PI3K inhibition enhances uveal melanoma cell death in a mutant GNAQ- and GNA11-dependent manner. Clin Cancer Res. 2012 Aug 15;18(16):4345-55. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-11-3227. Epub 2012 Jun 25. PubMed PMID: 22733540; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3935730.

5: Greger JG, Eastman SD, Zhang V, Bleam MR, Hughes AM, Smitheman KN, Dickerson SH, Laquerre SG, Liu L, Gilmer TM. Combinations of BRAF, MEK, and PI3K/mTOR inhibitors overcome acquired resistance to the BRAF inhibitor GSK2118436 dabrafenib, mediated by NRAS or MEK mutations. Mol Cancer Ther. 2012 Apr;11(4):909-20. doi: 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-11-0989. Epub 2012 Mar 2. PubMed PMID: 22389471.

6: Wang M, Gao M, Miller KD, Sledge GW, Zheng QH. [11C]GSK2126458 and [18F]GSK2126458, the first radiosynthesis of new potential PET agents for imaging of PI3K and mTOR in cancers. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2012 Feb 15;22(4):1569-74. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2011.12.136. Epub 2012 Jan 10. PubMed PMID: 22297110.

7: Schenone S, Brullo C, Musumeci F, Radi M, Botta M. ATP-competitive inhibitors of mTOR: an update. Curr Med Chem. 2011;18(20):2995-3014. Review. PubMed PMID: 21651476.

8: Leung E, Kim JE, Rewcastle GW, Finlay GJ, Baguley BC. Comparison of the effects of the PI3K/mTOR inhibitors NVP-BEZ235 and GSK2126458 on tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells. Cancer Biol Ther. 2011 Jun 1;11(11):938-46. Epub 2011 Jun 1. PubMed PMID: 21464613; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3127046.

ICOTINIB


ICOTINIB

4-((3-ethynylphenyl)amino)-6,7-benzo-12-crown-4-quinazoline

N-(3-Ethynylphenyl)-7,8,10,11,13,14-hexahydro[1,4,7,10]tetraoxacyclododecino[2,3-g]quinazolin-4-amine

[1,4,7,10]Tetraoxacyclododecino[2,3-g]quinazolin-4-amine, N-(3-ethynylphenyl)-7,8,10,11,13,14-hexahydro-

BPI 2009H, UNII-JTD32I0J83

610798-31-7  CAS BASE

 

Compound Structure

Icotinib Hydrochloride, 1204313-51-8, CS-0918, HY-15164, Conmana Zhejiang Beta Pharma Ltd.

CLINICALS………http://clinicaltrials.gov/search/intervention=Icotinib

Icotinib Hydrochloride (BPI-2009H), or Icotinib, is a highly selective, first generation epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI). EGFR is an oncogenic driver and patients with somatic mutations, particularly an exon 19 deletion or exon 21 L858R mutation, within the tyrosine kinase domain have activating mutations that lead to unchecked cell proliferation. Overexpression of EGFR causes inappropriate activation of the anti-apoptotic Ras signaling pathway, found in many different types of cancer. Icotinib is a quinazoline derivative that binds reversibly to the ATP binding site of the EGFR protein, preventing completion of the signal transduction cascade.[1]

Clinical Evaluation

Icotinib is indicated for the treatment for EGFR mutation-positive, advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as a second-line or third-line treatment, for patients who have failed at least one prior treatment with platinum-based chemotherapy. The ICOGEN trial was a double-blind, head-to-head phase III study comparing icotinib with gefitinib in all-comers. From 27 centers in China, 399 patients were randomized between the two treatments testing for a primary objective of progression-free survival and secondary objectives of overall survival, time to progression, quality of life, percentage of patients who achieved an objective response, and toxic effects. The ICOGEN results showed icotinib to have a median PFS of 4.6 months (95% CI 3.5 – 6.3) as compared to gefitinib which has a PFS of 3.4 months (95% CI 2.3 – 3.8). After the study was completed, post-hoc analysis revealed that in the icotinib treatment group, patients with activating EGFR mutations showed improved PFS as compared to patients with wild-type EGFR. Icotinib also was associated with fewer adverse events than gefitinib when considering all grades of reactions together (61% versus 70% respectively, p = 0.046).[2] The phase IV ISAFE trial evaluated 5,549 patients and showed icotinib to have an overall response rate of 30% and a low adverse event rate of 31.5%.[3]

Regulatory Approvals

Icotinib was approved in China by the SFDA in June, 2011.[4] Since approval, Icotinib has treated over 40,000 patients in China successfully and is now undergoing global development.

January 2014, Beta Pharma, Inc. was given a “May Proceed” from the US FDA to conduct a Phase I study for the evaluation of icotinib as a treatment of EGFR+ Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC).

Icotinib is a potent and specific EGFR inhibitor with IC50 of 5 nM, including the EGFR, EGFR(L858R), EGFR(L861Q), EGFR(T790M) and EGFR(T790M, L858R). Phase 4.Icotinib hydrochloride is the epidermal growth factor receptor kinase targeting a new generation of targeted anti-cancer drugs, completely independent from the original tumor clinical practitioners and experts of science, through eight years of the development, its first adaptation disease is advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Icotinib is an orally available quinazoline-based inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), with potential antineoplastic activity. Icotinib selectively inhibits the wild-type and several mutated forms of EGFR tyrosine kinase. This may lead to an inhibition of EGFR-mediated signal transduction and may inhibit cancer cell proliferation. EGFR, a receptor tyrosine kinase, is upregulated in a variety of cancer cell types. Icotinib was approved in China in 2011

Icotinib has been found to be noninferior to gefitinib in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), according to reports from the phase III Chinese double-blind ICOGEN study.

“[I]cotinib is a valid therapeutic option for patients with non-small-cell lung cancer as a second-line or third-line treatment, although patients might find taking icotinib three times a day an inconvenience,” write Yan Sun (Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China) and colleagues.

Icotinib is an oral epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) that has exhibited good antitumor activity in phase II studies. However, it has a shorter half-life than gefitinib, another TKI, which means that it needs to be taken more often.


Design and discovery of 4-anilinoquinazoline ureas as multikinase inhibitors targeting BRAF, VEGFR-2 and EGFR. Qingwen Zhang, Yuanyuan Diao, Fei Wang, Ying Fu, Fei Tang, Qidong You, Houyuan Zhou, Med. Chem. Commun., 2013, 4, 979

  • Tyrosine kinase receptors are trans-membrane proteins that, in response to an extracellular stimulus, propagate a signaling cascade to control cell proliferation, angiogenesis, apoptosis and other important features of cell growth. One class of such receptors, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinases, are over-expressed in many human cancers, including brain, lung, liver, bladder, breast, head and neck, esophagus, gastrointestinal, breast, ovary, cervix or thyroid cancer.
  • EGFR is expressed in many types of tumor cells. Binding of cognate ligands (including EGF, TGFα (i.e., Transforming Growth Factor-α) and neuregulins) to the extracellular domain causes homo- or heterodimerization between family members; the juxtaposition of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase domains results in transphosphorylation of specific tyrosine, serine and threonine residues within each cytoplasmic domain. The formed phosphotyrosines act as docking sites for various adaptor molecules and subsequent activation of signal transduction cascades (Ras/mitogen-activated, PI3K/Akt and Jak/STAT) that trigger proliferative cellular responses.
  • Various molecular and cellular biology and clinical studies have demonstrated that EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors can block cancer cell proliferation, metastasis and other EGFR-related signal transduction responses to achieve clinical anti-tumor therapeutic effects. Two oral EGFR kinase inhibitors with similar chemical structures are Gefitinib (Iressa; AstraZeneca), approved by the U.S. FDA for advanced non-small cell lung cancer in 2003 (and later withdrawn), and Erlotinib Hydrochloride (Tarceva; Roche and OSI), approved by the U.S. FDA for advanced non-small cell lung cancer and pancreatic cancer treatment in 2004.
  • Chinese Patent Publication No. CN1305860C discloses the structure of 4-[(3-ethynyl-phenyl)amino]-6,7-benzo-12-crown-quinoline (free base) on page 29, Example 15, Compound 23.

Icotinib was launched in China in August 2011, after approval by the State Food and Drug Administration. It is a targeted EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor that, like erlotinib (Tarceva) and gefitinib (Iressa), shows benefit in patients with EGFR m+ NSCLC.

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http://www.google.com/patents/EP2392576A1

    •  Formula I (Icotinib hydrochloride):

Figure imgb0011

Method 1:

    • Figure imgb0002

Method 2:

    • Figure imgb0003

Method 3:

  • Figure imgb0004
  • BPI-02 is obtained by recrystallization.

http://www.google.com/patents/EP2392576A1 Example 1Step 1

    • Figure imgb0005
    • Preparation: 16 kg (400 mol) of sodium hydroxide was dissolved in 80 L of water in a 400 L reactor, and then 18.8 L (140 mol) of triethylene glycol, 32 L of THF were added into the reactor. After cooling below 5 °C, a solution of 47.84 kg (260 mol) of tosyl chloride and 50 L of THF was added dropwise. Following the addition, the reaction mixture was kept at this temperature for 2 hours, and it was then poured into 240 L of ice water. The precipitate was formed and filtered, washed with a small amount of water, and dried. 58.64 kg of BPI-01 as a white crystalline powder was yielded at 91.4%. mp: 77-80 °C, HPLC: 97%. TLC (petroleum ether: ethyl acetate = 1:1) Rf = 0.87.
    • NMR data: 1H-NMR (CDCl3): δ ppm: 7.78 (d, 4H, J = 10.4 Hz, benzene protons by sulfonyl group); 7.34 (d, 4H, J = 11.6 Hz, benzene protons by methyl group); 4.129 (dd, 4H, J = 5.6 Hz, ethylene protons by the sulfonyl group); 3.64 (dd, 4H, J = 5.6 Hz, ethylene protons away from the sulfonyl group); 3.517 (s, 4H, ethylene protons in the middle); 2.438 (s, 6H, methyl protons on the benzene).

Step 2

    • Figure imgb0006
    • Preparation: A solution containing 3.64 kg (20 mol) of ethyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate and 12.4 kg (89.6 mol) of potassium carbonate in 300 L of N,N-dimethylformamide was stirred and heated to 85-90 °C for about 30 minutes. A solution of 9.17 kg (20 mol) of BPI-01 in 40 L of N,N-dimethylformamide was added dropwise over 1.5-2 hours. After the addition, the reaction was kept for 30 minutes; the reaction completion was confirmed by TLC (developing solvent: petroleum ether:ethyl acetate = 1:1, Rf = 0.58). The reaction mixture was removed from the reactor and filtered. Then, the filtrate was evaporated to remove N,N-dimethylformamide; 240 L of ethyl acetate was added to dissolve the residue. After filtration and vacuum evaporation, the residual solution was extracted with 300 L of petroleum ether. After evaporation of the petroleum ether, the residual solids were re-crystallized with isopropanol in a ratio of 1:2.5 (W/V); 1.68 kg of BPI-02 as a white powder was obtained in a yield of 28%. mp: 73-76 °C, HPLC: 96.4%. NMR data: 1H-NMR (CDCl3): δ ppm: 7.701 (d, 1H, J = 2.4 Hz, benzene proton at position 6); 7.68 (s, 1 H, benzene proton at position 2); 6.966 (d, 1H, J = 10.8 Hz, benzene proton at position 5); 4.374-3.81 (q, 2H, J = 9.6 Hz, methylene protons of the ethyl); 3.78-4.23 (dd, 12H, J = 4.8 Hz, crown ether protons); 1.394 (t, 3H, J = 9.6 Hz, methyl protons of the ethyl). MS: m/z 296.

Step 3

    • Figure imgb0007
    • Preparation: A solution of 592 g (2 mol) of BPI-02 and 600 mL of acetic acid in a 5 L reaction flask was cooled to 0°C; 1640 mL (25.4 mol) of concentrated nitric acid was slowly added. The internal temperature should not exceed 10 °C. While cooled below 0°C, 1 L of concentrated sulfuric acid was added dropwise. The internal temperature should not be higher than 5°C. After the addition, the reaction was kept at 0-5 °C for 1-2 hours. After completion of the reaction, the reaction solution was poured into 15 L of ice water in a plastic bucket. After mixing, filtration, and re-crystallization in ethanol, 449 g of BPI-03 as a light yellow to yellow crystalline powder was obtained in 65.7% yield. mp: 92-95 °C, HPLC: 98.2%. TLC (petroleum ether: ethyl acetate =1:1) Rf = 0.52. NMR data: 1H-NMR (CDCl3): δ ppm: 7.56 (s, 1H, benzene proton at position 5); 7.20 (s, 1H, benzene proton at position 2); 4.402 (q, 2H, J = 9.2 Hz, methylene protons of the ethyl); 4.294 (dd, 12H, J = 4.8 Hz, crown ether protons); 1.368 (t, 3H, J = 9.2 Hz, methyl protons of the ethyl).

Step 4

    • Figure imgb0008
    • Preparation: In a 3 L hydrogenation reactor, 2 L of methanol and 195 g (0.57 mol) of BPI-03 were added, and then 63 mL of acetyl chloride was slowly added. After a short stir, 33 g of Pd/C containing 40% water was added. The reaction was conducted under 4 ATM hydrogen until hydrogen absorption stopped, and then the reaction was kept for 1-2 hours. After completion of the reaction, the reaction mixture was transferred into a 5 L reactor. After filtration, crystallization, and filtration, the product was obtained. The mother liquor was concentrated under vacuum, and more product was obtained. The combined crops were 168 g of BPI-04 as a white to pink crystalline powder in a yield of 85%. mp: 198-201 °C, HPLC: 99.1 %. TLC (petroleum ether: ethyl acetate = 1:1) Rf = 0.33. NMR data: 1H-NMR (DMSO-d6): δ ppm: 8-9 (br., 3H, 2 protons of the amino group and a proton of the hydrochloric acid); 7.37 (s, 1H, benzene proton at position 5); 6.55 (s, 1H , benzene proton at position 2); 4.25 (q, 2H, J = 7.06 Hz, methylene protons of the ethyl); 4.05 (dd, 12H, J = 4.04 Hz, crown ether protons); 1.31 (t, 3H, J = 7.06 Hz, methyl protons of the ethyl).

Step 5

    • Figure imgb0009
    • Preparation: 1105 g (3.175 mol)of BPI-04, 4810 g (106.9 mol) of formamide, and 540 g (8.55 mol) of ammonium formate were added to a 10 L 3-neck bottle. The reaction mixture was heated to 165 °C under reflux for 4 hours. After cooling to room temperature, 3 L of water was added, and then the mixture was stirred for 10 minutes. After filtration, washing, and drying, 742 g of BPI-05 as a white crystalline powder was obtained in a yield of 80%. mp: 248-251 °C, HPLC: 99.78%. TLC (chloroform: methanol = 8:1) Rf = 0.55. NMR data: 1H-NMR (DMSO-d6): δ ppm: 12.06 (s, 1H, NH of the quinazoline); 8.0 (d, 1H, J = 3.28 Hz, proton of the quinazoline position 3); 7.62 (s, 1H, proton of the quinazoline position 6); 7.22 (s, 1H, proton of the quinazoline position 9); 4.25 (dd, 12H, J = 4.08 Hz, crown ether protons).

Step 6

    • Figure imgb0010
    • Preparation: 337 g (1.13 mol) of BPI-05, 7.1 L of chloroform, 1.83 L (19.58mol) of POCI3 and 132 ml of N,N-dimethylformamide were added to a 10 L 3-neck bottle. The reaction mixture was stirred at reflux temperature. After dissolution, reaction completion was checked by TLC (developing solvent: chloroform: methanol = 15:1, Rf = 0.56); the reaction took approximately 8 hours to complete. Then, the reaction solution was cooled and evaporated under vacuum to dryness. The residue was dissolved in 4 L of chloroform; 4 kg of crushed ice was poured into the solution and the mixture was stirred for 0.5 hours. After separation, the aqueous phase was extracted twice with 2 L of chloroform. The organic phases were combined, 4 L of ice water was added and the pH was adjusted with 6 N NaOH to pH 8-9 while the temperature was maintained below 30 °C. After separation, the organic phase was washed with saturated NaCl, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and the solvents removed by vacuum evaporation. The residual solids were washed with acetone and filtered; 268 g of BPI-06 as a white crystalline powder was obtained in a yield of 77% with mp: 164-167°C and HPLC purity of 99%. NMR data: 1H-NMR (CDCl3): δ ppm: 8.89 (s, 1H, proton of the quinazoline position 2); 7.68 (s, 1H, proton of the quinazoline position 9); 7.42 (s, 1H, proton of the quinazoline position 6); 4.38-3.81 (dd, 12H, J = 3.88 Hz, crown ether protons).

Step 7

  • Figure imgb0011
  • Preparation of the compound of the present invention: To a suspension of 20.8 g of BPI-06 in 500 mL of ethanol was added 25 mL of N,N-dimethylformamide and a solution of 8.98 g m-acetylene aniline in 200 mL of isopropanol. The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 5 minutes until dissolved completely, and then the reaction solution was heated at reflux for 3 hours. After concentration and drying, the residual solids were dissolved in ethyl acetate, washed with water, and dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate. Thus, 27.1 g of the compound of Formula I was obtained as a white crystalline powder. NMR data: 1H-NMR (Bruker APX-400, solvent: DMSO-d6, TMS as internal standard): δ ppm: 3.58 (dd, 2H, two protons of the crown position 12); 3.60 (dd, 2H, two protons of the crown position 13); 3.73 (dd, 2H, two protons of the crown position 10); 3.80 (dd, 2H, two protons of the crown position 15); 4.30 (s, 1H, proton of the alkynyl); 4.34 (dd, 2H, two protons of the crown position 16); 4.40 (dd, 2H, two protons of the crown position 9); 7.39 (d, 1H, benzene proton at position 25); 7.46 (dd, 1H, benzene proton at position 26); 7.49 (s, 1H, proton of the quinazoline position 6); 7.82 (d, 1H, benzene proton at position 27); 7.94 (t due dd, 1H, proton of the quinazoline position 19); 8.85 (s, 1H, benzene proton at the position 23); 8.87 (s, 1H, proton of the quinazoline position 2); 11.70 (s, 1H, proton of the aromatic amine as salt); 14-16 (bs, 1H, hydrochloride), see Figure 5. NMR data: 13C-NMR (DMSO-d6), see Figure 6. Mass spectrometry (MS): Instrument: ZAB-HS, testing conditions: EI, 200°C, 700ev, MS measured molecular weight: m/z 427.

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https://www.google.co.in/patents/WO2013064128A1?cl=en&dq=icotinib&hl=en&sa=X&ei=1oi2UsP9LYa4rgfUzoF4&ved=0CDcQ6AEwAA

 

Figure imgf000003_0002

Synthesis of compound 1 A

1 Synthesis of Compound 2

Figure imgf000008_0003

2

79.5g 3,4 – dihydroxybenzene nitrile, 272g of potassium carbonate, acetonitrile (6L) was added to a 10L three-necked reaction flask, and dissolved with stirring, heated to reflux and reflux was added dropwise an acetonitrile solution of the compound 1 (compound 1, 200 g; acetonitrile , 2L), and completion of the dropping, the HPLC monitoring of the completion of the reaction, the mixture was cooled to room temperature, filtered, and the solvent was removed, and the resulting solid was washed with ethyl acetate was dissolved, filtered, and the filtrate was concentrated, the resulting residue was dissolved in petroleum ether by rotary evaporation, the resulting solid was purified to give 18.9g of the compound 2.

1 LAI MR (CDC1 3-Sppm): 7.30 ~ 7.33 (m, 1H); 7.25 (s, 1H); 6.97-6.99 (d, 1H); 4.19 – 4.23 (m, 4H); 3.83 ~ 3.91 (m, 4H); 3.77 (s, 4H). MS: (M + H) +250 2 Synthesis of compound A

Figure imgf000009_0001

2 A

41.6g of compound 2 was dissolved in 580ml of acetic acid, dropwise addition of 83ml of fuming nitric acid at 30 ° C under completion of the dropping, the dropwise addition of 42ml of concentrated sulfuric acid at 30 ° C under the reaction at room temperature overnight, TLC monitoring completion of the reaction, the reaction solution was poured into ice water 4L , the precipitated solid was filtered, washed with cold water (500 mL X 2), vacuum 35 ° C and dried crude A compound 46g, isopropanol recrystallization was purified to give 33g of compound A.

1 LAI MR (CDC1 3-Sppm): 7.90 (s, 1H); 7.36 (s, 1H); 4.33 ~ 4.36 (m, 4H); 3.87 ~ 3.89 (m, 4H); 3.737 (s, 4H). Embodiment of Example 2 Synthesis of Compound B

Figure imgf000009_0002

AB

32g of compound A, 30.5g of iron powder, 5% acetic acid solution in methanol 1070ml 2L reaction flask was heated to reflux

TLC monitoring of the end of the reaction cooled and concentrated, dissolved in ethyl acetate, filtered, dried over anhydrous NaS0 4 23g of compound B. The solvent was removed.

1HNMR (d 6-DMSO-Sppm): 7.07 (s, 1H); 6.36 (s, 1H); 5.73 (s, 2H); 3.95 ~ 4.22 (m, 4H); 3.77-3.78 (m, 2H); 3.34 3.62 (m, 6H).Embodiment of Example 3 Synthesis of Compound CI

Figure imgf000009_0003

B CI

500mL three-necked flask, the Add 5g compound B, 5g v, v-dimethyl formamide dimethyl acetal and 160ml of dioxane was heated to reflux the TLC monitoring progress of the reaction, the reaction time is about 12 hours, after the end of the reaction The reaction solution was cooled to room temperature, spin-dry to give 5.8g of compound Cl.

1 LAI MR (CDCl 3-Sppm): 7.56 (s, 1H); 7.15 (s, 1H); 6.51 (s, 1H); 4.12-4.18 (m, 4H); 3.89-3.91 (m, 2H); 3.78 -3.80 (m, 6H); 3.07 (s, 6H); Example 4 Icotinib Synthesis

 

Figure imgf000010_0001

5 g of the compound Cl, 2.2 g inter-aminophenyl acetylene, 230ml of acetic acid was added to a 500 ml reaction flask was heated to 100 ° c,

TLC monitoring of the reaction. The end of the reaction, the reaction system spin dry methanol was added, and shock dispersion, filtration, wash with methanol, 5g Icotinib.

^ M (d 6-DMSO-5ppm): 11.98 (s, IH); 9.50 (s, IH); 8.53 (s 1H); 8.14 (s, IH); 8.04-8.05 (m, IH); 7.90-7.92 (m, IH); 7.38-7.42 (m, IH); 7.31 (s IH); 7.20-7.22 (m, IH); 4.29-4.30 (m, 4H); 4.21 (s, IH); 3.74-3.81 ( m, 4H); 3.64 (s, 4H); 1.91 (s, 3H); Synthesis Example 5 Exe hydrochloride erlotinib

Figure imgf000010_0002

Exeter for Nick for; s

700mg Icotinib Add to a 100 ml reaction flask, add 40 ml of methanol, stirred pass into the hydrogen chloride gas or concentrated hydrochloric acid, and filtered to give crude hydrochloric acid Icotinib after, and purified by recrystallization from isopropanol to give 760mg hydrochloride Icotinib.

1HNMR (d 6-DMSO-Sppm): 11.37 (s, IH); 8.87 (s, IH); 8.63 (s, IH); 7.90 (s, IH); 7.78-7.80 (d, IH); 7.48-7.52 (m, IH); 7.40-7.41 (m, 2H); 4.36-4.38 (d, 4H); 4.30 (s, IH); 3.75-3.81 (d, 4H); 3.61 (s, 4H); Example 6 Synthesis of Compound B

Figure imgf000011_0001

AB

25g of compound A, 25 g of iron powder, 3% acetic acid in methanol solution 900ml with Example 2 are the same, to give 16.6g of compound B.

Embodiment of Example 7 Synthesis of Compound B

Figure imgf000011_0002

AB

40 g of compound A, 40 g of iron powder and 7% acetic acid in methanol solution was 1200ml, in Example 2, to give 28.4g of compound B.

Example 8 Compound B Synthesis

Figure imgf000011_0003

AB

25 g of compound A, 5 g of Pd / C in 3% acetic acid in methanol solution 900ml Add 2L reaction flask, of the hydrogen, TLC monitoring of the end of the reaction, filtered, and the solvent was removed to give 17g of compound B.

Example 9 Compound B Synthesis

Figure imgf000011_0004

AB

40g of compound A, 17 g of magnesium and 5% acetic acid in methanol solution 1200ml, in Example 2, to give 25.2g of compound B. Example 10 Compound B Synthesis

 

Figure imgf000012_0001

AB

25 g of compound A, 32.5g of zinc powder and 5% acetic acid in methanol solution 900ml with Example 2 are the same, to give 17.1g of compound B.

Example Synthesis of compound 11 B

 

Figure imgf000012_0002

AB

25g of compound A, 28 g of iron powder, 5% trifluoroacetic acid in methanol solution 700ml, in Example 2, 16g of compound B.

Embodiment Example 12 Synthesis of Compound C1

 

Figure imgf000012_0003

3g compound B, 3G v, v-dimethyl formamide dimethyl acetal and 140ml of dioxane, reflux the reaction time is 10-11 hours, the other in the same manner as in Example 3 to give 3.2g of the compound Cl.

Example 13 Synthesis of Compound C1

 

Figure imgf000012_0004

8g compound B, 8G N, v-dimethyl formamide dimethyl acetal and 180ml of dioxane under reflux for a reaction time of approximately 12-13 hours, with the same manner as in Example 3 to give 8.7g of compound C. Embodiment Example 14 Synthesis of Compound CI

Figure imgf000013_0001

3g compound B, 3 g of N, N-dimethyl formamide dimethyl acetal and 140ml of toluene, the reaction time is 13-15 hours under reflux, with the same manner as in Example 3 to give 2.9g of the compound Cl.

Example 15 Synthesis of Compound C1

Figure imgf000013_0002

The same as in Example 14, except that reaction time is 10 hours, to obtain 2.6g compound Cl t

Embodiment Example 16 Synthesis of Compound C1

 

Figure imgf000013_0003

500mL three-necked flask, add 3 g of compound B, 3.7 g v, v-dimethylformamide, diethyl acetal and 140ml of dioxane was heated to reflux, TLC monitoring the progress of the reaction, the reaction time of approximately 11-12 hours, After completion of the reaction, the mixture was cooled to room temperature, spin-dry the reaction solution to give 2.5g of the compound Cl.

Example 17 Synthesis of Compound C1

 

Figure imgf000013_0004

G of compound B, 5.1 g of the N, N-dimethyl formamide di-t-butyl acetal was dissolved in 140ml dioxane was heated to reflux the TLC monitoring progress of the reaction, the reaction time of approximately 11-12 hours after the completion of the reaction, was cooled to room temperature, the reaction solution was spin-dry to give 2.6g of the compound Cl.

Embodiment Example 18 Synthesis of Compound CI

 

Figure imgf000014_0001

3g compound B, 4.4g N, N-dimethyl formamide diisopropyl acetal was dissolved in 140ml dioxane was heated to reflux, tlc monitoring the progress of the reaction, the reaction time of approximately 11-12 hours after the completion of the reaction, was cooled to room temperature, the reaction solution was spin-dry to give 2.4g of the compound Cl.

The implementation of the synthesis of Example 19 Icotinib

 

Figure imgf000014_0002

3g compound Cl, 1.3 g inter-aminophenyl acetylene, 130 ml of acetic acid was added 250 ml reaction flask and heated to 70-80

V, TLC monitoring of the reaction. Spin dry the reaction system, methanol was added, and shock dispersion, filtered, and the methanol wash was 2.8g Icotinib. Implementation of Example 20 Icotinib synthesis

 

Figure imgf000014_0003

C1 Icotinib

. Example 25 Icotinib Hydrochloride synthesis

 

Figure imgf000016_0001

Icotinib Hydrochloride

The 500mg Icotinib Add to a 100 ml reaction flask, add 30ml of ethanol was stirred under hydrogen chloride gas was passed into the after, filtered crude hydrochloride Icotinib recrystallized from isopropanol to give 515mg hydrochlorideIcotinib. Example 26 Icotinib Hydrochloride Synthesis

500mg Icotinib Add 100 ml reaction flask, add 40 ml of tetrahydrofuran was stirred under hydrogen chloride gas was passed into the after, filtered crude hydrochloride Icotinib recrystallized from isopropanol to give 500mg hydrochlorideIcotinib. EXAMPLE 27 Icotinib Hydrochloride Synthesis

 

Figure imgf000016_0002

 

500mg Icotinib Add 100 ml reaction flask, add 50 ml of isopropanol and stirred under hydrogen chloride gas was passed into the after, filtered crude hydrochloride Icotinib recrystallized from isopropanol to give 500mg hydrochloride Icotinib.

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http://www.google.com/patents/EP2392576A1 NMR data: 1H-NMR (Bruker APX-400, solvent: DMSO-d6, TMS as internal standard): δ ppm: 3.58 (dd, 2H, two protons of the crown position 12); 3.60 (dd, 2H, two protons of the crown position 13); 3.73 (dd, 2H, two protons of the crown position 10); 3.80 (dd, 2H, two protons of the crown position 15); 4.30 (s, 1H, proton of the alkynyl); 4.34 (dd, 2H, two protons of the crown position 16); 4.40 (dd, 2H, two protons of the crown position 9); 7.39 (d, 1H, benzene proton at position 25); 7.46 (dd, 1H, benzene proton at position 26); 7.49 (s, 1H, proton of the quinazoline position 6); 7.82 (d, 1H, benzene proton at position 27); 7.94 (t due dd, 1H, proton of the quinazoline position 19); 8.85 (s, 1H, benzene proton at the position 23); 8.87 (s, 1H, proton of the quinazoline position 2); 11.70 (s, 1H, proton of the aromatic amine as salt); 14-16 (bs, 1H, hydrochloride), see Figure 5. NMR data: 13C-NMR (DMSO-d6), see Figure 6. Mass spectrometry (MS): Instrument: ZAB-HS, testing conditions: EI, 200°C, 700ev, MS measured molecular weight: m/z 427.

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NEW PATENT

WO-2013064128

Zhejiang Beta Pharma Incorporation, 浙江贝达药业有限公司

http://www.google.co.in/patents/WO2013064128A1?cl=en

General synthetic route

Compound A, the present invention is provided for availability, but are not limited to, the following synthetic route to achieve:

Figure imgf000007_0001

The present invention is to provide beta available but are not limited to, the following synthetic route is now:

Figure imgf000007_0002

A BETA

 

The present invention is to provide a compound C, can be used, but are not limited to, the following synthetic route to achieve:

Figure imgf000007_0003

Wherein

And are independently selected from the group consisting of methyl, ethyl, propyl or isopropyl, or

, And they are connected in common to the N atom form a 3-7 membered ring. R 3 and R4 are independently selected from the group consisting of methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, n-butyl, sec-butyl, tert-butyl, iso-butyl or benzyl group, or,

R 3 and R4 to form a 3-7 membered ring.

The present C can be used for the direct preparation of Icotinib:

Figure imgf000008_0001

Wherein

And are independently selected from the group consisting of methyl, ethyl, propyl or isopropyl, or

, And they are connected in common to the N atom form a 3-7 membered ring.

Figure imgf000008_0002

Icotinib

Icotinib Hydrochloride

Example Synthesis of compound 1 A

1 Synthesis of Compound 2

Figure imgf000008_0003

2

79.5g 3,4 – dihydroxybenzene nitrile, 272g of potassium carbonate, acetonitrile (6L) was added to a 10L three-necked reaction flask, and dissolved with stirring, heated to reflux and reflux was added dropwise an acetonitrile solution of the compound 1 (compound 1, 200 g; acetonitrile , 2L), and completion of the dropping, the HPLC monitoring of the completion of the reaction, the mixture was cooled to room temperature, filtered, and the solvent was removed, and the resulting solid was washed with ethyl acetate was dissolved, filtered, and the filtrate was concentrated, the resulting residue was dissolved in petroleum ether by rotary evaporation, the resulting solid was purified to give 18.9g of the compound 2.

1 LAI MR (CDC1 3-Sppm): 7.30 ~ 7.33 (m, 1H); 7.25 (s, 1H); 6.97-6.99 (d, 1H); 4.19 – 4.23 (m, 4H); 3.83 ~ 3.91 (m, 4H); 3.77 (s, 4H). MS: (M + H) +250 2 Synthesis of compound A

Figure imgf000009_0001

2 A

41.6g of compound 2 was dissolved in 580ml of acetic acid, dropwise addition of 83ml of fuming nitric acid at 30 ° C under completion of the dropping, the dropwise addition of 42ml of concentrated sulfuric acid at 30 ° C under the reaction at room temperature overnight, TLC monitoring completion of the reaction, the reaction solution was poured into ice water 4L , the precipitated solid was filtered, washed with cold water (500 mL X 2), vacuum 35 ° C and dried crude A compound 46g, isopropanol recrystallization was purified to give 33g of compound A.

1 LAI MR (CDC1 3-Sppm): 7.90 (s, 1H); 7.36 (s, 1H); 4.33 ~ 4.36 (m, 4H); 3.87 ~ 3.89 (m, 4H); 3.737 (s, 4H). Embodiment of Example 2 Synthesis of Compound B

Figure imgf000009_0002

AB

32g of compound A, 30.5g of iron powder, 5% acetic acid solution in methanol 1070ml 2L reaction flask was heated to reflux

TLC monitoring of the end of the reaction cooled and concentrated, dissolved in ethyl acetate, filtered, dried over anhydrous NaS0 4 23g of compound B. The solvent was removed.

1HNMR (d 6-DMSO-Sppm): 7.07 (s, 1H); 6.36 (s, 1H); 5.73 (s, 2H); 3.95 ~ 4.22 (m, 4H); 3.77-3.78 (m, 2H); 3.34 3.62 (m, 6H). Embodiment of Example 3 Synthesis of Compound CI

Figure imgf000009_0003

B CI

500mL three-necked flask, the Add 5g compound B, 5g v, v-dimethyl formamide dimethyl acetal and 160ml of dioxane was heated to reflux the TLC monitoring progress of the reaction, the reaction time is about 12 hours, after the end of the reaction The reaction solution was cooled to room temperature, spin-dry to give 5.8g of compound Cl.

1 LAI MR (CDCl 3-Sppm): 7.56 (s, 1H); 7.15 (s, 1H); 6.51 (s, 1H); 4.12-4.18 (m, 4H); 3.89-3.91 (m, 2H); 3.78 -3.80 (m, 6H); 3.07 (s, 6H); Example 4 Icotinib Synthesis

Figure imgf000010_0001

5 g of the compound Cl, 2.2 g inter-aminophenyl acetylene, 230ml of acetic acid was added to a 500 ml reaction flask was heated to 100 ° c,

TLC monitoring of the reaction. The end of the reaction, the reaction system spin dry methanol was added, and shock dispersion, filtration, wash with methanol, 5g Icotinib.

^ M (d 6-DMSO-5ppm): 11.98 (s, IH); 9.50 (s, IH); 8.53 (s 1H); 8.14 (s, IH); 8.04-8.05 (m, IH); 7.90-7.92 (m, IH); 7.38-7.42 (m, IH); 7.31 (s IH); 7.20-7.22 (m, IH); 4.29-4.30 (m, 4H); 4.21 (s, IH); 3.74-3.81 ( m, 4H); 3.64 (s, 4H); 1.91 (s, 3H);

Synthesis Example 5 Exe hydrochloride erlotinib

Figure imgf000010_0002

Exeter for Nick for; s

700mg Icotinib Add to a 100 ml reaction flask, add 40 ml of methanol, stirred pass into the hydrogen chloride gas or concentrated hydrochloric acid, and filtered to give crude hydrochloric acid Icotinib after, and purified by recrystallization from isopropanol to give 760mg hydrochloride Icotinib.

1HNMR (d 6-DMSO-Sppm): 11.37 (s, IH); 8.87 (s, IH); 8.63 (s, IH); 7.90 (s, IH); 7.78-7.80 (d, IH); 7.48-7.52 (m, IH); 7.40-7.41 (m, 2H); 4.36-4.38 (d, 4H); 4.30 (s, IH); 3.75-3.81 (d, 4H); 3.61 (s, 4H);

Example 18 Synthesis of Compound CI

Figure imgf000014_0001

3g compound B, 4.4g N, N-dimethyl formamide diisopropyl acetal was dissolved in 140ml dioxane was heated to reflux, tlc monitoring the progress of the reaction, the reaction time of approximately 11-12 hours after the completion of the reaction, was cooled to room temperature, the reaction solution was spin-dry to give 2.4g of the compound Cl.

The implementation of the synthesis of Example 19 Icotinib

Figure imgf000014_0002

3g compound Cl, 1.3 g inter-aminophenyl acetylene, 130 ml of acetic acid was added 250 ml reaction flask and heated to 70-80

V, TLC monitoring of the reaction. Spin dry the reaction system, methanol was added, and shock dispersion, filtered, and the methanol wash was 2.8g Icotinib. Implementation of Example 20 Icotinib synthesis

Figure imgf000014_0003

C1 Icotinib

8g compound Cl, 3.5g inter-aminophenyl acetylene, dissolved in 380ml of acetic acid, heated to 100-120 ° C, TLC monitoring of the reaction. Spin dry the reaction system, by adding ethanol shock dispersion, filter, the ethanol wash 7.2g Icotinib. Implementation of Example 21 Icotinib Synthesis

Figure imgf000015_0001

The C1 Exeter erlotinib reaction temperature of 120-15CTC Example 4 was 2.2 g Icotinib.

Example 22 Icotinib Synthesis

3g compound Cl, 1.8 g inter-aminophenyl acetylene and 130 ml of acetic acid was added 250 ml reaction flask and heated to 90-100C, TLC monitoring of the reaction. Spin dry the reaction system, isopropanol shock dispersion, filtration, isopropyl alcohol wash was 2.9g Icotinib.

The implementation of the synthesis of Example 23 Icotinib

Figure imgf000015_0002

3G compound CI and 1.3 g of m-aminophenyl acetylene dissolved in 130ml of formic acid was heated to 80-90 ° C, TLC monitoring of the reaction. Spin dry the reaction system, methanol was added, and shock dispersion, filtered, and the methanol wash was 2.7g Icotinib.

Example 24 Icotinib synthesis

Figure imgf000015_0003

3g of compound C1 and 1.3g aminophenyl acetylene dissolved in 130ml of trifluoroacetic acid was heated to 70-80 ° C, TLC monitoring of the reaction. Spin dry the reaction system, methanol was added, and shock dispersion, filtered, and the methanol wash was 2.7g Icotinib. Example 25 Icotinib Hydrochloride synthesis

Figure imgf000016_0001

Icotinib Hydrochloride

The 500mg Icotinib Add to a 100 ml reaction flask, add 30ml of ethanol was stirred under hydrogen chloride gas was passed into the after, filtered crude hydrochloride Icotinib recrystallized from isopropanol to give 515mg hydrochloride Icotinib. Example 26 Icotinib Hydrochloride Synthesis

500mg Icotinib Add 100 ml reaction flask, add 40 ml of tetrahydrofuran was stirred under hydrogen chloride gas was passed into the after, filtered crude hydrochloride Icotinib recrystallized from isopropanol to give 500mg hydrochloride Icotinib. EXAMPLE 27 Icotinib Hydrochloride Synthesis

Figure imgf000016_0002

Exeter erlotinib erlotinib hydrochloride Exeter

500mg Icotinib Add 100 ml reaction flask, add 50 ml of isopropanol and stirred under hydrogen chloride gas was passed into the after, filtered crude hydrochloride Icotinib recrystallized from isopropanol to give 500mg hydrochloride Icotinib. Example 28 Icotinib Hydrochloride synthesis

Figure imgf000016_0003

Icotinib

Icotinib Hydrochloride

 

 

Icotinib
Icotinib.svg
Clinical data
Trade names Conmana, Icotinib
Legal status
?
Routes Oral tablets
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 52%
Metabolism Hepatic (mainly CYP3A4, lessCYP1A2)
Half-life 5.5 hrs (median)
Excretion >98% as metabolites, of which >90% via faeces, 9% via urine
Identifiers
CAS number 1204313-51-8 Yes
ATC code ?
PubChem CID 22024915
DrugBank DB00530
ChemSpider 10762174 Yes
UNII 9G6U5L461Q Yes
Chemical data
Formula C22H21N3O4 
Mol. mass 391.420 g/mol

References

  1.  Sordella, R. (20 August 2004). “Gefitinib-Sensitizing EGFR Mutations in Lung Cancer Activate Anti-Apoptotic Pathways”. Science 305(5687): 1163–1167. doi:10.1126/science.1101637. PMID 15284455.
  2.  Shi, Yuankai; Zhang, Li; Liu, Xiaoqing; Zhou, Caicun; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Shucai; Wang, Dong; Li, Qiang; Qin, Shukui; Hu, Chunhong; Zhang, Yiping; Chen, Jianhua; Cheng, Ying; Feng, Jifeng; Zhang, Helong; Song, Yong; Wu, Yi-Long; Xu, Nong; Zhou, Jianying; Luo, Rongcheng; Bai, Chunxue; Jin, Yening; Liu, Wenchao; Wei, Zhaohui; Tan, Fenlai; Wang, Yinxiang; Ding, Lieming; Dai, Hong; Jiao, Shunchang; Wang, Jie; Liang, Li; Zhang, Weimin; Sun, Yan. “Icotinib versus gefitinib in previously treated advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (ICOGEN): a randomised, double-blind phase 3 non-inferiority trial”. The Lancet Oncology 14 (10): 953–961. doi:10.1016/s1470-2045(13)70355-3.
  3. Tan, Fenlai; Gu, Aiqin; Zhang, Yiping; Jiao, Shun Chang; Wang, Chang-li; He, Jintao; Jia, Xueke; Zhang, Li; Peng, Jiewen; Wu, Meina; Ying, Kejing; Wang, Junye; Ma, Kewei; Zhang, Shucai; You, Changxuan; Ding, Lieming; Wang, Yinxiang; Shen, Haijiao; Wan, Jiang; Sun, Yan (2013). “Safety and efficacy results of a phase IV, open-label, multicenter, safety-monitoring study of icotinib in treating advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): ISAFE study”. ASCO 2013 Meeting: e19161.
  4.  Chen, Xiaofeng; Zhu, Quan; Liu, Yiqian; Liu, Ping; Yin, Yongmei; Guo, Renhua; Lu, Kaihua; Gu, Yanhong; Liu, Lianke; Wang, Jinghua; Wang, Zhaoxia; Røe, Oluf Dimitri; Shu, Yongqian; Zhu, Lingjun; Chellappan, Srikumar P. (16 May 2014). “Icotinib Is an Active Treatment of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: A Retrospective Study”. PLoS ONE 9 (5): e95897.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0095897.

 

WO2007138613A2 * 12 Mar 2007 6 Dec 2007 Venkateshappa Chandregowda A process for synthesis of [6,7-bis-(2-methoxyethoxy)-quinazolin-4-yl]-(3-ethynylphenyl)amine hydrochloride
WO2010003313A1 7 Jul 2009 14 Jan 2010 Zhejiang Beta Pharma Inc. Icotinib hydrochloride, synthesis, crystallographic form, medical combination, and uses thereof
CN1305468C 29 May 2003 21 Mar 2007 中国人民解放军第三○二医院 Bolengsu compound and its preparation, medicine composition and use
US7078409 26 Mar 2003 18 Jul 2006 Beta Pharma, Inc. Fused quinazoline derivatives useful as tyrosine kinase inhibitors
Patent Submitted Granted
Icotinib Hydrochloride, Synthesis, Crystalline Forms, Pharmaceutical Compositions, and Uses Thereof [US2011182882] 2011-07-28
Fused quinazoline derivatives useful as tyrosine kinase inhibitors [US7078409] 2004-03-11 2006-07-18

Curis phase 1 Cancer Trial for CUDC-427 Begins


CUDC-427, GDC-0917; RG-7459

Genentech Inc (Roche Holding AG)

Curis licenses GDC-0917 from Genentech

Curis Cancer Trial Begins
Curis Inc. has initiated patient dosing in a second Phase 1 dose-escalation study of CUDC-427 that is being conducted using a continuous, twice-daily oral dosing regimen in patients with advanced and refractory solid tumors or lymphoma.

FULL STORY

http://www.dddmag.com/news/2013/07/curis-cancer-trial-begins?et_cid=3387991&et_rid=523035093&type=headline

About CUDC-427 (GDC-0917)

CUDC-427 is an orally bioavailable small molecule that is designed to promote cancer cell death by antagonizing IAP proteins.  IAP proteins are a family of functionally and structurally related proteins that promote cancer cell survival by inhibiting programmed cell death, also known as apoptosis, which is a normal process inherent in every cell.  Using IAP proteins and other anti-apoptotic factors, cancer cells evade apoptosis in response to a variety of signals, including those provided by anti-cancer agents such as chemotherapy, or naturally occurring inflammatory and immune signals transmitted through members of the tumor necrosis factor, or TNF, family of factors.  Evasion from apoptosis is a fundamental mechanism whereby human cancers develop resistance to standard anti-cancer treatments.  IAP inhibitors such as CUDC-427 are designed to counteract the effects of IAP proteins, thus shifting the balance away from cancer cell survival and allowing apoptosis to proceed.

CUDC-427 was designed to mimic the endogenous IAP antagonist mitochondrial protein second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases/direct IAP-binding protein (Smac/DIABLO) that is released into the cytoplasm in response to pro-apoptotic stimuli.  CUDC-427 has demonstrated single-agent and combination anti-tumor activity in mouse xenograft tumor models when administered orally on a daily schedule, and IND-enabling safety studies have shown it to be well tolerated when dosed daily by oral administration, potentially enabling sustained target inhibition.

In October 2010, an open-labeled, uncontrolled, dose-escalation, Phase I clinical trial of CUDC-427 (NCT01226277; IAM4914g) began in patients with refractory solid tumors or lymphoma. Genentech recently completed this Phase I clinical trial in which 42 people received daily oral doses of CUDC-427 for two weeks, followed by a one week rest period.  This 21-day cycle is repeated until disease progression or study discontinuation for any other reason.  The primary endpoints of the study include evaluating the safety and tolerability and the pharmacokinetics of CUDC-427 in people with solid tumors or lymphoma and determining the maximum-tolerated-dose and a potential recommended dose for further clinical studies.  Secondary endpoints include a preliminary assessment of anti-tumor activity of CUDC-427 and evaluating pharmacodynamic markers.  Genentech plans to present full study results at a medical conference in mid-2013.  Please refer to http://www.clinicaltrials.gov for additional study details.

About Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins

Impairment of programmed cell death or apoptosis often contributes to the formation and progression of cancer, and evasion of apoptosis is one of the primary strategies by which cancer cells develop resistance to anticancer therapies.  Inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins are a family of functionally and structurally related proteins which include X-linked IAP (XIAP), cellular IAPs (cIAP1 and cIAP2), and melanoma IAP (ML-IAP). They confer protection from death-inducing stimuli by exerting a range of biological activities that promote cancer cell survival and proliferation.  Some even directly inhibit caspases, critical players in the execution of apoptosis.

Mutations, amplifications and chromosomal translocations of IAP genes are associated with various solid and hematologic cancer types, and increased IAP expression has been associated with an unfavorable prognosis and poor outcome for patients.  As a consequence, IAP proteins are considered promising molecular targets for anticancer therapy.

 

Amgen In Focus


Amgen In Focus
Seeking Alpha
According to Amgen, they have 45 drugs in development from Phase 1 to Phase 3. Conversely, Gilead has 32 drugs in development and Pfizer has 64. Meanwhile, Gilead only has 8 drugs in Phase 3, Pfizer has 25, and Amgen has 14. 7 of those Phase 3 

http://seekingalpha.com/article/1510002-amgen-in-focus?source=google_news

Amgen has the second deepest pipeline of drugs of the three large cap biotechs. According to Amgen, they have 45 drugs in development from Phase 1 to Phase 3. Conversely, Gilead has 32 drugs in development and Pfizer has 64. Meanwhile, Gilead only has 8 drugs in Phase 3, Pfizer has 25, and Amgen has 14. 7 of those Phase 3 drugs are focused on cancer treatments for Amgen, more than either Pfizer or Gilead. Keep in mind that 12.4 million people learn they have cancer each year, while 7.6 million people lose that battle each year. The CDC predicts that the global number of cancer related deaths will increase by 80% by 2030. It doesn’t take a rocket scientist to know that cancer treating drugs presents the largest opportunity for any drug maker considering those statistics. Amgen has the inside track versus Gilead and Pfizer as far as quantity of drugs in late stage development.

Pipeline
This information is current as of February 11, 2013. Amgen’s product pipeline will change over time as molecules move through the drug development process, including progressing to market or failing in clinical trials, due to the nature of the development process. This description contains forward-looking statements that involve significant risks and uncertainties, including those discussed in Amgen’s most recent Form 10-K and in Amgen’s periodic reports on Form 10-Q and Form 8-K, and actual results may vary materially. Amgen is providing this information as of the date above and does not undertake any obligation to update any forward-looking statements contained in this table as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.

 

Phase 1
Cancer Immunotherapy
Various cancer types
AMG 110 is an anti-EpCAM (epithelial cell adhesion molecule) x anti-CD3 (BiTE®) bispecific antibody. It is being investigated as a cancer treatment.
Antibody
Inflammatory diseases
AMG 139 is a human monoclonal antibody. It is being investigated as a treatment for Crohn’s disease. AMG 139 is being jointly developed in collaboration with AstraZeneca.
Antibody
Asthma
AMG 157 is a human monoclonal antibody that inhibits the action of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP). It is being investigated as a treatment for asthma. AMG 157 is being jointly developed in collaboration with AstraZeneca.
Antibody
Bone-related conditions
AMG 167 is a humanized monoclonal antibody that inhibits the action of sclerostin. AMG 167 is being developed in collaboration with UCB for bone-related conditions.
Other
Modality
Various cancer types
AMG 172 is a human anti-CD27L antibody drug conjugate. It is being investigated as a cancer treatment.
Oral/Small Molecule
Various cancer types
AMG 208 is a small molecule inhibitor of MET. It is being investigated as a cancer treatment.
Oral/Small Molecule
Various cancer types
AMG 232 is a small molecule. It is being investigated as a cancer treatment.
Oral/Small Molecule
Hematologic malignancies
AMG 319 is a small molecule inhibitor of PI3 Kinase delta. It is being investigated as a cancer treatment.
Antibody
Migraine
AMG 334 is a human monoclonal antibody that inhibits the receptor for Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (CGRP). It is being investigated for the prevention of migraine.
Oral/Small Molecule
Various cancer types
AMG 337 is a small molecule inhibitor of MET. It is being investigated as a cancer treatment.
Oral/Small Molecule
Autoimmune diseases
AMG 357 is a small molecule. It is being investigated as a treatment for autoimmune diseases.
Antibody
Systemic lupus erythematosus
AMG 557 is a human monoclonal antibody that inhibits the action of B7 related protein (B7RP-1). It is being investigated as a treatment for systemic lupus erythematosus. AMG 557 is being jointly developed in collaboration with AstraZeneca.
Other
Modality
Glioblastoma
AMG 595 is a human anti-EGFRvIII (epidermal growth factor receptor) antibody drug conjugate. It is being investigated as a treatment for glioblastoma.
Antibody
Autoimmune diseases
AMG 729 is a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets CD19 and CD32b to inhibit B cell. It is being investigated as a treatment for systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis.
Antibody
Various cancer types
AMG 780 is a human anti-angiopoietin antibody that inhibits the interaction between the endothelial cell-selective Tie2 receptor and its ligands Ang1 and Ang2. It is being investigated as a cancer treatment.
Antibody
Systemic lupus erythematosus
AMG 811 is a human monoclonal antibody that inhibits interferon gamma. It is being investigated as a treatment for systemic lupus erythematosus.
Antibody
Various cancer types
AMG 820 is a human monoclonal antibody that inhibits c-fms and decreases tumor associated macrophage (TAM) function. It is being investigated as a cancer treatment.
Protein/Peptibody
Type 2 diabetes
AMG 876 is a fusion protein. It is being investigated as a treatment for type 2 diabetes.
Oral/Small Molecule
Various cancer types
AMG 900 is a small molecule inhibitor of Aurora kinases A, B, and C. It is being investigated as a cancer treatment.

Phase 2
Oral/Small Molecule
Type 2 diabetes
AMG 151 is a small molecule glucokinase activator. It is being investigated as a treatment for type 2 diabetes.
Antibody
Inflammatory bowel disease
AMG 181 is a human monoclonal antibody that inhibits the action of alpha4/beta7. It is being investigated as a treatment for ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. AMG 181 is being jointly developed in collaboration with AstraZeneca.
Other
Modality
Secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with chronic kidney disease receiving dialysis
AMG 416 is a peptide agonist of the human cell surface calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR). It is being investigated as a treatment for secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with chronic kidney disease receiving dialysis.
Oral/Small Molecule
Schizophrenia
AMG 747 is a small molecule inhibitor of glycine transporter type-1 (GlyT-1). It is being investigated as a treatment for negative symptoms and cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia.
Cancer Immunotherapy
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia
Blinatumumab is an anti-CD19 x anti-CD3 (BiTE®) bispecific antibody. It is being investigated as a cancer treatment.
Cancer Immunotherapy
Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma
Blinatumumab is an anti-CD19 x anti-CD3 (BiTE®) bispecific antibody. It is being investigated as a cancer treatment.
Antibody
Inflammatory diseases
Brodalumab is a human monoclonal antibody that inhibits the interleukin-17 receptor. It is being investigated as a treatment for a variety of inflammatory diseases. Brodalumab is being jointly developed in collaboration with AstraZeneca.
Oral/Small Molecule
Heart failure
Omecamtiv mecarbil is a small molecule activator of cardiac myosin. It is being investigated for the treatment of heart failure. We are developing this product in collaboration with Cytokinetics, Inc.
Antibody
Rheumatoid arthritis
Denosumab is a human monoclonal antibody that specifically targets a ligand known as RANKL (that binds to a receptor known as RANK) which is a key mediator of osteoclast formation, function, and survival. It is being investigated across a range of conditions including osteoporosis, treatment-induced bone loss, rheumatoid arthritis and numerous tumor types across the spectrum of cancer-related bone diseases, including hypercalcemia of malignancy.
Protein/Peptibody
Various cancer types
Trebananib is a peptibody that inhibits the interaction between the endothelial cell-selective Tie2 receptor and its ligands Ang1 and Ang2. It is being investigated as a cancer treatment.
Antibody
Squamous cell head and neck cancer
Vectibix® is a human monoclonal antibody antagonist of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFr) pathway. It is being investigated as a cancer treatment.
Antibody
Giant cell tumor of the bone
Denosumab is a human monoclonal antibody that specifically targets a ligand known as RANKL (that binds to a receptor known as RANK) which is a key mediator of osteoclast formation, function, and survival. It is being investigated across a range of conditions including osteoporosis, treatment-induced bone loss, rheumatoid arthritis and numerous tumor types across the spectrum of cancer-related bone diseases, including hypercalcemia of malignancy.
Antibody
Hypercalcemia of malignancy
Denosumab is a human monoclonal antibody that specifically targets a ligand known as RANKL (that binds to a receptor known as RANK) which is a key mediator of osteoclast formation, function, and survival. It is being investigated across a range of conditions including osteoporosis, treatment-induced bone loss, rheumatoid arthritis and numerous tumor types across the spectrum of cancer-related bone diseases, including hypercalcemia of malignancy.
 

Phase 3
Antibody
Hyperlipidemia
AMG 145 is a human monoclonal antibody that inhibits Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin Type 9 (PCSK9). It is being investigated as a treatment for hyperlipidemia.
Protein/Peptibody
Myelodysplastic syndromes
Aranesp® is a recombinant human protein agonist of the erythropoietin receptor.
Brodalumab is a human monoclonal antibody that inhibits the interleukin-17 receptor. It is being investigated as a treatment for a variety of inflammatory diseases. Brodalumab is being jointly developed in collaboration with AstraZeneca.
Antibody
Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis
Denosumab is a human monoclonal antibody that specifically targets a ligand known as RANKL (that binds to a receptor known as RANK) which is a key mediator of osteoclast formation, function, and survival. It is being investigated across a range of conditions including osteoporosis, treatment-induced bone loss, rheumatoid arthritis and numerous tumor types across the spectrum of cancer-related bone diseases, including hypercalcemia of malignancy.
Antibody
Male osteoporosis (EU)
Denosumab is a human monoclonal antibody that specifically targets a ligand known as RANKL (that binds to a receptor known as RANK) which is a key mediator of osteoclast formation, function, and survival. It is being investigated across a range of conditions including osteoporosis, treatment-induced bone loss, rheumatoid arthritis and numerous tumor types across the spectrum of cancer-related bone diseases, including hypercalcemia of malignancy.
Antibody
Gastric cancer
Rilotumumab is a human monoclonal antibody that inhibits the action of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor. It is being investigated as a cancer treatment.
Antibody
Postmenopausal osteoporosis
Romosozumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that inhibits the action of sclerostin. It is being developed in collaboration with UCB for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.
Sensipar®/Mimpara® is an orally-administered small molecule that lowers parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in blood by increasing sensitivity of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) to extracellular calcium. It is being evaluated in post renal transplant patients.
Talimogene laherparepvec is an oncolytic immunotherapy derived from HSV-1. It is being investigated as a cancer treatment.
Protein/Peptibody
Ovarian cancer
Trebananib is a peptibody that inhibits the interaction between the endothelial cell-selective Tie2 receptor and its ligands Ang1 and Ang2. It is being investigated as a cancer treatment.
Antibody
First- and second-line colorectal cancer (U.S.)
Vectibix® is a human monoclonal antibody antagonist of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFr) pathway. It is being investigated as a cancer treatment.
Antibody
Cancer-related bone damage (skeletal-related events) in patients with multiple myeloma
Denosumab is a human monoclonal antibody that specifically targets a ligand known as RANKL (that binds to a receptor known as RANK) which is a key mediator of osteoclast formation, function, and survival. It is being investigated across a range of conditions including osteoporosis, treatment-induced bone loss, rheumatoid arthritis and numerous tumor types across the spectrum of cancer-related bone diseases, including hypercalcemia of malignancy.
Antibody
Delay or prevention of bone metastases in breast cancer
Denosumab is a human monoclonal antibody that specifically targets a ligand known as RANKL (that binds to a receptor known as RANK) which is a key mediator of osteoclast formation, function, and survival. It is being investigated across a range of conditions including osteoporosis, treatment-induced bone loss, rheumatoid arthritis and numerous tumor types across the spectrum of cancer-related bone diseases, including hypercalcemia of malignancy.
Antibody
Delay or prevention of bone metastases in prostate cancer (EU)
Denosumab is a human monoclonal antibody that specifically targets a ligand known as RANKL (that binds to a receptor known as RANK) which is a key mediator of osteoclast formation, function, and survival. It is being investigated across a range of conditions including osteoporosis, treatment-induced bone loss, rheumatoid arthritis and numerous tumor types across the spectrum of cancer-related bone diseases, including hypercalcemia of malignancy.
 
Phase 1 clinical trials investigate safety and proper dose ranges of a product candidate in a small number of human subjects.Phase 2 clinical trials investigate side effect profiles and efficacy of a product candidate in a large number of patients who have the disease or condition under study.Phase 3 clinical trials investigate the safety and efficacy of a product candidate in a large number of patients who have the disease or condition under study.

TLC388 (Lipotecan®) Taiwan Liposome Company Hepatic cancer drug candidate gets fast track approval status from SFDA


TLC388 (Lipotecan®) structure can be figured out from a link below of a poster

http://www.tlcbio.com/files/news/2011111701580783.pdf

IT IS A CAMPOTHECIN ANALOGUE

The str can be concluded from above picture from a poster by TLC BIO

TLC388 (Lipotecan) is a potent Topoisomerase-1 inhibitor and it can disrupt both Sonic Hedgehog and HIF1-α pathways to overcome cancer drug resistance and inhibit angiogenesis induced by tumor hypoxia. This phase I first-in-human study of Lipotecan examined the MTD, safety, anti-tumor activity and pharmacokinetic profiles of TLC388 in patients with advanced incurable solid tumors.

Methods: Lipotecan was administered intravenously on day 1, 8 and 15 of a 28-day cycle. Patients underwent safety assessments regularly and tumor assessments every other cycle. Pharmacokinetic samples were drawn on days 1, 8 and 15 of cycles 1 and 2 for all treated patients.

http://mct.aacrjournals.org/cgi/content/meeting_abstract/10/11_MeetingAbstracts/A89

http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00747474

MAR19 2013

China SFDA has granted fast track approval status to Taiwan Liposome company hepatic cancer drug  Lipotecan, shortening the review period. The drug will enter Phase 2 clinical trials  in China in the second half of this year. Lipotecan has been granted orphan drug status by US FDA and EU EMEA for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)

Nexavar is the standard of care in first line advanced liver cancer patients. Lipotecan as a second-line treatment allows patients who have failed prior treatment with Nexavar to maintain a six month course of the disease without progressing

Lipotecan is a  second generation camptothecin drug emphasize on modification on E-ring with a group which not only stabilizes the active site but also functions as a strong radio-sensitizer to overcome radio- and chemo-resistance that is frequently encountered in clinical therapies, enabling Lipotecan® to tailor at unmet needs.

The FDA has opened the inside track to Novartis’ experimental lung cancer drug, LDK378, which gained “Breakthrough Therapy” designation


 

The FDA has opened the inside track to Novartis’ experimental lung cancer drug, which gained “Breakthrough Therapy” designation that speeds the development and review schedules for new treatments. The Swiss drug giant plans to file for approval the drug, now in mid-stage clinical trials, in early 2014. Since clinical development began in 2011, the program has advanced with lightning speed compared with those that take 10 years or so to trial before submitted for approval.

While there are no guarantees of an FDA approval for Novartis’ compound, code-named LDK378, the “breakthrough” tag provides an early nod to the potential of the candidate to improve treatment for patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) mutations.

The “breakthrough” designation is also important because Novartis’ compound and others with the coveted status have a shot to be approved by the FDA without completing all three phases of clinical trials typically required before an approval decision.

Novartis’ LDK378 joined the “breakthrough” club after showing an 80% response rate in patients studied in Phase I trial of 88 subjects with advanced cases of ALK-positive NSCLC. The company has already begun a pair of Phase II studies of the compound for patients with the same kind of ALK-positive cancers, which account for about 3% to 8% of cases of NSCLC. And plans call for kicking off Phase III development of the new drug later this year.

“LDK378 is a strong example of our research approach, which focuses on identifying the underlying cause of disease pathways,” said Alessandro Riva, Novartis’ global head of oncology development, in a statement. “This Breakthrough Therapy designation will allow us to collaborate more closely with the FDA and potentially to expedite the availability of an important new treatment option for patients with ALK+ NSCLC.”

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