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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with AFRICURE PHARMA, ROW2TECH, NIPER-G, Department of Pharmaceuticals, Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers, Govt. of India as ADVISOR, earlier assignment was with GLENMARK LIFE SCIENCES LTD, as CONSUlTANT, Retired from GLENMARK in Jan2022 Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 32 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 32 PLUS year tenure till date Feb 2023, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 100 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 100 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, 227 countries, 7 continents, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 38 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 227 countries...... , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc He has total of 32 International and Indian awards

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Cannabidiol, カンナビジオール;



ChemSpider 2D Image | GWP42003-P | C21H30O2



Mol weight

FDA APPROVED, 2018/6/25, Epidiolex

(Greenwich Biosciences)

Anticonvulsant, Antiepileptic, Cannabinoid receptor agonist
Treatment of seizures
1,3-Benzenediol, 2-[(1R,6R)-3-methyl-6-(1-methylethenyl)-3-cyclohexen-1-yl]-5-pentyl-
GW Research Ltd 


CAS Registry Number: 13956-29-1
CAS Name: 2-[(1R,6R)-3-Methyl-6-(1-methylethenyl)-2-cyclohexen-1-yl]-5-pentyl-1,3-benzenediol
Additional Names:trans-(-)-2-p-mentha-1,8-dien-3-yl-5-pentylresorcinol
Molecular Formula: C21H30O2
Molecular Weight: 314.46
Percent Composition: C 80.21%, H 9.62%, O 10.18%
Literature References: Major nonpsychoactive constituent of cannabis, q.v. (Cannabis sativa L., Cannabinaceae). Exhibits multiple bioactivities including anticonvulsant, anxiolytic and anti-inflammatory effects. Isoln from wild hemp: R. Adams et al.,J. Am. Chem. Soc.62, 196, 2194 (1940); from hashish: A. Jacob, A. R. Todd, J. Chem. Soc.1940, 649. Structure: R. Mechoulam, Y. Shvo, Tetrahedron19, 2073 (1963). Crystal and molecular structure: T. Ottersen et al.,Acta Chem. Scand. B31, 807 (1977). Abs config: Y. Gaoni, R. Mechoulam, J. Am. Chem. Soc.93, 217 (1971). Synthesis of (±)-form: eidem, ibid.87, 3273 (1965); of (-)-form: T. Petrzilka et al.,Helv. Chim. Acta52, 1102 (1969); H. J. Kurth et al.,Z. Naturforsch.36B, 275 (1981). LC-IT-MS determn in cannabis products: A. A. M. Stolker et al.,J. Chromatogr. A1058, 143 (2004). Review of isoln, chemistry and metabolism: R. Mechoulam, L. Hanus, Chem. Phys. Lipids121, 35-43 (2002); of pharmacology and bioactivity: R. Mechoulam et al., J. Clin. Pharmacol.42, 11S-19S (2002).
Properties: Pale yellow resin or crystals, mp 66-67°. bp2 187-190° (bath temp 220°). bp0.001 130°. d440 1.040. nD20 1.5404. [a]D27 -125° (0.066 g in 5 ml 95% ethanol). [a]D18 -129° (c = 0.45 in ethanol). uv max (ethanol): 282, 274 nm (log e 3.10, 3.12). Practically insol in water or 10% NaOH. Sol in ethanol, methanol, ether, benzene, chloroform, petr ether.
Melting point: mp 66-67°
Boiling point: bp2 187-190° (bath temp 220°); bp0.001 130°
Optical Rotation: [a]D27 -125° (0.066 g in 5 ml 95% ethanol); [a]D18 -129° (c = 0.45 in ethanol)
Index of refraction:nD20 1.5404
Absorption maximum: uv max (ethanol): 282, 274 nm (log e 3.10, 3.12)
Density: d440 1.040
CAS Registry Number: 521-35-7
CAS Name: 6,6,9-Trimethyl-3-pentyl-6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran-1-ol
Additional Names: 3-amyl-1-hydroxy-6,6,9-trimethyl-6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran; CBN
Molecular Formula: C21H26O2
Molecular Weight: 310.43
Percent Composition: C 81.25%, H 8.44%, O 10.31%
Literature References: Nonpsychoactive constituent of cannabis, q.v. (Cannabis sativa L. Cannabinaceae); weak cannabinoid receptor ligand. Isoln from cannabis resin: T. B. Wood et al.,J. Chem. Soc.69, 539 (1896); R. S. Cahn, J. Chem. Soc.1931, 630; T. S. Work et al.,Biochem. J.33, 123 (1939). Structural studies: R. S. Cahn, J. Chem. Soc.1932, 1342; 1933, 1400; F. Bergel, K. Vögele, Ann.493, 250 (1932). Structure and synthesis: R. Adams et al.,J. Am. Chem. Soc.62, 2204 (1940). Crystal structure: T. Ottersen et al.,Acta Chem. Scand. B31, 781 (1977). Improved syntheses: P. C. Meltzer et al.,Synthesis1981, 985; J. Novák, C. A. Salemink, Tetrahedron Lett.23, 253 (1982). Pharmacology: I. Yamamoto et al., Chem. Pharm. Bull.35, 2144 (1987); F. Petitet et al., Life Sci.63, 1 (1998). Review of chromatographic determn methods in biological samples: C. Staub, J. Chromatogr. B733, 119-126 (1999). Comparison of pharmacology with other cannabinoids: I. Yamamoto et al., J. Toxicol. Toxin Rev.22, 577-589 (2003).
Properties: Leaflets from petr ether, mp 76-77°. Sublimes at 4 mm with a bath temp of 180-190°. bp0.05 185°. Insol in water. Sol in methanol, ethanol, aq alkaline solns.
Melting point: mp 76-77°
Boiling point: bp0.05 185°
Additional Names: Hemp; Indian hemp
Literature References: Annual, dioecious plant, Cannabis sativa L. Cannabinaceae. Used since antiquity for its edible seed, fiber to produce rope and cloth, and medicinally as an analgesic, anti-emetic, hypnotic and intoxicant. Habit. Temporate to tropical regions, originally in central Asia, China and India. Constit. More than 60 known cannabinoids, primarily isomeric tetrahydrocannabinols, cannabidiol, cannabinol, q.q.v.; other constituents include alkaloids, proteins, sugars, steroids, flavonoids and vitamins. Seeds and seed oil contain fatty acids, including linoleic, oleic, stearic, and palmetic acids, vitamin E, phytosterols, carotenes. Pistillate plants secrete a cannabinoid containing resin from which hashish or charas is prepared. Preparations of dried flowering tops from these plants are known as bhangganja, or marijuana. Comprehensive description of constituents: C. E. Turner et al., J. Nat. Prod. 43, 169-234 (1980). Review of analytical methods: T. J. Raharjo, R. Verpoorte, Phytochem. Anal. 15, 79-94 (2004); of pharmacology and toxicology: I. B. Adams, B. R. Martin, Addiction 91, 1585-1614 (1996). Series of articles on psychiatric effects, pharmacology and therapeutic uses: Br. J. Psychiatry 178, 101-128 (2001). Book: Cannabis and Cannabinoids: Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutic Potential, F. Grotenhermen, E. Russo, Eds. (Haworth Press, New York, 2002) 439 pp.
Derivative Type: Extract
Manufacturers’ Codes: GW-1000
Trademarks: Sativex (GW Pharma)
Literature References: Medicinal preparation containing approximately equal amounts of D9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol. Prepn of extracts from dried leaf and flowerhead: B. Whittle, G. Guy, WO 02064109 (2002 to GW Pharma); eidemUS04192760 (2004). Clinical evaluation for relief of neuropathic pain: J. S. Berman et al., Pain 112, 299 (2004); in multiple sclerosis: C. M. Brady et al., Mult. Scler. 10, 425 (2004). Review of development and clinical experience: P. F. Smith, Curr. Opin. Invest. Drugs 5, 748-754 (2004).
CAUTION: This is a controlled substance (hallucinogen): 21 CFR, 1308.11. Acute intoxication is frequently due to recreational use by ingestion or by inhalation of smoke. Psychological responses include euphoria, feelings of detachment and relaxation, visual and auditory hallucinations, anxiety, panic, paranoia, depression, drowsiness, psychotic symptoms. Other effects include impairment of cognitive and psychomotor performance, tachycardia, vasodilation, reddening of the conjuctivae, dry mouth, increased appetite. Chronic inhalation of smoke causes respiratory tract irritation and bronchoconstriction, and may be a significant risk factor for lung cancer. See Grotenhermen, Russo, loc. cit.
Therap-Cat: Analgesic.

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a phytocannabinoid discovered in 1940. It is one of some 113 identified cannabinoids in Cannabis plants, accounting for up to 40% of the plant’s extract.[6] As of 2018, preliminary clinical research on cannabidiol included studies of anxietycognitionmovement disorders, and pain.[7]

Cannabidiol can be taken into the body in multiple different ways, including by inhalation of cannabis smoke or vapor, as an aerosol spray into the cheek, and by mouth. It may be supplied as CBD oil containing only CBD as the active ingredient (no added THC or terpenes), a full-plant CBD-dominant hemp extract oil, capsules, dried cannabis, or as a prescription liquid solution.[2] CBD does not have the same psychoactivity as THC,[8][9][10] and may affect the actions of THC.[6][7][8][11] Although in vitro studies indicate CBD may interact with different biological targets, including cannabinoid receptors and other neurotransmitter receptors,[8][12] the mechanism of action for its possible biological effects has not been determined, as of 2018.[7][8]

In the United States, the cannabidiol drug Epidiolex has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treatment of two epilepsy disorders.[13] Side effects of long-term use listed on the Epidiolex label include somnolencedecreased appetitediarrheafatiguemalaiseweaknesssleeping problems, and others.[2]

The U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration has assigned Epidiolex a Schedule V classification while non-Epidiolex CBD remains a Schedule I drug prohibited for any use.[14] CBD is not scheduled under any United Nations drug control treaties, and in 2018 the World Health Organization recommended that it remain unscheduled.[15]

Medical uses


Medical reviews published in 2017 and 2018 incorporating numerous clinical trials concluded that cannabidiol is an effective treatment for certain types of childhood epilepsy.[16][17]

An orally administered cannabidiol solution (brand name Epidiolex) was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in June 2018 as a treatment for two rare forms of childhood epilepsy, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome.[13]

Other uses

Preliminary research on other possible therapeutic uses for cannabidiol include several neurological disorders, but the findings have not been confirmed by sufficient high-quality clinical research to establish such uses in clinical practice.[5][8][18][19][20][21]

Side effects

Preliminary research indicates that cannabidiol may reduce adverse effects of THC, particularly those causing intoxication and sedation, but only at high doses.[22] Safety studies of cannabidiol showed it is well-tolerated, but may cause tiredness, diarrhea, or changes in appetite as common adverse effects.[23] Epidiolex documentation lists sleepiness, insomnia and poor quality sleep, decreased appetite, diarrhea, and fatigue.[2]

Potential interactions

Laboratory evidence indicated that cannabidiol may reduce THC clearance, increasing plasma concentrations which may raise THC availability to receptors and enhance its effect in a dose-dependent manner.[24][25] In vitro, cannabidiol inhibited receptors affecting the activity of voltage-dependent sodium and potassium channels, which may affect neural activity.[26] A small clinical trial reported that CBD partially inhibited the CYP2C-catalyzed hydroxylation of THC to 11-OH-THC.[27]



Cannabidiol has very low affinity for the cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors but is said to act as an indirect antagonist of these receptors.[28][29] At the same time, it may potentiate the effects of THC by increasing CB1 receptor density or through another CB1receptor-related mechanism.[30]

Cannabidiol has been found to act as an antagonist of GPR55, a G protein-coupled receptor and putative cannabinoid receptor that is expressed in the caudate nucleus and putamen in the brain.[31] It has also been found to act as an inverse agonist of GPR3GPR6, and GPR12.[12] Although currently classified as orphan receptors, these receptors are most closely related phylogenetically to the cannabinoid receptors.[12] In addition to orphan receptors, CBD has been shown to act as a serotonin 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist,[32] and this action may be involved in its antidepressant,[33][34] anxiolytic,[34][35] and neuroprotective effects.[36][37] It is an allosteric modulator of the μ- and δ-opioid receptorsas well.[38] The pharmacological effects of CBD have additionally been attributed to PPARγ agonism and intracellular calcium release.[6]

Research suggests that CBD may exert some of its pharmacological action through its inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which may in turn increase the levels of endocannabinoids, such as anandamide, produced by the body.[6] It has also been speculated that some of the metabolites of CBD have pharmacological effects that contribute to the biological activity of CBD.[39]


The oral bioavailability of CBD is 13 to 19%, while its bioavailability via inhalation is 11 to 45% (mean 31%).[3][4] The elimination half-life of CBD is 18–32 hours.[5]

Cannabidiol is metabolized in the liver as well as in the intestines by CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 enzymes, and UGT1A7UGT1A9, and UGT2B7 isoforms.[2]

Pharmaceutical preparations

Nabiximols (brand name Sativex) is a patented medicine containing CBD and THC in equal proportions. The drug was approved by Health Canada in 2005 for prescription to treat central neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis, and in 2007 for cancer related pain.[40][41]


Cannabidiol is insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents such as pentane. At room temperature, it is a colorless crystalline solid.[42] In strongly basic media and the presence of air, it is oxidized to a quinone.[43] Under acidic conditions it cyclizes to THC,[44] which also occurs during pyrolysis (smoking).[45] The synthesis of cannabidiol has been accomplished by several research groups.[46][47][48]


Cannabidiol and THC biosynthesis[49]

Cannabis produces CBD-carboxylic acid through the same metabolic pathway as THC, until the next to last step, where CBDA synthase performs catalysis instead of THCA synthase.[50]


Cannabidiol numbering
Cannabidiol’s 7 double bond isomers and their 30 stereoisomers show


CBD was isolated from the cannabis plant in 1940, and its chemical structure was established in 1963.[7]

Society and culture


Cannabidiol is the generic name of the drug and its INN.[51]

Food and beverage

cbd-infused cold brew coffee and tea from kickback cold brew

An example of CBD-infused cold brew coffee & tea on a grocery store shelf.

Food and beverage products containing CBD were introduced in the United States in 2017.[52] Similar to energy drinks and protein barswhich may contain vitamin or herbal additives, food and beverage items can be infused with CBD as an alternative means of ingesting the substance.[53] In the United States, numerous products are marketed as containing CBD, but in reality contain little or none.[54] Some companies marketing CBD-infused food products with claims that are similar to the effects of prescription drugs have received warning lettersfrom the Food and Drug Administration for making unsubstantiated health claims.[55]

Plant sources

Selective breeding of cannabis plants has expanded and diversified as commercial and therapeutic markets develop. Some growers in the U.S. succeeded in lowering the proportion of CBD-to-THC to accommodate customers who preferred varietals that were more mind-altering due to the higher THC and lower CBD content.[56] Hemp is classified as any part of the cannabis plant containing no more than 0.3% THC in dry weight form (not liquid or extracted form).[57]

Legal status


CBD does not appear to have any psychotropic (“high”) effects such as those caused by ∆9-THC in marijuana, but may have anti-anxiety and anti-psychotic effects.[9] As the legal landscape and understanding about the differences in medical cannabinoids unfolds, it will be increasingly important to distinguish “medical marijuana” (with varying degrees of psychotropic effects and deficits in executive function) – from “medical CBD therapies” which would commonly present as having a reduced or non-psychoactive side-effect profile.[9][58]

Various strains of “medical marijuana” are found to have a significant variation in the ratios of CBD-to-THC, and are known to contain other non-psychotropic cannabinoids.[59] Any psychoactive marijuana, regardless of its CBD content, is derived from the flower (or bud) of the genus Cannabis. Non-psychoactive hemp (also commonly-termed industrial hemp), regardless of its CBD content, is any part of the cannabis plant, whether growing or not, containing a ∆-9 tetrahydrocannabinol concentration of no more than 0.3% on a dry-weight basis.[60] Certain standards are required for legal growing, cultivating, and producing the hemp plant. The Colorado Industrial Hemp Program registers growers of industrial hemp and samples crops to verify that the dry-weight THC concentration does not exceed 0.3%.[60]

United Nations

Cannabidiol is not scheduled under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances or any other UN drug treaty. In 2018, the World Health Organization recommended that CBD remain unscheduled.[15]

United States

In the United States, non-FDA approved CBD products are classified as Schedule I drugs under the Controlled Substances Act.[61] This means that production, distribution, and possession of non-FDA approved CBD products is illegal under federal law. In addition, in 2016 the Drug Enforcement Administration added “marijuana extracts” to the list of Schedule I drugs, which it defined as “an extract containing one or more cannabinoids that has been derived from any plant of the genus Cannabis, other than the separated resin (whether crude or purified) obtained from the plant.”[62] Previously, CBD had simply been considered “marijuana”, which is a Schedule I drug.[61][63]

In September 2018, following its approval by the FDA for rare types of childhood epilepsy,[13] Epidiolex was rescheduled (by the Drug Enforcement Administration) as a Schedule V drug to allow for its prescription use.[14] This change applies only to FDA-approved products containing no more than 0.1 percent THC.[14] This allows GW Pharmaceuticals to sell Epidiolex, but it does not apply broadly and all other CBD-containing products remain Schedule I drugs.[14] Epidiolex still requires rescheduling in some states before it can be prescribed in those states.[64][65]

CNN program that featured Charlotte’s Web cannabis in 2013 brought increased attention to the use of CBD in the treatment of seizure disorders.[66][67] Since then, 16 states have passed laws to allow the use of CBD products with a doctor’s recommendation (instead of a prescription) for treatment of certain medical conditions.[68] This is in addition to the 30 states that have passed comprehensive medical cannabis laws, which allow for the use of cannabis products with no restrictions on THC content.[68] Of these 30 states, eight have legalized the use and sale of cannabis products without requirement for a doctor’s recommendation.[68]

Some manufacturers ship CBD products nationally, an illegal action which the FDA has not enforced in 2018, with CBD remaining the subject of an FDA investigational new drugevaluation, and is not considered legal as a dietary supplement or food ingredient as of December 2018.[69][70] Federal illegality has made it difficult historically to conduct research on CBD.[71] CBD is openly sold in head shops and health food stores in some states where such sales have not been explicitly legalized.[72][73]

The 2014 Farm Bill[74] legalized the sale of “non-viable hemp material” grown within states participating in the Hemp Pilot Program.[75] This legislation defined hemp as cannabis containing less than 0.3% of THC delta-9, grown within the regulatory framework of the Hemp Pilot Program.[76] The 2018 Farm Bill allowed for interstate commerce of hemp derived products, though these products still fall under the purview of the FDA.[77][78]


Prescription medicine (Schedule 4) for therapeutic use containing 2 per cent (2.0%) or less of other cannabinoids commonly found in cannabis (such as ∆9-THC). A schedule 4 drug under the SUSMP is Prescription Only Medicine, or Prescription Animal Remedy – Substances, the use or supply of which should be by or on the order of persons permitted by State or Territory legislation to prescribe and should be available from a pharmacist on prescription.[79]

New Zealand

Cannabidiol is currently a class B1 controlled drug in New Zealand under the Misuse of Drugs Act. It is also a prescription medicine under the Medicines Act. In 2017 the rules were changed so that anyone wanting to use it could go to the Health Ministry for approval. Prior to this, the only way to obtain a prescription was to seek the personal approval of the Minister of Health.

Associate Health Minister Peter Dunne said restrictions would be removed, which means a doctor will now be able to prescribe cannabidiol to patients.[80]


On October 17, 2018, cannabidiol became legal for recreational and medical use.[81][82]


In 2019, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) announced that CBD and other cannabinoids would be classified as “novel foods“,[83] meaning that CBD products would require authorization under the EU Novel Food Regulation stating: because “this product was not used as a food or food ingredient before 15 May 1997, before it may be placed on the market in the EU as a food or food ingredient, a safety assessment under the Novel Food Regulation is required.”[84] The recommendation – applying to CBD extracts, synthesized CBD, and all CBD products, including CBD oil – was scheduled for a final ruling by the European Commission in March 2019.[83] If approved, manufacturers of CBD products would be required to conduct safety tests and prove safe consumption, indicating that CBD products would not be eligible for legal commerce until at least 2021.[83]

Cannabidiol is listed in the EU Cosmetics Ingredient Database (CosIng).[85] However, the listing of an ingredient, assigned with an INCI name, in CosIng does not mean it is to be used in cosmetic products or is approved for such use.[85]

Several industrial hemp varieties can be legally cultivated in Western Europe. A variety such as “Fedora 17” has a cannabinoid profile consistently around 1%, with THC less than 0.1%.[86]


CBD is classified as a medical product in Sweden.[87]

United Kingdom

Cannabidiol, in an oral-mucosal spray formulation combined with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, is a product available (by prescription only until 2017) for relief of severe spasticity due to multiple sclerosis (where other anti-spasmodics have not been effective).[88]

Until 2017, products containing cannabidiol marketed for medical purposes were classed as medicines by the UK regulatory body, the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) and could not be marketed without regulatory approval for the medical claims.[89][90] Cannabis oil is illegal to possess, buy, and sell.[91] In January 2019, the UK Food Standards Agency indicated it would regard CBD products, including CBD oil, as a novel food in the UK, having no history of use before May 1997, and indicating they must have authorization and proven safety before being marketed.[83][92]


While THC remains illegal, CBD is not subject to the Swiss Narcotic Acts because this substance does not produce a comparable psychoactive effect.[93] Cannabis products containing less than 1% THC can be sold and purchased legally.[94]


A 2016 literature review indicated that cannabidiol was under basic research to identify its possible neurological effects,[10] although as of 2016, there was limited high-quality evidence for such effects in people.[20][95][96] A 2018 meta-analysis compared the potential therapeutic properties of “purified CBD” with full-plant, CBD-rich cannabis extracts with regard to treating refractory (treatment-resistant) epilepsy, noting several differences.[97] The daily average dose of people using full-plant extracts was more than four times lower than of those using purified CBD, a possible entourage effect of CBD interacting with THC.[97]

Image result for cannabidiol synthesis





Cannabidiol: An overview of some chemical and pharmacological aspects. Part I: Chemical aspects


Image result for cannabidiol synthesis


Image result for cannabidiol synthesis


Discovery of KLS-13019, a Cannabidiol-Derived Neuroprotective Agent, with Improved Potency, Safety, and Permeability

 KannaLife Sciences, 3805 Old Easton Road, Doylestown, Pennsylvania 18902, United States
 PharmaAdvance, Inc., 6 Dongsheng West Road, Building D1, Jiangyin, Jiangsu Province, P. R. China
ACS Med. Chem. Lett.20167 (4), pp 424–428
DOI: 10.1021/acsmedchemlett.6b00009
*E-mail: Phone: 215-630-5433.
Abstract Image

Cannabidiol is the nonpsychoactive natural component of C. sativa that has been shown to be neuroprotective in multiple animal models. Our interest is to advance a therapeutic candidate for the orphan indication hepatic encephalopathy (HE). HE is a serious neurological disorder that occurs in patients with cirrhosis or liver failure. Although cannabidiol is effective in models of HE, it has limitations in terms of safety and oral bioavailability. Herein, we describe a series of side chain modified resorcinols that were designed for greater hydrophilicity and “drug likeness”, while varying hydrogen bond donors, acceptors, architecture, basicity, neutrality, acidity, and polar surface area within the pendent group. Our primary screen evaluated the ability of the test agents to prevent damage to hippocampal neurons induced by ammonium acetate and ethanol at clinically relevant concentrations. Notably, KLS-13019 was 50-fold more potent and >400-fold safer than cannabidiol and exhibited an in vitro profile consistent with improved oral bioavailability.

Discovery of KLS-13019, a cannabidiol-derived neuroprotective agent, with improved potency, safety, and permeability
ACS Med Chem Lett 2016, 7(4): 424

Synthesis of cannabidiol by condensation of olivetol with 4(R)-isopropenyl-1(S)-methyl-2-cyclohexen-1-ol is described.

Cannabidiol is prepared by the condensation of olivetol with 4(R)-isopropenyl-1(S)-methyl-2-cyclohexen-1-ol  in the presence of p-TsOH in toluene .

A solution of olivetol (1-1) (0.40 g, 2.2 mol, 1 equiv.), p-TsOH (40 mg, 0.21 mmol, 0.1 equiv.) and compound 6 (0.47 g, 3.1 mmol, 1.4 equiv.) in toluene (28 mL) was stirred at RT for 1.5 hours. TLC analysis indicated ~70% conversion of the starting olivetol. The reaction was stopped at this point and EtOAc (30 mL) was added to dilute the reaction mixture, which was then washed by saturated NaHCO3 aqueous solution (3 x 50 mL). The organic layer was dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated to give crude compound 1 (0.9 g). It was purified by column chromatography to give compound 1 (140 mg, yield 20%). HPLC purity: 97%. LC/MS (ESI): m/z 315 (M+1). 1H-NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3) δ 6.40-6.20 (br s, 2H), 6.10-5.90 (br s, 1H), 5.59 (s, 1H), 4.68 (s, 2H), 4.58 (s, 1H), 3.90-3.80 (m, 1H), 2.50-2.40 (m, 3H), 2.30-2.00 (m, 2H), 1.90-1.70 (m, 5H), 1.67 (s, 3H), 1.65-1.50 (m, 2H), 1.40-1.20 (m, 4H), 0.90 (t, J = 6.6 Hz, 3H). The analytical data are attached below. Optical Rotation of 1: [α]D 22= -121.4 (c 1.00, EtOH), the average of two measurements: -121.7 and -121.1 Literature: [α]D 22= -125 (Ben-Shabat, 2006).



J Am Chem Soc 1940, 62(1): 196

The red oil ethanolic extract from Minnesota wild hemp containing the carboxylated compound is submitted to a fractionated distillation with simultaneous thermal decarboxylation.

The fraction distilling at 190-210º C (2 mmHg) contains the desired compound as an intermediate oil, which is purified by treatment with 3,5-dinitrobenzoyl chloride  in pyridine to yield the crystalline bis(3,5-dinitrobenzoate) .

Finally this compound is treated with liq ammonia at room temperature in a high pressure bomb to obtain the FINAL cannabidiol.


Open Babel bond-line chemical structure with annotated hydrogens.<br>Click to toggle size.

<sup>1</sup>H NMR spectrum of C<sub>21</sub>H<sub>30</sub>O<sub>2</sub> in CDCL3 at 400 MHz.<br>Click to toggle size.

1H NMR spectrum of C21H30O2 in CDCL3 at 400 MHz.

R.J. Abraham, M. Mobli Modelling 1H NMR Spectra of Organic Compounds:
  Theory, Applications and NMR Prediction Software, Wiley, Chichester, 2008.



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Further reading

Clinical data
Trade names Sativex (with THC), Epidiolex
Synonyms CBD
AHFS/ International Drug Names
Routes of
Inhalation (smokingvaping), buccal (aerosol spray), oral (solution)[1][2]
Drug class Cannabinoid
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
  • AU: S4 (Prescription only)
  • UK: POM (Prescription only) or Dietary Supplement
  • US: Schedule I (except Epidiolex, Schedule V)
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability • Oral: 13–19%[3]
• Inhaled: 31% (11–45%)[4]
Elimination half-life 18–32 hours[5]
CAS Number
PubChem CID
ECHA InfoCard 100.215.986 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
Formula C21H30O2
Molar mass 314.464 g/mol
3D model (JSmol)
Melting point 66 °C (151 °F)

/////////////////////Cannabidiol, カンナビジオール , FDA 2018, GW Research Ltd , APH-1501, BRCX-014, BTX-1204, BTX-1503, CBD, GW-42003, GWP-42003, GWP-42003-P, PLT-101, PTL-101, ZYN-002

Elapegademase, エラペグアデマーゼ (遺伝子組換え)




ChemSpider 2D Image | ELAPEGADEMASE | C10H20N2O5

Elapegademase, エラペグアデマーゼ (遺伝子組換え)


Protein chemical formula C1797H2795N477O544S12

Protein average weight 115000.0 Da


APPROVED, FDA, Revcovi, 2018/10/5

CAS: 1709806-75-6

Elapegademase-lvlr, Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), alpha-carboxy-omega-methoxy-, amide with adenosine deaminase (synthetic)

L-Lysine, N6-[(2-methoxyethoxy)carbonyl]-

EZN-2279; PEG-rADA; Pegademase recombinant – Leadiant Biosciences; Pegylated recombinant adenosine deaminase; Polyethylene glycol recombinant adenosine deaminase; STM-279, UNII: 9R3D3Y0UHS

  • Originator Sigma-Tau Pharmaceuticals
  • Developer Leadiant Biosciences; Teijin Pharma
  • Class Antivirals; Polyethylene glycols
  • Mechanism of Action Adenosine deaminase stimulants
  • Orphan Drug Status Yes – Immunodeficiency disorders; Adenosine deaminase deficiency
  • Registered Adenosine deaminase deficiency; Immunodeficiency disorders
  • 05 Oct 2018 Registered for Adenosine deaminase deficiency (In adults, In children) in USA (IM)
  • 05 Oct 2018 Registered for Immunodeficiency disorders (In adults, In children) in USA (IM)
  • 04 Oct 2018 Elapegademase receives priority review status for Immunodeficiency disorders and Adenosine deaminase deficiency in USA

検索キーワード:Elapegademase (Genetical Recombination)

Elapegademase (Genetical Recombination)


Elapegademase is a PEGylated recombinant adenosine deaminase. It can be defined molecularly as a genetically modified bovine adenosine deaminase with a modification in cysteine 74 for serine and with about 13 methoxy polyethylene glycol chains bound via carbonyl group in alanine and lysine residues.[4] Elapegademase is generated in E. coli, developed by Leadiant Biosciences and FDA approved on October 5, 2018.[15]


Elapegademase is approved for the treatment of adenosine deaminase severe combined immune deficiency (ADA-SCID) in pediatric and adult patients.[1] This condition was previously treated by the use of pegamedase bovine as part of an enzyme replacement therapy.[2]

ADA-SCID is a genetically inherited disorder that is very rare and characterized by a deficiency in the adenosine deaminase enzyme. The patients suffering from this disease often present a compromised immune system. This condition is characterized by very low levels of white blood cells and immunoglobulin levels which results in severe and recurring infections.[3]


In clinical trials, elapegademase was shown to increase adenosine deaminase activity while reducing the concentrations of toxic metabolites which are the hallmark of ADA-SCID. As well, it was shown to improve the total lymphocyte count.[6]

Mechanism of action

The ADA-SCID is caused by the presence of mutations in the ADA gene which is responsible for the synthesis of adenosine deaminase. This enzyme is found throughout the body but it is mainly active in lymphocytes. The normal function of adenosine deaminase is to eliminate deoxyadenosine, created when DNA is degraded, by converting it into deoxyinosine. This degradation process is very important as deoxyadenosine is cytotoxic, especially for lymphocytes. Immature lymphocytes are particularly vulnerable as deoxyadenosine kills them before maturation making them unable to produce their immune function.[3]

Therefore, based on the causes of ADA-SCID, elapegademase works by supplementing the levels of adenosine deaminase. Being a recombinant and an E. coli-produced molecule, the use of this drug eliminates the need to source the enzyme from animals, as it was used previously.[1]


Elapegademase is administered intramuscularly and the reported Tmax, Cmax and AUC are approximately 60 hours, 240 mmol.h/L and 33000 hr.mmol/L as reported during a week.[Label]

Volume of distribution

This pharmacokinetic property has not been fully studied.

Protein binding

This pharmacokinetic property is not significant as the main effect is in the blood cells.


Metabolism studies have not been performed but it is thought to be degraded by proteases to small peptides and individual amino acids.

Route of elimination

This pharmacokinetic property has not been fully studied.

Half life

This pharmacokinetic property has not been fully studied.


This pharmacokinetic property has not been fully studied.


As elapegademase is a therapeutic protein, there is a potential risk of immunogenicity.

There are no studies related to overdose but the highest weekly prescribed dose in clinical trials was 0.4 mg/kg. In nonclinical studies, a dosage of 1.8 fold of the clinical dose produced a slight increase in the activated partial thromboplastin time.[Label]

FDA label. Download (145 KB)

General References

  1. Rare DR [Link]
  2. Globe News Wire [Link]
  3. NIH [Link]
  4. NIHS reports [File]
  5. WHO Drug Information 2017 [File]
  6. Revcovi information [File]

/////////////Elapegademase, Peptide, エラペグアデマーゼ (遺伝子組換え) , EZN-2279, Elapegademase-lvlr, Orphan Drug, STM 279, FDA 2018


“ALL FOR DRUGS” CATERS TO EDUCATION GLOBALLY, No commercial exploits are done or advertisements added by me. This is a compilation for educational purposes only. P.S. : The views expressed are my personal and in no-way suggest the views of the professional body or the company that I represent






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Calaspargase pegol, カラスパルガーゼペゴル

(tetramer; disulfide bridge 77-105, 77′-105′, 77”-105”, 77”’-105”’)

Image result for Calaspargase pegol


Calaspargase pegol

Molecular Formula, C1516-H2423-N415-O492-S8 (peptide monomer), Molecular Weight, 10261.2163

APPROVED, Asparlas, FDA 2018/12/20

CAS 941577-06-6



(27-Alanine,64-aspartic acid,252-threonine,263-asparagine)-L-asparaginase 2 (EC, L-asparagineamidohydrolase II) Escherichia coli (strain K12) tetramer alpha4, carbamates with alpha-carboxy-omega-methoxypoly(oxyethylene)

Asparaginase (Escherichia coli isoenzyme II), conjugate with alpha-(((2,5-dioxo-1-pyrrolidinyl)oxy)carbonyl)-omega-methoxypoly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl)

List Acronyms
  • Calaspargase pegol
  • calaspargase pegol-mknl
  • EZN-2285
  • Used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia., Antineoplastic
  • BAX-2303
    SC-PEG E. Coli L-asparaginase

Calaspargase pegol-mknl (trade name Asparlas) is a drug for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). It is approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in the United States as a component of a multi-agent chemotherapeutic regimen for ALL in pediatric and young adult patients aged 1 month to 21 years.[1]

Calaspargase pegol was first approved in 2018 in the U.S. as part of a multi-agent chemotherapeutic regimen for the treatment of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

In 2008, orphan drug designation was assigned in the E.U.

Calaspargase pegol is an engineered protein consisting of the E. coli-derived enzyme L-asparaginase II conjugated with succinimidyl carbonate monomethoxypolyethylene glycol (pegol).[2] The L-asparaginase portion hydrolyzes L-asparagine to L-aspartic acid depriving the tumor cell of the L-asparagine it needs for survival.[2] The conjugation with the pegol group increases the half-life of the drug making it longer acting.

Asparaginase is an important agent used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) [1]. Asparagine is incorporated into most proteins, and the synthesis of proteins is stopped when asparagine is absent, which inhibits RNA and DNA synthesis, resulting in a halt in cellular proliferation. This forms the basis of asparaginase treatment in ALL [1][2][6].

Calaspargase pegol, also known as asparlas, is an asparagine specific enzyme which is indicated as a part of a multi-agent chemotherapy regimen for the treatment of ALL [3]. The asparagine specific enzyme is derived from Escherichia coli, as a conjugate of L-asparaginase (L-asparagine amidohydrolase) and monomethoxypolyethylene glycol (mPEG) with a succinimidyl carbonate (SC) linker to create a stable molecule which increases the half-life and decreases the dosing frequency [Label][1].

Calaspargase pegol, by Shire pharmaceuticals, was approved by the FDA on December 20, 2018 for acute lymphoblastic anemia (ALL) [3].


This drug is is an asparagine specific enzyme indicated as a component of a multi-agent chemotherapeutic regimen for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in pediatric and young adult patients age 1 month to 21 years [Label].

The pharmacokinetics of calaspargase pegol were examined when given in combination with multiagent chemotherapy in 124 patients with B-cell lineage ALL [3]. The FDA approval of this drug was based on the achievement and maintenance of nadir serum asparaginase activity above the level of 0.1 U/mL when administering calaspargase, 2500 U/m2 intravenously, at 3-week intervals.

Associated Conditions


The effect of this drug is believed to occur by selective killing of leukemic cells due to depletion of plasma L-asparagine. Leukemic cells with low expression of asparagine synthetase are less capable of producing L-asparagine, and therefore rely on exogenous L-asparagine for survival [Label]. When asparagine is depleted, tumor cells cannot proliferate [6].

During remission induction, one dose of SC-PEG (2500 IU/m2) results in a sustained therapeutic serum asparaginase activity (SAA) without excessive toxicity or marked differences in the proportion of patients with low end-induction minimum residual disease (MRD) [5].

Pharmacodynamic (PD) response was studied through measurement of plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) asparagine concentrations with an LC-MS/MS assay (liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry). Asparagine concentration in plasma was sustained below the assay limit of quantification for more than 18 days after one dose of calaspargase pegol, 2,500 U/m2, during the induction phase of treatment. Average cerebrospinal asparagine concentrations decreased from a pretreatment concentration of 0.8 μg/mL (N=10) to 0.2 μg/mL on Day 4 (N=37) and stayed decreased at 0.2 μg/mL (N=35) 25 days after the administration of one of 2,500 U/m2 in the induction phase [Label].

Mechanism of action

L-asparaginase (the main component of this drug) is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of the amino acid L-asparagine into both aspartic acid and ammonia [Label][2]. This process depletes malignant cells of their required asparagine. The depletion of asparagine then blocks protein synthesis and tumor cell proliferation, especially in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. As a result, tumor cell death occurs. Asparagine is important in protein synthesis in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells which, unlike normal cells, cannot produce this amino acid due to lack of the enzyme asparagine synthase [2][Label].

Pegylation decreases enzyme antigenicity and increases its half-life. Succinimidyl carbamate (SC) is used as a PEG linker to facilitate attachment to asparaginase and enhances the stability of the formulation [4][1]. SC-PEG urethane linkages formed with lysine groups are more hydrolytically stable [2].


Pancreatitis, hepatotoxicity, hemorrhage, and thrombosis have been observed with calaspargase pegol use [Label].

Pancreatitis: Discontinue this drug in patients with pancreatitis, and monitor blood glucose.

Hepatotoxicity: Hepatic function should be tested regularly, and trough levels of this drug should be measured during the recovery phase of the drug cycle [Label].

Hemorrhage or Thrombosis: Discontinue this drug in serious or life-threatening hemorrhage or thrombosis. In cases of hemorrhage, identify the cause of hemorrhage and treat appropriately. Administer anticoagulant therapy as indicated in thrombotic events [Label].

A note on hypersensitivity:

Observe the patient for 1 hour after administration of calaspargase pegol for possible hypersensitivity [Label]. In cases of previous hypersensitivity to this drug, discontinue this drug immediately.

Lactation: Advise women not to breastfeed while taking this drug [Label].

Pregnancy: There are no available data on the use of calaspargase pegol in pregnant women to confirm a risk of drug-associated major birth defects and miscarriage. Published literature studies in pregnant animals suggest asparagine depletion can cause harm to the animal offspring. It is therefore advisable to inform women of childbearing age of this risk. The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for humans is unknown at this time [Label].

Pregnancy testing should occur before initiating treatment. Advise females of reproductive potential to avoid becoming pregnant while taking this drug. Females should use effective contraceptive methods, including a barrier methods, during treatment and for at least 3 months after the last dose. There is a risk for an interaction between calaspargase pegol and oral contraceptives. The concurrent use of this drug with oral contraceptives should be avoided. Other non-oral contraceptive methods should be used in women of childbearing potential [Label].

  1. Angiolillo AL, Schore RJ, Devidas M, Borowitz MJ, Carroll AJ, Gastier-Foster JM, Heerema NA, Keilani T, Lane AR, Loh ML, Reaman GH, Adamson PC, Wood B, Wood C, Zheng HW, Raetz EA, Winick NJ, Carroll WL, Hunger SP: Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of calaspargase pegol Escherichia coli L-asparaginase in the treatment of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: results from Children’s Oncology Group Study AALL07P4. J Clin Oncol. 2014 Dec 1;32(34):3874-82. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2014.55.5763. Epub 2014 Oct 27. [PubMed:25348002]
  2. Appel IM, Kazemier KM, Boos J, Lanvers C, Huijmans J, Veerman AJ, van Wering E, den Boer ML, Pieters R: Pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and intracellular effects of PEG-asparaginase in newly diagnosed childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: results from a single agent window study. Leukemia. 2008 Sep;22(9):1665-79. doi: 10.1038/leu.2008.165. Epub 2008 Jun 26. [PubMed:18580955]
  3. Blood Journal: Randomized Study of Pegaspargase (SS-PEG) and Calaspargase Pegol (SPC-PEG) in Pediatric Patients with Newly Diagnosed Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia or Lymphoblastic Lymphoma: Results of DFCI ALL Consortium Protocol 11-001 [Link]


  1. ^ “FDA approves longer-acting calaspargase pegol-mknl for ALL” (Press release). Food and Drug Administration. December 20, 2018.
  2. Jump up to:a b “Calaspargase pegol-mknl”NCI Drug Dictionary. National Cancer Institute.

FDA label, Download(300 KB)

General References

  1. Angiolillo AL, Schore RJ, Devidas M, Borowitz MJ, Carroll AJ, Gastier-Foster JM, Heerema NA, Keilani T, Lane AR, Loh ML, Reaman GH, Adamson PC, Wood B, Wood C, Zheng HW, Raetz EA, Winick NJ, Carroll WL, Hunger SP: Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of calaspargase pegol Escherichia coli L-asparaginase in the treatment of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: results from Children’s Oncology Group Study AALL07P4. J Clin Oncol. 2014 Dec 1;32(34):3874-82. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2014.55.5763. Epub 2014 Oct 27. [PubMed:25348002]
  2. Appel IM, Kazemier KM, Boos J, Lanvers C, Huijmans J, Veerman AJ, van Wering E, den Boer ML, Pieters R: Pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and intracellular effects of PEG-asparaginase in newly diagnosed childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: results from a single agent window study. Leukemia. 2008 Sep;22(9):1665-79. doi: 10.1038/leu.2008.165. Epub 2008 Jun 26. [PubMed:18580955]
  3. Asparlas Approval History [Link]
  4. NCI: Calaspargase Pegol [Link]
  5. Blood Journal: Randomized Study of Pegaspargase (SS-PEG) and Calaspargase Pegol (SPC-PEG) in Pediatric Patients with Newly Diagnosed Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia or Lymphoblastic Lymphoma: Results of DFCI ALL Consortium Protocol 11-001 [Link]
  6. Medsafe NZ: Erwinaze inj [File]
Calaspargase pegol-mknl
Clinical data
Trade names Asparlas
Synonyms EZN-2285
Legal status
Legal status
CAS Number

/////////////Calaspargase pegol, Peptide, FDA 2018, EZN-2285, カラスパルガーゼペゴル  , BAX-2303, SC-PEG E. Coli L-asparaginase , SHP-663, orphan drug


Tagraxofusp タグラクソフスプ

(disulfide bridge: 187-202, 407-475)

Image result for Tagraxofusp US FDA APPROVAL

methionyl (1)-Corynebacterium diphtheriae toxin fragment (catalytic and transmembrane domains) (2-389, Q388R variant)-His390-Met391-human interleukin 3 (392-524, natural P399S variant) fusion protein, produced in Escherichia coli antineoplastic,



CAS: 2055491-00-2
C2553H4026N692O798S16, 57694.4811

FDA 2018/12/21, Elzonris APPROVED

Antineoplastic, Immunotoxin, Peptide

DT-3881L3 / DT388IL3 / Molecule 129 / Molecule-129 / SL-401


Diphteria toxin fusion protein with peptide and interleukin 3 Treatment of blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (CD123-directed)

FDA approves first treatment for rare blood disease


December 21, 2018


The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Elzonris (tagraxofusp-erzs) infusion for the treatment of blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) in adults and in pediatric patients, two years of age and older.

“Prior to today’s approval, there had been no FDA approved therapies for BPDCN. The standard of care has been intensive chemotherapy followed by bone marrow transplantation. Many patients with BPDCN are unable to tolerate this intensive therapy, so there is an urgent need for alternative treatment options,” said Richard Pazdur, M.D., director of the FDA’s Oncology Center of Excellence and acting director of the Office of Hematology and Oncology Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research.

BPDCN is an aggressive and rare disease of the bone marrow and blood that can affect multiple organs, including the lymph nodes and the skin. It often presents as leukemia or evolves into acute leukemia. The disease is more common in men than women and in patients 60 years and older.

The efficacy of Elzonris was studied in two cohorts of patients in a single-arm clinical trial. The first trial cohort enrolled 13 patients with untreated BPDCN, and seven patients (54%) achieved complete remission (CR) or CR with a skin abnormality not indicative of active disease (CRc). The second cohort included 15 patients with relapsed or refractory BPDCN. One patient achieved CR and one patient achieved CRc.

Common side effects reported by patients in clinical trials were capillary leak syndrome (fluid and proteins leaking out of tiny blood vessels into surrounding tissues), nausea, fatigue, swelling of legs and hands (peripheral edema), fever (pyrexia), chills and weight increase. Most common laboratory abnormalities were decreases in lymphocytes, albumin, platelets, hemoglobin and calcium, and increases in glucose and liver enzymes (ALT and AST). Health care providers are advised to monitor liver enzyme levels and for signs of intolerance to the infusion. Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding should not take Elzonris because it may cause harm to a developing fetus or newborn baby.

The labeling for Elzonris contains a Boxed Warning to alert health care professionals and patients about the increased risk of capillary leak syndrome which may be life-threatening or fatal to patients in treatment.

The FDA granted this application Breakthrough Therapy and Priority Reviewdesignation. Elzonris also received Orphan Drug designation, which provides incentives to assist and encourage the development of drugs for rare diseases.

The FDA granted the approval of Elzonris to Stemline Therapeutics.

Tagraxofusp is an IL-3 conjugated truncated diphtheria toxin.[4] It is composed by the catalytic and translocation domains of diphtheria toxin fused via Met-His linker to a full-length human IL-3.[67] Tagraxofusp was developed by Stemline Therapeutics Inc and FDA approved on December 21, 2018, as the first therapy for blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm.[3] This drug achieved approval after being designed with the title of breakthrough therapy, priority review, and orphan drug status.[2] Tagraxofusp has been designed as an orphan drug in EU since November 2015.[7]

Tagraxofusp is indicated for the treatment of blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) in adults and pediatric patients over 2 years old. This treatment allows an alternative for the previous intense treatment which consisted of intensive chemotherapy followed by bone marrow transplantation.[2]

BPDCN is a rare hematologic malignancy derived from plasmacytoid dendritic cells. It is characterized by the significantly increased expression of cells expressing CD4/CD56/CD123 and other markers restricted to plasmacytoid dendritic cells and a lack of expression of lymphoid, natural killer or myeloid lineage-associated antigens.[1] A key feature of the malignant cells is the overexpression of CD123, also known as interleukin-3 receptor, and the constant requirement of IL-3 for survival.[6]

Associated Conditions

PharmacodynamicsIn vitro studies showed that BPDCN blasts are ultrasensitive to tagraxofusp by presenting IC50 values in the femtomolar scale.[6] One of the main physiological changes of BPDCN is the presence of elevated interferon alpha and to produce an inflammatory response. In trials with tagraxofusp and following cell depletion, there was observed a significant reduction in the levels of interferon alpha and interleukin 6.[5]

In clinical trials, tagraxofusp reported complete remission and complete remission with a skin abnormality not indicative of active disease in 54% of the treated patients.[2]

Mechanism of actionTagraxofusp binds to cells expressing the IL-3 receptor and delivers in them the diphtheria toxin after binding. This is very useful as the malignant cells in BPDCN present a particularly high expression of IL-3 receptor (CD123+ pDC).[5] To be more specific, tagraxofusp gets internalized to the IL-3 receptor-expressing cell allowing for diphtheria toxin translocation to the cytosol and followed by the binding to ADP-ribosylation elongation factor 2 which is a key factor for protein translation. Once the protein synthesis is inhibited, the cell goes under a process of apoptosis.[4,6]

As the apoptosis induction requires an active state of protein synthesis, tagraxofusp is not able to perform its apoptotic function in dormant cells.[6]


The reported Cmax in clinical trials was of around 23 ng/ml.[6] After a 15 min infusion of a dose of 12 mcg/kg the registered AUC and Cmax was 231 mcg.h/L and 162 mcg/L respectively.[Label]

Volume of distributionIn BPDCN patients, the reported volume of distribution is of 5.1 L.[Label]

Protein bindingTagraxofusp is not a substrate of p-glycoprotein and other efflux pump proteins associated with multidrug resistance.[6]

MetabolismFor the metabolism, as tagraxofusp is a fusion protein, it is expected to get processed until small peptides and amino acids by the actions of proteases.

Route of eliminationTagraxofusp is eliminated as small peptides and amino acids. More studies need to be performed to confirm the main elimination route.

Half lifeThe reported half-life of tagraxofusp is of around 51 minutes.[6]

ClearanceThe clearance of tagraxofusp was reported to fit a mono-exponential model.[6] The reported clearance rate is reported to be of 7.1 L/h.[Label]

ToxicityThere haven’t been analysis observing the carcinogenic, mutagenic potential nor the effect on fertility. However, in studies performed in cynomolgus monkeys at an overdose rate of 1.6 times the recommended dose, it was observed severe kidney tubular degeneration. Similar studies at the recommended dose reported the presence of degeneration and necrosis of choroid plexus in the brain were. This effect seems to be progressive even 3 weeks after therapy withdrawal.[Label]

  1. Kharfan-Dabaja MA, Lazarus HM, Nishihori T, Mahfouz RA, Hamadani M: Diagnostic and therapeutic advances in blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm: a focus on hematopoietic cell transplantation. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2013 Jul;19(7):1006-12. doi: 10.1016/j.bbmt.2013.01.027. Epub 2013 Feb 5. [PubMed:23396213]
  2. FDA news [Link]
  3. FDA approvals [Link]
  4. Oncology nursing news [Link]
  5. Stemline therapeutics news [Link]
  6. Blood journal [Link]
  7. NHS reports [Link]

FDA label, Download (455 KB)

/////////Antineoplastic, Immunotoxin, Peptide, Tagraxofusp, Elzonris, タグラクソフスプ  , Stemline Therapeutics, Breakthrough Therapy,  Priority Review designation,  Orphan Drug designation, fda 2018, DT-3881L3 , DT388IL3 ,  Molecule 129 ,  Molecule-129 ,  SL-401, 

Omadacycline tosylate

1075240-43-5.pngChemSpider 2D Image | Omadacycline tosylate | C36H48N4O10S

Image result for Omadacycline tosylate

Omadacycline tosylate

728.8521, C29H40N4O7. C7H8O3S

CAS: 1075240-43-5

389139-89-3 FREE FORM

FDA 2018/10/3, Nuzyra



(4S,4aS,5aR,12aS)-4,7-Bis(dimethylamino)-9-{[(2,2-dimethylpropyl)amino]methyl}-3,10,12,12a-tetrahydroxy-1,11-dioxo-1,4,4a,5,5a,6,11,12a-octahydro-2-tetracenecarboxamide 4-methylbenzenesulfonate (1:1)
1075240-43-5 [RN]
2-Naphthacenecarboxamide, 4,7-bis(dimethylamino)-9-[[(2,2-dimethylpropyl)amino]methyl]-1,4,4a,5,5a,6,11,12a-octahydro-3,10,12,12a-tetrahydroxy-1,11-dioxo-, (4S,4aS,5aR,12aS)-, 4-methylbenzenesulfonate (1:1) (salt)
Amadacycline tosylate
PTK 0796 / PTK-0796
FREE FORM, 389139-89-3 FREE FORM

Omadacycline has been used in trials studying the treatment of Bacterial Pneumonia, Bacterial Infections, Community-Acquired Infections, and Skin Structures and Soft Tissue Infections. Omadacycline represents a significant advance over the well-known tetracycline family, and has been shown to be highly effective in animal models at treating increasingly problematic, clinically prevalent infections caused by gram-positive bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and by gram-negative, atypical and anaerobic bacteria, including those resistant to currently available classes of antibiotics and known to cause diseases such as pneumonias, urinary tract infections, skin diseases and blood-borne infections in both the hospital and community settings.

Omadacycline (formerly known as PTK-0796)[1] is a broad spectrum antibiotic belonging to the aminomethylcycline subclass[2] of tetracycline antibiotics. In the United States, it was approved in October 2018 for the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia and acute skin and skin structure infections.

In vitro studies

In vitro studies have shown that omadacycline has activity against a broad range of Gram-positive and select Gram-negativepathogens.[3] Omadacycline has potent in vitro activity against Gram-positive aerobic bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), pencillin-resistant and multi-drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus. Omadacycline also has antimicrobial activity against common Gram-negative aerobes, some anaerobes, and atypical bacteria such as Legionella and Chlamydia.[4] This activity translated to potent efficacy for omadacycline in an in vivo systemic infection model in mice.[5]

Additional in vitro and in vivo studies of omadacycline metabolism, disposition, and drug interactions show that omadacycline is metabolically stable (i.e., it does not undergo significant biotransformation) and neither inhibits nor interacts with metabolizing enzymes or transporters.[6]

Mechanism of action

The mechanism of action of omadacycline is similar to that of other tetracyclines – inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis. Omadacycline has activity against bacterial strains expressing the two main forms of tetracycline resistance (efflux and ribosomal protection).[7]

Clinical trials

phase 2 study was conducted comparing the safety and efficacy of omadacycline to linezolid for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections. Patients were randomized at 11 sites in the US to receive either omadacycline 100 mg intravenously once daily with an option to transition to 200 mg orally once daily or linezolid 600 mg intravenously twice daily with an option to transition to 600 mg orally twice daily. The results indicated that omadacycline is well-tolerated and has the potential to be an effective treatment in patients with complicated skin and skin structure infections.[8]

In June 2013, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) designated the intravenous and oral formulations of omadacycline as a qualified infectious disease product in the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections and community-acquired bacterial pneumonia.[9]

A 650 patient phase 3 registration study comparing omadacycline to linezolid for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections began in June 2015.[10][11]Omadacycline met the primary efficacy endpoint of early clinical response with statistical non-inferiority (10% margin) compared to linezolid, and was generally safe and well-tolerated. The most common treatment-emergent adverse events were gastrointestinal side effects (18.0% for omadacycline vs. 15.8% for linezolid).[12]

A 750 patient phase 3 study comparing omadacycline to moxifloxacin for the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia began in November 2015.[13] Omadacycline was statistically non-inferior to moxifloxacin at the early clinical response, 72 to 120 hours after therapy was initiated.[14]

In May 2016, a phase 1b study of omadacycline in urinary tract infection was initiated.[15]

In August 2016, a second phase 3 study of omadacycline was initiated in patients with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections, comparing the efficacy and safety of once-daily, oral omadacycline to that of twice-daily, oral linezolid.[16] In July 2017, analysis of the data showed that all of the primary and secondary endpoints required for submission to the FDA and EMA were met. This was the third phase 3 registration study of omadacycline with favorable results.[17]


Omadacycline was invented at Tufts University School of Medicine by a research team led by Mark L. Nelson with Mohamed Ismail while at Tufts and Kwasi Ohemeng and Laura Honeyman at Paratek Pharmaceuticals, Boston. The team applying their chemistry methods to the tetracycline scaffolds created over 3000 new derivatives, leading to the novel third generation compounds omadacycline and sarecycline18[18]


Tetrahedron Letters (2008), 49(42), 6095-6100



WO 2009120389

WO 2009111064

WO 2017165729

WO 2018026987

WO 2018085216


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Image result for Omadacycline tosylate

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Route 3


  1. Jump up^ Boggs, Jennifer. “Antibiotic Firm Paratek Joins IPO Queue; Aiming for $92M” Clarivate Analytics. Retrieved October 17, 2017.
  2. Jump up^ Honeyman, Laura; Ismail, Mohamed; Nelson, Mark L.; Bhatia, Beena; Bowser, Todd E.; Chen, Jackson; Mechiche, Rachid; Ohemeng, Kwasi; Verma, Atul K.; Cannon, E. Pat; MacOne, Ann; Tanaka, S. Ken; Levy, Stuart (2015). “Structure-Activity Relationship of the Aminomethylcyclines and the Discovery of Omadacycline”Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy59 (11): 7044–7053. doi:10.1128/AAC.01536-15PMC 4604364PMID 26349824.
  3. Jump up^ Tanaka, S. Ken (20 June 2016). “In Vitro and In Vivo Assessment of Cardiovascular Effects with Omadacycline”Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy60 (9): 5247–53. doi:10.1128/AAC.00320-16PMC 4997885PMID 27324778.
  4. Jump up^ Villano, Stephen (19 August 2016). “Omadacycline: development of a novel aminomethylcycline antibiotic for treating drug-resistant bacterial infections”Future Microbiology11: 1421–1434. doi:10.2217/fmb-2016-0100. Retrieved 24 August 2016.
  5. Jump up^ MacOne, A. B.; Caruso, B. K.; Leahy, R. G.; Donatelli, J.; Weir, S.; Draper, M. P.; Tanaka, S. K.; Levy, S. B. (February 2014). “In Vitro and in Vivo Antibacterial Activities of Omadacycline, a Novel Aminomethylcycline”Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy58 (2): 1127–1135. doi:10.1128/AAC.01242-13PMC 3910882PMID 24295985.
  6. Jump up^ Flarakos, Jimmy (8 August 2016). “Clinical disposition, metabolism and in vitro drug–drug interaction properties of omadacycline”Xenobiotica: 1–15. doi:10.1080/00498254.2016.1213465.
  7. Jump up^ Draper, M. P.; Weir, S.; MacOne, A.; Donatelli, J.; Trieber, C. A.; Tanaka, S. K.; Levy, S. B. (March 2014). “Mechanism of Action of the Novel Aminomethylcycline Antibiotic Omadacycline”Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy58 (3): 1279–1283. doi:10.1128/AAC.01066-13PMC 3957880PMID 24041885.
  8. Jump up^ Noel, G. J.; Draper, M. P.; Hait, H.; Tanaka, S. K.; Arbeit, R. D. (November 2012). “A Randomized, Evaluator-Blind, Phase 2 Study Comparing the Safety and Efficacy of Omadacycline to Those of Linezolid for Treatment of Complicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections”Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy56 (11): 5650–5654. doi:10.1128/AAC.00948-12PMC 3486554PMID 22908151.
  9. Jump up^ “Paratek Pharmaceuticals Announces FDA Grant of Qualified Infectious Disease Product (QIDP) Designation for Its Lead Product Candidate, Omadacycline” PR Newswire. January 3, 2013. Retrieved October 17, 2017.
  10. Jump up^ Seiffert, Don (2015). “Paratek presents new trial data for antibiotic as late-stage trials continue” American City Business Journals. Retrieved October 17,2017.
  11. Jump up^ “Omadacycline Versus Linezolid for the Treatment of ABSSSI (EudraCT #2013-003644-23)” Retrieved 2015-10-13.
  12. Jump up^ “Paratek Announces that Omadacycline Met All Primary and Secondary Efficacy Outcomes Designated by FDA and EMA in a Phase 3 Study in Acute Bacterial Skin Infections; Omadacycline was Generally Safe and Well-Tolerated” Retrieved 3 July 2016.
  13. Jump up^ “Omadacycline vs Moxifloxacin for the Treatment of CABP (EudraCT #2013-004071-13)” Retrieved 2015-10-13.
  14. Jump up^ “Paratek Announces Positive Phase 3 Study of Omadacycline in Community-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia” April 3, 2017. Retrieved 16 May 2017.
  15. Jump up^ “Paratek Initiates Phase 1b Study of Omadacycline in Urinary Tract Infection” May 2, 2016. Retrieved 3 July 2016.
  16. Jump up^ “Paratek Initiates Phase 3 Study of Oral-only Omadacycline in ABSSSI” August 15, 2016. Retrieved 15 August 2016.
  17. Jump up^ “Paratek Announces Phase 3 Study of Oral-Only Dosing of Omadacycline Met All Primary and Secondary FDA and EMA Efficacy Endpoints in Acute Bacterial Skin Infections” July 17, 2017. Retrieved 19 July 2017.
  18. Jump up^ Ref: Mark L. Nelson and Kwasi Ohemeng: 4-dedimethylamino tetracycline compounds, United States (US) patent number 7,056,902 (2006)
Clinical data
Trade names Nuzyra
CAS Number
PubChem CID
Chemical and physical data
Formula C29H40N4O7
Molar mass 556.66 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)

/////////////FDA 2018, Nuzyra, Omadacycline tosylate, Omadacycline, オマダサイクリントシル酸塩 ,PTK-0796, PTK 0796


FDA approves first treatment Firdapse (amifampridine) for Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome, a rare autoimmune disorder


FDA approves first treatment Firdapse (amifampridine) for Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome, a rare autoimmune disorder

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Firdapse (amifampridine) tablets for the treatment of Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) in adults. LEMS is a rare autoimmune disorder that affects the connection between nerves and muscles and causes weakness and other symptoms in affected patients. This is the first FDA approval of a treatment for LEMS.


November 28, 2018


The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Firdapse (amifampridine) tablets for the treatment of Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) in adults. LEMS is a rare autoimmune disorder that affects the connection between nerves and muscles and causes weakness and other symptoms in affected patients. This is the first FDA approval of a treatment for LEMS.

“There has been a long-standing need for a treatment for this rare disorder,” said Billy Dunn, M.D., director of the Division of Neurology Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “Patients with LEMS have significant weakness and fatigue that can often cause great difficulties with daily activities.”

In people with LEMS, the body’s own immune system attacks the neuromuscular junction (the connection between nerves and muscles) and disrupts the ability of nerve cells to send signals to muscle cells. LEMS may be associated with other autoimmune diseases, but more commonly occurs in patients with cancer such as small cell lung cancer, where its onset precedes or coincides with the diagnosis of cancer. The prevalence of LEMS is estimated to be three per million individuals worldwide.

The efficacy of Firdapse was studied in two clinical trials that together included 64 adult patients who received Firdapse or placebo. The studies measured the Quantitative Myasthenia Gravis score (a 13-item physician-rated categorical scale assessing muscle weakness) and the Subject Global Impression (a seven-point scale on which patients rated their overall impression of the effects of the study treatment on their physical well-being). For both measures, the patients receiving Firdapse experienced a greater benefit than those on placebo.

The most common side effects experienced by patients in the clinical trials were burning or prickling sensation (paresthesia), upper respiratory tract infection, abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea, headache, elevated liver enzymes, back pain, hypertension and muscle spasms. Seizures have been observed in patients without a history of seizures. Patients should inform their health care provider immediately if they have signs of hypersensitivity reactions such as rash, hives, itching, fever, swelling or trouble breathing.

The FDA granted this application Priority Review and Breakthrough Therapydesignations. Firdapse also received Orphan Drug designation, which provides incentives to assist and encourage the development of drugs for rare diseases.

The FDA granted the approval of Firdapse to Catalyst Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

///////////Priority Review,  Breakthrough Therapy,  Firdapse,  Orphan Drug designation, fda 2018, amifampridine

FDA approves new treatment for patients with acute myeloid leukemia

FDA approves new treatment Daurismo (glasdegib) for patients with acute myeloid leukemia 
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Daurismo (glasdegib) tablets to be used in combination with low-dose cytarabine (LDAC), a type of chemotherapy, for the treatment of newly-diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in adults who are 75 years of age or older or who have other chronic health conditions or diseases (comorbidities) that may preclude the use of intensive chemotherapy.
“Intensive chemotherapy is usually used to control AML, but many adults with AML are unable to have intensive chemotherapy because of its toxicities. Today’s approval gives health care providers another tool to use in the treatment of AML patients with various, unique needs. Clinical trials showed that  ..

November 21, 2018


The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Daurismo (glasdegib) tablets to be used in combination with low-dose cytarabine (LDAC), a type of chemotherapy, for the treatment of newly-diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in adults who are 75 years of age or older or who have other chronic health conditions or diseases (comorbidities) that may preclude the use of intensive chemotherapy.

“Intensive chemotherapy is usually used to control AML, but many adults with AML are unable to have intensive chemotherapy because of its toxicities. Today’s approval gives health care providers another tool to use in the treatment of AML patients with various, unique needs. Clinical trials showed that overall survival was improved using Daurismo in combination with LDAC compared to LDAC alone for patients who would not tolerate intensive chemotherapy,” said Richard Pazdur, M.D., director of the FDA’s Oncology Center of Excellence and acting director of the Office of Hematology and Oncology Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research.

AML is a rapidly progressing cancer that forms in the bone marrow and results in an increased number of abnormal white blood cells in the bloodstream and bone marrow. The National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health estimates that in 2018, approximately 19,520 people will be diagnosed with AML and approximately 10,670 patients with AML will die of the disease. Almost half of the adults diagnosed with AML are not treated with intensive chemotherapy because of comorbidities and chemotherapy related toxicities.

The efficacy of Daurismo was studied in a randomized clinical trial in which 111 adult patients with newly diagnosed AML were treated with either Daurismo in combination with LDAC or LDAC alone. The trial measured overall survival (OS) from the date of randomization to death from any cause. Results demonstrated a significant improvement in OS in patients treated with Daurismo. The median OS was 8.3 months for patients treated with Daurismo plus LDAC compared with 4.3 months for patients treated with LDAC only.

Common side effects reported by patients receiving Daurismo in clinical trials include low red blood cell count (anemia), tiredness (fatigue), bleeding (hemorrhage), fever with low white blood cell count (febrile neutropenia), muscle pain, nausea, swelling of the arms or legs (edema), low platelet counts (thrombocytopenia), shortness of breath (dyspnea), decreased appetite, distorted taste (dysgeusia), pain or sores in the mouth or throat (mucositis), constipation and rash.

The prescribing information for Daurismo includes a Boxed Warning to advise health care professionals and patients about the risk of embryo-fetal death or severe birth defects. Daurismo should not be used during pregnancy or while breastfeeding. Pregnancy testing should be conducted in females of reproductive age prior to initiation of Daurismo treatment and effective contraception should be used during treatment and for at least 30 days after the last dose. The Boxed Warning also advises male patients of the potential risk of drug exposure through semen and to use condoms with a pregnant partner or a female partner that could become pregnant both during treatment and for at least 30 days after the last dose. Daurismo must be dispensed with a patient Medication Guide that describes important information about the drug’s uses and risks. Patients should also be advised not to donate blood or blood products during treatment. Health care providers should also monitor patients for changes in the electrical activity of the heart, called QT prolongation.

The FDA granted this application Priority Review designation. Daurismo also received Orphan Drug designation, which provides incentives to assist and encourage the development of drugs for rare diseases.

The FDA granted the approval of Daurismo to Pfizer.

//////////////Daurismo, glasdegib, fda 2018, Priority Review, Orphan Drug 

FDA approves first treatment Gamifant (emapalumab) specifically for patients with rare and life-threatening type of immune disease

FDA approves first treatment Gamifant (emapalumab)  specifically for patients with rare and life-threatening type of immune disease 

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Gamifant (emapalumab) for the treatment of pediatric (newborn and above) and adult patients with primary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) who have refractory, recurrent or progressive disease or intolerance with conventional HLH therapy. This FDA approval is the first for a drug specifically for HLH.

“Primary HLH is a rare and life-threatening condition typically affecting children and this approval fills an unmet medical need for these patients,” said Richard Pazdur, M.D., director of the FDA’s Oncology Center of Excellence and acting director of the Office of Hematology and Oncology Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “We are committed to continuing to expedite the development and review of therapies that offer meaningful treatment options for 

November 20, 2018


The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Gamifant (emapalumab-lzsg) for the treatment of pediatric (newborn and above) and adult patients with primary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) who have refractory, recurrent or progressive disease or intolerance with conventional HLH therapy. This FDA approval is the first for a drug specifically for HLH.

“Primary HLH is a rare and life-threatening condition typically affecting children and this approval fills an unmet medical need for these patients,” said Richard Pazdur, M.D., director of the FDA’s Oncology Center of Excellence and acting director of the Office of Hematology and Oncology Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “We are committed to continuing to expedite the development and review of therapies that offer meaningful treatment options for patients with rare conditions.”

HLH is a condition in which the body’s immune cells do not work properly. The cells become overactive releasing molecules, which leads to inflammation. The immune cells start to damage the body’s own organs, including the liver, brain and bone marrow. It can be inherited, which is known as primary or “familial” HLH. It can also have non-inherited causes. People with primary HLH usually develop symptoms within the first months or years of life. Symptoms may include fever, enlarged liver or spleen and decreased number of blood cells.

The efficacy of Gamifant was studied in a clinical trial of 27 pediatric patients with suspected or confirmed primary HLH with either refractory, recurrent or progressive disease during conventional HLH therapy or who were intolerant of conventional HLH therapy. The median age of the patients in the trial was 1 year old. The study showed that 63 percent of patients experienced a response and 70 percent were able to proceed to stem cell transplant.

Common side effects reported by patients receiving Gamifant in clinical trials included infections, hypertension, infusion-related reactions, low potassium and fever. Patients receiving Gamifant should not receive any live vaccines and should be tested for latent tuberculosis. Patients should be closely monitored and treated promptly for infections while receiving Gamifant.

The FDA granted this application Priority Review and Breakthrough Therapydesignation. Gamifant also received Orphan Drug designation, which provides incentives to assist and encourage the development of drugs for rare diseases.

The FDA granted the approval of Gamifant to Novimmune SA.


////////////Gamifant, emapalumab, FDA 2018

FDA approves new drug Aemcolo (rifamycin), to treat travelers’ diarrhea

FDA approves new drug to treat travelers’ diarrhea
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Aemcolo (rifamycin), an antibacterial drug indicated for the treatment of adult patients with travelers’ diarrhea caused by noninvasive strains of Escherichia coli (E. coli), not complicated by fever or blood in the stool.
“Travelers’ diarrhea affects millions of people each year and having treatment options for this condition can help reduce symptoms of the condition,” said Edward Cox, M.D., M.P.H., director of the Office of Antimicrobial Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research.
Travelers’ diarrhea is the most common travel-related illness, affecting an estimated 10 to 40 percent of travelers worldwide each year. Travelers’ diarrhea is defined by …

November 16, 2018


The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Aemcolo (rifamycin), an antibacterial drug indicated for the treatment of adult patients with travelers’ diarrhea caused by noninvasive strains of Escherichia coli (E. coli), not complicated by fever or blood in the stool.

“Travelers’ diarrhea affects millions of people each year and having treatment options for this condition can help reduce symptoms of the condition,” said Edward Cox, M.D., M.P.H., director of the Office of Antimicrobial Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research.

Travelers’ diarrhea is the most common travel-related illness, affecting an estimated 10 to 40 percent of travelers worldwide each year. Travelers’ diarrhea is defined by having three or more unformed stools in 24 hours, in a person who is traveling. It is caused by a variety of pathogens, but most commonly bacteria found in food and water. The highest-risk destinations are in most of Asia as well as the Middle East, Africa, Mexico, and Central and South America.

The efficacy of Aemcolo was demonstrated in a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial in 264 adults with travelers’ diarrhea in Guatemala and Mexico. It showed that Aemcolo significantly reduced symptoms of travelers’ diarrhea compared to the placebo.

The safety of Aemcolo, taken orally over three or four days, was evaluated in 619 adults with travelers’ diarrhea in two controlled clinical trials. The most common adverse reactions with Aemcolo were headache and constipation.

Aemcolo was not shown to be effective in patients with diarrhea complicated by fever and/or bloody stool or diarrhea due to pathogens other than noninvasive strains of E. coli and is not recommended for use in such patients. Aemcolo should not be used in patients with a known hypersensitivity to rifamycin, any of the other rifamycin class antimicrobial agents (e.g. rifaximin), or any of the components in Aemcolo.

The FDA granted Aemcolo a Qualified Infectious Disease Product (QIDP)designation. QIDP designation is given to antibacterial and antifungal drug products that treat serious or life-threatening infections under the Generating Antibiotic Incentives Now (GAIN) title of the FDA Safety and Innovation Act. As part of QIDP designation, the Aemcolo marketing application was granted Priority Review under which the FDA’s goal is to take action on an application within an expedited time frame.

The FDA granted approval of Aemcolo to Cosmo Technologies, Ltd.

///////////////// Aemcolo, rifamycin, fda 2018, qidp, priority review

FDA approves a new drug Xofluza (baloxavir marboxil) to treat influenza

Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Xofluza (baloxavir marboxil) for the treatment of acute uncomplicated influenza (flu) in patients 12 years of age and older who have been symptomatic for no more than 48 hours.

October 24, 2018



Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Xofluza (baloxavir marboxil) for the treatment of acute uncomplicated influenza (flu) in patients 12 years of age and older who have been symptomatic for no more than 48 hours.

“This is the first new antiviral flu treatment with a novel mechanism of action approved by the FDA in nearly 20 years. With thousands of people getting the flu every year, and many people becoming seriously ill, having safe and effective treatment alternatives is critical. This novel drug provides an important, additional treatment option,” said FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb, M.D. “While there are several FDA-approved antiviral drugs to treat flu, they’re not a substitute for yearly vaccination. Flu season is already well underway, and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends getting vaccinated by the end of October, as seasonal flu vaccine is one of the most effective and safest ways to protect yourself, your family and your community from the flu and serious flu-related complications, which can result in hospitalizations. Yearly vaccination is the primary means of preventing and controlling flu outbreaks.”

Flu is a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses. When patients with the flu are treated within 48 hours of becoming sick, antiviral drugs can reduce symptoms and duration of the illness.

“When treatment is started within 48 hours of becoming sick with flu symptoms, antiviral drugs can lessen symptoms and shorten the time patients feel sick,” said Debra Birnkrant, M.D., director of the Division of Antiviral Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “Having more treatment options that work in different ways to attack the virus is important because flu viruses can become resistant to antiviral drugs.”

The safety and efficacy of Xofluza, an antiviral drug taken as a single oral dose, was demonstrated in two randomized controlled clinical trials of 1,832 patients where participants were assigned to receive either Xofluza, a placebo, or another antiviral flu treatment within 48 hours of experiencing flu symptoms. In both trials, patients treated with Xofluza had a shorter time to alleviation of symptoms compared with patients who took the placebo. In the second trial, there was no difference in the time to alleviation of symptoms between subjects who received Xofluza and those who received the other flu treatment.

The most common adverse reactions in patients taking Xofluza included diarrhea and bronchitis.

Xofluza was granted Priority Review under which the FDA’s goal is to take action on an application within an expedited time frame where the agency determines that the drug, if approved, would significantly improve the safety or effectiveness of treating, diagnosing or preventing a serious condition.

The FDA granted approval of Xofluza to Shionogi & Co., Ltd.

//////////////Xofluza, baloxavir marboxil, FDA 2018
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