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VITAMINS, COMMON INFORMATION

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A vitamin (US /ˈvtəmɪn/ or UK /ˈvɪtəmɪn/) is an organic compound required by an organism as a vital nutrient in limited amounts. An organic chemical compound (or related set of compounds) is called a vitamin when it cannot be synthesized in sufficient quantities by an organism, and must be obtained from the diet. Thus, the term is conditional both on the circumstances and on the particular organism. For example, ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is a vitamin for humans, but not for most other animals, and biotin (vitamin H) and vitamin D are required in the human diet only in certain circumstances.

 

 

 

 

Thiamin

What it does:

  • helps convert the food we eat to the energy we need

Foods that have thiamin:

  • spinach, tomato juice, watermelon, sunflower seeds, ham

Deficiency problems:

  • weakness, tingling in feet and hands, poor coordination
Thiamin

Riboflavin – named for its yellow color (flavus means yellow in Latin)

What it does:

  • helps convert the food we eat to the energy we need

Foods that have riboflavin:

  • milk, cheese, liver, broccoli, asparagus, spinach

Deficiency problems:

  • eye disorders, cracks at corners of mouth, swollen tongue
riboflavin

Niacin

What it does:

  • helps our body use the fat and sugar we eat for energy
  • helps keep our skin healthy

Foods that have niacin:

  • mushrooms, tuna, green beans, broccoli, spinach, breakfast cereals

Deficiency problems:

  • diarrhea, skin problems, mental disorientation
niacin

Vitamin B6

What it does:

  • helps make red blood cells
  • helps our body use the fat and protein we eat for energy

Foods that have vitamin B6:

  • spinach, broccoli, tomato juice, banana, watermelon, chicken breast

Deficiency problems:

  • headache, convulsions, vomiting, flaky skin, sore tongue
b6

Folate

What it does:

  • helps to make new cells
  • helps prevent heart disease

Foods that have folate:

  • asparagus, broccoli, corn flakes, green beans, tomato juice, beans

Deficiency problems:

  • diarrhea, mental disorders, poor growth
folate

Vitamin B12

What it does:

  • helps to make new cells

Foods that have vitamin B12:

  • meat, fish, poultry, milk, cheese, eggs

Deficiency problems:

  • anemia, poor nerve function
b12

Vitamin C– almost all animals make vitamin C in their bodies (only humans, guinea pigs, some bats, and some fish don’t)vitamin c

What it does:

  • protects cells from damage
  • helps keep bones and skin healthy
  • may help prevent cancer and heart disease

Foods that have vitamin C:

  • oranges, strawberries, peppers, kiwi, brussel sprouts, broccoli, spinach

Deficiency problems:

  • bleeding gums, tiredness, weakness, sore muscle

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Vitamin A – discovered in 1913

What it does:

  • helps with eyesight
  • keeps skin healthy
  • helps with growth of body organs (like bones)

Foods that have vitamin A:

  • liver, fish, milk, butter, eggs, carrots

Deficiency problems:

  • night blindness, poor growth, dry skin
vitamin a

Vitamin D – made in the skin by the sun

What it does:

  • helps bones grow strong

Foods that have vitamin D:

  • egg yolks, liver, butter, milk

Deficiency problems:

  • rickets (deformed bones), weak bones
vitamin d

Vitamin E – called the antiaging vitamin

What it does:

  • protects lungs against pollution damage
  • helps keep heart healthy
  • may help protect against cancer

Foods that have vitamin E:

  • sweet potatoes, peanut butter, sunflower seeds, spinach, nuts

Deficiency problems:

  • nerve destruction, red blood cell destruction
vitamin e

Vitamin K – made by bacteria in our intestines

What it does:

  • helps make blood clot
  • helps keep bones healthy

Foods that have vitamin K:

  • liver, cabbage, lettuce, spinach, milk, meat, eggs

Deficiency problems:

  • hemorrhage
vitamin k

……….

By convention, the term vitamin includes neither other essential nutrients, such as dietary mineralsessential fatty acids, or essential amino acids (which are needed in larger amounts than vitamins) nor the large number of other nutrients that promote health but are otherwise required less often. Thirteen vitamins are universally recognized at present.

Vitamins are classified by their biological and chemical activity, not their structure. Thus, each “vitamin” refers to a number of vitamer compounds that all show the biological activity associated with a particular vitamin. Such a set of chemicals is grouped under an alphabetized vitamin “generic descriptor” title, such as “vitamin A“, which includes the compounds retinalretinol, and four known carotenoids. Vitamers by definition are convertible to the active form of the vitamin in the body, and are sometimes inter-convertible to one another, as well.

itamins have diverse biochemical functions. Some, such as vitamin D, have hormone-like functions as regulators of mineral metabolism, or regulators of cell and tissue growth and differentiation (such as some forms of vitamin A). Others function as antioxidants (e.g., vitamin E and sometimesvitamin C). The largest number of vitamins, the B complex vitamins, function as precursors for enzyme cofactors, that help enzymes in their work as catalysts in metabolism. In this role, vitamins may be tightly bound to enzymes as part of prosthetic groups: For example, biotin is part of enzymes involved in making fatty acids. They may also be less tightly bound to enzyme catalysts as coenzymes, detachable molecules that function to carry chemical groups or electrons between molecules. For example, folic acid may carry methylformyl, and methylene groups in the cell. Although these roles in assisting enzyme-substrate reactions are vitamins’ best-known function, the other vitamin functions are equally important.

 

Until the mid-1930s, when the first commercial yeast-extract vitamin B complex and semi-synthetic vitamin C supplement tablets were sold, vitamins were obtained solely through food intake, and changes in diet (which, for example, could occur during a particular growing season) usually greatly altered the types and amounts of vitamins ingested. However, vitamins have been produced as commodity chemicals and made widely available as inexpensive semisynthetic and synthetic-source multivitamin dietary and food supplements and additives, since the middle of the 20th century.,,,,,,,

 

List of vitamins

Each vitamin is typically used in multiple reactions, and, therefore, most have multiple functions.

Vitamin generic

descriptor name

Vitamerchemical name(s) (list not complete) Solubility Recommended dietary allowances

(male, age 19–70)[6]

Deficiency disease Upper Intake Level

(UL/day)[6]

Overdose disease Food sources
Vitamin A Retinolretinal, and

four carotenoids

including beta carotene

Fat 900 µg Night-blindness,Hyperkeratosis, andKeratomalacia[7] 3,000 µg Hypervitaminosis A Orange, ripe yellow fruits, leafy vegetables, carrots, pumpkin, squash, spinach, liver, soy milk, milk
Vitamin B1 Thiamine Water 1.2 mg BeriberiWernicke-Korsakoff syndrome N/D[8] Drowsiness or muscle relaxation with large doses.[9] Pork, oatmeal, brown rice, vegetables, potatoes, liver, eggs
Vitamin B2 Riboflavin Water 1.3 mg Ariboflavinosis N/D Dairy products, bananas, popcorn, green beans, asparagus
Vitamin B3 Niacinniacinamide Water 16.0 mg Pellagra 35.0 mg Liver damage (doses > 2g/day)[10] and other problems Meat, fish, eggs, many vegetables, mushrooms, tree nuts
Vitamin B5 Pantothenic acid Water 5.0 mg[11] Paresthesia N/D Diarrhea; possibly nausea and heartburn.[12] Meat, broccoli, avocados
Vitamin B6 Pyridoxine,pyridoxamine,pyridoxal Water 1.3–1.7 mg Anemia[13] peripheral neuropathy. 100 mg Impairment ofproprioception, nerve damage (doses > 100 mg/day) Meat, vegetables, tree nuts, bananas
Vitamin B7 Biotin Water 30.0 µg Dermatitisenteritis N/D Raw egg yolk, liver, peanuts, certain vegetables
Vitamin B9 Folic acidfolinic acid Water 400 µg Megaloblastic anemiaand Deficiency during pregnancy is associated with birth defects, such as neural tube defects 1,000 µg May mask symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency;other effects. Leafy vegetables, pasta, bread, cereal, liver
Vitamin B12 Cyanocobalamin,hydroxycobalamin,methylcobalamin Water 2.4 µg Megaloblastic anemia[14] N/D Acne-like rash [causality is not conclusively established]. Meat and other animal products
Vitamin C Ascorbic acid Water 90.0 mg Scurvy 2,000 mg Vitamin C megadosage Many fruits and vegetables, liver
Vitamin D Cholecalciferol Fat 10 µg[15] Rickets andOsteomalacia 50 µg Hypervitaminosis D Fish, eggs, liver, mushrooms
Vitamin E Tocopherols,tocotrienols Fat 15.0 mg Deficiency is very rare; mild hemolytic anemiain newborn infants.[16] 1,000 mg Increased congestive heart failure seen in one large randomized study.[17] Many fruits and vegetables, nuts and seeds
Vitamin K phylloquinone,menaquinones Fat 120 µg Bleeding diathesis N/D Increases coagulation in patients taking warfarin.[18] Leafy green vegetables such as spinach, egg yolks, liver

 

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10 Comments

  1. saminakhan2001 says:

    Reblogged this on MEDCHEMEGYPT.

  2. saminakhan2001 says:

    Reblogged this on MEDCHEMEGYPT.

  3. medchemnintabelle says:

    Reblogged this on MedCheminAustralia.

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DR ANTHONY CRASTO

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 29 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 29 year tenure till date Aug 2016, Around 30 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 25 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 13 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 212 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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