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ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY

Read all about Organic Spectroscopy on ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY INTERNATIONAL 

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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Sanofi’s new insulin U300 superior to Lantus: study


diabetes

Sanofi’s investigational diabetes drug U300, cas no 160337-95-1, insuline glargine, new formulation is better at controlling dangerous low blood sugar events at night than its blockbuster Lantus, according to data from a phase III clinical programme.

insulin glargine

Lantus, developed in the 1990s, is currently Sanofi’s top-selling product, generating $6.6bn last year. But the drug is expected to lose its patent in 2015.

http://www.pharmaceutical-technology.com/news/newssanofis-new-insulin-superior-to-lantus-study?WT.mc_id=DN_News

http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/805067  says no cancer risk

http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01689142 reports clinical trials

To compare the efficacy of a new formulation of insulin glargine and Lantus in terms of change of HbA1c from baseline to endpoint (scheduled at month 6 [week 26]) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Secondary Objectives:

  • To compare a new formulation of insulin glargine and Lantus in terms of change in fasting plasma glucose, pre-injection plasma glucose, 8-point self-measured plasma glucose profile.
  • To compare a new formulation of insulin glargine and Lantus in terms of occurrence of hypoglycemia

Insulin glargine is produced by recombinant DNA technology using a non-pathogenic laboratory strain of Escherichia coli (K12) as the production organism. It is an analogue of human insulin made by replacing the asparagine residue at position A21 of the A-chain with glycine and adding two arginines to the C-terminus (positions B31 and 32) of the B-chain. The resulting protein is soluble at pH 4 and forms microprecipitates at physiological pH 7.4. Small amounts of insulin glargine are slowly released from microprecipitates giving the drug a long duration of action (up to 24 hours) and no pronounced peak concentration.

GRAVIOLA TREE “10000 TIMES STRONGER KILLER OF CANCER THAN CHEMO” – FACTS ANALYSIS


Graviola Tree "10000 Times Stronger Killer Of Cancer Than Chemo" - Facts Analysis

“10000 times stronger killer of Cancer than Chemo”.. do share it.. can save many lives, fill up hopes and build confidence in the patients…

The Sour Sop or the fruit from the graviola tree is a miraculous natural cancer cell killer 10,000 times stronger than Chemo. Why are we not aware of this?

read all at

http://www.hoaxorfact.com/Health/graviola-tree-10000-times-stronger-killer-of-cancer-than-chemo.html

Dulaglutide Shows Superiority in Phase 3 Trials


DULAGLUTIDE

STRUCTURAL FORMULA
Monomer
HGEGTFTSDV SSYLEEQAAK EFIAWLVKGG GGGGGSGGGG SGGGGSAESK 50
YGPPCPPCPA PEAAGGPSVF LFPPKPKDTL MISRTPEVTC VVVDVSQEDP 100
EVQFNWYVDG VEVHNAKTKP REEQFNSTYR VVSVLTVLHQ DWLNGKEYKC 150
KVSNKGLPSS IEKTISKAKG QPREPQVYTL PPSQEEMTKN QVSLTCLVKG 200
FYPSDIAVEW ESNGQPENNY KTTPPVLDSD GSFFLYSRLT VDKSRWQEGN 250
VFSCSVMHEA LHNHYTQKSL SLSLG 275
Disulfide bridges location
55-55′ 58-58′ 90-150 90′-150′ 196-254 196′-254′

http://www.ama-assn.org/resources/doc/usan/dulaglutide.pdf

7-37-Glucagon-like peptide I [8-glycine,22-glutamic acid,36-glycine] (synthetic
human) fusion protein with peptide (synthetic 16-amino acid linker) fusion protein with
immunoglobulin G4 (synthetic human Fc fragment), dimer

Eli Lilly and Co. announced detailed safety and efficacy results from three Phase 3 AWARD trials for dulaglutide, an investigational, long-acting glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist being studied as a once-weekly treatment for type 2 diabetes

http://www.dddmag.com/news/2013/06/dulaglutide-shows-superiority-phase-3-trials?et_cid=3330501&et_rid=523035093&type=cta

Astellas’ Xtandi approved in EU for prostate cancer


enzalutamide

XTANDI

Regulators in European have given the green light to Astellas Pharma and Medivation’s oral prostate cancer drug Xtandi.

Specifically, the European Commission has approved Xtandi (enzalutamide) capsules for the treatment of men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer whose disease has progressed on or after docetaxel therapy. The thumbs-up comes a couple of months after the European Medicines Agency’s Committee for Human Medicinal Productsissued a positive recommendation on the treatment….. READ ALL AT

http://www.pharmatimes.com/Article/13-06-24/Astellas_Xtandi_approved_in_EU_for_prostate_cancer.aspx

Enzalutamide (marketed as Xtandi and formerly known as MDV3100) is an androgen receptor antagonist drug developed by the pharmaceutical company Medivation for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Medivation has reported up to an 89% decrease in prostate specific antigen serum levels after a month of taking the medicine. Early preclinical studies also suggest that enzalutamide inhibits breast cancer cell growth. In August of 2012, the U.S. Food and Drug Administrationapproved enzalutamide for the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer.


Enzalutamide was discovered by Charles Sawyers who is now at Memorial Sloan–Kettering Cancer Center and Michael Jung at UCLA.

 

Embedded Image

A model of the interaction between the prostate cancer drug enzalutamide and the androgen receptor

The antibiotic Vibativ (telavancin) has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat pneumonia caused by Staphylococcus aureus bacteria


File:Telavancin.png

telavancin

The antibiotic Vibativ (telavancin) has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat pneumonia caused by Staphylococcus aureus bacteria when other treatments aren’t suitable.

Pneumonia, a lung infection, can be caused by different bacteria and viruses. S. aureus infection often affects people in hospitals, notably those on ventilators. Such infections can be serious, since people on a ventilator often have a weakened immune system and are unable to fight an infection, the FDA said in a news release.http://www.drugs.com/news/vibativ-approved-certain-bacterial-pneumonia-45418.html

Telavancin (trade name Vibativ) is a bactericidal lipoglycopeptide for use in MRSA or other Gram-positive infections. Telavancin is a semi-synthetic derivative of vancomycin.

The FDA approved the drug in September 2009 for complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI)

On 19 October 2007, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an approvable letter for telavancin. Its developer, Theravance, submitted a complete response to the letter, and the FDA has assigned a Prescription Drug User Fee Act (PDUFA) target date of 21 July 2008.

On 19 November 2008, an FDA antiinfective drug advisory committee concluded that they would recommend telavancin be approved by the FDA.

The FDA approved the drug on 11 September 2009 for complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI).

Theravance has also submitted telavancin to the FDA in a second indication, nosocomial pneumonia, sometimes referred to as hospital-acquired pneumonia, or HAP. On 30 November 2012, an FDA advisory panel endorsed approval of a once-daily formulation of telavancin for nosocomial pneumonia when other alternatives are not suitable. However, telavancin did not win the advisory committee’s recommendation as first-line therapy for this indication. The committe indicated that the trial data did not prove “substantial evidence” of telavancin’s safety and efficacy in hospital-acquired pneumonia, including ventilator-associated pneumonia caused by Gram-positive organisms Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. On 21 June 2013 FDA gave approval for telavancin to treat patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia, but indicated it should be used only when alternative treatments are not suitable. FDA staff had indicated telavancin has a “substantially higher risk for death” for patients with kidney problems or diabetes compared to vancomycin.

 

 

 

 

FDA Approves Pediatric Indication for Astellas’ Mycamine (micafungin sodium) for Injection


File:Micafungin.svg

micafungin sodium

  • C56-H70-N9-O23-S.Na
    1292.265
    Fujisawa (Originator), Merck & Co. (Codevelopment)
    Antifungal Agents, ANTIINFECTIVE THERAPY, 1,3-beta-Glucan Synthase Inhibitors, Echinocandins
    Launched-2002

{5-[(1S,2S)-2-[(3S,6S,9S,11R,15S,18S,20R,21R,24S,25S,26S)-3-[(1R)-2-carbamoyl-1-hydroxyethyl]-11,20,21,25-tetrahydroxy-15-[(1R)-1-hydroxyethyl]-26-methyl-2,5,8,14,17,23-hexaoxo-18-[(4-{5-[4-(pentyloxy)phenyl]-1,2-oxazol-3-yl}benzene)amido]-1,4,7,13,16,22-hexaazatricyclo[22.3.0.09,13]heptacosan-6-yl]-1,2-dihydroxyethyl]-2-hydroxyphenyl}oxidanesulfonic acid

June 24, 2013 , Astellas Pharma US, Inc. (“Astellas”), a U.S. subsidiary of Tokyo-based Astellas Pharma Inc. (Tokyo: 4503), announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved its Supplemental New Drug Application (sNDA) for the use of MYCAMINE® (micafungin sodium) for injection by intravenous infusion for the treatment of pediatric patients four months and older with candidemia, acute disseminated candidiasis, Candida peritonitis and abscesses, esophageal candidiasis, and prophylaxis of Candida infections in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT).

http://www.drugs.com/newdrugs/fda-approves-pediatric-indication-astellas-mycamine-micafungin-sodium-3827.html

Micafungin (trade name Mycamine) is an echinocandin antifungal drug developed by Astellas Pharma. It inhibits the production of beta-1,3-glucan, an essential component of fungal cell walls. Micafungin is administered intravenously. It received final approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration on March 16, 2005, and gained approval in the European Union on April 25, 2008.

Micafungin is indicated for the treatment of candidemia, acute disseminated candidiasis, Candida peritonitis, abscesses and esophageal candidiasis. Since January 23, 2008, micafungin has been approved for the prophylaxis of Candida infections in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).

Micafungin works by way of concentration-dependent inhibition of 1,3-beta-D-glucan synthase resulting in reduced formation of 1,3-beta-D-glucan, which is an essential polysaccharide comprising one-third of the majority of Candida spp. cell walls. This decreased glucan production leads to osmotic instability and thus cellular lysis

  • Micafungin sodium, FK-463, Mycamine, Funguard,208538-73-2

  • The synthesis of FK-463 can be performed as follows: The enzymatic deacylation of FR-901379 with Streptomyces anulatas No. 4811, S. anulatas No. 8703, Streptomyces strain No. 6907 or A. utahensis IFO13244 gives the deacylated lipopeptide FR-179642 (1), which is then reacylated with 1-[4-[5-(4-pentyloxyphenyl)isoxazol-3-yl]benzoyl]benzotriazole 3-oxide (VI) by means of dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) in DMF. The acylating compound (VI) can be obtained as follows: The cyclization of 4-pentyloxyphenylacetylene (I) with 4-(hydroxyiminomethyl)benzoic acid methyl ester (II) by means of triethylamine in hot THF gives 4-[5-(4-pentyloxyphenyl)isoxazol-3-yl]benzoic acid methyl ester (III), which is hydrolyzed with NaOH in hot THF/water yielding the corresponding free acid (IV). Finally, this compound is condensed with 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (V) by means of 1-ethyl-3-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]carbodiimide (EDMCA) in dichloromethane.
    Fromtling, R.A.; Castr, Drugs Fut 1998, 23, 12, 1273
    The synthesis of FK-463 can be performed as follows: The enzymatic deacylation of FR-901379 with Streptomyces anulatas No. 4811, S. anulatas No. 8703, Streptomyces strain No. 6907 or A. utahensis IFO13244 gives the deacylated lipopeptide FR-179642 (1), which is then reacylated with 1-[4-[5-(4-pentyloxyphenyl)isoxazol-3-yl]benzoyl]benzotriazole 3-oxide (VI) by means of dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) in DMF. The acylating compound (VI) can be obtained as follows: The cyclization of 4-pentyloxyphenylacetylene (I) with 4-(hydroxyiminomethyl)benzoic acid methyl ester (II) by means of triethylamine in hot THF gives 4-[5-(4-pentyloxyphenyl)isoxazol-3-yl]benzoic acid methyl ester (III), which is hydrolyzed with NaOH in hot THF/water yielding the corresponding free acid (IV). Finally, this compound is condensed with 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (V) by means of 1-ethyl-3-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]carbodiimide (EDMCD) in dichloromethane.
  • 38th Intersci Conf Antimicrob Agents Chemother (Sept 24 1998, San Diego)1998,:Abst F-145

QUINAPRIL


QUINAPRIL HYDROCHLORIDE

Quinapril (marketed under the brand name Accupril by Pfizer) is an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitor) used in the treatment of hypertension andcongestive heart failure.

Quinapril inhibits angiotensin converting enzyme, an enzyme which catalyses the formation of angiotensin II from its precursor, angiotensin I. Angiotensin II is a powerfulvasoconstrictor and increases blood pressure through a variety of mechanisms. Due to reduced angiotensin production, plasma concentrations of aldosterone are also reduced, resulting in increased excretion of sodium in the urine and increased concentrations ofpotassium in the blood.

  • The condensation of alanine tert-butyl ester (I) with ethyl 2-bromo-4-phenylbutanoate (II) by means of triethylamine in hot DMF gives ethyl 2-[[1-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)ethyl]amino]-4-phenylbutanoate (III), which is partially hydrolyzed with trifluoroacetic acid yielding ethyl 2-[[1-carboxyethyl]amino]-4-phenylbutanoate (IV). The condensation of (IV) with tert-butyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylate (VIII) [prepared from the corresponding acid (VI) and isobutylene (B) by means of H2SO4] as before gives tert-butyl-2-[2-[[1-(ethoxycarbonyl)-3-phenylpropyl]amino]-1-oxopropyl]-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylate (IX), which is finally hydrolyzed partially by treatment with trifluoroacetic acid.
    Hoefle, M.L.; Klutchko, S. (Pfizer Inc.); Substituted acyl derivatives of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acids. DD 201787; EP 0049605; EP 0096157; US 4344949

Novartis First-Generation Lung Cancer Drug Tweaked To Reduce Potential Side Effects


Structures of anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitors

IMPROVING A DRUG
Novartis’ first-generation inhibitor of the enzyme anaplastic lymphoma kinase (TAE684, left) formed potentially harmful protein adducts in the body. To reduce side effects, chemists moved the position of a troublesome nitrogen to make the current version of the drug (LDK378, right).
Credit: J. Med. Chem.
read all at

Sponge molecules isolated and synthesized for drug trials


A structure of PM060184.

By scouring the oceans for disease-fighting molecules, researchers have identified two new anticancer compounds. Isolated from a sea sponge, the compounds represent a new class of the natural products called polyketides, many of which have biological activity. Because it’s not possible to extract sufficient amounts of the molecules from the sponges, the researchers also devised chemical syntheses that allowed them to make enough material to initiate clinical trials on one of the substances,

Cancer Fighters From The Sea

Natural Products: Sponge molecules isolated and synthesized for drug trials.

read all at

http://cen.acs.org/articles/91/i25/Cancer-Fighters-Sea.html

BENAZEPRIL SYNTHESIS


BENAZEPRIL

CAS NO AS HCl SALT

86541-75-5
Benazepril, brand name Lotensin (Novartis), is a medication used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension), congestive heart failure, and chronic renal failure. Upon cleavage of its ester group by the liver, benazepril is converted into its active form benazeprilat, a non-sulfhydryl angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor.
Benazepril, brand name Lotensin, is a medication used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension), congestive heart failure, and chronic renal failure. Upon cleavage of its ester group by the liver, benazepril is converted into its active form benazeprilat, a non-sulfhydryl angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor.
The reaction of 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-(1)benzazepin-2-one (I) with PCl5 in hot xylene gives 3,3-dichloro-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-(1)benzazepin-2-one (II), which is treated with sodium acetate and reduced with H2 over Pd/C in acetic acid yielding 3-chloro-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-(1)benzazepin-2-one (III). The reaction of (III) with sodium azide in DMSO affords 3-azido-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-(1)benzazepin-2-one (IV), which is condensed with benzyl bromoacetate (V) by means of NaH in DMF giving 3-azido-1-(benzyloxycarbonylmethyl)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-(1)benzazepin-2-one (VI). The treatment of (VI) with Raney-Ni in ethanol-water yields 3-amino-1-(benzyloxycarbonylmethyl)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-(1)benzazepin-2-one (VII), which is debenzylated by hydrogenation with H2 over Pd/C in ethanol affording 3-amino-1-(carboxymethyl)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-(1)benzazepin-2-one (VIII). Finally, this compound is condensed with ethyl 3-benzylpyruvate (IX) by means of sodium cyanoborohydride in methanol acetic acid.
REFERENCE
Casta馿r, J.; Serradell, M.N.; CGS-14824 A. Drugs Fut 1984, 9, 5, 317
Ciba-Geigy Corp. (USA). References 1. Watthey, J.W.H. (Ciba-Geigy AG); EP 72.352, GB 2.103.614, JP 83.38.260.

The reaction of 3-bromo-1-phenylpropane (I) with KCN gives 4-phenylbutyronitrile (II), which is hydrolyzed to the corresponding butyric acid (III). The cyclization of (III) with polyphosphoric acid affords 1-tetralone (IV), which is brominated to 2-bromo-1-tetralone (V) and treated with hydroxylamine to give the oxime (VI). The Beckman rearrangement of (VI) yields 3-bromo-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-(1)benzazepin-2-one (VII), which is treated with sodium azide to afford the azide derivative (VIII). The N-alkylation of (VIII) with ethyl bromoacetate (IX) by means of KOH and tetrabutylammonium bromide in THF gives the N-alkylated azide (X), which is reduced by catalytic hydrogenation to the corresponding amine (XI). The hydrolysis of the ester group of (XI) with NaOH yields the free acetic acid derivative (XII), which is finally reductocondensed with ethyl 2-oxo-4-phenylbutyrate (XIII) by means of sodium cyanoborohydride

WO 2003092698 A1


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