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ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY

Read all about Organic Spectroscopy on ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY INTERNATIONAL 

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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TEDIGLUTIDE ..Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) analog; protects small intestinal stem cells from radiation damage.


File:Teduglutide.png

TEDUGLUTIDE
Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) analog; protects small intestinal stem cells from radiation damage.

Gattex (teduglutide) is a recombinant analog of human glucagon-like peptide 2 for the treatment of adults with short bowel syndrome.

  • (Gly2)GLP-2
  • ALX 0600
  • ALX-0600
  • Gattex
  • Gly(2)-GLP-2
  • Teduglutide
  • UNII-7M19191IKG

[Gly2]hGLP-2, [Gly2]-hGLP-2, ALX-0600,

Gattex, Revestive

CAS number 197922-42-2

L-histidylglycyl-L-α-aspartylglycyl-L-seryl-L-phenylalanyl-L-seryl-L-α-aspartyl-L-α-glutamyl-L-methionyl-L-asparaginyl-L-threonyl-L-isoleucyl-L-leucyl-L-α-aspartyl-L-asparaginyl-L-leucyl-L-alanyl-L-alanyl-L-arginyl-L-α-aspartyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-isoleucyl-L-asparaginyl-L-tryptophyl-L-leucyl-L-isoleucyl-L-glutaminyl-L-threonyl-L-lysyl-L-isoleucyl-L-threonyl-L-aspartic acid

Formula C164H252N44O55S 
Mol. mass 3752.082 g/mol

Gattex, ALX-0600, (Gly2)GLP-2, Gly(2)-GLP-2, ALX 0600, [Gly2]GLP-2, Glucagon-like peptide II (2-glycine) (human), UNII-7M19191IKG

LAUNCHED 2013, NPS Pharmaceuticals

APPROVAL FDA

Company: NPS Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Date of Approval: December 21, 2012 FDA

NDA 203441

POWDER; SUBCUTANEOUS GATTEX

U-1320=TREATMENT OF ADULT PATIENTS WITH SHORT BOWEL SYNDROME WHO ARE DEPENDENT ON PARENTERAL SUPPORT

Patent No Patent Expiry Date Patent use code
5789379 Apr 14, 2015 U-1320
7056886 Sep 18, 2022 U-1320
7847061 Nov 1, 2025 U-1320
Exclusivity Code Exclusivity_Date
ORPHAN DRUG EXCLUSIVITY Dec 21, 2019
NEW CHEMICAL ENTITY Dec 21, 2017

SEE FDA

http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2012/203441Orig1s000lbl.pdf

CLINICAL TRIALS

http://clinicaltrials.gov/search/intervention=Teduglutide+OR+ALX-0600

The active ingredient in GATTEX (teduglutide [rDNA origin]) for injection is teduglutide (rDNA origin), which is a 33 amino acid glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) analog manufactured using a strain of Escherichia coli modified byrecombinant DNA technology. The chemical name of teduglutide is L-histidyl-L-glycyl-L-aspartyl-L-glycyl-L-seryl-L-phenylalanyl-L-seryl-L-aspartyl-L-glutamyl-L-methionyl-L-asparaginyl-L-threonyl-L-isoleucyl-L-leucyl-L-aspartyl-L-asparaginyl-L-leucyl-L-alanyl-L-alanyl-L-arginyl-L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-isoleucyl-L-asparaginyl-L-tryptophanyl-L-leucyl-L-isoleucyl-L-glutaminyl-L-threonyl-L-lysyl-L-isoleucyl-L-threonyl-L-aspartic acid. The structural formula is:

Figure 1: Structural formula of teduglutide

GATTEX (teduglutide) structural formula illustration

Teduglutide has a molecular weight of 3752 Daltons. Teduglutide drug substance is a clear, colorless to light-straw–colored liquid.

Each single-use vial of GATTEX contains 5 mg of teduglutide as a white lyophilized powder for solution for subcutaneous injection. In addition to the active pharmaceutical ingredient (teduglutide), each vial of GATTEX contains 3.88 mg L-histidine, 15 mg mannitol, 0.644 mg monobasic sodium phosphate monohydrate, 3.434 mg dibasic sodium phosphate heptahydrate as excipients. No preservatives are present.

At the time of administration the lyophilized powder is reconstituted with 0.5 mL of Sterile Water for Injection, which is provided in a prefilled syringe. A 10 mg/mL sterile solution is obtained after reconstitution. Up to 0.38 mL of the reconstituted solution which contains 3.8 mg of teduglutide can be withdrawn for subcutaneous injection upon reconstitution.

Teduglutide (brand names Gattex and Revestive) is a 36-membered polypeptide andglucagon-like peptide-2 analog that is used for the treatment of short bowel syndrome. It works by promoting mucosal growth and possibly restoring gastric emptying and secretion.[1] In Europe it is marketed under the brand Revestive by Nycomed. It was approved by the United States under the name Gattex on December 21, 2012.

Teduglutide is a proprietary analogue of glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) which was approved in the U.S. in December 2012 for the once-daily treatment of short-bowel syndrome in adults who are dependent on parenteral support. Commercial launch took place in 2013.The product was filed for approval in the E.U. in 2011 by Nycomed for this indication. In June 2012, a positive opinion was received in the E.U. and final approval was assigned in September 2012.

At NPS Pharmaceuticals, the compound is in phase III clinical development for this indication in pediatric patients and in phase II clinical studies for the treatment of Crohn’s disease. Preclinical studies are also ongoing at the company for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced enterocolitis and for the prevention and treatment of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants.

Teduglutide has been found to induce intestinal hyperplasia, reduce apoptosis and inflammation and improve cell barrier integrity in animal models. In 2001, orphan drug designation was assigned to teduglutide for the treatment of short-bowel syndrome.

In 2007, the compound was licensed to Nycomed for development and commercialization outside the U.S., Canada and Mexico for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. In 2012, the product was licensed to Neopharm by NPS Pharmaceuticals in Israel for development and commercialization for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders.

The estimated prevalence of short bowel syndrome (SBS) patients with non-malignant disease requiring home parenteral nutrition (HPN) is at least 40 per million of the U.S. population. SBS usually results from surgical resection of some or most of the small intestine for conditions such as Crohn’s disease, mesenteric infarction, volvulus, trauma, congenital anomalies, and multiple strictures due to adhesions or radiation. Surgical resection may also include resection of all or part of the colon. SBS patients suffer from malabsorption that may lead to malnutrition, dehydration and weight loss. Some patients can maintain their protein and energy balance through hyperphagia; more rarely they can sustain fluid and electrolyte requirements to become independent from parenteral fluid.

Although long-term parenteral nutrition (PN) is life saving in patients with intestinal failure, it is expensive, impairs quality of life and is associated with serious complications such as catheter sepsis, venous occlusions and liver failure. Treatments that amplify absolute intestinal absorption, and eliminate or minimize the need for PN have great potential significance to SBS patients.

The endogenous meal-stimulated hormone, glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), raises considerable interest for SBS patients. GLP-2 functions to slow gastric emptying, reduce gastric secretions, increase intestinal blood-flow and stimulate growth of the small and large intestine. In animal studies, GLP-2 administration induces mucosal epithelial proliferation in the stomach and small and large intestine by stimulation of crypt cell proliferation and inhibition of enterocyte apoptosis.

SBS patients with end-jejunostomy and no colon have low basal GLP-2 levels and limited meal-stimulated GLP-2 secretion due to removal of GLP-2 secreting L-cells, which are located primarily in the terminal ileum and colon. This GLP-2 deficiency results in a minimal adaptive response following resection and could explain the gastric hypersecretion, rapid intestinal transit and lack of intestinal adaptation observed in these SBS patients.

Jeppesen et al. (Gastroenterology 2001; 120:806-815) have described positive benefit in an open-label study using pharmacologic doses of native GLP-2 in SBS jejunostomy patients. There was significant improvement in intestinal wet weight absorption and a more modest improvement in energy absorption that led to an increase in body weight, lean body mass and a rise in urinary creatinine excretion.

In contrast, SBS patients with colon-in-continuity have elevated basal endogenous GLP-2 levels resulting in an adaptive response to resection characterized by improved wet weight gain and energy absorption. The potential for added benefit of pharmacologic doses of GLP-2 receptor agonists in these patients is not obvious and has not been studied.

TEDUGLUTIDE

  1.  Jeppesen PB (May 2012). “Teduglutide, a novel glucagon-like peptide 2 analog, in the treatment of patients with short bowel syndrome”Therap Adv Gastroenterol 5 (3): 159–71. doi:10.1177/1756283X11436318PMC 3342570PMID 22570676.
  2. US 2013157954
  3. WO 2006050244
  4. WO 2005021022
  5. US 6586399
  6. WO 2002066062
  7. US 6297214
  8. US 2001021767
  9. WO 2001041779
  10. WO 1999058144
  11. WO 1998052600

Gattex Approved By FDA For Short Bowel Syndrome

Gattex (teduglutide) has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to be used in patients that have short bowel syndrome and require parenteral nutrition.

The drug, once it is in the market, will compete against two others that have been approved by the FDA for this type of patient population. Those two medications are Nutrestore (glutamine) and Zorbtive (Somatropin).

Short bowel syndrome comes on following the removal surgically of part of the large or small intestine or part of both. Patients who are affected must have parenteral nutrition due to the poor absorption they have of nutrients and fluids. Teduglutide is injected one time each day and improves the absorption making it less important to have nutrition assistance.

The advisory committee for the FDA voted unanimously in October to recommend the drug’s approval after seeing the results from a pair of clinical trials that showed the advantage teduglutide had over just a placebo in at least a reduction of 20% in the amount of parenteral nutrition at 6 months.

During the first clinical trial, 46% of the patients that took the drug saw a level of reduction, which was compared to only 6% who had taken only a placebo. In the other study, the figure increased to 63%, while the placebo rated was up to 30%

The side effects most common found in those who use teduglutide during the trials included nausea, reactions around the injection site, abdominal pain abdominal distension and headaches.

………..

US5789379 Jun 28, 1996 Aug 4, 1998 1149336 Ontario Inc. Glucagon-like peptide-2 analogs
US6077949 Apr 24, 1997 Jun 20, 2000 Allelix Biopharmaceuticals, Inc. Cloned glucagon-like peptide 2 receptors
US6184201 * Apr 8, 1997 Feb 6, 2001 Nps Allelix Corp. Intestinotrophic glucagon-like peptide-2 analogs
US7411039 Oct 14, 2003 Aug 12, 2008 Novo Nordisk A/S GLP-2 compounds, formulations, and uses thereof
EP1231219A1 Apr 11, 1997 Aug 14, 2002 1149336 Ontario Inc. GLucagon-like peptide-2 analogs
WO1997039031A1 Apr 11, 1997 Oct 23, 1997 Allelix Biopharma Glucagon-like peptide-2 analogs
WO1997039091A1 Apr 16, 1997 Oct 23, 1997 Burckett St Laurent James Char Mid-chain branched surfactants
WO2002066511A2 Feb 15, 2002 Aug 29, 2002 Conjuchem Inc Long lasting glucagon-like peptide 2 (glp-2) for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases and disorders

 

 

ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO

THANKS AND REGARD’S
DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

GLENMARK SCIENTIST , NAVIMUMBAI, INDIA

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FDA panel recommends AstraZeneca and BMS’ metreleptin for generalised lipodystrophy


metreleptin
The US Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) Endocrinologic and Metabolic Drugs Advisory Committee (EMDAC) has recommended AstraZeneca and Bristol-Myers Squibb’s (BMS) investigational medicine metreleptin for the treatment of paediatric and adult patients with generalised lipodystrophy (LD).

FDA panel recommends AstraZeneca and BMS’ metreleptin for generalised lipodystrophy  click here for story

 

 

 

JAPAN
Metreleptin, an analog of the human hormone leptin, is a unique potential therapy for certain metabolic disorders in patients with rare forms of inherited or acquired lipodystrophy. Lipodystrophy is a very rare condition characterized by loss of subcutaneous fat.

Shionogi & Co., Ltd. today announced that it received marketing and manufacturing approval of recombinant human leptin, “METRELEPTIN for subcutaneous injection 11.25 mg ‘SHIONOGI’”
(generic name: metreleptin) for lipodystrophy on March 25,2013 in Japan.
Metreleptin was in-licensed by Shionogi from US-based AmylinPharmaceuticals, LLC., a subsidiary of Bristol-Myers Squibb Company currently.

Metreleptin is being studied as a potential therapy for certain metabolic disorders in patients with inherited or acquired lipodystrophy. Metreleptin is believed to work by reducing fat accumulation in organs, caused by the disease, thereby improving insulin sensitivity. Clinical studies have been conducted by investigators at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and other academic institutions in the US, Europe, and Japan to determine whether metreleptin can improve glycemic control and hypertriglyceridemia in patients with lipodystrophy.

In April 2012, Amylin completed its Biologics License Application (BLA) for metreleptin to treat diabetes and/or hypertriglyceridemia (high levels of triglycerides in the bloodstream) in patients with rare forms of lipodystrophy and requested Priority Review by the FDA.

If approved, metreleptin would be the first therapy indicated specifically for the treatment of diabetes and/or hypertriglyceridemia in patients with inherited or acquired lipodystrophy, and the first approved therapeutic use of a leptin analog.

About Lipodystrophy

Lipodystrophy is a life-threatening, “ultra orphan” rare disease that is estimated to impact a few thousand people worldwide, often with an early age of onset, for which there is a significant unmet medical need. There are currently no approved drugs that treat the underlying cause of the disease.

Fat tissue is a major endocrine organ producing important metabolic hormones such as leptin. People with lipodystrophy lack the required fat tissue for normal metabolic function. This can be partial, affecting select areas of the body, or generalized, affecting nearly the entire body. A lack of fat tissue can lead to relative deficiency of leptin.

Without adequate leptin function, the metabolic system, which regulates food intake and the storage and break-down of dietary fat and carbohydrates, falls out of balance. As a result, fat accumulates in the blood and organs such as liver and muscle, which can lead to life-threatening complications including insulin-resistant diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia (high levels of triglycerides in the bloodstream), acute pancreatitis, and hepatic steatosis or steatohepatitis, also known as fatty liver disease. There are no approved drugs that address the underlying relative leptin deficiency that is believed to contribute in large part to the metabolic abnormalities that occur in lipodystrophy. Currently available therapies for diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia are often rendered marginally effective due to the severity of the condition.

Top 10 Pharma – products in the pipeline


Regulatory Affairs in Latin America

Did you know that you can consult which new innovations are in the pipelines of the top 10 pharma companies directly from their websites?

Have a look!

1- Johnson&Johnson

2- Pfizer

3- Novartis

4- Sanofi

5- Merck&Co

6- GlaxoSmithKline

7- Abbott

8- Roche

9- Bayer

10- AstraZeneca

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FDA okays Vifor Fresenius phosphate binder Velphoro


THERAPEUTIC CLAIM Oral phosphate binder, treatement of elevated
phosphate levels in patients undergoing dialysis
CHEMICAL DESCRIPTIONS
1. Ferric hydroxide oxide
2. Mixture of iron(III) oxyhydroxide, sucrose, starches
3. Polynuclear iron(III) oxyhydroxide stabilized with sucrose and starches
structure
O =Fe -OH
MOLECULAR FORMULA FeHO2•xC12H22O11•y(C6H10O5)n

SPONSOR Vifor (International) Inc.
CODE DESIGNATIONS PA21
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER 12134-57-5

sucroferric oxyhydroxide

Sucroferric oxyhydroxide nonproprietary drug name

https://www.ama-assn.org/resources/doc/…/sucroferricoxyhydroxide.pdf

1. February 27, 2013. N13/36. STATEMENT ON A NONPROPRIETARY NAME ADOPTED BY THE USAN COUNCIL. USAN (ZZ-19). SUCROFERRIC 

The US Food and Drug Administration has given the green light to Vifor Fresenius Medical Care Renal Pharma’s hyperphosphatemia drug Velphoro.

The approval for Velphoro (sucroferric oxyhydroxide), formerly known as PA21, is based on Phase III data demonstrated that the drug successfully controls the accumulation of phosphorus in the blood with the advantage of a much lower pill burden than the current standard of care in patients with chronic kidney disease on dialysis, namely Sanofi’s Renvela (sevelamer carbonate). read this at

http://www.pharmatimes.com/Article/13-11-28/FDA_okays_Vifor_Fresenius_phosphate_binder_Velphoro.aspx

Velphoro (PA21) receives US FDA approval for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients on dialysis
Velphoro (sucroferric oxyhydroxide) has received US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for the control of serum phosphorus levels in patients with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) on dialysis. Velphoro will be launched in the US by Fresenius Medical Care North America in 2014.

Velphoro (previously known as PA21) is an iron-based, calcium-free, chewable phosphate binder. US approval was based on a pivotal Phase III study, which met its primary and secondary endpoints. The study demonstrated that Velphoro® successfully controls hyperphosphatemia with fewer pills than sevelamer carbonate, the current standard of care in patients with CKD on dialysis. The average daily dose to control hyperphosphatemia was 3.3 pills per day after 52 weeks.

Velphoro was developed by Vifor Pharma. In 2011, all rights were transferred to Vifor Fresenius Medical Care Renal Pharma, a common company of Galenica and Fresenius Medical Care. In the US, Velphorowill be marketed by Fresenius Medical Care North America, a company with a strong marketing and sales organization, and expertise in dialysis care. The active ingredient of Velphoro is produced by Vifor Pharma in Switzerland.

Hyperphosphatemia, an abnormal elevation of phosphorus levels in the blood, is a common and serious condition in CKD patients on dialysis. Most dialysis patients are treated with phosphate binders. However, despite the availability of a number of different phosphate binders, up to 50% of patients depending on the region are still unable to achieve and maintain their target serum phosphorus levels. In some patients, noncompliance due to the high pill burden and poor tolerability appear to be key factors in the lack of control of serum phosphorus levels. On average, dialysis patients take approximately 19 pills per day with phosphate binders comprising approximately 50% of the total daily pill burden. The recommended starting dose of Velphoro is 3 tablets per day (1 tablet per meal).

Full results from the pivotal Phase III study involving more than 1,000 patients were presented at both the 50th ERA-EDTA (European Renal Association European Dialysis and Transplant Association) Congress in Istanbul, Turkey, in May 2013, and the American Society of Nephrology (ASN) Kidney Week in Atlanta, Georgia, in November 2013. Velphorowas shown to be a potent phosphate binder, with lower pill burden and a good safety profile.

Based on these data, Vifor Fresenius Medical Care Renal Pharma believes that Velphoro offers a new and effective therapeutic option for the control of serum phosphorus levels in patients with chronic kidney disease on dialysis.
The regulatory processes in Europe, Switzerland and Singapore are ongoing and decisions are expected in the first half 2014. Further submissions for approval are being prepared.

GSK obtains FDA approval for bird flu vaccine


GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) has received approval from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the first adjuvanted vaccine to prevent H5N1 influenza, also known as bird flu.

GSK obtains FDA approval for bird flu vaccine http://www.pharmaceutical-technology.com/news/newsgsk-obtains-fda-approval-bird-flu-vaccine?WT.mc_id=DN_News

26 November 2013

 

 

Avian influenza A H5N1 viruses

GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) has received approval from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the first adjuvanted vaccine to prevent H5N1 influenza, also known as bird flu.

The FDA cleared the pandemic Influenza A (H5N1) virus monovalent vaccine, adjuvanted (also referred to as Q-Pan H5N1 influenza vaccine), for use in people aged 18 and older who are at increased risk of exposure to the virus.

The vaccine is composed of monovalent, inactivated, split A/H5N1 influenza virus antigen and GSK’s AS03 adjuvant.

The company said that in clinical studies, the adjuvanted formulation stimulated the required immune response while using a smaller amount of antigen as compared with a formulation without adjuvant.

FDA Approves Olysio (simeprevir) for Hepatitis C Virus


Simeprevir

Inhibits HCV NS3/4A protease.

MEDIVIR … originator

launched 2013

923604-59-5  CAS

C38H47N5O7S MF

749.93908  MW

IUPAC standard name
(1R, 4R, 6S, 15R, 17R)-N-(cyclopropanesulfonyl) -17 – ({7-methoxy-8-methyl-2-[4 – (propan-2-yl) -1,3-thiazol-2 -yl] quinolin-4-yl} oxy)-13-methyl-2 ,14-dioxo-3 ,13-diazatricyclo [13.3.0.0 4 , 6 ] octadec-7-ene-4-carboxamide
IUPAC traditional name
(1R, 4R, 6S, 15R, 17R)-N-(cyclopropanesulfonyl) -17 – {[2 – (4-isopropyl-1 ,3-thiazol-2-yl)-7-methoxy-8-methylquinolin-4- yl] oxy}-13-methyl-2 ,14-dioxo-3 ,13-diazatricyclo [13.3.0.0 4 , 6 ] octadec-7-ene-4-carboxamide

  • Olysio
  • Simeprevir
  • TMC 435
  • TMC 435350
  • TMC-435
  • TMC435
  • TMC435350
  • UNII-9WS5RD66HZ

November 22, 2013 — The U.S. Food and Drug Administration  approved Olysio (simeprevir), a new therapy to treat chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

OLYSIO™ is the first once-daily protease inhibitor approved for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in a combination antiviral regimen for adults with compensated liver disease

Hepatitis C is a viral disease that causes inflammation of the liver that can lead to diminished liver function or liver failure. Most people infected with the hepatitis C virus have no symptoms of the disease until liver damage becomes apparent, which may take several years. Most of these people then go on to develop chronic hepatitis C. Some will also develop scarring and poor liver function (cirrhosis) over many years, which can lead to complications such as bleeding, jaundice (yellowish eyes or skin), fluid accumulation in the abdomen, infections or liver cancer. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about 3.2 million Americans are infected with the hepatitis C virus

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections affect approximately 3 percent of the worldwide population and often lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The standard therapy of pegylated- interferon and ribavirin induces serious side effects and provides viral eradication in less than 50% of patients. Combination therapy of HCV including ribavirin and interferonare currently is the approved therapy for HCV. Unfortunately, such combination therapy also produces side effects and is often poorly tolerated, resulting in major clinical challenges in a significant proportion of patients. Numerous direct acting agents (DAAs) have been or are being developed for treatment of HCV, such as telaprevir and boceprevir (both received MA approved in 2011 for use with interferon and ribavirin based therapy), however direct acting agents are linked to increased toxicity of treatment, the emergence of resistance, and to date do not provide a standard of care which is interferon free. The combination of direct acting agents can also result in drug-drug interactions. To date, no HCV therapy has been approved which is interferon free. There is therefore a need for new combination therapies which have reduced side effects, and interferon free, have a reduced emergence of resistance, reduced treatment periods and/or and enhanced cure rates.

Simeprevir (formerly TMC435) is an experimental drug candidate for the treatment of hepatitis C. It is being developed byMedivir and Johnson & Johnson‘s pharmaceutical division Janssen Pharmaceutica and is currently in Phase III clinical trials.[1]

Simeprevir is a hepatitis C virus protease inhibitor.[2]

Simeprevir is being tested in combination regimens with pegylated interferon alfa-2a and ribavirin,[3] and in interferon-free regimens with other direct-acting antiviral agents including daclatasvir[4] and sofosbuvir [5]

Simeprevir has been launched in 2013 in Japan by Janssen Pharmaceutical (JP) for use in combination with pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN) and ribavirin for the treatment of genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients who are treatment naïve, prior non responders or relapsed following treatment with Peg-IFN with or without ribavirin. In 2013, the product has also been approved in the U.S. by Medivir and Janssen R&D Ireland for the oral treatment of chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 infection, in combination with peginterferon alfa and ribavirin in adults with compensated liver disease, including cirrhosis, who are treatment-naïve or who have failed previous interferon therapy (pegylated or non-pegylated) with ribavirin.

The drug candidate was originally developed at Medivir, which was acquired by Janssen R&D Ireland in 2012. In November 2004, Medivir entered into a license and research collaboration agreement with Tibotec, a Johnson & Johnson subsidiary, for the discovery and development of orally active protease inhibitors of the NS3/4A protease of HCV. In 2011, a codevelopment agreement between Pharmasset (now Gilead Sciences) and Tibotec was signed for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C (HCV) in combination with PSI-7977. Also in 2011, fast track designation was received in the U.S. for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) genotype-1 infection.

In 2011, Tibotec Therapeutics, Division of Centocor Ortho Biotech Products, L.P. announced that it had changed its name to Janssen Therapeutics, Division of Janssen Products, LP.

“Hepatitis C is a complex disease and Janssen is committed to working with the HCV community, caregivers, and health care systems to address this global epidemic,” said Gaston Picchio, Hepatitis Disease Area Leader, Janssen Research & Development. “We are pleased that the FDA has granted simeprevir Priority Review, as it is a significant step forward in making this therapy available to physicians and their hepatitis C patients.”

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the leading cause of chronic liver disease worldwide.

Following initial acute infection, a majority of infected individuals develop chronic hepatitis because HCV replicates preferentially in hepatocytes but is not directly cytopathic. Chronic hepatitis can progress to liver fibrosis leading to cirrhosis, end- stage liver disease, and HCC (hepatocellular carcinoma), making it the leading cause of liver transplantations. This and the number of patients involved, has made HCV the focus of considerable medical research. Replication of the genome of HCV is mediated by a number of enzymes, amongst which is HCV NS3 serine protease and its associated cofactor, NS4A. NS3 serine protease is considered to be essential for viral replication and has become an attractive target for drug discovery.

Current anti-HCV therapy is based on (pegylated) interferon-alpha (IFN-α) in combination with ribavirin. Not only does this therapy result in a limited efficacy in that only part of the patients are treated successfully, but it also faces significant side effects and is poorly tolerated in many patients. Hence there is a need for further HCV inhibitors that overcome the disadvantages of current HCV therapy such as side effects, limited efficacy, poor tolerance, the emergence of resistance, as well as compliance failures.

Various agents have been described that inhibit HCV NS3 serine protease. WO05/073195 discloses linear and macrocyclic NS3 serine protease inhibitors with a central substituted proline moiety and WO 05/073216 with a central cyclopentyl moiety. Amongst these, the macrocyclic derivatives are attractive by overcoming one or more of the disadvantages of current anti-HCV therapy

Figure imgf000003_0001

(I)  simeprevir

The compound of formula (I) is an inhibitor of the Hepatitis C virus (HCV) serine protease and is described in WO 2007/014926, published on 8 February 2007. This compound overcomes several of the disadvantages of current anti-HCV therapy and in particular shows pronounced activity against HCV, has an attractive pharmacokinetic profile, and is well-tolerated. Following the synthesis procedure described in Example 5 of WO 2007/014926, an amorphous solid form is obtained.

It now has been found that the compound of formula (I) can be converted into crystalline forms, which can advantageously be used as active ingredients in anti-HCV therapy. To that purpose, these crystalline forms are converted into pharmaceutical formulations.

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SIMEPREVIR

Simeprevir_ molecular structure _CAS_923604-59-5)

…………………………

simeprevir

OLYSIO (simeprevir) is an inhibitor of the HCV NS3/4A protease.

The chemical name for simeprevir is (2R,3aR,10Z,11aS,12aR,14aR)-N-(cyclopropylsulfonyl)-2[[2-(4-isopropyl-1,3-thiazol-2-yl)-7-methoxy-8-methyl-4-quinolinyl]oxy]-5-methyl-4,14-dioxo2,3,3a,4,5,6,7,8,9,11a,12,13,14,14atetradecahydrocyclopenta[c]cyclopropa[g][1,6]diazacyclotetradecine-12a(1H)-carboxamide. Its molecular formula is C38H47N5O7S2 and its molecular weight is 749.94. Simeprevir has the following structural formula:

OLYSIO (simeprevir) Structural Formula Illustration

Simeprevir drug substance is a white to almost white powder. Simeprevir is practically insoluble in water over a wide pH range. It is practically insoluble in propylene glycol, very slightly soluble in ethanol, and slightly soluble inacetone. It is soluble in dichloromethane and freely soluble in some organic solvents (e.g., tetrahydrofuran and N,N-dimethylformamide).

OLYSIO (simeprevir) for oral administration is available as 150 mg strength hard gelatin capsules. Each capsule contains 154.4 mg of simeprevir sodium salt, which is equivalent to 150 mg of simeprevir. OLYSIO (simeprevir) capsules contain the following inactive ingredients: colloidal anhydrous silica, croscarmellose sodium, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate and sodium lauryl sulphate. The white capsule contains gelatin and titanium dioxide (E171) and is printed with ink containing iron oxide black (E172) and shellac (E904).

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Synthesis

WO2008092954A2

Example 1 : preparation of 17-[2-(4-isopropylthiazole-2-yl)-7-methoxy-8-methyl- quinolin-4-yloxy]- 13-methyl-2, 14-dioxo-3, 13-diazatricyclo[ 13.3.0.046]octadec-7-ene- 4-carboxylic acid (16)

Synthesis of 4-hydroxy-2-(4-isopropylthiazole-2-yl)-7-methoxy-8-methylquinoline (6) Step 1 : synthesis of Λ/-(tert-butyloxycarbonyl)-3-methoxy-2-methylaniline (2)

Figure imgf000028_0001

1                                                                                               2

Triethylamine (42.4 mL, 302 mmol) was added to a suspension of 3-methoxy-2- methylbenzoic acid (45.6 g, 274 mmol) in dry toluene (800 mL). A clear solution was obtained. Then, dppa (65.4 mL, 302 mmol) in toluene (100 mL) was slowly added. After 1 h at room temperature, the reaction mixture was successively heated at 500C for 0.5 h, at 700C for 0.5 h then at 1000C for 1 h. To this solution, t-BuOH (30.5 g, 411 mmol) in toluene (40 mL) was added at 1000C and the resulting mixture was refluxed for 7h. The solution was cooled to room temperature then successively washed with water, 0.5 N HCl, 0.5 N NaOH and brine, dried (Na2SO4), and evaporated to give 67 g of the target product: m/z = 237 (M)+.

_2: synthesis of 3-methoxy-2-methylaniline (3)

Figure imgf000029_0001

TFA (40.7 mL, 548 mmol) was added to a solution of jV-(teτt-butyloxycarbonyl)- 3-methoxy-2-methylaniline, in dichloro methane (500 mL). After 2 h at room temperature, TFA (40.7 mL, 548 mmol) was added and the resulting mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight. Then, volatiles were evaporated. The residue was triturated with toluene (100 mL) and diisopropylether (250 mL), filtered off and washed with diisopropyl ether (100 mL) to give 56.3 g of the title product as a TFA salt: m/z = 138 (M+H)+. The TFA salt was transformed to the free aniline by treatment with NaHCO3.

Step 3: synthesis of (2-amino-4-methoxy-3-methylphenyl)(methyl)ketone (4)

Figure imgf000029_0002

A solution Of BCl3 (1.0 M, 200 mL, 200 mmol) in CH2Cl2 was slowly added under nitrogen to a solution of 3-methoxy-2-methylaniline (26.0 g, 190 mmol) in xylene (400 mL). The temperature was monitored during the addition and was kept below 100C. The reaction mixture was stirred at 5°C for 0.5 h. Then, dry acetonitrile (13 mL, 246 mmol) was added at 5°C. After 0.5 h at 5°C, the solution was transferred into a dropping funnel and slowly added at 5°C to a suspension OfAlCl3 (26.7 g, 200 mmol) in CH2Cl2 (150 mL). After 45 min at 5°C, the reaction mixture was heated at 700C under a nitrogen stream. After evaporation Of CH2Cl2, the temperature of the reaction mixture reached 65°C. After 12 h at 65°C, the reaction mixture was cooled at 00C, poured onto ice (300 g), and slowly heated to reflux for 7h. After 2 days at room temperature, 6 N NaOH (50 mL) was added. The pH of the resulting solution was 2-3. The xylene layer was decanted. The organic layer was extracted with CH2Cl2. The xylene and CH2Cl2 layers were combined, successively washed with water, IN NaOH, and brine, dried (Na2SO4) and evaporated. The residue was triturated in diisopropyl ether at O0C, filtered off and washed with diisopropylether to give 13.6 g (40 %) of the title product as a yellowish solid: m/z = 180 (M+H)+.

Step 4: synthesis of 2′-[[(4-isopropylthiazole-2-yl)(oxo)methyl]amino]-4′-methoxy-3 ‘- methylacetophenone (5)

Figure imgf000030_0001

A solution of the compound 4 (18.6 g, 104 mmol) in dioxane (50 rnL) was added under nitrogen to a suspension of 4-isopropylthiazole-2-carbonyl chloride in dioxane (250 rnL). After 2 h at room temperature, the reaction mixture was concentrated to dryness. Then, the residue was partitioned between an aqueous solution of NaHCOs and AcOEt, organic layer was washed with brine, dried (Na2SO4), and evaporated. The residue was triturated in diisopropyl ether, filtered off and washed with diisopropyl ether to give 30.8 g (90 %) of the title product 5.

Step 5: synthesis of 4-hydroxy-2-(4-isopropylthiazole-2-yl)-7-methoxy-8- methylquinoline (6)

Figure imgf000030_0002

Potassium tert-butoxide (21.8 g, 195 mmol) was added to a suspension of the compound 5 (30.8 g, 92.7 mmol) in tert-butanol. The resulting reaction mixtures was heated at 1000C overnight. Then, the reaction mixture was cooled at room temperature and diluted with ether (100 mL). The precipitate was filtered off and washed with Et2O to give a powder (fraction A). The mother liquor was concentrated in vacuo, triturated in ether, filtered off, and washed with ether to give a powder (fraction 2). Fractions 1 and 2 were mixed and poured into water (250 mL). The pH of the resulting solution was adjusted to 6-7 (control with pH paper) with HCl IN. The precipitate was filtered off, washed with water and dried. Then, the solid was triturated in diisopropyl ether, fϊltered off and dried to give 26 g (88%) of the compound 6 as a brownish solid: m/z = 315 (M+H)+.

Synthesis of (hex-5-enyl)(methyl)amine (8)

O CF,

FX N Br’ N O NH

H 7

(a) Sodium hydride (1.05 eq) was slowly added at 00C to a solution of JV-methyl- trifluoro-acetamide (25 g) in DMF (140 mL). The mixture was stirred for Ih at room temperature under nitrogen. Then, a solution of bromohexene (32,1 g) in DMF

(25 mL) was added dropwise and the mixture was heated to 700C for 12 hours. The reaction mixture was poured on water (200 mL) and extracted with ether (4 x 50 mL), dried (MgSO4), filtered and evaporated to give 35 g of the target product 7 as a yellowish oil which was used without further purification in the next step.

(b) A solution of KOH (187.7 g) in water (130 mL) was added dropwise to a solution of 7 (35 g) in methanol (200 mL). The mixture was stirred at room temperature for

12 hours. Then, the reaction mixture was poured on water (100 mL) and extracted with ether (4 x 50 mL), dried (MgSO4), filtered and the ether was distilled under atmospheric pressure. The resulting oil was purified by distillation under vacuum (13 mm Hg pressure, 500C) to give 7,4 g (34 %) of the title product 8 as a colourless oil: 1H-NMR (CDCl3): δ 5.8 (m, IH), 5 (ddd, J = Yl 2 Hz, 3.5 Hz, 1.8 Hz, IH), 4.95 (m, IH), 2.5 (t, J = 7.0 Hz, 2H), 2.43 (s, 3H), 2.08 (q, J= 7.0 Hz, 2H), 1.4 (m, 4H), 1.3 (br s, IH).

Preparation of 17-[2-(4-isopropylthiazole-2-yl)-7-methoxy-8-methylquinolin-4-yloxyl- 13-methyl-2, 14-dioxo-3, 13-diazatricyclo[ 13.3.0.046loctadec-7-ene-4-carboxylic acid (16)

Figure imgf000031_0001

3-Oxo-2-oxa-bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-5-carboxylic acid 9 (500 mg, 3.2 mmol) in 4 mL DMF was added at 00C to HATU (1.34 g, 3.52 mmol) and JV-methylhex-5-enylamine (435 mg, 3.84 mmol) in DMF (3 mL), followed by DIPEA. After stirring for 40 min at 00C, the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 5 h. Then, the solvent was evaporated, the residue dissolved in EtOAc (70 rnL) and washed with saturated NaHCOs (IO mL). The aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 25 mL). The organic phases were combined, washed with saturated NaCl (20 mL), dried (Na2SO4), and evaporated. Purification by flash chromatography (EtO Ac/petroleum ether, 2:1) afforded 550 mg (68%) of the target product 10 as a colorless oil: m/z = 252 (M+H)+.

Figure imgf000032_0001

A solution of LiOH (105 mg in 4 mlof water) was added at 00C to the lactone amide 10. After Ih, the conversion was completed (HPLC). The mixture was acidified to pH 2 – 3 with IN HCl, extracted with AcOEt, dried (MgSO4), evaporated, co-evaporated with toluene several times, and dried under high vacuum overnight to give 520 mg (88%) of the target product 11: m/z = 270 (M+H)+.

Figure imgf000032_0002

The l-(amino)-2-(vinyl)cyclopropanecarboxylic acid ethyl ester hydrochloride 12

(4.92 g, 31.7 mmol) and HATU (12.6 g, 33.2 mmol) were added to 11 (8.14 g,

30.2 mmol). The mixture was cooled in an ice bath under argon, and then DMF (100 mL) and DIPEA (12.5 mL, 11.5 mmol) were successively added. After 30 min at 00C, the solution was stirred at room temperature for an additional 3 h. Then, the reaction mixture was partitioned between EtOAc and water, washed successively with 0.5 N HCl (20 mL) and saturated NaCl (2 x 20 mL), and dried (Na2SO4). Purification by flash chromatography (AcOEt/CH2Cl2/Petroleum ether, 1 :1 :1) afforded 7.41 g (60%) of the target product 13 as a colorless oil: m/z = 407 (M+H)+.

Figure imgf000033_0001

DIAD (1.02 niL, 5.17 mmol) was added at -15°C under nitrogen atmosphere to a solution of 13 (1.5 g, 3.69 mmol), quinoline 6 (1.39 g, 4.43 mmol) and triphenyl- phosphine (1.26 g, 4.80 mmol) in dry THF (40 mL). After 4.5 h, at -15°C, the reaction mixture was partitioned between ice-cold water and AcOEt, dried (Na2SO4) and evaporated. The crude material was purified by flash column chromatography (gradient of petroleum AcOEt/CH2Cl2, 1 :9 to 2:8) to give 1.45 g (56 %) of the target product 14: m/z = 703 (M+H)+.

Figure imgf000033_0002

A solution of 14 (1.07 g, 1.524 mmol) and Hoveyda-Grubbs 1st generation catalyst (33 mg, 0.03 eq) in dried and degassed 1 ,2-dichloroethane (900 mL) was heated at 75°C under nitrogen for 12 h. Then, the solvent was evaporated and the residue purified by silica gel chromatography (25% EtOAc in CH2Cl2). 620 mg (60%) of pure macrocycle 15 were obtained, m/z = 674 (M+H)+1H NMR (CDCl3): 1.18-1.39 (m, 12H), 1.59 (m, IH), 1.70-2.08 (m, 5H), 2.28 (m, IH), 2.38 (m, IH), 2.62 (m, 2H), 2.68 (s, 3H), 2.83 (m, IH), 3.06 (s, 3H), 3.19 (sept, J= 6.7 Hz, IH), 3.36 (m, IH), 3.83 (m, IH), 3.97 (s, 3H), 4.09 (m, 2H), 4.65 (td, J= 4 Hz, 14 Hz, IH), 5.19 (dd, J= 4 Hz,

10 Hz, IH), 5.31 (m, IH), 5.65 (td, J= 4 Hz, 8 Hz, IH), 7.00 (s, IH), 7.18 (s, IH), 7.46

(d, J= 9 Hz, IH), 7.48 (s, IH), 8.03 (d, J= 9 Hz, IH).

Figure imgf000034_0001

A solution of lithium hydroxide (1.65 g, 38.53 mmol) in water (15 rnL) was added to a stirred solution of ester 15 (620 mg, 0.920 mmol) in THF (30 mL) and MeOH (20 mL). After 16 h at room temperature, the reaction mixture was quenched with NH4Cl sat., concentrated under reduced pressure, acidified to pH 3 with HCl IN and extracted with CH2Cl2, dried (MgSO4) and evaporated to give 560 mg (88%) of carboxylic acid 16. m/z = 647 (M+H)+1H NMR (CDCl3): 1.11-1.40 (m, 8H), 1.42-1.57 (m, 2H), 1.74 (m, 2H), 1.88-2.00 (m, 2H), 2.13 (m, IH), 2.28 (m, IH), 2.40 (m, IH), 2.59 (m, 2H), 2.67 (s, 3H), 2.81 (m, IH), 2.97 (s, 3H), 3.19 (m, IH), 3.31 (m, IH), 3.71 (m, IH), 3.96 (s, 3H), 4.56 (dt, J= 4 Hz, 12 Hz, IH), 5.23 (m, 2H), 5.66 (m, IH), 7.01 (s, IH), 7.10 (s, IH), 7.22 (d, J= IO Hz, IH), 7.45 (s, IH), 8.00 (d, J= 10 Hz, IH).

Example 2: Preparation of Λ/-[17-[2-(4-isopropylthiazole-2-yl)-7-methoxy-8-methyl- quinolin-4-yloxy]- 13-methyl-2, 14-dioxo-3, 13-diazatricyclo[ 13.3.0.046]octadec-7-ene- 4-carbonyll(cvclopropyl)sulfonamide (17) SIMEPREVIR

Figure imgf000035_0001

A solution of the compound 16 (560mg, 0.867 mmol) prepared according to Example 4, and carbonyldiimidazole (308 mg, 1.90 mmol) in dry THF (10 mL) was stirred at reflux under nitrogen for 2h. The reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature and cyclopropylsulfonamide (400 mg, 3.301 mmol) and DBU (286 mg, 1.881 mmol) were added. This solution was heated at 500C for 15 h. Then, the reaction mixture was cooled down at room temperature and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was partitioned between CH2Cl2 and HCl 1 N, the organic layer was washed with brine, dried (MgSO4) and evaporated. Purification by flash chromatography (gradient of EtOAc (0 to 25%) in CH2Cl2) afforded 314 mg of an off-white solid which was further washed with water, then isopropylether, and dried in the vacuum oven to deliver 282 mg (40%) of the pure title product 17, which is the compound of formula (I)  SIMEPREVIR , as a white powder: m/z = 750 (M+H)+.

1H NMR (CDCl3): 0.99-1.52 (m, 14H), 1.64-2.05 (m, 4H), 2.77 (m, IH), 2.41 (m, 2H), 2.59 (m, 2H), 2.69 (s, 3H), 2.92 (m, 2H), 3.04 (s, 3H), 3.19 (m, IH), 3.40 (m, 2H), 3.98 (s, 3H), 4.60 (t, J= 13 Hz, IH), 5.04 (t, J= 11 Hz, IH), 5.37 (m, IH), 5.66 (m, IH), 6.21 (s, IH), 7.02 (s, IH), 7.22 (d, J= IO Hz, IH), 7.45 (s, IH), 7.99 (d, J= 10 Hz, IH), 10.82 (broad s, IH).

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SYNTHESIS

WO2007014926A1

 

Example 4: preparation of 17-[2-(4-isopropylthiazole-2-yl)-7-methoxy-8-methyl- quinolin-4-yloxy] – 13 -methyl-2, 14-dioxo-3 , 13 -diazatricyclo[ 13.3.0.046]octadec-7-ene- 4-carboxylic acid (46) FREE ACID

Synthesis of 4-hvdroxy-2-(4-isopropylthiazole-2-yl)-7-methoxy-8-methylquinoline (36) Step 1: synthesis of iV-(tert-butyloxycarbonyl)-3-methoxy-2-methylaniline (32)

 

Figure imgf000071_0002

31 32

Triethylamine (42.4 mL, 302 mmol) was added to a suspension of 3-methoxy-2- methylbenzoic acid (45.6 g, 274 mmol) in dry toluene (800 mL). A clear solution was obtained. Then, dppa (65.4 mL, 302 mmol) in toluene (100 mL) was slowly added. After 1 h at room temperature, the reaction mixture was successively heated at 50°C for 0.5 h, at 70°C for 0.5 h then at 100°C for 1 h. To this solution, t-BuOH (30.5 g, 411 mmol) in toluene (40 mL) was added at 100°C and the resulting mixture was refluxed for 7h. The solution was cooled to room temperature then successively washed with water, 0.5 N HCl, 0.5 N NaOH and brine, dried (Na2SO4), and evaporated to give 67 g of the target product: m/z = 237 (M)+.

Step 2: synthesis of 3-methoxy-2-methylaniline (33)

 

Figure imgf000072_0001

TFA (40.7 mL, 548 mmol) was added to a solution of iV-(tert-butyloxycarbonyl)-3- methoxy-2-methylaniline, in dichloromethane (500 mL). After 2 h at room temperature, TFA (40.7 mL, 548 mmol) was added and the resulting mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight. Then, volatiles were evaporated. The residue was triturated with toluene (100 mL) and diisopropylether (250 mL), filtered off and washed with diisopropyl ether (100 mL) to give 56.3 g of the title product as a TFA salt: m/z = 138 (M+H)+. The TFA salt was transformed to the free aniline by treatment with NaHCO3.

Step 3: synthesis of (2-amino-4-methoxy-3-methylphenyl)(methyl)ketone (34)

 

Figure imgf000072_0002

A solution OfBCl3 (1.0 M, 200 mL, 200 mmol) in CH2Cl2 was slowly added under nitrogen to a solution of 3-methoxy-2-methylaniline (26.0 g, 190 mmol) in xylene (400 mL). The temperature was monitored during the addition and was kept below 10°C. The reaction mixture was stirred at 5°C for 0.5 h. Then, dry acetonitrile (13 mL, 246 mmol) was added at 5°C. After 0.5 h at 5°C, the solution was transferred into a dropping funnel and slowly added at 5°C to a suspension OfAlCl3 (26.7 g, 200 mmol) in CH2Cl2 (150 mL). After 45 min at 5°C, the reaction mixture was heated at 70°C under a nitrogen stream. After evaporation Of CH2Cl2, the temperature of the reaction mixture reached 65°C. After 12 h at 65°C, the reaction mixture was cooled at 0°C, poured onto ice (300 g), and slowly heated to reflux for 7h. After 2 days at room temperature, 6 N NaOH (50 mL) was added. The pH of the resulting solution was 2-3. The xylene layer was decanted. The organic layer was extracted with CH2Cl2. The xylene and CH2Cl2 layers were combined, successively washed with water, IN NaOH, and brine, dried (Na2SO4) and evaporated. The residue was triturated in diisopropyl ether at O0C, filtered off and washed with diisopropylether to give 13.6 g (40 %) of the title product as a yellowish solid: m/z = 180 (M+H)+.

Step 4: synthesis of 2′-[[(4-isopropylthiazole-2-yl)(oxo)methyl]amino]-4′-methoxy-3 ‘- methylacetophenone (35)

 

Figure imgf000073_0001

A solution of (2-amino-4-methoxy-3-methylphenyl)(methyl)ketone (18.6 g, 104 mmol) in dioxane (50 mL) was added under nitrogen to a suspension of 4-isopropylthiazole-2- carbonyl chloride in dioxane (250 mL). After 2 h at room temperature, the reaction mixture was concentrated to dryness. Then, the residue was partitioned between an aqueous solution OfNaHCO3and AcOEt, organic layer was washed with brine, dried (Na2SO4), and evaporated. The residue was triturated in diisopropyl ether, filtered off and washed with diisopropyl ether to give 30.8 g (90 %) of the title product 35.

Step 5: synthesis of 4-hydroxy-2-(4-isopropylthiazole-2-yl)-7-methoxy-8- methylquinoline (36)

 

Figure imgf000073_0002

Potassium tert-butoxide (21.8 g, 195 mmol) was added to a suspension of 2′-[[(4-iso- propylthiazole-2-yl)(oxo)methyl]amino]-4′-methoxy-3′-methylacetophenone (35, 30.8 g, 92.7 mmol) in tert-butanol. The resulting reaction mixtures was heated at 100°C overnight. Then, the reaction mixture was cooled at room temperature and diluted with ether (100 mL). The precipitate was filtered off and washed with Et2O to give a powder (fraction A). The mother liquor was concentrated in vacuo, triturated in ether, filtered off, and washed with ether to give a powder (fraction 2). Fractions 1 and 2 were mixed and poured into water (250 mL). The pH of the resulting solution was adjusted to 6-7 (control with pH paper) with HCl IN. The precipitate was filtered off, washed with water and dried. Then, the solid was triturated in diisopropyl ether, filtered off and dried to give 26 g (88%) of the title product 36 as a brownish solid: m/z = 315 (M+H)+.

Synthesis of (hex-5-enyl)(methyl)amine (38)

 

Figure imgf000074_0001

Sodium hydride (1.05 eq) was slowly added at 0°C to a solution of iV-methyltrifluoro- acetamide (25 g) in DMF (140 mL). The mixture was stirred for Ih at room temperature under nitrogen. Then, a solution of bromohexene (32,1 g) in DMF (25 mL) was added dropwise and the mixture was heated to 70°C for 12 hours. The reaction mixture was poured on water (200 mL) and extracted with ether (4 x 50 mL), dried (MgSO4), filtered and evaporated to give 35 g of the target product 37 as a yellowish oil which was used without further purification in the next step.

Step B:

A solution of potassium hydroxide (187.7 g) in water (130 mL) was added dropwise to a solution of 37 (35 g) in methanol (200 mL). The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 12 hours. Then, the reaction mixture was poured on water (100 mL) and extracted with ether (4 x 50 mL), dried (MgSO4), filtered and the ether was distilled under atmospheric pressure. The resulting oil was purified by distillation under vacuum (13 mm Hg pressure, 50°C) to give 7,4 g (34 %) of the title product 38 as a colourless oil: 1H-NMR (CDCl3): δ 5.8 (m, IH), 5 (ddd, J= 17.2 Hz, 3.5 Hz, 1.8 Hz, IH), 4.95 (m, IH), 2.5 (t, J= 7.0 Hz, 2H), 2.43 (s, 3H), 2.08 (q, J= 7.0 Hz, 2H), 1.4 (m, 4H), 1.3 (br s, IH).

Preparation of 17-r2-(4-isopropylthiazole-2-yl)-7-methoxy-8-methylquinolin-4-yloxyl-

13-methyl-2,14-dioxo-3,13-diazatricvclori3.3.0.046loctadec-7-ene-4-carboxylic acid

£46}

 

Figure imgf000074_0002

3-Oxo-2-oxa-bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-5-carboxylic acid 39 (500 mg, 3.2 mmol) in 4 mlDMF was added at 0°C to HATU (1.34 g, 3.52 mmol) and iV-methylhex-5- enylamine (435 mg, 3.84 mmol) in DMF (3 mL), followed by DIPEA. After stirring for 40 min at 0°C, the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 5 h. Then, the solvent was evaporated, the residue dissolved in EtOAc (70 mL) and washed with saturated NaHCO3 (10 mL). The aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 25 mL). The organic phases were combined, washed with saturated NaCl (20 mL), dried (Na2SO4), and evaporated. Purification by flash chromatography (EtOAc/petroleum ether, 2:1) afforded 550 mg (68%) of the target product 40 as a colorless oil: m/z = 252 (M+H)+.

 

Figure imgf000075_0001

A solution of LiOH (105 mg in 4 mlof water) was added at 0°C to the lactone amide 40. After Ih, the conversion was completed (HPLC). The mixture was acidified to pH 2 – 3 with IN HCl, extracted with AcOEt, dried (MgSO4), evaporated, co-evaporated with toluene several times, and dried under high vacuum overnight to give 520 mg (88%) of the target product 41: m/z = 270 (M+H)+.

 

Figure imgf000075_0002

The l-(amino)-2-(vinyl)cyclopropanecarboxylic acid ethyl ester hydrochloride 42 (4.92 g, 31.7 mmol) and HATU (12.6 g, 33.2 mmol) were added to 41 (8.14 g, 30.2 mmol). The mixture was cooled in an ice bath under argon, and then DMF (100 mL) and DIPEA (12.5 mL, 11.5 mmol) were successively added. After 30 min at 0°C, the solution was stirred at room temperature for an additional 3 h. Then, the reaction mixture was partitioned between EtOAc and water, washed successively with 0.5 N HCl (20 mL) and saturated NaCl (2 x 20 mL), and dried (Na2SO4). Purification by flash chromatography (AcOEt/CH2Cl2/Petroleum ether, 1:1:1) afforded 7.41 g (60%) of the target product 43 as a colorless oil: m/z = 407 (M+H)+.

Figure imgf000076_0001

DIAD (1.02 mL, 5.17 mmol) was added at -15°C under nitrogen atmosphere to a solution of 43 (1.5 g, 3.69 mmol), quinoline 36 (1.39 g, 4.43 mmol) and triphenyl- phosphine (1.26 g, 4.80 mmol) in dry THF (40 mL). After 4.5 h, at -15°C, the reaction mixture was partitioned between ice-cold water and AcOEt, dried (Na2SO4) and evaporated. The crude material was purified by flash column chromatography (gradient of petroleum AcOEt/CH2Cl2, 1 :9 to 2:8) to give 1.45 g (56 %) of the target product 44: m/z = 703 (M+H)+.

 

Figure imgf000076_0002

A solution of 44 (1.07 g, 1.524 mmol) and Hoveyda-Grubbs 1st generation catalyst (33 mg, 0.03 eq) in dried and degassed 1,2-dichloroethane (900 mL) was heated at 75°C under nitrogen for 12 h. Then, the solvent was evaporated and the residue purified by silica gel chromatography (25% EtOAc in CH2Cl2). 620 mg (60%) of pure macrocycle 45 were obtained, m/z = 674 (M+H)+1H NMR (CDCl3): 1.18-1.39 (m, 12H), 1.59 (m, IH), 1.70-2.08 (m, 5H), 2.28 (m, IH), 2.38 (m, IH), 2.62 (m, 2H), 2.68 (s, 3H), 2.83 (m, IH), 3.06 (s, 3H), 3.19 (sept, J= 6.7 Hz, IH), 3.36 (m, IH), 3.83 (m, IH), 3.97 (s, 3H), 4.09 (m, 2H), 4.65 (td, J= 4 Hz, 14 Hz, IH), 5.19 (dd, J= 4 Hz, 10 Hz, IH), 5.31 (m, IH), 5.65 (td, J= 4 Hz, 8 Hz, IH), 7.00 (s, IH), 7.18 (s, IH), 7.46 (d, J= 9 Hz, IH), 7.48 (s, IH), 8.03 (d, J= 9 Hz, IH).

Step F

 

Figure imgf000077_0001

A solution of lithium hydroxide (1.65 g, 38.53 mmol) in water (15 mL) was added to a stirred solution of ester 45 (620 mg, 0.920 mmol) in THF (30 mL) and MeOH (20 mL). After 16 h at room temperature, the reaction mixture was quenched with NH4Cl sat., concentrated under reduced pressure, acidified to pH 3 with HCl IN and extracted with CH2Cl2, dried (MgSO4) and evaporated to give 560 mg (88%) of carboxylic acid 46. m/z = 647 (M+H)+1H NMR (CDCl3): 1.11-1.40 (m, 8H), 1.42-1.57 (m, 2H), 1.74 (m, 2H), 1.88-2.00 (m, 2H), 2.13 (m, IH), 2.28 (m, IH), 2.40 (m, IH), 2.59 (m, 2H), 2.67 (s, 3H), 2.81 (m, IH), 2.97 (s, 3H), 3.19 (m, IH), 3.31 (m, IH), 3.71 (m, IH), 3.96 (s, 3H), 4.56 (dt, J= 4 Hz, 12 Hz, IH), 5.23 (m, 2H), 5.66 (m, IH), 7.01 (s, IH), 7.10 (s, IH), 7.22 (d, J= 10 Hz, IH), 7.45 (s, IH), 8.00 (d, J= 10 Hz, IH).

 

Example 5: Preparation of JV-ri7-r2-(4-isopropylthiazole-2-yl)-7-methoxy-8- methylquinolin-4- yloxyl – 13 -methyl-2, 14-dioxo-3 , 13 -diazatricyclol 13.3.0.046loctadec- 7-ene-4-carbonyll (cvclopropyPsulfonamide (47) SIMEPREVIR

 

Figure imgf000078_0001

A solution of 17-[2-(4-isopropylthiazole-2-yl)-7-methoxy-8-methylquinolin-4-yloxy]- 13-methyl-2, 14-dioxo-3, 13-diazatricyclo[l 3.3.0.04,6]octadec-7-ene-4-carboxylic acid 46 (560mg, 0.867 mmol) prepared according to Example 4, and carbonyldiimidazole (308 mg, 1.90 mmol) in dry THF (10 mL) was stirred at reflux under nitrogen for 2h. The reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature and cyclopropylsulfonamide (400 mg, 3.301 mmol) and DBU (286 mg, 1.881 mmol) were added. This solution was heated at 50°C for 15 h. Then, the reaction mixture was cooled down at room temperature and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was partitioned between CH2CI2 and HCl 1 N, the organic layer was washed with brine, dried (MgSO4) and evaporated. Purification by flash chromatography (gradient of EtOAc (0 to 25%) in CH2CI2) afforded 314 mg of an off-white solid which was further washed with water, then isopropylether, and dried in the vacuum oven to deliver 282 mg (40%) of the pure title product 47  SIMEPREVIR as a white powder: m/z = 750 (M+H)+.

1H NMR (CDCl3): 0.99-1.52 (m, 14H), 1.64-2.05 (m, 4H), 2.77 (m, IH), 2.41 (m, 2H), 2.59 (m, 2H), 2.69 (s, 3H), 2.92 (m, 2H), 3.04 (s, 3H), 3.19 (m, IH), 3.40 (m, 2H), 3.98 (s, 3H), 4.60 (t, J= 13 Hz, IH), 5.04 (t, J= 11 Hz, IH), 5.37 (m, IH), 5.66 (m, IH), 6.21 (s, IH), 7.02 (s, IH), 7.22 (d, J= 10 Hz, IH), 7.45 (s, IH), 7.99 (d, J= 10 Hz, IH), 10.82 (broad s, IH).

…………………..

REFERENCES

  1.  “Medivir Announces That Simeprevir (TMC435) Data Will Be Presented at the Upcoming AASLD Meeting”. Yahoo News. October 1, 2012. Retrieved November 6, 2012.
  2.  Lin, TI; Lenz, O; Fanning, G; Verbinnen, T; Delouvroy, F; Scholliers, A; Vermeiren, K; Rosenquist, A et al. (2009). “In vitro activity and preclinical profile of TMC435350, a potent hepatitis C virus protease inhibitor”Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy 53 (4): 1377–85. doi:10.1128/AAC.01058-08PMC 2663092PMID 19171797|displayauthors= suggested (help)
  3.  “Phase 3 Studies Show Simeprevir plus Interferon/Ribavirin Cures Most Patients in 24 Weeks”. hivandhepatitis.com. December 27, 2012.
  4.  Medivir announces TMC435 in an expanded clinical collaboration. Medivir. 18 April 2012.
  5.  Results from a phase IIa study evaluating Simeprevir and Sofosbuvir in prior null responder Hepatitis C patients have been presented at CROI. 6 March 2013.
  6. TMC-435350
    Drugs Fut 2009, 34(7): 545
  7. Structure-activity relationship study on a novel series of cyclopentane-containing macrocyclic inhibitors of the hepatitis C virus NS3/4A protease leading to the discovery of TMC435350
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2008, 18(17): 4853
  8. Synthesis of enantiomerically pure trans-3,4-substituted cyclopentanols by enzymatic resolution
    Acta Chem Scand (1989) 1992, 46: 1127

PATENTS

  1. WO 2008092954
  2. WO 2007014926
  3. WO 2008092955
  4. WO 2000009543
  5. CN 102531932
  6. WO 2013061285
  7. WO 2011113859
  8. WO 2013041655
WO2010097229A2 * 26 Feb 2010 2 Sep 2010 Ortho-Mcneil-Janssen Pharmaceuticals Inc Amorphous salt of a macrocyclic inhibitor of hcv
WO2013037705A2 * 7 Sep 2012 21 Mar 2013 Fovea Pharmaceuticals Aniline derivatives,their preparation and their therapeutic application
WO2005073195A2 * 28 Jan 2005 11 Aug 2005 Per-Ola Johansson Hcv ns-3 serine protease inhibitors
WO2007014926A1 * 28 Jul 2006 8 Feb 2007 Tibotec Pharm Ltd Macrocyclic inhibitors of hepatitis c virus

The compound ritonavir, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof, and methods for its preparation are described in WO94/14436. For preferred dosage forms of ritonavir, see US6,037, 157, and the documents cited therein: US5,484, 801, US08/402,690, and WO95/07696 and WO95/09614. Ritonavir has the following formula:

Figure imgf000060_0001

Bayer, Onyx win early FDA OK for Nexavar (sorafenib) in thyroid cancer


The U.S. Food and Drug Administration said on Friday it has expanded the approved use of the cancer drug Nexavar to include late-stage differentiated thyroid cancer.

Differentiated thyroid cancer is the most common type of thyroid cancer, the FDA said. The National Cancer Institute estimates that 60,220 people in the United States will be diagnosed with it and 1,850 will die from the disease in 2013.

The drug, made by Germany’s Bayer AG and Onyx Pharmaceuticals, is already approved to treat advanced kidney cancer and liver cancer that cannot be surgically removed. Onyx was acquired by Amgen Inc earlier this year.

 

READ ABOUT SORAFENIB IN MY EARLIER BLOGPOST

https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/2013/07/16/nexavar-sorafenib/

Pfizer’s Xalkori Granted Regular FDA Approval


Pfizer’s XALKORI® Granted Regular FDA Approval
Standard of Care for Patients With Metastatic ALK-Positive Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

NEW YORK, November 21, 2013–(BUSINESS WIRE)–Pfizer Inc. announced today that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted Pfizer’s XALKORI® (crizotinib) regular approval for the treatment of patients with metastatic ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as detected by an FDA-approved test. XALKORI was previously granted accelerated approval in August 2011 due to the critical need for new agents for people living with ALK-positive NSCLC

read all at

http://www.pharmalive.com/pfizer%E2%80%99s-xalkori-granted-regular-fda-approval

https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/2013/03/01/pfizer-gains-china-approval-of-kinase-specific-lung-cancer-drug-xalkori-crizotinib/

FDA panel backs Vanda body clock drug Tasimelteon for blind


Tasimelteon

N-([(1R,2R)-2-(2,3-Dihydro-1-benzofuran-4-yl)cyclopropyl]methyl)propanamide, 609799-22-6 cas

As expected, advisors to the US Food and Drug Administration have recommended approval of Vanda Pharmaceuticals’ tasimelteon, to be sold as Hetlioz, for the treatment of non-24-hour disorder in the totally blind.http://www.pharmatimes.com/Article/13-11-14/FDA_panel_backs_Vanda_body_clock_drug_for_blind.aspx

Tasimelteon (BMS-214,778) is a drug which is under development for the treatment of insomnia and other sleep disorders.[1] It is a selective agonistfor the melatonin receptors MT1 and MT2 in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the brain, similar to older drugs such as ramelteon.[2] It has been through Phase III trials successfully and was shown to improve both onset and maintenance of sleep, with few side effects.[3]

A year-long (2011-2012) study at Harvard is testing the use of tasimelteon in blind subjects with non-24-hour sleep–wake disorder.[4] In May 2013Vanda Pharmaceuticals submitted a New Drug Application to the Food and Drug Administration for Tasimelteon for the treatment of non-24-hour sleep–wake disorder in totally blind people.[5]

A drug being developed to treat transient insomnia in circadian rhythm sleep disorders (eg jet-lag. The drug appears to be effective in the dose range of 20 to 100mg with an advance in the melatonin rhythm of 2-3 hours with the higher dose

  1.  ‘Time-bending drug’ for jet lag. BBC News. 2 December 2008
  2. Vachharajani, Nimish N., Yeleswaram, Krishnaswamy, Boulton, David W. (April 2003). “Preclinical pharmacokinetics and metabolism of BMS-214778, a novel melatonin receptor agonist”. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 92 (4): 760–72. doi:10.1002/jps.10348PMID 12661062.
  3. Shantha MW Rajaratnam, Mihael H Polymeropoulos, Dennis M Fisher, Thomas Roth, Christin Scott, Gunther Birznieks, Elizabeth B Klerman (2009-02-07). “Melatonin agonist tasimelteon (VEC-162) for transient insomnia after sleep-time shift: two randomised controlled multicentre trials”The Lancet373 (9662): 482–491. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61812-7PMID 19054552. Retrieved 2010-02-23.
  4.  Audio interview with Joseph Hull of Harvard, spring 2011
  5.  Vanda Pharmaceuticals seeks FDA approval

The master body clock controls the timing of many aspects of physiology, behavior and metabolism that show daily rhythms, including the sleep-wake cycles, body temperature, alertness and performance, metabolic rhythms and certain hormones which exhibit circadian variation. Outputs from the

suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) control many endocrine rhythms including those of melatonin secretion by the pineal gland as well as the control of Cortisol secretion via effects on the hypothalamus, the pituitary and the adrenal glands. This master body clock, located in the SCN, spontaneously generates rhythms of approximately 24.5 hours. These non-24-hour rhythms are synchronized each day to the 24-hour day-night cycle by light, the primary environmental time cue which is detected by specialized cells in the retina and transmitted to the SCN via the retino-hypothalamic tract. Inability to detect this light signal, as occurs in most totally blind individuals, leads to the inability of the master body clock to be reset daily and maintain entrainment to a 24-hour day.

Non-24-Hour Disorder

Non-24, also referred to as Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder

(N24HSWD) or Non-24-Hour Disorder, is an orphan indication affecting approximately 65,000 to 95,000 people in the U.S. and 140,000 in Europe. Non- 24 occurs when individuals, primarily blind with no light perception, are unable to synchronize their endogenous circadian pacemaker to the 24-hour light/dark cycle. Without light as a synchronizer, and because the period of the internal clock is typically a little longer than 24 hours, individuals with Non-24 experience their circadian drive to initiate sleep drifting later and later each day. Individuals with Non-24 have abnormal night sleep patterns, accompanied by difficulty staying awake during the day. Non-24 leads to significant impairment, with chronic effects impacting the social and occupational functioning of these individuals.

In addition to problems sleeping at the desired time, individuals with Non-24 experience excessive daytime sleepiness that often results in daytime napping.

The severity of nighttime sleep complaints and/or daytime sleepiness complaints varies depending on where in the cycle the individual’s body clock is with respect to their social, work, or sleep schedule. The “free running” of the clock results in approximately a 1-4 month repeating cycle, the circadian cycle, where the circadian drive to initiate sleep continually shifts a little each day (about 15 minutes on average) until the cycle repeats itself. Initially, when the circadian cycle becomes desynchronous with the 24h day-night cycle, individuals with Non-24 have difficulty initiating sleep. As time progresses, the internal circadian rhythms of these individuals becomes 180 degrees out of synchrony with the 24h day-night cycle, which gradually makes sleeping at night virtually impossible, and leads to extreme sleepiness during daytime hours.

Eventually, the individual’s sleep-wake cycle becomes aligned with the night, and “free-running” individuals are able to sleep well during a conventional or socially acceptable time. However, the alignment between the internal circadian rhythm and the 24-hour day-night cycle is only temporary.

In addition to cyclical nighttime sleep and daytime sleepiness problems, this condition can cause deleterious daily shifts in body temperature and hormone secretion, may cause metabolic disruption and is sometimes associated with depressive symptoms and mood disorders.

It is estimated that 50-75% of totally blind people in the United States (approximately 65,000 to 95,000) have Non-24. This condition can also affect sighted people. However, cases are rarely reported in this population, and the true rate of Non-24 in the general population is not known.

The ultimate treatment goal for individuals with Non-24 is to entrain or synchronize their circadian rhythms into an appropriate phase relationship with the 24-hour day so that they will have increased sleepiness during the night and increased wakefulness during the daytime. Tasimelteon

Tasimelteon is a circadian regulator which binds specifically to two high affinity melatonin receptors, Mella (MT1R) and Mellb (MT2R). These receptors are found in high density in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the brain (SCN), which is responsible for synchronizing our sleep/wake cycle. Tasimelteon has been shown to improve sleep parameters in prior clinical studies, which simulated a desynchronization of the circadian clock. Tasimelteon has so far been studied in hundreds of individuals and has shown a good tolerability profile.

Tasimelteon has the chemical name: tr ns-N-[[2-(2,3-dihydrobenzofuran- 4-yl)cycloprop-lyl] methyl] propanamide, has the structure of Formula I:

Figure imgf000008_0001

Formula I

and is disclosed in US 5856529 and in US 20090105333, both of which are incorporated herein by reference as though fully set forth.

Tasimelteon is a white to off-white powder with a melting point of about 78°C (DSC) and is very soluble or freely soluble in 95% ethanol, methanol, acetonitrile, ethyl acetate, isopropanol, polyethylene glycols (PEG-300 and PEG- 400), and only slightly soluble in water. The native pH of a saturated solution of tasimelteon in water is 8.5 and its aqueous solubility is practically unaffected by pH. Tasimelteon has 2-4 times greater affinity for MT2R relative to MTIR. It’s affinity (¾) for MTIR is 0.3 to 0.4 and for MT2R, 0.1 to 0.2. Tasimelteon is useful in the practice of this invention because it is a melatonin agonist that has been demonstrated, among other activities, to entrain patients suffering from Non-24.

Metabolites of tasimelteon include, for example, those described in “Preclinical Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism of BMS-214778, a Novel

Melatonin Receptor Agonist” by Vachharajani et al., J. Pharmaceutical Sci., 92(4):760-772, which is hereby incorporated herein by reference. The active metabolites of tasimelteon can also be used in the method of this invention, as can pharmaceutically acceptable salts of tasimelteon or of its active metabolites. For example, in addition to metabolites of Formula II and III, above, metabolites of tasimelteon also include the monohydroxylated analogs M13 of Formula IV, M12 of Formula V, and M14 of Formula VI.

Formula IV

Figure imgf000010_0001

Formula V

MO

Figure imgf000010_0002

Formula VI

Thus, it is apparent that this invention contemplates entrainment of patients suffering free running circadian rhythm to a 24 hour circadian rhythm by administration of a circadian rhythm regulator (i.e., circadian rhythm modifier) capable of phase advancing and/or entraining circadian rhythms, such as a melatonin agonist like tasimelteon or an active metabolite oftasimelteon or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. Other MT1R and MT2R agonists, i.e., melatonin agonists, can have similar effects on the master body clock. So, for example, this invention further contemplates the use of melatonin agonists such as but not limited to melatonin, N-[l-(2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-4- yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl]-N-ethylurea and structurally related compounds as disclosed in US 6,211,225, LY-156735 ((R)-N-(2-(6-chloro-5-methoxy-lH-indol- 3yl) propyl) acetamide) (disclosed in U.S. Patent No. 4,997,845), agomelatine (N- [2-(7-methoxy-l-naphthyl)ethyl]acetamide) (disclosed in U.S. Patent No.

5,225,442), ramelteon ((S)-N-[2-(l,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2H-indeno- [5,4-b] furan-8- yl)ethyl]propionamide), 2-phenylmelatonin, 8-M-PDOT, 2-iodomelatonin, and 6- chloromelatonin.

Additional melatonin agonists include, without limitation, those listed in U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 20050164987, which is incorporated herein by reference, specifically: TAK-375 (see Kato, K. et al. Int. J.

Neuropsychopharmacol. 2000, 3 (Suppl. 1): Abst P.03.130; see also abstracts P.03.125 and P.03.127), CGP 52608 (l-(3-allyl-4-oxothiazolidine-2-ylidene)-4- met- hylthiosemicarbazone) (See Missbach et al., J. Biol. Chem. 1996, 271, 13515-22), GR196429 (N-[2-[2,3,7,8-tetrahydro-lH-fur-o(2,3-g)indol-l- yl] ethyl] acetamide) (see Beresford et al., J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 1998, 285, 1239-1245), S20242 (N-[2-(7-methoxy napth-l-yl) ethyl] propionamide) (see Depres-Brummer et al., Eur. J. Pharmacol. 1998, 347, 57-66), S-23478 (see Neuropharmacology July 2000), S24268 (see Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. June 2003), S25150 (see Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. June 2003), GW-290569, luzindole (2-benzyl-N-acetyltryptamine) (see U.S. Patent No. 5,093,352), GR135531 (5-methoxycarbonylamino-N-acetyltrypt- amine) (see U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 20010047016), Melatonin Research Compound A, Melatonin Agonist A (see IMSWorld R&D Focus August 2002), Melatonin

Analogue B (see Pharmaprojects August 1998), Melatonin Agonist C (see Chem. Pharm. Bull. (Tokyo) January 2002), Melatonin Agonist D (see J. Pineal Research November 2000), Melatonin Agonist E (see Chem. Pharm. Bull. (Tokyo) Febrary 2002), Melatonin Agonist F (see Reprod. Nutr. Dev. May 1999), Melatonin Agonist G (see J. Med. Chem. October 1993), Melatonin Agonist H (see Famaco March 2000), Melatonin Agonist I (see J. Med. Chem. March 2000), Melatonin Analog J (see Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. March 2003), Melatonin Analog K (see MedAd News September 2001), Melatonin Analog L, AH-001 (2-acetamido-8- methoxytetralin) (see U.S. Patent No. 5,151,446), GG-012 (4-methoxy-2- (methylene propylamide)indan) (see Drijfhout et al., Eur. J. Pharmacol. 1999, 382, 157-66), Enol-3-IPA, ML-23 (N-2,4-dinitrophenyl-5-methoxy-tryptamine ) (see U.S. Patent No. 4,880,826), SL-18.1616, IP-100-9 (US 5580878), Sleep Inducing Peptide A, AH-017 (see U.S. Patent No. 5,151,446), AH-002 (8-methoxy- 2-propionamido-tetralin) (see U.S. Patent No. 5,151,446), and IP-101.

Metabolites, prodrugs, stereoisomers, polymorphs, hydrates, solvates, and salts of the above compounds that are directly or indirectly active can, of course, also be used in the practice of this invention.

Melatonin agonists with a MT1R and MT2R binding profile similar to that of tasimelteon, which has 2 to 4 time greater specificity for MT2R, are preferred.

Tasimelteon can be synthesized by procedures known in the art. The preparation of a 4-vinyl-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran cyclopropyl intermediate can be carried out as described in US7754902, which is incorporated herein by reference as though fully set forth.

Pro-drugs, e.g., esters, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts can be prepared by exercise of routine skill in the art.

In patients suffering a Non-24, the melatonin and Cortisol circadian rhythms and the natural day/night cycle become desynchronized. For example, in patients suffering from a free-running circadian rhythm, melatonin and Cortisol acrophases occur more than 24 hours, e.g., >24.1 hours, prior to each previous day’s melatonin and Cortisol acrophase, respectively, resulting in desynchronization for days, weeks, or even months, depending upon the length of a patient’s circadian rhythm, before the melatonin, Cortisol, and day /night cycles are again temporarily synchronized.

Chronic misalignment of Cortisol has been associated with metabolic, cardiac, cognitive, neurologic, neoplastic, and hormonal disorders. Such disorders include, e.g., obesity, depression, neurological impairments.

Structure-activity relationship
SAR
Figure : Melatonin receptor agonists. The applied colors indicate the mutual properties with the general melatonin receptor agonists pharmacophore.

WASHINGTON, June 5, 2013 /PRNewswire/ — Vanda Pharmaceuticals Inc. (Vanda) presented additional entrainment and patient-level clinical data at SLEEP 2013, the 27th Annual Meeting of Associated Professional Sleep Societies in Baltimore, from its SET (Safety and Efficacy of Tasimelteon) and RESET (Randomized-withdrawal study of the Efficacy and Safety of Tasimelteon to treat Non-24-Hour Disorder) Phase III studies of tasimelteon, a circadian regulator for the treatment of Non-24-Hour Disorder (Non-24) in totally blind individuals. Non-24 is a serious, rare and chronic circadian rhythm disorder that affects a majority of totally blind individuals who lack light perception and cannot entrain (synchronize) their master body clock to the 24-hour day. Currently there is no approved FDA treatment for Non-24.

In the SET study, tasimelteon achieved the primary endpoints of entrainment (synchronizing) of the melatonin (aMT6s) rhythm as compared to placebo and clinical response as measured by entrainment plus a score of greater than or equal to 3 on the Non-24 Clinical Response Scale (N24CRS). Tasimelteon also demonstrated significant improvement versus placebo across a number of sleep and wake parameters including measures of total sleep time, nap duration, and timing of sleep, as well as in the Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGI-C), an overall global functioning scale. In treated patients, daytime naps decreased by 46 minutes per day in the worst 25% of days in a cycle and nighttime sleep increased by 57 minutes per day during the worst 25% of nights in a cycle.

The RESET study demonstrated that continued treatment with 20mg of tasimelteon was required to maintain entrainment of melatonin and cortisol circadian rhythms in individuals with Non-24. Patients treated with tasimelteon maintained their clinical benefits while patients who received placebo showed significant deterioration in measures of nighttime sleep, daytime naps and timing of sleep. Furthermore, discontinuation of tasimelteon resulted in a rapid relapse of circadian entrainment and a return to misaligned circadian rhythms, reinforcing the importance of chronic therapy.

Study investigator, Steven W. Lockley, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Sleep Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, commented, “the results clearly demonstrate that tasimelteon can entrain the circadian clock, and that continued treatment is necessary to maintain entrainment.”

About Tasimelteon: Tasimelteon is a circadian regulator in development for the treatment of Non-24. Tasimelteon is a dual melatonin receptor agonist (DMRA) with selective agonist activityat the MT1 and MT2 receptors.Tasimelteon’s ability to reset the master body clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) results in the entrainment of the body’s melatonin and cortisol rhythms with the 24-hour day-night cycle. The patent claiming tasimelteon as a new chemical entity extends through December 2022, assuming a 5-year extension to be granted under the Hatch-Waxman Act. Tasimelteon has been granted orphan drug designation for the treatment of Non-24 from both the U.S. and the European Union.

UPDATED ON JAN 2014

TASIMELTION, an orphan drug for non24

N-([(1R,2R)-2-(2,3-Dihydro-1-benzofuran-4-yl)cyclopropyl]methyl)propanamide

(1R-trans)-N-[[2-(2,3-dihydro-4-benzofuranyl)cyclopropyl]methyl]pro- pananamide VEC162

(-)-(trans)-N-[[2-(2,3-Dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)cycloprop-1-yl]methyl]propanamide

N-(((1R,2R)-2-(2,3-Dihydro-1-benzofuran-4-yl)cyclopropyl)methyl)propanamide

Bristol-Myers Squibb Company

PRODUCT PATENT

U.S. Pat. No. 5,856,529

CAS number 609799-22-6 
Formula C15H19NO2 
Mol. mass 245.3 g/mol

January 31, 2014 — The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Hetlioz (tasimelteon), a melatonin receptor agonist, to treat non-24- hour sleep-wake disorder (“non-24”) in totally blind individuals. Non-24 is a chronic circadian rhythm (body clock) disorder in the blind that causes problems with the timing of sleep. This is the first FDA approval of a treatment for the disorder.

Non-24 occurs in persons who are completely blind. Light does not enter their eyes and they cannot synchronize their body clock to the 24-hour light-dark cycle.

http://www.drugs.com/newdrugs/fda-approves-hetlioz-first-non-24-hour-sleep-wake-disorder-blind-individuals-4005.html

VEC-162, BMS-214778, 609799-22-6, Hetlioz, Tasimelteon (USAN/INN), Tasimelteon [USAN:INN], UNII-SHS4PU80D9,

Tasimelteon 

TASIMELTION ,  BMS-214,778) is a drug which is under development for the treatment of insomnia and other sleep disorders.[1] It is a selective agonistfor the melatonin receptors MT1 and MT2 in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the brain, similar to older drugs such as ramelteon.[2] It has been through Phase III trials successfully and was shown to improve both onset and maintenance of sleep, with few side effects.[3]

A year-long (2011-2012) study at Harvard is testing the use of tasimelteon in blind subjects with non-24-hour sleep–wake disorder.[4] In May 2013Vanda Pharmaceuticals submitted a New Drug Application to the Food and Drug Administration for Tasimelteon for the treatment of non-24-hour sleep–wake disorder in totally blind people.[5]

SEQUENCE

Discovered by Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS) and co-developed with Vanda Pharmaceuticals, tasimelteon is a hypnotic family benzofuran. In Phase III development, it has an orphan drug status.

 JAN2014.. APPROVED FDA

In mid-November 2013 the FDA announced their recommendation for the approval of Tasimelteon for the treatment of non-24-disorder.Tasimelteon effectively resets the circadian rhythm, helping to restore normal sleep patterns.http://www.fda.gov/downloads/AdvisoryCommittees/CommitteesMeetingMaterials/Drugs/PeripheralandCentralNervousSystemDrugsAdvisoryCommittee/UCM374388.pdf

January 2010: FDA granted orphan drug tasimelteon to disturbed sleep / wake in blind without light perception.

February 2008: Vanda has completed enrollment in its Phase III trial in chronic primary insomnia.

June 2007: Results of a Phase III trial for transient insomnia tasimelteon presented by Vanda at the 21st annual meeting of the Associated Professional Sleep Societies. These results demonstrated improvements in objective and subjective measures of sleep and its maintenance.

2004 Vanda gets a license tasimelteon (or BMS-214778 and VEC-162) from Bristol-Myers Squibb.

About Tasimelteon: Tasimelteon is a circadian regulator in development for the treatment of Non-24. Tasimelteon is a dual melatonin receptor agonist (DMRA) with selective agonist activityat the MT1 and MT2 receptors.Tasimelteon’s ability to reset the master body clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) results in the entrainment of the body’s melatonin and cortisol rhythms with the 24-hour day-night cycle. The patent claiming tasimelteon as a new chemical entity extends through December 2022, assuming a 5-year extension to be granted under the Hatch-Waxman Act. Tasimelteon has been granted orphan drug designation for the treatment of Non-24 from both the U.S. and the European Union.

Previously, BMS-214778, identified as an agonist of melatonin receptors, has been the subject of pre-clinical studies for the treatment of sleep disorders resulting from a disturbance of circadian rhythms.The first Pharmacokinetic studies were performed in rats and monkeys.

The master body clock controls the timing of many aspects of physiology, behavior and metabolism that show daily rhythms, including the sleep-wake cycles, body temperature, alertness and performance, metabolic rhythms and certain hormones which exhibit circadian variation. Outputs from the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) control many endocrine rhythms including those of melatonin secretion by the pineal gland as well as the control of cortisol secretion via effects on the hypothalamus, the pituitary and the adrenal glands.

This master body clock, located in the SCN, spontaneously generates rhythms of approximately 24.5 hours. These non-24-hour rhythms are synchronized each day to the 24-hour day-night cycle by light, the primary environmental time cue which is detected by specialized cells in the retina and transmitted to the SCN via the retino-hypothalamic tract. Inability to detect this light signal, as occurs in most totally blind individuals, leads to the inability of the master body clock to be reset daily and maintain entrainment to a 24-hour day.

Non-24-Hour Disorder

Non-24, also referred to as Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder (N24HSWD) or Non-24-Hour Disorder, is an orphan indication affecting approximately 65,000 to 95,000 people in the U.S. and 140,000 in Europe. Non-24 occurs when individuals, primarily blind with no light perception, are unable to synchronize their endogenous circadian pacemaker to the 24-hour light/dark cycle. Without light as a synchronizer, and because the period of the internal clock is typically a little longer than 24 hours, individuals with Non-24 experience their circadian drive to initiate sleep drifting later and later each day. Individuals with Non-24 have abnormal night sleep patterns, accompanied by difficulty staying awake during the day. Non-24 leads to significant impairment, with chronic effects impacting the social and occupational functioning of these individuals.

In addition to problems sleeping at the desired time, individuals with Non-24 experience excessive daytime sleepiness that often results in daytime napping.TasimelteonTASIMELTION

The severity of nighttime sleep complaints and/or daytime sleepiness complaints varies depending on where in the cycle the individual’s body clock is with respect to their social, work, or sleep schedule. The “free running” of the clock results in approximately a 1-4 month repeating cycle, the circadian cycle, where the circadian drive to initiate sleep continually shifts a little each day (about 15 minutes on average) until the cycle repeats itself. Initially, when the circadian cycle becomes desynchronous with the 24 h day-night cycle, individuals with Non-24 have difficulty initiating sleep. As time progresses, the internal circadian rhythms of these individuals becomes 180 degrees out of synchrony with the 24 h day-night cycle, which gradually makes sleeping at night virtually impossible, and leads to extreme sleepiness during daytime hours.

Eventually, the individual’s sleep-wake cycle becomes aligned with the night, and “free-running” individuals are able to sleep well during a conventional or socially acceptable time. However, the alignment between the internal circadian rhythm and the 24-hour day-night cycle is only temporary. In addition to cyclical nighttime sleep and daytime sleepiness problems, this condition can cause deleterious daily shifts in body temperature and hormone secretion, may cause metabolic disruption and is sometimes associated with depressive symptoms and mood disorders.

It is estimated that 50-75% of totally blind people in the United States (approximately 65,000 to 95,000) have Non-24. This condition can also affect sighted people. However, cases are rarely reported in this population, and the true rate of Non-24 in the general population is not known.

The ultimate treatment goal for individuals with Non-24 is to entrain or synchronize their circadian rhythms into an appropriate phase relationship with the 24-hour day so that they will have increased sleepiness during the night and increased wakefulness during the daytime.

INTRODUCTION

Tasimelteon has the chemical name: trans-N-[[2-(2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)cycloprop-1yl]methyl]propanamide, has the structure of Formula I:

Figure US20130197076A1-20130801-C00001

and is disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,856,529 and in US 20090105333, both of which are incorporated herein by reference as though fully set forth.

Tasimelteon is a white to off-white powder with a melting point of about 78° C. (DSC) and is very soluble or freely soluble in 95% ethanol, methanol, acetonitrile, ethyl acetate, isopropanol, polyethylene glycols (PEG-300 and PEG-400), and only slightly soluble in water. The native pH of a saturated solution of tasimelteon in water is 8.5 and its aqueous solubility is practically unaffected by pH. Tasimelteon has 2-4 times greater affinity for MT2R relative to MT1R. It’s affinity (Ki) for MT1R is 0.3 to 0.4 and for MT2R, 0.1 to 0.2. Tasimelteon is useful in the practice of this invention because it is a melatonin agonist that has been demonstrated, among other activities, to entrain patients suffering from Non-24.

………………………..

SYNTHESIS

(1R-trans)-N-[[2 – (2,3-dihydro-4 benzofuranyl) cyclopropyl] methyl] propanamide PATENT: BRISTOL-MYERS SQUIBB PRIORITY DATE: 1996 HYPNOTIC

Synthesis Tasimelteon

PREPARATION OF XV

XXIV D-camphorsulfonic acid IS REACTED WITH THIONYL CHLORIDE TO GIVE

…………XXV (1S, 4R) -7,7-dimethyl-2-oxo-bicyclo [2.2.1] heptane-1-methanesulfonyl chloride

TREATED WITH

XXVI ammonium hydroxide

TO GIVE

XXVII (1S, 4R) -7,7-dimethyl-2-oxo-bicyclo [2.2.1] heptane-1-methanesulfonamide

TREATED WITH AMBERLYST15

….XXVIII (3aS, 6R) -4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-8 ,8-dimethyl-3H-3a ,6-methano-2 ,1-benzisothiazole-2 ,2-dioxide

TREATED WITH LAH, ie double bond is reduced to get

…..XV (3aS, 6R, 7aR)-hexahydro-8 ,8-dimethyl-3H-3a ,6-methano-2 ,1-benzisothiazole-2 ,2-dioxide

Intermediate

I 3-hydroxybenzoic acid methyl ester

II 3-bromo-1-propene

III 3 – (2-propenyloxy) benzoic acid methyl ester

IV 3-hydroxy-2-(2-propenyl) benzoic acid methyl ester

V 2,3-dihydro-4-hydroxy-2-benzofurancarboxylic acid methyl ester

VI benzofuran-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester

VII benzofuran-4-carboxylic acid

VIII 2,3-dihydro-4-benzofurancarboxylic acid

IX 2,3-dihydro-4-benzofuranmethanol

X 2,3-dihydro-4-benzofurancarboxaldehyde

XI Propanedioic acid

XII (E) -3 – (2,3-dihydro-4-benzofuranyl) propenoic acid

XIII thionyl chloride

XIV (E) -3 – (2,3-dihydro-4-benzofuranyl) propenoyl chloride

XV (3aS, 6R, 7aR)-hexahydro-8 ,8-dimethyl-3H-3a ,6-methano-2 ,1-benzisothiazole-2 ,2-dioxide

XVI (3aS,6R,7aR)-1-[(E)-3-(2,3-dihydro-4-benzofuranyl)-1-oxo-2-propenyl]hexahydro-8,8-dimethyl-3H-3a,6-methano-2,1-benzisothiazole-2,2-dioxide

XVII (3aS,6R,7aR)-1-[[(1R,2R)-2-(2,3-dihydro-4-benzofuranyl)cyclopropyl]carbonyl]hexahydro-8,8-dimethyl-3H-3a,6-methano-2,1-benzisothiazole-2,2-dioxide

XVIII [R-(R *, R *)] -2 – (2,3-dihydro-4-benzofuranyl) cyclopropanemethanol

XIX [R-(R *, R *)] -2 – (2,3-dihydro-4-benzofuranyl) cyclopropanecarboxaldehyde

XX hydroxylamine hydrochloride

XXI [R-(R *, R *)] -2 – (2,3-dihydro-4-benzofuranyl) cyclopropanecarbaldehyde oxime

XXII [R-(R *, R *)] -2 – (2,3-dihydro-4-benzofuranyl) cyclopropanemethanamine

XXIII propanoyl chloride

XXIV D-camphorsulfonic acid

XXV (1S, 4R) -7,7-dimethyl-2-oxo-bicyclo [2.2.1] heptane-1-methanesulfonyl chloride

XXVI ammonium hydroxide

XXVII (1S, 4R) -7,7-dimethyl-2-oxo-bicyclo [2.2.1] heptane-1-methanesulfonamide

XXVIII (3aS, 6R) -4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-8 ,8-dimethyl-3H-3a ,6-methano-2 ,1-benzisothiazole-2 ,2-dioxide

Bibliography

– Patents: Benzofuran and dihydrobenzofuran melatonergic agents: US5856529 (1999)

Priority: US19960032689P, 10 Dec. 1996 (Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, U.S.)

– Preparation III (quinazolines): US2004044015 (2004) Priority: EP20000402845, 13 Oct. 2000

– Preparation of VII (aminoalkylindols): Structure-Activity Relationships of Novel Cannabinoid Mimetics Eissenstat et al, J.. Med. Chem. 1995, 38, 3094-3105

– Preparation XXVIII: Towson et al. Organic Syntheses, Coll. Vol. 8, p.104 (1993) Vol. 69, p.158 (1990)

– Preparation XV: Weismiller et al. Organic Syntheses, Coll. Vol. 8, p.110 (1993) Vol. 69, p.154 (1990).

– G. Birznieks et al. Melatonin agonist VEC-162 Improves sleep onset and maintenance in a model of transient insomnia. Sleep 2007, 30, 0773 Abstract.

-. Rajaratnam SM et al, The melatonin agonist VEC-162 Phase time immediately advances the human circadian system, Sleep 2006, 29, 0159 Abstract.

-. AK Singh et al, Evolution of a manufacturing route for a highly potent drug candidate, 229th ACS Natl Meet, March 13-17, 2005, San Diego, Abstract MEDI 576.

– Vachharajani NN et al, Preclinical pharmacokinetics and metabolism of BMS-214778, a novel melatonin receptor agonist, J Pharm Sci. 2003 Apr; 92 (4) :760-72.

. – JW Scott et al, Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of a melotonin antagonist; synthesis and process optimization. 223rd ACS Natl Meet, April 7-11, Orlando, 2002, Abstract ORGN 186.

…………………….

SYNTHESIS CONSTRUCTION AS IN PATENT

WO1998025606A1

GENERAL SCHEMES

Reaction Scheme 1

Figure imgf000020_0001

The syntheses of the 4-aryl-propenoic acid derivatives, 2 and 3, are shown in Reaction Scheme 1. The starting aldehydes, 1 , can be prepared by methods well known to those skilled in the art. Condensation of malonic acid with the aldehydes, 1, in solvents such as pyridine with catalysts such as piperidine or pyrrolidine, gives the 4-aryl- propenoic acid, 2. Subsequent conversion of the acid to the acid chloride using reagents such as thionyl chloride, phosphoryl chloride, or the like, followed by reaction with N,0-dimethyl hydroxylamine gives the amide intermediate 3 in good yields. Alternatively, aldehyde 1 can be converted directly to amide 3 using reagents such as diethyl (N-methoxy- N-methyl-carbamoylmethyl)phosphonate with a strong base such as sodium hydride.

Reaction Scheme 2

Figure imgf000020_0002

The conversion of the amide intermediate 3 to the racemic, trans- cyclopropane carboxaldehyde intermediate, 4, is shown in Reaction Scheme 2. Intermediate 3 was allowed to react with cyclopropanating reagents such as trimethylsulfoxonium iodide and sodium hydride in solvents such as DMF, THF, or the like. Subsequent reduction using reagents such as LAH in solvents such as THF, ethyl ether, or the like, gives the racemic, trans-cyclopropane carboxaldehyde intermediates, 4.

Reaction Scheme 3

Figure imgf000021_0001

Racemic cyclopropane intermediate 5 (R = halogen) can be prepared from intermediate 2 as shown in Reaction Scheme 3. Intermediate 2 was converted to the corresponding allylic alcohol by treatment with reducing agents such as sodium borohydride plus iodine in solvents such as THF. Subsequent acylation using reagents such as acetic anhydride in pyridine or acetyl chloride gave the allylic acetate which was allowed to react with cyclopropanating reagents such as sodium chloro-difluoroacetate in diglyme to provide the racemic, trans- cyclopropane acetate intermediates, 5. Reaction Scheme 4

Figure imgf000022_0001

The conversion of the acid 2 to the chiral cyclopropane carboxaldehyde intermediate, (-)-(trans)-4, is shown in Reaction Scheme 4. Intermediate 2 is condensed with (-)-2,10-camphorsultam under standard conditions, and then cyclopropanated in the presence of catalysts such as palladium acetate using diazomethane generated from reagents such as 1-methyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine. Subsequent reduction using reagents such as LAH in solvents such as THF, followed by oxidation of the alcohol intermediates using reagents such as DMSO/oxalyl chloride, or PCC, gives the cyclopropane carboxaldehyde intermediate, (-)-(trans)-4, in good yields. The enantiomer, (+)-(trans)-4, can also be obtained employing a similar procedure using (+)-2,10- camphorsultam in place of (-)-2,10-camphorsultam.

When it is desired to prepare compounds of Formula I wherein m = 2, the alcohol intermediate may be activated in the conventional manner such as with mesyl chloride and treated with sodium cyanide followed by reduction of the nitrile group with a reducing agent such as LAH to produce the amine intermediate 6.

Reaction Scheme 5

Figure imgf000023_0001
Figure imgf000023_0002

Reaction Scheme 5 shows the conversion of intermediates 4 and 5 to the amine intermediate, 7, and the subsequent conversion of 6. or 7 to compounds of Formula I. The carboxaldehyde intermediate, 4, is condensed with hydroxylamine and then reduced with reagents such as LAH to give the amine intermediate, 7. The acetate intermediate 5 is hydrolyzed with potassium hydroxide to the alcohol, converted to the mesylate with methane sulfonyl chloride and triethyl amine in CH2CI2and then converted to the azide by treatment with sodium azide in solvents such as DMF. Subsequent reduction of the azide group with a reducing agent such as LAH produced the amine intermediate 7. Further reaction of 6 or 7 with acylating reagents gives compounds of Formula I. Suitable acylating agents include carboxylic acid halides, anhydrides, acyl imidazoles, alkyl isocyanates, alkyl isothiocyanates, and carboxylic acids in the presence of condensing agents, such as carbonyl imidazole, carbodiimides, and the like. Reaction Scheme 6

Figure imgf000024_0001

Reaction Scheme 6 shows the alkylation of secondary amides of Formula I (R2 = H) to give tertiary amides of Formula I (R2 = alkyl). The secondary amide is reacted with a base such as sodium hydride, potassium tert-butoxide, or the like, and then reacted with an alkylating reagent such as alkyl halides, alkyl sulfonate esters, or the like to produce tertiary amides of Formula I.

Reaction Scheme 7

Figure imgf000024_0002

Reaction Scheme 7 shows the halogenation of compounds of Formula I. The carboxamides, i (Q1 = Q2 = H), are reacted with excess amounts of halogenating agents such as iodine, N-bromosuccinimide, or the like to give the dihalo-compounds of Formula I (Q1 = Q2 = halogen). Alternatively, a stoichiometric amount of these halogenating agents can be used to give the monohalo-compounds of Formula I (Q1 = H, Q2 = halogen; or Q1 = halogen, Q2 = H). In both cases, additives such as lead IV tetraacetate can be used to facilitate the reaction. Biological Activity of the Compounds

The compounds of the invention are melatonergic agents. They have been found to bind human melatonergic receptors expressed in a stable cell line with good affinity. Further, the compounds are agonists as determined by their ability, like melatonin, to block the forskolin- stimulated accumulation of cAMP in certain cells. Due to these properties, the compounds and compositions of the invention should be useful as sedatives, chronobiotic agents, anxiolytics, antipsychotics, analgesics, and the like. Specifically, these agents should find use in the treatment of stress, sleep disorders, seasonal depression, appetite regulation, shifts in circadian cycles, melancholia, benign prostatic hyperplasia and related conditions

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES

SEE ORIGINAL PATENT FOR CORECTIONS

Preparation 1

Benzofuran-4-carboxaldehyde

Step 1 : N-Methoxy-N-methyl-benzofuran-4-carboxamide

A mixture of benzofuran-4-carboxylic acid [Eissenstat, et al.. J. Medicinal Chemistry, 38 (16) 3094-3105 (1995)] (2.8 g, 17.4 mmol) and thionyl chloride (25 mL) was heated to reflux for 2 h and then concentrated in vacuo. The solid residue was dissolved in ethyl acetate (50 mL) and a solution of N,O-dimethylhydroxylamine hydrochloride (2.8 g) in saturated NaHC03(60 mL) was added with stirring. After stirring for 1.5 h, the ethyl acetate layer was separated. The aqueous layer was extracted with ethyl acetate. The ethyl acetate extracts were combined, washed with saturated NaHCO3 and concentrated in vacuo to give an oil (3.2 g, 95.4%).

Step 2: Benzofuran-4-carboxaldehyde

A solution of N-methoxy-N-methyl-benzofuran-4-carboxamide (3.2 g, 16.6 mmol) in THF (100 mL) was cooled to -45°C and then LAH (0.7 g, 18.7 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred for 15 min, allowed to warm to -5°C, and then recooled to -45°C. Saturated KHS04 (25 mL) was added with vigorous stirring, and the mixture was allowed to warm to room temperature. The precipitate was filtered and washed with acetone. The filtrate was concentrated in vacuo to give an oil (2.3 g, 94%). Preparation 2

2,3-Dihydrobenzofuran-4-carboxaldehyde

Step 1 : 2,3-Dihydrobenzofuran-4-carboxylic acid

Benzofuran-4-carboxylic acid (10.0 g, 61 .7 mmol) was hydrogenated (60 psi) in acetic acid (100 mL) over 10% Pd/C (2 g) for 12 hr. The mixture was filtered and the filtrate was diluted with water (500 mL) to give 2,3- dihydrobenzofuran-4-carboxylic acid as a white powder (8.4 g, 83%). A sample was recrystallized from isopropanol to give fine white needles (mp: 185.5-187.5°C).

Step 2: (2,3-Dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)methanol

A solution of 2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-4-carboxylic acid (10 g, 61 mmol) in THF (100 mL) was stirred as LAH (4.64 g, 122 mmol) was slowly added. The mixture was heated to reflux for 30 min. The mixture was cooled and quenched cautiously with ethyl acetate and then with 1 N HCI (150 mL). The mixture was then made acidic with 12 N HCI until all the inorganic precipitate dissolved. The organic layer was separated, and the inorganic layer was extracted twice with ethyl acetate. The organic layers were combined, washed twice with brine, and then concentrated in vacuo. This oil was Kϋgelrohr distilled to a clear oil that crystallized upon cooling (8.53 g, 87.6%).

Step 3: 2.3-Dihydrobenzofuran-4-carboxaldehyde

DMSO (8.10 mL, 1 14 mmol) was added at -78°C to a stirred solution of oxalyl chloride in CH2CI2 (40 mL of a 2M solution). A solution of (2,3- dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)methanol (8.53 g, 56.9 mmol) in CH2CI2 (35 mL) was added dropwise, and the solution stirred at -78°C for 30 min. Triethyl amine (33 mL, 228 mmol) was added cautiously to quench the reaction. The resulting suspension was stirred at room temperature for 30 min and diluted with CH2CI2 (100 mL). The organic layer was washed three times with water, and twice with brine, and then concentrated in vacuo to an oil (8.42 g, 100%) that was used without purification.

Preparation 16

(±)-(trans)-2-(2,3-Dihyd robenzofuran-4-yl)cyclopropane- carboxaldehyde

Step 1 : (±Htrans)-N-Methoxy-N-methyl-2-(2.3-dihydrobenzofuran-4- yhcyclopropanecarboxamide

Trimethylsulfoxonium iodide (9.9 g, 45 mmol) was added in small portions to a suspension of sodium hydride (1 .8 g, 45 mmol) in DMF (120 mL). After the foaming had subsided (10 min), a solution of (trans)- N-methoxy-N-methyl-3-(2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)propenamide (3.5 g, 15 mmol) in DMF (60 mL) was added dropwise, with the temperature maintained between 35-40°C. The mixture was stirred for 3 h at room temperature. Saturated NH4CI (50 mL) was added dropwise and the mixture was extracted three times with ethyl acetate. The organic extracts were combined, washed with H2O and brine, dried over K2CO3, and concentrated in vacuo to give a white wax (3.7 g, 100%).

Step 2: (±)-(trans)- 2-(2.3-Dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)cyclopropane- carboxaldehyde

A solution of (±)-(trans)-N-methoxy-N-methyl-2-(2,3-dihydrobenzofuran- 4-yl)cyclopropanecarboxamide (3.7 g, 15 mmol) in THF (10 mL) was added dropwise to a rapidly stirred suspension of LAH (683 mg, 18 mmol) in THF (50 mL) at -45°C, maintaining the temperature below -40°C throughout. The cooling bath was removed, the reaction was allowed to warm to 5°C, and then the reaction was immediately recooled to -45°C. Potassium hydrogen sulfate (3.4 g, 25.5 mmol) in H20 (50 mL) was cautiously added dropwise, the temperature maintained below – 30°C throughout. The cooling bath was removed and the suspension was stirred at room temperature for 30 min. The mixture was filtered through Celite and the filter cake was washed with ether. The combined filtrates were then washed with cold 1 N HCI, 1 N NaOH, and brine. The filtrates were dried over MgSO4, and concentrated in vacuo to give a clear oil (2.6 g, 99%).

Preparation 18

(-)-(trans)-2-(2.3-Dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)cyclopropane-carboxaldehyde

Step 1 : (-Htrans)-N-[3-(2.3-Dihvdrobenzofuran-4-yl)-propenoyll-2.10- camphorsultam

To a solution of (-)-2,10-camphorsultam (8.15 g, 37.9 mmol) in 50 mL toluene at 0°C was added sodium hydride (1.67 g, 41.7 mmol). After stirring for 0.33 h at 0°C and 0.5 h at 20°C and recooling to 0°C, a solution of 3-(2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)-2-propenoyl chloride
(37.9 mmol), prepared in situ from the corresponding acid and thionyl chloride (75 mL), in toluene (50 mL), was added dropwise. After stirring for 18 h at 20°C, the mixture was diluted with ethyl acetate and washed with water, 1 N HCI, and 1 N NaOH. The organic solution was dried and concentrated in vacuo to give 15.8 g of crude product. Recrystallization form ethanol-methanol (600 mL, 1 :1) gave the product (13.5 g, 92%, mp 199.5-200°C).

Step 2: (-)-N-[[(trans)-2-(2,3-Dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)-cyclopropylj- carbonylj-2, 10-camphorsultam

1 -Methyl-3-nitro-1 -nitrosoguanidine (23.88g 163 mmol) was added in portions to a mixture of 10 N sodium hydroxide (60 mL) and ether (200 mL) at 0°C. The mixture was shaken vigorously for 0.25 h and the ether layer carefully decanted into a solution of (-)-N-[3-(2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)-2-propenoyl]-2,10-camphorsultam (9.67 g, 25 mmol) and palladium acetate (35 mg) in methylene chloride (200 mL). After stirring for 18 h, acetic acid (5 mL) was added to the reaction and the mixture stirred for 0.5 h. The mixture was washed with 1 N HCI, 1 N NaOH and brine. The solution was dried, concentrated in vacuo and the residue crystallized twice from ethanol to give the product (6.67 g, 66.5%, mp 157-159°C).

Step 3: (-)-(trans)-2-(2,3-Dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)cyclopropane- methanol

A solution of (-)-N-[(trans)-2-(2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)cyclo-propanecarbonylj-2,10-camphorsultam (4.3 g, 10.7 mmol) in THF (50 mL) was added dropwise to a mixture of LAH (0.81 g, 21.4 mmol) in THF (50 mL) at -45°C. The mixture was stirred for 2 hr while it warmed to 10°C. The mixture was recooled to -40°C and hydrolyzed by the addition of saturated KHS0 (20 mL). The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 30 minutes and filtered. The precipitate was washed twice with acetone. The combined filtrate and acetone washes were concentrated in vacuo. The gummy residue was dissolved in ether, washed with 1 N NaOH and 1 N HCI, and then dried in vacuo to give the product (2.0 g, 98.4%).

Step 4: (-)-(trans)-2-(2.3-Dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)cyclopropane- carboxaldehyde DMSO (1.6 g, 21 mmol) was added to oxalyl chloride in CH2CI2(7.4 mL of 2 M solution, 14.8 mmole) at -78°C. The (-)-(trans)-2-(2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)-cyclopropylmethanol (2.0 g, 10.5 mmol) in CH2CI2(15 mL) was added. The mixture was stirred for 20 min and then triethylamine (4.24 g, 42 mmol) was added. The mixture was warmed to room temperature and stirred for 30 min. The mixture was diluted with CH2CI2 and washed with water, 1 N HCI, and then 1 N NaOH. The organic layer was dried and concentrated iι> vacuo to give the aldehyde product (1.98 g, 100%).

Preparation 24

(-)-(trans)-2-(2.3-Dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)cyclopropane-methanamine A mixture of (-)-(trans)-2-(2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)cyclopropane-carboxaldehyde (1.98 g, 10.5 mmol), hydroxylamine hydrochloride (2.29 g, 33 mmol), and 30% NaOH (3.5 mL, 35 mmol), in 5:1
ethanol/water (50 mL) was heated on a steam bath for 2 h. The solution was concentrated in vacuo. and the residue mixed with water. The mixture was extracted with CH2CI2. The organic extracts were dried and concentrated in vacuo to give a solid which NMR analysis showed to be a mixture of the cis and trans oximes. This material was dissolved in THF (20 mL) and added to solution of alane in THF [prepared from LAH (1.14 g, 30 mmol) and H2S04 (1.47 g, 15 mmol) at 0°Cj. The reaction was stirred for 18 h, and quenched successively with water (1.15 mL), 15% NaOH (1.15 mL), and then water (3.45 mL). The mixture was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated in vacuo. The residue was mixed with ether and washed with water and then 1 N HCI. The acid washes were made basic and extracted with CH2CI . The extracts were dried and concentrated in vacuo to give the amine product (1.4 g, 70.5%). The amine was converted to the fumarate salt in ethanol (mp: 197-198°C).
Anal. Calc’d for C12H15NO • C4H404: C, 62.94; H, 6.27; N, 4.59.
Found: C, 62.87; H, 6.31 ; N, 4.52.

FINAL PRODUCT TASIMELTEON

Example 2

(-)-(trans)-N-[[2-(2,3-Dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)cycloprop-1-yl]methyl]propanamide

This compound was prepared similar to the above procedure using propionyl chloride and (-)-(trans)-2-(2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)- cyclopropanemethanamine to give an oil that solidified upon standing to an off-white solid (61 %, mp: 71-72°C). IR (NaCI Film): 3298, 1645, 1548, 1459, 1235 cm“1.

Mo5 : -17.3°

Anal. Calc’d for C15H19N02: C, 73.44; H, 7.87; N, 5.71 . Found: C, 73.28; H, 7.68; N, 5.58.

References

  1.  ‘Time-bending drug’ for jet lag. BBC News. 2 December 2008
  2.  Vachharajani, Nimish N., Yeleswaram, Krishnaswamy, Boulton, David W. (April 2003). “Preclinical pharmacokinetics and metabolism of BMS-214778, a novel melatonin receptor agonist”. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 92 (4): 760–72. doi:10.1002/jps.10348PMID 12661062.
  3.  Shantha MW Rajaratnam, Mihael H Polymeropoulos, Dennis M Fisher, Thomas Roth, Christin Scott, Gunther Birznieks, Elizabeth B Klerman (2009-02-07). “Melatonin agonist tasimelteon (VEC-162) for transient insomnia after sleep-time shift: two randomised controlled multicentre trials”The Lancet 373 (9662): 482–491. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61812-7PMID 19054552. Retrieved 2010-02-23.
  4.  Audio interview with Joseph Hull of Harvard, spring 2011
  5.  Vanda Pharmaceuticals seeks FDA approval
  6. Recent progress in the development of agonists and antagonists for melatonin receptors.Zlotos DP.

    Curr Med Chem. 2012;19(21):3532-49. Review.

    Preclinical pharmacokinetics and metabolism of BMS-214778, a novel melatonin receptor agonist.

    Vachharajani NN, Yeleswaram K, Boulton DW.J Pharm Sci. 2003 Apr;92(4):760-72.

TASIMELTION

PATENTS

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extra info

Org. Synth. 199069, 154
(−)-D-2,10-CAMPHORSULTAM
[3H-3a,6-Methano-2,1-benzisothiazole, 4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-8,8-dimethyl-2,2-dioxide, (3aS)-]
Submitted by Michael C. Weismiller, James C. Towson, and Franklin A. Davis1.
Checked by David I. Magee and Robert K. Boeckman, Jr..
1. Procedure
(−)-2,10-Camphorsultam. A dry, 2-L, three-necked, round-bottomed flask is equipped with a 1.5-in egg-shaped Teflon stirring bar, a 250-mL addition funnel, and a 300-mL Soxhlet extraction apparatus equipped with a mineral oil bubbler connected to an inert-gas source. The flask is charged with 600 mL of dry tetrahydrofuran (THF) (Note 1) and6.2 g (0.16 mol) of lithium aluminum hydride (Note 2). Into the 50-mL Soxhlet extraction thimble is placed 35.0 g (0.16 mol) of (−)-(camphorsulfonyl)imine (Note 3) and the reaction mixture is stirred and heated at reflux. After all of the(camphorsulfonyl)imine has been siphoned into the reaction flask (3–4 hr), the mixture is allowed to cool to room temperature. The unreacted lithium aluminum hydride is cautiously hydrolyzed by dropwise addition of 200 mL of 1 Nhydrochloric acid via the addition funnel (Note 4). After the hydrolysis is complete the contents of the flask are transferred to a 1-L separatory funnel, the lower, silver-colored aqueous layer is separated, and the upper layer placed in a 1-L Erlenmeyer flask. The aqueous phase is returned to the separatory funnel and washed with methylene chloride (3 × 100 mL). After the reaction flask is rinsed with methylene chloride (50 mL), the organic washings are combined with the THF phase and dried over anhydrous magnesium sulfate for 10–15 min. Filtration through a 300-mL sintered-glass funnel of coarse porosity into a 1-L round-bottomed flask followed by removal of the solvent on arotary evaporator gives 33.5 g (95%) of the crude (−)-2,10-camphorsultam. The crude sultam is placed in a 250-mL Erlenmeyer flask and crystallized from approximately 60 mL of absolute ethanol. The product is collected on a 150-mL sintered-glass funnel of coarse porosity and dried in a vacuum desiccator to give 31.1 g (88%) of the pure sultam. A second crop of crystals can be gained by evaporating approximately half the filtrate; the residue is crystallized as above to give 1.4 g (4%). The combined yield of white crystalline solid, mp 183–184°C, [α]D −30.7° (CHCl3, c 2.3) is92% (Note 5) and (Note 6).
2. Notes
1. Tetrahydrofuran (Aldrich Chemical Company, Inc.) was distilled from sodium benzophenone.
2. Lithium aluminum hydride was purchased from Aldrich Chemical Company, Inc.
3. (−)-(Camphorsulfonyl)imine, [(7S)-(−)-10,10-dimethyl-5-thia-4-azatricyclo[5.2.1.03,7]dec-3-ene 5,5-dioxide] was prepared by the procedure of Towson, Weismiller, Lal, Sheppard, and Davis, Org. Synth., Coll. Vol. VIII1993, 104.
4. The addition must be very slow at first (1 drop/5 sec) until the vigorous reaction has subsided.
5. The NMR spectrum of (−)-2,10-camphorsultam is as follows: 1H NMR (CDCl3) δ: 0.94 (s, 3 H, CH3), 1.14 (s, 3 H, CH3), 1.33 (m, 1 H), 1.47 (m,, 1 H), 1.80–2.05 (5 H), 3.09 (d, 1 H, J = 14), 3.14 (d, 1 H, J = 14), 3.43 (m, 1 H), 4.05 (br s, 1 H, NH); 13C NMR (CDCl3) δ: 20.17 (q, CH3), 26.51 (t), 31.55 (t), 35.72 (t), 44.44 (d), 47.15 (s), 50.08 (t), 54.46 (s), 62.48 (d).
6. Checkers obtained material having the same mp (183–184°C) and [α]D − 31.8° (CHCl3c 2.3).
3. Discussion
(−)-2,10-Camphorsultam was first prepared by the catalytic hydrogenation of (−)-(camphorsulfonyl)imine overRaney nickel.2 Lithium aluminum hydride reduction was used by Oppolzer and co-workers in their synthesis of the sultam.3,4 However, because of the low solubility of the sultam in tetrahydrofuran, a large amount of solvent was required.4 In the procedure described here the amount of solvent is significantly reduced by using a Soxhlet extractor to convey the imine slowly into the reducing medium.5
Oppolzer’s chiral auxiliary,6 (−)-2,10-camphorsultam, is useful in the asymmetric Diels–Alder reaction,3,4 and for the preparation of enantiomerically pure β-substituted carboxylic acids7 and diols,8 in the stereoselective synthesis of Δ2-isoxazolines,9 and in the preparation of N-fluoro-(−)-2,10-camphorsultam, an enantioselective fluorinating reagent.10

References and Notes
  1. Department of Chemistry, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104.
  2. Shriner, R. L.; Shotton, J. A.; Sutherland, H. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 193860, 2794.
  3. Oppolzer, W.; Chapuis, C.; Bernardinelli, G. Helv. Chim. Acta 198467, 1397.
  4. Vandewalle, M.; Van der Eycken, J.; Oppolzer, W.; Vullioud, C. Tetrahedron 198642, 4035.
  5. Davis, F. A.; Towson, J. C.; Weismiller, M. C.; Lal, G.; Carroll,, P. J. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1988110, 8477.
  6. Oppolzer, W. Tetrahedron 198743, 1969.
  7. Oppolzer, W.; Mills, R. J.; Pachinger, W.; Stevenson, T. Helv. Chim. Acta 198669, 1542; Oppolzer, W.; Schneider, P. Helv. Chim. Acta 198669, 1817; Oppolzer, W.; Mills, R. J.; Réglier, M. Tetrahedron Lett. 198627, 183; Oppolzer, W.; Poli. G.Tetrahedron Lett. 198627, 4717; Oppolzer, W.; Poli, G.; Starkemann, C.; Bernardinelli, G. Tetrahedron Lett. 198829, 3559.
  8. Oppolzer, W.; Barras, J-P. Helv. Chim. Acta 198770, 1666.
  9. Curran, D. P.; Kim, B. H.; Daugherty, J.; Heffner, T. A. Tetrahedron Lett. 198829, 3555.
  10. Differding, E.; Lang, R. W. Tetrahedron Lett. 198829, 6087.

Org. Synth. 199069, 158
(+)-(2R,8aS)-10-(CAMPHORYLSULFONYL)OXAZIRIDINE
[4H-4A,7-Methanooxazirino[3,2-i][2,1]benzisothiazole, tetrahydro-9,9-dimethyl-, 3,3-dioxide, [4aS-(4aα,7α,8aR*)]]
Submitted by James C. Towson, Michael C. Weismiller, G. Sankar Lal, Aurelia C. Sheppard, Anil Kumar, and Franklin A. Davis1.
Checked by David I. Magee and Robert K. Boeckman, Jr..
1. Procedure
A. (+)-(1S)-10-Camphorsulfonamide. Into a 2-L, two-necked, round-bottomed flask, equipped with a 250-mL dropping funnel, a magnetic stirring bar, and a reflux condenser fitted with an outlet connected to a disposable pipettedipped in 2 mL of chloroform in a test tube for monitoring gas evolution, were placed 116 g (0.5 mol) ofcamphorsulfonic acid (Note 1) and 750 mL of reagent-grade chloroform. The suspension of camphorsulfonic acid was heated to reflux and 71.4 g (43.77 mL, 0.6 mol, 1.2 equiv) of freshly distilled thionyl chloride was added dropwise over a 1-hr period. Heating was continued until gas evolution (sulfur dioxide and hydrogen chloride) had ceased (approximately 9–10 hr). The resultant solution of camphorsulfonyl chloride in chloroform was converted tocamphorsulfonamide without further purification.
In a 5-L, two-necked, round-bottomed flask fitted with a 250-mL dropping funnel and a mechanical stirrer was placed a solution of 1.6 L of reagent-grade ammonium hydroxide solution and the flask was cooled to 0°C in an ice bath. The solution of the crude camphorsulfonyl chloride, prepared in the preceding section, was added dropwise to the ammonium hydroxide solution at 0–10°C over a period of 1 hr. The reaction mixture was warmed to room temperature, stirred for 4 hr, the organic layer separated, and the aqueous layer was extracted with methylene chloride (3 × 250 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine (250 mL) and dried over anhydrousmagnesium sulfate. Removal of the solvent on the rotary evaporator gave 104.0 g (90%) of the crudecamphorsulfonamide (Note 2) and (Note 3).
B. (−)-(Camphorsulfonyl)imine. A 1-L, round-bottomed flask is equipped with a 2-in. egg-shaped magnetic stirring bar, a Dean–Stark water separator, and a double-walled condenser containing a mineral oil bubbler connected to an inert gas source. Into the flask are placed 5 g of Amberlyst 15 ion-exchange resin (Note 4) and 41.5 g of the crude(+)-(1S)-camphorsulfonamide in 500 mL of toluene. The reaction mixture is heated at reflux for 4 hr. After the reaction flask is cooled, but while it is still warm (40–50°C), 200 mL of methylene chloride is slowly added to dissolve any(camphorsulfonyl)imine that crystallizes. The solution is filtered through a 150-mL sintered glass funnel of coarse porosity an the reaction flask and filter funnel are washed with an additional 75 mL of methylene chloride.
Isolation of the (−)-(camphorsulfonyl)imine is accomplished by removal of the toluene on the rotary evaporator. The resulting solid is recrystallized from absolute ethanol (750 mL) to give white crystals, 34.5–36.4 g (90–95%), mp225–228°C; [α]D −32.7° (CHCl3, c 1.9) (Note 5).
C. (+)-(2R, 8aS)-10-Camphorylsulfonyloxaziridine. A 5-L, three-necked, round-bottomed Morton flask is equipped with an efficient mechanical stirrer, a 125-mm Teflon stirring blade, a Safe Lab stirring bearing (Note 6), and a 500-mL addition funnel. Into the flask are placed the toluene solution of (−)-(camphorsulfonyl)imine (39.9 g, 0.187 mol)prepared in Step B and a room-temperature solution of 543 g (3.93 mol, 7 equiv based on oxone) of anhydrouspotassium carbonate dissolved in 750 mL of water. The reaction mixture is stirred vigorously and a solution of 345 g (0.56 mol, 6 equiv of KHSO5) of oxone dissolved in 1250 mL of water is added dropwise in three portions over 45 min(Note 7) and (Note 8). Completion of the oxidation is determined by TLC (Note 9) and the reaction mixture is filtered through a 150-mL sintered-glass funnel of coarse porosity to remove solids. The filtrate is transferred to a 3-L separatory funnel, the toluene phase is separated and the aqueous phase is washed with methylene chloride (3 × 100 mL). The filtered solids and any solids remaining in the Morton flask are washed with an additional 200 mL of methylene chloride. The organic extracts are combined and washed with 100 mL of saturated sodium sulfite, dried over anhydrousmagnesium sulfate for 15–20 min, filtered, and concentrated on the rotary evaporator. The resulting white solid is crystallized from approximately 500 mL of hot 2-propanol to afford, after drying under vacuum in a desiccator, 35.9 g(84%) of white needles, mp 165–167°C, [α]D +44.6° (CHCl3, c 2.2) (Note 10) and (Note 11).
(−)-(2S,8aR)-10-(camphorylsulfonyl)oxaziridine is prepared in a similar manner starting from (−)-10-camphorsulfonic acid; mp 166–167°C, [α]D +43.6° (CHCl3, c 2.2).
2. Notes
1. (1S)-(+)-10-Camphorsulfonic acid was purchased from Aldrich Chemical Company, Inc.
2. The crude sulfonamide is contaminated with 5–10% of the (camphorsulfonyl)imine, the yield of which increases on standing.
3. The 1H NMR spectrum of (+)-(1S)-10-camphorsulfonamide is as follows: (CDCl3) δ: 0.93 (s, 3 H, CH3), 1.07 (s, 3 H, CH3), 1.40–2.50 (m, 7 H), 3.14 and 3.53 (AB quartet, 2 H, CH2-SO2J = 15.1), 5.54 (br s, 2 H, NH2).
4. Amberlyst 15 ion-exchange resin is a strongly acidic, macroreticular resin purchased from Aldrich Chemical Company, Inc.
5. The spectral properties of (−)-(camphorsulfonyl)imine are as follows: 1H NMR (CDCl3) δ: 1.03 (s, 3 H, CH3), 1.18 (s, 3 H, CH3), 1.45–2.18 (m, 6 H), 2.65 (m, 1 H), 3.10 and 3.28 (AB quartet, 2 H, CH2-SO2J = 14.0); 13C NMR (CDCl3) δ: 19.01 (q, CH3), 19.45 (q, CH3), 26.64 (t), 28.44 (t), 35.92 (t), 44.64 (d), 48.00 (s), 49.46 (t), 64.52 (s), 195.52 (s); IR (CHCl3) cm−1: 3030, 2967, 1366. Checkers obtained material having identical melting point and [α]D−32.3° (CHCl3, c 1.8).
6. The SafeLab Teflon bearing can be purchased from Aldrich Chemical Company, Inc. A glass stirring bearing lubricated with silicone grease is unsatisfactory because the dissolved salts solidify in the shaft, causing freezing.
7. Efficient stirring is important and indicated by a milky white appearance of the solution.
8. Occasionally batches of oxone purchased from Aldrich Chemical Company, Inc., have exhibited reduced reactivity in this oxidation. Oxone exposed to moisture prior to use also gives reduced reactivity in this oxidation. If this occurs, oxone is added until oxidation is complete as determined by TLC (Note 9). Potassium carbonate is added as needed to maintain the pH at approximately 9.0. Oxone stored in the refrigerator under an inert atmosphere has shown no loss in reactivity for up to 6 months.
9. Oxidation is generally complete after addition of the oxone solution. The oxidation is monitored by TLC as follows. Remove approximately 0.5 mL of the toluene solution from the nonstirring solution, spot a 250-μm TLC silica gel plate, elute with methylene chloride, and develop with 10% molybdophosphoric acid in ethanol and heating(camphorsulfonyl)imine Rf = 0.28 and (camphorylsulfonyl)oxaziridine Rf = 0.62. If (camphorsulfonyl)imine is detected, stirring is continued at room temperature until the reaction is complete (see (Note 8)). If the reaction mixture takes on a brownish color after addition of oxone and has not gone to completion after 30 min, the reaction mixture is filtered through a 150-mL sintered-glass funnel of coarse porosity, and the solids are washed with 50 mL of methylene chloride. The aqueous/organic extracts are returned to the 5-L Morton flask and stirred vigorously and 52 g (0.08 mol, 1 equiv KHSO5) of oxone is added over 5 min and stirring continued until oxidation is complete (approximately 10–15 min).
10. The submitters employed a toluene solution of crude imine prepared in Part B and obtained somewhat higher yields (90–95%). However, the checkers obtained yields in this range on one half the scale using isolatedsulfonylimine.
11. The spectral properties of (+)-(camphorsulfonyl)oxaziridine are as follows: 1H NMR (CDCl3) δ: 1.03 (s, 3 H, CH3), 1.18 (s, 3 H, CH3), 1.45–2.18 (m, 6 H), 2.65 (d, 1 H), 3.10 and 3.28 (AB quartet, 2 H, CH2-SO2J = 14.0); 13C NMR (CDCl3) δ: 19.45 (q, CH3), 20.42 (q, CH3), 26.55 (t), 28.39 (t), 33.64 (t), 45.78 (d), 48.16 (s), 48.32 (t), 54.07 (s), 98.76 (s). The checkers obtained material (mp 165–167°C) having [α]D +44.7° (CHCl3, c 2.2).
3. Discussion
Camphorsulfonamide, required for the preparation of the (camphorsulfonyl)imine, was previously prepared in two steps. The first step involved conversion of camphorsulfonic acid to the sulfonyl chloride with PCl5 or SOCl2. The isolated sulfonyl chloride was converted in a second step to the sulfonamide by reaction with ammonium hydroxide. This modified procedure is more efficient because it transforms camphorsulfonic acid directly to camphorsulfonamide, avoiding isolation of the camphorsulfonyl chloride.
(Camphorsulfonyl)imine has been reported as a by-product of reactions involving the camphorsulfonamide.2,3,4,5Reychler in 1898 isolated two isomeric camphorsulfonamides,2 one of which was shown to be the(camphorsulfonyl)imine by Armstrong and Lowry in 1902.3 Vandewalle, Van der Eycken, Oppolzer, and Vullioud described the preparation of (camphorsulfonyl)imine in 74% overall yield from 0.42 mol of the camphorsulfonyl chloride.6 The advantage of the procedure described here is that, by using ammonium hydroxide, the camphorsulfonyl chloride is converted to the sulfonamide in >95% yield.7 The sulfonamide is of sufficient purity that it can be used directly in the cyclization step, which, under acidic conditions, is quantitative in less than 4 hr. These modifications result in production of the (camphorsulfonyl)imine in 86% overall yield from the sulfonyl chloride.
In addition to the synthesis of enantiomerically pure (camphorylsulfonyl)oxaziridine7 and its derivatives,8 the(camphorsulfonyl)imine has been used in the preparation of (−)-2,10-camphorsultam (Oppolzers’ auxiliary),6,9 (+)-(3-oxocamphorysulfonyl) oxaziridine,10 and the N-fluoro-2,10-camphorsultam, an enantioselective fluorinating reagent.11
The N-sulfonyloxaziridines are an important class of selective, aprotic oxidizing reagents.12 13 14 Enantiomerically pure N-sulfonyloxaziridines have been used in the asymmetric oxidation of sulfides to sulfoxides (30–91% ee),15selenides to selenoxides (8–9% ee).16 disulfides to thiosulfinates (2–13% ee),5 and in the asymmetric epoxidation of alkenes (19–65% ee).17,18 Oxidation of optically active sulfonimines (R*SO2N=CHAr) affords mixtures of N-sulfonyloxaziridine diastereoisomers requiring separation by crystallization and/or chromatography.3
(+)-(Camphorylsulfonyl)oxaziridine described here is prepared in four steps from inexpensive (1S)-(+)- or (1R)-(+)-10-camphorsulfonic acid in 77% overall yield.7 Separation of the oxaziridine diastereoisomers is not required because oxidation is sterically blocked from the exo face of the C-N double bond in the (camphorsulfonyl)imine. In general, (camphorsulfonyl)oxaziridine exhibits reduced reactivity compared to other N-sulfonyloxaziridines. For example, while sulfides are asymmetrically oxidized to sulfoxides (3–77% ee), this oxaziridine does not react with amines or alkenes.7 However, this oxaziridine is the reagent of choice for the hydroxylation of lithium and Grignard reagents to give alcohols and phenols because yields are good to excellent and side reactions are minimized.19 This reagent has also been used for the stereoselective oxidation of vinyllithiums to enolates.20
The most important synthetic application of the (camphorylsulfonyl)oxaziridines is the asymmetric oxidation of enolates to optically active α-hydroxy carbonyl compounds.14,21,22,23,24 Chiral, nonracemic α-hydroxy carbonylcompounds have been used extensively in asymmetric synthesis, for example, as chiral synthons, chiral auxiliaries, and chiral ligands. This structural array is also featured in many biologically active natural products. This oxidizing reagent gives uniformly high chemical yields regardless of the counterion, and stereoselectivities are good to excellent (50–95% ee).9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24 Since the configuration of the oxaziridine three-membered ring controls the stereochemistry, both α-hydroxy carbonyl optical isomers are readily available. Representative examples of the asymmetric oxidation of prochiral enolates by (+)-(2R,8aS)-camphorylsulfonyl)oxaziridine are given in Tables I and II.
This preparation is referenced from:

  • Org. Syn. Coll. Vol. 8, 110
  • Org. Syn. Coll. Vol. 9, 212
  • References and Notes
    1. Department of Chemistry, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104.
    2. Reychler, M. A. Bull. Soc. Chim. III 188919, 120.
    3. Armstrong, H. E.; Lowry, T. M. J. Chem. Soc., Trans. 190281, 1441.
    4. Dauphin, G.; Kergomard, A.; Scarset, A. Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr. 1976, 862.
    5. Davis, F. A.; Jenkins, Jr., R. H.; Awad, S. B.; Stringer, O. D.; Watson, W. H.; Galloy, J. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1982104, 5412.
    6. Vandewalle, M.; Van der Eycken, J.; Oppolzer, W.; Vullioud, C. Tetrahedron198642, 4035.
    7. Davis, F. A.; Towson, J. C.; Weismiller, M. C.; Lal, S.; Carroll, P. J. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1988110, 8477.
    8. Davis, F. A.; Weismiller, M. C.; Lal, G. S.; Chen, B. C.; Przeslawski, R. M. Tetrahedron Lett.198930, 1613.
    9. Oppolzer, W. Tetrahedron 198743, 1969.
    10. Glahsl, G.; Herrmann, R. J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. I 1988, 1753.
    11. Differding, E.; Lang, R. W. Tetrahedron Lett. 198829, 6087.
    12. For recent reviews on the chemistry of N-sulfonyloxaziridines, see: (a) Davis, F. A.; Jenkins, Jr., R. H. in “Asymmetric Synthesis,” Morrison, J. D., Ed.; Academic Press: Orlando, FL, 1984, Vol. 4, Chapter 4;
    13. Davis, F. A.; Haque, S. M. in “Advances in Oxygenated Processes,” Baumstark, A. L., Ed.; JAI Press: London, Vol. 2;
    14. Davis, F. A.; Sheppard, A. C. Tetrahedron 198945, 5703.
    15. Davis, F. A.; McCauley, Jr., J. P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Harakal, M. E.; Towson, J. C.; Watson, W. H.; Tavanaiepour, I. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1987109, 3370.
    16. Davis, F. A.; Stringer, O. D.; McCauley, Jr., J. M. Tetrahedron 198541, 4747.
    17. Davis, F. A.; Chattopadhyay, S. Tetrahedron Lett. 198627, 5079.
    18. Davis, F. A.; Harakal, M. E.; Awad, S. B. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1983105, 3123.
    19. Davis, F. A.; Wei, J.; Sheppard, A. C.; Gubernick S. Tetrahedron Lett. 198728, 5115.
    20. Davis, F. A.; Lal, G. S.; Wei, J. Tetrahedron Lett. 198829, 4269.
    21. Davis, F. A.; Haque, M. S.; Ulatowski, T. G.; Towson, J. C. J. Org. Chem. 198651, 2402.
    22. Davis, F. A.; Haque, M. S. J. Org. Chem. 198651, 4083; Davis, F. A.; Haque, M. S.; Przeslawski, R. M. J. Org. Chem. 198954, 2021.
    23. Davis, F. A.; Ulatowski, T. G.; Haque, M. S. J. Org. Chem. 198752, 5288.
    24. Davis, F. A.; Sheppard, A. C., Lal, G. S. Tetrahedron Lett. 198930, 779.
    25. Davis, F. A.; Sheppard, A. C.; Chen, B. C.; Haque, M. S. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1990112, 6679.

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Iroko Pharmaceuticals Receives FDA Approval for ZORVOLEX™


Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, October 18, 2013 – Iroko Pharmaceuticals, LLC, a global specialty pharmaceutical company dedicated to advancing the science of analgesia, today announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved ZORVOLEX™ (diclofenac) capsules, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID),  for the treatment of mild to moderate acute pain in adults[i]. ZORVOLEX was approved at dosage strengths that are 20 percent lower than currently available diclofenac products. FDA approval of ZORVOLEX was supported by data from a Phase 3 multi-center, randomized study in which patients treated with ZORVOLEX reported significant pain relief compared with patients receiving placebo

http://www.pharmalive.com/fda-oks-zorvolex

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