New Drug Approvals

Home » Uncategorized » Delamanid, (Deltyba) デラマニド

Delamanid, (Deltyba) デラマニド

DRUG APPROVALS BY DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO .....FOR BLOG HOME CLICK HERE

PAYPAL DONATIONS

ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY

Read all about Organic Spectroscopy on ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY INTERNATIONAL 

Categories

Blog Stats

  • 1,309,844 hits

Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

Join 1,782 other followers

add to any

Share

Delamanid

デラマニド

MKT as Deltyba® by Otsuka Pharmaceutical

http://www.ama-assn.org/resources/doc/usan/delamanid.pdf

(2R)-2-Methyl-6-nitro-2-[(4-{4-[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenoxy]-1-piperidinyl}phenoxy)methyl]-2,3-dihydroimidazo[2,1-b][1,3]oxazole

2(R)-Methyl-6-nitro-2-[4-[4-[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenoxy]piperidin-1-yl]phenoxymethyl]-2,3-dihydroimidazo[2,1-b]oxazole

(R) -2-methyl-6-nitro-2- { 4- [4- (4- trifluoromethoxyphenoxy) piperidin-l-yl] phenoxymethyl } -2 , 3- dihydroimidazo [2 , 1-b] oxazole

Imidazo[2,1-b]oxazole, 2,3-dihydro-2-methyl-6-nitro-2-[[4-[4-[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenoxy]-1-piperidinyl]phenoxy]methyl]-, (2R)-

(R)-2-methyl-6-nitro-2-{4-[4-(4-trifluoromethoxyphenoxy)piperidin-1-yl]phenoxymethyl}-2,3-dihydroimidazo[2,1-b]oxazole

(2R)-2-Methyl-6-nitro-2-[(4-{4-[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenoxy]piperidin-1-yl}phenoxy)methyl]-2,3-dihydroimidazo[2,1-b]oxazole

681492-22-8 CAS

Delamanid.svg

Delamanid, 681492-22-8, Delamanid (JAN/USAN), Delamanid [USAN:INN],UNII-8OOT6M1PC7,
  • OPC 67683
  • OPC-67683
  • UNII-8OOT6M1PC7
MW: C25H25F3N4O6
MW: 534.48441

CLINICAL TRIALS

Trial Name: A Placebo-Controlled, Phase 2 Trial to Evaluate OPC 67683 in Patients With Pulmonary Sputum Culture-Positive, Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis (TB)
Primary Sponsor: Otsuka Pharmaceutical Development & Commercialization, Inc.
Trial ID / Reg # / URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00685360
Delamanid

C25H25F3N4O6 : 534.48
[681492-22-8]

Delamanid (USAN, INN) is a drug for the treatment of multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis. It works by blocking the synthesis of mycolic acids in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the organism which causes tuberculosis, thus destabilising its cell wall.[2][3][4] The drug is approved in the EU under the trade name Deltyba (made by Otsuka Pharmaceutical).

It is on the World Health Organization’s List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basichealth system.[5]

Adverse effects

Delamanid prolongs QT interval.[6]

Interactions

Delamanid is metabolised by the liver enzyme CYP3A4, wherefore strong inducers of this enzyme can reduce its effectiveness.[6]

History

In phase II clinical trials, the drug was used in combination with standard treatments, such as four or five of the drugsethambutol, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, rifampicin, aminoglycoside antibiotics, and quinolones. Healing rates (measured as sputum culture conversion) were significantly better in patients who additionally took delamanid.[4][7]

The European Medicines Agency (EMA) recommended conditional marketing authorization for delamanid in adults with multidrug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis without other treatment options because of resistance or tolerability. The EMA considered the data show that the benefits of delamanid outweigh the risks, but that additional studies were needed on the long-term effectiveness.[8]

Delamanid was first approved by European Medicine Agency (EMA) on Apr 28, 2014, then approved by Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency of Japan (PMDA) on July 4, 2014. It was developed and marketed as Deltyba® by Otsuka Pharmaceutical.

Delamanid is a novel bactericidal agent that interferes with the metabolism of the mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) cell walls. It is indicated for the treatment of pulmonary multi-drugresistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in adult patients.

Deltyba® is available as tablets for oral use, containing 50 mg of free Delamanid, and the recommended dose is 100 mg twice daily for 24 weeks.

Delamanid, an antibiotic active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains, has been filed for approval in the E.U. and by Otsuka for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. In 2013, a positive opinion was received in the E.U. for this indication. Phase III trials for treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis are under way in the U.S. Phase II study for the pediatric use is undergone in the Europe.

The drug candidate’s antimycobacterial mechanism of action is via specific inhibition of the synthesis pathway of mycolic acid, which is a cell wall component unique to M. tuberculosis.

In 2008, orphan drug designation was received in Japan for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis.

Tuberculosis (TB), an airborne lung infection, still remains a major public health problem worldwide. It is estimated that about 32% of the world population is infected with TB bacillus, and of those, approximately 8.9 million people develop active TB and 1.7 million die as a result annually according to 2004 figures. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been a major contributing factor in the current resurgence of TB. HIV-associated TB is widespread, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, and such an infectious process may further accelerate the resurgence of TB.

Moreover, the recent emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains ofMycobacterium tuberculosis that are resistant to two major effective drugs, isonicotinic acid hydrazide (INH) and rifampicin (RFP), has further complicated the world situation.

The World Health Organization (WHO) has estimated that if the present conditions remain unchanged, more than 30 million lives will be claimed by TB between 2000 and 2020. As for subsequent drug development, not a single new effective compound has been launched as an antituberculosis agent since the introduction of RFP in 1965, despite the great advances that have been made in drug development technologies.

Although many effective vaccine candidates have been developed, more potent vaccines will not become immediately available. The current therapy consists of an intensive phase with four drugs, INH, RFP, pyrazinamide (PZA), and streptomycin (SM) or ethambutol (EB), administered for 2 months followed by a continuous phase with INH and RFP for 4 months. Thus, there exists an urgent need for the development of potent new antituberculosis agents with low-toxicity profiles that are effective against both drug-susceptible and drug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis and that are capable of shortening the current duration of therapy.

PATENT

US20060094767

(R)-2-bromo-4-nitro-1-(2-methyl-2-oxiranylmethyl)imidazole

4-[4-(4-Trifluoromethoxyphenoxy)piperidin-1-yl]phenol

ARE THE INTERMEDIATES

Example 1884

Production of (R)-2-methyl-6-nitro-2-{4-[4-(4-trifluoromethoxyphenoxy)piperidin-1-yl]phenoxymethyl}-2,3-dihydroimidazo[2,1-b]oxazole

4-[4-(4-Trifluoromethoxyphenoxy)piperidin-1-yl]phenol (693 mg, 1.96 mmol) was dissolved in N,N′-dimethylformamide (3 ml), and sodium hydride (86 mg, 2.16 mmol) was added while cooling on ice followed by stirring at 70-75° C. for 20 minutes. The mixture was cooled on ice. To the solution, a solution prepared by dissolving (R)-2-bromo-4-nitro-1-(2-methyl-2-oxiranylmethyl)imidazole (720 mg, 2.75 mmol) in N,N′-dimethylformamide (3 ml) was added followed by stirring at 70-75° C. for 20 minutes. The reaction mixture was allowed to return to room temperature, ice water (25 ml) was added, and the resultant solution was extracted with methylene chloride (50 ml) three times. The organic phases were combined, washed with water 3 times, and dried over magnesium sulfate. After filtration, the filtrate was concentrated, and the residue was purified by silica gel column chromatography (methylene chloride/ethyl acetate=3/1). Recrystallization from ethyl acetate/isopropyl ether gave (R)-2-methyl-6-nitro-2-{4-[4-(4-trifluoromethoxyphenoxy)piperidin-1-yl]phenoxymethyl}-2,3-dihydroimidazo[2,1-b]oxazole (343 mg, 33%) as a light yellow powder.

PATENT

WO 2010021409 AND http://worldwide.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/biblio?CC=IN&NR=203704A1&KC=A1&FT=D

FOR 2, 4 DINITROIMIDAZOLE

PATENT

WO2011093529A1

These patent literatures disclose Reaction Schemes A and B below as the processes for producing the aforementioned 2, 3-dihydroimidazo [2, 1-b] oxazole compound.

Reaction Scheme A:

Figure imgf000003_0001

wherein R1 is a hydrogen atom or lower-alkyl group; R2 is a substituted pxperidyl group or a substituted piperazinyl group; and X1 is a halogen atom or a nitro group.

Reaction Scheme B:

Figure imgf000004_0001
Figure imgf000004_0002

wherein X2 is a halogen or a group causing a substitution reaction similar to that of a halogen; n is an integer from 1 to 6; and R1, R2 and X1 are the same as in Reaction Scheme A.

An oxazole com ound represented by Formula (la) :

Figure imgf000004_0003

, i.e., 2-methyl-6-nitro-2-{4- [4- (4- trifluoromethoxyphenoxy) piperidin-l-yl] phenoxymethyl }-2, 3- dihydroimidazo [2, 1-b] oxazole (hereunder, this compound may be simply referred to as “Compound la”) is produced, for example, by the method shown in the Reaction Scheme C below (Patent

Literature 3) . In this specification, the term “oxazole compound’ means an oxazole derivative that encompasses compounds that contain an oxazole ring or an oxazoline ring (dihydrooxazole ring) in the molecule.

Reaction Scheme C:

Figure imgf000005_0001
Figure imgf000005_0002

However, the aforementioned methods are unsatisfactory in terms of the yield of the objective compound. For example, the method of Reaction Scheme C allows the objective oxazole Compound (la) to be obtained from Compound (2a) at a yield as low as 35.9%. Therefore, alternative methods for producing the compound in an industrially advantageous manner are desired. Citation List

Patent Literature

PTL 1: WO2004/033463

PTL 2: WO2004/035547

PTL 3: WO2008/140090

Example 9

Production of (R) -2-methyl-6-nitro-2- { 4- [4- (4- trifluoromethoxyphenoxy) piperidin-l-yl] phenoxymethyl } -2 , 3- dihydroimidazo [2 , 1-b] oxazole

{R) -1- [ – {2 , 3-epoxy-2-methylpropoxy ) phenyl] -4- [4- ( trifluoromethoxy ) phenoxy ] piperidine (10.0 g, 23.6 mmol, optical purity of 94.3%ee), 2-chloro-4-nitroimidazole (4.0 g, 27.2 mmol), sodium acetate (0.4 g, 4.9 mmol), and t- butyl acetate (10 ml) were mixed and stirred at 100°C for 3.5 hours. Methanol (70 ml) was added to the reaction mixture, and then a 25% sodium hydroxide aqueous solution (6.3 g, 39.4 mmol) was added thereto dropwise while cooling with ice. The resulting mixture was stirred at 0°C for 1.5 hours, and further stirred at approximately room

temperature for 40 minutes. Water (15 ml) and ethyl acetate (5 ml) were added thereto, and the mixture was stirred at 45 to 55°C for 1 hour. The mixture was cooled to room temperature, and the precipitated crystals were collected by filtration. The precipitated crystals were subsequently washed with methanol (30 ml) and water (40 ml) . Methanol (100 ml) was added to the resulting

crystals, followed by stirring under reflux for 30 minutes. The mixture was cooled to room temperature. The crystals were then collected by filtration and washed with methanol (30 ml) . The resulting crystals were dried under reduced pressure, obtaining 9.3 g of the objective product (yield: 73%) .

Optical purity: 99.4%ee.

PATENT

Synthesis and antituberculosis activity of a novel series of optically active 6-nitro-2,3-dihydroimidazo[2,1-b]oxazoles
J Med Chem 2006, 49(26): 7854

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jm060957y

(R)-2-Methyl-6-nitro-2-{4-[4-(4-trifluoromethoxyphenoxy)piperidin-1-yl]phenoxymethyl}-2,3-dihydroimidazo[2,1-b]oxazole (19,  DELAMANID).

To a mixture of 27 (127.56 g, 586.56 mmol) and 4-[4-(4-trifluoromethoxyphenoxy)piperidin-1-yl]phenol (28g) (165.70 g, 468.95 mmol) in N,N-dimethylformamide (1600 mL) was added 60% sodium hydride (22.51 g, 562.74 mmol) at 0 °C portionwise. After the mixture was stirred at 50 °C for 2 h under a nitrogen atmosphere, the reaction mixture was cooled in an ice bath and carefully quenched with ethyl acetate (230 mL) and ice water (50 mL). The thus-obtained mixture was poured into water (3000 mL) and stirred for 30 min. The resulting precipitates were collected by filtration, washed with water, and dried at 60 °C overnight. This crude product was purified by silica gel column chromatography using a dichloromethane and ethyl acetate mixture (5/1) as solvent. The appropriate fractions were combined and evaporated under reduced pressure. The residue was recrystallized from ethyl acetate (1300 mL)−isopropyl alcohol (150 mL) to afford 19 (119.11 g, 48%) as a pale yellow crystalline powder.

Mp 195−196 °C.

1H NMR (CDCl3) δ 1.77 (3H, s), 1.87−2.16 (4H, m), 2.95−3.05 (2H, m), 3.32−3.41 (2H, m), 4.02 (1H, d, J = 10.2 Hz), 4.04 (1H, d, J = 10.2 Hz), 4.18 (1H, J = 10.2 Hz), 4.36−4.45 (1H, m), 4.49 (1H, d, J = 10.2 Hz), 6.76 (2H, d, J = 6.7 Hz), 6.87−6.94 (4H, m), 7.14 (2H, d, J = 8.6 Hz), 7.55 (1H, s).

[α  −9.9° (c 1.01, CHCl3).

MS (DI) m/z 535 (M+ + 1). Anal. (C25H25F3N4O6) C, H, N.

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/suppl/10.1021/jm060957y/suppl_file/jm060957ysi20061113_095044.pdf

CLIPS

Delamanid (Deltyba)
Marketed by Otsuka, delamanid was approved in both the European Union and Japan in 2014 as part of combination therapies for
multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (TB). Because delamanid exhibited no adverse drug–drug interactions, it has found utility as a
combination therapy with standard antiretroviral drugs indicated for TB. Delamanid blocks mycolic acid biosynthesis in ycobacterium
tuberculosis, which allows its cell wall to be penetrated by small molecule antivirals.92

Although delamanid possesses a rather linear structure capable of a variety of retrosynthetic disconnections, the most likely scale
synthesis is a convergent approach involving two key synthons—diol 82 and piperidine 81, as is outlined in Scheme 13.93–95
Preparation of 82 proceeded through a Sharpless Asymmetric Epoxidation of commercial alcohol 86, followed by a diastereoselective
epoxide ring opening with 4-bromophenol to afford key diol 82 in 76% for the two step sequence (Scheme 14).93–96
Piperidine 81 was concurrently prepared by first generating biaryl ether 79, which arose from a substitution reaction between
pyridine N-oxide 77 and phenol 78 that proceeded in 86% yield. Next, removal of the N-oxide functionality by means of catalytic
hydrogenation under mild pressure and neutral conditions afforded diaryl ether 80 in excellent yield. Reduction of the pyridine
to the corresponding piperidine (81) was affected through the use of catalytic hydrogenation as well, this time under acidic
conditions and elevated pressures relative to the N-oxide reduction.95,97 At this juncture, subjection of piperidine 81 to Buchwald–
Hartwig conditions in the presence of diol subunit 82

(preparation described in Scheme 14) delivered diol 83. A two-step elimination to deliver enantiopure epoxide 84 set the stage for an
interesting cascade reaction to arrive at delamanid (XI) directly— the initial alkylation of the epoxide by imidazole 85 proceeded
under basic conditions with sodium acetate which then underwent an intramolecular nucleophilic substitution reaction by the liberated alcohol on the pendant imidazole chloride in the presence of sodium hydroxide. The reaction sequence proceeded in 73%
yield to provide delamanid (XI) as a free base.96

STR1

STR1

92. Blair, H. A.; Scott, L. J. Drugs 2015, 75, 91.
93. Tsubouchi, H.; Sasaki, H.; Kuroda, H.; Itotani, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Haraguchi, Y.;Kuroda, T.; Matsuzaki, T. US Patent 2006094767A1, 2006.
94. Sasaki, H.; Haraguchi, Y.; Itotani, M.; Kuroda, H.; Hashizume, H.; Tomishige,T.; Kawasaki, M.; Matsumoto, M.; Komatsu, M.; Tsubouchi, H. J. Med. Chem.2006, 49, 7854.
95. Goto, F.; Takemura, N.; Otani, T.; Hasegawa, T.; Tsubouchi, H.; Utsumi, N.; Fujita, S.; Kuroda, H.; Shitsuta, T.; Sasaki, H. US2012130082A1, 2012.
96. Yamamoto, A.; Shinhama, K.; Fujita, N.; Aki, S.; Ogasawara, S.; Utsumi, N. WOPatent 2011093529A1, 2011.

STR1

STR1

STR1

References

  1.  “Deltyba (delamanid): Summary of Product Characteristics. 5.2. Pharmacokinetic Properties” (PDF). Otsuka Novel Products GmbH. p. 10. Retrieved 9 July 2016.
  2.  Matsumoto, M.; Hashizume, H.; Tomishige, T.; Kawasaki, M.; Tsubouchi, H.; Sasaki, H.; Shimokawa, Y.; Komatsu, M. (2006). “OPC-67683, a Nitro-Dihydro-Imidazooxazole Derivative with Promising Action against Tuberculosis in Vitro and in Mice”. PLoS Medicine 3 (11): e466. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0030466. PMC 1664607. PMID 17132069.
  3.  Skripconoka, V.; Danilovits, M.; Pehme, L.; Tomson, T.; Skenders, G.; Kummik, T.; Cirule, A.; Leimane, V.; Kurve, A.; Levina, K.; Geiter, L. J.; Manissero, D.; Wells, C. D. (2012). “Delamanid Improves Outcomes and Reduces Mortality for Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis”. European Respiratory Journal 41 (6): 1393–1400. doi:10.1183/09031936.00125812. PMC 3669462.PMID 23018916.
  4.  H. Spreitzer (18 February 2013). “Neue Wirkstoffe – Bedaquilin und Delamanid”. Österreichische Apothekerzeitung (in German) (4/2013): 22.
  5.  “WHO Model List of EssentialMedicines” (PDF). World Health Organization. October 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
  6. Pharmazeutische Zeitung: Delamanid: Neuer Wirkstoff gegen multiresistente TB, 9 May 2014. (German)
  7.  Gler, M. T.; Skripconoka, V.; Sanchez-Garavito, E.; Xiao, H.; Cabrera-Rivero, J. L.; Vargas-Vasquez, D. E.; Gao, M.; Awad, M.; Park, S. K.; Shim, T. S.; Suh, G. Y.; Danilovits, M.; Ogata, H.; Kurve, A.; Chang, J.; Suzuki, K.; Tupasi, T.; Koh, W. J.; Seaworth, B.; Geiter, L. J.; Wells, C. D. (2012). “Delamanid for Multidrug-Resistant Pulmonary Tuberculosis”. New England Journal of Medicine 366 (23): 2151–2160. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1112433. PMID 22670901.
  8.  Drug Discovery & Development. EMA Recommends Two New Tuberculosis Treatments. November 22, 2013.
  9. Japan PMDA.[7]. PLoS Med. 2006 Nov;3(11):e466.[8]. Drug@EMA, EMEA/H/C/002552 Deltyba: EPAR-Assessment Report.
12-28-2006
Synthesis and antituberculosis activity of a novel series of optically active 6-nitro-2,3-dihydroimidazo[2,1-b]oxazoles.
Journal of medicinal chemistry
11-1-2006
OPC-67683, a nitro-dihydro-imidazooxazole derivative with promising action against tuberculosis in vitro and in mice.
PLoS medicine
1-1-2008
New anti-tuberculosis drugs with novel mechanisms of action.
Current medicinal chemistry
11-11-2010
Synthesis and Structure-Activity Relationships of Aza- and Diazabiphenyl Analogues of the Antitubercular Drug (6S)-2-Nitro-6-{[4-(trifluoromethoxy)benzyl]oxy}-6,7-dihydro-5H-imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]oxazine (PA-824).
Journal of medicinal chemistry
5-1-2012
Tuberculosis: the drug development pipeline at a glance.
European journal of medicinal chemistry
1-12-2012
Structure-activity relationships for amide-, carbamate-, and urea-linked analogues of the tuberculosis drug (6S)-2-nitro-6-{[4-(trifluoromethoxy)benzyl]oxy}-6,7-dihydro-5H-imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]oxazine (PA-824).
Journal of medicinal chemistry
9-11-2009
Pharmaceutical Composition Achieving Excellent Absorbency of Pharmacologically Active Substance
1-16-2009
Sulfonamide Derivatives for the Treatment of Bacterial Infections
WO2004033463A1 Oct 10, 2003 Apr 22, 2004 Otsuka Pharma Co Ltd 2,3-DIHYDRO-6-NITROIMIDAZO[2,1-b]OXAZOLES
WO2004035547A1 Oct 14, 2003 Apr 29, 2004 Otsuka Pharma Co Ltd 1-substituted 4-nitroimidazole compound and process for producing the same
WO2008140090A1 May 7, 2008 Nov 20, 2008 Otsuka Pharma Co Ltd Epoxy compound and method for manufacturing the same
JP2009269859A * Title not available
Delamanid
Delamanid.svg
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(2R)-2-Methyl-6-nitro-2-[(4-{4-[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenoxy]-1-piperidinyl}phenoxy)methyl]-2,3-dihydroimidazo[2,1-b][1,3]oxazole
Clinical data
Trade names Deltyba
AHFS/Drugs.com International Drug Names
Routes of
administration
Oral (film-coated tablets)
Legal status
Legal status
  • ℞ (Prescription only)
Pharmacokinetic data
Protein binding ≥99.5%
Metabolism in plasma by albumin, in liver
by CYP3A4 (to a lesser extent)
Biological half-life 30–38 hours
Excretion not excreted in urine[1]
Identifiers
CAS Number 681492-22-8
ATC code J04AK06 (WHO)
PubChem CID 6480466
ChemSpider 4981055
ChEMBL CHEMBL218650
Synonyms OPC-67683
Chemical data
Formula C25H25F3N4O6
Molar mass 534.48 g/mol

//////////////////////////681492-22-8 , Delamanid, Deltyba, Otsuka Pharmaceutical

FC(F)(F)Oc5ccc(OC4CCN(c3ccc(OC[C@@]2(Oc1nc(cn1C2)[N+]([O-])=O)C)cc3)CC4)cc5

TB

Figure

It is estimated that a third of the world’s population is currently infected with tuberculosis, leading to 1.6 million deaths annually. The current drug regimen is 40 years old and takes 6-9 months to administer. In addition, the emergence of drug resistant strains and HIV co-infection mean that there is an urgent need for new anti-tuberculosis drugs. The twenty-first century has seen a revival in research and development activity in this area, with several new drug candidates entering clinical trials. This review considers new potential first-line anti-tuberculosis drug candidates, in particular those with novel mechanisms of action, as these are most likely to prove effective against resistant strains.

From among acid-fast bacteria, human Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been widely known. It is said that the one-third of the human population is infected with this bacterium. In addition to the human Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium africanum and Mycobacterium bovis have also been known to belong to the Mycobacterium tuberoculosis group. These bacteria are known as Mycobacteria having a strong pathogenicity to humans.

Against these tuberculoses, treatment is carried out using three agents, rifampicin, isoniazid, and ethambutol (or streptomycin) that are regarded as first-line agents, or using four agents such as the above three agents and pyrazinamide.

However, since the treatment of tuberculosis requires extremely long-term administration of agents, it might result in poor compliance, and the treatment often ends in failure.

Moreover, in respect of the above agents, it has been reported that: rifampicin causes hepatopathy, flu syndrome, drug allergy, and its concomitant administration with other drugs is contraindicated due to P450-associated enzyme induction; that isoniazid causes peripheral nervous system disorder and induces serious hepatopathy when used in combination with rifampicin; that ethambutol brings on failure of eyesight due to optic nerve disorder; that streptomycin brings on diminution of the hearing faculty due to the 8th cranial nerve disorder; and that pyrazinamide causes adverse reactions such a hepatopathy, gouty attack associated with increase of uric acid level, vomiting (A Clinician’s Guide To Tuberculosis, Michael D. Iseman 2000 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, printed in the USA, ISBN 0-7817-1749-3, Tuberculosis, 2nd edition, Fumiyuki Kuze and Takahide Izumi, Igaku-Shoin Ltd., 1992).

Actually, it has been reported that cases where the standard chemotherapy could not be carried out due to the adverse reactions to these agents made up 70% (approximately 23%, 52 cases) of the total cases where administration of the agents was discontinued (the total 228 hospitalized patients who were subject to the research) (Kekkaku, Vol. 74, 77-82, 1999).

In particular, hepatotoxicity, which is induced by rifampicin, isoniazid, and ethambutol out of the 5 agents used in combination for the aforementioned first-line treatment, is known as an adverse reaction that is developed most frequently. At the same time, Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to antitubercular agents, multi-drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and the like have been increasing, and the presence of these types of Mycobacterium tuberculosismakes the treatment more difficult.

According to the investigation made by WHO (1996 to 1999), the proportion ofMycobacterium tuberculosis that is resistant to any of the existing antitubercular agents to the total types of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that have been isolated over the world reaches 19%, and it has been published that the proportion of multi-drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis is 5.1%. The number of carriers infected with such multi-drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis is estimated to be 60,000,000, and concerns are still rising that multi-drug-resistantMycobacterium tuberculosis will increase in the future (April 2001 as a supplement to the journal Tuberculosis, the “Scientific Blueprint for TB Drug Development.”)

In addition, the major cause of death of AIDS patients is tuberculosis. It has been reported that the number of humans suffering from both tuberculosis and HIV reaches 10,700,000 at the time of year 1997 (Global Alliance for TB drug development). Moreover, it is considered that the mixed infection of tuberculosisand HIV has an at least 30 times higher risk of developing tuberculosis than the ordinary circumstances.

Taking into consideration the aforementioned current situation, the profiles of the desired antitubercular agent is as follows: (1) an agent, which is effective even for multi-drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis, (2) an agent enabling a short-term chemotherapy, (3) an agent with fewer adverse reactions, (4) an agent showing an efficacy to latent infecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis (i.e., latentMycobacterium tuberculosis), and (5) an orally administrable agent.

Examples of bacteria known to have a pathogenicity to humans include offending bacteria of recently increasing MAC infection (Mycobacterium avium—intracellulare complex infection) such as Mycobacterium avium andMycobacterium intracellulare, and atypical acid-fast bacteria such asMycobacterium kansasii, Mycobacterium marinum, Mycobacterium simiae, Mycobacterium scrofulaceum, Mycobacterium szulgai, Mycobacterium xenopi, Mycobacterium malmoense, Mycobacterium haemophilum, Mycobacterium ulcerans, Mycobacterium shimoidei, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium chelonae, Mycobacterium smegmatis, and Mycobacterium aurum.

Nowadays, there are few therapeutic agents effective for these atypical acid-fast bacterial infections. Under the presence circumstances, antitubercular agents such as rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol, streptomycin and kanamycin, a newquinolone agent that is a therapeutic agent for common bacterial infections, macrolide antibiotics, aminoglycoside antibiotics, and tetracycline antibiotics are used in combination.

However, when compared with the treatment of common bacterial infections, the treatment of atypical acid-fast bacterial infections requires a long-term administration-of agents, and there have been reported cases where the infection is changed to an intractable one, finally leading to death. To break the afore-mentioned current situation, the development of an agent having a stronger efficacy is desired.

For example, National Publication of International Patent Application No. 11-508270 (WO97/01562) discloses that a 6-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro[2,1-b]-imidazopyran compound has a bactericidal action in vitro to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (H37Rv strain) and multi-drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and that the above compound has a therapeutic effect to a tuberculosis-infected animal model when it is orally administered and thus useful as antitubercular agent.


Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

Paypal Donate

DR ANTHONY CRASTO

Follow New Drug Approvals on WordPress.com

Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

Join 1,782 other followers

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 29 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 29 year tenure till date Aug 2016, Around 30 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 25 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 13 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 212 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

Personal Links

View Full Profile →

TWITTER

bloglovin

Follow my blog with Bloglovin The title of your home page You could put your verification ID in a comment Or, in its own meta tag Or, as one of your keywords Your content is here. The verification ID will NOT be detected if you put it here.
%d bloggers like this: