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Dutogliptin tartrate
Syn name: 1-[N-[3(R)-Pyrrolidinyl]glycyl]pyrrolidin-2(R)-ylboronic acid L-tartrate
Cas number: 890402-81-0
Molecular Formula: C14H26BN3O9
Molecular Weight: 391.18



[1-[2-(Pyrrolidin-3-ylamino)acetyl]pyrrolidin-2-yl]boronic Acid; [(2R)-1-[2-[[(3R)-Pyrrolidin-3-yl]amino]acetyl]pyrrolidin-2-yl]boronic acid

C10H20BN3O3, 241.0951



  • Dutogliptin
  • PHX1149
  • UNII-38EAO245ZX

clinical trials

PHX-1149 is a dipeptidyl peptidase IV (CD26; DPP-IV; DP-IV) inhibitor which had been in phase III clinical trials at Phenomix and Forest for the oral, once-daily treatment of type 2 diabetes.

In 2008, the compound was licensed to Forest by Phenomix in North America for development and commercialization; however this license agreement was terminated in 2010. In 2009, the compound was licensed to Chiesi by Phenomix for development and commercialization for the treatment of diabetes type 2 in Europe, Brazil, the Russian Federation and all other members of the Commonwealth of Independent States, Turkey and Northern Africa. Phenomix ceased operations in 2010.






The enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) is a member of the dipeptidyl peptidase family, which cleaves N-terminal dipeptide residues from proteins, particularly where the dipeptide includes an N-terminal penultimate proline or alanine residue. DPP-IV is believed to be involved in glucose control, as its peptidolytic action inactivates the insulotropic peptides glucagon-like peptide I (GLP-I) and gastric inhibitory protein (GIP).

Inhibition of DPP- IV, such as with synthetic inhibitors in vivo, can serve to increase plasma concentrations of GLP-I and GIP, and thus improve glycemic control in the body. Such synthetic inhibitors would therefore be useful in the treatment of diabetes mellitus and related conditions. Certain such selective DPP-IV inhibitors have been developed, as are disclosed in U.S. Patent 7,317,109, U.S. Patent 7,576,121, U.S. Application Publication Nos. 2007/0060547, 2007/0185061, 2007/0299036, 2008/0182995, 2008/0300413, 2006/0264400, and 2006/0264401, and in International Applications WO2008/027273 and WO2008/144730, the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference. Inhibition of DPP-IV by compounds of the structure of formula (I) is disclosed therein:

Figure imgf000002_0001

Example 1 – Synthesis of (R)-N-( 1 , 1 -Dimethylethoxycarbonyl)(pyrrolidine-2-yl)boronic Acid.

Figure imgf000054_0001

An oven dried 1 L three neck round bottom flask equipped with an overhead stirrer, addition funnel and internal thermocouple was charged with (IS, 2S)-Dimethyl-bis(3,3- dimethylbutyl)cyclohexane-l,2-diamine (approx. 50 g, 161.23 mmol, 1.2 eq), BOC-pyrrolidine (approx. 23.55 ml, 134.35 mmol, 1 eq) and dry toluene (approx. 500 ml) under inert atmosphere. The clear colorless solution was cooled to 78° C and a solution of sec-BuLi (approx. 115.16 ml of a 1.4 solution in cyclohexane, 161.23 mmol, 1.2 eq) was added slowly via dropping funnel over approx. 10 minutes (the temperature of the reaction mixture was maintained between approx. – 780C and -650C). The light orange colored solution was stirred for 3.5 hours at approx. -780C, which was then followed by the addition of a solution of trimethylborate (approx. 45.06 ml, 403.05 mmol, 3 eq) in toluene (approx. 75 ml) via dropping funnel over 30 minutes while maintaining the temperature below -650C. The reaction mixture was warmed slowly to room temperature, and stirred for 16 hours at room temperature. The reaction mixture was added into an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution (approx. 670 ml of 2.0 M solution, 1340 mmol, 10 eq) and the resulting cloudy mixture was stirred for 30 minutes before allowing layers to separate. The aqueous phase (product) was transferred to a receiver and backwashed with toluene (approx. 100 ml). The organic phases (chiral amine ligand) were transferred to a receiver for later isolation. The aqueous phase was acidified to pH 5-6 by slow addition of HCl {cone), then extracted with EtOAc (approx. 3 x 500 ml). The organic extracts were combined, dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated until a final volume of approximately 100 ml. Heptane (approx. 300 ml) was added and the concentrated mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight (approx. 15 hours). The resulting white precipitate was filtered and the filter cake was washed with cold heptane. The product was dried at room temperature under vacuum to yield (R)- (pyrrolidine-2-yl)boronic acid (approx. 20.31 g, 94.44 mmol, 70.27 %) as a white solid. [α]25D – 72.5 (c 1, DCM); 94-95 % ee (% ee was determined through chiral HPLC); 1H NMR (400 MHz, D2O) δ 3.40-3.50 (IH), 3.20- 3.30 (IH), 2.90-3.00 (IH), 2.10 (IH), 2.00 (IH), 1.85 (IH), 1.72 (IH), 1.45-1.48 (9H); m/z (ES+) 216.06.

Example 2 – Isolation of the chiral ligand ((1S, 2S)-Dimethyl-bis(3,3-dimethyl butyl) cyclohexane- 1 ,2-diamine)

Figure imgf000055_0001

Water (approx. 300 ml) was added to the first organic extract from the previous workup and cooled to 0° C the mixture was acidified to pH 3 by slow addition of HCl. The resulting cloudy mixture was stirred vigorously before allowing layers to separate. The aqueous phase (product) was transferred to a receiver and backwashed with toluene (approx. 100 ml). The aqueous phase was stirred at O0C and the pH of the solution was adjusted to 12-13 by the addition of sodium hydroxide. The mixture was extracted with toluene (approx. 3 x 500 ml) and the combined organic phases were concentrated under reduced pressure to give the crude chiral diamine (approx. 48.32 g, 155.57 mmol, 96.5%) as light yellow oil. Further purification by vacuum distillation (approx. 120-1300C, house vacuum) yielded the chiral diamine as a colorless oil (approx. 45.57 g, 146.72 mmol) in 91% recovery).Example 3 – Synthesis of (R)-N-(I, l-dimethylethoxycarbonyl)-pinanediol-(Pyrrolidin-2-yl) boronate

Figure imgf000056_0001

A solution of (R)-Pyrrolidine boronic acid (approx. 300 mg, 1.39 mmol) in isopropyl acetate (approx. 10 ml) was treated with (+)-pinanediol (approx. 236.35 mg, 1.39 mmol, 1 eq) and Na2SO4 (approx. 203.25 mg, 1.39 mmol, 1 eq). After 24 hr, the solvent was evaporated to give crude boronic ester (approx. 475.55 mg, 1.36 mmol, 98 %) as a clear oil: 98-99 % de via chiral HPLC; 1U NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 4.32 (IH), 3.47 (IH), 3.41-3.31 (2H), 3.22-3.05 (IH), 2.38- 2.30 (IH), 2.20-1.75 (8H), 1.45 (9H), 1.41 (3H), 1.28 (3H), .85 (3H); m/z (ES, M+l) 350.28.Example 4 – (R)-N-(Pyrrolidine-2-yl)-pinacol boronate

To a solution of pyrrolidine boronic acid (approx. 456 mg, 2.12 mmol) in isopropyl acetate

(approx. 15 ml) was added pinacol (approx. 251 mg, 2.12 mmol, 1 eq) and Na2SO4 (approx. 310 mg, 2.12 mmol, 1 eq). The mixture was stirred for 24 hr and the solvent was evaporated to yield crude pinacol boronate. The residue was triturated with EtOAc/hexane (approx. 1 : 10) at RT for 1 hr then filtered to give the pinacol boronate (approx. 611 mg, 2.06 mmol, 97 %) as a white solid: . 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 3.40-2.95 (3H), 1.95-1.50 (4H), 1.40 (9H), 1.20 (12H); m/z (ES+) 298.21. Removal of the Boc-protecting group was achieved by dissolving the white solid pinacol boronate in dry ether (approx. 15 ml), cooling to 0° C in an ice bath followed with addition of 1.5 eq of HCl in dioxane After 8 hours, the solvent was evaporated then triturated in hexane for 1 hr. The white precipitate was filtered and dried to yield the acid salt (approx. 472 mg, 2.02 mmol, 98 %): 1HNMR (CDCl3) δ 3.48 (IH), 3.36 (IH), 3.21 (IH), 2.21 (IH), 2.03 (2H), 1.95 (IH), 1.35 (12H); m/z (ES M+l) 198.21.

Example 5 – Synthesis of (R)-3-(Benzyloxycarbonyl-{2-oxo-2-[(R)-2-((lS,2S,6R,8S)-2,9,9- trimethyl-3,5-dioxa-4-bora-tricyclo[^'”]dec-4-yl)-pyrrolidin-l-yl]-ethyl}-amino)- pyrrolidine- 1-carboxylic acid benzyl ester

Figure imgf000057_0001

A mixture of (R)-3-(benzyloxycarbonyl-carboxymethyl-amino)-pyrrolidine- 1-carboxylic acid benzyl ester dicyclohexylamine salt) (approx. 300.Og, 0.505mol), water (approx. 1.5L), 2M aqueous sulfuric acid (approx. 0.75L, 1.5mol) and toluene (approx. 2L) was stirred in a 1OL reactor at room temperature for 15 min. After settling the layers were separated. The aqueous layer was stirred with toluene (approx. 1.0L) for 15 min, and the layers were separated. The combined organic layers were washed with water (approx. 1.5L), and concentrated under vacuum at 450C to 1.5L. To this solution was added N-methylmorpholine (approx. 55.4 mL, 0.505mol) and this mixture was added to a cold solution (approx. 0°-5°C) of ethyl chloroformate (approx. 48.1 mL, 0.505mol) in toluene (approx. 1.0L). The reaction mixture was stirred at 0° – 50C for 15 min and solid (2-(2,9,9-trimethyl-3,5-dioxa-4-bora-tricyclo[]dec-4-yl)-pyrrolidine hydrochloride) (approx. 144.4g, 0.505mol) was added in one portion followed by addition of N- Methylmorpholine (approx. 110.8 mL, l.Olmol). The mixture was stirred for 30 min at 0°-5°C, and allowed to warm to 20°-25°C. Stirring was continued for an additional 2.5 h. Water (approx. 2.0L) was then added, and the mixture was stirred for an additional 15 min. The layers were separated and the organic layer was subsequently washed with 0.85M aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution (approx. 1.2L), water (approx. 2.0L), and 0.065M citric acid solution (approx. 1.5L). Toluene solution was concentrated under vacuum at 450C, to give 287.3 g (approx. 88.4%) of the title compound. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3, ppm): mixture of rotomers, 7.35-7.25 (10H,m); 5.22- 4.99 (4H,m); 4.60 (IH, d); 4.22 (IH, dd); 4.11-3.65 (3H, m); 3.60-3.00 (6H, m); 2.32-1.91 (8H, m); 1.89-1.67 (4H, m); 1.42-1.18 (6H, m); 0.84-0.72 (3H, m); m/z (M+H)=644. Example 6 – Synthesis of 2-((R)-Pyrrolidin-3-ylamino)-l-[(R)-2-((lS,2S,6R,8S)-2,9,9-trimethyl- 3,5-dioxa-4-bora-tricyclo[ ‘ ]dec-4-yl)-pyrrolidin- 1 -yl]-ethanone

Figure imgf000058_0001

a) THF solvateA solution of (R)-3-(Benzyloxycarbonyl-{2-oxo-2-[(R)-2-((l S,2S,6R,8S)-2,9,9-trimethyl-3,5- dioxa-4-bora-tricyclo[‘”]dec-4-yl)-pyrrolidin- 1 -yl] -ethyl }-amino)-pyrrolidine- 1 – carboxylic acid benzyl ester (approx. 4.76 g, 7.4 mmol) in toluene (approx. 60 mL) was diluted with methanol (approx. 60 mL). 10% Pd/C (wet, 500 mg) was added, and the mixture was hydrogenated at 50 psi for 3 h. The mixture was filtered through celite and washed with methanol (approx. 10 mL). The solution was then concentrated under vacuum to dryness. The residue was dissolved in THF (approx. 10 mL) at 4O0C and crystallized overnight at -1O0C to -15°C. Crystals were filtered, washed with cold THF (approx. 3 mL), and dried under vacuum for 5 h to yield 1.9 g (approx. 68.5%) of the title compound. 1H NMR (400 MHz, D2O, 1 drop TFA), 64.18 – 4.89 (m, IH), 3.93 – 3.85 (m, IH), 3.77 (s, 2H), 3.55 (dd, IH)5 3.45 -3.38 (m, 4H), 3.35 – 3.25 (m, 2H), 3.24 – 3.05 (m, 3H), 2.93 (t, IH), 2.33 – 2.24 (m, IH), 2.15 – 1.42 (m, 16H), 1.09 (s, 3H), 0.94 (s, 3H), 0.78 (d, IH), 0.50 (s, 3H). m/z (ES+) = 376.30.

Thermogravimetric analysis of THF solvate of 2-((R)-Pyrrolidin-3-ylamino)-l-[(R)-2-

((lS,2S,6R,8S)-2,9,9-trimethyl-3,5-dioxa-4-bora-tricyclo[]dec-4-yl)-pyrrolidin-l-yl]- ethanone was performed as is shown in Figure 5.

X-Ray Diffractogram of THF solvate of 2-((R)-Pyrrolidin-3-ylamino)-l-[(R)-2-((lS,2S,6R,8S)- 2,9,9-trimethyl-3,5-dioxa-4-bora-tricyclo[]dec-4-yl)-pyrrolidin-l-yl]-ethanone was performed as is shown in Figure 6. b) Non-solvate

A solution of (3-(Benzyloxycarbonyl-{2-oxo-2-[2-(2,9,9-trimethyl-3,5-dioxa-4-bora- tricyclo[]dec-4-yl)-pyrrolidin-l-yl]-ethyl}-amino]-pyrrolidine-l-carboxylic acid benzyl ester) (approx. 20.Og, 31.Ommol) in toluene (approx. 8OmL) was diluted with methanol (approx. 20 mL). 10% Pd/C (2g, wet) was added, and the mixture was hydrogenated at 50 psi for 3 h. The mixture was filtered through celite and the filter bed was washed with a mixture of toluene (approx. 2OmL) and methanol (approx. 4 mL). The solution was concentrated to 8OmL at 30 -35 0C under vacuum (approx. 90 to 120 mBar). THF (approx. 10OmL) was added and the solution was concentrated to 12OmL at 30 -35 0C under vacuum (approx. 90 to 120 mBar). The mixture was stirred at 35 0C for Ih, resulting in crystallization. The mixture was cooled to 0 0C and held at that temperature for 2h. Crystals were isolated by filtration, washed with a cold mixture of toluene (approx. 20 mL) and THF (approx. 5 mL), and dried under vacuum at 35 0C for 16 h to yield 9.11 g (approx. 24.3 mmol, 78%) of the title compound as a white solid.1H NMR (400 MHz, D20, 1 drop TFA), δ 4.34 (dd, IH, J= 9, 2 Hz), 4.08 (m, IH), 3.99 (s, 2H), 3.74 (dd, IH, J= 13, 8 Hz), 3.52 -3.29 (m, 6H), 3.12 (t, IH, J= 8 Hz), 2.47 (m, IH), 2.27 (m, IH), 2.19 – 2.06 (m, 2H), 2.02 – 1.84 (m, 6H), 1.67 (m, 2H), 1.30 (s, 3H), 1.15 (s, 3H), 1.00 (d, IH, J= 11 Hz), 0.71 (s, 3H). m/z (ES+) = 376.30.

Thermogravimetric analysis of 2-((R)-Pyrrolidin-3-ylamino)-l-[(R)-2-((lS,2S,6R,8S)-2,9,9- trimethyl-3,5-dioxa-4-bora-tricyclo[^'”]dec-4-yl)-pyrrolidin-l-yl]-ethanone was performed as is shown in Figure 7.

X-Ray Diffractogram of2-((R)-Pyrrolidin-3-ylamino)-l-[(R)-2-((lS,2S,6R,8S)-2,9,9-trimethyl-

3,5-dioxa-4-bora-tricyclo[ ‘ ]dec-4-yl)-pyrrolidin-l-yl]-ethanone was performed as is shown in Figure 8.

Example 7 – Synthesis of Dutogliptin Tartrate

Figure imgf000060_0001

A round bottom flask equipped with a magnetic stirrer was charged with 2-(Pyrrolidin-3- ylamino)- 1 -[2-(2,9,9-trimethyl-3,5-dioxa-4-boratricyclo[]dec-4-yl)-pyrrolidin-l-yl]- ethanone (approx. l:l-Pinanediol borane / THF complex; 2.98 g, 6.67 mmol, leq), (L)-tartaric acid (approx. 1.00 g, 6.67 mmol, 1 eq), and H2O (approx. 15 mL). The mixture was allowed to stir for 1 hour then tert-Butyl methyl ether (approx. 15 ml) and (i?)-N-(l,l- dimethylethoxycarbonyl)(pyrrolidine-2-yl)boronic acid (approx. 1.46 g, 6.80 mmol, 1.02 eq) were added. The bi-phasic mixture was allowed to stir for 20 hours at room temperature before separating the layers. The aqueous phase backwashed with tert-butyl methyl ether (approx. 15 ml) and the organic layers were combined. Lyophilization of the aqueous layer provided dutogliptin tartrate as a white solid (approx. 2.60 g, 6.65 mmol, 99.7%): 1H NMR (400 MHz, D2O, one drop of TFA) δ 4.48 (2H), 3.95-3.88 (IH), 3.81 (2H), 3.59-3.54 (IH), 3.37-3.28 (2H), 3.21-3.16 (2H), 3.11-3.07 (IH), 2.82-2.78 (IH), 2.37-2.28 (IH), 2.04-1.96 (IH), 1.88-1.78 (2H), 1.71-1.60 (IH), 1.50-1.42 (IH); m/z (ES+) 241.10 (-tartrate acid).








US20060069250 * Sep 28, 2005 Mar 30, 2006 Xiaohu Deng Synthesis by chiral diamine-mediated asymmetric alkylation
US20080182995 * Oct 31, 2007 Jul 31, 2008 Phenomix Corporation Pyrrolidine compounds and methods for selective inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-iv
US20080300413 * Jul 27, 2006 Dec 4, 2008 David Alan Campbell Efficiently preparing boropyrrolidines and derivatives by coupling a (pyrrolidin3-yl-amino-)acetic acid and a 7,9,8-dioxaborotricyclic- (4,3,0,1(2,4))decane; protecting groups avert side reactions; antidiabetic agents


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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK LIFE SCIENCES LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 PLUS year tenure till date June 2021, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 90 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, 233 countries, 7 continents, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 33 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 233 countries...... , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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