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ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK LIFE SCIENCES LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 PLUS year tenure till date June 2021, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 90 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, 233 countries, 7 continents, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 33 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 233 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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Verdiperstat


Verdiperstat (AZD3241) | MPO Inhibitor | MedChemExpress
Verdiperstat.png

Verdiperstat

AZD 3241; BHV-3241

CAS No. : 890655-80-8

1-(2-propan-2-yloxyethyl)-2-sulfanylidene-5H-pyrrolo[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-one

4H-​Pyrrolo[3,​2-​d]​pyrimidin-​4-​one, 1,​2,​3,​5-​tetrahydro-​1-​[2-​(1-​methylethoxy)​ethyl]​-​2-​thioxo-

1-(2-isopropoxyethyl)-2-thioxo-1,2,3,5-tetrahydro-pyrrolo[3,2-d] pyrimidin-4-one

l-(2-Isopropoxyethyl)-2-thioxo-l,2,3,5-tetrahydro-pyrrolo[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-one

  • Molecular FormulaC11H15N3O2S
  • Average mass253.321 Da

AZD-3241BHV-3421UNII-TT3345YXVRTT3345YXVRBHV-3241, WHO 10251вердиперстат [Russian] [INN]فيرديبيرستات [Arabic] [INN]维地泊司他 [Chinese] [INN]

  • OriginatorAstraZeneca
  • DeveloperAstraZeneca; Biohaven Pharmaceuticals
  • ClassAntiparkinsonians; Ethers; Organic sulfur compounds; Pyrimidinones; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of ActionPeroxidase inhibitors
  • Orphan Drug StatusYes – Multiple system atrophy
  • Phase IIIMultiple system atrophy
  • Phase II/IIIAmyotrophic lateral sclerosis
  • DiscontinuedParkinson’s disease
  • 23 Jun 20213574186: Added patent info and HE
  • 23 Jun 2021Biohaven Pharmaceuticals has patents pending for the composition of matter of verdiperstat, pharmaceutical compositions and various neurological diseases in Europe, Japan and other countries
  • 01 Nov 2020Brigham and Women’s Hospital plans a phase I trial for Multiple System Atrophy in USA , (NCT04616456)

EU/3/14/1404: Orphan designation for the treatment of multiple system atrophy

This medicine is now known as verdiperstat.

On 16 December 2014, orphan designation (EU/3/14/1404) was granted by the European Commission to Astra Zeneca AB, Sweden, for 1-(2-isopropoxyethyl)-2-thioxo-1,2,3,5-tetrahydro-pyrrolo[3,2-d] pyrimidin-4-one for the treatment of multiple system atrophy.

The sponsorship was transferred to Richardson Associates Regulatory Affairs Limited, Ireland, in March 2019.

The sponsorship was transferred to Biohaven Pharmaceutical Ireland DAC, Ireland, in September 2021.

Key facts

Active substance1-(2-isopropoxyethyl)-2-thioxo-1,2,3,5-tetrahydro-pyrrolo[3,2-d] pyrimidin-4-one (verdiperstat)
Intented useTreatment of multiple system atrophy
Orphan designation statusPositive
EU designation numberEU/3/14/1404
Date of designation16/12/2014
SponsorBiohaven Pharmaceutical Ireland DAC

VERDIPERSTAT

For Initial Indications in Multiple System Atrophy (MSA) and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)

Verdiperstat is a first-in-class, potent, selective, brain-penetrant, irreversible myeloperoxidase (MPO) enzyme inhibitor. Verdiperstat was progressed through Phase 2 clinical trials by AstraZeneca. Seven clinical studies were completed by AstraZeneca, including four Phase 1 studies in healthy subjects, two Phase 2a studies in subjects with Parkinson’s Disease, and one Phase 2b study in subjects with MSA. These Phase 2 clinical studies provide evidence that verdiperstat achieves peripheral target engagement (i.e., reduces MPO specific activity in plasma) and central target engagement in the brain and offer proof of its mechanism of action (i.e., reduce microglial activation and neuroinflamation).

A Phase 3 clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of verdiperstat in MSA is currently ongoing. A Phase 2/3 trial to evaluate the efficacy of verdiperstat in ALS is currently ongoing as part of the HEALEY ALS Platform Trial.

Verdiperstat has received Fast Track and Orphan Drug designations by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicine Agency due to the unmet medical needs in MSA.

Verdiperstat Overview

DESCRIPTIONClick to expendFirst-in-class, brain-penetrant, irreversible inhibitor of MPO

CLINICAL STATUSClick to expendOver 250 healthy volunteers and patients have been treated with verdiperstat in Phase 1 and Phase 2 studies. A Phase 3 study in MSA is currently underway and a Phase 2/3 study in ALS is currently enrolling.
Verdiperstat (AZD3241) is a selective, irreversible and orally active myeloperoxidase (MPO) inhibitor, with an IC50 of 630 nM, and can be used in the research of neurodegenerative brain disorders.

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PATENTWO 2006062465https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2006062465A1/enExample 9 l-(2-Isopropoxyethyl)-2-thioxo-l,2,3,5-tetrahydro-pyrrolo[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-one (a) 3-[(2-Isopropoxyethyl)ωnino]-lH-pyrwle-2-carboxylic acid ethyl ester Trichlorocyanuric acid (1.84 g, 7.93 mmol) was added to a solution of 2- isopropoxyethanol (0.75 g, 7.21 mmol) in CH2Cl2 (3 mL). The reaction mixture was cooled to 0 °C and TEMPO (0.022 g, 0.14 mmol) was carefully added in small portions. The mixture was stirred at r.t. for 20 minutes then filtered through Celite and washed with CH2Cl2. The filtrate was kept cold, 0 °C, during filtration. The aldehyde solution was added to a stirred mixture of 3-amino-lH-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid ester (0.83 g, 5.41 mmol) and HOAc (0.62 mL, 10.8 mmol) at 0 °C in methanol (5 mL). The mixture was stirred for 20 minutes, then NaCNBH3 (0.34 g, 5.41 mmol) was added. After stirring at r.t for 2 h, the solution was evaporated onto silica and purified by flash column chromatography (heptane/ethyl acetate gradient; 0 to 100% ethyl acetate) to yield the title compound (0.75 g, 58%) as an oil. 1H NMR (DMSO-d6) δ ppm 10.72 (IH, br s), 6.76-6.74 (IH, m), 5.66-5.65 (IH, m), 5.34(1H, br s), 4.17 (2H, q, J=7.0 Hz), 3.59-3.49 (3H, m), 3.15 (2H, q, J=5.6 Hz), 1.26 (3H, t, J=7.0 Hz), 1.10 (3H, s), 1.08 (3H, s); MS (ESI) m/z 241 (M +1).(b) l-(2-Isopropoxyethyl)-2-thioxo-l,2,3,5-tetrahydro-pyrrolo[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-one The title compound (0.17 g, 23%) was prepared in accordance with the general method B using 3-[(2-isopropoxyethyl)amino]-lH-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (0.7 g, 2.91 mmol) and ethoxycarbonyl isothiocyanate (0.40 mL, 3.50 mmol).1H NMR (DMSO-d6) δ ppm 12.74 (2H, br s), 7.35 (IH, d, J=2.8 Hz), 6.29 (IH, d, J=3.0Hz), 4.49 (2H, t, J=6.3 Hz), 3.72 (2H, t, J=6.3 Hz), 3.60-3.58 (IH, m), 1.02 (3H, s), 1.01 (3H, s);MS (ESI) m/z 254 (M +1).

/////////verdiperstat, вердиперстат , فيرديبيرستات , 维地泊司他 , WHO 10251, AZD-3241BHV-3421UNII-TT3345YXVRTT3345YXVRBHV-3241, AZD 3241, BHV 3241, BHV 3421

CC(C)OCCN1C2=C(C(=O)NC1=S)NC=C2

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ABX 464


Evotec and Abivax in small-molecule pact

ChemSpider 2D Image | ABX-464 | C16H10ClF3N2O

ABX-464

  • Molecular FormulaC16H10ClF3N2O
  • Averrage mass338.712 Da

SPL-4641258453-75-6[RN]26RU378B9V2-Quinolinamine, 8-chloro-N-[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl]-8-Chloro-N-[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl]-2-quinolinamine

EX-A3322DB14828SB18690BS-14770

Abivax is developing ABX464 a lead from HIV-1 splicing inhibitors, which modulates biogenesis of viral RNA, and acts by targeting the Rev protein, for treating HIV infection, rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis and COVID-19 infection.

In August 2021, ABX464 was reported to be in phase 3 clinical development.

ABX464 is an oral, first-in-class, small molecule that has demonstrated safety and profound anti-inflammatory activity in preclinical trials and in Phase 2a and Phase 2b induction trials to treat ulcerative colitis (UC). Patients who completed the induction studies had the option to roll over into the respective open-label extension studies.
In May 2021, Abivax communicated the top-line results of its randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled Phase 2b induction trial conducted in 15 European countries, the US and Canada in 254 patients. The primary endpoint (statistically significant reduction of Modified Mayo Score) was met with once-daily ABX464 (25mg, 50mg, 100mg) at week 8.

Further, all key secondary endpoints, including endoscopic improvement, clinical remission, clinical response and the reduction of fecal calprotectin showed significant difference in patients dosed with ABX464 compared to placebo. Importantly, ABX464 also showed rapid efficacy in patients who were previously exposed to biologics and/or JAK inhibitors treatment.

In addition to the top-line induction results, preliminary data from the first 51 patients treated with 50mg ABX464 in the Phase 2b open-label maintenance study showed increased and durable clinical remission and endoscopic improvement after 48 weeks of treatment.

Based on the positive results from the Phase 2a and Phase 2b studies, Abivax plans to advance ABX464 into a Phase 3 clinical program by the end of 2021.

  • Originator Splicos
  • Developer Abivax
  • Class Anti-inflammatories; Antirheumatics; Antivirals; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action MicroRNA stimulants; Rev gene product inhibitors; RNA cap-binding protein modulators
  • Phase II/III COVID 2019 infections
  • Phase II Crohn’s disease; Rheumatoid arthritis; Ulcerative colitis
  • DiscontinuedHIV infections
  • 24 Jun 2021 Discontinued – Phase-II for HIV infections (Adjunctive treatment, Treatment-experienced) in France (PO) (Abivax pipeline, June 2021)
  • 24 Jun 2021 Discontinued – Phase-II for HIV infections (Treatment-experienced, Adjunctive treatment) in Belgium (PO) (Abivax pipeline, June 2021)
  • 24 Jun 2021
  • Discontinued – Phase-II for HIV infections (Treatment-experienced, Adjunctive treatment) in Spain (PO) (Abivax pipeline, June 2021)

Evotec and Abivax in small-molecule pact

by Michael McCoy

September 18, 2017 | A version of this story appeared in Volume 95, Issue 37

The contract research firm Evotec will work with Abivax, a French biotech company, to develop new treatments for viral diseases. Abivax has developed a library of more than 1,000 small molecules designed to inhibit mRNA biogenesis. At its facility in Toulouse, France, Evotec will optimize Abivax’s drug candidates and help develop new drugs for influenza, Dengue, and other viral infections. Abivax’s lead candidate, ABX464, is in Phase II clinical trials as an HIV/AIDS treatment.

PATENT

WO 2010143170

WO 2010143168

WO 2010143169

EP 2974729

WO 2016009065

WO 2017158201

PATENT

WO2016009065

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2016009065

Buchwald-Hartwig coupling of 2,8-dichloroquinoline (I) with 4-(trifluoromethoxy)aniline (II) using Pd(OAc)2, Cs2CO3 and xantphos or Pd2dba3, K2CO3 and xphos in t-BuOH

PATENT

https://patents.google.com/patent/US10253020B2/en

US 20170226095

COMPD 90

  • (90) 8-chloro-N-[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl]quinolin-2-amine

Example 5: Compound (90) of the Table IAccording to route (A), a mixture of 2,8-dichloroquinoline (984 mg) and 4-(trifluoromethoxy)aniline (743 μL), Pd(OAc)(22 mg), XantPhos (58 mg) and Cs2CO(4.6 g) in 20 mL of t-BuOH gave compound (90) (1.1 g).1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.84 (d, J=9.1, 2H), 7.79 (d, J=8.9, 1H), 7.67 (dd, J=1.2, 7.6, 1H), 7.48 (dd, J=1.1, 8.0, 1H), 7.18 (s, 3H), 6.89 (s, 1H), 6.75 (d, J=8.9, 1H).13C NMR (75 MHz, CDCl3) δ 153.88, 144.30, 143.91, 139.00, 138.25, 131.13, 130.13, 126.55, 125.42, 123.45, 122.50, 122.17, 120.49, 119.10, 113.24.

901H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.84 (d, J = 9.1, 2H), 7.79 (d, J = 8.9, 1H), 7.67 (dd, J = 1.2,
 7.6, 1H), 7.48 (dd, J = 1.1, 8.0, 1H), 7.18 (s, 3H), 6.89 (s, 1H), 6.75 (d, J = 8.9,
 1H)
 13C NMR (75 MHz, CDCl3) δ 153.88, 144.30, 143.91, 139.00, 138.25, 131.13,
 130.13, 126.55, 125.42, 123.45, 122.50, 122.17, 120.49, 119.10, 113.24.
 MS (ESI) [M + H]+ = 339

PAPER

Tetrahedron Letters (2018), 59(23), 2277-2280.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0040403918305641

Abstract

A solvent-free Buchwald-Hartwig amination had been developed under high-speed ball-milling conditions, which afforded the desired products with moderate to high yields. The addition of sodium sulfate was found to be crucial for improving both the performance and the reproducibility. Comparative solvent-free stirring experiments implicated the importance of mechanical interaction for the transformation, and the inert gas was proved to be unnecessary for this amination.

Graphical abstract

PATENT

WO2015001518

COMPD 90

PATENT

WO-2021152131

Novel co-crystalline polymorphic forms and salts of ABX464 , useful for treating inflammatory diseases, cancer, and diseases caused by viruses eg HIV, severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV-2 infection including strains responsible for COVID-19 and their mutants.

W02010/143169 application describes the preparation and use of compounds, and in particular quinoline derivatives including certain pharmaceutically acceptable salts useful in the treatment of HIV infection. Said application in particular discloses 8-Chloro-N-(4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)quinolin-2-amine also named (8-chloro-quinoline-2-yl)-(4-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl) -amine which is currently under clinical development. The inventors have stated that ABX464 is naturally highly crystalliferous and thus is spontaneously present under a specific unique stable and crystalline form named “crystalline form I”.

W02017/158201 application deals with certain mineral acid or sulfonic acid salts of ABX464.

ABX464 has a poor solubility in aqueous solutions. The main drawback of said poor solubility is that the active ingredient cannot entirely reach their targets in the body if the drug remains undissolved in the gastrointestinal system.

PATENT

WO2021152129 ,

amorphous solid dispersion (eg tablet) comprising ABX464.

PATENT

WO2020127839

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2020127839

use of quinoline derivatives (ie ABX464) for treating cancer and dysplasia.

///////////ABX464, ABX 464, phase 3 ,  SPL 464, EX A3322DB14828SB18690BS 14770

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OTESECONAZOLE


Oteseconazole.png
img

OTESECONAZOLE

VT 1161

(2R)-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-1,1-difluoro-3-(tetrazol-1-yl)-1-[5-[4-(2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy)phenyl]pyridin-2-yl]propan-2-ol

C23H16F7N5O2
527.4
SynonymsVT 1161 Oteseconazole1340593-59-0

Other Names

  • (αR)-α-(2,4-Difluorophenyl)-β,β-difluoro-α-(1H-tetrazol-1-ylmethyl)-5-[4-(2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy)phenyl]-2-pyridineethanol
  • (2R)-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-1,1-difluoro-3-(1H-1,2,3,4-tetrazol-1-yl)- 1-{5-[4-(2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy)phenyl]pyridin-2-yl}propan-2-ol

 Oteseconazole, also known as VT-1161, is a tetrazole antifungal agent potentially for the treatment of candidal vaginal infection. VT-1161 Protects Immunosuppressed Mice from Rhizopus arrhizus var. arrhizus Infection. VT-1161 dosed once daily or once weekly exhibits potent efficacy in treatment of dermatophytosis in a guinea pig model.

Oteseconazole has been used in trials studying the treatment of Tinea Pedis, Onychomycosis, Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal, and Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis.

Mycovia Pharmaceuticals is developing oteseconazole, the lead from a program of metalloenzyme Cyp51 (lanosterol demethylase) inhibitors, developed using the company’s Metallophile technology, for treating fungal infections including onychomycosis and recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC). In July 2021, oteseconazole was reported to be in phase 3 clinical development. Licensee Jiangsu Hengrui Medicine is developing otesaconazole, as an oral capsule formulation, for treating fungal conditions, including RVVC, onychomycosis and invasive fungal infections, in Greater China and planned for a phase 3 trial in April 2021 for treating VVC.

  • OriginatorViamet Pharmaceuticals
  • DeveloperMycovia Pharmaceuticals; Viamet Pharmaceuticals
  • ClassAntifungals; Foot disorder therapies; Pyridines; Small molecules; Tetrazoles
  • Mechanism of Action14-alpha demethylase inhibitors
  • PreregistrationVulvovaginal candidiasis
  • Phase IIOnychomycosis
  • No development reportedTinea pedis
  • 01 Jun 2021Preregistration for Vulvovaginal candidiasis (In adolescents, In adults, In children, Recurrent) in USA (PO)
  • 01 Jun 2021Mycovia intends to launch otesaconazole (Recurrent) for Vulvovaginal candidiasis in the US in early 2022
  • 06 Jan 2021Interim efficacy and adverse events data from a phase III ultraVIOLET trial in Vulvovaginal candidiasis released by Mycovia Pharmaceuticals

PATENT

WO 2017049080

WO 2016149486

US 20150024938

WO 2015143172

WO 2015143184 

WO 2015143180

 WO 2015143142

 WO 2013110002

WO 2013109998

WO 2011133875 

PATENT

WO 2017049080,

PATENT

WO-2021143811

Novel crystalline polymorphic form of VT-1161 (also known as oteseconazole) phosphate disodium salt, useful as a prodrug of oteseconazole, for treating systemic fungal infection (eg Candida albicans infection) or onychomycosis.The function of metalloenzymes is highly dependent on the presence of metal ions in the active site of the enzyme. It is recognized that reagents that bind to and inactivate metal ions at the active site greatly reduce the activity of the enzyme. Nature uses this same strategy to reduce the activity of certain metalloenzymes during periods when enzyme activity is not needed. For example, the protein TIMP (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases) binds to zinc ions in the active sites of various matrix metalloproteinases, thereby inhibiting enzyme activity. The pharmaceutical industry has used the same strategy in the design of therapeutic agents. For example, the azole antifungal agents fluconazole and voriconazole contain 1-(1,2,4-triazole) group, which exists in the active site of the target enzyme lanosterol demethylase The heme iron binds, thereby inactivating the enzyme. Another example includes zinc-bound hydroxamic acid groups, which have been introduced into most of the published inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases and histone deacetylases. Another example is the zinc-binding carboxylic acid group, which has been introduced into most of the published angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. 
VT-1161, the compound 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-1,1-difluoro-3-(1H-tetrazol-1-yl)-1-(5-(4-(2, 2,2-Trifluoroethoxy)phenyl)pyridin-2-yl)propan-2-ol, is an antifungal drug developed by VIAMET, currently in the clinical research stage, its structure is as follows Shown:

This compound mainly acts on the CYP51 target of fungal cells. Compared with the previous triazole antifungal drugs, it has the advantages of wider antibacterial spectrum, low toxicity, high safety and good selectivity. However, this compound is not suitable for Liquid preparations (including or excluding the parenteral delivery carrier) are used to treat patients in need thereof. 
2-(2,4-Difluorophenyl)-1,1-difluoro-3-(1H-tetrazol-1-yl)-1-(5-(4-(2,2,2-trifluoro Ethoxy)phenyl)pyridin-2-yl)propan-2-yl dihydrogen phosphate is a prodrug of VT-1161. 
On the other hand, nearly half of the drug molecules are in the form of salts, and salt formation can improve certain undesirable physicochemical or biological properties of the drug. Relative to 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-1,1-difluoro-3-(1H-tetrazol-1-yl)-1-(5-(4-(2,2,2- Trifluoroethoxy)phenyl)pyridin-2-yl)propan-2-yl dihydrogen phosphate, it is of great significance to develop salts with more excellent properties in terms of physical and chemical properties or pharmaceutical properties.To this end, the present disclosure provides a new pharmaceutically acceptable salt form of a metalloenzyme inhibitor.Example 1:[0161](R)-2-(2,4-Difluorophenyl)-1,1-difluoro-3-(1H-tetrazol-1-yl)-1-(5-(4-(2,2, 2-Trifluoroethoxy)phenyl)pyridin-2-yl)propan-2-yl phosphate disodium salt (Compound 1)[0162]

[0163](R)-2-(2,4-Difluorophenyl)-1,1-difluoro-3-(1H-tetrazol-1-yl)-1-(5-(4-(2,2 ,2-Trifluoroethoxy)phenyl)pyridin-2-yl)propan-2-yl phosphate (compound 1a, prepared according to the method of patent WO2013110002, 0.28g, 0.46mmol, 1.0eq) and ethanol (5mL ) Add to the reaction flask and stir evenly. A solution of NaOH (36.90 mg, 2.0 eq) dissolved in water (1 mL) was added dropwise into the above reaction flask, stirring was continued for 2 h, and concentrated to obtain compound 1, 300 mg of white solid.[0164]After X-ray powder diffraction detection, the XRPD spectrum has no sharp diffraction peaks, as shown in FIG. 10.[0165]Ms:608.10[M-2Na+3H] + .[0166]Ion chromatography detected that the sodium ion content was 6.23%.[0167]Example 2: (R)-((2-(2,4-Difluorophenyl)-1,1-difluoro-3-(1H-tetrazol-1-yl)-1-(5-(4 -(2,2,2-Trifluoroethoxy)phenyl)pyridin-2-yl)prop-2-yl)oxy)methyl phosphate disodium salt (compound 2)

[0169]Under ice-cooling, NaH (58mg, 0.87mmol) was added to the reaction flask, 1.5mL of N,N-dimethylformamide and 0.6mL of tetrahydrofuran were added, followed by iodine (38mg, 0.15mmol), and then Compound 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-1,1-difluoro-3-(1H-tetrazol-1-yl)-1-(5-(4-(2,2,2-tri Fluoroethoxy)phenyl)pyridin-2-yl)propan-2-ol (2b, prepared according to the method of patent WO2013110002, 158mg, 0.3mmol) tetrahydrofuran (1ml) solution was added to the reaction solution, stirred and reacted for 1-4h , And then add compound 2a (519mg, 2.01mmol) in tetrahydrofuran (1ml) solvent to the reaction, stir until the reaction is complete, 10% aqueous ammonium chloride solution to quench the reaction, extract, concentrate and drain, the crude product 2c is directly used for the next One-step reaction, Ms: 750.0[M+H] + .[0170]

[0171]Under ice-bath cooling, add trifluoroacetic acid (0.5mL) to the crude product 2c (300mg) in dichloromethane (2mL) solution, stir until the reaction is complete, and after concentration, the target compound 2d, 82mg, Ms was separated by high performance liquid phase separation. :638.0[M+H] + .[0172]

Add compound 2d (0.29g, 0.46mmol, 1.0eq) and ethanol (5mL) obtained in the previous step into the reaction flask, stir, and add NaOH (36.90mg, 2.0eq) water (1ml) solution dropwise to the aforementioned reaction solution , Stirred for 2-5 h, and concentrated to obtain 2,313 mg of the target compound. 
Ms:638.10[M-2Na+3H] + .

PATENT

WO2011133875

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2011133875A2/en

Product pat, WO2011133875 , protection in the EU states and the US April 2031.

PATENT

WO2015143184 ,

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2015143184A1/en

Mycovia, claiming a process for preparing antifungal compounds, particularly oteseconazole.EXAMPLE 11

Figure imgf000043_0002

2-(2,4-Difluorophenyl)-l,l-difluoro-3-(lH-tetrazol-l-yl)-l-(5-(4-(2,2,2- trifluoroethoxy)phenyl)pyridin-2-yl)propan-2-ol (11)Compound 11 was prepared using the conditions employed for 1: 0.33 g as a solid. The precursor l-bromo-4-(2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy)benzene was prepared as described below in one step.1H NMR (500 MHz, CDC13): δ 8.76 (s, 1 H), 8.70 (s, 1 H), 7.95 (d, / = 8.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.70 (s, 1 H), 7.64 (d, / = 8.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.54 (d, / = 8.5 Hz, 2 H), 7.42- 7.37 (m, 1 H), 7.08 (d, / = 8.5 Hz, 2 H), 6.79- 6.75 (m, 1 H), 6.69- 6.66 (m, 1 H), 5.58 (d, / = 14.0 Hz, 1 H), 5.14 (d, / = 14.0 Hz, 1 H), 4.44 – 4.39 (m, 2 H). HPLC: 99.1%. MS (ESI): m/z 528 [M++l].Chiral preparative HPLC Specifications for (+)-ll:Column: Chiralpak IA, 250 x 4.6mm, 5uMobile Phase: A) w-Hexane, B) IPAIsocratic: A: B (65:35)Flow Rte: l.OO mL/minOptical rotation [a]D: + 24° (C = 0.1 % in MeOH). 1 -Bromo-4-( 2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy )benzeneTo a stirred solution of trifluoroethyl tosylate (1.5 g, 5.8 mmol) in DMF (20 mL) was added K2CO3 (4 g, 29.4 mmol) followed by addition of p-bromo phenol (1.1 g, 6.46 mmol) at RT under inert atmosphere. The reaction mixture was stirred at 120 °C for 6 h. The volatiles were evaporated under reduced pressure; the residue was diluted with water (5 mL) and extracted with ethyl acetate (3 x 30 mL). The organic layer was washed with water, brine and dried over anhydrous Na2S04, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The crude compound was purified by silica gel column chromatography eluting with 5% EtOAc/hexane to afford the desired product (0.8 g, 3.13 mmol, 53.3%) as semi solid. 1H NMR (200 MHz, CDC13): δ 7.44 – 7.38 (m, 2 H), 6.86-6.80 (m, 2 H), 4.38- 4.25 (m, 2 H).ExamplesThe present invention will now be demonstrated using specific examples that are not to be construed as limiting.General Experimental ProceduresDefinitions of variables in the structures in schemes herein are commensurate with those of corresponding positions in the formulae delineated herein.Synthesis of 1 or la

Figure imgf000049_0001

A process to prepare enantiopure compound 1 or la is disclosed. Syntheses of lor la may be accomplished using the example syntheses that are shown below (Schemes 1-4). The preparation of precursor ketone 3-Br is performed starting with reaction of 2,5-dibromo- pyridine with ethyl 2-bromo-difluoroacetate to produce ester 2-Br. This ester can be reacted with morpholine to furnish morpholine amide 2b-Br, followed by arylation to provide ketone 3-Br. Alternatively, ketone 3-Br can be afforded directly from ester 2-Br as shown in Scheme 1. Scheme 1. Synthesis of ketone 3-Br r

Figure imgf000050_0001

Ketone 3 may be prepared in an analogous fashion as described in Scheme 1 starting from corresponding substituted 2-bromo-pyridines, which can be prepared according to synthetic transformations known in the art and contained in the references cited herein (Scheme 2).Scheme 2. Synthesis of ketone 3

Figure imgf000050_0002

R-i = halo, -0(C=0)-alkyl, -0(C=0)-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-aryl, -0(C=0)-substituted aryl, -0(C=0)-0-alkyl, – 0(C=0)-0-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-aryl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted aryl, -0(S02)-alkyl, -0(S02)-substituted alkyl, – 0(S02)-aryl, or -0(S02)-substituted aryl.Alternatively, compound 1 can be prepared according to Scheme 3 utilizing diols 2-6b (or 2- 6d, the enantiomer of 2-6b, or mixtures thereof) or 2-6a (or 2-6c, the enantiomer of 2-6a, or mixtures thereof). Olefins 2-5a and 2-5 can be prepared by reacting ketones 3 and 1-4 under Wittig olefination conditions (e.g., Ph3PCH3Br and BuLi). Also, as indicated in Scheme 5, any of pyridine compounds, 3, 2-5a, 2-6b, 2-7b, 4*, 4b, or 6 can be converted to the corresponding 4-CF3CH2O-PI1 analogs (e.g., 1-4, 2-5, 2-6a, 2-7a, 5*, 1-6*, or 1 or the corresponding enantiomers, or mixtures thereof) by cross-coupling with 4,4,5, 5-tetramethyl-2- (4-(2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy)phenyl)-l,3,2-dioxaborolane (or the corresponding alkyl boronates or boronic acid or the like), in a suitable solvent system (e.g., an organic-aqueous solvent mixture), in the presence of a transition metal catalyst (e.g., (dppf)PdCl2), and in the presence of a base (e.g., KHCO3, K2C03, Cs2C03, or Na2C03, or the like). Olefins 2-5a and 2-5 can be transformed to the corresponding chiral diols, 2-6b (or 2-6d, the enantiomer of 2-6b, or mixtures thereof) or 2-6a (or 2-6c, the enantiomer of 2-6a, or mixtures thereof), through exposure to Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation conditions: 1) commercially available AD- mix alpha or AD-mix beta with or without additional osmium oxidant and methanesulfonamide, 2) combination of a catalytic osmium oxidant (e.g., Os04 or K20sC>2(OH)4), a stoichiometric iron oxidant (e.g., K3Fe(CN)6), a base (e.g., KHCO3, K2CO3, Cs2C03, or Na2C03, or the like), and a chiral ligand (e.g., (DHQ)2PHAL, (DHQD)2PHAL, (DHQD)2AQN, (DHQ)2AQN, (DHQD)2PYR, or (DHQ)2PYR; preferably (DHQ)2PHAL, (DHQD)2PHAL, (DHQD)2AQN, and (DHQD)2PYR), or 3) option 2) with methanesulfonamide. The primary alcohol of the resultant chiral diols, 2-6b (or 2-6d, the enantiomer of 2-6b, or mixtures thereof) or 2-6a (or 2-6c, the enantiomer of 2-6a, or mixtures thereof), can then be activated to afford compounds 2-7b (or 2-7d, the enantiomer of 2-7b, or mixtures thereof) or 2-7a (or 2-7c, the enantiomer of 2-7a, or mixtures thereof). For example, the mesylates can be prepared by exposing chiral diols, 2-6b (or 2-6d, the enantiomer of 2-6b, or mixtures thereof) or 2-6a (or 2-6c, the enantiomer of 2-6a, or mixtures thereof), to methanesulfonyl chloride and a base. Epoxide formation can be affected by the base-mediated (e.g., KHCO3, K2CO3, CS2CO3, or Na2CC>3, or the like) ring closure of compounds 2-7b (or 2- 7d, the enantiomer of 2-7b, or mixtures thereof) or 2-7a (or 2-7c, the enantiomer of 2-7a, or mixtures thereof) to provide epoxides 4* (or 4c*, the enantiomer of 4*, or mixtures thereof) and 5* (or 5-b*, the enantiomer of 5*, or mixtures thereof). The epoxides can then be converted into amino-alcohols 4b (or 4c, the enantiomer of 4b, or mixtures thereof) and 1-6* (or 1-7*, the enantiomer of 1-6*, or mixtures thereof) through ammonia-mediated epoxide opening using ammonia in a suitable solvent (e.g., MeOH, EtOH, or water). Subsequent treatment with TMS-azide in the presence of trimethylorthoformate and sodium acetate in acetic acid would yield compounds 6 (or 6a, the enantiomer of 6, or mixtures thereof) or 1 (or la, the enantiomer of 1, or mixtures thereof) (US 4,426,531).Scheme 3. Synthesis of 1 via Asymmetric Dihydroxylation Method

Figure imgf000052_0001
Figure imgf000052_0002

Y is -OS02-alkyl, -OS02-substituted alkyl, -OS02-aryl, -OS02- substituted aryl, -0(C=0)-alkyl, -0(C=0)-substituted alkyl, – 0(C=0)-aryl, -0(C=0)-substituted aryl, or halogen

Figure imgf000052_0003

R-i = halo, -0(C=0)-alkyl, -0(C=0)-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-aryl, -0(C=0)-substituted aryl, -0(C=0)-0-alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted alkyl, -0(C=0)-0-aryl, -0(C=0)-0-substituted aryl, -0(S02)-alkyl, -0(S02)-substituted alkyl, -0(S02)-aryl, or -0(S02)-substituted aryl.Compound 1 (or la, the enantiomer of 1, or mixtures thereof) prepared by any of the methods presented herein can be converted to a sulfonic salt of formula IX (or IXa, the enantiomer of IX, or mixtures thereof), as shown in Scheme 4. This can be accomplished by a) combining compound 1 (or la, the enantiomer of 1, or mixtures thereof), a crystallization solvent or crystallization solvent mixture (e.g., EtOAc, iPrOAc, EtOH, MeOH, or acetonitrile, or oZ-S-OHcombinations thereof), and a sulfonic acid o (e.g., Z = Ph, p-tolyl, Me, or Et), b) diluting the mixture with an appropriate crystallization co-solvent or crystallization co-solvent mixture (e.g., pentane, methyl i-butylether, hexane, heptane, or toluene, or combinations thereof), and c) filtering the mixture to obtain a sulfonic acid salt of formula IX (or IXa, the enantiomer of IX, or mixtures thereof). cheme 4. Synthesis of a Sulfonic Acid Salt of Compound 1 or la

Figure imgf000053_0001

The following describes the HPLC method used in assessing HPLC purity of the examples and intermediates presented below:Column: Waters XBridge Shield RP18, 4.6 x 150 mm, 3.5 μιηMobile Phase: A = 0.05% TFA/H20, B = 0.05% TFA/ACNAutosampler flush: 1 : 1 ACN/H20Diluent: 1:1 ACN/H20Flow Rate: 1.0 ml/minTemperature: 45 °CDetector: UV 275 nmPump Parameters:

Figure imgf000053_0003

EXAMPLE 1Preparation of ethyl 2-(5-bromopyridin-2-yl)-2,2-difluoroacetate (2-Br)

Figure imgf000053_0002

2-Br Dialkylated impurity In a clean multi-neck round bottom flask, copper powder (274.7 g, 2.05 eq) was suspended in dimethyl sulfoxide (3.5 L, 7 vol) at 20 – 35 °C. Ethyl bromodifluoroacetate (449 g, 1.05 eq) was slowly added to the reaction mixture at 20 – 25 °C and stirred for 1 – 2 h. 2, 5- dibromopyridine (500 g, 1 eq) was added to the reaction mixture and the temperature was increased to 35 – 40 °C. The reaction mixture was maintained at this temperature for 18 – 24 h and the reaction progress was monitored by GC.After the completion of the reaction, ethyl acetate (7 L, 14 vol) was added to the reaction mixture and stirring was continued for 60 – 90 min at 20 – 35 °C. The reaction mixture was filtered through a Celite bed (100 g; 0.2 times w/w Celite and 1L; 2 vol ethyl acetate). The reactor was washed with ethyl acetate (6 L, 12 vol) and the washings were filtered through a Celite bed. The Celite bed was finally washed with ethyl acetate (1 L, 2 vol) and all the filtered mother liquors were combined. The pooled ethyl acetate solution was cooled to 8 – 10 °C, washed with the buffer solution (5 L, 10 vol) below 15 °C (Note: The addition of buffer solution was exothermic in nature. Controlled addition of buffer was required to maintain the reaction mixture temperature below 15 °C). The ethyl acetate layer was washed again with the buffer solution until (7.5 L; 3 x 5 vol) the aqueous layer remained colorless. The organic layer was washed with a 1: 1 solution of 10 % w/w aqueous sodium chloride and the buffer solution (2.5 L; 5 vol). The organic layer was then transferred into a dry reactor and the ethyl acetate was distilled under reduced pressure to get crude 2-Br.The crude 2-Br was purified by high vacuum fractional distillation and the distilled fractions having 2-Br purity greater than 93 % (with the dialkylated not more than 2 % and starting material less than 0.5 %) were pooled together to afford 2-Br.Yield after distillation: 47.7 % with > 93 % purity by GC (pale yellow liquid). Another 10 % yield was obtained by re-distillation of impure fractions resulting in overall yield of ~ 55 – 60 %.*H NMR: δ values with respect to TMS (DMSO-d6; 400 MHz): 8.85 (1H, d, 1.6 Hz), 8.34 (1H, dd, J = 2.0 Hz, 6.8 Hz), 7.83 (1H, d, J = 6.8 Hz), 4.33 (2H, q, J = 6.0 Hz), 1.22 (3H, t, J = 6.0 Hz). 13C NMR: 162.22 (i, -C=0), 150.40 (Ar-C-), 149.35 (t, Ar-C), 140.52 (Ar-C), 123.01 (Ar-C), 122.07 (Ar-C), 111.80 (t, -CF2), 63.23 (-OCH2-), 13.45 (-CH2CH3).EXAMPLE 2

Preparation of2-( 5-bromopyridin-2-yl )-l -(2,4-difluorophenyl )-2, 2-difluoroethanone ( 3-Br ) A. One-step Method

Figure imgf000055_0001

l-Bromo-2,4-difluorobenzene (268.7 g; 1.3 eq) was dissolved in methyl tert butyl ether (MTBE, 3.78 L, 12.6 vol) at 20 – 35 °C and the reaction mixture was cooled to -70 to -65 °C using acetone/dry ice bath. n-Butyl lithium (689 rriL, 1.3 eq; 2.5 M) was then added to the reaction mixture maintaining the reaction temperature below -65 °C (Note: Controlled addition of the n-Butyl Lithium to the reaction mixture was needed to maintain the reaction mixture temperature below – 65 °C). After maintaining the reaction mixture at this temperature for 30 – 45 min, 2-Br (300 g, 1 eq) dissolved in MTBE (900 rriL, 3 vol) was added to the reaction mixture below – 65 °C. The reaction mixture was continued to stir at this temperature for 60 – 90 min and the reaction progress was monitored by GC.The reaction was quenched by slow addition of 20 % w/w ammonium chloride solution (750 mL, 2.5 vol) below -65 °C. The reaction mixture was gradually warmed to 20 – 35 °C and an additional amount of 20 % w/w ammonium chloride solution (750 mL, 2.5 vol) was added. The aqueous layer was separated, the organic layer was washed with a 10 % w/w sodium bicarbonate solution (600 mL, 2 vol) followed by a 5 % sodium chloride wash (600 mL, 2 vol). The organic layer was dried over sodium sulfate (60 g; 0.2 times w/w), filtered and the sodium sulfate was washed with MTBE (300 mL, 1 vol). The organic layer along with washings was distilled below 45 °C under reduced pressure until no more solvent was collected in the receiver. The distillation temperature was increased to 55 – 60 °C, maintained under vacuum for 3 – 4 h and cooled to 20 – 35 °C to afford 275 g (73.6 % yield, 72.71 % purity by HPLC) of 3-Br as a pale yellow liquid.*H NMR: δ values with respect to TMS (DMSO-d6; 400 MHz):8.63 (1H, d, 1.6 Hz, Ar-H), 8.07 – 8.01 (2H, m, 2 x Ar-H), 7.72 (1H, d, J = 6.8 Hz, Ar-H), 7.07 – 6.82 (1H, m, Ar-H), 6.81 – 6.80 (1H, m, Ar-H). 13C NMR: 185.60 (t, -C=0), 166.42 (dd, Ar-C-), 162.24 (dd, Ar-C),150.80 (Ar-C), 150.35 (Ar-C), 140.02 (Ar-C), 133.82 (Ar-C), 123.06 (Ar-C), 1122.33 (Ar-C), 118.44 (Ar-C), 114.07 (-CF2-), 122.07 (Ar-C), 105.09 (Ar-C).

B. Two-step Method via 2b-Br

Figure imgf000056_0001

2-Br (147.0 g) was dissolved in n-heptane (1.21 L) and transferred to a 5-L reactor equipped with overhead stirrer, thermocouple, condenser and addition funnel. Morpholine (202 ml) was added. The solution was heated to 60 °C and stirred overnight. The reaction was complete by HPLC analysis (0.2% 2-Br; 94.7% 2b-Br). The reaction was cooled to room temperature and 1.21 L of MTBE was added. The solution was cooled to ~4 °C and quenched by slow addition of 30% citric acid (563 ml) to maintain the internal temperature <15 °C. After stirring for one hour the layers were allowed to settle and were separated (Aq. pH=5). The organic layer was washed with 30% citric acid (322 ml) and 9% NaHC03 (322 ml, aq. pH 7+ after separation). The organic layer was concentrated on the rotary evaporator (Note 1) to 454 g (some precipitation started immediately and increased during concentration). After stirring at room temperature the suspension was filtered and the product cake was washed with n-heptane (200 ml). The solid was dried in a vacuum oven at room temperature to provide 129.2 g (77%) dense powder. The purity was 96.5% by HPLC analysis.To a 1-L flask equipped with overhead stirring, thermocouple, condenser and addition funnel was added magnesium turnings (14.65 g), THF (580 ml) and l-bromo-2,4-difluorobenzene (30.2 g, 0.39 equiv). The mixture was stirred until the reaction initiated and self-heating brought the reaction temperature to 44 °C. The temperature was controlled with a cooling bath as the remaining l-bromo-2,4-difluorobenzene (86.1 g, 1.11 equiv) was added over about 30 min. at an internal temperature of 35-40 °C. The reaction was stirred for 2 hours while gradually cooling to room temperature. The dark yellow solution was further cooled to 12 °C.During the Grignard formation, a jacketed 2-L flask equipped with overhead stirring, thermocouple, and addition funnel was charged with morpholine amide 2b-Br (129.0 g) and THF (645 ml). The mixture was stirred at room temperature until the solid dissolved, and then the solution was cooled to -8.7 °C. The Grignard solution was added via addition funnel over about 30 min. at a temperature of -5 to 0 °C. The reaction was stirred at 0 °C for 1 hour and endpointed by HPLC analysis. The reaction mixture was cooled to -5 °C and quenched by slow addition of 2N HC1 over 1 hour at <10 °C. The mixture was stirred for 0.5 h then the layers were allowed to settle and were separated. The aqueous layer was extracted with MTBE (280 ml). The combined organic layers were washed with 9% NaHCC>3 (263 g) and 20% NaCl (258 ml). The organic layer was concentrated on the rotary evaporator with THF rinses to transfer all the solution to the distillation flask. Additional THF (100 ml) and toluene (3 x 100 ml) were added and distilled to remove residual water from the product. After drying under vacuum, the residue was 159.8 g of a dark brown waxy solid (>theory). The purity was approximately 93% by HPLC analysis.EXAMPLE 3Preparation of 3-amino-l-(5-bromopyridin-2-yl)-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-l,l-difluoropropan- -ol (±ib-Br)

Figure imgf000057_0001

4-Br (200g, 1 eq) was added into methanolic ammonia (8.0 L; 40 vol; ammonia content: 15 – 20 % w/v) in an autoclave at 10 – 20 °C. The reaction mixture was gradually heated to 60 – 65 °C and at 3 – 4 kg/cm2 under sealed conditions for 10 – 12 h. The reaction progress was monitored by GC. After completion of the reaction, the reaction mixture was cooled to 20 – 30 °C and released the pressure gradually. The solvent was distilled under reduced pressure below 50 °C and the crude obtained was azeotroped with methanol (2 x 600 mL, 6 vol) followed by with isopropanol (600 mL, 2 vol) to afford 203 g (96.98 % yield, purity by HPLC: 94.04 %) of +4b-Br. EXAMPLE 4Preparation of3-amino-l-(5-bromopyridin-2-yl)-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-l,l-difluoropropan- -ol (4b-Br or 2c-Br)

Figure imgf000057_0002

Amino alcohol ±4b-Br (150 g, 1 eq) was dissolved in an isopropanol /acetonitrile mixture (1.5L, 8:2 ratio, 10 vol) and Di-p-toluoyl-L-tartaric acid (L-DPTTA) (84.05 g, 0.55 eq) was added into the reactor at 20 – 30 °C. The reaction mixture was heated to 45 – 50 °C for 1 – 1.5 h (Note: The reaction mixture becomes clear and then became heterogeneous). The reaction mixture was gradually cooled to 20 – 30 °C and stirred for 16 – 18 h. The progress of the resolution was monitored by chiral HPLC analysis.After the completion of the resolution, the reaction mixture was gradually cooled to 20 – 35 °C. The reaction mixture was filtered and the filtered solid was washed with a mixture of acetonitrile and isopropanol (8:2 mixture, 300 mL, 2 vol) and dried to afford 75 g of the L- DPTTA salt (95.37 % ee). The L-DPTTA salt obtained was chirally enriched by suspending the salt in isopropanol /acetonitrile (8:2 mixture; 750 mL, 5 vol) at 45 – 50 °C for 24 – 48 h. The chiral enhancement was monitored by chiral HPLC; the solution was gradually cooled to 20 – 25 °C, filtered and washed with an isoporpanol /acetonitrile mixture (8:2 mixture; 1 vol). The purification process was repeated and after filtration, the salt resulted in chiral purity greater than 96 % ee. The filtered compound was dried under reduced pressure at 35 – 40 °C to afford 62 g of the enantio-enriched L-DPPTA salt with 97.12% ee as an off-white solid. The enantio-enriched L-DPTTA salt (50 g, 1 eq) was dissolved in methanol (150 mL, 3 vol) at 20 – 30 °C and a potassium carbonate solution (18.05 g K2CO3 in 150 mL water) was slowly added at 20 – 30 °C under stirring. The reaction mixture was maintained at this temperature for 2 – 3 h (pH of the solution at was maintained at 9). Water (600 mL, 12 vol) was added into the reaction mixture through an additional funnel and the reaction mixture was stirred for 2 – 3 h at 20 – 30 °C. The solids were filtered; washed with water (150 mL, 3 vol) and dried under vacuum at 40 – 45 °C to afford 26.5 g of amino alcohol 4b-Br or 4c-Br with 99.54 % chemical purity, 99.28 % ee as an off-white solid. (Water content of the chiral amino alcohol is below 0.10 % w/w).1H NMR: δ values with respect to TMS (DMSO-d6; 400 MHz):8.68 (1H, d, J = 2.0 Hz, Ar- H), 8.16 (1H, dd, J = 8.0 Hz, 2.0 Hz, Ar-H), 7.49 – 7.43 (1H, m, Ar-H), 7.40 (1H, d, J = 8 Hz, Ar-H), 7.16 – 7.11 (1H, m, Ar-H), 7.11 – 6.99 (1H, m, Ar-H), 3.39 – 3.36 (1H, m, -OCHAHB– ), 3.25 – 3.22 (1H, m, -OCHAHB-).13C NMR: 163.87 -158.52 (dd, 2 x Ar-C-), 150.88 (Ar-C), 149.16 (Ar-C), 139.21 (Ar-C), 132.39 (Ar-C), 124.49 (Ar-C), 122.17 (Ar-C), 121.87 (d, Ar- C), 119.91 (t, -CF2-), 110.68 (Ar-C), 103.97 (i, Ar-C), 77.41 (i,-C-OH), 44.17 (-CH2-NH2).EXAMPLE 5

Preparation of l-(5-bromopyridin-2-yl)-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-l,l-difluoro-3-(lH-tetrazol-l- yl)propan-2-ol (l-6*-Br or l-7*-Br)

Figure imgf000059_0001

4b-Br or 4c-Br (20.0 g, 1 eq.) was added to acetic acid (50 mL, 2.5 vol) at 25 – 35 °C followed by the addition of anhydrous sodium acetate (4.32 g, 1 eq), trimethyl orthoformate (15.08 g, 2.7 eq). The reaction mixture was stirred for 15 – 20 min at this temperature and trimethylsilyl azide (12.74 g, 2.1 eq) was added to the reaction mixture (Chilled water was circulated through the condenser to minimize the loss of trimethylsilyl azide from the reaction mixture by evaporation). The reaction mixture was then heated to 70 – 75 °C and maintained at this temperature for 2 -3 h. The reaction progress was monitored by HPLC. Once the reaction was complete, the reaction mixture was cooled to 25 – 35 °C and water (200 mL, 10 vol) was added. The reaction mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate (400 mL, 20 vol) and the aqueous layer was back extracted with ethyl acetate (100 mL, 5 vol). The combined organic layers were washed with 10 % potassium carbonate solution (3 x 200 mL; 3 x 10 vol) followed by a 10 % NaCl wash (1 x 200 mL, 10 vol). The organic layer was distilled under reduced pressure below 45 °C. The crude obtained was azeotroped with heptanes (3 x 200 mL) to get 21.5g (94 % yield, 99.26 5 purity) of tetrazole 1-6* or 1-7* compound as pale brown solid (low melting solid).1H NMR: δ values with respect to TMS (DMSO-d6; 400 MHz NMR instrument): 9.13 (1H, Ar-H), 8.74 (1H, Ar-H), 8.22 – 8.20 (1H, m, Ar-H), 7.44 (1H, d, J = 7.2 Hz, Ar-H), 7.29 (1H„Ar-H), 7.23 – 7.17 (1H, m, Ar-H), 6.92 – 6.88 (1H, Ar-H), 5.61 (1H, d, J = 1 1.2 Hz, – OCHAHB-), 5.08 (1H, d, J = 5.6 Hz, -OCHAHB-).13C NMR: 163.67 -161.59 (dd, Ar-C-), 160.60 – 158.50 (dd, Ar-C-), 149.65 (Ar-C), 144.99 (Ar-C), 139.75 (Ar-C), 131.65 (Ar-C), 124.26 (Ar-C), 122.32 (d, Ar-C), 119.16 (t, -CF2-), 118.70 (d, Ar-C), 1 11.05 (d, Ar-C) 104.29 (t, Ar-C), 76.79 (i,-C-OH), 59.72 (Ar-C), 50.23 (-OCH2N-). EXAMPLE 6Preparation of 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-l , 1 -difluoro-3-( 1 H-tetrazol-1 -yl)-l -(5-(4-(2,2,2- trifluoroethoxy)phenyl)pyridin-2-yl)propan-2-ol (1 or la)A. Preparation of 1 or la via l-6*-Br or l-7*-Br

Figure imgf000060_0001

Synthesis of 4,4,5, 5-tetramethyl-2-(4-(2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy)phenyl)-l,3,2-dioxaborolane Potassium carbonate (59.7 g, 2.2 eq.) was added to a slurry of DMF (190 mL, 3.8 Vol.), 4- Bromo phenol (37.4g, 1.1 eq.) and 2,2,2-trifluroethyl tosylate (50.0 g, 1.0 eq.) at 20 – 35 °C under an inert atmosphere. The reaction mixture was heated to 115 – 120 °C and maintained at this temperature for 15 – 18 h. The reaction progress was monitored by GC. The reaction mixture was then cooled to 20 – 35 °C, toluene (200 mL, 4.0 vol.) and water (365 mL, 7. 3 vol.) were added at the same temperature, stirred for 10 – 15 minutes and separated the layers. The aqueous layer was extracted with toluene (200 mL, 4.0 vol.). The organic layers were combined and washed with a 2M sodium hydroxide solution (175 mL, 3.5 vol.) followed by a 20 % sodium chloride solution (175 mL, 3.5 vol.). The organic layer was then dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and filtered. The toluene layer was transferred into clean reactor, spurged with argon gas for not less than 1 h. Bis(Pinacolato) diborane (47 g, 1.1 eq.), potassium acetate (49.6 g, 3.0 eq.) and 1,4-dioxane (430 mL, 10 vol.) were added at 20 -35 °C, and spurged the reaction mixture with argon gas for at least 1 h. Pd(dppf)Cl2 (6.88 g, 0.05eq) was added to the reaction mixture and continued the argon spurging for 10 – 15 minutes. The reaction mixture temperature was increased to 70 – 75 °C, maintained the temperature under argon atmosphere for 15 – 35 h and monitored the reaction progress by GC. The reaction mixture was cooled to 20 – 35 °C, filtered the reaction mixture through a Celite pad, and washed with ethyl acetate (86 mL, 2 vol.). The filtrate was washed with water (430 mL, 10 vol.). The aqueous layer was extracted with ethyl acetate (258 mL, 6 vol.) and washed the combined organic layers with a 10 % sodium chloride solution (215 mL, 5 vol.). The organic layer was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate (43g, 1 time w/w), filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure below 45 °C to afford crude 4,4,5, 5-tetramethyl-2-(4-(2,2,2- trifluoroethoxy)phenyl)-l,3,2-dioxaborolane (65 g; 71 % yield with the purity of 85.18 % by GC). The crude 4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-2-(4-(2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy)phenyl)-l,3,2-dioxaborolane (65 g, 1 eq.) was dissolved in 10 % ethyl acetate – n-Heptane (455 mL, 7 vol.) and stirred for 30 – 50 minutes at 20 – 35 °C. The solution was filtered through a Celite bed and washed with 10 % ethyl acetate in n-Heptane (195 mL, 3 vol.). The filtrate and washings were pooled together, concentrated under vacuum below 45 °C to afford 4,4,5, 5-tetramethyl-2-(4-(2,2,2- trifluoroethoxy)phenyl)-l,3,2-dioxaborolane as a thick syrup (45.5 g; 70 % recovery). This was then dissolved in 3 % ethyl acetate-n-heptane (4 vol.) and adsorbed on 100 – 200 M silica gel (2 times), eluted through silica (4 times) using 3 % ethyl acetate – n- heptane. The product rich fractions were pooled together and concentrated under vacuum. The column purified fractions (> 85 % pure) were transferred into a round bottom flask equipped with a distillation set-up. The compound was distilled under high vacuum below 180 °C and collected into multiple fractions. The purity of fractions was analyzed by GC (should be > 98 % with single max impurity < 1.0 %). The less pure fractions (> 85 % and < 98 % pure fraction) were pooled together and the distillation was repeated to get 19g (32% yield) of 4,4,5, 5-tetramethyl-2-(4- (2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy)phenyl)-l,3,2-dioxaborolane as a pale yellow liquid.*H NMR: δ values with respect to TMS (DMSO-d6; 400 MHz):7.64 (2H, d, 6.8 Hz), 7.06 (2H, d, J = 6.4 Hz), 4.79 (2H, q, J = 6.8 Hz), 1.28 (12H, s).13C NMR: 159.46 (Ar-C-O-), 136.24 (2 x Ar-C-), 127.77 – 120.9 (q, -CF3), 122.0 (Ar-C-B), 114.22 (2 x Ar-C-), 64.75 (q, J = 27.5 Hz).Synthesis of 2-(2.4-difluorophenyl)-l.l-difluoro-3-(lH-tetrazol-l-yl)-l-(5-(4-(2.2.2- trifluoroethoxy)phenyl)pyridin-2-yl)propan-2-ol (1 or la)l-6*-Br or l-7*-Br (14 g, 0.03 mol, 1 eq) was added to tetrahydrofuran (168 mL, 12 vol) at 25 – 35 °C and the resulting solution was heated to 40 – 45 °C. The reaction mixture was maintained at this temperature for 20 – 30 min under argon bubbling. Sodium carbonate (8.59 g, 0.08 mol, 2.5 eq) and water (21 mL, 1.5 vol) were added into the reaction mixture and the bubbling of argon was continued for another 20 – 30 min. 4,4,5, 5-tetramethyl-2-(4-(2,2,2- trifluoroethoxy)phenyl)-l,3,2-dioxaborolane (10.76 g, 1.1 eq) dissolved in tetrahydrofuran (42 mL, 3 vol) was added into the reaction mixture and argon bubbling was continued for 20 – 30 min. Pd(dppf)Cl2 (2.65 g, 0.1 eq) was added to the reaction mixture under argon bubbling and stirred for 20 – 30 min (Reaction mixture turned into dark red color). The reaction mixture was heated to 65 – 70 °C and maintained at this temperature for 3 – 4 h. The reaction progress was monitored by HPLC. The reaction mixture was cooled to 40 – 45 °C and the solvent was distilled under reduced pressure. Toluene (350 mL, 25 vol.) was added to the reaction mixture and stirred for 10 – 15 min followed by the addition of water (140 mL, 10 vol). The reaction mixture was filtered through Hyflo (42 g, 3 times), the layers were separated and the organic layer was washed with water (70 mL, 5 vol) and a 20 % w/w sodium chloride solution (140 mL, 10 vol). The organic layer was treated with charcoal (5.6 g, 0.4 times, neutral chalrcoal), filtered through Hyflo. (lS)-lO-Camphor sulfonic acid (7.2 g, 1 eq.) was added to the toluene layer and the resulting mixture was heated to 70 – 75 °C for 2 – 3 h. The reaction mixture was gradually cooled to 25 – 35 °C and stirred for 1 – 2 h. The solids were filtered, washed with toluene (2 x 5 vol.) and then dried under vacuum below 45 °C to afford 18.0 g of an off white solid. The solids (13.5 g, 1 eq.) were suspended in toluene (135 mL, 10 vol) and neutralized by adding 1M NaOH solution (1.48 vol, 1.1 eq) at 25 – 35 °C and stirred for 20 – 30 min. Water (67.5 mL, 5 vol) was added to the reaction mixture and stirred for 10 – 15 min, and then the layers were separated. The organic layer was washed with water (67.5 mL, 5 vol) to remove the traces of CSA. The toluene was removed under reduced pressure below 45 °C to afford crude 1 or la. Traces of toluene were removed by azeotroping with ethanol (3 x 10 vol), after which light brown solid of crude 1 or la (7.5 g, 80% yield) was obtained.The crude 1 or la (5 g) was dissolved in ethanol (90 mL, 18 vol.) at 20 – 35 °C, and heated to 40 – 45 °C. Water (14 vol) was added to the solution at 40 – 45 °C, the solution was maintained at this temperature for 30 – 45 min and then gradually cooled to 20 – 35 °C. The resulting suspension was continued to stir for 16 – 18 h at 20 – 35 °C, an additional amount of water (4 vol.) was added and the stirring continued for 3 – 4 h. The solids were filtered to afford 4.0 g (80% recovery) of 1 or la (HPLC purity >98%) as an off-white solid.1H NMR: δ values with respect to TMS (DMSO-d6; 400 MHz):9.15 (1H, s, Ar-H), 8.93 (1H, d, J = 0.8 Hz, Ar-H), .8.22 – 8.20 (1H, m, Ar-H), 7.80 (2H, d, J = 6.8 Hz, Ar-H), 7.52 (1H, d, J = 6.8 Hz, Ar-H), 7.29 (1H, d,J = 3.2Hz, Ar-H), 7.27 – 7.21 (1H, m, Ar-H), 7.23 – 7.21 (2H, d, J = 6.8 Hz, Ar-H), 7.19 (1H, d, J = 6.8 Hz, Ar-H), 6.93 – 6.89 (1H, m, Ar-H), 5.68 (1H, / = 12 Hz, -CHAHB), 5.12 (2H, d, J = 11.6 Hz, -CHAHB), 4.85 (2H, q, J = 1.6 Hz).13C NMR: 163.93 – 158.33 (m, 2 x Ar-C), 157.56 (Ar-C), 149.32 (i, Ar-C), 146.40 (Ar-C), 145.02 (Ar-C), 136.20 (Ar-C), 134.26 (2 x Ar-C), 131.88 – 131.74 (m, AR-C), 129.72 (Ar-C), 128.47 (2 x Ar-C), 123.97 (q, -CF2-), 122.41 (Ar-C), 119.30 (-CF3), 118.99 (Ar-C), 115.65 (2 x Ar-C), 110.99 (d, Ar-C), 104.22 (i, Ar-C), 77.41 – 76.80 (m, Ar-C), 64.72 (q, -OCH2-CF3), 50.54 (-CH2-N-).B. Preparation of 1 or la via 4b-Br or 4c-Br

Figure imgf000063_0001
Figure imgf000063_0002

Synthesis of 3-amino-2-(2.4-difluorophenyl)-l.l-difluoro-l-(5-(4-(2.2.2- trifluoroethoxy)phenyl)pyridin-2-yl)propan-2-ol (8a or 8b)Potassium carbonate (30.4 g) and water (53.3 g) were charged to a 1-L flask equipped with overhead stirring, thermocouple, and nitrogen/vacuum inlet valve, and stirred until dissolved. The boronic acid (19.37 g), a solution of 4b-Br or 4c-Br in 2-butanol (103.5 g, 27.8 g theoretical 4b-Br or 4c-Br)) and 2-BuOH (147.1 g) were added and stirred to form a clear mixture. The flask was evacuated and refilled with nitrogen 3 times. Pd(d f)2Cl2 (0.30 g) was added and stirred to form a light orange solution. The flask was evacuated and refilled with nitrogen 4 times. The mixture was heated to 85 °C and stirred overnight and endpointed by HPLC analysis. The reaction mixture was cooled to 60 °C and the layers were allowed to settle. The aqueous layer was separated. The organic layer was washed with 5% NaCl solution (5 x 100 ml) at 30-40 °C. The organic layer was filtered and transferred to a clean flask with rinses of 2-BuOH. The combined solution was 309.7 g, water content 13.6 wt% by KF analysis. The solution was diluted with 2-BuOH (189 g) and water (10 g). Theoretically the solution contained 34.8 g product, 522 ml (15 volumes) of 2-BuOH, and 52.2 ml (1.5 volumes) of water. L-Tartaric acid (13.25 g) was added and the mixture was heated to a target temperature of 70-75 °C. During the heat-up, a thick suspension formed. After about 15 minutes at 70-72 °C the suspension became fluid and easily stirred. The suspension was cooled at a rate of 10 °C/hour to 25 °C then stirred at 25 °C for about 10 hours. The product was collected on a vacuum filter and washed with 10:1 (v/v) 2-BuOH/water (50 ml) and 2- butanol (40 ml). The salt was dried in a vacuum oven at 60 °C with a nitrogen purge for 2 days. The yield was 40.08 g of 8a or 8b as a fluffy, grayish-white solid. The water content was 0.13 wt% by KF analysis. The yield was 87.3% with an HPLC purity of 99.48%. Synthesis of 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-l,l-difluoro-3-(lH-tetrazol-l-yl)-l-(5-(4-(2,2,2- trifluoroethoxy)phenyl)pyridin-2-yl)propan-2-ol (1 or la)To a 350 ml pressure bottle were charged acetic acid (73 ml), 8a or 8b (34.8 g), sodium acetate (4.58 g) and trimethylorthoformate (16.0 g). The mixture was stirred for 18 min. at room temperature until a uniform suspension was obtained. Azidotrimethylsilane (8.88 g) was added and the bottle was sealed. The bottle was immersed in an oil bath and magnetically stirred. The oil bath was at 52 °C initially, and was warmed to 62-64 °C over about ½ hour. The suspension was stirred at 62-64 °C overnight. After 20.5 hours the suspension was cooled to room temperature and sampled. The reaction was complete by HPLC analysis. The reaction was combined with three other reactions that used the same raw material lots and general procedure (total of 3.0 g additional starting material). The combined reactions were diluted with ethyl acetate (370 ml) and water (368 ml) and stirred for about ½ hour at room temperature. The layers were settled and separated. The organic layer was washed with 10% K2C03 solution (370 ml/ 397 g) and 20% NaCl solution (370 ml/ 424 g). The organic layer (319 g) was concentrated, diluted with ethanol (202 g) and filtered, rinsed with ethanol (83 g). The combined filtrate was concentrated to 74 g of amber solution.The crude 1 or la solution in ethanol (74 g solution, containing theoretically 31.9 g 1 or la) was transferred to a 2-L flask equipped with overhead stirring, thermocouple, and addition funnel. Ethanol (335 g) was added including that used to complete the transfer of the 1 or la solution. The solution was heated to nominally 50 °C and water (392 g) was added over 12 minutes. The resulting hazy solution was seeded with 1 or la crystals and stirred at 50 °C. After about ½ hour the mixture was allowed to cool to 40 °C over about ½ hour during which time crystallization started. Some darker colored chunky solid separated out from the main suspension. The pH of the crystallizing mixture was adjusted from 4.5 to 6 using 41% KOH (1.7 g). After about 1 hour a good suspension had formed. Additional water (191 g) was added slowly over ½ hour. The suspension was heated to 50 °C and cooled at 5 °C/min to room temperature. After stirring overnight the suspension was cooled in a water bath to 16 °C and filtered after 1 hour. The wet cake was washed with 55:45 (v/v) water/ethanol (2 x 50 ml) and air-dried on the vacuum filter funnel overnight. Further drying at 40 °C in a vacuum oven with a nitrogen bleed resulted in no additional weight loss. The yield was 30.2 g of off-white fine powder plus some darker granular material. By in-process HPLC analysis there was no difference in the chemical purity of the darker and lighter materials. The purity was 99.4%. The water content was 2.16 wt% by KF analysis. The residual ethanol was 1.7 wt% estimated by ‘Ft NMR analysis. The corrected yield was 29.0 g, 91.0% overall yield for tetrazole formation and crystallization. The melting point was 65 °C by DSC analysis.

/////////OTESECONAZOLE, vt 1161, fungal infection,  Candida albicans infection, onychomycosis, PHASE 3,

C1=CC(=CC=C1C2=CN=C(C=C2)C(C(CN3C=NN=N3)(C4=C(C=C(C=C4)F)F)O)(F)F)OCC(F)(F)F

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Nangibotide


Nangibotide molecular structure.png
File:Nangibotide molecular structure.png - Wikipedia
ChemSpider 2D Image | nangibotide | C54H82N14O22S2

Nangibotide

LQEEDAGEYGCM-amide

CAS 2014384-91-7

  • Molecular FormulaC54H82N14O22S2
  • Average mass1343.439 Da
  • 2014384‐91‐7
  • L-Leucyl-L-glutaminyl-L-α-glutamyl-L-α-glutamyl-L-α-aspartyl-L-alanylglycyl-L-α-glutamyl-L-tyrosylglycyl-L-cysteinyl-L-methioninamide
  • LR 12 peptide
  • LQEEDAGEYG CM

L-Leucyl-L-glutaminyl-L-glutaminyl-L-α-glutamyl-L-α-aspartyl-L-alanylglycyl-L-α-glutamyl-L-tyrosylglycyl-L-cysteinyl-L-methionine
L-Methionine, L-leucyl-L-glutaminyl-L-glutaminyl-L-α-glutamyl-L-α-aspartyl-L-alanylglycyl-L-α-glutamyl-L-tyrosylglycyl-L-cysteinyl-нангиботидمانغيبوتيد南吉博肽

Sequence (one letter code)LQEEDAGEYGCM-amide
Sequence (three letter code)H-Leu-Gln-Glu-Glu-Asp-Ala-Gly-Glu-Tyr-Gly-Cys-Met-NH2
  • OriginatorInotrem
  • ClassAnti-infectives; Anti-inflammatories; Anti-ischaemics; Antivirals; Peptides
  • Mechanism of ActionTREML1 protein inhibitors
  • Phase II/IIICOVID 2019 infections
  • Phase IISeptic shock
  • Phase IMyocardial infarction
  • 12 Jul 2021Inotrem has patents pending for nangibotide use in severe forms of COVID-19
  • 12 Jul 2021Inotrem receives funding from French government by Bpifrance for nangibotide development in COVID-2019 infections
  • 12 Jul 2021Inotrem receives authorization from both the French and Belgian authorities to proceed with clinical development of nangibotide up to registration in COVID-2019 infections

Nangibotide, also referred as LR12, is an antagonist of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM)-1, and was derived from residues 94 to 105 of TREM-like transcript-1 (TLT-1).

TREM-1 plays a crucial role in the onset of sepsis by amplifying the host immune response. TLT-1– and TLT-1–derived peptides therefore exhibit anti-inflammatory properties by dampening TREM-1 signalling.  LR12 blocks TREM-1 by binding to the TREM-1 ligand and provides protective effects during sepsis such as inhibiting hyper-responsiveness, organ damage, and death, without causing deleterious effects. The protective effects of modulating TREM-1 signalling are also evident in other models of inflammation such as: pancreatitis; haemorrhagic shock; inflammatory bowel diseases and inflammatory arthritis

Inotrem is developing the peptide nangibotide, a triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 inhibitor, for treating sepsis and septic shock. In July 2021, this drug was reported to be in phase 3 clinical development.

Nangibotide is an inhibitor of TREM-1, a receptor found on certain white blood cells. Activation of TREM-1 stimulates inflammation. Nangibotide is therefore being investigated as a treatment for the overwhelming inflammation typically seen in severe sepsis.

Mode of action

TREM-1 is a receptor found on neutrophilsmacrophages and monocytes, key elements of the immune system. Activation of TREM-1 results in expression of NF-κB, which promotes systemic inflammation. Nangibotide inhibits TREM-1, thereby preventing the inflammatory activation. Absence of TREM-1 results in vastly reduced inflammation without impairing the ability to fight infection.[2]

Animal models

LR17, a mouse equivalent of nangibotide, improves survival in mouse models of severe sepsis.[3] In a pig model of sepsis, LR12 – another animal equivalent of nangibotide – resulted in significantly improved haemodynamics and less organ failure.[4] In monkeys, LR12 also reduced the inflammatory and hypotensive effects of sepsis.[5]

Human studies

Nangibotide has demonstrated safety in Phase 1 (healthy volunteers)[6] and Phase 2 (sick patients with septic shock)[7] studies. The ASTONISH trial will examine clinical efficacy in 450 patients with septic shock.[8]

Inotrem Receives Approval to Expand Nangibotide Clinical Trial in Critically Ill COVID-19 Patients and Receives Additional Public Funding of €45 Million

  • Inotrem’s phase 2/3 clinical trial “ESSENTIAL” will enroll up to 730 patients in Europe to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of nangibotide to treat critically ill COVID-19 patients with respiratory failure.
  • Recent preclinical studies have strengthened the body of evidence for targeting the TREM-1 pathway which is activated in a subset of patients suffering from severe COVID-19.

July 12, 2021 03:00 AM Eastern Daylight Time

PARIS–(BUSINESS WIRE)–Inotrem S.A., a biotechnology company specializing in the development of immunotherapies targeting the TREM-1 pathway, announces that it has obtained authorization to pursue the clinical development of nangibotide up to registration in COVID-19 patients from both the French and Belgian competent authorities.

As part of this program, Inotrem receives additional 45 million euros in public funding under the “Capacity Building” Call for Expression of Interest, operated on behalf of the French government by Bpifrance, the French national investment bank, as part of the Programme d’investissements d’avenir (PIA) and the France Recovery Plan, bringing French state support for the project to a total of 52,5 million euros. This public funding will support Inotrem’s clinical program including the phase 2/3 study “ESSENTIAL” which aims to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of nangibotide in treating patients in respiratory distress with severe forms of COVID-19.

The primary endpoint is evaluation of the impact of nangibotide on the progression of disease in patients receiving ventilatory support due to COVID-19 as well as on the severity of the respiratory failure, duration of mechanical ventilation, length of stay in intensive care and mortality. In “ESSENTIAL”, a Phase 2/3 clinical program, up to 730 patients will be enrolled initially in France and Belgium and, possibly in other European countries. Pre-defined interim analyses will be conducted by an independent Data Monitoring Board to test futility and to allow for the study design to be adapted as necessary. “ESSNTIAL” is the continuation of a 60 patients phase 2a evaluating the safety and efficacy of nangibotide in patients suffering from severe COVID-19. In July 2020, the CoviTREM-1 consortium, which includes the Nancy and Limoges university hospitals and Inotrem, obtained public funding of 7,5 million euros under the “PSPC-COVID” call for projects, operated on behalf of the French government by Bpifrance

New pre-clinical studies with nangibotide have demonstrated that the administration of nangibotide in murine models infected with SARS-CoV-2 was associated with a decrease in inflammatory mediators and an improvement of clinical signs, in particular respiratory function, and survival. Inotrem also confirmed in 3 different and independent cohorts that sTREM-1, a marker of the activation of the TREM-1 biological pathway, is associated with both severity and mortality in critically ill COVID-19 patients.

Leveraging the results of these preclinical studies and the implications for the role of the TREM-1 pathway in COVID-19, Inotrem has filed additional patents to cover nangibotide use in severe forms of COVID-19 as well as the use of sTREM-1 as a biomarker and companion diagnostic. This significantly strengthens Inotrem’s already broad patent estate.

Jean-Jacques Garaud, Executive Vice-President, Head of Scientific and Medical Affairs and Inotrem’s co-founder said :“We are eager to pursue the development of nangibotide in these severe forms of COVID-19. Nangibotide is a TREM-1 inhibitor which has already demonstrated a trend towards efficacy in septic shock patients and has the potential to modulate the dysregulated immune response in critically ill COVID-19 patients. With this large clinical study, we can demonstrate efficacy for nangibotide in a further indication with the goals of reducing the duration of hospitalization and mortality.”

Sven Zimmerman, CEO of Inotrem, also declared: “The size of the financial support awarded to us as part of the French government’s initiative against COVID-19 is a testimony to the relevance of targeting the TREM-1 pathway with nangibotide in these severely ill patients. We are delighted by the confidence placed in our technology and our team. Everyone at Inotrem is fully committed to deliver on this ambitious program alongside nangibotide’s ongoing Phase 2b trial in septic shock patients.”

About Inotrem
Inotrem S.A. is a biotechnology company specialized in immunotherapy for acute and chronic inflammatory syndromes. The company has developed a new concept of immunomodulation that targets the TREM-1 pathway to control unbalanced inflammatory responses. Through its proprietary technology platform, Inotrem has developed the first-in-class TREM-1 inhibitor, LR12 (nangibotide), with potential applications in a number of therapeutic indications such as septic shock and myocardial infarction. In parallel, Inotrem has also launched another program to develop a new therapeutic modality targeting chronic inflammatory diseases. The company was founded in 2013 by Dr. Jean-Jacques Garaud, a former head of research and early development at the Roche Group, Prof. Sébastien Gibot and Dr. Marc Derive. Inotrem is supported by leading European and North American investors.

www.inotrem.com

About TREM-1 pathway
TREM-1 pathway is an amplification loop of the immune response that triggers an exuberant and hyperactivated immune state which is known to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of septic shock and acute myocardial infarction.

About Nangibotide
Nangibotide is the formulation of the active ingredient LR12, which is a 12 amino-acid peptide prepared by chemical synthesis. LR12 is a specific TREM-1 inhibitor, acting as a decoy receptor and interfering in the binding of TREM-1 and its ligand. In preclinical septic shock models, nangibotide was able to restore appropriate inflammatory response, vascular function, and improved animals’ survival post septic shock.

About ESSENTIAL study:
The Efficacy and Safety Study Exploring Nangibotide Treatment in COVID-19 pAtients with ventiLatory support, is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled confirmatory study with adaptive features that will be performed in Europe. This is a pivotal study and it is expected that based on its results, nangibotide could be registered in this indication. The first part of the study (i.e.: 60 patients) has been already finalized and assessed by an independent data monitoring committee with excellent safety results. The study will recruit up to 730 patients in up to 40 sites. Several interim and futility analyses are foreseen as part of the adaptive design of the study.

About Bpifrance
Bpifrance is the French national investment bank: it finances businesses – at every stage of their development – through loans, guarantees, equity investments and export insurances. Bpifrance also provides extra-financial services (training, consultancy.). to help entrepreneurs meet their challenges (innovation, export…).

PATENT

WO-2021144388

Process for preparing nangibotide by solid phase synthesis, useful for treating acute inflammatory disorders such as septic shock. Also claims novel peptide fragments, useful in the synthesis of nangibotide.

Example 1

Preparation of nangibotide by full SPPS (Reference)

Step 1 : Loading of the first amino acid onto the Rink Amide Resin

2 g of MBHA resin (1.0-1.3 mmol/g) was swelled using 16 mL of DMF for 30 min. 2 eq Fmoc-Met-OH (2.4 mmol, 2.67 g), 2 eq DIC (2.4 mmol, 1.136 mL) and 2 eq OxymaPure (2.4 mmol, 1.023 g) were dissolved in 8 mL of DMF at 0.3 M cone, and added to the resin after 5 min. All the coupling steps were conducted in this way unless described differently. The loading step was carried out for 1.5 hour. After the loading, the resin was filtered and washed 3 times with 12 mL of DMF. The Fmoc deprotection step was carried out by addition of 12 mL of 20% piperidine solution in DMF for two 10 min cycles. This step was performed analogously for all the amino acid residues. The loading, calculated by UV absorption for the peptidyl resin, was 0.8 mmol/g.

Step 2: peptide elongation

For the coupling of all the amino acids involved in the synthesis of nangibotide, 3 eq of each amino acid were activated by 3 eq of DIC and OxymaPure dissolved in DMF at 0.3 M cone. At the end of the peptide elongation, a final Fmoc deprotection, as already described, was performed before moving to the cleavage step.

Step 3: Cleavage and precipitation of crude nangibotide

The cleavage of nangibotide off the resin was carried out using a solution of 16 mL of TFA/DODT/TIPS/water in 90/4/3/3 ratio cooled at 0°C. The peptidyl resin was added portionwise in 30 min keeping the internal temperature under 25°C. The cleavage was run for 3.5 hours, then the resin was filtered and washed by 10 mL of TFA for 10 min.

DIPE was used for the precipitation of the peptide, adding 12 volumes (300 mL) dropwise to the peptide TFA solution, keeping the temperature under 20°C. The suspension with nangibotide was filtered on a gooch funnel, the peptide washed again with 100 mL of DIPE and then dried under vacuum overnight. Molar yield 40%. Purity 61%.

Example 2

Preparation of nangibotide by three-fragment condensation

In the approach using three fragments, only the cysteine residue was coupled to the methionine on rink amide resin to prepare fragment 11-12, whereas protected peptide fragments 1-7 and 8-10 were synthesized using 2-CTC resin.

Step 1: Synthesis of fragment 11-12

2 g of MBHA resin (1.0-1.3 mmol/g) was swelled using 16 mL of DMF for 30 min 2 eq of Fmoc-Met-OH (2.4 mmol, 2.67 g), 2 eq DIC (2.4 mmol, 1.136 mL) and 2 eq OxymaPure (2.4 mmol, 1.023 g) were dissolved in 8 mL of DMF at 0.3 M cone, and added to the resin. The loading step was carried out for 1 and half hour. After the loading, the resin was filtered and washed 3 times with 12 mL of DMF. The Fmoc deprotection step was carried out by

addition of 12 mL of a 20% piperidine solution in DMF for two 10 min cycles. Same procedure was repeated for the coupling of Fmoc-Cys(Trt)-OH to obtain resin-attached Fmoc-deprotected fragment 11-12. The loading, calculated by UV absorption for the peptidyl resin relative to the first amino acid inserted, was 0.8 mmol/g.

Step 2: Synthesis of fragments 1-7 and 8-10

For the synthesis of both fragments the loading of 2-chloro trityl chloride resin was performed on 5 g (1.6 mmol/g) using 0.8 eq Fmoc-Gly-OH (6.40 mmol, 1.90 g) dissolved in 30 mL of DCM and addition of 3 eq DIPEA (24 mmol, 4.19 mL). The loading step was carried out for 1 hour, then the resin was washed by 30 mL DCM for three times and eventual Cl-groups were capped by two different capping solutions: first by 30 mL of methanol/DIPEA/DCM (1:2:7) and then by 30 mL AC2O/DIPEA/DCM in the same ratio. After the treatment with these solutions for 15 min and subsequent washing with DCM, the resin was washed three times with DMF, before deprotection of Fmoc and evaluation of the resin loading. Generally, this protocol gave a resin loaded with 1.1 mmol/g Fmoc-Gly-OH. The Fmoc deprotection and coupling step protocols were equally performed with all the amino acids in the respective sequences: Fmoc-Tyr(tBu)-OH and Fmoc-Glu(tBu)-OH for fragment 8-10, and Fmoc-Ala-OH, Fmoc-Asp(OtBu)-OH, Fmoc-Glu(OtBu)-OH twice, Fmoc-Gln(Trt)-OH and Fmoc-Leu-OH for fragment 1-7.

For each coupling, 3 eq amino acid were activated by 3 eq DIC and 3 eq OxymaPure dissolved in DMF at 0.3 M cone.

Fragment Fmoc-Glu(tBu)-Tyr(tBu)-Gly-OH (8-10) was obtained by cleavage off the resin using 6 volumes (30 mL) of a TFA 1.5 % solution in DCM, 5 times for 2 min. The final TFA solution was neutralized by 1.2 eq pyridine (15.89 mmol, 1.3 mL) diluted in 30 mL methanol. The final solution was concentrated to 50 mL under vacuum then washed by water and brine. The organic layer was dried by anhydrous sodium sulphate, filtered and further concentrated before crystallization of the tripeptide with 5 volumes of petroleum ether at 0°C. The peptide was filtered, washed by petroleum ether and dried overnight in a vacuum oven at 37°C. Molar yield 65%. Purity 90%.

Fragment Fmoc-Leu-Gln(Trt)-Glu(OtBu)-Glu(OtBu)-Asp(OtBu)-Ala-Gly-OH (1-7) was obtained by cleavage off the resin using 6 volumes (30 mL) of a TFA 1.5 % solution in DCM, 5 times for 2 min. The final TFA solution was neutralized by 1.2 eq pyridine (15.89 mmol, 1.3 mL) diluted in 30 mL methanol. The DCM was evaporated and replaced by methanol, adding and evaporating 30 mL methanol a couple of times till one third of the volume. The peptide fragment was precipitated by adding 5 volumes (150 mL) water to the methanol solution at 0°C and filtered after stirring for 30 min. The full protected heptapeptide was washed by water and dried overnight in a vacuum oven at 37°C. Molar yield 85%. Purity 89%.

Step 3: Synthesis of fragment 8-12 (Fragment condensation 1)

The fragment condensation between Fmoc-Glu(tBu)-Tyr(tBu)-Gly-OH (8-10) and H-Cys(Trt)-Met-MBHA resin (11-12) was carried out activating 2 eq (1.6 mmol, 1.12 g) of fragment 8-10 dissolved in 6 mL of DMF at 40°C by using 2 eq OxymaPure (1.6 mmol, 0.22 g) and 2 eq DIC (1.6 mmol, 0.25 mL) for 10 min. The activated ester of tripeptide 8-10 was added to the resin-attached fragment 11-12 and stirred for 3 hours at 40°C. After filtration, the resin was washed three times by 15 mL DMF and then capped by 12 mL of AC2O 10% in DMF for 15 min. The resin was washed three timed by 12 mL DMF before deprotection of Fmoc to finally obtain resin-attached Fmoc-protected fragment 8-12. Molar yield 91%. Purity 89%.

Step 4: Synthesis of nanaibotide (Fragment condensation 2)

The fragment condensation between fragment 1-7 and H-Glu(OtBu)-Tyr(tBu)-Gly-Cys(Trt)-Met-MBHA resin (8-12) was carried out activating 1.5 eq (2.25 mmol, 2.64 g) of fragment 1-7 dissolved in 25 mL DMF at 40°C by using 2 eq OxymaPure (2.25 mmol, 0.32 g) and 2 eq DIC (2.25 mmol, 0.35 mL) for 15 min. The activated ester of fragment 1-7 was added to the resin-attached fragment 8-12 and stirred for 3.5 hours at 40°C. After filtration, the resin was washed three times by 12 mL DMF before deprotection of Fmoc with the standard procedure described above. After Fmoc deprotection, the resin was washed again by DMF and DCM and then dried at vacuum pump.

Step 5: Cleavage and precipitation of crude nanaibotide

The cleavage of nangibotide off the resin was carried out using a solution of 16 mL of TFA/DODT/TIPS/water in 90/4/3/3 ratio cooled at 0°C. The peptidyl resin was added portionwise in 30 min keeping the internal temperature under 25°C. The cleavage was run for 3.5 hours, then the resin filtered and washed by 10 mL of TFA for 10 min.

DIPE was used to precipitate the peptide, adding 12 volumes (300 mL) dropwise to the peptide TFA solution, keeping the temperature under 20°C. The suspension with nangibotide was filtered on a gooch funnel, the peptide washed again with 100 mL of DIPE and then dried at vacuum pump overnight. Molar yield 61%. Purity 73%.

Example 3

Preparation of nangibotide by two-fragment condensation

In the approach using two fragments, the SPPS elongation onto MBHA resin, as described in Example 2, step 1, was continued until Glu8 was attached to provide fragment 8-12, then fragment 1-7, synthesized on 2-CTC resin as described in example 2, step 2, was coupled to the resin-attached fragment 8-12 as described in example 2, step 4.

Step 1: Synthesis of fragment 8-12

2 g of MBHA resin (1.0-1.3 mmol/g) was swelled using 16 mL of DMF for 30 min 2 eq of Fmoc-Met-OH (2.4 mmol, 2.67 g), 2 eq DIC (2.4 mmol, 1.136 mL) and 2 eq OxymaPure (2.4 mmol, 1.023 g) were dissolved in 8 mL of DMF at 0.3 M cone, and added to the resin. The loading step was carried out for 1 and half hour. After the loading, the resin was filtered and washed 3 times with 12 mL of DMF. The Fmoc deprotection step was carried out by addition of 12 mL of a 20% piperidine solution in DMF for two 10 min cycles. Same procedure was repeated for the coupling of Fmoc-Cys(Trt)-OH; Fmoc-Glu(OtBu)-OH; Fmoc-Tyr(tBu)-OH; Fmoc-Gly-OH to obtain fragment 8-12. The loading, calculated by UV absorption for the peptidyl resin relative to the first amino acid inserted, was 0.8 mmol/g. Molar yield 88%. Purity 83%.

Step 2: Synthesis of nanaibotide (Fragment condensation 2)

The final fragment condensation was performed as described in example 2, step 4.

Step 3: Cleavage and precipitation of crude nanaibotide

The cleavage of nangibotide off the resin was carried out as described in example 2, step 5. Molar yield 60%. Purity 70%.

PAPER

Methods in enzymology (2000), 312, 293-304

 Journal of the American College of Cardiology (2016), 68(25), 2776-2793

PATENT

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2011124685A1/en

Product pat, WO2011124685 ,protection in the EU states and the US  April 2031

References

  1. ^ Cuvier V, Lorch U, Witte S, Olivier A, Gibot S, Delor I, Garaud JJ, Derive M, Salcedo-Magguilli M (2018). “A first-in-man safety and pharmacokinetics study of nangibotide, a new modulator of innate immune response through TREM-1 receptor inhibition”Br J Clin Pharmacol84 (10): 2270–2279. doi:10.1111/bcp.13668PMC 6138490PMID 29885068.
  2. ^ Weber B, Schuster S, Zysset D, Rihs S, Dickgreber N, Schürch C, Riether C, Siegrist M, Schneider C, Pawelski H, Gurzeler U, Ziltener P, Genitsch V, Tacchini-Cottier F, Ochsenbein A, Hofstetter W, Kopf M, Kaufmann T, Oxenius A, Reith W, Saurer L, Mueller C (2014). “TREM-1 deficiency can attenuate disease severity without affecting pathogen clearance”PLOS Pathog10 (1): e1003900. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1003900PMC 3894224PMID 24453980.
  3. ^ Derive M, Bouazza Y, Sennoun N, Marchionni S, Quigley L, Washington V, Massin F, Max JP, Ford J, Alauzet C, Levy B, McVicar DW, Gibot S (1 June 2012). “Soluble TREM-like transcript-1 regulates leukocyte activation and controls microbial sepsis”Journal of Immunology188 (11): 5585–5592. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1102674PMC 6382278PMID 22551551.
  4. ^ Derive M, Boufenzer A, Bouazza Y, Groubatch F, Alauzet C, Barraud D, Lozniewski A, Leroy P, Tran N, Gibot S (Feb 2013). “Effects of a TREM-like transcript 1-derived peptide during hypodynamic septic shock in pigs”Shock39 (2): 176–182. doi:10.1097/SHK.0b013e31827bcdfbPMID 23324887S2CID 23583753.
  5. ^ Derive M, Boufenzer A, Gibot S (April 2014). “Attenuation of responses to endotoxin by the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 inhibitor LR12 in nonhuman primate”Anaesthesiology120 (4): 935–942. doi:10.1097/ALN.0000000000000078PMID 24270127S2CID 10347527.
  6. ^ Cuvier V, Lorch U, Witte S, Olivier A, Gibot S, Delor I, Garaud JJ, Derive M, Salcedo-Magguilli M (2018). “A first-in-man safety and pharmacokinetics study of nangibotide, a new modulator of innate immune response through TREM-1 receptor inhibition”Br J Clin Pharmacol84 (10): 2270–2279. doi:10.1111/bcp.13668PMC 6138490PMID 29885068.
  7. ^ François B, Wittebole X, Ferrer R, Mira JP, Dugernier T, Gibot S, Derive M, Olivier A, Cuvier V, Witte S, Pickkers P, Vandenhende F, Garaud JJ, Sánchez M, Salcedo-Magguilli M, Laterre PF (July 2020). “Nangibotide in patients with septic shock: a Phase 2a randomized controlled clinical trial”Intensive Care Medicine46 (7): 1425–1437. doi:10.1007/s00134-020-06109-zPMID 32468087S2CID 218912723.
  8. ^ “Efficacy, Safety and Tolerability of Nangibotide in Patients With Septic Shock (ASTONISH)”ClinicalTrials.gov. US National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 13 July 2020.

Derive et al (2013) Effects of a TREM-Like Transcript 1–Derived Peptide During Hypodynamic Septic Shock in Pigs. Shock39(2) 176 PMID: 23324887

Derive et al (2014) Attenuation of Responses to Endotoxin by the Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells-1 Inhibitor LR12 in Nonhuman Primate. Anesthesiology120(4) 935 PMID: 24270127

Derive et al (2012) Soluble Trem-like Transcript-1 Regulates Leukocyte Activation and Controls Microbial Sepsis. J. Immunol.188(11) 5585 PMID: 22551551

Clinical data
Routes of
administration
Intravenous; intraperitoneal
Physiological data
ReceptorsTREM-1
MetabolismEnzymatic in bloodstream
Pharmacokinetic data
MetabolismEnzymatic in bloodstream
Elimination half-life3 minutes
Identifiers
showIUPAC name
CAS Number2014384‐91‐7
ChemSpider64835227
UNII59HD7BLX9H
ChEMBLChEMBL4297793
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC54H82N14O22S2
Molar mass1343.439
3D model (JSmol)Interactive image
showSMILES
showInChI

//////////////Nangibotide, phase 3, нангиботид , مانغيبوتيد , 南吉博肽 , INOTREM, SEPTIC SHOCK, PEPTIDE

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DEUCRAVACITINIB


CID 134821691.png
Deucravacitinib Chemical Structure
2D chemical structure of 1609392-27-9

DEUCRAVACITINIB

BMS-986165

CAS 1609392-27-9, C20H22N8O3, 425.46

6-(cyclopropanecarbonylamino)-4-[2-methoxy-3-(1-methyl-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)anilino]-N-(trideuteriomethyl)pyridazine-3-carboxamide

6-(cyclopropanecarboxamido)-4-((2-methoxy-3-(1-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)phenyl)amino)-N-(methyl-d3)pyridazine-3-carboxamide

Tyk2-IN-4

UNII-N0A21N6RAU

N0A21N6RAU

GTPL10432

EX-A3154

BDBM50507816

NSC825520

s8879

  • OriginatorBristol-Myers Squibb
  • ClassAmides; Aniline compounds; Anti-inflammatories; Antipsoriatics; Antirheumatics; Cyclopropanes; Ethers; Hepatoprotectants; Organic deuterium compounds; Pyridazines; Skin disorder therapies; Small molecules; Triazoles
  • Mechanism of ActionTYK2 kinase inhibitors
  • Phase IIIPlaque psoriasis
  • Phase IICrohn’s disease; Lupus nephritis; Psoriatic arthritis; Systemic lupus erythematosus; Ulcerative colitis
  • Phase IAutoimmune disorders
  • No development reportedInflammatory bowel diseases; Psoriasis
  • 02 Jul 2021Bristol-Myers Squibb plans a phase I pharmacokinetics trial (In volunteers) in USA (PO, Tablet) in July 2021 (NCT04949269)
  • 14 Jun 2021Bristol-Myers Squibb plans a phase III trial for Psoriatic arthritis (Treatment-naïve) in USA, Brazil, Colombia, Czech republic, Hungary, Italy, Mexico, Romania, Spain and Taiwan in July 2021 (NCT04908202) (EudraCT2020-005097-10)
  • 02 Jun 2021Interim efficacy and adverse events data from the phase III POETYK-PSO-1 trial in Psoriatic psoriasis presented at the 22nd Annual Congress of the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR-2021)

BMS , presumed to be in collaboration with Jinan University and Chinese Academy of Sciences , is developing deucravacitinib, a TYK2 inhibitor, for treating autoimmune diseases, primarily psoriasis. In July 2021, deucravacitinib was reported to be in phase 3 clinical development.

Deucravacitinib (BMS-986165) is a highly selective, orally bioavailable allosteric TYK2 inhibitor for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, which selectively binds to TYK2 pseudokinase (JH2) domain (IC50=1.0 nM) and blocks receptor-mediated Tyk2 activation by stabilizing the regulatory JH2 domain. Deucravacitinib inhibits IL-12/23 and type I IFN pathways.

PAPER

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.9b00444

Abstract Image

Small molecule JAK inhibitors have emerged as a major therapeutic advancement in treating autoimmune diseases. The discovery of isoform selective JAK inhibitors that traditionally target the catalytically active site of this kinase family has been a formidable challenge. Our strategy to achieve high selectivity for TYK2 relies on targeting the TYK2 pseudokinase (JH2) domain. Herein we report the late stage optimization efforts including a structure-guided design and water displacement strategy that led to the discovery of BMS-986165 (11) as a high affinity JH2 ligand and potent allosteric inhibitor of TYK2. In addition to unprecedented JAK isoform and kinome selectivity, 11 shows excellent pharmacokinetic properties with minimal profiling liabilities and is efficacious in several murine models of autoimmune disease. On the basis of these findings, 11 appears differentiated from all other reported JAK inhibitors and has been advanced as the first pseudokinase-directed therapeutic in clinical development as an oral treatment for autoimmune diseases.

Bristol Myers Squibb Presents Positive Data from Two Pivotal Phase 3 Psoriasis Studies Demonstrating Superiority of Deucravacitinib Compared to Placebo and Otezla® (apremilast)

04/23/2021.. https://news.bms.com/news/details/2021/Bristol-Myers-Squibb-Presents-Positive-Data-from-Two-Pivotal-Phase-3-Psoriasis-Studies-Demonstrating-Superiority-of-Deucravacitinib-Compared-to-Placebo-and-Otezla-apremilast/default.aspx

Significantly more patients treated with deucravacitinib achieved PASI 75 and sPGA 0/1 compared to patients treated with placebo and Otezla at Week 16, with an increased benefit versus Otezla at Week 24 and maintained through Week 52

Deucravacitinib was well tolerated with a low rate of discontinuation due to adverse events

Deucravacitinib is a first-in-class, oral, selective tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) inhibitor with a unique mechanism of action

Results presented as late-breaking research at the 2021 American Academy of Dermatology Virtual Meeting Experience

PRINCETON, N.J.–(BUSINESS WIRE)– Bristol Myers Squibb (NYSE:BMY) today announced positive results from two pivotal Phase 3 trials evaluating deucravacitinib, an oral, selective tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) inhibitor, for the treatment of patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. The POETYK PSO-1 and POETYK PSO-2 trials, which evaluated deucravacitinib 6 mg once daily, met both co-primary endpoints versus placebo, with significantly more patients achieving Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) 75 response and a static Physician’s Global Assessment score of clear or almost clear (sPGA 0/1) after 16 weeks of treatment with deucravacitinib. Deucravacitinib was well tolerated with a low rate of discontinuation due to adverse events (AEs).

This press release features multimedia. View the full release here: https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20210423005134/en(Graphic: Business Wire)

Deucravacitinib demonstrated superior skin clearance compared with Otezla® (apremilast) for key secondary endpoints in both studies, as measured by PASI 75 and sPGA 0/1 responses at Week 16 and Week 24. Findings include:

PASI 75 Response in POETYK PSO-1 and POETYK PSO-2:

  • At Week 16, 58.7% and 53.6% of patients receiving deucravacitinib achieved PASI 75 response, respectively, versus 12.7% and 9.4% receiving placebo and 35.1% and 40.2% receiving Otezla.
  • At Week 24, 69.0% and 59.3% of patients receiving deucravacitinib achieved PASI 75 response, respectively, versus 38.1% and 37.8% receiving Otezla.
  • Among patients who achieved PASI 75 response at Week 24 with deucravacitinib and continued treatment with deucravacitinib, 82.5% and 81.4%, respectively, maintained PASI 75 response at Week 52.

sPGA 0/1 Response in POETYK PSO-1 and POETYK PSO-2:

  • At Week 16, 53.6% and 50.3% of patients receiving deucravacitinib achieved sPGA 0/1 response, respectively, versus 7.2% and 8.6% receiving placebo and 32.1% and 34.3% receiving Otezla.
  • At Week 24, 58.4% and 50.4% of patients receiving deucravacitinib achieved sPGA 0/1 response, respectively, versus 31.0% and 29.5% receiving Otezla.

“In both pivotal studies, deucravacitinib was superior to Otezla across multiple endpoints, including measures of durability and maintenance of response, suggesting that deucravacitinib has the potential to become a new oral standard of care for patients who require systemic therapy and need a better oral option for their moderate to severe plaque psoriasis,” said April Armstrong, M.D., M.P.H., Associate Dean and Professor of Dermatology at the University of Southern California. “As many patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis remain undertreated or even untreated, it is also highly encouraging to see that deucravacitinib improved patient symptoms and outcomes to a greater extent than Otezla.”

Superiority of Deucravacitinib Versus Placebo and Otezla

Deucravacitinib demonstrated a robust efficacy profile, including superiority to placebo for the co-primary endpoints and to Otezla for key secondary endpoints. In addition to PASI 75 and sPGA 0/1 measures, deucravacitinib was superior to Otezla across both studies in multiple other secondary endpoints, demonstrating significant and clinically meaningful efficacy improvements in symptom burden and quality of life measures.

POETYK PSO-1 and POETYK PSO-2 Results at Week 16 and Week 24
Endpoint POETYK PSO-1 (n=666) POETYK PSO-2 (n=1,020)
Deucravacitinib6 mg(n=332) Otezla30 mg(n=168) Placebo(n=166) Deucravacitinib6 mg(n=511) Otezla30 mg(n=254) Placebo(n=255)
PASI 75*a
Week 16 58.7%* 35.1% 12.7% 53.6%* 40.2% 9.4%
Week 24 69.0% 38.1% 59.3% 37.8%
sPGA 0/1*b
Week 16 53.6%* 32.1% 7.2% 50.3%* 34.3% 8.6%
Week 24 58.4% 31.0% 50.4% 29.5%
(Scalp) ss-PGA 0/1c
Week 16 70.8%* 39.1% 17.4% 60.3%* 37.3% 17.3%
Week 24 71.8% 42.7% 59.7% 41.6%
PSSD-Symptoms CFBd
Week 16 -26.7* -17.8 -3.6 -28.3* -21.1 -4.7
Week 24 -31.9 -20.7 -29.1 -21.4
DLQI 0/1e
Week 16 40.7%* 28.6% 10.6% 38.0%* 23.1% 9.8%
Week 24 47.8% 24.2% 41.8% 21.5%
*Co-primary endpoints for POETYK PSO-1 and POETYK PSO-2 were PASI 75 and sPGA 0/1 for deucravacitinib vs placebo at Week 16.
a. PASI 75 is defined as at least a 75% improvement from baseline in Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) scores. *p<0.0001 vs placebo. †p<0.0001 vs Otezla. ‡p=0.0003 vs Otezla.
b. sPGA 0/1 is defined as a static Physician’s Global Assessment (sPGA) score of clear or almost clear. *p<0.0001 vs placebo. †p<0.0001 vs Otezla.
c. ss-PGA 0/1 is defined as a scalp-specific Physician’s Global Assessment (ss-PGA) score of clear or almost clear in those with ss-PGA of at least 3 (moderate) at baseline. POETYK PSO-1: *p<0.0001 vs placebo. †p<0.0001 vs Otezla. POETYK PSO-2: *p<0.0001 vs placebo. †p<0.0001 vs Otezla. ‡p=0.0002 vs Otezla.
d. Change from baseline (CFB) in Psoriasis Symptoms and Signs Diary (PSSD) captures improvement in symptoms of itch, pain, stinging, burning and skin tightness in patient eDiaries. *p<0.0001 vs placebo. †p<0.0001 vs Otezla.
e. Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) 0/1 scores reflect no effect at all on patient’s life in patients with a baseline DLQI score of ≥2. POETYK PSO-1: *p<0.0001 vs placebo. †p=0.0106 vs Otezla. ‡p<0.0001 vs Otezla. POETYK PSO-2: *p<0.0001 vs placebo. †p<0.0001 vs Otezla.

Safety and Tolerability

Deucravacitinib was well-tolerated and had a similar safety profile in both trials. At Week 16, 2.9% of 419 patients on placebo, 1.8% of 842 patients on deucravacitinib and 1.2% of 422 patients on Otezla experienced serious adverse events (SAEs) across both studies. The most common AEs (≥5%) with deucravacitinib treatment at Week 16 were nasopharyngitis and upper respiratory tract infection with low rates of headache, diarrhea and nausea. At Week 16, 3.8% of patients on placebo, 2.4% of patients on deucravacitinib and 5.2% of patients on Otezla experienced AEs leading to discontinuation. Across POETYK PSO-1 and POETYK PSO-2 over 52 weeks, SAEs when adjusted for exposure (exposure adjusted incidence per 100 patient-years [EAIR]) were 5.7 with placebo, 5.7 with deucravacitinib and 4.0 with Otezla. In the same timeframe across both studies, EAIRs for AEs leading to discontinuation were 9.4 with placebo, 4.4 with deucravacitinib and 11.6 with Otezla. No new safety signals were observed during Weeks 16‒52.

Across both Phase 3 trials, rates of malignancy, major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), venous thromboembolism (VTE) and serious infections were low and generally consistent across active treatment groups. No clinically meaningful changes were observed in multiple laboratory parameters (including anemia, blood cells, lipids and liver enzymes) over 52 weeks.

“The findings from both studies affirm that deucravacitinib – a first-in-class, oral, selective TYK2 inhibitor with a unique mechanism of action that inhibits the IL-12, IL-23 and Type 1 IFN pathways –may become an oral treatment of choice for people living with psoriasis. We believe deucravacitinib has significant potential across a broad range of immune-mediated diseases, and we are committed to further advancing our expansive clinical program with this agent,” said Mary Beth Harler, M.D., head of Immunology and Fibrosis Development, Bristol Myers Squibb. “We are in discussions with health authorities with the goal of bringing this new therapy to appropriate patients as soon as possible. At Bristol Myers Squibb, we are committed to building an immunology portfolio that addresses pressing unmet needs that exist for those impacted by serious dermatologic conditions and other immune-mediated diseases, to ultimately deliver the promise of living a better life.”

These results are available as a late-breaking research presentation (Session S033 – Late-Breaking Research Abstracts) as part of the 2021 American Academy of Dermatology (AAD) Virtual Meeting Experience (VMX). Full results of both studies will be submitted to a medical journal for peer review. In November 2020 and February 2021, respectively, Bristol Myers Squibb announced positive topline results from POETYK PSO-1 and POETYK PSO-2.

Visit www.bms.com/media/medical-meetings/bms-at-aad-vmx.html for more information on Bristol Myers Squibb’s scientific approach and resources on psoriasis and immune-mediated diseases.

About Deucravacitinib

Deucravacitinib (pronounced doo-krav-a-sih-ti-nib) is a first-in-class, oral, selective tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) inhibitor with a unique mechanism of action. Deucravacitinib is the first and only TYK2 inhibitor in clinical studies across multiple immune-mediated diseases. Bristol Myers Squibb scientists designed deucravacitinib to selectively target TYK2, thereby inhibiting signaling of interleukin (IL)-12, IL-23 and Type 1 interferon (IFN), key cytokines involved in psoriasis pathogenesis. Deucravacitinib achieves a high degree of selectivity by uniquely binding to the regulatory, rather than the active, domain of TYK2, which is structurally distinct from the regulatory domains of Janus kinase (JAK) 1, 2 and 3. At therapeutic doses, deucravacitinib does not inhibit JAK1, JAK2 or JAK3. Due to the innovative design of deucravacitinib, Bristol Myers Squibb earned recognition with the 2019 Thomas Alva Edison Patent Award for the science underpinning the clinical development of deucravacitinib.

Deucravacitinib is being studied in multiple immune-mediated diseases, including psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, lupus and inflammatory bowel disease. In addition to POETYK PSO-1 and POETYK PSO-2, Bristol Myers Squibb is evaluating deucravacitinib in three other Phase 3 studies in psoriasis: POETYK PSO-3 (NCT04167462); POETYK PSO-4 (NCT03924427); POETYK PSO-LTE (NCT04036435). Deucravacitinib is not approved for any use in any country.

About the Phase 3 POETYK PSO-1 and POETYK PSO-2 Studies

PrOgram to Evaluate the efficacy and safety of deucravacitinib, a selective TYK2 inhibitor (POETYK) PSO-1 (NCT03624127) and POETYK PSO-2 (NCT03611751) are global Phase 3 studies designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of deucravacitinib compared to placebo and Otezla® (apremilast) in patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. Both POETYK PSO-1, which enrolled 666 patients, and POETYK PSO-2, which enrolled 1,020 patients, were multi-center, randomized, double-blind trials that evaluated deucravacitinib (6 mg once daily) compared with placebo and Otezla (30 mg twice daily). POETYK PSO-2 included a randomized withdrawal and retreatment period after Week 24.

The co-primary endpoints of both POETYK PSO-1 and POETYK PSO-2 were the percentage of patients who achieved Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) 75 response and those who achieved static Physician’s Global Assessment (sPGA) score of 0 or 1 at Week 16 versus placebo. Key secondary endpoints of the trials included the percentage of patients who achieved PASI 75 and sPGA 0/1 compared to Otezla at Week 16 and other measures.

About Psoriasis

Psoriasis is a widely prevalent, chronic, systemic immune-mediated disease that substantially impairs patients’ physical health, quality of life and work productivity. Psoriasis is a serious global problem, with at least 100 million people worldwide impacted by some form of the disease, including around 14 million people in Europe and approximately 7.5 million people in the United States. Up to 90 percent of patients with psoriasis have psoriasis vulgaris, or plaque psoriasis, which is characterized by distinct round or oval plaques typically covered by silvery-white scales. Despite the availability of effective systemic therapy, many patients with moderate to severe psoriasis remain undertreated or even untreated and are dissatisfied with current treatments. People with psoriasis report an impact on their emotional well-being, straining both personal and professional relationships and causing a reduced quality of life. Psoriasis is associated with multiple comorbidities that may impact patients’ well-being, including psoriatic arthritis, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease and depression.

About Bristol Myers Squibb

Bristol Myers Squibb is a global biopharmaceutical company whose mission is to discover, develop and deliver innovative medicines that help patients prevail over serious diseases. For more information about Bristol Myers Squibb, visit us at BMS.com or follow us on LinkedInTwitterYouTubeFacebook and Instagram.

Celgene and Juno Therapeutics are wholly owned subsidiaries of Bristol-Myers Squibb Company. In certain countries outside the U.S., due to local laws, Celgene and Juno Therapeutics are referred to as, Celgene, a Bristol Myers Squibb company and Juno Therapeutics, a Bristol Myers Squibb company.

Otezla® (apremilast) is a registered trademark of Amgen Inc.

PATENT

WO-2021129467

Novel crystalline polymorphic forms (CSI and CSII) of deucravacitinib (also known as BMS-986165), useful a tyrosine kinase 2 pseudokinase domain (TYK2) inhibitor for treating psoriasis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and Crohn’s disease.Tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) is an intracellular signal transduction kinase that can mediate interleukin-23 (IL-23), interleukin-12 (IL-12) and type I interferon (IFN) These cytokines are involved in inflammation and immune response. 
BMS-986165 is the first and only new oral selective TYK2 inhibitor, clinically used to treat autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases (such as psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, lupus and inflammatory bowel disease, Crowe Graciousness, etc.). The results of a phase III clinical study of the drug announced in November 2020 showed that BMS-986165 has shown positive clinical effects in the treatment of moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. In addition, BMS-986165 also shows good therapeutic effects in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus and Crohn’s disease. 
The chemical name of BMS-986165 is 6-(cyclopropaneamido)-4-((2-methoxy-3-(1-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)benzene (Yl)amino)-N-(methyl-D3)pyridazine-3-carboxamide, the structural formula is shown below, and is hereinafter referred to as “compound I”: 

The crystal form is a solid in which the compound molecules are arranged in a three-dimensional order in the microstructure to form a crystal lattice. The phenomenon of drug polymorphism refers to the existence of two or more different crystal forms of the drug. Because of different physical and chemical properties, different crystal forms of the drug may have different dissolution and absorption in the body, which in turn affects the clinical efficacy and safety of the drug to a certain extent. Especially for poorly soluble solid drugs, the crystal form will have a greater impact. Therefore, drug crystal form must be an important content of drug research and also an important content of drug quality control. 
WO2018183656A1 discloses compound I crystal form A (hereinafter referred to as “crystal form A”) and a preparation method thereof. The crystalline form A disclosed in WO2018183656A1 is the only known free crystalline form of Compound I. The inventor of the present application repeated the preparation method disclosed in WO2018183656A1 to obtain and characterize the crystal form A. The results show that the crystal form A has poor compressibility and high adhesion. Therefore, there is still a need in the art to develop a compound I crystalline form with good stability, good compressibility, and low adhesion for the development of drugs containing compound I. 
The inventor of the present application has paid a lot of creative work and unexpectedly discovered the crystalline form CSI of compound I and the crystalline form CSII of compound I provided by the present invention, which have advantages in physical and chemical properties, preparation processing performance and bioavailability, for example, There are advantages in at least one aspect of melting point, solubility, hygroscopicity, purification, stability, adhesion, compressibility, fluidity, dissolution in vivo and in vitro, and bioavailability, especially good physical and chemical stability and mechanical stability It has good performance, good compressibility, and low adhesion, which solves the problems existing in the prior art, and is of great significance to the development of drugs containing compound I.

PATENT

US9505748 , a family member of WO2014074661 .

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2014074661

Preparation 1

Step l Int1

Step 2 Int2 Step 3 Int3 Step 4 Int4

Example 52

Step 1

[00219] To a solution of 2-methoxy-3-(l-methyl-lH-l ,2,4-triazol-3-yl)aniline (10.26 g, 50.2 mmol) and Int8 (10.5 g, 50.2 mmol) in THF (120 mL) was added lithium bis(trimethylsilyl)amide (LiHMDS, 1M in THF, 151 mL, 151 mmol) in a dropwise manner using a pressure equalized addition funnel. The reaction was run for 10 minutes after the completion of the addition and then quenched with HCl (1M aq., 126 mL, 126 mmol). The reaction was concentrated on a rotary evaporator until the majority of the THF was removed and a precipitate prevailed throughout the vessel. Water (-500 mL) was then added and the slurry sonicated for 5 minutes and stirred for 15 min. The solid was filtered off, rinsing with water and then air dried for 30 minutes. The powder was collected and dissolved in dichloromethane. The organic layer was washed with water and brine and then dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated to provide the product (12.5 g, 66% yield) (carried on as is). 1H NMR (400MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 11.11 (s, 1H), 9.36 (s, 1H), 8.56 (s, 1H), 7.72 (dd, J=7.8, 1.6 Hz, 1H), 7.60 (dd, J=7.9, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 7.29 (t, J=7.9 Hz, 1H), 7.19 (s, 1H), 3.95 (s, 3H), 3.72 (s, 3H). LC retention time 1.18 [E]. MS(E+) m/z: 377 (MH+).

Step 2

[00220] Intl3 (2.32 g, 6.16 mmol) and cyclopropanecarboxamide (1.048 g, 12.31 mmol) were dissolved in dioxane (62 mL) and Pd2(dba)3 (564 mg, 0.616 mmol), Xantphos (534 mg, 0.924 mmol) and cesium carbonate (4.01 g, 12.3 mmol) were added. The vessel was evacuated three times (backfilling with nitrogen) and then sealed and heated to 130 °C for 140 minutes. The reaction was filtered through CELITE® (eluting with ethyl acetate) and concentrated (on smaller scale this material could then be purified using preparative HPLC). The crude product was adsorbed onto CELITE® using dichloromethane, dried and purified using automated chromatography (100% EtOAc) to provide example 52 (1.22 g, 46% yield). 1H NMR (500MHz, chloroform-d) δ 10.99 (s, 1H), 8.63 (s, 1H), 8.18 (s, 1H), 8.10 (d, J=0.5 Hz, 2H), 7.81 (dd, J=7.9, 1.7 Hz, 1H), 7.51 (dd, J=7.9, 1.4 Hz, 1H), 7.33 – 7.20 (m, 7H), 4.01 (d, J=0.3 Hz, 3H), 3.82 (s, 3H), 1.73 -1.60 (m, 1H), 1.16 – 1.06 (m, 2H), 0.97 – 0.84 (m, 2H). LC retention time 6.84 [N]. MS(E+) m/z: 426 (MH+).

Example 53

[00221] To a homogeneous solution of Example 52 (50 mg, 0.12 mmol) in dichloromethane (3 mL) was added HCI (1M aq., 0.13 mL, 0.13 mmol) resulting in the solution turning yellow. The homogenous solution was concentrated down and then re-concentrated from dichloromethane twice to remove residual water, resulting in a white powder. The powder was suspended in dichloromethane and sonicated for 15 minutes, the powder was then collected via filtration, rinsing with dichloromethane to provide the corresponding HCI salt (38 mg, 70% yield). 1H NMR (500MHz, chloroform-d) δ 12.02 (s, 1H), 8.35 (s, 1H), 8.16 (s, 1H), 8.01 (dd, J=7.9, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 7.57 (br. s., 1H), 7.52 -7.46 (m, 1H), 7.36 (t, J=7.9 Hz, 1H), 4.03 (s, 3H), 3.83 (s, 3H), 2.05 – 1.95 (m, 1H), 1.16 – 1.09 (m, 2H), 1.03 (dd, J=7.4, 3.6 Hz, 2H). LC retention time 0.62 [j]. MS(E+) m/z: 426 (MH+).

[00222] Compare to NMR of parent free base: 1H NMR (500MHz, chloroform-d) δ 10.99 (s, 1H), 8.63 (s, 1H), 8.18 (s, 1H), 8.10 (d, J=0.5 Hz, 2H), 7.81 (dd, J=7.9, 1.7 Hz, 1H), 7.51 (dd, J=7.9, 1.4 Hz, 1H), 7.33 – 7.20 (m, 7H), 4.01 (d, J=0.3 Hz, 3H), 3.82 (s, 3H), 1.73 – 1.60 (m, 1H), 1.16 – 1.06 (m, 2H), 0.97 – 0.84 (m, 2H).

////////////DEUCRAVACITINIB, phase 3, BMS-986165, BMS 986165, psoriasis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Crohn’s disease,

CNC(=O)C1=NN=C(C=C1NC2=CC=CC(=C2OC)C3=NN(C=N3)C)NC(=O)C4CC4

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BPI-7711, Rezivertinib


Rezivertinib.png
img

BPI-7711, Rezivertinib

1835667-12-3

C27H30N6O3, 486.576

N-[2-[2-(dimethylamino)ethoxy]-4-methoxy-5-[[4-(1-methylindol-3-yl)pyrimidin-2-yl]amino]phenyl]prop-2-enamide

Beta Pharma in collaboration Chinese licensee CSPC Pharmaceuticals Group , is developing BPI-7711

In June 2021, this drug was reported to be in phase 3 clinical development.

  • OriginatorBeta Pharma
  • ClassAmides; Amines; Antineoplastics; Indoles; Phenyl ethers; Pyrimidines; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of ActionEpidermal growth factor receptor antagonists
  • Phase IIINon-small cell lung cancer
  • 30 Dec 2020Chemical structure information added
  • 09 Apr 2020Beta Pharma initiates a phase I trial for Non-small cell lung cancer (In volunteers) in China (PO) (NCT04135833)
  • 25 Mar 2020Beta Pharma completes a phase I pharmacokinetic trial for Non-small cell lung cancer (In volunteers) in China (NCT04135820)

GTPL10628

2-Propenamide, N-(2-(2-(dimethylamino)ethoxy)-4-methoxy-5-((4-(1-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-2-pyrimidinyl)amino)phenyl)-

N-(2-(2-(Dimethylamino)ethoxy)-4-methoxy-5-((4-(1-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-2-pyrimidinyl)amino)phenyl)-2-propenamideThe epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, Herl, ErbB l) is a principal member of the ErbB family of four structurally-related cell surface receptors with the other members being Her2 (Neu, ErbB2), Her3 (ErbB3) and Her4 (ErbB4). EGFR exerts its primary cellular functions though its intrinsic catalytic tyrosine protein kinase activity. The receptor is activated by binding with growth factor ligands, such as epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-a), which transform the catalytically inactive EGFR monomer into catalytically active homo- and hetero- dimers. These catalytically active dimers then initiate intracellular tyrosine kinase activity, which leads to the autophosphorylation of specific EGFR tyrosine residues and elicits the downstream activation of signaling proteins. Subsequently, the signaling proteins initiate multiple signal transduction cascades (MAPK, Akt and JNK), which ultimately mediate the essential biological processes of cell growth, proliferation, motility and survival.EGFR is found at abnormally high levels on the surface of many types of cancer cells and increased levels of EGFR have been associated with advanced disease, cancer spread and poor clinical prognosis. Mutations in EGFR can lead to receptor overexpression, perpetual activation or sustained hyperactivity and result in uncontrolled cell growth, i.e. cancer. Consequently, EGFR mutations have been identified in several types of malignant tumors, including metastatic lung, head and neck, colorectal and pancreatic cancers. In lung cancer, mutations mainly occur in exons 18 to 21, which encode the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding pocket of the kinase domain. The most clinically relevant drug- sensitive EGFR mutations are deletions in exon 19 that eliminate a common amino acid motif (LREA) and point mutations in exon 21, which lead to a substitution of arginine for leucine at position 858 (L858R). Together, these two mutations account for nearly 85% of the EGFR mutations observed in lung cancer. Both mutations have perpetual tyrosine kinase activity and as a result they are oncogenic. Biochemical studies have demonstrated that these mutated EGFRs bind preferentially to tyrosine kinase inhibitor drugs such as erlotinib and gefitinib over adenosine triphosphate (ATP).Erlotinib and gefitinib are oral EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors that are first line monotherapies for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients having activating mutations in EGFR. Around 70% of these patients respond initially, but unfortunately they develop resistance with a median time to progression of 10-16 months. In at least 50% of these initially responsive patients, disease progression is associated with the development of a secondary mutation, T790M in exon 20 of EGFR (referred to as the gatekeeper mutation). The additional T790M mutation increases the affinity of the EGFR kinase domain for ATP, thereby reducing the inhibitory activity of ATP- competitive inhibitors like gefitinib and erlotinib.Recently, irreversible EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been developed that effectively inhibit the kinase domain of the T790M double mutant and therefore overcome the resistance observed with reversible inhibitors in the clinic. These inhibitors possess reactive electrophilic functional groups that react with the nucleophilic thiol of an active-site cysteine. Highly selective irreversible inhibitors can be achieved by exploiting the inherent non-covalent selectivity of a given scaffold along with the location of a particular cysteine residue within the ATP binding site. The acrylamide moieties of these inhibitors both undergo a Michael reaction with Cys797 in the ATP binding site of EGFRT790M to form a covalent bond. This covalent mechanism is thought to overcome the increase in ATP affinity of the T790M EGRF double mutant and give rise to effective inhibition. However, these inhibitors may cause various undesired toxicities. Therefore, development of new inhibitors for treatment of various EGFR-related cancers is still in high demand. 
PatentCN201580067776) N-(2-(2-(dimethylamino)ethoxy)-4-methoxy-5-((4-(1-methyl-1H- Indol-3-yl)pyrimidin-2-yl)amino)phenyl)acrylamide (compound of formula I) can be prepared by the following synthetic route: 

PATENT

WO2016094821A2

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2016094821A2/enExample 1N-(2-(2-(Dimethylamino)ethoxy)-4-methoxy-5-((4-(l-methyl-lH-indol-3- yl)pyrimidin-2-yl)amino)phenyl)acrylamide (1) Sche

Figure imgf000022_0001

N-(4-(2-(Dimethylamino)ethoxy)-2-methoxy-5-nitrophenyl)-4-(l-methyl-lH- indol-3-yl)pyrimidin-2-amine (Scheme 1, Intermediate B). To a slurry of NaH (30 mmol, 60% oil dispersion prewashed with hexanes) and 50 mL of 1,4-dioxane was added 2-dimethylaminoethanol (27 mmol, 2.7 mL) dropwise with stirring under N2. After stirring for 1 h, a slurry of A (5.4 mmol) in 50 mL of 1,4-dioxane was added portion-wise over 15 min under a stream of N2. The resulting mixture was stirred overnight, then poured into water and the solid was collected, rinsed with water, and dried under vacuum to yield 2.6 g of product as a yellow solid. A purified sample was obtained from chromatography (silica gel; CH2C12-CH30H gradient). 1H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO) δ 2.26 (s, 6H), 2.70 (t, 2H, J = 6 Hz), 3.87 (s, 3H), 4.01 (s, 3H), 4.32 (t, 2H, J = 6 Hz), 7.00-7.53 (m, 5H), 8.18-8.78 (m, 5H); C24H26N604 m/z MH+ 463.4-(2-(Dimethylamino)ethoxy)-6-methoxy-Nl-(4-(l-methyl-lH-indol-3- yl)pyrimidin-2-yl)benzene-l,3-diamine (Scheme 1, Intermediate C). A suspension of 2.6 g of Intermediate B, 1.6 g of Fe°, 30 mL of ethanol, 15 mL of water, and 20 mL of cone. HC1 was heated to 78 °C for 3 h. The solution was cooled to room temperature, adjusted to pH 10 with 10% NaOH (aq) and diluted with CH2C12. The mixture was filtered through Dicalite, and the filtrate layers were separated. The aqueous phase was extracted with CH2C12 twice, and the combined organic extracts were dried over Na2S04 and concentrated. Column chromatography (silica gel, CH2Cl2-MeOH gradient) afforded 1.2 g of Intermediate C as a solid. C24H28N602 m/z MH+ 433.N-(2-(2-(Dimethylamino)ethoxy)-4-methoxy-5-((4-(l-methyl-lH-indol-3- yl)pyrimidin-2-yl)amino)phenyl)acrylamide (1). To a solution of Intermediate C (2.8 mmol) in 50 mL of THF and 10 mL of water was added 3-chloropropionychloride (2.8 mmol) dropwise with stirring. After 5 h of stirring, NaOH (28 mmol) was added and the mixture was heated at 65°C for 18 h. After cooling to room temperature, THF was partially removed under reduced pressure, and the mixture was extracted with CH2C12, dried over Na2S04, and concentrated. Chromatography of the crude product (silica gel, CH2Cl2-MeOH) afforded 0.583 g of Example 1 as a beige solid. 1H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO) δ 2.28 (s, 6H), 2.50-2.60 (m, 2H), 3.86 (s, 3H), 3.90 (s, 3H), 4.19 (t, 2H, = 5.5 Hz), 5.73-5.77 (m, IH), 6.21-6.27 (m, IH), 6.44-6.50 (m, IH), 6.95 (s, IH), 7.11-7.53 (overlapping m, 3H), 7.90 (s, IH), 8.27-8.30 (overlapping m, 3H), 8.55 (s, IH), 8.84 (s, IH), 9.84 (s, IH) ppm; C27H30N6O3 m/z MH+ 487

PATENT WO2021115425

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2021115425&tab=FULLTEXT&_cid=P20-KQN9F3-73566-1Epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR, Her1, ErbB1) are the main members of the ErbB family of four structurally related cell surface receptors, and the other members are Her2 (Neu, ErbB2), Her3 (ErbB3) and Her4 (ErbB4). EGFR exerts its main cellular functions through its inherent catalytic tyrosine protein kinase activity. The receptor is activated by binding to growth factor ligands, such as epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α). The catalytically inactive EGFR monomer is transformed into a catalytically active homopolymer and Heterodimer. These catalytically active dimers then initiate intracellular tyrosine kinase activity, which leads to autophosphorylation of specific EGFR tyrosine residues and elicits downstream activation of signaling proteins. Subsequently, the signal protein initiates multiple signal transduction cascades (MAPK, Akt, and JNK), which ultimately regulate the basic biological processes of cell growth, proliferation, motility, and survival.

EGFR has been found to have abnormally high levels on the surface of many types of cancer cells, and elevated EGFR levels have been associated with advanced disease, cancer spread, and poor clinical prognosis. Mutations in EGFR can lead to overexpression of the receptor, permanent activation or continuous hyperactivity, leading to uncontrolled cell growth, which is cancer. Therefore, EGFR mutations have been identified in several types of malignant tumors, including metastatic lung cancer, head and neck cancer, colorectal cancer, and pancreatic cancer. In brain cancer, mutations mainly occur in exons 18-21, which encode the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding pocket of the kinase domain. The most clinically relevant drug-sensitive EGFR mutations are deletions in exon 19 and point mutations in exon 21. The former eliminates a common amino acid motif (LREA), and the latter results in position 858 (L858R). The arginine is replaced by leucine. Together, these two mutations account for nearly 85% of the EGFR mutations observed in lung cancer. Both mutations have permanent tyrosine kinase activity, so they are carcinogenic. In at least 50% of patients who initially responded to current therapies, the progression of the disease is related to the development of a secondary mutation, T790M (also known as the goalkeeper mutation) in exon 20 of EGFR.
BPI-7711 is a third-generation EGFR-TKI compound developed by Beida Pharmaceuticals and disclosed in International Patent No. WO2017/218892. It is the N-(2-(2-(dimethylamino) )Ethoxy)-4-methoxy-5-((4-(1-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)pyrimidin-2-yl)amino)phenyl)acrylamide methanesulfonic acid salt:

Need to develop improved properties containing N-(2-(2-(dimethylamino)ethoxy)-4-methoxy-5-((4-(1-methyl-1H-indole-3 -Yl)pyrimidin-2-yl)amino)phenyl)acrylamide pharmaceutically acceptable salt, in particular the pharmaceutical composition of BPI-7711 and its use, and the preparation of said pharmaceutical composition suitable for large-scale production method.

PATENT

WO2021061695 , for another filing, assigned to Beta Pharma, claiming a combination of an EGFR inhibitor (eg BPI-7711) and a CDK4/6 inhibitor, useful for treating cancer.

PATENT

WO-2021121146

Novel crystalline polymorphic form A of rezivertinib – presumed to be BPI-7711 – useful for treating diseases mediated by EGFR mutations eg lung cancer, preferably non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a type of transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase in the human body. The activation (ie phosphorylation) of this kinase is of great significance to the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis, tumor invasion, metastasis and apoptosis. EGFR kinase is involved in the disease process of most cancers, and these receptors are overexpressed in many major human tumors. Overexpression, mutations, or high expression of ligands associated with these family members can lead to some tumor diseases, such as non-small cell lung cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, head and neck cancer, cervical cancer, bladder cancer, and thyroid. Cancer, stomach cancer, kidney cancer, etc. 
In recent years, epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase has become one of the most attractive targets in current anti-tumor drug research. In 2003, the US FDA approved the first epidermal growth receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) drug (gefitinib) for the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Development of a generation of EGFR inhibitors. Numerous clinical trials have confirmed that for patients with EGFR-positive non-small cell lung cancer, the therapeutic effect of molecular targeted drugs is significantly better than traditional chemotherapy. 
Although the first-generation EGFR-inhibiting targeted drugs responded well to the initial treatment of many non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, most patients will eventually develop disease progression due to drug resistance (such as EGFR secondary T790M mutation). The emergence of drug resistance is caused by various mechanisms based on the mutations in the original EGFR pathway activity. In the drug resistance research on the first generation of EGFR inhibitors, the research frontier is the irreversible third generation EFGR inhibitor. 
But so far, the third-generation EGFR inhibitors worldwide, in addition to AstraZeneca O’Higgins imatinib developed, there is no other effective against T790M resistance mutations in patients with drug approved for clinical use; Several drug candidates for the T790M mutation are in clinical development. The chemical structure of this third-generation EGFR inhibitor is completely different from that of the first-generation. The main difference from the first-generation EGFR inhibitors is that they both use a highly selective core structure to replace the low-selective aminoquinoline core structure of the first and second-generation EGFR-TKIs. Compared with wild-type EGFR, these third-generation compounds are highly specific and selective for the T790M mutation after EGFR positive resistance. 
Chinese Patent Application No. CN201580067776.8 discloses a compound of the following formula I, which also belongs to the third-generation EGFR-TKI class of small molecule targeted drugs. The compound has a high inhibitory effect on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells with single-activity mutation and T790M double-mutant EGFR, and its effective inhibitory concentration is significantly lower than the concentration required to inhibit the activity of wild-type EGFR tyrosine kinase. It has good properties, low side effects and good safety.

Chinese Patent Application No. CN201780050034.3 also discloses various salts and corresponding crystal forms of the compound of the above formula I. Example 2 discloses two crystal forms of the methanesulfonate of the compound of formula I, 2A and 2B, respectively.In the following examples, the “room temperature” can be 15-25°C.[0041](1) N-(2-(2-(Dimethylamino)ethoxy)-4-methoxy-5-((4-(1-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)pyrimidine -2-yl)amino)phenyl)acrylamide (compound of formula I)[0042]

[0043]Known (for example, see CN201580067776.8) N-(2-(2-(dimethylamino)ethoxy)-4-methoxy-5-((4-(1-methyl-1H- Indol-3-yl)pyrimidin-2-yl)amino)phenyl)acrylamide (compound of formula I) can be prepared by the following synthetic route:[0044]

[0045]Step 1-Preparation of Intermediate J:[0046]

[0047]Preparation: In a 10L reaction flask, add 6L of anhydrous tetrahydrofuran solvent, protected by nitrogen, and cool to 0°C. While stirring, slowly add 101 g of sodium hydride (101 g, 2.52 mol), and the internal temperature does not exceed 10° C., and add 234 g of dimethylaminoethanol (234 g, 2.62 mol). After the addition, the temperature is adjusted to room temperature to prepare a sodium alkoxide solution.[0048]In a 30L reaction flask, add N-(4-fluoro-2-methoxy-5-nitrophenyl)-4-(1-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-2-pyrimidinamine ( Starting material B) (430g, 1.10mol), then add 9L of tetrahydrofuran, start stirring, dissolve it, control the temperature at 10±10°C, slowly add the prepared sodium alkoxide solution dropwise. Control the temperature at 10±10℃ and keep it for 5.0h. When the raw material content is ≤0.5%, the reaction ends. Control the temperature at 10±10°C, slowly add 3% hydrochloric acid solution dropwise, adjust the pH of the solution to 6-7, stir for 1.5h and then stand for stratification, separate the organic phase, and concentrate to 15-20L. After cooling to 20±5°C, 4.3 kg of water was slowly added dropwise, filtered, and dried to obtain 497 g of yellow powder intermediate J with a yield of 98.0% and an HPLC purity of 99.3%. MS m/z: 463.2 [M+1].[0049]Nuclear magnetic data: 1 HNMR (d 6 -DMSO): δ ppm: 8.78 (s, 1H); 8.42-8.28 (m, 3H); 8.16 (s, 1H); 7.53 (d, 1H, J = 8.28); 7.29- 7.20 (m, 2H); 7.13-7.07 (m, 1H); 7.01 (s, 1H); 4.33 (t, 2H, J = 5.65); 4.02 (s, 3H); 3.88 (s, 3H); 2.71 ( t, 2H, J = 5.77); 2.27 (s, 6H).[0050]Step 2-Preparation of Intermediate K:[0051]

[0052]Preparation: Add 5L of tetrahydrofuran and Intermediate J (350g, 108mmol) to a 10L hydrogenation reactor, add 17.5g of wet palladium charcoal, replace the hydrogenation reactor with hydrogen, adjust the pressure value to 0.2MPa, control the temperature at 25°C, and keep the temperature for reaction. At 9h, HPLC monitors the progress of the reaction, and stops the reaction when the substrate is ≤0.5%. Filter, concentrate the filtrate under reduced pressure until the solvent volume is about 2L, adjust the internal temperature to room temperature, slowly add 4L n-heptane dropwise within 4-7 hours, filter and dry the solid under reduced pressure to obtain 285g of white powder intermediate K The yield was 86%, and the HPLC purity was 99.60%. MS m/z: 433.3 [M+1].

Nuclear magnetic data: 1 HNMR (CDCl 3 ): δ ppm: 8.42 (d, 1H, J = 7.78), 8.28 (s, 1H), 8.26-8.23 (m, 1H), 7.78 (s, 1H), 7.51 (d, 1H,J=8.28),7.41(s,1H),7.26-7.23(m,1H),7.19- 7.11(m,2H),6.72(s,1H), 4.38(br,2H),4.06(t, 2H,J=5.77), 3.88(s,3H), 3.75(s,3H), 2.63(t,2H,J=5.77), 2.26(s,6H).

Step 3-Preparation of compound of formula I:

Add 250 mL of anhydrous tetrahydrofuran solvent and Intermediate K (14 g, 32 mmol) to the reaction flask and stir, cool to 0-5° C., add 10% hydrochloric acid (12 ml), and stir for 20 minutes. At 0-5°C, slowly drop 3-chloropropionyl chloride (5.6 g, 45 mmol) into the reaction flask. Stir for 3 hours, after sampling test (K/(U+K)≤0.5%) is qualified, add 36% potassium hydroxide aqueous solution (75ml, 480mmol), heat to 23-25°C, and stir for 12 hours. Raise the temperature to 50-60°C and stir for 4 hours. After the sampling test (U/(U+L)≤0.1%) is qualified, stand still for liquid separation. Separate the organic phase, wash with 10% brine three times, dry, filter, and concentrate the organic phase to 150 ml. The temperature was raised to 40° C., 150 ml of n-heptane was slowly added dropwise, and the temperature was lowered to room temperature to precipitate crystals. Filtered and dried to obtain 10.71 g of light brown solid (compound of formula I), yield 68%, HPLC purity: 99.8% (all single impurities do not exceed 0.15%). MS m/z: 487.3 [M+1].[0057]Nuclear magnetic data (Figure 1): 1 HNMR (d 6 -DMSO): δppm: 9.84 (s, 1H), 8.90 ~ 8.82 (m, 1H), 8.32-8.25 (m, 2H), 7.89 (s, 1H) ,7.51(d,1H,J=8.25), 7.27~7.10(m,1H), 6.94(s,1H), 6.49(dd,1H,J=16.88,10.13), 6.25(dd,1H,J=16.95 ,1.81),5.80~5.75(m,1H),4.19(t,2H,J=5.57),3.88(d,6H,J=14.63,6H),3.34(s,3H),2.58(d,2H, J=5.5), 2.28 (s, 6H).

(2) N-(2-(2-(Dimethylamino)ethoxy)-4-methoxy-5-((4-(1-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)pyrimidine -2-yl)amino)phenyl)acrylamide methanesulfonate (Form A) preparation
Example 1

The compound of formula I (3 g, 6.1 mmol) was dissolved in 24 ml of dimethyl sulfoxide DMSO solvent, the temperature was raised to 65° C., and the mixture was stirred and dissolved. Add an equivalent amount of methanesulfonic acid (0.59 g, 6.1 mmol) to the system. The temperature was lowered to 50°C, and 12ml of isopropyl acetate IPAc was slowly added. Stir at 50°C for 1 hour, then lower the temperature to 15°C. 21ml IPAc was added in 4 hours. The solution was stirred and crystallized at 15°C, filtered under reduced pressure, the filter cake was washed with isopropyl acetate, and washed with acetone to reduce the residual DMSO solvent. Blow drying at 50°C (or vacuum drying at 50°C) to obtain 3.16 g of a pale yellow solid (crystal form A). HPLC purity is 100%, yield is 88%, DMSO: <100ppm; IPAc: <100ppm. MS m/z: 487.2 [M+1-MsOH]. Melting point: 242-244°C.
Nuclear magnetic data (figure 2): 1 HNMR(d 6 -DMSO): δppm: 9.57(brs,1H), 9.40(s,1H), 8.71(s,1H), 8.48(s,1H), 8.32(d ,1H,J=7.9),8.29(d,1H,J=5.3),7.96(s,1H),7.51(d,1H,J=8.2),7.23(ddd,1H,J=7.9,7.1,0.8 ), 7.19 (d, 1H, J = 5.4), 7.15 (ddd, 1H, J = 7.8, 7.3, 0.5), 6.94 (s, 1H), 6.67 (dd, 1H, J = 16.9, 10.2), 6.27 ( dd, 1H, J = 16.9, 1.8), 5.57 (dd, 1H, J = 16.9, 1.7), 4.44 (t, 2H, J = 4.6), 3.89 (s, 3H), 3.88 (s, 3H), 3.58 (t, 2H, J=4.6), 2.93 (s, 6H), 2.39 (s, 3H).
After testing, the powder X-ray diffraction pattern of crystal form A obtained in this example has diffraction angle 2θ values of 11.06±0.2°, 12.57±0.2°, 13.74±0.2°, 14.65±0.2°, 15.48±0.2°, 16.58±0.2°, 17.83±0.2°, 19.20±0.2°, 19.79±0.2°, 20.88±0.2°, 22.05±0.2°, 23.06±0.2°, 24.23±0.2°, 25.10±0.2°, 25.71±0.2°, 26.15±0.2°, 27.37±0.2°, 27.42±0.2° has a characteristic peak; its XRPD spectrum is shown in Figure 3 and the attached table, DSC diagram is shown in Figure 4, TGA diagram is shown in Figure 5, and infrared spectrum IR diagram is shown in Figure 6. Show.
Example 2

[0066]The compound of formula I (28.25 g, 58.1 mmol) was dissolved in 224 ml of dimethyl sulfoxide DMSO solvent, the temperature was raised to 15-35° C., and the mixture was stirred to clear. 0.97 equivalents of methanesulfonic acid (5.4 g, 0.97 mmol) were added to the system in batches. Slowly add 448 ml of methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). Stir for 1 hour, then lower the temperature to 10-15°C. The solution was reacted with salt formation at 10-15°C, sampled, and HPLC detected the residue of the compound of formula I in the mother liquor (≤0.4%). After the reaction was completed, vacuum filtration was performed to obtain 32 g of the crude methanesulfonate of the compound of formula I.Add 3g of the crude methanesulfonate of the compound of formula I into 24ml of dimethyl sulfoxide DMSO solvent, stir to clear at 65°C, cool down, slowly add 48ml of methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) dropwise, stir and crystallize 6-8 After hours, vacuum filtration, drying at 60° C. (or 60° C. vacuum drying) to obtain the target crystal form A. Melting point: 242-244°C. The XRPD pattern of the crystal form is consistent with Figure 3 (Figure 7), and all characteristic peaks are within the error range.

//////////// BPI-7711,  BPI 7711, rezivertinib, phase 3

CN1C=C(C2=CC=CC=C21)C3=NC(=NC=C3)NC4=CC(=C(C=C4OC)OCCN(C)C)NC(=O)C=C

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Uprifosbuvir


Uprifosbuvir structure.svg
Uprifosbuvir.png
ChemSpider 2D Image | Uprifosbuvir | C22H29ClN3O9P

Uprifosbuvir

MK 3682, IDX 21437

ウプリホスブビル;

Formula C22H29ClN3O9P
CAS 1496551-77-9
Mol weight 545.9071

уприфосбувир [Russian] [INN]أوبريفوسبوفير [Arabic] [INN]乌磷布韦 [Chinese] [INN]

propan-2-yl (2R)-2-[[[(2R,3R,4R,5R)-4-chloro-5-(2,4-dioxopyrimidin-1-yl)-3-hydroxy-4-methyloxolan-2-yl]methoxy-phenoxyphosphoryl]amino]propanoate

Isopropyl (2R)-2-{[(R)-{[(2R,3R,4R,5R)-4-chloro-5-(2,4-dioxo-3,4-dihydro-1(2H)-pyrimidinyl)-3-hydroxy-4-methyltetrahydro-2-furanyl]methoxy}(phenoxy)phosphoryl]amino}propanoate

IDX-21437DB15206SB18784D10996Q27281714

Uprifosbuvir (MK-3682) is an antiviral drug developed for the treatment of Hepatitis C. It is a nucleotide analogue which acts as an NS5B RNA polymerase inhibitor. It is currently in Phase III human clinical trials.[1][2][3]

Uprifosbuvir is under investigation in clinical trial NCT02332707 (Efficacy and Safety of Grazoprevir (MK-5172) and Uprifosbuvir (MK-3682) With Elbasvir (MK-8742) or Ruzasvir (MK-8408) for Chronic Hepatitis C Genotype (GT)1 and GT2 Infection (MK-3682-011)).Hepatitis C viruss (HCV) have the newly-increased patients of 3-4 million every year, and World Health Organization (WHO) is estimated in global sense More than 200,000,000, in China more than 10,000,000 patients, HCV belongs to flaviviridae hepatovirus virus to dye person.Long-term hepatitis C virus Gently to inflammation, weight is to liver cirrhosis, hepatocarcinoma for poison infection.And during hepatitis C cirrhosis patients in decompensation, can there are various complication, such as abdomen Water abdominal cavity infection, upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, hepatic encephalopathy, hepatorenal syndrome, liver failure etc. are showed.The side of HCV infection is treated initially Method is interferon and interferon and ribavirin combination therapy, and only 50% therapist has reaction, and interferon to the method With obvious side effect, such as flu-like symptoms, body weight lower and fatigue and weak, and interferon and ribavirin Conjoint therapy then produces sizable side effect, including haemolysis, anemia and tired etc..U.S. FDA have approved multiple HCV medicines, including the polymerization of protease inhibitor, ucleosides and non-nucleoside in recent years Enzyme inhibitor and NS5A inhibitor etc..The protease inhibitor class medicine of FDA approvals has three:VX‐950 (Telaprevir), SCH-503034 (Boceprevir) and TMC435 (Simeprevir), the shortcoming of protease inhibitor is It is also easy to produce that mutation, toxicity is big, poor bioavailability, it is effective to individual other gene type.Eggs of the Telaprevir as the first generation White enzyme inhibitor has logged out market.The second filial generation and third generation protease inhibitor of high activity and wide spectrum is mainly used as and other One of component of drug combination of hepatitis C medicine.NS5A inhibitor is the highly active anti-HCV medicament of a class.The most representative Daclatasive for having BMS, The Ombitasvir of the Ledipasvir and AbbVie of Gilead, as this kind of medicine independent medication is easy to produce drug resistance, They treat one of drug component of HCV primarily as drug combination.The AG14361 of hepatitis C is generally divided into two kinds of ucleosides and non-nucleoside.At present, clinically only Suo Feibu One ucleosides hepatitis C medicine of Wei is listed by FDA approvals, and other are still in the anti-hepatitis C virus medicine of ucleosides of clinical experimental stage Thing also has the MK-3682 (IDX21437) of Mo Shadong, the AL-335 of the ACH-3422 and Alios of Achillion drugmakers.Third Hepatitis virus have the features such as Multi-genotype and fast variation, and single medicine treatment hepatitis C has generation drug resistance fast, to part Genotype cure rate is low and the various defects such as course for the treatment of length.In order to overcome these defects, the treatment of drug combination is primarily now taken Scheme, in order to overcome these defects, primarily now takes the therapeutic scheme of drug combination, the Sovaldi conducts of FDA approval listings The key component of drug combination, for the patient of 4 type of 1 type of gene and gene be Suo Feibuwei, profit Ba Wei woodss and Polyethylene Glycol-α- The drug combination of interferon three, the course for the treatment of are 12 weeks;For 1 type of gene and the patient of 3 types, the big woods joints of Suo Feibuwei and Li Ba Medication, the course for the treatment of are respectively 12 weeks and 24 weeks.- 2016 years 2013, FDA ratified Suo Feibuwei and NS3 protein inhibitors again in succession Simeprevir shares the patient of 1 type of therapeutic gene;The NS5A inhibitor Daclatavir therapeutic genes 1 of Suo Feibuwei and BMS With the patient of 3 types.Harvoni is the patient that Suo Feibuweijia NS5A inhibitor Ledipasvir is used for 1 type of gene.Even if using Same nucleoside, the NS5A inhibitor and/or NS3 protease inhibitor for sharing varying strength can effectively extend composition of medicine Clinical application range and Shorten the Treatment Process.In June, 2016, FDA have approved Suo Feibuwei and more potent secondary NS5A inhibitor Velpatasvir shares the hepatitis C patient suitable for all gene types, it is not necessary to carry out genetic test.Just in three phases clinic Suo Feibuwei, NS5A inhibitor Velpatasvir and NS3 protease inhibitor Voxilaprevir goes for all of disease People, is try to the course for the treatment of and shortened to 8 weeks from 12 weeks.Suo Feibuwei just in clinical trial target spots different with hepatitis C virus are directed to Drug regimen (such as Suo Feibuweijia new type NS 5A inhibitor Velpatasvir and/or protease inhibitor GS5816), its knot Fruit show than single drug more wide spectrum, effectively, and can be with Shorten the Treatment Process.MSD Corp. is by MK-3682 and NS5A inhibitor Grazoprevir and/or protease inhibitor Elbasvir is used as new drug regimen, effective for all genotype of HCV, And further shorten to the course for the treatment of of 8 weeks.New deuterated nucleoside phosphoric acid ester compound disclosed in patent of the present invention, especially The double deuterated compound such as VI-1b2 in 5 ‘-position, shows than the more preferable bioavailability of former compound MK-3682 and longer partly declines Phase.In addition, this kind of novel nucleoside phosphoramidate is significantly superior to the Suo Feibuwei of clinical practice in terms of anti-hepatitis C activity, On sugared ring, chlorine atom replaces fluorine atom, and cytotoxicity is significantly reduced in surveyed cell line.By to base, sugared ring With the transformation and optimization of prodrug moiety system, the anti-hepatitis C activity of partial synthesis compound is higher than Suo Feibuwei 2-10 times, meanwhile, In the optimization of metabolism key position, synthesis compound shows that in blood plasma the higher metabolic stabilities of peso Fei Buwei and chemistry are steady It is qualitative.Therefore this kind of new deuterated nucleotide phosphate and NS5A inhibitor and/or egg as shown in formula a, a1, a2, b, b1, b2 The newtype drug combination constituted by white enzyme inhibitor is with extremely wide application prospect.Deuterium is the naturally occurring hydrogen isotope of nature, the deuterated isotopic body in common drug all containing trace.Deuterium without It is malicious, “dead”, it is safe to human body, C-D keys are more stable (6-9 times) than c h bond, hydrogen is replaced with after deuterium, can extend medicine Half-life, while pharmacologically active (shape difference of H and D is little, J Med Chem.2011,54,2529-2591) is not affected, in addition Deuterated medicine usually shows more preferable bioavailability and less toxicity, and the active ribonucleoside triphosphote of its metabolism is more stable, So deuterated nucleoside phosphoramidate will be better than corresponding nucleoside medicine in the curative effect of clinical practice.For example, 2013 It is exactly a deuterated compound that the nucleoside anti hepatitis C virus drug ACH-3422 of clinical trial is in the approval of year FDA, with non-deuterium (WO2014169278, WO are 2014169280) than having higher bioavailability and longer half-life for the former compound phase in generation. 
Based on above-mentioned present Research, we design and are prepared for the new deuterated nucleoside that compound VI-1b2 is representative Phosphoramidate.Below we will be described in the architectural feature of deuterated nucleoside phosphoramidate of our inventions, preparation method, Antiviral activity experimental result and it as anti-hepatitis c virus drug combination key component and NS5A inhibitor and/ Or the drug regimen of protease inhibitor is in the application of anti-virus aspect.

The EPA awarded the greener reaction conditions to the pharmaceutical company Merck & Co. for building a prodrug synthesis that eliminated the use of toxic reagents. Prodrugs are molecules that get metabolized by our bodies into an active pharmaceutical. Some hepatitis C and HIV medications are prodrugs and get synthesized through a method call pronucleotide (ProTide) synthesis. The method uses toxic and corrosive thionyl chloride, plus an excess of expensive pentafluorophenol that generates a lot of waste. Merck’s new method creates their target compounds in 90 to 92% yields without these reagents and eliminates the need for halogenated solvents entirely through strategic catalyst loading and the use of different starting materials from the traditional route.

20200616lnp3-structure.jpg

The design of greener chemicals award went to the development of more environmentally friendly versions of chemicals called thermoset binders, which can serve as carpet adhesives and are involved in the manufacture of mineral and fiberglass products. Generally, these chemicals are based on formaldehyde or polycarboxylic acids, and they can give off toxic formaldehyde and often use small amounts of sulfuric and hypophosphorous acid as catalysts to activate them. The insulation and commercial roofing company Johns Manville created a new binder based on the reaction between renewable dextrose, fructose, and other simple sugars, bound together by the α-carbon-containing cross-linking agent glyoxal. The reaction also uses a biodegradable acid in water as a catalyst. The binder can be made in just one step instead of the traditional multistep synthesis. Also, the synthesis can be done directly at the manufacturing site, instead of beforehand like with the traditional approach, meaning this new binder creates fewer of the health and environmental hazards that come from storage and transportation.

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SYN

US 20170226146,

Paper

Organic Process Research & Development (2021), 25(3), 661-667.

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.oprd.0c00487

Abstract Image

A novel application of the synthesis of pronucleotide (ProTide) 5′-phosphoramidate monoesters promoted by aluminum-based Lewis acids is described. In the multikilogram synthesis of uprifosbuvir (MK-3682, 1), a clinical candidate for the treatment of hepatitis C, this methodology provided >100:1 diastereoselectivity at the phosphorus stereocenter and >100:1 selectivity for the 5′-mono phosphorylation over undesired bisphosphorylation side products. The high diastereoselectivity and mono/bis ratio achieved enabled elimination of the tedious workup associated with the tert-butyl magnesium chloride protocol commonly used to install this functionality in similar nucleotide prodrugs, achieving a near doubling of the isolated yield from 45% to 81%. The process development and purity control strategy of MK-3682, as well as handling of the pyrophoric reagent on scale, will also be discussed.

PAPER

Science (Washington, DC, United States) (2020), 369(6504), 725-730.

Science (Washington, DC, United States) (2017), 356(6336), 426-430.

Chemical Science (2017), 8(4), 2804-2810.

PATENT

CN 106543253

https://patents.google.com/patent/CN106543253A/zh

PATENT

WO 2014058801

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2014058801A1/enExample 1Preparation of 2′-Chloro Nucleoside Analogs

Scheme 1

Figure imgf000136_0001
Figure imgf000136_0002

Ethyl (3R)-2-chloro-3-[(4R)-2,2-dimethyl-l,3-dioxolan-4-yl]-3-hydroxy-2- methylpropanoate (A2):

Figure imgf000137_0001

[00273] A 5 L flange flask was fitted with a thermometer, nitrogen inlet, pressure equalizing dropping funnel, bubbler, and a suba»seal. Methyl lithium solution (1.06 L, 1.6 M in diethylether, 1.7 equiv.) was added, and the solution was cooled to about -25 °C.Diisopropyl amine (238 ml, 1.7 equiv.) was added using the dropping funnel over about 40 minutes. The reaction was left stirring, allowing to warm to ambient temperature overnight. C02(s)/acetone cooling was applied to the LDA solution, cooling to about -70 °C.[00274] i?-Glyceraldehyde dimethylacetal solution (50% in DCM) was evaporated down to -100 mbar at a bath temp of 35 °C, to remove the DCM, then azeotroped with anhydrous hexane (200 ml), under the same Buchi conditions. 1H NMR was used to confirm that all but a trace of DCM remained.[00275] The fresh aldehyde (130 g, 1 mol) and ethyl 2-chloropropionionate (191 ml, 1.5 equiv.) were placed in a 1 L round bottom flask, which was filled with toluene (800 ml). This solution was cooled in a C02(s)/acetone bath, and added via cannula to the LDA solution over about 50 minutes, keeping the internal temperature of the reaction mixture cooler than -60 °C. The mixture was stirred with cooling (internal temp, slowly fell to ~ -72 °C) for 90 min, then warmed to room temperature over 30 minutes using a water bath. This solution was added to a sodium dihydrogen phosphate solution equivalent to 360 g of NaH2P04 in 1.5 L of ice/water, over about 10 minutes, with ice-bath cooling. The mixture was stirred for 20 minutes, then transferred to a sep. funnel, and partitioned. The aqueous layer was further extracted with EtOAc (2 x 1 L), and the combined organic extracts were dried over sodium sulfate. The volatiles were removed in vacuo (down to 20 mbar). The resultant oil was hydrolyzed crude.

(3R,4R,5R)-3-chIoro-4-hydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyI)-3-methyIoxoIan-2-one (A4):

Figure imgf000137_0002

H O CI[00276] The crude oil A2 was taken up in acetic acid (1.5 L, 66% in water) and heated to 90 °C over one hour, then at held at that temperature for one hour. Once the mixture had cooled to room temperature, the volatiles were removed in vacuo, and azeotroped with toluene (500 ml). The resultant oil was combined with some mixed material from an earlier synthesis and columned in two portions (each -1.25 L of silica, 38→ 75% EtOAc in DCM). The lower of the two main spots is the desired material; fractions containing this material as the major component were combined and the solvent removed in vacuo to give 82 g of orange solid whose 1 H NMR showed the material to be of about 57% purity (of the remainder 29% was the indicated epimer). This material was recrystallized fromtoluene/butanone (600 ml / -185 ml), the butanone being the ‘good’ solvent. The resultant solid was filtered washing with toluene and hexane, and dried in vacuo to give product of about 92% purity (30 g).(2R,3R,4R)-2-[(benzoyIoxy)methyI]-4-chIoro-4-methyI-5-oxooxoIan-3-yI benzoate(A5):

Figure imgf000138_0001

[00277] A 2 L 3 -neck round bottom flask was fitted with an overhead stirrer, thermometer and pressure equalizing dropping funnel (→N2). The intermediate A4 (160 mmol) in acetonitrile (1 L) was added, followed by 4-dimethylaminopyridine (3.2 mmol) and benzoyl chloride (352 mmol). Finally triethylamine (384 mmol) was added over 10 minutes using the dropping funnel. The addition of the triethylamine is accompanied by a mild exotherm, which obviated the addition of a cold water bath to keep the internal temperature below 25 °C. The reaction was stirred at ambient temperature for 2.5 hours. The reaction mixture was transferred to a sep. funnel with EtOAc (2 L) and half saturated brine (2 L), and partitioned. The aqueous layer was re-extracted with EtOAc (1 L). The combined organic layers were washed with 50%> sodium bicarbonate/25%) brine (1.5 L) and dried over sodium sulfate, to give 62 g of solid. This was recrystallized from 1.8 L of 1 : 1 toluene/trimethylpentane (95 °C), to give 52.4 g of product.[00278] 1H NMR (CDCls, 400 MHz): δ (ppm) 1.91 (s, 3H), 4.57 (dd, J= 5.12Hz and J = 12.57Hz, 1H), 4.77 (dd, J= 3.29Hz and J= 12.68Hz, 1H), 4.92-4.96 (m, 1H), 5.60 (d, J = 8.36Hz, 1H), 7.38-7.66 (m, 6H), 7.97-7.99 (m, 2H), 8.08-8.10 (m, 2H); MS (ESI) m/z= 411.1(MNa ).

3,5-Di-0-benzoyl-2-C-chloro-2-C-methyl-D-ribofuranose (A6):

Figure imgf000139_0001

[00279] To a solution of A5 (14.48 mmol) in anhydrous tetrahydrofurane (70 ml) was added under inert atmosphere at -35°C, LiAlH(OtBu)3 (1M in tetrahydrofurane, 21.7 mmol) over a 30 min period. The reaction mixture was stirred for 1 hour at -20 °C and quenched by addition of a saturated NH4C1 solution, keeping the temperature bellow 0 °C. Ethyl acetate was added and the white suspension was filtered through a pad of celite and washed with ethyl acetate. The filtrate was extracted with ethyl acetate twice. The combined organic layers were dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filtered and evaporated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by chromatography on silica gel (eluent: petroleum ether/ethyl acetate 0 to 20%). The product was dried in vacuum (50 °C) overnight to afford expected intermediate as a colorless oil in 96% yield (mixture α/β: 45/55).[00280] 1H NMR (CDC13, 400 MHz): δ (ppm) 1.74 (s, 1.75HP), 1.76 (s, 1.25Ha), 4.42-4.69 (m, 3H), 5.30 (d, J= 12.8Hz, 0.55HP), 5.43-5.47 (m, 0.45Ha), 5.60 (d, J= 7.0Hz, 0.55HP), 5.78 (d, J= 7.0Hz , 0.45Ha), 7.35-7.41 (m, 2H), 7.45-7.56 (m, 3H), 7.59-7.65 (m, 1H), 7.96- 8.04 (m, 2H), 8.06-8.14 (m, 2H); MS (ESI) m/z= 413 (MNa+).3,5-Di-0-benzoyl-2-C-chloro-2-C-methyl-D-arabinofuranosyl bromide (A7):

Figure imgf000139_0002

[00281] To a solution of A6 (12.80 mmol) in anhydrous dichloromethane (80 ml) was added under inert atmosphere at -20 °C, triphenylphosphine (18.0 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred for 15 minutes at -20 °C and CBr4 (19.20 mmol) was added. The reaction mixture was then stirred for 1 hour at -20 °C. The crude was partially concentrated under reduced pressure (bath temperature bellow 30 °C) and directly purified by chromatography on silica gel (eluent: petroleum ether/ethyl acetate 0 to 30%) to afford a mixture of β sugar A7a (1.67 g) and a sugar A7b (2.15 g) as a colorless gum in 66%> global yield.[00282] 1H NMR (CDC13, 400 MHz): β sugar δ (ppm) 1.93 (s, 3H), 4.60-4.88 (m, 3H), 6.08 (d, J= 7.9 Hz, 1H), 6.62 (s, 1H), 7.31-7.38 (m, 2H), 7.41-7.55 (m, 3H), 7.59-7.65 (m, 1H), 8.00-8.05 (m, 2H), 8.06-8.12 (m, 2H); a sugar δ (ppm) 1.88 (s, 3H), 4.66-4.89 (m, 3H), 5.37 (d, J= 4.88Hz, 1H), 6.44 (s, 1H), 7.41-7.55 (m, 4H), 7.54-7.65 (m, 2H), 8.00-8.05 (m, 2H), 8.14-8.20 (m, 2H); MS (ESI) m/z= 476/478 (MNa+).3 ,5′-Di-0-benzoyl-2′-C-chloro-2′-C-methyl-4-benzoyl-cytidine (A8):

Figure imgf000140_0001

[00283] To a suspension of N-benzoyl cytosine (9.48 mmol), and a catalytic amount of ammonium sulfate in 4-chlorobenzene (24 ml) was added HMDS (28.44 mmol). The reaction mixture was heated during 2 hours at 140 °C. The solvent was removed under inert atmosphere and the residue was taken in 4-chlorobenzene (15 ml). Then, A7b (4.74 mmol) in chlorobenzene (10 ml) was added dropwise to the reaction mixture followed by SnCl4 (14.22 mmol) dropwise. The reaction mixture was stirred at 70 °C overnight, cooled to room temperature and diluted with dichloromethane and a saturated NaHC03 solution. The white suspension was filtered through a pad of celite and washed with dichloromethane. The filtrate was extracted with dichloromethane twice. The combined organic layers were dried over anhydrous Na2S04, filtered and evaporated under reduced pressure to afford expected intermediate as a white solid in 89% yield.[00284] 1H NMR (DMSO, 400 MHz): δ (ppm) 1.58 (s, 3H), 4.68-4.81 (m, 3H), 5.68 (brs, 1H), 6.55 (brs, 1H), 7.36 (d, J= 7.84 Hz, 1H), 7.39-7.76 (m, 9H), 7.88-8.07 (m, 6H), 8.30 (d, J= 7.84 Hz, 1H); MS (ESI) m/z= 588 (MH+).3′,5′-Di-0-benzoyl-2,-C-chloro-2,-C-methyluridine (A9):

Figure imgf000140_0002

[00285] A suspension of A8 (4.19 mmol) in an acetic acid/water mixture (67 ml/17 ml, v/v), was heated at 110 °C for 3 hours. The reaction mixture was evaporated to dryness and co-evaporated with toluene (three times) to afford expected intermediate in quantitative yield as an oil which was directly used for the next step; MS (ESI) m/z= 485 (MH+). 2 -C-Chloro-2 -C-methyluridine (301):

Figure imgf000141_0001

H O CI[00286] Intermediate A9 (4.19 mmol) in 7 N methanolic ammonia (80 ml) was stirred at room temperature for 24 hours. The mixture was evaporated to dryness, diluted with water and transferred into a separatory funnel. The aqueous layer was extracted withdichloromethane and water was removed under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by flash RP18 gel chromatography (eluent: water/acetonitrile 0 to 40%) to afford pure expected compound as a white foam in 79% yield.[00287] 1H NMR (DMSO, 400 MHz): δ (ppm) 1.44 (s, 3H), 3.60-3.68 (m, 1H), 3.80-3.94 (m, 3H), 5.39 (t, J= 4.45 Hz, 1H), 5.63 (d, J= 8.26 Hz, 1H), 5.93 (d, J= 5.72 Hz, 1H), 6.21 (s, 1H), 8.16 (d, J= 8.90 Hz, 1H), 11.44 (m, 1H); MS (ESI) m/z= 277 (MH+).2′-C-Chloro-2′-C-methyl-3-benzyloxymethyluridine (Al 1):

Figure imgf000141_0002

H O CI[00288] To a solution of 301 (0.361 mmol) in anhydrous DMF (4 ml) was added at -5 °C, DBU (0.723 mmol) followed by benzyloxymethylchloride (0.542 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred for 45 minutes between -5 °C and 5 °C. The solvent was evaporated under reduced pressure and the residue was purified by chromatography on silica gel (eluent: dichloromethane/methanol 0 to 10%) to afford pure expected intermediate as a white solid in 80% yield.[00289] 1H NMR (DMSO, 400 MHz): δ (ppm) 1.41 (s, 3H), 3.61-3.69 (m, 1H), 3.82-3.95 (m, 3H), 4.57 (s, 2H), 5.32 (s, 2H), 5.43 (t, J= 4.46Hz, 1H), 5.80 (d, J= 8.08Hz, 1H), 5.96 (d, J= 4.46 Hz, 1H), 6.23 (s, 1H), 7.22-7.36 (m, 5H), 8.25 (d, J= 8.22Hz, 1H); MS (ESI) m/z= 397 (MH+). Isopropyl (2S)-2-[[chloro(phenoxy)phosphoryl]amino]propanoate (A12a):

Figure imgf000142_0001

2,2-Dimethylpropyl (2S)-2-[[chloro(phenoxy)phosphoryl]amino]propanoate (A12b):

Figure imgf000142_0002

[00290] To a solution of aminoester, HC1 salt (0.434 mmol) in anhydrous dichloromethane (or acetonitrile) (4 ml) (3 times vacuo/nitrogen) under nitrogen was added at -30°C phenyldichlorophosphate (0.434 mmol) followed by N-methylimidazole (2.90 mmol)(or only 1.45 mmol for A12b). The reaction mixture was stirred at -30°C during 1 hour. The reaction was monitored by LC/MS (the sample was quenched by methanol or water) to check the complete formation of expected intermediate A12a [MS (ESI) m/z= 302 (MH+)(-OMe compounder A12b [MS (ESI) m/z= 314 (MH~)].Compound (A13a), (A13b) or (83ii):[00291] To the previous reaction mixture containing A12 was added All (or 302) (0.29 mmol) at -25°C under nitrogen. The reaction mixture was allowed to warm up slowly to room temperature overnight, and then diluted with dichloromethane and water (or with NaHCC”3 and EtOAc). The organic layer was extracted, dried, filtered and evaporated under reduced pressure. The crude residue was purified by chromatography on silica gel (eluent: dichloromethane/methanol 0 to 10%) (followed by preparative HPLC for A29).Compound (A13a):

Figure imgf000142_0003

[00292] Mixture of diastereoisomers; MS (ESI) m/z= 666 (MH+). Compound (A13b):

Figure imgf000143_0001

[00293] Mixture of diastereoisomers; MS (ESI) m/z= 692.3 (MH ).Compound (83ii):

Figure imgf000143_0002

[00294] Glassy solid; 1H NMR (CDCI3, 400MHz): δ (ppm) 1.19-1.24 (m, 9H), 1.35 (d, J = 7.1Hz, 3H), 3.95-4.05 (m, 1H), 4.31 (d, J= 8.1Hz, 2H), 4.41 (d, J= 9.0Hz, 1H), 4.59 (d, J = 7.1Hz, 2H), 4.98 (heptuplet, J= 6.28Hz, 1H), 6.38 (brs, 1H), 6.52 (s, 1H), 7.08-7.15 (m, 1H), 7.23-7.30 (m, 4H), 8.07 (s, 1H), 8.31 (s, 1H); 31P NMR (CDC13, 161.98 MHz): δ (ppm) 3.96 (s, IP); MS (ESI) m/z= 569.20 (MH+).Compounds (40iia) and (40iib):

Figure imgf000143_0003

[00295] To a solution of A13 (0.29 mmol) in anhydrous ethanol (6 ml) was added trifluoroacetic acid (2.9 mmol) dropwise (then 3 times vacuo/nitrogen purges), followed by Palladium hydroxide (20% on Carbon). The reaction mixture was purged 3 timesvacuo/nitrogen, and 3 times vacuo/hydrogen and then stirred under hydrogen for 5 hours. The reaction mixture was diluted with ethyl acetate and filtered through a pad of celite. The filtrate was evaporated under reduced pressure, and the crude compound was purified by preparative MS/HP LC to afford two pure compounds in 48% global yield.[00296] Compound 40ii (diastereoisomer 1): white solid; 1H NMR (CDC13, 400 MHz): δ (ppm) 1.22-1.26 (m, 6H), 1.37 (d, J= 7.08 Hz, 3H), 1.51 (s, 3H), 3.71-3.88 (m, 2H), 3.97- 4.06 (m, 1H), 4.16-4.18 (m, 1H), 4.45-4.57 (m, 2H), 4.97-5.07 (m, 1H), 5.57 (d, J= 8.20 Hz, 1H), 6.39 (s, 1H), 7.18-7.37 (m, 5H), 7.44 (d, J= 8.20 Hz, 1H), 8.40 (s, 1H); 31P NMR (CDC13, 161.98 MHz): δ (ppm) 4.20 (s, IP); MS (ESI, El+) m/z= 546 (MH+).[00297] Compound 40ii (diastereoisomer 2): white solid; 1H NMR (CDC13, 400 MHz): δ (ppm) 1.24-1.26 (m, 6H), 1.36 (d, J= 7.04 Hz, 3H), 1.59 (s, 3H), 3.69-3.77 (m, 1H), 3.91- 3.99 (m, 2H), 4.17-4.19 (m, 1H), 4.43-4.59 (m, 2H), 5.01-5.06 (m, 1H), 5.68 (d, J= 8.20 Hz, 1H), 6.42 (s, 1H), 7.21-7.39 (m, 5H), 7.60 (d, J=8.20 Hz, 1H), 8.14 (s, 1H); 31P NMR (CDC13, 161.98 MHz): δ (ppm) 3.47 (s, IP); MS (ESI) m/z= 546 (MH+).Compound 42ii:

Figure imgf000144_0001

[00298] Compound 42ii was synthesized from compound A13b (0.144 mmol) as described for compound 40ii.[00299] White solid; 1H NMR (MeOD, 400 MHz) δ (ppm) 0.94 (s, 9H), 1.40 (d, J= 7.10 Hz, 3H), 1.53 (s, 3H), 3.76 (d, J= 10.43 H, 1H), 3.86 (d, J= 10.44 H, 1H), 3.98-4.06 (m, 2H), 4.18-4.22 (m, 1H), 4.39-4.44 (m, 1H), 4.52-4.57 (m, 1H), 5.62 (d, J= 8.18 Hz, 1H), 6.40 (s, 1H), 7.20-7.29 (m, 3H), 7.36-7.41 (m, 2H), 7.74 (d, J= 8.18 Hz, 1H); 31P NMR (MeOD, 161.98 MHz) δ (ppm) 3.68 (s, IP); MS (ESI) m/z = 574.08 (MH+).

PAPER

US 20170226146

https://patents.google.com/patent/US20170226146A1/en

  • [0250]
  • [0251]
    A 3-neck 100 mL jacketed round bottom flask with nitrogen inlet and mechanical stirrer was charged with compound 4 (3.0 g, 10.8 mmol), compound 13 (0.484 g, 2.17 mmol, 0.20 equiv), 2-butanone (21 mL), and 2,6-lutidine (2.53 mL, 21.7 mmol, 2.0 equiv). The resulting slurry was cooled to −15° C., then a solution of compound 12 (7.96 g, 13.0 mmol) in 2-butanone (3 mL) was added over 14 hours. The reaction mixture was allowed to stir at −15° C. for an additional 25 hours and then warmed to 20° C. n-Heptane (16 mL) was added with stirring over a 1 hour period then the mixture was allowed to stir at 25° C. for 3 hours, then filtered through a fitted funnel. The filter cake was slurry-washed with a 3:2 mixture of 2-butanone and n-heptane (10 mL and then 15 mL), then dried by pulling nitrogen stream through the fritted funnel. The filter cake was slurried in a 10:1 mixture of water and 2-butanone (21 mL) and then filtered. This slurrying and filtration sequence was repeated two more times. The resulting filter cake was dried with nitrogen stream through the fritted funnel to provide compound 6.

Example 21Alternate Preparation of Compound A

  • [0252]
  • [0253]
    Compound 6 (0.072 mmol, 1 equiv), K2HPO(63.0 mg, 0.361 mmol) and compound 14 (5.45 mg, 0.018 mmol) were added to a 1 dram vial with 4 A mol sieves (40 mg). To the resulting mixture was added DCM (800 μl), then the resulting reaction was allowed to stir for 5 minutes. To the reaction mixture was then added compound 14 (28.7 mg, 0.094 mmol, 1.3 equiv) and the resulting reaction was allowed to stir for about 15 hours at room temperature to provide Compound A.
  • [0256]
  • [0257]
    A 100 mL reactor with nitrogen inlet and mechanical stirrer was charged with compound 4 (7.00 g, 25.3 mmol), compound 15 (0.225 g, 0.506 mmol, 0.020 equiv), 1,3-dioxolane (42 mL), and 2,6-lutidine (4.42 mL, 38.0 mmol, 1.5 equiv). The mixture was cooled to −10° C. and a 33 wt % solution of compound 12 in isopropyl acetate (29 mL, 30 mmol) was added over 1 hour. The reaction mixture was allowed to stir at −10° C. for additional 40 hours, then isopropyl acetate (28 mL) was added, and the resulting mixture was warmed to 0° C. A 10 wt % aqueous NaHSOsolution was added (14 mL), and the mixture was allowed to stir at 30° C. for 30 minutes, then the layers were separated. To the organic layer was added an aqueous solution containing 5 wt % NaHCOand 5 wt % Na2SO(21 mL). The mixture was allowed to stir at 50° C. for 6 h. The layers were separated. To the organic layer was added 10 wt % aqueous NaCl solution (21 mL). The mixture was allowed to stir at 50° C. for 30 min. The organic layer was separated, combined with isopropyl acetate (5 mL) and concentrated in vacuo to half volume at 20000 pa in a 50° C. bath. The resulting solution was solvent-switched with isopropanol (4×35 mL) to 60 g weight. The mixture was seeded with 100 mg of compound A at 60° C. The resulting slurry was allowed to stir at 55° C. for 30 minutes, then n-Heptane (35 mL) was added over 1 hour at 55° C. The resulting slurry was allowed to stir for an additional 1 hour at 55° C., then cooled to room temperature and filtered. The filter cake was washed with a 1:1 mixture of isopropanol and n-heptane (3×14 mL), followed by n-heptane (14 mL), then dried under nitrogen to provide Compound A.

PAPER

https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2021/sc/d1sc01978c#!divAbstract

Uprifosbuvir is an antiviral agent developed for treatment of chronic hepatitis C infections. Its original synthesis route requires twelve steps with an overall yield of only 1 %. Such a difficult and time-consuming synthesis approach is acceptable for the early trial phase of a new drug, but impractical for broad application as hepatitis C treatment or for repurposing against novel viral diseases.

Artis Klapars, John Y. L. Chung, and colleagues, Merck & Co., Inc., Rahway, NJ, USA, and WuXi STA, Shanghai, China, have developed a synthesis route for uprifosbuvir requiring only five steps and starting from readily available uridine. Initially, uridine is selectively oxidized after OH-acylation with pivaloyl chloride in an acyl migration/oxidation process driven by complexation with the Lewis acid BF3*OEt2 in toluene. In the second step, methylation is achieved by MeMgBr/MgCl2 in a toluene/anisole mixture where a more reactive methyl-manganese species is formed in-situ from the Grignard reagent, providing high yield and a good diastereomeric ratio (dr). Subsequently, the tertiary chloride group is introduced. Due to the high functional-group density, a cyclodehydration step is required before chlorination to avoid side reactions. The chlorination is carried out using dichlorodimethylsilane with FeCl3*6H2O and tetramethyldisiloxane as additives which avoids the hazardous use of HCl gas under pressure required in the initial synthesis. In the final step, the regioselective phosphoramidation is achieved using a chlorophosphoramidate precursor and a dimeric chiral imidazole carbamate catalyst which led to a dr of 97:3 starting from a 1:1 diastereomeric mixture of the chlorophosphoramidate reagent.

Uprifosbuvir was synthesized with an overall yield of 50 %, a vast improvement compared to the 1 % of the original synthesis route. Additionally, the newly developed synthesis steps have the potential to provide easier access to other nucleoside-based antiviral agents.


Efficient synthesis of antiviral agent uprifosbuvir enabled by new synthetic methods

Artis Klapars,  *a

This article is Open Access

Creative Commons BY license

All publication charges for this article have been paid for by the Royal Society of Chemistry

Abstract

An efficient route to the HCV antiviral agent uprifosbuvir was developed in 5 steps from readily available uridine in 50% overall yield. This concise synthesis was achieved by development of several synthetic methods: (1) complexation-driven selective acyl migration/oxidation; (2) BSA-mediated cyclization to anhydrouridine; (3) hydrochlorination using FeCl3/TMDSO; (4) dynamic stereoselective phosphoramidation using a chiral nucleophilic catalyst. The new route improves the yield of uprifosbuvir 50-fold over the previous manufacturing process and expands the tool set available for synthesis of antiviral nucleotides.

Graphical abstract: Efficient synthesis of antiviral agent uprifosbuvir enabled by new synthetic methods

Scheme 1 Synthetic approaches to uprifosbuvir 1 with the two main challenges highlighted. (a) Me2NH, AcOH, EtOH/MeOH, 80 °C, 1.5 h; (b) Ca(OH)2, water, 70 °C, 24 h, 19% over 2 steps.9

Scheme 3 Complexation-driven selective acyl migration/oxidation to access 12. (a) PivCl, pyridine, 0 °C, 16 h; (b) BF3·OEt2, PhMe, 40 °C, 10 h; (c) TEMPO, Bu4NBr, AcOOH, dioctyl sulphide, PhMe, −10 °C to 20 °C, 24 h, 83% from 5.

Scheme 6 Completion of uprifosbuvir synthesis. (a) TMS-Cl, iPrOH, 70 °C, 12 h; (b) NEt3, iPrOAc, wiped film evaporation, 80%; (c) PhOP(O)Cl2, NEt3, iPrOAc, −20 °C, 2 h, 90%; (d) C6F5OH, NEt3, iPrOAc, −5 °C to 10 °C, 18 h, 76%;26 (e) 4, 3 mol% 24, 2,6-lutidine, 1,3-dioxolane, −10 °C, 24 h, 88%; (f) 4, tBuMgCl, THF, −5 °C to 5 °C, 15 h, 50%;27 (g) 4, Me2AlCl, 2,6-lutidine, THF, 35 °C, 16 h, 81%.27

Scheme 7 Summary of uprifosbuvir synthesis. AY = assay yield; IY = isolated yield. 

https://www.rsc.org/suppdata/d1/sc/d1sc01978c/d1sc01978c1.pdf

PAPERhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0960894X17308314

References

  1. ^ Soriano V, Fernandez-Montero JV, de Mendoza C, Benitez-Gutierrez L, Peña JM, Arias A, Barreiro P (August 2017). “Treatment of hepatitis C with new fixed dose combinations”. Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy18 (12): 1235–1242. doi:10.1080/14656566.2017.1346609PMID 28644739S2CID 205819421.
  2. ^ Borgia G, Maraolo AE, Nappa S, Gentile I, Buonomo AR (March 2018). “NS5B polymerase inhibitors in phase II clinical trials for HCV infection”. Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs27 (3): 243–250. doi:10.1080/13543784.2018.1420780PMID 29271672S2CID 3672885.
  3. ^ Lawitz E, Gane E, Feld JJ, Buti M, Foster GR, Rabinovitz M, et al. (September 2019). “Efficacy and safety of a two-drug direct-acting antiviral agent regimen ruzasvir 180 mg and uprifosbuvir 450 mg for 12 weeks in adults with chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6”. Journal of Viral Hepatitis26 (9): 1127–1138. doi:10.1111/jvh.13132PMID 31108015S2CID 160014275.
 
Clinical data
Trade names Uprifosbuvir
Legal status
Legal status US: Investigational New Drug
Identifiers
showIUPAC name
CAS Number 1496551-77-9
PubChem CID 90055716
DrugBank DB15206
ChemSpider 57427403
UNII JW31KPS26S
KEGG D10996
ChEMBL ChEMBL3833371
Chemical and physical data
Formula C22H29ClN3O9P
Molar mass 545.9 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol) Interactive image
showSMILES
showInChI

Uprifosbuvir (MK-3682) is an antiviral drug developed for the treatment of Hepatitis C. It is a nucleotide analogue which acts as an NS5B RNA polymerase inhibitor. It is currently in Phase III human clinical trials.[1][2][3]

References

  1. ^ Soriano V, Fernandez-Montero JV, de Mendoza C, Benitez-Gutierrez L, Peña JM, Arias A, Barreiro P (August 2017). “Treatment of hepatitis C with new fixed dose combinations”. Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy18 (12): 1235–1242. doi:10.1080/14656566.2017.1346609PMID 28644739S2CID 205819421.
  2. ^ Borgia G, Maraolo AE, Nappa S, Gentile I, Buonomo AR (March 2018). “NS5B polymerase inhibitors in phase II clinical trials for HCV infection”. Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs27 (3): 243–250. doi:10.1080/13543784.2018.1420780PMID 29271672S2CID 3672885.
  3. ^ Lawitz E, Gane E, Feld JJ, Buti M, Foster GR, Rabinovitz M, et al. (September 2019). “Efficacy and safety of a two-drug direct-acting antiviral agent regimen ruzasvir 180 mg and uprifosbuvir 450 mg for 12 weeks in adults with chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6”. Journal of Viral Hepatitis26 (9): 1127–1138. doi:10.1111/jvh.13132PMID 31108015S2CID 160014275.

//////////uprifosbuvir, MK 3682, ウプリホスブビル, уприфосбувирأوبريفوسبوفير , 乌磷布韦 , IDX-21437DB15206SB18784D10996Q27281714, IDX 21437, PHASE 3 
CC(C)OC(=O)C(C)NP(=O)(OCC1C(C(C(O1)N2C=CC(=O)NC2=O)(C)Cl)O)OC3=CC=CC=C3

wdt-24

NEW DRUG APPROVALS

ONE TIME

$10.00

Sitravatinib


Sitravatinib.png
File:Sitravatinib.svg - Wikipedia

Sitravatinib

1-N‘-[3-fluoro-4-[2-[5-[(2-methoxyethylamino)methyl]pyridin-2-yl]thieno[3,2-b]pyridin-7-yl]oxyphenyl]-1-N-(4-fluorophenyl)cyclopropane-1,1-dicarboxamide

1-N’-[3-fluoro-4-[2-[5-[(2-methoxyethylamino)methyl]pyridin-2-yl]thieno[3,2-b]pyridin-7-yl]oxyphenyl]-1-N-(4-fluorophenyl)cyclopropane-1,1-dicarboxamide

MG-91516

1,1-Cyclopropanedicarboxamide, N-[3-fluoro-4-[[2-[5-[[(2-methoxyethyl)amino]methyl]-2-pyridinyl]thieno[3,2-b]pyridin-7-yl]oxy]phenyl]-N’-(4- fluorophenyl)-

N-(3-fluoro-4-((2-(5-(((2-methoxyethyl)amino)methyl)pyridin-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]pyridin-7-yl)oxy)phenyl)-N-(4-fluorophenyl)cyclopropane-1,1-dicarboxamide

シトラバチニブ; ситраватиниб , سيترافاتينيب , 司曲替尼 , 
FormulaC33H29F2N5O4S
Cas1123837-84-2
Mol weight629.6763

MG-516

Sitravatinib (MGCD516)

UNII-CWG62Q1VTB

CWG62Q1VTB

MGCD-516

MGCD516

Antineoplastic, Receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor

Sitravatinib (MGCD516) is an experimental drug for the treatment of cancer. It is a small molecule inhibitor of multiple tyrosine kinases.

Sitravatinib is being developed by Mirati Therapeutics.[1]

Ongoing phase II trials include a trial for liposcarcoma,[2] a combination trial for non-small cell lung cancer,[3] and a combination trial with nivolumab for renal cell carcinoma.[4]

Mirati Therapeutics and licensee BeiGene are developing sitravatinib, an oral multitargeted kinase inhibitor which inhibits Eph, Ret, c-Met and VEGF-1, -2 and -3, DDR, Trk, Axl kinases, CHR4q12, TYRO3 and Casitas B-lineage, in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors, for treating advanced solid tumors.

In March 2021, sitravatinib was reported to be in phase 3 clinical development.

PDT PATENT

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2009026717

WO2009026717 , in which sitravatinib was first disclosed, claiming heterocyclic compounds as multi kinase inhibitors.

Scheme 10



Example 52
N-(3-Fluoro-4-(2-(5-((2-methoxyethylamino)methyl)pyridin-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]pyridin-7- yloxy)phenyl)-N-(4-fluorophenyl)cyclopropane- 1 , 1 -dicarboxamide

Step 1 : tert-Butyl (6-(7-(2-Fluoro-4-(1-(4-fluorophenylcarbamoyl)-cyclopropanecarboxamido)phenoxy)thieno [3 ,2-b]pyridin-2-yl)pyridin-3 -y l)methyl(2-methoxyethyl)carbamate (146)
To aniline 126 (0.58 g, 1.1 mmol) and DIPEA (0.58 mL, 0.43 g, 3.3 mmol) in dry DMF

(20 mL) was added 1-(4-fluorophenylcarbamoyl)cyclopropanecarbpxylic acid (0.35 g, 1.5 mmol) and HATU (0.72 g, 1.9 mmol) and the mixture was stirred at r.t. for 18 h. It was then partitioned between ethyl acetate and water, the organic phase was washed with water, IM NaOH, brine, dried (MgSO4), filtered, and concentrated. Silica gel chromatography (ethyl acetate) afforded title compound Ϊ46 (0.60 g, 74 % yield). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ (ppm): 10.40 (s, 1H), 10.01 (s, 1H), 8.52-8.49 (m, 2H), 8.33 (s, 1H), 8.27-8.24 (m, 1H), 7.92-7.88 (m, 1H), 7.78 (dd, J = 8.2, 2.1 Hz, 1H) 7.65-7.60 (m, 2H), 7.52-7.42 (m, 2H), 7.14 (t, J = 8.8 Hz, 2H), 6.65 (d, J = 5.1 Hz 1H), 4.47 (s, 2H), 3.42-3.30 (m, 4H), 3.22 (s, 3H), 1.46-1.30 (m, 13H). MS (m/z): 730.1 (M+H).
Step 2. N-(3-Fluoro-4-(2-(5-((2-methoxyethylamino)methyl)pyridin-2-yl)thieno[3,2-blpyridin-7-yloxy)phenyl)-N-(4-fluorophenyl)cyclopropane-1,1-dicarboxamide (147)
To the compound 146 (0.59 g, 0.81 mmol) in dichloromethane (50 mL) was added TFA (3 mL). The solution was stirred for 18 h then concentrated. The residue was partitioned between dichloromethane and 1 M NaOH, and filtered to remove insolubles. The organic phase was collected, washed with IM NaOH, brine, dried (MgSO4), filtered, and concentrated to afford title compound 147 (0.35 g, 69 % yield).

1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ (ppm): 10.40 (s, 1H), 10.01 (s, 1H), 8.55 (d, J = 1.6 Hz, 1H), 8.51 (d, J = 5.3 Hz, 1H), 8.31 (s, 1H), 8.22 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 7.92-7.87 (m, 2H), 7.65-7.61 (m, 2H), 7.52-7.43 (m, 2H), 7.17-7.12 (m, 2H), 6.64 (d, J = 5.5 Hz, 1H), 3.77 (s, 2H), 3.40 (t, J = 5.7 Hz, 2H), 3.23 (s, 3H), 2.64 (t, J = 5.7 Hz, 2H), 1.46 (br s, 4H). MS (m/z): 630.1 (M+H).

PATENT

WO 2009026720 

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2009026720A1

PATENT

WO-2021050580

Novel, stable crystalline polymorphic forms (form D) of sitravatinib , useful for treating a multi tyrosine kinase-associated cancer eg sarcoma, glioma, non-small cell lung, bladder, kidney, ovarian, gastric, breast or liver cancer. 

 International publication No. W02009/026717A disclosed compounds with the inhibition activities of multiple protein tyrosine kinases, for example, the inhibition activities of VEGF receptor kinase and HGF receptor kinase. In particular, disclosed N-(3-fluoro-4-((2-(5-(((2-methoxyethyl)amino)methyl)pyridin-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]pyridin-7-yl)oxy)phenyl)-N-(4-fluorophenyl)cyclopropane- 1,1 -di carboxamide (Compound 1) is a multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitor with demonstrated potent inhibition of a closely related spectrum of tyrosine kinases, including RET, CBL, CHR4ql2, DDR and Trk, which are key regulators of signaling pathways that lead to cell growth, survival and tumor progression.

[003]

Compound 1

[004] Compound 1 shows tumor regression in multiple human xenograft tumor models in mice, and is presently in human clinical trials as a monotherapy as well as in combination for

treating a wide range of solid tumors. Compound 1 is presently in Phase 1 clinical trial for patients with advanced cancer, in Phase 2 studies for patients with advanced liposarcoma and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

[005] The small scale chemical synthesis of the amorphous Compound 1 had been disclosed in the Example 52 (compound 147) of W02009/026717A, however, in order to prepare the API of Compound 1 with high quality and in large quantity, crystalline forms of Compound 1 would be normally needed so the process impurities could be purged out by recrystallization.

Practically, it is difficult to predict with confidence which crystalline form of a particular compound will be stable, reproducible, and suitable for phamaceutical processing. It is even more difficult to predict whether or not a particular crystalline solid state form will be produced with the desired physical properties for pharmaceutical formulations.

[006] For all the foregoing reasons, there is a great need to produce crystalline forms of Compound 1 that provide manufacturing improvements of the pharmaceutical composition.

The present invention advantageously addresses one or more of these needs.

EXAMPLE 1

Preparation of N-(3-fluoro-4-((2-(5-(((2-methoxyethyl)amino)methyl)pyridin-2- yl)thieno[3,2-b]pyridin-7-yl)oxy)phenyl)-N-(4-fluorophenyl)cyclopropane-l,l- dicarboxamide (Compound 1)

[0085] This Example illustrates the preparation ofN-(3-fluoro-4-((2-(5-(((2-methoxyethyl)amino)methyl)pyridin-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]pyridin-7-yl)oxy)phenyl)-N-(4-fluorophenyl)cyclopropane- 1,1 -di carboxamide (Compound 1).

[0086] Step 1: N-(Y6-bromopyridin-3-vDmethvD-2-methoxyethan-l-amine (Compound 1A)

Compound 1A

[0087] To a stirred solution of 2-Methoxyethylamine (3.0 eq) in dichloromethane (DCM) (12 vol) was added Molecular sieves (0.3 w/w) and stirred for 2 hours at 25±5°C under nitrogen atmosphere. The reaction mass water content was monitored by Karl Fischer analysis until the water content limit reached 0.5 % w/w. Once the water content limit was reached, the reaction mass cooled to 5±5°C and 6-bromonicotinaldehyde (1.0 eq) was added lot wise over period of 30 minutes to the above reaction mass at 5±5°C. The reaction mass was stirred for 30±5 minutes at 5±5°C and acetic acid (1.05 eq) was added drop wise at 5±5°C. After completion of the addition, the mass was slowly warmed to 25±5°C and stirred for 8 h to afford Compound 1 A. The imine formation was monitored by HPLC.

[0088] Step 2: tert-butyl (Y6-brom opyri din-3 -vQmethvO(2-m ethoxy ethvDcarbamate (Compound

IB)

Compound 1B

[0089] Charged Compoud 1A (1.0 eq) in THF (5.0 vol) was added and the reaction mass was stirred for 30 minutes at 25±5°C under nitrogen atmosphere. The reaction mass was cooled to temperature of about 10±5°C. Di-tert- butyl dicarbonate (1.2 eq) was added to the reaction mass at 10±5°C under nitrogen atmosphere and the reaction mass temperature was raised to 25±5°C and the reaction mass for about 2 hours. The progress of the reaction was monitored by HPLC. After IPC completion, a prepared solution of Taurine (1.5 eq) in 2M aq NaOH (3.1 vol) was charged and stirred at 10±5°C for 16 h to 18 h. The reaction mass was further diluted with 1M aq.NaOH solution (3.7 vol) and the layers were separated. The aqueous layer was extracted with DCM (2 x 4.7vol) and the extract combined with the organic layer. The combined organic layers were washed with 1M aq.NaOH solution (3.94 vol), followed by water (2×4.4 vol), and dried over sodium sulfate (2.0 w/w) . The filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure below 40° C until no distillate was observed. Tetrahydrofuran (THF) was sequentially added (1×4 vol and lx 6vol) and concentrated under reduced pressure below 40°C until no distillate was observed to obtained Compound IB as light yellow colored syrup liquid.

[0090] Step 3: tert-butyl 7-chlorothieno[3.2-b1pyridin-2-yl)pyridin-3-yl )methyl)(2- 

methoxyethvDcarbamate (Compound 1C)

Compound 1C

[0091] To a stirred solution of 7-chlorothieno[3,2-b]pyridine (1.05 eq) in tetrahydrofuran (7 vol) was added n-butyl lithium (2.5 M in hexane) drop wise at -15±10°C and stirred for 90 minutes at same temperature under nitrogen atmosphere. Zinc chloride (1.05 eq) was added to the reaction mass at -15±10°C. The reaction mass was slowly warmed to 25±5°C and stirred for 45 minutes under nitrogen atmosphere to afford Compound 1C. The progress of the reaction was monitored by HPLC.

[0092] Step 4: tert-butyl (Y6-(7-(4-amino-2-fluorophenoxy)thieno[3.2-b1pyridin-2-v0pyridin-3-vDmethvD(2-methoxyethvDcarbamate (Compound ID)

Compound 1D

[0093] 3-fluoro-4-hydroxybenzenaminium chloride (1.2 eq) in DMSO (3.9 vol) at 25±5°C was charged under nitrogen atmosphere and the reaction mass was stirred until observance of a clear solution at 25±5°C. t-BuOK was added lot wise under nitrogen atmosphere at 25±10°C. The reaction mass temperature was raised to 45±5°C and maintained for 30 minutes under nitrogen atmosphere. Compound 1C was charged lot-wise under nitrogen atmosphere at 45±5°C and stirred for 10 minutes at 45± 5°C.The reaction mixture was heated to 100± 5°C and stirred for 2 hrs. The reaction mass is monitored by HPLC.

[0094] After reaction completion, the reaction mass was cooled to 10± 5°C and quenched with chilled water (20 vol) at 10±5°C. The mass temperature was raised to 25± 5°C and stirred for 7-8 h. The resulting Compound ID crude was collected by filtration and washed with 2 vol of water. Crude Compound ID material taken in water (10 vol) and stirred for up to 20 minutes at 25±5°C. The reaction mass was heated to 45±5°C and stirred for 2-3 h at 45±5°C, filtered and vacuum-dried.

[0095] Crude Compound ID was taken in MTBE (5 vol) at 25±5°C and stirred for about 20 minutes at 25±5°C. The reaction mass temperature was raised to 45±5°C, stirred for 3-4 h at 45±5°C and then cooled to 20±5°C. The reaction mass was stirred for about 20 minutes at 20±5°C, filtered, followed by bed wash with water (0. 5 vol) and vacuum-dried.

[0096] The crude material was dissolved in acetone (10 vol) at 25±5°C and stirred for about 2h at 25±5°C. The reaction mass was filtered through a celite bed and washed with acetone (2.5 vol). The filtrate was slowly diluted with water (15 vol) at 25±5°C. The reaction mass was stirred for 2-3 h at 25±5°C, filtered and bed washed with water (2 vol) & vacuum-dried to afford Compound ID as brown solid.

[0097] Step 5 : 1 -((4-((2-(5-(((tert-butoxycarbonv0(2-methoxy ethvOaminolmethvOpyri din-2 -yl )thieno[3.2-b]pyridin-7-yl )oxy)-3 -fluorophenyl icarbamoyl level opropane-1 -carboxylic acid (Compound IE)

Compound 1E

[0098] To a solution of Compound ID (1.0 eq.) in tetrahydrofuran (7 vol.), aqueous potassium carbonate (1.0 eq.) in water (8 vol.) was added. The solution was cooled to 5±5°C, and stirred for about 60 min. While stirring, separately triethylamine (2.0 eq.) was added to a solution of 1,1-cyclopropanedicarboxylic acid (2.0 eq.) in tetrahydrofuran (8 vol.), at 5±5°C, followed by thionyl chloride (2.0 eq.) and stirred for about 60 min. The acid chloride mass was slowly added to the Compound ID solution at 5±5°C. The temperature was raised to 25±5°C and stirred for 3.0 h. The reaction was monitored by HPLC analysis.

[0099] After reaction completion, the mass was diluted with ethyl acetate (5.8 vol.), water (5.1 vol.), 10% (w/w) aqueous hydrochloric acid solution (0.8 vol.) and 25% (w/w) aqueous sodium chloride solution (2 vol.). The aqueous layer was separated and extracted with ethyl acetate (2 x 5 vol.). The combined organic layers were washed with a 0.5M aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution (7.5 vol.). The organic layer was treated with Darco activated charcoal (0.5 w/w) and sodium sulfate (0.3 w/w) at 25±5°C for 1.0 h. The organic layer was filtered through celite and washed with tetrahydofuran (5.0 vol.). The filtrate was concentrated under vacuum below 50°C to about 3 vol and co-distilled with ethyl acetate (2 x 5 vol.) under vacuum below 50°C up to ~ 3.0 vol. The organic layer was cooled to 15±5°C, stirred for about 60 min., filtered, and the solid was washed with ethyl acetate (2.0 vol.). The material was dried under vacuum at 40±5°C until water content was less than 1% to afford Compound IE as brown solid.

[00100] Step 6: tert-butyl (Y6-(7-(2-fluoro-4-(T-(Y4-fluorophenvDcarbamovDcvclopropane-l-carboxamido)phenoxy)thieno[3.2-b]pyridin-2-v0pyri din-3 – (2- 
methoxyethvDcarbamate (Compound IF)

[00101] Pyridine (1.1 eq.) was added to a suspension of Compound IE (1.0 eq.) in tetrahydrofuran (10 vol.) and cooled to 5±5°C. Thionyl chloride (2.0 eq.) was added and stirred for about 60 min. The resulting acid chloride formation was confirmed by HPLC analysis after quenching the sample in methanol. Separately, aqueous potassium carbonate (2.5 eq.) solution (7.0 vol. of water) was added to a solution of 4-fluoroaniline (3.5 eq.) in tetrahydrofuran (10 vol.), cooled to 5±5°C, and stirred for about 60 min. The temperature of the acid chloride mass at 5±5°C was raised to a temperature of about 25±5°C and stirred for 3 h. The reaction monitored by HPLC analysis.

[00102] After completion of the reaction, the solution was diluted with ethyl acetate (25 vol.), the organic layer was separated and washed with a 1M aqueous sodium hydroxide solution (7.5 vol.), a 1M aqueous hydrochloric acid solution (7.5 vol.), and a 25% (w/w) aqueous sodium chloride solution (7.5 vol.). The organic layer was dried and and filtered with sodium sulfate (1.0 w/w). The filtrate was concentrated ~ 3 vol under vacuum below 50°C and co-distilled with ethyl acetate (3 x 5 vol.) under vacuum below 50°C to ~ 3.0 vol. Ethyl acetate (5 vol.) and MTBE (10 vol.) were charged, heated up to 50±5°C and stirred for 30-60 min. The mixture was cooled to 15±5°C, stirred for about 30 min., filtered, and the solid was washed with ethyl acetate (2.0 vol.). MGB3 content was analyzed by HPLC analysis. The material was dried under vacuum at 40±5°C until the water content reached about 3.0% to afford Compound IF as brown solid.

[00103] Step 7 : N-(3-fluoro-4-((2-(5-(((2-methoxyethv0amino)methv0pyridin-2-yl )thieno[3.2-b]pyridin-7-yl )oxy)phenyl)-N-(4-fluorophenyl level opropane-1. 1 -dicarboxamide (Compound 1)

Compound 1

[0100] To a mixture of Compound IF in glacial acetic acid (3.5 vol.) concentrated hydrochloric acid (0.5 vol.) was added and stirred at 25±5°C for 1.0 h. The reaction was monitored by HPLC analysis.

[0101] After reaction completion, the mass was added to water (11 vol.) and stirred for 20±5°C for 30 min. The pH was adjusted to 3.0 ± 0.5 using 10% (w/w) aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution and stirred for 20±5°C for approximately 3.0 h.. The mass was filtered, washed with water (4 x 5.0 vol.) and the pH of filtrate was checked after every wash. The material was dried under vacuum at 50±5°C until water content was about 10%.

[0102] Crude Compound 1 was taken in ethyl acetate (30 vol.), heated to 70±10°C, stirred for 1.0 h., cooled to 25±5°C, filtered, and washed with ethyl acetate (2 vol.). The material was dries under vacuum at 45±5°C for 6.0 h.

[0103] Crude Compound 1 was taken in polish filtered tetrahydrofuran (30 vol.) and pre washed Amberlyst A-21 Ion exchange resin and stirred at 25±5°C until the solution became clear. After getting the clear solution, the resin was filtered and washed with polish filtered tetrahydrofuran (15 vol.). The filtrate was concentrated by -50% under vacuum below 50°C and co-distilled with polish filtered IPA (3 x 15.0 vol.) and concentrated up to -50% under vacuum below 50°C. Charged polish filtered IPA (15 vol.) was added and the solution concentrated under vacuum below 50°C to – 20 vol. The reaction mass was heated to 80±5°C, stirred for 60 min. and cooled to 25±5°C. The resultant reaction mass was stirred for about 20 hours at 25±5°C. The reaction mass was cooled to 0±5°C, stirred for 4-5 hours, filtered, and washed with polish filtered IPA (2 vol.). The material was dried under vacuum at 45±5°C, until the water content was about 2%, to obtain the desired product Compound 1. ¾-NMR (400 MHz, DMSO- d): 510.40 (s, 1H), 10.01 (s, 1H), 8.59 – 8.55 (m, 1H), 8.53 (d, J= 5.6 Hz, 1H), 8.32 (s, 1H), 8.23 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, 1H), 7.96 – 7.86 (m, 2H), 7.70 – 7.60 (m, 2H), 7.56 – 7.43 (m, 2H), 7.20 – 7.11 (m, 2H), 6.66 (d, J= 5.6 Hz, 1H), 3.78 (s, 2H), 3.41 (t, J= 5.6 Hz, 2H), 3.25 (s, 3H), 2.66 (t, J= 5.6 Hz, 2H), 1.48 (s, 4H)ppm. MS: M/e 630 (M+l)+.

EXAMPLE 2

Preparation of Crystalline Form D of N-(3-fluoro-4-((2-(5-(((2- methoxyethyl)amino)methyl)pyridin-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]pyridin-7-yl)oxy)phenyl)-N-(4- fluorophenyl)cyclopropane-l, 1-dicarboxamide

EXAMPLE 2A: Preparation of Compound 1 Crystalline Form D

[0104] To a 50 L reactor, 7.15 Kg of Compound 1, 40 g of Form D as crystal seed and 21 L acetone (>99%) were added. The mixture was heated to reflux ( ~56 °C) for 1~2 h. The mixture was agitated with an internal temperature of 20±5 °C for at least 24 h. Then, the suspension was filtered and washed the filter cake with 7 L acetone. The wet cake was dried under vacuum at <45 °C, to obtain 5.33 kg of Compound 1 of desired Form D

[0105] X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD)

The XRPD patterns were collected with a PAN alytical X’ Pert PRO MPD diffractometer using auincident beam of Cu radiation produced using au Optix long, fine-focus source. An elliptically graded multilayer mirror was used to focus Cu Ka X -rays through the specimens and onto the detector. Prior to the analysis, a silicon specimen (NIST SRM 640e) was analyzed to verify the observed position of the Si Ill peak is consistent with the NIST-certified position. A specimen of each sample was sandwiched between 3 -pm -thick films and analyzed in transmission geometly. A beam-stop, short autiscatter extension, and an autiscatter knife edge were used to minimize the background generated by air. Sober slits for the incident aud diffracted beauls were used to minimize broadening from axial divergence. The diffraction patterns were collected using a scanning position-sensitive detector (X’Celerator) located 240 mm from the specimens and Data Collector software v. 2.2b. Pattern Match v2.3.6 was used to create XRPD patterns.

[0106] The X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) pattern was used to characterize the Compound 1 obtained, which showed that the Compound 1 was in Crystalline Form D of Compound 1 (Compound 1 Form D), see Figure 1A. The XRPD pattern yielded is substantially the same as that shown in Figure 3C.

[0107] Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)

[0108] DSC was performed using a Mettler-Toledo DSC3+ differential scanning calorimeter. Temperature calibration was performed using octane, phenyl salicylate, indium, tin, and zinc. The TAWN sensitivity was 11.9. The samples were placed into aluminum DSC pans, covered with lids, and the weights were accurately recorded. A weighed aluminum pan configured as the sample pan was placed on the reference side of the cell. The pan lids were pierced prior to sample analyses. The method name on the thermograms is an abbreviation for the start and end temperature as well as the heating rate; e.g., -30-250-10 means “from ambient to 250°C, at 10°C/min.” The nitrogen flow rate was 50.0 mL/min. This instrument does not provide gas pressure value as required by USP because it is the same as atmospheric pressure.

[0109] A broad small endotherm with a peak maximum at approximately 57°C to 62°C (onset ~20°C to 22°C) followed by a sharp endotherm with a peak maximum at approximately 180°C (onset ~178°C) were observed. These events could be due to the loss of volatiles and a melt, respectively (see Figure IB).

[0110] In an alternative embodiment Form D was prepared as follows. Designated Material O was suspended in 600 pL of acetone. Initial dissolution was observed followed by re precipitation. The amount of suspended solids was not measured because the target of the experiment was to get a suspension with enough solids to slurry isolate and collect XRPD data. Based on the solubility of Form D in acetone a very rough estimate for the scale of the experiment is about 80-100mg. The suspension was stirred at ambient temperature for approximately 2 5 weeks after which the solids were isolated by centrifugation with filtration. XRPD data appeared to be consistent with Form D The sample was then dried in vacuum oven at ~40 °C for ~2 5 hours. The XRPD pattern of the final solids was consistent with Form D EXAMPLE 2B: Preparation of Compound 1 Form D

[0111] 427.0 mg of Compound 1 was dissolved in 5 mL of THF to obtain a clear brown solution. The resulting solution was filtered, and the filtrate evaporated under flow of nitrogen. A sticky solid was obtained, which was dried under vacuum in room temperature for ~5 min, still a sticky brown solid obtained. It was dissolved in 0.2 mL of EtOAc and sonicated to dissolve. The solution obtained was stirred at room temperature for 15 min and a solid precipitated. The resulting solid was added 0.4 mL of EtOAc and stirred in room temperature for 21 h 40 min to ontian a suspension. The solid was spparated from mother liquor by centrifugation, then the resulting solid was resuspended the in 0.6 mL of EtOAc and stirred in room temperature for 2 days. The solid was isolated by centrifugation, to obtain Compound 1 of desired Form D.

[0112] The X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) pattern was used to characterize the Compound 1 obtained, which showed that the Compound 1 was in Crystalline Form D of Compound 1 (Compound 1 Form D).

EXAMPLE 2C: Preparation of Compound 1 Form D

[0113] Single crystal X-ray diffraction data of Compound 1 was collected at 180 K on a Rigaku XtaLAB PRO 007HF(Mo) diffractometer, with Mo Ka radiation (l = 0.71073 A). Data reduction and empirical absorption correction were performed using the CrysAlisPro program. The structure was solved by a dual-space algorithm using SHELXT program. All non-hydrogen atoms could be located directly from the difference Fourier maps. Framework hydrogen atoms were placed geometrically and constrained using the riding model to the parent atoms. Final structure refinement was done using the SHELXL program by minimizing the sum of squared deviations of F2 using a full-matrix technique.

Preparation of Compound 1 Form D ( a Single Crystal )

[0114] Compound 1 Form D was dissolved in a mixture of acetone/ ACN (1/2) with the concentration of Compound 1 at ~7 mg/mL. A block single crystal was obtained, which was a single crystal.

[0115] The XRPD pattern was used to characterize the single crystal of Compound 1 Form D obtained, see Figure 2A. The crystal structural data are summarized in Table IB. The refined single crystal structure were shown in Figure 2B. The single crystal structure of Compound 1 Form D is in the P-1 space group and the triclinic crystal system. The terminal long alkyl chain is found to have large ellipsoids, indicating high mobility with disordered atoms.

[0116] The theoretical XRPD calculated from the single crystal structure and experimental XRPD are essentially similar (Figure 2A). A few small peaks are absent or shift because of orientation preference, disorder and tested temperature (180 K for single crystal data and 293 K for experimental one).

[0117] Table IB. Crystal Data and Structure Refinement for Compound 1 Form D (a Single Crystal)

References

  1. ^ http://www.mirati.com/go/mgcd516/
  2. ^ “MGCD516 in Advanced Liposarcoma and Other Soft Tissue Sarcomas – Full Text View – ClinicalTrials.gov”.
  3. ^ “Phase 2 Study of Glesatinib, Sitravatinib or Mocetinostat in Combination With Nivolumab in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer – Full Text View – ClinicalTrials.gov”.
  4. ^ “MGCD516 Combined With Nivolumab in Renal Cell Cancer (RCC) – Full Text View – ClinicalTrials.gov”.
Identifiers
showIUPAC name
CAS Number1123837-84-2
ChemSpider52083477
UNIICWG62Q1VTB
KEGGD11140
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC33H29F2N5O4S
Molar mass629.68 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)Interactive image
hideSMILESCOCCNCc1ccc(nc1)c2cc3c(s2)c(ccn3)Oc4ccc(cc4F)NC(=O)C5(CC5)C(=O)Nc6ccc(cc6)F
hideInChIInChI=1S/C33H29F2N5O4S/c1-43-15-14-36-18-20-2-8-25(38-19-20)29-17-26-30(45-29)28(10-13-37-26)44-27-9-7-23(16-24(27)35)40-32(42)33(11-12-33)31(41)39-22-5-3-21(34)4-6-22/h2-10,13,16-17,19,36H,11-12,14-15,18H2,1H3,(H,39,41)(H,40,42)Key:WLAVZAAODLTUSW-UHFFFAOYSA-N

///////////// sitravatinib, phase 3, シトラバチニブ , MGCD516, MG-516Sitravatinib (MGCD516)UNII-CWG62Q1VTBCWG62Q1VTBMGCD-516ситраватиниб , سيترافاتينيب , 司曲替尼 , Antineoplastic, MGCD 516

#sitravatinib, #phase 3, #シトラバチニブ , #MGCD516, #MG-516#Sitravatinib (MGCD516), #UNII-#CWG62Q1VTB, #CWG62Q1VTB, #MGCD-516ситраватиниб , سيترافاتينيب , 司曲替尼 , #Antineoplastic, #MGCD516

COCCNCC1=CN=C(C=C1)C2=CC3=NC=CC(=C3S2)OC4=C(C=C(C=C4)NC(=O)C5(CC5)C(=O)NC6=CC=C(C=C6)F)F

RIDINILAZOLE


ChemSpider 2D Image | Ridinilazole | C24H16N6
Ridinilazole.svg

RIDINILAZOLE

SMT19969

  • Molecular FormulaC24H16N6
  • Average mass388.424 Da
  • ридинилазол [Russian] [INN]ريدينيلازول [Arabic] [INN]利地利唑 [Chinese] [INN]
  • リジニラゾール;

10075
2,2′-Di(4-pyridinyl)-3H,3’H-5,5′-bibenzimidazole
308362-25-6[RN]6,6′-Bi-1H-benzimidazole, 2,2′-di-4-pyridinyl-

Summit Therapeutics (formerly Summit Corp ) is developing ridinilazole the lead compound from oral narrow-spectrum, GI-restricted antibiotics, which also include SMT-21829, for the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection and prevention of recurrent disease.

Ridinilazole (previously known as SMT19969) is an investigational small molecule antibiotic being evaluated for oral administration to treat Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). In vitro, it is bactericidal against C. difficile and suppresses bacterial toxin production; the mechanism of action is thought to involve inhibition of cell division.[1] It has properties which are desirable for the treatment of CDI, namely that it is a narrow-spectrum antibiotic which exhibits activity against C. difficile while having little impact on other normal intestinal flora and that it is only minimally absorbed systemically after oral administration.[2] At the time ridinilazole was developed, there were only three antibiotics in use for treating CDI: vancomycinfidaxomicin, and metronidazole.[1][2] The recurrence rate of CDI is high, which has spurred research into other treatment options with the aim to reduce the rate of recurrence.[3][4]

As of 2019, two phase II trials have been completed and two phase III trials comparing ridinilazole to vancomycin for CDI are expected to be completed in September 2021.[2][5][6] Ridinilazole was designated as a Qualified Infectious Disease Product (QIDP) and was granted Fast Track status by the U.S. FDA.[2] Fast Track status is reserved for drugs designed to treat diseases where there is currently a gap in the treatment, or a complete lack thereof.[7] The QIDP designation adds five more years of exclusivity for ridinazole upon approval.[8]

str1-1

PATENT

WO-2021009514

Process for preparing ridinilazole useful for treating Clostridium difficile infection. Also claimed is the crystalline form of a compound.

The present invention relates to processes for the preparation of 2,2′-di(pyridin-4-yl)-1/-/,T/-/-5,5′-bibenzo[d]imidazole (which may also be known as 5,5’-bis[2-(4-pyridinyl)-1/-/-benzimidazole], 2,2′-bis(4-pyridyl)-3/-/,3’/-/-5,5′-bibenzimidazole or 2-pyridin-4-yl-6-(2-pyridin-4-yl-3/-/-benzimidazol-5-yl)-1/-/-benzimidazole), referenced herein by the INN name ridinilazole, and pharmaceutically acceptable derivatives, salts, hydrates, solvates, complexes, bioisosteres, metabolites or prodrugs thereof. The invention also relates to various crystalline forms of ridinilazole, to processes for their preparation and to related pharmaceutical preparations and uses thereof (including their medical use and their use in the efficient large-scale synthesis of ridinilazole).

WO2010/063996 describes various benzimidazoles, including ridinilazole, and their use as antibacterials (including in the treatment of CDAD).

WO 2011/151621 describes various benzimidazoles and their use as antibacterials

(including in the treatment of CDAD).

W02007056330, W02003105846 and W02002060879 disclose various 2-amino benzimidazoles as antibacterial agents.

W02007148093 discloses various 2-amino benzothiazoles as antibacterial agents.

W02006076009, W02004041209 and Bowser et at. (Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett., 2007, 17, 5652-5655) disclose various substituted benzimidazole compounds useful as anti-infectives that decrease resistance, virulence, or growth of microbes. The compounds are said not to exhibit intrinsic antimicrobial activity in vitro.

US 5,824,698 discloses various dibenzimidazoles as broad-spectrum antibiotics, disclosing activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including Staphylococcus spp.and Enterococcus spp. However, this document does not disclose activity against anaerobic spore-forming bacteria and in particular does not disclose activity against any Clostridioides spp. (including C. difficile).

US 2007/0112048 A1 discloses various bi- and triarylimidazolidines and bi- and

triarylamidines as broad-spectrum antibiotics, disclosing activity against both Gram negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including Staphylococcus spp., Enterococcus spp. and Clostridioides spp. However, this document does not disclose compounds of formula (I) as described herein.

Chaudhuri et al. (2007) J.Org. Chem. 72, 1912-1923 describe various bis-2-(pyridyl)-1 H-benzimidazoles (including compounds of formula I as described herein) as DNA binding agents. This document is silent as to potential antibacterial activity.

Singh et al. (2000) Synthesis 10: 1380-1390 describe a condensation reaction for producing 2,2′-di(pyridin-4-yl)-1/-/,T/-/-5,5′-bibenzo[d]imidazole using 4-pyridine

carboxaldehyde, FeCI3, 02, in DMF at 120°C.

Bhattacharya and Chaudhuri (2007) Chemistry – An Asian Journal 2: 648-655 describe a condensation reaction for producing 2,2′-di(pyridin-4-yl)-1/-/,T/-/-5,5′-bibenzo[d]imidazole using 4-pyridine carboxaldehyde and nitrobenzene at 120°C.

WO2019/068383 describes the synthesis of ridinilazole by metal-ion catalyzed coupling of 3,4,3’,4’-tetraaminobiphenyl with 4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde in the presence of oxygen, followed by the addition of a complexing agent.

PATENT

WO2010063996

claiming antibacterial compounds. Bicyclic heteroaromatic compounds, particularly bi-benzimidazole derivatives.

WO2007056330, WO2003105846 and WO2002060879 disclose various 2-amino benzimidazoles as antibacterial agents.

WO2007148093 discloses various 2-amino benzothiazoles as antibacterial agents.

WO2006076009, WO2004041209 and Bowser et al. (Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett., 2007, 17, 5652-5655) disclose various substituted benzimidazole compounds useful as anti-infectives that decrease resistance, virulence, or growth of microbes. The compounds are said not to exhibit intrinsic antimicrobial activity in vitro.

US 5,824,698 discloses various dibenzimidazoles as broad-spectrum antibiotics, disclosing activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including Staphylococcus spp.and Enterococcus spp. However, this document does not disclose activity against anaerobic spore-forming bacteria and in particular does not disclose activity against any Clostridium spp. (including C. difficile).

US 2007/0112048 A1 discloses various bi- and triarylimidazolidines and bi- and triarylamidines as broad-spectrum antibiotics, disclosing activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including Staphylococcus spp., Enterococcus spp.

and Clostridium spp. However, this document does not disclose compounds of general formula (I) as described herein.

Chaudhuri et al. (J.Org. Chem., 2007, 72, 1912-1923) describe various bis-2-(pyridyl)-1 H-benzimidazoles (including compounds of formula I as described herein) as DNA binding agents. This document is silent as to potential antibacterial activity.

PATENT

Product PATENT, WO2010063996 ,

protection in the EP until 2029 and expire in the US in December 2029.

PAPER

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2018.01206/full

PAPER

Synthesis (2000), (10), 1380-1390.

https://www.thieme-connect.de/products/ejournals/abstract/10.1055/s-2000-7111

PAPERT

Chemistry – An Asian Journal (2007), 2(5), 648-655.

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/asia.200700014

Studies of double‐stranded‐DNA binding have been performed with three isomeric bis(2‐(n‐pyridyl)‐1H‐benzimidazole)s (n=2, 3, 4). Like the well‐known Hoechst 33258, which is a bisbenzimidazole compound, these three isomers bind to the minor groove of duplex DNA. DNA binding by the three isomers was investigated in the presence of the divalent metal ions Mg2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+. Ligand–DNA interactions were probed with fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy. These studies revealed that the binding of the 2‐pyridyl derivative to DNA is dramatically reduced in the presence of Co2+, Ni2+, and Cu2+ ions and is abolished completely at a ligand/metal‐cation ratio of 1:1. Control experiments done with the isomeric 3‐ and 4‐pyridyl derivatives showed that their binding to DNA is unaffected by the aforementioned transition‐metal ions. The ability of 2‐(2‐pyridyl)benzimidazole to chelate metal ions and the conformational changes of the ligand associated with ion chelation probably led to such unusual binding results for the ortho isomer. The addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) reversed the effects completely.

PAPER

 Journal of Organic Chemistry (2007), 72(6), 1912-1923.

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/jo0619433

Three symmetrical positional isomers of bis-2-(n-pyridyl)-1H-benzimidazoles (n = 2, 3, 4) were synthesized and DNA binding studies were performed with these isomeric derivatives. Like bisbenzimidazole compound Hoechst 33258, these molecules also demonstrate AT-specific DNA binding. The binding affinities of 3-pyridine (m-pyben) and 4-pyridine (p-pyben) derivatized bisbenzimidazoles to double-stranded DNA were significantly higher compared to 2pyridine derivatized benzimidazole o-pyben. This has been established by combined experimental results of isothermal fluorescence titration, circular dichroism, and thermal denaturation of DNA. To rationalize the origin of their differential binding characteristics with double-stranded DNA, computational structural analyses of the uncomplexed ligands were performed using ab initio/Density Functional Theory. The molecular conformations of the symmetric head-to-head bisbenzimidazoles have been computed. The existence of intramolecular hydrogen bonding was established in o-pyben, which confers a conformational rigidity to the molecule about the bond connecting the pyridine and benzimidazole units. This might cause reduction in its binding affinity to double-stranded DNA compared to its para and meta counterparts. Additionally, the predicted stable conformations for p-, m-, and o-pyben at the B3LYP/6-31G* and RHF/6-31G* levels were further supported by experimental pKa determination. The results provide important information on the molecular recognition process of such symmetric head to head bisbenzimidazoles toward duplex DNA.

Patent

US 8975416

PATENT

WO 2019068383

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2019068383

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the leading cause of infectious healthcare-associated diarrhoea. CDI remains a challenge to treat clinically, because of a limited number of antibiotics available and unacceptably high recurrence rates. Because of this, there has been significant demand for creating innovative therapeutics, which has resulted in the development of several novel antibiotics.

Ridinilazole (SMT19969) is the INN name of 5,5’bis[2-(4-pyridinyl)-lH-benzimidazole], which is a promising non-absorbable small molecule antibiotic intended for oral use in the treatment of CDI. It has been shown to exhibit a prolonged post-antibiotic effect and treatment with ridinilazole has resulted in decreased toxin production. A phase 1 trial demonstrated that oral ridinilazole is well tolerated and specifically targets Clostridia whilst sparing other faecal bacteria.

Ridinilazole has the following chemical structure:

Bhattacharya & Chaudhuri (Chem. Asian J., 2007, No. 2, 648-655) report performing double-stranded DNA binding with three benzimidazole derivatives, including ridinilazole. The compounds have been prepared by dissolving the reactants in nitrobenzene, heating at 120°C for 8- 1 Oh and purifying the products by column chromatography over silica gel. The compounds were obtained in 65-70% yield. Singh et al., (Synthesis, 2000, No. 10, 1380-1390) describe a catalytic redox cycling approach based on Fe(III) and molecular oxygen as co-oxidant for providing access to benzimidazole and

imidazopyridine derivatives, such as ridinilazole. The reaction is performed at high temperatures of 120°C and the product is isolated in 91% yield by using silica flash chromatography.

Both processes are not optimal, for example in terms of yield, ease of handling and scalability. Thus, there is a need in the art for an efficient and scalable preparation of ridinilazole, which overcomes the problems of the prior art processes.

Example 1 : Preparation of crude ridinilazole free base

A solution of 3,4,3′,4′-tetraaminobiphenyl (3.28 g, 15.3 mmol) and isonicotinaldehyde (3.21 g, 30.0 mmol) in DMF (40 mL) was stirred at 23 °C for one hour. Then anhydrous ferric chloride (146 mg, 0.90 mmol), water (0.10 mL, 5.4 mmol) and additional DMF (2 mL) were added and fresh air was bubbled into the solution during vigorous stirring for 5 hours at room temperature. Next, water (80 mL) and EDTA (0.29 g) were added resulting in a brownish suspension, which was stirred overnight. The product was isolated by filtration, washed with water, and dried in a desiccator in vacuo as a brown powder (5.56 g; 95%). The addition of EDTA had held iron in solution and the crude ridinilazole contained significantly lower amounts of iron than comparative example 1.

Example 12: Formation of essentially pure ridinilazole free base

To a suspension von ridinilazole tritosylate (1 10 mg, 0.12 mmol) in water (35 mL) featuring a pH value of about 4.5 stirring at 70 °C sodium bicarbonate (580 mg, 6.9 mmol) were added and caused a change of color from orange to slightly tan. The mixture, now at a pH of about 8.5, was cooled down to room temperature and the solids were separated by filtration, washed with water (1 ML) and dried in vacuo providing 40 mg (85%) essentially pure ridinilazole as a brownish powder.

Spectroscopic analysis:

¾ NMR (DMSO-de, 300 MHz): δ 7.55 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 2H), 7.70 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 2H), 7.88 (s, 2H), 8.13 (d, J = 5.8 Hz, 4H), 8.72 (d, J = 5.8 Hz, 4H) ppm.

13C NMR (DMSO-d6, 75 MHz): δ 1 13.4 (2C), 1 16.4 (2C), 120.4 (4C), 121.8 (2C), 135.7 (2C), 138.7 (2C), 140.7 (2C), 141.4 (2C), 150.3 (4C), 151.1 (2C) ppm.

IR (neat): v 3033 (w), 1604 (s), 1429 (m), 1309 (m), 1217 (m), 1 1 15 (w), 998 (m), 964 (m), 824 (m), 791 (s), 690 (s), 502 (s) cm .

UV-Vis (MeOH): 257, 341 nm.

The sharp peaks in the ¾ NMR indicated that iron had been efficiently removed.

Comparative example 1 : Preparation of ridinilazole

A solution of 3,4,3′,4′-tetraaminobiphenyl (0.69 g, 3.2 mmol) and isonicotinaldehyde (0.64 g, 6.0 mmol) in DMF (20 mL) was stirred at 80°C for one hour. Then ferric chloride hexahydrate (49 mg, 0.18 mmol), water (0.10 mL, 5.4 mmol) and additional DMF (2 mL) were added and fresh air was bubbled into the solution during vigorous stirring for 10 hours at 120 °C. After cooling to room temperature water (50 mL) and the mixture was stirred for one hour. A black crude product was isolated by filtration and comprised ridinilazole and iron.

References

  1. Jump up to:a b Cho JC, Crotty MP, Pardo J (March 2019). “Clostridium difficile infection”Annals of Gastroenterology32 (2): 134–140. doi:10.20524/aog.2018.0336PMC 6394264PMID 30837785.
  2. Jump up to:a b c d Carlson TJ, Endres BT, Bassères E, Gonzales-Luna AJ, Garey KW (April 2019). “Ridinilazole for the treatment of Clostridioides difficile infection”Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs28 (4): 303–310. doi:10.1080/13543784.2019.1582640PMID 30767587.
  3. ^ Bassères E, Endres BT, Dotson KM, Alam MJ, Garey KW (January 2017). “Novel antibiotics in development to treat Clostridium difficile infection”Current Opinion in Gastroenterology33 (1): 1–7. doi:10.1097/MOG.0000000000000332PMID 28134686These tables highlight the increased drug development directed towards CDI due to the rise in prevalence of infections and to attempt to reduce the number of recurrent infections.
  4. ^ Vickers RJ, Tillotson G, Goldstein EJ, Citron DM, Garey KW, Wilcox MH (August 2016). “Ridinilazole: a novel therapy for Clostridium difficile infection”International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents48 (2): 137–43. doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2016.04.026PMID 27283730there exists a significant unmet and increasing medical need for new therapies to treat CDI, specifically those that can reduce the rate of disease recurrence.
  5. ^ Clinical trial number NCT03595553 for “Ri-CoDIFy 1: Comparison of Ridinilazole Versus Vancomycin Treatment for Clostridium Difficile Infection” at ClinicalTrials.gov
  6. ^ Clinical trial number NCT03595566 for “Ri-CoDIFy 2: To Compare Ridinilazole Versus Vancomycin Treatment for Clostridium Difficile Infection” at ClinicalTrials.gov
  7. ^ “Fast Track”. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 2018-11-03.
  8. ^ “”HHS spurs new antibiotic development for biodefense and common infections””Public Health Emergency. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved 2020-12-04.
Clinical data
Other namesSMT19969
ATC codeNone
Identifiers
IUPAC name[show]
CAS Number308362-25-6
PubChem CID16659285
ChemSpider17592423
UNII06DX01190R
KEGGD11958
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC24H16N6
Molar mass388.42 g/mol
3D model (JSmol)Interactive image
SMILES[hide]c6cc(c5nc4ccc(c3ccc2nc(c1ccncc1)[nH]c2c3)cc4[nH]5)ccn6

/////////RIDINILAZOLE, SMT19969, SMT 19969, ридинилазол , ريدينيلازول , 利地利唑 , リジニラゾール , Qualified Infectious Disease Product, QIDP,  Fast Track , PHASE 3,  Clostridioides difficile infection , 

Esketamine


Esketamine2DCSD.svg

Esketamine

  • Molecular FormulaC13H16ClNO
  • Average mass237.725 Da

(+)-Ketamine(2S)-2-(2-Chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)cyclohexanone
(S)-Ketamine33643-46-8[RN]7884Cyclohexanone, 2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)-, (2S)-Cyclohexanone, 2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)-, (S)-
KetamineCAS Registry Number: 6740-88-1CAS Name: 2-(2-Chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)cyclohexanoneMolecular Formula: C13H16ClNOMolecular Weight: 237.73Percent Composition: C 65.68%, H 6.78%, Cl 14.91%, N 5.89%, O 6.73%Literature References: Prepn: C. L. Stevens, BE634208idem,US3254124 (1963, 1966 both to Parke, Davis). Isoln of optical isomers: T. W. Hudyma et al.,DE2062620 (1971 to Bristol-Myers), C.A.75, 118119x (1971). Clinical pharmacology of racemate and enantiomers: P. F. White et al.,Anesthesiology52, 231 (1980). Toxicity: E. J. Goldenthal, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.18, 185 (1971). Enantioselective HPLC determn in plasma: G. Geisslinger et al.,J. Chromatogr.568, 165 (1991). Comprehensive description: W. C. Sass, S. A. Fusari, Anal. Profiles Drug Subs.6, 297-322 (1977). Review of pharmacology and use in veterinary medicine: M. Wright, J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc.180, 1462-1471 (1982). Review of pharmacology and clinical experience: D. L. Reich, G. Silvay, Can. J. Anaesth.36, 186-197 (1989); in pediatric procedures: S. M. Green, N. E. Johnson, Ann. Emerg. Med.19, 1033-1046 (1990).Properties: Crystals from pentane-ether, mp 92-93°. uv max (0.01N NaOH in 95% methanol): 301, 276, 268, 261 nm (A1%1cm 5.0, 7.0, 9.8, 10.5). pKa 7.5. pH of 10% aq soln 3.5.Melting point: mp 92-93°pKa: pKa 7.5Absorption maximum: uv max (0.01N NaOH in 95% methanol): 301, 276, 268, 261 nm (A1%1cm 5.0, 7.0, 9.8, 10.5) 
Derivative Type: HydrochlorideCAS Registry Number: 1867-66-9Manufacturers’ Codes: CI-581Trademarks: Ketalar (Pfizer); Ketanest (Pfizer); Ketaset (Fort Dodge); Ketavet (Gellini); Vetalar (Bioniche)Molecular Formula: C13H16ClNO.HClMolecular Weight: 274.19Percent Composition: C 56.95%, H 6.25%, Cl 25.86%, N 5.11%, O 5.84%Properties: White crystals, mp 262-263°. Soly in water: 20 g/100 ml. LD50 in adult mice, rats (mg/kg): 224 ±4, 229 ±5 i.p. (Goldenthal).Melting point: mp 262-263°Toxicity data: LD50 in adult mice, rats (mg/kg): 224 ±4, 229 ±5 i.p. (Goldenthal) 
NOTE: This is a controlled substance (depressant): 21 CFR, 1308.13.Therap-Cat: Anesthetic (intravenous).Therap-Cat-Vet: Anesthetic (intravenous).Keywords: Anesthetic (Intravenous).Esketamine hydrochloride, S enantiomer of ketamine, is in phase III clinical trials by Johnson & Johnson for the treatment of depression.Drug Name:Esketamine HydrochlorideResearchCode:JNJ-54135419MOA:Dopamine reuptake inhibitor; NMDA receptor antagonistIndication:DepressionStatus:Phase III (Active)Company:Johnson & Johnson (Originator)

Molecular Weight274.19
FormulaC13H16ClNO•HCl
CAS No.33643-46-8 (Esketamine);
33643-47-9 (Esketamine Hydrochloride);

Route 1

Reference:1. US6040479.

https://patents.google.com/patent/US6040479A/en

EXAMPLE 1

50 g (0.21 mol) R,S-ketamine are dissolved in 613 ml of acetone at the boiling point and subsequently mixed with 31.5 g (0.21 mol) L-(+)-tartaric acid. In order to obtain a clear solution, 40 ml of water are added thereto at the boiling point and subsequently the clear solution is filtered off while still hot. After the addition of seed crystals obtained in a small preliminary experiment, the whole is allowed to cool to ambient temperature while stirring. After standing overnight, the crystals formed are filtered off with suction and dried in a circulating air drying cabinet (first at ambient temperature and then at 50-60° C.).

Yield (tartrate): 64.8 g

m.p.: 161° C.

[α]D : +26.1° (c=2/H2 O)

Thereafter, the crystallisate is recrystallised in a mixture of 1226 ml acetone and 90 ml water. After cooling to ambient temperature and subsequently stirring for 4 hours, the crystals are filtered off with suction and dried in a circulating air drying cabinet (first at ambient temperature and then at 50-60° C). There are obtained 38.8 g of tartrate (95.29% of theory).

m.p.: 175.3° C.

[α]D : +68.9° (c=2/H2 O)

The base is liberated by taking up 38.8 g of tartrate in 420 ml of aqueous sodium hydroxide solution and stirring with 540 ml of diethyl ether. The ethereal phase is first washed with water and subsequently with a saturated solution of sodium chloride. The organic phase is dried over anhydrous sodium sulphate. After filtering, the solution is evaporated to dryness on a rotary evaporator, a crystalline, colourless product remaining behind.

Yield (crude base): 21.5 g=86.0% of theory

m.p.: 118.9° C. (literature: 120-122° C.)

[α]D : -55.8° (c=2/EtOH) (literature: [α]D : -56.35° ).

In order possibly to achieve a further purification, the base can be recrystallised from cyclohexane. For this purpose, 10.75 g of the crude base are dissolved in 43 ml cyclohexane at the boiling point. While stirring, the clear solution is slowly cooled to about 10° C. and then stirred at this temperature for about 1 hour. The crystallisate which precipitates out is filtered off with suction and dried to constant weight.

Yield (base): 10.3 g=82.4% of theory

m.p.: 120° C. (literature: 120-122° C.)

[α]D : -56.8° (c=2/EtOH) (literature: [α]D : -56.35° )

EXAMPLE 2

125 ml of water are taken and subsequently 31.5 g (0.21 mol) L-(+)-tartaric acid and 50 g (0.21 mol) R,S-ketamine added thereto. While stirring, this mixture is warmed to 50-60° C. until a clear solution results. After cooling to ambient temperature while stirring and subsequently stirring overnight, the crystals formed are filtered off with suction. Subsequently, the crystallisate is first washed with water (1-6° C.) and subsequently washed twice with, in each case, 20 ml of acetone. Drying in a circulating air drying cabinet (first at ambient temperature and then at 50-60° C.) gives 31.79 g of tartrate (78.23%) of theory).

EXAMPLE 3

150 ml of water are taken and subsequently mixed with 39.8 g (0.27 mol) L-(+)-tartaric acid and 50 g (0.21 mol) R,S-ketamine. While stirring, this mixture is warmed to 50-60° C. until a clear solution results.

After cooling to ambient temperature while stirring and subsequently stirring overnight, the crystals formed are filtered off with suction. Subsequently, the crystallisate is successively washed with 8 ml of water (1-6° C.) and thereafter twice with, in each case, 20 ml acetone.

Drying in a circulating air drying cabinet (first at ambient temperature and then at 50-60° C.) gives 32.58 g of tartrate (80.02% of theory).

EXAMPLE 4

150 ml of water and 50 ml isopropanol are taken. After the addition of 39.8 g (0.21 mol) L-(+)-tartaric acid and 50 g (0.21 mol) R,S-ketamine, the mixture is heated to reflux temperature while stirring until a solution results (possibly add water until all is dissolved).

Subsequently, while stirring, the solution is allowed to cool to ambient temperature and stirred overnight. The crystals are filtered off with suction and subsequently washed with a 1:2 mixture of 20 ml of water/isopropanol and dried in a circulating air drying cabinet (first at ambient temperature and then at 50-60° C.). There are obtained 24.45 g of tartrate (62.63% of theory).

EXAMPLE 5

50 g (0.21 mol) R,S-ketamine are dissolved at the boiling point in 300 ml acetone and subsequently mixed with 31.5 g (0.21 mol) L-(+)-tartaric acid and 100 ml of water. The whole is allowed to cool while stirring and possibly seeded.

After standing overnight, the crystals formed are filtered off with suction, then washed twice with, in each case, 20 ml acetone and dried in a circulating air drying cabinet (first at ambient temperature and then at 50-60° C.). There are obtained 30.30 g of tartrate (74.57% of theory).

EXAMPLE 6

75 ml of water and 50 ml isopropanol are taken and subsequently 39.8 g (0.27 mol) L-(+)-tartaric acid added thereto. While stirring, the mixture is heated to reflux temperature until a clear solution results. After cooling to ambient temperature while stirring and subsequently stirring overnight, the crystals formed are filtered off with suction. Subsequently, the crystallisate is washed with a 1:2 mixture of 20 ml water/isopropanol. After drying in a circulating air drying cabinet (first at ambient temperature and then at 50-60° C.), there are obtained 34.84 g of tartrate (85.74% of theory).

EXAMPLE 7

20 g of the S-(+)-tartrate obtained in Example 4 are dissolved in 100 ml of water at 30-40° C. With about 7 ml of 50% sodium hydroxide solution, an S-(-)-ketamine base is precipitated out up to about pH 13. It is filtered off with suction and washed neutral with water to pH 7-8. Subsequently, it is dried for about 24 hours at 50° C. in a circulating air drying cabinet. There are obtained 11.93 g S-(-)-ketamine (97.79% of theory).

EXAMPLE 8

5 g of the S-(-)-ketamine obtained in Example 7 are dissolved in 50 ml isopropanol at about 50° C. and possibly filtered off with suction over kieselguhr. Subsequently, gaseous hydrogen chloride is passed in at 50-60° C. until a pH value of 0-1 is reached. The reaction mixture is allowed to cool to ambient temperature, filtered off with suction and washed with about 5 ml isopropanol. The moist product is dried overnight at about 50° C. in a circulating air drying cabinet. There are obtained 5.09 g S-(+)-ketamine hydrochloride (88.06% of theory).


Route 2

Reference:1. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2015137, 3205-3208.

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/jacs.5b00229

Here we report the direct asymmetric amination of α-substituted cyclic ketones catalyzed by a chiral phosphoric acid, yielding products with a N-containing quaternary stereocenter in high yields and excellent enantioselectivities. Kinetic resolution of the starting ketone was also found to occur on some of the substrates under milder conditions, providing enantioenriched α-branched ketones, another important building block in organic synthesis. The utility of this methodology was demonstrated in the short synthesis of (S)-ketamine, the more active enantiomer of this versatile pharmaceutical.

Abstract Image

CLIP

Initial reagent: cyclopentyl Grignard Step 0: Producing cyclopentyl Grignard Reacting cyclopentyl bromide with magnesium in solvent (ether or THF) Best results: distill solvent from Grignard under vacuum and replace with hydrocarbon solvent (e.g. benzene) Step 1: processing to (o-chlorophenyl)-cyclopentyl ketone Adding o-chlorobenzonitrile to cyclopentyl Grignard in solvent, stirring for long period of time (typically three days) Hydrolyzing reaction with mixture containing crushed ice, ammonium chloride and some ammonium hydroxide Extraction with organic solvent gives (o-chlorophenyl)-cyclopentyl ketone

Step 2: processing to alpha-bromo (o-chlorophenyl)-cyclopentyl ketone ketone processed with bromine in carbon tetrachloride at low temperature (typical T = 0°C), addition of bromine dropwise forming orange suspension Suspension washed in dilute aquerous solution of sodium bisufide and evaporated giving 1-bromocyclopentyl-(o-chlorophenyl)-ketone Note: bromoketone is unstable, immeadiate usage. Bromination carried out with NBromosuccinimide result higher yield (roughly 77%) Step 3: processing to 1-hydroxycyclopentyl-(o-chlorophenyl)-ketone-N-methylimine Dissolving bromoketone in liquid methylamine freebase (or benzene as possible solvent) After time lapse (1h): excess methylamine evaporated, residue dissolved in pentane and filtered evaporation of solvent yields 1-hydroxy-cyclopentyl-(o-chlorophenyl)-ketone N-methylimine Note: longer time span (4-5d) for evaporation of methylaminemay increase yield Step 4: processing to 2-Methylamino-2-(o-chlorophenyl)-cyclohexanone (Ketamine) Method: Thermal rearragement (qualitative yield after 30min in 180°C) N-methylimine dissolved in 15ml decalin, refluxed for 2.5h Evaporation of solvent under reduced temperature followed by extraction of residue with dilute hydrochloric acid Treatment with decolorizing charcoal (solution: acidic => basic) Recrystallization from pentane-ether Note – alternative to use of decalin: pressure bomb

racemic compound, in pharmaceutical preparation racemic more active enantiomere esketamine (S-Ketamine) available as Ketanest S, but Arketamine (R-Ketamine) never marketed for clinical use, Optical rotation: varies between salt and free base form free base form: (S)-Ketamine dextrorotation  (S)-(+)-ketamine hydrochloridesalt: levorotation(S)-(-)-ketamine  Reason found in molecular level: different orientation of substituents: freebase: o-chlorophenyl equatorial, methylamino axia

Sources: http://creationwiki.org/Ketamine#Synthesis http://www.lycaeum.org/rhodium/chemistry/pcp/ketamine.html https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/ketamine https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/ketamine#section=Drug-Warning http://www.rsc.org/chemistryworld/2014/02/ketamine-special-k-drugs-podcast http://drugabuse.com/library/the-effects-of-ketamine-use/ http://www.drugfreeworld.org/drugfacts/prescription/ketamine.html http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/1615-9314(20021101)25:15/17%3C1155::AID-JSSC1155%3E3.0.CO;2-M/pdf

CLIP

Process Research and Impurity Control Strategy of Esketamine Organic Process Research & Development ( IF 3.023
Pub Date: 2020-03-18 , DOI: 10.1021/acs.oprd.9b00553
Shenghua Gao; Xuezhi Gao; Zhezhou Yang; Fuli Zhang
An improved synthesis of ( S )-ketamine (esketamine) has been developed, which was cost-effective, and the undesired isomer could be recovered by racemization. Critical process parameters of each step were identified as well as the process-related impurities. The formation mechanisms and control strategies of most impurities were first discussed. Moreover, the ( S )-ketamine tartrate is a dihydrate, which was disclosed for the first time. The practicable racemization catalyzed by aluminum chloride was carried out in quantitative yield with 99% purity . The ICH-grade quality ( S)-ketamine hydrochloride was obtained in 51.1% overall yield (14.0% without racemization) by chiral resolution with three times recycling of the mother liquors. The robust process of esketamine could be industrially scalable.


Process Research and ketamine impurity control strategy

has been developed an improved ( S ) – ketamine (esketamine) synthesis, the high cost-effective way, the undesired isomer may be recycled by racemization. Determine the key process parameters and process-related impurities for each step. First, the formation mechanism and control strategy of most impurities are discussed. In addition, ( S )-ketamine tartrate is a dihydrate, which is the first time it has been published. The feasible racemization catalyzed by aluminum chloride proceeds in a quantitative yield with a purity of 99%. ICH grade quality ( S) 5-ketamine hydrochloride can be obtained through chiral resolution and three times the mother liquor recovery rate. The total yield is 51.1% (14.0% without racemization). The robust process of ketamine can be used in Industrial promotion.

CLIP

Ketamine - Wikiwand

CLIP

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13738-018-1404-1#citeas

Taghizadeh, M.J., Gohari, S.J.A., Javidan, A. et al. A novel strategy for the asymmetric synthesis of (S)-ketamine using (S)-tert-butanesulfinamide and 1,2-cyclohexanedione. J IRAN CHEM SOC 15, 2175–2181 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13738-018-1404-1

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Abstract

We present a novel asymmetric synthesis route for synthesis of (S)-ketamine using a chiral reagent according to the strategy (Scheme 1), with good enantioselectivity (85% ee) and yield. In this procedure, the (S)-tert-butanesulfinamide (TBSA) acts as a chiral auxiliary reagent to generate (S)-ketamine. A series of new intermediates were synthesized and identified for the first time in this work (2–4). The monoketal intermediate (1) easily obtained after partial conversion of one ketone functional group  of 1,2-cyclohexanedione into a ketal using ethylene glycol. The sulfinylimine (2) was obtained by condensation of (S)-tert-butanesulfinamide (TBSA) with (1), 4-dioxaspiro[4.5]decan-6-one in 90% yield. The (S)-Ntert-butanesulfinyl ketamine (3) was prepared on further reaction of sulfinylimine (2) with appropriate Grignard reagent (ArMgBr) in which generated chiral center in 85% yield and with 85% diastereoselectivity. Methylation of amine afforded the product (4). Finally, the sulfinyl- and ketal-protecting groups were removed from the compound (4) by brief treatment with stoichiometric quantities of HCl in a protic solvent gave the (S)-ketamine in near quantitative yield.

Esketamine, sold under the brand name Spravato[4] among others,[6][7] is a medication used as a general anesthetic and for treatment-resistant depression.[4][1] Esketamine is used as a nasal spray or by injection into a vein.[4][1]

Esketamine acts primarily as a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist.[1][8] It also acts to some extent as a dopamine reuptake inhibitor but, unlike ketamine, does not interact with the sigma receptors.[1] The compound is the S(+) enantiomer of ketamine, which is an anesthetic and dissociative similarly.[1] It is unknown whether its antidepressant action is superior, inferior or equal to racemic ketamine and its opposite enantiomer, arketamine, which are both being investigated for the treatment of depression.

Esketamine was introduced for medical use in 1997.[1] In 2019, it was approved for use with other antidepressants, for the treatment of depression in adults in the United States.[9]

In August 2020, it was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) with the added indication for the short-term treatment of suicidal thoughts.[10]

Medical uses

Anesthesia

Esketamine is a general anesthetic and is used for similar indications as ketamine.[1] Such uses include induction of anesthesia in high-risk patients such as those with hemorrhagic shockanaphylactic shockseptic shock, severe bronchospasm, severe hepatic insufficiencycardiac tamponade, and constrictive pericarditis; anesthesia in caesarian section; use of multiple anesthetics in burns; and as a supplement to regional anesthesia with incomplete nerve blocks.[1]

Depression

See also: List of investigational antidepressants

Similarly to ketamine, esketamine appears to be a rapid-acting antidepressant.[8][11] It received a breakthrough designation from the FDA for treatment-resistant depression (TRD) in 2013 and major depressive disorder (MDD) with accompanying suicidal ideation in 2016.[12][11] The medication was studied for use in combination with an antidepressant in people with TRD who had been unresponsive to treatment;[12][8][11] six phase III clinical trials for this indication were conducted in 2017.[12][8][11] It is available as a nasal spray.[12][8][11]

In February 2019, an outside panel of experts recommended that the FDA approve the nasal spray version of esketamine,[13] provided that it be given in a clinical setting, with people remaining on site for at least two hours after. The reasoning for this requirement is that trial participants temporarily experienced sedation, visual disturbances, trouble speaking, confusion, numbness, and feelings of dizziness during immediately after.[14]

In January 2020, esketamine was rejected by the National Health Service of Great Britain. NHS questioned the benefits and claimed that it was too expensive. People who have been already using the medication were allowed to complete treatment if their doctors consider this necessary.[15]

Side effects

Most common side effects when used in those with treatment resistant depression include dissociation, dizziness, nausea, sleepiness, anxiety, and increased blood pressure.[16]

Pharmacology

Esketamine is approximately twice as potent as an anesthetic as racemic ketamine.[17] It is eliminated from the human body more quickly than arketamine (R(–)-ketamine) or racemic ketamine, although arketamine slows its elimination.[18]

A number of studies have suggested that esketamine has a more medically useful pharmacological action than arketamine or racemic ketamine[citation needed] but, in mice, that the rapid antidepressant effect of arketamine was greater and lasted longer than that of esketamine.[19] The usefulness of arketamine over eskatamine has been supported by other researchers.[20][21][22]

Esketamine inhibits dopamine transporters eight times more than arketamine.[23] This increases dopamine activity in the brain. At doses causing the same intensity of effects, esketamine is generally considered to be more pleasant by patients.[24][25] Patients also generally recover mental function more quickly after being treated with pure esketamine, which may be a result of the fact that it is cleared from their system more quickly.[17][26] This is however in contradiction with R-ketamine being devoid of psychotomimetic side effects.[27]

Unlike arketamine, esketamine does not bind significantly to sigma receptors. Esketamine increases glucose metabolism in frontal cortex, while arketamine decreases glucose metabolism in the brain. This difference may be responsible for the fact that esketamine generally has a more dissociative or hallucinogenic effect while arketamine is reportedly more relaxing.[26] However, another study found no difference between racemic and (S)-ketamine on the patient’s level of vigilance.[24] Interpretation of this finding is complicated by the fact that racemic ketamine is 50% (S)-ketamine.

History

Esketamine was introduced for medical use as an anesthetic in Germany in 1997, and was subsequently marketed in other countries.[1][28] In addition to its anesthetic effects, the medication showed properties of being a rapid-acting antidepressant, and was subsequently investigated for use as such.[8][12] In November 2017, it completed phase III clinical trials for treatment-resistant depression in the United States.[8][12] Johnson & Johnson filed a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) New Drug Application (NDA) for approval on September 4, 2018;[29] the application was endorsed by an FDA advisory panel on February 12, 2019, and on March 5, 2019, the FDA approved esketamine, in conjunction with an oral antidepressant, for the treatment of depression in adults.[9]

In the 1980s and ’90s, closely associated ketamine was used as a club drug known as “Special K” for its trip-inducing side effects.[30][31]

Society and culture

Names

Esketamine is the generic name of the drug and its INN and BAN, while esketamine hydrochloride is its BANM.[28] It is also known as S(+)-ketamine(S)-ketamine, or (–)-ketamine, as well as by its developmental code name JNJ-54135419.[28][12]

Esketamine is marketed under the brand name Spravato for use as an antidepressant and the brand names Ketanest, Ketanest S, Ketanest-S, Keta-S for use as an anesthetic (veterinary), among others.[28]

Availability

Esketamine is marketed as an antidepressant in the United States;[9] and as an anesthetic in the European Union.[28]

Legal status

Esketamine is a Schedule III controlled substance in the United States.[4]

References

  1. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j Himmelseher S, Pfenninger E (December 1998). “[The clinical use of S-(+)-ketamine–a determination of its place]”. Anasthesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie33 (12): 764–70. doi:10.1055/s-2007-994851PMID 9893910.
  2. ^ “Spravato 28 mg nasal spray, solution – Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC)”(emc). Retrieved 24 November 2020.
  3. ^ “Vesierra 25 mg/ml solution for injection/infusion – Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC)”(emc). 21 February 2020. Retrieved 24 November2020.
  4. Jump up to:a b c d e “Spravato- esketamine hydrochloride solution”DailyMed. 6 August 2020. Retrieved 26 September 2020.
  5. ^ “Spravato EPAR”European Medicines Agency (EMA). 16 October 2019. Retrieved 24 November 2020.
  6. ^ “Text search results for esketamine: Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference”MedicinesComplete. London, UK: Pharmaceutical Press. Retrieved 20 August 2017.[dead link]
  7. ^ Brayfield A, ed. (9 January 2017). “Ketamine Hydrochloride”MedicinesComplete. London, UK: Pharmaceutical Press. Retrieved 20 August2017.[dead link]
  8. Jump up to:a b c d e f g Rakesh G, Pae CU, Masand PS (August 2017). “Beyond serotonin: newer antidepressants in the future”. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics17 (8): 777–790. doi:10.1080/14737175.2017.1341310PMID 28598698S2CID 205823807.
  9. Jump up to:a b c “FDA approves new nasal spray medication for treatment-resistant depression; available only at a certified doctor’s office or clinic”U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Press release). Retrieved 2019-03-06.
  10. ^ “FDA Approves A Nasal Spray To Treat Patients Who Are Suicidal”NPR. 4 August 2020. Retrieved 27 September 2020.
  11. Jump up to:a b c d e Lener MS, Kadriu B, Zarate CA (March 2017). “Ketamine and Beyond: Investigations into the Potential of Glutamatergic Agents to Treat Depression”Drugs77 (4): 381–401. doi:10.1007/s40265-017-0702-8PMC 5342919PMID 28194724.
  12. Jump up to:a b c d e f g “Esketamine – Johnson & Johnson – AdisInsight”. Retrieved 7 November 2017.
  13. ^ Koons C, Edney A (February 12, 2019). “First Big Depression Advance Since Prozac Nears FDA Approval”Bloomberg News. Retrieved February 12, 2019.
  14. ^ Psychopharmacologic Drugs Advisory Committee (PDAC) and Drug Safety and Risk Management (DSaRM) Advisory Committee (February 12, 2019). “FDA Briefing Document” (PDF). Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved February 12, 2019. Meeting, February 12, 2019. Agenda Topic: The committees will discuss the efficacy, safety, and risk-benefit profile of New Drug Application (NDA) 211243, esketamine 28 mg single-use nasal spray device, submitted by Janssen Pharmaceutica, for the treatment of treatment-resistant depression.
  15. ^ “Anti-depressant spray not recommended on NHS”BBC News. 28 January 2020.
  16. ^ “Esketamine nasal spray” (PDF). U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  17. Jump up to:a b Himmelseher S, Pfenninger E (December 1998). “[The clinical use of S-(+)-ketamine–a determination of its place]”. Anasthesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie (in German). 33 (12): 764–70. doi:10.1055/s-2007-994851PMID 9893910.
  18. ^ Ihmsen H, Geisslinger G, Schüttler J (November 2001). “Stereoselective pharmacokinetics of ketamine: R(–)-ketamine inhibits the elimination of S(+)-ketamine”. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics70 (5): 431–8. doi:10.1067/mcp.2001.119722PMID 11719729.
  19. ^ Zhang JC, Li SX, Hashimoto K (January 2014). “R (-)-ketamine shows greater potency and longer lasting antidepressant effects than S (+)-ketamine”. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior116: 137–41. doi:10.1016/j.pbb.2013.11.033PMID 24316345S2CID 140205448.
  20. ^ Muller J, Pentyala S, Dilger J, Pentyala S (June 2016). “Ketamine enantiomers in the rapid and sustained antidepressant effects”Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology6 (3): 185–92. doi:10.1177/2045125316631267PMC 4910398PMID 27354907.
  21. ^ Hashimoto K (November 2016). “Ketamine’s antidepressant action: beyond NMDA receptor inhibition”. Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets20 (11): 1389–1392. doi:10.1080/14728222.2016.1238899PMID 27646666S2CID 1244143.
  22. ^ Yang B, Zhang JC, Han M, Yao W, Yang C, Ren Q, Ma M, Chen QX, Hashimoto K (October 2016). “Comparison of R-ketamine and rapastinel antidepressant effects in the social defeat stress model of depression”Psychopharmacology233 (19–20): 3647–57. doi:10.1007/s00213-016-4399-2PMC 5021744PMID 27488193.
  23. ^ Nishimura M, Sato K (October 1999). “Ketamine stereoselectively inhibits rat dopamine transporter”. Neuroscience Letters274 (2): 131–4. doi:10.1016/s0304-3940(99)00688-6PMID 10553955S2CID 10307361.
  24. Jump up to:a b Doenicke A, Kugler J, Mayer M, Angster R, Hoffmann P (October 1992). “[Ketamine racemate or S-(+)-ketamine and midazolam. The effect on vigilance, efficacy and subjective findings]”. Der Anaesthesist (in German). 41 (10): 610–8. PMID 1443509.
  25. ^ Pfenninger E, Baier C, Claus S, Hege G (November 1994). “[Psychometric changes as well as analgesic action and cardiovascular adverse effects of ketamine racemate versus s-(+)-ketamine in subanesthetic doses]”. Der Anaesthesist (in German). 43 Suppl 2: S68-75. PMID 7840417.
  26. Jump up to:a b Vollenweider FX, Leenders KL, Oye I, Hell D, Angst J (February 1997). “Differential psychopathology and patterns of cerebral glucose utilisation produced by (S)- and (R)-ketamine in healthy volunteers using positron emission tomography (PET)”. European Neuropsychopharmacology7 (1): 25–38. doi:10.1016/s0924-977x(96)00042-9PMID 9088882S2CID 26861697.
  27. ^ Yang C, Shirayama Y, Zhang JC, Ren Q, Yao W, Ma M, Dong C, Hashimoto K (September 2015). “R-ketamine: a rapid-onset and sustained antidepressant without psychotomimetic side effects”Translational Psychiatry5 (9): e632. doi:10.1038/tp.2015.136PMC 5068814PMID 26327690.
  28. Jump up to:a b c d e “Esketamine”Drugs.com.
  29. ^ “Janssen Submits Esketamine Nasal Spray New Drug Application to U.S. FDA for Treatment-Resistant Depression”. Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
  30. ^ Marsa, Linda (January 2020). “A Paradigm Shift for Depression Treatment”. DiscoverKalmbach Media.
  31. ^ Hoffer, Lee (7 March 2019). “The FDA Approved a Ketamine-Like Nasal Spray for Hard-to-Treat Depression”Vice. Retrieved 11 February 2020.

External links

Clinical data
Trade namesSpravato, Ketanest, Vesierra, others
Other namesEsketamine hydrochloride; (S)-Ketamine; S(+)-Ketamine; JNJ-54135419
AHFS/Drugs.comMonograph
MedlinePlusa619017
License dataUS DailyMedEsketamineUS FDAEsketamine
Addiction
liability
Low–moderate[citation needed]
Routes of
administration
IntranasalIntravenous infusion[1]
Drug classNMDA receptor antagonistsAntidepressantsGeneral anestheticsDissociative hallucinogensAnalgesics
ATC codeN01AX14 (WHON06AX27 (WHO)
Legal status
Legal statusAU: S8 (Controlled drug)UK: POM (Prescription only) [2][3]US: Schedule III [4]EU: Rx-only [5]In general: ℞ (Prescription only)
Identifiers
IUPAC name[show]
CAS Number33643-46-8 as HCl: 33795-24-3 
PubChem CID182137
IUPHAR/BPS9152
DrugBankDB01221 
ChemSpider158414 
UNII50LFG02TXDas HCl: 5F91OR6H84
KEGGD07283 as HCl: D10627 
ChEBICHEBI:6121 
ChEMBLChEMBL742 
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)DTXSID6047810 
ECHA InfoCard100.242.065 
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC13H16ClNO
Molar mass237.73 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)Interactive image
SMILES[hide]CN[C@](C1=C(Cl)C=CC=C1)(CCCC2)C2=O
InChI[hide]InChI=1S/C13H16ClNO/c1-15-13(9-5-4-8-12(13)16)10-6-2-3-7-11(10)14/h2-3,6-7,15H,4-5,8-9H2,1H3/t13-/m0/s1 Key:YQEZLKZALYSWHR-ZDUSSCGKSA-N 

/////////////Esketamine, JNJ 54135419, phase 3

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