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2-Deoxy-D-glucose

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2-Deoxy-D-glucose
ChemSpider 2D Image | 2-Deoxy-D-glucose | C6H12O5
Deoxyglucose.png

2-Deoxy-D-glucose

  • Molecular FormulaC6H12O5
  • Average mass164.156 Da

2-Deoxy-D-glucose

(4R,5S,6R)-6-(Hydroxymethyl)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2,4,5-triol(4R,5S,6R)-6-(Hydroxyméthyl)tétrahydro-2H-pyran-2,4,5-triol

154-17-6[RN]

  • 2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose
  • 2 DG
  • 2-Deoxy-D-glucose
  • 2-Deoxy-D-mannose
  • 2-Deoxyglucose
  • 2-Desoxy-D-glucose
  • Ba 2758
  • D-Glucose, 2-deoxy-
  • NSC 15193

2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexopyranose2-deoxy-D-glucopyranose2-deoxyglucose
2-DGD-arabino-2-DesoxyhexoseD-arabino-Hexopyranose, 2-deoxy- [(4R,5S,6R)-6-(Hydroxymethyl)oxane-2,4,5-triol2-deoxyglucopyranose2-deoxymannopyranose2-dGlc

61-58-5 [RN]77252-38-1 [RN]

D-arabino-2-Deoxyhexoseglucitol, 2,5-anhydro-
2-Deoxy-D-glucose

CAS Registry Number: 154-17-6

CAS Name: 2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose

Additional Names: D-arabino-2-desoxyhexose; 2-deoxyglucose; 2-DGManufacturers’ Codes: Ba-2758Molecular Formula: C6H12O5Molecular Weight: 164.16Percent Composition: C 43.90%, H 7.37%, O 48.73%Literature References: Antimetabolite of glucose, q.v., with antiviral activity.


Synthesis: M. Bergmann et al.,Ber.55, 158 (1922); 56, 1052 (1923); J. C. Sowden, H. O. L. Fischer, J. Am. Chem. Soc.69, 1048 (1947); H. R. Bolliger, Helv. Chim. Acta34, 989 (1954); H. R. Bolliger, M. D. Schmid, ibid. 1597, 1671; H. R. Bolliger, “2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose (2-Deoxy-D-glucose)” in Methods in Carbohydrate Chemistryvol. I, R. L. Whistler, M. L. Wolfrom, Eds. (Academic Press, New York, 1962) pp 186-189.
Inhibition of influenza virus multiplication: E. D. Kilbourne, Nature183, 271 (1959).
Effects on herpes simplex virus: R. J. Courtney et al.,Virology52, 447 (1973). Mechanism of action studies: M. R. Steiner et al.,Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.61, 745 (1974); E. K. Ray et al.,Virology58, 118 (1978). Use in human genital herpes infections: H. A. Blough, R. L. Giuntoli, J. Am. Med. Assoc.241, 2798 (1979); L. Corey, K. K. Holmes, ibid.243, 29 (1980). Effect vs respiratory syncytial viral infections in calves: S. B. Mohanty et al.,Am. J. Vet. Res.42, 336 (1981).

Properties: Cryst from acetone or butanone, mp 142-144°. [a]D17.5 +38.3° (35 min) ®+45.9° (c = 0.52 in water); +22.8° (24 hrs) ® +80.8° (c = 0.57 in pyridine).

Melting point: mp 142-144°

Optical Rotation: [a]D17.5 +38.3° (35 min) ®+45.9° (c = 0.52 in water); +22.8° (24 hrs) ® +80.8° (c = 0.57 in pyridine) Derivative Type: a-Form

Properties: Cryst from isopropanol, mp 134-136°. [a]D26 +156° ® +103° (c = 0.9 in pyridine).Melting point: mp 134-136°Optical Rotation: [a]D26 +156° ® +103° (c = 0.9 in pyridine) Use: Exptlly as an antiviral agent.

Source Temperature: 210 °C
   Sample Temperature: 150 °C
   Direct, 75 eV
14.0       2.2
      15.0      11.5
      17.0       3.9
      18.0      19.4
      19.0      13.7
      26.0       2.5
      27.0      12.1
      28.0      21.9
      29.0      31.2
      30.0       4.6
      31.0      41.3
      32.0      12.4
      39.0       5.9
      40.0       2.1
      41.0      10.9
      42.0      12.4
      43.0      46.3
      44.0      31.5
      45.0      34.3
      46.0       2.8
      47.0       4.1
      53.0       1.5
      54.0       2.0
      55.0      14.4
      56.0      35.3
      57.0      55.7
      58.0      11.4
      59.0       2.0
      60.0     100.0
      61.0      31.1
      62.0       2.3
      68.0       4.6
      69.0      12.2
      70.0       3.0
      71.0      34.9
      72.0       7.0
      73.0      25.3
      74.0      46.6
      75.0       5.1
      81.0       1.5
      82.0       2.4
      83.0       1.3
      84.0       1.3
      85.0      18.1
      86.0      55.3
      87.0       4.6
      89.0       1.2
      91.0       1.5
      97.0       3.6
      98.0       2.9
      99.0       1.7
     100.0       3.5
     102.0       1.1
     103.0      19.8
     104.0       1.4
     111.0       1.6
     115.0      25.2
     116.0       3.0
     117.0       2.1
     120.0       3.3
     128.0       1.0
     129.0       2.5
     133.0       1.8
     147.0       2.2

1H NMR DMSO D6

1H NMR D20

IR NUJOL MULL

IR KBR

PAPERCollection of Czechoslovak Chemical Communications (1955), 20, 42-5. http://cccc.uochb.cas.cz/20/1/0042/

Preparation of 2-​deoxy-​D-​glucose

By: Stanek, Jaroslav; Schwarz, Vladimir

Triacetyl-​D-​glucal (I) adds (BzO)​2IAg and (BzO)​2BrAg, to give 1-​benzoyl-​3,​4,​6-​triacetyl-​2-​deoxy-​2-​iodo-​α-​D-​glucopyranose (II) and 1-​benzoyl-​3,​4,​6-​triacetyl-​2-​deoxy-​2-​bromo-​α-​D-​glucopyranose (III)​, resp.  Both halogen derivs. give 2-​deoxy-​D-​glucose (IV) by reduction.  Adding a C6H6 soln. of 16.7 g. iodine into a suspension of 33.6 g. dry BzOAg in 200 ml. C6H6, treating the mixt. with a soln. of 20 g. I in 200 ml. C6H6, heating the mixt. 7 hrs. on the steam bath, removing the AgI, evapg. the solvent, and crystg. the residue from EtOH gave 20.8 g. (54.7​%) II, m. 129-​30°, [α]​21D 21.7°.  Analogous procedure with 13.4 g. BzOAg, 4.6 g. Br, and 8 g. I gave 3.9 g. (33​%) III, m. 139-​40°, [α]​17D 33.5°.  The same compd. (3 g.)​, m. 140°, [α]​18D 33.6°, was obtained by adding 3.2 g. Br to a soln. of 5.44 g. I in 50 ml. CCl4, by refluxing the mixt. 2 hrs. with 6 g. BzOAg, filtering off the AgBr, and evapg. the solvent.  Reducing 8 g. II or an equiv. III in 150 ml. MeOH with 60 g. Zn activated by 1 hr. immersion in a soln. of 60 g. CuSO4 in 1500 ml. H2O, removing Zn after 8 hrs., evapg. the MeOH, and sapong. the residue with Ba(OH)​2 yielded 0.42 g. (20​%) IV, m. 145°, [α]​18D 46.1°.

Wavlen: 589.3 nm; Temp: 18 °C, +46.1 °  ORD

PATENT

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2004058786A1/enThe present invention relates to a process for the synthesis of 2-deoxy-D-glucose. Background of the invention 2-deoxy-D-glucose is useful in control of respiratory infections and for application as an antiviral agent for treatment of human genital herpes.Prior art for preparation of 2-deoxy-D-glucose while operable, tend to be expensive and time consuming. Reference may be made to Bergmann, M., Schotte, H., Lechinsky, W., Ber, 55, 158 (1922) and Bergmann, M., Schotte, H., Lechinsky, W., Ber 56, 1052 (1923) which disclose the preparation of 2-deoxy-D-glucose in low yield by mineral acid catalyzed addition of water to D-glucal. Another method of producing 2-deoxy-D-glucose is from diethyldithioacetal derivative of D-glucose (Bolliger, H.R. Schmid, M.D., Helv. Chim. Ada 34, 989 (1951); Bolliger, H.R., Schmid, M.D., Helv. Chim. A a 34, 1597 (1951); Bolliger, H.R. Schmid, M.D., Helv. Chim. Ada 34, 1671 (1951) and from D-arabhiose by reaction with nitromethane followed by acetylation, reduction and hydrolysis (Sowden, J.C, Fisher, H.O.L., J. Am. Chem., 69, 1048 (1947). However these methods result in the formation of 2- deoxy-D-glucose in low yield and of inferior purity due to the formation of several byproducts and involve use of toxic reagents such as ethanethiol and nitromethane. As a result purification of 2-deoxy-D-glucose has to be done by recrystallisation which is tedious, time consuming and difficult.Accordingly it is important to develop a process for synthesis of 2-deoxy-D-glucose which obviates the drawbacks as detailed above and results in good yield and good purity. Objects of the inventionThe main object of the present invention is to provide a process for the synthesis of 2- deoxy-D-glucose resulting in good yield and with good purity.Another object of the invention is to provide an economical process for the synthesis of 2-deoxy-D-glucose. Summary of the inventionA process that would produce 2-deoxy-D-glucose economically and with desired purity, is a welcome contribution to the art. This invention fulfills this need efficiently.Accordingly the present invention relates to a process for the synthesis of 2-deoxy- D-glucose comprising haloalkoxylation of R-D-Glucal wherein R is selected from H and 3, 4, 6-tri-O-benzyl, to obtain alkyl 2-deoxy-2-halo-R-α/ -D-gluco/mannopyranoside, converting alkyl 2-deoxy-2-halo-R-α/β-D-gluco/mannopyranoside by reduction to alkyl 2- deoxy-α/β-D-glucopyranoside, hydrolysing alkyl 2-deoxy-α/β-D-glucopyranoside to 2- deoxy-D-glucose.In one embodiment of the invention, the alkyl 2-deoxy-α/β-D-glucopyranoside is obtained by (a) haloalkoxylating 3,4,6,-tri-O-benzyl-D-glucal to alkyl 2-deoxy-2-halo-3,4,6-tri-O- benzyl-α/β-D-gluco-/mannopyranoside; (b) subjecting alkyl 2-deoxy-2-halo-3,4,6-tri-O-benzyl-α/β-D-gluco/mannopyranoside to reductive dehalogenation and debenzylation to obtain alkyl 2-deoxy -α/β-D- glucopyranoside. In another embodiment of the invention, in step (a) haloalkoxylation of 3,4,6-tri-O- benzyl-D-glucal is carried out by reaction with a haloalkoxylating agent selected from a N- halosuccinimide and a N-haloacetamide, and alcohol.The reaction scheme for the reactions involved in the process of the invention are also given below:

Figure imgf000005_0001

in R’=CH3I R=C6H5CH2 H R=C6H5CH2, X=Br, R’=CH3 IV R=H V R=CH3, C2HSJ C6H5CH3, iPr, X=Br

Figure imgf000005_0002

Such overall synthesis may be depicted as follows where R=H, CH3, C2H5, (CH3)2CH, C6H5CH ; RX-CH3; X-CL, Br.Example 1 To a solution of 3,4,6-tri-O-benzyl-D-glucal (39 g, 0.09 mol) in dichloromethane (20ml) and methanol (100 ml) was added N-bromosuccinimide (18.7 g, 0.09 mil) during 10 min. at room temperature and stirred for 4 h. After completion of the reaction solvent was distilled off. The resultant residue extracted into carbon tetrachloride (2×100 ml) and organic phase concentrated to obtain methyl 2-bromo 2-deoxy-3,4,6-tri-O-benzyl-α/β-D-gluco- /mannopyranoside as a syrup. Quantity obtained 50 g. 1H NMR (200 MHz, CDC13) 3.40-4.00 (m, 7H, H-2,5,6,6′ and OCH3) 4.30-5.10 (m, 9H, H-1,3,4 and 3xPhCH2O), 7.10-7.60 (m, 15H, Ar-H). A solution of methyl 2-bromo-2-deoxy-3,4,6-tri-O-benzyl-α/β-D-gluco- /mannopyranoside (50 g) in methanol (300) was charged into one litre autoclave along with Raney nickel (10 ml) Et3N (135 ml) and subjected to hydrogenation at 120 psi pressure at 50°C for 8 h. After completion of the reaction the catalyst was filtered off and the residue washed with methanol (25 ml). The filtrate was concentrate to obtain methyl 2-deoxy-3,4,6- tri-O-benzyl-α/β-D-glucopyranoside as a syrup (37.9 g, 89%). 1H NMR (200 MHz, CDC13): δ 1.50-2.40 (m,2H,H-2,2′)5 3.32, 3.51 (2s, 3H, OCH3) 3.55-4.00 (m, 5H, H-3,4,5,6,6′), 4.30-5.00 (m, 7H, 3xPhCH2, H-l), 7.10-7.45 (m, 15H, Ar-H). The syrup of methyl 2-deoxy-3,4,6- tri-O-benzyl-α/β-D-glucopyranoside (37.9g) was dissolved in methanol (200 ml). 1 g of 5%Pd/C was added and hydrogenated at 150 psi pressure at room temperature. After 5 hours catalyst was filtered off and solvent evaporated. Quantity of the methyl 2-deoxy-α/β-D- glucopyranoside obtained 10.5 g (70%). [ ]D + 25.7° (c 1.0, MeOH), 1H NMR (200 MHz, D2O); δ 1.45-2.40 (m, 2H, H-2,2′) 3.20-4.80, (m 9H, H- 1,3,4,5,6,6′ – OCH3).Example 2 To a solution of D-glucal (64.6g, 0.44 mol) in methanol (325 ml) at 10°C was addedN-bromosuccinimide (78.7 g, 0.44 mol) during 40 min. maintaining the temperature between 10-15°C during the addition. The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature. After 5 hours solvent was evaporated to obtain a residue which was refluxed in ethyl acetate (100 ml). Ethyl acetate layer was discarded to leave a residue of methyl 2-bromo-2-deoxy-α/β-D- gluco/mannopyranoside (105 g) as a syrup. [α]D + 36° (c 1.0, MeOH). 1H NMR (200 MHz, D2O): δ 3.47, 3.67 (2s, 3H, OCH3), 3.70-4.05 (m, 6h, H-23,4,5,6,6′), 4.48-5.13 (2s, 1H, H-l). The syrupy methyl 2-bromo-2-deoxy-α/β-D-gluco-/mannopyranoside was dissolved in methanol (400 ml), a slurry of 80 g Raney nickel (a 50% slurry in methanol), Et3N (30 ml) and hydrogenated in a Parr apparatus at 120 psi. After 8-9 hours, the reaction mixture was filtered through a Celite filter pad and washed with MeOH. The washings and filtrate were combined and triturated with hexane to separate and remove by filtration insoluble triethylamine hydrobromide and traces of succinimide. The filtrate was concentrated to a residue. The isolated yield of methyl 2-deoxy-α/β-D-glucopyranoside was 89%. Ethyl 2-bromo-2deoxy-α/β-D-gluco-/mannopyranoside: When solvent was ethanol instead of methanol the compound obtained was ethyl 2- bromo-2-deoxy-α/β-D-gluco-/mannopyranoside. 1HNMR (200 MHz, D2O): δ 1.10-1.32 (m, 3H, CH3), 2.80 (s, 4H, -CO(CH2)2CO-NH-), 3.40-4.10 (m, 8H, H-2,3,4,5,6,6′, CH2), 4.40, 5.20 (2s 1H, H-l α/β).Isopropyl 2-bromo-2-deoxy- /β-D-gluco-/mannopyranoside: When isopropanol instead of methanol was used as a solvent the compound obtained was isopropyl 2-bromo-2-deoxy-α/β-D-gluco/mannopyranoside. 1H NMR (200 MHz, D2O): δ 1.10-1.30 (m, 6H, 2xCH3) 2.80 (s, 4H, -CO(CH2)2CO-NH-), 3.60-4.60 (m 8H,H- 2,3,4,5,6,6′, CH2) 4.40, 5.30 (2s, 1H, H-l, α/β).Example 3 A mixture of D-glucal (64.6 g), methanol (400 ml), N-bromosuccinimide (79 g) were stirred at 15 C for 6 h. The reaction mixture was hydrogenated in a Parr apparatus in presence of 60 g of Raney nickel catalyst (a 50% slurry in methanol) and triethylamine (62 ml). After 8-9 h, the reaction mixture was filtered on a Celite filter pad. The Celite pad was washed with methanol. The washings and filtrate were combined, concentrated to a thick heavy syrup, dissolve in chloroform (500 ml), pyridine (400 ml) and acetic anhydride (251 ml) was added while stirring, maintaining the temperature between 5-10°C. After 12 hours, the reaction mixture was diluted with CHC13 (500 ml) transferred to a separating funnel and organic phase was washed with water. The organic phase was separated, dried (Na2SO4) and concentrated to obtain methyl 2-deoxy-3,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-2 deoxy-α/β-D-glucopyranoside as a syrup (163.43 g, 87%). [α]D + 65.0° (c 1.0, CHC13) 1H NMR (200 MHz, CDC13): δ 1.55-1.90 (m, 2H, H-2,2′), 2.01, 2.04,2.11, 2.15, (4s, 9H, 3xOCOCH3), 2.18,3.40 (2s, 3H, OCH3), 3.45-50 (m, 3H, H-5, 6,6′) 4.80-5.40 (m, 3H,H-1,3,4). The syrup was dissolved in methanol (600 ml) IN NaOMe in methanol (25ml) was added and left at room temperature. After 6-10 h, dry CO2 gas was passed into the reaction mixture, solvent was evaporated to obtain a syrupy residue. The residue was once again extracted into dry methanol and concentrated to obtain methyl 2-deoxy-α/β-D-glucopyranoside as syrup. Quantity obtained 81 g (92%).Example 4 A 500 ml round bottom flask equipped with magnetic stir bar was charged with a solution of D-glucal (32.3 g) in methanol (175 ml), cooled to 15°C, N-bromosucci-t imide (NBS) (39.4 g) was added and stirred for 6 hours at 15°C. The reaction mixture was concentrated to half the volume, cooled to 0°C and separated succinimide was removed by filtration. To the filtrate was added a slurry of 30 g Raney nickel (a 50% slurry in methanol) Et3N (32 ml) and hydrogenated in a Parr apparatus at 120 psi. After 7-8 hours, the reaction mixture was filtered through a Celite filter pad, and washed with MeOH. The washings and filtrate were combined and triturate with hexane to separate and remove by filtration insoluble triethylamine hydrobromide and succinimide. The filtrate was concentrated to a residue, dissolved in methanol and triturated with hexane to remove most of the triethylamine hydrobromide and succinimide. The filtrate was concentrated to obtain methyl 2-deoxy-α/β- D-glucopyranoside (85%).Example 5 To a stirred solution of methyl 3,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-2-deoxy-α/β-D-glucopyranoside (47 g) (from example 3) in acetic acid (40 ml) and acetic anhydride (110 ml) was added concentrated sulphuric acid (0.94 ml) at 0°. The reaction mixture was brought to room temperature and stirred. After 2 hours the reaction mixture was diluted with water (50 ml) and extracted into CH2C12 (3×150 ml). The organic phase was separated, washed with saturated NaHCO3 solution, H2O dried over Na2SO and concentrated to obtain 2-deoxy- 1,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-α/β-D-glucopyranoside as a crystalline compound, mp. 115-118°C. Quantity obtained 44.5 g (86%). [α]D + 21.5° (c 1.0, CHC13). 1H NMR (200 MHz, CDC13): δ 1.50-2.45 (m, 14H, H-2,2′, 4xOCOCH3), 3.85-5.40, (m, 5H, H-3,4,5,6,6′), 5.75-6.20 (m, 1H, H-l,α/ β). To a heterogeneous mixture of l,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-2-deoxy-α/β-D- glucopyranoside (10 g) in water (100 ml) was added acetyl chloride (10 ml) and heated to 80°C. After 6 hours the reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature, neutralised with saturated aq. Ba(OH)2, concentrated to half the volume and filtered on a Celite pad. Filtrate was concentrated on a rotary evaporator and dried over anhydrous P2O5 to obtain a residue which was dissolved in hot isopropyl alcohol and filtered on a pad of Celite to obtain a clear filtrate. The filtrate was concentrated to a residue, dissolved in hot isopropyl alcohol (50 ml), acetone (75 ml) and seeded with a few crystals of 2-deoxy-D-glucose. After 15-18 hours at 5°C crystalline title product was filtered. Quantity obtained 3.21 g (64.9%) m.p. 148-149°C.Example 6 A heterogeneous mixture of l,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-2-deoxy-α/β-D-glucopyranoside (9 g) (from example 5), water (30 ml) and 11% aq. H2SO (0.3 ml) was stirred at 85°C for 7 h to obtain a homogenous solution. The reaction mixture was cooled, neutralised with aq. Ba(OH)2 solution and filtered. The filtrate obtained was concentrated to half the volume and solids separated were filtered. To the filtrate was added activated carbon (1 g) and filtered. The filtrate was concentrated on a rotary evaporator and dried over P2O5 to obtain 2-deoxy- D-glucose that was crystallized from methyl alcohol (27 ml) and acetone (54 ml). Quantity obtained 2.4 g. mp. 146-149°C.Example 7A heterogeneous mixture of l,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-2-deoxy-α/β-D-glucopyranoside(25g) (from example 5), H2O (250 ml), toluene (250 ml) and glacial acetic acid (1.25 ml) was heated to reflux for 10-12 hours, while it was connected to a Dean- Stark azeotropic distillation apparatus. An azeotropic mixture of acetic acid, toluene was collected to remove acetic acid and every one hour fresh toluene (50 ml) was introduced. After completion of the reaction, toluene was removed by distillation from the reaction mixture to obtain a residue that was dissolved in methanol, treated with charcoal and filtered. The filtrate was separated, concentrated to a residue and crystallized from isopropyl alcohol and acetone to obtain 2- deoxy-D-glucose (7.33 g, 59%). mp. 148-151°C.Example 8 A heterogeneous mixture of l,3,4,5-tetra-O-acetyl-2-deoxy-α/β-D-glucopyranoside (lOg) (from example 5), H2O (200 ml) cone. HC1 (0.3 ml) and glacial acetic acid (0.5 ml) was heated to 85°C. After 6 hours the reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature, neutralized with aq. Ba(OH)2 and filtered on a pad of Celite. Filtrate was separated, treated with charcoal and filtered. The filtrate was concentrated to a residue and crystallized from MeOH, acetone to obtain the product. Quantity obtained 2.75 g. mp. 147-148°C.Example 9 A heterogeneous mixture of l,3,4,5-tetra-O-acetyl-2-deoxy-α/β-D-glucopyranoside(lOg) (from example 3) water (100 ml) and cone. HCI (0.5ml) was heated to 80°C. After 2-5 hours the reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature, neutralized with aq. Ba(OH)2 and filtered on a pad of Celite. The filtrate was concentrated to a residue, dissolved in ethanol, treated with charcoal and filtered. The filtrate was concentrated to a solid residue andcrystallized from methanol-acetone to obtain the title product. Quantity obtained 3.15g mp. 148-151°C.Example 10A solution of methyl 2-deoxy-α/β-D-glucopyranoside (30g) (from example 2) water(15 ml) and cone. HCI (1.5 ml) was heated to 80-85°C. After 3-5 hours the reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature, neutralized with aq. Ba(OH)2 and filtered to remove insoluble salts. The filtrate was concentrated to a residue, crystallized from MeOH, acetone and hexane to obtain 2-deoxy-D-glucose (11.77 g) mp. 149-151°C.Example 11A solution of methyl 2-deoxy-α/β-D-glucopyranoside (30g) (from example 2) water (195 ml) and cone. H2SO (5.9 ml) was heated to 80°C. After 2-3 hours the reaction mixture was cooled, neutralized with aq. Ba(OH)2 and filtered. The filtrate was separated, treated with charcoal and filtrate. The Filtrate was concentrated to a residue and crystallized from isopropyl alcohol to obtain the title product. Quantity obtained 5.2 g. mp. 152-154°C.Example 12 A mixture of methyl 2-deoxy-α/β-D-glucopyranoside (24g) (from example 2) water(125 ml) and IR 120 H+ resin (7.5 ml) was heated to 90-95°C for 2h. The reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature, filtered and the resin was washed with water (20 ml). The filtrate was concentrated to residue and crystallized from ethanol to obtain 2-deoxy-D- glucose (8.8 g), mp. 150-152°C. The main advantages of the present invention are:-1). It does not involve the use of toxic mercaptans like ethane thiol. 2). This process does not involve reaction of D-glucal with mineral acid, thereby avoiding the formation of Ferrier by-products.

2-Deoxy-d-glucose is a glucose molecule which has the 2-hydroxyl group replaced by hydrogen, so that it cannot undergo further glycolysis. As such; it acts to competitively inhibit the production of glucose-6-phosphate from glucose at the phosphoglucoisomerase level (step 2 of glycolysis).[2] In most cells, glucose hexokinase phosphorylates 2-deoxyglucose, trapping the product 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate intracellularly (with exception of liver and kidney)[; thus, labelled forms of 2-deoxyglucose serve as a good marker for tissue glucose uptake and hexokinase activity. Many cancers have elevated glucose uptake and hexokinase levels. 2-Deoxyglucose labeled with tritium or carbon-14 has been a popular ligand for laboratory research in animal models, where distribution is assessed by tissue-slicing followed by autoradiography, sometimes in tandem with either conventional or electron microscopy.

2-DG is uptaken by the glucose transporters of the cell. Therefore, cells with higher glucose uptake, for example tumor cells, have also a higher uptake of 2-DG. Since 2-DG hampers cell growth, its use as a tumor therapeutic has been suggested, and in fact, 2-DG is in clinical trials. [3] A recent clinical trial showed 2-DG can be tolerated at a dose of 63 mg/kg/day, however the observed cardiac side-effects (prolongation of the Q-T interval) at this dose and the fact that a majority of patients’ (66%) cancer progressed casts doubt on the feasibility of this reagent for further clinical use.[4] However, it is not completely clear how 2-DG inhibits cell growth. The fact that glycolysis is inhibited by 2-DG, seems not to be sufficient to explain why 2-DG treated cells stop growing.[5] Because of its structural similarity to mannose, 2DG has the potential to inhibit N-glycosylation in mammalian cells and other systems, and as such induces ER stress and the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) pathway.[6][7][8]

Clinicians have noted that 2-DG is metabolised in the pentose phosphate pathway in red blood cells at least, although the significance of this for other cell types and for cancer treatment in general is unclear.

Work on the ketogenic diet as a treatment for epilepsy have investigated the role of glycolysis in the disease. 2-Deoxyglucose has been proposed by Garriga-Canut et al. as a mimic for the ketogenic diet, and shows great promise as a new anti-epileptic drug.[9][10] The authors suggest that 2-DG works, in part, by increasing the expression of Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), Nerve growth factor (NGF), Arc (protein) (ARC), and Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2).[11] Such uses are complicated by the fact that 2-deoxyglucose does have some toxicity.

A study found that by combining the sugar 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) with fenofibrate, a compound that has been safely used in humans for more than 40 years to lower cholesterol and triglycerides, an entire tumor could effectively be targeted without the use of toxic chemotherapy.[12][13]

2-DG has been used as a targeted optical imaging agent for fluorescent in vivo imaging.[14][15] In clinical medical imaging (PET scanning), fluorodeoxyglucose is used, where one of the 2-hydrogens of 2-deoxy-D-glucose is replaced with the positron-emitting isotope fluorine-18, which emits paired gamma rays, allowing distribution of the tracer to be imaged by external gamma camera(s). This is increasingly done in tandem with a CT function which is part of the same PET/CT machine, to allow better localization of small-volume tissue glucose-uptake differences.

Resistance to 2-DG has been reported in HeLa cells [16] and in yeast;[17][8] in the latter, it involves the detoxification of a metabolite derived from 2-DG (2DG-6-phosphate) by a phosphatase. Despite the existence of such a phosphatase in human (named HDHD1A) However it is unclear whether it contributes to the resistance of human cells to 2DG or affects FDG-based imaging.

SYN

Indian Pat. Appl., 2004DE02075,

SYN

CN 106496288,

STARTING MATERIAL CAS 69515-91-9

C14 H20 O9, 332.30

D-​arabino-​Hexopyranose, 2-​deoxy-​, 1,​3,​4,​6-​tetraacetate

SYN

Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 22(10), 3540-3543; 2012

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0960894X12004258

PATENT

https://patents.google.com/patent/US6933382B2/en2-deoxy-D-glucose is useful in control of respiratory infections and for application as an antiviral agent for treatment of human genital herpes.Prior art for preparation of 2-deoxy-D-glucose while operable, tend to be expensive and time consuming. Reference may be made to Bergmann M., Schotte, H., Lechinsky, W., Ber, 55, 158 (1922) and Bergmann, M., Schotte, H., Lechinsky, W., Ber 56, 1052 (1923) which disclose the preparation of 2-deoxy-D-glucose in low yield by mineral acid catalyzed addition of water to D-glucal. Another method of producing 2-deoxy-D-glucose is from diethyldithioacetal derivative of D-glucose (Bolliger, H. R. Schmid, M. D., Helv. Chim. Acta 34, 989 (1951); Bolliger, H. R., Schmid, M. D., Helv, Chim. Acta 34, 1597 (1951); Bolliger, H. R Schmid, M. D., Helv. Chim. Acta 34, 1671 (1951) and from D-arabinose by reaction with nitromethane followed by acetylation, reduction and hydrolysis (Sowden, J. C., Fisher, H. O. L., J. Am. Chem., 69, 1048 (1947). However these methods result in the formation of 2-deoxy-D-glucose in low yield and of inferior purity due to the formation of several by-products and involve use of toxic reagents such as ethanethiol and nitromethane. As a result purification of 2-deoxy-D-glucose has to be done by recrystallisation which is tedious, time consuming and difficult.

Figure US06933382-20050823-C00001

EXAMPLE 1To a solution of 3,4,6-tri-O-benzyl-D-glucal (39 g, 0.09 mmol) in dichloromethane (20 ml) and methanol (100 ml) was added N-bromosuccinimide (18.7 g, 0.09 mil) during 10 min. at room temperature and stirred for 4 h. After completion of the reaction solvent was distilled off. The resultant residue extracted into carbon tetrachloride (2×100 ml) and organic phase concentrated to obtain methyl 2-bromo 2-deoxy-3,4,6-tri-O-benzyl-α/β-D-gluco-/mannopyranoside as a syrup. Quantity obtained 50 g. 1H NMR (200 MHz, CDCl3) 3.40-4.00 (m, 7H, H-2,5,6,6′ and OCH3) 4.30-5.10 (m, 9H, H-1,3,4 and 3×PhCH2O), 7.10-7.60 (m 15H, Ar—H). A solution of methyl 2-bromo-2-deoxy-3,4,6-tri-O-benzyl/α/β-D-gluco-/mannopyranoside (50 g) in methanol (300) was charged into one liter autoclave along with Raney nickel (10 ml) Et3N (135 ml) and subjected to hydrogenation at 120 psi pressure at 50° C. for 8 h. After completion of the reaction the catalyst was filtered off and the residue washed with methanol (25 ml). The filtrate was concentrate to obtain methyl 2-deoxy-3,4,6-tri-O-benzyl-α/β-D-glucopyranoside as a syrup (37.9 g, 89%). 1H NMR (200 MHz CDCl3): δ 1.50-2.40 (m,2H,H-2,2′), 3.32, 3.51 (2s, 3H, OCH3) 3.55-4.00 (m, 5, H-3,4,5,6,6′) 4.30-5.00 (M 7H, 3×PhCH2, H-1), 7.10-7.45 (m, 15H, Ar—H). The syrup of methyl 2-deoxy-3,4, 6-tri-O-benzyl-α/β-D-glucopyranoside (37.9 g) was dissolved in methanol (200 ml). 1 g of 5% Pd/C was added and hydrogenated at 150 psi pressure at room temperature. After 5 hours catalyst was filtered off and solvent evaporated. Quantity of the methyl 2-deoxy-α/β-D-glucopyranoside obtained 10.5 g (70%). [α]D+25.7° (c 1.0, MeOH), 1H NMR (200 MHz, D2O); δ 1.45-2.40 (m, 2H, H-2,2′) 3.20-4.80, (m 9H, H-1,3,4,5,6,6′—OCH3).EXAMPLE 2To a solution of D-glucal (64.6 g, 0.44 mmol) in methanol (325 ml) at 10° C. was added N-bromosuccinimide (78.7 g, 0.44 mol) during 40 min. maintaining the temperature between 10-15° C. during the addition. The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature. After 5 hours solvent was evaporated to obtain a residue which was refluxed in ethyl acetate (100 ml). Ethyl acetate layer was discarded to leave a residue of methyl 2-bromo-2-deoxy-α/β-D-gluco/mannopyranoside (105 g) as a syrup. [α]D+36° (c 1.0, MeOH). 1H NMR (200 MHz, D2O): δ 3.47, 3.67 (2s, 3H, OCH3), 3.70-4.05 (m, 6h, H-2,3,4,5,6,6′), 4.48-5.13 (28, 1H, 1H, H-1). The syrupy methyl 2-bromo-2-deoxy-α/β-D-gluco-/mannopyranoside was dissolved in methanol (400 ml), a slurry of 80 g Raney nickel (a 50% slurry in methanol), Et3N (30 ml) and hydrogenated in a Parr apparatus at 120 psi. After 8-9 hours, the reaction mixture was filtered through a Celite filter pad and washed with MeOH. The washings and filtrate were combined and triturated with hexane to separate and remove by filtration insoluble triethylamine hydrobromide and traces of succinimide. The filtrate was concentrated to a residue. The isolated yield of methyl 2-deoxy-α/β-D-glucopyranoside was 89%.Ethyl 2-bromo-2deoxy-α/β-D-gluco-/mannopyranoside:When solvent was ethanol instead of methanol the compound obtained was ethyl 2-bromo-2deoxy-α/β-D-gluco-/mannopyranoside. 1H NMR (200 MHz, D2O): δ 1.10-1.32 (m, 3H, CH3), 2.80 (s, 4H, —CO(CH2)2CO—NH—), 3.40-4.10 (m, 8H, H-2,3,4,5,6,6′, CH2), 4.40, 5.20 (2s 1H, H-1, α/β).Isopropyl 2-bromo-2-deoxy-α/β-D-gluco-/mannopyranoside:When isopropanol instead of methanol was used as a solvent the compound obtained was isopropyl 2-bromo-2-deoxy-α/β-D-gluco/mannopyranoside, 1H NMR (200 MHz, D2O): δ 1.10-1.30 (m, 6H, 2×CH3) 2.80 (s, 4H, —CO(CH2)2CO—NH—), 3.60-4.60 (m 8H,H-2,3,4,5,6,6′, CH2) 4.40, 5,30 (2s, 1H, H-1, α/β.EXAMPLE 3A mixture of D-glucal (64.6 g), methanol (400 ml), N-bromosuccinimide (79 g) were stirred at 15° C. for 6 h. The reaction mixture was hydrogenated in a Parr apparatus in presence of 60 g of Raney nickel catalyst (a 50% slurry in methanol) and triethylamine (62 ml). After 8-9 h, the reaction mixture was filtered on a Celite filter pad. The Celite pad was washed with methanol. The washings and filtrate were combined, concentrated to a thick heavy syrup, dissolve in chloroform (500 ml), pyridine (400 ml) and acetic anhydride (251 ml) was added while stirring, maintaining the temperature between 5-10° C. After 12 hours, the reaction mixture was diluted with CHCl(500 ml) transferred to a separating funnel and organic phase was washed with water. The organic phase was separated, dried (Na2SO4) and concentrated to obtain methyl 2-deoxy-3,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-2 deoxy-α/β-D-glucopyranoside as a syrup (163.43 g, 87%). [α]D+65.0° (c 1.0, CHCl31H NMR (200 MHz, CDCl3): δ 1.55-1.90 (m, 2H, H-22′), 2.01, 2.04, 2.11, 2.15, (4s, 9H, 3×OCOCH3), 2.18, 3.40 (2s, 3H, OCH3), 3.45-50 (m, 3H, H-5, 6,6′) 4.80-5.40 (m, 3H,H-1,3,4). The syrup was dissolved in methanol (600 ml) 1N NaOMe in methanol (25 ml) was added and left at room temperature. After 6-10 h, dry COgas was passed into the reaction mixture, solvent was evaporated to obtain a syrupy residue. The residue was once again extracted into dry methanol and concentrated to obtain methyl 2-deoxy-α/β-D-glucopyranoside as syrup. Quantity obtained 81 g (92%).EXAMPLE 4A 500 ml round bottom flask equipped with magnetic stir bar was charged with a solution of D-glucal (323 g) in methanol (175 ml), cooled to 15° C., N-bromosuccinimide (NIBS) (39.4 g) was added and stirred or 6 hours at 15° C., The reaction mixture was concentrated to half the volume, cooled to 0° C. and separated succinimide, was removed by filtration. To the filtrate was added a slurry of 30 g Raney nickel (a 50% slurry in Methanol) Et3N (32 ml) and hydrogenated in a Parr apparatus at 120 psi. After 7-8 hours, the reaction mixture was filtered through a Celite filter pad, and washed with MeOH. The washings and filtrate were combined and triturate with hexane to separate and remove by filtration insoluble triethylamine hydrobromide and succinimide. The filtrate was concentrated to a residue, dissolved in methanol and triturated with hexane to remove most of the triethylamine hydrobromide and succinimide. The filtrate was concentrated to obtain methyl 2-deoxy-α/β-D-glucopyranoside (85%).EXAMPLE 5To a stirred solution of methyl 3,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-2-deoxy-α/β-D-glucopyranoside (47 g) (from example 3) in acetic acid (40 ml) and acetic anhydride (110 ml) was added concentrated sulphuric acid (0.94 ml) at 0°. The reaction mixture was brought to room temperature and stirred. After 2 hours the reaction mixture was diluted with water (50 ml) and extracted into CH2Cl(3×150 ml). The organic phase was separated, washed with saturated NaHCOsolution H2O dried over Na2SOand concentrated to obtain 2-deoxy-1,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-α/β-D-glucopyranoside as a crystalline compound. mp. 115-118° C. Quantity obtained 44.5 g (86%). [α]D+21.5° (c 1.0, CHCl3). 1H NMR (200 MHz, CDCl3): δ 1.50-2.45 (m, 14H, H-2,2′, 4×OCOCH3), 3.85-5.40, (m, 5H, H-3,4,5,6,6′), 5.75-6.20 (m, 1H, H-1, α/β). To a heterogeneous mixture of 1,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-2-deoxy-α/β-D-glucopyranoside (10 g) in water (100 ml) was added acetyl chloride (10 ml) and heated to 80° C. After 6 hours the reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature, neutralised with saturated aq. Ba(OH)2, concentrated to half the volume and filtered on a Celite pad, Filtrate was concentrated on a rotary evaporator and dried over anhydrous P2Oto obtain a residue which was dissolved in hot isopropyl alcohol and filtered on a pad of Celite to obtain a clear filtrate. The filtrate was concentrated to a residue, dissolved in hot isopropyl alcohol (50 ml), acetone (75 ml) and seeded with a few crystals of 2-deoxy-D-glucose. After 15-18 hours at 5° C. crystalline title product was filtered. Quantity obtained 3.21 g (64.9%) m.p. 148-149° C.EXAMPLE 6A heterogeneous mixture of 1,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-2-deoxy-α/β-D-glucopyranoside (9 g) (from example 5), water (30 ml) and 11% aq. H2SO(0.3 ml) was stirred at 85° C. for 7 h to obtain a homogenous solution. The reaction mixture was cooled, neutralised with aq. Ba(OH)solution and filtered. The filtrate obtained was concentrated to half the volume and solids separated were filtered. To the filtrate was added activated carbon (1 g) and filtered. The filtrate was concentrated on a rotary evaporator and dried over P2Oto obtain 2-deoxy-D-glucose that was crystallized from methyl alcohol (27 ml) and acetone (54 ml). Quantity obtained 2.4 g. mp. 146-149° C.,EXAMPLE 7A heterogeneous mixture of 1,3,4,tetra-O-acetyl-2-deoxy-α/β-D-glucopyranoside (25 g) (from example 5), H2O (250 ml), toluene (250 ml) and glacial acetic acid (1.25 ml) was heated to reflux for 10-12 hours, while it was connected to a Dean-Stark azeotropic distillation apparatus. An azeotropic mixture of acetic acid, toluene was collected to remove acetic acid and every one hour fresh toluene (50 ml) was introduced. After completion of the reaction, toluene was removed by distillation from the reaction mixture to obtain a residue that was dissolved in methanol, treated with charcoal and filtered. Be filtrate was separated, concentrated to a residue and crystallized from isopropyl alcohol and acetone to obtain 2-deoxy-D-glucose (7.33 g, 59%). mp. 148-151° C.EXAMPLE 8A heterogeneous mixture of 1,3,4,5-tetra-O-acetyl-2-deoxy-α/β-D-glucopyranoside (10 g) (tom example 5), H2O (200 ml) conc. HCl (0.3 ml) and glacial acetic acid (0.5 ml) was heated to 85° C. After 6 hours the reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature, neutralized with aq. Ba(OH)and filtered on a pad of Celite. Filtrate was separated, treated with charcoal and filtered. The filtrate was concentrated to a residue and crystallized from MeOH, acetone to obtain the product. Quantity obtained 275 g. mp. 147-148° C.EXAMPLE 9A heterogeneous mixture of 1,3,4,5-tetra-O-acetyl-2-deoxy-α/β-D-glucopyranoside (10 g) (from example 3) water (100 ml) and conc. HCl (0.5 ml) was heated to 80° C. After 2-5 hours the reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature, neutralized with aq. Ba(OH)and filtered on a pad of Celite. The filtrate was concentrated to a residue, dissolved in ethanol, treated with charcoal and filtered. The filtrate was concentrated to a solid residue and crystallized from methanol-acetone to obtain the title product. Quantity obtained 3.15 g mp. 148-151° C.,EXAMPLE 10A solution of methyl 2-deoxy-α/β-D-glucopyranoside (30 g) (from example 2) water (15 ml) and conc. HCl (1.5 ml) was heated to 80-85° C. After 3-5 hours the reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature, neutralize with aq. Ba(OH)and filtered to remove insoluble salts. The filtrate was concentrated to a residue, crystallized from MeOH, acetone and hexane to obtain 2-deoxy-D-glucose (11.77 g) mp. 149-151° C.EXAMPLE 11A solution of methyl 2-deoxy-α/β-D-glucopyranoside (30 g) (form example 2) water (195 ml) and conc. H2SO(5.9 ml) was heated to 80° C. After 2-3 hours the reaction mixture was cooled, neutralized with aq. Ba(OH)and filtered. The filtrate was separated, treated with charcoal and filtrate. The Filtrate was concentrated to a residue and crystallized from isopropyl alcohol to obtain the title product. Quantity obtained 5.2 g. mp. 152-154° C.EXAMPLE 12A mixture of methyl 2-deoxy-α/β-D-glucopyranoside (24 g) (from example 2) water (125 ml) and IR 120H+resin (7.5 ml) was heated to 90-95° C. for 2 h. The reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature, filtered and the resin was washed with water (20 ml). The filtrate was concentrated to residue and crystallized from ethanol to obtain 2-deoxy-D-glucose (8.8 g), mp. 150-152° C.CLIP

References

  1. ^ Merck Index, 11th Edition, 2886.
  2. ^ Wick, AN; Drury, DR; Nakada, HI; Wolfe, JB (1957). “Localization of the primary metabolic block produced by 2-deoxyglucose”(PDF). J Biol Chem224 (2): 963–969. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(18)64988-9PMID 13405925.
  3. ^ Pelicano, H; Martin, DS; Xu, RH; Huang, P (2006). “Glycolysis inhibition for anticancer treatment”Oncogene25 (34): 4633–4646. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1209597PMID 16892078.
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  9. ^ Garriga-Canut, Mireia; Schoenike, Barry; Qazi, Romena; Bergendahl, Karen; Daley, Timothy J.; Pfender, Rebecca M.; Morrison, John F.; Ockuly, Jeffrey; Stafstrom, Carl; Sutula, Thomas; Roopra, Avtar (2006). “2-Deoxy-D-glucose reduces epilepsy progression by NRSF-CTBP–dependent metabolic regulation of chromatin structure”. Nature Neuroscience9 (11): 1382–1387. doi:10.1038/nn1791PMID 17041593S2CID 10175791.
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The Drugs Controller General of India (DCGI) has given permission for the emergency use of drug 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) as an adjunct therapy in moderate to severe Covid-19 cases, said Defence Research and Development Organisation on Saturday.

“Being a generic molecule and analogue of glucose, it can be easily produced and made available in plenty,” said the DRDO in a statement.

An adjunct therapy refers to an alternative treatment that is used together with the primary treatment. Its purpose is to assist the primary treatment.

“The drug has been developed by DRDO lab Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences in collaboration with Dr Reddy’s Laboratories. Clinical trial have shown that this molecule helps in faster recovery of hospitalized patients and reduces supplemental oxygen dependence,” the statement read.

According to DRDO, the patients treated with 2-DG showed faster symptomatic cure than Standard of Care (SoC) on various endpoints in the efficacy trends.

“A significantly favourable trend (2.5 days difference) was seen in terms of the median time to achieving normalization of specific vital signs parameters when compared to SOC,” it said.

The drug comes in powder form in sachets, which is taken orally by dissolving it in water.

“It accumulates in the virus-infected cells and prevents virus growth by stopping viral synthesis and energy production,” said the DRDO.

In April 2020, during the first wave of the Covid-19 pandemic, INMAS-DRDO scientists conducted laboratory experiments of 2-DG with the help of the Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB), Hyderabad.

They found that this molecule works effectively against the SARS-CoV-2 virus and inhibits viral growth.

Based on the results, the DCGI had in May 2020 permitted Phase-II clinical trial of 2-DG in Covid-19 patients.

In Phase-II trials (including dose-ranging) conducted from May to October 2020, the drug was found to be safe and showed significant improvement in the patients’ recovery.

“Phase IIa was conducted in 6 hospitals and Phase IIb (dose-ranging) clinical trial was conducted at 11 hospitals all over the country. Phase-II trial was conducted on 110 patients,” said the DRDO.

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Names
IUPAC name(4R,5S,6R)-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-2,4,5-triol
Other names2-Deoxyglucose
2-Deoxy-d-mannose
2-Deoxy-d-arabino-hexose
2-DG
Identifiers
CAS Number154-17-6 
3D model (JSmol)Interactive image
ChEMBLChEMBL2074932
ChemSpider388402 
EC Number205-823-0
IUPHAR/BPS4643
PubChem CID108223
UNII9G2MP84A8W 
showInChI
showSMILES
Properties
Chemical formulaC6H12O5
Molar mass164.16 g/mol
Melting point142 to 144 °C (288 to 291 °F; 415 to 417 K)
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).

////////////2-Deoxy-D-glucose,  2 dg, 2-dg, 2 DEOXY D GLUCOSE, COVID 19, CORONA VIRUS, INDIA 2021, DCGI, DRDO, DR REDDYS

C(C=O)C(C(C(CO)O)O)O


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DR ANTHONY CRASTO

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK LIFE SCIENCES LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 PLUS year tenure till date June 2021, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 90 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, 233 countries, 7 continents, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 33 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 233 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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